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Sample records for juvenile-onset open angle

  1. 青少年开角型青光眼临床表型及遗传学特征%Clinical and genetic characteristics of primary juvenile-onset open-angle glaucoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘铁城

    2014-01-01

    青少年开角型青光眼(juvenile-onset open-angle glaucoma,JOAG)是常染色体显性遗传性疾病,具有发病年龄早、眼压高和进展快等特点.本文回顾了JOAG的临床表型、相关基因及功能,为建立基因型和表型之间的联系,为探讨青光眼的发病机制提供帮助.

  2. Predictive genetic testing in minors for Myocilin juvenile onset open angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souzeau, E; Glading, J; Ridge, B; Wechsler, D; Chehade, M; Dubowsky, A; Burdon, K P; Craig, J E

    2015-12-01

    Myocilin glaucoma is an autosomal dominant disorder leading to irreversible blindness, but early intervention can minimize vision loss and delay disease progression. The purpose of this study was to discuss the benefits of predictive genetic testing in minors for Myocilin mutations associated with childhood onset glaucoma. Three families with Myocilin mutations associated with an age of onset before 18 years and six unaffected at-risk children were identified. Predictive genetic testing was discussed with the parents and offered for at-risk minors. Parents opted for genetic testing in half of the cases. None carried the familial mutation. The age of disease onset in the family, the severity of the condition, and the age of the child are all factors that appear to influence the decision of the parent to test their children. Predictive genetic testing for early onset Myocilin glaucoma can facilitate early detection of disease or discharge from routine ophthalmic examinations.

  3. Glaucoma, Open-Angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Programs Home > Statistics and Data > Glaucoma, Open-angle Glaucoma, Open-angle Open-angle Glaucoma Defined In open-angle glaucoma, the fluid passes ... 2010 2010 U.S. Age-Specific Prevalence Rates for Glaucoma by Age and Race/Ethnicity The prevalence of ...

  4. Tank-Binding Kinase 1 (TBK1) Gene and Open-Angle Glaucomas (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingert, John H; Robin, Alan L; Scheetz, Todd E; Kwon, Young H; Liebmann, Jeffrey M; Ritch, Robert; Alward, Wallace L M

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the role of TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) gene copy-number variations (ie, gene duplications and triplications) in the pathophysiology of various open-angle glaucomas. In previous studies, we discovered that copy-number variations in the TBK1 gene are associated with normal-tension glaucoma. Here, we investigated the prevalence of copy-number variations in cohorts of patients with other open-angle glaucomas-juvenile-onset open-angle glaucoma (n=30), pigmentary glaucoma (n=209), exfoliation glaucoma (n=225), and steroid-induced glaucoma (n=79)-using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay. No TBK1 gene copy-number variations were detected in patients with juvenile-onset open-angle glaucoma, pigmentary glaucoma, or steroid-induced glaucoma. A TBK1 gene duplication was detected in one (0.44%) of the 225 exfoliation glaucoma patients. TBK1 gene copy-number variations (gene duplications and triplications) have been previously associated with normal-tension glaucoma. An exploration of other open-angle glaucomas detected a TBK1 copy-number variation in a patient with exfoliation glaucoma, which is the first example of a TBK1 mutation in a glaucoma patient with a diagnosis other than normal-tension glaucoma. A broader phenotypic range may be associated with TBK1 copy-number variations, although mutations in this gene are most often detected in patients with normal-tension glaucoma.

  5. Hypoglycemia and hemostatic parameters in juvenile-onset diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Madsbad, S; Nielsen, J D;

    1980-01-01

    Hypoglycemia was induced by intravenous infusion of insulin in six juvenile-onset diabetic subjects. Hemostatic parameters were assessed before insulin infusion and 0, 1, and 2 h after discontinuation of insulin infusion. The onset of hypoglycemia coincided with an enhancement of ADP-induced plat......Hypoglycemia was induced by intravenous infusion of insulin in six juvenile-onset diabetic subjects. Hemostatic parameters were assessed before insulin infusion and 0, 1, and 2 h after discontinuation of insulin infusion. The onset of hypoglycemia coincided with an enhancement of ADP...... potentially lead to intravascular coagulation in juvenile-onset diabetic patients....

  6. Haematological Parameters in Open Angle Glaucoma Patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GA Akinlabi, VI Iyawe. Abstract. There is potential for blood related factors to affect aqueous production or optic nerve functions. ... Here we compare hematological parameters for a group of 68 chronic open-angle glaucoma (OAG) patients and ...

  7. Juvenile onset ankylosing spondylitis with ankylosing tarsitis: a rare combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiq, A B; Hasan, S A; Abdullah, A M; Azad, S A; Khan, E H; Khasru, M R

    2012-01-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis is the most common whereas ankylosing tarsitis is the least common subgroup of juvenile onset spondyloarthritides. In our recent study a male presented with ankle joint pain and swelling with limited movements and characteristic radiological changes including; periarticular swelling, thickened heel pad, hyperostosis and reduced ankle, calcaneo-cuboid and talo-navicular joint space for ankylosing tarsitis. He also had persistent inflammatory low back pain with radiological sacroilitis satisfying the clinical features for ankylosing spondylitis. The patient was treated with different anti-inflammatory agents including intra-articular methyl-prednisolone with short-term relief. Associated back pain was improved with spine mobilizing exercise.

  8. PRIMARY OPEN ANGLE GLAUCOMA IN THYROID DISORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragati Garg

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE To assess the association of thyroid profile with open angle glaucoma. DESIGN Cross-sectional observational study. MATERIAL AND METHOD 128 cases of diagnosed thyroid disorder were enrolled. 5 cases dropped out. Ocular examination included applanation tonometry, stereoscopic optic disc photography, and automated perimetry. Correlative association of thyroid disorder and open angle glaucoma was assessed. RESULTS Of 123 patients of thyroid disorder, 87.8% had hypothyroidism and remaining 12.2% had hyperthyroidism. 15.74% of hypothyroidism and 20% of hyperthyroidism patients had open angle glaucoma, which was statistically significant (Pearson chi-square: Value=6.548, df=2, p=0.040. On multivariate analysis with other risk factors like female sex, family history of glaucoma, myopia, hypertension, and diabetes; it was found that hypothyroidism is an independent risk factor for open angle glaucoma. CONCLUSION All patients having thyroid disorder should be investigated for early diagnosis of open angle glaucoma so that if need be antiglaucoma treatment is started at the earliest and the eye maybe saved from any further deterioration.

  9. Molecular mechanisms underlying primary open angle glaucoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, S.F.

    2014-01-01

    Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is a complex, multigenetic and heterogeneous optic neuropathy. It is an insidious disease that untreated leads to irreversible visual field loss and blindness. Worldwide, glaucoma causes around 12% of blindness. Although various risk factors have been established,

  10. Distinct synovial immunopathologic characteristics of juvenile-onset spondylarthritis and other forms of juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Kruithof; V. van den Bossche; L. de Rycke; B. Vandooren; R. Joos; J.D. Canete; P.P. Tak; A.M.H. Boots; E.M. Veys; D. Baeten

    2006-01-01

    Objective. To characterize the synovial immunopathologic features of juvenile-onset spondylarthritis (SpA) in relation to adult SpA and other forms of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Methods. Synovial biopsy samples were obtained from 10 patients with juvenile-onset SpA, 23 with adult SpA, 19 w

  11. Genes of the unfolded protein response pathway harbor risk alleles for primary open angle glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Anna Carbone

    Full Text Available The statistical power of genome-wide association (GWA studies to detect risk alleles for human diseases is limited by the unfavorable ratio of SNPs to study subjects. This multiple testing problem can be surmounted with very large population sizes when common alleles of large effects give rise to disease status. However, GWA approaches fall short when many rare alleles may give rise to a common disease, or when the number of subjects that can be recruited is limited. Here, we demonstrate that this multiple testing problem can be overcome by a comparative genomics approach in which an initial genome-wide screen in a genetically amenable model organism is used to identify human orthologues that may harbor risk alleles for adult-onset primary open angle glaucoma (POAG. Glaucoma is a major cause of blindness, which affects over 60 million people worldwide. Several genes have been associated with juvenile onset glaucoma, but genetic factors that predispose to adult onset primary open angle glaucoma (POAG remain largely unknown. Previous genome-wide analysis in a Drosophila ocular hypertension model identified transcripts with altered regulation and showed induction of the unfolded protein response (UPR upon overexpression of transgenic human glaucoma-associated myocilin (MYOC. We selected 16 orthologous genes with 62 polymorphic markers and identified in two independent human populations two genes of the UPR that harbor POAG risk alleles, BIRC6 and PDIA5. Thus, effectiveness of the UPR in response to accumulation of misfolded or aggregated proteins may contribute to the pathogenesis of POAG and provide targets for early therapeutic intervention.

  12. AGN jet physics and apparent opening angles

    CERN Document Server

    Clausen-Brown, Eric; Pushkarev, Alexander B; Kovalev, Yuri Y; Lister, Matthew L

    2013-01-01

    We present a new method to measure Gamma*theta_j in flux-limited samples of active galactic nuclei (AGN) jets, where Gamma is the bulk Lorentz factor and theta_j is the jet's half-opening angle. The Gamma*theta_j parameter is physically important for models of jet launching, and also determines the effectiveness of jet instabilities and magnetic reconnection. We measure Gamma*theta_j by analyzing the observed distribution of apparent opening angles in very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) flux-limited samples of jets, given some prior knowledge of the active galactic nuclei (AGN) radio luminosity function. We then apply this method to the MOJAVE flux-limited sample of radio loud objects and find Gamma*theta_j = 0.1 +- 0.03, which implies that AGN jets are subject to a variety of physical processes that require causal connection.

  13. Primary open-angle glaucoma genes

    OpenAIRE

    Fingert, J.H.

    2011-01-01

    A substantial fraction of glaucoma has a genetic basis. About 5% of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is currently attributed to single-gene or Mendelian forms of glaucoma (ie glaucoma caused by mutations in myocilinor optineurin). Mutations in these genes have a high likelihood of leading to glaucoma and are rarely seen in normal subjects. Other cases of POAG have a more complex genetic basis and are caused by the combined effects of many genetic and environmental risk factors, each of whic...

  14. Research advances on multifocal electroretinogram in primary open angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Fei Mo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Primary open angle glaucoma is a chronic and progressive optic neuropathy. It can lead to serious damage of visual impairment, and it is an important eye disease of blindness. Multifocal electroretinogram is a new way to measure visual electrophysiology. It can measure electroretinogram of the whole visual field of many small parts in a relatively short period of time, and it can reflect the function of regional retina. It has an extremely important value for early diagnosis of primary open angle glaucoma. The research advances on multifocal electroretinogram in diagnosing primary open angle glaucoma were summarized in this paper.

  15. Clinical and genetic study of a juvenile-onset Huntington disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAO Ying

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Huntington's disease (HD is an autosomal dominant hereditary progressive neurodegenerative disorder with a distinct phenotype characterized by chorea, dementia, cognitive and affective impairment. There are selective neural cell loss and atrophy in the caudate and putamen. Dr. George Huntington firstly described the disease accurately and insightfully, which led to a widespread recognition of the inherited chorea that now bears his name. Huntington disease gene (IT15 locus on chromosome 4p16.3, and encompasses 67 exons with a trinucleotide repeat (CAG in the first exon. The CAG repeat length is highly polymorphic in the population and expanded on at least one chromosome of individuals with HD. Clinically, patient with HD are often onset in adulthood. Juvenile-onset HD is relatively rare. Adult-onset HD patients usually have a CAG expansion from 40 to 55 whereas those with juvenile-onset greater than 60 which are often inherited from the father. We investigated the clinical features of a juvenile-onset case with Huntington disease and dynamic mutation of his family. Methods The CAG repeats of IT15 gene were detected using polymerase chain reaction and capillary electrophoresis in 115 individuals with preliminary diagnosis as Huntington disease. The repeat numbers of some samples carried expanded or intermediate alleles were verified by the pMD18-T vector clone sequencing. Results Fragment analysis showed that one juvenile-onset case presenting with cognitive dysfunction and hypokinesis carried 15/68 CAG repeats of IT15. His father carried 17/37 and mother carried 15/17. Conclusion 1 The juvenile-onset case of HD presented with different clinical features compared with adult-onset cases. The typical signs of adult-onset cases include progressive chorea, rigidity and dementia. The most common sign of juvenile-onset Huntington disease is cognitive decline. 2 The dynamic mutation of IT15 gene expansion of the CAG repeats in the

  16. Sex differences in metabolic and adipose tissue responses to juvenile-onset obesity in sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Bloor, Ian D.; Sébert, Sylvain P.; Saroha, Vivek; Gardner, David S.; Keisler, Duane H.; Budge, Helen; Symonds, Michael E.; Mahajan, Ravi P.

