WorldWideScience

Sample records for jwst james webb

  1. The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), The First Light Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2013-01-01

    Scheduled to begin its 10 year mission after 2018, the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will search for the first luminous objects of the Universe to help answer fundamental questions about how the Universe came to look like it does today. At 6.5 meters in diameter, JWST will be the world s largest space telescope. This talk reviews science objectives for JWST and how they drive the JWST architecture, e.g. aperture, wavelength range and operating temperature. Additionally, the talk provides an overview of the JWST primary mirror technology development and fabrication status.

  2. Titan Science with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)

    CERN Document Server

    Nixon, Conor A; Adamkovics, Mate; Bezard, Bruno; Bjoraker, Gordon L; Cornet, Thomas; Hayes, Alexander G; Lellouch, Emmanuel; Lemmon, Mark T; Lopez-Puertas, Manuel; Rodriguez, Sebastien; Sotin, Christophe; Teanby, Nicholas A; Turtle, Elizabeth P; West, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), scheduled for launch in 2018, is the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) but with a significantly larger aperture (6.5 m) and advanced instrumentation focusing on infrared science (0.6-28.0 $\\mu$m ). In this paper we examine the potential for scientific investigation of Titan using JWST, primarily with three of the four instruments: NIRSpec, NIRCam and MIRI, noting that science with NIRISS will be complementary. Five core scientific themes are identified: (i) surface (ii) tropospheric clouds (iii) tropospheric gases (iv) stratospheric composition and (v) stratospheric hazes. We discuss each theme in depth, including the scientific purpose, capabilities and limitations of the instrument suite, and suggested observing schemes. We pay particular attention to saturation, which is a problem for all three instruments, but may be alleviated for NIRCam through use of selecting small sub-arrays of the detectors - sufficient to encompass Titan, but with significantly fas...

  3. James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and Star Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Thomas P.

    2010-01-01

    The 6.5-m aperture James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will be a powerful tool for studying and advancing numerous areas of astrophysics. Its Fine Guidance Sensor, Near-Infrared Camera, Near-Infrared Spectrograph, and Mid-Infrared Instrument will be capable of making very sensitive, high angular resolution imaging and spectroscopic observations spanning 0.7 - 28 ?m wavelength. These capabilities are very well suited for probing the conditions of star formation in the distant and local Universe. Indeed, JWST has been designed to detect first light objects as well as to study the fine details of jets, disks, chemistry, envelopes, and the central cores of nearby protostars. We will be able to use its cameras, coronagraphs, and spectrographs (including multi-object and integral field capabilities) to study many aspects of star forming regions throughout the galaxy, the Local Group, and more distant regions. I will describe the basic JWST scientific capabilities and illustrate a few ways how they can be applied to star formation issues and conditions with a focus on Galactic regions.

  4. Prospects for Habitable World Detections Using James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Drake

    2010-01-01

    Doppler and transit surveys are finding extrasolar planets of ever smaller mass and radius, and are now sampling the domain of superEarths. Recent results from the Doppler surveys suggest that discovery of a transiting superEarth in the habitable zone of a lower main sequence star may be possible. We evaluate the prospects for an all-sky transit survey targeted to the brightest stars I that would find the most favorable cases for photometric and spectroscopic characterization using the James Webb Space Telescope. We use the proposed Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) as representative of an all-sky survey. We couple the simulated TESS yield to a sensitivity model for the MIRI and NIRSpec instruments on JWST. Our sensitivity model includes all currently known and anticipated sources of random and systematic error for these instruments. We focus on the TESS planets with radii between Earth and Neptune. Our simulations consider secondary eclipse filter photometry using JWST/MIRI, comparing the 11- and 15- micron bands to measure carbon dioxide absorption in superEarths, as well as JWST!NIRSpec spectroscopy of water absorption from 1.7-3.0 microns, and carbon dioxide absorption at 4.3 microns. We find that JWST will be capable of characterizing dozens of TESS superEarths with temperatures above the habitable range, using both MIRI and NIRspec. We project that TESS will discover about eight nearby habitable transiting superEarths, all orbiting lower main sequence stars. The principal sources of uncertainty in the prospects for JWST characterization of habitable superEarths are superEarth frequency and the nature of superEarth atmospheres. Based on our estimates of these uncertainties, we project that JWST will be able to measure the temperature, and identify molecular absorptions (water, carbon dioxide) in one to four nearby habitable TESS superEarths orbiting lower main sequence stars.

  5. The James Webb STEM Innovation Project: Bringing JWST to the Education Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhamer, Bonnie; Harris, J.; Ryer, H.; Taylor, J.; Bishop, M.

    2012-01-01

    Building awareness of a NASA mission prior to launch and connecting that mission to the education community can be challenging. In order to address this challenge, the Space Telescope Science Institute's Office of Public Outreach has developed the James Webb STEM innovation Project (SIP) - an interdisciplinary project that focuses on the engineering aspects and potential scientific discoveries of JWST, while incorporating elements of project-based learning. Students in participating schools will use skills from multiple subject areas to research an aspect of the JWST's design or potential science and create models, illustrated essays, or technology-based projects to demonstrate their learning. Student projects will be showcased during special events at select venues in the project states - thus allowing parents and community members to also be benefactors of the project. Currently, the SIP is being piloted in New York, California, and Maryland. In addition, we will be implementing the SIP in partnership with NASA Explorer Schools in the states of New Mexico, Michigan, Texas, Tennessee, and Iowa.

  6. Slitless spectroscopy with the James Webb Space Telescope Near-Infrared Camera (JWST NIRCam)

    CERN Document Server

    Greene, Thomas P; Egami, Eiichi; Hodapp, Klaus W; Kelly, Douglas M; Leisenring, Jarron; Rieke, Marcia; Robberto, Massimo; Schlawin, Everett; Stansberry, John

    2016-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope near-infrared camera (JWST NIRCam) has two 2.'2 $\\times$ 2.'2 fields of view that are capable of either imaging or spectroscopic observations. Either of two $R \\sim 1500$ grisms with orthogonal dispersion directions can be used for slitless spectroscopy over $\\lambda = 2.4 - 5.0$ $\\mu$m in each module, and shorter wavelength observations of the same fields can be obtained simultaneously. We present the latest predicted grism sensitivities, saturation limits, resolving power, and wavelength coverage values based on component measurements, instrument tests, and end-to-end modeling. Short wavelength (0.6 -- 2.3 $\\mu$m) imaging observations of the 2.4 -- 5.0 $\\mu$m spectroscopic field can be performed in one of several different filter bands, either in-focus or defocused via weak lenses internal to NIRCam. Alternatively, the possibility of 1.0 -- 2.0 $\\mu$m spectroscopy (simultaneously with 2.4 -- 5.0 $\\mu$m) using dispersed Hartmann sensors (DHSs) is being explored. The grisms, wea...

  7. Observations of Transiting Exoplanets with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific (PASP), December 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Beichman, Charles; Knutson, Heather; Smith, Roger; Dressing, Courtney; Latham, David; Deming, Drake; Lunine, Jonathan; Lagage, Pierre-Olivier; Sozzetti, Alessandro; Beichman, Charles; Sing, David; Kempton, Eliza; Ricker, George; Bean, Jacob; Kreidberg, Laura; Bouwman, Jeroen; Crossfield, Ian; Christiansen, Jessie; Ciardi, David; Fortney, Jonathan; Albert, Loïc; Doyon, René; Rieke, Marcia; Rieke, George; Clampin, Mark; Greenhouse, Matt; Goudfrooij, Paul; Hines, Dean; Keyes, Tony; Lee, Janice; McCullough, Peter; Robberto, Massimo; Stansberry, John; Valenti, Jeff; Deroo, Pieter D; Mandell, Avi; Ressler, Michael E; Shporer, Avi; Swain, Mark; Vasisht, Gautam; Carey, Sean; Krick, Jessica; Birkmann, Stephan; Ferruit, Pierre; Giardino, Giovanna; Greene, Tom; Howell, Steve

    2014-01-01

    This article summarizes a workshop held on March, 2014, on the potential of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) to revolutionize our knowledge of the physical properties of exoplanets through transit observations. JWST's unique combination of high sensitivity and broad wavelength coverage will enable the accurate measurement of transits with high signal-to-noise. Most importantly, JWST spectroscopy will investigate planetary atmospheres to determine atomic and molecular compositions, to probe vertical and horizontal structure, and to follow dynamical evolution, i.e. exoplanet weather. JWST will sample a diverse population of planets of varying masses and densities in a wide variety of environments characterized by a range of host star masses and metallicities, orbital semi-major axes and eccentricities. A broad program of exoplanet science could use a substantial fraction of the overall JWST mission.

  8. NASA 3D Models: James Webb Space Telescope

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will be a large infrared telescope with a 6.5-meter primary mirror. The project is working to a 2018 launch date. The JWST will...

  9. Wavefront-Error Performance Characterization for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) Science Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronstein, David L.; Smith, J. Scott; Zielinski, Thomas P.; Telfer, Randal; Tournois, Severine C.; Moore, Dustin B.; Fienup, James R.

    2016-01-01

    The science instruments (SIs) comprising the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) were tested in three cryogenic-vacuum test campaigns in the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC)'s Space Environment Simulator (SES) test chamber. In this paper, we describe the results of optical wavefront-error performance characterization of the SIs. The wavefront error is determined using image-based wavefront sensing, and the primary data used by this process are focus sweeps, a series of images recorded by the instrument under test in its as-used configuration, in which the focal plane is systematically changed from one image to the next. High-precision determination of the wavefront error also requires several sources of secondary data, including 1) spectrum, apodization, and wavefront-error characterization of the optical ground-support equipment (OGSE) illumination module, called the OTE Simulator (OSIM), 2) F-number and pupil-distortion measurements made using a pseudo-nonredundant mask (PNRM), and 3) pupil geometry predictions as a function of SI and field point, which are complicated because of a tricontagon-shaped outer perimeter and small holes that appear in the exit pupil due to the way that different light sources are injected into the optical path by the OGSE. One set of wavefront-error tests, for the coronagraphic channel of the Near-Infrared Camera (NIRCam) Longwave instruments, was performed using data from transverse translation diversity sweeps instead of focus sweeps, in which a sub-aperture is translated and/or rotated across the exit pupil of the system. Several optical-performance requirements that were verified during this ISIM-level testing are levied on the uncertainties of various wavefront-error-related quantities rather than on the wavefront errors themselves. This paper also describes the methodology, based on Monte Carlo simulations of the wavefront-sensing analysis of focus-sweep data, used to establish

  10. EMC Testing on the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) - A Summary of the EMC Test Campaign for the Science Payload of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, John

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) tests performed on the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM), the science payload of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), at NASAs Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in August 2015. By its very nature of being an integrated payload, it could be treated as neither a unit level test nor an integrated spacecraft/observatory test. Non-standard test criteria are described along with non-standard test methods that had to be developed in order to evaluate them. Results are presented to demonstrate that all test criteria were met in less than the time allocated.

  11. Wavefront-error performance characterization for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) science instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronstein, David L.; Smith, J. S.; Zielinski, Thomas P.; Telfer, Randal; Tournois, Severine C.; Moore, Dustin B.; Fienup, James R.

    2016-07-01

    The science instruments (SIs) comprising the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) were tested in three cryogenic-vacuum test campaigns in the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC)'s Space Environment Simulator (SES) test chamber. In this paper, we describe the results of optical wavefront-error performance characterization of the SIs. The wavefront error is determined using image-based wavefront sensing, and the primary data used by this process are focus sweeps, a series of images recorded by the instrument under test in its as-used configuration, in which the focal plane is systematically changed from one image to the next. High-precision determination of the wavefront error also requires several sources of secondary data, including 1) spectrum, apodization, and wavefront-error characterization of the optical ground-support equipment (OGSE) illumination module, called the OTE Simulator (OSIM), 2) f/# and pupil-distortion measurements made using a pseudo-nonredundant mask (PNRM), and 3) pupil-geometry predictions for each SI field point tested, which are complicated because of a tricontagon-shaped outer perimeter and small holes that appear in the exit pupil due to the way that different light sources are injected into the optical path by the OGSE. One set of wavefront-error tests, for the coronagraphic channel of the Near-Infrared Camera (NIRCam) Longwave instruments, was performed using data from transverse-translation diversity (TTD) sweeps instead of focus sweeps, in which a subaperture is translated and/or rotated across the exit pupil of the system from one image to the next. Several optical-performance requirements that were verified during this ISIM Element-level testing are levied on the uncertainties of various wavefront-error-related quantities rather than on the wavefront errors themselves. This paper also gives an overview of the methodology, based on Monte Carlo simulations of the wavefront-sensing analysis

  12. Optical Modeling Activities for NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). 4; Overview and Introduction of Matlab Based Toolkits used to Interface with Optical Design Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    This is part four of a series on the ongoing optical modeling activities for James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The first two discussed modeling JWST on-orbit performance using wavefront sensitivities to predict line of sight motion induced blur, and stability during thermal transients. The third investigates the aberrations resulting from alignment and figure compensation of the controllable degrees of freedom (primary and secondary mirrors), which may be encountered during ground alignment and on-orbit commissioning of the observatory. The work here introduces some of the math software tools used to perform the work of the previous three papers of this series. NASA has recently approved these in-house tools for public release as open source, so this presentation also serves as a quick tutorial on their use. The tools are collections of functions written in Matlab, which interface with optical design software (CodeV, OSLO, and Zemax) using either COM or DDE communication protocol. The functions are discussed, and examples are given.

  13. The James Webb Space Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Gardner, J P; Clampin, M; Doyon, R; Greenhouse, M A; Hammel, H B; Hutchings, J B; Jakobsen, P; Lilly, S J; Long, K S; Lunine, J I; McCaughrean, M J; Mountain, M; Nella, J; Rieke, G H; Rieke, M J; Rix, H W; Smith, E P; Sonneborn, G; Stiavelli, M; Stockman, H S; Windhorst, R A; Wright, G S; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Mather, John C.; Clampin, Mark; Doyon, Rene; Greenhouse, Matthew A.; Hammel, Heidi B.; Hutchings, John B.; Jakobsen, Peter; Lilly, Simon J.; Long, Knox S.; Lunine, Jonathan I.; Caughrean, Mark J. Mc; Mountain, Matt; Nella, John; Rieke, George H.; Rieke, Marcia J.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Smith, Eric P.; Sonneborn, George; Stiavelli, Massimo; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Wright, Gillian S.

    2006-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large (6.6m), cold (50K), infrared-optimized space observatory that will be launched early in the next decade. The observatory will have four instruments: a near-infrared camera, a near-infrared multi-object spectrograph, and a tunable filter imager will cover the wavelength range, 0.6 to 5.0 microns, while the mid-infrared instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5.0 to 29 microns. The JWST science goals are divided into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the early universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and active nuclei within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present day. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall on to dust-e...

  14. James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Integrated Science Instruments Module (ISIM) Cryo-Vacuum (CV) Test at GSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yew, Calinda M.

    2014-01-01

    JWST ISIM has entered into its system-level testing program at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). In December 2013, ISIM successfully completed the first in a series of three cryo-vacuum tests, which included two flight science instruments. Since then, there have been full-fledged efforts towards the CV2 test scheduled to finish at the end of 2014. The complexity of the mission has generated challenging requirements that demand highly reliable system performance and capabilities from the Space Environment Simulator (SES) vacuum chamber. In order to satisfy the program requirements, GSFC had to develop unique structural and thermal hardware to test ISIM. Most noteworthy is a helium shroud structure and cooling system built in order to achieve operational temperatures below 20K (-253C). This paper: (1) provides an overview of the integrated mechanical and thermal facility systems required to achieve the objectives of JWST ISIM testing, (2) communicates the performance and challenges of the SES during the first ISIM test, and (3) summarizes the action plan to improve the system prior to the next test.

  15. Giant Planet Observations with the James Webb Space Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Norwood, James; Fletcher, Leigh N; Orton, Glenn; Irwin, Patrick G J; Atreya, Sushil; Rages, Kathy; Cavalié, Thibault; Sánchez-Lavega, Agustin; Hueso, Ricardo; Chanover, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    This white paper examines the benefit of the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope for studies of the Solar System's four giant planets: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. JWST's superior sensitivity, combined with high spatial and spectral resolution, will enable near- and mid-infrared imaging and spectroscopy of these objects with unprecedented quality. In this paper we discuss some of the myriad scientific investigations possible with JWST regarding the giant planets. This discussion is preceded by the specifics of JWST instrumentation most relevant to giant planet observations. We conclude with identification of desired pre-launch testing and operational aspects of JWST that would greatly benefit future studies of the giant planets.

  16. WebbPSF for JWST and WFIRST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Joseph D.; Perrin, Marshall D.; Zimmerman, Neil T.; Brooks, Keira

    2017-01-01

    Modeling a telescope's point spread function accurately is key to predicting its performance and extracting information from observations. WebbPSF is a flexible Python-based PSF simulation tool for JWST and WFIRST, developed at STScI. The WebbPSF-WFIRST module implements a model for the proposed Wide Field Instrument, as well as a proof-of-concept model for the Coronagraph Instrument. Since its announcement and public release at the Winter 2016 AAS, WebbPSF-WFIRST has been enhanced with the Cycle 6 design updates to the wide field instrument model. Additionally, the JupyterHub-based WFIRST Tools Server effort at STScI has provided access to these tools for dozens of users without the overhead of installing the software locally. For JWST, the optical models have been updated based on the latest test data and metrology for the instruments and the telescope flight hardware, including as-built mirror surface figures, variation between different field points, and updated optical budgets for in flight performance. WebbPSF has been checked against instrument test data from previous campaigns, and analysis of the PSF images taken during the JWST CV3 cryo-vac test campaign is currently underway.

  17. Fate of James Webb Space Telescope murky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-07-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), the next-generation successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, was put on the chopping block by the U.S. House of Representatives Appropriations Subcommittee on Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies. The subcommittee approved a measure on 7 July that “terminates funding for [JWST], which is billions of dollars over budget and plagued by poor management.” Then, on 13 July, Rep. Adam Schiff (D-Calif.), whose district includes NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, tried to insert a funding amendment—transferring $200 million from NASA's Cross-Agency Support budget to JWST—when the full House Committee on Appropriations voted. That amendment failed in a voice vote.

  18. Building the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2012-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is the scientific successor to the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes. It will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope launched into orbit around the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. It is a partnership of NASA with the European and Canadian Space Agencies. JWST will make progress In almost every area of astronomy, from the first galaxies to form in the early universe to exoplanets and Solar System objects. Webb will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Near-Infrared Imager and Slitless Spectrograph will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. The observatory Is confirmed for launch in 2018; the design is complete and it is in its construction phase. Innovations that make JWST possible include large-area low-noise infrared detectors, cryogenic ASICs, a MEMS micro-shutter array providing multi-object spectroscopy, a non-redundant mask for interferometric coronagraphy and diffraction-limited segmented beryllium mirrors with active wavefront sensing and control. Recent progress includes the completion of the mirrors, the delivery of the first flight instruments and the start of the integration and test phase.

  19. Solar System Observations with the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwood, James; Hammel, Heidi; Milam, Stefanie; Stansberry, John; Lunine, Jonathan; Chanover, Nancy; Hines, Dean; Sonneborn, George; Tiscareno, Matthew; Brown, Michael; hide

    2016-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will enable a wealth of new scientific investigations in the near- and mid-infrared, with sensitivity and spatial/spectral resolution greatly surpassing its predecessors. In this paper, we focus upon Solar System science facilitated by JWST, discussing the most current information available concerning JWST instrument properties and observing techniques relevant to planetary science. We also present numerous example observing scenarios for a wide variety of Solar System targets to illustrate the potential of JWST science to the Solar System community. This paper updates and supersedes the Solar System white paper published by the JWST Project in 2010. It is based both on that paper and on a workshop held at the annual meeting of the Division for Planetary Sciences in Reno, NV, in 2012.

  20. Characterizing Exoplanet Atmospheres with the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Tom

    2017-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will have numerous modes for acquiring photometry and spectra of stars, planets, galaxies, and other astronomical objects over wavelengths of 0.6 - 28 microns. Several of these modes are well-suited for observing atomic and molecular features in the atmospheres of transiting or spatially resolved exoplanets. I will present basic information on JWST capabilities, highlight modes that are well-suited for observing exoplanets, and give examples of what may be learned from JWST observations. This will include simulated spectra and expected retrieved chemical abundance, composition, equilibrium, and thermal information and uncertainties. JWST Cycle 1 general observer proposals are expected to be due in March 2018 with launch in October 2018, and the greater scientific community is encouraged to propose investigations to study exoplanet atmospheres and other topics.

  1. Capabilities of the James Webb Space Telescope for Exoplanet Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clampin, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large aperture (6.5 meter), cryogenic space telescope with a suite of near and mid-infrared instruments covering the wavelength range of 0.6 m to 28 m. JWST s primary science goal is to detect and characterize the first galaxies. It will also study the assembly of galaxies, star formation, and the formation of evolution of planetary systems. We also review the expected scientific performance of the observatory for observations of exosolar planets by means of transit photometry and spectroscopy, and direct coronagraphic imaging.

  2. The James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2011-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is the scientific successor to the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes, and is currently the largest scientific project under construction in the United States. It will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope launched into orbit around the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. It is a partnership of NASA with the European and Canadian Space Agencies. Science with the James Webb Space Telescope falls into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and black holes within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. Webb will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. I will conclude the talk with a description of recent technical progress in the construction of the observatory.

  3. Solar System Science with the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammel, Heidi B.; Norwood, J.; Chanover, N.; Hines, D. C.; Stansberry, J.; Lunine, J. I.; Tiscareno, M. S.; Milam, S. N.; Sonneborn, G.; Brown, M.

    2013-10-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will succeed the Hubble Space Telescope as NASA’s premier space-based platform for observational astronomy. This 6.5-meter telescope, which is optimized for observations in the near and mid infrared, will be equipped with four state-of-the-art imaging, spectroscopic, and coronagraphic instruments. These instruments, along with the telescope’s moving target capabilities, will enable the infrared study of solar system objects with unprecedented detail (see companion presentation by Sonneborn et al.). This poster features highlights for planetary science applications, extracted from a white paper in preparation. We present a number of hypothetical solar system observations as a means of demonstrating potential planetary science observing scenarios; the list of applications discussed here is far from comprehensive. The goal of this poster and the subsequent white paper is to stimulate discussion and encourage participation in JWST planning among members of the planetary science community, and to encourage feedback to the JWST Project on any desired observing capabilities, data products, and analysis procedures that would enhance the use of JWST for solar system studies. The upcoming white paper updates and supersedes the solar system white paper published by the JWST Project in 2010 (Lunine et al., 2010), and is based in part on JWST events held at the 2012 DPS, the 2013 LPSC meeting, and this DPS (JWST Town Hall, Thursday, 10 October 2013, 12-1 pm).

  4. The James Webb Space Telescope: Capabilities for Exoplanet Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clampin, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large aperture (6.5 meter), cryogenic space telescope with a suite of near and mid-infrared instruments covering the wavelength range of 0.6 micron to 28 micron. JWST's primary science goal is to detect and characterize the first galaxies. It will also study the assembly of galaxies, stellar and planetary system formation, and the formation and evolution of planetary systems. We will review the design of JWST, and discuss the current status of the project, with emphasis on recent progress in the construction of the observatory. We also review the capabilities of the observatory for observations of exosolar planets and debris disks by means of coronagraphic imaging, and high contrast imaging and spectroscopy. This discussion will focus on the optical and thermal performance of the observatory, and will include the current predictions for the performance of the observatory, with special reference to the demands of exoplanet science observations.

  5. Design and Lessons Learned on the Development of a Cryogenic Pupil Select Mechanism Used in the Testing and Calibration of the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Alissa; Capon, Thomas; Guzek, Jeffrey; Hakun, Claef; Haney, Paul; Koca, Corina

    2014-01-01

    Calibration and testing of the instruments on the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is being performed by the use of a cryogenic, full-field, optical simulator that was constructed for this purpose. The Pupil Select Mechanism (PSM) assembly is one of several mechanisms and optical elements that compose the Optical Telescope Element SIMulator, or OSIM. The PSM allows for several optical elements to be inserted into the optical plane of OSIM, introducing a variety of aberrations, distortions, obscurations, and other calibration states into the pupil plane. The following discussion focuses on the details of the design evolution, analysis, build, and test of this mechanism along with the challenges associated with creating a sub arc-minute positioning mechanism operating in an extreme cryogenic environment. In addition, difficult challenges in the control system design will be discussed including the incorporation of closed-loop feedback control into a system that was designed to operate in an open-loop fashion.

  6. EMC Test Challenges for NASA's James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, John

    2016-01-01

    This presentation describes the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) tests performed on the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM), the science payload of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), at NASAs Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in August 2015. By its very nature of being an integrated payload, it could be treated as neither a unit level test nor an integrated spacecraft observatory test. Non-standard test criteria are described along with non-standard test methods that had to be developed in order to evaluate them. Results are presented to demonstrate that all test criteria were met in less than the time allocated.

  7. EMC Test Challenges for NASAs James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, John

    2016-01-01

    This presentation describes the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) tests performed on the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM), the science payload of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), at NASAs Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in August 2015. By its very nature of being an integrated payload, it could be treated as neither a unit level test nor an integrated spacecraft observatory test. Non-standard test criteria are described along with non-standard test methods that had to be developed in order to evaluate them. Results are presented to demonstrate that all test criteria were met in less than the time allocated.

  8. James Webb Space Telescope Observations of Stellar Occultations by Solar System Bodies and Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Sanz, P.; French, R. G.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Stansberry, J.; Lin, Z-Y.; Zhang, Z-W.; Vilenius, E.; Mueller, Th.; Ortiz, J. L.; Braga-Ribas, F.; hide

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the opportunities provided by the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) for significant scientific advances in the study of Solar System bodies and rings using stellar occultations. The strengths and weaknesses of the stellar occultation technique are evaluated in light of JWST's unique capabilities. We identify several possible JWST occultation events by minor bodies and rings and evaluate their potential scientific value. These predictions depend critically on accurate a priori knowledge of the orbit of JWST near the Sun–Earth Lagrange point 2 (L2). We also explore the possibility of serendipitous stellar occultations by very small minor bodies as a byproduct of other JWST observing programs. Finally, to optimize the potential scientific return of stellar occultation observations, we identify several characteristics of JWST's orbit and instrumentation that should be taken into account during JWST's development.

  9. Preservation of Thermal Control Specular Gold Baffle Surface on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) Electronics Compartment (IEC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    MonteedeGarcia, Kristina; Patel, Jignasha; Perry, Radford, III

    2010-01-01

    Extremely tight thermal control property degradation allowances on the vapor-deposited, gold-coated IEC baffle surface, made necessary by the cryogenic JWST Observatory operations, dictate tight contamination requirements on adjacent surfaces. Theoretical degradation in emittance with contaminant thickness was calculated. Maximum allowable source outgassing rates were calculated using worst case view factors from source to baffle surface. Tight requirements pushed the team to change the design of the adjacent surfaces to minimize the outgassing sources

  10. Matlab based Toolkits used to Interface with Optical Design Software for NASA's James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    The viewgraph presentation provides an introduction to the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The first part provides a brief overview of Matlab toolkits including CodeV, OSLO, and Zemax Toolkits. The toolkit overview examines purpose, layout, how Matlab gets data from CodeV, function layout, and using cvHELP. The second part provides examples of use with JWST, including wavefront sensitivities and alignment simulations.

  11. The James Webb Space Telescope Integrated Science Instrument Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhouse, M. A.; Boyce, L. A.; Glazer, S. D.; Johnson, E. L.; McCloskey, J. C.; Sullivan, P. C.; Voyton, M. F.

    2005-12-01

    In this poster, we describe the major design features of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM). The JWST mission is under development by NASA in partnership with the European and Canadian Space Agencies for launch during 2013. The JWST is designed to enable a five year science mission that is focused on four themes: [1] observation of the first luminous objects after the Big Bang, [2] the assembly of these objects into galaxies, [3] the birth of stars and planetary systems, and [4] the formation of planets and the origins of life. The above science themes require high sensitivity and HST-like angular resolution over the near- to mid-infrared spectrum. A 40 K cryogenic radiatively cooled telescope with a 25 m2 collecting area was selected to meet these requirments. A mission architecture involving a Lissajous orbit about the Earth-Sun L2 point was chosen to meet optical stability and data downlink requirments. A modular flight segment architecture was selected to enable incremental integration and test of the cryogenic payload. The ISIM is one key feature of this modular architecture that enables a feasible cryogenic test program. The ISIM element is the science instrument payload of the observatory. It contains 70 million infrared detector pixels allocated among four science instrument systems and a fine guidance sensor system. Brief instrument descriptions are available at: www.stsci.edu/jwst/docs/flyers. The ISIM also contains a passive 40 K thermal control system, a 6 K cryo-cooler system, a command and data handling system, a flight software system, and an optical metering structure system. The ISIM element is responsible for acquisition of the JWST science data, fine guidance data for telescope pointing control, and wavefront sensing data for in-flight adjustment of the telescope optics. Further information about the JWST mission is available at: www.jwst.nasa.gov.

  12. The Mid-Infrared Instrument for the James Webb Space Telescope, II: Design and Build

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wright, G. S.; Wright, David; Goodson, G. B.

    2015-01-01

    The Mid-InfraRed Instrument (MIRI) on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) provides measurements over the wavelength range 5 to 28: 5 µm. MIRI has, within a single "package," four key scientific functions: photometric imaging, coronagraphy, single-source low-spectral resolving power (R similar...

  13. The Mid-Infrared Instrument for the James Webb Space Telescope, II: Design and Build

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wright, G. S.; Wright, David; Goodson, G. B.; Rieke, G. H.; Aitink-Kroes, Gabby; Amiaux, J.; Aricha-Yanguas, Ana; Azzollini, Ruymán; Banks, Kimberly; Barrado-Navascues, D.; Belenguer-Davila, T.; Bloemmart, J. A. D. L.; Bouchet, Patrice; Brandl, B. R.; Colina, L.; Detre, Örs; Diaz-Catala, Eva; Eccleston, Paul; Friedman, Scott D.; García-Marín, Macarena; Güdel, Manuel; Glasse, Alistair; Glauser, Adrian M.; Greene, T. P.; Groezinger, Uli; Grundy, Tim; Hastings, Peter; Henning, Th.; Hofferbert, Ralph; Hunter, Faye; Jessen, N. C.; Justtanont, K.; Karnik, Avinash R.; Khorrami, Mori A.; Krause, Oliver; Labiano, Alvaro; Lagage, P.-O.; Langer, Ulrich; Lemke, Dietrich; Lim, Tanya; Lorenzo-Alvarez, Jose; Mazy, Emmanuel; McGowan, Norman; Meixner, M. E.; Morris, Nigel; Morrison, Jane E.; Müller, Friedrich; rgaard-Nielson, H.-U. Nø; Olofsson, Göran; O'Sullivan, Brian; Pel, J.-W.; Penanen, Konstantin; Petach, M. B.; Pye, J. P.; Ray, T. P.; Renotte, Etienne; Renouf, Ian; Ressler, M. E.; Samara-Ratna, Piyal; Scheithauer, Silvia; Schneider, Analyn; Shaughnessy, Bryan; Stevenson, Tim; Sukhatme, Kalyani; Swinyard, Bruce; Sykes, Jon; Thatcher, John; Tikkanen, Tuomo; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Waelkens, C.; Walker, Helen; Wells, Martyn; Zhender, Alex

    2015-01-01

    The Mid-InfraRed Instrument (MIRI) on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) provides measurements over the wavelength range 5 to 28.5 μm. MIRI has, within a single "package," four key scientific functions: photometric imaging, coronagraphy, single-source low-spectral resolving power (R ~ 100) spectr

  14. The Scientific Capabilities of the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2009-01-01

    The scientific capabilities of the James Webb Space Telescope fall into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and dark matter, gas, stars, metals morphological structures, and active nuclei within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. A comprehensive, top-level review of JWST sciences was published in the journal Space Science Reviews (Gardner et al. 2006, SSR, 123, 485). That paper gives details of the 4 JWST science themes, and describes the design of the observatory and ground system. Since that paper was published, the JWST Science Working Group, working with members of the astronomical community, has continued to develop the science case for JWST, giving more details in a series of white papers. In this poster, the main science themes and white papers are reviewed.

  15. Hartmann test for the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, J. Scott; Feinberg, Lee; Howard, Joseph; Acton, D. Scott; Whitman, Tony L.; Smith, Koby

    2016-07-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope's (JWST) end-to-end optical system will be tested in a cryogenic vacuum environment before launch at NASA Johnson Space Center's (JSC) Apollo-era, historic Chamber A thermal vacuum facility. During recent pre-test runs with a prototype "Pathfinder" telescope, the vibration in this environment was found to be challenging for the baseline test approach, which uses phase retrieval of images created by three sub-apertures of the telescope. To address the vibration, an alternate strategy implemented using classic Hartmann test principles combined with precise mirror mechanisms to provide a testing approach that is insensitive to the dynamics environment of the chamber. The measurements and sensitivities of the Hartmann approach are similar to those using phase retrieval over the original sparse aperture test. The Hartmann test concepts have been implemented on the JWST Test Bed Telescope, which provided the rationale and empirical evidence indicating that this Hartmann style approach would be valuable in supplementing the baseline test approach. This paper presents a Hartmann approach implemented during the recent Pathfinder test along with the test approach that is currently being considered for the full optical system test of JWST. Comparisons are made between the baseline phase retrieval approach and the Hartmann approach in addition to demonstrating how the two test methodologies support each other to reduce risk during the JWST full optical system test.

  16. Titan Science with the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Conor A.; Achterberg, Richard; Adamkovics, Mate; Bezard, Bruno; Bjoraker, Gordon; Cornet, Thomas; Hayes, Alexander; Lellouch, Emmanuel; Lemmon, Mark; Lopez Puertas, Manuel; Rodriguez, Sebastien; Sotin, Christophe; Teanby, Nicholas; Turtle, Elizabeth; West, Robert

    2015-11-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), scheduled for launch in 2018, is an ambitious next-generation large-aperture (6.5 m) space observatory focused on pushing the boundaries of infrared astronomy (0.6-28.0 μm). This long-wavelength focus gives it very substantial potential for solar system science, since the thermal emissions from the surfaces and atmospheres of many planets, moons and small bodies peak in this part of the spectrum. Here we report the findings of a task team convened to examine the potential for Titan science using JWST. These can be divided into five broad areas: (i) the surface, especially the rotational lightcurve; (ii) clouds in the lower atmosphere from direct imaging and near-IR spectroscopy; (iii) composition of the lower atmosphere, especially methane relative humidity; (iv) composition of the middle atmosphere, including thermal and fluorescent emissions from gases; (v) hazes in the middle atmosphere, including seasonal changes in hemispheric contrast. The capability of the major JWST instruments in each area is considered, and limitations such as potential saturation is noted and mitigation strategies (such as sub-arraying) discussed. Overall we find that JWST can make significant contributions to Titan science in many areas, not least in temporal monitoring of seasonal change after the end of the Cassini mission in 2017, in partnership with other next-generation observing facilities (TMT, GMT, EELT, ALMA).

  17. James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Integrated Science Instruments Module (ISIM) Electronics Compartment (IEC) Conformal Shields Composite Bond Structure Qualification Test Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yew, Calinda; Stephens, Matt

    2015-01-01

    The JWST IEC conformal shields are mounted onto a composite frame structure that must undergo qualification testing to satisfy mission assurance requirements. The composite frame segments are bonded together at the joints using epoxy, EA 9394. The development of a test method to verify the integrity of the bonded structure at its operating environment introduces challenges in terms of requirements definition and the attainment of success criteria. Even though protoflight thermal requirements were not achieved, the first attempt in exposing the structure to cryogenic operating conditions in a thermal vacuum environment resulted in approximately 1 bonded joints failure during mechanical pull tests performed at 1.25 times the flight loads. Failure analysis concluded that the failure mode was due to adhesive cracks that formed and propagated along stress concentrated fillets as a result of poor bond squeeze-out control during fabrication. Bond repairs were made and the structures successfully re-tested with an improved LN2 immersion test method to achieve protoflight thermal requirements.

  18. Metrology for Trending Alignment of the James Webb Space Telescope Before and After Ambient Environmental Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjimichael, Theo; Ohl, Raymond G.; Berrier, Joshua; Gum, Jeffery; Hayden, Joseph; Khreishi, Manal; McLean, Kyle; Redman, Kevin; Sullivan, Joseph; Wenzel, Greg; hide

    2017-01-01

    NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a 6.6m diameter, segmented, deployable telescope for cryogenic IR space astronomy. The JWST Observatory architecture includes the Optical Telescope Element (OTE) and the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) element which contains four science instruments (SIs). Prior to integration with the spacecraft, theJWST optical assembly is put through rigorous launch condition environmental testing. This work reports on the metrology operations conducted to determine any changes in subassembly alignment, including primary mirror segments with respect to each other, the secondary mirror to its support structure, the tertiary mirror assembly to the backplane of the telescope and ultimately to the ISIM.

  19. Titan Science with the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Conor A.; Achterberg, Richard K.; Ádámkovics, Máté; Bézard, Bruno; Bjoraker, Gordon L.; Cornet, Thomas; Hayes, Alexander G.; Lellouch, Emmanuel; Lemmon, Mark T.; López-Puertas, Manuel; Rodriguez, Sébastien; Sotin, Christophe; Teanby, Nicholas A.; Turtle, Elizabeth P.; West, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), scheduled for launch in 2018, is the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) but with a significantly larger aperture (6.5 m) and advanced instrumentation focusing on infrared science (0.6-28.0 μm). In this paper, we examine the potential for scientific investigation of Titan using JWST, primarily with three of the four instruments: NIRSpec, NIRCam, and MIRI, noting that science with NIRISS will be complementary. Five core scientific themes are identified: (1) surface (2) tropospheric clouds (3) tropospheric gases (4) stratospheric composition, and (5) stratospheric hazes. We discuss each theme in depth, including the scientific purpose, capabilities, and limitations of the instrument suite and suggested observing schemes. We pay particular attention to saturation, which is a problem for all three instruments, but may be alleviated for NIRCam through use of selecting small sub-arrays of the detectors—sufficient to encompass Titan, but with significantly faster readout times. We find that JWST has very significant potential for advancing Titan science, with a spectral resolution exceeding the Cassini instrument suite at near-infrared wavelengths and a spatial resolution exceeding HST at the same wavelengths. In particular, JWST will be valuable for time-domain monitoring of Titan, given a five- to ten-year expected lifetime for the observatory, for example, monitoring the seasonal appearance of clouds. JWST observations in the post-Cassini period will complement those of other large facilities such as HST, ALMA, SOFIA, and next-generation ground-based telescopes (TMT, GMT, EELT).

  20. James Webb Space Telescope Optical Simulation Testbed I: Overview and First Results

    CERN Document Server

    Perrin, Marshall D; Choquet, Élodie; N'Diaye, Mamadou; Levecq, Olivier; Lajoie, Charles-Phillipe; Ygouf, Marie; Leboulleux, Lucie; Egron, Sylvain; Anderson, Rachel; Long, Chris; Elliott, Erin; Hartig, George; Pueyo, Laurent; van der Marel, Roeland; Mountain, Matt

    2014-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Optical Simulation Testbed (JOST) is a tabletop workbench to study aspects of wavefront sensing and control for a segmented space telescope, including both commissioning and maintenance activities. JOST is complementary to existing optomechanical testbeds for JWST (e.g. the Ball Aerospace Testbed Telescope, TBT) given its compact scale and flexibility, ease of use, and colocation at the JWST Science & Operations Center. We have developed an optical design that reproduces the physics of JWST's three-mirror anastigmat using three aspheric lenses; it provides similar image quality as JWST (80% Strehl ratio) over a field equivalent to a NIRCam module, but at HeNe wavelength. A segmented deformable mirror stands in for the segmented primary mirror and allows control of the 18 segments in piston, tip, and tilt, while the secondary can be controlled in tip, tilt and x, y, z position. This will be sufficient to model many commissioning activities, to investigate field depende...

  1. Preparing the Public for the James Webb Space Telescope and its Exploration of the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Joel D.; Smith, Denise A.; Meinke, Bonnie K.; Jirdeh, Hussein; Office of Public Outreach

    2016-10-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope. STScI and the Office of Public Outreach are committed to bringing awareness of the technology, the excitement, and the future science potential of this great observatory to the public and to the scientific community, prior to its 2018 launch. The challenges in ensuring the high profile of JWST (understanding the infrared, the vast distance to the telescope's final position, and the unfamiliar science territory) requires us to lay the proper background. We currently engage the full range of the public and scientific communities using a variety of high impact, memorable initiatives, in combination with modern technologies to extend reach, linking the science goals of Webb to the ongoing discoveries being made by Hubble. We have injected Webb-specific content into ongoing outreach programs: for example, simulated, scientifically-inspired but aesthetic JWST scenes (illustrating the differences between JWST and previous missions); partnering with high impact science communicators such as MinutePhysics to produce timely and concise content; incorporating JWST science into activities at large scale events. JWST has unique observational capabilities that optimize its ability ot study the Solar System: monitoring weather, tracking and measuring dusty objects, collaborative parallax observations with other observatories, and more. We discuss some of the ways we engage the public on these concepts.

  2. XML: James Webb Space Telescope Database Issues, Lessons, and Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detter, Ryan; Mooney, Michael; Fatig, Curtis

    2003-01-01

    This paper will present the current concept using extensible Markup Language (XML) as the underlying structure for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) database. The purpose of using XML is to provide a JWST database, independent of any portion of the ground system, yet still compatible with the various systems using a variety of different structures. The testing of the JWST Flight Software (FSW) started in 2002, yet the launch is scheduled for 2011 with a planned 5-year mission and a 5-year follow on option. The initial database and ground system elements, including the commands, telemetry, and ground system tools will be used for 19 years, plus post mission activities. During the Integration and Test (I&T) phases of the JWST development, 24 distinct laboratories, each geographically dispersed, will have local database tools with an XML database. Each of these laboratories database tools will be used for the exporting and importing of data both locally and to a central database system, inputting data to the database certification process, and providing various reports. A centralized certified database repository will be maintained by the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), in Baltimore, Maryland, USA. One of the challenges for the database is to be flexible enough to allow for the upgrade, addition or changing of individual items without effecting the entire ground system. Also, using XML should allow for the altering of the import and export formats needed by the various elements, tracking the verification/validation of each database item, allow many organizations to provide database inputs, and the merging of the many existing database processes into one central database structure throughout the JWST program. Many National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) projects have attempted to take advantage of open source and commercial technology. Often this causes a greater reliance on the use of Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS), which is often limiting

  3. Science with the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2012-01-01

    The science objectives of the James Webb Space Telescope fall into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and black holes within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and to investigate the potential for life in those systems. These four science themes were used to establish the design requirements for the observatory and instrumentation. Since Webb's capabilities are unique, those science themes will remain relevant through launch and operations and goals contained within these themes will continue to guide the design and implementation choices for the mission. More recently, it has also become clear that Webb will make major contributions to other areas of research, including dark energy, dark matter, active galactic nuclei, stellar populations, exoplanet characterization and Solar System objects. In this paper, we review the original four science themes and discuss how the scientific output of Webb will extend to these new areas of research. The James Webb Space Telescope was designed to meet science objectives in four themes: The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization, The Assembly of Galaxies, The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems, and Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life. More recently, it has become clear that Webb will also make major contributions to studies of dark energy, dark matter

  4. James Webb Space Telescope: The First Light Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2014-01-01

    NASA James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will search for the first luminous objects of the Universe to help answer fundamental questions about how the Universe came to look like it does today. At 6.5 meters in diameter, JWST will be the world's largest space telescope. Its architecture, e.g. aperture, wavelength range and operating temperature, is driven by JWST's science objectives. Introduction: Scheduled to start its 5 year mission after 2018, JWST will study the origin and evolution of galaxies, stars and planetary systems. Its science mission is to: Identify the first bright objects that formed in the early Universe, and follow the ionization history. Determine how galaxies form. Determine how galaxies and dark matter, including gas, stars, metals, overall morphology and active nuclei evolved to the present day. Observe the birth and early development of stars and the formation of planets. And, study the physical and chemical properties of solar systems for the building blocks of Life. Principle: To accomplish the JWST science objectives requires a larger aperture infrared cryogenic space telescope. A large aperture is required because the objects are very faint. The infrared spectral range is required because the objects are so far away that their ultraviolet and visible wavelength spectral lines are red-shifted into the infrared. Because the telescope is infrared, it needs to be cryogenic. And, because of the telescope is infrared, it must operate above the Earth's atmosphere, i.e. in space. JWST is probably the single most complicated mission that humanity has attempted. It is certainly the most difficult optical fabrication and testing challenge of our generation. The JWST 6.5 m diameter primary mirror is nearly a parabola with a conic constant of -0.9967 and radius of curvature at 30K of 15.880 m. The primary mirror is divided into 18 segments with 3 different prescriptions; each with its own off-axis distance and aspheric departure. The radius of curvature

  5. The James Webb Space Telescope and its Potential for Exoplanet Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clampin, Mark

    2008-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large aperture (6.5 meter), cryogenic space telescope with a suite of near and mid-infrared instruments covering the wavelength range of 0.6 microns to 28 microns. JWST s primary science goal is to detect and characterize the first galaxies. It will also study the assembly of galaxies, star formation, and the formation of evolution of planetary systems. Recent progress in hardware development for the observatory will be presented, including a discussion of the status of JWST s optical system and Beryllium mirror fabrication, progress with sunshield prototypes, and recent changes in the integration and test configuration. We also review the expected scientific performance of the observatory for observations of exosolar planets by means of transit imaging and spectroscopy and direct imaging. We also review the recent discovery of Fomalhaut B and implications for debris disk imaging nd exoplanet detection with JWST.

  6. The James Webb Space Telescope and its Capability for for Exoplanet Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clampin, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large aperture (6.5 .meter), cryogenic space telescope with a suite of near and mid-infrared instruments covering the wavelength range of 0.6 micron to 28 micron. JWST's primary science goal is to detect and characterize the first galaxies. It will also study the assembly of galaxies, star formation, and the formation of evolution of planetary systems. In this presentation we will discuss the status of the JWST project and review the expected scientific performance of the observatory for observations of exosolar planets by means of transit observations, and direct coronagraphic imaging. In particular we will discuss recent simulations of photometric and spectroscopic transit observations that demonstrate the capabilities of JWST to characterize superearth atmospheres in the light of recent Kepler and Corot discoveries

  7. Cometary Science with the James Webb Space Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Kelley, Michael S P; Bodewits, Dennis; Farnham, Tony L; Gudipati, Murthy S; Harker, David E; Hines, Dean C; Knight, Matthew M; Kolokolova, Ludmilla; Li, Aigen; de Pater, Imke; Protopapa, Silvia; Russell, Ray W; Sitko, Michael L; Wooden, Diane H

    2015-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), as the largest space-based astronomical observatory with near- and mid-infrared instrumentation, will elucidate many mysterious aspects of comets. We summarize four cometary science themes especially suited for this telescope and its instrumentation: the drivers of cometary activity, comet nucleus heterogeneity, water ice in comae and on surfaces, and activity in faint comets and main-belt asteroids. With JWST, we can expect the most distant detections of gas, especially CO2, in what we now consider to be only moderately bright comets. For nearby comets, coma dust properties can be studied with their driving gases, measured simultaneously with the same instrument or contemporaneously with another. Studies of water ice and gas in the distant Solar System will help us test our understanding of cometary interiors and coma evolution. The question of cometary activity in main-belt comets will be further explored with the possibility of a direct detection of coma gas. We explo...

  8. New Frontiers for Massive Star Winds: Imaging and Spectroscopy with the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonneborn, George

    2007-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large, infrared-optimized space telescope scheduled for launch in 2013. JWST will find the first stars and galaxies that formed in the early universe, connecting the Big Bang to our own Milky Way galaxy. JWST will peer through dusty clouds to see stars forming planetary systems, connecting the Milky Way to our own Solar System. JWST's instruments are designed to work primarily in the infrared range of 1 - 28 microns, with some capability in the visible range. JWST will have a large mirror, 6.5 meters in diameter, and will be diffraction-limited at 2 microns (0.1 arcsec resolution). JWST will be placed in an L2 orbit about 1.5 million km from the Earth. The instruments will provide imaging, coronography, and multi-object and integral-field spectroscopy across the full 1 - 28 micron wavelength range. The breakthrough capabilities of JWST will enable new studies of massive star winds from the Milky Way to the early universe.

  9. James Webb Space Telescope Primary Mirror Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightsey, Paul; Gallagher, B.; Chaney, D.; Brown, B.

    2009-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope has a segmented primary mirror consisting of 18 hexagonal beryllium primary mirror segment assemblies (PMSA) that have a total collecting area greater than 25 square meters. The PMSAs are designed to operate at cryogenic temperatures (39 K) and to be actively controlled to co-phase the segments. This paper discusses the processes and testing utilized in the manufacture of these mirrors including the critical cryogenic testing performed at the XRCF facility at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The manufacturing team is headed by Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp (BATC) with support from Brush Wellman for beryllium blank fabrication, Axsys Technologies for the precision machining, L3-Tinsley for the mirror polishing, and QCI for the reflective coating application.

  10. The James Webb Space Telescope's Near-Infrared Camera (NIRCam): Making Models, Building Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, D. W., Jr.; Lebofsky, L. A.; Higgins, M. L.; Lebofsky, N. R.

    2011-09-01

    Since 2003, the Near Infrared Camear (NIRCam) science team for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) has conducted "Train the Trainer" workshops for adult leaders of the Girl Scout of the USA (GSUSA), engaging them in the process of scientific inquiry and equipping them to host astronomy-related activities at the troop level. Training includes topics in basic astronomy (night sky, phases of the Moon, the scale of the Solar System and beyond, stars, galaxies, telescopes, etc.) as well as JWST-specific research areas in extra-solar planetary systems and cosmology, to pave the way for girls and women to understand the first images from JWST. Participants become part of our world-wide network of 160 trainers teaching young women essential STEM-related concepts using astronomy, the night sky environment, applied math, engineering, and critical thinking.

  11. James Webb Space Telescope optical simulation testbed III: first experimental results with linear-control alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egron, Sylvain; Lajoie, Charles-Philippe; Leboulleux, Lucie; N'Diaye, Mamadou; Pueyo, Laurent; Choquet, Élodie; Perrin, Marshall D.; Ygouf, Marie; Michau, Vincent; Bonnefois, Aurélie; Fusco, Thierry; Escolle, Clément; Ferrari, Marc; Hugot, Emmanuel; Soummer, Rémi

    2016-07-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Optical Simulation Testbed (JOST) is a tabletop experiment designed to study wavefront sensing and control for a segmented space telescope, including both commissioning and maintenance activities. JOST is complementary to existing testbeds for JWST (e.g. the Ball Aerospace Testbed Telescope TBT) given its compact scale and flexibility, ease of use, and colocation at the JWST Science and Operations Center. The design of JOST reproduces the physics of JWST's three-mirror anastigmat (TMA) using three custom aspheric lenses. It provides similar quality image as JWST (80% Strehl ratio) over a field equivalent to a NIRCam module, but at 633 nm. An Iris AO segmented mirror stands for the segmented primary mirror of JWST. Actuators allow us to control (1) the 18 segments of the segmented mirror in piston, tip, tilt and (2) the second lens, which stands for the secondary mirror, in tip, tilt and x, y, z positions. We present the full linear control alignment infrastructure developed for JOST, with an emphasis on multi-field wavefront sensing and control. Our implementation of the Wavefront Sensing (WFS) algorithms using phase diversity is experimentally tested. The wavefront control (WFC) algorithms, which rely on a linear model for optical aberrations induced by small misalignments of the three lenses, are tested and validated on simulations.

  12. Challenges with Electrical, Electronics, and Electromechanical Parts for James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jah, Muzar A.; Jeffers, Basil S.

    2016-01-01

    James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is the space-based observatory that will extend the knowledge gained by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Hubble focuses on optical and ultraviolet wavelengths while JWST focuses on the infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, to see the earliest stars and galaxies that formed in the Universe and to look deep into nearby dust clouds to study the formation of stars and planets. JWST, which commenced creation in 1996, is scheduled to launch in 2018. It includes a suite of four instruments, the spacecraft bus, optical telescope element, Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM, the platform to hold the instruments), and a sunshield. The mass of JWST is approximately 6200 kg, including observatory, on-orbit consumables and launch vehicle adaptor. Many challenges were overcome while providing the electrical and electronic components for the Goddard Space Flight Center hardware builds. Other difficulties encountered included developing components to work at cryogenic temperatures, failures of electronic components during development and flight builds, Integration and Test electronic parts problems, and managing technical issues with international partners. This paper will present the context of JWST from a EEE (electrical, electronic, and electromechanical) perspective with examples of challenges and lessons learned throughout the design, development, and fabrication of JWST in cooperation with our associated partners including the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), the European Space Agency (ESA), Lockheed Martin and their respective associated partners. Technical challenges and lessons learned will be discussed.

  13. An Automated SVD for Alignment and Control of James Webb Space Telescope Mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiri, Sharam; Howard, Joseph M.; Aronstein, David L.; Ha, Kong; Smith, J. Scott; Dean, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a three-mirror anastigmatic telescope. The alignment of the segmented primary and secondary mirrors in the wavefront sensing and control process involves a series of actuators to control the six degrees-of-freedom motion on each surface in addition to the radius of curvature. The control matrix developed from the alignment parameters is over-determined and singular value decomposition (SVD) method is used to solve it in the least square sense. An automated SVD scheme has been developed to identify the most contributing modes in a typical alignment process and reduce the impact of error-prone modes from the control process.

  14. Exploring Extrasolar Planetary Systems: New Observations of Extrasolar Planets Enabled by the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clampin, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The search for extrasolar planets has been increasingly success over the last few years. In excess of 700 systems are now known, and Kepler has approx.2500 additional candidate systems, yet to be confirmed. Recently, progress has also been made in directly imaging extrasolar planets, both from the ground and in space. In this presentation will discuss the techniques employed to discover planetary systems, and highlight the capabilities, enabled by the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). JWST is a large 6.5 meter aperture infrared telescope that is scheduled for launch in 2018, and will allow us to transition to characterizing the properties of these extrasolar planets and the planetary systems in which they reside.

  15. The Mid-Infrared Instrument for the James Webb Space Telescope, X. Operations and Data Reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Gordon, Karl D; Anderson, Rachel E; Azzollini, Ruyman; Bergeron, L; Bouchet, Patrice; Bouwman, Jeroen; Cracraft, Misty; Fischer, Sebastian; Friedman, Scott D; Garcia-Marin, Macarena; Glasse, Alistair; Glauser, Adrian M; Goodson, G B; Greene, T P; Hines, Dean C; Khorrami, M A; Lahuis, Fred; Lajoie, C -P; Meixner, M E; Morrison, Jane E; O'Sullivan, Brian; Pontoppidan, K M; Regan, M W; Ressler, M E; Rieke, G H; Scheithauer, Silvia; Walker, Helen; Wright, G S

    2015-01-01

    We describe the operations concept and data reduction plan for the Mid- Infrared Instrument (MIRI) for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The overall JWST operations concept is to use Observation Templates (OTs) to provide a straightforward and intuitive way for users to specify observations. MIRI has four OTs that correspond to the four observing modes: 1.) Imaging, 2.) Coronagraphy, 3.) Low Resolution Spectroscopy, and 4.) Medium Resolution Spectroscopy. We outline the user choices and expansion of these choices into detailed instrument operations. The data reduction plans for MIRI are split into three stages, where the specificity of the reduction steps to the observation type increases with stage. The reduction starts with integration ramps: stage 1 yields uncalibrated slope images; stage 2 calibrates the slope images; and then stage 3 combines multiple calibrated slope images into high level data products (e.g. mosaics, spectral cubes, and extracted source information). Finally, we give examples of t...

  16. Standardization of XML Database Exchanges and the James Webb Space Telescope Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal-Edd, Jonathan; Detter, Ryan; Jones, Ron; Fatig, Curtis C.

    2007-01-01

    Personnel from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Project have been working with various standard communities such the Object Management Group (OMG) and the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) to assist in the definition of a common extensible Markup Language (XML) for database exchange format. The CCSDS and OMG standards are intended for the exchange of core command and telemetry information, not for all database information needed to exercise a NASA space mission. The mission-specific database, containing all the information needed for a space mission, is translated from/to the standard using a translator. The standard is meant to provide a system that encompasses 90% of the information needed for command and telemetry processing. This paper will discuss standardization of the XML database exchange format, tools used, and the JWST experience, as well as future work with XML standard groups both commercial and government.

  17. Shake, Rattle and Roll: James Webb Telescope Components Pass Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Mike Ressler (right) and Kalyani Sukhatme of JPL pose in the clean room with a model component, called a focal plane module, of the Mid-Infrared Instrument on NASA's James Webb Space Telescope. Ressler is the project scientist for the instrument, and Sukhatme is the project element manager for the instrument's focal plane module.

  18. The James Webb Space Telescope's Plan for Operations and Instrument Capabilities for Observations in the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milam, Stefanie N.; Stansberry, John A.; Sonneborn, George; Thomas, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is optimized for observations in the near- and mid-infrared and will provide essential observations for targets that cannot be conducted from the ground or other missions during its lifetime. The state-of-the-art science instruments, along with the telescope's moving target tracking, will enable the infrared study, with unprecedented detail, for nearly every object (Mars and beyond) in the Solar System. The goals of this special issue are to stimulate discussion and encourage participation in JWST planning among members of the planetary science community. Key science goals for various targets, observing capabilities for JWST, and highlights for the complementary nature with other missions/observatories are described in this paper.

  19. A Scientific Revolution: the Hubble and James Webb Space Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2012-01-01

    Astronomy is going through a scientific revolution, responding to a flood of data from the Hubble Space Telescope, other space missions, and large telescopes on the ground. In this talk, I will discuss some of the most important astronomical discoveries of the last IO years, and the role that space telescopes have played in those discoveries. The next decade looks equally bright with the newly refurbished Hubble and the promise of its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope. I will describe how Hubble was upgraded and how and why we are building Webb.

