Sample records for jyoti prakash tamang

  1. Himalayan Households, Tamang Demography and Domestic Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Prasad Sapkota


    Full Text Available Thomes E. Fricke 1981, Himalayan Households, Tamang Demography and Domestic Process, Book Faith India, 1993 ( pp 227 Price 300 Rs DOI: 10.3126/dsaj.v3i0.2789 Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol.3 2009 201-206

  2. Changing Relations between High Castes and Tamang in Melamchi Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binod Pokharel


    Full Text Available This paper is about the processes of transformation of social relations between high caste groups and Tamang in Melamchi Valley for the period of 1980-2010. Development interventions made by government of Nepal and (I NGOs, a decade long undergoing Melamchi Water Supply Project and labor migration are major factors for ongoing changes in the study area. Spread of literacy classes and primary education, availability of credit institutions, introduction of modern farming, road networks, seasonal out migration from the area, etc. primarily define new relations among the groups. Borrowing and lending money were one of the basis of high caste and Tamang relation in past. The latter was regarded as borrower loan from first one. Before 1980s, money and agriculture commodities were controlled by few rich and high castes people. Cash income from various sources made enable the Tamang to stand on an equal footing with high caste people. Open political economy and liberal policy for issuing pass port in 1990s and after that encourage the people to diversify the destination of seasonal migration from India to Gulf countries and East Asia. Various processes of socio-economic and political changes led to local peoples to seek their position and identity in the changing context. Discourse of Tamang, high castes and Dalit entered into the Valley along with the development resources of (INGO and political movements of the country. This made possible to Tamang and other disadvantage groups to define and redefine their ethnic identity. Keywords: High castes; Tamang; credit facilities; subsistence farming; identity construction; money lending; wage labor DOI: 10.3126/dsaj.v4i0.4513 Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol.4 2010 pp.65-84

  3. Studying Emergent Tone-Systems in Nepal: Pitch, Phonation and Word-Tone in Tamang (United States)

    Mazaudon, Martine


    This paper focuses on the particular kinds of difficulties which arise in the study of an emergent tone-system, exemplified by Tamang in Nepal, where pitch, phonation and other laryngeal features combine in the definition of a tone. As a consequence, conducting a well-ordered analysis in stages first of phonetic transcription, then variation in…

  4. Examining the Effects of Jyoti Meditation on Stress and the Moderating Role of Emotional Intelligence (United States)

    Gutierrez, Daniel; Conley, Abigail H.; Young, Mark


    The authors examined whether Jyoti meditation (JM), a spiritually based meditation (Singh, 2012), influenced student counselors' (N = 60) level of stress and emotional intelligence (EI). Results from a randomized controlled trial and growth curve analysis provided a multilevel model in which JM reduced stress and EI moderated the effect.

  5. Examining the Effects of Jyoti Meditation on Stress and the Moderating Role of Emotional Intelligence (United States)

    Gutierrez, Daniel; Conley, Abigail H.; Young, Mark


    The authors examined whether Jyoti meditation (JM), a spiritually based meditation (Singh, 2012), influenced student counselors' (N = 60) level of stress and emotional intelligence (EI). Results from a randomized controlled trial and growth curve analysis provided a multilevel model in which JM reduced stress and EI moderated the effect.

  6. Effectiveness of jyoti meditation for patients with chronic neck pain and psychological distress--a randomized controlled clinical trial. (United States)

    Jeitler, Michael; Brunnhuber, Stefan; Meier, Larissa; Lüdtke, Rainer; Büssing, Arndt; Kessler, Christian; Michalsen, Andreas


    Chronic neck pain is a common medical complaint partly mediated by psychosocial distress and having a high socioeconomic impact. There is preliminary evidence that stress reduction by meditation might be beneficial in chronic pain syndromes. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of an 8-week meditation program (jyoti meditation) in patients with chronic neck pain by means of a randomized clinical trial. Eighty-nine patients (aged 49.7 ± 10.5 years, 73 female) with chronic neck pain who scored >40 mm on a 100-mm visual analog scale and had concomitant increased perceived stress were randomized to an 8-week meditation program (jyoti meditation) with weekly 90-minute classes (n = 45) or to a home-based exercise program (n = 44) with a wait list offer for meditation. Both groups were instructed to practice at home. Outcomes were assessed at baseline and after 8 weeks. Primary outcome measure was change of mean pain at rest (visual analog scale score) from baseline to week 8. Secondary outcomes included pain at motion, functional disability, pain-related bothersomeness, perceived stress, quality of life, and psychological outcomes. Patients had neck pain for a mean of 11 years. Eighteen patients in the meditation group and 16 patients in the exercise group were lost to follow-up. Meditation training significantly reduced pain when compared to the exercise group after 8 weeks (reduction of 45.5 ± 23.3 mm to 21.6 ± 17.2 mm in the meditation group, and 43.8 ± 22.0 mm to 37.7 ± 21.5 mm in the exercise group; mean difference: 13.2 mm [95% confidence interval: 2.1, 24.4; P = .02]). Pain-related bothersomeness decreased more in the meditation group (group difference 11.0 mm [95% confidence interval: 1.0, 21.0; P = .03]). No significant treatment effects were found for pain at motion, psychological scores, and quality of life, although the meditation group showed nonsignificant greater improvements compared to the exercise group. In conclusion

  7. Effect of γ irradiation on the physico-mechanical and chemical properties of potato (Solanum tuberosum L), cv. 'Kufri Chandramukhi' and 'Kufri Jyoti', during storage at 12 °C (United States)

    Mahto, Rina; Das, Madhusudan


    The study was carried out on two important cultivars of potato, 'Kufri Jyoti' and 'Kufri Chandramukhi', to evaluate the effectiveness of low dose gamma irradiation (0.05, 0.15 and 0.5 kGy) in maintaining the tuber qualities in terms of textural parameters (puncture force, shear force, work done, cohesiveness and gumminess), microstructure, sugar content and storage losses during storage of 120 days at 12 °C. Sprouting was completely inhibited even at the lowest dose studied, i.e., 0.05 kGy. All the irradiated tubers looked firm with no deterioration in appearance. The irradiated tubers retained higher textural parameters compared to the unirradiated controls. It was interesting to observe a noticeable increase in the textural parameters of the irradiated specimens of 'K. Chandramukhi'. The scanning electron micrographs showed all the irradiated specimens with rigid cell walls. A dose dependent accumulation of reducing and total sugars was observed. Minimum accumulation of sugars occurred at 0.05 kGy. No loss of tubers due to rotting was observed at 0.05 and 0.15 kGy as compared to 6% loss observed in unirradiated controls. Thus, low dose irradiation (up to 0.15 kGy) with storage at 12 °C is an effective postharvest method for preserving the tuber qualities in potato.

  8. Reverse engineering the world: a commentary on Hoffman, Singh, and Prakash, "The interface theory of perception". (United States)

    Fields, Chris


    Does perception hide the truth? Information theory, computer science, and quantum theory all suggest that the answer is "yes." They suggest, indeed, that useful perception is only feasible because the truth can be hidden.

  9. Prakash et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2014) 11(3):239 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Manipur Centre, Imphal-795004, .... mentioned the use of rhizome against snakebite in district Buner, NWFP, Pakistan (Hamayun et al., 2006). ... used to arrest blood pressure, relieve pain and kill worms (Tang et al., 1990). It .... Constipation, abdominal disorders and dysentery. 14.

  10. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    In India, the gang rape and killing of Jyoti Singh Pandey ... to GBV, from prevention efforts to mass action in the media and public campaigns and to .... the reproduction of normative gender and gender power relations, but also racist discourse,.

  11. India-U.S. Relations (United States)

    2008-08-12]. 20 Prakash Karat , “Left Will Not Compromise,” People’s Democracy (New Delhi), June 29, 2008; “India’s Left-Wing to Reconsider...nuclear weapons in the future and threaten its foreign policy independence.30 An urgent meeting between Singh and communist leader Prakash Karat

  12. Walking with Madhu: Healing Ped/agogy (United States)

    Watson, T. Francene


    In this essay, the author responds to Madhu Prakash's piece on friendship gardens and healing our "Mother" through Prakash's central question, "How to birth a world in which many worlds flourish and complement each other in their wild, divine diversity; all equally enjoying Ahimsa flourishing and happiness?" Coming…

  13. 75 FR 44936 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Phytophthora Ramorum... (United States)


    ...; Phytophthora Ramorum; Quarantine and Regulations AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA... regulations for the interstate movement of regulated articles to prevent the spread of Phytophthora ramorum... of Phytophthora ramorum, contact Mr. Prakash Hebbar, Program Manager, Emergency and Domestic...

  14. Fabrication and Evaluation of Rosuvastatin Calcium Fast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ingredients were taken to determine stability of .... Table 3: Weight variation, hardness, thickness, friability, disintegration time and wetting time ..... pellets. Powder Technol 2013; 235: 289-298. 21. Inayat BP, Prakash RS, Pritish K. Formulation ...

  15. A Swiss Army Knife for CTLs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friedl, P.; Weigelin, B.


    Granzyme B released by leukocytes cleaves multiple intracellular substrates required for target cell lysis. In this issue of Immunity, Prakash et al. (2014) demonstrate that granzyme B cleaves basement membrane proteins and promotes cytotoxic T cell diapedesis into inflamed tissue.

  16. Fluorinated 5- and 7-membered carbacycle motifs by reaction of difluorocarbene with acetylene ethers. (United States)

    Chia, Poh Wai; Bello, Davide; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; O'Hagan, David


    The reaction of acetylene ethers with difluorocarbene (CF(2)), generated from the Ruppert-Prakash reagent, unexpectedly gave rise to co-produced fluorinated bicyclic [2.1.1]-hex-2-ene and cyclohepta-1,4-diene ring products.

  17. Personal Leadership: An Element of National Power (United States)


    answer to a question regarding recognition of Red China, he stated: On Vida Prakash Dutt and Vishal Singh, India’s Policies and A11itudc_s Toward...part and to play a role in the international drama . Alignment with a power block restricts their activity and exposes them to the charge of October 1950.) 12. Dutt, Vida Prakash and Singh, Vishal, India’s Policies and Attitudes Toward Indo-China and SEATO, New York, Institute of

  18. Evolution of extreme high waters along the east coast of India and at the head of the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Antony, C.; Unnikrishnan, A.S.; Woodworth, P.L.

    011173. Mehra, P., Soumya, M., Vethamony, P., Vijaykumar, K., Nair, T. M. B., Agarvadekar, Y., Jyoti, K., Sudheesh, K., Luis, R., Lobo, S., Harmalkar, B., 2015. Coastal sea level response to 15    the tropical cyclonic forcing in the northern Indian...

  19. Coastal sea level response to the tropical cyclonic forcing in the northern Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mehra, P.; Soumya, M.; Vethamony, P.; Vijaykumar, K.; Nair, T.M.B.; Agarvadekar, Y.; Jyoti, K.; Sudheesh, K.; Luis, R.; Lobo; Halmalkar, B.

    . M. Balakrishnan Nair2, Y. Agarvadekar1, K. Jyoti1, K. Sudheesh1, R. Luis1, S. Lobo1, and B. Harmalkar1 1CSIR-National Institute of Oceanography (NIO), Goa, India 2Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS), Hyderabad, India...

  20. The Himalayas: barrier and conduit for gene flow. (United States)

    Gayden, Tenzin; Perez, Annabel; Persad, Patrice J; Bukhari, Areej; Chennakrishnaiah, Shilpa; Simms, Tanya; Maloney, Trisha; Rodriguez, Kristina; Herrera, Rene J


    The Himalayan mountain range is strategically located at the crossroads of the major cultural centers in Asia, the Middle East and Europe. Although previous Y-chromosome studies indicate that the Himalayas served as a natural barrier for gene flow from the south to the Tibetan plateau, this region is believed to have played an important role as a corridor for human migrations between East and West Eurasia along the ancient Silk Road. To evaluate the effects of the Himalayan mountain range in shaping the maternal lineages of populations residing on either side of the cordillera, we analyzed mitochondrial DNA variation in 344 samples from three Nepalese collections (Newar, Kathmandu and Tamang) and a general population of Tibet. Our results revealed a predominantly East Asian-specific component in Tibet and Tamang, whereas Newar and Kathmandu are both characterized by a combination of East and South Central Asian lineages. Interestingly, Newar and Kathmandu harbor several deep-rooted Indian lineages, including M2, R5, and U2, whose coalescent times from this study (U2, >40 kya) and previous reports (M2 and R5, >50 kya) suggest that Nepal was inhabited during the initial peopling of South Central Asia. Comparisons with our previous Y-chromosome data indicate sex-biased migrations in Tamang and a founder effect and/or genetic drift in Tamang and Newar. Altogether, our results confirm that while the Himalayas acted as a geographic barrier for human movement from the Indian subcontinent to the Tibetan highland, it also served as a conduit for gene flow between Central and East Asia.

  1. Reviewer Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chief Editor


    Haranadha RajaH S JoshiHarsh MahajanHarshal SalveHem SatiHema GogiaHemang ShahHemant PawarHimalaya SinghHimanshu AgarwalH NegandhiJeetendra YadavIndrani GogoiI B SareenIpsa MohapatraIqbal M KhanJ NarainJ P MajraJ S ThakurJ V SinghJabanesh PalasJagannath BeheraJai K ShethJai SinghJaideep KumarVidanapathiranaJ DeshpandeyJayanta DasJayanti SemwalJitendera SinghJitendra BhawalkarJitendra KummarJoy ChakmaJugal KishoreJyoti TiwariK B S GuptaK MallikharjunaK RajasekharanK S NegiKallappa MasaliKamalakanta DasKapil AgrawalKapil YadavKarthik BalajeeKejal Joshi ReddyKhaja AhmedK MuzammilKimcheng ChounKishan K BhatiaKoskei AlfredKrishna JoshiKrishnaveni RKriti Bhat KKriti VaishK BrahmbhattKshitij ChoudharyL SatyanarayanaLakshmi PvmLalita SisodiaLatika Nath SinhaLavanya SelvarajLekshmy PillaiLilabi ShakirLivinus EgwudaLt Col R P SinghM RafiqM S A AhmedM SinghMadhavi BhargavaMahender SinghMaj JawaidMalik ItratMamta ChoudharyMandar SadawarteManeesh KumarManish ChaturvediManish GehaniManoj BansalManoj GuptaManu BatraManvi SagarMarie MajellaMary LeeMd Abu BasharMd AlamMd PialMd S BasandraMeenal ThakareMegha LuthraMigom DoleyM BhattacharyaMilind SomkuwarMisnaniartiH Mohammed MerzahMohin SakreMohini PhanseMonica AggarwalMonica KakkarMukhmohit SinghM TambeMuthu KumarN ArlapaNabil Al RabeeiNajam KhaliqueNandini SharmaNaresh SinghNavin AngadiNavneet SandhuNavuluri K ReddyNeerajNeha ChananaNidhi BhatnagarNidhi GuptaNidhi PrasadNikhil GovilN SardeshpandeNimila MathewsNiraj PanditNirankar SinghNitin DhupdaleNiveditha CO Prakash KansalOmair WaniPadmavati MajhiPallabi GuptaPallavi BoroPallavi PotdarPankaj BhardwajPankaj JainPankaj MishraParabjyot KaurParag KumarParnava DasParul SehgalParul SharmaParvathy PPavana BelagaviPawan GoelPawan KumarPawan ParasharPeeyush KariwalPoonam BPoorna C ReddyP AggarwalP ChoudharyPradeep KasarPragya SinhaPramod GuptaPrasad BogamPrasant SabothPrashant HowalPratima GuptaPraveen SaharyaPravin SPreeti PaddaPunit VarmaPunyatoya BejPurva JoshiR SharmaRabindra SinhaRachana A

  2. 94 - 99_Nafiu et al.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    There has been fragmentary information that link up helminthes parasitic infection ..... Guar, S.N.S., M.S. Sethi, H.C. Tewari and Prakash, O. (1979). A note on the ... pastoral and nomadic management systems in the lower plain of Southern ...

  3. Constituents of Chondria armata

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Govenkar, M.B.; Wahidullah, S.

    B. Govenkar, wishes to thank CSIR for the award of SRF. References Anjaneyulu, A.S.R., Prakash, C.V.S., Mallavadhani, U.V., 1991. Two caulerpin analogues and a sesquiterpene from Caulerpa race- mosa. Phytochemistry 30 (9), 3041–3042. Daigo, K., 1959...

  4. Design Rules for High Temperature Microchemical Systems (United States)


    structures that use quantum effects, i.e. band gaps to limit the flow of heat. Figure 49 shows some photonic band structure calculations we have...and Other Unexpected Effects" Combustion Theory and Modeling, 9, 77-92, 2005. 16) Prakash, S., N. Shankar , N.G. Glumac. and M.A. Shannon

  5. Adaptive Environment for Supercompiling with Optimized Parallelism (AESOP) (United States)


    420. Banerjee, P., Chandy, J. A., Gupta, M., Hodges IV, E. W., Holm, J. G., Lain, A., Palermo, D. J., Ramaswamy, S., and Su, E. "The Paradigm...Notices, 2010: 71-82. Jablin, Thomas B., Prakash Prabhu, James A. Jablin, Nick P. Johnson, Stephen R. Beard, and David I. August. "Automatic CPU-GPU

  6. Traditional Herbal Medicine Use Associated with Liver Fibrosis in Rural Rakai, Uganda (United States)


    xanthones, chalcones, aurones, terpenes, flavononols, leucoanthocyanidins, catechins [39] Herb from Ocimum genus (O. lamiifolium) was hepatotoxic in an...252–260. 18. Ridker PM, McDermott WV (1989) Comfrey herb tea and hepatic veno- occlusive disease. Lancet 1: 657–658. 19. Prakash AS, Pereira TN, Reilly

  7. 78 FR 58993 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Phytophthora Ramorum... (United States)


    ... Collection; Phytophthora Ramorum; Quarantine and Regulations AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... Phytophthora ramorum. DATES: We will consider all comments that we receive on or before November 25, 2013... of regulated articles to prevent the spread of Phytophthora ramorum, contact Dr. Prakash K....