    2013-01-01

    Sex is a major factor determining adipose tissue distribution and the subsequent adverse effects of obesity-related disease including type 2 diabetes. The role of gender on juvenile obesity and the accompanying metabolic and inflammatory responses is not well established. Using an ovine model of juvenile onset obesity induced by reduced physical activity, we examined the effect of gender on metabolic, circulatory, and related inflammatory and energy-sensing profiles of the major adipose tissu...

  17. Adiabatic Berry Phase and Hannay Angle for Open Paths

    CERN Document Server

    Pati, A K

    1998-01-01

    We obtain the adiabatic Berry phase by defining a generalised gauge potential whose line integral gives the phase holonomy for arbitrary evolutions of parameters. Keeping in mind that for classical integrable systems it is hardly clear how to obtain open-path Hannay angle, we establish a connection between the open-path Berry phase and Hannay angle by using the parametrised coherent state approach. Using the semiclassical wavefunction we analyse the open-path Berry phase and obtain the open-path Hannay angle. Further, by expressing the adiabatic Berry phase in terms of the commutator of instantaneous projectors with its differential and using Wigner representation of operators we obtain the Poisson bracket between distribution function and its differential. This enables us to talk about the classical limit of the phase holonomy which yields the angle holonomy for open-paths. An operational definition of Hannay angle is provided based on the idea of classical limit of quantum mechanical inner product. A probab...

  18. Large optical field enhancement for nanotips with large opening angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Sebastian; Wachter, Georg; Lemell, Christoph; Burgdörfer, Joachim; Hommelhoff, Peter

    2015-06-01

    We theoretically investigate the dependence of the enhancement of optical near-fields at nanometric tips on the shape, size, and material of the tip. We confirm the strong dependence of the field enhancement factor on the radius of curvature. In addition, we find a surprisingly strong increase of field enhancement with increasing opening angle of the nanotips. For gold and tungsten nanotips in the experimentally relevant parameter range (radius of curvature ≥slant 5 nm at 800 nm laser wavelength), we obtain field enhancement factors of up to ∼ 35 for Au and ∼ 12 for W for large opening angles. We confirm this strong dependence on the opening angle for many other materials featuring a wide variety in their dielectric response. For dielectrics, the opening angle dependence is traced back to the electrostatic force of the induced surface charge at the tip shank. For metals, the plasmonic response strongly increases the field enhancement and shifts the maximum field enhancement to smaller opening angles.

  19. Large optical field enhancement for nanotips with large opening angles

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Sebastian; Lemell, Christoph; Burgdörfer, Joachim; Hommelhoff, Peter

    2014-01-01

    We theoretically investigate optical near-fields at nanometric tips. We systematically study the dependence of field enhancement on the shape, size, and material of the tip. We confirm a strong dependence of the field enhancement factor on the radius of curvature. In addition, we find a remarkably strong increase of field enhancement with increasing opening angle of the nanotips. For gold and tungsten nanotips in the experimentally relevant parameter range (radius of curvature $\\geq 5\\,$nm at 800 nm laser wavelength), we obtain field enhancement factors of up to ${\\sim}35$ (Au) and ${\\sim}12$ (W) for wide opening angles. We confirm this strong dependence on the opening angle for many other materials studying the dependence of the field enhancement at nanotips on the dielectric response function. For dielectrics, the increase in field enhancement is traced back to the electrostatic force of the induced surface charge at the tip shank. For metals, the plasmonic response strongly increases the field enhancement ...

  20. Canaloplasty versus Viscocanalostomy in Primary Open Angle Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagdy, Faried Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of canaloplasty versus viscocanalostomy in management of uncontrolled primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) with medication. Methods Canaloplasty surgery was applied for thirty eyes of thirty patients (45–55 years) with a mean age of 48 years (Group A) and viscocanalostomy surgery was applied also for thirty eyes of thirty patients (43–54 years) with a mean age of 46 years (group B). All patients were with uncontrolled primary open angle glaucoma by maximally tolerated medical therapy. Results Intraocular pressure (IOP) in both surgeries was significantly reduced through follow up period (p glaucoma (POAG) with medication.

  1. Opening angles and residual strains in normal rat trachea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳兆荣; 王忆勤; 滕忠照; 徐刚; 汤伟昌

    2002-01-01

    The no-load state and zero-stress state of the normal rat trachea were analyzed. It was found that there exist compressive residual strains in the inner wall region of the rat trachea and tensile residual strains in the outer wall region. The fact that the opening angle of the rat trachea cut at the cartilaginous region is significantly larger than that cut at the muscular portion shows that residual strains exist mainly in the muscular region in the rat trachea. It was also indicated that the opening angles and residual strains expressed by cutting at the muscular portion are basically identical along longitudinal location and those expressed by cutting in the cartilaginous region tend to increase in the longitudinal direction in the normal rat, and that there exists quantitatively positive correlation between the opening angles and residual strains in rat trachea. The results will help to further understand the opening angles and residual strains in the trachea and study tracheal remodeling in response to mechanical environment.

  2. Systemic antihypertensive medication and incident open-angle glaucoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muskens, Rogier P. H. M.; de Voogd, Simone; Wolfs, Roger C. W.; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Hofman, Albert; de Jong, Paulus T. V. M.; Stricker, Bruno H. C.; Jansonius, Nomdo M.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the association between systemic anti hypertensive medication and incident open-angle glaucoma. Design: Prospective population-based cohort study. Participants: The study population consisted of a subset of 3842 participants of the Rotterdam Study for whom data from identical o

  3. Common genetic variants associated with open-angle glaucoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramdas, Wishal D.; van Koolwijk, Leonieke M. E.; Lemij, Hans G.; Pasutto, Francesca; Cree, Angela J.; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Janssen, Sarah F.; Jacoline, Ten Brink; Amin, Najaf; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Wolfs, Roger C. W.; Walters, G. Bragi; Jonasson, Fridbert; Weisschuh, Nicole; Mardin, Christian Y.; Gibson, Jane; Zegers, Richard H. C.; Hofman, Albert; de Jong, Paulus T. V. M.; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Oostra, Ben A.; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Gramer, Eugen; Welgen-Luessen, Ulrich C.; Kirwan, James F.; Bergen, Arthur A. B.; Reis, Andre; Stefansson, Kari; Lotery, Andrew J.; Vingerling, Johannes R.; Jansonius, Nomdo M.; Klaver, Caroline C. W.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.

    2011-01-01

    Open-angle glaucoma (glaucoma) is a major eye disorder characterized by optic disc pathology. Recent genome-wide association studies identified new loci associated with clinically relevant optic disc parameters, such as the optic disc area and vertical cup-disc ratio (VCDR). We examined to what exte

  4. Genetic architecture of open angle glaucoma and related determinants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramdas, W.D.; Amin, N.; van Koolwijk, L.M.E.; Janssens, A.C.J.W.; Demirkan, A.; de Jong, P.T.V.M.; Aulchenko, Y.S.; Wolfs, R.C.W.; Hofman, A.; Rivadeneira, F.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Oostra, B.A.; Lemij, H.G.; Klaver, C.C.W.; Vingerling, J.R.; Jansonius, N.M.; van Duijn, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Although the vertical cup-disc ratio (VCDR) and intraocular pressure (IOP) are important determinants of open angle glaucoma (OAG), it is unclear to what extent the genetic origin of these traits overlap with those of OAG. We evaluated whether the same genes that determine VCDR and IOP al

  5. Sex differences in metabolic and adipose tissue responses to juvenile-onset obesity in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloor, Ian D; Sébert, Sylvain P; Saroha, Vivek; Gardner, David S; Keisler, Duane H; Budge, Helen; Symonds, Michael E; Mahajan, Ravi P

    2013-10-01

    Sex is a major factor determining adipose tissue distribution and the subsequent adverse effects of obesity-related disease including type 2 diabetes. The role of gender on juvenile obesity and the accompanying metabolic and inflammatory responses is not well established. Using an ovine model of juvenile onset obesity induced by reduced physical activity, we examined the effect of gender on metabolic, circulatory, and related inflammatory and energy-sensing profiles of the major adipose tissue depots. Despite a similar increase in fat mass with obesity between genders, males demonstrated a higher storage capacity of lipids within perirenal-abdominal adipocytes and exhibited raised insulin. In contrast, obese females became hypercortisolemic, a response that was positively correlated with central fat mass. Analysis of gene expression in perirenal-abdominal adipose tissue demonstrated the stimulation of inflammatory markers in males, but not females, with obesity. Obese females displayed increased expression of genes involved in the glucocorticoid axis and energy sensing in perirenal-abdominal, but not omental, adipose tissue, indicating a depot-specific mechanism that may be protective from the adverse effects of metabolic dysfunction and inflammation. In conclusion, young males are at a greater risk than females to the onset of comorbidities associated with juvenile-onset obesity. These sex-specific differences in cortisol and adipose tissue could explain the earlier onset of the metabolic-related diseases in males compared with females after obesity.

  6. Condyloma in pregnancy is strongly predictive of juvenile-onset recurrent respiratory papillomatosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silverberg, Michael J.; Thorsen, Poul; Lindeberg, Henning

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk of juvenile-onset recurrent respiratory papillomatosis conferred by a maternal history of genital warts in pregnancy, and to identify additional cofactors such as the method of delivery (cesarean versus vaginal) and procedures or complications during pregnancy. METHODS......: A retrospective cohort design was used to evaluate maternal and infant characteristics associated with respiratory papillomatosis among Danish births between 1974 and 1993. Using data from Danish registries, we identified 3033 births with a maternal history of genital warts during pregnancy. Fifty......-seven respiratory papillomatosis cases were identified by review of medical records from ear, nose, and throat departments. RESULTS: Seven of every 1000 births with a maternal history of genital warts resulted in disease in the offspring, corresponding to a 231.4 (95% confidence interval 135.3, 395.9) times higher...

  7. Accommodative lag and juvenile-onset myopia progression in children wearing refractive correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berntsen, David A; Sinnott, Loraine T; Mutti, Donald O; Zadnik, Karla

    2011-05-11

    The relationship between accommodative lag and annual myopia progression was investigated using linear models in 592 myopic children wearing a full refractive correction in the Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of Ethnicity and Refractive Error (CLEERE) Study. The mean (± SD) age and spherical equivalent refractive error at baseline were 10.4 ± 1.8 years and -2.13 ± 1.24 D, respectively. The mean annual progression of myopia was -0.45 ± 0.32 D, and the mean accommodative lag (for a 4-D Badal stimulus) was 1.59 ± 0.63 D. Neither lag at the beginning nor at the end of a yearly progression interval was associated with annual myopia progression (all p ≥ 0.12). These data suggest that foveal hyperopic retinal blur during near viewing may not drive juvenile-onset myopia progression.

  8. HLA-DRB1 alleles in juvenile-onset systemic lupus erythematosus: renal histologic class correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.L. Liphaus

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Human leukocyte antigens (HLA DRB1*03 and DRB1*02 have been associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE in Caucasians and black populations. It has been observed that certain HLA alleles show stronger associations with SLE autoantibodies and clinical subsets, although they have rarely been associated with lupus renal histologic class. In the present study, HLA-DRB1 allele correlations with clinical features, autoantibodies and renal histologic class were analyzed in a cohort of racially mixed Brazilian patients with juvenile-onset SLE. HLA-DRB1 typing was carried out by polymerase chain reaction amplification with sequence-specific primers using genomic DNA from 55 children and adolescents fulfilling at least four of the American College of Rheumatology criteria for SLE. Significance was determined by the chi-square test applied to 2 x 2 tables. The HLA-DRB1*15 allele was most frequent in patients with renal, musculoskeletal, cutaneous, hematologic, cardiac, and neuropsychiatric involvement, as well as in patients positive for anti-dsDNA, anti-Sm, anti-U1-RNP, and anti-SSA/Ro antibodies, although an association between HLA alleles and SLE clinical features and autoantibodies could not be observed. The HLA-DRB1*17, HLA-DRB1*10, HLA-DRB1*15, and HLA-DRB1*07 alleles were significantly higher in patients with renal histologic class I, class IIA, class IIB, and class V, respectively. The present results suggest that the contribution of HLA- DRB1 alleles to juvenile-onset SLE could not be related to clinical or serological subsets of the disease, but it may be related to renal histologic classes, especially class I, class II A, class II B, and class V. The latter correlations have not been observed in literature.