  20. Studying Galaxy Formation with the Hubble, Spitzer and James Webb Space Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2009-01-01

    The deepest optical to infrared observations of the universe include the Hubble Deep Fields, the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey and the recent Hubble Ultra-Deep Field. Galaxies are seen in these surveys at redshifts z greater than 6, less than 1 Gyr after the Big Bang, at the end of a period when light from the galaxies has reionized Hydrogen in the inter-galactic medium. These observations, combined with theoretical understanding, indicate that the first stars and galaxies formed at z greater than 10, beyond the reach of the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes. To observe the first galaxies, NASA is planning the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), a large (6.5m), cold (less than 50K), infrared-optimized observatory to be launched early in the next decade into orbit around the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. JWST will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. In addition to JWST's ability to study the formation and evolution of galaxies, I will also briefly review its expected contributions to studies of the formation of stars and planetary systems, and discuss recent progress in constructing the observatory.

  1. Observing Exoplanets with the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clampin Mark

    2011-01-01

    The search for exoplanets and characterization of their properties has seen increasing success over the last few years. In excess of 500 exoplanets are known and Kepler has approx. 1000 additional candidates. Recently, progress has been made in direct imaging planets, both from the ground and in space. This presentation will discuss the history and current state of technology used for such discoveries, and highlight the new capabilities that will be enabled by the James Webb Space Telescope.

  2. The Mid-Infrared Instrument for the James Webb Space Telescope, II: Design and Build

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, G. S.; Wright, David; Goodson, G. B.; Rieke, G. H.; Aitink-Kroes, Gabby; Amiaux, J.; Aricha-Yanguas, Ana; Azzollini, Ruymán; Banks, Kimberly; Barrado-Navascues, D.; Belenguer-Davila, T.; Bloemmart, J. A. D. L.; Bouchet, Patrice; Brandl, B. R.; Colina, L.; Detre, Örs; Diaz-Catala, Eva; Eccleston, Paul; Friedman, Scott D.; García-Marín, Macarena; Güdel, Manuel; Glasse, Alistair; Glauser, Adrian M.; Greene, T. P.; Groezinger, Uli; Grundy, Tim; Hastings, Peter; Henning, Th.; Hofferbert, Ralph; Hunter, Faye; Jessen, N. C.; Justtanont, K.; Karnik, Avinash R.; Khorrami, Mori A.; Krause, Oliver; Labiano, Alvaro; Lagage, P.-O.; Langer, Ulrich; Lemke, Dietrich; Lim, Tanya; Lorenzo-Alvarez, Jose; Mazy, Emmanuel; McGowan, Norman; Meixner, M. E.; Morris, Nigel; Morrison, Jane E.; Müller, Friedrich; rgaard-Nielson, H.-U. Nø; Olofsson, Göran; O’Sullivan, Brian; Pel, J.-W.; Penanen, Konstantin; Petach, M. B.; Pye, J. P.; Ray, T. P.; Renotte, Etienne; Renouf, Ian; Ressler, M. E.; Samara-Ratna, Piyal; Scheithauer, Silvia; Schneider, Analyn; Shaughnessy, Bryan; Stevenson, Tim; Sukhatme, Kalyani; Swinyard, Bruce; Sykes, Jon; Thatcher, John; Tikkanen, Tuomo; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Waelkens, C.; Walker, Helen; Wells, Martyn; Zhender, Alex

    2015-07-01

    The Mid-InfraRed Instrument (MIRI) on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) provides measurements over the wavelength range 5 to 28.5 microns. MIRI has, within a single 'package', four key scientific functions: photometric imaging, coronagraphy, single-source low-spectral resolving power (R ~ 100) spectroscopy, and medium-resolving power (R ~ 1500 to 3500) integral field spectroscopy. An associated cooler system maintains MIRI at its operating temperature of < 6.7 K. This paper describes the driving principles behind the design of MIRI, the primary design parameters, and their realization in terms of the 'as-built' instrument. It also describes the test program that led to delivery of the tested and calibrated Flight Model to NASA in 2012, and the confirmation after delivery of the key interface requirements.

  3. James Webb Space Telescope Optical Telescope Element Integrated Science Instrument Module (OTIS) Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Lee; Voyton, Mark; Lander, Julie; Keski-Kuha, Ritva; Matthews, Gary

    2016-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope Optical Telescope Element (OTE) and Integrated ScienceInstrument Module (ISIM)are integrated together to form the OTIS. Once integrated, the OTIS undergoes primary mirrorcenter of curvatureoptical tests, electrical and operational tests, acoustics and vibration testing at the Goddard SpaceFlight Center beforebeing shipped to the Johnson Space Center for cryogenic optical testing of the OTIS. In preparationfor the cryogenicoptical testing, the JWST project has built a Pathfinder telescope and has completed two OpticalGround SystemEquipment (OGSE) cryogenic optical tests with the Pathfinder. In this paper, we will summarize opticaltest results todate and status the final Pathfinder test and the OTIS integration and environmental test preparations

  4. James Webb Space Telescope Optical Telescope Element/Integrated Science Instrument Module (OTIS) Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Lee; Voyton, Mark; Lander, Juli; Keski-Kuha, Ritva; Matthews, Gary

    2016-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope Optical Telescope Element (OTE) and Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) are integrated together to form the OTIS. Once integrated, the OTIS undergoes primary mirror center of curvature optical tests, electrical and operational tests, acoustics and vibration testing at the Goddard Space Flight Center before being shipped to the Johnson Space Center for cryogenic optical testing of the OTIS. In preparation for the cryogenic optical testing, the JWST project has built a Pathfinder telescope and has completed two Optical Ground System Equipment (OGSE) cryogenic optical tests with the Pathfinder. In this paper, we will summarize optical test results to date and status the final Pathfinder test and the OTIS integration and environmental test preparations

  5. The Mid-Infrared Instrument for the James Webb Space Telescope I: Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Rieke, G H; Boeker, T; Bouwman, J; Colina, L; Glasse, Alistair; Gordon, K D; Greene, T P; Guedel, Manual; Henning, Th; Justtanont, K; Lagage, P -O; Meixner, M E; Norgaard-Nielsen, H -U; Ray, T P; Ressler, M E; van Dishoeck, E G; Waelkens, C

    2015-01-01

    MIRI (the Mid-Infrared Instrument for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)) operates from 5 to 28.5 microns and combines over this range: 1.) unprecedented sensitivity levels; 2.) sub-arcsec angular resolution; 3.) freedom from atmospheric interference; 4.) the inherent stability of observing in space; and 5.) a suite of versatile capabilities including imaging, low and medium resolution spectroscopy (with an integral field unit), and coronagraphy. We illustrate the potential uses of this unique combination of capabilities with various science examples: 1.) imaging exoplanets; 2.) transit and eclipse spectroscopy of exoplanets; 3.) probing the first stages of star and planet formation, including identifying bioactive molecules; 4.) determining star formation rates and mass growth as galaxies are assembled; and 5.) characterizing the youngest massive galaxies. This paper is the introduction to a series of ten covering all aspects of the instrument.

  6. The James Webb Space Telescope: Extending the Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2012-01-01

    The science objectives of the James Webb Space Telescope fall into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and black holes within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks. to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and to investigate the potential for life in those systems. These four science themes were used to establish the design requirements for the observatory and instrumentation. Since Webb's capabilities are unique, those science themes will remain relevant through launch and operations and goals contained within these themes will continue to guide the design and implementation choices for the mission. More recently, it has also become clear that Webb will make major contributions to other areas of research, including dark energy, dark matter, exoplanet characterization and Solar System objects. In this paper, I review the original four science themes and discuss how the scientific output of Webb will extend to these new areas of research.

  7. James Webb Space Telescope Optical Simulation Testbed II. Design of a Three-Lens Anastigmat Telescope Simulator

    CERN Document Server

    Choquet, Élodie; N'Diaye, Mamadou; Perrin, Marshall D; Soummer, Rémi

    2014-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Optical Simulation Testbed (JOST) is a tabletop experiment designed to reproduce the main aspects of wavefront sensing and control (WFSC) for JWST. To replicate the key optical physics of JWST's three-mirror anastigmat (TMA) design at optical wavelengths we have developed a three-lens anastigmat optical system. This design uses custom lenses (plano-convex, plano-concave, and bi-convex) with fourth-order aspheric terms on powered surfaces to deliver the equivalent image quality and sampling of JWST NIRCam at the WFSC wavelength (633~nm, versus JWST's 2.12~micron). For active control, in addition to the segmented primary mirror simulator, JOST reproduces the secondary mirror alignment modes with five degrees of freedom. We present the testbed requirements and its optical and optomechanical design. We study the linearity of the main aberration modes (focus, astigmatism, coma) both as a function of field point and level of misalignments of the secondary mirror. We find that t...

  8. Putting the James Webb Space Telescope to Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Eric P.; JWST Project Science Team, STScI JWST Mission Office

    2017-06-01

    The time for community members to submit their initial observing proposals for using the James Webb Space Telescope is rapidly approaching. The Early Release Science proposals are due in two months (18-August) and cycle 1 General Observer proposals will be due 2-March 2018. This meeting-in-a-meeting is designed to show how the guaranteed time observing teams have navigated this process of turning science questions into valid Webb proposal files. We hope the lessons they have learned can be passed to you, making your proposals better and the process more efficient. Before presentations from the science team members I will give a status of the mission and look forward to the remaining activities prior to the activation of the first cycle of your observations.

  9. Studying Galaxy Formation and Reionization with the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2008-01-01

    The deepest optical to infrared observations of the universe include the Hubble Deep Fields, the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey and the recent Hubble Ultra-Deep Field. Galaxies are seen in these surveys at redshifts z>6, less than 1 Gyr after the Big Bang, at the end of a period when light from the galaxies has reionized Hydrogen in the inter-galactic medium. These observations, combined with theoretical understanding, indicate that the first stars and galaxies formed at z>10, beyond the reach of the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes. To observe the first galaxies, NASA is planning the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), a large (6.5m), cold (<50K), infrared-optimized observatory to be launched early in the next decade into orbit around the second Earth- Sun Lagrange point. JWST will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. I will review the current status of the project.

  10. AGN and quasar science with aperture masking interferometry on the James Webb Space Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Ford, K E Saavik; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Martel, André R; Koekemoer, Anton; Lafrenière, David; Parmentier, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    Due to feedback from accretion onto supermassive black holes (SMBHs), Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) are believed to play a key role in LambdaCDM cosmology and galaxy formation. However, AGNs' extreme luminosities and the small angular size of their accretion flows create a challenging imaging problem. We show James Webb Space Telescope's Near Infrared Imager and Slitless Spectrograph (JWST-NIRISS) Aperture Masking Interferometry (AMI) mode will enable true imaging (i.e. without any requirement of prior assumptions on source geometry) at ~65 mas angular resolution at the centers of AGNs. This is advantageous for studying complex extended accretion flows around SMBHs, and in other areas of angular-resolution-limited astrophysics. By simulating data sequences incorporating expected sources of noise, we demonstrate that JWST-NIRISS AMI mode can map extended structure at a pixel-to-pixel contrast of ~10^{-2} around an L=7.5 point source, using short exposure times (minutes). Such images will test models of AGN fee...

  11. Alignment of the James Webb Space Telescope Integrated Science Instrument Module Element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjimichael, Theo; Ohl, Raymond G.; Antonille, Scott; Aronstein, David L.; Bartoszyk, Andrew; Berrier, Josh; Cofie, Emmanuel; Coulter, Phil; Gracey, Renee; Hayden, Joseph; Howard, Joseph; Hylan, Jason; Kubalak, David; McLean, Kyle; Miskey, Cherie; Redman, Kevin; Rohrbach, Scott; Sabatke, Derek; Telfer, Randal; Wenzel, Greg; Zielinski, Thomas; Sullivan, Joseph; Hartig, George; Eichhorn, William

    2016-10-01

    NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a 6.6m diameter, segmented, deployable telescope for cryogenic IR space astronomy. The JWST Observatory architecture includes the Optical Telescope Element (OTE) and the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) element which contains four science instruments (SI), including a guider. The SIs and guider are mounted to a composite metering structure with outer envelope approximate measurements of 2.2x2.2x1.7m. These SI units are integrated to the ISIM structure and optically tested at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center as an instrument suite using an Optical telescope element SIMulator (OSIM). OSIM is a high-fidelity, cryogenic JWST simulator that features a 1.5m diameter powered mirror. The SIs are aligned to the flight structure's coordinate system under ambient, clean room conditions using opto-mechanical metrology and customized interfaces. OSIM is aligned to the ISIM mechanical coordinate system at the cryogenic operating temperature via internal mechanisms and feedback from alignment sensors and metrology in six degrees of freedom. SI performance, including focus, pupil shear, pupil roll, boresight, wavefront error, and image quality, is evaluated at the operating temperature using OSIM. This work reports on the as-run ambient assembly and ambient alignment steps for the flight ISIM, including SI interface fixtures and customization and kinematic mount adjustment. The ISIM alignment plan consists of multiple steps to meet the "absolute" alignment requirements of the SIs and OSIM to the flight coordinate system. In this paper, we focus on key aspects of absolute, optical-mechanical alignment. We discuss various metrology and alignment techniques. In addition, we summarize our approach for dealing with and the results of ground-test factors, such as gravity.

  12. Optical Testing and Verification Methods for the James Webb Space Telescope Integrated Science Instrument Module Element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonille, Scott R.; Miskey, Cherie L.; Ohl, Raymond G.; Rohrbach, Scott O.; Aronstein, David L.; Bartoszyk, Andrew E.; Bowers, Charles W.; Cofie, Emmanuel; Collins, Nicholas R.; Comber, Brian J.; hide

    2016-01-01

    NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a 6.6m diameter, segmented, deployable telescope for cryogenic IR space astronomy (40K). The JWST Observatory includes the Optical Telescope Element (OTE) and the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) that contains four science instruments (SI) and the fine guider. The SIs are mounted to a composite metering structure. The SI and guider units were integrated to the ISIM structure and optically tested at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center as a suite using the Optical Telescope Element SIMulator (OSIM). OSIM is a full field, cryogenic JWST telescope simulator. SI performance, including alignment and wave front error, were evaluated using OSIM. We describe test and analysis methods for optical performance verification of the ISIM Element, with an emphasis on the processes used to plan and execute the test. The complexity of ISIM and OSIM drove us to develop a software tool for test planning that allows for configuration control of observations, associated scripts, and management of hardware and software limits and constraints, as well as tools for rapid data evaluation, and flexible re-planning in response to the unexpected. As examples of our test and analysis approach, we discuss how factors such as the ground test thermal environment are compensated in alignment. We describe how these innovative methods for test planning and execution and post-test analysis were instrumental in the verification program for the ISIM element, with enough information to allow the reader to consider these innovations and lessons learned in this successful effort in their future testing for other programs.

  13. Optical testing and verification methods for the James Webb Space Telescope Integrated Science Instrument Module element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonille, Scott R.; Miskey, Cherie L.; Ohl, Raymond G.; Rohrbach, Scott O.; Aronstein, David L.; Bartoszyk, Andrew E.; Bowers, Charles W.; Cofie, Emmanuel; Collins, Nicholas R.; Comber, Brian J.; Eichhorn, William L.; Glasse, Alistair C.; Gracey, Renee; Hartig, George F.; Howard, Joseph M.; Kelly, Douglas M.; Kimble, Randy A.; Kirk, Jeffrey R.; Kubalak, David A.; Landsman, Wayne B.; Lindler, Don J.; Malumuth, Eliot M.; Maszkiewicz, Michael; Rieke, Marcia J.; Rowlands, Neil; Sabatke, Derek S.; Smith, Corbett T.; Smith, J. Scott; Sullivan, Joseph F.; Telfer, Randal C.; Te Plate, Maurice; Vila, M. Begoña.; Warner, Gerry D.; Wright, David; Wright, Raymond H.; Zhou, Julia; Zielinski, Thomas P.

    2016-09-01

    NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a 6.5m diameter, segmented, deployable telescope for cryogenic IR space astronomy. The JWST Observatory includes the Optical Telescope Element (OTE) and the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM), that contains four science instruments (SI) and the Fine Guidance Sensor (FGS). The SIs are mounted to a composite metering structure. The SIs and FGS were integrated to the ISIM structure and optically tested at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center using the Optical Telescope Element SIMulator (OSIM). OSIM is a full-field, cryogenic JWST telescope simulator. SI performance, including alignment and wavefront error, was evaluated using OSIM. We describe test and analysis methods for optical performance verification of the ISIM Element, with an emphasis on the processes used to plan and execute the test. The complexity of ISIM and OSIM drove us to develop a software tool for test planning that allows for configuration control of observations, implementation of associated scripts, and management of hardware and software limits and constraints, as well as tools for rapid data evaluation, and flexible re-planning in response to the unexpected. As examples of our test and analysis approach, we discuss how factors such as the ground test thermal environment are compensated in alignment. We describe how these innovative methods for test planning and execution and post-test analysis were instrumental in the verification program for the ISIM element, with enough information to allow the reader to consider these innovations and lessons learned in this successful effort in their future testing for other programs.

  14. AGN studies with JWST/MIRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caputi, K.

    2015-01-01

    The forthcoming James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will revolutionize galaxy evolution studies from the epoch of reionisation to the present day. In particular, a new era will be open for mid-IR astronomy, as the JWST Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI) will improve by an order of magnitude the sensitivit

  15. Unique Spectroscopy and Imaging of Mars with the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Geronimo L.; Altieri, Francesca; Clancy, R. Todd; Encrenaz, Therese; Fouchet, Thierry; Hartogh, Paul; Lellouch, Emmanuel; Lopez-Valverde, Miguel A.; Mumma, Michael J.; Novak, Robert E.; hide

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we summarize the main capabilities of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) for performing observations of Mars. The distinctive vantage point of JWST at the Sun-Earth Lagrange point (L2) will allow sampling the full observable disk, permitting the study of short-term phenomena, diurnal processes (across the east-west axis), and latitudinal processes between the hemispheres (including seasonal effects) with excellent spatial resolutions (0.''07 at 2 micron). Spectroscopic observations will be achievable in the 0.7-5 micron spectral region with NIRSpec at a maximum resolving power of 2700 and with 8000 in the 1-1.25 micron range. Imaging will be attainable with the Near-Infrared Camera at 4.3 micrometers and with two narrow filters near 2 micron, while the nightside will be accessible with several filters in 0.5 to 2 micron. Such a powerful suite of instruments will be a major asset for the exploration and characterization of Mars. Some science cases include the mapping of the water D/H ratio, investigations of the Martian mesosphere via the characterization of the non-local thermodynamic equilibrium CO2 emission at 4.3 micron, studies of chemical transport via observations of the O2 nightglow at 1.27 micron, high-cadence mapping of the variability dust and water-ice clouds, and sensitive searches for trace species and hydrated features on the Martian surface. In-flight characterization of the instruments may allow for additional science opportunities.

  16. Cryogenic optical test planning using the Optical Telescope Element Simulator with the James Webb Space Telescope Integrated Science Instrument Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichard, Timothy A.; Bond, Nicholas A.; Greeley, Bradford W.; Malumuth, Eliot M.; Melendez, Marcio; Shiri, Ron; Alves de Oliveira, Catarina; Antonille, Scott R.; Birkmann, Stephan; Davis, Clinton; Dixon, William V.; Martel, André R.; Miskey, Cherie L.; Ohl, Raymond G.; Sabatke, Derek; Sullivan, Joseph

    2016-09-01

    NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a 6.5 m diameter, segmented, deployable telescope for cryogenic infrared space astronomy ( 40 K). The JWST Observatory architecture includes the Optical Telescope Element (OTE) and the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) element that contains four science instruments (SIs), including a guider. The SI and guider units are integrated to the ISIM structure and optically tested at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center as an instrument suite using a telescope simulator (Optical Telescope Element SIMulator; OSIM). OSIM is a high-fidelity, cryogenic JWST telescope simulator that features a 1.5m diameter powered mirror. The SIs are aligned to the flight structure's coordinate system under ambient, clean room conditions using optomechanical metrology and customized interfaces. OSIM is aligned to the ISIM mechanical coordinate system at the cryogenic operating temperature via internal mechanisms and feedback from alignment sensors and metrology in six degrees of freedom. SI performance, including focus, pupil shear, pupil roll, boresight, wavefront error, and image quality, is evaluated at the operating temperature using OSIM. The comprehensive optical test plans include drafting OSIM source configurations for thousands of exposures ahead of the start of a cryogenic test campaign. We describe how we predicted the performance of OSIM light sources illuminating the ISIM detectors to aide in drafting these optical tests before a test campaign began. We also discuss the actual challenges and successes of those exposure predictions encountered during a test campaign to fulfill the demands of the ISIM optical performance verification.

  17. Recent Developments in the Alignment and Test Plans for the James Webb Space Telescope Integrated Science Instrument Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohl, Raymond

    2008-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a 6.6m diameter, segmented, deployable telescope for cryogenic IR space astronomy (approximately 40K). The JWST Observatory architecture includes the Optical Telescope Element (OTE) and the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) element that contains four science instruments (SI) including a Guider. The SIs and Guider are mounted to a composite metering structure with outer dimensions of 2.1 x 2.2 x 1.9m. The SI and Guider units are integrated to the ISIM structure and optically tested at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center as an instrument suite using an OTE SIMulator (OSIM). OSIM is a high-fidelity, cryogenic JWST telescope simulator that features a approximately 1.5m diameter powered mirror. The SIs are aligned to the structure's coordinate system under ambient, clean room conditions using laser tracker and theodolite metrology. Temperature-induced mechanical SI alignment and structural changes are measured using a photogrammetric measurement system at ambient and cryogenic temperatures. OSIM is aligned to the ISIM mechanical coordinate system at the cryogenic operating temperature via internal mechanisms and feedback from alignment sensors in six degrees of freedom. SI performance, including focus, pupil shear and wavefront error, is evaluated at the operating temperature using OSIM. We present an updated plan for the assembly and ambient and cryogenic optical alignment, test and verification of the ISIM element.

  18. James Webb Space Telescope Mid Infra-Red Instrument Pulse-Tube Cryocooler Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, D.; Flowers, T.; Liu, N.; Moore, K.; Tran, D.; Valenzuela, P.; Franklin, B.; Michaels, D.

    2013-01-01

    The latest generation of long life, space pulse-tube cryocoolers require electronics capable of controlling self-induced vibration down to a fraction of a newton and coldhead temperature with high accuracy down to a few kelvin. Other functions include engineering diagnostics, heater and valve control, telemetry and safety protection of the cryocooler subsystem against extreme environments and operational anomalies. The electronics are designed to survive the thermal, vibration, shock and radiation environment of launch and orbit, while providing a design life in excess of 10 years on-orbit. A number of our current generation high reliability radiation-hardened electronics units are in various stages of integration on several space flight payloads. This paper describes the features and performance of our latest flight electronics designed for the pulse-tube cryocooler that is the pre-cooler for a closed cycle Joule-Thomson cooler providing 6K cooling for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Mid Infra-Red Instrument (MIRI). The electronics is capable of highly accurate temperature control over the temperature range from 4K to 15K. Self-induced vibration is controlled to low levels on all harmonics up to the 16th. A unique active power filter controls peak-to-peak reflected ripple current on the primary power bus to a very low level. The 9 kg unit is capable of delivering 360W continuous power to NGAS's 3-stage pulse-tube High-Capacity Cryocooler (HCC).

  19. James Webb Space Telescope Mid Infra-Red Instrument Pulse-Tube Cryocooler Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, D.; Flowers, T.; Liu, N.; Moore, K.; Tran, D.; Valenzuela, P.; Franklin, B.; Michaels, D.

    2013-01-01

    The latest generation of long life, space pulse-tube cryocoolers require electronics capable of controlling self-induced vibration down to a fraction of a newton and coldhead temperature with high accuracy down to a few kelvin. Other functions include engineering diagnostics, heater and valve control, telemetry and safety protection of the cryocooler subsystem against extreme environments and operational anomalies. The electronics are designed to survive the thermal, vibration, shock and radiation environment of launch and orbit, while providing a design life in excess of 10 years on-orbit. A number of our current generation high reliability radiation-hardened electronics units are in various stages of integration on several space flight payloads. This paper describes the features and performance of our latest flight electronics designed for the pulse-tube cryocooler that is the pre-cooler for a closed cycle Joule-Thomson cooler providing 6K cooling for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Mid Infra-Red Instrument (MIRI). The electronics is capable of highly accurate temperature control over the temperature range from 4K to 15K. Self-induced vibration is controlled to low levels on all harmonics up to the 16th. A unique active power filter controls peak-to-peak reflected ripple current on the primary power bus to a very low level. The 9 kg unit is capable of delivering 360W continuous power to NGAS's 3-stage pulse-tube High-Capacity Cryocooler (HCC).

  20. Alignment of the James Webb Space Telescope optical telescope element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Tiffany; Levi, Joshua; Liepmann, Till; Hahn, Walter; Bisson, Gary; Porpora, Dan; Hadjimichael, Theo

    2016-07-01

    The optical telescope element (OTE) of the James Webb Space Telescope has now been integrated and aligned. The OTE comprises the flight mirrors and the structure that supports them - 18 primary mirror segments, the secondary mirror, and the tertiary and fine steering mirrors (both housed in the aft optics subsystem). The primary mirror segments and the secondary mirror have actuators to actively control their positions during operations. This allows the requirements for aligning the OTE subsystems to be in the range of microns rather than nanometers. During OTE integration, the alignment of the major subsystems of the OTE structure and optics were controlled to ensure that, when the telescope is on orbit and at cryogenic temperatures, the active mirrors will be within the adjustment range of the actuators. Though the alignment of this flagship mission was complex and intricate, the key to a successful integration process turned out to be very basic: a clear, concise series of steps employing advanced planning, backup measurements, and cross checks that this multi-organizational team executed with a careful and methodical approach. This approach was not only critical to our own success but has implications for future space observatories.

  1. WFIRST-AFTA Coronagraphic Operations: Lessons Learned from the Hubble Space Telescope and the James Webb Space Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Debes, John H; Choquet, Elodie; Hines, Dean C; Perrin, Marshall; Golimowski, David A; Lajoie, Charles-Phillipe; Mazoyer, Johan; Pueyo, Laurent; Soummer, Remi; van der Marel, Roeland

    2015-01-01

    The coronagraphic instrument currently proposed for the WFIRST-AFTA mission will be the first example of a space-based coronagraph optimized for extremely high contrasts that are required for the direct imaging of exoplanets reflecting the light of their host star. While the design of this instrument is still in progress, this early stage of development is a particularly beneficial time to consider the operation of such an instrument. In this paper, we review current or planned operations on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) with a focus on which operational aspects will have relevance to the planned WFIRST-AFTA coronagraphic instrument. We identify five key aspects of operations that will require attention: 1) detector health and evolution, 2) wavefront control, 3) observing strategies/post-processing, 4) astrometric precision/target acquisition, and 5) polarimetry. We make suggestions on a path forward for each of these items.

  2. The mid-infrared instrument for the James Webb Space Telescope: performance and operation of the Low-Resolution Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrew, Sarah; Scheithauer, Silvia; Bouchet, Patrice; Amiaux, Jerome; Azzollini, Ruymán.; Bouwman, Jeroen; Chen, Christine; Dubreuil, Didier; Fischer, Sebastian; Fox, Ori D.; Glasse, Alistair; Gordon, Karl; Greene, Tom; Hines, Dean C.; Lagage, Pierre-Olivier; Lahuis, Fred; Ronayette, Samuel; Wright, David; Wright, Gillian S.

    2016-07-01

    We describe here the performance and operational concept for the Low Resolution Spectrometer (LRS) of the mid-infrared instrument (MIRI) for the James Webb Space Telescope. The LRS will provide R˜100 slit and slitless spectroscopy from 5 to 12 micron, and its design is optimised for observations of compact sources, such as exoplanet host stars. We provide here an overview of the design of the LRS, and its performance as measured during extensive test campaigns, examining in particular the delivered image quality, dispersion, and resolving power, as well as spectrophotometric performance. The instrument also includes a slitless spectroscopy mode, which is optimally suited for transit spectroscopy of exoplanet atmospheres. We provide an overview of the operational procedures and the differences ahead of the JWST launch in 2018.

  3. Creating the Thermal Environment for Safely Testing the James Webb Space Telescope at the Johnson Space Center's Chamber A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, Jonathan L.; Lauterbach, John; Garcia, Sam

    2016-01-01

    Chamber A is the largest thermal vacuum chamber at the Johnson Space Center and is one of the largest space environment chambers in the world. The chamber is 19.8 m (65 ft) in diameter and 36.6 m (120 ft) tall and is equipped with cryogenic liquid nitrogen panels (shrouds) and gaseous helium shrouds to create a simulated space environment. The chamber was originally built to support testing of the Apollo Service and Command Module for lunar missions, but underwent major modifications to be able to test the James Webb Space Telescope in a simulated deep space environment. To date seven tests have been performed in preparation of testing the flight optics for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). Each test has had a uniquie thermal profile and set of thermal requirements for cooling down and warming up, controlling contamination, and releasing condensed air. These range from temperatures from 335K to 15K, with tight uniformity and controllability for maintining thermal stability and pressure control. One unique requirement for two test was structurally proof loading hardware by creating thermal gradients at specific temperatures. This paper will discuss the thermal requirements and goals of the tests, the original requirements of the chamber thermal systems for planned operation, and how the new requirements were met by the team using the hardware, system flexiblilty, and engineering creativity. It will also discuss the mistakes and successes to meet the unique goals, especially when meeting the thermal proof load.

  4. The Mechanical Design of a Kinematic Mount for the Mid Infrared Instrument Focal Plane Module on the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelen, Michael P.; Moore, Donald M.

    2009-01-01

    The detector assembly for the Mid Infrared Instrument (MIRI) of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is mechanically supported in the Focal Plane Module (FPM) Assembly with an efficient hexapod design. The kinematic mount design allows for precision adjustment of the detector boresight to assembly alignment fiducials and maintains optical alignment requirements during flight conditions of launch and cryogenic operations below 7 Kelvin. This kinematic mounting technique is able to be implemented in a variety of optical-mechanical designs and is capable of micron level adjustment control and stability over wide dynamic and temperature ranges.

  5. Reducing the Read Noise of the James Webb Near Infrared Spectrograph by Improved Reference Sampling & Subtraction (IRS-square)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Bernard J.; Moseley, S. H.; Arendt, R. G.; Fixsen, D.; Lindler, D.; Loose, M.

    2012-01-01

    In a previous paper, we described a method for significantly reducing the read noise of HAWAII-2RG (H2RG) and SIDECAR application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) based detector systems by making better use of reference signals. "Improved Reference Sampling & Subtraction” (IRS2 pronounced "IRS-square") is based on: (1) making better use of the H2RG's reference output, (2) sampling reference pixels more frequently in the time domain, and (3) optimal subtraction of both the reference output and reference pixels in the Fourier domain. Here we demonstrate that IRS2 works as expected using an engineering grade James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) SIDECAR ASIC and H2RG detector array. We were able to reduce the read noise per frame from 25 e- rms using traditional JWST readout to 10 e- rms per frame using IRS2. The only aspect of the system that we changed to make these impressive improvements was the SIDECAR ASIC readout software -we did not change the hardware.

  6. The resignation of Secretary of the Navy James Webb: a perspective from the present

    OpenAIRE

    Hanner, Bradly F.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis explains the resignation of James Webb as Secretary of the Navy in February 1988. Multiple interviews conducted by the author and several others revealed the combination of politics and personal motivation behind his departure. In an era when defense expenditures were beginning to wane, Webb's insistence on maintaining the United States Navy's force structure in the face of Secretary of Defense Carlucci's unwillingness to do the same, led to his resignation. His opposition to the ...

  7. Transiting Exoplanet Simulations with the James Webb Space Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Batalha, Natasha; Lunine, Jonathan; Clampin, Mark; Lindler, Don

    2015-01-01

    In this white paper, we assess the potential for JWST to characterize the atmospheres of super-Earth exoplanets, by simulating a range of transiting spectra with different masses and temperatures. Our results are based on a JWST simulator tuned to the expected performance of the workhorse spectroscopic instrument NIRSpec, and is based on the latest exoplanet transit models by Howe & Burrows (2012). This study is especially timely since the observing modes for the science instruments on JWST are finalized (Clampin 2010) and because NASA has selected the TESS mission as an upcoming Explorer. TESS is expected to identify more than 1000 transiting exoplanet candidates, including a sample of about 100 nearby (<50 pc) super- Earths (Ricker et al. 2010).

  8. The CFRP primary structure of the MIRI instrument onboard the James Webb Space Telescope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Niels Christian; Nørgaard-Nielsen, Hans Ulrik; Schroll, J

    2004-01-01

    The design of the Primary Structure of the Mid Infra-Red Instrument (MIRI) onboard the NASA/ESA James Webb Space Telescope will be presented. The main design driver is the energy flow from the 35 K "hot" satellite interface to the 7 K "cold" MIRI interface. Carbon fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP...

  9. The James Webb Space Telescope: Inspiration and Context for Physics and Chemistry Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier, Dan; Johnston, Tania; Davies, John

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the design, delivery, evaluation and impact of a CPD course for physics and chemistry teachers. A key aim of the course was to use the context of the James Webb Space Telescope project to inspire teachers and lead to enriched teaching of STEM subjects. (Contains 1 box and 3 figures.)

  10. The James Webb Space Telescope: Inspiration and Context for Physics and Chemistry Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier, Dan; Johnston, Tania; Davies, John

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the design, delivery, evaluation and impact of a CPD course for physics and chemistry teachers. A key aim of the course was to use the context of the James Webb Space Telescope project to inspire teachers and lead to enriched teaching of STEM subjects. (Contains 1 box and 3 figures.)

  11. Thermal Considerations for Reducing the Cooldown and Warmup Duration of the James Webb Space Telescope OTIS Cryo-Vacuum Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kan; Glazer, Stuart; Ousley, Gilbert; Burt, William

    2017-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), set to launch in 2018, is NASAs next-generation flagship telescope. The Optical Telescope Element (OTE) and Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) contain all of the optical surfaces and instruments to capture and analyze the telescopes infrared targets. The integrated OTE and ISIM are denoted as OTIS, and will be tested as a single unit in a critical thermal-vacuum test in mid-2017 at NASA Johnson Space Centers Chamber A facility. The payload will be evaluated for workmanship and functionality in a 20K simulated flight environment during this thermal-vacuum test. However, the sheer thermal mass of the OTIS payload as well as the restrictive gradient, rate, and contamination-related constraints placed on test components precludes rapid cooldown or warmup to its steady-state cryo-balance condition. Hardware safety considerations precludes injection of helium gas for free molecular heat transfer. Initial thermal analysis predicted that transient radiative cooldown from ambient temperatures, while meeting all limits and constraints, would take 33.3 days; warmup similarly would take 28.4 days. This paper discusses methods used to reduce transition times from the original predictions through modulation of boundary temperatures and environmental conditions. By optimizing helium shroud transition rates and heater usage, as well as rigorously re-examining previously imposed constraints, savings of up to three days on cooldown and up to a week on warmup can be achieved. The efficiencies gained through these methods allow the JWST thermal test team to create faster cooldown and warmup profiles, thus reducing the overall test duration and cost, while keeping all of the required test operations.

  12. Finding our Origins with the Hubble and James Webb Space Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2009-01-01

    NASA is planning a successor to the Hubble Space Telescope designed to study the origins of galaxies, stars, planets and life in the universe. In this talk, Dr. Gardner will discuss the origin and evolution of galaxies, beginning with the Big Bang and tracing what we have learned with Hubble through to the present day. He will show that results from studies with Hubble have led to plans for its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope. Webb is scheduled to launch in 2014, and is designed to find the first galaxies that formed in the distant past and to penetrate the dusty clouds of gas where stars are still forming today. He will compare Webb to Hubble, and discuss recent progress in the construction of the observatory.

  13. The Impact of JWST Broadband Filter Choice on Photometric Redshift Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisigello, L.; Caputi, K. I.; Colina, L.;

    2016-01-01

    The determination of galaxy redshifts in the James Webb Space Telescope's (JWST) blank-field surveys will mostly rely on photometric estimates, based on the data provided by JWST's Near-Infrared Camera (NIRCam) at 0.6–5.0 μm and Mid Infrared Instrument (MIRI) at λ 5.0 μm. In this work we analyze ...

  14. Cryogenic Testing of the Thermal Vacuum Chamber and Ground Support Equipment for the James Webb Space Telescope in Chamber A at Johnson Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPirro, M.; Homan, J.; Havey, K.; Ousley, W.

    2017-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is the largest cryogenic instrument telescope to be developed for space flight. The telescope will be passively cooled to 50 K and the instrument package will be at 40 K with the mid-infrared instrument at 6 K. The final cryogenic test of the Optical Telescope Element (OTE) and Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) as an assembly (OTE + ISIM OTIS) will be performed in the largest 15 K chamber in the world, Chamber A at Johnson Space Center. The planned duration of this test will be 100 days in the middle of 2017. Needless to say, this ultimate test of OTIS, the cryogenic portion of JWST will be crucial in verifying the end-to-end performance of JWST. A repeat of this test would not only be expensive, but would delay the launch schedule (currently October 2018). Therefore a series of checkouts and verifications of the chamber and ground support equipment were planned and carried out between 2012 and 2016. This paper will provide a top-level summary of those tests, trades in coming up with the test plan, as well as some details of individual issues that were encountered and resolved in the course of testing.

  15. Combining Social Media with Innovative Ways of Communicating about the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masetti, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    In keeping with the cutting-edge nature of the James Webb Space Telescope, NASA is using a variety of social and interactive media to engage the public. While we do have a regularly updated static website, we are now also using various interactives (like Flash games and a 3D Tour of the spacecraft) to better explain what the Webb telescope is and how it works. To encourage future generations, we are a partner in an educational engineering design challenge which makes use of a virtual Second Life-like world. Additionally, the public can now watch Webb come together before their eyes by accessing our live webcam, which shows telescope hardware being built in our cleanroom. We are working to make Webb as much of a part of pop culture as the Hubble Space Telescope is. We facilitated the filming of a "Late Night with Jimmy Fallon” segment (called "Hubble Gotchu") featuring Webb and Webb scientists at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. A visit to the highly rated sitcom "The Big Bang Theory” resulted in Webb lithos, magnets, posters, a scale model, and more being regularly featured on the set of the show. The most important aspect to creating interesting ways to engage the public is having the ability to communicate and form relationships with as many people as possible. To that end, we are using tools like blogs (e.g., NASA Blueshift) and popular social media (Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, and Flickr) to reach out to as many people as we can and to enable them to share and spread the content we provide.

  16. Transiting Exoplanets with JWST

    CERN Document Server

    Seager, S; Valenti, J A

    2008-01-01

    The era of exoplanet characterization is upon us. For a subset of exoplanets -- the transiting planets -- physical properties can be measured, including mass, radius, and atmosphere characteristics. Indeed, measuring the atmospheres of a further subset of transiting planets, the hot Jupiters, is now routine with the Spitzer Space Telescope. The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will continue Spitzer's legacy with its large mirror size and precise thermal stability. JWST is poised for the significant achievement of identifying habitable planets around bright M through G stars--rocky planets lacking extensive gas envelopes, with water vapor and signs of chemical disequilibrium in their atmospheres. Favorable transiting planet systems, are, however, anticipated to be rare and their atmosphere observations will require tens to hundreds of hours of JWST time per planet. We review what is known about the physical characteristics of transiting planets, summarize lessons learned from Spitzer high-contrast exoplanet m...

  17. Solar System Observations with JWST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwood, James; Hammel, Heidi; Milam, Stefanie; Stansberry, John; Lunine, Jonathan; Chanover, Nancy; Hines, Dean; Sonneborn, George; Tiscareno, Matthew; Brown, Michael; Ferruit, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope will enable a wealth of new scientific investigations in the near- and mid- infrared, with sensitivity and spatial-spectral resolution greatly surpassing its predecessors. In this paper, we focus upon Solar System science facilitated by JWST, discussing the most current information available concerning JWST instrument properties and observing techniques relevant to planetary science. We also present numerous example observing scenarios for a wide variety of Solar System targets to illustrate the potential of JWST science to the Solar System community. This paper updates and supersedes the Solar System white paper published by the JWST Project in 2010 (Lunine et al., 2010). It is based both on that paper and on a workshop held at the annual meeting of the Division for Planetary Sciences in Reno, NV in 2012.

  18. The Spectral Evolution of the First Galaxies. III. Simulated James Webb Space Telescope Spectra of Reionization-epoch Galaxies with Lyman-continuum Leakage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zackrisson, Erik; Binggeli, Christian; Finlator, Kristian; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.; Paardekooper, Jan-Pieter; Shimizu, Ikkoh; Inoue, Akio K.; Jensen, Hannes; Micheva, Genoveva; Khochfar, Sadegh; Dalla Vecchia, Claudio

    2017-02-01

    Using four different suites of cosmological simulations, we generate synthetic spectra for galaxies with different Lyman-continuum escape fractions (f esc) at redshifts z≈ 7–9, in the rest-frame wavelength range relevant for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) NIRSpec instrument. By investigating the effects of realistic star formation histories and metallicity distributions on the EW(Hβ)–β diagram (previously proposed as a tool for identifying galaxies with very high f esc), we find that neither of these effects are likely to jeopardize the identification of galaxies with extreme Lyman-continuum leakage. Based on our models, we expect that essentially all z≈ 7{--}9 galaxies that exhibit rest-frame {EW}({{H}}β )≲ 30 Å to have {f}{esc}> 0.5. Incorrect assumptions concerning the ionizing fluxes of stellar populations or the dust properties of z> 6 galaxies can in principle bias the selection, but substantial model deficiencies of this type should at the same time be evident from offsets in the observed distribution of z> 6 galaxies in the EW(Hβ)–β diagram compared to the simulated distribution. Such offsets would thereby allow JWST/NIRSpec measurements of these observables to serve as input for further model refinement.

  19. The Use of the Molecular Adsorber Coating Technology to Mitigate Vacuum Chamber Contamination During Pathfinder Testing for the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Nithin S.; Hasegawa, Mark M.; Wooldridge, Eve M.; Henderson-Nelson, Kelly A.

    2016-01-01

    As a coating made of highly porous zeolite materials, the Molecular Adsorber Coating (MAC) was developed to capture outgassed molecular contaminants, such as hydrocarbons and silicones. For spaceflight applications, the adsorptive capabilities of the coating can alleviate on-orbit outgassing concerns on or near sensitive surfaces and instruments within the spacecraft. Similarly, this sprayable paint technology has proven to be significantly beneficial for ground based space applications, in particular, for vacuum chamber environments. This paper describes the recent use of the MAC technology during Pathfinder testing of the Optical Ground Support Equipment (OGSE) for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). The coating was used as a mitigation tool to entrap persistent outgassed contaminants, specifically silicone based diffusion pump oil, from within JSC's cryogenic optical vacuum chamber test facility called Chamber A. This paper summarizes the sample fabrication, installation, laboratory testing, post-test chemical analysis results, and future plans for the MAC technology, which was effectively used to protect the JWST test equipment from vacuum chamber contamination.

  20. The James Webb Space Telescope: Observatory Status and the Path to Launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElwain, Michael; Bowers, Chuck; Clampin, Mark; Niedner, Mal

    2016-01-01

    JWST will carry out transformative science from the very early universe and across cosmic time. JWST OTE and ISIM have been combined to form OTIS, which will commence environmental testing. The full JWST team has made tremendous progress since the last AT+I meeting in 2014.JWST on track following 2011 replan and remains on schedule to launch in October 2018.

  1. JWST Pathfinder Telescope Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Gary W.; Kennard, Scott H.; Broccolo, Ronald T.; Ellis, James M.; Daly, Elizabeth A.; Hahn, Walter G.; Amon, John N.; Mt. Pleasant, Stephen M.; Texter, Scott; Atkinson, Charles B.; McKay, Andrew; Levi, Joshua; Keski-Kuha, Ritva; Feinberg, Lee

    2015-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a 6.5m, segmented, IR telescope that will explore the first light of the universe after the big bang. In 2014, a major risk reduction effort related to the Alignment, Integration, and Test (AI&T) of the segmented telescope was completed. The Pathfinder telescope includes two Primary Mirror Segment Assemblies (PMSA's) and the Secondary Mirror Assembly (SMA) onto a flight-like composite telescope backplane. This pathfinder allowed the JWST team to assess the alignment process and to better understand the various error sources that need to be accommodated in the flight build. The successful completion of the Pathfinder Telescope provides a final integration roadmap for the flight operations that will start in August 2015.

  2. Space-compatible strain gauges as an integration aid for the James Webb Space Telescope Mid-Infrared Instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samara-Ratna, Piyal; Sykes, Jon; Bicknell, Chris

    2015-01-01

    in operation. The Mid-Infrared Instrument is one of four instruments to be used on the James Webb Space Telescope which is due for launch in 2018. This telescope will be successor to the Hubble Space Telescope and is the largest space-based astronomy project ever to be conceived. Critical to operation...

  3. Astronomy from Space: The Hubble, Herschel and James Webb Space Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2009-01-01

    Space-based astronomy is going through a renaissance, with three Great Observatories currently flying: Hubble in the visible and ultraviolet, Spitzer in the infrared and Chandra in X-rays. The future looks equally bright. The final servicing mission to Hubble will take place in February 2009 and promises to make the observatory more capable than ever with two new cameras, and refurbishment that will allow it to last at least five years. The upcoming launch of the Herschel Space Telescope will open the far-infrared to explore the cool and dusty Universe. Finally, we look forward to the launch of the James Webb Space Telescope in 2013, which wil provide a successor to both Hubble and Spitzer. In this talk, the author discusses some of the highlights of scientific discovery in the last 10 years and reveals the promise to the next 10 years.

  4. Measurements of the Radiation Induced Conductivity of Insulating Polymeric Materials for the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbridge, J.; Dennison, J. R.; Hodges, J.; Hoffmann, R. C.; Abbott, J.; Hunt, A.; Spaulding, R.

    2006-10-01

    We report on initial measurements of Radiation Induced Conductivity (RIC) for twelve thin film polymer materials that are used in the cabling of the James Webb Space Telescope. Results will be used to model possible detrimental arching due to space craft charging effects. RIC occurs when incident ionizing radiation deposits energy in a material and excites electrons into the conduction band of insulators. RIC is determined using a constant voltage test method as the difference in the equilibrium sample conductivity under no incident radiation and sample conductivity under an incident flux. An accelerator beam at the Idaho Accelerator Center provides the 2-5 MeV incident flux over a range of 10^2 to 10^+1 rad/sec. Measurements are made for a range of applied voltages and radiation dose rates.

  5. Astronomy from Space: The Hubble, Herschel and James Webb Space Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2009-01-01

    Space-based astronomy is going through a renaissance, with three Great Observatories currently flying: Hubble in the visible and ultraviolet, Spitzer in the infrared and Chandra in X-rays. The future looks equally bright. The final servicing mission to Hubble will take place in February 2009 and promises to make the observatory more capable than ever with two new cameras, and refurbishment that will allow it to last at least five years. The upcoming launch of the Herschel Space Telescope will open the far-infrared to explore the cool and dusty Universe. Finally, we look forward to the launch of the James Webb Space Telescope in 2013, which wil provide a successor to both Hubble and Spitzer. In this talk, the author discusses some of the highlights of scientific discovery in the last 10 years and reveals the promise to the next 10 years.

  6. Thermal Test Verification of Emission Control through Directional Baffles for the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Matthew; Rashford, Robert; Switzer, Timothy; Shaw, David; White, Bryant; Lynch, Michael; Huber, Frank; Bachtell, Neal

    2009-01-01

    The thermal performance of NASA s planned James Webb Space Telescope is highly reliant on a collection of directional baffles that are part of the Integrated Science Instrument Module Electronics Compartment. In order to verify the performance of the baffle concept, two test assemblies were recently fabricated and tested at the Goddard Space Flight Center. The centerpiece of the testing was a fixture that used bolometers to measure the emission field through the baffles while the radiator panels and baffles ran a flight-like temperature. Although not all test goals were able to be met due to facility malfunctions, the test was able to prove the design viability enough to gain approval to begin manufacturing the flight article.

  7. The Mid-Infrared Instrument for the James Webb Space Telescope, III: MIRIM, The MIRI Imager

    CERN Document Server

    Bouchet, P; Lagage, P -O; Amiaux, J; Augueres, J -L; Bauwens, E; Blommaert, J A D L; Chen, C H; Detre, O H; Dicken, D; Dubreuil, D; Galdemard, Ph; Gastaud, R; Glasse, A; Gordon, K D; Gougnaud, F; Guillard, P; Justtanont, K; Krause, O; Leboeuf, D; Longval, Y; Martin, L; Mazy, E; Moreau, V; Olofsson, G; Ray, T P; Reess, J -M; Renotte, E; Ressler, M E; Ronayette, S; Salasca, S; Scheithauer, S; Sykes, J; Thelen, M P; Wells, M; Wright, D; Wright, G S

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we describe the MIRI Imager module (MIRIM), which provides broad-band imaging in the 5 - 27 microns wavelength range for the James Webb Space Telescope. The imager has a 0"11 pixel scale and a total unobstructed view of 74"x113". The remainder of its nominal 113"x113" field is occupied by the coronagraphs and the low resolution spectrometer. We present the instrument optical and mechanical design. We show that the test data, as measured during the test campaigns undertaken at CEA-Saclay, at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, and at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, indicate that the instrument complies with its design requirements and goals. We also discuss the operational requirements (multiple dithers and exposures) needed for optimal scientific utilization of the MIRIM.

  8. Cameras a Million Miles Apart: Stereoscopic Imaging Potential with the Hubble and James Webb Space Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Green, Joel D; Stansberry, John A; Meinke, Bonnie

    2016-01-01

    The two most powerful optical/IR telescopes in history -- NASA's Hubble and James Webb Space Telescopes -- will be in space at the same time. We have a unique opportunity to leverage the 1.5 million kilometer separation between the two telescopic nodal points to obtain simultaneously captured stereoscopic images of asteroids, comets, moons and planets in our Solar System. Given the recent resurgence in stereo-3D movies and the recent emergence of VR-enabled mobile devices, these stereoscopic images provide a unique opportunity to engage the public with unprecedented views of various Solar System objects. Here, we present the technical requirements for acquiring stereoscopic images of Solar System objects, given the constraints of the telescopic equipment and the orbits of the target objects, and we present a handful of examples.

  9. Cryogenic Thermal Distortion Model Validation for the JWST ISIM Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, John; Cofie, Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large, infrared-optimized space telescope consisting of an Optical telescope element (OTE), Integrated science instrument module (ISIM), a Spacecraft, and a Sunshield. The Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) consists of the JWST science instruments (NIRCam, MIRI, NIRSpec), a fine guidance sensor (FGS), the ISIM Structure, and thermal and electrical subsystems. JWST's instruments are designed to work primarily in the infrared range of the electromagnetic spectrum, and the instruments and telescope operate at cryogenic temperatures (approximately 35 K for the instruments).

  10. Origin of the Universe: From the First Stars to Planets with JWST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clampin, Mark

    2008-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large aperture (6.5 meter), cryogenic space telescope with a suite of near and mid-infrared instruments. JWST's primary science goal is to detect and characterize the first galaxies. It will also study the assembly of galaxies, star formation, protoplanetary systems, and the formation of evolution of planetary systems. We will review the motivations for JWST's science goals in the context of recent Hubble Space Telescope, and Spitzer Space Telescope observations and review the status of the JWST Observatory.

  11. Status of the JWST Science Instrument Payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhouse, Matt

    2016-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) system consists of five sensors (4 science): Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI), Near Infrared Imager and Slitless Spectrograph (NIRISS), Fine Guidance Sensor (FGS), Near InfraRed Camera (NIRCam), Near InfraRed Spectrograph (NIRSpec); and nine instrument support systems: Optical metering structure system, Electrical Harness System; Harness Radiator System, ISIM Electronics Compartment, ISIM Remote Services Unit, Cryogenic Thermal Control System, Command and Data Handling System, Flight Software System, Operations Scripts System.

  12. The Home Stretch Almost! Science with the Hubble and James Webb Space Telescope V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochs, Bill

    2017-01-01

    JWST has Made tremendous progress in the last few years. JWST Is fully immersed in integration and test, but testing JWST is a formable challenge. JWST's size, complexity, and cryogenic characteristics require a multifaceted test plan to verify mission readiness. Each of these tests are opportunities to uncover issues which must be corrected to be able to move forward. All observatory control, science planning, and science data processing operational systems are on schedule.?

  13. JWST observations of stellar occultations by solar system bodies and rings

    CERN Document Server

    Santos-Sanz, P; Pinilla-Alonso, N; Stansberry, J; Lin, Z-Y; Zhang, Z-W; Vilenius, E; Müller, Th; Ortiz, J L; Braga-Ribas, F; Bosh, A; Duffard, R; Lellouch, E; Tancredi, G; Young, L

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the opportunities provided by the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) for significant scientific advances in the study of solar system bodies and rings using stellar occultations. The strengths and weaknesses of the stellar occultation technique are evaluated in light of JWST's unique capabilities. We identify several possible JWST occultation events by minor bodies and rings, and evaluate their potential scientific value. These predictions depend critically on accurate a priori knowledge of the orbit of JWST near the Sun-Earth Lagrange-point 2 (L2). We also explore the possibility of serendipitous stellar occultations by very small minor bodies as a by-product of other JWST observing programs. Finally, to optimize the potential scientific return of stellar occultation observations, we identify several characteristics of JWST's orbit and instrumentation that should be taken into account during JWST's development.

  14. Preparing the Public for JWST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Joel D.; Smith, Denise A.; Lawton, Brandon L.; Jirdeh, Hussein; Meinke, Bonnie K.

    2016-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope. STScI and the Office of Public Outreach are committed to bringing awareness of the technology, the excitement, and the future science potential of this great observatory to the public, to educators and students, and to the scientific community, prior to its 2018 launch. The challenges in ensuring the high profile of JWST (understanding the infrared, the vast distance to the telescope's final position, and the unfamiliar science territory) requires us to lay the proper background. We currently engage the full range of the public and scientific communities using a variety of high impact, memorable initiatives, in combination with modern technologies to extend reach, linking the science goals of Webb to the ongoing discoveries being made by Hubble. We have injected Webb-specific content into ongoing E/PO programs: for example, simulated scientifically inspired but aesthetic JWST scenes, illustrating the differences between JWST and previous missions; partnering with high impact science communicators such as MinutePhysics to produce timely and concise content; educational materials in vast networks of schools through products like the Star Witness News.

  15. Observing Outer Planet Satellites (except Titan) with JWST: Science Justification and Observational Requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Keszthelyi, Laszlo; Stansberry, John; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Thatte, Deepashri; Gudipati, Murthy; Tsang, Constantine; Greenbaum, Alexandra; McGruder, Chima

    2015-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will allow observations with a unique combination of spectral, spatial, and temporal resolution for the study of outer planet satellites within our Solar System. We highlight the infrared spectroscopy of icy moons and temporal changes on geologically active satellites as two particularly valuable avenues of scientific inquiry. While some care must be taken to avoid saturation issues, JWST has observation modes that should provide excellent infrared data for such studies.

  16. Observing outer planet satellites (except Titan) with JWST: Science justification and observational requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kestay, Laszlo P.; Grundy, Will; Stansberry, John; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Thatte, Deepashri; Gudipati, Murthy; Tsang, Constantine; Greenbaum, Alexandra; McGruder, Chima

    2016-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will allow observations with a unique combination of spectral, spatial, and temporal resolution for the study of outer planet satellites within our Solar System. We highlight the infrared spectroscopy of icy moons and temporal changes on geologically active satellites as two particularly valuable avenues of scientific inquiry. While some care must be taken to avoid saturation issues, JWST has observation modes that should provide excellent infrared data for such studies.

  17. The spectral evolution of the first Galaxies. III. Simulated James Webb Space Telescope spectra of reionization-epoch galaxies with Lyman continuum leakage

    CERN Document Server

    Zackrisson, E; Finlator, K; Gnedin, N Y; Paardekooper, J -P; Shimizu, I; Inoue, A K; Jensen, H; Micheva, G; Khochfar, S; Vecchia, C Dalla

    2016-01-01

    Using four different suites of cosmological simulations, we generate synthetic spectra for galaxies with different Lyman continuum escape fractions (fesc) at redshifts z=7-9, in the rest-frame wavelength range relevant for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) NIRSpec instrument. By investigating the effects of realistic star formation histories and metallicity distributions on the EW(Hb)-beta diagram (previously proposed as a tool for identifying galaxies with very high fesc), we find that the neither of these effects are likely to jeopardize the identification of galaxies with extreme Lyman continuum leakage. Based on our models, we expect essentially all z=7-9 galaxies that exhibit rest-frame EW(Hb)0.5. Incorrect assumptions concerning the ionizing fluxes of stellar populations or the dust properties of z>6 galaxies can in principle bias the selection, but substantial model deficiencies of this type will at the same time reveal themselves as an offset between the observed and simulated distribution of z>6 ...

  18. From the Big Bang to the Nobel Prize and on to James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, John C.

    2009-01-01

    The history of the universe in a nutshell, from the Big Bang to now, and on to the future - John Mather will tell the story of how we got here, how the Universe began with a Big Bang, how it could have produced an Earth where sentient beings can live, and how those beings are discovering their history. Mather was Project Scientist for NASA s Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite, which measured the spectrum (the color) of the heat radiation from the Big Bang, discovered hot and cold spots in that radiation, and hunted for the first objects that formed after the great explosion. He will explain Einstein s biggest mistake, show how Edwin Hubble discovered the expansion of the universe, how the COBE mission was built, and how the COBE data support the Big Bang theory. He will also show NASA s plans for the next great telescope in space, the James Webb Space Telescope. It will look even farther back in time than the Hubble Space Telescope, and will look inside the dusty cocoons where stars and planets are being born today. Planned for launch in 2013, it may lead to another Nobel Prize for some lucky observer.

  19. James Webb Space Telescope segment phasing using differential optical transfer functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codona, Johanan L.; Doble, Nathan

    2015-04-01

    Differential optical transfer function (dOTF) is an image-based, noniterative wavefront sensing method that uses two star images with a single small change in the pupil. We describe two possible methods for introducing the required pupil modification to the James Webb Space Telescope, one using a small (segment's actuator and another that uses small misalignments of the NIRCam's filter wheel. While both methods should work with NIRCam, the actuator method will allow both MIRI and NIRISS to be used for segment phasing, which is a new functionality. Since the actuator method requires only small displacements, it should provide a fast and safe phasing alternative that reduces the mission risk and can be performed frequently for alignment monitoring and maintenance. Since a single actuator modification can be seen by all three cameras, it should be possible to calibrate the non-common-path aberrations between them. Large segment discontinuities can be measured using dOTFs in two filter bands. Using two images of a star field, aberrations along multiple lines of sight through the telescope can be measured simultaneously. Also, since dOTF gives the pupil field amplitude as well as the phase, it could provide a first approximation or constraint to the planned iterative phase retrieval algorithms.