  8. Enantioselective Synthesis of Strobamine and its Analogues (United States)


    using likelihood methods in PLATON .6,7 Based on the analysis of 1077 Bijvoet pairs (90% coverage), this analysis indicated that the absolute structure...Majewski, M.; Lazny, R. J. Org. Chem. 1995, 60, 5825. 5. Olah, G. A.; Arvanaghi, M.; Prakash, G. K. S. Synthesis 1983, 636. 6. Spek, A. L. PLATON

  9. Overcoming Resistance of Prostate Cancer to TRAIL - Mediated Apoptosis (United States)


    Palombella VJ, Sausville EA, Joahnson J, Destree A, Lazarus DD, Maas J, Pien CS, Prakash S and Elliott PJ. (1999). Cancer Res., 59, 2615–2622. An WG, Hwang S...assistance of Sarah Winbourn. REFERENCES 1. Wiley, S. R., Schooley, K., Smolak, P. J., Din, W. S., Huang, C. P., Nicholl, J. K., Sutherland, G. R

  10. Man-animal relationships in Central Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lohani Usha


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nepal is small in size but rich in bio-cultural diversity. The rugged terrain of the country is home to a number of unique assemblages of fauna, some of which are endemic. Not only faunal resources the country also harbors some very ancient populations whose interrelationship with these diverse faunal resources is very intimate and thus demands scientific study. Animals play important role in both material and spiritual spheres of their life. There are more than hundred groups of such populations in the country and the group Tamang is one of these. The present paper studies Tamang-animal relationships in central Nepal. There is a growing trend of scientific ethnozoological studies all across the globe, but this field is yet in its infancy in Nepal. The country is losing important fauna as well as ancient human cultures at the advent of development processes. As a result, ethnozoological knowledge is also teetering on the brink of extinction. Methods Ethnozoological data were collected by applying different participatory approaches techniques such as semi-structured interviews, participatory rural appraisal, key informant interviews and focus group discussions. Quantitative data were obtained by employing a household level questionnaire survey. Data were collected from the period of September 2004 to August 2005. Most of the animals were identified up to the species level with the help of standard taxonomic keys. Results The Tamang community treasures knowledge on various uses of 41 genera belonging to 28 families. Out of total number of animals, 14.6% belong to the Invertebrate group and the rest to the Vertebrate group. Of the total uses 58% fall in the food and medicinal use category, 16% in the magico-religious use category, 18% in the category of omen indication, and 2% each in the categories such as weather forecasting, trophy, ethnomusical and taboos. Conclusions The Tamang maintain strong ties with animals both at a

  11. Introduction: Modelling Exemplarity in South Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Gayer


    Full Text Available In 2007, Prashant Tamang, a young Indian police officer of Nepalese origin, became the winner of the third edition of the television show ‘Indian Idol’. This victory was made possible by the mobilization of Tamang’s profession -the Indian Police force- and of his ethnic community -Indians of Nepalese descent- both in India and abroad. The young man had captured the imagination of these two groups with his musical talent but also with his life-story and personality. Born and educated in Darjee...

  12. Genetic insights into the origins of Tibeto-Burman populations in the Himalayas. (United States)

    Gayden, Tenzin; Mirabal, Sheyla; Cadenas, Alicia M; Lacau, Harlette; Simms, Tanya M; Morlote, Diana; Chennakrishnaiah, Shilpa; Herrera, Rene J


    The Himalayan mountain range has played a dual role in shaping the genetic landscape of the region by (1) delineating east-west migrations including the Silk Road and (2) restricting human dispersals, especially from the Indian subcontinent into the Tibetan plateau. In this study, 15 hypervariable autosomal STR loci were employed to evaluate the genetic relationships of three populations from Nepal (Kathmandu, Newar and Tamang) and a general collection from Tibet. These Himalayan groups were compared to geographically targeted worldwide populations as well as Tibeto-Burman (TB) speaking groups from Northeast India. Our results suggest a Northeast Asian origin for the Himalayan populations with subsequent gene flow from South Asia into the Kathmandu valley and the Newar population, corroborating a previous Y-chromosome study. In contrast, Tamang and Tibet exhibit limited genetic contributions from South Asia, possibly due to the orographic obstacle presented by the Himalayan massif. The TB groups from Northeast India are genetically distinct compared to their counterparts from the Himalayas probably resulting from prolonged isolation and/or founder effects.

  13. Modelling the impact and cost-effectiveness of the HIV intervention programme amongst commercial sex workers in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foss Anna M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ahmedabad is an industrial city in Gujarat, India. In 2003, the HIV prevalence among commercial sex workers (CSWs in Ahmedabad reached 13.0%. In response, the Jyoti Sangh HIV prevention programme for CSWs was initiated, which involves outreach, peer education, condom distribution, and free STD clinics. Two surveys were performed among CSWs in 1999 and 2003. This study estimates the cost-effectiveness of the Jyoti Sangh HIV prevention programme. Methods A dynamic mathematical model was used with survey and intervention-specific data from Ahmedabad to estimate the HIV impact of the Jyoti Sangh project for the 51 months between the two CSW surveys. Uncertainty analysis was used to obtain different model fits to the HIV/STI epidemiological data, producing a range for the HIV impact of the project. Financial and economic costs of the intervention were estimated from the provider's perspective for the same time period. The cost per HIV-infection averted was estimated. Results Over 51 months, projections suggest that the intervention averted 624 and 5,131 HIV cases among the CSWs and their clients, respectively. This equates to a 54% and 51% decrease in the HIV infections that would have occurred among the CSWs and clients without the intervention. In the absence of intervention, the model predicts that the HIV prevalence amongst the CSWs in 2003 would have been 26%, almost twice that with the intervention. Cost per HIV infection averted, excluding and including peer educator economic costs, was USD 59 and USD 98 respectively. Conclusion This study demonstrated that targeted CSW interventions in India can be cost-effective, and highlights the importance of replicating this effort in other similar settings.

  14. Novel anterior cruciate ligament graft fixation device reduces slippage


    Lopez MJ; Borne A; Monroe WT; Bommala P; Kelly L.; Zhang N


    Mandi J Lopez,1 Allen Borne,2 W Todd Monroe,3 Prakash Bommala,1 Laura Kelly,1 Nan Zhang11Laboratory for Equine and Comparative Orthopedic Research, Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, 2Louisiana State University, New Orleans Health Sciences Center, School of Medicine, New Orleans, 3Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Agricultural Center, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, USAAbstract: ...

  15. Integrated Advanced Energy Systems Research at IIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamid Arastoopour


    This report consists of Two research projects; Sustainable Buildings and Hydrogen Storage. Sustainable Building Part includes: Wind and the self powered built environment by professor P. Land and his research group and experimental and computational works by professor D. Rempfer and his research group. Hydrogen Storage part includes: Hydrogen Storage Using Mg-Mixed Metal Hydrides by professor H. Arastoopour and his research team and Carbon Nanostructure as Hydrogen Storage Material by professor J. Prakash and his research team.

  16. Recent developments in the synthesis of five- and six-membered heterocycles using molecular iodine

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parvatkar, P.T.; Parameswaran, P.S.; Tilve, S.G.

    : Chem. Eur. J., vol.18; 2012; 5460 -5489 Recent Developments in the Synthesis of Five- and Six- Membered Heterocycles Using Molecular Iodine Prakash T. Parvatkar, [a,b] Perunninakulath S. Parameswaran,* [c] and Santosh G. Tilve* [b] IODINE N CH 3 R... problems in animals and human beings. Iodine provides the substrate for synthesis of the thyroid hormones, thyroxine and triiodothyronine, which are crucial for normal growth and development. Deficiency of this element is known to cause goiter and even...

  17. Electrochemical Interfaces and Electrode Processes: Electrochemical Oxidation of Small Organisms (United States)


    Oxygen Electrochemistry, Cleveland, OH, Oct. 29-Nov. 1, 1991, The Electrochemical Society , Vol. 92-11, pp. 440-473. 3. J. Prakash, D. Tryk, W. Aldred...and Industrial Electrolytic Processes," Vittorio de Nora Award Address at the 181 st National Meeting of the Electrochemical Society , Inc., St. Louis...The Electrochemical Society , Inc., Pennington, NJ, pp. 440-473. E. Contributed Presentations and Papers at Scientific Meetings and Workshops I. R.R

  18. Synthesis of gold nanoparticles by the fungus Aspergillus niger and its efficacy against mosquito larvae


    Prakash, Soam; Namita Soni,Namiata


    Namita Soni, Soam PrakashEnvironmental and Advanced Parasitology and Vector Control Biotechnology Laboratories, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Dayalbagh, Agra, IndiaBackground: The fungus Aspergillus niger has been selected for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The authors report the role of fungi in the synthesis of AuNPs. Additionally, the larvicidal efficacy of these AuNPs was tested using the larvae of three mosquito species: Anophel...

  19. Trifluoromethylselenolation of Aryldiazonium Salts: A Mild and Convenient Copper-Catalyzed Procedure for the Introduction of the SeCF3Group

    KAUST Repository

    Nikolaienko, Pavlo


    The straightforward introduction of the trifluoromethylseleno group into aromatic and heteroaromatic compounds is accomplished by the utilization of readily available aryldiazonium tetrafluoroborates, potassium selenocyanate, and Ruppert-Prakash reagent. The reaction tolerates a wide range of aromatic and heteroaromatic diazonium salts and is also amenable to the synthesis of pentafluoroethyl selenoethers. Furthermore, the methodology can be applied directly starting from anilines. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Advanced Methods of Approximate Reasoning (United States)


    Kyburg, Maria Teresa Lamata, Abe Mamdani, Serafin Moral, Henri Prade. Alessandro Saffiot ti. Glen Shafer, Prakash Shenoy, Philippe Smetb,3 Marcus...Dubois, Francesc Esteva, Oscar Firchein, Marty Fischler, Pascal Fua, Maria Angeles Gil, Luis Godo, Andy Hanson, Jerry Hobbs, David Israel, Joan Jacas, Yvan...Inf. Control, 38:154-169, 1978. [18] L.I. Godo, R. L6pez de Mintaras, C. Sierra , A. Verdaguer. Maiaging linguistically expressed uncertainty in MILORD

  1. Indian Software Enters the Chinese Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShaoChangjie; QiuJianghong


    IN the past, Indian software firms targeted the European and American markets, but now, they have turned their eyes to China. Six years ago, Prakash Menon, an Indian businessman aged 33, visited China for the first time in search of a location for NIIT, the largest software training corporation in India. After 15 days' roaming around China, Menon decided to set up headquarters in Shanghai.

  2. War in Shangri-La: The Information Dimension of Nepal’s Maoist Insurgency and Counterinsurgency (United States)


    the government has recently mounted concerted efforts to monitor, restrict, or deny the use of these tools. Reporters Without Borders has reported...Net,” 135 Prakash Raj, Maoists in the Land of Buddha, 59. 136 Reporters Without Borders , “Royal Army launches...New Delhi: Nirala Publications, 2004. The Register. “Wi-Fi yak farmers liberated by Net. Reporters Without Borders . “Royal

  3. Security Analysis and Improvement of User Authentication Framework for Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Chen


    Full Text Available Cloud Computing, as an emerging, virtual, large-scale distributed computing model, has gained increasing attention these years. Meanwhile it also faces many secure challenges, one of which is authentication. In this paper, we firstly analyze a user authentication framework for cloud computing proposed by Amlan Jyoti Choudhury et al and point out the security attacks existing in the protocol. Then we propose an improved user authentication scheme. Our improved protocol ensures user legitimacy before entering into the cloud. The confidentiality and the mutual authentication of our protocol are formally proved by the strand space model theory and the authentication test method. The simulation illustrates that the communication performance of our scheme is efficient

  4. Cu-catalyzed trifluoromethylation of aryl iodides with trifluoromethylzinc reagent prepared in situ from trifluoromethyl iodide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzo Nakamura


    Full Text Available The trifluoromethylation of aryl iodides catalyzed by copper(I salt with trifluoromethylzinc reagent prepared in situ from trifluoromethyl iodide and Zn dust was accomplished. The catalytic reactions proceeded under mild reaction conditions, providing the corresponding aromatic trifluoromethylated products in moderate to high yields. The advantage of this method is that additives such as metal fluoride (MF, which are indispensable to activate silyl groups for transmetallation in the corresponding reactions catalyzed by copper salt by using the Ruppert–Prakash reagents (CF3SiR3, are not required.

  5. Political Power and Social Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivarsson, Søren; Rud, Søren

    Studies of colonialism and empire have increasingly drawn attention to the problem of conceptualizing the political logic of colonial projects and the circumstances of state formation in colonial contexts. Concepts such as ‘colonial governmentality’ (Prakash, Thomas, Scott, Legg), ‘state effect...... state remains undertheorized and underanalysed. With this workshop we wish to bring together a small group of scholars working on less studied colonial states. Hereby we wish to open up for a fruitful exchange on what such cases can tell us about the generic nature of the colonial state and hereby...

  6. Identification and modeling of internal waves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, T.V.R.; Sadhuram, Y.; Rao, M.M.M.; SujithKumar, S.; Maneesha, K.; Sandhya, K.S.; Prakash, S.S.; Chandramouli, P.; Murthy, K.S.R.

    ,salanity,density,Bruntvaisala frequencyandsoundvelocityunderdifferentseasons 2.2 Currents 2.3 IdentificationofInternalWaves 2.4 CharactersticsofInternalwavesfromCTDandSpectrumanalysis 2.5 Internalwavefieldgeneration 2.6 ModellingofInternalwaves 2.7 Internalwavesimulation 3. Conclusion Contributors to the project 1.... Dr.T.V.Ramana Murty Co-investigator 2. Dr.Y.Sadhuram Member 3. Dr.M.M.Malleswara Rao Member 4. Mr.S.Sujith Kumar Member 5. Mr.S.Surya Prakash Member 6. Mr...

  7. Increasing and visualising meme effectiveness

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Veerasamy, N


    Full Text Available .html?cid=sf01001>. 2014, Ellen DeGeneres selfie at 3.4 million, viewed 30 Aug. 2014, . Chielens, K 2002-2003, The viral aspects of language, Universiteit Brussel, viewed 6... of the terrorist: The psychology of terrorism from the IRA to al- Qaeda, Palgrave Macmillan, New York. Prakash, N 2014, 'Ellen DeGeneres took the most epic selfie of all time at the Oscars', Mashable, viewed 30 Aug. 2014,

  8. Morning cortisol is lower in obese individuals with normal glucose tolerance


    Praveen EP; Sahoo JP; Kulshreshtha B; Khurana ML; Gupta N; Dwivedi SN; Kumar G; Ammini AC


    Edavan P Praveen1, Jaya Prakash Sahoo1, Bindu Kulshreshtha2, Madan L Khurana3, Nandita Gupta1, Sada Nand Dwivedi3, Guresh Kumar3, Ariachery C Ammini11Department of Endocrinology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, 2Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital, 3Department of Biostatistics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, IndiaBackground: There is no consensus on the role of cortisol in the pathogenesis of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS). This cross-sectional study aimed to analyze...

  9. Palynology of Permian Gondwana sequence of Umrer coalfield, Maharashtra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, N.; Tewari, R.; Rajanikanth, A. [Birbal Sahni Institute of Paleobotany, Lucknow (India)


    Quantitative and qualitative palynological analysis of Early Permian sediments, Umrer Coalfield, Wardha Basin has been carried out. The microspore assemblage consists of 22 genera and 40 species. It is characterized by dominance of radial monosaccates chiefly, Parasacciles and subdominance of non-striate disaccates chiefly, Scheuringipollenites. Presence of Crucisaccites and Caheniasaccites suggests Upper Karharbari (Late Sakmarian-Early Artinskian) affinity. The presence of the Karharbari palynozone has been demarcated in lithologically designated Barakar Formation. The present finding corroborates the earlier studies by Bharadwaj and Anand Prakash (1974).

  10. Notions such as "truth" or "correspondence to the objective world" play no role in explanatory accounts of perception. (United States)

    Mausfeld, Rainer


    Hoffman, Singh, and Prakash (Psychonomic Review and Bulletin, 2015, in press) intend to show that perceptions are evolutionarily tuned to fitness rather than to truth. I argue, partly in accordance with their objective, that issues of 'truth' or 'veridicality' have no place in explanatory accounts of perception theory, and rather belong to either ordinary discourse or to philosophy. I regard, however, their general presumption that the evolutionary development of core achievements of the human perceptual system would be primarily determined by aspects of fitness and adaption as unwarranted in light of the evidence available.

  11. Review of: Legal practice and cultural diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinding, Niels Valdemar


    that arose after the speech by the Archbishop: whether or to what extent cultural difference should be recognized by legal systems. Legal practice and cultural diversity, edited by Ralph Grillo, Roger Ballard, Alessandro Ferrari, Andre´ J. Hoekema, Marcel Maussen, and Prakash Shah, Farnham, UK, Ashgate, 2009......This anthology comprises contributions from a conference on legal practice and cultural diversity held in London in July 2007, but the editors take their cue from the speech made in February 2008 by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Dr Rowan Williams. The questions central to the book are the same...

  12. Fatigue 󈨛. Volume 2, (United States)


    fatigue cracks grown in a nominally elastic field. EXPERIMENTAL DETAILS A low alloy steel (QIN) with a composition closely similar to HY80 , i.e. 2.5...Prediction of Steel Cords - A. PRAKASH, 645 G.A. COSTELLO, R.M. SHEMENSKI AND D.K. KIM Effect of Hold Time on Fatigue of Lead Rich 655 PbSn Solder...S. VAYNMAN, M.E. FINE AND D.A. JEANNOTTE On Cleavage in Fatigue for Rail Steels - 667 ZHU DONG, CAI QIGONG and YAO HENG Influence of Cleavage on

  13. Clinical evaluation of a novel herbal dental cream in plaque formation: a double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial


    Patki, Pralhad; Amruthesh ,Sunita; Tandur,Prakash; Tandur,AP; Malini


    Sunita Amrutesh1, J Malini2, Prakash S Tandur3, Pralhad S Patki41Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, 2Department of Microbiology, 3Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, K.L.E. College of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Bangalore, India; 4Medical Services and Clinical Trials, R&D Center, The Himalaya Drug Company, Bangalore, IndiaBackground: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of herbal dental cream in comparison to fluoride dental cream.Objective...

  14. Assessment of Ganga river ecosystem at Haridwar, Uttarakhand, India with reference to water quality indices (United States)

    Bhutiani, R.; Khanna, D. R.; Kulkarni, Dipali Bhaskar; Ruhela, Mukesh


    The river Ganges is regarded as one of the most holy and sacred rivers of the world from time immemorial. The evaluation of river water quality is a critical element in the assessment of water resources. The quality/potability of water that is consumed defines the base line of protection against many diseases and infections. The present study aimed to calculate Water Quality Index (WQI) by the analysis of sixteen physico-chemical parameters on the basis of River Ganga index of Ved Prakash, weighted arithmetic index and WQI by National sanitation foundation (NSF) to assess the suitability of water for drinking, irrigation purposes and other human uses. These three water quality indices have been used to assess variation in the quality of the River Ganga at monitored locations over an 11-year period. Application of three different indexes to assess the water quality over a period of 11 years shows minor variations in water quality. Index values as per River Ganga Index by Ved Prakash et al. from 2000 to 2010 ranged between medium to good, Index values as per NSF Index for years 2000-2010 indicate good water quality, while Index values as per the weighted arithmetic index method for the study period indicate poor water quality.