  9. Impaired Saccadic Eye Movement in Primary Open-angle Glaucoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamirel, Cédric; Milea, Dan; Cochereau, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE:: Our study aimed at investigating the extent to which saccadic eye movements are disrupted in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). This approach followed upon the discovery of differences in the eye-movement behavior of POAG patients during the exploration of complex visual...... scenes. METHODS:: The eye movements of 8 POAG patients and 4 healthy age-matched controls were recorded. Four of the patients had documented visual field scotoma, and 4 had no identifiable scotoma on visual field testing. The eye movements were monitored as the observers watched static and kinetic...

  10. EULAR/PReS standards and recommendations for the transitional care of young people with juvenile-onset rheumatic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Helen E; Minden, Kirsten; Clemente, Daniel; Leon, Leticia; McDonagh, Janet E; Kamphuis, Sylvia; Berggren, Karin; van Pelt, Philomine; Wouters, Carine; Waite-Jones, Jennifer; Tattersall, Rachel; Wyllie, Ruth; Stones, Simon R; Martini, Alberto; Constantin, Tamas; Schalm, Susanne; Fidanci, Berna; Erer, Burak; Dermikaya, Erkan; Ozen, Seza; Carmona, Loreto

    2017-04-01

    To develop standards and recommendations for transitional care for young people (YP) with juvenile-onset rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases (jRMD). The consensus process involved the following: (1) establishing an international expert panel to include patients and representatives from multidisciplinary teams in adult and paediatric rheumatology; (2) a systematic review of published models of transitional care in jRMDs, potential standards and recommendations, strategies for implementation and tools to evaluate services and outcomes; (3) setting the framework, developing the process map and generating a first draft of standards and recommendations; (4) further iteration of recommendations; (5) establishing consensus recommendations with Delphi methodology and (6) establishing standards and quality indicators. The final consensus derived 12 specific recommendations for YP with jRMD focused on transitional care. These included: high-quality, multidisciplinary care starting in early adolescence; the integral role of a transition co-ordinator; transition policies and protocols; efficient communications; transfer documentation; an open electronic-based platform to access resources; appropriate training for paediatric and adult healthcare teams; secure funding to continue treatments and services into adult rheumatology and the need for increased evidence to inform best practice. These consensus-based recommendations inform strategies to reach optimal outcomes in transitional care for YP with jRMD based on available evidence and expert opinion. They need to be implemented in the context of individual countries, healthcare systems and regulatory frameworks. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. Progress on diagnosis and treatment of primary open angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Ren

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As past epidemiological results show, in addition to cataract, glaucoma is the second major cause of blindness in the world. Among them, primary open angle glaucoma is with high incidence, low and unobvious development. Its cause and pathogenesis is complex and diverse. In the early stage, most patients have no obvious symptoms. Most of them have entered middle or late stage when they visit the doctor and the visual impairment is irreversible, which extremely harm the family and the society. Therefore, early detection and treatment is the first priority to prevent further damage to visual function in patients with glaucoma. In recent years, with the proportion of the disease increasing year by year, new methods of diagnosis and treatment is one after another. But whether in early or late stage, reducing the intraocular pressure(IOP, keeping it in the target IOP range and delaying the visual impairment are still the ultimate goal of treatments. This test will be a summary of the diagnosis and treatment of primary open angle glaucoma based on the relevant literature in recent years.

  12. Molecular complexity of primary open angle glaucoma: current concepts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kunal Ray; Suddhasil Mookherjee

    2009-12-01

    Glaucoma is a group of heterogeneous optic neuropathies with complex genetic basis. Among the three principle subtypes of glaucoma, primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) occurs most frequently. Till date, 25 loci have been found to be linked to POAG. However, only three underlying genes (Myocilin, Optineurin and WDR36) have been identified. In addition, at least 30 other genes have been reported to be associated with POAG. Despite strong genetic influence in POAG pathogenesis, only a small part of the disease can be explained in terms of genetic aberration. Current concepts of glaucoma pathogenesis suggest it to be a neurodegenerative disorder which is triggered by different factors including mechanical stress due to intra-ocular pressure, reduced blood flow to retina, reperfusion injury, oxidative stress, glutamate excitotoxicity, and aberrant immune response. Here we present a mechanistic overview of potential pathways and crosstalk between them operating in POAG pathogenesis.

  13. Primary open-angle glaucoma: everyone’s business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Faal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG is sometimes called the ‘thief of sight’. There is no pain or discomfort, and vision loss is so gradual that people often do not notice it.POAG cannot be cured: it requires ongoing treatment for the remainder of a patient’s life. Blindness from POAG also cannot be reversed, but it can be prevented if the disease is diagnosed early and treated. Effectively addressing POAG therefore requires the careful involvement of many different people, including health workers, the patient, non-clinical staff, and health planners.As eye care practitioners, we must do more than merely diagnose and treat people with POAG; we must gain the trust of patients and show them that we are there to help.

  14. Clinical Features in Juvenile-Onset Ankylosing Spondylitis Patients Carrying Different B27 Subtypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yikun Mou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Ankylosing spondylitis (AS is a common rheumatic disease and is characterized by inflammation of the axial skeleton. HLA-B27 is strongly associated with AS. Juvenile-onset AS (JAS with disease onset before 16 years of age differs from adult-onset AS (AAS in many respects. Objective. To compare the clinical features in JAS with different B27 subtypes and analyze the differences between JAS and AAS. Methods. 145 JAS and 360 AAS patients were included. The demographic data, clinical manifestations, laboratory markers, Bath AS indices, and B27 subtypes were recorded. Results. Peripheral arthritis, enthesitis, BASDAI, ESR, and CRP were significantly higher in JAS patients with HLA-B*2704 than those with B27-negative. Enthesitis and ESR were significantly higher in patients with HLA-B*2705 than those with B27-negative. The onset age of HLA-B*2715 group was much earlier than the other groups. The peripheral arthritis, enthesitis, and hip joint involvement in JAS with HLA-B*2704 were significantly higher than those in AAS with HLA-B*2704. Conclusion. JAS with different B27 subtypes had similar features in most of manifestations; JAS and AAS patients with the same subtype could have distinctive courses. Early diagnosis, hip detection, and control of systemic active inflammation in JAS patients will be helpful for improving the prognosis.

  15. Association of known common genetic variants with primary open angle, primary angle closure, and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma in Pakistani cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Micheal, S.; Ayub, H.; Khan, M.I.; Bakker, B.; Schoenmaker-Koller, F.E.; Ali, M.; Akhtar, F.; Khan, W.A.; Qamar, R.; Hollander, A.I. den

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Despite the different etiology of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG), and pseudoexfoliative glaucoma (PEXG), several studies have suggested that these forms of glaucoma have overlapping genetic risk factors. Therefore, the aim of this study was to eval

  16. Vitamin D status in Egyptian patients with juvenile-onset systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garf, Kamal El; Marzouk, Huda; Farag, Yomna; Rasheed, Laila; Garf, Ayman El

    2015-09-01

    There are scanty data on the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its relation to disease activity among patients with juvenile-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (JoSLE) in the Middle East and North Africa, an area known to be endemic for vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency. The aim of this study was, therefore, to study vitamin D status and its relation to disease activity and parameters in Egyptian patients with JoSLE. Serum levels of 25(OH) D3 in 70 JoSLE patients were compared to 40 age-, sex-, and body mass index-matched healthy controls. The 25(OH) D3 was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Information regarding the medical history, clinical symptoms, and signs was registered at the time of serum sampling. Disease activity of SLE was evaluated according to the SLEDAI score. The mean level of serum 25(OH) D3 was 12 ± 3.7 in JoSLE patients compared to 21 ± 3.5 ng/mL in normal controls (p 30 ng/mL. There was no significant correlation between serum levels of 25(OH) D3 and the demographic data, medication used, and some laboratory data of patients with JoSLE. Disease activity score in our patients was insignificantly correlated with serum levels of 25(OH) D3. In spite of vitamin D supplementation in Egyptian JoSLE patients and the presence of vitamin D insufficiency in the control group, there are still significantly lower levels of vitamin D in JoSLE compared to normal controls.

  17. Disease activity, severity, and damage in the UK Juvenile-Onset Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Louise; Leone, Valentina; Pilkington, Clarissa; Tullus, Kjell; Rangaraj, Satyapal; McDonagh, Janet E; Gardner-Medwin, Janet; Wilkinson, Nick; Riley, Phil; Tizard, Jane; Armon, Kate; Sinha, Manish D; Ioannou, Yiannis; Archer, Neil; Bailey, Kathryn; Davidson, Joyce; Baildam, Eileen M; Cleary, Gavin; McCann, Liza J; Beresford, Michael W

    2012-07-01

    The UK Juvenile-Onset Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (JSLE) Cohort Study is a multicenter collaborative network established with the aim of improving the understanding of juvenile SLE. The present study was undertaken to describe the clinical manifestations and disease course in patients with juvenile SLE from this large, national inception cohort. Detailed data on clinical phenotype were collected at baseline and at regular clinic reviews and annual followup assessments in 232 patients from 14 centers across the UK over 4.5 years. Patients with SLE were identified according to the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) SLE classification criteria. The present cohort comprised children with juvenile SLE (n=198) whose diagnosis fulfilled ≥4 of the ACR criteria for SLE. Among patients with juvenile SLE, the female:male sex distribution was 5.6:1 and the median age at diagnosis was 12.6 years (interquartile range 10.4-14.5 years). Male patients were younger than female patients (PLupus Assessment Group disease activity index demonstrated significantly increased frequencies of musculoskeletal (82%), renal (80%), hematologic (91%), immunologic (54%), and neurologic (26%) involvement among the patients over time. A large proportion of the patients (93%) were taking steroids and 24% of the patients required treatment with cyclophosphamide. Disease damage was common, with 28% of the patients having a Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/ACR damage score of ≥1. The data on these patients from the UK JSLE Cohort Study, comprising one of the largest national inception cohorts of patients with juvenile SLE to date, indicate that severe organ involvement and significant disease activity are primary characteristics in children with juvenile SLE. In addition, accumulation of disease-associated damage could be seen. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  18. Coblation plus photodynamic therapy (PDT) for the treatment of juvenile onset laryngeal papillomatosis: case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chengyong; Sun, Baochun; Wang, Feng; Dai, Zhiyao; Han, Zeli; Han, Jiahong; Chen, Maomao; Shen, Yao

    2014-08-29

    In treating juvenile-onset laryngeal papillomatosis, the most difficult aspect is preventing recurrence. After a single treatment, recurrence can begin after as soon as 20 days and the recurrent rate can be higher than 90%. The causes of recurrence include the presence of mucosal cells infected with papilloma virus, which are undetectable with the naked eyes, and surgery-induced infection. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) could effectively solve this problem. Virus-infected cells have a very high metabolic energy for capturing and internalizing the photosensitizer, which, after light stimulation, subsequently induces active oxygen species inside the nucleus, which kill infected cells. The second generation of photosensitizer agents (PA) are locally applied to avoid the intravenous systemic damage caused by first-generation PAs, and this method is widely used for the treatment of genital warts to very good effect. We used the photodynamic method to treat laryngeal papillomatosis in children and obtained significant efficacy. We followed three juvenile subjects with recurrent laryngeal papillomatosis through a course of treatment (each course includes three PDT sessions), with a follow-up after 6 months. The characteristic procedures involve exposing the larynx with a laryngoscope and using low-temperature plasma technology to visualize the tumor resection, as the effects of plasma technology can reduce postoperative laryngeal edema and reduce intraoperative metastasis. PDT was performed during the first surgery, 20 days after and 30 days after surgery. At the 6-month follow-ups, there was no recurrence. This was the world's first successful reported case of the use of PDT treatment for juvenile laryngeal papillomatosis.