  20. Ambient Optomechanical Alignment and Pupil Metrology for the Flight Instruments Aboard the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, Phillip; Beaton, Alexander; Gum, Jeffrey S.; Hadjimichael, Theodore J.; Hayden, Joseph E.; Hummel, Susann; Hylan, Jason E.; Lee, David; Madison, Timothy J.; Maszkiewicz, Michael; Mclean, Kyle F.; McMann, Joseph; Melf, Markus; Miner, Linda; Ohl, Raymond G.; Redman, Kevin; Roedel, Andreas; Schweiger, Paul; Plate, Maurice T.; Wells, Martyn; Wenzel, Greg W.; Williams, Patrick K.; Young, Jerrod

    2014-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope science instruments are in the final stages of being integrated into the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) element. Each instrument is tied into a common coordinate system through mechanical references that are used for optical alignment and metrology within ISIM after element-level assembly. In addition, a set of ground support equipment (GSE) consisting of large, precisely calibrated, ambient, and cryogenic structures are used as alignment references and gauges during various phases of integration and test (I&T). This GSE, the flight instruments, and ISIM structure feature different types of complimentary metrology targeting. These GSE targets are used to establish and track six degrees of freedom instrument alignment during I&T in the vehicle coordinate system (VCS). This paper describes the optomechanical metrology conducted during science instrument integration and alignment in the Spacecraft Systems Development and Integration Facility (SSDIF) cleanroom at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The measurement of each instrument's ambient entrance pupil location in the telescope coordinate system is discussed. The construction of the database of target locations and the development of metrology uncertainties is also discussed.

  1. Warm molecular Hydrogen at high redshift with the James Webb Space Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Guillard, P; Lehnert, M D; Appleton, P N; Forêts, G Pineau des

    2015-01-01

    The build-up of galaxies is regulated by a complex interplay between gravitational collapse, galaxy merging and feedback related to AGN and star formation. The energy released by these processes has to dissipate for gas to cool, condense, and form stars. How gas cools is thus a key to understand galaxy formation. \\textit{Spitzer Space Telescope} infrared spectroscopy revealed a population of galaxies with weak star formation and unusually powerful H$_2$ line emission. This is a signature of turbulent dissipation, sustained by large-scale mechanical energy injection. The cooling of the multiphase interstellar medium is associated with emission in the H$_2$ lines. These results have profound consequences on our understanding of regulation of star formation, feedback and energetics of galaxy formation in general. The fact that H$_2$ lines can be strongly enhanced in high-redshift turbulent galaxies will be of great importance for the \\textit{James Webb Space Telescope} observations which will unveil the role tha...

  2. Observing Dark Stars with JWST

    CERN Document Server

    Ilie, Cosmin; Valluri, Monica; Iliev, Ilian T; Shapiro, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We study the capability of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) to detect Supermassive Dark Stars (SMDS). If the first stars are powered by dark matter heating in triaxial dark matter haloes, they may grow to be very large and very bright, visible in deep imaging with JWST and even Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We use HST surveys to place bounds on the numbers of SMDSs that may be detected in future JWST imaging surveys. We showed that SMDS in the mass range $10^6-10^7 M_\\odot$ are bright enough to be detected in all the wavelength bands of the NIRCam on JWST . If SMDSs exist at z ~10, 12, and 14, they will be detectable as J-band, H-band, or K-band dropouts, respectively. With a total survey area of 150 arcmin^2 (assuming a multi-year deep parallel survey with JWST), we find that typically the number of $10^6 M_\\odot$ SMDSs found as H or K-band dropouts is ~10^5\\fsmds, where the fraction of early DM haloes hosting DS is likely to be small, \\fsmds10 from SMDSs would be possible with spectroscopy: the SMDS (w...

  3. Recovering the Properties of High-redshift Galaxies with Different JWST Broadband Filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisigello, L.; Caputi, K. I.; Colina, L.

    2017-01-01

    Imaging with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will allow observations of the bulk of distant galaxies at the epoch of reionization. The recovery of their properties, such as age, color excess , specific star formation rate (sSFR), and stellar mass, will mostly rely on spectral energy distrib...

  4. Emerging Technologies and Outreach with JWST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Joel D.; Smith, Denise A.; Meinke, Bonnie K.; Lawton, Brandon L.; Kenney, Jessica; Jirdeh, Hussein

    2017-06-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), NASA’s next great observatory launching in October 2018, required a dozen new technologies to develop. How will we maintain the prestige and cultural impact of Hubble as the torch passes to Webb? Emerging technologies such as augmented and virtual reality bring the viewer into the data and the concept in previously unimaginable immersive detail. Adoption of mobile devices has expanded access to information for wide swaths of the public. Software like Worldwide Telescope to hardware like the Occulus Rift are providing new avenues for learning. If we develop materials properly tailored to this medium, we can reach more diverse audiences than ever before. STScI is pioneering some tools related to JWST for showcasing at AAS, and in local events, which I highlight here.

  5. DETECTABILITY OF FREE FLOATING PLANETS IN OPEN CLUSTERS WITH THE JAMES WEBB SPACE TELESCOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacucci, Fabio; Ferrara, Andrea [Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, I-56126 Pisa (Italy); D' Onghia, Elena [University of Wisconsin, 475 Charter St., Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Recent observations have shown the presence of extra-solar planets in Galactic open stellar clusters, such as in Praesepe (M44). These systems provide a favorable environment for planetary formation due to the high heavy-element content exhibited by the majority of their population. The large stellar density, and corresponding high close-encounter event rate, may induce strong perturbations of planetary orbits with large semimajor axes. Here we present a set of N-body simulations implementing a novel scheme to treat the tidal effects of external stellar perturbers on planetary orbit eccentricity and inclination. By simulating five nearby open clusters, we determine the rate of occurrence of bodies extracted from their parent stellar system by quasi-impulsive tidal interactions. We find that the specific free-floating planet production rate N-dot {sub o} (total number of free-floating planets per unit of time, normalized by the total number of stars), is proportional to the stellar density ρ{sub *} of the cluster: N-dot {sub o}=αρ{sub ⋆}, with α = (23 ± 5) × 10{sup –6} pc{sup 3} Myr{sup –1}. For the Pleiades (M45), we predict that ∼26% of stars should have lost their planets. This raises the exciting possibility of directly observing these wandering planets with the James Webb Space Telescope in the near-infrared band. Assuming a surface temperature for the planet of ∼500 K, a free-floating planet of Jupiter size inside the Pleiades would have a specific flux of F {sub ν} (4.4 μm) ≈4 × 10{sup 2} nJy, which would lead to a very clear detection (S/N ∼ 100) in only one hour of integration.

  6. Studying the spectral properties of Active Galactic Nuclei in the JWST era

    CERN Document Server

    Nakos, Th; Alonso-Herrero, A; Labiano, A

    2009-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), due to launch in 2014, shall provide an unprecedented wealth of information in the near and mid-infrared wavelengths, thanks to its high-sensitivity instruments and its 6.5 m primary mirror, the largest ever launched into space. NIRSpec and MIRI, the two spectrographs onboard JWST, will play a key role in the study of the spectral features of Active Galactic Nuclei in the 0.6-28 micron wavelength range. This talk aims at presenting an overview of the possibilities provided by these two instruments, in order to prepare the astronomical community for the JWST era.

  7. The JWST science instrument payload: mission context and status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhouse, Matthew A.

    2016-07-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is the scientific successor to the Hubble Space Telescope. It is a cryogenic infrared space observatory with a 25 m2 aperture (6 m class) telescope that will achieve diffraction limited angular resolution at a wavelength of 2 um. The science instrument payload includes four passively cooled near-infrared instruments providing broad- and narrow-band imagery, coronography, as well as multi-object and integral-field spectroscopy over the 0.6 Construction, integration and verification testing is underway in all areas of the program. The JWST is on schedule for launch during 2018.

  8. Relative Throughput of the Near-IR Science Instruments for the James Webb Space Telescope as Measured During Ground Testing the Integrated Science Instrument Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malumuth, Eliot; Birkmann, Stephan; Kelly, Douglas M.; Kimble, Randy A.; Lindler, Don; Martel, Andre; Ohl, Raymond G.; Rieke, Marcia J.; Rowlands, Neil; Te Plate, Maurice

    2016-01-01

    Data were obtained for the purpose of measuring the relative throughput of the Near-IR Science Instruments (SIs) of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) as part of the second and third cryogenic-vacuum tests (CV2CV3) of the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) conducted at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in 2014 and 20152016, at the beginning and end of the environmental test program, respectively. This Poster focuses on data obtained as part of the Initial Optical Baseline and as part of the Final Performance test -- two epochs that roughly bracket the CV3 test. The purpose of the test is to trend relative throughput to monitor for any potential changes from gross problems such as contamination or degradation of an optical element. Point source data were taken at a variety of wavelengths for NIRCam Module A and Module B, NIRSpec, NIRISS, Guider 1 and Guider 2 using the Laser Diode (LD) 1.06 micron, LD 1.55 micron, 2.1 micron LED and 3.5 micron LED, as well as for NIRCam Mod A and B and NIRISS using a tungsten source and the F277W, and F480M filters. Spectra were taken using the G140M, G235M, and G395M gratings for NIRSpec, the GRISMR grism for NIRCam Mod A and B and the GR150C grism for NIRISS. The results of these measurements are compared to what would be expected given the efficiency of each of the optical elements in each SI. Although these data were taken as a check against gross problems, they can also be used to provide the first relative throughput estimate for each SI through the various filters source wavelengths measured in their flight-like configurations.

  9. James Webb Space Telescope Integrated Science Instrument Module Calibration and Verification of High-Accuracy Instrumentation to Measure Heat Flow in Cryogenic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comber, Brian; Glazer, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is an upcoming flagship observatory mission scheduled to be launched in 2018. Three of the four science instruments are passively cooled to their operational temperature range of 36K to 40K, and the fourth instrument is actively cooled to its operational temperature of approximately 6K. The requirement for multiple thermal zoned results in the instruments being thermally connected to five external radiators via individual high purity aluminum heat straps. Thermal-vacuum and thermal balance testing of the flight instruments at the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) element level will take place within a newly constructed shroud cooled by gaseous helium inside Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Space environment Simulator (SES). The flight external radiators are not available during ISIM-level thermal vacuum/thermal testing, so they will be replaced in test with stable and adjustable thermal boundaries with identical physical interfaces to the flight radiators. Those boundaries are provided by specially designed test hardware which also measures the heat flow within each of the five heat straps to an accuracy of less than 2 mW, which is less than 5% of the minimum predicted heat flow values. Measurement of the heat loads to this accuracy is essential to ISIM thermal model correlation, since thermal models are more accurately correlated when temperature data is supplemented by accurate knowledge of heat flows. It also provides direct verification by test of several high-level thermal requirements. Devices that measure heat flow in this manner have historically been referred to a "Q-meters". Perhaps the most important feature of the design of the JWST Q-meters is that it does not depend on the absolute accuracy of its temperature sensors, but rather on knowledge of precise heater power required to maintain a constant temperature difference between sensors on two stages, for which a table is empirically developed during a

  10. The mid-infrared instrument for the James Webb Space telescope, VI: the medium resolution spectrometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wells, M.; Pel, J.W.; Glasse, A.; Wright, G.S.; Aitink-Kroes, G.; Azzollini, R.; Beard, S.; Brandl, B.R.; Gallie, A.; Geers, V.C.; Glauser, A.M.; Hastings, P.; Henning, T.; Jager, R.; Justtanont, K.; Kruizinga, B.; Lahuis, F.; Lee, D.; Martinez-Delgado, I.; Martínez-Galarza, J.R.; Meijers, M.; Morrison, J.E.; Müller, F.; Nakos, T.; O’Sullivan, B.; Oudenhuysen, A.; Parr-Burman, P.; Pauwels, E.; Rohloff, R.R.; Schmalzl, E.; Sykes, J.; Thelen, M.P.; Dishoeck, E.F. van; Vandenbussche, B.; Venema, L.B.; Visser, H.; Waters, L.B.F.M.; Wright, D.

    2015-01-01

    We describe the design and performance of the Medium Resolution Spectrometer (MRS) for the JWST-MIRI instrument. The MRS incorporates four coaxial spectral channels in a compact opto-mechanical layout that generates spectral images over fields of view up to 7.7 × 7.7″ in extent and at spectral resol

  11. The Mid-Infrared Instrument for the James Webb Space Telescope, VI: The Medium Resolution Spectrometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wells, M.; Pel, J.-W.; Glasse, A.; Wright, G.S.; Aitink-Kroes, G.; Azzollini, R.; Beard, S.; Brandl, B.R.; Gallie, A.; Geers, V.C.; Glauser, A.M.; Hastings, P.; Henning, Th.; Jager, R.; Justtanont, K.; Kruizinga, B.; Lahuis, F.; Lee, D.; Martinez-Delgado, I.; Martínez-Galarza, J.R.; Meijers, M.; Morrison, J.E.; Müller, F.; Nakos, T.; O'Sullivan, B.; Oudenhuysen, A.; Parr-Burman, P.; Pauwels, E.; Rohloff, R.R.; Schmalzl, E.; Sykes, J.; Thelen, M.P.; van Dishoeck, E.F.; Vandenbussche, B.; Venema, L.B.; Visser, H.; Waters, L.B.F.M.; Wright, D.

    2015-01-01

    We describe the design and performance of the Medium Resolution Spectrometer (MRS) for the JWST-MIRI instrument. The MRS incorporates four coaxial spectral channels in a compact opto-mechanical layout that generates spectral images over fields of view up to 7.7 × 7.7'' in extent and at spectral reso

  12. James Webb Space Telescope - L2 Communications for Science Data Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Alan; Seaton, Bonita; Gal-Edd, Jonathan; Jones, Ronald; Fatig, Curtis; Wasiak, Francis

    2008-01-01

    JWST is the first NASA mission at the second Lagrange point (L2) to identify the need for data rates higher than 10 megabits per second (Mbps). JWST will produce approximately 235 Gigabits of science data every day that will be downlinked to the Deep Space Network (DSN). To get the data rates desired required moving away from X-band frequencies to Ka-band frequencies. To accomplish this transition, the DSN is upgrading its infrastructure. This new range of frequencies are becoming the new standard for high data rate science missions at L2. With the new frequency range, the issues of alternatives antenna deployment, off nominal scenarios, NASA implementation of the Ka-band 26 GHz, and navigation requirements will be discussed in this paper. JWST is also using Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) standard process for reliable file transfer using CCSDS File Delivery Protocol (CFDP). For JWST the use of the CFDP protocol provides level zero processing at the DSN site. This paper will address NASA implementations of Ground Stations in support of Ka-band 26 GHz and lesson learned from implementing a file base (CFDP) protocol operational system.

  13. Status of the JWST sunshield and spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenberg, J.; Flynn, J.; Cohen, A.; Lynch, R.; Cooper, J.

    2016-07-01

    This paper reports on the development, manufacture and integration of the James Webb Space Telescope's sunshield and spacecraft. Both of these JWST elements have completed design and development testing. This paper will review basic architecture and roles of these systems. Also to be presented is the current state of manufacture, assembly integration and test. This paper will conclude with a look at the road ahead for each subsystem prior to integration with the integrated telescope and instrument elements at Northrop Grumman's Space Park facility in late 2017.

  14. The ``One Archive'' for JWST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, G.; Kyprianou, M.; Levay, K.; Sienkewicz, M.; Donaldson, T.; Dower, T.; Swam, M.; Bushouse, H.; Greenfield, P.; Kidwell, R.; Wolfe, D.; Gardner, L.; Nieto-Santisteban, M.; Swade, D.; McLean, B.; Abney, F.; Alexov, A.; Binegar, S.; Aloisi, A.; Slowinski, S.; Gousoulin, J.

    2015-09-01

    The next generation for the Space Telescope Science Institute data management system is gearing up to provide a suite of archive system services supporting the operation of the James Webb Space Telescope. We are now completing the initial stage of integration and testing for the preliminary ground system builds of the JWST Science Operations Center which includes multiple components of the Data Management Subsystem (DMS). The vision for astronomical science and research with the JWST archive introduces both solutions to formal mission requirements and innovation derived from our existing mission systems along with the collective shared experience of our global user community. We are building upon the success of the Hubble Space Telescope archive systems, standards developed by the International Virtual Observatory Alliance, and collaborations with our archive data center partners. In proceeding forward, the “one archive” architectural model presented here is designed to balance the objectives for this new and exciting mission. The STScI JWST archive will deliver high quality calibrated science data products, support multi-mission data discovery and analysis, and provide an infrastructure which supports bridges to highly valued community tools and services.

  15. Habitable worlds with JWST: transit spectroscopy of the TRAPPIST-1 system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barstow, J. K.; Irwin, P. G. J.

    2016-09-01

    The recent discovery of three Earth-sized, potentially habitable planets around a nearby cool star, TRAPPIST-1, has provided three key targets for the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). Depending on their atmospheric characteristics and precise orbit configurations, it is possible that any of the three planets may be in the liquid water habitable zone, meaning that they may be capable of supporting life. We find that present-day Earth levels of ozone, if present, would be detectable if JWST observes 60 transits for innermost planet 1b and 30 transits for 1c and 1d.

  16. Habitable worlds with JWST: transit spectroscopy of the TRAPPIST-1 system?

    CERN Document Server

    Barstow, Joanna K

    2016-01-01

    The recent discovery of three Earth-sized, potentially habitable planets around a nearby cool star, TRAPPIST-1, has provided three key targets for the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). Depending on their atmospheric characteristics and precise orbit configurations, it is possible that any of the three planets may be in the liquid water habitable zone, meaning that they may be capable of supporting life. We find that present-day Earth levels of ozone, if present, would be detectable if JWST observes 60 transits for innermost planet 1b and 30 transits for 1c and 1d.

  17. James Webb Space Telescope segment phasing using differential optical transfer functions

    CERN Document Server

    Codona, Johanan L

    2015-01-01

    Differential Optical Transfer Function (dOTF) is an image-based, non-iterative wavefront sensing method that uses two star images with a single small change in the pupil. We describe two possible methods for introducing the required pupil modification to the JWST, one using a small (

  18. The Mid-Infrared Instrument for the James Webb Space Telescope, VI: The Medium Resolution Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Wells, Martyn; Glasse, Alistair; Wright, G S; Aitink-Kroes, Gabby; Azzollini, Ruyman; Beard, Steven; Brandl, B R; Gallie, Angus; Geers, V C; Glauser, A M; Hastings, Peter; Henning, Th; Jager, Rieks; Justtanont, K; Kruizinga, Bob; Lahuis, Fred; Lee, David; Martinez-Delgado, I; Martinez-Galarza, J R; Meijers, M; Morrison, Jane E; Mueller, Friedrich; Nakos, Thodori; O'Sullivan, Brian; Oudenhuysen, Ad; Parr-Burman, P; Pauwels, Evert; Rohloff, R -R; Schmalzl, Eva; Sykes, Jon; Thelen, M P; van Dishoeck, E F; Vandenbussche, Bart; Venema, Lars B; Visser, Huib; Waters, L B F M; Wright, David

    2015-01-01

    We describe the design and performance of the Medium Resolution Spectrometer (MRS) for the JWST-MIRI instrument. The MRS incorporates four coaxial spectral channels in a compact opto-mechanical layout that generates spectral images over fields of view up to 7.7 X 7.7 arcseconds in extent and at spectral resolving powers ranging from 1,300 to 3,700. Each channel includes an all-reflective integral field unit (IFU): an 'image slicer' that reformats the input field for presentation to a grating spectrometer. Two 1024 X 1024 focal plane arrays record the output spectral images with an instantaneous spectral coverage of approximately one third of the full wavelength range of each channel. The full 5 to 28.5 micron spectrum is then obtained by making three exposures using gratings and pass-band-determining filters that are selected using just two three-position mechanisms. The expected on-orbit optical performance is presented, based on testing of the MIRI Flight Model and including spectral and spatial coverage an...

  19. Key Exoplanets in the Era of JWST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalha, Natasha; Mandell, Avi; Lewis, Nikole K.; Pontoppidan, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    In 2018, exoplanet science will enter a new era with the launch of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). With JWST's observing power, several studies have sought to characterize how the instruments will perform and what atmospheric spectral features could theoretically be detected using transmission spectroscopy. With just two years left until launch, it is imperative that the exoplanet community begins to digest and integrate these studies into their observing plans and strategies. In order to encourage this and to allow all members of the community access to JWST simulations, we present here an open source tool for creating observation simulations of all observatory-supported time-series spectroscopy modes. We describe our tool, PandExo and use it to calculate the expected signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for every confirmed planetary system with Jhours are needed to attain a SNR of 5 on key molecular absorption bands of H2O, CH4, and CO. We end by determining the number of planets (hot Jupiters, warm Neptunes, super-Earths, etc.) that are currently attainable with JWST.

  20. From the Big Bang to the Nobel Prize and on to the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, John C.

    2008-01-01

    The history of the universe in a nutshell, from the Big Bang to now. and on to the future - John Mather will tell the story of how we got here, how the Universe began with a Big Bang, how it could have produced an Earth where sentient beings can live, and how those beings are discovering their history. Mather was Project Scientist for NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite, which measured the spectrum (the color) of the heat radiation from the Big Bang, discovered hot and cold spots in that radiation, and hunted for the first objects that formed after the great explosion. He will explain Einstein's biggest mistake, show how Edwin Hubble discovered the expansion of the univerre, how the COBE mission was built, and how the COBE data support the Big Bang theory. He will also show NASA's plans for the next great telescope in space, the Jarnes Webb Space Telescope. It will look even farther back in time than the Hubble Space Telescope, and will look inside the dusty cocoons where rtars and planets are being born today. Planned for launch in 2013, it may lead to another Nobel Prize for some lucky observer.

  1. James Webb Space Telescope Integrated Science Instrument Module Thermal Vacuum Thermal Balance Test Campaign at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazer, Stuart; Comber, Brian (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is a large infrared telescope with a 6.5-meter primary mirror, designed as a successor to the Hubble Space Telescope when launched in 2018. Three of the four science instruments contained within the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) are passively cooled to their operational temperature range of 36K to 40K with radiators, and the fourth instrument is actively cooled to its operational temperature of approximately 6K. Thermal-vacuum testing of the flight science instruments at the ISIM element level has taken place in three separate highly challenging and extremely complex thermal tests within a gaseous helium-cooled shroud inside Goddard Space Flight Centers Space Environment Simulator. Special data acquisition software was developed for these tests to monitor over 1700 flight and test sensor measurements, track over 50 gradients, component rates, and temperature limits in real time against defined constraints and limitations, and guide the complex transition from ambient to final cryogenic temperatures and back. This extremely flexible system has proven highly successful in safeguarding the nearly $2B science payload during the 3.5-month-long thermal tests. Heat flow measurement instrumentation, or Q-meters, were also specially developed for these tests. These devices provide thermal boundaries o the flight hardware while measuring instrument heat loads up to 600 mW with an estimated uncertainty of 2 mW in test, enabling accurate thermal model correlation, hardware design validation, and workmanship verification. The high accuracy heat load measurements provided first evidence of a potentially serious hardware design issue that was subsequently corrected. This paper provides an overview of the ISIM-level thermal-vacuum tests and thermal objectives; explains the thermal test configuration and thermal balances; describes special measurement instrumentation and monitoring and control software; presents key test thermal results

  2. Eyes on the Universe: The Legacy of the Hubble Space Telescope and Looking to the Future with the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straughn, Amber

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 20 years the Hubble Space Telescope has revolutionized our understanding of the Universe. Most recently, the complete refurbishment of Hubble in 2009 has given new life to the telescope and the new science instruments have already produced groundbreaking science results, revealing some of the most distant galaxy candidates ever discovered. Despite the remarkable advances in astrophysics that Hubble has provided, the new questions that have arisen demand a new space telescope with new technologies and capabilities. I will present the exciting new technology development and science goals of NASA's James Webb Space Telescope, which is currently being built and tested and will be launched this decade.

  3. Observer's Interface for JWST Observation Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Miranda; Douglas, Robert; Moriarty, Christopher; Roman, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    In support of the launch of the James Webb Space Telescope, various teams at STScI (the Space Telescope Science Institute) have collaborated on how to re-structure the view of a an observing program within the Astronomer's Proposal Tool (APT) to accommodate for the differences between HST and JWST. For HST APT programs, the structure is visit-dominant, and there is one generic form for entering observing information that spans all instruments with their required fields and options. This can result in sometimes showing irrelevant fields to the user for a given observing goal. Also, the generation of mosaicked observations in HST requires the user to manually calculate the position of each tile within the mosaic, accounting for positional offsets and the roll of the telescope, which is a time consuming process. Now, for JWST programs in APT, the description of the observations has been segregated by instrument and mode into discrete observing templates. Each template's form allows instrument specific choices and displays of relevant information. APT will manually manage the number of visits needed to perform the observation. This is particularly useful for mosaics and dithering with JWST. For example, users will select how they would like a mosaic to be tiled at the observation level, and the visits are automatically created. In this, visits have been re-structured to be purely informational; all editing is done at the observation level. These options and concepts are illustrated to future users via the corresponding poster.

  4. JWST science instrument pupil alignment measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubalak, Dave; Sullivan, Joe; Ohl, Ray; Antonille, Scott; Beaton, Alexander; Coulter, Phillip; Hartig, George; Kelly, Doug; Lee, David; Maszkiewicz, Michael; Schweiger, Paul; Telfer, Randal; Te Plate, Maurice; Wells, Martyn

    2016-09-01

    NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a 6.5m diameter, segmented, deployable telescope for cryogenic IR space astronomy ( 40K). The JWST Observatory architecture includes the Optical Telescope Element (OTE) and the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) element that contains four science instruments (SI), including a guider. OSIM is a full field, cryogenic, optical simulator of the JWST OTE. It is the "Master Tool" for verifying the cryogenic alignment and optical performance of ISIM by providing simulated point source/star images to each of the four Science Instruments in ISIM. Included in OSIM is a Pupil Imaging Module (PIM) - a large format CCD used for measuring pupil alignment. Located at a virtual stop location within OSIM, the PIM records superimposed shadow images of pupil alignment reference (PAR) targets located in the OSIM and SI pupils. The OSIM Pupil Imaging Module was described by Brent Bos, et al, at SPIE in 2011 prior to ISIM testing. We have recently completed the third and final ISIM cryogenic performance verification test before ISIM was integrated with the OTE. In this paper, we describe PIM implementation, performance, and measurement results.

  5. From the Big Bang to the Nobel Prize and the JWST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, John C.

    2007-01-01

    I will describe the history of the universe, from the Big Bang to 2013, when the JWST is to be launched to look back towards our beginnings. I will discuss how the COBE results led to the Nobel Prize, how the COBE results have been confirmed and extended, and their implications for future observations. The James Webb Space Telescope will be used to examine every part of our history from the first stars and galaxies to the formation of individual stars and planets and the delivery of life-supporting materials to the Earth. I will describe the plans for the JWST and how observers may use it. With luck, the JWST may produce a Nobel Prize for some discovery we can only guess today.

  6. Cryo-vacuum testing of the JWST Integrated Science Instrument Module (SPIE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimble, Randy A.; Vila, M. Begona; Van Campen, Julie; Birkmann, Stephan M.; Comber, Brian J.; Fatig, Curtis C.; Glasse, Alistair C. H.; Glazer, Stuart D.; Kelly, Douglas M.; Mann, Steven D.; Martel, Andre R.; Novo-Gradac, Kevin J.; Ohl, Raymond G.; Penanen, Konstantin; Rohrbach, Scott O.; Sullivan, Joseph F.; Zak, Dean; Zhou, Julia

    2016-01-01

    In late 2015/early 2016, a major cryo-vacuum test was carried out for the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). This test comprised the final cryo-certification and calibration test of the ISIM, after its ambient environmental test program (vibration, acoustics, EMI/EMC), and before its delivery for integration with the rest of the JWST observatory. Over the 108-day period of the round-the-clock test program, the full complement of ISIM flight instruments, structure, harness radiator, and electronics were put through a comprehensive program of thermal, optical, electrical, and operational tests. The test verified the health and excellent performance of the instruments and ISIM systems, proving the ISIM element's readiness for integration with the telescope. We report here on the context, goals, setup, execution, and key results for this critical JWST milestone.

  7. ADDING CONTEXT TO JAMES WEBB SPACE TELESCOPE SURVEYS WITH CURRENT AND FUTURE 21 cm RADIO OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beardsley, A. P.; Morales, M. F. [Department of Physics, University of Washington Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Lidz, A.; Malloy, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Sutter, P. M., E-mail: beards@phys.washington.edu [INFN - National Institute for Nuclear Physics via Valerio 2, I-34127, Trieste (Italy)

    2015-02-20

    Infrared and radio observations of the Epoch of Reionization promise to revolutionize our understanding of the cosmic dawn, and major efforts with the JWST, MWA, and HERA are underway. While measurements of the ionizing sources with infrared telescopes and the effect of these sources on the intergalactic medium with radio telescopes should be complementary, to date the wildly disparate angular resolutions and survey speeds have made connecting proposed observations difficult. In this paper we develop a method to bridge the gap between radio and infrared studies. While the radio images may not have the sensitivity and resolution to identify individual bubbles with high fidelity, by leveraging knowledge of the measured power spectrum we are able to separate regions that are likely ionized from largely neutral, providing context for the JWST observations of galaxy counts and properties in each. By providing the ionization context for infrared galaxy observations, this method can significantly enhance the science returns of JWST and other infrared observations.

  8. Bringing the Science of JWST to the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Joel D.; Smith, Denise A.; Lawton, Brandon L.; Meinke, Bonnie K.; Jirdeh, Hussein

    2017-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope. STScI and the Office of Public Outreach are committed to bringing awareness of the technology, the excitement, and the future science potential of this great observatory to the public and to the scientific community, prior to its 2018 launch. The challenges in ensuring the high profile of JWST (understanding the infrared, the vast distance to the telescope's final position, and the unfamiliar science territory) requires us to lay the proper background, particularly in the area of spectroscopy. We currently engage the full range of the public and scientific communities using a variety of high impact, memorable initiatives, in combination with modern technologies to extend reach, linking the science goals of Webb to the ongoing discoveries being made by Hubble. Webbtelescope.org, the public hub for scientific information related to JWST, is now open. We have injected Webb-specific content into ongoing outreach programs: for example, partnering with high impact science communicators such as MinutePhysics to produce timely and concise content; partnering with musicians and artists to link science and art. Augmented reality apps showcase NASA’s telescopes in a format usable by anyone with a smartphone, and visuals from increasingly affordable 3D VR technologies.

  9. Exploring JWST's Capability to Constrain Habitability on Simulated Terrestrial TESS Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Luke; Britt, Amber; Batalha, Natasha; Schwieterman, Edward; Arney, Giada; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn; Mandell, Avi; Planetary Systems Laboratory; Virtual Planetary Laboratory

    2017-01-01

    In the following, we have worked to develop a flexible "observability" scale of biologically relevant molecules in the atmospheres of newly discovered exoplanets for the instruments aboard NASA's next flagship mission, the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). We sought to create such a scale in order to provide the community with a tool with which to optimize target selection for JWST observations based on detections of the upcoming Transiting Exoplanet Satellite Survey (TESS). Current literature has laid the groundwork for defining both biologically relevant molecules as well as what characteristics would make a new world "habitable", but it has so far lacked a cohesive analysis of JWST's capabilities to observe these molecules in exoplanet atmospheres and thereby constrain habitability. In developing our Observability Scale, we utilized a range of hypothetical planets (over planetary radii and stellar insolation) and generated three self-consistent atmospheric models (of dierent molecular compositions) for each of our simulated planets. With these planets and their corresponding atmospheres, we utilized the most accurate JWST instrument simulator, created specically to process transiting exoplanet spectra. Through careful analysis of these simulated outputs, we were able to determine the relevant parameters that effected JWST's ability to constrain each individual molecular bands with statistical accuracy and therefore generate a scale based on those key parameters. As a preliminary test of our Observability Scale, we have also applied it to the list of TESS candidate stars in order to determine JWST's observational capabilities for any soon-to-be-detected planet in those solar systems.

  10. JWST Near-Infrared Detector Degradation: Finding the Problem, Fixing the Problem, and Moving Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Bernard J.; Stahle, Carl; Hill, Bob; Greenhouse, Matt; Beletic, James; Babu, Sachidananda; Blake, Peter; Cleveland, Keith; Cofie, Emmanuel; Eegholm, Bente; Engelbracht, Chad; Hall, Don; Hoffman, Alan; Jeffers, Basil; Jhabvala, Christine; Kimble, Randy; Kopp, Robert; Lee, Don; Leidecker, Henning; Lindler, Don; McMurray, Bob; Mott, D. Brent; Ohl, Ray; Polis, Don; Pontius, Jim

    2012-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope. JWST will be an infrared optimized telescope, with an approximately 6.5 m diameter primary mirror, that is located at the Sun-Earth L2 Lagrange point. Three of JWST's four science instruments use Teledyne HgCdTe HAWAII-2RG (H2RG) near infrared detector arrays. During 2010, the JWST Project noticed that a few of its 5 micron cutoff H2RG detectors were degrading during room temperature storage, and NASA chartered a "Detector Degradation Failure Review Board" (DD-FRB) to investigate. The DD-FRB determined that the root cause was a design flaw that allowed indium to interdiffuse with the gold contacts and migrate into the HgCdTe detector layer. Fortunately, Teledyne already had an improved design that eliminated this degradation mechanism. During early 2012, the improved H2RG design was qualified for flight and JWST began making additional H2RGs. In this article we present the two public DD-FRB "Executiye Summaries" that: (1) determined the root cause of the detector degradation and (2) defined tests to determine whether the existing detectors are qualified for flight. We supplement these with a brief introduction to H2RG detector arrays, and a discussion of how the JWST Project is using cryogenic storage to retard the degradation rate of the existing flight spare H2RGs.

  11. Planning JWST NIRSpec MSA spectroscopy using NIRCam pre-images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Tracy L.; Ubeda, Leonardo; Kassin, Susan A.; Gilbert, Karoline; Karakla, Diane M.; Reid, I. N.; Blair, William P.; Keyes, Charles D.; Soderblom, D. R.; Peña-Guerrero, Maria A.

    2016-07-01

    The Near-Infrared Spectrograph (NIRSpec) is the work-horse spectrograph at 1-5microns for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). A showcase observing mode of NIRSpec is the multi-object spectroscopy with the Micro-Shutter Arrays (MSAs), which consist of a quarter million tiny configurable shutters that are 0. ''20×0. ''46 in size. The NIRSpec MSA shutters can be opened in adjacent rows to create flexible and positionable spectroscopy slits on prime science targets of interest. Because of the very small shutter width, the NIRSpec MSA spectral data quality will benefit significantly from accurate astrometric knowledge of the positions of planned science sources. Images acquired with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) have the optimal relative astrometric accuracy for planning NIRSpec observations of 5-10 milli-arcseconds (mas). However, some science fields of interest might have no HST images, galactic fields can have moderate proper motions at the 5mas level or greater, and extragalactic images with HST may have inadequate source information at NIRSpec wavelengths beyond 2 microns. Thus, optimal NIRSpec spectroscopy planning may require pre-imaging observations with the Near-Infrared Camera (NIRCam) on JWST to accurately establish source positions for alignment with the NIRSpec MSAs. We describe operational philosophies and programmatic considerations for acquiring JWST NIRCam pre-image observations for NIRSpec MSA spectroscopic planning within the same JWST observing Cycle.

  12. Focus Groups for Solar System Investigations with the JWST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Dean C.; Milam, Stefanie N.; Stansberry, John; Hammel, Heidi B.; Sonneborn, George; Lunine, Jonathan; Rivkin, Andrew; Woodward, Charles; Norwood, Jim; Villanueva, Geronimo; Thomas, Cristina; Santos-Sanz, Pablo; Tiscareno, Matthew; Kestay, Laszlo; Nixon, Conor; Parker, Alex

    2014-11-01

    The unprecedented sensitivity and angular resolution of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will make it NASA’s premier space-based facility for infrared astronomy. This 6.5-meter telescope, which is optimized for observations in the near and mid infrared, will be equipped with four state-of-the-art instruments that include imaging, spectroscopy, and coronagraphy. These instruments, along with the telescope’s moving target capabilities, will enable the infrared study of solar system objects with unprecedented detail. A new white paper (Norwood et al., 2014) provides a general overview of JWST observatory and instrument capabilities for Solar System science, and updates and expands upon an earlier study by Lunine et al. (2010). In order to fully realize the potential of JWST for Solar System observations, we have recently organized 10 focus groups to explore various science use cases in more detail on topics including: Asteroids, Comets, Giant Planets, Mars, Near Earth Objects, Occultations, Rings, Satellites, Titan, and Trans-Neptunian Objects. The findings from these groups will help guide the project as it develops and implements planning tools, observing templates, the data pipeline and archives so that they enable a broad range of Solar System Science investigations. The purpose of this presentation is to raise awareness of the JWST Solar System planning, and to invite participation of DPS members with our Focus Groups and other pre-launch activities.References:Lunine, J., Hammel, H., Schaller, E., Sonneborn, G., Orton, G., Rieke, G., and Rieke, M. 2010, JWST Planetary Observations within the Solar System, http://www.stsci.edu/jwst/doc-archive/white-papers.Norwood, J., Hammel, H., Milam, S.,Stansberry, J., Lunine, J., Chanover, N., Hines, D., Sonneborn, G., Tiscareno, M., Brown, M. and Ferruit, P., 2014, ArXiv e-prints, 1403.6845.

  13. The Mid-Infrared Instrument for the James Webb Space Telescope, VIII: The MIRI Focal Plane System

    CERN Document Server

    Ressler, M E; Franklin, B R; Mahoney, J C; Thelen, M P; Bouchet, P; Colbert, J W; Cracraft, Misty; Dicken, D; Gastaud, R; Goodson, G B; Eccleston, Paul; Moreau, V; Rieke, G H; Schneider, Analyn

    2015-01-01

    We describe the layout and unique features of the focal plane system for MIRI. We begin with the detector array and its readout integrated circuit (combining the amplifier unit cells and the multiplexer), the electronics, and the steps by which the data collection is controlled and the output signals are digitized and delivered to the JWST spacecraft electronics system. We then discuss the operation of this MIRI data system, including detector readout patterns, operation of subarrays, and data formats. Finally, we summarize the performance of the system, including remaining anomalies that need to be corrected in the data pipeline.

  14. Constraining physics of very hot super-Earths with the James Webb Telescope. The case of Corot-7b

    CERN Document Server

    Samuel, Benjamin; Rouan, Daniel; Forget, François; Léger, Alain; Schneider, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Super-Earths with solid surfaces such CoRot-7b and Kepler-10b are expected to be extremely hot. It has been suggested that they must be atmosphere-free and that a lava ocean is present on their hot dayside. Here, we use several dedicated thermal models to study how observations with NIRSPEC on the JWST could further confirm and constrain, or reject the atmosphere-free lava ocean planet model for very hot super-Earths. Using CoRoT-7b as a working case, we explore the consequences on the phase-curve of a non tidal-locked rotation, with/without an atmosphere, and for different values of the albedo. We simulate future observations of the reflected light and thermal emission from CoRoT-7b with NIRSPEC-JWST and look for detectable signatures, such as time lag, as well as the possibility to retrieve the latitudinal surface temperature distribution. We demonstrate that we should be able to constrain several parameters after observations of two orbits (42 h) with a broad range of wavelengths: i)The Bond albedo is retr...

  15. Characterizing transiting exoplanet atmospheres with JWST

    CERN Document Server

    Greene, Thomas P; Montero, Cezar; Fortney, Jonathan J; Lustig-Yeager, Jacob; Luther, Kyle

    2015-01-01

    We explore how well James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) spectra will likely constrain bulk atmospheric properties of transiting exoplanets. We start by modeling the atmospheres of archetypal hot Jupiter, warm Neptune, warm sub-Neptune, and cool super-Earth planets with clear, cloudy, or high mean molecular weight atmospheres. Next we simulate the $\\lambda = 1 - 11$ $\\mu$m transmission and emission spectra of these systems for several JWST instrument modes for single transit and eclipse events. We then perform retrievals to determine how well temperatures and molecular mixing ratios (CH$_4$, CO, CO$_2$, H$_2$O, NH$_3$) can be constrained. We find that $\\lambda = 1 - 2.5$ $\\mu$m transmission spectra will often constrain the major molecular constituents of clear solar composition atmospheres well. Cloudy or high mean molecular weight atmospheres will often require full $1 - 11$ $\\mu$m spectra for good constraints, and emission data may be more useful in cases of sufficiently high $F_p$ and high $F_p/F_*$. Strong t...

  16. Phase and Pupil Amplitude Recovery for JWST Space-Optics Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, B. H.; Zielinski, T. P.; Smith, J. S.; Bolcar, M. R.; Aronstein, D. L.; Fienup, J. R.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the phase and pupil amplitude recovery for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Near Infrared Camera (NIRCam). It includes views of the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM), the NIRCam, examples of Phase Retrieval Data, Ghost Irradiance, Pupil Amplitude Estimation, Amplitude Retrieval, Initial Plate Scale Estimation using the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), Pupil Amplitude Estimation vs lambda, Pupil Amplitude Estimation vs. number of Images, Pupil Amplitude Estimation vs Rotation (clocking), and Typical Phase Retrieval Results Also included is information about the phase retrieval approach, Non-Linear Optimization (NLO) Optimized Diversity Functions, and Least Square Error vs. Starting Pupil Amplitude.

  17. Community Targets for JWST's Early Release Science Program: Evaluation of Transiting Exoplanet WASP-63b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Brian; Cubillos, Patricio; Bruno, Giovanni; Lewis, Nikole K.; Stevenson, Kevin B.; Wakeford, Hannah; Blecic, Jasmina; Burrows, Adam Seth; Deming, Drake; Heng, Kevin; Line, Michael R.; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Morley, Caroline; Waldmann, Ingo P.; Transiting Exoplanet Early Release Science Community (Stevenson et al. 2016)

    2017-06-01

    We present observations of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) ``A Preparatory Program to Identify the Single Best Transiting Exoplanet for JWST Early Release Science" for WASP-63b, one of the community targets proposed for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Early Release Science (ERS) program. A large collaboration of transiting exoplanet scientists identified a set of ``community targets" which meet a certain set of criteria for ecliptic latitude, period, host star brightness, well constrained orbital parameters, and strength of spectroscopic features. WASP-63b was one of the targets identified as a potential candidate for the ERS program. It is presented as an inflated planet with a large signal. It will be accessible to JWST approximately six months after the planned start of Cycle 1/ERS in April 2019 making it an ideal candidate should there be any delays in the JWST timetable. Here, we observe WASP-63b to evaluate its suitability as the best target to test the capabilities of JWST. Ideally, a clear atmosphere will be best suited for bench marking the instruments ability to detect spectroscopic features. We can use the strength of the water absorption feature at 1.4 μm as a way to determine the presence of obscuring clouds/hazes. The results of atmospheric retrieval are presented along with a discussion on the suitability of WASP-63b as the best target to be observed during the ERS Program.

  18. CHARACTERIZING TRANSITING EXOPLANET ATMOSPHERES WITH JWST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, Thomas P. [NASA Ames Research Center, Space Science and Astrobiology Division, M.S. 245-6, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Line, Michael R.; Montero, Cezar; Fortney, Jonathan J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Lustig-Yaeger, Jacob [Department of Astronomy, Box 351580, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Luther, Kyle, E-mail: tom.greene@nasa.gov [Department of Physics, University of California, 366 LeConte Hall MC 7300, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2016-01-20

    We explore how well spectra from the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will likely constrain bulk atmospheric properties of transiting exoplanets. We start by modeling the atmospheres of archetypal hot Jupiter, warm Neptune, warm sub-Neptune, and cool super-Earth planets with atmospheres that are clear, cloudy, or of high mean molecular weight (HMMW). Next we simulate the λ = 1–11 μm transmission and emission spectra of these systems for several JWST instrument modes for single-transit or single-eclipse events. We then perform retrievals to determine how well temperatures and molecular mixing ratios (CH{sub 4}, CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, NH{sub 3}) can be constrained. We find that λ = 1–2.5 μm transmission spectra will often constrain the major molecular constituents of clear solar-composition atmospheres well. Cloudy or HMMW atmospheres will often require full 1–11 μm spectra for good constraints, and emission data may be more useful in cases of sufficiently high F{sub p} and high F{sub p}/F{sub *}. Strong temperature inversions in the solar-composition hot-Jupiter atmosphere should be detectable with 1–2.5+ μm emission spectra, and 1–5+ μm emission spectra will constrain the temperature–pressure profiles of warm planets. Transmission spectra over 1–5+ μm will constrain [Fe/H] values to better than 0.5 dex for the clear atmospheres of the hot and warm planets studied. Carbon-to-oxygen ratios can be constrained to better than a factor of 2 in some systems. We expect that these results will provide useful predictions of the scientific value of single-event JWST spectra until its on-orbit performance is known.

  19. Synergy with HST and JWST Data Management Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Gretchen; Space Telescope Data Management Team

    2014-01-01

    The data processing and archive systems for the JWST will contain a petabyte of science data and the best news is that users will have fast access to the latest calibrations through a variety of new services. With a synergistic approach currently underway with the STScI science operations between the Hubble Space Telescope and James Webb Space Telescope data management subsystems (DMS), operational verification is right around the corner. Next year the HST archive will provide scientists on-demand fully calibrated data products via the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST), which takes advantage of an upgraded DMS. This enhanced system, developed jointly with the JWST DMS is based on a new CONDOR distributed processing system capable of reprocessing data using a prioritization queue which runs in the background. A Calibration Reference Data System manages the latest optimal configuration for each scientific instrument pipeline. Science users will be able to search and discover the growing MAST archive calibrated datasets from these missions along with the other multiple mission holdings both local to MAST and available through the Virtual Observatory. JWST data systems will build upon the successes and lessons learned from the HST legacy and move us forward into the next generation of multi-wavelength archive research.

  20. Astrophysics in the Next Decade: JWST and Concurrent Facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Thronson, Harley A; Tielens, Alexander; The James Webb Space Telescope and Concurrent Facilities

    2009-01-01

    NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), planned for operation in about five years, will have the capability to investigate – and answer – some of the most challenging questions in astronomy. Although motivated and designed to study the very early Universe, the performance of the observatory’s instruments over a very wide wavelength range will allow the world’s scientific community unequaled ability to study cosmic phenomena as diverse as small bodies in the Solar System and the formation of galaxies. As part of preparation to use JWST, a conference was held in Tucson, Arizona in 2007 that brought together astronomers from around the world to discuss the mission, other major facilities that will operate in the coming decade, and major scientific goals for them. This book is a compilation of those presentations by some of the leading researchers from all branches of astronomy. This book also includes a "pre-history" of JWST, describing the lengthy process and some of the key individuals that initiat...

  1. Improving JWST Coronagraphic Performance with Accurate Image Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gorkom, Kyle; Pueyo, Laurent; Lajoie, Charles-Philippe; JWST Coronagraphs Working Group

    2016-06-01

    The coronagraphs on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will enable high-contrast observations of faint objects at small separations from bright hosts, such as circumstellar disks, exoplanets, and quasar disks. Despite attenuation by the coronagraphic mask, bright speckles in the host’s point spread function (PSF) remain, effectively washing out the signal from the faint companion. Suppression of these bright speckles is typically accomplished by repeating the observation with a star that lacks a faint companion, creating a reference PSF that can be subtracted from the science image to reveal any faint objects. Before this reference PSF can be subtracted, however, the science and reference images must be aligned precisely, typically to 1/20 of a pixel. Here, we present several such algorithms for performing image registration on JWST coronagraphic images. Using both simulated and pre-flight test data (taken in cryovacuum), we assess (1) the accuracy of each algorithm at recovering misaligned scenes and (2) the impact of image registration on achievable contrast. Proper image registration, combined with post-processing techniques such as KLIP or LOCI, will greatly improve the performance of the JWST coronagraphs.

  2. Simulating Exoplanet Transit and Eclipse Observations with JWST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Tom

    2011-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will be a nearly ideal machine for acquiring the transmission and emission spectra of transiting exoplanets over its large wavelength range 0.7 - 28 microns. The NIRSpec, NIRCam, nTFI, and MIRI instruments will have spectroscopic capabilities that span spectral resolutions from 20 - 3000 and can cover up to 2 - 3 octaves in wavelength simultaneously. This will allow observing multiple molecular features at once, facilitating the separation of atmospheric temperature and abundance effects on spectra. Many transiting planets will also be able to be observed with both transmission and eclipse spectroscopy, providing further insights and constraints on planetary thermal structures and energy transport. Simulated JWST spectra of planets ranging from mini-Neptunes to gas giants will be presented. These simulations include planets ranging from mini-Neptunes to gas giants will be presented. These simulations include current best estimates of actual instrument throughput, resolution, spectral range, systematic noise, and random noise terms. They show that JWST will be able to determine the atmospheric parameters of a wide variety of planets, often when observing only one or a few transit or eclipse event sequences. The thermal emissions of rocky super-Earths will also be quickly detectable via mid-IR eclipse observations if such planets are found around nearby M star hosts beforehand.

  3. Observing transiting planets with JWST -- Prime targets and their synthetic spectral observations

    CERN Document Server

    Mollière, Paul; Bouwman, Jeroen; Henning, Thomas; Lagage, Pierre-Olivier; Min, Michiel

    2016-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope will enable astronomers to obtain exoplanet spectra of unprecedented precision. Especially the MIRI instrument may shed light on the nature of the cloud particles obscuring planetary transmission spectra in the optical and near-infrared. We provide self-consistent atmospheric models and synthetic JWST observations for prime exoplanet targets in order to identify spectral regions of interest and estimate the number of transits needed to distinguish between model setups. We select targets which span a wide range in planetary temperature and surface gravity, ranging from super-Earths to giant planets, and have a high expected SNR. For all targets we vary the enrichment, C/O ratio, presence of optical absorbers (TiO/VO) and cloud treatment. We calculate atmospheric structures and emission and transmission spectra for all targets and use a radiometric model to obtain simulated observations. We analyze JWST's ability to distinguish between various scenarios. We find that in very cloud...

  4. Exploring Biases of Atmospheric Retrievals in Simulated JWST Transmission Spectra of Hot Jupiters

    CERN Document Server

    Rocchetto, M; Venot, O; Lagage, P -O; Tinetti, G

    2016-01-01

    With a scheduled launch in October 2018, the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is expected to revolutionise the field of atmospheric characterization of exoplanets. The broad wavelength coverage and high sensitivity of its instruments will allow us to extract far more information from exoplanet spectra than what has been possible with current observations. In this paper, we investigate whether current retrieval methods will still be valid in the era of JWST, exploring common approximations used when retrieving transmission spectra of hot Jupiters. To assess biases, we use 1D photochemical models to simulate typical hot Jupiter cloud-free atmospheres and generate synthetic observations for a range of carbon-to-oxygen ratios. Then, we retrieve these spectra using TauREx, a Bayesian retrieval tool, using two methodologies: one assuming an isothermal atmosphere, and one assuming a parametrized temperature profile. Both methods assume constant-with-altitude abundances. We found that the isothermal approximation bi...

  5. Transiting Exoplanet Studies and Community Targets for JWST's Early Release Science Program

    CERN Document Server

    Stevenson, Kevin B; Bean, Jacob L; Beichman, Charles; Fraine, Jonathan; Kilpatrick, Brian M; Krick, J E; Lothringer, Joshua D; Mandell, Avi M; Valenti, Jeff A; Agol, Eric; Angerhausen, Daniel; Barstow, Joanna K; Birkmann, Stephan M; Burrows, Adam; Cowan, Nicolas B; Crouzet, Nicolas; Cubillos, Patricio E; Curry, S M; Dalba, Paul A; de Wit, Julien; Deming, Drake; Desert, Jean-Michel; Doyon, Rene; Dragomir, Diana; Ehrenreich, David; Fortney, Jonathan J; Munoz, Antonio Garcia; Gibson, Neale P; Gizis, John E; Greene, Thomas P; Harrington, Joseph; Heng, Kevin; Kataria, Tiffany; Kempton, Eliza M -R; Knutson, Heather; Kreidberg, Laura; Lafreniere, David; Lagage, Pierre-Olivier; Line, Michael R; Lopez-Morales, Mercedes; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Morley, Caroline V; Rocchetto, Marco; Schlawin, Everett; Shkolnik, Evgenya L; Shporer, Avi; Sing, David K; Todorov, Kamen O; Tucker, Gregory S; Wakeford, Hannah R

    2016-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope will revolutionize transiting exoplanet atmospheric science due to its capability for continuous, long-duration observations and its larger collecting area, spectral coverage, and spectral resolution compared to existing space-based facilities. However, it is unclear precisely how well JWST will perform and which of its myriad instruments and observing modes will be best suited for transiting exoplanet studies. In this article, we describe a prefatory JWST Early Release Science (ERS) program that focuses on testing specific observing modes to quickly give the community the data and experience it needs to plan more efficient and successful future transiting exoplanet characterization programs. We propose a multi-pronged approach wherein one aspect of the program focuses on observing transits of a single target with all of the recommended observing modes to identify and understand potential systematics, compare transmission spectra at overlapping and neighboring wavelength regions...

  6. Observing Resolved Stellar Populations with the JWST Near-Infrared Spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, K. M.; Beck, T. L.; Karakla, D. M.

    2016-10-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope's (JWST) Near Infrared Spectrograph (NIRSpec) will provide a multi-object spectroscopy (MOS) mode through the Micro-Shutter Array (MSA). Each MSA quadrant is a grid of contiguous shutters that can be configured to form slits on more than 100 astronomical targets simultaneously. The combination of JWST's sensitivity and superb resolution in the infrared and NIRSpec's full wavelength coverage over 0.6 to 5 μm will open new parameter space for studies of galaxies and resolved stellar populations alike. We describe a NIRSpec MSA observing scenario of spectroscopy of individual stars in an external galaxy, and investigate the technical challenges posed by this scenario. This use case and others, including a deep galaxy survey and observations of Galactic HII regions, are guiding development of the NIRSpec user interfaces including proposal planning and pipeline calibrations.

  7. Extrasolar Planets Observed with JWST and the ELTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, L. Drake

    2010-01-01

    The advent of cryogenic space-borne infrared observatories such as the Spitzer Space Telescope has lead to a revolution in the study of planets and planetary systems orbiting sun-like stars. Already Spitzer has characterized the emergent infrared spectra of close-in giant exoplanets using transit and eclipse techniques. The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will be able to extend these studies to superEarth exoplanets orbiting in the habitable zones of M-dwarf stars in the near solar neighborhood. The forthcoming ground-based Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs) will playa key role in these studies, being especially valuable for spectroscopy at higher spectral resolving powers where large photon fluxes are needed. The culmination of this work within the next two decades will be the detection and spectral characterization of the major molecular constituents in the atmosphere of a habitable superEarth orbiting a nearby lower main sequence star.

  8. JWST tunable filter imager: etalon prototype test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touahri, D.; Cameron, P.; Evans, C.; Greenberg, E.; Rowlands, N.; Scott, A.; Doyon, R.; Beaulieu, M.; Djazovski, O.

    2008-07-01

    We present the prototyping results and laboratory characterization of a narrow band Fabry-Perot etalon flight model which is one of the wavelength selecting elements of the Tunable Filter Imager. The latter is a part of the Fine Guidance Sensor which represents the Canadian contribution to NASA's James Webb Space Telescope. The unique design of this etalon provides the JWST observatory with the ability to image at 30 Kelvin, a 2.2'x2.2' portion of its field of view in a narrow spectral bandwidth of R~100 at any wavelength ranging between 1.6 and 4.9 μm (with a gap in coverage between 2.5 and 3.2 μm). Extensive testing has resulted in better understanding of the thermal properties of the piezoelectric transducers used as an actuation system for the etalon gap tuning. Good throughput, spectral resolution and contrast have been demonstrated for the full wavelength range.

  9. Simulated JWST/NIRISS Spectroscopy of Anticipated TESS Planets and Selected Super-Earths Discovered from K2 and Ground-Based Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Dana; Albert, Loic; Deming, Drake

    2017-01-01

    The 2018 launch of James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), coupled with the 2017 launch of the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS), heralds a new era in Exoplanet Science, with TESS projected to detect over one thousand transiting sub-Neptune-sized planets (Ricker et al, 2014), and JWST offering unprecedented spectroscopic capabilities. Sullivan et al (2015) used Monte Carlo simulations to predict the properties of the planets that TESS is likely to detect, and published a catalog of 962 simulated TESS planets. Prior to TESS launch, the re-scoped Kepler K2 mission and ground-based surveys such as MEarth continue to seek nearby Earth-like exoplanets orbiting M-dwarf host stars. The exoplanet community will undoubtedly employ JWST for atmospheric characterization follow-up studies of promising exoplanets, but the targeted planets for these studies must be chosen wisely to maximize JWST science return. The goal of this project is to estimate the capabilities of JWST’s Near InfraRed Imager and Slitless Spectrograph (NIRISS)—operating with the GR700XD grism in Single Object Slitless Spectrography (SOSS) mode—during observations of exoplanets transiting their host stars. We compare results obtained for the simulated TESS planets, confirmed K2-discovered super-Earths, and exoplanets discovered using ground-based surveys. By determining the target planet characteristics that result in the most favorable JWST observing conditions, we can optimize the choice of target planets in future JWST follow-on atmospheric characterization studies.