  15. Community Participation in Forest Resource Management in Nepal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keshav L. Maharjan


    Livelihood of the people in Nepal hills depends much upon forest resources in addition to farming as forest plays a critical role in the well being of the farming households where access to alternative sources, such as energy for cooking, nutrition for animals, materials for fertilizer and constructing materials for shelter, are limited. Thus, the well being of the people in the hills is directly affected by the management of these forest resources. This issue was addressed in this paper by examining the forest resource management practices and its effect on well being of rural people in two different stages in a village lying in the steep hill of Mahabharat Range in the southern hills of Kathmandu valley, Lalitpur District. The main ethnic/caste groups in the village are Brahmin/Chhetri (high Hindu caste),Magar/Tamang (Tibeto Burmans) and Kami (occupational caste: cobbler). Currently there are four community forest users groups, with mixed ethnic membership, organized to manage the forest resources. The endowments, weak institutional settings, before 1990 helped the Bhramins, Magars and Tamangs to get access into the private forest endowment, which made them easy to get access to the forest resources, mainly fuel wood, fodder and timber in 1990 and enhanced their well beings. But the socially backward Kami could not get benefit from the institutions that existed during that time and had less chance to enhance their well beings. After the set up of different endowments during late 1990s, i.e.,hand over of forest management to users groups in line with the concept of community forest,environment to use the forest resources became better for all the groups, along with the management of the forest. This enhanced the well beings of all the groups in the study village. However, the ability of Kami to use the forest resources to enhance their well beings was still lacking behind. The reason was partially due to the difference in endowments carried over from the

  16. The Himalayas as a directional barrier to gene flow. (United States)

    Gayden, Tenzin; Cadenas, Alicia M; Regueiro, Maria; Singh, Nanda B; Zhivotovsky, Lev A; Underhill, Peter A; Cavalli-Sforza, Luigi L; Herrera, Rene J


    High-resolution Y-chromosome haplogroup analyses coupled with Y-short tandem repeat (STR) haplotypes were used to (1) investigate the genetic affinities of three populations from Nepal--including Newar, Tamang, and people from cosmopolitan Kathmandu (referred to as "Kathmandu" subsequently)--as well as a collection from Tibet and (2) evaluate whether the Himalayan mountain range represents a geographic barrier for gene flow between the Tibetan plateau and the South Asian subcontinent. The results suggest that the Tibetans and Nepalese are in part descendants of Tibeto-Burman-speaking groups originating from Northeast Asia. All four populations are represented predominantly by haplogroup O3a5-M134-derived chromosomes, whose Y-STR-based age (+/-SE) was estimated at 8.1+/-2.9 thousand years ago (KYA), more recent than its Southeast Asian counterpart. The most pronounced difference between the two regions is reflected in the opposing high-frequency distributions of haplogroups D in Tibet and R in Nepal. With the exception of Tamang, both Newar and Kathmandu exhibit considerable similarities to the Indian Y-haplogroup distribution, particularly in their haplogroup R and H composition. These results indicate gene flow from the Indian subcontinent and, in the case of haplogroup R, from Eurasia as well, a conclusion that is also supported by the admixture analysis. In contrast, whereas haplogroup D is completely absent in Nepal, it accounts for 50.6% of the Tibetan Y-chromosome gene pool. Coalescent analyses suggest that the expansion of haplogroup D derivatives--namely, D1-M15 and D3-P47 in Tibet--involved two different demographic events (5.1+/-1.8 and 11.3+/-3.7 KYA, respectively) that are more recent than those of D2-M55 representatives common in Japan. Low frequencies, relative to Nepal, of haplogroup J and R lineages in Tibet are also consistent with restricted gene flow from the subcontinent. Yet the presence of haplogroup O3a5-M134 representatives in Nepal

  17. Retroperitoneal necrotizing fasciitis presenting with peritonism in a 33-year-old Nepalese man: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giri Smith


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Retroperitoneal necrotizing fasciitis is a rare, fulminant, and potentially lethal complication of intra-abdominal suppuration. A retroperitoneal origin is very rare and very few cases have been reported in the literature. To the best of our knowledge, this case is only the fourth case reported of successful management following retroperitoneal necrotizing fasciitis. Case presentation A 33-year-old Tamang man presented to our facility with a history of five days of fever and vomiting and eight days of severe left loin pain. On examination, he had features of peritonism. A laparotomy was performed, revealing extensive necrotizing fasciitis of the retroperitoneum extending to the anterior abdominal wall. Our patient survived following extensive debridement of the necrotic tissues and supportive care. Conclusions Retroperitoneal necrotizing fasciitis can rarely present with features of peritonism, and hence should be included as a possible differential diagnosis for anyone presenting with peritonism. Although a fatal condition, early intervention and aggressive management can save the life of a patient.

  18. Pseudoexfoliation syndrome in various ethnic population of Nepal. (United States)

    Shakya, S; Dulal, S; Maharjan, I M


    Pseudoexfoliation syndrome is an ocular condition characterized by a distinctive deposition of fibrillar material in the anterior segment of the eye. Pseudoexfoliation syndrome is frequently associated with glaucoma. Though it is seen in all the population, prevalence varies considerably in different races. A hospital based study done in Nepal by our group showed that Gurung population is frequently affected by this disease than any others. To determine the fact a larger population based study was necessary. Thus a research was designed to survey the various populations in the community. Different population from Kathmandu valley, Kavrepalanchowk, Pokhara, and Ghandruk were evaluated in two different phases to include major ethnic population living in Nepal. Household surveys done to bring all the targeted population to base hospital and detail examination including anterior segment evaluation after dilatation of pupil, optic disc evaluation, intraocular pressure measurement, gonioscopy, visual field recording and photographic documentation was done. Total of4430 population surveyed while only 2135 fulfilled the criteria for inclusion. Gurungs irrespective of their place of residence showed higher prevalence of Pseudoexfoliation syndrome accounting for 7.8% in Kathmandu valley while 12.0% in Ghandruk. Tamangs were affected very rarely by this disease accounting only for 0.3%. Gurungs are at higher risk of developing Pseudoexfoliation syndrome than any others in Nepal.

  19. Dancing droplets: Chemical space, substrates, and control (United States)

    Cira, Nate; Benusiglio, Adrien; Prakash, Manu


    Previously we showed that droplets of propylene glycol and water display remarkable properties when placed on clean glass due to an interplay between surface tension and evaporation. (Cira, Benusiglio, Prakash: Nature, 2015). We showed that these mechanisms apply to a range of two-component mixtures of miscible liquids where one component has both higher surface tension and higher vapor pressure on a variety of high energy surfaces. We now show how this rule can be cheated using a simple trick. We go on to demonstrate applications for cleaning, and show how this system works on substrates prepared only with sunlight. We finish by demonstrating active control of droplets, allowing access to a host of new possibilities.

  20. Perceptual representation, veridicality, and the interface theory of perception. (United States)

    Cohen, Jonathan


    Hoffman, Singh, and Prakash (henceforth, HSP) argue that perception was not selected for veridical representation, hence that, contrary to a very widespread consensus, there's much less of the latter than you might expect in perception. And they put forward an alternative "interface" theory, on which perception is an adaptively useful but truth-obscuring veil between perceiver and perceived. But HSP's case against veridical perception, and their case for an alternative account, turn crucially on significant misapprehensions in the early going about what veridicality amounts to. In this paper I'll identify this mistake, and then argue that it both undercuts HSP's arguments against perceptual veridicality and prevents them from seeing that their own preferred conception of perception is itself committed to veridical representation, rather than an alternative to it. In the end, I'll conclude, HSP give us no reasons to abandon the standard view that perception veridically represents the world.

  1. Dancing droplets: Contact angle, drag, and confinement (United States)

    Benusiglio, Adrien; Cira, Nate; Prakash, Manu


    When deposited on a clean glass slide, a mixture of water and propylene glycol forms a droplet of given contact angle, when both pure liquids spread. (Cira, Benusiglio, Prakash: Nature, 2015). The droplet is stabilized by a gradient of surface tension due to evaporation that induces a Marangoni flow from the border to the apex of the droplets. The apparent contact angle of the droplets depends on both their composition and the external humidity as captured by simple models. These droplets present remarkable properties such as lack of a large pinning force. We discuss the drag on these droplets as a function of various parameters. We show theoretical and experimental results of how various confinement geometries change the vapor gradient and the dynamics of droplet attraction.

  2. Pendulum Therapy of Molar Distalization in Mixed Dentition. (United States)

    Patil, Raju Umaji; Prakash, Amit; Agarwal, Anshu


    Early and timely pedo-orthodontic treatment is aimed at eliminating the disturbances of skeletal or dentoalveolar development, to harmonize the stomatognathic system before the full eruption of all permanent teeth. The advantages of pendulum appliance are its minimal dependence on patient's compliance (child cooperation), ease of fabrication, onetime activation and adjustment of the springs if necessary to correct minor transverse and vertical molar positions. This article reports a successful treatment method of class II malocclusion with pendulum appliance in mixed dentition phase. Distalization of maxillary molar was done, followed by guidance of canine impaction orthodontically and other dental correction using 0.022 MBT appliances. Posttreatment results were stable and remarkable. How to cite this article: Patil RU, Prakash A, Agarwal A. Pendulum Therapy of Molar Distalization in Mixed Dentition. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):67-73.

  3. What are we training tour guides for? (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Prakash


    Full Text Available Regional Level Guide Training Programe (RLGTP is an ambitious programe of Government of India aimed at creating professional guides who can accompany tourist over a region. Entire country has been divided in to 5 regions. An important issue to address is the kind of tour guides these training programes should produce. This would depend upon the content and approach to training which in turn depends on the vision for roles guides should play in tourism value chain. This paper is a case study based evaluation of the content of the RLGTP vis-à-vis the six-dimensional model proposed by Chowdhary and Prakash (2008. Authors calculate the weight-age given to different inputs and try to uncover the underlying assumptions about the role of a tour guide. Paper also makes recommendations related to design of content for the guide training programe.

  4. An author’s guide to submission, revision and rejection (United States)

    Smart, Pippa


    ‘Continuous effort, not strength or intelligence, is the key to understanding our potential.’ Winston Churchill The sting of rejection is nasty. However, when you get that letter (which you will), remember you will be in esteemed company. Many of us would like to publish in Science or Nature but what better revenge when they reject you than a Nobel Prize! This is exactly what happened to Hans Krebs, the biochemist who won the Nobel Prize in 1953 for discovering the citric acid cycle, commonly known as the Krebs cycle. Krebs submitted his findings to Nature but was faced with rejection. Never has Frank Sinatra’s famous quote been truer: ‘The best revenge is massive success.’ Nature has admitted to many other such faux pas in its publishing history and it is not unique in its misjudgements. Publishing is a game of risk-taking behaviour and strategy. Authors must convince editors and referees that their work is worthy of publishing. When journals do not publish this work, authors must remember the value of their manuscript and persist in finding it another home. JYOTI SHAH Commissioning Editor PMID:26492899

  5. Role of ethylene diurea (EDU) in assessing impact of ozone on Vigna radiata L. plants in a suburban area of Allahabad (India). (United States)

    Agrawal, S B; Singh, Anoop; Rathore, Dheeraj


    A field study was conducted to evaluate the suitability of ethylene diurea (N-[2-(2-oxo-1-imidazolidinyl)ethyl]-N'-phenylurea; EDU) in assessing the impact of O3 on mung bean plants (Vigna radiata L. var. Malviya Jyoti) grown in suburban area of Allahabad city situated in a dry tropical region of India. EDU is a synthetic chemical having anti-ozonant property. Mean monthly O3 concentration varied between 64 and 69 microg m(-3) during the experimental period. In comparison to EDU-treated plants, non-EDU-treated plants showed significant reductions in plant growth and yield under ambient conditions. Significant favourable effects of EDU-application were observed with respect to photosynthetic pigments, soluble protein, ascorbic acid and phenol contents. EDU-treated plants maintained higher levels of pigments, protein and ascorbic acid in foliage as compared to non-EDU-treated ones. The study clearly demonstrated that EDU alleviates the unfavourable effects of O3 on mung bean plants, and therefore can be used as a tool to assess the growth and yield losses in areas having higher O3 concentrations.

  6. Indigenous use and bio-efficacy of medicinal plants in the Rasuwa District, Central Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boon Emmanuel K


    ranked as priority species, 13 of which having also been prioritized in a country-wide governmental classification. Conclusions The Tamang people possess rich ethnopharmacological knowledge. This study allowed to identify many high value and high priority medicinal plant species, indicating high potential for economic development through sustainable collection and trade.

  7. Copyright (United States)


    ‘Talent is always conscious of its own abundance, and does not object to sharing.’ Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, The First Circle When authors submit an article for publication, most publishers will ask for a signature from the author on a copyright form. The relationship between an author and the publisher is then a partnership but one that many authors are reluctant to enter into. After all, why should a publisher take copyright from an author of an article when the author had the idea and has done all the hard work for the content of the article? In response to this question, publishers will generally claim that copyright transfer agreements protect authors from copyright infringements such as plagiarism, libel and unauthorised uses as well as protecting the integrity of the article. Copyright in the UK was originally concerned with preventing the unlawful copying of printed material in the 17th century in response to the then new technology of book printing. The first copyright act in the UK, the Statute of Anne in 1710, was subtitled ‘An Act for the Encouragement of Learning’, and granted privileges and monopolies to book printers. Since then, copyright law has evolved to incorporate many forms of communication, including photography, film, music, computers, engraving, designs on t-shirts and digital technology among other forms of media. The most recent act in the UK is the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. While copyright covers an author’s right to copy, distribute and revise the work, it does not protect ideas – just their fixation or expression. The moment that an idea is fixed or expressed physically, copyright starts and does not have to be registered. In this article, Pippa Smart provides an overview of the legal framework that protects authors and publishers. Jyoti Shah, Commissioning Editor

  8. Copyright. (United States)

    Smart, P


    'Talent is always conscious of its own abundance, and does not object to sharing.' Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, The First Circle When authors submit an article for publication, most publishers will ask for a signature from the author on a copyright form. The relationship between an author and the publisher is then a partnership but one that many authors are reluctant to enter into. After all, why should a publisher take copyright from an author of an article when the author had the idea and has done all the hard work for the content of the article? In response to this question, publishers will generally claim that copyright transfer agreements protect authors from copyright infringements such as plagiarism, libel and unauthorised uses as well as protecting the integrity of the article. Copyright in the UK was originally concerned with preventing the unlawful copying of printed material in the 17th century in response to the then new technology of book printing. The first copyright act in the UK, the Statute of Anne in 1710, was subtitled 'An Act for the Encouragement of Learning', and granted privileges and monopolies to book printers. Since then, copyright law has evolved to incorporate many forms of communication, including photography, film, music, computers, engraving, designs on t-shirts and digital technology among other forms of media. The most recent act in the UK is the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. While copyright covers an author's right to copy, distribute and revise the work, it does not protect ideas--just their fixation or expression. The moment that an idea is fixed or expressed physically, copyright starts and does not have to be registered. In this article, Pippa Smart provides an overview of the legal framework that protects authors and publishers. Jyoti Shah, Commissioning Editor.

  9. Cellulose nanofiber aerogel as a promising biomaterial for customized oral drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhandari J


    Full Text Available Jyoti Bhandari,1 Harshita Mishra,1 Pawan Kumar Mishra,2 Rupert Wimmer,2,3 Farhan J Ahmad,1 Sushama Talegaonkar1 1Department of Pharmaceutics, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India; 2Department of Wood Science, Mendel University in Brno, Brno, Czech Republic; 3Institute for Natural Materials Technology, Department of Agrobiotechnology, IFA-Tulln, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria Abstract: Cellulose nanofiber (CNF aerogels with favorable floatability and mucoadhesive properties prepared by the freeze-drying method have been introduced as new possible carriers for oral controlled drug delivery system. Bendamustine hydrochloride is considered as the model drug. Drug loading was carried out by the physical adsorption method, and optimization of drug-loaded formulation was done using central composite design. A very lightweight-aerogel-with-matrix system was produced with drug loading of 18.98%±1.57%. The produced aerogel was characterized for morphology, tensile strength, swelling tendency in media with different pH values, floating behavior, mucoadhesive detachment force and drug release profiles under different pH conditions. The results showed that the type of matrix was porous and woven with excellent mechanical properties. The drug release was assessed by dialysis, which was fitted with suitable mathematical models. Approximately 69.205%±2.5% of the drug was released in 24 hours in medium of pH 1.2, whereas ~78%±2.28% of drug was released in medium of pH 7.4, with floating behavior for ~7.5 hours. The results of in vivo study showed a 3.25-fold increase in bioavailability. Thus, we concluded that CNF aerogels offer a great possibility for a gastroretentive drug delivery system with improved bioavailability. Keywords: cellulose nanofiber, aerogel, controlled release, gastroretentive, floating behavior, swelling behavior, mucoadhesion, bioavailability

  10. Neonatal hypertension – a long-term pilot follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhari T


    Full Text Available Tejasvi Chaudhari,1 Michael C Falk,2,3 Rajeev Jyoti,2,4 Susan Arney,5 Wendy Burton,5 Alison L Kent1,2 1Department of Neonatology, Canberra Hospital, Woden, ACT, Australia; 2Australian National University Medical School, Canberra, ACT, Australia; 3Department of Nephrology, 4Medical Imaging Department, 5Centre for Newborn Care, Canberra Hospital, Woden, ACT, Australia Background: Neonatal hypertension occurs in up to 3% of neonates, more commonly in those admitted to neonatal intensive care. The aims of this study were to review renal function and renal volumes in children who had a history of neonatal hypertension. Methods: Children with a history of neonatal hypertension from January 2001 to December 2008 were included in the study during 2011. Blood pressure, weight, height, and body mass index were recorded. Renal ultrasound with 3D volume, urine for electrolytes, albumin, ß2 microglobulin, and blood for electrolytes, urea, creatinine, calcium, phosphate, renin, and aldosterone were collected depending on parental consent. Results: Of the 41 neonates with neonatal hypertension, eleven (27% were included in the study (six died; 24 moved interstate or declined involvement. One child (9% was still on antihypertensive medication and one was found to be hypertensive on review. This child had small volume kidneys and albuminuria. Three out of nine renal volume measurements were low (33% and two out of eleven had renal scarring (18%. The six available renin/aldosterone results were normal. Conclusion: This study suggests there are long-term renal and blood pressure implications for neonates with hypertension and ongoing surveillance of blood pressure and renal function should be performed throughout childhood and into early adulthood. Keywords: neonate, hypertension, renal ultrasound, 3D

  11. Aplicación de técnicas cinéticas no isotérmicas en la reducción de tres minerales de hierro de grado comercial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedolla, E.