  19. Mediterranean diet adherence by patients with primary open angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu-Reyes, J A; Álvarez-Luis, D; Arteaga-Hernández, V; Sánchez-Mendez, M; Abreu-González, R

    2017-08-01

    To study the adherence to the Mediterranean diet in patients affected by primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). An observational study was conducted to assess the adherence to the Mediterranean diet in patients affected by POAG, and who attended the Ophthalmology Department of the Canary Islands University Hospital. The study included completing a 14-item questionnaire validated by the PREDIMED Study, in person or by telephone. A total of 100 questionnaires were completed successfully by 50 males and 50 females. The mean age was 69.58 years for the males and 67.42 years for women. The men had more comorbidities than women (tobacco 14 vs. 3%), arterial hypertension, and diabetes (30 vs. 28%, and 16 vs. 6%, respectively). Adherence to the Mediterranean diet in males, was low in 9 patients (18%), moderate in 37 (74%), and high in 4 (8%) cases. In women adherence was low in 14 patients (28%), moderate in 34 (68%), and high in 2 (6%) cases. The overall adhesion to the Mediterranean diet is low in 23%, moderate in 71% and high in 6% of the cases. Patients who are affected by POAG have moderate adherence to the Mediterranean diet. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. PRIMARY OPEN-ANGLE GLAUCOMA AND FARMACOECONOMICS - REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarenac Vulovic Tatjana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG is defined as a chronic and progressive disease. Date suggested that it is the second most common cause of the blindness in the world. Blindness, as global problem, is partially consequences of poor health insurance, low medical education, etc. The only modifiable risk factor for glaucoma is intraocular pressure. Cost of the antiglaucomatous treatment increased by prescribing and using wide spectrum of antiglaucomatous drugs. If an ophthalmologist is not satisfied with glaucomatous disease control, need for the laser or surgical treatment is appeared. Disease stadium also determines the cost of the treatment. The social and economic burden of glaucoma can be changed by increased life expectancy, older population age and higher per capita GDP. Unique opinion about cost effectiveness cannot be reached, due to nonconforming findings of many studies. Treatment approach must be individualized to every patient, according to the disease's stadium, availability of therapeutic modalities and approaches, life expectancy and the level of GDP. Efficacy, compliance and potential side-effects of prescribed medication also determine the proper treatment choice.

  1. Outcomes of trabeculectomy in juvenile open angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daizy Pathania

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study was aimed at reporting the outcomes of trabeculectomy in primary juvenile open angle glaucoma (JOAG. Design: This study was a retrospective noncomparative case series. Materials and Methods: We included 60 eyes of 41 JOAG patients who underwent primary trabeculectomy without mitomycin-C (MMC between 1995 and 2007. The primary outcome was success, defined as complete, if intraocular pressure (IOP was >5 and ≤21 mmHg without medications or qualified if IOP was >5 and ≤21 mmHg with or without antiglaucoma medications. Secondary outcome measures were mean and percentage IOP reduction, complications, and risk factors for the failure of trabeculectomy. Results: The mean (±standard deviation age at presentation was 24.1 ± 6.8 years (range, 12-35. Mean follow-up was 67 ± 41 months (range, 12-156. At 1 year, the probability of complete success was 92% (n = 56, 95% CI: 81-96%, at 3 years it was 89% (n = 47, 95% CI: 78-95%, and at the end of 5 years, it was 80% (n = 34, 95% CI: 65-89%. The probability of qualified success was 100% (n = 60 at 1 year, 98% (n = 51, 95% CI: 87-100% at 3 years, and 96% (n = 36, 95% CI: 84-99% at the end of 5 years. The mean IOP reduced from 35 ± 10 to 13 ± 2.5 mmHg (P < 0.001 after trabeculectomy. There was no serious postoperative complication. Young age was the only significant risk factor associated with the failure (odds ratio = 0.89, P = 0.03. Conclusion: Primary trabeculectomy without MMC has good success rates in JOAG.

  2. Using Digital Technology to See Angles from Different Angles. Part 2: Openings and Turns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Host, Erin; Baynham, Emily; McMaster, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Ever wondered how to use technology to teach angles? This article follows on from an earlier article published last year, providing a range of ideas for integrating technology and concrete materials with the teaching of angle concepts. The authors also provide a comprehensive list of free online games and learning objects that can be used to teach…

  3. On the evolution of jet energy and opening angle in strongly coupled plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chesler, Paul M. [Department of Physics, Harvard University,Cambridge MA 02138 (United States); Rajagopal, Krishna [Center for Theoretical Physics, MIT,Cambridge MA 02139 (United States)

    2016-05-17

    We calculate how the energy and the opening angle of jets in N=4 SYM theory evolve as they propagate through the strongly coupled plasma of that theory. We define the rate of energy loss dE{sub jet}/dx and the jet opening angle in a straightforward fashion directly in the gauge theory before calculating both holographically, in the dual gravitational description. In this way, we rederive the previously known result for dE{sub jet}/dx without the need to introduce a finite slab of plasma. We obtain a striking relationship between the initial opening angle of the jet, which is to say the opening angle that it would have had if it had found itself in vacuum instead of in plasma, and the thermalization distance of the jet. Via this relationship, we show that N=4 SYM jets with any initial energy that have the same initial opening angle and the same trajectory through the plasma experience the same fractional energy loss. We also provide an expansion that describes how the opening angle of the N=4 SYM jets increases slowly as they lose energy, over the fraction of their lifetime when their fractional energy loss is not yet large. We close by looking ahead toward potential qualitative lessons from our results for QCD jets produced in heavy collisions and propagating through quark-gluon plasma.

  4. An ARHGEF10 deletion is highly associated with a juvenile-onset inherited polyneuropathy in Leonberger and Saint Bernard dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari J Ekenstedt

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An inherited polyneuropathy (PN observed in Leonberger dogs has clinical similarities to a genetically heterogeneous group of peripheral neuropathies termed Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT disease in humans. The Leonberger disorder is a severe, juvenile-onset, chronic, progressive, and mixed PN, characterized by exercise intolerance, gait abnormalities and muscle atrophy of the pelvic limbs, as well as inspiratory stridor and dyspnea. We mapped a PN locus in Leonbergers to a 250 kb region on canine chromosome 16 (Praw = 1.16×10-10, Pgenome, corrected = 0.006 utilizing a high-density SNP array. Within this interval is the ARHGEF10 gene, a member of the rho family of GTPases known to be involved in neuronal growth and axonal migration, and implicated in human hypomyelination. ARHGEF10 sequencing identified a 10 bp deletion in affected dogs that removes four nucleotides from the 3'-end of exon 17 and six nucleotides from the 5'-end of intron 17 (c.1955_1958+6delCACGGTGAGC. This eliminates the 3'-splice junction of exon 17, creates an alternate splice site immediately downstream in which the processed mRNA contains a frame shift, and generates a premature stop codon predicted to truncate approximately 50% of the protein. Homozygosity for the deletion was highly associated with the severe juvenile-onset PN phenotype in both Leonberger and Saint Bernard dogs. The overall clinical picture of PN in these breeds, and the effects of sex and heterozygosity of the ARHGEF10 deletion, are less clear due to the likely presence of other forms of PN with variable ages of onset and severity of clinical signs. This is the first documented severe polyneuropathy associated with a mutation in ARHGEF10 in any species.

  5. ESTIMATING LONG GRB JET OPENING ANGLES AND REST-FRAME ENERGETICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, Adam [Space Science Office, VP62, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Connaughton, Valerie [Science and Technology Institute, Universities Space Research Association, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Briggs, Michael S.; Burns, Eric, E-mail: adam.m.goldstein@nasa.gov [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research, University of Alabama in Huntsville, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States)

    2016-02-10

    We present a method to estimate the jet opening angles of long duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) using the prompt gamma-ray energetics and an inversion of the Ghirlanda relation, which is a correlation between the time-integrated peak energy of the GRB prompt spectrum and the collimation-corrected energy in gamma-rays. The derived jet opening angles using this method and detailed assumptions match well with the corresponding inferred jet opening angles obtained when a break in the afterglow is observed. Furthermore, using a model of the predicted long GRB redshift probability distribution observable by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM), we estimate the probability distributions for the jet opening angle and rest-frame energetics for a large sample of GBM GRBs for which the redshifts have not been observed. Previous studies have only used a handful of GRBs to estimate these properties due to the paucity of observed afterglow jet breaks, spectroscopic redshifts, and comprehensive prompt gamma-ray observations, and we potentially expand the number of GRBs that can be used in this analysis by more than an order of magnitude. In this analysis, we also present an inferred distribution of jet breaks which indicates that a large fraction of jet breaks are not observable with current instrumentation and observing strategies. We present simple parameterizations for the jet angle, energetics, and jet break distributions so that they may be used in future studies.

  6. Effects of Jet Opening Angle and Velocity Structure on Blazar Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Wiita, Paul J; Dhurde, Samir; Sircar, Pronoy

    2007-01-01

    We had earlier shown that for a constant velocity jet the discrepancy between the low speeds indicated by VLBI knot motions and the high Doppler factors inferred from emission of TeV photons could be reconciled if ultrarelativistic jets possessed modest opening angles. Here we evaluate the (flux-weighted) viewing angles of the jet and the apparent speeds and Doppler factors of the radio knots on parsec scales. The influence of the jet opening angle on these radio knot parameters are found for the usually considered types of relativistic nuclear jets: those with uniform bulk speeds and those where the bulk Lorentz factor of the flow decreases with distance from the jet axis, known as `spine--sheath' flows. For both types of jet velocity structures the expectation value of the jet orientation angle at first falls dramatically with increases in the (central) jet Lorentz factor, but for extremely relativistic jets it levels off at a fraction of the opening angle. The effective values of the apparent speeds and Do...

  7. Variants in the ASB10 Gene Are Associated with Primary Open Angle Glaucoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Micheal, S.; Ayub, H.; Islam, F.; Siddiqui, S.N.; Khan, W.A.; Akhtar, F.; Qamar, R.; Khan, M.I.; Hollander, A.I. den

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently nonsynonymous coding variants in the ankyrin repeats and suppressor of cytokine signaling box-containing protein 10 (ASB10) gene were found to be associated with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) in cohorts from Oregon and Germany, but this finding was not confirmed in an indep

  8. Nutrient intake and risk of open-angle glaucoma : the Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramdas, Wishal D.; Wolfs, Roger C. W.; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C.; Hofman, Albert; de Jong, Paulus T. V. M.; Vingerling, Johannes R.; Jansonius, Nomdo M.

    2012-01-01

    Open-angle glaucoma (OAG) is the commonest cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Apart from an increased intraocular pressure (IOP), oxidative stress and an impaired ocular blood flow are supposed to contribute to OAG. The aim of this study was to determine whether the dietary intake of nutrien

  9. Is Diabetes Mellitus a Risk Factor for Open-Angle Glaucoma? The Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogd, S. de; Ikram, M.K.; Wolfs. R.C.W., [No Value; Jansonius, N.M.; Witteman, J.C.M.; Hofman, A.; de Jong, P.T.V.M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether diabetes mellitus is a risk factor for open-angle glaucoma (OAG). Design: Prospective population-based cohort study. Participants: Participants ages =55 years from the Rotterdam Study, The Netherlands. Methods: Participants at risk for incident OAG (iOAG) underwent at

  10. The long-term outcomes of four alternative treatment strategies for primary open-angle glaucoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gestel, Aukje; Webers, Carroll A.; Severens, Johan L.; Beckers, Henny J.; Jansonius, Nomdo M.; Hendrikse, Fred; Schouten, Jan S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the long-term effects and costs of four treatment strategies for primary open-angle glaucoma compared to usual care. Methods: Cost-effectiveness analyses with a lifelong horizon were made from a societal perspective. Data were generated with a patient-level model based on discre

  11. Association between CYP1A1m1 gene polymorphism and primary open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, N B; Silva, C T X; Frare, A B; Silva, R E; Moura, K K V O

    2014-12-04

    The CYP1A1 gene is related to the generation of secondary metabolites that are capable of inducing DNA damage. The CYP1A1m1 polymorphism has been examined in many studies, and is located in a region near loci that have been linked to glaucoma, including the locus GLC1I. As a result, this polymorphism has been related to several diseases that are influenced by exposure to xenobiotic as well as primary open-angle glaucoma. We compared the prevalence of the CYP1A1m1 polymorphism in 152 Brazilian patients, 100 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma, and 52 normal controls using restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The frequency of the homozygous wild-type (w1/w1) CYP1A1 gene among patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (N = 100) was 16%, for genotype w1/m1, the frequency was 77%, and for m1/m1 it was 7%. Among the control group (N = 52), the frequency of the homozygous wild-type (w1/w1) CYP1A1 gene was 54%, the frequency of w1/m1 was 46%, and the frequency of m1/m1 was 0%. The presence of the CYP1A1m1 polymorphism may interfere with xenobiotic metabolism and exacerbate direct or indirect damage to the optic nerve. These CYP1A1m1 polymorphisms may be risk factors for primary open-angle glaucoma.