  10. Commentary: JWST near-infrared detector degradation— finding the problem, fixing the problem, and moving forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard J. Rauscher

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST is the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope. JWST will be an infrared-optimized telescope, with an approximately 6.5 m diameter primary mirror, that is located at the Sun-Earth L2 Lagrange point. Three of JWST’s four science instruments use Teledyne HgCdTe HAWAII-2RG (H2RG near infrared detector arrays. During 2010, the JWST Project noticed that a few of its 5 μm cutoff H2RG detectors were degrading during room temperature storage, and NASA chartered a “Detector Degradation Failure Review Board” (DD-FRB to investigate. The DD-FRB determined that the root cause was a design flaw that allowed indium to interdiffuse with the gold contacts and migrate into the HgCdTe detector layer. Fortunately, Teledyne already had an improved design that eliminated this degradation mechanism. During early 2012, the improved H2RG design was qualified for flight and JWST began making additional H2RGs. In this article, we present the two public DD-FRB “Executive Summaries” that: (1 determined the root cause of the detector degradation and (2 defined tests to determine whether the existing detectors are qualified for flight. We supplement these with a brief introduction to H2RG detector arrays, some recent measurements showing that the performance of the improved design meets JWST requirements, and a discussion of how the JWST Project is using cryogenic storage to retard the degradation rate of the existing flight spare H2RGs.

  11. Characterization of the JWST Pathfinder Mirror Dynamics Using the Center of Curvature Optical Assembly (CoCOA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, C.; Hadaway, J.; Olczak, G.; Cosentino, J.; Johnston, J.; Whitman, T.; Connolly, M.; Chaney, D.; Knight, J.; Telfer, R.

    2016-01-01

    The JWST (James Webb Space Telescope) Optical Telescope Element (OTE) consists of a 6.6 meter clear aperture, 18-segment primary mirror, all-reflective, three-mirror anastigmat operating at cryogenic temperatures. To verify performance of the primary mirror, a full aperture center of curvature optical null test is performed under cryogenic conditions in Chamber A at NASA Johnson Space Center using an instantaneous phase measuring interferometer. After phasing the mirrors during the JWST Pathfinder testing, the interferometer is utilized to characterize the mirror relative piston and tilt dynamics under different facility configurations. The correlation between the motions seen on detectors at the focal plane and the interferometer validates the use of the interferometer for dynamic investigations. The success of planned test hardware improvements will be characterized by the multi-wavelength interferometer (MWIF) at the Center of Curvature Optical Assembly (CoCOA).

  12. Characterization of the JWST Pathfinder mirror dynamics using the center of curvature optical assembly (CoCOA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Conrad; Hadaway, James B.; Olczak, Gene; Cosentino, Joseph; Johnston, John D.; Whitman, Tony; Connolly, Mark; Chaney, David; Knight, J. Scott; Telfer, Randal

    2016-07-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Optical Telescope Element (OTE) consists of a 6.6 m clear aperture, 18 segment primary mirror, all-reflective, three-mirror anastigmat operating at cryogenic temperatures. To verify performance of the primary mirror, a full aperture center of curvature optical null test is performed under cryogenic conditions in Chamber A at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) using an instantaneous phase measuring interferometer. After phasing the mirrors during the JWST Pathfinder testing, the interferometer is utilized to characterize the mirror relative piston and tilt dynamics under different facility configurations. The correlation between the motions seen on detectors at the focal plane and the interferometer validates the use of the interferometer for dynamic investigations. The success of planned test hardware improvements will be characterized by the multi-wavelength interferometer (MWIF) at the Center of Curvature Optical Assembly (CoCOA).

  13. Development of a Cryogenic Thermal Distortion Measurement Facility for Testing the James Webb Space Telescope Instrument Support Integration Module 2-D Test Assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Franklin; Bagdanove, paul; Blake, Peter; Canavan, Ed; Cofie, Emmanuel; Crane, J. Allen; Dominquez, Kareny; Hagopian, John; Johnston, John; Madison, Tim; Miller, Dave; Oaks, Darrell; Williams, Pat; Young, Dan; Zukowski, Barbara; Zukowski, Tim

    2007-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope Instrument Support Integration Module (ISIM) is being designed and developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center. The ISM Thermal Distortion Testing (ITDT) program was started with the primary objective to validate the ISM mechanical design process. The ITDT effort seeks to establish confidence and demonstrate the ability to predict thermal distortion in composite structures at cryogenic temperatures using solid element models. This-program's goal is to better ensure that ISIM meets all the mechanical and structural requirements by using test results to verify or improve structural modeling techniques. The first step to accomplish the ITDT objectives was to design, and then construct solid element models of a series 2-D test assemblies that represent critical building blocks of the ISIM structure. Second, the actual test assemblies consisting of composite tubes and invar end fittings were fabricated and tested for thermal distortion. This paper presents the development of the GSFC Cryo Distortion Measurement Facility (CDMF) to meet the requirements of the ISIM 2-D test. assemblies, and other future ISIM testing needs. The CDMF provides efficient cooling with both a single, and two-stage cryo-cooler. Temperature uniformity of the test assemblies during thermal transients and at steady state is accomplished by using sapphire windows for all of the optical ports on the radiation shields and by using .thermal straps to cool the test assemblies. Numerical thermal models of the test assemblies were used to predict the temperature uniformity of the parts during cooldown and at steady state. Results of these models are compared to actual temperature data from the tests. Temperature sensors with a 0.25K precision were used to insure that test assembly gradients did not exceed 2K lateral, and 4K axially. The thermal distortions of two assemblies were measured during six thermal cycles from 320K to 35K using laser interferometers. The standard

  14. Preparing for JWST wavefront sensing and control operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Marshall D.; Acton, D. Scott; Lajoie, Charles-Philippe; Knight, J. Scott; Lallo, Matthew D.; Allen, Marsha; Baggett, Wayne; Barker, Elizabeth; Comeau, Thomas; Coppock, Eric; Dean, Bruce H.; Hartig, George; Hayden, William L.; Jordan, Margaret; Jurling, Alden; Kulp, Trey; Long, Joseph; McElwain, Michael W.; Meza, Luis; Nelan, Edmund P.; Soummer, Remi; Stansberry, John; Stark, Christopher; Telfer, Randal; Welsh, Andria L.; Zielinski, Thomas P.; Zimmerman, Neil T.

    2016-07-01

    The James Webb Space Telescopes segmented primary and deployable secondary mirrors will be actively con- trolled to achieve optical alignment through a complex series of steps that will extend across several months during the observatory's commissioning. This process will require an intricate interplay between individual wavefront sensing and control tasks, instrument-level checkout and commissioning, and observatory-level calibrations, which involves many subsystems across both the observatory and the ground system. Furthermore, commissioning will often exercise observatory capabilities under atypical circumstances, such as fine guiding with unstacked or defocused images, or planning targeted observations in the presence of substantial time-variable offsets to the telescope line of sight. Coordination for this process across the JWST partnership has been conducted through the Wavefront Sensing and Control Operations Working Group. We describe at a high level the activities of this group and the resulting detailed commissioning operations plans, supporting software tools development, and ongoing preparations activities at the Science and Operations Center. For each major step in JWST's wavefront sensing and control, we also explain the changes and additions that were needed to turn an initial operations concept into a flight-ready plan with proven tools. These efforts are leading to a robust and well-tested process and preparing the team for an efficient and successful commissioning of JWSTs active telescope.

  15. Exoplanets with JWST: degeneracy, systematics and how to avoid them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barstow, Joanna K.; Irwin, Patrick G. J.; Kendrew, Sarah; Aigrain, Suzanne

    2016-07-01

    The high sensitivity and broad wavelength coverage of the James Webb Space Telescope will transform the field of exoplanet transit spectroscopy. Transit spectra are inferred from minute, wavelength-dependent variations in the depth of a transit or eclipse as the planet passes in front of or is obscured by its star, and the spectra contain information about the composition, structure and cloudiness of exoplanet atmospheres. Atmospheric retrieval is the preferred technique for extracting information from these spectra, but the process can be confused by astrophysical and instrumental systematic noise. We present results of retrieval tests based on synthetic, noisy JWST spectra, for clear and cloudy planets and active and inactive stars. We find that the ability to correct for stellar activity is likely to be a limiting factor for cloudy planets, as the effects of unocculted star spots may mimic the presence of a scattering slope due to clouds. We discuss the pros and cons of the available JWST instrument combinations for transit spectroscopy, and consider the effect of clouds and aerosols on the spectra. Aerosol high in a planet's atmosphere obscures molecular absorption features in transmission, reducing the information content of spectra in wavelength regions where the cloud is optically thick. We discuss the usefulness of particular wavelength regions for identifying the presence of cloud, and suggest strategies for solving the highly-degenerate retrieval problem for these objects.

  16. Unique Spectroscopy and Imaging of Mars with JWST

    CERN Document Server

    Villanueva, Geronimo L; Clancy, Todd R; Encrenaz, Therese; Fouchet, Thierry; Hartogh, Paul; Lellouch, Emmanuel; Lopez-Valverde, Miguel A; Mumma, Michael J; Novak, Robert E; Smith, Michael D; Vandaele, Ann-Carine; Wolff, Michael J; Ferruit, Pierre; Milam, Stefanie N

    2015-01-01

    In this document, we summarize the main capabilities of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) for performing observations of Mars. The distinctive vantage point of JWST at the Sun-Earth Lagrange point (L2) will allow sampling the full observable disk, permitting the study of short-term phenomena, diurnal processes (across the East-West axis) and latitudinal processes between the hemispheres (including seasonal effects) with excellent spatial resolutions (0.07 arcsec at 2 {\\mu}m). Spectroscopic observations will be achievable in the 0.7-5 {\\mu}m spectral region with NIRSpec at a maximum resolving power of 2700, and with 8000 in the 1-1.25 {\\mu}m range. Imaging will be attainable with NIRCam at 4.3 {\\mu}m and with two narrow filters near 2 {\\mu}m, while the nightside will be accessible with several filters in the 0.5 to 2 {\\mu}m. Such a powerful suite of instruments will be a major asset for the exploration and characterization of Mars. Some science cases include the mapping of the water D/H ratio, investigatio...

  17. High Contrast Imaging with the JWST NIRCAM Coronagraph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Joseph J.; Beichman, Charles; Basinger, Scott A.; Horner, Scott; Meyer, Michael; Redding, David C.; Rieke, Marcia; Trauger, John T.

    2005-01-01

    Relative to ground-based telescopes, the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will have a substantial sensitivity advantage in the 2.2-5pm wavelength range where brown dwarfs and hot Jupiters are thought to have significant brightness enhancements. To facilitate high contrast imaging within this band, the Near-Infrared Camera (NIRCAM) will employ a Lyot coronagraph with an array of band-limited image-plane occulting spots. In this paper, we provide the science motivation for high contrast imaging with NIRCAM, comparing its expected performance to that of the Keck, Gemini and 30 m (TMT) telescopes equipped with Adaptive Optics systems of different capabilities. We then describe our design for the NIRCAM coronagraph that enables imaging over the entire sensitivity range of the instrument while providing significant operational flexibility. We describe the various design tradeoffs that were made in consideration of alignment and aberration sensitivities and present contrast performance in the presence of JWST's expected optical aberrations. Finally we show an example of a that can provide 10-5 companion sensitivity at sub-arcsecond separations.

  18. Observing Planetary Rings with JWST: Science Justification and Observation Requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Tiscareno, Matthew S; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N; de Pater, Imke; Hamilton, Douglas P; Hedman, Matthew M; Nicholson, Philip D; Showalter, Mark R; Tamayo, Daniel; Verbiscer, Anne J

    2014-01-01

    The rings that adorn the four giant planets are of prime importance as accessible natural laboratories for disk processes, as clues to the origin and evolution of planetary systems, and as shapers as well as detectors of their planetary environments. The retinue of small moons accompanying all known ring systems are intimately connected as both sources and products, as well as shepherds and perturbers, of the rings. Leading sources of data on ring systems include spacecraft such as Cassini and Voyager, but also space telescopes such as Hubble and Spitzer as well as ground-based telescopes. The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is being prepared for launch in 2018 to begin a planned five-year mission. JWST will have the capability to observe solar system objects as close as Mars. Although most of the hardware is already designed and under construction if not completed, work continues on the development of operations guidelines and software and the completion of calibration tasks. The purpose of this white pape...

  19. Transiting Exoplanet Studies and Community Targets for JWST's Early Release Science Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Kevin B.; "Enabling Transiting Exoplanet Science with JWST" workshop attendees

    2016-10-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will likely revolutionize transiting exoplanet atmospheric science; however, it is unclear precisely how well it will perform and which of its myriad instruments and observing modes will be best suited for transiting exoplanet studies. We will describe a prefatory JWST Early Release Science (ERS) Cycle 1 program that focuses on testing specific observing modes to quickly give the community the data and experience it needs to plan more efficient and successful transiting exoplanet characterization programs in later cycles. We will also present a list of "community targets" that are well suited to achieving these goals. Since most of the community targets do not have well-characterized atmospheres, we have initiated a preparatory HST + Spitzer observing program to determine the presence of obscuring clouds/hazes within their atmospheres. Measurable spectroscopic features are needed to establish the optimal resolution and wavelength regions for exoplanet characterization. We will present preliminary results from this preparatory observing program and discuss their implications on the pending JWST ERS proposal deadline in mid-2017.

  20. The Planning Process for Multi-Object Spectroscopy with the JWST Near-Infrared Spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Tracy L.; Karakla, D. M.; Shyrokov, A.; Pontoppidan, K.; Soderblom, D. R.; Valenti, J. A.; Kassin, S. A.; Gilbert, K.; Blair, W. P.; Muzerolle, J.; Tumlinson, J.; Keyes, C. D.; Pavlovsky, C. M.; LeBlanc, T.

    2014-01-01

    The Near-Infrared Spectrograph (NIRSpec) for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will have a powerful multi-object spectroscopy mode using four configurable Micro-Shutter Arrays (MSAs). The contiguous MSA shutters can be opened to form slits on astronomical targets, for simultaneous spectroscopy of up to 100 sources per exposure. The NIRSpec MSA shutters are in a fixed grid pattern, and careful analysis in the observation planning process will be crucial for optimal definition of science exposures. Our goal is to maximize the number of astronomical science sources observed in the fewest number of MSA slit configurations. We are developing algorithms in the NIRSpec MSA Planning Tool (MPT) to improve the quality of planned observations using several common science observing strategies as test use cases. For example, the needs for planning extremely deep exposures on a small number of JWST discovered z > 10 galaxy candidates will differ significantly from the requirements for planning spectral observations on a representative sample of stars from a galactic star cluster catalog. In this poster, we present a high level overview of our plans to develop and optimize the MPT for the JWST NIRSpec multi-object spectroscopy mode.

  1. NIRCam: Development and Testing of the JWST Near-Infrared Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Thomas; Beichman, Charles; Gully-Santiago, Michael; Jaffe, Daniel; Kelly, Douglas; Krist, John; Rieke, Marcia; Smith, Eric H.

    2011-01-01

    The Near Infrared Camera (NIRCam) is one of the four science instruments of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). Its high sensitivity, high spatial resolution images over the 0.6 - 5 microns wavelength region will be essential for making significant findings in many science areas as well as for aligning the JWST primary mirror segments and telescope. The NIRCam engineering test unit was recently assembled and has undergone successful cryogenic testing. The NIRCam collimator and camera optics and their mountings are also progressing, with a brass-board system demonstrating relatively low wavefront error across a wide field of view. The flight model?s long-wavelength Si grisms have been fabricated, and its coronagraph masks are now being made. Both the short (0.6 - 2.3 microns) and long (2.4 - 5.0 microns) wavelength flight detectors show good performance and are undergoing final assembly and testing. The flight model subsystems should all be completed later this year through early 2011, and NIRCam will be cryogenically tested in the first half of 2011 before delivery to the JWST integrated science instrument module (ISIM).

  2. Electronic speckle pattern interferometric testing of JWST primary mirror segment assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Koby Z.; Chaney, David M.; Saif, Babak N.

    2011-09-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Primary Mirror Segment Assembly (PMSA) was required to meet NASA Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 06 requirements in the summer of 2006. These TRL06 requirements included verifying all mirror technology systems level readiness in simulated end-to-end operating conditions. In order to support the aggressive development and technology readiness schedule for the JWST Primary Mirror Segment Assembly (PMSA), a novel approach was implemented to verify the nanometer surface figure distortion effects on an in-process non-polished beryllium mirror surface. At the time that the TRL06 requirements needed to be met, a polished mirror segment had not yet been produced that could have utilized the baselined interferometric optical test station. The only JWST mirror segment available was a finished machined segment with an acid-etched optical surface. Therefore an Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometer (ESPI) was used in coordination with additional metrology techniques to perform interferometric level optical testing on a non-optical surface. An accelerated, rigorous certification program was quickly developed for the ESPI to be used with the unfinished optical surface of the primary mirror segment. The ESPI was quickly implemented into the PMSA test program and optical testing was very successful in quantifying the nanometer level surface figure deformation changes in the PMSA due to assembly, thermal cycling, vibration, and acoustic testing. As a result of the successful testing, the PMSA passed all NASA TRL06 readiness requirements.

  3. JWST and Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, John C.

    2009-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is on track for a launch in 2013. The author reviews the status and progress on the key hardware. The first primary mirror segments are already at MSFC for cryogenic tests, the mid IR instrument (MIRI) has already had successful tests of the engineering model, and the detectors are showing excellent performance. The author also describes the scientific objectives of the mission, with emphasis on the predicted capabilities for observing planets by the transit technique and through direct imaging. Recent direct observations of planets by HST and by adaptive optics from the ground have shown that, under favorable circumstances, much can be learned.

  4. Calibration results using highly aberrated images for aligning the JWST instruments to the telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Koby Z.; Acton, D. Scott; Gallagher, Ben B.; Knight, J. Scott; Dean, Bruce H.; Jurling, Alden S.; Zielinski, Thomas P.

    2016-07-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) project is an international collaboration led by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in Greenbelt, MD. JWST is NASA's flagship observatory that will operate nearly a million miles away from Earth at the L2 Lagrange point. JWST's optical design is a three-mirror anastigmat with four main optical components; 1) the eighteen Primary Mirror Segment Assemblies (PMSA), 2) a single Secondary Mirror Assembly (SMA), 3) an Aft-Optics Subsystem (AOS) consisting of a Tertiary Mirror and Fine Steering Mirror, and 4) an Integrated Science Instrument Module consisting of the various instruments for JWST. JWST's optical system has been designed to accommodate a significant amount of alignment capability and risk with the PMSAs and SMA having rigid body motion available on-orbit just for alignment purposes. However, the Aft-Optics Subsystem (AOS) and Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) are essentially fixed optical subsystems within JWST, and therefore the cryogenic alignment of the AOS to the ISIM is critical to the optical performance and mission success of JWST. In support of this cryogenic alignment of the AOS to ISIM, an array of fiber optic sources, known as the AOS Source Plate Assembly (ASPA), are placed near the intermediate image location of JWST (between the secondary and tertiary mirrors) during thermal vacuum ground-test operations. The AOS produces images of the ASPA fiber optic sources at the JWST focal surface location, where they are captured by the various science instruments. In this manner, the AOS provides an optical yardstick by which the instruments within ISIM can evaluate their relative positions to and the alignment of the AOS to ISIM can be quantified. However, since the ASPA is located at the intermediate image location of the JWST three-mirror anastigmat design, the images of these fiber optic sources produced by the AOS are highly aberrated with approximately 2-3μm RMS wavefront error consisting

  5. Developing an instrument simulator: experience feedback from the JWST/NIRSpec and VLT/MUSE simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarno, Aurélien; Piqueras, Laure; Bacon, Roland; Ferruit, Pierre; Legros, Emeline; Pécontal-Rousset, Arlette; Gnata, Xavier; Streicher, Ole; Weilbacher, Peter

    2012-09-01

    The Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon (CRAL) has recently developed two instrument simulators for spectrographic instruments. They are based on Fourier optics, and model the whole chain of acquisition, taking into account both optical aberrations and diffraction effects, by propagating a wavefront through the instrument, according to the Fourier optics concept. One simulates the NIRSpec instrument, a near-infrared multi-object spectrograph for the future James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The other one models the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) instrument, a second-generation integral-field spectrograph for the Very Large Telescope (VLT). The two simulators have been developed in different contexts (subcontracted versus developed internally), and for very different instruments (space-based versus ground-based), which strengthen the CRAL experience. This paper describes the lessons learned while developing these simulators: development methods, phasing with the project, points to focus on, getting data, interacting with scientists and users, etc.

  6. The Mid-Infrared Instrument for JWST, II: Design and Build

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, G S; Goodson, G B; Rieke, G H; Aitink-Kroes, Gabby; Amiaux, J; Aricha-Yanguas, Ana; Azzolini, Ruyman; Banks, Kimberly; Barrado-Navascues, D; Belenguer-Davila, T; Bloemmart, J A D L; Bouchet, Patrice; Brandl, B R; Colina, L; Detre, Ors; Diaz-Catala, Eva; Eccleston, Paul; Friedman, Scott D; Garcia-Marin, Macarena; Guedel, Manuel; Glasse, Alistair; Glauser, Adrian M; Greene, T P; Groezinger, Uli; Grundy, Tim; Hastings, Peter; Henning, Th; Hofferbert, Ralph; Hunter, Faye; Jessen, N C; Justtanont, K; Karnik, Avinash R; Khorrami, Mori A; Krause, Oliver; Labiano, Alvaro; Lagage, P -O; Langer, Ulrich; Lemke, Dietrich; Lim, Tanya; Lorenzo-Alvarez, Jose; Mazy, Emmanuel; McGowan, Norman; Meixner, M E; Morris, Nigel; Morrison, Jane E; Mueller, Friedrich; Norgaard-Nielson, H -U; Olofsson, Goeran; O'Sullivan, Brian; Pel, J -W; Penanen, Konstantin; Petach, M B; Pye, J P; Ray, T P; Renotte, Etienne; Renouf, Ian; Ressler, M E; Samara-Ratna, Piyal; Scheithauer, Silvia; Schneider, Analyn; Shaughnessy, Bryan; Stevenson, Tim; Sukhatme, Kalyani; Swinyard, Bruce; Sykes, Jon; Thatcher, John; Tikkanen, Tuomo; van Dishoeck, E F; Waelkens, C; Walker, Helen; Wells, Martyn; Zhender, Alex

    2015-01-01

    The Mid-InfraRed Instrument (MIRI) on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) provides measurements over the wavelength range 5 to 28.5 microns. MIRI has, within a single 'package', four key scientific functions: photometric imaging, coronagraphy, single-source low-spectral resolving power (R ~ 100) spectroscopy, and medium-resolving power (R ~ 1500 to 3500) integral field spectroscopy. An associated cooler system maintains MIRI at its operating temperature of < 6.7 K. This paper describes the driving principles behind the design of MIRI, the primary design parameters, and their realization in terms of the 'as-built' instrument. It also describes the test program that led to delivery of the tested and calibrated Flight Model to NASA in 2012, and the confirmation after delivery of the key interface requirements.

  7. Model predictions and observed performance of JWST's cryogenic position metrology system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunt, Sharon R.; Rhodes, David; DiAntonio, Andrew; Boland, John; Wells, Conrad; Gigliotti, Trevis; Johanning, Gary

    2016-07-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) cryogenic testing requires measurement systems that both obtain a very high degree of accuracy and can function in that environment. Close-range photogrammetry was identified as meeting those criteria. Testing the capability of a close-range photogrammetric system prior to its existence is a challenging problem. Computer simulation was chosen over building a scaled mock-up to allow for increased flexibility in testing various configurations. Extensive validation work was done to ensure that the actual as-built system meets accuracy and repeatability requirements. The simulated image data predicted the uncertainty in measurement to be within specification and this prediction was borne out experimentally. Uncertainty at all levels was verified experimentally to be <0.1 mm.

  8. Advanced cryogenic thermal switches for JWST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugby, David; Beres, Matthew; Stouffer, Charles; Rodriguez, Jose

    2005-08-01

    This paper describes two cryogenic thermal switches (CTSWs) under development for instruments on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The first thermal switch was designed to extend the life of the solid H2 dewar for the 6 K Mid Infrared Instrument (MIRI) while the second thermal switch is needed for contamination and over-temperature control of three 35 K instruments on the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM). In both cases, differential thermal expansion (DTE) between two materials having differing CTE values is the process that underpins the thermal switching. The patented DTE-CTSW design utilizes two metallic end-pieces, one cup-shaped and the other disc-shaped (both MIRI end-pieces are Al while ISIM uses an Al/Invar cup and an Al disc), joined by an axially centered Ultem rod, which creates a narrow, flat gap between the cup (rim) and disc. A heater is bonded to the rod center. Upon cooling one or both end-pieces, the rod contracts relative to the end-pieces and the gap closes, turning the CTSW ON. When the rod heater is turned on, the rod expands relative to the end-pieces and the gap opens, turning the CTSW OFF. During testing from 6-35 K, ON conductances of 0.3-12 W/K and OFF resistances greater than 2500 K/W were measured. Of particular importance at 6 K was the Al oxide layer, which was found to significantly decrease DTE-CTSW ON conductance when the mating surfaces were bare Al. When the mating surfaces were gold-plated, the adverse impact of the oxide layer was mitigated. This paper will describe both efforts from design through model correlation.

  9. Bayesian Approach for Reliability Assessment of Sunshield Deployment on JWST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminskiy, Mark P.; Evans, John W.; Gallo, Luis D.

    2013-01-01

    Deployable subsystems are essential to mission success of most spacecraft. These subsystems enable critical functions including power, communications and thermal control. The loss of any of these functions will generally result in loss of the mission. These subsystems and their components often consist of unique designs and applications, for which various standardized data sources are not applicable for estimating reliability and for assessing risks. In this study, a Bayesian approach for reliability estimation of spacecraft deployment was developed for this purpose. This approach was then applied to the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Sunshield subsystem, a unique design intended for thermal control of the observatory's telescope and science instruments. In order to collect the prior information on deployable systems, detailed studies of "heritage information", were conducted extending over 45 years of spacecraft launches. The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Spacecraft Operational Anomaly and Reporting System (SOARS) data were then used to estimate the parameters of the conjugative beta prior distribution for anomaly and failure occurrence, as the most consistent set of available data and that could be matched to launch histories. This allows for an emperical Bayesian prediction for the risk of an anomaly occurrence of the complex Sunshield deployment, with credibility limits, using prior deployment data and test information.

  10. Predicting the High Redshift Galaxy Population for JWST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Zoey; Benson, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope will be launched in Oct 2018 with the goal of observing galaxies in the redshift range of z = 10 - 15. As redshift increases, the age of the Universe decreases, allowing us to study objects formed only a few hundred million years after the Big Bang. This will provide a valuable opportunity to test and improve current galaxy formation theory by comparing predictions for mass, luminosity, and number density to the observed data. We have made testable predictions with the semi-analytical galaxy formation model Galacticus. The code uses Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods to determine viable sets of model parameters that match current astronomical data. The resulting constrained model was then set to match the specifications of the JWST Ultra Deep Field Imaging Survey. Predictions utilizing up to 100 viable parameter sets were calculated, allowing us to assess the uncertainty in current theoretical expectations. We predict that the planned UDF will be able to observe a significant number of objects past redshift z > 9 but nothing at redshift z > 11. In order to detect these faint objects at redshifts z = 11-15 we need to increase exposure time by at least a factor of 1.66.

  11. New and Better Near-Infrared Detectors for JWST Near Infrared Spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Bernard J.; Mott, D. Brent; Wen, Yiting; Linder, Don; Greenhouse, Matthew A.; Hill, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    ESA and NASA recently selected two 5 m cutoff Teledyne H2RG sensor chip assemblies (SCA) for flight on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Near Infrared Spectrograph (NIRSpec). These HgCdTe SCAs incorporate Teledynes improved barrier layer design that eliminates the degradation that affected earlier JWST H2RGs(Rauscher et al. 2012a). The better indium barrier, together with other design changes, has improved the performance and reliability of JWSTs SCAs. In this article, we describe the measured performance characteristics that most directly affect scientific observations including read noise, total noise, dark current, quantum efficiency (QE), and image persistence. As part of measuring QE, we measured the quantum yield as a function of photon energy,, and found that it exceeds unity for photon energies E (2.65.2) Eg, where Eg is the HgCdTe bandgap energy. This corresponds to. 2 m for NIRSpecs 5 m cutoff HgCdTe. Our measurements agree well with a previous measurement by McCullough et al. (2008) for. 1.3. For 1.3, we find a slower increase in with photon energy than McCullough et al. did. However, and as McCullough et al. note, their two state model of the yield process is not valid for large 1.

  12. Mechanical blind gap measurement tool for alignment of the JWST Optical Telescope Element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liepmann, Till

    2016-09-01

    This paper describes a novel gap gauge tool that is used to provide an independent check of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Optical Telescope Element (OTE) primary mirror alignment. Making accurate measurements of the mechanical gaps between the OTE mirror segments is needed to verify that the segments were properly aligned relative to each other throughout the integration and test of the 6.6 meter telescope. The gap between the Primary Mirror Segment Assemblies (PMSA) is a sensitive indicator of the relative clocking and decenter. Further, the gap measurements are completely independent of all the other measurements use in the alignment process (e.g. laser trackers and laser radar). The gap measurement is a challenge, however, that required a new approach. Commercial gap measurements tools were investigated; however no suitable solution is available. The challenge of this measurement is due to the required 0.1 mm accuracy, the close spacing of the mirrors segments (approximately 3-9mm), the acute angle between the segment sides (approximately 4 degrees), and the difficult access to the blind gap. Several techniques were considered and tested before selecting the gauge presented here. This paper presents the theory, construction and calibration of the JWST gap gauge that is being used to measure and verify alignment of the OTE primary mirror segments.

  13. The impact of JWST broad-band filter choice on photometric redshift estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Bisigello, L; Colina, L; Fèvre, O Le; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Pérez-González, P G; Pye, J; van der Werf, P; Ilbert, O; Grogin, N; Koekemoer, A

    2016-01-01

    The determination of galaxy redshifts in James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)'s blank-field surveys will mostly rely on photometric estimates, based on the data provided by JWST's Near-Infrared Camera (NIRCam) at 0.6-5.0 {\\mu}m and Mid Infrared Instrument (MIRI) at {\\lambda}>5.0 {\\mu}m. In this work we analyse the impact of choosing different combinations of NIRCam and MIRI broad-band filters (F070W to F770W), as well as having ancillary data at {\\lambda}=10, but the zphot quality significantly degrades at S/N<=5. Adding MIRI photometry with one magnitude brighter depth than the NIRCam depth allows for a redshift recovery of 83-99%, depending on SED type, and its effect is particularly noteworthy for galaxies with nebular emission. The vast majority of NIRCam galaxies with [F150W]=29 AB mag at z=7-10 will be detected with MIRI at [F560W, F770W]<28 mag if these sources are at least mildly evolved or have spectra with emission lines boosting the mid-infrared fluxes.

  14. An image-plane algorithm for JWST's non-redundant aperture mask data

    CERN Document Server

    Greenbaum, Alexandra Z; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Lacour, Sylvestre

    2014-01-01

    The high angular resolution technique of non-redundant masking (NRM) or aperture masking interferometry (AMI) has yielded images of faint protoplanetary companions of nearby stars from the ground. AMI on James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)'s Near Infrared Imager and Slitless Spectrograph (NIRISS) has a lower thermal background than ground-based facilites and does not suffer from atmospheric instability. NIRISS AMI images are likely to have 90 - 95% Strehl ratio between 2.77 and 4.8 micron. In this paper we quantify factors that limit the raw point source contrast of JWST NRM. We develop an analytic model of the NRM point spread function which includes different optical path delays (pistons) between mask holes and fit the model parameters with image plane data. It enables a straightforward way to exclude bad pixels, is suited to limited fields of view, and can incorporate effects such as intra-pixel sensitivity variations. We simulate various sources of noise to estimate their effect on the standard deviation of...

  15. Can JWST Follow Up on Gravitational-Wave Detections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-02-01

    Bitten by the gravitational-wave bug? While we await Thursdays press conference, heres some food for thought: if LIGO were able to detect gravitational waves from compact-object mergers, how could we follow up on the detections? A new study investigates whether the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will be able to observe electromagnetic signatures of some compact-object mergers.Hunting for MergersStudying compact-object mergers (mergers of black holes and neutron stars) can help us understand a wealth of subjects, like high-energy physics, how matter behaves at nuclear densities, how stars evolve, and how heavy elements in the universe were created.The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) is searching for the signature ripples in spacetime identifying these mergers, but gravitational waves are squirrelly: LIGO will only be able to localize wave sources to tens of square degrees. If we want to find out more about any mergers LIGO discovers in gravitational waves, well need a follow-up search for electromagnetic counterparts with other observatories.The Kilonova KeyOne possible electromagnetic counterpart is kilonovae, explosions that can be produced during a merger of a binary neutron star or a neutron starblack hole system. If the neutron star is disrupted during the merger, some of the hot mass is flung outward and shines brightly by radioactive decay.Kilonovae are especially promising as electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational waves for three reasons:They emit isotropically, so the number of observable mergers isnt limited by relativistic beaming.They shine for a week, giving follow-up observatories time to search for them.The source location can beeasily recovered.The only problem? We dont currently have any sensitive survey instruments in the near-infrared band (where kilonova emission peaks) that can provide coverage over tens of square degrees. Luckily, we will soon have just the thing: JWST, launching in 2018!JWSTs

  16. Performance of the primary mirror center-of-curvature optical metrology system during cryogenic testing of the JWST Pathfinder telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadaway, James B.; Wells, Conrad; Olczak, Gene; Waldman, Mark; Whitman, Tony; Cosentino, Joseph; Connolly, Mark; Chaney, David; Telfer, Randal

    2016-07-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) primary mirror (PM) is 6.6 m in diameter and consists of 18 hexagonal segments, each 1.5 m point-to-point. Each segment has a six degree-of-freedom hexapod actuation system and a radius of-curvature (RoC) actuation system. The full telescope will be tested at its cryogenic operating temperature at Johnson Space Center. This testing will include center-of-curvature measurements of the PM, using the Center-of-Curvature Optical Assembly (COCOA) and the Absolute Distance Meter Assembly (ADMA). The COCOA includes an interferometer, a reflective null, an interferometer-null calibration system, coarse and fine alignment systems, and two displacement measuring interferometer systems. A multiple-wavelength interferometer (MWIF) is used for alignment and phasing of the PM segments. The ADMA is used to measure, and set, the spacing between the PM and the focus of the COCOA null (i.e. the PM center-of-curvature) for determination of the ROC. The performance of these metrology systems was assessed during two cryogenic tests at JSC. This testing was performed using the JWST Pathfinder telescope, consisting mostly of engineering development and spare hardware. The Pathfinder PM consists of two spare segments. These tests provided the opportunity to assess how well the center-of-curvature optical metrology hardware, along with the software and procedures, performed using real JWST telescope hardware. This paper will describe the test setup, the testing performed, and the resulting metrology system performance. The knowledge gained and the lessons learned during this testing will be of great benefit to the accurate and efficient cryogenic testing of the JWST flight telescope.

  17. Optical Coating Performance for Heat Reflectors of the JWST-ISIM Electronic Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashford, Robert A.; Perrygo, Charles M.; Garrison, Matthew B.; White, Bryant K.; Threat, Felix T.; Quijada, Manuel A.; Jeans, James W.; Huber, Frank K.; Bousquet, Robert R.; Shaw, Dave

    2011-01-01

    A document discusses a thermal radiator design consisting of lightweight composite materials and low-emittance metal coatings for use on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) structure. The structure will have a Thermal Subsystem unit to provide passive cooling to the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) control electronics. The ISIM, in the JWST observatory, is the platform that provides the mounting surfaces for the instrument control electronics. Dissipating the control electronic generated-heat away from JWST is of paramount importance so that the spacecraft s own heat does not interfere with the infrared-light gathering of distant cosmic sources. The need to have lateral control in the emission direction of the IEC (ISIM Electronics Compartment) radiators led to the development of a directional baffle design that uses multiple curved mirrorlike surfaces. This concept started out from the so-called Winston non-imaging optical concentrators that use opposing parabolic reflector surfaces, where each parabola has its focus at the opposite edge of the exit aperture. For this reason they are often known as compound parabolic concentrators or CPCs. This radiator system with the circular section was chosen for the IEC reflectors because it offers two advantages over other designs. The first is that the area of the reflector strips for a given radiator area is less, which results in a lower mass baffle assembly. Secondly, the fraction of energy emitted by the radiator strips and subsequently reflected by the baffle is less. These fewer reflections reduced the amount of energy that is absorbed and eventually re-emitted, typically in a direction outside the design emission range angle. A baffle frame holds the mirrors in position above a radiator panel on the IEC. Together, these will direct the majority of the heat from the IEC above the sunshield away towards empty space.

  18. AN IMAGE-PLANE ALGORITHM FOR JWST'S NON-REDUNDANT APERTURE MASK DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenbaum, Alexandra Z. [Johns Hopkins University Department of Physics and Astronomy 3400 North Charles, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Pueyo, Laurent; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Lacour, Sylvestre [LESIA, CNRS/UMR-8109, Observatoire de Paris, UPMC, Université Paris Diderot 5 place Jules Janssen, 92195 Meudon (France)

    2015-01-10

    The high angular resolution technique of non-redundant masking (NRM) or aperture masking interferometry (AMI) has yielded images of faint protoplanetary companions of nearby stars from the ground. AMI on James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)'s Near Infrared Imager and Slitless Spectrograph (NIRISS) has a lower thermal background than ground-based facilities and does not suffer from atmospheric instability. NIRISS AMI images are likely to have 90%-95% Strehl ratio between 2.77 and 4.8 μm. In this paper we quantify factors that limit the raw point source contrast of JWST NRM. We develop an analytic model of the NRM point spread function which includes different optical path delays (pistons) between mask holes and fit the model parameters with image plane data. It enables a straightforward way to exclude bad pixels, is suited to limited fields of view, and can incorporate effects such as intra-pixel sensitivity variations. We simulate various sources of noise to estimate their effect on the standard deviation of closure phase, σ{sub CP} (a proxy for binary point source contrast). If σ{sub CP} < 10{sup –4} radians—a contrast ratio of 10 mag—young accreting gas giant planets (e.g., in the nearby Taurus star-forming region) could be imaged with JWST NIRISS. We show the feasibility of using NIRISS' NRM with the sub-Nyquist sampled F277W, which would enable some exoplanet chemistry characterization. In the presence of small piston errors, the dominant sources of closure phase error (depending on pixel sampling, and filter bandwidth) are flat field errors and unmodeled variations in intra-pixel sensitivity. The in-flight stability of NIRISS will determine how well these errors can be calibrated by observing a point source. Our results help develop efficient observing strategies for space-based NRM.

  19. Unveiling the First Black Holes With JWST:Multi-wavelength Spectral Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Priyamvada; Pacucci, Fabio; Ferrara, Andrea; Agarwal, Bhaskar; Ricarte, Angelo; Zackrisson, Erik; Cappelluti, Nico

    2017-04-01

    Growing supermassive black holes (∼ {10}9 {M}ȯ ) that power luminous z> 6 quasars from light seeds—the remnants of the first stars—within a Gyr of the Big Bang poses a timing challenge. The formation of massive black hole seeds via direct collapse with initial masses ∼ {10}4{--}{10}5 {M}ȯ alleviates this problem. Viable direct-collapse black hole formation sites, the satellite halos of star-forming galaxies, merge and acquire stars to produce a new, transient class of high-redshift objects, obese black hole galaxies (OBGs). The accretion luminosity outshines that of the stars in OBGs. We predict the multi-wavelength energy output of OBGs and growing Pop III remnants at z = 9 for standard and slim disk accretion, as well as high and low metallicities of the associated stellar population. We derive robust selection criteria for OBGs—a pre-selection to eliminate blue sources, followed by color–color cuts ([{F}090W-{F}220W]> 0;-0.3< [{F}200W-{F}444W]< 0.3) and the ratio of X-ray flux to rest-frame optical flux ({F}X/{F}444W\\gg 1). Our cuts sift out OBGs from other bright, high- and low-redshift contaminants in the infrared. OBGs with predicted {M}{AB}< 25 are unambiguously detectable by the Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI), on the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). For parameters explored here, growing Pop III remnants with predicted {M}{AB}< 30 will likely be undetectable by JWST. We demonstrate that JWST has the power to discriminate between initial seeding mechanisms.

  20. Phase-Retrieval Uncertainty Estimation and Algorithm Comparison for the JWST-ISIM Test Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronstein, David L.; Smith, J. Scott

    2016-01-01

    Phase retrieval, the process of determining the exitpupil wavefront of an optical instrument from image-plane intensity measurements, is the baseline methodology for characterizing the wavefront for the suite of science instruments (SIs) in the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). JWST is a large, infrared space telescope with a 6.5-meter diameter primary mirror. JWST is currently NASA's flagship mission and will be the premier space observatory of the next decade. ISIM contains four optical benches with nine unique instruments, including redundancies. ISIM was characterized at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in Greenbelt, MD in a series of cryogenic vacuum tests using a telescope simulator. During these tests, phase-retrieval algorithms were used to characterize the instruments. The objective of this paper is to describe the Monte-Carlo simulations that were used to establish uncertainties (i.e., error bars) for the wavefronts of the various instruments in ISIM. Multiple retrieval algorithms were used in the analysis of ISIM phase-retrieval focus-sweep data, including an iterativetransform algorithm and a nonlinear optimization algorithm. These algorithms emphasize the recovery of numerous optical parameters, including low-order wavefront composition described by Zernike polynomial terms and high-order wavefront described by a point-by-point map, location of instrument best focus, focal ratio, exit-pupil amplitude, the morphology of any extended object, and optical jitter. The secondary objective of this paper is to report on the relative accuracies of these algorithms for the ISIM instrument tests, and a comparison of their computational complexity and their performance on central and graphical processing unit clusters. From a phase-retrieval perspective, the ISIM test campaign includes a variety of source illumination bandwidths, various image-plane sampling criteria above and below the Nyquist- Shannon

  1. Two NIRCam channels are Better than One: How JWST Can Do More Science with NIRCam's Short-Wavelength Dispersed Hartmann Sensor

    CERN Document Server

    Schlawin, Everett; Leisenring, Jarron; Greene, Tom; Walker, Lisa May; Fraine, Jonathan; Kelly, Doug; Misselt, Karl; Line, Michael; Stansberry, John; Lewis, Nikole

    2016-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) offers unprecedented sensitivity, stability, and wavelength coverage for transiting exoplanet studies, opening up new avenues for measuring atmospheric abundances, structure, and temperature profiles. Taking full advantage of JWST spectroscopy of planets from 0.6um to 28um, however, will require many observations with a combination of the NIRISS, NIRCam, NIRSpec, and MIRI instruments. In this white paper, we discuss a new NIRCam mode (not yet approved or implemented) that can reduce the number of necessary observations to cover the 1.0um to 5.0um wavelength range. Even though NIRCam was designed primarily as an imager, it also includes several grisms for phasing and aligning JWST's 18 hexagonal mirror segments. NIRCam's long-wavelength channel includes grisms that cover 2.4um to 5.0um with a resolving power of R = 1200 - 1550 using two separate configurations. The long-wavelength grisms have already been approved for science operations, including wide field and single obj...

  2. Measuring segmented primary mirror WFE in the presence of vibration and thermal drift on the light-weighted JWST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Tony L.; Dziak, Kenneth J.; Wells, Conrad; Olczak, Gene

    2012-09-01

    The light-weighted design of the Optical Telescope Element (OTE) of the James Webb Telescope (JWST) leads to additional sensitivity to vibration from the ground - an important consideration to the measurement uncertainty of the wavefront error (WFE) in the primary mirror. Furthermore, segmentation of the primary mirror leads to rigid-body movements of segment areas in the WFE. The ground vibrations are minimized with modifications to the test facility, and by the architecture of the equipment supporting the load. Additional special test equipment (including strategically placed isolators, tunable mass dampers, and cryogenic magnetic dampers) mitigates the vibration and the response sensitivity before reaching the telescope. A multi-wavelength interferometer is designed and operated to accommodate the predicted residual vibration. Thermal drift also adds to the measurement variation. Test results of test equipment components, measurement theory, and finite element analysis combine to predict the test uncertainty in the future measurement of the primary mirror. The vibration input to the finite element model comes from accelerometer measurements of the facility with the environmental control pumps operating. One of the isolators have been built and tested to validate the dynamic performance. A preliminary model of the load support equipment and the OTE with the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) is complete. The performance of the add-on dampers have been established in previous applications. And operation of the multi-wavelength interferometer was demonstrated on a scaled hardware version of the JWST in an environment with vibration and thermal drift.

  3. Two NIRCam Channels are Better than One: How JWST Can Do More Science with NIRCam’s Short-wavelength Dispersed Hartmann Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlawin, E.; Rieke, M.; Leisenring, J.; Walker, L. M.; Fraine, J.; Kelly, D.; Misselt, K.; Greene, T.; Line, M.; Lewis, N.; Stansberry, J.

    2017-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) offers unprecedented sensitivity, stability, and wavelength coverage for transiting exoplanet studies, opening up new avenues for measuring atmospheric abundances, structure, and temperature profiles. Taking full advantage of JWST spectroscopy of planets from 0.6 to 28 μm, however, will require many observations with a combination of the NIRISS, NIRCam, NIRSpec, and MIRI instruments. In this white paper, we discuss a new NIRCam mode (not yet approved or implemented) that can reduce the number of necessary observations to cover the 1.0-5.0 μm wavelength range. Even though NIRCam was designed primarily as an imager, it also includes several grisms for phasing and aligning JWST’s 18 hexagonal mirror segments. NIRCam’s long-wavelength channel includes grisms that cover 2.4-5.0 μm with a resolving power of R = 1200-1550 using two separate configurations. The long-wavelength grisms have already been approved for science operations, including wide field and single object (time series) slitless spectroscopy. We propose a new mode that will simultaneously measure spectra for science targets in the 1.0-2.0 μm range using NIRCam’s short-wavelength channel. This mode, if approved, would take advantage of NIRCam’s Dispersed Hartmann Sensor (DHS), which produces 10 spatially separated spectra per source at R ˜ 300. We discuss the added benefit of the DHS in constraining abundances in exoplanet atmospheres as well as its ability to observe the brightest systems. The DHS essentially comes for free (at no time cost) with any NIRCam long-wavelength grism observation, but the detector integration parameters have to be selected to ensure that the long-wavelength grism observations do not saturate and that JWST data volume downlink constraints are not violated. Combining both of NIRCam’s channels will maximize the science potential of JWST, which is a limited life observatory.

  4. Transiting Exoplanet Studies and Community Targets for JWST's Early Release Science Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Kevin B.; Lewis, Nikole K.; Bean, Jacob L.; Beichman, Charles A.; Fraine, Jonathan; Kilpatrick, Brian M.; Krick, J. E.; Lothringer, Joshua D.; Mandell, Avi M.; Valenti, Jeff A.; Agol, Eric; Angerhausen, Daniel; Barstow, Joanna K.; Birkmann, Stephan M.; Burrows, Adam; Charbonneau, David; Cowan, Nicolas B.; Greene, Thomas P.; Line, Michael R.; Wakeford, Hanna R.

    2016-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will likely revolutionize transiting exoplanet atmospheric science, due to a combination of its capability for continuous, long duration observations and its larger collecting area, spectral coverage, and spectral resolution compared to existing space-based facilities. However, it is unclear precisely how well JWST will perform and which of its myriad instruments and observing modes will be best suited for transiting exoplanet studies. In this article, we describe a prefatory JWST Early Release Science (ERS) Cycle 1 program that focuses on testing specific observing modes to quickly give the community the data and experience it needs to plan more efficient and successful transiting exoplanet characterization programs in later cycles. We propose a multi-pronged approach wherein one aspect of the program focuses on observing transits of a single target with all of the recommended observing modes to identify and understand potential systematics, compare transmission spectra at overlapping and neighboring wavelength regions, confirm throughputs, and determine overall performances. In our search for transiting exoplanets that are well suited to achieving these goals, we identify 12 objects (dubbed community targets'') that meet our defined criteria. Currently, the most favorable target is WASP-62b because of its large predicted signal size, relatively bright host star, and location in JWST's continuous viewing zone. Since most of the community targets do not have well-characterized atmospheres, we recommend initiating preparatory observing programs to determine the presence of obscuring clouds/hazes within their atmospheres. Measurable spectroscopic features are needed to establish the optimal resolution and wavelength regions for exoplanet characterization. Other initiatives from our proposed ERS program include testing the instrument brightness limits and performing phase-curve observations. The latter are a unique challenge

  5. Transiting Exoplanet Studies and Community Targets for JWST's Early Release Science Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Kevin B.; Lewis, Nikole K.; Bean, Jacob L.; Beichman, Charles; Fraine, Jonathan; Kilpatrick, Brian M.; Krick, J. E.; Lothringer, Joshua D.; Mandell, Avi M.; Valenti, Jeff A.; Agol, Eric; Angerhausen, Daniel; Barstow, Joanna K.; Birkmann, Stephan M.; Burrows, Adam; Charbonneau, David; Cowan, Nicolas B.; Crouzet, Nicolas; Cubillos, Patricio E.; Curry, S. M.; Dalba, Paul A.; de Wit, Julien; Deming, Drake; Désert, Jean-Michel; Doyon, René; Dragomir, Diana; Ehrenreich, David; Fortney, Jonathan J.; García Muñoz, Antonio; Gibson, Neale P.; Gizis, John E.; Greene, Thomas P.; Harrington, Joseph; Heng, Kevin; Kataria, Tiffany; Kempton, Eliza M.-R.; Knutson, Heather; Kreidberg, Laura; Lafrenière, David; Lagage, Pierre-Olivier; Line, Michael R.; Lopez-Morales, Mercedes; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Morley, Caroline V.; Rocchetto, Marco; Schlawin, Everett; Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Shporer, Avi; Sing, David K.; Todorov, Kamen O.; Tucker, Gregory S.; Wakeford, Hannah R.

    2016-09-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will likely revolutionize transiting exoplanet atmospheric science, due to a combination of its capability for continuous, long duration observations and its larger collecting area, spectral coverage, and spectral resolution compared to existing space-based facilities. However, it is unclear precisely how well JWST will perform and which of its myriad instruments and observing modes will be best suited for transiting exoplanet studies. In this article, we describe a prefatory JWST Early Release Science (ERS) Cycle 1 program that focuses on testing specific observing modes to quickly give the community the data and experience it needs to plan more efficient and successful transiting exoplanet characterization programs in later cycles. We propose a multi-pronged approach wherein one aspect of the program focuses on observing transits of a single target with all of the recommended observing modes to identify and understand potential systematics, compare transmission spectra at overlapping and neighboring wavelength regions, confirm throughputs, and determine overall performances. In our search for transiting exoplanets that are well suited to achieving these goals, we identify 12 objects (dubbed “community targets”) that meet our defined criteria. Currently, the most favorable target is WASP-62b because of its large predicted signal size, relatively bright host star, and location in JWST's continuous viewing zone. Since most of the community targets do not have well-characterized atmospheres, we recommend initiating preparatory observing programs to determine the presence of obscuring clouds/hazes within their atmospheres. Measurable spectroscopic features are needed to establish the optimal resolution and wavelength regions for exoplanet characterization. Other initiatives from our proposed ERS program include testing the instrument brightness limits and performing phase-curve observations. The latter are a unique challenge

  6. Reconstructing Emission from Pre-Reionization Sources with Cosmic Infrared Background Fluctuation Measurements by the JWST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashlinsky, A.; Mather, J. C.; Helgason, K.; Arendt, R. G.; Bromm, V.; Moseley, S. H.

    2015-01-01

    We present new methodology to use cosmic infrared background (CIB) fluctuations to probe sources at 10 less than or approx. equal to z less than or approx. equal to 30 from a James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) NIRCam configuration that will isolate known galaxies to 28 AB mag at 0.55 m. At present significant mutually consistent source-subtracted CIB fluctuations have been identified in the Spitzer and AKARI data at 25 m, but we demonstrate internal inconsistencies at shorter wavelengths in the recent CIBER data. We evaluate CIB contributions from remaining galaxies and show that the bulk of the high-z sources will be in the confusion noise of the NIRCam beam, requiring CIB studies. The accurate measurement of the angular spectrum of the fluctuations and probing the dependence of its clustering component on the remaining shot noise power would discriminate between the various currently proposed models for their origin and probe the flux distribution of its sources. We show that the contribution to CIB fluctuations from remaining galaxies is large at visible wavelengths for the current instruments precluding probing the putative Lyman-break of the CIB fluctuations. We demonstrate that with the proposed JWST configuration such measurements will enable probing the Lyman-break. We develop a Lyman-break tomography method to use the NIRCam wavelength coverage to identify or constrain, via the adjacent two-band subtraction, the history of emissions over 10 less than or approx. equal to z less than or approx. equal to 30 as the universe comes out of the Dark Ages. We apply the proposed tomography to the current SpitzerIRAC measurements at 3.6 and 4.5 m, to find that it already leads to interestingly low upper limit on emissions at z greater than or approx. equal to 30.

  7. Reconstructing Emission from Pre-reionization Sources with Cosmic Infrared Background Fluctuation Measurements by the JWST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashlinsky, A.; Mather, J. C.; Helgason, K.; Arendt, R. G.; Bromm, V.; Moseley, S. H.

    2015-05-01

    We present new methodology to use cosmic infrared background (CIB) fluctuations to probe sources at 10≲ z≲ 30 from a James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)/NIRCam configuration that will isolate known galaxies to 28 AB mag at 0.5-5 μm. At present significant mutually consistent source-subtracted CIB fluctuations have been identified in the Spitzer and AKARI data at ˜2-5 μm, but we demonstrate internal inconsistencies at shorter wavelengths in the recent CIBER data. We evaluate CIB contributions from remaining galaxies and show that the bulk of the high-z sources will be in the confusion noise of the NIRCam beam, requiring CIB studies. The accurate measurement of the angular spectrum of the fluctuations and probing the dependence of its clustering component on the remaining shot noise power would discriminate between the various currently proposed models for their origin and probe the flux distribution of its sources. We show that the contribution to CIB fluctuations from remaining galaxies is large at visible wavelengths for the current instruments precluding probing the putative Lyman-break of the CIB fluctuations. We demonstrate that with the proposed JWST configuration such measurements will enable probing the Lyman-break. We develop a Lyman-break tomography method to use the NIRCam wavelength coverage to identify or constrain, via the adjacent two-band subtraction, the history of emissions over 10≲ z≲ 30 as the universe comes out of the “Dark Ages.” We apply the proposed tomography to the current Spitzer/IRAC measurements at 3.6 and 4.5 μm, to find that it already leads to interestingly low upper limit on emissions at z≳ 30.

  8. Exploring Biases of Atmospheric Retrievals in Simulated JWST Transmission Spectra of Hot Jupiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocchetto, M.; Waldmann, I. P.; Venot, O.; Lagage, P.-O.; Tinetti, G.

    2016-12-01

    With a scheduled launch in 2018 October, the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is expected to revolutionize the field of atmospheric characterization of exoplanets. The broad wavelength coverage and high sensitivity of its instruments will allow us to extract far more information from exoplanet spectra than what has been possible with current observations. In this paper, we investigate whether current retrieval methods will still be valid in the era of JWST, exploring common approximations used when retrieving transmission spectra of hot Jupiters. To assess biases, we use 1D photochemical models to simulate typical hot Jupiter cloud-free atmospheres and generate synthetic observations for a range of carbon-to-oxygen ratios. Then, we retrieve these spectra using TauREx, a Bayesian retrieval tool, using two methodologies: one assuming an isothermal atmosphere, and one assuming a parameterized temperature profile. Both methods assume constant-with-altitude abundances. We found that the isothermal approximation biases the retrieved parameters considerably, overestimating the abundances by about one order of magnitude. The retrieved abundances using the parameterized profile are usually within 1σ of the true state, and we found the retrieved uncertainties to be generally larger compared to the isothermal approximation. Interestingly, we found that by using the parameterized temperature profile we could place tight constraints on the temperature structure. This opens the possibility of characterizing the temperature profile of the terminator region of hot Jupiters. Lastly, we found that assuming a constant-with-altitude mixing ratio profile is a good approximation for most of the atmospheres under study.

  9. Lenses for JWST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebeling, Harald; Richard, Johan; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Repp, Andrew; Atek, Hakim; Egami, Eiichi; Windhorst, Rogier; Edge, Alastair

    2016-08-01

    JWST will dramatically advance our knowledge and understanding of the first generations of galaxies at z>10, their role in the re-ionization of the Universe, and the evolutionary processes that gave rise to the complexity and diversity of galaxies at the current epoch. As demonstrated by HST legacy projects like CLASH and the Hubble Frontier Fields, gravitational amplification by massive galaxy clusters can significantly extend the depth of the required observations. However, for JWST, reducing any diffuse background light will be just as crucial. We here propose Spitzer/IRAC observations of six massive cluster lenses, specifically selected as candidates for observation with JWST. By (a) quantifying the amount of intra-cluster light and (b) enabling us to improve our current lens models, the data resulting from the requested observations will be instrumental for the final selection of cluster targets that maximize the scientific returns of deep JWST observations.

  10. Optical Coating Performance and Thermal Structure Design for Heat Reflectors of JWST Electronic Control Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijada, Manuel A.; Threat, Felix; Garrison, Matt; Perrygo, Chuck; Bousquet, Robert; Rashford, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) consists of an infrared-optimized Optical Telescope Element (OTE) that is cooled down to 40 degrees Kelvin. A second adjacent component to the OTE is the Integrated Science Instrument Module, or ISIM. This module includes the electronic compartment, which provides the mounting surfaces and ambient thermally controlled environment for the instrument control electronics. Dissipating the 200 watts generated from the ISIM structure away from the OTE is of paramount importance so that the spacecraft's own heat does not interfere with the infrared light detected from distant cosmic sources. This technical challenge is overcome by a thermal subsystem unit that provides passive cooling to the ISIM control electronics. The proposed design of this thermal radiator consists of a lightweight structure made out of composite materials and low-emittance metal coatings. In this paper, we will present characterizations of the coating emittance, bidirectional reflectance, and mechanical structure design that will affect the performance of this passive cooling system.

  11. In-focus phase retrieval using JWST-NIRISS's non-redundant mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Alexandra Z.; Gamper, Noah; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand

    2016-07-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope's Near InfraRed Imager and Slitless Spectrograph (NIRISS) contains a 7-hole non-redundant mask (NRM) in its pupil. NIRISS's Aperture Masking Interferometry (AMI) mode is useful both for science as well as wavefront sensing. In-focus science detector NRM and full pupil images of unresolved stars can be used to measure the wavefront without any dedicated wavefront sensing hardware or any moving mirrors. Using routine science operational sequences, these images can be taken before or after any science visit. NRM fringe phases constrain Gerchberg-Saxton phase retrieval to disambiguate the algorithm's two-fold degeneracy. We summarize how consecutive masked and unmasked exposures provide enough information to reconstruct a wavefront with up to ˜1-2 rms radians of error. We present our latest progress on using this approach on laboratory experiments, and discuss those results in the context of contingency for JWST segment phasing. We discuss extending our method to ground-based AO systems and future space telescopes.