    Full Text Available The mechanism of reduction of iron ore agglomerates by both isothermal and nonisothermal TG studies was investigated, and the work was complemented with the structural characterization of the total and partially reacted samples. Three different commercial hematite pellets were studied. The mechanisms of reduction were obtained under isothermal conditions, resulting in a fitting to chemical reaction models. Nonisothermal reduction was carried out using a TGA system (CAHN TG-171 from 600 to 1,000 °C maintaining a lineal heating rate of 4, 7 and 10 °C/min, and the reducing atmospheres used were H2 (100 % and H2-CO (95:5. The kinetic parameters were evaluated by Coats & Redfern, Dixit & Ray and Prakash & Ray techniques. It was found that the lower the heating rate, the higher the reduction degree and the higher activation energy. The activation energy for reduction with the mixture H2-CO was always higher than that obtained with pure H2.

    Se estudió el mecanismo de reducción en aglomerados de mineral de hierro mediante análisis termogravimétricos tanto isotérmicos como no isotérmicos, complementando el estudio por caracterización estructural de muestras parcial y completamente reducidas. Se estudiaron tres tipos de pelets hematíticos grado comercial. Los mecanismos de reducción se determinaron isotérmicamente y resultaron ser modelos de control por reacción química. La reducción no isotérmica se realizó en un TGA CAHN-171 de 600 a 1.000 °C a velocidad de calentamiento lineal de 4, 7 y 10 °C/min, en atmósferas reductoras de H2 (100 % y H2-CO (95:5. Los parámetros cinéticos se evaluaron por las técnicas propuestas por Coats & Redfern, Dixit & Ray y Prakash & Ray. Se encontró que a menor velocidad de calentamiento, mayor es el grado de reducción no isotérmico y mayor la energía de activación del proceso. La energía de activación con la mezcla H2

  12. Rupture dynamics along bimaterial interfaces: a parametric study of the shear-normal traction coupling (United States)

    Scala, Antonio; Festa, Gaetano; Vilotte, Jean-Pierre


    Earthquake ruptures often develop along faults separating materials with dissimilar elastic properties. Due to the broken symmetry, the propagation of the rupture along the bimaterial interface is driven by the coupling between interfacial sliding and normal traction perturbations. We numerically investigate in-plane rupture growth along a planar interface, under slip weakening friction, separating two dissimilar isotropic linearly elastic half-spaces, and we perform a parametric study of the classical Prakash-Clifton regularisation, for different material contrasts. In particular the mesh-dependence and the regularisation-dependence of the numerical solutions are analysed in this parameter space. When the regularisation involves a slip-rate dependent relaxation time, a characteristic sliding distance is identified below which numerical solutions no longer depend on the regularisation parameter, i.e. they are physically well-posed solutions. Such regularisation provides an adaptive high-frequency filter of the slip-induced normal traction perturbations, following the dynamic shrinking of the dissipation zone during the acceleration phase. In contrast, a regularisation involving a constant relaxation time leads to numerical solutions that always depend on the regularisation parameter since it fails in adapting to the shrinking of the process zone. Dynamic regularisation is further investigated using a non-local regularisation based on a relaxation time that depends on the dynamic length of the dissipation zone. Such reformulation is shown to provide similar results as the dynamic time scale regularisation proposed by Prakash-Clifton when the slip rate is replaced by the maximum slip rate along the sliding interface. This leads to the identification of a dissipative length scale associated with the coupling between interfacial sliding and normal traction perturbations, together with a scaling law between the maximum slip rate and the dynamic size of the process zone

  13. Keplerian frequency of uniformly rotating neutron stars and quark stars

    CERN Document Server

    Haensel, P; Bejger, M; Lattimer, J M


    We calculate Keplerian (mass shedding) configurations of rigidly rotating neutron stars and quark stars with crusts. We check the validity of empirical formula for Keplerian frequency, f_K, proposed by Lattimer & Prakash, f_K(M)=C (M/M_sun)^1/2 (R/10km)^-3/2, where M is the (gravitational) mass of Keplerian configuration, R is the (circumferential) radius of the non-rotating configuration of the same gravitational mass, and C = 1.04 kHz. Numerical calculations are performed using precise 2-D codes based on the multi-domain spectral methods. We use a representative set of equations of state (EOSs) of neutron stars and quark stars. We show that the empirical formula for f_K(M) holds within a few percent for neutron stars with realistic EOSs, provided 0.5 M_sun < M < 0.9 M_max,stat, where M_max,stat is the maximum allowable mass of non-rotating neutron stars for an EOS, and C=C_NS=1.08 kHz. Similar precision is obtained for quark stars with 0.5 M_sun < M < 0.9 M_max,stat. For maximal crust masses...

  14. Long-term safety and efficacy of romiplostim for treatment of immune thrombocytopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishnu P


    Full Text Available Prakash Vishnu,1 David M Aboulafia1,2 1Floyd and Delores Jones Cancer Institute at Virginia Mason Medical Center, 2Division of Hematology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA Abstract: Inhibition of platelet production and mediated by antiplatelet antibodies is a well-known mechanism causing low platelet counts in immune thrombocytopenia (ITP. Use of thrombopoietin receptor agonists increases platelet counts and decreases the risk of bleeding in patients with ITP. Two such thrombopoietin receptor agonists, romiplostim and eltrombopag, are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration to treat thrombocytopenia in adults, and most recently, children with persistent or chronic ITP. This review focuses on the efficacy data and safety analysis of the pooled data from the clinical trials evaluating romiplostim for treatment of adults with ITP. The rates of hemorrhage, thrombosis, hematologic and nonhematologic cancers, and myelodysplastic syndrome were not overrepresented among the groups who received romiplostim versus placebo or other standard-of-care treatments. Yet, as after-market experience with thrombopoietin receptor agonists increases, there are emerging reports of increased incidence of thrombosis and bone marrow reticulin among patients who are treated with long-term use of these agents. Ongoing clinical research will continue to evaluate romiplostim’s efficacy and safety in other primary and secondary thrombocytopenic states. Keywords: thrombopoietin receptor agonists, romiplostim, randomized clinical trials, immune thrombocytopenia, long-term efficacy, safety

  15. Posthumanism, Cyberculture & Postcolonialism in Manjula Padmanabhan’s «Harvest»

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    Sagnika Chanda


    Full Text Available Cyberculture’s influence in our lives and its possible threat to human physical identity is well documented in Harvest. American Virgil, posing as Ginni, seduces and controls the Prakash family. He uses gadgets like the “Contact Module” or the “Video Couch” to disperse identity through “cybernetic circuits”. Both the receiver and the donor assume new identities in the digital arena. Harvest highlights important questions about “digitization” of identities and separation from the physical form. Can a body “vacated” of its owner be claimed by another? How is identity determined if cyberspace can disguise one’s gender, class or race to divest them of their unique markers? Problematization of identity in cyberspace is pivotal to the discourse of postcolonialism. For marginalized bodies identity politics and suffering is rooted in the physical body. In Harvest, first world exploits the third world via wireless communication and unlimited money. Jaya sustains a postcolonial resistance to such capitalist domination. She claims her body, evocative of her dignity, through the corporeal limitation of death − the postcolonial Other’s triumph in the colonizer’s world of coercion and control.

  16. Current and emerging treatment options for Graves’ hyperthyroidism

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    Prakash Abraham


    Full Text Available Prakash Abraham1, Shamasunder Acharya21Department of Endocrinology, Aberdeen Royal Infirmary, Aberdeen, UK; 2Department of Endocrinology, John Hunter Hospital, New Lambton NSW, AustraliaAbstract: Radioiodine, antithyroid drugs and surgery have been well established therapies for Graves’ hyperthyroidism for several decades. However there remain large variations in practice among physicians in the preferred modality and the method of administration. Patient choice and perceptions also play a big role in the choice of treatment. Radioiodine may be given using fixed high doses or by calculated doses following uptake studies. The risks of radioiodine including eye disease and the role of prophylactic steroid therapy are discussed. The commonly used antithyroid drugs include carbimazole, methimazole and propylthiouracil; however a number of other agents have been tried in special situations or in combination with these drugs. The antithyroid drugs may be given in high (using additional levothyroxine in a block–replace regimen or low doses (in a titration regimen. This review examines the current evidence and relative benefits for these options as well as looking at emerging therapies including immunomodulatory treatments such as rituximab which have come into early clinical trials. The use of antithyroid therapies in special situations is also discussed as well as clinical practice issues which may influence the choices.Keywords: Graves’ hyperthyroidism, radioiodine, antithyroid drugs, methimazole, propylthiouracil

  17. Unusual Case of a Proptosed Eye: Isolated Right Maxillary Neurofibroma

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    Darren Yap


    Full Text Available Neurofibroma is a slow growing benign tumour of the peripheral nerve sheath which is frequently associated with neurofibromatosis type 1 (Prakash et al., 2014. Isolated solitary occurrence of neurofibroma in the maxillary sinus is rare with only 29 reported cases in the literature. We present a rare case of a 70-year-old gentleman who was referred to ENT with a right maxillary sinus neurofibroma with extension into the right inferior orbit. He has significant proptosis, ptosis, and limitation in abduction of the right eye. He has a complicated past history of multiple neurofibromas which were completely excised. Craniofacial MRI shows a large mass filling the right maxillary antrum extending anteriorly into subcutaneous tissue towards nasal ala and posterolaterally into inferior temporal fossa and superiorly into orbit and cavernous sinus involvement. Biopsy of the right maxillary mass revealed cellular spindle cell tumour with wavy collagen bundles within myxoid stroma which is consistent with a neurofibroma. Patient’s case was discussed in the skull-base MDT and he has been referred to a specialist center for surgical removal of the neurofibroma with reconstructive surgery. Despite the rarity of this disease, otorhinolaryngologist should consider a possibility of neurofibroma of the paranasal sinuses.

  18. Profile of inhaled glycopyrronium bromide as monotherapy and in fixed-dose combination with indacaterol maleate for the treatment of COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash A


    Full Text Available Anoop Prakash,1 K Suresh Babu,2 Jaymin B Morjaria1,31Department of Respiratory Medicine, Castle Hill Hospital, Cottingham, 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, Queen Alexandra Hospital, Cosham, Portsmouth, 3Department of Academic Respiratory Medicine, Hull York Medical School, University of Hull, Castle Hill Hospital, Cottingham, UKAbstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The cornerstone of pharmacological treatment for COPD is bronchodilation. Inhaled glycopyrronium bromide is a long-acting muscarinic antagonist developed as a maintenance treatment for patients with COPD. Phase III trials have shown that glycopyrronium produces rapid and sustained bronchodilation with an efficacy similar to tiotropium and is well tolerated, with a low incidence of muscarinic side effects in patients with moderate to severe COPD. A combination of glycopyrronium bromide with indacaterol maleate (QVA149 has recently been approved as a once-daily maintenance therapy in adult patients with COPD. Phase III trials (the IGNITE program with QVA149 have demonstrated significant improvements in lung function versus placebo, glycopyrronium, and tiotropium in patients with moderate to severe COPD, with no safety concerns of note. Hence QVA149 is a safe treatment option for moderate to severe COPD patients in whom long-acting muscarinic antagonist monotherapy is inadequate.Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, glycopyrronium bromide, indacaterol maleate, umeclidinium, QVA149, long-acting muscarinic antagonist

  19. Immune checkpoint inhibitors: the new frontier in non–small cell lung cancer treatment

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    El-Osta HE


    Full Text Available Hazem El-Osta, Kamran Shahid, Glenn M Mills, Prakash Peddi Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology-Oncology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA, USA Abstract: Lung cancer is the major cause for cancer-related death in the US. Although advances in chemotherapy and targeted therapy have improved the outcome of metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer, its prognosis remains dismal. A deeper understanding of the complex interaction between the immune system and tumor microenvironment has identified immune checkpoint inhibitors as new avenue of immunotherapy. Rather than acting directly on the tumor, these therapies work by removing the inhibition exerted by tumor cell or other immune cells on the immune system, promoting antitumoral immune response. To date, two programmed death-1 inhibitors, namely nivolumab and pembrolizumab, have received the US Food and Drug Administration approval for the treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer that failed platinum-based chemotherapy. This manuscript provides a brief overview of the pathophysiology of cancer immune evasion, summarizes pertinent data on completed and ongoing clinical trials involving checkpoint inhibitors, discusses the different strategies to optimize their function, and outlines various challenges that are faced in this promising yet evolving field. Keywords: checkpoint inhibitors, immunotherapy, nivolumab, non-small-cell lung cancer, pembrolizumab, programmed death-1, programmed death ligand-1

  20. New class of hybrid EoS and Bayesian M-R data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez-Castillo, D; Benic, S; Blaschke, D; Grigorian, H; Typel, S


    We explore systematically a new class of two-phase equations of state (EoS) for hybrid stars that is characterized by three main features : (1) stiffening of the nuclear EoS at supersaturation densities due to quark exchange effects (Pauli blocking) between hadrons, modelled by an excluded volume correction, (2) stiffening of the quark matter EoS at high densities due to multiquark interactions and (3) possibility for a strong first order phase transition with an early onset and large density jump. The third feature results from a Maxwell construction for the possible transition from the nuclear to a quark matter phase and its properties depend on the two parameters used for (1) and (2), respectively. Varying these two parameters one obtains a class of hybrid EoS that yields solutions of the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff (TOV) equations for sequences of hadronic and hybrid stars in the mass-radius diagram which cover the full range of patterns according to the Alford-Han-Prakash classification following which a ...

  1. Optimal capacitor placement and sizing in radial electric powe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Elsheikh


    Full Text Available The use of capacitors in power systems has many well-known benefits that include improvement of the system power factor, improvement of the system voltage profile, increasing the maximum flow through cables and transformers and reduction of losses due to the compensation of the reactive component of power flow. By decreasing the flow through cables, the systems’ loads can be increased without adding any new cables or overloading the existing cables. These benefits depend greatly on how capacitors are placed in the system. In this paper, the problem of how to optimally determine the locations to install capacitors and the sizes of capacitors to be installed in the buses of radial distribution systems is addressed. The proposed methodology uses loss sensitivity factors to identify the buses requiring compensation and then a discrete particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO is used to determine the sizes of the capacitors to be installed. The proposed algorithm deals directly with discrete nature of the design variables. The results obtained are superior to those reported in Prakash and Sydulu (2007.

  2. Human serum albumin nanoparticles as an efficient noscapine drug delivery system for potential use in breast cancer: preparation and in vitro analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safaa Sebak


    Full Text Available Safaa Sebak, Maryam Mirzaei, Meenakshi Malhotra, Arun Kulamarva, Satya PrakashBiomedical Technology and Cell Therapy Research Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, CanadaAbstract: Drug delivery systems such as nanoparticles can provide enhanced efficacy for ­anticancer agents. Noscapine, a widely used cough suppressant for decades has recently been shown to cause significant inhibition and regression of tumor volumes without any detectable ­toxicity in cells or tissues. Nanoparticles made of human serum albumin (HSA represent ­promising strategy for targeted drug delivery to tumor cells by enhancing the drug’s bioavailability and distribution, and reducing the body’s response towards drug resistance. In the ­present study, we report for the first time the incorporation and delivery of noscapine-loaded HSA nanoparticles to tumor cells. The nanoparticles were designed and optimized to achieve a particle size in the range of 150–300 nm with a drug-loading efficiency of 85%–96%. The nanoparticles were evaluated in vitro for their anticancer activity and efficacy on breast cancer cells.Keywords: HSA, encapsulation, microcapsule, nanomedicine, nanotechnology, tumor volumes

  3. Genomic MRI - a Public Resource for Studying Sequence Patterns within Genomic DNA (United States)

    Prakash, Ashwin; Bechtel, Jason; Fedorov, Alexei


    Non-coding genomic regions in complex eukaryotes, including intergenic areas, introns, and untranslated segments of exons, are profoundly non-random in their nucleotide composition and consist of a complex mosaic of sequence patterns. These patterns include so-called Mid-Range Inhomogeneity (MRI) regions -- sequences 30-10000 nucleotides in length that are enriched by a particular base or combination of bases (e.g. (G+T)-rich, purine-rich, etc.). MRI regions are associated with unusual (non-B-form) DNA structures that are often involved in regulation of gene expression, recombination, and other genetic processes (Fedorova & Fedorov 2010). The existence of a strong fixation bias within MRI regions against mutations that tend to reduce their sequence inhomogeneity additionally supports the functionality and importance of these genomic sequences (Prakash et al. 2009). Here we demonstrate a freely available Internet resource -- the Genomic MRI program package -- designed for computational analysis of genomic sequences in order to find and characterize various MRI patterns within them (Bechtel et al. 2008). This package also allows generation of randomized sequences with various properties and level of correspondence to the natural input DNA sequences. The main goal of this resource is to facilitate examination of vast regions of non-coding DNA that are still scarcely investigated and await thorough exploration and recognition. PMID:21610667

  4. Cost analysis of a disaster facility at an apex tertiary care trauma center of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheetal Singh


    Full Text Available Introduction: For the Commonwealth Games 2010, Jai Prakash Narayan Apex Trauma Centre (JPNATC of India had been directed by the Director General Health Services and Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, to set up a specialized unit for the definitive management of the injured/unwell athletes, officials, and related personnel coming for the Commonwealth Games in October 2010. The facility included a 20-bedded fully equipped ward, six ICU beds with ventilator capacity, one very very important person observation area, one perioperative management cubicle, and one fully modular and integrated operating room. Objective: The objective of this study was to calculate the cost of disaster facility at JPNATC, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. Methodology: Traditional (average or gross costing methodology was used to arrive at the cost for the provisioning of these services by this facility. Results: The annual cost of providing services at disaster facility at JPNATC, New Delhi, was calculated to be INR 61,007,334.08 (US$ 983,989.258 while the per hour cost was calculated to be INR 7061.03 of the total cost toward the provisioning of services by disaster facility where 26% was the capital cost and 74% was the operating cost. Human resource caters to maximum chunk of the expenditures (47%. Conclusion: The results of this costing study will help in the future planning of resource allocation within the financial constraints (US$ 1 = INR 62 in the year 2013.