  12. Open-angle glaucoma : From epidemiology to molecular aspects and anatomical features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Springelkamp (Henriët)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractOpen-angle glaucoma (OAG) is an important cause of irreversible blindness. In OAG, loss of retinal ganglion cells leads to damage of the optic nerve. This causes visual field loss and eventually blindness. Changes in the optic nerve head (ONH) can be examined with confocal scanning l

  13. Common Genetic Determinants of Intraocular Pressure and Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Koolwijk, Leonieke M. E.; Ramdas, Wishal D.; Ikram, M. Kamran; Jansonius, Nomdo M.; Pasutto, Francesca; Hysi, Pirro G.; Macgregor, Stuart; Janssen, Sarah F.; Hewitt, Alex W.; Viswanathan, Ananth C.; ten Brink, Jacoline B.; Hosseini, S. Mohsen; Amin, Najaf; Despriet, Dominiek D. G.; Willemse-Assink, Jacqueline J. M.; Kramer, Rogier; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Struchalin, Maksim; Aulchenko, Yurii S.; Weisschuh, Nicole; Zenkel, Matthias; Mardin, Christian Y.; Gramer, Eugen; Welge-Luessen, Ulrich; Montgomery, Grant W.; Carbonaro, Francis; Young, Terri L.; Bellenguez, Celine; McGuffin, Peter; Foster, Paul J.; Topouzis, Fotis; Mitchell, Paul; Wang, Jie Jin; Wong, Tien Y.; Czudowska, Monika A.; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Wolfs, Roger C. W.; de Jong, Paulus T. V. M.; Oostra, Ben A.; Paterson, Andrew D.; Mackey, David A.; Bergen, Arthur A. B.; Reis, Andre; Hammond, Christopher J.; Vingerling, Johannes R.; Lemij, Hans G.; Klaver, Caroline C. W.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.

    2012-01-01

    Intraocular pressure (IOP) is a highly heritable risk factor for primary open-angle glaucoma and is the only target for current glaucoma therapy. The genetic factors which determine IOP are largely unknown. We performed a genome-wide association study for IOP in 11,972 participants from 4 independen

  14. The vast complexity of primary open angle glaucoma : Disease genes, risks, molecular mechanisms and pathobiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Sarah F.; Gorgels, Theo G. M. F.; Ramdas, Wishal D.; Klaver, Caroline C. W.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Jansonius, Nomdo M.; Bergen, Arthur A. B.

    2013-01-01

    Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is a complex progressive optic nerve neuropathy triggered by both environmental and genetic risk factors. Several ocular tissues, including the ciliary body, trabecular meshwork and optic nerve head, and perhaps even brain tissues, are involved in a chain of pathol

  15. Estrogen receptors alpha and beta and the risk of open-angle glaucoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Voogd, Simone; Wolfs, Roger C. W.; Jansonius, Nomdo M.; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Pols, Huibert A. P.; Hofman, Albert; de Jong, Paulus T. V. M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether polymorphisms in the estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) and beta (ESR2) genes were a risk factor for open-angle glaucoma (OAG). Methods: Participants 55 years and older from the population-based Rotterdam Study underwent, at baseline and at follow-up, the same ophthalmi

  16. Incidence of open-angle glaucoma in a general elderly population - The Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Voogd, S; Ikram, MK; Wolfs, RCW; Jansonius, NM; Hofman, A; de Jong, PTVM

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the incidence of open-angle glaucoma (OAG) in a general elderly white population. Design: Population-based cohort study. Participants: Participants 55 years and older from the Rotterdam Study, The Netherlands. Methods: Participants at risk for incident OAG underwent at baseline

  17. Evaluation of Optineurin as a candidate gene in Indian patients with primary open angle glaucoma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mukhopadhyay, A.; Komatireddy, S.; Acharya, M.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Mandal, A.K.; Thakur, S.K.D.; Chandrasekhar, G.; Banerjee, A.; Thomas, R.; Chakrabarti, S.; Ray, K.

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the role of the optineurin gene (OPTN) in Indian primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) patients from different parts of the country. METHODS: Two hundred patients with POAG and 200 ethnically matched normal controls were recruited from various parts of India for the study. The enti

  18. Is diabetes mellitus a risk factor for open-angle glaucoma? The Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Voogd, Simone; Ikram, M. Kamran; Wolfs, Roger C. W.; Jansonius, Nomdo M.; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Hofman, Albert; de Jong, Paulus T. V. M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether diabetes mellitus is a risk factor for open-angle glaucoma (OAG). Design: Prospective population-based cohort study. Participants: Participants ages >= 55 years from the Rotterdam Study, The Netherlands. Methods: Participants at risk for incident OAG (iOAG) underwent

  19. Lifestyle and Risk of Developing Open-Angle Glaucoma The Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramdas, Wishal D.; Wolfs, Roger C. W.; Hofman, Albert; de Jong, Paulus T. V. M.; Vingerling, Johannes R.; Jansonius, Nomdo M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether lifestyle-related risk factors, such as socioeconomic status, smoking, alcohol consumption, and obesity, are associated with open-angle glaucoma (OAG). Methods: Participants from the Rotterdam Study, a prospective population-based cohort study, were considered eligibl

  20. Automated Morphometry of the Visual Pathway in Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernowo, Aditya T.; Boucard, Christine C.; Jansonius, Nomdo M.; Hooymans, Johanna M. M.; Cornelissen, Frans W.

    PURPOSE. To establish whether primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is associated with a change in volume of the visual pathway structures between the eyes and the visual cortex. METHODS. To answer this question, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used in combination with automated segmentation and

  1. Automated Morphometry of the Visual Pathway in Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernowo, Aditya T.; Boucard, Christine C.; Jansonius, Nomdo M.; Hooymans, Johanna M. M.; Cornelissen, Frans W.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE. To establish whether primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is associated with a change in volume of the visual pathway structures between the eyes and the visual cortex. METHODS. To answer this question, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used in combination with automated segmentation and v

  2. Angle Class I malocclusion with anterior open bite treated with extraction of permanent teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Melo Pithon

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This clinical case reports the orthodontic treatment of a Class I malocclusion with anterior open bite and bimaxillary dentoalveolar protrusion in a 28-year-old female patient. The treatment of choice was to perform tooth extractions followed by retraction of the anterior teeth, with consequent closure of the anterior open bite and better accommodation of the teeth on their bony bases. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Facial Orthopedics (BBO, representing the Category 2 - i.e., an Angle Class I malocclusion, with anterior open bite, treated with extraction of permanent teeth -, as part of the requisites to become a BBO diplomate.

  3. Angle Class I malocclusion with anterior open bite treated with extraction of permanent teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pithon, Matheus Melo

    2013-01-01

    This clinical case reports the orthodontic treatment of a Class I malocclusion with anterior open bite and bimaxillary dentoalveolar protrusion in a 28-year-old female patient. The treatment of choice was to perform tooth extractions followed by retraction of the anterior teeth, with consequent closure of the anterior open bite and better accommodation of the teeth on their bony bases. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Facial Orthopedics (BBO), representing the Category 2 -- i.e., an Angle Class I malocclusion, with anterior open bite, treated with extraction of permanent teeth --, as part of the requisites to become a BBO diplomate.

  4. Analysis of the Qualitative Dermatoglyphics of the Digito-Palmar Complex in Patients with Primary Open Angle Glaucoma

    OpenAIRE

    Novak-Lauš, Katia; Miličić, Jasna; Tedeschi-Reiner, Eugenia; Iveković, Renata; Koršić, Jadranka; Zrinšćak, Ognjen; Mandić, Zdravko

    2006-01-01

    The primary open-angle glaucomas are a group of diseases that have in common characteristic morphological changes at the optic nerve head and retinal nerve fiber layer, progressive retinal ganglion cells death and characteristic visual field loss. The risk for primary open angle glaucoma rises continuously with the level of the intraocular pressure. The disease advances slowly and there are no symptoms. Primary open angle glaucoma is caused by abnormal aqueous humour outflow in the trabecular...

  5. Structure-function correlations using scanning laser polarimetry in primary angle-closure glaucoma and primary open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pei-Jung; Liu, Catherine Jui-Ling; Wojciechowski, Robert; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E; Cheng, Ching-Yu

    2010-05-01

    To assess the correlations between retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measured with scanning laser polarimetry and visual field (VF) sensitivity in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG). Prospective, comparative, observational cases series. Fifty patients with POAG and 56 patients with PACG were examined using scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal compensation (GDx VCC; Laser Diagnostic Technologies, Inc.) and Humphrey VF analyzer (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Inc.) between August 2005 and July 2006 at Taipei Veterans General Hospital. Correlations between RNFL thickness and VF sensitivity, expressed as mean sensitivity in both decibel and 1/Lambert scales, were estimated by the Spearman rank correlation coefficient (r(s)) and multivariate median regression models (pseudo R(2)). The correlations were determined globally and for 6 RNFL sectors and their corresponding VF regions. The correlation between RNFL thickness and mean sensitivity (in decibels) was weaker in the PACG group (r(s) = 0.38; P = .004; pseudo R(2) = 0.17) than in the POAG group (r(s) = 0.51; P polarimetry. Compared with eyes with POAG, fewer RNFL sectors have significant structure-function correlations in eyes with PACG. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Intraocular pressure fluctuation after water drinking test in primary angle-closure glaucoma and primary open-angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chieh Poon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Only a few studies have assessed intraocular pressure (IOP changes during the water drinking test (WDT in patients with primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG. Aims: The aim of this study is to investigate IOP changes during WDT in patients with PACG versus primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG. Settings and Design: This was a prospective and single tertiary center study. Materials and Methods: PACG and POAG patients (n = 15 each without prior glaucoma surgery were enrolled and subjected to WDT, wherein they consumed an amount of water proportional to their body weight within 10 min. IOP was measured at baseline and every 15 min for 1 h after water intake. Statistical Analysis Used: Intergroup comparisons were performed using Mann–Whitney U-test for continuous variables and Chi-square test for categorical variables. Wilcoxon signed-ranks test was used for comparisons of IOP before and after water intake in the two groups. Regression analysis was used to determine factors associated with IOP fluctuations during WDT. Results: IOP changes over 1 h after water intake showed no significant differences between groups. The mean maximum fluctuation from baseline was 3.61 ± 2.49 and 3.79 ± 1.91 mmHg, respectively, in the PACG and POAG groups. The mean peak IOP was 19.17 ± 4.32 and 19.87 ± 3.44 mmHg in the PACG and PAOG groups, respectively. The axial length and anterior chamber depth showed no correlations with IOP fluctuations. Conclusions: We found similar IOP fluctuation curves and peak IOP values in both PACG and POAG patients subjected to WDT. These findings suggest that WDT is a useful test to induce IOP peaks in both POAG and PACG patients.