  12. A model-based approach to the spatial and spectral calibration of NIRSpec onboard JWST

    CERN Document Server

    Dorner, Bernhard; Ferruit, Pierre; de Oliveira, Catarina Alves; Birkmann, Stephan M; Böker, Torsten; De Marchi, Guido; Gnata, Xavier; Köhler, Jess; Sirianni, Marco; Jakobsen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Context: The NIRSpec instrument for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) can be operated in multiobject (MOS), long-slit, and integral field (IFU) mode with spectral resolutions from 100 to 2700. Its MOS mode uses about a quarter of a million individually addressable minislits for object selection, covering a field of view of $\\sim$9 $\\mathrm{arcmin}^2$. Aims: The pipeline used to extract wavelength-calibrated spectra from NIRSpec detector images relies heavily on a model of NIRSpec optical geometry. We demonstrate how dedicated calibration data from a small subset of NIRSpec modes and apertures can be used to optimize this parametric model to the necessary levels of fidelity. Methods: Following an iterative procedure, the initial fiducial values of the model parameters are manually adjusted and then automatically optimized, so that the model predicted location of the images and spectral lines from the fixed slits, the IFU, and a small subset of the MOS apertures matches their measured location in the main o...

  13. Status of the JWST/MIRI Focal Plane System and Cooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ressler, Michael E.; Goodson, G. B.; Khorrami, M. A.; Larson, M. E.; Mahoney, J. C.; Sukhatme, K. G.

    2009-01-01

    The Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI) is a multipurpose imager, coronagraph, and spectrometer for the James Webb Space Telescope. It provides wavelength coverage from 5 through 28 microns and is an integral contributor to all four of JWST's primary science themes. MIRI is being developed as a partnership between NASA and ESA, with JPL providing the Focal Plane System (FPS, consisting of the detectors, control electronics, and flight software) and the cooler, and a consortium of European astronomical institutes providing the optical bench and structure. The flight FPS is being prepared for delivery to the European Consortium for its integration into the optical bench, while the cooler is nearing its Critical Design Review. We describe the capabilities of the FPS and cooler, present test results and the predicted sensitivity performance of the FPS, and update the current status of each these systems. The research described in this poster was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  14. An Update on Simulating Imaging, Spectroscopic, and Coronagraphic PSFs for JWST (and WFIRST too!)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Marshall D.; Long, Joseph D.; Zimmerman, Neil T.; Van Gorkom, Kyle

    2016-06-01

    Simulated point spread functions (PSFs) are an essential tool in preparing for future space telescopes, supporting pre-launch science simulations, observation planning, and analysis software development. The open-source Python package WebbPSF provides simulated PSFs for all of JWST's instruments and observing modes. We present the latest updates to WebbPSF based on both updated models ofthe assembled telescope optics and recent cryo-test data for the science instruments. Outputs from this latest version of WebbPSF will support the JWST Exposure Time Calculator and the first calls for proposals in the year ahead, among many other uses by the community. Furthermore, the same toolkit also now provides support for simulating PSFs for both the WFI and CGI instruments planned for WFIRST.

  15. The Molecular Universe as seen by JWST-MIRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahuis, F.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Wright, G.; Rieke, G.

    2011-05-01

    The Mid-InfraRed Instrument (MIRI, Wright et al. 2003) on board the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will be the next major mid-infrared facility in space. It combines a high sensitivity with medium resolution spectroscopy and subarcsec imaging. This makes it one of the prime facilities for astrochemical studies in the next decade. Mid-infrared spectroscopy is a very powerful astrochemical tool. Molecules without permanent dipoles such as CH_4, C_2H_2 and CO_2 can only be observed through their vibration-rotation transitions while atmospheric species, in particular H_2O, require space-based facilities. PAH and solid-state material have prominent features in the mid-infrared, and the pure rotational transitions of the dominant molecule in the universe, H_2, also occur in this band. The wealth of mid-infrared spectroscopy has been demonstrated by results from the ISO satellite (see van Dishoeck 2004 for a review), pioneering ground-based studies and most recently by the Spitzer Space Telescope. The targeted sources are extremely diverse and include objects in the local and distant universe. Variations in features allow both qualitative and quantitative studies of physical and chemical processes. MIRI consists of an imager (including low resolution (R=λ/Δλ≈100) spectroscopy and coronography) and a medium resolution spectrometer (R=2000-3000) operating in the 5-28μm wavelength range using 1024x1024 pixel Si:As arrays. The spectrometer uses four IFUs with fields ranging from 3.5 to 7 arcsec. MIRIs sensitivity, orders of magnitude higher compared to Spitzer and 8-m class ground-based telescopes, spatial and spectral resolution make it particularly well suited for studying gases and solids in disks around young stars and in the nuclei of (starburst) galaxies. The sensitive low resolution spectrometer will be ideal to characterize exoplanet atmospheres. MIRI is built in partnership by a European Consortium and the US. The MIRI flight model (FM) is now fully

  16. Development and Acceptance Testing of the Dual Wheel Mechanism for the Tunable Filter Imager Cryogenic Instrument on the JWST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckie, Martin; Ahmad, Zakir

    2010-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will carry four scientific instruments, one of which is the Tunable Filter Imager (TFI), which is an instrument within the Fine Guidance Sensor. The Dual Wheel (DW) mechanism is being designed, built and tested by COM DEV Ltd. under contract from the Canadian Space Agency. The DW mechanism includes a pupil wheel (PW) holding seven coronagraphic masks and two calibration elements and a filter wheel (FW) holding nine blocking filters. The DW mechanism must operate at both room temperature and at 35K. Successful operation at 35K comprises positioning each optical element with the required repeatability, for several thousand occasions over the five year mission. The paper discusses the results of testing geared motors and bearings at the cryogenic temperature. In particular bearing retainer design and PGM-HT material, the effects of temperature gradients across bearings and the problems associated with cooling mechanisms down to cryogenic temperatures. The results of additional bearing tests are described that were employed to investigate an abnormally high initial torque experienced at cryogenic temperatures. The findings of these tests, was that the bearing retainer and the ball/race system could be adversely affected by the large temperature change from room temperature to cryogenic temperature and also the temperature gradient across the bearing. The DW mechanism is now performing successfully at both room temperature and at cryogenic temperature. The life testing of the mechanism is expected to be completed in the first quarter of 2010.

  17. A 4K x 4K HgCdTe astronomical camera enabled by the JWST NIR detector development program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Donald N. B.; Luppino, Gerard; Hodapp, Klaus W.; Garnett, James D.; Loose, Markus; Zandian, Majid

    2004-09-01

    The ambitious science goals of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) have driven spectacular advances in λco ~ 5um detector technology over the past five years. This paper reviews both the UH/RSC team"s Phase A development and evaluation of 2Kx2K arrays exceeding the detector requirements for JWST"s near infrared instruments and also the hardware integration of these into a 4Kx4K (16Mpxl) close packed mosaic focal plane array housed in an Ultra Low Background test facility. Both individual first generation 2Kx2K SCA"s and 4Kx4K mosaic focal planes have been extensively characterized in the laboratory and, since September 2003, a NIR camera utilizing the 4Kx4K mosaic focal plane has been in use for nearly 100 nights at the UH 2.2 m telescope on Mauna Kea. Typical test results for the first generation 2Kx2K arrays and their integration into 4Kx4K mosaic focal planes are reported. Demonstration of the design concepts and both array and mosaic focal plane performance in actual hardware, as described here, has provided the foundation for design iterations leading to later generations of 2Kx2K arrays and 4Kx4K mosaic focal planes. Four major technology developments leading to first generation hardware demonstrations of both 2Kx2K SCA"s and a 4Kx4K mosaic FPA are reviewed. These are: 1) improvement in test equipment and procedures to characterize the detectors against JWST requirements and goals, primarily at 37K but with the capability to test from 30K to 100K; 2) optimization of λc ~ 5 um MBE HgCdTe material on a CZT substrate for low dark current (goal of 0.003 e-/sec at 37K) with high quantum efficiency, low cross-talk and greatly reduced image persistence; 3) development of the 2Kx2K HAWAII-2RG multiplexer designed specifically to take full advantage of these detector characteristics for a wide range of astronomical applications (and fully compatible with an ASIC controller developed under the JWST Instrument Technology Development initiative) and 4) development of

  18. Emulating JWST Exoplanet Transit Observations in a Testbed laboratory experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touli, D.; Beichman, C. A.; Vasisht, G.; Smith, R.; Krist, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    sequences, we obtain time series photometry with deliberate offsets introduced to test sensitivity to pointing jitter and other effects. We can modify the star-planet brightness contrast by factors up to 10^4:1. With cross correlation techniques we calculate positional shifts which are then used to decorrelate the effects of vertical and lateral offsets due to turbulence and instrumental vibrations on the photometry. Using Principal Component Analysis (PCA), we reject correlated temporal noise to achieve a precision lower than 50 ppm (Clanton et al. 2012). In our current work, after decorrelation of vertical and lateral offsets along with PCA, we achieve a precision of sim20 ppm. To assess the photometric precision we use the Allan variance (Allan 1987). This statistical method is used to characterize noise and stability as it indicates shot noise limited performance. Testbed experiments are ongoing to provide quantitative information on the achievable spectroscopic precision using realistic exoplanet spectra with the goal to define optimized data acquisition sequences for use, for example, with the James Webb Space Telescope.

  19. A model-based approach to the spatial and spectral calibration of NIRSpec onboard JWST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorner, B.; Giardino, G.; Ferruit, P.; Alves de Oliveira, C.; Birkmann, S. M.; Böker, T.; De Marchi, G.; Gnata, X.; Köhler, J.; Sirianni, M.; Jakobsen, P.

    2016-08-01

    Context. The NIRSpec instrument for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) can be operated in multiobject spectroscopy (MOS), long-slit, and integral field unit (IFU) mode with spectral resolutions from 100 to 2700. Its MOS mode uses about a quarter of a million individually addressable minislits for object selection, covering a field of view of ~9 arcmin2. Aims: The pipeline used to extract wavelength-calibrated spectra from NIRSpec detector images relies heavily on a model of NIRSpec optical geometry. We demonstrate how dedicated calibration data from a small subset of NIRSpec modes and apertures can be used to optimize this parametric model to the necessary levels of fidelity. Methods: Following an iterative procedure, the initial fiducial values of the model parameters are manually adjusted and then automatically optimized, so that the model predicted location of the images and spectral lines from the fixed slits, the IFU, and a small subset of the MOS apertures matches their measured location in the main optical planes of the instrument. Results: The NIRSpec parametric model is able to reproduce the spatial and spectral position of the input spectra with high fidelity. The intrinsic accuracy (1-sigma, rms) of the model, as measured from the extracted calibration spectra, is better than 1/10 of a pixel along the spatial direction and better than 1/20 of a resolution element in the spectral direction for all of the grating-based spectral modes. This is fully consistent with the corresponding allocation in the spatial and spectral calibration budgets of NIRSpec.

  20. The Impact of JWST Broadband Filter Choice on Photometric Redshift Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisigello, L.; Caputi, K. I.; Colina, L.; Le Fèvre, O.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Pérez-González, P. G.; Pye, J.; van der Werf, P.; Ilbert, O.; Grogin, N.; Koekemoer, A.

    2016-12-01

    The determination of galaxy redshifts in the James Webb Space Telescope’s (JWST) blank-field surveys will mostly rely on photometric estimates, based on the data provided by JWST’s Near-Infrared Camera (NIRCam) at 0.6-5.0 μm and Mid Infrared Instrument (MIRI) at λ \\gt 5.0 μ {{m}}. In this work we analyze the impact of choosing different combinations of NIRCam and MIRI broadband filters (F070W to F770W), as well as having ancillary data at λ \\lt 0.6 μ {{m}}, on the derived photometric redshifts (z phot) of a total of 5921 real and simulated galaxies, with known input redshifts z = 0-10. We found that observations at λ \\lt 0.6 μ {{m}} are necessary to control the contamination of high-z samples by low-z interlopers. Adding MIRI (F560W and F770W) photometry to the NIRCam data mitigates the absence of ancillary observations at λ \\lt 0.6 μ {{m}} and improves the redshift estimation. At z = 7-10, accurate z phot can be obtained with the NIRCam broadbands alone when {{S}}/{{N}}≥slant 10, but the z phot quality significantly degrades at {{S}}/{{N}}≤slant 5. Adding MIRI photometry with 1 mag brighter depth than the NIRCam depth allows for a redshift recovery of 83%-99%, depending on spectral energy distribution type, and its effect is particularly noteworthy for galaxies with nebular emission. The vast majority of NIRCam galaxies with [F150W] = 29 AB mag at z = 7-10 will be detected with MIRI at [F560W, F770W] \\lt 28 mag if these sources are at least mildly evolved or have spectra with emission lines boosting the mid-infrared fluxes.

  1. Information Content Analysis for Selection of Optimal JWST Observing Modes for Transiting Exoplanet Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalha, Natasha E.; Line, M. R.

    2017-04-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is nearing its launch date of 2018, and is expected to revolutionize our knowledge of exoplanet atmospheres. In order to specifically identify which observing modes will be most useful for characterizing a diverse range of exoplanetary atmospheres, we use an information content (IC) based approach commonly used in the studies of solar system atmospheres. We develop a system based upon these IC methods to trace the instrumental and atmospheric model phase space in order to identify which observing modes are best suited for particular classes of planets, focusing on transmission spectra. Specifically, the atmospheric parameter space we cover is T = 600-1800 K, C/O = 0.55-1, [M/H] = 1-100 × Solar for an R = 1.39 R J , M = 0.59 M J planet orbiting a WASP-62-like star. We also explore the influence of a simplified opaque gray cloud on the IC. We find that obtaining broader wavelength coverage over multiple modes is preferred over higher precision in a single mode given the same amount of observing time. Regardless of the planet temperature and composition, the best modes for constraining terminator temperatures, C/O ratios, and metallicity are NIRISS SOSS+NIRSpec G395. If the target’s host star is dim enough such that the NIRSpec prism is applicable, then it can be used instead of NIRISS SOSS+NIRSpec G395. Lastly, observations that use more than two modes should be carefully analyzed because sometimes the addition of a third mode results in no gain of information. In these cases, higher precision in the original two modes is favorable.

  2. Detecting Proxima b’s Atmosphere with JWST Targeting CO2 at 15 μm Using a High-pass Spectral Filtering Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snellen, I. A. G.; Désert, J.-M.; Waters, L. B. F. M.; Robinson, T.; Meadows, V.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Brandl, B. R.; Henning, T.; Bouwman, J.; Lahuis, F.; Min, M.; Lovis, C.; Dominik, C.; Van Eylen, V.; Sing, D.; Anglada-Escudé, G.; Birkby, J. L.; Brogi, M.

    2017-08-01

    Exoplanet Proxima b will be an important laboratory for the search for extraterrestrial life for the decades ahead. Here, we discuss the prospects of detecting carbon dioxide at 15 μm using a spectral filtering technique with the Medium Resolution Spectrograph (MRS) mode of the Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI) on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). At superior conjunction, the planet is expected to show a contrast of up to 100 ppm with respect to the star. At a spectral resolving power of R = 1790-2640, about 100 spectral CO2 features are visible within the 13.2-15.8 μm (3B) band, which can be combined to boost the planet atmospheric signal by a factor of 3-4, depending on the atmospheric temperature structure and CO2 abundance. If atmospheric conditions are favorable (assuming an Earth-like atmosphere), with this new application to the cross-correlation technique, carbon dioxide can be detected within a few days of JWST observations. However, this can only be achieved if both the instrumental spectral response and the stellar spectrum can be determined to a relative precision of ≤1 × 10-4 between adjacent spectral channels. Absolute flux calibration is not required, and the method is insensitive to the strong broadband variability of the host star. Precise calibration of the spectral features of the host star may only be attainable by obtaining deep observations of the system during inferior conjunction that serve as a reference. The high-pass filter spectroscopic technique with the MIRI MRS can be tested on warm Jupiters, Neptunes, and super-Earths with significantly higher planet/star contrast ratios than the Proxima system.

  3. Deep IRAC Imaging Lensing Galaxy Clusters for JWST 'First Light' Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Haojing; Conselice, Christopher; Windhorst, Rogier; Cohen, Seth; Alpaslan, Mehmet; Zitrin, Adi; Broadhurst, Tom; Frye, Brenda; Driver, Simon; Robotham, Aaron; Hopkins, Andrew; Wyithe, Staurt; Jansen, Rolf; Hathi, Nimish; Mechtley, Matthew; Ryan, Russell; Rutkowski, Michael; Finkelstein, Steven; Koekemoer, Anton

    2016-08-01

    JWST has a key goal to search for First Light objects beyond z>10. Our 110-hr JWST GTO program, 'Webb Medium-Deep Fields' (WMDF), will target both blank and lensed fields to probe both the bright and the faint ends of the galaxy luminosity function at z > 10. While a number of well studied lensing clusters exist, not all of them are optimal for the JWST search of First Light objects, either because of their low Ecliptic latitudes (and hence high Zodiacal background) or because of their strong intra-cluster light (ICL) at the critical curve regions corresponding to the redshifts of interest. For this reason, our WMDF candidate lensing targets will include some recently discovered, high-mass (log[M/Msun] ~ 15) galaxy clusters, which we choose either because of their high Ecliptic latitude (beta > 40 deg) or because of their extreme compactness that minimizes the impact of the ICL. As part of our effort to collect ancillary data for these new systems to finalize the target list, we propose IRAC observations for 13 of them that are lacking sufficient data. These 3.6/4.5um data will be critical for our guaranteed JWST program: (1) they will greatly facilitate the modeling of the straylight that JWST will suffer in 1--5 um (the key range to search for z>10--20 objects), a problem that has recently been identified. If left untreated, such straylight components would severely hamper the detection of faint sources in a lensing field. The JWST observations alone would be difficult to separate the ICL from the straylight at the level needed. (2) the new 3.6/4.5um data will best match our deep optical imaging and spectroscopy at HST, Gemini, LBT and MMT. We will derive accurate photometric redshifts for any lensed background galaxies (at znote that these data will be highly valuable for the study of these clusters themselves before the JWST mission.

  4. Astrochemistry with the Mid-InfraRed Instrument on JWST

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dishoeck, E. F.; Merín, B.; Brandl, B.; Böker, T.; Greene, T.; Meixner, M.; Ressler, M.; Rieke, G.; Waelkens, C.; Wright, G.; Miri Team

    JWST-MIRI will have imaging and medium resolution (λ/Δλ ≍ 2000-3000) integral field spectroscopy with orders of magnitude improvements in sensitivity and/or spatial resolution compared with existing facilities. It will be a prime facility for astrochemical studies of gases and solids in a wide variety of objects in the next decade. 1. Introduction Mid-infrared spectroscopy is becoming a powerful tool in astrochemistry, with studies of molecules and sources that are highly complementary to those at millimeter wavelengths. Molecules without permanent dipole moments such CH4, C2H2 and CO2 can only be observed through their vibration-rotation transitions. Space-based missions open up the possibility to study molecules which are abundant in ouw own atmosphere, in particular H2O. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons have their most prominent features at mid-infrared wavelengths, and the pure rotational transitions of the dominant molecule in the universe, H2, also occur in this band. Solid-state material is uniquely probed in the mid-infrared, including characteric bands of ices, silicates, oxides, carbides, carbonates and sulfides. The wealth of mid-infrared spectroscopy has been demonstrated by results from the ISO satellite (see van Dishoeck & Tielens 2001, van Dishoeck 2004 for reviews), by pioneering ground-based studies (Lacy et al. 1989, Evans et al. 1990) and most recently by the Spitzer Space Telescope. Targets include molecular clouds, PDRs, shocks, deeply embedded young stellar objects, UC HII regions, protoplanetary disks, planetary atmospheres, comets, evolved stars and even entire galaxies. In addition to an inventory of gaseous and solid-state material, the lines and line ratios provide powerful diagnostics of temperatures, densities, UV field, elemental abundances, etc. Systematic variations in features from region to region allow the physical and chemical processes to be traced. The MidInfraRed Instrument (MIRI) on board the 6m James Webb Space

  5. Giving Birth to the James Webb Space Telescope: Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, John

    2013-01-01

    In late October 1995, I found a remarkable message on my answering machine from Ed Weiler, then the Program Scientist for the Hubble Space Telescope. Would I work on the next generation space telescope, the successor to the beautiful HST? It took me mere moments to work out the answer: Of course! At the time, my work on the COsmic Background Explorer (COBE) was finished, I was writing a book about it (The Very First Light, with John Boslough), and I thought NASA might never do anything nearly as spectacular again. Wow, was I happy to be surprised by that call!

  6. James Webb Space Telescope Deployment Brushless DC Motor Characteristics Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Ahn N.

    2016-01-01

    A DC motor's performance is usually characterized by a series of tests, which are conducted by pass/fail criteria. In most cases, these tests are adequate to address the performance characteristics under environmental and loading effects with some uncertainties and decent power/torque margins. However, if the motor performance requirement is very stringent, a better understanding of the motor characteristics is required. The purpose of this paper is to establish a standard way to extract the torque components of the brushless motor and gear box characteristics of a high gear ratio geared motor from the composite geared motor testing and motor parameter measurement. These torque components include motor magnetic detent torque, Coulomb torque, viscous torque, windage torque, and gear tooth sliding torque. The Aerospace Corp bearing torque model and MPB torque models are used to predict the Coulomb torque of the motor rotor bearings and to model the viscous components. Gear tooth sliding friction torque is derived from the dynamo geared motor test data. With these torque data, the geared motor mechanical efficiency can be estimated and provide the overall performance of the geared motor versus several motor operating parameters such as speed, temperature, applied current, and transmitted power.

  7. Progress by the JWST Science Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2007-01-01

    The JWST Science Working Group recently published a comprehensive, top-level review of JWST science in the journal Space Science Reviews (Gardner et al. 2006, SSR, 123, 485). That review paper gives details of the 4 JWST science themes, and describes the design of the observatory and ground system. Since publication, the SWG, working with members of the astronomical community, has continued to develop the science case for JWST, giving more details in a series of white papers. The white paper topics include first light, galaxy surveys, AGN, supernovae, stellar populations, and exoplanets. The white papers are in various stages of completion. In this poster, I will review recent progress.

  8. James Gillies

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    "Physicist James gillies is chief of communications at CERN (the European Organisation for Nuclear Research). Based in the Jura foothills, just outside Geneva, Gillies is part of a teamt hat will fire up CERN's Large Hadron Collierd (LHC) - the most complicated piece of scientific equipment ever built." (1/2 page)

  9. Misalignment Induced Aberrations of JWST: Isolating Low Order Primary Figure Residuals from Misalignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Iris AO, Inc. 2680 Bancroft Way Berkeley, CA 04704 8...aberration theory. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Nodal Aberration Theory, James Webb Space Telescope, Misalignment, Segmented , Mirror, Adaptive Optics, Coma...NOT field quadratic K. P. Thompson, “Description of the third-order optical aberrations of near-circular pupil optical systems without symmetry,” J

  10. Shocks, star formation and the JWST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusdorf, A.

    2015-12-01

    The interstellar medium (ISM) is constantly evolving due to unremitting injection of energy in various forms. Energetic radiation transfers energy to the ISM: from the UV photons, emitted by the massive stars, to X- and γ-ray ones. Cosmic rays are another source of energy. Finally, mechanical energy is injected through shocks or turbulence. Shocks are ubiquitous in the interstellar medium of galaxies. They are associated to star formation (through jets and bipolar outflows), life (via stellar winds), and death (in AGB stellar winds or supernovae explosion). The dynamical processes leading to the formation of molecular clouds also generate shocks where flows of interstellar matter collide. Because of their ubiquity, the study of interstellar shocks is also a useful probe to the other mechanisms of energy injection in the ISM. This study must be conducted in order to understand the evolution of the interstellar medium as a whole, and to address various questions: what is the peculiar chemistry associated to shocks, and what is their contribution to the cycle of matter in galaxies ? What is the energetic impact of shocks on their surroundings on various scales, and hence what is the feedback of stars on the galaxies ? What are the scenarios of star formation, whether this star formation leads to the propagation of shocks, or whether it is triggered by shock propagation ? What is the role of shocks in the acceleration of cosmic rays ? Can they shed light on their composition and diffusion processes ? In order to progress on these questions, it is paramount to interpret the most precise observations with the most precise models of shocks. From the observational point of view, the James Webb Space Telescope represents a powerful tool to better address the above questions, as it will allow to observe numerous shock tracers in the infrared range at an unprecedented spatial and spectral resolution.

  11. Hydrogeology of Webb County, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Rebecca B.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Webb County, in semiarid South Texas on the U.S.-Mexico border, is a region confronted by increasing stresses on natural resources. Laredo (fig. 1), the largest city in Webb County (population 193,000 in 2000), was one of the 10 fastest-growing metropolitan areas in the country during 1990-2000 (Perry and Mackun, 2001). Commercial and industrial activities have expanded throughout the region to support the maquiladora industry (manufacturing plants in Mexico) along the border and other growth as a result of the passage of the North American Free Trade Agreement. The Rio Grande currently (2002) is the primary source of public water supply for Laredo and other cities along the border in Webb County (fig. 1). Other cities, such as Bruni and Mirando City in the southeastern part of the county, rely on ground-water supplies to meet municipal demands. Increased water demand associated with development and population growth in the region has increased the need for the City of Laredo and Webb County to evaluate alternative water sources to meet future demand. Possible options include (1) supplementing the surface-water supply with ground water, and (2) applying artificial storage and recovery (ASR) technology to recharge local aquifers. These options raise issues regarding the hydraulic capability of the aquifers to store economically substantial quantities of water, current or potential uses of the resource, and possible effects on the quality of water resulting from mixing ground water with alternative source waters. To address some of these issues, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the City of Laredo, began a study in 1996 to assess the ground-water resources of Webb County. A hydrogeologic study was conducted to review and analyze available information on the hydrogeologic units (aquifers and confining units) in Webb County, to locate available wells in the region with water-level and water-quality information from the aquifers, and

  12. Supermassive Dark Stars: Detectable in JWST and HST

    CERN Document Server

    Freese, K; Valluri, M; Ilie, C; Spolyar, D; Bodenheimer, P

    2010-01-01

    The first stars to form in the history of the universe may have been powered by dark matter annihilation rather than by fusion. This new phase of stellar evolution may have lasted millions to billions of years. These dark stars can grow to be very large, > 10^5 solar masses, and are relatively cool (~10^4 K). They are also very bright, being potentially detectable in the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope or even the Hubble Space Telescope. Once the dark matter runs out, the dark stars have a short fusion phase, before collapsing into black holes (BH). The resulting BH could serve as seeds for the (unexplained) supermassive black holes at high redshift and at the centers of galaxies.

  13. The JWST/NIRCam Coronagraph: Mask Design and Fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krista, John E.; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatha; Beichman, Charles A.; Echternach, Pierre M.; Green, Joseph J.; Liewer, Kurt M.; Muller, Richard E.; Serabyn, Eugene; Shaklan, Stuart B.; Trauger, John T.; Wilson, Daniel W.; Horner, Scott D.; Mao, Yalan; Somerstein, Stephen F.; Vasudevan, Gopal; Kelly, Douglas M.; Rieke, Marcia J.

    2009-01-01

    The NIRCam instrument on the James Webb Space Telescope will provide coronagraphic imaging from lambda =1-5 microns of high contrast sources such as extrasolar planets and circumstellar disks. A Lyot coronagraph with a variety of circular and wedge-shaped occulting masks and matching Lyot pupil stops will be implemented. The occulters approximate grayscale transmission profiles using halftone binary patterns comprising wavelength-sized metal dots on anti-reflection coated sapphire substrates. The mask patterns are being created in the Micro Devices Laboratory at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory using electron beam lithography. Samples of these occulters have been successfully evaluated in a coronagraphic testbed. In a separate process, the complex apertures that form the Lyot stops will be deposited onto optical wedges. The NIRCam coronagraph flight components are expected to be completed this year.

  14. Space qualification of an antireflection coating on the surface of a ruled grating prism: increasing the throughput of the single-object slitless spectroscopy mode of NIRISS onboard JWST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Loïc.; Doyon, René; Kuzmenko, Paul J.; Little, Steve L.; Enzor, Greg S.; Maszkiewicz, Michael

    2014-07-01

    Grating prisms (grism) designed for near-infrared spectroscopy typically make use of high-refractive index materials such as zinc selenide (ZnSe), at the expense of large Fresnel losses ( 18%). Part of the loss can be recovered by using anti-reflection (AR) coatings. The technique is however considered risky when applied on the ruled surface of a grating, especially for a space application at cryogenic temperature. Such a grism, made of ZnSe and machined at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is mounted in the Near-Infrared Slitless Spectrograph (NIRISS) onboard the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). Its Single Object Slitless Spectrograph (SOSS) observing mode uses the ZnSe grism and a cross-dispersing prism to produce R=700 spectra in orders 1 and 2 to cover the 0.6 to 2.5 microns spectral domain. The ZnSe grism is blazed at 1.23 microns, has a density of 54 lines/mm and its triangular grooves have a depth of 700 nm, a base of 18 microns, with facets angled at 1.9 degrees. Here, an AR coating produced by Thin Film Lab (TFL) and deposited on the ruled surface of a ZnSe grism sample was space qualified. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed no groove profile change pre/post coating despite the large relative thickness of the AR coating to that of the groove depth ( 35%). Also, the wavefront error map remained almost unchanged at lambda/8 (peak-to-valley at 632 nm) and survived unscathed through a series of three cryogenic cycles to 20 K. Finally, the transmission gain across our operating spectral range was almost as high as that for a unruled surface covered with the same AR coating (10-15%).

  15. Large Volume, Optical and Opto-Mechanical Metrology Techniques for ISIM on JWST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjimichael, Theo

    2015-01-01

    The final, flight build of the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) element of the James Webb Space Telescope is the culmination of years of work across many disciplines and partners. This paper covers the large volume, ambient, optical and opto-mechanical metrology techniques used to verify the mechanical integration of the flight instruments in ISIM, including optical pupil alignment. We present an overview of ISIM's integration and test program, which is in progress, with an emphasis on alignment and optical performance verification. This work is performed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, in close collaboration with the European Space Agency, the Canadian Space Agency, and the Mid-Infrared Instrument European Consortium.

  16. Exoplanets and debris disk imaging with JWST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pueyo, Laurent; Soummer, Remi; Perrin, Marshall D.

    2017-06-01

    Dramatic progress in exoplanetary systems imaging has occurred since the first generation of space coronagraphs on HST (NICMOS, STIS, ACS). While HST remains at forefront of both exoplanetary and circumstellar disk science, ground-based instruments have improved by three orders of magnitudes over the past decade. JWST will extend the current state of the art with a larger set of superior coronagraphs and greater sensitivity across more than a factor of 10 in wavelength, making it extraordinarily capable for detailed imaging characterization of planets and disks. We will address specific questions about nearby exoplanetary systems, while also optimizing observing strategies across the breadth of JWST’s high-contrast imaging modes, as follows: (a) Deep, multi-wavelength observations of selected nearby stars hosting known debris disks & planets. We will use the NIRCam and MIRI coronagraphs across the full range of JWST wavelengths, and perhaps MIRI MRS spatially resolved spectroscopy. Each comprehensive dataset will support a variety of investigations addressing both disk characterization and exoplanet detection & characterization. (b) Characterization of Planetary Systems around Cool M Stars. We will observe young and dusty M dwarfs, to complement observations of the closer but older M dwarf samples under consideration by other GTO groups. JWST observations will dramatically exceed HST images in their ability to address questions about the properties of dust rings, while the more favorable contrast ratios of planets relative to M dwarf hosts will enable sensitivity to relatively low mass planetary companions.

  17. Comparing and Contrasting Detectors: JWST NIR vs HST WFC3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Bernard J.

    2015-01-01

    In many ways, WFC3s IR channel is a good indicator for what to expect with JWST. There are some differences, most of which should be beneficial in JWST- JWSTs lower operating temperature will freeze out charge traps that would affect WFC3. Benefits should include lower dark current, lower persistence, and better reciprocity- JWSTs more recent HgCdTe process has lower defect density. The benefits are as described above- JWST uses better indium barriers. The benefits should include fewer RC type pixels. One area where more study might be beneficial is stability. The detector electronics play a significant role in determining how stable a detector system is(v.s. bias drifts and photometry). JWSTs SIDECARs are completely WFC3s Ball electronics- Studies comparing the bias and photometric stability of WFC3 and JWST might be useful to informing data acquisition and calibration strategies for JWST.

  18. Observing Planetary Nebulae with JWST and Extremely Large Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, Raghvendra

    2015-01-01

    Most stars in the Universe that leave the main sequence in a Hubble time will end their lives evolving through the Planetary Nebula (PN) evolutionary phase. The heavy mass loss which occurs during the preceding AGB phase is important across astrophysics, dramatically changing the course of stellar evolution, dominantly contributing to the dust content of the interstellar medium, and influencing its chemical composition. The evolution from the AGB phase to the PN phases remains poorly understood, especially the dramatic transformation that occurs in the morphology of the mass-ejecta as AGB stars and their round circumstellar envelopes evolve into mostly PNe, the majority of which deviate strongly from spherical symmetry. In addition, although the PN [OIII] luminosity function (PNLF) has been used as a standard candle (on par with distance indicators such as Cepheids), we do not understand why it works. It has been argued that the resolution of these issues may be linked to binarity and associated processes such as mass transfer and common envelope evolution.Thus, understanding the formation and evolution of PNe is of wide astrophysical importance. PNe have long been known to emit across a very large span of wavelengths, from the radio to X-rays. Extensive use of space-based observatories at X-ray (Chandra/ XMM-Newton), optical (HST) and far-infrared (Spitzer, Herschel) wavelengths in recent years has produced significant new advances in our knowledge of these objects. Given the expected advent of the James Webb Space Telescope in the near future, and ground-based Extremely Large Telescope(s) somewhat later, this talk will focus on future high-angular-resolution, high-sensitivity observations at near and mid-IR wavelengths with these facilities that can help in addressing the major unsolved problems in the study of PNe.

  19. A Retrieval Architecture for JWST Observations of Directly Imaged Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Alex

    2017-06-01

    I present a new modeling and retrieval code for atmospheres of directly imaged exoplanets designed for use on JWST observations, extending my previous work on transiting planets. I perform example retrievals of temperature-pressure profiles, common molecular abundances, and basic cloud properties on existing lower-resolution spectra and on simulated JWST data using forward model emission spectra for planned NIRISS and NIRCam targets. From these results, I estimate the expected return on prospective JWST observations in information-theoretic terms using the mutual information metric.

  20. James Welch's Poetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velie, Alan R.

    1979-01-01

    This article examines Surrealism, its definition, and history through example. Special emphasis is on James Welch, a Blackfeet poet from Montana with a comic way of viewing the world in a surrealistic fashion. (RTS)

  1. JWST/NIRSpec Multi-Object Spectroscopy: Calibration and Data Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzerolle, J.

    2016-10-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope will have a multi-object spectroscopic (MOS) capability as part of its Near-Infrared Spectrograph (NIRSpec). This mode will enable observations of up to ˜ 100 or more objects in a single exposure using a microshutter array containing a quarter-million independently operable shutters. The complexity of this data requires a robust and carefully constructed processing pipeline that can deliver well-calibrated and intelligently-organized data to the user. Here I describe the basic processing steps that will be part of the pipeline, including how we will account for problematic aspects including wavelength calibration and background subtraction. I also outline the expected format of the pipeline data products that will be delivered, and how the data can be handled interactively using data analysis and visualization tools that will also be provided.

  2. Ray-tracing for coordinate knowledge in the JWST Integrated Science Instrument Module

    CERN Document Server

    Sabatke, Derek; Rohrbach, Scott; Kubalak, David

    2014-01-01

    Optical alignment and testing of the Integrated Science Instrument Module of the James Webb Space Telescope is underway. We describe the Optical Telescope Element Simulator used to feed the science instruments with point images of precisely known location and chief ray pointing, at appropriate wavelengths and flux levels, in vacuum and at operating temperature. The simulator's capabilities include a number of devices for in situ monitoring of source flux, wavefront error, pupil illumination, image position and chief ray angle. Taken together, these functions become a fascinating example of how the first order properties and constructs of an optical design (coordinate systems, image surface and pupil location) acquire measurable meaning in a real system. We illustrate these functions with experimental data, and describe the ray tracing system used to provide both pointing control during operation and analysis support subsequently. Prescription management takes the form of optimization and fitting. Our core too...

  3. Model Predictions and Observed Performance of JWST's Cryogenic Position Metrology System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunt, Sharon R.; Rhodes, David; DiAntonio, Andrew; Boland, John; Wells, Conrad; Gigliotti, Trevis; Johanning, Gary

    2016-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope cryogenic testing requires measurement systems that both obtain a very high degree of accuracy and can function in that environment. Close-range photogrammetry was identified as meeting those criteria. Testing the capability of a close-range photogrammetric system prior to its existence is a challenging problem. Computer simulation was chosen over building a scaled mock-up to allow for increased flexibility in testing various configurations. Extensive validation work was done to ensure that the actual as-built system meet accuracy and repeatability requirements. The simulated image data predicted the uncertainty in measurement to be within specification and this prediction was borne out experimentally. Uncertainty at all levels was verified experimentally to be less than 0.1 millimeters.

  4. Gsmt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mould, Jeremy

    2004-07-01

    The Giant Segmented Mirror Telescope is intended to complement the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) by offering diffraction limited resolution beyond 1 micron. The recent merger of the CELT and AURA design and development programs offers a real hope that the vital scientific synergy of simultaneous operation of a 30 meter GSMT and the JWST will be realized.

  5. Our History in the Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, John C.

    2012-01-01

    John C. Mather is senior project director of NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), successor to the Hubble Telescope. Nearly cancelled in summer 2011 during a flurry of federal budget cuts, the project was fully funded by Congress in November 201l. Fellowship spoke with Dr. Mather about his thoughts on the importance of funding space science and the JWST.

  6. James M. Harrison Awards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    The James M. Harrison Award for Outstanding Achievement was established by the IUGS Executive Committee in 2004 to honor individuals who have served the Union in an extraordinary fashion for a long period of time, and who have no recognized position as an officer of the Union. The award is named for the late James M. Harrison, an internationally known and universally respected Canadian geologist (Geological Survey of Canada) who was one of the founding fathers of the IUGS and its first President (1961-1964).

  7. Winter Naming: James Welch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Kenneth

    2005-01-01

    In the early 1970s James Welch enters American literature as an Indian postmodernist, a fractured classicist of the West, drawing fragments from both sides of the Buckskin Curtain. Reading the likes of Cesar Vallejo and early modernists from Ezra Pound to Theodore Roethke and decreationists such as Ray Carver (through Richard Hugo's tutelage at…

  8. Winter Naming: James Welch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Kenneth

    2005-01-01

    In the early 1970s James Welch enters American literature as an Indian postmodernist, a fractured classicist of the West, drawing fragments from both sides of the Buckskin Curtain. Reading the likes of Cesar Vallejo and early modernists from Ezra Pound to Theodore Roethke and decreationists such as Ray Carver (through Richard Hugo's tutelage at…

  9. Learning from James Coleman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlenberg, Richard D.

    2001-01-01

    Examines three works by James Coleman: "Equality of Educational Opportunity" (the Coleman Report), 1966; Coleman's study of school busing and white flight in the 1970s; and his 1980s research on the advantages of private schools. His conclusions included: social composition is more important than school spending and socioeconomic integration is…

  10. Teaching James Baldwin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopate, Phillip

    1998-01-01

    Advocates using James Baldwin's essays to motivate high school and college students to write and think critically. Contends Baldwin is the greatest American essayist since World War II. Cites Baldwin's love of language and his carefully crafted prose. Describes assignments in which students write about their mother or father or about growing up.…

  11. James Parkinson: Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Harold

    2013-11-01

    Parkinson's disease is a condition that anyone with a modicum of medical knowledge can recognise in the street--as indeed how it was studied by James Parkinson himself. Its three characteristic features are: 1. Increase in the tone of the voluntary muscles (rigidity). 2. Slowness of movement (bradykinesis). 3. Tremor (the characteristic 'pill rolling' movements of the fingers).

  12. Utopian Totalism versus Utopian Realism: A Reply to Darren Webb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpin, David

    2009-01-01

    Over one half of Darren Webb's article on the concept of utopia in contemporary educational theory (Webb, 2009) reviews critically the "utopian realist" approach the author has advocated in various publications about education over the past nine years. The conception of utopianism to which the author subscribes also stresses the role of patient…

  13. The Mid-Infrared Instrument for the James Webb Space Telescope, I: Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rieke, G. H.; Wright, G. S.; Böker, T.

    2015-01-01

    in space; and (5) a suite of versatile capabilities including imaging, low- and medium-resolution spectroscopy (with an integral field unit), and coronagraphy. We illustrate the potential uses of this unique combination of capabilities with various science examples: (1) imaging exoplanets; (2) transit...... and eclipse spectroscopy of exoplanets; (3) probing the first stages of star and planet formation, including identifying bioactive molecules; (4) determining star formation rates and mass growth as galaxies are assembled; and (5) characterizing the youngest massive galaxies....

  14. The Mid-Infrared Instrument for the James Webb Space Telescope, VII: The MIRI Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Rieke, G H; Morrison, Jane E; Bergeron, L; Bouchet, Patrice; Garcıa-Marın, Macarena; Greene, T P; Regan, M W; Sukhatme, K G; Walker, Helen

    2015-01-01

    The MIRI Si:As IBC detector arrays extend the heritage technology from the Spitzer IRAC arrays to a 1024 x 1024 pixel format. We provide a short discussion of the principles of operation, design, and performance of the individual MIRI detectors, in support of a description of their operation in arrays provided in an accompanying paper (Ressler et al. (2015)). We then describe modeling of their response. We find that electron diffusion is an important component of their performance, although it was omitted in previous models. Our new model will let us optimize the bias voltage while avoiding avalanche gain. It also predicts the fraction of the IR-active layer that is depleted (and thus contributes to the quantum efficiency) as signal is accumulated on the array amplifier. Another set of models accurately predicts the nonlinearity of the detector-amplifier unit and has guided determination of the corrections for nonlinearity. Finally, we discuss how diffraction at the interpixel gaps and total internal reflecti...

  15. The Mid-Infrared Instrument for the James Webb Space Telescope: IV. The Low Resolution Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Kendrew, S; Bouchet, P; Amiaux, J; Azzolini, R; Bouwman, J; Chen, C; Dubreuil, D; Fischer, S; Glasse, A; Greene, T; Lagage, P -O; Lahuis, F; Ronayette, S; Wright, D; Wright, G S

    2015-01-01

    The Low Resolution Spectrometer of the MIRI, which forms part of the imager module, will provide R~100 long-slit and slitless spectroscopy from 5 to 12 micron. The design is optimised for observations of compact sources, such as exoplanet host stars. We provide here an overview of the design of the LRS, and its performance as measured during extensive test campaigns, examining in particular the delivered image quality, dispersion, and resolving power, as well as spectrophotometric performance, flatfield accuracy and the effects of fringing. We describe the operational concept of the slitless mode, which is optimally suited to transit spectroscopy of exoplanet atmospheres. The LRS mode of the MIRI was found to perform consistently with its requirements and goals.

  16. NEOs in the mid-infrared: from Spitzer to JWST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Michael; Thomas, Cristina A.

    2016-10-01

    Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) account for a surprisingly large fraction of the Spitzer observing time devoted to Solar System science. As a community, we should think of ways to repeat that success with JWST. JWST is planning an open Early Release Science Program, with the expected deadline for letters of intent in early 2017. We can't wait for next year's DPS to develop ideas. The time is now!In order to stir up the discussion, we will present ideas for NEO observing programs that are well adapted to JWST's capabilities and limitations, based on our recent PASP paper (Thomas et al., 2016). Obvious measurement objectives would include* size and albedo from thermal continuum (MIRI photometry)* thermal inertia for objects with well-known shape and spin state (MIRI)* taxonomy through reflection spectroscopy and emission spectroscopy in the NIR and MIR; NIR colors for faint objects.In all cases, JWST's sensitivity will allow us to go deeper than currently possible by at least an order of magnitude. Meter-sized NEOs similar to 2009 BD or 2011 MD are easy targets for MIRI spectrophotometry!The following limitations must be kept in mind, however: JWST's large size makes it slow to move. Most problematic for NEOs is probably the resulting 'speed limit': non-sidereal tracking is supported up to a rate of 30 mas/s, NEOs can easily move faster than that (ways to relax this constraint are under discussion). The average slew to a new target is budgeted to take 30 min, effectively ruling out programs many-target programs like ExploreNEOs or NEOSurvey (see D. Trilling's paper). Additionally, JWST will only observe close to quadrature, translating to large solar phase angles for NEO observations; this is familiar from other space-based IR facilities.

  17. James R. Thompson

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    James R. Thompon served as director of the Marshall Space Flight Center from September 29, 1986 until July 6, 1989, when he was appointed as NASA Deputy Administrator. Prior to his tenure as Marshall's Director, Thompson served from March to June 1986 as the vice-chairman of the NASA task force investigating the cause of the Space Shuttle Challenger accident. He was credited with playing a significant role in returning the Space Shuttle to flight following the Challenger disaster.

  18. El James de Putnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa M. Calcaterra

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo busca reconstruir la posición de Hilary Putnam en torno a la filosofía de James, analizando los aspectos que han contribuido principalmente a la evolución del realismo putnamiano. Luego de precisar la afinidad entre Wittgenstein y James que guía el interés de Putnam por el pragmatismo de James, la autora recorre los temas éticos, epistemológicos y metafísicos a partir de los cuales surgen los aspectos más fructíferos de la filosofía pragmatista. Algunos de ellos son: la conjunción entre antidogmatismo y antiescepticismo, la concepción procesal del conocimiento y de la verdad, la crítica al reduccionismo fisicalista y al realismo del sentido común, y, por último, la tesis de la importanciade la dimensión práctica en el desarrollo del análisis filosófico. Queda así subrayada la actualidad de la batalla jamesiana contra la lógica dicotómica que gobierna nuestra tradición teorética.

  19. The James versions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hoetink

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] C.L.R. James: His Intellectual Legacies. SELWYN R. CUDJOE & WILLIAM E. CAIN (eds.. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1995. x + 476 pp. (Cloth USS 55.00, Paper US$ 19.95 C.L.R. James on the "Negro Question." SCOTT MCLEMEE (ed.. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1996. xxxvii + 154 pp. (Paper US$ 16.95 C.L.R. James: A Political Biography. KENT WORCESTER. Albany: State University of New York, 1996. xvi + 311 pp. (Paper US$ 19.95 "Why is there no socialism in the United States?," asked the German sociologist Werner Sombart (1906:43 in a famous essay at the beginning of the present century. Immigrants, it is true, had brought socialist notions with them in the middle of the past century, and had caused some anarchistic wavelets in the 1880s; there had been radical protest movements such as the Grangers, and a fledgling third party like the Populists; there were famous social critics and Utopians like Henry George and Edward Bellamy, but - in striking contrast to other parts of the Hemisphere - a socialist movement of any political weight never came off the ground.

  20. Spitzer/JWST Cross Calibration: IRAC Observations of Potential Calibrators for JWST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Sean J.; Gordon, Karl D.; Lowrance, Patrick; Ingalls, James G.; Glaccum, William J.; Grillmair, Carl J.; E Krick, Jessica; Laine, Seppo J.; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Hora, Joseph L.; Bohlin, Ralph

    2017-06-01

    We present observations at 3.6 and 4.5 microns using IRAC on the Spitzer Space Telescope of a set of main sequence A stars and white dwarfs that are potential calibrators across the JWST instrument suite. The stars range from brightnesses of 4.4 to 15 mag in K band. The calibration observations use a similar redundancy to the observing strategy for the IRAC primary calibrators (Reach et al. 2005) and the photometry is obtained using identical methods and instrumental photometric corrections as those applied to the IRAC primary calibrators (Carey et al. 2009). The resulting photometry is then compared to the predictions based on spectra from the CALSPEC Calibration Database (http://www.stsci.edu/hst/observatory/crds/calspec.html) and the IRAC bandpasses. These observations are part of an ongoing collaboration between IPAC and STScI investigating absolute calibration in the infrared.

  1. Studying microbiology with Glenn F. Webb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaser, Martin J

    2015-08-01

    I began working with Glenn F. Webb in 1997. At that time, I was on the faculty of Vanderbilt University, in the School of Medicine, in the Department of Medicine, in its Division of Infectious Diseases. As with mathematics, modern medicine has its different disciplines (e.g. Surgery and Internal Medicine), and then further subdivisions (e.g. Cardiology and Infectious Diseases). Within Internal Medicine, most of the divisions are based on the treatment of conditions that relate to a single organ or group of organs -- the heart, the lungs, the kidneys, the digestive system. But the discipline of Infectious Diseases was based on a different concept: the war between humans and microbes.

  2. The work of Glenn F. Webb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgibbon, William E

    2015-08-01

    It is my distinct pleasure to introduce this volume honoring the 70th birthday of Professor Glenn F. Webb. The existence of this compiled volume is in itself a testimony of Glenn's dedication to, his pursuit of, and his achievement of scientific excellence. As we honor Glenn, we honor what is excellent in our profession. Aristotle clearly articulated his concept of excellence. ``We are what we repeatedly do. Excellence, then, is not an act, but a habit." As we look over the course of his career we observe ample evidence of Glenn Webb's habitual practice of excellence. Beginning with Glenn's first paper [1], one observes a constant stream of productivity and high impact work. Glenn has authored or co-authored over 160 papers, written one research monograph, and co-edited six volumes. He has delivered plenary lectures, colloquia, and seminars across the globe, and he serves on the editorial boards of 11 archival journals. He is a Fellow of the American Mathematical Society. Glenn's scientific career chronicles an evolution of scientific work that began with his interest in nonlinear semigroup theory and leads up to his current activity in biomedical mathematics. At each stage we see seminal contributions in the areas of nonlinear semigroups, functional differential equations, infinite dimensional dynamical systems, mathematical population dynamics, mathematical biology and biomedical mathematics. Glenn's work is distinguished by a clarity and accessibility of exposition, a precise identification and description of the problem or model under consideration, and thorough referencing. He uses elementary methods whenever possible but couples this with an ability to employ power abstract methods when necessitated by the problem.

  3. James E.Thompson

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ When fresh-faced college graduate James Thompson,an employee of a removals firm for US military personnel stationed in Japan,lost his job in 1964,he emptied his savings account,cashed in his plane ticket back to the US,and started his own company.Thirty-four years on,Thompson's firm,Crown Worldwide,has become one of the world's largest relocation and specialist logistics firms,with offices in more than 50 countries offering a diverse portfolio of services ranging from traditional moving services to fine art transportation and wine cellaring.

  4. The Public James Baldwin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herb Boyd

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available As this essay notes, James Baldwin, his words and metaphors, pervade public space at countless numbers of intersections. Lines from his plays, novels, and essays have always been an easy and handy reference for writers and artists seeking ways to ground their intentions with deeper meaning and magic. Even in a minority opinion on 22 June 2016 written by Supreme Court Justice Sonia Sotomayor, she cited several authors, including Baldwin, to underscore her point on the Court’s abrogation of the Fourth Amendment.

  5. Obituary: James Houck (1940 - 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weedman, Daniel; Barry, Donald; Soifer, Thomas

    's priorities for the 1990s (the "Bahcall Report"), and his persuasive advocacy convinced the panel that SIRTF should be the decade's highest priority. Subsequently, Jim chaired the NASA HQ Astrophysics Advisory Committee and played a crucial role in organizing and participating in legislative advocacy for the SIRTF "new start" that was needed. Jim's extraordinary technical expertise was vital to the essential redesign of SIRTF required to meet NASA targets for the mission cost. Following the success of IRAS, SIRTF was intended primarily as a photometric mission. Jim was the advocate for spectroscopy which subsequently turned out to be the instrument in greatest demand for the cryogenic Spitzer mission. Jim's first scientific paper with the IRS in 2005 announced the presence of a large population of quasars in the early universe so heavily obscured by dust that they had been invisible to optical telescopes. The legacy of the Spitzer IRS is now permanently in place as the "Cornell Atlas of Spitzer IRS Sources" (CASSIS at cassis.sirtf.com), providing an easily accessible archive of mid-infrared spectra (5-37 micron) for everything from outer planet satellites to quasars at the edge of the observable universe. CASSIS will be the fundamental reference archive of mid-infrared spectra for the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope. During all these years of major research projects, Jim maintained a consistent dedication to high quality undergraduate teaching, simultaneously with advising numerous PhD students. His most notable legacy for undergraduates at Cornell was his development by 1974 of a research quality telescope close to campus to teach instrumentation and observational techniques. The 25 inch telescope of the Hartung-Boothroyd Observatory not only trained Cornell students for decades, but was also a testbed for spectrographs. What students felt about Jim was summarized by a former undergraduate who told us, "It is no stretch whatsoever to say that I would not be anything

  6. The Circumnuclear Environment of IRAS 20551-4250: A Case Study of AGN/Starburst Connection for JWST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a general review of the current knowledge of IRAS 20551-4250 and its circumnuclear environment. This Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxy is one of the most puzzling sources of its class in the nearby Universe: the near-IR spectrum is typical of a galaxy experiencing a very intense starburst, but a highly obscured active nucleus is identified beyond ~5 μm and possibly dominates the mid-IR energy output of the system. At longer wavelengths star formation is again the main driver of the global spectral shape and features. We interpret all the available IR diagnostics in the framework of simultaneous black hole growth and star formation and discuss the key properties that make this source an ideal laboratory for the forthcoming James Webb Space Telescope.

  7. Sir James Lighthill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crighton, D. G.

    1999-05-01

    James Lighthill died on 17 July 1998, at the end of a ten-hour swim round the Channel Island of Sark. He had earlier, at age 49, been the first person ever to do this, and he was carrying out the swim for the seventh time when the exertion revealed a mitral valve weakness which had never been diagnosed, and which led to his sudden death in the water. The swim was one of many long ‘adventure swims’ which Lighthill liked to take, all characterized by strong tidal currents and often heavy seas. And Lighthill took much pleasure through exercising his comprehensive understanding of fluid mechanics first in preparing for them through study of local conditions and then in adapting his performance when, as often, he found that in practice the currents were not as charted and, in fact, often more treacherous.

  8. Alignment Test Results of the JWST Pathfinder Telescope Mirrors in the Cryogenic Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Tony L.; Wells, Conrad; Hadaway, James; Knight, J. Scott; Lunt, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    After integration of the Optical Telescope Element (OTE) to the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) to become the OTIS, the James Webb Space Telescope OTIS is tested at NASAs Johnson Space Center (JSC) in the cryogenic vacuum Chamber A for alignment and optical performance. The alignment of the mirrors comprises a sequence of steps as follows: The mirrors are coarsely aligned using photogrammetry cameras with reflective targets attached to the sides of the mirrors. Then a multi-wavelength interferometer is aligned to the 18-segment primary mirror using cameras at the center of curvature to align reflected light from the segments and using fiducials at the edge of the primary mirror. Once the interferometer is aligned, the 18 primary mirror segments are then adjusted to optimize wavefront error of the aggregate mirror. This process phases the piston and tilt positions of all the mirror segments. An optical fiber placed at the Cassegrain focus of the telescope then emits light towards the secondary mirror to create a collimated beam emitting from the primary mirror. Portions of the collimated beam are retro-reflected from flat mirrors at the top of the chamber to pass through the telescope to the SI detector. The image on the detector is used for fine alignment of the secondary mirror and a check of the primary mirror alignment using many of the same analysis techniques used in the on-orbit alignment. The entire process was practiced and evaluated in 2015 at cryogenic temperature with the Pathfinder telescope.

  9. Alignment test results of the JWST Pathfinder Telescope mirrors in the cryogenic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Tony L.; Wells, Conrad; Hadaway, James B.; Knight, J. Scott; Lunt, Sharon

    2016-07-01

    After integration of the Optical Telescope Element (OTE) to the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) to become the OTIS, the James Webb Space Telescope OTIS is tested at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) in the cryogenic vacuum Chamber A for alignment and optical performance. The alignment of the mirrors comprises a sequence of steps as follows: The mirrors are coarsely aligned using photogrammetry cameras with reflective targets attached to the sides of the mirrors. Then a multi-wavelength interferometer is aligned to the 18-segment primary mirror using cameras at the center of curvature to align reflected light from the segments and using fiducials at the edge of the primary mirror. Once the interferometer is aligned, the 18 primary mirror segments are then adjusted to optimize wavefront error of the aggregate mirror. This process phases the piston and tilt positions of all the mirror segments. An optical fiber placed at the Cassegrain focus of the telescope then emits light towards the secondary mirror to create a collimated beam emitting from the primary mirror. Portions of the collimated beam are retro-reflected from flat mirrors at the top of the chamber to pass through the telescope to the Science Instrument (SI) detector. The image on the detector is used for fine alignment of the secondary mirror and a check of the primary mirror alignment using many of the same analysis techniques used in the on-orbit alignment. The entire process was practiced and evaluated in 2015 at cryogenic temperature with the Pathfinder telescope.

  10. Mid-infrared spectroscopy of starbursts : from Spitzer-IRS to JWST-MIRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Galarza, Juan Rafael

    2012-06-01

    The Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) of star-forming regions and starburst galaxies are unique tracers of the star formation processes in these environments, since they contain information on the escaping and processed photons emitted by newly formed massive stars. Understanding these internal processes is crucial in our physical interpretation of observations of unresolved star formation in the Universe. In the first part of this thesis, we study the physical conditions in resolved starburst regions using Bayesian fitting of their spatially integrated infrared SEDs, including both the thermal continuum and the atomic emission lines. We then apply the method to unresolved starburst to learn about their star formation physics. Our approach leads to robust constraints on physical parameters such as age, compactness, and amount of currently ongoing star formation in starburst, which are otherwise biased by model degeneracies, and allows us to link the resolved properties of giant H II regions to the star formation process at larger scales. In the second part of this thesis, we discuss the wavelength calibration of the next instrument to study the midinfrared spectral properties of starbursts, with improved resolution and sensitivity: the mid-infrared instrument (MIRI), which will fly onboard the James Webb Space Telescope in 2018.