  5. What are Journals for? (United States)

    Rallison, S P


    hard work and, through this series, I hope the reader will get some useful insight into this service industry for academia. Jyoti Shah Commissioning Editor Reference 1. Ware M, Mabe M. The STM Report. 3rd edn. The Hague: International Association of Scientific, Technical and Medical Publishers; 2012.

  6. Eyes wide open: reader and author responsibility in understanding the limits of peer review. (United States)

    Benson, P J


    Publishing (University of Chicago Press), which helps readers understand and navigate the publishing process in high impact science and technical journals. Her master's and doctorate degrees are from Carnegie Mellon University. JYOTI SHAH Commissioning Editor References 1. Eaton KK . Editorial: when is a peer review journal not a peer review journal? J Nutr Environ Med 1997 ; 7 : 139 - 144 . 2. van der Heyden MA , van de Ven T , Opthof T . Fraud and misconduct in science: the stem cell seduction . Neth Heart J 2009 ; 17 : 25 - 29 .

  7. Hypoxia attenuates purinergic P2X receptor-induced inflammatory gene expression in brainstem microglia

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    Smith SMC


    Full Text Available Stephanie MC Smith,1,2 Gordon S Mitchell,1,2 Scott A Friedle,3 Christine M Sibigtroth,1 Stéphane Vinit,1 Jyoti J Watters1–31Department of Comparative Biosciences, 2Comparative Biomedical Sciences Training Program, 3Program in Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USAAbstract: Hypoxia and increased extracellular nucleotides are frequently coincident in the brainstem. Extracellular nucleotides are potent modulators of microglial inflammatory gene expression via P2X purinergic receptor activation. Although hypoxia is also known to modulate inflammatory gene expression, little is known about how hypoxia or P2X receptor activation alone affects inflammatory molecule production in brainstem microglia, nor how hypoxia and P2X receptor signaling interact when they occur together. In the study reported here, we investigated the ability of a brief episode of hypoxia (2 hours in the presence and absence of the nonselective P2X receptor agonist 2′(3′-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyladenosine-5′-triphosphate (BzATP to promote inflammatory gene expression in brainstem microglia in adult rats. We evaluated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα, and interleukin (IL-6 messenger RNA levels in immunomagnetically isolated brainstem microglia. While iNOS and IL-6 gene expression increased with hypoxia and BzATP alone, TNFα expression was unaffected. Surprisingly, BzATP-induced inflammatory effects were lost after hypoxia, suggesting that hypoxia impairs proinflammatory P2X-receptor signaling. We also evaluated the expression of key P2X receptors activated by BzATP, namely P2X1, P2X4, and P2X7. While hypoxia did not alter their expression, BzATP upregulated P2X4 and P2X7 mRNAs; these effects were ablated in hypoxia. Although both P2X4 and P2X7 receptor expression correlated with increased microglial iNOS and IL-6 levels in microglia from normoxic rats, in hypoxia, P2X7 only correlated with IL-6, and P2X

  8. REVIEWER LIST – 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chief Editor


    Full Text Available REVIEWER LIST – 2014 The Editorial Team would like to thank all those who gave generously of their time and expertise in reviewing the papers for the Indian Journal of Community Health in 2014.AAarti Kapil, New Delhi, IndiaAbhishek SinghAmandeep Kaur, Haldwani, IndiaAmit Kaushik, Safai, IndiaAnu Bhardwaj, Ambala, IndiaAnurag Chaudary, Ludhiana, IndiaA R BondArpan YagnikArvind Kumar Singh, Gorakhpur, IndiaAshish Yadav, Meerut, IndiaAthar Ansari, Aligarh, India BBaridalyne Nongkynrih, New Delhi, IndiaBhaskar Thakuria, Meerut, IndiaBhola Nath, Srinagar, IndiaBhupinder Kaur Anand, Lucknow, IndiaBiju Soman CC M Singh, Patna, India DDhiraj Kumar Srivastava, Safai, India GGarima Mittal, Dehradun, IndiaGeetu Singh, Agra, IndiaGita Negi, Dehradun, India HH Chopra, Meerut, IndiaHarsh Mahajan, Greater Noida, IndiaHem Chandra Sati, Dehradun, India KKhursheed Muzammil, Muzaffanagar, IndiaKrishna Prakash JoshiLLatika Nath Sinha, Jodhpur, India MMalik ItratManish Chaturvedi, Greater Noida, IndiaManoj BansalManu Batra, Moradabad, IndiaMegha Luthra, Dehradun, IndiaM R Talapalliwar NNaresh Pal Singh, Safai, IndiaNidhi Gupta, New Delhi, IndiaNirankar Singh OOm Prakash Kansal, Gurgaon, India PPankaj Kumar Jain, Safai, IndiaParul Sharma, Pune, IndiaPawan Kumar Goel, Mewat, IndiaPeeyush Kariwal, Bariely, IndiaPradeep Aggarwal, Dehradun, IndiaPragya SinhaPratima Gupta, AIIMS, India RRahul Bansal, Meerut, IndiaRakesh Kakkar, Dehradun, IndiaRanjana Singh, Hapur, IndiaRanjeeta Kumari, AIIMS, IndiaReema Kumari, Lucknow, IndiaRicha Sinha, Dehradun, IndiaRupali Roy, New Delhi, India SSonu Goel, Chandigarh, IndiaS D Kandpal, Dehradun, IndiaSadhana Awasthi, Haldwani, IndiaSamarjeet Kaur, Kanpur, IndiaSandul YasobantSanjay Kumar Jha, Haldwani, IndiaSanjay Kumar Gupta, New Delhi, IndiaSanjeev Davey, Muzaffarnagar, IndiaSaurabh Varshney, Rishikesh, IndiaSeema Jain, Meerut, IndiaSeema Diwan, Dehradun, IndiaShailendra Kumar, Muzaffarnagar, IndiaShaili Vyas, Dehradun

  9. Committee ARM User Executive Committee Meeting Summary March 30-31, 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None


    This meeting was held at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Mesa Lab, Boulder, Colorado. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility User Executive Committee (UEC) members present were: Chuck Long, Ernie Lewis, Larry Berg, Hailong Wang, Matt Shupe, Andrew Gettelman, and Dave Turner. Rob Wood joined the discussion at several points via conference call, as he was unable to attend in person. Gannet Hallar and Pavlos Kollias were unable to attend. ARM Infrastructure members present were: Jim Mather, Jennifer Comstock, Jimmy Voyles, Ken Kehoe, Doug Sisterson, Hanna Goss, and Giri Prakash. The ARM UEC met face to face for the first time since the committee was formed in December, 2014 at the NCAR Mesa Lab in Boulder. Prior to this point, all UEC meetings were done via telephone, usually with the aid of collaboration software (e.g., Lync, GoToMeeting) allowing the entire committee to see a common presentation. These conference calls covered a wide range of topics, many of them on a recurrent basis; however, since the calls were limited to less than 90 minutes it was felt that a more dedicated meeting would allow us to delve more deeply into some of these topics. Three topics for this meeting came from previous conference call discussions: (1) data quality, (2) uncertainty quantification, and (3) improved communications. Two other topics were discussed during this meeting: (4) an overview of the LES (large-eddy simulation) ARM Symbiotic Simulation and Observation (LASSO) project and (5) the process for electing new UEC members. Summaries of each of these topics are provided below, along with recommendations that the UEC feels should be considered by the ARM Facility (which will be highlighted using italics).

  10. Rapid green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Chrysanthemum indicum L and its antibacterial and cytotoxic effects: an in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arokiyaraj S


    Full Text Available Selvaraj Arokiyaraj,1 Mariadhas Valan Arasu,2 Savariar Vincent,3 Nyayirukannaian Udaya Prakash,4 Seong Ho Choi,5 Young-Kyoon Oh,1 Ki Choon Choi,2 Kyoung Hoon Kim1,61Department of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration, Suwon, Republic of Korea; 2Grassland and Forage Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration, Seonghwan-Eup, Cheonan-Si, Chungnam, Republic of Korea; 3Center for Environmental Research and Development, Loyola College, Chennai, India; 4Research and Development, Vel Tech Dr RR and Dr SR Technical University, Chennai, India; 5Department of Animal Science, Chungbuk National University, Chungbuk, Republic of Korea; 6Department of Animal Science, Seoul National University, Pyeongchang, Republic of KoreaAbstract: The present work reports a simple, cost-effective, and ecofriendly method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs using Chrysanthemum indicum and its antibacterial and cytotoxic effects. The formation of AgNPs was confirmed by color change, and it was further characterized by ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy (435 nm. The phytochemical screening of C. indicum revealed the presence of flavonoids, terpenoids, and glycosides, suggesting that these compounds act as reducing and stabilizing agents. The crystalline nature of the synthesized particles was confirmed by X-ray diffraction, as they exhibited face-centered cubic symmetry. The size and morphology of the particles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, which showed spherical shapes and sizes that ranged between 37.71–71.99 nm. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy documented the presence of silver. The antimicrobial effect of the synthesized AgNPs revealed a significant effect against the bacteria Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Additionally, cytotoxic assays showed no toxicity of AgNPs toward 3T3 mouse embryo

  11. New class of hybrid EoS and Bayesian M - R data analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez-Castillo, D. [JINR Dubna, Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Dubna (Russian Federation); Ayriyan, A.; Grigorian, H. [JINR Dubna, Laboratory of Information Technologies, Dubna (Russian Federation); Benic, S. [University of Zagreb, Department of Physics, Zagreb (Croatia); Blaschke, D. [JINR Dubna, Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Dubna (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University (MEPhI), Moscow (Russian Federation); Typel, S. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany)


    We explore systematically a new class of two-phase equations of state (EoS) for hybrid stars that is characterized by three main features: (1) stiffening of the nuclear EoS at supersaturation densities due to quark exchange effects (Pauli blocking) between hadrons, modelled by an excluded volume correction; (2) stiffening of the quark matter EoS at high densities due to multiquark interactions; and (3) possibility for a strong first-order phase transition with an early onset and large density jump. The third feature results from a Maxwell construction for the possible transition from the nuclear to a quark matter phase and its properties depend on the two parameters used for (1) and (2), respectively. Varying these two parameters, one obtains a class of hybrid EoS that yields solutions of the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff (TOV) equations for sequences of hadronic and hybrid stars in the mass-radius diagram which cover the full range of patterns according to the Alford-Han-Prakash classification following which a hybrid star branch can be either absent, connected or disconnected with the hadronic one. The latter case often includes a tiny connected branch. The disconnected hybrid star branch, also called ''third family'', corresponds to high-mass twin stars characterized by the same gravitational mass but different radii. We perform a Bayesian analysis and demonstrate that the observation of such a pair of high-mass twin stars would have a sufficient discriminating power to favor hybrid EoS with a strong first-order phase transition over alternative EoS. (orig.)

  12. Start time delays in operating room: Different perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babita Gupta


    Full Text Available Background: Healthcare expenditure is a serious concern, with escalating costs failing to meet the expectations of quality care. The treatment capacities are limited in a hospital setting and the operating rooms (ORs. Their optimal utilization is vital in efficient hospital management. Starting late means considerable wait time for staff, patients and waste of resources. We planned an audit to assess different perspectives of the residents in surgical specialities and anesthesia and OR staff nurses so as to know the causative factors of operative delay. This can help develop a practical model to decrease start time delays in operating room (ORs. Aims: An audit to assess different perspectives of the Operating room (OR staff with respect to the varied causative factors of operative delay in the OR. To aid in the development of a practical model to decrease start time delays in ORs and facilitate on-time starts at Jai Prakash Narayan Apex Trauma centre (JPNATC, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS, New Delhi. Methods: We prepared a questionnaire seeking the five main reasons of delay as per their perspective. Results: The available data was analysed. Analysis of the data demonstrated the common causative factors in start time operative delays as: a lack of proper planning, deficiencies in team work, communication gap and limited availability of trained supporting staff. Conclusions: The preparation of the equipment and required material for the OR cases must be done well in advance. Utilization of newer technology enables timely booking and scheduling of cases. Improved inter-departmental coordination and compliance with preanesthetic instructions needs to be ensured. It is essential that the anesthesiologists perform their work promptly, well in time . and supervise the proceedings as the OR manager. This audit is a step forward in defining the need of effective OR planning for continuous quality improvement.

  13. Current therapeutic strategies for invasive and metastatic bladder cancer

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    Vishnu P


    Full Text Available Prakash Vishnu, Jacob Mathew, Winston W TanDivision of Hematology Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, USABackground: Bladder cancer is one of the most common cancers in Europe, the United States, and Northern African countries. Muscle-invasive bladder cancer is an aggressive epithelial tumor, with a high rate of early systemic dissemination. Superficial, noninvasive bladder cancer can most often be cured; a good proportion of invasive cases can also be cured by a combined modality approach of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation. Recurrences are common and mostly manifest as metastatic disease. Those with distant metastatic disease can sometime achieve partial or complete remission with combination chemotherapy.Recent developments: Better understanding of the biology of the disease has led to the incorporation of molecular and genetic features along with factors such as tumor grade, lympho-vascular invasion, and aberrant histology, thereby allowing identification of ‘favorable’ and ‘unfavorable’ cancers which helps a more accurate informed and objective selection of patients who would benefit from neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy. Gene expression profiling has been used to find molecular signature patterns that can potentially be predictive of drug sensitivity and metastasis. Understanding the molecular pathways of invasive bladder cancer has led to clinical investigation of several targeted therapeutics such as anti-angiogenics, mTOR inhibitors, and anti-EGFR agents.Conclusion: With improvements in the understanding of the biology of bladder cancer, clinical trials studying novel and targeted agents alone or in combination with chemotherapy have increased the armamentarium for the treatment of bladder cancer. Although the novel biomarkers and gene expression profiles have been shown to provide important predictive and prognostic information and are anticipated to be incorporated in clinical decision-making, their exact utility

  14. Enteral nutrition practices in the intensive care unit: Understanding of nursing practices and perspectives

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    Babita Gupta


    Full Text Available Background: Adequate nutritional support is important for the comprehensive management of patients in intensive care units (ICUs. Aim: The study was aimed to survey prevalent enteral nutrition practices in the trauma intensive care unit, nurses′ perception, and their knowledge of enteral feeding. Study Design: The study was conducted in the ICU of a level 1 trauma center, Jai Prakash Narayan Apex Trauma Centre, AIIMS, New Delhi, India. The study design used an audit. Materials and Methods: Sixty questionnaires were distributed and the results analyzed. A database was prepared and the audit was done. Results: Forty-two (70% questionnaires were filled and returned. A majority (38 of staff nurses expressed awareness of nutrition guidelines. A large number (32 of staff nurses knew about nutrition protocols of the ICU. Almost all (40 opined enteral nutrition to be the preferred route of nutrition unless contraindicated. All staff nurses were of opinion that enteral nutrition is to be started at the earliest (within 24-48 h of the ICU stay. Everyone opined that the absence of bowel sounds is an absolute contraindication to initiate enteral feeding. Passage of flatus was considered mandatory before starting enteral nutrition by 86% of the respondents. Everyone knew that the method of Ryle′s tube feeding in their ICU is intermittent boluses. Only 4 staff nurses were unaware of any method to confirm Ryle′s tube position. The backrest elevation rate was 100%. Gastric residual volumes were always checked, but the amount of the gastric residual volume for the next feed to be withheld varied. The majority said that the unused Ryle′s tube feed is to be discarded after 6 h. The most preferred (48% method to upgrade their knowledge of enteral nutrition was from the ICU protocol manual. Conclusion: Information generated from this study can be helpful in identifying nutrition practices that are lacking and may be used to review and revise enteral feeding

  15. Update on options for treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer

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    Prakash Vishnu


    Full Text Available Prakash Vishnu, Winston W TanDivision of Hematology Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, USABackground: Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers in men in US and European countries. Despite having a favorable prognosis, the incidence of incurable metastatic disease and mortality in the US is about 28,000 per year. Although hormone-based androgen deprivation therapies typically result in rapid responses, nearly all patients eventually develop progressive castration-resistant disease state. With readily available prostate-specific antigen (PSA testing, most of these patients are asymptomatic and manifest progression simply as a rising PSA. In patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC, the median survival is about 1–2 years, with improvements in survival seen mostly with docetaxel-based regimens. The purpose of this article is to review the recent developments in the treatment of advanced CRPC.Recent findings: Since the two landmark trials (TAX-327 and Southwest Oncology Group 99–16 in CRPC, several newer cytotoxic drugs (epothilones, satraplatin, targeted agents (abiraterone, MDV3100 and vaccines have been tested in phase II and III setting with promising results.Conclusions: The role of newer agents in the treatment of CRPC still needs to be validated by phase III trials, which are currently ongoing. Whilst the novel biomarkers, ‘circulating tumor cells’, have been shown to provide important prognostic information and are anticipated to be incorporated in future clinical decision-making, their exact utility and relevance calls for a larger prospective validation.Keywords: castration-resistant prostate cancer, novel therapies, mechanisms of resistance, circulating tumor cells

  16. Heat loss investigation from spherical cavity receiver of solar concentrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shewale, V. C. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, NDMVPS KBT College of Engineering, Nashik (India); Dongarwar, P. R. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, College of Military Engineering, Pune (India); Gawande, R. P. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, B.D.C.O.E. Wardha, Nagpur University, NagpurI (India)


    The heat losses are mainly affects on the performance of cavity receiver of solar concentrator. In this paper, the experimental and numerical study is carried out for different heat losses from spherical cavity receiver of 0.385 m cavity diameter and 0.154 m opening diameter. The total and convection losses are studied experimentally to no wind and wind conditions for the temperature range of 150 °C to 300 °C at 0°, 30°, 45°, 60° and 90° inclination angle of cavity receiver. The experimental set up mainly consists of copper tube material cavity receiver wrapped with nichrome heating coil to heat the cavity and insulated with glasswool insulation. The numerical analysis was carried out with Fluent Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software, to study connective heat losses for no wind condition only. The numerical results are compared with experimental results and found good agreement with maximum deviation of 12 %. The effect of inclination angle of cavity receiver on total losses and convection losses shows that as the inclination angle increases from 0o to 90o, both losses decreased due to decreased in convective zone into the cavity receiver. The effect of operating temperature of cavity shows that as the temperature of cavity receiver increases, the total and convective losses goes on increasing. The effect of external wind at 2 m/s and 4 m/s in two directions (side-on wind and head-on wind) is also studied experimentally for total and convective heat losses. The result shows that the heat losses are higher for head-on wind condition compared to side-on wind and no wind condition at all inclination angle of cavity receiver. The present results are also compared to the convective losses obtained from the correlations of Stine and Mcdonald and M. Prakash. The convective loss from these correlations shows nearest prediction to both experimental and numerical results.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darsigunta Seshaiah


    Full Text Available Blended aggregate in concrete and arriving at the structural properties of blended aggregate concrete is a thrust area. Pumice is very light and porous igneous rock that is formed during volcanic eruptions.Cinder is a waste material obtained from steel manufacturing units. Shear strength is a property of major significance for wide range of civil engineering materials and structures. Shear and punching shear failures particularly in deep beams, in corbels and in concrete flat slabs are considered to be more critical and catastrophic than other types of failures. This area has received greater attention in recent years. For investigating shear type of failures, from the literature it is found that double central notched (DCN specimen geometry proposed by Prakash Desai and V.Bhaskar Desai is supposed the best suited geometry. In this present experimental investigation an attempt is made to study the Mode-II fracture property of light weight blended aggregate cement concrete combining both the pumice and cinder in different proportions, and making use of DCN test specimen geometry . By blending the pumice and cinder in different percentages of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 by volumeof concrete, a blended light weight aggregate concrete is prepared. By using this the property such as in plane shear strength is studied. Finally an analysis is carried out regarding Mode-II fracture properties of blended concrete. It is concluded that the Ultimate load in Mode-II is found to decrease continuously with the percentage increase in Pumice aggregate content. It is also observed that the ultimate stress in Mode II is found to increase continuously with percentage increase in cinder aggregate content.