  7. Structure-Function Correlations using Scanning Laser Polarimetry in Primary Angle-Closure Glaucoma and Primary Open Angle Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pei-Jung; Liu, Catherine Jui-Ling.; Wojciechowski, Robert; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E.; Cheng, Ching-Yu

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To assess the correlations between retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measured with scanning laser polarimetry (SLP) and visual field (VF) sensitivity in primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG). Design Prospective, comparative, observational cases series Methods Fifty patients with POAG and 56 with PACG were examined using SLP with variable corneal compensation (GDx VCC) and Humphrey VF analyzer between August 2005 and July 2006 at Taipei Veterans General Hospital. Correlations between RNFL thickness and VF sensitivity, expressed as mean sensitivity (MS) in both decibel (dB) and 1/Lambert (L) scales, were estimated by Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rs) and multivariate median regression models (pseudo R2). The correlations were determined globally and for six RNFL sectors and their corresponding VF regions. Results The correlation between RNFL thickness and MS (in dB) was weaker in the PACG group (rs = 0.38, P = 0.004, pseudo R2 = 0.17) than in the POAG group (rs = 0.51, P <0.001, pseudo R2 = 0.31), but the difference in the magnitude of correlation was not significant (P = 0.42).With Bonferroni correction, the structure-function correlation was significant in the superotemporal (rs = 0.62), superonasal (rs = 0.56), inferonasal (rs = 0.53), and inferotemporal (rs = 0.50) sectors in the POAG group (all P <0.001), while it was significant only in the superotemporal (rs = 0.53) and inferotemporal (rs = 0.48) sectors in the PACG group (both P <0.001). The results were similar when MS was expressed as 1/L scale. Conclusions Both POAG and PACG eyes had moderate structure-function correlations using SLP. Compared to eyes with POAG, fewer RNFL sectors have significant structure-function correlations in eyes with PACG. PMID:20202618

  8. Investigation of Blade Angle of an Open Cross-Flow Runner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Yusuke; Iio, Shouichiro; Veerapun, Salisa; Uchiyama, Tomomi

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a nano-hydraulic turbine utilizing drop structure in irrigation channels or industrial waterways. This study was focused on an open-type cross-flow turbine without any attached equipment for cost reduction and easy maintenance. In this study, the authors used an artificial indoor waterfall as lab model. Test runner which is a simple structure of 20 circular arc-shaped blades sandwiched by two circular plates was used The optimum inlet blade angle and the relationship between the power performance and the flow rate approaching theoretically and experimentally were investigated. As a result, the optimum inlet blade angle due to the flow rate was changed. Additionally, allocation rate of power output in 1st stage and 2nd stage is changed by the blade inlet angle.

  9. Prevalence of open angle glaucoma in accompanying first degree relatives of patients with glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciele Vegini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of open angle glaucoma in first-degree relatives accompanying POAG patients during routine examination in a reference hospital. METHOD: First-degree relatives of primary open angle glaucoma patients who accompanied their relatives to the glaucoma service of a reference hospital were screened for glaucoma. RESULTS: One-hundred and one first-degree relatives were examined, of which 56.4% had never had their intraocular pressure measured. 10.9% had previously been diagnosed with glaucoma, and 5.9% were newly diagnosed during this study. CONCLUSIONS: The eye examination of first-degree relatives identified a significant percentage of individuals with glaucoma. Despite being first-degree relatives of glaucoma patients, 56.4% of the companions had never had their eye pressure measured, demonstrating a lack of awareness about this disease.

  10. Variable clinical spectrum of the myocilin Gln368X mutation in a Dutch family with primary open angle glaucoma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogewind, B.F.T.; Mukhopadhyay, A.; Theelen, T.; Hollander, A.I. den; Hoyng, C.B.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe the clinical phenotype in a family with primary open angle glaucoma harboring a p.Gln368X mutation in MYOC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified a proband with primary open angle glaucoma and the p.Gln368X MYOC mutation. She and her six siblings were examined clinically, includi

  11. New drugs and preparations for open-angle glaucoma in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Primary (or chronic) open-angle glaucoma (POAG or COAG) may be asymptomatic but causes progressive optic nerve damage with significant loss of visual field. Treatments aim to lower intraocular pressure (IOP) by reducing the production of aqueous humour and/or increasing its drainage. Here we update our previous articles to reflect new drugs, preservative-free preparations and fixed-dose drug combinations for POAG.

  12. Juvenile Onset HD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staff Directory Annual Convention Board of Trustees National Youth Alliance Advocacy Support Groups Social Workers Scientific Advisory Board News Financials Strategic Plan Careers Shop Locate Resources Media Center What is HD? What is HD? Stages ...

  13. The Influence of Structure Heights and Opening Angles of Micro- and Nanocones on the Macroscopic Surface Wetting Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Ling; Laustsen, Milan; Mandsberg, Nikolaj

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the influence of surface structure, namely the height and opening angles of nano-and microcones on the surface wettability. We show experimental evidence that the opening angle of the cones is the critical parameter on sample superhydrophobicity, namely static contact angles and roll...... to superhydrophobic without altering surface structures. In addition, we show examples of polymer replicas (polypropylene and poly(methyl methacrylate) with different wettability, fabricated by injection moulding using templates of the silicon cone-structures....

  14. Measurement of tibial slope angle after medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy: case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Hideki Yanasse

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: In the past, changes in tibial slope were not considered when planning or evaluating osteotomies, and success in high tibial osteotomy was related to the alignment and amount of femorotibial angular correction. The aim here was to measure changes in tibial slope after medial opening wedge tibial osteotomy and investigate the effect of tibial slope angle on the clinical results. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective review study on a series of cases, at the Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Faculdade de Medicina de Marília (Famema, Marília, Brazil. METHODS: Twenty-eight patients were studied, and a total of thirty-one knees. Lateral roentgenograms of the tibia were used pre and postoperatively to measure the tibial slope based on the proximal tibial anatomical axis. The clinical results were measured using the Lysholm knee score. RESULTS: There was an average increase in tibial slope angle after surgery of 2.38° (95% confidence interval: ± 0.73°. There was no correlation (r = -0.28 between the postoperative Lysholm knee score and the difference in tibial slope angle from before to after surgery (P = 0.13. CONCLUSION: Medial opening wedge tibial osteotomy led to a small increase in tibial slope. No significant correlation was found between increased tibial slope and short-term clinical results after high tibial osteotomy. Other clinical studies are needed in order to establish whether extension or flexion osteotomy could benefit patients with medial compartment gonarthrosis.

  15. Integration of HPV6 and downregulation of AKR1C3 expression mark malignant transformation in a patient with juvenile-onset laryngeal papillomatosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Ulrich Huebbers

    Full Text Available Juvenile-onset recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP is associated with low risk human papillomavirus (HPV types 6 and 11. Malignant transformation has been reported solely for HPV11-associated RRP in 2-4% of all RRP-cases, but not for HPV6. The molecular mechanisms in the carcinogenesis of low risk HPV-associated cancers are to date unknown. We report of a female patient, who presented with a laryngeal carcinoma at the age of 24 years. She had a history of juvenile-onset RRP with an onset at the age of three and subsequently several hundred surgical interventions due to multiple recurrences of RRP. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR or bead-based hybridization followed by direct sequencing identified HPV6 in tissue sections of previous papilloma and the carcinoma. P16(INK4A, p53 and pRb immunostainings were negative in all lesions. HPV6 specific fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH revealed nuclear staining suggesting episomal virus in the papilloma and a single integration site in the carcinoma. Integration-specific amplification of papillomavirus oncogene transcripts PCR (APOT-PCR showed integration in the aldo-keto reductase 1C3 gene (AKR1C3 on chromosome 10p15.1. ArrayCGH detected loss of the other gene copy as part of a deletion at 10p14-p15.2. Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry of the protein AKR1C3 showed a marked reduction of its expression in the carcinoma. In conclusion, we identified a novel molecular mechanism underlying a first case of HPV6-associated laryngeal carcinoma in juvenile-onset RRP, i.e. that HPV6 integration in the AKR1C3 gene resulted in loss of its expression. Alterations of AKR1C gene expression have previously been implicated in the tumorigenesis of other (HPV-related malignancies.

  16. Pathogenic Variant in ACTB, p.Arg183Trp, Causes Juvenile-Onset Dystonia, Hearing Loss, and Developmental Delay without Midline Malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Conboy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available ACTB encodes the β-actin, and pathogenic variations in this gene have typically been associated with Baraitser-Winter cerebrofrontofacial syndrome, a congenital malformation syndrome characterized by short stature, craniofacial anomalies, and cerebral anomalies. Here, we describe the third case with the p.Arg183Trp variant in ACTB causing juvenile-onset dystonia. Our patient has severe, intractable dystonia, developmental delay, and sensorineural hearing loss, besides hyperintensities in the caudate nuclei and putamen on the brain MRI, which is a distinct but overlapping phenotype with the previously reported case of identical twins with the same alteration in ACTB.

  17. Efficacy of non-penetrating trabecular surgery for open angle glaucoma:a meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程金伟; 马晓晔; 魏锐

    2004-01-01

    Background Non-penetrating trabecular surgery is a new filtrating surgery without opening in ternal trabecular structures. This study was to estimate the overall efficacy of non-penetrating trabecular surgery for open angle glaucoma.Methods The published articles selected for this study were obtained by a computerised Medline and China Biological Medicine Disk search of the literature and a manual search of the bibliographies of relevant articles. Articles meeting the inclusion criteria were reviewed systematically, and the reported data were aggregated using the statistical techniques of meta-analysis.Results A total of 37 articles were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled complete success rates of non-penetrating trabecular surgery with different techniques were: deep sclerectomy single, 69.7% (95% CI: 58.5%-81.0%); deep sclerectomy with collagen implant, 59.4% (95% CI: 47.0%-71.8%); deep sclerectomy with reticulated hyaluronic acid implant, 71.1% (95% CI: 56.8%-85.3%); and viscocanalostomy, 72.0% (95% CI: 57.6%-86.4%). The overall weighted complete success rate of non-penetrating trabecular surgery was 67.8% (95% CI: 61.4%-74.3%).Conclusions Non-penetrating trabecular surgery is the best available therapy method for medically uncontrolled open angle glaucoma with a complete success rate of over 60%. But the different techniques cannot belie the complete success rate of non-penetrating trabecular surgery.

  18. Comparison between visual field defect in pigmentary glaucoma and primary open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilforushan, Naveed; Yadgari, Maryam; Jazayeri, Anisalsadat

    2016-10-01

    To compare visual field defect patterns between pigmentary glaucoma and primary open-angle glaucoma. Retrospective, comparative study. Patients with diagnosis of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and pigmentary glaucoma (PG) in mild to moderate stages were enrolled in this study. Each of the 52 point locations in total and pattern deviation plot (excluding 2 points adjacent to blind spot) of 24-2 Humphrey visual field as well as six predetermined sectors were compared using SPSS software version 20. Comparisons between 2 groups were performed with the Student t test for continuous variables and the Chi-square test for categorical variables. Thirty-eight eyes of 24 patients with a mean age of 66.26 ± 11 years (range 48-81 years) in the POAG group and 36 eyes of 22 patients with a mean age of 50.52 ± 11 years (range 36-69 years) in the PG group were studied. (P = 0.00). More deviation was detected in points 1, 3, 4, and 32 in total deviation (P = 0.03, P = 0.015, P = 0.018, P = 0.023) and in points 3, 4, and 32 in pattern deviation (P = 0.015, P = 0.049, P = 0.030) in the POAG group, which are the temporal parts of the field. It seems that the temporal area of the visual field in primary open-angle glaucoma is more susceptible to damage in comparison with pigmentary glaucoma.

  19. Hadronic $b$ decays to open charm and a measurement of the CKM angle $\\gamma$

    CERN Document Server

    Gligorov, V V

    2013-01-01

    The LHCb detector is a general purpose forward spectrometer at the Large Hadron Collider, which exploits the $\\approx$ 300 b cross-section for $b\\bar{b}$ production in 7 TeV proton-proton collisions to make precise measurements of b-hadron properties. The following results, all based on a $1 fb^{-1}$ data sample, are presented here : precision measurements of branching fractions and first observations of B meson decays to doubly charmed nal states; searches for rare B meson decays to open charm nal states; and a measurement of the CKM angle $\\gamma$.

  20. Pit-like changes of the optic nerve head in open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radius, R. L.; Maumenee, A. E.; Green, W. R.