  11. Characterizing Transiting Planets with JWST Spectra: Simulations and Retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Tom; Line, Michael; Fortney, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    There are now well over a thousand confirmed exoplanets, ranging from hot to cold and large to small worlds. JWST spectra will provide much more detailed information on the molecular constituents, chemical compositions, and thermal properties of the atmospheres of transiting planets than is now known. We explore this by modeling clear, cloudy,and high mean molecular weight atmospheres of typical hot Jupiter, warm Neptune, warm sub-Neptune, and cool super-Earth planets and then simulating their JWST transmission and emission spectra. These simulations were performed for several JWST instrument modes over 1 - 11 microns and incorporate realistic signal and noise components. We then performed state-of the art retrievals to determine how well temperatures and abundances (CO, CO2, H2O, NH3) will be constrained and over what pressures for these different planet types. Using these results, we appraise what instrument modes will be most useful for determining what properties of the different planets, and we assess how well we can constrain their compositions, CO ratios, and temperature profiles.

  12. The James Baldwin Interview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Bobia

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available From Rosa Bobia’s The Critical Reception of James Baldwin in France (Peter Lang, 1998; and a special note of thanks to editor Stephen Mazur, Reprise reprints Bobia’s 1985 interview with Baldwin in Atlanta, shortly before his death in France in 1987. Here, as Bobia and Baldwin enter into a brief discussion of his perception of how he was received in France in the 1950s, Baldwin seems to embrace the fact that he was at that time in France largely unknown, an outsider: “I was a maverick.” In light of the fact that in his later years Baldwin came to speak French with great ease and to live comfortably in his home in France, it may seem surprising that his tone in these pages seems to suggest a hint of disinterest in how French critics perceived him—or perhaps it is simply indicative of his deeper affiliations, just as his final burial in the US seems to indicate.

  13. James Blunt matuselaulude edetabeli tipus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Bereavement Registeri andmetel Suurbritannias matustel tellitavate laulude edetabelis: James Blunt "Goodbye My Lover", Robbie Williams "Angels", Jennifer Warnes ja Bill Medley "I've Had the Time Of My Life", Elton John "Candle in the Wind", Righteous Brothers "Unchained Melody"

  14. James Blunt matuselaulude edetabeli tipus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Bereavement Registeri andmetel Suurbritannias matustel tellitavate laulude edetabelis: James Blunt "Goodbye My Lover", Robbie Williams "Angels", Jennifer Warnes ja Bill Medley "I've Had the Time Of My Life", Elton John "Candle in the Wind", Righteous Brothers "Unchained Melody"

  15. From the Universe to the Classroom : A Professional Development Program for Hubble and Webb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhamer, Bonnie; Summers, F.; McCallister, D.; Ryer, H.; Knisely, L.

    2014-01-01

    The education team at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) designs professional development workshops that support the needs of the education community. The purpose of these workshops is to share the latest information about the Hubble and James Webb space telescopes, current NASA science, and curriculum support tools with the education community. The workshops also address STEM topics and the latest educational research, while emphasizing real-world connections. Over the years, our professional development program has been pivotal to disseminating resources, providing educators with the necessary background to use these resources, and helping us better understand community needs. Educators and scientists are both critical to the implementation of quality professional development due to their unique areas of expertise. As a result, our professional development program is founded on the experience of educators who work in partnership with scientists and other content experts. These teams develop workshops that enhance educators’ content and pedagogical knowledge. This poster will highlight examples of how scientists and educators have worked together to develop workshop materials and content.

  16. James Stevens / James Stevens ; interv. Tilman Baumgärtel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stevens, James

    2006-01-01

    Inglise disainerist James Stevensist (sünd. 1962) ja tema tegevusest. J. Stevens 2000. a. Amsterdamis tehtud intervjuus koos Jon Bainsi ja Kim Bulliga 1995. a. Londonis avatud Interneti-agentuurist Obsolete, 1996-2000 tegutsenud Interneti-kohvikust Backspace, mittekommertsiaalse juhtmeteta nerworki Consume.net rajamisest Londonis

  17. James Stevens / James Stevens ; interv. Tilman Baumgärtel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stevens, James

    2006-01-01

    Inglise disainerist James Stevensist (sünd. 1962) ja tema tegevusest. J. Stevens 2000. a. Amsterdamis tehtud intervjuus koos Jon Bainsi ja Kim Bulliga 1995. a. Londonis avatud Interneti-agentuurist Obsolete, 1996-2000 tegutsenud Interneti-kohvikust Backspace, mittekommertsiaalse juhtmeteta nerworki Consume.net rajamisest Londonis

  18. Large Space Optics: From Hubble to JWST and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2008-01-01

    If necessity truly is the mother of invention, then advances in lightweight space mirror technology have been driven by launch vehicle mass and volume constraints. In the late 1970 s, at the start of Hubble development, the state of the art in ground based telescopes was 3 to 4 meter monolithic primary mirrors with masses of 6000 to 10,000 kg - clearly too massive for the planned space shuttle 25,000 kg capability to LEO. Necessity led Hubble to a different solution. Launch vehicle mass constraints (and cost) resulted in the development of a 2.4 meter lightweight eggcrate mirror. At 810 kg (180 kg/m2), this mirror was approximately 7.4% of HST s total 11,110 kg mass. And, the total observatory structure at 4.3 m x 13.2 m fit snuggly inside the space shuttle 4.6 m x 18.3 m payload bay. In the early 1990 s, at the start of JWST development, the state of the art in ground based telescopes was 8 meter class monolithic primary mirrors (16,000 to 23,000 kg) and 10 meter segmented mirrors (14,400 kg). Unfortunately, launch vehicles were still constrained to 4.5 meter payloads and 25,000 kg to LEO or 6,600 kg to L2. Furthermore, science now demanded a space telescope with 6 to 8 meter aperture operating at L2. Mirror technology was identified as a critical capability necessary to enable the next generation of large aperture space telescopes. Specific telescope architectures were explored via three independent design concept studies conducted during the summer of 1996 (1). These studies identified two significant architectural constraints: segmentation and areal density. Because the launch vehicle fairing payload dynamic envelop diameter is approximately 4.5 meters, the only way to launch an 8 meter class mirror is to segment it, fold it and deploy it on orbit - resulting in actuation and control requirements. And, because of launch vehicle mass limits, the primary mirror allocation was only 1000 kg - resulting in a maximum areal density of 20 kg/m2. At the inception of

  19. John James Audubon & the Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinshaw, Craig

    2012-01-01

    In the first half of the 1800s, John James Audubon roamed the wilds of America attempting to draw all the birds in their natural habitat. He published his life-sized paintings in a huge book entitled "Birds of America." Audubon developed a unique system of depicting the birds in natural poses, such as flying. After shooting the bird, he would wire…

  20. Analysis of James Joyce's Araby

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石晓静

    2013-01-01

    Araby by James Joyce is much more than a story of first love; it is a portrait of a world that defies the ideal and the dream. The writer concentrates on character rather than on plot to reveal the ironies by using the Setting and atmosphere, and furthermore reinforces the theme and characters in Araby.

  1. News and Views: NASA puts JWST back on track, but ExoMars collaboration looks unlikely; Marsquakes happening yesterday, geologically; UFOs from black holes control shape of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    NASA's funding plans put the James Webb Space Telescope firmly on track for a launch in 2018, to widespread relief, but the essentially flat funding settlement for 2013 overall means something has to go. Planetary science seems hardest hit, with the especial blow for European planetary scientists of NASA pulling out of ExoMars, the ESA-led mission to look for signs of life on Mars. Images from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment have shown boulders displaced by seismic activity on Mars in the past few million years, and possibly much more recently than that. The bigger the supermassive black hole at the centre of a galaxy, the faster the stars in the galactic bulge rotate. Why this should be so has been something of a puzzle, but now a mechanism that is both powerful and common enough to do the job has been identified.

  2. James Peacock, Understanding Paul Auster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrysavgi Papayianni

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Paul Auster’s impressive gamut of work continues to incite fascination and controversy. Indeed, his compelling storytelling style taken together with his mixing of crime fiction and absurdism has made his readers and critics vacillate between praise and condemnation. James Peacock’s Understanding Paul Auster, sheds new light to otherwise obscure aspects of Auster’s novels, films, and other works undermining in this way the negative criticism of the past and thus creating a new appreciation fo...

  3. Conference James F.Buckli

    CERN Multimedia

    Buckli,J

    1988-01-01

    L'association du personnel a le plaisir d'accueillir Mons. James F.Buckli, astronaute, né en 1947. Il a participé à la mission Space Lab D1 qui pour la première fois mettait 8 personnes sur orbite.L'ass.du pers. remercie aussi Gordon White(s) de la mission américaine d'avoir permis d'organiser cette conférence

  4. The Mid-Infrared Instrument for the James Webb Space Telescope, V: Predicted Performance of the MIRI Coronagraphs

    CERN Document Server

    Boccaletti, A; Baudoz, P; Beichman, C; Bouchet, P; Cavarroc, C; Dubreuil, D; Glasse, Alistair; Glauser, A M; Hines, D C; Lajoie, C -P; Lebreton, J; Perrin, M D; Pueyo, L; Reess, J M; Rieke, G H; Ronayette, S; Rouan, D; Soummer, R; Wright, G S

    2015-01-01

    The imaging channel on the Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI) is equipped with four coronagraphs that provide high contrast imaging capabilities for studying faint point sources and extended emission that would otherwise be overwhelmed by a bright point-source in its vicinity. Such bright sources might include stars that are orbited by exoplanets and circumstellar material, mass-loss envelopes around post-main-sequence stars, the near-nuclear environments in active galaxies, and the host galaxies of distant quasars. This paper describes the coronagraphic observing modes of MIRI, as well as performance estimates based on measurements of the MIRI flight model during cryo-vacuum testing. A brief outline of coronagraphic operations is also provided. Finally, simulated MIRI coronagraphic observations of a few astronomical targets are presented for illustration.

  5. Intervjuu James Corneriga = Interview with James Corner / James Corner ; interv. Andres Sevtshuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Corner, James

    2006-01-01

    Büroo Field Operations maastikuarhitekt ning Pennsylvania Ülikooli maastikuarhitektuuri osakonna juhataja James Corner oma büroost, maastikust kui "instrumendist", postindustriaalsete aladega seotud projektidest (New Yorgi High Line'i muutmine pargiks ja promenaadiks), tööst suuremahuliste maastikega (Fresh Kills'i soo, endise prügila muutmine pargialaks), maastikuarhitektuurist ja linnakujundusest (maastiku urbanism), õpetamise tähtsusest oma töös ja maastikuarhitektuuri ideede arendamisel. Bibl. lk. 24

  6. Intervjuu James Corneriga = Interview with James Corner / James Corner ; interv. Andres Sevtshuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Corner, James

    2006-01-01

    Büroo Field Operations maastikuarhitekt ning Pennsylvania Ülikooli maastikuarhitektuuri osakonna juhataja James Corner oma büroost, maastikust kui "instrumendist", postindustriaalsete aladega seotud projektidest (New Yorgi High Line'i muutmine pargiks ja promenaadiks), tööst suuremahuliste maastikega (Fresh Kills'i soo, endise prügila muutmine pargialaks), maastikuarhitektuurist ja linnakujundusest (maastiku urbanism), õpetamise tähtsusest oma töös ja maastikuarhitektuuri ideede arendamisel. Bibl. lk. 24

  7. Exploring the Evolution of Star Formation and Dwarf Galaxy Properties with JWST/MIRI Serendipitous Spectroscopic Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonato, Matteo; Sajina, Anna; De Zotti, Gianfranco; McKinney, Jed; Baronchelli, Ivano; Negrello, Mattia; Marchesini, Danilo; Roebuck, Eric; Shipley, Heath; Kurinsky, Noah; Pope, Alexandra; Noriega-Crespo, Alberto; Yan, Lin; Kirkpatrick, Allison

    2017-02-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope’s Medium Resolution Spectrometer (MRS), will offer nearly two orders of magnitude improvement in sensitivity and >3× improvement in spectral resolution over our previous space-based mid-IR spectrometer, the Spitzer IRS. In this paper, we make predictions for spectroscopic pointed observations and serendipitous detections with the MRS. Specifically, pointed observations of Herschel sources require only a few minutes on source integration for detections of several star-forming and active galactic nucleus lines, out to z = 3 and beyond. But the same data will also include tens of serendipitous 0 ≲ z ≲ 4 galaxies per field with infrared luminosities ranging ∼106–1013 L ⊙. In particular, for the first time and for free we will be able to explore the L IR star formation rate function. The above conclusions hold for a wide range in the potential low-L end of the IR luminosity function, and account for the PAH deficit in low-L, low-metallicity galaxies.

  8. St. James Hospital. Lutcher, Louisiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtis & Davis, Arquitectos

    1958-05-01

    Full Text Available Un hospital debe estar proyectado, especialmente, para la comodidad y el cuidado de los enfermos. Atendiendo a este postulado, en el hospital St. James se ha buscado que los dormitorios se orienten al sur, y que desde ellos puedan apreciarse a través de amplias superficies acristaladas, la belleza del paisaje circundante. El gran ventanal corrido que compone la fachada meridional está protegido con parteluces giratorios verticales, que cada paciente puede abrir o cerrar a voluntad desde la misma cama.

  9. James Hillman (1926-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, E Mark

    2012-09-01

    Presents an obituary for James Hillman. James Hillman, the third child of Madeline and Julian Hillman, died of metastatic bone cancer at his home in Thompson, Connecticut, on October 27, 2011. The parent of "archetypal psychology," he was born on April 12, 1926, at the Breakers, a then-opulent hotel founded by his family that overlooked the boardwalk and beach in Atlantic City, New Jersey. With an extensive footing in the classics and classical humanism, Jim established the foundations for his emerging archetypal psychology. With archetypal psychology, he was to move away from a dependence on the concept of a personal ego in favor of larger sources that relied on his notion of variegated identity. He proposed a profusion of mythical images that emerge under the rubric of "soul." Soul stands as an appellation indicating a deepening of psychic events, such as when dreams, chaos, and "pathologizing" (the struggles of imagination) are most experienced. For Hillman, psychology could not be taken as a separate discipline isolated from mythology, literature, art, philosophy, politics, religion, natural science, and the ordinary affairs of individuals. Hillman envisioned archetypes as processes that bear evidence to personal suffering and, in so doing, prompt the expansion of compassion. In 1975, Jim was nominated for a Pulitzer Prize for his book Re-Visioning Psychology (Harper & Row). In addition to many other citations, Jim had the high honor in 2001 of receiving the Medal of the Presidency of the Italian Republic.

  10. JWST NIRCam WFSS Ice Feature Spectroscopy in Nearby Molecular Cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Laurie; Hodapp, Klaus W.; Rieke, Marcia J.; Meyer, Michael; Greene, Thomas P.; JWST NIRCam Science Team

    2017-06-01

    In molecular clouds above a few magnitudes of total visual extinction, some components of the molecular gas freeze out on the surfaces of dust grains. These ice mantles around dust grains are the site of complex surface chemistry that leads to the formation of simple organic molecules in these mantles. The icy surfaces also facilitate the coaggulation of the dust particles, setting the stage for grain growth and ultimately the formation of planetary bodies.As part of the JWST NIRCam GTO program, we plan to observe a selection of small molecular cores using the wide field grism spectroscopy mode of NIRCam.This poster presents the results of a preliminary study of several candidate molecular cores using UKIRT, Spitzer IRAC, IRTF SpeX, Keck MOSFIRE and Subaru MOIRCS data.After the prelimary studies we have selected three molecular cores in different evolutionary stages for the GTO program: B68, a quiescent molecular core, LDN 694-2, a collapsing pre-stellar core, and B335, a protostellar core. All these cores are seen against a dense background of stars in the inner Galaxy and offer the opportunity for spatially well resolved mapping of the ice feature distribution. We will obtain slitless grism spectroscopy in six filters covering the features of H2O, CO2, CO, CH3OH, and the XCN feature. Simulations using aXeSIM have shown that spectrum overlap will occur in a fraction of the spectra, but will not be a prohibitive problem.Our poster will discuss the details of observations planned out in the APT system.

  11. The JWST North Ecliptic Pole Survey Field for Time-domain Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Rolf A.; Alpaslan, Mehmet; Ashby, Matthew; Ashcraft, Teresa; Cohen, Seth H.; Condon, James J.; Conselice, Christopher; Ferrara, Andrea; Frye, Brenda L.; Grogin, Norman A.; Hammel, Heidi B.; Hathi, Nimish P.; Joshi, Bhavin; Kim, Duho; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Mechtley, Matt; Milam, Stefanie N.; Rodney, Steven A.; Rutkowski, Michael J.; Strolger, Louis-Gregory; Trujillo, Chadwick A.; Willmer, Christopher; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Yan, Haojing

    2017-01-01

    The JWST North Ecliptic Pole (NEP) Survey field is located within JWST's northern Continuous Viewing Zone, will span ˜14‧ in diameter (˜10‧ with NIRISS coverage) and will be roughly circular in shape (initially sampled during Cycle 1 at 4 distinct orientations with JWST/NIRCam's 4.4‧×2.2‧ FoV —the JWST “windmill”) and will have NIRISS slitless grism spectroscopy taken in parallel, overlapping an alternate NIRCam orientation. This is the only region in the sky where JWST can observe a clean extragalactic deep survey field (free of bright foreground stars and with low Galactic foreground extinction AV) at arbitrary cadence or at arbitrary orientation. This will crucially enable a wide range of new and exciting time-domain science, including high redshift transient searches and monitoring (e.g., SNe), variability studies from Active Galactic Nuclei to brown dwarf atmospheres, as well as proper motions of extreme scattered Kuiper Belt and Oort Cloud Objects, and of nearby Galactic brown dwarfs, low-mass stars, and ultracool white dwarfs. We therefore welcome and encourage follow-up through GO programs of the initial GTO observations to realize its potential as a JWST time-domain community field. The JWST NEP Survey field was selected from an analysis of WISE 3.4+4.6 micron, 2MASS JHKs, and SDSS ugriz source counts and of Galactic foreground extinction, and is one of very few such ˜10‧ fields that are devoid of sources brighter than mAB = 16 mag. We have secured deep (mAB ˜ 26 mag) wide-field (˜23‧×25‧) Ugrz images of this field and its surroundings with LBT/LBC. We also expect that deep MMT/MMIRS YJHK images, deep 8-12 GHz VLA radio observations (pending), and possibly HST ACS/WFC and WFC3/UVIS ultraviolet-visible images will be available before JWST launches in Oct 2018.

  12. James Stirling Regionalismo y modernidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier de Esteban Garbayo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEn los años treinta, la arquitectura moderna se había introducido en los más remotos lugares del mundo enfrentándose con la infinita idiosincrasia de lo local, y al mismo tiempo, el arquitecto, sintiendo las limitaciones de su estilo e intentando ampliar su vocabulario, se embarcó en un proceso de difusión, asimilación y personalización.La idea de una renovada época después de la posguerra británica, sería compartida por una joven generación de arquitectos con el fin de encontrar una nueva forma de modernidad.Si en sus proyectos domésticos de mediados de los cincuenta, James Stirling partió de una aproximación al regionalismo y a la 'tradición funcional' con el fin de renovar el lenguaje moderno, no abandonaría la idea 'programática' inicial de entender la arquitectura desde una consistencia formal y una lógica que combinaba 'una síntesis común del pasado reciente y una certera actitud hacia el futuro'. AbstractThirties, modern architecture had percolated into remote corners of the world, encountering the infinite idiosyncrasies of locality, and, at the same time, Architects, feelings the limitations of their style and becoming intent upon extending their vocabulary, embarked upon a process of diffusion, assimilation and personalitation.The idea of a renewed period after British postwar, was shared for a new young architects generationto find a new way of modernity.While in his mid fifties housing projects, James Stirling approached to 'regionalism' and 'the functional tradition' to renew the modern language, he wouldn't reject the programmatic idea to understand architecture from a logic and formal consistency that combine 'a common synthesis of the recent past and a certain attitude toward the future'.

  13. A chat with James Watson

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    On 6 September, Nobel laureate James Watson paid a visit to CERN. In this interview, he shares his views with CERN's Paola Catapano.      var flash_video_player=get_video_player_path(); insert_player_for_external('Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-144/CERN-MOVIE-2011-144-0753-kbps-640x360-25-fps-audio-64-kbps-44-kHz-stereo', 'mms://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-144/CERN-MOVIE-2011-144-0480-kbps-512x288-25-fps-audio-128-kbps-48-kHz-stereo.wmv', 'false', 480, 360, 'https://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-144/CERN-MOVIE-2011-144-posterframe-640x360-at-10-percent.jpg', '1384418', true, 'Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-144/CERN-MOVIE-2011-144-0600-kbps-maxH-360-25-fps-audio-128-kbps-48-kHz-stereo.mp4');

  14. Lessons from Coronagraphic Imaging with HST that may apply to JWST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, C. A.; Hines, Dean C.; Schneider, Glenn; McElwain, Michael W.

    2017-06-01

    One of the major capabilities offered by JWST is coronagraphic imaging from space, covering the near through mid-IR and optimized for study of planet formation and the evolution of planetary systems. Planning for JWST has resulted in expectations for instrument performance, observation strategies and data reduction approaches. HST with 20 years of coronagraphic imaging offers some experience which may be useful to those planning for JWST. 1) Real astronomical sources do not necessarily conform to expectations. Debris disks may be accompanied by more distant material, and some systems may be conspicuous in scattered light when offering only modest IR excesses. Proto-planetary disks are not constantly illuminated, and thus a single epoch observation of the source may not be sufficient to reveal everything about it. 2) The early expectation with NICMOS was that shallow, 2-roll observations would reveal a wealth of debris disks imaged in scattered light, and that only a limited set of PSF observations would be required. Instead, building up a library of spatially resolved disks in scattered light has proven to require alternate observing strategies, is still on-going, and has taken far longer than expected. 3) A wealth of coronagraphic options with an instrument may not be scientifically informative, unless there is a similar time investment in acquisition of calibration data in support of the science observations. 4) Finally, no one anticipated what can be gleaned from coronagraphic imaging. We should expect similar, unexpected, and ultimately revolutionary discoveries with JWST.

  15. St. James marine terminal facility description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) currently owns and operates a marine terminal on the west bank of the Mississippi River at St. James, Louisiana. The St. James facility was constructed by the Department to provide marine services associated with the fill and drawdown of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) crude oil storage facilities located at Bayou Choctaw and Weeks Island, Louisiana. Although strategic to the mission of the SPR in the event of a national emergency, the St. James terminal is situated such that it has a high potential to also serve the commercial industry`s needs for crude oil terminalling and storage. The St. James terminal is located approximately 45 miles west of New Orleans and 30 miles southeast of Baton Rouge, and approximately 160 miles upstream from the mouth of the Mississippi River. Construction of the St. James terminal was initiated in 1978 and was completed in 1980. Since then, the terminal has received and transferred over 125 million barrels of crude oil to the SPR sites for storage. For crude oil distribution, the St. James terminal was connected to the neighboring LOCAP terminal by a 0.1 mile 36-inch pipeline in 1981 and to the Capline terminal by a 0.5 mile 30-inch pipeline in 1988. The terminal also has a 30-inch pipeline connection to the Koch oil terminal which was used for initial fill purposes; however, this pipeline has been disconnected and is currently inactive. A complete description of the St. James terminal facilities, operational capabilities, operational certifications, and future Government requirements are presented in Sections 2, 3, 4, and 5 respectively.

  16. Space perception and William James's metaphysical presuppositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Martin J

    2011-05-01

    William James's overtly philosophical work may be more continuous with his psychological work than is sometimes thought. His Essays in Radical Empiricism can be understood as an explicit statement of the absolute presupposition that formed the basis of Jamesian psychology: that direct experience is primary and has to be taken at face value. An examination of James's theory of space perception suggests that, even in his early work, he presupposed the primacy of direct experience, and that later changes in his account of space perception can be understood as making his view more consistent with this presupposition. In his earlier view of space perception, James argued that sensations were directly experienced as spatial, though he accepted that spatial relations between sensations may be constructed by higher order thought. In his later view, however, James argued that spatial relations were just as directly experienced as sensations. The work of T. H. Green may have prompted James to recognize the full consequence of his ideas and to realize that taking experience at face value required that spatial relations be thought of as intrinsic to experience rather than the result of intellectual construction.

  17. William James, Gustav Fechner, and Early Psychophysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie L. Hawkins

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available American psychologist and philosopher William James devoted the entirety of his career to exploring the nature of volition, as expressed by such phenomena as will, attention, and belief. As part of that endeavor, James's unorthodox scientific pursuits, from his experiments with nitrous oxide and hallucinogenic drugs to his investigation of spiritualist mediums, represent his attempt to address the "hard problems" of consciousness for which his training in brain physiology and experimental psychology could not entirely account. As a student, James's reading in chemistry and physics had sparked his interest in the concepts of energy and force, terms that he later deployed in his writing about consciousness and in his arguments against philosophical monism and scientific materialism, as he developed his radically empiricist ideas privileging discontinuity and plurality. Despite James's long campaign against scientific materialism, he was, however, convinced of the existence of a naturalistic explanation for the more "wayward and fitful" aspects of mind, including transcendent experiences associated with hysteria, genius, and religious ecstasy. In this paper, I examine aspects of James's thought that are still important for contemporary debates in psychology and neuroscience: his "transmission theory" of consciousness, his ideas on the "knowing of things together," and, finally, the related concept of "the compounding of consciousness," which postulates the theoretical possibility for individual entities within a conscious system of thought to "know" the thoughts of others within the system. Taken together, these ideas suggest that James, in spite of, or perhaps because of, his forays into metaphysics, was working toward a naturalistic understanding of consciousness, what I will term a "distributive model," based on his understanding of consciousness as an "awareness" that interacts dynamically within, and in relation to, its environment.

  18. William james, gustav fechner, and early psychophysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Stephanie L

    2011-01-01

    American psychologist and philosopher William James devoted the entirety of his career to exploring the nature of volition, as expressed by such phenomena as will, attention, and belief. As part of that endeavor, James's unorthodox scientific pursuits, from his experiments with nitrous oxide and hallucinogenic drugs to his investigation of spiritualist mediums, represent his attempt to address the "hard problems" of consciousness for which his training in brain physiology and experimental psychology could not entirely account. As a student, James's reading in chemistry and physics had sparked his interest in the concepts of energy and force, terms that he later deployed in his writing about consciousness and in his arguments against philosophical monism and scientific materialism, as he developed his "radically empiricist" ideas privileging discontinuity and plurality. Despite James's long campaign against scientific materialism, he was, however, convinced of the existence of a naturalistic explanation for the more "wayward and fitful" aspects of mind, including transcendent experiences associated with hysteria, genius, and religious ecstasy. In this paper, I examine aspects of James's thought that are still important for contemporary debates in psychology and neuroscience: his "transmission theory" of consciousness, his ideas on the "knowing of things together," and, finally, the related concept of "the compounding of consciousness," which postulates the theoretical possibility for individual entities within a conscious system of thought to "know" the thoughts of others within the system. Taken together, these ideas suggest that James, in spite of, or perhaps because of, his forays into metaphysics, was working toward a naturalistic understanding of consciousness, what I will term a "distributive model," based on his understanding of consciousness as an "awareness" that interacts dynamically within, and in relation to, its environment.

  19. James Watt making the world anew

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Scottish inventor and mechanical engineer James Watt (1736-1819) is best known for his pioneering work on the steam engine that became fundamental to the incredible changes and developments wrought by the Industrial Revolution. But in this new biography, Ben Russell tells a much bigger, richer story, peering over Watt's shoulder to more fully explore the processes he used and how his ephemeral ideas were transformed into tangible artifacts. Over the course of the book, Russell reveals as much about the life of James Watt as he does a history of Britain's early industrial transformation and the

  20. In conversation with: Professor Richard James

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Clarke

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, Richard James wrote in the Foreword to Nelson, Clarke, Kift, and Creagh’s (2012 monograph on Australasian literature on the First Year Experience that:The trend towards universal participation will usher in dramatic changes in the character of the first year in higher education. … (p. iiiIn an interview at the University of Melbourne, Australia in July 2013 between Richard James and John Clarke, Co-editor of the International Journal of the First Year in Higher Education, these and related issues were explored.  The interview picks up where the Foreword left off:  focussing on universal participation.

  1. Follow-up and characterization of the TESS exoplanets with SOPHIE, SPIRou, and JWST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouzet, N.; Bonfils, X.; Delfosse, X.; Boisse, I.; Hébrard, G.; Forveille, T.; Donati, J.-F.; Bouchy, F.; Moutou, C.; Doyon, R.; Artigau, E.; Albert, L.; Malo, L.; Lecavelier des Etangs, A.; Santerne, A.; Author2, J.-P.; Author3, C. E.

    2016-12-01

    The NASA TESS mission will deliver hundreds of transiting exoplanet candidates orbiting bright stars. The spectrometers SOPHIE at OHP and SPIRou at CFHT will be ideal to obtain radial velocities of these candidates, confirm their nature, and derive the planets' masses. These measurements will be crucial to deliver the best targets for atmospheric characterization with JWST. Here, we calculate the required observing time with SOPHIE, SPIRou, and JWST for each of the TESS targets in order to prepare follow-up observations. To infer their potential for JWST, we restrict the calculations to the case of transmission spectroscopy with NIRISS. The radial velocity follow-up of the giant planets (R_p > 4 R_E) could be achieved with SOPHIE, with a median observing time of 3.47 hours per target, and a total observing time of 305 hours that includes the 80% most favorable cases. Several small planets (R_p R_E) could also be confirmed, but most of them would require an unrealistic time investment. On the other hand, SPIRou is ideally suited to the follow-up of the small planets, with a median observing time of 2.65 hours per target, and a median observing time of 4.70 hours for the terrestrial planets in the habitable zone (R_p R_E, S programs with SOPHIE and SPIRou before the first planet candidates are delivered by TESS.

  2. Selected achievements, science directions, and new opportunities for the WEBB small watershed research program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Pierre D.; Larsen, Matthew C.; Greene, Earl A.; Buss, Heather L.; Clow, David W.; Hunt, Randall J.; Mast, M. Alisa; Murphy, Sheila F.; Peters, Norman E.; Sebestyen, Stephen D.; Shanley, James B.; Walker, John F.

    2009-01-01

    Over nearly two decades, the Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Budgets (WEBB) small watershed research program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has documented how water and solute fluxes, nutrient, carbon, and mercury dynamics, and weathering and sediment transport respond to natural and humancaused drivers, including climate, climate change, and atmospheric deposition. Together with a continued and increasing focus on the effects of climate change, more investigations are needed that examine ecological effects (e.g., evapotranspiration, nutrient uptake) and responses (e.g., species abundances, biodiversity) that are coupled with the physical and chemical processes historically observed in the WEBB program. Greater use of remote sensing, geographic modeling, and habitat/watershed modeling tools is needed, as is closer integration with the USGS-led National Phenology Network. Better understanding of process and system response times is needed. The analysis and observation of land-use and climate change effects over time should be improved by pooling data obtained by the WEBB program during the last two decades with data obtained earlier and (or) concurrently from other research and monitoring studies conducted at or near the five WEBB watershed sites. These data can be supplemented with historical and paleo-environmental information, such as could be obtained from tree rings and lake cores. Because of the relatively pristine nature and small size of its watersheds, the WEBB program could provide process understanding and basic data to better characterize and quantify ecosystem services and to develop and apply indicators of ecosystem health. In collaboration with other Federal and State watershed research programs, the WEBB program has an opportunity to contribute to tracking the short-term dynamics and long-term evolution of ecosystem services and health indicators at a multiplicity of scales across the landscape. 

  3. William James Sidis, The Broken Twig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montour, Kathleen

    1977-01-01

    By presenting cases of prodigies who entered college as early as William James Bidis but who succeeded, this paper attempts to dissuade the public from its opposition to educational acceleration for precocious children, to which the "Sidis fallacy" has helped give rise. (Author)

  4. James Baldwin: Voyages in Search of Love

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Leeming

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available From the time of his early adolescence until his death, traveling was one of, if not the, driving force of James Baldwin’s life. He traveled to escape, he travelled to discover, and he traveled because traveling was a way of knowing himself, of realizing his vocation.

  5. Senator James Eastland : Mississippi's Jim Crow Democrat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwiers, Maarten

    2015-01-01

    In the years following World War II, the national Democratic Party aligned its agenda more and more with the goals of the civil rights movement. By contrast, a majority of southern Democrats remained as committed as ever to a longstanding segregationist ideology. Through the career of Senator James

  6. A Reflective Conversation with James H. Borland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Moore, Tammy-Lynne; Borland, James H.

    2014-01-01

    James H. Borland, Ph.D. is Professor of Education in the Department of Curriculum and Teaching at Teachers College, Columbia University in New York City. In this reflective conversation, he reflects on his experiences in an urban environment and the current challenges in gifted education. He argues for ongoing diagnosis of learners' needs without…

  7. Non-redundant Aperture Masking Interferometry (AMI) and segment phasing with JWST-NIRISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Lafrenière, David; Ford, K. E. Saavik; McKernan, Barry; Cheetham, Anthony; Greenbaum, Alexandra Z.; Tuthill, Peter G.; Lloyd, James P.; Ireland, Michael J.; Doyon, René; Beaulieu, Mathilde; Martel, André; Koekemoer, Anton; Martinache, Frantz; Teuben, Peter

    2012-09-01

    The Aperture Masked Interferometry (AMI) mode on JWST-NIRISS is implemented as a 7-hole, 15% throughput, non-redundant mask (NRM) that operates with 5-8% bandwidth filters at 3.8, 4.3, and 4.8 microns. We present refined estimates of AMI's expected point-source contrast, using realizations of noise matched to JWST pointing requirements, NIRISS detector noise, and Rev-V JWST wavefront error models for the telescope and instrument. We describe our point-source binary data reduction algorithm, which we use as a standardized method to compare different observational strategies. For a 7.5 magnitude star we report a 10-a detection at between 8.7 and 9.2 magnitudes of contrast between 100 mas to 400 mas respectively, using closure phases and squared visibilities in the absence of bad pixels, but with various other noise sources. With 3% of the pixels unusable, the expected contrast drops by about 0.5 magnitudes. AMI should be able to reach targets as bright as M=5. There will be significant overlap between Gemini-GPI and ESO-SPHERE targets and AMI's search space, and a complementarity with NIRCam's coronagraph. We also illustrate synthesis imaging with AMI, demonstrating an imaging dynamic range of 25 at 100 mas scales. We tailor existing radio interferometric methods to retrieve a faint bar across a bright nucleus, and explain the similarities to synthesis imaging at radio wavelengths. Modest contrast observations of dusty accretion flows around AGNs will be feasible for NIRISS AMI. We show our early results of image-plane deconvolution as well. Finally, we report progress on an NRM-inspired approach to mitigate mission-level risk associated with JWST's specialized wavefront sensing hardware. By combining narrow band and medium band Nyquist-sampled images taken with a science camera we can sense JWST primary mirror segment tip-tilt to lOmas, and piston to a few nm. We can sense inter-segment piston errors of up to 5 coherence lengths of the broadest bandpass filter used

  8. The Darwinian Center to the Vision of William James.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredo, Eric

    The essence of William James's vision can sometimes be hard to discover due to emotional volatility and exploratory impulsiveness. On the other hand, beneath James's apparent inconsistency was a constancy of purpose that can be easily underestimated. This paper argues that the center of James's vision lay in an interpretation of Darwinism. By…

  9. Selected achievements, science directions, and new opportunities for the WEBB Small Watershed Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre D. Glynn; Matthew C. Larsen; Earl A. Greene; Heather L. Buss; David W. Clow; Randall J. Hunt; M. Alisa Mast; Sheila F. Murphy; Norman E. Peters; Stephen D. Sebestyen; James B. Shanley; John F. Walker

    2009-01-01

    Over nearly two decades, the Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Budgets (WEBB) small watershed research program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has documented how water and solute fluxes, nutrient, carbon, and mercury dynamics, and weathering and sediment transport respond to natural and humancaused drivers, including climate, climate change, and atmospheric...

  10. [Delocalizing the mind. Peirce, James, Wittgenstein, Descombes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauviré, Christiane

    2010-01-01

    The cognitive sciences have breathed fresh air into the old problem of localizing mental functions, which was often laughed off. Regarding the most philosophical form of the question on the localization of the mind, authors such as Peirce, James, Wittgenstein, and most recently Descombes have imagined delocalizing the mind in order to spread the conviction that the idea itself of a location of the mental is meaningless and to criticize the localisationism of today's cognitive scientists.

  11. Montague Rhodes James, Collected Ghost Stories

    OpenAIRE

    Mantrant, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    A biblical scholar, palaeographer and lover of old manuscripts, Montague Rhodes James (1862–1936) published a great many scholarly works, but he is best remembered for his ghost stories, many of which were originally read aloud to friends. One of their distinguishing features is the richness of their antiquarian background and they are usually considered as among the finest achievements in what is sometimes labelled the ‘antiquarian subgenre’ of the ghost story. In his ‘Supernatural Horror in...

  12. High contrast imaging with the JWST-NIRSpec Integral Field Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ygouf, Marie; Beichman, Charles A.; Hodapp, Klaus W.; Roellig, Thomas L.; NIRCam GTO

    2017-06-01

    With its integral field unit, the near-infrared spectrograph NIRSpec on JWST will allow to measure high-resolution spectra into the 3-5 μm range with an increased sensitivity over ground-based systems. This capability will considerably extend our knowledge of brown dwarfs and bright exoplanets at large separations from their host star. But because there is not any coronagraph on NIRSpec, the performance in term of contrast at close separation will be extremely limited. In this communication, we explore possibilities to further push this limitation by comparing different observing strategies and associated post-processing techniques.

  13. Dynamic/Jitter Assessment of Multiple Potential HabEx Structural Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, J. Brent; Stahl, H. Philip; Singleton, Andrew William; Hunt, Ronald A.; Therrell, Melissa F.; Caldwell, Mary Kathryn; Garcia, Jay Clarke

    2017-01-01

    The 2020 Decadal Survey in Astronomy and Astrophysics will assess candidate large missions to follow James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and Wide Field Infrared Space Telescope (WFIRST). One candidate mission is the Habitable ExoPlanet Imaging Mission (HabEx). This presentation describes two HabEx structural designs and results from structural dynamic analyses performed to predict Primary Mirror (PM) Secondary Mirror (SM) Line of Site (LOS) stability (jitter) due to Reaction Wheel Assembly (RWA) vibrations.

  14. Engineering the Future: Cell 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, P. H.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the development of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), explaining the development using a systems engineering methodology. Included are slides showing the organizational chart, the JWST Science Goals, the size of the primary mirror, and full scale mockups of the JSWT. Also included is a review of the JWST Optical Telescope Requirements, a review of the preliminary design and analysis, the technology development required to create the JWST, with particular interest in the specific mirror technology that was required, and views of the mirror manufacturing process. Several slides review the process of verification and validation by testing and analysis, including a diagram of the Cryogenic Test Facility at Marshall, and views of the primary mirror while being tested in the cryogenic facility.

  15. Selection of I-220H beryllium for NIRCam optical bench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edinger, Derek J.; Nordt, Alison A.

    2005-08-01

    The Near Infrared Camera (NIRCam) for NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is one of the four science instruments to be installed into the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) on JWST. I-220H beryllium was chosen as the optical bench material for NIRCam based on its high specific stiffness, relatively high thermal conductivity, low CTE at cryogenic temperatures, and overall thermal stability at cryogenic temperatures. Beryllium has cryogenic heritage, but development of a structural bonded joint that could survive cryogenic temperatures was required. This paper will describe the trade studies performed in which bonded, I-220H beryllium was selected.

  16. James Bernoulli与《推测术》%James Bernoulli and Stochastics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于忠义

    2003-01-01

    Two hundred and eighty-nine years ago, "Arts of conjecturing", the posthumous work of the great mathematician James Bernoulli, was finally produced in the eager wait of mathematicians, Ian Hacking, a famous historian of statistics, commented that the publication of the book signaled the beginning of the mathematical theory of probability and terminated man's long process in the forming of the probability concept By introducing James Bernoulli and his "Arts of conjecturing", this paper aims at providing the reader with the 18th century story of Bemoulli's work, and at making the reader know that even today Bemoulli's idea is very helpful and instructive in the research of modern statistics.

  17. U. S. groups fight James Bay II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    This article reviews the opposition program to the James Bay II hydroelectric project. The environmental costs of the first phase of James Bay, the La Grande project, have been huge, resulting in massive alterations of the environment and causing widespread mercury poisoning of fish, loss of wetlands and disruption of caribou calving grounds. Start-up of the Great Whale project is imminent, and will result in the flooding of ca 5,000 square kilometers of wilderness. The environmental costs of phases 2 and 3 will be even larger than for the first phase, with potential for significant disruption of fresh-water input into James and Hudson Bays. Drastic changes in the volume and salinity of the water will jeopardize the life patterns of many migratory birds, polar bears, beluga wales, seals and other wildlife. These, along with other social costs, are prohibitive for the Cree. The Cree have been actively opposing the project in the United States, and a groundswell of American opposition has been building. The Cree have been successful in persuading Bangor, Maine, to cancel a proposed contract with Hydro Quebec, on economic grounds. Opposition is building in Burlington, Vermont, to a contract with Hydro Quebec for the planned purchase of 15 MW of power from Hydro Quebec. Secret contracts between Hydro Quebec and thirteen multinational aluminum corporations, to supply power at below cost, have been publicized. The signing of an energy contract between New York and Quebec has been delayed for one year due to the inability of Hydro Quebec to make progress on the project in the face of opposition at home.

  18. O modelo keynesiano de James Meade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Heller

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo reavalia o “modelo simplificado” da Teoria Geral de Keynes elaborado por James Meade e procura complementar alguns dos argumentos teóricos que Meade deixou apenas indicados. O artigo também responde às solicitações de Frisch a Meade, quanto à explicação do significado de estabilidade e à explicitação dos pressupostos que garantem suas conclusões. Além disso, apresenta alguns dos cálculos não desenvolvidos por Meade, e, quando necessário, suas devidas correções.

  19. 大师之选 James Halliday

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lillian; Miles

    2012-01-01

    <正>最新推荐Top100业已成为葡萄酒界最通行的一种评选模式,一些国际的"百大"甚至直接掌握佳葡萄酒销售的风向标。澳大利亚第一酒评人James Halliday 2011年度"百大"葡萄酒陆续进入中国市场,让我们找来尝尝!

  20. William James' The Varieties of Religious Experience revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Curtis W

    2008-12-01

    This essay addresses the familial, religious, and cultural context for the writing and presentation of William James' classic work The Varieties of Religious Experience. The essay emphasizes the importance of the impact of Henry James, Senior, upon his son. This relationship along with a severe cardiac condition contributed to James' taking on and carrying through with his exploration of religious experience. The article explores The Varieties and concludes with a discussion of the importance of James' use of narrative to the study of mind-body medicine. This paper was originally presented at the Richardson Research Seminar in the History of Psychiatry at Weill Cornell Medical College.

  1. Kuula. Kellele ei meeldiks James Blunt? / Mart Juur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juur, Mart, 1964-

    2007-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: James Blunt "Back To Bedlam", Enrique Iglesias "Insomniac", Prince "Planet Earth", Garbage "Absolut Garbage", Justice "Cross", Interpol "Our Love To Admire", Rufus Wainwright "Release The Stars"

  2. Kuula. Kellele ei meeldiks James Blunt? / Mart Juur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juur, Mart, 1964-

    2007-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: James Blunt "Back To Bedlam", Enrique Iglesias "Insomniac", Prince "Planet Earth", Garbage "Absolut Garbage", Justice "Cross", Interpol "Our Love To Admire", Rufus Wainwright "Release The Stars"

  3. Using Exoplanet Models to Explore NGSS and the Nature of Science and as a Tool for Understanding the Scientific Results from NIRCam/JWST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebofsky, Larry A.; McCarthy, Donald W.; Higgins, Michelle L.; Lebofsky, Nancy R.

    2014-11-01

    Our Solar System is no longer unique. To date, about 1,800 planets are known to orbit over 1,100 other stars and nearly 50% are in multiple-planet systems. Planetary systems seem [to be] fairly common and astronomers are now finding Earth-sized planets in the Goldilocks Zone, suggesting there may be other habitable planets. To this end, characterizing the atmospheric chemistries of such planets is a major science goal of the NIRCam instrument on the James Webb Space Telescope.For NIRCam's E/PO program with the Girl Scouts of the USA, we have produced scale models and associated activities to compare the size, scale, and dynamics of the Solar System with several exoplanet systems. Our models illustrate the techniques used to investigate these systems: radial velocity, transits, direct observations, and gravitational microlensing. By comparing and contrasting these models, we place our Solar System in a more cosmic context and enable discussion of current questions within the scientific community: How do planetary systems form and evolve? Is our present definition of a planet a good definition in the context of other planetary systems? Are there other planets/moons that might harbor life as we know it?These models are appropriate for use in classrooms and conform to the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) through the Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth's Place in the Universe and Crosscutting Concepts—Patterns Scale, Portion, and Quantity; and Systems and System Models. NGSS also states that the Nature of Science (NOS) should be an “essential part” of science education. NOS topics include, for example, understanding that scientific investigations use a variety of methods, that scientific knowledge is based on empirical evidence, that scientific explanations are open to revision in light of new evidence, and an understanding the nature of scientific models.

  4. Preparing for JWST Observations. Insights from First Light and Assembly of Galaxies GTO Programs II: Studying galaxy properties with MIRI Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Marin, Macarena; Wright, Gillian; Rieke, George; MIRI GTO Team

    2017-06-01

    The MIRI instrument, a result of the collaborative work of a consortium of European and US institutes, is the only Mid-IR science instrument on board of the James Webb Space Telescope. It will achieve unprecedented sensitivity and spatial resolution in the 5-28 microns wavelength range. A significant part of the MIRI GTO time will be dedicated to extragalactic observations, with the aim of covering a broad range of redshifts and giving new insights to galaxy history through time. While some of the programme will use deep MIRI images complemented with NIR observations, in this talk I will focus on the spectroscopic studies of galaxies planned by the MIRI team. At redshifts of about 7-8 we will study the reionization epoch, by observing spectroscopically confirmed targets. The strong emission lines predicted for these galaxies will be measured with the MIRI MRS (an integral field spectrometer).Moving closer in redshift, MIRI will be able to provide spatially resolved spectroscopy of massive dusty star forming galaxies at redshifts of about 3 or higher. This will give us the opportunity to study obscured AGNs, internal extinction and star formation activity, and gas-kpc scales kinematics. Finally, in the local Universe, we will observe the nuclei of well-known nearby galaxies with the MIRI MRS and the NIRSpec IFU. The spectra will yield new insights into the distribution, physical conditions, and kinematics of the various gas components (ionized, atomic, or molecular) in the immediate vicinity of the nucleus.In this contribution I will present this overall spectroscopic GTO program, giving insight into the observing strategies we plan to use for optimally implementing our observations.

  5. NASA James Webb Space Telescope Engineering of the Primary Mirror Segment Assemblies (PMSA) and the Primary Mirror Backplane Support Structure (PMBSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Lester M.

    2015-01-01

    The design, engineering tests of the PMSAs PMBSS show that we have a robust system that not only meets but exceeds (better than) the design requirements for these components. In the next 2 years the Telescope Observatory will be subjected to a simulated launch environment (sine vibeacoustics) and operations tests at cryogenic temperatures. Launch is schedule for the last quarter of 2018.

  6. Signal dependence of inter-pixel capacitance in hybridized HgCdTe H2RG arrays for use in James Webb space telescope's NIRcam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donlon, Kevan; Ninkov, Zoran; Baum, Stefi

    2016-08-01

    Interpixel capacitance (IPC) is a deterministic electronic coupling by which signal generated in one pixel is measured in neighboring pixels. Examination of dark frames from test NIRcam arrays corroborates earlier results and simulations illustrating a signal dependent coupling. When the signal on an individual pixel is larger, the fractional coupling to nearest neighbors is lesser than when the signal is lower. Frames from test arrays indicate a drop in average coupling from approximately 1.0% at low signals down to approximately 0.65% at high signals depending on the particular array in question. The photometric ramifications for this non-uniformity are not fully understood. This non-uniformity intro-duces a non-linearity in the current mathematical model for IPC coupling. IPC coupling has been mathematically formalized as convolution by a blur kernel. Signal dependence requires that the blur kernel be locally defined as a function of signal intensity. Through application of a signal dependent coupling kernel, the IPC coupling can be modeled computationally. This method allows for simultaneous knowledge of the intrinsic parameters of the image scene, the result of applying a constant IPC, and the result of a signal dependent IPC. In the age of sub-pixel precision in astronomy these effects must be properly understood and accounted for in order for the data to accurately represent the object of observation. Implementation of this method is done through python scripted processing of images. The introduction of IPC into simulated frames is accomplished through convolution of the image with a blur kernel whose parameters are themselves locally defined functions of the image. These techniques can be used to enhance the data processing pipeline for NIRcam.

  7. Henry James – Modern Theoretician of Narration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra - Denisa IGNA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Henry James, properly named world writer, was one of the first modern novelists, with an exigent writing conscience. The American writer subverted the prejudgement of the omniscient author in favour of the narration which is centred on the characters’ point of view, thus modernising the novel before V. Woolf, Huxley, Thomas Mann, or in our case Camil Petrescu and G. Călinescu. Some bio-bibliographical information familiarises the reader with the life and work of this writer. The larger part of the article is dedicated to a case study of the novel with the metaphorical title: The Figure in the Carpet, where Henry James tries to illustrate in an artistic manner his conception regarding the profundity and ineffability of the literary creation. The conclusion which the author reaches, alternating the familiar plan of the relationship between a married couple with the esthetical plan, is that the relationship between writer and his work represents an act of fully intimacy, just like a ceremony that takes place in the wedding night

  8. James Henry Greathead and the London Underground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Wright

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the origins and early history of the device known as the ‘Greathead Shield’, an important innovation in Victorian engineering crucial to constructing the London Underground. The aim is to explore the basis on which, many years later, a South African engineer, James Henry Greathead, was accorded prominent public acknowledgment, in the form of a statue, for ‘inventing’ the Shield. From a cultural studies perspective, how is the meaning of ‘invention’ to be understood, given that several other brilliant engineers were involved? The question is adjudicated using the notion of cultural ‘extelligence’, seen in relation to several contemporary and historical accounts, including Greathead’s own record of his achievements in the proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers and presented in The City and South London Railway (1896, edited by James Forrest. The paper was first delivered at the conference on ‘Novelty and Innovation in the Nineteenth Century’ held at the North-West University in May 2016.

  9. Metacognition and Self-Regulation in James, Piaget, and Vygotsky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Emily; Riconscente, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates the intertwined constructs of metacognition and self-regulation as they emerge in the works and theories of James, Piaget, and Vygotsky. To coordinate this exploration, we use an interpretive framework based on the relation of subject and object. In this framework, James's perspective on metacognition and self-regulation…

  10. Sharing Good Stories: The Work of James Stevenson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    1999-01-01

    Highlights the career and work of James Stevenson, author and illustrator of children's books. Presents suggestions for extension activities. Includes a selected annotated bibliography of his picture books, titles from some of his series, autobiographical picture books, illustrations, poetry, and fiction, as well as books about James Stevenson.…

  11. The infrared signatures of very small grains in the Universe seen by JWST

    CERN Document Server

    Pilleri, Paolo; Joblin, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The near- and mid-IR spectrum of many astronomical objects is dominated by emission bands due to UV-excited polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and evaporating very small grains (eVSG). Previous studies with the ISO, Spitzer and AKARI space telescopes have shown that the spectral variations of these features are directly related to the local physical conditions that induce a photo-chemical evolution of the band carriers. Because of the limited sensitivity and spatial resolution, these studies have focused mainly on galactic star-forming regions. We discuss how the advent of JWST will allow to extend these studies to previously unresolved sources such as near-by galaxies, and how the analysis of the infrared signatures of PAHs and eVSGs can be used to determine their physical conditions and chemical composition.

  12. James Hillman: Toward a poetic psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avens, R

    1980-09-01

    InThe Dream and the Underworld James Hillman continues to deepen and to refine Jung's recovery of the spontaneous image-making of the soul. Hillman's contribution lies in his "imaginai reduction"-relating of images to their archetypal background in Greek mythology. Myth is seen as the maker of the psyche, and, in turn, the soul-making ispoesis-a return to the imaginal and poetic basis of consciousness. Dreams, understood poetically, are neither messages to be deciphered and used for the benefit of the rational ego (Freud) nor compensatory to the ego (Jung); they are complete in themselves and must be allowed to speak for themselves. Hillman also sees dreams as initiations into the underworld of death-the other side of life where our imaginal substance is unobstructed by the literal and dualistic standpoints of the dayworld.

  13. Michel Draguet, James Ensor ou la fantasmagorie

    OpenAIRE

    Aron, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Écrivain et peintre, peintre commenté par des écrivains (Demolder, Verhaeren...), James Ensor est, à maints égards, un artiste particulièrement représentatif des relations étroites que le pinceau et la plume ont toujours entretenues en Belgique. Le très bel essai que lui consacre Michel Draguet ajoute une pièce majeure au dossier : entre autres analyses particulièrement bien informées et pertinentes, il décrit par le menu les aspects littéraires de son œuvre picturale. Au départ, un rêve : ce...

  14. Magellanic Clues to Spatially-Resolved Extinction Corrections for Distant Galaxies in the HST/JWST Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Rolf

    Extinction by dust hampers and possibly biases our understanding of galaxies at all redshifts. Moreover, extinction is not constant within or across the face of a galaxy, nor from galaxy to galaxy. We recently presented a new, empirical, method to correct galaxy images for extinction on a pixel by pixel basis, using only rest-frame 3.6micron and V- band images. While this "beta_V" method is approximate in nature, in its first application to a nearby late-type spiral galaxy we produced extinction maps and revealed hidden coherent galaxy structures like a stellar bar and ridges of dust, while anomalous inferred central extinctions in several earlier-type disk galaxies proved powerful tracers of hidden AGN, independent of radio, optical spectroscopic, or X-ray observations. This method is particularly promising for deep mid-IR imaging surveys with the James Webb Space Telescope in fields already covered by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in visible light, since their angular resolutions will be well-matched. Here we propose to explore the applicability, robustness, accuracy and fidelity of the beta_V method on linear size scales from pc to kpc and in regions of varying star formation histories, metallicities, and dust content and distribution. We can do so by combining Spitzer/IRAC 3.6micron and newly released WISE 3.4micron images of both Magellanic Clouds (LMC+SMC) with ground-based 2MASS (and DENIS) near-IR images and the OGLE-III multi-year V and I reference images and photometric catalogs. The LMC and SMC are the nearest astrophysical laboratories with a range of sub-solar metallicities. Their proximity and wealth of archival space- and ground-based data provides for the overconstrained boundary conditions needed to perform the proposed analysis succesfully. Specifically, we will assess at 1" or 0.25-0.35pc (at 0.1" where HST data is available) resolution the properties of the stellar populations that contribute to the flux in each IRAC and WISE resolution

  15. Deciphering the Hot Giant Atmospheres Orbiting Nearby Extrasolar Systems with JWST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrin Badhan, Mahmuda; Batalha, Natasha; Deming, Drake; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn; HEBRARD, Eric; Kopparapu, Ravi Kumar; Irwin, Patrick Gerard Joseph

    2016-10-01

    Unique and exotic planets give us an opportunity to understand how planetary systems form and evolve over their lifetime, by placing our own planetary system in the context of the vastly different extrasolar systems that are being continually discovered by present space missions. With orbital separations that are less than one-tenth of the Mercury-Sun distance, these close-in planets provide us with valuable insights about the host stellar atmosphere and planetary atmospheres subjected to their enormous stellar insolation. Observed spectroscopic signatures reveal all spectrally active species in a planet, along with information about its thermal structure and dynamics, allowing us to characterize the planet's atmosphere. NASA's upcoming missions will give us the high-resolution spectra necessary to constrain the atmospheric properties with unprecedented accuracy. However, to interpret the observed signals from exoplanetary transit events with any certainty, we need reliable atmospheric retrieval tools that can model the expected observables adequately. In my work thus far, I have built a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) convergence scheme, with an analytical radiative equilibrium formulation for the thermal structures, within the NEMESIS atmospheric modeling tool, to allow sufficient (and efficient) exploration of the parameter space. I also augmented the opacity tables to improve the speed and reliability of retrieval models. I then utilized this upgraded version to infer the pressure-temperature (P-T) structures and volume-mixing ratios (VMRs) of major gas species in hot Jupiter dayside atmospheres, from their emission spectra. I have employed a parameterized thermal structure to retrieve plausible P-T profiles, along with altitude-invariant VMRs. Here I show my retrieval results on published datasets of HD189733b, and compare them with both medium and high spectral resolution JWST/NIRSPEC simulations. In preparation for the upcoming JWST mission, my current work

  16. The Galactic Center Seen Through the Precise, Multiplexed Eye of JWST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jessica R.

    2013-01-01

    The Galactic center harbors the closest supermassive black hole and contains warm, turbulent molecular clouds, dense stellar populations, and some of the most active star forming regions in the Milky Way. These unique conditions make the Galactic Center a compelling target for understanding how star formation varies with environment, how nuclear star clusters in galaxies evolve, and how supermassive black holes influence their surroundings. Detailed studies of the Galactic center have previously been conducted with ground-based telescopes equipped with adaptive optics in pencil-beam studies. However, Galactic center studies can be dramatically expanded with JWST's combination of large fields-of-view (FOV) and high spatial resolution in the infrared. Of particular relevance for the Galactic Center are NIRCam's suite of narrow-band imaging filters and NIRSpec's IFU spectrograph. The narrow-band imaging should provide precise astrometry, rough spectral types, and emission line maps for ~50,000 stars within a 2' x 2' FOV, while follow up IFU spectroscopy will give precise types and radial velocities for the most interesting subsets of stars. Potential results include: (1) counting the intermediate age red and yellow supergiants that will give information about the recent star formation history; (2) measuring the initial mass function below 1 Msun and studying young stellar objects in known and new young star clusters; (3) using 3D dynamics to model the kinematic evolution of the entire nuclear cluster, find hypervelocity stars, and trace the orbits of gas features and clusters in the region. Galactic Center observations with JWST will give us a more complete picture of the gas, stars, black hole, and their interactions in this dynamic region.