  18. PREFACE: 5th DAE-BRNS Workshop on Hadron Physics (Hadron 2011) (United States)

    Jyoti Roy, Bidyut; Chatterjee, A.; Kailas, S.


    the authors for giving us the manuscripts in good time. The workshop was financially supported by BRNS, DAE, GoI. We also received partial funding support from the India-FAIR coordination centre, Kolkata, for the organization of the India-PANDA discussion meeting. We acknowledge the financial support received from BRNS and DST (Department of Science and Technology). The assistance from various departments of BARC and the Homi Bhabha Centre for Science Education (HBCSE), TIFR is gratefully acknowledged. We also thank the members of the advisory committee and organizing committee and colleagues from NPD and Physics Group, BARC for their contributions. May 2012, Mumbai Bidyut Jyoti Roy A Chatterjee S Kailas Bhabha Atomic Research Centre Hadron 2011 photograph The PDF also contains a list of the workshop's committees and sponsors, photographs from the workshop and the programme of events.

  19. Interplay of micro-scale flow and fluid micro/nanostructure: Solutions of DNA and suspensions of single walled carbon nanotubes (United States)

    Duggal, Rajat

    The dynamics of dilute solutions of DNA flowing in a scaled clown roll-knife free surface coating flow are investigated on multiple scales. The flow is generated between a rotating roll and a stationary glass knife. Extension of fluorescently stained DNA molecules is measured at the minimum gap at low roll speeds. The macroscopic flow is computed and microscopic predictions are obtained by simulating the DNA by Brownian dynamics combined with successive fine-graining (Sunthar and Ravi Prakash 2005). The simulations predict that the DNA should stretch almost to full extension near the roll surface in the region of minimum gap; this does not agree with experimental measurements. The assumption of linear velocity across the chains fails near free surfaces and is the likely cause of the discrepancy. At high roll speed two separation surfaces arise in the coating bead. The distribution of DNA extension is measured at the separation surface upstream of minimum gap. Slow nodular recirculations are present under the upstream and downstream free surfaces; unexpectedly, DNA molecules are stretched axially in these regions. Individual single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in aqueous suspension are visualized directly by fluorescence video-microscopy. The fluorescent tagging is simple, biocompatible, and allows observation of the dynamics of SWNTs in water. The rotational diffusion coefficient in confinement is measured and the critical concentration at which SWNTs in suspensions start interacting is determined. By analyzing the fluctuating shape of SWNTs, the persistence length of SWNTs is found to range between 32 and 174 mum, in agreement with theoretical estimates; thus, common SWNTs in liquids can be considered as rigid Brownian rods in the absence of imposed external fields. Drying microscopic drops of a suspension of individual SWNTs in aqueous solution of F68 pluronic surfactant exhibit complex dynamics. The drops dry on glass substrates forming a "crust" at the free

  20. Novel anterior cruciate ligament graft fixation device reduces slippage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez MJ


    Full Text Available Mandi J Lopez,1 Allen Borne,2 W Todd Monroe,3 Prakash Bommala,1 Laura Kelly,1 Nan Zhang11Laboratory for Equine and Comparative Orthopedic Research, Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, 2Louisiana State University, New Orleans Health Sciences Center, School of Medicine, New Orleans, 3Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Agricultural Center, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, USAAbstract: Clinically significant laxity occurs in 10%–30% of knees after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Graft slippage and tension loss at the hamstring graft tibial fixation site during and after reconstruction surgery contribute to postoperative joint laxity and are detrimental to long-term knee stability and graft properties. Limiting graft slippage will reduce associated complications. We sought to compare the in vitro mechanical properties and in vivo joint stabilization, postoperative limb use, and graft incorporation of the novel GraftGrab™ (GG device designed to reduce hamstring graft tibial fixation slippage with the commercially available bioabsorbable Bio-Post™ and spiked washer (BP. Mechanical testing was performed on canine tibia-hamstring graft constructs to quantify initial fixation properties. In vivo joint stabilization, postoperative limb use and graft incorporation of hamstring graft reconstructions were determined in a canine model. Outcomes included tibial translation and ground reaction forces preoperatively and 4 and 8 weeks postoperatively, three-dimensional graft and bone tunnel dimensions at the latter two time points, and graft-bone microstructure, as well as mechanical properties 8 weeks after implantation. Immediately after fixation, all grafts slipped from the BP constructs versus about 30% of GG constructs. In vivo limb use remained low, and tibial translation increased with time in the BP cohort. These results together


    Mohanty, A. K.


    SURFACE WATER AND GROUND WATER QUALITY MONITORING FOR RESTORATION OF URBAN LAKES IN GREATER HYDERABAD, INDIA A.K. Mohanty, K. Mahesh Kumar, B. A. Prakash and V.V.S. Gurunadha Rao Ecology and Environment Group National Geophysical Research Institute, (CSIR) Hyderabad - 500 606, India Abstract: Hyderabad Metropolitan Development Authority has taken up restoration of urban lakes around Hyderabad city under Green Hyderabad Environment Program. Restoration of Mir Alam Tank, Durgamcheruvu, Patel cheruvu, Pedda Cheruvu and Nallacheruvu lakes have been taken up under the second phase. There are of six lakes viz., RKPuramcheruvu, Nadimicheruvu (Safilguda), Bandacheruvu Patelcheruvu, Peddacheruvu, Nallacheruvu, in North East Musi Basin covering 38 sq km. Bimonthly monitoring of lake water quality for BOD, COD, Total Nitrogen, Total phosphorous has been carried out for two hydrological cycles during October 2002- October 2004 in all the five lakes at inlet channels and outlets. The sediments in the lake have been also assessed for nutrient status. The nutrient parameters have been used to assess eutrophic condition through computation of Trophic Status Index, which has indicated that all the above lakes under study are under hyper-eutrophic condition. The hydrogeological, geophysical, water quality and groundwater data base collected in two watersheds covering 4 lakes has been used to construct groundwater flow and mass transport models. The interaction of lake-water with groundwater has been computed for assessing the lake water budget combining with inflow and outflow measurements on streams entering and leaving the lakes. Individual lake water budget has been used for design of appropriate capacity of Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs) on the inlet channels of the lakes for maintaining Full Tank Level (FTL) in each lake. STPs are designed for tertiary treatment i.e. removal of nutrient load viz., Phosphates and Nitrates. Phosphates are

  2. Morning cortisol is lower in obese individuals with normal glucose tolerance

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    Praveen EP


    Full Text Available Edavan P Praveen1, Jaya Prakash Sahoo1, Bindu Kulshreshtha2, Madan L Khurana3, Nandita Gupta1, Sada Nand Dwivedi3, Guresh Kumar3, Ariachery C Ammini11Department of Endocrinology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, 2Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital, 3Department of Biostatistics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, IndiaBackground: There is no consensus on the role of cortisol in the pathogenesis of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS. This cross-sectional study aimed to analyze the relationship of morning plasma cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH levels with body mass index (BMI and glucose tolerance.Subjects and methods: The sample frame was the “Offspring of individuals with diabetes study” database. A total of 358 offspring of individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and 287 individuals without a known family history of T2DM were recruited for the study. Subjects who were ≥10 years of age were selected from the database for analysis. Subjects with T2DM were excluded. All participants underwent a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, and blood samples were collected at 0, 30, 60, and 120 minutes for glucose, insulin and C-peptide. Plasma cortisol, ACTH, and lipid profile were estimated from the fasting sample.Results: Four hundred and ninety-five participants (305 males [62%] and 190 females [38%] were included in the analysis. ACTH and cortisol levels were higher in normal-weight subjects than in overweight/obese subjects. Both ACTH and cortisol increased as fasting plasma glucose increased. Cortisol levels were significantly lower in offspring of T2DM subjects with MS than in offspring of T2DM subjects without MS. When adjusted for BMI, the significance was marginal. In males, cortisol levels were negatively correlated with early insulin secretion during OGTT (insulinogenic index [0–30] and positively with waist circumference and serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. In females, fasting

  3. Development and characterization of chitosan-PEG-TAT nanoparticles for the intracellular delivery of siRNA

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    Malhotra M


    Full Text Available Meenakshi Malhotra,1 Catherine Tomaro-Duchesneau,1 Shyamali Saha,2 Imen Kahouli,3 Satya Prakash11Biomedical Technology and Cell Therapy Research Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Medicine, 2Faculty of Dentistry, 3Department of Experimental Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, QC, CanadaAbstract: Recently, cell-penetrating peptides have been proposed to translocate antibodies, proteins, and other molecules in targeted drug delivery. The proposed study presents the synthesis and characterization of a peptide-based chitosan nanoparticle for small interfering RNA (siRNA delivery, in-vitro. Specifically, the synthesis included polyethylene glycol (PEG, a hydrophilic polymer, and trans-activated transcription (TAT peptide, which were chemically conjugated on the chitosan polymer. The conjugation was achieved using N-Hydroxysuccinimide-PEG-maleimide (heterobifunctional PEG as a cross-linker, with the bifunctional PEG facilitating the amidation reaction through its N-Hydroxysuccinimide group and reacting with the amines on chitosan. At the other end of PEG, the maleimide group was chemically conjugated with the cysteine-modified TAT peptide. The degree of substitution on chitosan with PEG and on PEG with TAT was confirmed using colorimetric assays. The resultant polymer was used to form nanoparticles complexing siRNA, which were then characterized for particle size, morphology, cellular uptake, and cytotoxicity. The nanoparticles were tested in-vitro on mouse neuroblastoma cells (Neuro2a. Particle size and surface charge were characterized and an optimal pH condition and PEG molecular weight were determined to form sterically stable nanoparticles. Results indicate 7.5% of the amines in chitosan polymer were conjugated to the PEG and complete conjugation of TAT peptide was observed on the synthesized PEGylated chitosan polymer. Compared with unmodified chitosan nanoparticles, the nanoparticles formed at pH 6 were

  4. Triple-negative (ER, PgR, HER-2/neu breast cancer in Indian women

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    Vinayak W Patil


    Full Text Available Vinayak W Patil1, Rajeev Singhai1, Amit V Patil2, Prakash D Gurav21Department of Biochemistry, Grant Medical College and Sir JJ Group of Hospitals, Mumbai, India; 2Department of Surgery, Government Medical College, Miraj, IndiaAbstract: The aim of our study was to analyze triple-negative (TN breast cancer, which is defined as being negative for the estrogen receptor (ER, the progesterone receptor (PgR, and the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2/neu and which represents a subset of breast cancer with different biologic behavior. We investigated the clinicopathological characteristics and prognostic indicators of lymph node-negative TN breast cancer. Medical records were reviewed from patients with node-negative breast cancer who underwent curative surgery at Grant Medical College and Sir JJ Group of Hospitals, Mumbai, India, from May 2007 to October 2010. Clinicopathological variables and clinical outcomes were evaluated. Among 683 patients included, 136 had TN breast cancer and 529 had non-TN breast cancer. TN breast cancer correlated with younger age (<35 years, P = 0.003 and a higher histopathologic and nuclear grade (P < 0.001. It also correlated with a molecular profile associated with biological aggressiveness: negative for Bcl-2 expression (P < 0.001, positive for the epidermal growth factor receptor (P = 0.003, and a high level of p53 (P < 0.001 and Ki-67 expression (P < 0.00. The relapse rates during the follow-up period (median 56.8 months were 14.7% for TN breast cancer and 6.6% for non-TN breast cancer (P = 0.004. Relapse-free survival (RFS was significantly shorter among patients with TN breast cancer compared with those with non-TN breast cancer: 3.5-year RFS rate 85.5% versus 94.2%, respectively; P = 0.001. On multivariate analysis, young age, close resection margin, and triple negativity were independent predictors of shorter RFS. TN breast cancer had a higher relapse rate and more aggressive clinicopathological

  5. Population-based estimation of renal function in healthy young Indian adults based on body mass index and sex correlating renal volume, serum creatinine, and cystatin C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajagopalan P


    Full Text Available Prashanth Rajagopalan,1 Georgi Abraham,2 Yuvaram NV Reddy,2 Ravivarman Lakshmanasami,1 ML Prakash,1 Yogesh NV Reddy2 1Department of General Medicine, Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Research Institute, Puducherry, 2Department of Nephrology, Madras Medical Mission Hospital, Chennai, India Abstract: This population-based prospective study was undertaken in Mahatma Gandhi Medical College to estimate the renal function in young healthy Indian adults. A young healthy heterogeneous Indian cohort comprising 978 individuals, predominantly medical students, was assessed by a detailed questionnaire, and variables such as height, weight, body mass index (BMI, birth weight, and blood pressure were documented. Laboratory investigations included serum creatinine, serum cystatin C, blood sugar, urine protein, and imaging of the kidneys with ultrasound. The mean age of the cohort was 25±6 years, comprising 672 males and 306 females. The estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs by the Cockcroft–Gault formula for BMI <18.5 kg/m2, 18.5–24.99 kg/m2, 25–29.99 kg/m2, and ≥30 kg/m2 were 71.29±10.45 mL/min, 86.38±13.46 mL/min, 98.88±15.29 mL/min, and 109.13±21.57 mL/min, respectively; the eGFRs using cystatin C for the four groups of BMI were 84.53±18.14 mL/min, 84.01±40.11 mL/min, 79.18±13.46 mL/min, and 77.30±10.90 mL/min, respectively. This study attempts to establish a normal range of serum creatinine and cystatin C values for the Indian population and shows that in young healthy Indian adults, eGFR and kidney volume vary by BMI and sex. Keywords: eGFR, birth weight, renal volume

  6. Mitotic and antiapoptotic effects of nanoparticles coencapsulating human VEGF and human angiopoietin-1 on vascular endothelial cells

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    Khan AA


    Full Text Available Afshan Afsar Khan, Arghya Paul, Sana Abbasi, Satya PrakashBiomedical Technology and Cell Therapy Research Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering Faculty of Medicine, McGill University Montreal, Québec, CanadaBackground: Research towards the application of nanoparticles as carrier vehicles for the delivery of therapeutic agents is increasingly gaining importance. The angiogenic growth factors, human vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and human angiopoietin-1 are known to prevent vascular endothelial cell apoptosis and in fact to stimulate human vascular endothelial cell (HUVEC proliferation. This paper aims to study the combined effect of these bioactive proteins coencapsulated in human serum albumin nanoparticles on HUVECs and to evaluate the potential application of this delivery system towards therapeutic angiogenesis.Methods and results: The angiogenic proteins, human VEGF and human angiopoietin-1, were coencapsulated in albumin nanoparticles for better controlled delivery of the proteins. The application of a nanoparticle system enabled efficient and extended-release kinetics of the proteins. The size of the nanoparticles crosslinked with glutaraldehyde was 101.0 ± 0.9 nm and the zeta potential was found to be -18 ± 2.9 mV. An optimal concentration of glutaraldehyde for the nanoparticle coating process was determined, and this provided stable and less toxic nanoparticles as protein carriers. The results of the study indicate that nanoparticles crosslinked with glutaraldehyde produced nanoparticles with tolerable toxicity which provided efficient and controlled release of the coencapsulated proteins. The nanoparticles were incubated for two weeks to determine the release profiles of the proteins. At the end of the two-week incubation period, it was observed that 49% ± 1.3% of human angiopoietin-1 and 59% ± 2.1% of human VEGF had been released from the nanoparticles. The proliferation and percent apoptosis of the HUVECs in

  7. Assessment of quality of life in patients undergoing hemodialysis using WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire: a multicenter study

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    Joshi U


    Full Text Available Utsav Joshi, Roshan Subedi, Prakash Poudel, Prajwol Ram Ghimire, Sagar Panta, Mahesh Raj Sigdel  Department of Internal Medicine, Tribhuvan University, Institute of Medicine, Maharajgunj, Kathmandu, Nepal Background: Assessment of quality of life (QOL of patients with end-stage renal disease has become increasingly important, both in order to evaluate the influence of the disease on patients and the type of renal replacement therapy they require. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to assess QOL in patients undergoing hemodialysis and evaluated the effects of various sociodemographic factors affecting QOL of such patients in Nepal. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 150 patients with chronic kidney ­disease undergoing hemodialysis at two major centers in Nepal. Demographic data including age, sex, ethnicity, educational status, marital status, employment, income, duration of illness, and duration on hemodialysis were collected. QOL was assessed using the World Health Organization Quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire. Four domains (­physical, psychological, social, and environmental and two items (overall perception of QOL and health of the WHOQOL‑BREF were the primary end points of this study. Bivariate relationship between sociodemographic factors and QOL scores were analyzed using independent samples t-test and one-way analysis of variance. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to determine independent predictors of QOL. Results: Following QOL scores were recorded: environmental domain (53.17±15.59, psychological domain (51.23±18.61, social domain (49.86±21.64, and physical domain (45.93±16.90. Older age was associated with a better QOL score in the social domain (p=0.005, and employed patients scored better in the environmental domain (p=0.019. Unemployed patients and those of the Terai/Madhesi ethnic group had significantly low scores in overall perception of health (p<0.05 as compared to other