    1978-01-01

    Six patients with open-angle glaucoma and acquired pit-like changes in the optic nerve head are presented. In 1 patient evolution of the pit-like defect is documented. In all 6 patients progression of associated visual field deficits is described. It is suggested that such pit-like changes in selected patients with glaucoma may not represent congenital lesions but rather local, progressive nerve head disease, occurring particularly in response to raised intraocular pressure. The management of patients with optic nerve head pitting and the pathogenesis of glaucomatous optic neuropathy are discussed with respect to this observation. Images PMID:666988

  1. Effect of Slot Opening Angle on the Cogging Torque in PMSM Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Akhavan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The cogging torque is one the most important factors in making noise in PMSM motor structure. Therefore, one of the primary purposes in PMSM motor design is to decrease cogging torque ripple in motor structure. In this paper based on the 2-D model of PMSM motor, effect of slot opening angle on the cogging torque investigated. The method is for both integral and fractional poles motor, considered motor here are a motor with 4 and 10 poles with 24 slots. To validating results cogging torque based on the FE method calculated and effectiveness of method has been shown.

  2. Juvenile onset systemic lupus erythematosus: a possible role for vitamin D in disease status and bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, C B; Seguro, L P C; Takayama, L; Medeiros, D; Bonfa, E; Pereira, R M R

    2012-10-01

    In juvenile onset systemic lupus erythematosus (JoSLE), evidence for the association between vitamin D status, lupus activity, and bone health is very limited and not conclusive. The aim of this study was, therefore, to assess in JoSLE patients the possible relevance of vitamin D deficiency in disease and bone parameters. Fifty-seven JoSLE patients were initially compared to 37 age, race and body mass index (BMI) -matched healthy controls. The serum concentration of 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) was determined by radioimmunoassay. Patients with 25OHD deficiency (≤20 ng/mL) were compared to those with levels >20 ng/mL. Disease activity was evaluated by SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI). Bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition (BC) were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). 25OHD levels were similar in patients and controls (21.44 ± 7.91 vs 22.54 ± 8.25 ng/mL, p = 0.519), regardless of supplementation (65% of patients and none in controls). Thirty-one patients with 25OHD deficiency (≤20 ng/mL) were further compared to the 26 JoSLE patients with levels >20 ng/mL. These two groups were well-balanced regarding vitamin D confounding variables: age (p = 0.100), ethnicity (p = 1.000), BMI (p = 0.911), season (p = 0.502), frequency of vitamin D supplementation (p = 0.587), creatinine (p = 0.751), renal involvement (p = 0.597), fat mass (p = 0.764), lean mass (p = 0.549), previous/current use of glucocorticoids(GC) (p = 1.0), immunosuppressors (p = 0.765), and mean current daily dose of GC (p = 0.345). Patients with vitamin D deficiency had higher SLEDAI (3.35 ± 4.35 vs 1.00 ± 2.48, p = 0.018), lower C4 levels (12.79 ± 6.78 vs 18.38 ± 12.24 mg/dL, p = 0.038), lower spine BMD (0.798 ± 0.148 vs 0.880 ± 0.127 g/cm(2), p = 0.037) and whole body BMD (0.962 ± 0.109 vs 1.027 ± 0.098 g/cm(2), p = 0.024). JoSLE vitamin D

  3. [The effect of crystalline lens extraction on intraocular pressure in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macarie, S; Macarie, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    This issue presents the results of a study on patients with cataract and primary open angle glaucoma who suffered lens extraction for cataract. We analise the effects of the lens extraction on the level of intraocular pressure at this patients.

  4. Alzheimer's disease and primary open-angle glaucoma: is there a connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsolaki F

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Fani Tsolaki1, Eleni Gogaki1, Sotiria Tiganita1, Christina Skatharoudi1, Chrysanthi Lopatatzidi1, Fotios Topouzis2, Magdalini Tsolaki31Ophthalmology Department, Hippokrateion General Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece; 2Ophthalmology Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece; 3Neurology Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GreeceAim: To present, through a thorough literature research, current and older scientific efforts to investigate the putative association between Alzheimer's disease (AD and glaucoma, especially primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG.Methods: We included in our review article epidemiological, experimental and clinical laboratory studies.Results: While many authors support the existence of a strong correlation between the AD and POAG, based on epidemiological, genetic and immunohistochemical data, others present contradictory results, leaving the issue unresolved.Conclusion: Further research, probably targeted towards genetic parameters and based on large, multicenter studies has yet to be conducted. It is the authors' opinion however, that the existing data already justify the need for at least some degree of elevated clinical alertness for the occurrence of AD in patients with glaucoma and of glaucoma in patients with AD.Keywords: Alzheimer's disease, primary open-angle glaucoma, amyloid beta, apolipoprotein E, cerebrospinal fluid pressure, review article 

  5. Is nail fold capillaroscopy useful in normotensive and primary open angle glaucoma? A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Božić, Marija; Senćanić, Paraskeva-Hentova; Spahić, Goran; Kontić, Dorđe; Marković, Vujica; Marjanović, Ivan; Stojkovic, Milenko; Dorđević-Jocić, Jasmina

    2010-12-01

    Vascular dysregulation is deemed a significant risk factor in glaucoma occurrence and progression. Capillaroscopy of the blood vessels on the finger nail-fold is a method that can provide information regarding the state of the vascular system at the capillary level. The aim of this pilot study was to determine whether there are significant differences in the morphological characteristics of the peripheral blood vessels in normotensive glaucoma and primary open angle glaucoma. An ophthalmological and capillaroscopic examination was conducted on 30 normotensive glaucoma patients and 30 primary open angle glaucoma patients. The capillaroscopic characteristics described were as follows: capillary row density, capillary diameter, number of spirally formed capillaries, permeability of the loop, and loop resistance. Statistically, significantly more intensively spiraled capillaries were found in normotensive glaucoma patients (χ(2) test, p < 0.05). Results confirm the thesis that vascular factors play a significant role in the pathogenesis of the glaucoma, especially in cases where the level of intraocular pressure cannot be deemed responsible for the present damage of the optical nerve. Despite the newer, technologically more developed methods for diagnostics and monitoring glaucoma, it is often not easy to establish the right diagnosis and determine further the course of the illness, since the role the intraocular pressure (IOP) plays compared to the role of vascular factors is unknown; hence, capillaroscopy as a complementary diagnostic procedure can be of help.

  6. Comparison of Latanoprost and Brimonidine in the treatment of open angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Luo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To compare the efficacy and safety of latanoprost and brimonidine in the treatment of open angle glaucoma, and provide reference for rational drug use. METHODS:A total of 121 cases(136 eyeswho were diagnosed as primary open angle glaucoma were selected in this study, and they were randomly divided into experimental group(62 cases, 70 eyesand control group(59 cases, 66 eyesaccording to different drug treatment. Patients in the control group received brimonidine eye drops twice a day, while patients in the experimental group received latanoprost eye drops once a day. The intraocular pressure, visual acuity and adverse reactions were checked of the two groups in the following 3mo. RESULTS:The intraocular pressure of patients in the control group was 18.1±1.3mmHg, while the experimental group was 17.0±0.9mmHg after 12wk of treatment, which were both lower than before(PCONCLUSION:Latanoprost can significantly reduce intraocular pressure in glaucoma patients with in the follow-up time, and reduce the impact of elevated intraocular pressure in the vision of glaucoma patients, with little adverse reaction, worthy of clinical application.

  7. MYOCILIN LEVELS IN PRIMARY OPEN-ANGLE GLAUCOMA AND PSEUDOEXFOLIATION GLAUCOMA HUMAN AQUEOUS HUMOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Kyle G.; Vrabel, Anne M.; Chowdhury, Uttio Roy; Stamer, W. Daniel; Fautsch, Michael P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To determine the concentration of myocilin in primary open-angle and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma aqueous humor. Methods Aqueous humor was collected during surgery from patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (PEXG), and elective cataract removal (control). Volume-equivalent aqueous samples were separated on SDS-PAGE gradient gels. Quantification of myocilin levels was performed using Western blots probed with two independent N-terminal polyclonal anti-myocilin antibodies (AB1 and AB2) followed by densitometry. Myocilin levels in aqueous humor were quantified by plotting the densitometry readings of the aqueous samples against a recombinant myocilin standard curve. Total protein concentration was determined by Bradford protein assay. Transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGFβ2) levels were assessed by ELISA. Results Myocilin levels are significantly elevated in human POAG aqueous humor when compared to control aqueous humor (AB1: 0.66 ± 0.53 ng/μl vs. 0.23 ± 0.20 ng/μl, phumor compared to control aqueous (AB1: 0.26 ± 0.20% vs. 0.10 ± 0.20%, phumor when compared to control aqueous humor. No correlation between myocilin and TGFβ2 levels was observed. Conclusions Myocilin is elevated in POAG, but not PEXG aqueous humor. PMID:20179615

  8. Soluble guanylate cyclase α1-deficient mice: a novel murine model for primary open angle glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel S Buys

    Full Text Available Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG is a leading cause of blindness worldwide. The molecular signaling involved in the pathogenesis of POAG remains unknown. Here, we report that mice lacking the α1 subunit of the nitric oxide receptor soluble guanylate cyclase represent a novel and translatable animal model of POAG, characterized by thinning of the retinal nerve fiber layer and loss of optic nerve axons in the context of an open iridocorneal angle. The optic neuropathy associated with soluble guanylate cyclase α1-deficiency was accompanied by modestly increased intraocular pressure and retinal vascular dysfunction. Moreover, data from a candidate gene association study suggests that a variant in the locus containing the genes encoding for the α1 and β1 subunits of soluble guanylate cyclase is associated with POAG in patients presenting with initial paracentral vision loss, a disease subtype thought to be associated with vascular dysregulation. These findings provide new insights into the pathogenesis and genetics of POAG and suggest new therapeutic strategies for POAG.

  9. Short-term effects of relaxation music on patients suffering from primary open-angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertelmann T

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Bertelmann, Ilse Strempel Department of Ophthalmology, Philipps-University Marburg, Baldingerstraβe, Marburg, Germany Purpose: To evaluate whether additive relaxation music (RM has an adjuvant short-term effect on physiological and psychological parameters in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma.Methods: Prospective, randomized clinical trial. Patients in the therapy group (TG received a 30-minute RM via headphones, whereas members of the control group (CG did not. Best corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure, visual field testing, short- and long-term mental states, and blood levels of different stress hormones were analyzed and compared.Results: A total of 25 (61%/16 (39% patients were assigned to the TG/CG. Best corrected visual acuity, daily intraocular pressure, and short-term mental state (KAB development were significantly better in the TG in comparison to controls. Visual field testing, long-term mental well-being (profile of mood states, and adrenalin, cortisol, and endothelin-I blood levels did not differ significantly between both groups.Conclusion: Additive RM applied on a daily basis can positively impact various physiological and psychological parameters in the short term. Keywords: primary open angle glaucoma, POAG, music therapy, intraocular pressure, IOP, mental health

  10. Tafluprost once daily for treatment of elevated intraocular pressure in patients with open-angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Y

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Yang Liu, Weiming MaoDepartment of Cell Biology and Anatomy, North Texas Eye Research Institute, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TXAbstract: Glaucoma is a leading cause of visual loss worldwide. Current antiglaucoma therapy focuses on lowering intraocular pressure to a safe level. In recent years, prostaglandin analogs have become the first-line agents for treating open angle glaucoma. Tafluprost, which was first reported in 2003, is a novel prostaglandin analog, and has been shown to be a potent ocular hypotensive agent in a number of preclinical and clinical studies. Also, its unique preservative-free formulation helps to decrease preservative-associated ocular disorders and improve patient compliance. In this review, studies from 2003 to 2012 focusing on the structure, metabolism, efficacy, and safety of tafluprost are summarized. These studies suggested that application of tafluprost once daily is a safe and effective treatment for patients with open angle glaucoma.Keywords: tafluprost, prostaglandin analog, glaucoma, intraocular pressure, preservative-free formulation

  11. Chronic infection is as one of а possible risk factors in development open angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Boiko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This review is about analysis of data possible role of the infectious factor in development open-angle glaucoma. The obstruction of ways of outflow  s an important role in increase of intraocular pressure. The reason can be various infectious agents, including Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum and B.fragilis. There were separate publications during last years, which are devoted to studying a role of proinflammatory cytotoxicants, they show the role of the inflammatory factor in pathogenesis of glaucomatical process. In the literary data we can see role of infections which are show communication between ontamination of bacteriumНelicobacter pylori and glaucoma development. There is data that patients with open-angle glaucoma in 63% have high level of shooting galleries of antibodies IgG in blood to C. pneumoniae. It is connected with infringement of optic disc food as a result of influence C. pneumoniae on its vascular system.