  17. SCASim: A Flexible and Reusable Detector Simulator for the MIRI instrument of the JWST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, S.; Morin, J.; Gastaud, R.; Azzollini, R.; Bouchet, P.; Chaintreuil, S.; Lahuis, F.; Littlejohns, O.; Nehme, C.; Pye, J.

    2012-09-01

    The JWST Mid Infrared Instrument (MIRI) operates in the 5-28μm wavelength range and can be configured for imaging, coronographic imaging, long-slit, low-resolution spectroscopy or medium resolution spectroscopy with an integral field unit. SCASim is one of a suite of simulators which operate together to simulate all the different modes of the instrument. These simulators are essential for the efficient operation of MIRI; allowing more accurate planning of MIRI observations on sky or during the pre-launch testing of the instrument. The data generated by the simulators are essential for testing the data pipeline software. The simulators not only need to reproduce the behaviour of the instrument faithfully, they also need to be adaptable so that information learned about the instrument during the pre-launch testing and in-orbit commissioning can be fed back into the simulation. SCASim simulates the behaviour of the MIRI detectors, taking into account cosmetic effects, quantum efficiency, shot noise, dark current, read noise, amplifier layout, cosmic ray hits, etc... The software has benefited from three major design choices. First, the development of a suite of MIRI simulators, rather than single simulator, has allowed MIRI simulators to be developed in parallel by different teams, with each simulator able to concentrate on one particular area. SCASim provides a facility common to all the other simulators and saves duplication of effort. Second, SCASim has a Python-based object-oriented design which makes it easier to adapt as new information about the instrument is learned during testing. Third, all simulator parameters are maintained in external files, rather than being hard coded in the software. These design choices have made SCASim highly reusable. In its present form it can be used to simulate any JWST detector, and it can be adapted for future instruments with similar, photon-counting detectors.

  18. James Wallbank (Redundant Technology Initiative) (RTI) / James Wallbank ; interv. Tilman Baumgärtel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Wallbank, James

    2006-01-01

    James Wallbank (sünd. 1966) on RTI (Aegunud Tehnoloogia Initsiatiiv), mis hoiab alates 2000. aastast käigus Interneti-kohvikut "Access Space") Sheffieldis, rajaja. J. Wallbank 6. 10. 2000 tehtud intervjuus RTI-st, mis kasutab oma installatsioonides, skulptuurides ja teistes madaltehnoloogilistes teostes vanu arvuteid, installatsioonist näitusel "net_condition" Karlssruhe Kunsti- ja Meediatehnoloogia Keskuses (1999), tööst "Network Low Tech Video Wall" (2000) ja muust

  19. James Wallbank (Redundant Technology Initiative) (RTI) / James Wallbank ; interv. Tilman Baumgärtel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Wallbank, James

    2006-01-01

    James Wallbank (sünd. 1966) on RTI (Aegunud Tehnoloogia Initsiatiiv), mis hoiab alates 2000. aastast käigus Interneti-kohvikut "Access Space") Sheffieldis, rajaja. J. Wallbank 6. 10. 2000 tehtud intervjuus RTI-st, mis kasutab oma installatsioonides, skulptuurides ja teistes madaltehnoloogilistes teostes vanu arvuteid, installatsioonist näitusel "net_condition" Karlssruhe Kunsti- ja Meediatehnoloogia Keskuses (1999), tööst "Network Low Tech Video Wall" (2000) ja muust

  20. James Brown, Sample Culture and the Permanent Distance of Glory

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Steve

    2009-01-01

    The James Brown song ‘I’m Real’ (1988) features lyrics regaled from James Brown’s back catalogue, alongside vocal samples extracted from his earlier hits. As one of the most sampled artists of the hip-hop era, James employed sampling in order to reclaim his position as the “Godfather of Soul” and express his disatisfaction at having his work overtly plundered. The central questions I pose here focus on what the choice to sample himself reveals about Brown’s status as a Soul legend, and whethe...

  1. A generalization of Gompertz law compatible with the Gyllenberg-Webb theory for tumour growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Onofrio, Alberto; Fasano, Antonio; Monechi, Bernardo

    2011-03-01

    We present a new extension of Gompertz law for tumour growth and anti-tumour therapy. After discussing its qualitative and analytical properties, we show, in the spirit of [16], that, like the standard Gompertz model, it is fully compatible with the two-population model of Gyllenberg and Webb, formulated in [14] in order to provide a theoretical basis to Gompertz law. Compatibility with the model proposed in [17] is also investigated. Comparisons with some experimental data confirm the practical applicability of the model. Numerical simulations about the method performance are presented.

  2. Probing the dusty inhabitants of the Local Group Galaxies: JWST/MIRI colors of infrared stellar populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Olivia; Meixner, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    The assembly of galaxies involves the life cycle of mass, metal enrichment and dust that JWST will probe. Detailed studies of nearby galaxies provides guidance for interpreting the more distant forming galaxies. JWST/MIRI will enable stellar population studies akin to work done with HST on the Local Group galaxies but over a new wavelength range. MIRI's imaging capability over nine photometric bands from 5 to 28 microns is particularly suited to survey stars with an infrared excess and to detangle the extinction or thermal emission from various species of dust. These dusty stellar populations include young stellar objects, evolved stars and supernovae that are bright in the infrared. Using the rich Spitzer-IRS spectroscopic dataset and spectral classifications from the Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution (SAGE)-Spectroscopic survey of over a thousand objects in the Magellanic Clouds, we calculate the expected flux -densities and colors in the MIRI broadband filters for these prominent infrared sources. We uses these fluxes to illustrate what JWST will see in stellar population studies for other Local Group galaxies. JWST/MIRI observations of infrared sources in Local Group Galaxies will constrain the life cycle of galaxies through their dust emission. For example, how much of the interstellar dust is supplied by dying stars? Do the number of young stellar objects agree with star formation diagnostic for the galaxy? We discuss the locations of the post- and pre-main-sequence populations in MIRI color-color and color-magnitude space and examine which filters are best for identifying populations of sources. We connect these results to existing galaxies with HST data for instance Andromeda and M33.

  3. Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Adsorptive Media U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at Webb Consolidated Independent School District in Bruni, TX - Final Performance Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed and the results obtained from the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at the Webb Consolidated Independent School District (Webb CISD) in Bruni, TX. The main objective of the project was to evaluate the effect...

  4. Watching Time: James Baldwin and Malcolm X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikko Tuhkanen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Taking its cue from recent scholarly work on the concept of time in African American literature, this essay argues that, while both James Baldwin and Malcolm X refuse gradualism and insist on “the now” as the moment of civil rights’ fulfillment, Baldwin also remains troubled by the narrowness assumed by a life, politics, or ethics limited to the present moment. In his engagement with Malcolm’s life and legacy—most notably in One Day, When I Was Lost, his screen adaptation of Malcolm’s autobiography—he works toward a temporal mode that would be both punctual and expansive. What he proposes as the operative time of chronoethics is an “untimely now”: he seeks to replace Malcolm’s unyielding punctuality with a different nowness, one that rejects both calls for “patience,” endemic to any politics that rests on the Enlightenment notion of “perfectibility,” and the breathless urgency that prevents the subject from seeing anything beyond the oppressive system he wants overthrown. Both thinkers find the promise of such untimeliness in their sojourns beyond the United States.

  5. Sir James Elliott, medical journalist supreme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright-St Clair, R

    1995-01-25

    James Sands Elliott was editor of the New Zealand Medical Journal from 1911 to 1933. He was a powerful writer in a flamboyant style, erudite and filled with classical and literary allusions and quotations. We are told that doctors of the time, on receiving their journals, would turn first to the editorial to see "what JSE has got to say." He served the profession in numerous ways, as chairman of council and president of the New Zealand Branch of the British Medical Association (BMA), as president from 1929 to 1955 of the New Zealand Branch of the British Empire Cancer Campaign (now the Cancer Society), and as a member of the Medical Council, the Board of Health and the Medical Research Council. It was his outstanding ability as a medical journalist, however, which made him one of the most powerful figures in New Zealand medicine in his time. He ardently upheld worthy causes in the interests of the medical profession as he saw them and wrote trenchant editorials on those subjects.

  6. A Conversation with James J. Morgan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, James J.; Newman, Dianne K.

    2015-05-01

    In conversation with professor Dianne Newman, Caltech geobiologist, James "Jim" J. Morgan recalls his early days in Ireland and New York City, education in parochial and public schools, and introduction to science in Cardinal Hayes High School, Bronx. In 1950, Jim entered Manhattan College, where he elected study of civil engineering, in particular water quality. Donald O'Connor motivated Jim's future study of O2 in rivers at Michigan, where in his MS work he learned to model O2 dynamics of rivers. As an engineering instructor at Illinois, Jim worked on rivers polluted by synthetic detergents. He chose to focus on chemical studies, seeing it as crucial for the environment. Jim enrolled for PhD studies with Werner Stumm at Harvard, who mentored his research in chemistry of particle coagulation and oxidation processes of Mn(II) and (IV). In succeeding decades, until retirement in 2000, Jim's teaching and research centered on aquatic chemistry; major themes comprised rates of abiotic manganese oxidation on particle surfaces and flocculation of natural water particles, and chemical speciation proved the key.

  7. James Campbell National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative Report: 1989: Calendar Year

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for James Campbell NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1989 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  8. James Campbell National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on James Campbell National Wildlife Refuge for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the...

  9. Public Use Management Plan James River National Wildlife Refuge 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Public Use Plan for James River National Wildlife Refuge is intended to identify public use issues, objectives, and appropriate strategies for managing public...

  10. James Fergason, a Pioneer in Advancing of Liquid Crystal Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2013-01-01

    James Lee Fergason (1934 - 2008) focused his research on the liquid crystals. His studies correspond to a relevant part of the history of soft matter science and technology of liquid crystals. Here a discussion of some of his researches.

  11. Kuidas kõrgemale ohvitserile ettekannet teha / James Stavridis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stavridis, James, 1955-

    2013-01-01

    Endine NATO Euroopa liitlasvägede ülemjuhataja jagab nõuandeid mõjusa ja konstruktiivse ettekande kirjutamiseks ja selle esitlemiseks. Lisatud foto, kus kujutatud James Stavridise autasustamist president Toomas Hendrik Ilvese poolt

  12. Timber Inventory for the James River National Wildlife Refuge 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A timber cruise of selected young pine tree plantations was conducted during the summer of 2006 at the James River National Wildlife Refuge. The purpose of this...

  13. James J. Howard Marine Sciences Laboratory @ Sandy Hook

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The James J. Howard Marine Sciences Laboratory, located on the New Jersey shore at Sandy Hook, is a state-of-the-art marine research facility shared by the National...

  14. James J. Howard Marine Sciences Laboratory @ Sandy Hook

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The James J. Howard Marine Sciences Laboratory, located on the New Jersey shore at Sandy Hook, is a state-of-the-art marine research facility shared by the National...

  15. Annual Narrative James River National Wildlife Refuge 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for James River National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1994 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  16. Kuidas kõrgemale ohvitserile ettekannet teha / James Stavridis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stavridis, James, 1955-

    2013-01-01

    Endine NATO Euroopa liitlasvägede ülemjuhataja jagab nõuandeid mõjusa ja konstruktiivse ettekande kirjutamiseks ja selle esitlemiseks. Lisatud foto, kus kujutatud James Stavridise autasustamist president Toomas Hendrik Ilvese poolt

  17. Status of southern James Bay population of Canada geese

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report provides background on the southern James Bay population (SJBP) of Canada geese, as well as a summary of problems confronting SJBP and recommendations...

  18. Exploring for Galaxies in the First Billion Years with Hubble and Spitzer - Pathfinding for JWST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illingworth, Garth D.

    2017-01-01

    Hubble has revolutionized the field of distant galaxies through its deep imaging surveys, starting with the Hubble Deep Field (HDF) in 1995. That first deep survey revealed galaxies at redshift z~1-3 that provided insights into the development of the Hubble sequence. Each new HST instrument has explored new regimes, through the peak of star formation at z~2-3, just 2-3 billion years after the Big Bang, to our first datasets at a billion years at z~6, and then earlier to z~11. HST's survey capabilities were enhanced by 40X with ACS, and then similarly with the WFC3/IR, which opened up the first billion years to an unforeseen degree. I will discuss what we have learned from the remarkable HST and Spitzer imaging surveys (HUDF, GOODS, HUDF09/12 and CANDELS), as well as surveys of clusters like the Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF). Lensing clusters provide extraordinary opportunities for characterizing the faintest earliest galaxies, but also present extraordinary challenges. Together these surveys have resulted in the measurement of the volume density of galaxies in the first billion years down to astonishingly faint levels. The role of faint galaxies in reionizing the universe is still much-discussed, but there is no doubt that such galaxies contribute greatly to the UV ionizing flux, as shown by deep luminosity function studies. Together Hubble and Spitzer have also established the stellar-mass buildup over 97% of cosmic history. Yet some of the greatest surprises have come from the discovery of very luminous galaxies at z~8-11, around 400-650 million years after the Big Bang. Spectroscopic followup by Keck of some of these very rare, bright galaxies has confirmed redshifts from z~7 to z~9, and revealed, surprisingly, strong Lyα emission near the peak of reionization when the HI fraction in the IGM is high. The recent confirmation of a z=11.1 galaxy, just 400 million years after the Big Bang, by a combination of Hubble and Spitzer data, moved Hubble into JWST territory

  19. Discovering One’s Own C.L.R. James

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony P. Maingot

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of:C.L.R. James and the Study of Culture. Andrew Smith. Houndsmills, Basingstoke, U.K.: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010. vi + 174 pp. (Cloth US$ 80.00You Don’t Play With Revolution: The Montreal Lectures of C.L.R. James. David Austin (ed.. Oakland CA: A.K. Press, 2009. viii + 334 pp. (Paper US$ 18.95

  20. Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Measurements of CDA 510 Phosphor Bronze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, James E.; Canavan, Edgar; DiPirro, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Many cryogenic systems use electrical cables containing phosphor bronze wire. While phosphor bronze's electrical and thermal conductivity values have been published, there is significant variation among different phosphor bronze formulations. The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will use several phosphor bronze wire harnesses containing a specific formulation (CDA 510, annealed temper). The heat conducted into the JWST instrument stage is dominated by these harnesses, and approximately half of the harness conductance is due to the phosphor bronze wires. Since the JWST radiators are expected to just keep the instruments at their operating temperature with limited cooling margin, it is important to know the thermal conductivity of the actual alloy being used. We describe an experiment which measured the electrical and thermal conductivity of this material between 4 and 295 Kelvin.

  1. [Taylor and Hill, Incorporated's JSC Cryo Chamber A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Rito

    2008-01-01

    NASA commissioned construction of an environmental simulation test chamber which was completed in 1964 at Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, Texas. The facility, Chamber A, was invaluable for testing spacecraft and satellites before deployment to space. By testing spacecraft in an environment similar to the one they would be functioning in, potential problems could be addressed before launch. A new addition to NASA's observatory inventory is called the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), after a former Administrator of NASA. The new telescope will have 7 times the mirror area of the Hubble, with a target destination approximately one million miles from earth. Scheduled for launch in 2013, the JWST will allow scientists the ability to see, for the first time, the first galaxies that formed in the early Universe. Pre-launch testing of JWST must be performed in environments that approximate its final target space environment as closely as possible.

  2. Imaging Young Planets From Ground and Space

    CERN Document Server

    Beichman, Charles A; Trauger, John T; Greene, Thomas P; Oppenheimer, Ben; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Doyon, Rene; Boccaletti, Antony; Barman, Travis S; Rieke, Marcia

    2010-01-01

    High contrast imaging can find and characterize gas giant planets around nearby young stars and the closest M stars, complementing radial velocity and astrometric searches by exploring orbital separations inaccessible to indirect methods. Ground-based coronagraphs are already probing within 25 AU of nearby young stars to find objects as small as ~ 3 Jupiter masses. This paper compares near-term and future ground-based capabilities with high contrast imaging modes of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). Monte Carlo modeling reveals that JWST can detect planets with masses as small as 0.2 MJup across a broad range of orbital separations. We present new calculations for planet brightness as a function of mass and age for specific JWST filters and extending to 0.1 MJup.

  3. A 16-m Telescope for the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Telescope (ATLAST) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillie, Charles F.; Dailey, D. R.; Polidan, R. S.

    2010-01-01

    Future space observatories will require increasingly large telescopes to study the earliest stars and galaxies, as well as faint nearby objects. Technologies now under development will enable telescopes much larger than the 6.5-meter diameter James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) to be developed at comparable costs. Current segmented mirror and deployable optics technology enables the 6.5 meter JWST telescope to be folded for launch in the 5-meter diameter Ariane 5 payload fairing, and deployed autonomously after reaching orbit. Late in the next decade, when the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle payload fairing becomes operational, even larger telescope can be placed in orbit. In this paper we present our concept for a 16-meter JWST derivative, chord-fold telescope which could be stowed in the 10-m diameter Ares V fairing, plus a description of the new technologies that enable ATLAST to be developed at an affordable price.

  4. Prospects for Characterizing the Atmosphere of Proxima Centauri b

    CERN Document Server

    Kreidberg, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The newly detected Earth-mass planet in the habitable zone of Proxima Centauri could potentially host life - if it has an atmosphere that supports surface liquid water. We show that thermal phase curve observations with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) from 5-12 microns can be used to test the existence of such an atmosphere. We predict the thermal variation for a bare rock versus a planet with 35% heat redistribution to the nightside and show that a JWST phase curve measurement can distinguish between these cases at $5\\sigma$ confidence. We also consider the case of an Earth-like atmosphere, and find that the ozone 9.8 micron band could be detected with longer integration times (a few months). We conclude that JWST observations have the potential to put the first constraints on the possibility of life around the nearest star to the Solar System.

  5. Telling twins apart: Exo-Earths and Venuses with transit spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Barstow, Joanna K; Irwin, Patrick G J; Kendrew, Sarah; Fletcher, Leigh N

    2016-01-01

    The planned launch of the James Webb Space Telescope in 2018 will herald a new era of exoplanet spectroscopy. JWST will be the first telescope sensitive enough to potentially characterize terrestrial planets from their transmission spectra. In this work, we explore the possibility that terrestrial planets with Venus-type and Earth-type atmospheres could be distinguished from each other using spectra obtained by JWST. If we find a terrestrial planet close to the liquid water habitable zone of an M5 star within a distance of 10 parsecs, it would be possible to detect atmospheric ozone if present in large enough quantities, which would enable an oxygen-rich atmosphere to be identified. However, the cloudiness of a Venus-type atmosphere would inhibit our ability to draw firm conclusions about the atmospheric composition, making any result ambiguous. Observing small, temperate planets with JWST requires significant investment of resources, with single targets requiring of order 100 transits to achieve sufficient s...

  6. Obituary: Michael James Ledlow, 1964-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puxley, Philip John; Grashuis, Randon M.

    2004-12-01

    Michael James Ledlow died on 5 June 2004 from a large, unsuspected brain tumor. Since 2000 he had been on the scientific staff of the Gemini Observatory in La Serena, Chile, initially as a Science Fellow and then as a tenure-track astronomer. Michael was born in Bartlesville, Oklahoma on 1 October 1964 to Jerry and Sharon Ledlow. He obtained his Bachelor Degree in astrophysics at the University of Oklahoma in 1987 and attended the University of New Mexico for his graduate work, obtaining his PhD while studying Galaxy Clusters under Frazer Owen in 1994. From 1995-1997 Michael held a postdoctoral position with Jack Burns at New Mexico State University where he used various astronomical facilities including the VLA and Apache Point Observatory to study distant galaxies. From 1998-2000 Michael rejoined the Physics and Astronomy Department at the University of New Mexico where he was a visiting professor until he moved on to Gemini. At the Gemini Observatory, Mike shared in the excitement, hard work and many long days and nights associated with bringing on-line a major new astronomical facility and its instrumentation. Following its commissioning he assisted visiting observers, supported and took data for many more remote users via the queue system, and for each he showed the same care and attention to detail evident in his own research to ensure that all got the best possible data. His research concentrated on the radio and optical properties of galaxy clusters, especially rich Abell clusters such as A2125, on luminous radio galaxies, including the detection of a powerful double radio source in the "wrong sort of galaxy," the spiral system 0313-192, and on EROs (extremely red objects), dusty galaxies barely detectable at optical wavelengths. Michael thoroughly enjoyed living in Chile and enthusiastically immersed himself in the culture of his surroundings. He and his family were actively involved with the International English Spanish Association in La Serena. He had a

  7. Obituary: James C. Kemp, 1927-1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milone, E. F.

    2009-01-01

    James C. Kemp was born in Detroit, Michigan on 9 February 1927, and died in Eugene, Oregon, on 29 March 1988. He went to high school in Mexico City and did undergraduate studies at the University of Michigan and University of California at Berkeley. Kemp was an active observational astronomer, having migrated from earlier interests in Slavic languages, in which he majored, electrical engineering, and physics. He obtained a PhD in electrical engineering at Berkeley in 1960 and did post-doctoral work there with Erwin Hahn on spin resonance. He went to the University of Oregon in 1961 and conducted research in magneto-optics, developing, in the process, a piezo-optical birefringence modulator to measure circular polarization. The modulator is described by Tinbergen (1996). Kemp explored new areas as he measured magnetic fields in the sunspots with polarized infrared light, and developed polarimeters and photometers to study the behavior of such astronomical sources as white dwarfs, the relativistic jets of binary SS 433, the x-ray binary Cyg X-1, and the bright eclipsing binaries Algol and e Aurigae on the 61- and, later, 81-cm telescope at the Pine Mountain Observatory, of which Kemp was director until his death from cancer. His measurement of circularly polarization in the continuum light of the white dwarf GJ 742 (Grw +70∘ 8247, Kemp et al. 1970b) was an important discovery, and through his study of Algol (Kemp et al. 1983; Wilson & Liou 1993), he appears to have been the first to discover the limb polarization in eclipsing binaries predicted by Chandrasekhar (1946ab). Although it has taken twenty years for the BAAS to publish his obituary notice, it is somewhat appropriate that his former student, Gary Henson, who provided much of the background for this article, is involved with a polarimetry team to observe and analyze data from e Aurigae, as it approaches ingress of the next primary minimum beginning summer, 2009. The author acknowledges with gratitude the

  8. Obituary: James Gilbert Baker, 1914-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Neal Kenton

    2005-12-01

    Dr. James Gilbert Baker, renowned astronomer and optical physicist, died 29 June 2005 at his home in Bedford, New Hampshire at the age of 90. Although his scientific interest was astronomy, his extraordinary ability in optical design led to the creation of hundreds of optical systems that supported astronomy, aerial reconnaissance, instant photography (Polaroid SX70 camera), and the US space programs. He was the recipient of numerous awards for his creative work. He was born in Louisville, Kentucky, on 11 November 1914, the fourth child of Jesse B. Baker and Hattie M. Stallard. After graduating from Louisville DuPont Manual High, he went on to attend the University of Louisville majoring in Mathematics. He became very close to an Astronomy Professor, Dr. Moore, and many times used his telescopes to do nightly observations. While at the university, he built mirrors for his own telescopes and helped form the Louisville Astronomical Society in 1933. At the University of Louisville, he also met his future wife, Elizabeth Katherine Breitenstein of Jefferson County, Kentucky. He received his BA in 1935 at the height of the Depression. He began his graduate work in astronomy at the Harvard College Observatory. After his MA (1936), he was appointed a Junior Fellow (1937-1943) in the Prestigious Harvard Society of Fellows. He received his PhD in 1942 from Harvard in rather an unusual fashion, which is worth retelling. During an Astronomy Department dinner, Dr. Harlow Shapley (the director) asked him to give a talk. According to the "Courier-Journal Magazine", "Dr. Shapley stood up and proclaimed an on-the-spot departmental meeting and asked for a vote on recommending Baker for a Ph.D. on the basis of the 'oral exam' he had just finished. The vote was unanimous." It was at Harvard College Observatory during this first stage of his career that he collaborated with Donald H. Menzel, Lawrence H. Aller, and George H. Shortley on a landmark set of papers on the physical processes

  9. Obituary: James N. Kile, 1958-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliver, Edward W.; Lang, Kenneth R.; Willson, Robert F.

    2009-01-01

    James N. Kile, of Needham Heights, Massachusetts, died on 17 August 2007, following a brave two-year battle with cancer. One of three children of David R. Kile and Betty Jane Kile, Jim was born in Niagara Falls, New York, on 20 April 1958 and lived in the nearby village of Lewiston before his family settled in Alden, an hour east of Niagara Falls, when Jim was nine. Jim's father worked for American Telephone and Telegraph for 37 years, and his mother was a homemaker. Jim earned his Bachelor's degree in Physics from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in 1980, a Master's degree from Northwestern University in 1982, and a Doctorate from Tufts University in 1996 under the direction of Robert Willson. His thesis involved comparison of radio data from the Very Large Array and the Russian RATAN 600 telescope with Yohkoh soft X-ray data, with an emphasis on understanding the relationship between solar noise storms and coronal magnetic fields. While working on his thesis, Jim collaborated with one of us (EWC) at the Air Force Research Laboratory on an investigation of the 154-day periodicity in solar flares. The resulting publication (ApJ 370, 442, 1991) is his most cited work. Jim co-authored four other papers in refereed journals. Jim's professional affiliations included the American Astronomical Society, the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, the American Geophysical Union, and the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. Jim worked as a contractor in the defense industry from 1982 until the time of his death, settling in the Boston area in the early 1980s. He worked for Calspan Corporation from 1982-1989, the Ultra Corporation from 1989-1994, and the Riverside Research Institute from 1994-2007. He was a highly-respected expert in radar systems, including radar data and systems analysis, systems engineering, and planning support for radar acquisition programs and technology development. The work entailed frequent extended travel to Norway for system testing

  10. Obituary: James Adolph Westphal, 1930-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, G. Edward

    2004-12-01

    James A. Westphal died September 8, 2004. He had battled a neurological disease related to Alzheimer's for the past year. He was 74. James A. Westphal was born in Dubuque, Iowa, on June 13, 1930. He was raised in Tulsa, Oklahoma, and in Little Rock, Arkansas. Westphal earned his bachelor's degree in physics from the University of Tulsa in 1954, a year after he went to work as geophysical research group leader at Sinclair Research Lab in Tulsa. Westphal first got into the business of scientific instrumentation right after high school, when he did well-logging in Texas and Gulf Coast oil fields. In fact, his work at Sinclair Research Labs involved devising unorthodox methods for oil discovery; one of his discoveries of a new way of processing seismic data first brought him to the attention of Caltech professor Hewitt Dix, who is often considered the father of exploration geophysics. Westphal arrived at Caltech initially on a four-month leave of absence to devise a data processor for Dix, but never left. He discovered that the academic freedom individual professors enjoy was amenable to his own predilections, so he soon began branching out to other areas of scientific investigation at Caltech. Before long, he had teamed up with Bruce Murray to do thermal infrared scans of the moon in order to see if humans could even walk on the lunar surface without sinking into the dusty soil. Westphal and Murray's work showed that rocky areas could be identified with the thermal imaging, which in turn led to the inference that the Apollo astronauts could safely walk on the soil without sinking. Westphal and Murray also teamed up to do the first infrared imaging of Venus and Jupiter. Other projects at Caltech led to Westphal's being hired on permanently by Bob Sharp, who at the time was the geology division chairman. In the following years, Westphal involved himself in novel ways of studying volcanism in Hawaii and Mount St. Helens. He invented a simple and very sensitive tilt meter

  11. King James II Stuart, Irish Elites and Patriot Parliament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stankov Kirill Nikolaevich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the insufficiently studied episode of the “Glorious revolution” of 1688-1689, the political fight on Green Island. On the basis of historical sources, the author shows the main directions of Irish policy of last catholic king James II, who tried to fight for his lost British throne, because the majority of population of this catholic country remained loyal to his patron. The author pays special attention to investigating the policy of different ethnic groups represented in Patriot Parliament by their elites. There were two elite groups who supported king James II and tried to influence him: “Old English” aristocracy and “Old Irish” nobility. King’s own elite group also consisted of “New English” and “New Scots”, but during the “Glorious revolution” the majority of them supported the counterpart of king James II – William Orange. Basing the study on historical sources the author proves that eventually king James II had two groups of supporters: “Old English” and “native Irish”. The article is concerned with non-investigated problem of negotiations between king James II and Irish elites and analyses the demands of the last. The author proves that acts and decisions of patriot parliament were the Irish population’s answers to the program and suggestions of king James II and that the main concessions were given to “Old English” aristocracy. The demands of “Old Irish” in agrarian issue were mainly ignored. The Patriot Parliament based the foundations of Jacobite political regime in Ireland during the restoration rebellion of 1689-1691.

  12. James Dunlop's historical catalogue of southern nebulae and clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozens, Glen; Walsh, Andrew; Orchiston, Wayne

    2010-03-01

    In 1826 James Dunlop compiled the second ever catalogue of southern star clusters, nebulae and galaxies from Parramatta (NSW, Australia) using a 23-cm reflecting telescope. Initially acclaimed, the catalogue and author were later criticised and condemned by others - including Sir John Herschel and both the catalogue and author are now largely unknown. The criticism of the catalogue centred on the large number of fictitious or ‘missing’ objects, yet detailed analysis reveals the remarkable completeness of the catalogue, despite its inherent errors. We believe that James Dunlop was an important early Australian astronomer, and his catalogue should be esteemed as the southern equivalent of Messier's famous northern catalogue.

  13. The spectral calibration of JWST/NIRSpec: results from the recent cryo-vacuum campaign (ISIM-CV3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardino, Giovanna; Luetzgendorf, Nora; Ferruit, Pierre; Dorner, Bernhard; Alves de Oliveira, Catarina; Birkmann, Stephan M.; Boeker, Torsten; Rawle, Tim; Sirianni, Marco

    2016-07-01

    The NIRSpec instrument of JWST can be operated in multi-object (MOS), long-slit, and integral field mode with spectral resolutions from 100 to 2700. Its MOS mode uses about a quarter of a million individually addressable mini-slits for object selection, covering a field of view of 9 square-arcminute. We have developed a procedure to optimize a parametric model of the instrument that provides the basis for the extraction of wavelength calibrated spectra from NIRSpec data, from any of the apertures and for all the modes. Here, we summarize the steps undertaken to optimize the instrument model parameters using the data acquired during the latest cryo-vacuum campaign of the JWST Integrated Science Instrument Module, recently carried out at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The calibrated parametric model is able to reproduce the spatial and spectral position of the input spectra with an intrinsic accuracy (1-sigma, RMS) ~ 1/10 of a pixel in spatial and spectral direction for all the modes. The overall wavelength calibration accuracy (RMS) of the model as measured on the extracted spectra is better than 1/20 of a resolution element for all of the grating-based spectral modes and at the level of 1/14 of a resolution element for the prism. These results are well within the allocations for the model in the overall spatial and spectral calibration budget of NIRSpec.

  14. Augmented Method to Improve Thermal Data for the Figure Drift Thermal Distortion Predictions of the JWST OTIS Cryogenic Vacuum Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang C.; Carnahan, Timothy M.; Cohen, Lester M.; Congedo, Cherie B.; Eisenhower, Michael J.; Ousley, Wes; Weaver, Andrew; Yang, Kan

    2017-01-01

    The JWST Optical Telescope Element (OTE) assembly is the largest optically stable infrared-optimized telescope currently being manufactured and assembled, and is scheduled for launch in 2018. The JWST OTE, including the 18 segment primary mirror, secondary mirror, and the Aft Optics Subsystem (AOS) are designed to be passively cooled and operate near 45K. These optical elements are supported by a complex composite backplane structure. As a part of the structural distortion model validation efforts, a series of tests are planned during the cryogenic vacuum test of the fully integrated flight hardware at NASA JSC Chamber A. The successful ends to the thermal-distortion phases are heavily dependent on the accurate temperature knowledge of the OTE structural members. However, the current temperature sensor allocations during the cryo-vac test may not have sufficient fidelity to provide accurate knowledge of the temperature distributions within the composite structure. A method based on an inverse distance relationship among the sensors and thermal model nodes was developed to improve the thermal data provided for the nanometer scale WaveFront Error (WFE) predictions. The Linear Distance Weighted Interpolation (LDWI) method was developed to augment the thermal model predictions based on the sparse sensor information. This paper will encompass the development of the LDWI method using the test data from the earlier pathfinder cryo-vac tests, and the results of the notional and as tested WFE predictions from the structural finite element model cases to characterize the accuracies of this LDWI method.

  15. A new HST/Herschel deep field at the North Ecliptic Pole: preparing the way for JWST, SPICA and Euclid

    CERN Document Server

    Serjeant, Stephen; Burgarella, Denis; Clements, Dave; De Zotti, Gianfranco; Goto, Tomo; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Hopwood, Rosalind; Hwang, Narae; Inami, Hanae; Jeong, Woong-Seob; Kim, Seong Jin; Krumpe, Mirko; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Malkan, Matt; Matsuhara, Hideo; Miyaji, Takamitsu; Oyabu, Shinki; Pearson, Chris; Takeuchi, Tsutomu; Vaccari, Mattia; Valtchanov, Ivan; van der Werf, Paul; Wada, Takehiko; White, Glenn

    2012-01-01

    We propose a co-ordinated multi-observatory survey at the North Ecliptic Pole. This field is the natural extragalactic deep field location for most space observatories (e.g. containing the deepest Planck, WISE and eROSITA data), is in the continuous viewing zones for e.g. Herschel, HST, JWST, and is a natural high-visibility field for the L2 halo orbit of SPICA with deep and wide-field legacy surveys already planned. The field is also a likely deep survey location for the forthcoming Euclid mission. It is already a multi-wavelength legacy field in its own right (e.g. AKARI, LOFAR, SCUBA-2): the outstanding and unparalleled continuous mid-IR photometric coverage in this field and nowhere else enables a wide range of galaxy evolution diagnostics unachievable in any other survey field, by spanning the wavelengths of redshifted PAH and silicate features and the peak energy output of AGN hot dust. We argue from the science needs of Euclid and JWST, and from the comparative multiwavelength depths, that the logical ...

  16. Stylistic Analysis of James Joyce’s Araby

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪

    2016-01-01

    Araby is one of the most well-known short stories collection Dubliners by James Joycer, describing a boy disillusionment of love and his growth from innocent to mature. This paper aims at analyzing the short story Araby from the stylistic features including the lexical, syntactic, and semantic parts.

  17. James Brown, Sample Culture and the Permanent Distance of Glory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Jones

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The James Brown song ‘I’m Real’ (1988 features lyrics regaled from James Brown’s back catalogue, alongside vocal samples extracted from his earlier hits. As one of the most sampled artists of the hip-hop era, James employed sampling in order to reclaim his position as the “Godfather of Soul” and express his disatisfaction at having his work overtly plundered. The central questions I pose here focus on what the choice to sample himself reveals about Brown’s status as a Soul legend, and whether the contemporaneous James could sincerely live up to the mythic status inherent to the message of ‘I’m Real’ given its self-conscious form. This confusion appears to be an extension of Walter Benjamin’s conception of déjà vu as an acoustic effect - ‘the cool tomb of long ago, from the vault of which the present seems to return only as an echo’ (Benjamin cited in Breyley, 2009: 145 - only here the slippage between past and present is quite literal, involving the discordant imbrication of two divergent temporal states. Via a detailed investigation of the song ‘I’m Real‘, I will probe Brown’s playful employment of his own past. His gambit, I will argue, may be read simultaneously as testament to his own glory, and as a signifier that the excesses of egotistic auto-projection were always more distant than they first appeared to be.

  18. A Final Glory: The Novels of James Salter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowie, William

    1988-01-01

    Critiques five novels by James Salter--THE HUNTERS, THE ARM OF FLESH, A SPORT AND A PASTIME, LIGHT YEARS, and SOLO FACES. Notes that Salter's works have been ignored by literary critics and the public though praised by other authors. (MM)

  19. A Final Glory: The Novels of James Salter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowie, William

    1988-01-01

    Critiques five novels by James Salter--THE HUNTERS, THE ARM OF FLESH, A SPORT AND A PASTIME, LIGHT YEARS, and SOLO FACES. Notes that Salter's works have been ignored by literary critics and the public though praised by other authors. (MM)

  20. MSFC Director James R. Thompson in Control Room

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Marshall's fifth Center Director, James R. Thompson (1986-1989), in the control room of the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB)automated thermal protection system (TPS) removal facility. Under Dr. Thompson's leadership, the shuttle program was rekindled after the Challenger explosion. Return to Flight kept NASA 's future programs alive.

  1. President Nixon at Hickam AFB congratulates Astronaut James Lovell

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970-01-01

    President Richard M. Nixon and Astronaut James A. Lovell Jr., Apollo 13 commander, shake hands at special ceremonies at Hickam Air Force Base, Hawaii. President Nixon was in Hawaii to present the Apollo 13 crew with the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the nation's highest civilian honor.

  2. James Mark Baldwin and the Aesthetic Development of the Individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Michael J.

    1980-01-01

    This paper recounts the ideas of the American cognitive-developmental psychologist James Mark Baldwin (1861-1934) on aesthetic experience: his conceptualization of aesthetic experience as immediate, semblant, personalized, and idealized; and his three-stage theory of aesthetic development. (SJL)

  3. James Baldwin (1841-1925): A Man Who Loved Stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Peter J. L.; Shapiro, Sheila

    1995-01-01

    Suggests that James Baldwin was one of the most prolific authors of schoolbooks for children during his lifetime (1841-1925). Notes that in addition to the Baldwin Readers (1897), he coauthored the Harper Readers (1888) and Expressive Readers (1911). Estimates that his publications numbered 54 volumes and that 26 million copies of his works sold…

  4. JAMES CROLL—SCIENTIST, WHO LEFT HIS TIME BEHIND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav Bol’shakov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In January 2011 it will be 190 years since an outstanding Scottish scientist James Croll was born. He was versatile researcher interested both in life science and humanities (for instance, philosophy. He made the most contribution for the development of the orbital theory of paleoclimate, but it seems that this achievement is not recognised enough yet.

  5. Successful pregnancy outcome in Swyer-James-Macleod syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chopra Seema

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Swyer-James-MacLeod (SJM syndrome is a chronic, progressive lung disease as a result of infection and bronchial obstruction that ultimately leads to emphysema. It is associated with chronic cough, sputum production and recurrent chest infections and is occasionally seen in women of reproductive age. The radiological finding of unilateral hyperlucent lung is considered synonymous with the disease entity.

  6. The Genetic Psychologies of James Mark Baldwin and Jean Piaget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahan, Emily D.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the ideas proposed by James Mark Baldwin which anticipated much of Jean Piaget's work. The goals, genetic approach, and epistemological assumptions underlying Piaget's inquiry into cognitive development found explicit statement in Baldwin's work. Discusses Baldwin's current importance for psychology. (Author/CB)

  7. James J. Gallagher: Man in the White Hat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, Jennifer L.; Robinson, Ann

    2014-01-01

    In classic Western movies, the good guy could be frequently identified by his trademark white Stetson hat, whereas the bad guy always wore black. James J. Gallagher wore many hats during his career that spanned over six decades; he too would be known as the "man in the white hat,"--trusted to do the right thing. From 1967 to 1970,…

  8. James Moffett's Mistake: Ignoring the Rational Capacities of the Other

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donehower, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Using Alasdair MacIntyre's theory of tradition-bound rationalities, this essay analyses James Moffett's depiction of the censors who opposed his "Interactions" textbook series in the Kanawha County, West Virginia, schools. Many reviewers have found Moffett's analysis of the censors in "Storm in the Mountains" even-handed and…

  9. James Moir (1874–1929) Pioneering Chemical Analyst in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    commemorated by Chemistry students for the 'James Moir Medal', awarded annually to the top BSc (Hons) or .... was elected President in that year he stated in his Presidential .... President of the Chemical Institute, Dr H.H. Green,11 for the.

  10. The Genetic Psychologies of James Mark Baldwin and Jean Piaget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahan, Emily D.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the ideas proposed by James Mark Baldwin which anticipated much of Jean Piaget's work. The goals, genetic approach, and epistemological assumptions underlying Piaget's inquiry into cognitive development found explicit statement in Baldwin's work. Discusses Baldwin's current importance for psychology. (Author/CB)

  11. 75 FR 13323 - James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption 1.0 Background Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc. (the licensee) is the holder of Facility Operating License No. DPR-59, which authorizes operation...

  12. 75 FR 16520 - James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption 1.0 Background Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc. (the licensee) is the holder of Facility Operating License No. DPR-59, which authorizes operation...

  13. Groundbreaking Investigator of Creativity: An Interview with James C. Kaufman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henshon, Suzanna E.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an interview with James C. Kaufman, an associate professor of psychology at the California State University at San Bernardino, where he directs the Learning Research Institute. Kaufman received his PhD in cognitive psychology from Yale University in 2001. Dr. Kaufman's research broadly focuses on nurturing and encouraging…

  14. Implementation of hazard analysis critical control point in jameed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saed, A K; Al-Groum, R M; Al-Dabbas, M M

    2012-06-01

    The average of standard plate count and coliforms, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella counts for three home-made jameed samples, a traditional fermented dairy product, before applying hazard analysis critical control point system were 2.1 × 10(3), 8.9 × 10(1), 4 × 10(1) and less than 10 cfu/g, respectively. The developed hazard analysis critical control point plan resulted in identifying ten critical control points in the flow chart of jameed production. The critical control points included fresh milk receiving, pasteurization, addition of starter, water and salt, straining, personnel hygiene, drying and packaging. After applying hazard analysis critical control point system, there was significant improvement in the microbiological quality of the home-made jameed. The standard plate count was reduced to 3.1 × 10(2) cfu/g whereas coliform and Staphylococcus aureus counts were less than 10 cfu/g and Salmonella was not detected. Sensory evaluation results of color and flavor of sauce prepared from jameed showed a significant increase in the average scores given after hazard analysis critical control point application.

  15. James Abbot McNeill Whistler: "At the Piano."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallenberg, Heather

    1987-01-01

    "At the Piano," an oil-on-canvas painting completed in 1859 by James Abbot McNeill Whistler, is used as the basis of a lesson designed to help junior high school students analyze the painting's mood, subject matter, and composition. (JDH)

  16. Pestalozzi and James Pierrepont Greaves: A Shared Educational Philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Jackie E. M.

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on Johann H. Pestalozzi, James Pierrepont Greaves, and Reverend Charles Mayo. States that Greaves and Mayo disseminated Pestalozzi's ideas and techniques in England. Explains that Pestalozzi and Greaves trained elementary teachers to view students' talents and personal growth as a whole person concept. Argues less effort would limit…

  17. James Cameron’s Avatar: access for all

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Elsaesser

    2011-01-01

    In this extract from his forthcoming book The Persistence of Hollywood (Routledge, 2012), Thomas Elsaesser examines James Cameron's film Avatar in terms of its auto-representation and personalized narrative, affective engagement with diverse publics and ambition to effect through technology a change

  18. More than Mere Weather: James's Talks to Students about Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wight, Randall D.

    2003-01-01

    William James addressed the last 3 lectures in "Talks to Teachers on Psychology and to Students on Some of Life's Ideals" (1899/1958) specifically to students. The first of these lectures, "The Gospel of Relaxation," encouraged students to be both relaxed and active. The second, "On a Certain Blindness in Human Beings," promoted awareness of and…

  19. Supporting Progressive Change: The James R. Squire Office of Policy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Edmund J.

    2004-01-01

    The NCTE has established a center of policy research to honor the legacy of James R. Squire in order to support progressive reform in English language arts education. James R. Squire's life and work are discussed in detail.

  20. The accretion/ejection paradigm in young stellar objects: from HST and Herschel to JWST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podio, Linda

    2012-07-01

    Stellar jets and molecular outflows are observed in association with young accreting stars and are believed to play a key role in the star formation process. In this talk I will show how current and future space missions are of crucial importance to investigate the origin of stellar jets and their link to the accretion process. Thanks to its high angular (˜0.1") resolution, HST has been the first telescope allowing us to investigate the jet physics at optical/UV wavelengths down to the heart of the launching mechanism. We recently analysed a datacube of the jet emitted by the T Tauri star DG Tau obtaining spatio-kinematical maps of the hot atomic gas in the jet and of its physical conditions (Maurri et al., submitted). These data confirm the predictions of theoretical models including the fact that jets may extract the excess angular momentum from the system. In the last two years Herschel has further improved our comprehension of the ejection process observing the far infrared counterpart of fast and collimated atomic jets. PACS and HIFI observations, acquired within the GASPS (GAS in Protoplanetary Systems) Open Time Key Project (PI: B. Dent), show that T Tauri stars driving optical jets are also associated with a warm gas component emitting not only atomic ([OI], [CII]) but also molecular (high-J CO, H_2O, OH) lines. The comparison with Class 0 outflows highlights a clear evolutionary trend: the emission associated with evolved Class I/II sources is fainter and more compact and the estimated mass loss rates and lines cooling are one to two orders of magnitudes lower (Podio et al., to be submitted). The arrival of JWST will fill-in the gap between HST and Herschel opening a new window in the near and mid-infrared range at unprecedented angular resolution (down to 0.03"). This will allow resolving the emission in both atomic (e.g., [FeII]) and molecular (e.g., H_2) lines and understanding if the molecular gas is entrained by the atomic jet or launched with it

  1. 76 FR 78939 - James Campbell National Wildlife Refuge, Honolulu County, HI; Final Comprehensive Conservation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service James Campbell National Wildlife Refuge, Honolulu County, HI; Final...) and a finding of no significant impact for the environmental assessment for the James Campbell... . Email: FW1PlanningComments@fws.gov . Include ``James Campbell Refuge CCP'' in the subject line of the...

  2. 76 FR 38414 - James Campbell National Wildlife Refuge, Honolulu County, HI; Draft Comprehensive Conservation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service James Campbell National Wildlife Refuge, Honolulu County, HI; Draft... CCP/EA) for the James Campbell National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge), for public review and comment. The... it by any of the following methods. E-mail: FW1PlanningComments@fws.gov . Include ``James Campbell...

  3. 78 FR 50458 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant, Vermont Yankee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant, Vermont Yankee Nuclear... petitioners'') has requested that the NRC take action with regard to James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant... with regard to James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant (Fitzpatrick), Vermont Yankee Nuclear...

  4. "The Bravest of the Brave": A Conversation with Mary Bitterman and James Narduzzi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Continuing Higher Education Review, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Mary Bitterman and James Narduzzi. Mary Bitterman, former President and CEO of The James Irvine Foundation, is President of The Bernard Osher Foundation and Immediate Past Chairman of the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS). James Narduzzi is Dean of the University of Richmond's School of Continuing Studies.…

  5. Application of the Benedict-Webb-Rubin equation of state to argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zudkevitch, David; Kaufmann, Thomas G.

    1965-05-01

    The coefficients of the Benedict-Webb-Rubin equation of state have been developed for argon. Employing these coefficients, the volumetric behavior of argon has been predicted with an average deviation of 0.241% for 597 smoothed and experimental data points in the superheated region. At temperatures below the critical two sets of C0 's, one for the liquid and one for the vapor, were needed to relate the vapor pressure to the densities of saturated argon. Using the experimental data of Holst(l8) and Wilson(28), the reliability of the BWR coefficients were demonstrated by predicting the phase behavior of the argon-nitrogen system down to -326°F, Further improvement of the results was obtained when another set of C0 's were developed by equating the pure component vapor and liquid fugacities along the vapor pressure curves. In calculating enthalpy deviations from the ideal state the original BWR expression was modified to include explicitly the temperature dependence of the coefficient C0 . Predicted values of enthalpy deviations obtained with this expression showed good agreement with values from Din's compilation.

  6. Analgesic and Antioxidant Activities of Algerian Retama raetam (Forssk. Webb & Berthel Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samah Djeddi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Part of this work deals with t he isolation and structure elucidation of the main polar secondary metabolites of the aerial parts of Retama raetam (Forssk. Webb & Berthel, as well as the evaluation of their potential analgesic properties , while the rest deals with the antioxidant activities of the aqueous extracts of roots, stem, fruits and flowers of the plant . It was found that the isoflavones g enistein 1, 6-hydroxygenistein 2, 3'-O-methylorobol 3, pratensein 4, biochanin A 8, the flavones 6-hydroxyapigenin 7 and luteolin 5, the flavonol kaempferol 6,as well as the phenolic compound p-coumaric acid 9 reduce significantly the pain at a concentration dose of 1 mg/kg. The most active compounds were 3 and 8 (86.19% and 75.23%, respectively. The obtained aqueous extracts of R. raetam were also evaluated for their antioxidant activities using two different photometric methods; the results revealed that all extracts exerted very low free radical scavenging activity compared to the well-known butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT and lower hydrogen peroxide blocking activity than positive control gallic acid.

  7. A new subtilisin-like proteinase from roots of the dandelion Taraxacum officinale Webb S. L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogacheva, A M; Rudenskaya, G N; Preusser, A; Tchikileva, I O; Dunaevsky, Y E; Golovkin, B N; Stepanov, V M

    1999-09-01

    A serine proteinase from roots of Taraxacum officinale Webb S. L. was isolated by affinity chromatography and gel-filtration on Superose 6R using FPLC. The enzyme is a 67-kD glycoprotein containing 54% carbohydrate which we have named taraxalisin. The substrate specificity of taraxalisin toward synthetic peptides and oxidized insulin B-chain is comparable with that of cucumisin from Cucumis melo and the subtilisin-like serine proteinase macluralisin from Maclura pomifera. The proteinase is inactivated by DFP and PMSF. Taraxalisin exhibits maximal activity at pH 8.0. The pH range for stability of the enzyme is narrow--6.0-9.0. The temperature optimum for the subtilisin-like activity is 40 degrees C. The N-terminal sequence of taraxalisin has 40% of its residues identical to those of subtilisin Carlsberg. Thus, the serine proteinase from dandelion roots is a member of the subtilisin family, which is evidently widespread in the plant kingdom.

  8. Royce's community; a dimension missing in Freud and James?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheim, F M

    1977-04-01

    Josiah Royce (1855-1916), philosopher of community, taught that social consciousness arises from ego-alter contrasts and is guided by taboos and, before George H. Mead, by reciprocal gestures. A major Roycean contribution was his five conditions for coexperiencing consciousness of genuine community. Related to Freud (via Putnam), Royce did early work on "identification theory" and helped midwife psychotherapy's birth in America. Contrasting with William James's basic differentiation of consciousness according to the quality of its contents (feeling, thought, and conduct), Royce preferred a norm of increasing self-agency (shown in sensitivity, docility, and initiative). The temperaments of James as artist and of Royce as rational interpreter differentiated their approaches to psychology.

  9. PENGALAMAN BERSUA TUHAN: PERSPEKTIF WILLIAM JAMES DAN AL-GHAZALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komarudin Komarudin

    2012-12-01

    Pengalaman bersua Tuhan merupakan fenomena yang menarik dan menjadi titik perhatian banyak disiplin ilmu. Psikologi dan tasawuf merupakan dua disiplin ilmu yang memfokuskan kajiannya pada fenomena ini dengan menerapkan pendekatan yang berbeda. Ghazali adalah representasi dari disiplin ilmu tasawuf dan William James adalah representasi disiplin ilmu psikologi. Kedua ahli tersebut menggunakan pendekatan yang berbeda dalam mengkaji pengalaman keagamaan. Basis epistimologi yang digunakan oleh James memiliki akuntabilitas ilmiah namun kurang akurat dalam sumber pengetahuannya. Di sisi lain Ghazali memiliki sumber pengetahuan yang dalam namun kurang dari sisi rasionalitas. Upaya untuk mengkompromikan kedua pendekatan dalam rangka untuk mengkaji pengalaman bersua Tuhan akan menghasilkan penggambaran yang dalam dan obyektif.

  10. La racionalidad imperialista en la monumental obra de James Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homero Cuevas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este ensayo, parte de un trabajo más extenso sobre la dominación internacional en la economía mundial, revisa los procesos más relevantes para el análisis teórico tomando como referencia La historia de la India británica de James Mill, obra que es un hito en este campo y es la base de todas las teorías posteriores

  11. Molecular Biologists:James Watson and Francis Crick

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琳

    2006-01-01

    On Feb. 28, 1953, Francis Crick walked into the Eagle pub in Cambridge, England, and, as James Watson later recalled, announced that "we had found the secret of life. " Actually, they had. That morning, Watson and Crick had figured out the structure of deoxyribonucleic acid, DNA. And that structure-a "double helix" that can "unzip" to make copies of itself-confirmed suspicions that DNA carries life ’ s hereditary information.

  12. The Auld Bollocks, or, James Kelman's Masculine Utopics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dougal McNeill

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the treatment of male sexuality in James Kelman’s fiction, paying particular attention to his frequent representations of and reflections on masturbation and sexual loneliness. As part of an extended appreciation and critique of the recent criticism of Carole Jones, this article argues that, whilst Kelman’s representations of male sexuality involve an assault on traditional masculine gender norms, they also contain utopian elements, ones neglected in Kelman scholarship to date.

  13. James Cahill and the Study of Chinese Painting’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaixin Hong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available James Cahill was a leading scholar in the field of Chinese painting studies through his influential teaching and most original and prolific writings. From a global, verbal, and visual perspective, this essay examines how significantly he has challenged and thereby enriched the extant art scholarships in China and the West, and what an enduring legacy he has left behind him in the art historiography.

  14. High-precision cryogenic wheel mechanisms of the JWST/MIRI instrument: performance of the flight models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, O.; Müller, F.; Birkmann, S.; Böhm, A.; Ebert, M.; Grözinger, U.; Henning, Th.; Hofferbert, R.; Huber, A.; Lemke, D.; Rohloff, R.-R.; Scheithauer, S.; Gross, T.; Fischer, T.; Luichtel, G.; Merkle, H.; Übele, M.; Wieland, H.-U.; Amiaux, J.; Jager, R.; Glauser, A.; Parr-Burman, P.; Sykes, J.

    2010-07-01

    The Mid Infrared Instrument (MIRI) aboard JWST is equipped with one filter wheel and two dichroic-grating wheel mechanisms to reconfigure the instrument between observing modes such as broad/narrow-band imaging, coronagraphy and low/medium resolution spectroscopy. Key requirements for the three mechanisms with up to 18 optical elements on the wheel include: (1) reliable operation at T = 7 K, (2) high positional accuracy of 4 arcsec, (3) low power dissipation, (4) high vibration capability, (5) functionality at 7 K ball bearing, a central torque motor for actuation, a ratchet system with monolithic CuBe flexural pivots for precise and powerless positioning and a magnetoresistive position sensor has been implemented. We report here the final performance and lessons-learnt from the successful acceptance test program of the MIRI wheel mechanism flight models. The mechanisms have been meanwhile integrated into the flight model of the MIRI instrument, ready for launch in 2014 by an Ariane 5 rocket.

  15. Effects of Retama raetam (Forssk. Webb & Berthel. (Fabaceae on the central nervous system in experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Tubuly Rida A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Retama raetam (Forssk. Webb & Berthel. (Fabaceae, commonly known as ‘raetam’ or ‘broom bush’, is a desert shrub that grows abundantly in North-African countries, Palestine and Syria. Traditionally, this plant has been used as an abortifacient, a purgative and a vermifuge. In the present study, the effect of the methanol (MeOH extract of the aerial parts of R. raetam on the central nervous system (CNS has been evaluated using a mice model. In the photoelectrical cell test, the extract of R. raetam (ERR at a dose of 125 mg/kg body weight did not exhibit any effect on the spontaneous motor activity in mice. At a dose of 250 mg/kg body weight, ERR increased ambulatory movement, but had no effect on the non-ambulatory movement, while a dose of 375 mg/kg body weight decreased both ambulatory and non-ambulatory movements. The effect of ERR on the anxiety levels and behaviors of mice was investigated using the elevated plus-maze test. At doses of 125, 250 and 375 mg/kg body weight, ERR decreased anxiety levels without showing an effect on the total activity; it did not affect anxiety levels but increased the total activity; it increased anxiety levels and decreased the total activity, respectively. In the diazepam-induced sleep test, ERR increased the onset of sleep without affecting the duration of sleep at the dose of 250 mg/kg body weight. The dose of 375 mg/kg body weight decreased the onset of sleep while increasing the duration of sleep. ERR did not exhibit any effect on the diazepam-induced sleep in the presence of flumazenil or picrotoxin.

  16. Hardware Demonstration: Radiated Emissions as a Function of Common Mode Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Closkey, John; Roberts, Jen

    2016-01-01

    This presentation describes the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) tests performed on the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM), the science payload of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), at NASAs Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in August 2015. By its very nature of being an integrated payload, it could be treated as neither a unit level test nor an integrated spacecraft observatory test. Non-standard test criteria are described along with non-standard test methods that had to be developed in order to evaluate them. Results are presented to demonstrate that all test criteria were met in less than the time allocated.

  17. Atmospheric Chemistry of Venus-like Exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Schaefer, Laura

    2010-01-01

    We use thermodynamic calculations to model atmospheric chemistry on terrestrial exoplanets that are hot enough for chemical equilibira between the atmosphere and lithosphere, as on Venus. The results of our calculations place constraints on abundances of spectroscopically observable gases, the surface temperature and pressure, and the mineralogy of the surface. These results will be useful in planning future observations of the atmospheres of terrestrial-sized exoplanets by current and proposed space observatories such as the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), Spitzer, James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), Terrestrial Planet Finder, and Darwin.

  18. Pupil Alignment Considerations for Large, Deployable Space Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Brent J.; Ohl, Raymond G.; Kubalak, Daivd A.