  8. Burden of maxillofacial trauma at level 1 trauma center. (United States)

    Kaul, Ruchi Pathak; Sagar, Sushma; Singhal, Maneesh; Kumar, Abhishek; Jaipuria, Jiten; Misra, Mahesh


    There is an upward trend in facial injuries following changes in population pattern, increasing industrialization and urbanization, hence maxillofacial trauma is becoming a burden and a leading medical problem in emergency rooms worldwide. This study was performed to evaluate the pattern of maxillofacial fractures, associated injuries, and treatment used at Jai Prakash Narayan Apex Trauma Center (JPNATC), All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi, India, between January 2007 and June 2010. The study provides basis for establishment of trauma as major etiology of maxillofacial injuries and planning for preventive strategies. A retrospective study of patients seen and treated at JPNATC, AIIMS, New Delhi, between January 2007 and June 2010 was performed. Data extracted from patient records included etiology, age, sex, types and sites of fractures, treatment modality, and concomitant injuries. There were 795 fractures of the maxillofacial skeleton and 86 concomitant injuries from 542 patients. Road traffic accident (RTA) (56.8%) was the most common etiologic factor, followed by falls (22.3%) and fights (18.5%). The age range was from 3 to 75 years (mean, 34.7 years) with a peak incidence in the third decade with a male-to-female ratio of 3.7:1. The most common location of maxillofacial fractures was the mandible 615 (77%) and middle third 180 (23%). With regard to mandibular fractures, the body (29.6%) was the most common site, followed by the angle (24.4%), ramus (19.5%), dentoalveolar (14.6%), symphysis (11.0%), condyle (0.8%) while in the middle third, the nasal bone (36.7%) was the most common, followed by zygomatic bone (27.8), Lefort II (14.4), Lefort I (7.8%), dentoalveolar (10.0%), and Lefort III (3.3%). Majority of the patients were treated by open reduction and internal fixation (70.6). Concomitant injuries were 84 (10.8%) with orthopedic injuries accounting for the majority (63.9%). Head injury was associated in 16.3% of cases. RTA was the

  9. Lay health educators within primary care practices to improve cancer screening uptake for South Asian patients: challenges in quality improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lofters AK


    Full Text Available AK Lofters,1–4 M Vahabi,5 V Prakash,6 L Banerjee,7 P Bansal,8 S Goel,7,8 S Dunn1,2,9 1Department of Family and Community Medicine, 2Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, 3Department of Family and Community Medicine, 4Centre for Urban Health Solutions, St Michael’s Hospital, 5Daphne Cockwell School of Nursing, Ryerson University, Toronto, 6Screening Saves Lives Program, Canadian Cancer Society, Mississauga, 7Wise Elephant Family Health Team, Brampton, 8Mississauga Halton Central West Regional Cancer Program, Mississauga, 9Women’s College Research Institute, Women’s College Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada Background: Cancer screening uptake is known to be low among South Asian residents of Ontario. The objective of this pilot study was to determine if lay health educators embedded within the practices of primary care providers could improve willingness to screen and cancer screening uptake for South Asian patients taking a quality improvement approach.Materials and methods: Participating physicians selected quality improvement initiatives to use within their offices that they felt could increase willingness to screen and cancer screening uptake. They implemented initiatives, adapting as necessary, for six months.Results: Four primary care physicians participated in the study. All approximated that at least 60% of their patients were of South Asian ethnicity. All physicians chose to work with a preexisting lay health educator program geared toward South Asians. Health ambassadors spoke to patients in the office and telephoned patients. For all physicians, ~60% of South Asian patients who were overdue for cancer screening and who spoke directly to health ambassadors stated they were willing to be screened. One physician was able to track actual screening among contacted patients and found that screening uptake was relatively high: from 29.2% (colorectal cancer to 44.6% (breast cancer of patients came in for screening

  10. Intramyocardial sustained delivery of placental growth factor using nanoparticles as a vehicle for delivery in the rat infarct model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shum-Tim D


    Full Text Available Ziyad Mohammed Binsalamah1, Arghya Paul2, Afshan Afsar Khan2, Satya Prakash2, Dominique Shum-Tim11Divisions of Cardiac Surgery and Surgical Research, McGill University Health Center, 2Biomedical Technology and Cell Therapy Research Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, CanadaBackground: Acute myocardial ischemia results in scar formation with ventricular dilatation and eventually heart failure. Placental growth factor (PlGF is reported to stimulate angiogenesis and improve cardiac function. In this study, it was hypothesized that intramyocardial injection of PlGF contained in nanoparticles can be released at the site of action for an extended time period as a sustained slow-release protective mechanism that accelerates myocardial recovery in a rat model of ischemic cardiomyopathy.Methods: PlGF-loaded chitosan-alginate nanoparticles were injected into an acute myocardial infarction model in rats (n = 10 per group. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed at different time intervals. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure the serum cytokines levels at 8 weeks. Hearts were stained with Masson's trichrome for scar area analysis. Immunofluorostaining was performed to evaluate the extent of myocardial angiogenesis at the infarction border. PlGF enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure the in vitro release kinetics of PlGF-loaded nanoparticles.Results: At 8 weeks after coronary ligation, hearts that were treated with PlGF-loaded chitosan-alginate nanoparticles had significant increases in left-ventricular function (P < 0.01, vascular density (P < 0.01, and in the serum level of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (P < 0.05. There was significant decrease in scar area formation (P < 0.05 and in serum levels of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 (P < 0.01. In vitro PlGF-release kinetic studies showed a

  11. Diet-induced metabolic hamster model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhathena J


    Full Text Available Jasmine Bhathena, Arun Kulamarva, Christopher Martoni, Aleksandra Malgorzata Urbanska, Meenakshi Malhotra, Arghya Paul, Satya PrakashBiomedical Technology and Cell Therapy Research Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Artificial Cells and Organs Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Québec, CanadaBackground: Obesity, hypercholesterolemia, elevated triglycerides, and type 2 diabetes are major risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Hamsters, unlike rats or mice, respond well to diet-induced obesity, increase body mass and adiposity on group housing, and increase food intake due to social confrontation-induced stress. They have a cardiovascular and hepatic system similar to that of humans, and can thus be a useful model for human pathophysiology.Methods: Experiments were planned to develop a diet-induced Bio F1B Golden Syrian hamster model of dyslipidemia and associated nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in the metabolic syndrome. Hamsters were fed a normal control diet, a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet, a high-fat/high-cholesterol/methionine-deficient/choline-devoid diet, and a high-fat/high-cholesterol/choline-deficient diet. Serum total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, atherogenic index, and body weight were quantified biweekly. Fat deposition in the liver was observed and assessed following lipid staining with hematoxylin and eosin and with oil red O.Results: In this study, we established a diet-induced Bio F1B Golden Syrian hamster model for studying dyslipidemia and associated nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in the metabolic syndrome. Hyperlipidemia and elevated serum glucose concentrations were induced using this diet. Atherogenic index was elevated, increasing the risk for a cardiovascular event. Histological analysis of liver specimens at the end of four weeks showed increased fat deposition in the liver of animals fed

  12. Os direitos humanos na perspectiva da antropologia cultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloísio Krohling


    Full Text Available O estudo da antropologia faz parte do eixo da formação fundamental do futuro operador do Direito. Com a crise do positivismo nos anos 60, abriram-se várias brechas para novas aproximações metodológicas e temas-fronteiras. Com a globalização tecnológica e sociedade em redes, a mundialização cultural avança e mostra o novo cenário internacional com o pluralismo cultural em todas as áreas de saber e vivências humanas. O debate sobre a teoria crítica do direito e uma abordagem intercultural do direito e dos direitos humanos é de uma atualidade repleta de desafios. Dentro dos centros de estudos e pesquisas interculturais e transdisciplinares no Ocidente e no Oriente e na África, destaca-se o Laboratório de Antropologia Jurídica de Paris, onde surgiram pesquisadores como C. Eberhard, Ètienne Le Roy, Michel Alliot, R. Vachon, Michel Von de Kerchove, François Ost, Gérard Berthoud e se destaca como relevante neste diálogo intercultural, a participação enriquecedora de Raimon Panikar, Chandra Muzaffar, Ashis Nandy, Abbullahi Na-Naím, Esteva e M.S, Prakash, S. P. Sinha, T. Todorov, Vanderbinden, Tu Weiming e vários outros estudiosos ocidentais, orientais, africanos e latinoamericanos. Este artigo procurará dialogar com todos estes interlocutores e mostrar a importância da contribuição do diálogo intercultura e da hermenêutica diatópica. Em vez da visão etnocêntrica e muitas vezes eurocêntrica do direito ocidental, surgirão formulações como a busca da plataforma de janelas culturais diferentes , equivalentes homeomórficos, práxis diantropológica e da contribuição de Panikar, a metodologia indiana chamada de cosmoteândrica.

  13. Are falls more common than road traffic accidents in pediatric trauma?Experience from a Level 1 trauma centre in New Delhi, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Annu Babu; Amulya Rattan; Piyush Ranjan; Maneesh Singhal; Amit Gupta; Subodh Kumar; Biplab Mishra


    Purpose:The epidemiology of pediatric trauma is different in different parts of the world.Some researchers suggest falls as the most common mechanism,whereas others report road traffic accidents (RTAs) as the most common cause.The aim of this study is to find out the leading cause of pediatric admissions in Trauma Surgery in New Delhi,India.Methods:Inpatient data from January 2012 to September 2014 was searched retrospectively in Jai Prakash Narayan Apex Trauma Centre Trauma Registry.All patients aged 18 years or less on index presentation admitted to surgical ward/ICU or later taken transfer by the Department of Trauma Surgery were included.Data were retrieved in predesigned proformas.Information thus compiled was coded in unique alphanumeric codes for each variable and subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS version 21.Results:We had 300 patients over a 33 month period.Among them,236 (78.6%) were males and 64 (21.3%) females.Overall the predominant cause was RTAs in 132 (43%) patients.On subgroup analysis of up to 12 years age group (n =147),the most common cause was found to be RTAs again.However,falls showed an incremental upward trend (36.05% in up to 12 age group versus 27% overall),catching up with RTAs (44.89%).Pediatric Trauma Score (PTS) ranged from 0 to 12 with a mean of 8.12 + 2.022.223 (74.33%) patients experienced trauma limited to one anatomic region only,whereas 77 (25.66%) patients suffered polytrauma.288 patients were discharged to home care.Overall,12 patients expired in the cohort.Median hospital stay was 6 days (range 1-182).Conclusion:Pediatric trauma is becoming a cause of increasing concern,especially in the developing countries.The leading cause of admissions in Trauma Surgery is RTAs (43%) as compared to falls from height (27%);however,falls from height are showing an increasing trend as we move to younger age groups.Enhancing road safety alone may not be a lasting solution for prevention of pediatric trauma and

  14. Association of persistent and transient worsening renal function with mortality risk, readmissions risk, length of stay, and costs in patients hospitalized with acute heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmer JB


    Full Text Available Jacqueline B Palmer,1 Howard S Friedman,2 Katherine Waltman Johnson,1 Prakash Navaratnam,2 Stephen S Gottlieb3 1Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ, USA; 2DataMed Solutions, LLC, New York, NY, USA; 3Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA Background: Data comparing effects of transient worsening renal function (WRFt and persistent WRF (WRFp on outcomes in patients hospitalized with acute heart failure (AHF are lacking. We determined the characteristics of hospitalized AHF patients who experienced no worsening renal function (non-WRF, WRFt, or WRFp, and the relationship between cohorts and AHF-related outcomes. Methods and results: A patient’s first AHF hospitalization (index was identified in the Cerner Health Facts® database (January 2008-March 2011. Patients had WRF if serum creatinine (SCr was ≥0.3 mg/dL and increased ≥25% from baseline, and they were designated as WRFp if present at discharge or WRFt if not present at discharge. A total of 55,436 patients were selected (non-WRF =77%, WRFp =10%, WRFt =13%. WRFp had greater comorbidity burden than WRFt. At index hospitalization, WRFp patients had the highest mortality, whereas WRFt patients had the longest length of stay (LOS and highest costs. These trends were observed at 30, 180, and 365 days postdischarge and confirmed by multivariable analyses. WRF patients had more AHF-related readmissions than non-WRF patients. In sensitivity analyses of the patient subset with live index hospitalization discharges, postdischarge LOS and costs were highest in WRFt patients, whereas mortality associated with a HF hospitalization was significantly higher for WRF patients vs non-WRF patients, with no difference between WRFp and WRFt. Conclusion: In patients hospitalized for AHF, WRFp was associated with the highest mortality, whereas WRFt was associated with the highest LOS and costs. WRF patients had higher readmissions than non

  15. Nueva metodología para valorar la calidad de las aguas superficiales para su uso como clase 2 en Costa Rica New methodology for evaluating the surface waters quality to be used as Class 2 in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Calvo-Brenes


    Full Text Available Para determinar la calidad de las aguas superficiales se utilizan distintos indicadores físicoquímicos, microbiológicos y biológicos, así como índices de calidad. El reglamento costarricense contempla el uso de dos índices: uno se basa en la determinación de la fauna bentónica y el otro es el Indice Holandés.  Este último requiere únicamente el análisis de tres indicadores físicoquímicos de calidad, lo cual puede generar algún grado de ambigüedad y falta de robustez. Es por ello que es conveniente no descartar el uso de otros índices recomendados en la literatura. La mayoría de ellos requiere la transformación de los indicadores en valores adimensionados (SI en una escala de 0 a 100. En esta investigación, para el cálculo del SI se utilizaron las fórmulas mencionadas por Cude, Nasirian, Dinius, Prakash, Prati, Walski-Parker y Stoner. Los distintos SI así generados deben mostrar un comportamiento que varíe en una escala de 0 a 100, lo cual a su vez también debe concordar con los valores de permisibilidad reportados en nuestro reglamento para cada indicador. En general, a mayor concentración de un indicador en particular, mayor la tendencia del SI hacia 0, lo que representa un mayor grado de contaminación de los ríos.  El objetivo de esta investigación fue verificar la aplicabilidad de dichas fórmulas matemáticas para la obtención del SI y su posible aplicación en Costa Rica, considerando nuestro entorno ambiental y nuestra reglamentación. La aplicación se hizo específicamente para la clase 2 mencionada en el reglamento costarricense. Al analizar las distintas fórmulas de cálculo propuestas por varios investigadores, se encontró que la mayoría son apropiadas para las zonas a las que hacen referencia sus autores y en general son diferentes de nuestro entorno ambiental. También, algunas de ellas son para usos específicos de las aguas superficiales y además los valores de permisibilidad empleados difieren

  16. Active and passive infrared thermography applied to the detection and characterization of hidden defects in structure (United States)

    Dumoulin, Jean


    direct thermal modelling or inverse thermal modelling will be presented and discussed. Conclusion and perspectives will be proposed in link with structure monitoring or cultural heritage applications. References [1] Maldague, X.P.V. "Theory and practice of infrared technology for non-destructive testing", John Wiley & sons Inc., 2001. [2] Dumoulin J. and Averty R., « Development of an infrared system coupled with a weather station for real time atmospheric corrections using GPU computing: Application to bridge monitoring", QIRT 2012, Naples, Italy, June 2012. [3] J. Dumoulin, L. Ibos, C. Ibarra-Castanedo, A Mazioud, M. Marchetti, X. Maldague and A. Bendada, « Active infrared thermography applied to defect detection and characterization on asphalt pavement samples: comparison between experiments and numerical simulations », Journal of Modern Optics, Special Issue on Advanced Infrared Technology and Applications, Volume 57, Issue 18, October 2010 , pages 1759 - 1769, doi:10.1080/09500340.2010.522738 [4] F. Taillade, M. Quiertant, K. Benzarti, J. Dumoulin, Ch. Aubagnac, Chapter 9: "Nondestructive Evaluation of FRP Strengthening Systems Bonded on Concrete Structures using Pulsed Stimulated Infrared Thermography ", pp 193-208, Book title "Infrared Thermography", Editeur Raghu V. Prakash, ISBN 978-953-51-0242-7, Intech, open access at the following address, march 2012. [5] Cooley J.W., Tukey J.W., "An algorithm for the machine calculation of complex Fourier series", Mathematics of Computation, vol. 19, n° 90, 1965, p. 297-301. [6] Rajic N., "Principal component thermography for flaw contrast enhancement and flaw depth characterization in composite structures", Composite Structures, vol 58, pp 521-528, 2002. [7] Marinetti S., Grinzato E., Bison P. G., Bozzi E., Chimenti M., Pieri G. and Salvetti O. "Statistical analysis of IR thermographic sequences by PCA," Infrared Physics & Technology vol 46 pp 85-91, 2004.