    2011-01-01

    For many optical systems the properties and alignment of the internal apertures and pupils are not critical or controlled with high precision during optical system design, fabrication or assembly. In wide angle imaging systems, for instance, the entrance pupil position and orientation is typically unconstrained and varies over the system s field of view in order to optimize image quality. Aperture tolerances usually do not receive the same amount of scrutiny as optical surface aberrations or throughput characteristics because performance degradation is typically graceful with misalignment, generally only causing a slight reduction in system sensitivity due to vignetting. But for a large deployable space-based observatory like the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), we have found that pupil alignment is a key parameter. For in addition to vignetting, JWST pupil errors cause uncertainty in the wavefront sensing process that is used to construct the observatory on-orbit. Furthermore they also open stray light paths that degrade the science return from some of the telescope s instrument channels. In response to these consequences, we have developed several pupil measurement techniques for the cryogenic vacuum test where JWST science instrument pupil alignment is verified. These approaches use pupil alignment references within the JWST science instruments; pupil imaging lenses in three science instrument channels; and unique pupil characterization features in the optical test equipment. This will allow us to verify and crosscheck the lateral pupil alignment of the JWST science instruments to approximately 1-2% of their pupil diameters.

  19. Introduktion til James Paul Gee: Hvad er literacy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiden, Thomas Roed

    2016-01-01

    Thomas Roed Heiden, adjunkt, cand.pæd giver her en introduktion til artiklen og de vigtigste begreber i denne. Ifølge Thomas Roed Heiden tilbyder What is literacy? en relevant forklaringsramme for, hvorfor man oplever bestemte elevers væren og gøren på bestemte måder, og hvordan man som didaktike...... kan have indflydelse på dette, gennem sin egen væren og gøren. Derfor er James Paul Gees tanker særligt relevante i en lærer- eller pædagogfaglig professionskontekst....

  20. James Baldwin: Biographical Dispatches on a Freedom Writer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Luke Sinitiere

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay presents the idea of James Baldwin as a freedom writer, the organizing idea of my biography in progress. As a freedom writer, Baldwin was a revolutionary intellectual, an essayist and novelist committed unfailingly to the realization of racial justice, interracial political equality, and economic democracy. While the book is still in process, this short essay narrates autobiographically how I came to meet and know Baldwin’s work, explains in critical fashion my work in relation to existing biographies, and reflects interpretively my thoughts-in- progress on this fascinating and captivating figure of immense historical and social consequence.

  1. Compensation and translation: James Ellroy’s White Jazz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Protopopescu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The current paper explores the Romanian translation of James Ellroy’s text “White Jazz”, with a view to explaining away the translator’s choices. The main issues at hand are the solutions provided for the ellipsis present throughout the novel and the slang used by the author, which is typical of L.A.’s ’60’s. The paper provides theoretical data supporting the translator’s choice of rendering certain slang expressions by paraphrase, explanation or even coinage of new words. We also look into how much has been compensated for and what was lost during the process of translation.

  2. Astronaut James Irwin keeps Lunar Roving Vehicle from sliding downhill

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    Astronaut James B. Irwin, lunar module pilot, holds the Lunar Roving Vehicle from sliding downhill during the second Apollo 15 lunar surface extravehicular activity. Apparently, both of the Rover's rear wheels are off the ground. The Rover was parked facing downhill on a 15 to 20 degree slope. Astronaut David R. Scott, commander, took this photograph. Scott was performing other tasks while Irwin held the Rover. They were parked at a 'fresh' crater on the Apennine Front (Hadley Delta Mountain) slope. In the foreground a lunar rake lies atop a mound.

  3. James Cameron speaks out about ocean discovery and protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-06-01

    Ocean explorer and filmmaker James Cameron delivered his DEEPSEA CHALLENGER submersible vehicle to the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) in Woods Hole, Mass., on 14 June, following a cross-country journey from California. He has donated the vehicle to WHOI as part of a new Center for Marine Robotics. Cameron, who will serve on the center's advisory board, used the submersible in March 2012 to dive to the deepest part of the ocean, the Challenger Deep section of the Mariana Trench in the Pacific Ocean (see Eos, 93(50), 523, doi:10.1029/2012EO500003).

  4. James Van Allen The First Eight Billion Miles

    CERN Document Server

    Foerstner, Abigail

    2009-01-01

    Astrophysicist and space pioneer James Van Allen (1914-2006), for whom the Van Allen radiation belts were named, was among the principal scientific investigators for twenty-four space missions, including Explorer I in 1958, the first successful U.S. satellite; Mariner 2's 1962 flyby of Venus, the first successful mission to another planet; and the 1970's Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11, missions that surveyed Jupiter and Saturn. Abigail Foerstner blends space science, drama, military agenda's, cold war politics, and the events of Van Allen's lengthy career to create the first biography of this highl

  5. James N Gray - An eScience Visionary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-01

    James N Gray (Jim Gray) was a computer scientist whosemajor contributions include formalising a theory for reliabletransaction processing of large databases and implementingsystems based on his theory. This work was crucial to implementreliable financial transactions by banks and other financialinstitutions. (Financial transactions are a subset of alltransactions.) In addition, he is credited with coining the termFourth Paradigm, i.e., data driven scientific discovery byscientists who collect humongous amount of data with modernscientific instruments. He also collaborated with diversegroups of scientists to organize the data collected by them tofacilitate easy retrieval and interpretation.

  6. Bioclimatic lessons from James C. Rose's architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vissilia, A.M. [Department of Structural Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Kodrou 13, 105 58 Athens (Greece)

    2009-08-15

    This paper attempts to interpret three residences designed by landscape architect James Rose, focusing on their bioclimatic concepts (layout of the buildings: orientation in relation to sun and wind, geometry of the building form; spacing: site planning-landscape; air movement; openings: size, position and orientation, protection; and building envelope: choice of building materials and construction detailing). James Rose (1913-1991) was one of the three pioneer landscape architects who established modern landscape design in the United States. He had the opportunity to design three residences and their landscapes which constitute the clearest expression of his views about environmental design. Residences conceived in Rose's design philosophy result to the creation of an ''environment'' instead of the ordinary approach of architecture plus landscape, exhibiting his contribution to the development of a less aggressive architecture, more attentive and integrated to the environment. This is a rare approach where the design is product of one single mind that of the landscape architect. Several bioclimatic concepts are apparent in the landscape architect's works, showing a deep concern with the integration between construction and environment. The three cases explored are: the landscape architect's environment (1952, 1970), the Zheutlin environment (1956), and the Slutzker environment (1964). (author)

  7. The La Grande hydroelectric development - James Bay, Quebec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pare, J-J.; Levay, J.

    1997-10-01

    An historical overview of the James Bay Hydroelectric Power Development in northern Quebec was provided. The account touches upon the foundation of the Societe d`energie de la Baie James, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Hydro-Quebec. It describes the La Grande Complex, and provides a brief summary of the site investigation, the geological and geotechnical considerations, the rock excavation, the construction of embankments and dikes, and nature of the bedrock and overburden foundations. Some of the more interesting problems that arose during the construction such as the settling of the crest in the protective islands surrounding the instruments at some of the dam sites were outlined. Leakage under some of the La Grande 3 low head dikes near the end of the reservoir filling period and the degradation of some of the riprap protection of the Phase One embankments were also described. The solutions designed to overcome these problems were also part of the account of this major mega development project that promoted Quebec into the ranks of the major hydro energy producers in North America. 11 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs., photos.

  8. James Weldon Johnson and the Speech Lab Recordings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Mustazza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available On December 24, 1935, James Weldon Johnson read thirteen of his poems at Columbia University, in a recording session engineered by Columbia Professor of Speech George W. Hibbitt and Barnard colleague Professor W. Cabell Greet, pioneers in the field that became sociolinguistics. Interested in American dialects, Greet and Hibbitt used early sound recording technologies to preserve dialect samples. In the same lab where they recorded T.S. Eliot, Gertrude Stein, and others, James Weldon Johnson read a selection of poems that included several from his seminal collection God’s Trombones and some dialect poems. Mustazza has digitized these and made them publicly available in the PennSound archive. In this essay, Mustazza contextualizes the collection, considering the recordings as sonic inscriptions alongside their textual manifestations. He argues that the collection must be heard within the frames of its production conditions—especially its recording in a speech lab—and that the sound recordings are essential elements in an hermeneutic analysis of the poems. He reasons that the poems’ original topics are reframed and refocused when historicized and contextualized within the frame of The Speech Lab Recordings.

  9. A machine-learning approach to measuring the escape of ionizing radiation from galaxies in the reionization epoch

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Hannes; Pelckmans, Kristiaan; Binggeli, Christian; Ausmees, Kristiina; Lundholm, Ulrika

    2016-01-01

    Recent observations of galaxies at $z \\gtrsim 7$, along with the low value of the electron scattering optical depth measured by the Planck mission, make galaxies plausible as dominant sources of ionizing photons during the epoch of reionization. However, scenarios of galaxy-driven reionization hinge on the assumption that the average escape fraction of ionizing photons is significantly higher for galaxies in the reionization epoch than in the local Universe. The NIRSpec instrument on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will enable spectroscopic observations of large samples of reionization-epoch galaxies. While the leakage of ionizing photons will not be directly measurable from these spectra, the leakage is predicted to have an indirect effect on the spectral slope and the strength of nebular emission lines in the rest-frame ultraviolet and optical. Here, we apply a machine learning technique known as lasso regression on mock JWST/NIRSpec observations of simulated $z=7$ galaxies in order to obtain a model ...

  10. The Local Group as a time machine: studying the high-redshift Universe with nearby galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Johnson, Benjamin D; Bullock, James S; Conroy, Charlie; Fitts, Alex

    2015-01-01

    We infer the UV luminosities of Local Group galaxies at early cosmic times ($z \\sim 2$ and $z \\sim 7$) by combining stellar population synthesis modeling with star formation histories derived from deep color-magnitude diagrams constructed from Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations. Our analysis provides a basis for understanding high-$z$ galaxies - including those that may be unobservable even with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) - in the context of familiar, well-studied objects in the very low-$z$ Universe. We find that, at the epoch of reionization, all Local Group dwarfs were less luminous than the faintest galaxies detectable in deep HST observations of blank fields. We predict that JWST will observe $z \\sim 7$ progenitors of galaxies similar to the Large Magellanic Cloud today; however, the HST Frontier Fields initiative may already be observing such galaxies, highlighting the power of gravitational lensing. Consensus reionization models require an extrapolation of the observed blank-field lum...

  11. The Calibration Reference Data System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, P.; Miller, T.

    2016-07-01

    We describe a software architecture and implementation for using rules to determine which calibration files are appropriate for calibrating a given observation. This new system, the Calibration Reference Data System (CRDS), replaces what had been previously used for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) calibration pipelines, the Calibration Database System (CDBS). CRDS will be used for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) calibration pipelines, and is currently being used for HST calibration pipelines. CRDS can be easily generalized for use in similar applications that need a rules-based system for selecting the appropriate item for a given dataset; we give some examples of such generalizations that will likely be used for JWST. The core functionality of the Calibration Reference Data System is available under an Open Source license. CRDS is briefly contrasted with a sampling of other similar systems used at other observatories.

  12. Teledyne H1RG, H2RG, and H4RG Noise Generator

    CERN Document Server

    Rauscher, Bernard J

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the near-infrared detector system noise generator (NG) that we wrote for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Near Infrared Spectrograph (NIRSpec). NG simulates many important noise components including; (1) white "read noise," (2) residual bias drifts, (3) pink $1/f$ noise, (4) alternating column noise, and (5) picture frame noise. By adjusting the input parameters, NG can simulate noise for Teledyne's H1RG, H2RG, and H4RG detectors with and without Teledyne's SIDECAR ASIC IR array controller. NG can be used as a starting point for simulating astronomical scenes by adding dark current, scattered light, and astronomical sources into the results from NG. NG is written in Python-3.4. The source code is freely available for download from http://jwst.nasa.gov/publications.html.

  13. A cryogenic liquid-mirror telescope on the moon to study the early universe

    CERN Document Server

    Angel, Roger; Borra, Ermanno F; Eisenstein, Daniel J; Foing, Bernard; Hickson, Paul; Josset, Jean-Luc; Ma, Ki Bui; Seddiki, Omar; Sivanandam, Suresh; Thibault, Simon; van Susante, Paul

    2008-01-01

    We have studied the feasibility and scientific potential of zenith observing liquid mirror telescopes having 20 to 100 m diameters located on the moon. They would carry out deep infrared surveys to study the distant universe and follow up discoveries made with the 6 m James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), with more detailed images and spectroscopic studies. They could detect objects 100 times fainter than JWST, observing the first, high-red shift stars in the early universe and their assembly into galaxies. We explored the scientific opportunities, key technologies and optimum location of such telescopes. We have demonstrated critical technologies. For example, the primary mirror would necessitate a high-reflectivity liquid that does not evaporate in the lunar vacuum and remains liquid at less than 100K: We have made a crucial demonstration by successfully coating an ionic liquid that has negligible vapor pressure. We also successfully experimented with a liquid mirror spinning on a superconducting bearing, as w...

  14. RETRATO DEL ARTISTA JAMES JOYCE, ADOLESCENTE // A PORTRAIT OF THE ARTIST JAMES JOYCE AS A YOUNG MAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Elkin Ramírez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available La confrontación de algunas lecciones del Seminario XXIII de Jacques Lacan con El retrato del artista adolescente de James Joyce, que fue una de las fuentes de Lacan, da por resultado sorprendente cómo la obra plasma a Joyce adolescente, encontrando los anudamientos allí donde la forclusión del Nombre del Padre no le permitía responder y podría dar lugar a desenganches que lo harían desencadenar su psicosis. No obstante, con su obra iba construyendo poco a poco una obra que le sirvió de Sinthoma y anudamiento a su estructura. // The contrast between some lessons in Seminar XXIII of Jacques Lacan with A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man by James Joyce, that was one of Lacan's sources, brings about how the work depicts Joyce as a young man, finding the knottings where the foreclosure of the Name of the Father did not allow him to respond and could lead to some detachments that would trigger his psychosis. Nevertheless, with his work he was gradually building a work that was useful as Sinthome and knotting of his structure.

  15. Towards Precise Constraints on the Chemical Compositions and Thermal Structures of Giant Exoplanets with a JWST GTO Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Jacob; Lunine, Jonathan I.

    2017-06-01

    The chemical compositions and thermal structures of close-in planets are two of the major questions raised over the last 15+ years of exoplanet atmospheric characterization. These are fundamental questions in their own right, and answering them also has the potential to improve our understanding of the planets in the Solar System. JWST offers the opportunity to make a major advance on these topics by revealing a more complete and accurate inventory of the chemical species in exoplanet atmospheres and by precisely measuring atmospheric temperatures over a broad range of pressures. I will describe how we plan to use an Interdisciplinary Scientist GTO program to determine the compositions and thermal structures of transiting, hot giant exoplanets using dayside thermal emission measurements obtained at secondary eclipse. Our composition measurements are focused on determining absolute molecular abundances as a tracer of atmospheric metallicity and the abundance ratio of carbon to oxygen. The targets in our program have a range of masses and irradiation, which will enable us to test theories of how atmospheric metallicity varies with planet mass and how thermal structures respond to different levels of stellar forcing.

  16. The King James Bible and the Politics of Religious Education: Secular State and Sacred Scripture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearon, Liam

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an outline historical-educational analysis of the King James Bible from its 1611 publication through to its four-hundredth anniversary commemoration in 2011. With particular focus on England, the article traces the educational impact of the King James Bible and charts, in the country of its origin, its progressive decline in…

  17. James Joyce kui religiooni subjekt ja objekt / Kalle Käsper

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Käsper, Kalle, 1952-

    2003-01-01

    Arvustus: Joyce, James. Dublinlased : [novellid] / inglise keelest tõlkinud Jaak Rähesoo. 2. tr. [Tallinn] : Varrak, 2003 ; Joyce, James. Kunstniku noorpõlveportree : [romaan] / inglise keelest tõlkinud [ja järelsõna:] Jaak Rähesoo. [Tallinn] : Varrak, 2003; vt ka vastukaja: Raudam, Toomas. Kontra Käsper // Sirp (2003) 20. juuni, lk. 5

  18. Moral Development as the Personal Education of Feeling and Reason: From James to Piaget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Michel; Okamoto, Carol M.

    2003-01-01

    This article traces the connection between William James's writings in "The Varieties of Religious Experience" and Jean Piaget's work on moral development through Piaget's early work on religious experience. James characterises religious experience as unlocking deep personal power that can sustain a "strenuous mood". These ideas impacted the early…

  19. 77 FR 63734 - Security Zone; James River, Kingsmill Resort, Williamsburg, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ...: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Security Zone; James River, Kingsmill Resort... establishing a temporary security zone on the James River in the vicinity of Kingsmill Resort...

  20. An Exploration of the Theme in “Paste” by Henry James

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Liqun

    2016-01-01

    “Paste” is a 5,800-word short story by Henry James which attracts many critics’ attention. However, many people hold misunderstanding towards it because of he cumbersome style of Henry James and his misplaced illustration. After settling down the main mysteries in the story, the theme revealed as a critique about the sex trade.

  1. Moral Development as the Personal Education of Feeling and Reason: From James to Piaget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Michel; Okamoto, Carol M.

    2003-01-01

    This article traces the connection between William James's writings in "The Varieties of Religious Experience" and Jean Piaget's work on moral development through Piaget's early work on religious experience. James characterises religious experience as unlocking deep personal power that can sustain a "strenuous mood". These ideas impacted the early…

  2. 76 FR 65112 - James Zadroga 9/11 Health and Compensation Act of 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... compete with foreign-based companies in domestic and export markets. However, the compensation benefits... Part 104 RIN 1105-AB39 James Zadroga 9/11 Health and Compensation Act of 2010 AGENCY: Department of... regulations implementing the amendments made by the James Zadroga 9/11 Health and Compensation Act of 2010...

  3. Exploring William James's Radical Empiricism and Relational Ontologies for Alternative Possibilities in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer-Bacon, Barbara J.

    2017-01-01

    In "A Pluralistic Universe," James argues that the world we experience is more than we can describe. Our theories are incomplete, open, and imperfect. Concepts function to try to shape, organize, and describe this open, flowing universe, while the universe continually escapes beyond our artificial boundaries. For James and myself, the…

  4. Landscapes of Removal and Resistance: Edwin James's Nineteenth-Century Cross-Cultural Collaborations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyndgaard, Kyhl

    2010-01-01

    The life of Edwin James (1797-1861) is bookended by the Lewis and Clark expedition (1803-6) and the Civil War (1861-65). James's work engaged key national concerns of western exploration, natural history, Native American relocation, and slavery. His principled stands for preservation of lands and animals in the Trans-Mississippi West and his…

  5. James Joyce kui religiooni subjekt ja objekt / Kalle Käsper

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Käsper, Kalle, 1952-

    2003-01-01

    Arvustus: Joyce, James. Dublinlased : [novellid] / inglise keelest tõlkinud Jaak Rähesoo. 2. tr. [Tallinn] : Varrak, 2003 ; Joyce, James. Kunstniku noorpõlveportree : [romaan] / inglise keelest tõlkinud [ja järelsõna:] Jaak Rähesoo. [Tallinn] : Varrak, 2003; vt ka vastukaja: Raudam, Toomas. Kontra Käsper // Sirp (2003) 20. juuni, lk. 5

  6. 75 FR 9904 - James A. Holland; Denial of Hearing; Final Debarment Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration James A. Holland; Denial of Hearing; Final Debarment Order...) is denying James A. Holland's request for a hearing and is issuing an order under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the act) debarring Holland for 5 years from providing services in any...

  7. James Lovelock y el Espejismo Nuclear: De Gaia a Westinghouse

    OpenAIRE

    Coderch, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    A sus 85 años de edad, James Lovelock, padre de la hipótesis Gaia (una especie de ecologismo místico según el cual la Tierra funcionaría como un ser vivo del que los humanos no somos sino una parte mínima, casi un parásito), ha roto una lanza a favor de la energía nuclear en un reciente artículo en The Independent publicado también en El País el pasado 20 de junio, donde ruega a sus «amigos del movimiento (ecologista) que abandonen su equivocada objeción a la energía nuclear». En este artícul...

  8. Holocene glacier dynamics on James Ross Island, NE Antarctic Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, B. J.; Glasser, N. F.; Hambrey, M.

    2013-12-01

    The northern Antarctic Peninsula is currently warming very rapidly, which has resulted in ice sheet thinning, ice-shelf collapse, and rapid and widespread glacier recession. These small mountain glaciers are predicted to make a large sea level contribution over the coming century. Reconstructing past rates, volumes and magnitudes of change, particularly with respect to the former configuration of former ice sheets and ice shelves, is vital to contextualise contemporary change and to improve predictions of future ice-sheet behaviour. The aim of this research is therefore to investigate the relationship of deglacial ice sheet thinning and Holocene glacier fluctuations around James Ross Island, northeast Antarctic Peninsula, with temperature changes recorded in the Mount Haddington Ice Core. We use a combination of geomorphological mapping, from field campaigns and remotely sensed images, cosmogenic nuclide ages on glacially transported boulders, and numerical modelling with a simple 1D flowline model. Prior to 18 ka, James Ross Island was inundated by a thick and mainly cold-based ice sheet, which scattered granite erratics across the island. Ice sheet thickness and the rate of thinning is constrained by granite erratics on Terrapin Hill (610 m a.s.l.), and from flat-topped mesas at 370 m a.s.l. on Ulu Peninsula. During deglaciation and a period of rapid warming and eustatic sea level rise, the area was drained by Prince Gustav Ice Stream. The ice sheet reached its current configuration by around 6 ka, with glacier readvances around 4-5 ka. At Boulder Valley, near Terrapin Hill on James Ross Island, a large glacial readvance reached the current shoreline. It pre-dated the Mid-Holocene sea level high-stand, and has shorelines imprinted upon its seaward face. After 5.3 cal. ka BP and post-dating the mid-Holocene sea level high-stand, there was a readvance of at least 7 km by glacier 'IJR-45' on Ulu Peninsula. Rapid glacier recession occurred during a period of

  9. 詹姆斯·汉森%James Hansen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何勖

    2010-01-01

    @@ 詹姆斯·汉森(James Hansen ),美国气候科学家.1941年3月出生于美国艾奥瓦州.1967年在爱荷华大学获得物理学博士学位,目前为哥伦比亚大学兼职教授.1981年起汉森担任美国航天局戈达德航天研究所所长.早在1988年.汉森就在美国国会听证会上向议员们警示燃烧化石燃料等人类活动可能导致的全球变暖风险.

  10. James Clerk Maxwell's class of 1856/57

    CERN Document Server

    Reid, John S

    2015-01-01

    James Clerk Maxwell is known for his outstanding contributions to fundamental physics. These include providing the equations that govern electric and magnetic fields, establishing the basis of modern colourimetry, finding important relationships in thermodynamics, molecular science, mechanics, optics and astronomy. In his first Professorial chair in 1856 at the Marischal College and University of Aberdeen he undertook a substantial amount of teaching that laid the foundation for his later pedagogic output. This paper examines whom he taught, where his first students came from and what they did in later life, drawing material from a privately published memoir. Thumbnail portraits are included for 70% of his class. The analysis complements the usual emphasis on educational method and content. The data provide an interesting sociological survey of what Scottish University education was achieving in the middle of the 19th century and is presented as raw material for a wider enquiry.

  11. Assimilating American Indians in James Fenimore Cooper’s Novels?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peprník Michal

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article employs critical concepts from sociology and anthropology to examine the stereotype of the Vanishing Indian and disclose its contradictory character. The article argues that in James Fenimore Cooper’s late novels from the 1840s a type of American Indian appears who can be regarded as a Vanishing Indian in many respects as he displays some slight degree of assimilation but at the same time he can be found to reveal a surprising amount of resistance to the process of vanishing and marginalization. His peculiar mode of survival and his mode of living demonstrate a certain degree of acculturation, which comes close to Gerald Vizenor’s survivance and for which I propose a term critical integration. I base my study on Susquesus (alias Trackless, Cooper’s less well-known character from The Littlepage Manuscripts, a three-book family saga.

  12. The scientific papers of James Clerk Maxwell, vol.I

    CERN Document Server

    Maxwell, James Clerk

    2014-01-01

    One of the greatest theoretical physicists of the 19th century, James Clerk Maxwell is best known for his studies of the electromagnetic field. The 101 scientific papers of this two-volume set, arranged chronologically, testify to Maxwell's profound scientific legacy and include the preliminary explorations that culminated in his most famous work, A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism. One of the nineteenth century's most significant papers, "A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field," appears here, along with similarly influential expositions of Maxwell's dynamical theory of gases. The author's extensive range of interests is well represented, from his discussions of color blindness and the composition of Saturn's rings to his essays on geometrical optics, ether, and protecting buildings from lightning. His less technical writings are featured as well, including items written for the Encyclopedia Britannica and Nature magazine, book reviews, and popular lectures. Striking in their originality, these ...

  13. Welcome to the Board, Prof James R. Flynn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajai R. Singh

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available James R. Flynn is a Professor Emeritus at the University of Otago, New Zealand, and recipient of the University's Gold Medal for Distinguished Career Research. His name has been given to the "Flynn effect", the documentation of massive IQ gains from one generation to another. His book, What is Intelligence? (Cambridge University Press, 2007 lays the foundation for a new theory of intelligence. It received extremely favourable reviews from Malcom Gladwell, Steven Pinker, and R.J. Sternberg. His latest book is Where have all the liberals gone? Race, class, and ideals in America (Cambridge University Press, 2008. It argues that American liberals have lost their voice due to accepting the alarmist picture of political reality the right has popularized.

  14. A CRITIC APPROACH OF HENRY JAMES SEEN BY NORTHROP FRYE AND DAVID LODGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula-Andreea ONOFREI

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper represents our attempt to decipher the literary ideas that Henry James, Northrop Frye and David Lodge brought in criticism, therefore our main focus is on The Art of Fiction and The Art of the Novel, both belonging to Henry James, The Anatomy of Criticism -by Northrop Frye and The Art of Fiction of David Lodge. Particular attention is going to be given to Henry James and the concepts that he introduced in narratology, we will refer to the distinct features of Modernism, the literary current which has H. James as its representative and to the way Frye and Lodge regard „The Master’s” work from a critic point of view. The purpose is to familiarize the readers with the American author Henry James and to understand the complexity of his work.

  15. Movements of boreal caribou in the James Bay lowlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan E. Hazell

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the movements and home range of boreal woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus in the James Bay lowlands, northern Ontario. Our preliminary study involves the use of GPS collars with Argos satellite system uplink to monitor movements of caribou and 10 animals were collared in December 2004. Animals appeared to have reduced rates of daily movement starting approximately in mid to late December and stretching until late February. Similarly, most animals appeared to have very reduced rates of movement from the beginning of May to the end of June indicating that this is their calving period (includes both parturition as well as the period immediately after parturition. Thus the over-wintering range was assumed to be where the animals were from mid-December to late February and the calving range was defined as the area they were in from the beginning of May to the end of June. Individual home-ranges were typically large, the mean 90% kernel home range for 2004 - 2007 was 41 579 km2. Over wintering areas and calving areas were small when compared to annual home-range size and reflect the reduced rates of movement during these time periods. Female caribou show site fidelity to calving grounds, using the same core areas year after year. However, the same level of site fidelity was not observed in over-wintering areas. The caribou in the James Bay lowlands display behaviours that are characteristic of both the forest-tundra and forest-forest ecotypes which may warrant the reconsideration of the validity of proposed ecotypes with respect to protection under species-at-risk legislation.

  16. On the use of the Webb-Pearman-Leuning theory for closed-path eddy correlation measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrom, Andreas; Dellwik, Ebba; Larsen, Søren Ejling

    2007-01-01

    We consider an imperfection of real closed-path eddy correlation systems-the decoupling of the water vapour and CO2 concentrations-with respect to the application of the Webb-Pearman-Leuning (WPL) theory. It is described why and how the current application of the WPL theory needs to be adapted...... to the processes in closed-path sensors. We show the quantitative effects of applying the WPL theory in different ways using CO2 flux measurements taken above the Danish Beech forest CarboEurope site near Soro, Zealand. Using the WPL theory in closed-path sensors without taking amplitude damping and decoupling...... not apply to open-path sensors....

  17. 75 FR 14637 - James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ... COMMISSION James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant...), for the operation of the James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant (JAFNPP) located in Oswego County... related to operation of James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant Power Authority of the State of New...

  18. A N UNUSUAL CASE OF SWYER - JAMES - MACLE O DS SYNDROME WITH DEXTROCARDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahana

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Swyer - James/MacLeod S yndrome ( SJMS is an uncommon disease with the haracteristic radiological feature of "unilateral hyperlucency" due to loss of pulmonary vasculature and air trapping . SJMS is considered to be a form of bronchiolitis obliterans that fol lows viral bronchiolitis and pneumonitis . This report describes a rare case of Swyer - James syndrome with dextrocardia diagnosed in a 3 year s old child during evaluation for recurrent respiratory infections . KEYWORDS : Swyer - James/MacLeod syndrome ; Unilateral Hyperlucency ; Bronchiolitis obliterans ; Chest X - ray ; Dextrocardia .

  19. History of Astronomy at James Cook University, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchiston, Wayne; Duerbeck, H.; Glass, I.; Malville, K.; Marsden, B.; Simonia, I.; Slee, B.; Stephenson, F. R.; Strom, R.; Whittingham, I.; Wielebinski, R.

    2011-01-01

    The Centre for Astronomy at James Cook University (JCU) in Australia has been offering totally internet-delivered Master of Astronomy degrees since 2003 and Doctor of Astronomy and Ph.D. degrees since 2004. In 2005 a new dimension was added with unique offerings in the history of astronomy at both Masters and Doctoral levels. With the aid of 1 full-time staff member and 10 adjunct staff, 4 students have now graduated with Ph.D. degrees, 1 student died from cancer after completing the first draft of his thesis, and 14 students are currently enrolled in Ph.D. degrees. In addition 12 students have completed Master of Astronomy degrees in history of astronomy, and there are 3 students who are currently enrolled for Masters degrees. As part of its commitment to the international development of history of astronomy, the Centre for Astronomy also arranges boutique `invitation only’ history of astronomy conferences in March each year, and produces the Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage.

  20. James Lee Byars 1/2 an autobiography, sourcebook

    CERN Document Server

    Byars, James Lee; Eleey, Peter

    2014-01-01

    "I see my autobiography as an arbitrary segment of so many pages of time, of things that I have paid attention to at this point in my life," wrote James Lee Byars (1932-1997) in 1969. He was then 37, about half the average male lifespan at the time, and accordingly thought it appropriate to write his "1/2 autobiography." Byars' art ranged from highly refined objects to extremely minimal performance and events, and books, ephemera and correspondence that he distributed widely among friends and colleagues. Today, more than 15 years after his death, assessments of his art must negotiate Byars' performance of his charismatic self in his life and art. For his first major posthumous survey in the US, exhibition curators Magalí Arriola and Peter Eleey decided to produce a catalogue in two "halves," playing on his "1/2 autobiography": a catalogue of the exhibition itself, including new scholarship, and a sourcebook of primary documents. 1/2 an Autobiography, Sourcebook constitutes the latter volume--a reference guid...

  1. James Franck and the Experimental Discovery of Metastable States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearhart, Clayton

    2016-03-01

    In 1913 and 1914, James Franck and Gustav Hertz published their experiments on inelastic collisions of slow electrons with helium and mercury vapor atoms. Famously, they thought they were measuring ionization energies, and not, as we understand it today, excitation energies. Franck and Hertz shortly found themselves in the army, and neither resumed experimental work until after the Great War. Nevertheless, these questions were cleared up over the course of the war, primarily through the work of experimentalists in North America, who remeasured the ionization energy of mercury and showed that Franck and Hertz had not detected ionization. After the war, Franck returned to experiments on and theoretical analyses of the collisions of slow electrons with helium atoms, in competition with others in England and America. This time, Franck and his associates were able to measure the ionization energy, and, in the process, to throw new light on the non-combining singlet and ``doublet'' (later found to be triplet) spectral series in helium. They also proposed for the first time the existence of metastable states, first in helium, and later in mercury and other elements, at a time when selection rules and theories of transition probabilities were in their infancy.

  2. A New Observing Tool for the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folger, Martin; Bridger, Alan; Dent, Bill; Kelly, Dennis; Adamson, Andy; Economou, Frossie; Hirst, Paul; Jenness, Tim

    A new Observing Tool (OT) has been developed at the UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Edinburgh, UK and the Joint Astronomy Centre, Hilo, Hawaii, USA. It is based on the Gemini Observing Tool and provides the first graphical observation preparation tool for the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) as well as being the first use of the OT for a non-optical/IR telescope. The OT allows the observer to assemble high level Science Programs using graphical representations of observation components such as instrument, target, and filter. This is later translated into low level control sequences for telescope and instruments. The new OT is designed to work on multiple telescopes: currently the UK Infrared Telescope (UKIRT) and JCMT. Object-oriented design makes the inclusion of telescope and instrument specific packages easy. The OT is written in Java using GUI packages such as Swing and JSky. A new component for the JCMT OT is the graphical Frequency Editor for Heterodyne instruments. It can be used to specify parameters such as frequencies, bandwidths, and sidebands of multiple subsystems, while graphically displaying the front-end frequency, emission lines and atmospheric transmission. In addition, Flexible Scheduling support has been added to the OT. The observer can define scheduling constraints by arranging observations graphically. Science Programs can be saved as XML or sent directly from the OT to a database (via SOAP).

  3. Imagination and Memory in James Fenton’s War Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer Mohamed Refky Mohamed

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This research paper mainly focused on the theory of cultural trauma as discussed by Dominick LaCapra’s Writing History, Writing Trauma (2001, Jeffrey C. Alexander et al.’s Cultural Trauma and Collective Identity (2004, and Ron Eyerman’s Cultural Trauma (2001. Cultural trauma and collective identity were defined then the war poetry of the British poet, James Fenton (1945-    was discussed in light of the cultural trauma theory. Fenton was involved in the traumatic event, provided insight into the historical traumatic experience, and offered a reading of the incidents. In “A German Requiem” Fenton showed the willful forgetting of holocaust victims. In “Dead Soldiers” he participated in traumatic history and handled the absurdities of war. In “Children in Exile” he described the cultural trauma and painful transition of Cambodian refugees. “In a Notebook” Fenton showed how an event became memory and how imagination interfered to shape that memory. In “Cambodia” he focused on the trauma of ordinary people who either perished or were facing death on the battlefield. Fenton’s war poems bridged the gap between the traumatic experiences of war and art. He employed his linguistic ability to explore the nightmarish, traumatic scenarios of war. Key words: war poetry – cultural trauma – memory – imagination – selective recollection

  4. James Henry Marriott: New Zealand's first professional telescope-maker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchiston, Wayne; Romick, Carl; Brown, Pendreigh.

    2015-11-01

    James Henry Marriott was born in London in 1799 and trained as an optician and scientific instrument- maker. In 1842 he emigrated to New Zealand and in January 1843 settled in the newly-established town of Wellington. He was New Zealand's first professional telescope-maker, but we have only been able to locate one telescope made by him while in New Zealand, a brass 1-draw marine telescope with a 44-mm objective, which was manufactured in 1844. In 2004 this marine telescope was purchased in Hawaii by the second author of this paper. In this paper we provide biographical information about Marriott, describe his 1844 marine telescope and speculate on its provenance. We conclude that although he may have been New Zealand's first professional telescope-maker Marriot actually made very few telescopes or other scientific instruments. As such, rather than being recognised as a pioneer of telescope-making in New Zealand he should be remembered as the founder of New Zealand theatre.

  5. James Clerk Maxwell perspectives on his life and work

    CERN Document Server

    McCartney, Mark; Whitaker, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879) had a relatively brief, but remarkable life, lived in his beloved rural home of Glenlair, and variously in Edinburgh, Aberdeen, London and Cambridge. His scholarship also ranged wide - covering all the major aspects of Victorian natural philosophy. He was one of the most important mathematical physicists of all time, coming only after Newton and Einstein. In scientific terms his immortality is enshrined in electromagnetism and Maxwell's equations, but as this book shows, there was much more to Maxwell than electromagnetism, both in terms of his science and his wider life. Maxwell's life and contributions to science are so rich that they demand the expertise of a range of academics - physicists, mathematicians, and historians of science and literature - to do him justice. The various chapters will enable Maxwell to be seen from a range of perspectives. Chapters 1 to 4 deal with wider aspects of his life in time and place, at Aberdeen, King's College London and the Cavendish Labo...

  6. Trends in James Baldwin Criticism 2001–10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Orilla Scott

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available James Baldwin criticism from 2001 through 2010 is marked by an increased appreciation for Baldwin’s entire oeuvre including his writing after the mid 1960s. The question of his artistic decline remains debated, but more scholars find a greater consistency and power in Baldwin’s later work than previous scholars had found. A group of dedicated Baldwin scholars emerged during this period and have continued to host regular international conferences. The application of new and diverse critical lenses—including cultural studies, political theory, religious studies, and black queer theory—contributed to more complex readings of Baldwin’s texts. Historical and legal approaches re-assessed Baldwin’s relationship to the Civil Rights and Black Power movements and new material emerged on Baldwin’s decade in Turkey. Some historical perspective gave many critics a more nuanced approach to the old “art” vs. “politics” debate as it surfaced in Baldwin’s initial reception, many now finding Baldwin’s “angry” work to be more “relevant” than “out of touch” as it was thought of during his lifetime. In the first decade of the new millennium, three books of new primary source material, a new biography, four books of literary criticism, three edited collections of critical essays, two special issues of journals and numerous book chapters and articles were published, marking a significant increase not only in the quantity, but the quality of Baldwin criticism.

  7. James Luna and the Paradoxically Present Vanishing Indian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth S Hawley

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available James Luna’s performances interrogate how representations of Native Americans have been made to fit western assumptions about the “real Indian.” Using his recognizably Native body as a marker of both presence and endangered existence, Luna links Peggy Phelan’s conception of performance as the presence of loss with the centuries-old stereotype of Native Americans as the “vanishing race”—a stereotype that continues to exert influence. In Take a Picture with a Real Indian (performed in 1992, 2001, and 2010, he invites viewers to have their photograph taken with him wearing one of three options: war dance regalia, a loincloth, or khakis and a polo shirt. Few people choose the third option. The performance foregrounds what has become a tradition of Native Americans performing/posing their native -ness as Otherness for the camera, strategically employing imagery that plays to nostalgic Western views of Native peoples as perpetually vanishing. I argue that Luna’s performances comment not only upon western preconceptions of Native Americans, but also upon the ways that Native Americans have historically reasserted their agency by manipulating such expectations, staging themselves to fit the stereotype.

  8. Experimental tectonics: from Sir James Hall to the present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranalli, Giorgio

    2001-09-01

    The subject of experimental tectonics is the study of geodynamic processes by means of laboratory scale models. The first roughly scaled experiments were performed by Sir James Hall about two centuries ago, in the intellectual atmosphere generated by the appearance of Hutton's Theory of the Earth (Hutton, J., 1795. Theory of the Earth, with Proofs and Illustrations, Vols. I & II. Cadell & Davies, Edinburgh). Their aim was to test the hypothesis that the folding of originally horizontal strata is the result of lateral compression. The idea to test hypotheses by laboratory experiments had already been applied by Hall to petrological problems (crystallization and melting) not involving scaling. Interestingly, however, he constructed a scale model of a Gothic cathedral, using a line of reasoning parallel to that used in his tectonic experiments. From these beginnings, the theory and practice of scale models have grown to become an important part of an integrated approach to the study of geodynamics. One topic which is at present the focus of much attention is the choice of model materials correctly scaling the temperature dependence of lithospheric materials. As an example, a brief discussion is offered of two geodynamic problems where the application of scale models is proving very fruitful: the initiation and time-history of subduction of oceanic and continental lithosphere, and the tectonic evolution of orogenic wedges.

  9. An Interdisciplinary Program in Materials Science at James Madison University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Chris

    2008-03-01

    Over the past decade a core group of faculty at James Madison University has created an interdisciplinary program in materials science that provides our students with unique courses and research experiences that augment the existing, high-quality majors in physics and astronomy, chemistry and biochemistry, geology and environmental science, mathematics and statistics, and integrated science and technology. The university started this program by creating a Center for Materials Science whose budget is directly allocated by the provost. This source of funds acts as seed money for research, support for students, and a motivating factor for each of the academic units to support the participation of their faculty in the program. Courses were created at the introductory and intermediate level that are cross-listed by the departments to encourage students to enroll in them as electives toward their majors. Furthermore, the students are encouraged to participate in undergraduate research in materials since this is the most fundamental unifying theme across the disciplines. This talk will cover some of the curricular innovations that went into the design of the program to make it successful, examples of faculty and student research and how that feeds back into the classroom, and success stories of the interactions that have developed between departments because of this program. Student outcomes and future plans to improve the program will also be discussed.

  10. Romantic morality in Mariano Iberico and William James

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Antonio Orozco

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the author offers an analysis of the evolution in Mariano Iberico’s moral philosophy that would have happened between two of his publications in the decade of the twenties. In the first publication, Iberico defends a morality of a dualistic type, giving birth to an ideal on the basis of overcoming the existential self along with its interests, needs and urgencies. A metaphysical type of morality would have been the result of such a claim. Six years later, on the other hand, the author presents a morality more understanding of the human contradiction, which does not demand the overcoming of the self as moral ideal, but rather recognizes the value of the individual. The hypothesis of this work suggests that the above mentioned evolution in Iberico’s thought would have originated from the reading of William James and of other authors whom Iberico named ‘romantics’. Furthermore, in a later section, the author shows that such an interpretationof James’ morality comes much closer to the interpretations made by Ralph B.Perry and recently by Ramon del Castillo.

  11. The First Galaxies: Assembly of Disks and Prospects for Direct Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Pawlik, Andreas H; Bromm, Volker

    2010-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will enable observations of galaxies at redshifts z > 10 and hence allow to test our current understanding of structure formation at very early times. Previous work has shown that the very first galaxies inside halos with virial temperatures T 10 are probably too faint, by at least one order of magnitude, to be detected even in deep exposures with JWST. The light collected with JWST may therefore be dominated by radiation from galaxies inside ten times more massive halos. We use cosmological zoomed smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations to investigate the assembly of such galaxies and assess their observability with JWST. We compare two simulations that are identical except for the inclusion of non-equilibrium H/D chemistry and radiative cooling by molecular hydrogen. In both simulations a large fraction of the halo gas settles in two nested, extended gas disks which surround a compact massive gas core. The presence of molecular hydrogen allows the disk gas to reach...

  12. Telescope Innovations Improve Speed, Accuracy of Eye Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    One of the main components of NASA's vision for the future of space exploration will actually have a keen eye for the past. The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), scheduled to launch in 2018, will have spectacular sight, after it reaches orbit, one of its main goals is to observe the first galaxies that formed in the early universe. "JWST offers new capabilities in the infrared well beyond what we can see from current telescopes, either on the ground or in space. It will let us explore the early universe, extrasolar planets, and really, all branches of astrophysics," says Lee Feinberg, optical telescope element manager for the JWST at Goddard Space Flight Center. Building such a keen space telescope is an astronomic task. Because JWST will gaze over such incredible distances, it requires very large mirrors. In fact, the primary mirror will be more than two stories in diameter and consists of 18 separate segments. Each segment must be perfectly smooth, flat, and scratch-free in order to deliver a view 13 billion light years away. Construction of the 18 mirror segments involved measuring, grinding, polishing, and testing - and more measuring, grinding, polishing, and testing - and more measuring, grinding, polishing, and testing (you get the idea). One of the most time consuming steps of the mirror development process, the grinding phase, can take years.

  13. Hydrogeomorphic Evaluation of Ecosystem Restoration and Management Options (HGM): James Campbell National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Evaluation of Ecosystem Restoration and Management Options covers the hydrogeomorphic analysis (HGM) for James Campbell National Wildlife Refuge. This three...

  14. Monthly Activity Report, Fiscal Year 2004: Presquile and James River National Wildlife Refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Presquile and James River National Wildlife Refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2004 fiscal year. Land acquisition is...

  15. Characteristics of Sediments in the James River Estuary, Virginia, 1968 (NODC Accession 7001081)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This report presents data on the physical and chemical characteristics of bottom sediments in the James River estuary, Virgina. The data were generated as part of a...

  16. Presquile National Wildlife Refuge, James River National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Presquile National Wildlife Refuge and James River National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1995 calendar...

  17. James River National Wildlife Refuge: Draft Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Environmental Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This draft Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on James River National Wildlife Refuge for the next 15 years. This plan outlines...

  18. Presquile National Wildlife Refuge, James River National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Presquile NWR and James River NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1991 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  19. Swyer-James syndrome in a 7-year-old female

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Mori

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Swyer-James syndrome is a rare syndrome that occurs as a result of repeated bronchiolitis and pneumonitis in childhood. Most cases are asymptomatic, and subsequent diagnosis may not occur until adulthood. We present the case of a 7-year-old female with Swyer-James syndrome, which was initially diagnosed and treated as asthma. The patient developed respiratory distress and atelectasis which were treated with biphasic cuirass ventilation. This case suggests that Swyer-James syndrome should be a concern in patients with chronic cough and wheezing, and highlights the importance of taking a careful history and appropriate radiological investigations for diagnosis. Once Swyer-James syndrome is diagnosed, prophylaxis and appropriate management of respiratory infections becomes important.

  20. Presquile National Wildlife Refuge, James River National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Presquile National Wildlife Refuge and James River National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1993 calendar...

  1. Aerial photographic water color variations from pollution in the James River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressette, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    A photographic flight was made over the James River on May 17, 1977. The data show that, in general, James River water has very high sunlight reflectance. In the Bailey Bay area this reflectance is drastically reduced. Also shown is a technique for normalizing off-axis variations in radiance film exposure from camera falloff and uneven sunlight conditions to the nadir value. After data normalization, a spectral analysis is performed that identifies Bailey Creek water in James River water. The spectral results when compared with laboratory spectrometer data indicate that reflectance from James River water is dominated by suspended matter, while the substance most likely responsible for reduced reflectance in Bailey Creek water is dissolved organic carbon.

  2. Presquile National Wildlife Refuge, James River National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Presquile National Wildlife Refuge and James River National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1992 calendar...

  3. James Wertsi ja SaxEsti ühiskontsert. "Valge gospel" asub taas tuurile

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Ameerika laulja ja kitarristi James Wertsi ning saksofonikvarteti SaxEst kontserdituurist Eestis algusega 1. dets. Haljala rahvamajast. Kontserdituurist "Valge gospel" alates 11. dets. kuues Eestimaa kirikus (viimane kontsert 20. dets. Tallinna Linnahallis)

  4. Potential for Contaminant Exposure to Bald Eagles of the James River 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The James River, Virginia has one of the largest concentrations of bald eagles on the east coast of the United States. Effects of environmental contaminants upon...

  5. Annual Activity Report, Fiscal Year 2006: Presquile and James River National Wildlife Refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Presquile and James River National Wildlife Refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2006 fiscal year. Land acquisition is...

  6. Ludic Literacies at the Intersections of Cultures: An Interview with James Paul Gee

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Clair, Ralf; Phipps, Alison

    2008-01-01

    Professor James Gee addresses issues of linguistics, literacies and cultures. Gee emphasises the importance of Discourses, and argues that the future of literacy studies lies in the interrogation of new media and the globalisation of culture.

  7. Kroll, Murakami, and Seneviratne Receive 2013 James B. Macelwane Medals: Citation for Motohiko Murakami

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bass, Jay

    2014-01-01

    The James B. Macelwane Medal of AGU is presented to Motohiko Murakami for his discovery of the postperovskite phase of MgSiO 3 , for a new class of sound velocity measurements under lower mantle pressure...

  8. Southern James Bay Population : Canada Geese : Population Trend Information 1973-1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report explains the concern about the status of the Southern James Bay Population of Canada Geese at Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge. Since both Tennessee and...

  9. Environmental Assessment for Public Deer Hunting at James River National Wildlife Refuge 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An excessively high deer population will conflict with any forest management program conducted at James River National Wildlife Refuge. To accomplish the objective...

  10. Comprehensive computerized diabetes registry. Serving the Cree of Eeyou Istchee (eastern James Bay).

    OpenAIRE

    Dannenbaum, D.; Verronneau, M.; Torrie, J.; Smeja, H.; Robinson, E; Dumont, C.; Kovitch, I.; Webster, T.

    1999-01-01

    PROBLEM BEING ADDRESSED: Diabetes is rapidly evolving as a major health concern in the Cree population of eastern James Bay (Eeyou Istchee). The Cree Board of Health and Social Services of James Bay (CBHSSJB) diabetes registry was the initial phase in the development of a comprehensive program for diabetes in this region. OBJECTIVE OF PROGRAM: The CBHSSJB diabetes registry was developed to provide a framework to track the prevalence of diabetes and the progression of diabetic complications. T...

  11. Kunst, kunstiajalugu ja visuaalkultuur / James Elkins ; intervjueerinud Maarin Mürk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Elkins, James, 1955-

    2010-01-01

    Kultuuriteaduste ja kunstide doktorikool korraldas 20.-22. sept. 2010 Eesti Kunstiakadeemia kunstikultuuri teaduskonnas ameerika kunstiteadlase James Elkensi seminari "Kunst, kunstiajalugu ja visuaalkultuuri uuringud. Uurimise ja kirjastamise probleeme ja kontseptsioone tänapäeval". James Elkensiga kunstiteadusest, sellest, kuidas visuaalkultuuri uurimine paneb küsimärgi alla senise kunstiajaloo ning kuidas on võimalik kirjutada ka Euroopa traditsioonist väljapoole jäävat kunstiajalugu, siinsest kunstiajaloo uurimisest ja kirjutamisest

  12. James Joyce’s Echoes in Caitriona Lally’s Portrait of Dublin City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Estévez-Saá

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available James Stephens and James Joyce have been mentioned as referents for Caitriona Lally’s highly acclaimed debut novel, Eggshells (2015. The present contribution intends to study this new brilliant rendering of the city of Dublin through the eyes of allegedly ‘changeling’ Vivian, whose Joycean creative musings on language serve her to portray contemporary Dublin, as well as to imaginatively project portals to other worlds where she can feel more at ease.

  13. Kunst, kunstiajalugu ja visuaalkultuur / James Elkins ; intervjueerinud Maarin Mürk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Elkins, James, 1955-

    2010-01-01

    Kultuuriteaduste ja kunstide doktorikool korraldas 20.-22. sept. 2010 Eesti Kunstiakadeemia kunstikultuuri teaduskonnas ameerika kunstiteadlase James Elkensi seminari "Kunst, kunstiajalugu ja visuaalkultuuri uuringud. Uurimise ja kirjastamise probleeme ja kontseptsioone tänapäeval". James Elkensiga kunstiteadusest, sellest, kuidas visuaalkultuuri uurimine paneb küsimärgi alla senise kunstiajaloo ning kuidas on võimalik kirjutada ka Euroopa traditsioonist väljapoole jäävat kunstiajalugu, siinsest kunstiajaloo uurimisest ja kirjutamisest

  14. Reading Consciousness: Analyzing Literature through William James' Stream of Thought Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Casto, Andrew Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Proceeding from the assumption that psychoanalytic theory has yielded insightful literary interpretations, I propose that equally legitimate readings result from analyzing consciousness in literature. William Jamesâ â Stream of Thoughtâ offers a psychological theory of consciousness from which I develop a literary theory that counterbalances the Freudian emphasis on the unconscious. Examining two works by Henry James, I demonstrate how assessing the elements of a character...

  15. Obituary: James Alfred Van Allen, 1914-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, George H.; McIlwain, Carl Edwin

    2006-12-01

    James Alfred Van Allen, world-renowned space scientist, died 9 August 2006 at the age of ninety-one. He succumbed to heart failure after a ten-week period of declining health. Van Allen served for his entire sixty-seven-year professional career as an amazingly productive researcher, space science spokesman, inspired teacher, and valued colleague. The realization by him and his associates that charged particles are trapped by the Earth's magnetic field began a whole new field of research, magnetospheric physics. Following that initial discovery, he and his associates quickly extended their observations, first to the inner planets, and then to the rest of the planets and beyond. During his tenure at Iowa, he and his group flew instruments on more than sixty successful Earth satellites and planetary spacecraft, including the first missions to the planets Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. Van Allen's lifetime publication list numbers more than 275, of which many are widely-cited, seminal papers. He was the sole author of more than 125 of those papers. Beyond the research laboratory, Van Allen worked energetically throughout his career in establishing space research as a new branch of human inquiry. He was among the most sought-after as a committee member and adviser, working at the highest levels of government, including the White House and Congress, and at all levels of the national and international research establishments. Many presentations in the non-scientific arena helped to bring the exciting discoveries and challenges of space research to the attention of the general public. James Van Allen (Van to his many friends and colleagues) was born on 7 September 1914 on a small farm near Mount Pleasant, Iowa, the second of four sons of Alfred Morris Van Allen and Alma Olney Van Allen. After high school in Mount Pleasant, he entered Iowa Wesleyan College, majoring in physics and graduating summa cum laude. While there, he was introduced to geophysics

  16. James F. Crow and the art of teaching and mentoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartl, Daniel L

    2011-12-01

    To honor James F. Crow on the occasion of his 95th birthday, GENETICS has commissioned a series of Perspectives and Reviews. For GENETICS to publish the honorifics is fitting, as from their birth Crow and GENETICS have been paired. Crow was scheduled to be born in January 1916, the same month that the first issue of GENETICS was scheduled to appear, and in the many years that Crow has made major contributions to the conceptual foundations of modern genetics, GENETICS has chronicled his and other major advances in the field. The commissioned Perspectives and Reviews summarize and celebrate Professor Crow's contributions as a research scientist, administrator, colleague, community supporter, international leader, teacher, and mentor. In science, Professor Crow was the international leader of his generation in the application of genetics to populations of organisms and in uncovering the role of genetics in health and disease. In education, he was a superb undergraduate teacher whose inspiration changed the career paths of many students. His teaching skills are legendary, his lectures urbane and witty, rigorous and clear. He was also an extraordinary mentor to numerous graduate students and postdoctoral fellows, many of whom went on to establish successful careers of their own. In public service, Professor Crow served in key administrative positions at the University of Wisconsin, participated as a member of numerous national and international committees, and served as president of both the Genetics Society of America and the American Society for Human Genetics. This Perspective examines Professor Crow as teacher and mentor through the eyes and experiences of one student who was enrolled in his genetics course as an undergraduate and who later studied with him as a graduate student.

  17. James Chadwick Nobel Prize for Physics 1935. Discovery of the neutron; James Chadwick Premio Nobel de Fisica 1935. Descubrimiento del neutron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    James Chadwick (1981-1974) was a key figure in the field of nuclear science. Through his studies, he researched the disintegration of atoms by bombarding alpha particles and proved the existence of neutrons. For this discovery, he was awarded the Nobel Prize for physics in 1935. (Author)

  18. Pilot James Barrilleaux with ER-2 aircraft on ramp

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    James Barrilleaux is the assistant chief pilot for ER-2s in the Flight Crew Branch of NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The ER-2s--civilian variants of the military U-2S reconnaissance aircraft--are part of NASA's Airborne Science program. The ER-2s can carry airborne scientific payloads of up to 2,600 pounds to altitudes of about 70,000 feet to investigate such matters as earth resources, celestial phenomena, atmospheric chemistry and dynamics, and oceanic processes. Barrilleaux has held his current position since February 1998. Barrilleaux joined NASA in 1986 as a U-2/ER-2 pilot with NASA's Airborne Science program at Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California. He flew both the U-2C (until 1989) and the ER-2 on a wide variety of missions both domestic and international. Barrilleaux flew high-altitude operations over Antarctica in which scientific instruments aboard the ER-2 defined the cause of ozone depletion over the continent, known as the ozone hole. He has also flown the ER-2 over the North Pole. Barrilleaux served for 20 years in the U.S. Air Force before he joined NASA. He completed pilot training at Reese Air Force Base, Lubbock, Texas, in 1966. He flew 120 combat missions as a F-4 fighter pilot over Laos and North Vietnam in 1970 and 1971. He joined the U-2 program in 1974, becoming the commander of an overseas U-2 operation in 1982. In 1983, he became commander of the squadron responsible for training all U-2 pilots and SR-71 crews located at Beale Air Force Base, Marysville, California. He retired from the Air Force as a lieutenant colonel in 1986. On active duty, he flew the U-2, F-4 Phantom, the T-38, T-37, and the T-33. His decorations included two Distinguished Flying Crosses, 12 Air Medals, two Meritorious Service Medals, and other Air Force and South Vietnamese awards. Barrilleaux earned a bachelor of science degree in chemical engineering from Texas A&M University, College Station, in 1964 and a master of science

  19. Pope Innocent III and the minority of James I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith, Damian J.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the relationship between the Papacy and Aragon-Catalonia during the period 1213-1216. After the death of King Peter H (12/9/1213, the Crown of Aragon, traditionally a close ally of Rome, was plunged into a grave crisis. A study of how the Pope and his legate. Cardinal Peter of Benevento, react to this crisis, and protect the new King, James I, tells us much about the actual extent and objectives of pontifical power, as well as adding much information on the early years of the great Catalan ruler. It is evident that the Pope, using traditional justifications, stretched his intervention in the temporal dominion to an unprecedented extent, but ultimately the Pope was limited both in his objectives and by the actual mechanisms of power.[fr] Cet article examine le rapport entre la Papauté et Aragon-Catalogne pendant la période 1213-1216. Après la mort du Roi Pierre II (12/9/1213, la Couronne, généralement une alliée étroite de Rome, était face à une crise très sérieuse. Comment ont réagi le Pape, Innocent III, et son envoyé, le Cardinal Pierre, à cette crise, et comment ils ont protégé le roi nouveau, Jacques I ? La réponse révèle beaucoup au sujet de la étendue réelle et des buts du pouvoir pontifical, et ajoute encore du renseignement au sujet des années formateux du grand Roi Jacques I. De toute évidence. Innocent III, avec les arguments normaux, a augmenté sa intervention à l'intérieur du domaine temporal à une mesure sans précédent, mais, à la fin, ses buts et les mécanismes de pouvoir ont limité sa influence.

  20. Rice Agriculture in the River Parishes: The Historical Archeology of the Vacherie Site (16 SJ 40), St. James Parish, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    Bore and the Haitian planter Morin developed processes for granulating sugar from cane in commercial quantities. -The introduction of the cotton gin...the sale was $28,000.00 ( Edgar Grima, February 10, 1877, NONA). The sale included the buildings, sugar mill, mules, cattle, stock, carts, ploughs and...James Parish Courthouse, Convent, Louisiana. St. James Parish Tax Rolls, 1989, Ward 6, St. James Parish Courthouse, Convent, Louisiana. Tobin, Edgar