  17. A novel route to synthesize diphenylene by the catalytic effect of GaP nanocrystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CU; I; Deliang


    [1]Corey, E. J., Bakshi, R. K., Shibata, S., Highly enantioselective borane reduction ketones catalyzed by chiral oxazaborolidines, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1987, 109:5551-5553.[2]Wallbaum, S., Martens, J., Asymmetric syntheses with chiral oxazaborolidines, Tetrahedron Asymmetry, 1992, 3: 1475-1504.[3]Deloux, L., Srebnik, M., Asymmetric borane-catalyzed reactions, Chem. Rev., 1993, 93: 763-784.[4]Togni, A., Venanzi, L. M., Nitrogen donors in organometallic chemistry and in homogeneous catalysis, Angew Chem. Int. Ed. Engl., 1994, 33: 497-562.[5]Ager, D. J., Prakash, I., Schaad, D. R., 1,2-amino alcohols and their heterocyclic derivatives as chiral auxiliaries in asymmetric synthesis, Chem. Rev., 1996, 96: 835-875.[6]Nevalainen, V., Quantum chemical modeling of chiral catalysis, Part 4. On the hydride transfer in ketone complexes of borane adducts of oxazaborolidines and regeneration of catalyst, Tetrahedron Asymmetry, 1991, 2:1133-1155.[7]Nevalainen, V., Quantum chemical modeling of chiral catalysis, Part 8. On the conformational freedom of the ketone of ketone-borane complexes of oxazaborolidines used as catalysts in the enantioselective reduction of ketones, Tetrahedron Asymmetry. 1992, 3: 1563-1572.[8]Nevalainen, V., Quantum chemical modeling of chiral catalysis, Part 7. On the effects controlling the coordination of borane to chiral oxazaborolidines used as catalysts in the enantioselective reduction of ketones, Tetrahedron Asymmetry,1992, 3: 1441-1453.[9]Nevalainen, V., Quantum chemical modeling of chiral catalysis, Part 12. On the influence of the nature of the ring system on binding in ketone-borane complexes of chiral oxazaborolidines used as catalysts in the enantioselective reduction of ketones. Tetrahedron Asymmetry, 1993, 4: 1597-1602.[10]Nevalainen, V., Quantum chemical modeling of chiral catalysis, Part 19. Strain and stability-oxazadiboretanes potentially involved in the enantioselective reduction of ketones promoted

  18. Quantum chemical study on the mechanism of enantioselective reduction of prochiral ketones catalyzed by oxazaborolidines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Ming


    [1]Corey, E. J., Bakshi, R. K., Shibata, S., Highly enantioselective borane reduction ketones catalyzed by chiral oxazaborolidines, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1987, 109:5551-5553.[2]Wallbaum, S., Martens, J., Asymmetric syntheses with chiral oxazaborolidines, Tetrahedron Asymmetry, 1992, 3: 1475-1504.[3]Deloux, L., Srebnik, M., Asymmetric borane-catalyzed reactions, Chem. Rev., 1993, 93: 763-784.[4]Togni, A., Venanzi, L. M., Nitrogen donors in organometallic chemistry and in homogeneous catalysis, Angew Chem. Int. Ed. Engl., 1994, 33: 497-562.[5]Ager, D. J., Prakash, I., Schaad, D. R., 1,2-amino alcohols and their heterocyclic derivatives as chiral auxiliaries in asymmetric synthesis, Chem. Rev., 1996, 96: 835-875.[6]Nevalainen, V., Quantum chemical modeling of chiral catalysis, Part 4. On the hydride transfer in ketone complexes of borane adducts of oxazaborolidines and regeneration of catalyst, Tetrahedron Asymmetry, 1991, 2:1133-1155.[7]Nevalainen, V., Quantum chemical modeling of chiral catalysis, Part 8. On the conformational freedom of the ketone of ketone-borane complexes of oxazaborolidines used as catalysts in the enantioselective reduction of ketones, Tetrahedron Asymmetry. 1992, 3: 1563-1572.[8]Nevalainen, V., Quantum chemical modeling of chiral catalysis, Part 7. On the effects controlling the coordination of borane to chiral oxazaborolidines used as catalysts in the enantioselective reduction of ketones, Tetrahedron Asymmetry,1992, 3: 1441-1453.[9]Nevalainen, V., Quantum chemical modeling of chiral catalysis, Part 12. On the influence of the nature of the ring system on binding in ketone-borane complexes of chiral oxazaborolidines used as catalysts in the enantioselective reduction of ketones. Tetrahedron Asymmetry, 1993, 4: 1597-1602.[10]Nevalainen, V., Quantum chemical modeling of chiral catalysis, Part 19. Strain and stability-oxazadiboretanes potentially involved in the enantioselective reduction of ketones promoted

  19. Poison Center Data for Public Health Surveillance: Poison Center and Public Health Perspectives (United States)

    Law, Royal K.; Schier, Josh; Schauben, Jay; Wheeler, Katherine; Mulay, Prakash


    direction and oversee activities. Methods The panel will consist of 4 presenters and 1 moderator, who are members of the Poison Center and Public Health Collaborations CoP leadership team. Each presenter will bring a unique perspective of the use of PC data for PH practice and surveillance: CDC, state department of health, a local department of health, and a PC. Royal Law from the CDC National Center for Environmental Health will present on using PC data for identification of exposures and illnesses of public health significance identified from NPDS data collected from all 57 PCs. Dr. Jay Schauben from the Florida/USVI Poison Information Center - Jacksonville will discuss PC participation in surveillance and use of PC data for tracking and mitigation of PH events in Florida. Dr. Prakash Mulay from the Florida Department of Health will discuss utilization of PC data to enhance ESSENCE-based chemical-associated exposure and illness surveillance in Florida. Katherine Wheeler from the New York City (NYC) Department of Health and Mental Hygiene will discuss NYC’s use of PC data in surveillance of potential emerging issues, from energy drinks to synthetic marijuana. Each presenter will discuss the use of PC data for PH practice and surveillance in his or her organization and jurisdiction, the successes of using PC data, and their challenges. Results The moderator will engage the audience by facilitating discussion of the successes and challenges to using PC data for PH practice and surveillance with the audience. Sample questions: What are your current capacities and collaborative activities between your state/local health department and your poison center? What non-funding related barriers hinder the collaboration between your state/local health department and poison center? If more funding were available, how would you use this funding to increase the level of interactivity with the poison center and state/local health department?

  20. Infrequent near death experiences in severe brain injury survivors - A quantitative and qualitative study

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    Yongmei Hou


    coma following a severe head injury. A total of 86 patients were chosen. Near death experience scale (NDES score of 7 or more was used as the criteria of screening NDE experiences. After identifying such individuals, the Prakash-modification of the Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA was used to interview and record the data for qualitative analysis. Results: We found that contrary to earlier incidence reports, NDEs in post head injury patients were markedly low. Only 3 out of 86 of the patients recruited had a clear and confident experience of NDE. We conducted a qualitative study to explore further into these experiences. IPA of these 3 patients revealed four master themes: 1. Unique light visions 2. Intense feelings of astonishment, pleasure, and fear 3. The sense of helplessness 4. Supernatural but rationality of experience. Conclusion: NDE is uncommon in head-injury cases as compared to other near-death conditions. But the persons experiencing it have immense impacts on their belief systems and emotions. This experience should be further explored by studies of larger samples.

  1. Heating and Weakening of Major Faults During Seismic Rupture (United States)

    Rice, J. R.


    The absence of significant heat flow from major fault zones, and scarcity of evidence for their seismic melting, means that during earthquake slip such zones could not retain shear strength comparable to the typically high static friction strength of rocks. One line of explanation is that they are actually statically weak, which could be because materials of exceptionally low friction (smectites, talc) accumulate along fault zones, or perhaps because pore pressure within the fault core is far closer to lithostatic than hydrostatic. Without dismissing either, the focus here is on how thermal processes during the rapid slips of seismic rupture can weaken a fault which is indeed statically strong. (The discussion also leaves aside another kind of non- thermal dynamic weakening, possible when there is dissimilarity in seismic properties across the fault, and/or in poroelastic properties and permeability within fringes of damaged material immediately adjoining the slip surface. Spatially nonuniform mode II slip like near a propagating rupture front may then induce a substantial reduction in the effective normal stress \\barσ.) The heating and weakening processes to be discussed divide roughly into two camps: (1) Those which are expected to be active from the start of seismic slip, and hence will be present in all earthquakes; and (2) Those that kick-in after threshold conditions of rise of temperature T or accumulation of slip are reached, and hence become a feature of larger, or at least deeper slipping, earthquakes. It has been argued that the two major players of (1) are as follows: (1.1) Flash heating and weakening of frictional contact asperities in rapid slip [Rice, 1999, 2006; Tullis and Goldsby, 2003; Goldsby and Hirth, 2006; Beeler et al., 2007; Yuan and Prakash, 2007]. That gives a strong velocity-weakening character to the friction coefficient, which is consistent with inducing self-healing rupture modes [Noda et al., 2006; Lu et al., 2007]. It is a process

  2. Evaluation of amylase and lipase levels in blunt trauma abdomen patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subodh Kumar


    Full Text Available Background: There are studies to prove the role of amylase and lipase estimation as a screening diagnostic tool to detect diseases apart from acute pancreatitis. However, there is sparse literature on the role of serum and urine amylase, lipase levels, etc to help predict the specific intra-abdominal injury after blunt trauma abdomen (BTA. Aim: To elucidate the significance of elevation in the levels of amylase and lipase in serum and urine samples as reliable parameters for accurate diagnosis and management of blunt trauma to the abdomen. Materials and Methods: A prospective analysis was done on the trauma patients admitted in Jai Prakash Narayan Apex Trauma Center, AIIMS, with blunt abdomen trauma injuries over a period of six months. Blood and urine samples were collected on days 1, 3, and 5 of admission for the estimation of amylase and lipase, liver function tests, serum bicarbonates, urine routine microscopy for red blood cells, and complete hemogram. Clinical details such as time elapsed from injury to admission, type of injury, trauma score, and hypotension were noted. Patients were divided into groups according to the single or multiple organs injured and according to their hospital outcome (dead/discharged. Wilcoxon′s Rank sum or Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to compare median values in two/three groups. Data analysis was performed using STATA 11.0 statistical software. Results: A total of 55 patients with median age 26 (range, 6-80 years, were enrolled in the study. Of these, 80% were males. Surgery was required for 20% of the patients. Out of 55 patients, 42 had isolated single organ injury [liver or spleen or gastrointestinal tract (GIT or kidney]. Patients with pancreatic injury were excluded. In patients who suffered liver injuries, urine lipase levels on day 1, urine lipase/amylase ratio along with aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP on days 1, 3, and 5, were found to

  3. Books Noted (United States)

    Walsh, Edward J.


    The Colloidal Domain: Where Physics, Chemistry, Biology, and Technology Meet, 2nd edition D. Fennell Evans and Hakan Wennerstroem. Advances in Interfacial Engineering Series. Wiley-VCH: New York, 1999. xl + 632 pp. ISBN 0-471-24247-0. 89.95. Commercial Nuclear Power: Assuring Safety for the Future Charles B. Ramsey and Mohammed Modarres. Wiley-Interscience: New York, 1998. xxviii + 508 pp. ISBN 0-471-29186-2. 79.95. Advances in Medicinal Chemistry, Vol. 4 Bruce E. Maryanoff and Allen B. Reitz, Eds. JAI Press: Stamford, CT, 1999. ISBN 1-7623-0064-7. 109.50. Advances in Strained and Interesting Organic Molecules, Vol. 7 Brian Halton, Ed. JAI Press: Stamford, CT, 1999. xii + 259 pp. ISBN 0-7623-0530-4. 109.50. Advances in Electron Transfer Chemistry, Vol. 6 Patrick S. Mariano, Ed. JAI Press: Stamford, CT, 1999. x + 171 pp. ISBN 0-7623-0213-5. 109.50. Automating Science and Engineering Laboratories with Visual Basic Mark F. Russo and Martin M. Echols. Wiley-Interscience Series on Laboratory Automation. Wiley-Interscience: New York, 1999. xx + 355 pp. ISBN 0-471-25493-2. 49.95. Plantwide Process Control Kelvin T. Erickson and John L. Hedrick. Wiley Series in Chemical Engineering. Wiley-Interscience: New York, 1999. xii + 547 pp. ISBN 0-471-17835-7. 89.95. Heme Peroxidases H. Brian Dunford. Wiley-VCH: New York, 1999. xiii + 507 pp. ISBN 0-471-24244-6. 195.00. Industrial Ecology: Environmental Chemistry and Hazardous Wastes Stanley E. Manahan. Lewis: Boca Raton, FL, 1999. 318 pp. ISBN 1-56670-381-6. 69.95. Reviews in Computational Chemistry, Vol. 13 Kenny B. Lipkowitz and Donald B. Boyd. Wiley-VCH: New York, 1999. xxxiii + 426 pp. ISBN 0-471-33135-x. 135.00. Surfaces, Interfaces, and Colloids: Principles and Applications, 2nd edition Drew Myers. Wiley-VCH: New York, 1999. xx + 501 pp. ISBN 0-471-33060-4. 94.95. Onium Ions George A. Olah, Kenneth K. Laali, Qi Wang, and G. K. Surya Prakash. Wiley-Interscience: New York, 1998. xv + 509 pp. ISBN 0-471-14877-6. 110

  4. Spinal Fluid Lactate Dehydrogenase Level Differentiates between Structural and Metabolic Etiologies of Altered Mental Status in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    cerebrospinal fluid in patients with infections ofthe central nervous system. Acta Paediatr 1994; 83(11:1146-1150.Kepa L, Oczko-Grzesik B, Błedowski D. Evaluation of cerebrospinal fluid and plasma lactate dehydrogenase activity in patients with purulent, bacterial meningoencephalitis. Przegl Epidemiol. 2006; 60(2:291-8.Ruzak-Skocir B, Trbojevic-Cepe M. Study of serum and cerebrospinal fluid enzymes in diagnosis and differential diagnosis of cerebrovascular diseases. Neurologija. 1990; 39(4:239-50.Nand N, Sharma M, Saini DS. Evaluation of lactic dehydrogenase in cases of meningitis. Indian J Med Sci. 1993; 47(4: 96-100.Neches William, Platt Martin. Cerebrospinal Fluid LDH in 287 Children, Including 53 Cases of Meningitis of Bacterial and non-Bacterial Etiology. Pediatrics 1968; 41:1097-1103.Engelke S; Bridgers S, Saldanha R, Trought W. Cerebrospinal Fluid Lactate Dehydrogenase in Neonatal Intracranial Hemorrhage. American Journal of the Medical Sciences 1986; 291 (6: 391-395.Parakh N, Gupta HL, Jain A. Evaluation of enzymes in serum and cerebrospinal fluid in cases of stroke. Neurology India 2002; 50 (4: 518-9.Lampl Y, Paniri Y, Eshel Y, Sarova-Pinhas I. Cerebrospinal fluid lactate dehydrogenase levels in early stroke and transient ischemic attacks. Stroke 1990; 21: 854-857.Hall Robert T., Kulkarni Prakash B., Sheehan Michael B., Rhodes Philip G. Cerebrospinal Fluid Lactate Dehydrogenase in Infants with Perinatal Asphyxia. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology 1980. 22 (3: 300-307.Nussinovitch M, Volovitz B, Finkelstein Y, Amir J, Harel D. Lactic dehydrogenase isoenzymes in cerebrospinal fluid associated with hydrocephalus. Acta Paediatr 2001; 90: 972-974.

  5. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Kumar


    Full Text Available - Chris Ballard, Jeroen A. Overweel, Topics relating to Netherlands New Guinea in Ternate Residency memoranda of transfer and other assorted documents. Leiden: DSALCUL, Jakarta: IRIS, 1995, x + 146 pp. [Irian Jaya Source Materials 13.] - Timothy P. Barnard, Daniel Perret, Sejarah Johor-Riau-Lingga sehingga 1914; Sebuah esei bibliografi. Kuala Lumpur: Kementerian Kebudayaan, Kesenian dan Pelancongan Malaysia/École Francaise d’Extrême Orient, 1998, 460 pp. - Peter Boomgaard, Om Prakash, European commercial enterprise in pre-colonial India. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998, xviii + 377 pp. [The New Cambridge History of India II-5.] - U.T. Bosma, Oliver Kortendick, Drei Schwestern und ihre Kinder; Rekonstruktion von Familiengeschichte und Identitätstransmission bei Indischen Nerlanders mit Hilfe computerunterstützter Inhaltsanalyse. Canterbury: Centre for Social Anthropology and Computing, University of Kent at Canterbury, 1996, viii + 218 pp. [Centre for Social Anthropology and Computing Monograph 12.] - Freek Colombijn, Thomas Psota, Waldgeister und Reisseelen; Die Revitalisierung von Ritualen zur Erhaltung der komplementären Produktion in SüdwestSumatra. Berlin: Reimer, 1996, 203 + 15 pp. [Berner Sumatraforschungen.] - Christine Dobbin, Ann Maxwell Hill, Merchants and migrants; Ethnicity and trade among Yunannese Chinese in Southeast Asia. New Haven: Yale University Southeast Asia Studies, 1998, vii + 178 pp. [Yale Southeast Asia Studies Monograph 47.] - Aone van Engelenhoven, Peter Bellwood, The Austronesians; Historical and comparative perspectives. Canberra: Department of Anthropology, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University, 1995, viii + 359 pp., James J. Fox, Darrell Tryon (eds. - Aone van Engelenhoven, Wyn D. Laidig, Descriptive studies of languages in Maluku, Part II. Jakarta: Badan Penyelenggara Seri NUSA and Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya, 1995, xii + 112 pp. [NUSA

  6. EDITORIAL: Special issue on optical neural engineering: advances in optical stimulation technology Special issue on optical neural engineering: advances in optical stimulation technology (United States)

    Shoham, Shy; Deisseroth, Karl


    C, Mattis J, Prakash R, Diester I, Goshen I, Thompson K R, Deisseroth K 2010 Molecular and cellular approaches for diversifying and extending optogenetics Cell 141 154-65 [18] Zhang F, Gradinaru V, Adamantidis A R, Durand R, Airan R D, de Lecea L and Deisseroth K 2010 Optogenetic interrogation of neural circuits: technology for probing mammalian brain structures Nat. Protoc. 5 439-56 [19] Wells J, Kao C, Mariappan K, Albea J, Duco Jansen E, Konrad P and Mahadevan-Jansen A 2005 Optical stimulation of neural tissue in vivo Opt. Lett. 30 504-6 [20] Izzo A D, Richter C P, Jansen E D and Walsh J T Jr 2006 Laser stimulation of the auditory nerve Lasers Surg. Med. 38 745-53 [21] Richter C P, Izzo A D, Wells J, Jansen E D and Walsh J T Jr 2010 Neural stimulation with optical radiation Laser Photonics Rev. available at doi:10.1002/lpor.200900044 [22] Nikolenko V, Peterka D S and Yuste R 2010 A portable laser photostimulation and imaging microscope J. Neural Eng. 7 045001 [23] Golan L, Reutsky I, Farah N and Shoham S 2009 Design and characteristics of holographic neural photo-stimulation systems J. Neural Eng. 6 066004 [24] Losavio B E, Iyer V, Patel S and Saggau P 2010 Acousto-optical laser scanning for multi-site photo-stimulation of single neurons in vitro J. Neural Eng. 7 045002 [25] Duemani Reddy G, Kelleher K, Fink R and Saggau P 2008 Three-dimensional random access multiphoton microscopy for functional imaging of neuronal activity Nat. Neurosci. 11 713-20 [26] Grewe B F, Langer D, Kasper H, Kampa B M and Helmchen F 2010 High-speed in vivo calcium imaging reveals neuronal network activity with near-millisecond precision Nat. Methods 7 399-405 [27] Pikov V, Arakaki X, Harrington M, Fraser S E and Siegel P H 2010 Modulation of neuronal activity and plasma membrane propertiess with low-power millimeter waves in organotypic cortical slices J. Neural Eng. 7 045003 [28] Liang S et al 2009 Temperature-dependent activation of neurons by continuous near-infrared laser Cell