  12. Lamina cribrosa defects and optic disc morphology in primary open angle glaucoma with high myopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yugo Kimura

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate whether lamina cribrosa (LC defects are associated with optic disc morphology in primary open angle glaucoma (POAG eyes with high myopia. METHODS: A total of 129 POAG patients and 55 age-matched control subjects with high myopia were evaluated. Three-dimensional scan images obtained by swept source optical coherence tomography were used to detect LC defects. Radial B-scans and infrared images obtained by spectral domain optical coherence tomography were used to measure β-peripapillary atrophy (PPA lengths with and without Bruch's membrane (BM (temporal, nasal, superior, and inferior, tilt angle (vertical and horizontal, and disc diameter (transverse and longitudinal. Peripapillary intrachoroidal cavitations (PICCs, disc area, ovality index, and cyclotorsion of the optic disc were analyzed as well. RESULTS: LC defects were found in 70 of 129 (54.2% POAG eyes and 1 of 55 (1.8% control eyes (P < 0.001. Age, sex, spherical equivalent, axial length, intraocular pressure, and central corneal thickness were not significantly different among POAG eyes with LC defects, POAG eyes without LC defects, and control eyes. Temporal PPA lengths without BM in all three groups correlated significantly with vertical and horizontal tilt angles, although no PPA length with BM correlated significantly with any tilt angle. PICCs were detected more frequently in POAG eyes with LC defects than those without LC defects (P = 0.01 and control eyes (P = 0.02. POAG eyes with LC defects showed a smaller ovality index (P = 0.004, longer temporal PPA without BM (P < 0.001, and larger vertical/horizontal tilt angles (vertical, P < 0.001; horizontal, P = 0.01, and transverse diameter (P = 0.01. In multivariate analysis for the presence of LC defects, presence of POAG (P < 0.001 and vertical tilt angle (P < 0.001 were identified as significant. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of LC defects was associated with myopic optic disc morphology in POAG eyes with high

  13. Technique of goniocurettage: a potential treatment for advanced chronic open angle glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, P.; Dietlein, T.; Krieglstein, G.

    1997-01-01

    AIM—To introduce a new concept of anterior chamber angle microsurgery, designed to scrape pathologically altered trabecular meshwork from the scleral sulcus as a potential treatment in primary open angle glaucoma.
METHODS—Gonioscopically controlled ab interno abrasion of the trabecular meshwork was performed on six human eye banking eyes for morphological analysis. Thereafter, four eyes suffering from terminal glaucomatous optic nerve atrophy as a result of medically uncontrolled intraocular pressure were also treated by `goniocurettage'. The newly designed instrument resembles a modified cyclodialysis spatula with a bowl-shaped tip, 300 µm in diameter, and with its edges sharpened. The treatment zone comprised 4-5 clock hours of the chamber angle circumference.
RESULTS—Microscopic examination of the treatment zone revealed that in addition to a complete disruption of the trabecular meshwork and internal wall of Schlemm's canal goniocurettage also caused damage to intracanalicular septa. A splitting along the posterior wall of Schlemm's canal was also noted in one specimen. The clinical data of goniocurettage also showed some promising results. Mean pretreatment IOP averaged 40.7 (SD 8.8) mm Hg (range 32-51 mm Hg) and was significantly (p<0.04) reduced to 18.0 (4.2) mm Hg (12-22 mm Hg) after 6 months, representing an absolute decrease in IOP of 22.7 mm Hg and a mean decrease in IOP of 56%. Clinically significant hyphaema occurred in one eye, caused by iatrogenic trauma to a prominent chamber angle vessel. In three eyes a minor reflux of blood occurred at the treatment site. However, no hypotony, choroidal effusion, flattened anterior chamber, or cyclodialysis were observed in these patients.
CONCLUSION—Morphological analysis of treated postmortem eyes confirmed that goniocurettage completely removed the trabecular meshwork and opened Schlemm's canal, ensuring direct access into the anterior chamber. In a small number of patients over a limited

  14. Relationship Between Peripapillary Atrophy and Optic Disc Parameters in Eyes with Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer Takmaz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: To evaluate the relationship between peripapillary atrophy and optic disc parameters measured by Heidelberg Retina Tomography (HRT and visual field findings in eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma. Methods: Thirty eyes of 30 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma were included in this study. In addition to routine ophthalmic examination, optic disc parameters were evaluated with HRT and visual field was evaluated with Humphrey Visual Field Analyzer. Peripapillary atrophy area was measured by drawing contour of the border of the peripapillary atrophy (Beta zone: chorioretinal atrophy area in which sclera and big choroid blood vessels were seen in HRT. The relationship between this atrophy area and both visual field findings and optic disc parameters was evaluated. Pearson’s correlation coefficient and statistical significance were calculated. Results: The mean age of the patients was 61.4±8.9 years. Measured beta zone area was 0.65±0.40 mm2. Mean deviation measured with Humphrey Visual Field Analyzer was -8.6±8.2 dB and pattern standard deviation was 6.4±4.6. Statistically significant correlation between peripapillary atrophy area and age (PC=0.495, p=0.005, mean deviation (PC=-0.554, p=0.001, cup area (PC=0.382, p=0.037, cup/disc area ratio (PC=0.562, p=0.001, linear cup/disc area ratio (PC=0.422, p=0.020 and mean retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (PC=-0.360, p=0.047 was found. There was not a significant relationship between other optic disc parameters and peripapillary atrophy area (p>0.05. Conclusion: Significant correlation was seen between peripapillary beta zone atrophy area and some important optic disk parameters in primary open-angle glaucoma patients. More meaningful information would have been obtained if sectoral investigation of the optic disc was performed. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2011; 41: 291-4

  15. Mitochondrial damage in the trabecular meshwork occurs only in primary open-angle glaucoma and in pseudoexfoliative glaucoma.

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    Alberto Izzotti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Open-angle glaucoma appears to be induced by the malfunction of the trabecular meshwork cells due to injury induced by oxidative damage and mitochondrial impairment. Here, we report that, in fact, we have detected mitochondrial damage only in primary open-angle glaucoma and pseudo-exfoliation glaucoma, among several glaucoma types compared. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mitochondrial damage was evaluated by analyzing the common mitochondrial DNA deletion by real-time PCR in trabecular meshwork specimens collected at surgery from glaucomatous patients and controls. Glaucomatous patients included 38 patients affected by various glaucoma types: primary open-angle, pigmented, juvenile, congenital, pseudoexfoliative, acute, neovascular, and chronic closed-angle glaucoma. As control samples, we used 16 specimens collected from glaucoma-free corneal donors. Only primary open-angle glaucoma (3.0-fold and pseudoexfoliative glaucoma (6.3-fold showed significant increases in the amount of mitochondrial DNA deletion. In all other cases, deletion was similar to controls. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: despite the fact that the trabecular meshwork is the most important tissue in the physiopathology of aqueous humor outflow in all glaucoma types, the present study provides new information regarding basic physiopathology of this tissue: only in primary open-angle and pseudoexfoliative glaucomas oxidative damage arising from mitochondrial failure play a role in the functional decay of trabecular meshwork.

  16. Stability analysis of the open-pit mine slope and the study on the incensement of the slope angle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bao-xu(刘宝许); QIAO Lan(乔兰); LAI Xing-ping(来兴平)

    2004-01-01

    Based on the exploration of the engineering geology and the rock mechanics testing, limit equilibrium analysis method was adopted to calculate the stability of the Huogeqi Copper Mine slope, the results show that the original slope angle is too conservative and the slope have the potential of more preferable slope angle. In order to discuss the possibility of slope angle enhancement, sensitivity analysis of parameters related to limit state slope was made. Quantitatively determined angle value of the adding and the optimal slope angle was obtained. The study having performed showed that it is not only useful for the safety control of open-pit mine slope but also for the open-pit mine design for the similar geological condition.

  17. A Relationship Between Constraint and the Critical Crack Tip Opening Angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, William M.; James, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    Of the various approaches used to model and predict fracture, the Crack Tip Opening Angle (CTOA) fracture criterion has been successfully used for a wide range of two-dimensional thin-sheet and thin plate applications. As thicker structure is considered, modeling the full three-dimensional fracture process will become essential. This paper investigates relationships between the local CTOA evaluated along a three-dimensional crack front and the corresponding local constraint. Previously reported tunneling crack front shapes were measured during fracture by pausing each test and fatigue cycling the specimens to mark the crack surface. Finite element analyses were run to model the tunneling shape during fracture, with the analysis loading conditions duplicating those tests. The results show an inverse relationship between the critical fracture value and constraint which is valid both before maximum load and after maximum load.

  18. The Analysis of Pedigree GZ (Guangzhou) . 1with Primary Open Angle Glaucoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yehong Zhuo; Jian Ge; Mci Wang; Haiquan Liu; Minkai Lin

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the hereditary modality of primary open-angle glaucoma in China.Methods: The genetic form of Pedigree GZ. 1 was analyzed using Mandalian hereditary rules.Results: Pedigree GZ. 1 had following characteristics: 1) The pedigree had four generations, and there existed POAG patients in each generation; 2) Each patient had a parent with POAG. If the parents didn't suffer from the disease, their children would not. 3) The incidence of POAG in the relatives of the patients was 1/2. In addition,The age of onset, intraocular pressure, fundus and prognosis was different from each other in the patients.Conclusions: 1 ) Pedigree GZ. 1 is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. 2) There exists individual differences of clinical manifestations in POAG patients. Eye Science 2000; 16: 53~ 55.

  19. The Analysis of Pedigree GZ(Guangzhou).1 with Primary Open Angle Glaucoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YehongZhuo; MeiWang; 等

    2002-01-01

    Purpose:To analyze the hereditary modality of primary open-angle glaucoma in China.Methods:The genetic form of Pedigree GZ.1 was analyzed using Mandalian hereditary rules.Results:Pedigree GZ.1 had following characteristics:1)The pedigree had four gene-rations,and there existed POAG patients in each generation;2) Each patient had a parent with POAG.If the parents didn't suffer from the disease,their children would not.3)The incidence of POAG in the relatives of the patients was 1/2 .In addition,The age of onset,intraocular pressure,fundus and prognosis was different from each other in the patients.Conclusions:1)Pedigree GZ.1 is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait.2) There exists individual differences of clinical manifestations in POAG patients.Eye Science 2000;16:53-55.

  20. Mapping a gene for adult-onset primary open-angle glaucoma to chromosome 3q

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirtz, M.K.; Samples, J.R.; Kramer, P.L. [Oregon Health Sciences Univ., Portland, OR (United States)] [and others

    1997-02-01

    Glaucoma is the third-leading cause of blindness in the world, affecting >13.5 million people. Adult-on-set primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is the most common form of glaucoma in the United States. We present a family in which adult-onset POAG is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. Twelve affected family members were identified from 44 at-risk individuals. The disease-causing gene was mapped to chromosome 3q21-24, with analysis of recombinant haplotypes suggesting a total inclusion region of 11.1 cM between markers D3S3637 and D3S1744. This is the first report of mapping of an adult-onset POAG gene to chromosome 3q, gene symbol GLC1C. 57 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. A comparison of betaxolol and timolol in open angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feghali, J G; Kaufman, P L; Radius, R L; Mandell, A I

    1988-04-01

    In a randomized, double-masked study, 41 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension were treated with betaxolol 0.5% or timolol 0.5% drops for 26 weeks. The average decrease in intraocular pressure (IOP) over the total study period was significant with both betaxolol (-6.3 mmHg) and timolol (-7.2 mmHg) in patients receiving no adjunctive therapy. There was no difference between betaxolol and timolol with respect to changes from baseline IOP. Significantly decreased mean brachial arterial pressure (MAP) was seen only with timolol, although the difference between the two groups was not significant. Pulse, pupil size, and basal tear secretion were unchanged in both groups. Burning upon instillation of the drops was more frequent with betaxolol.

  2. Ocular Adnexal Lymphoma Presenting as Refractory Unilateral Open-angle Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Nathaniel C; Singh, Annapurna; Singh, Arun D

    2016-08-01

    We report a single case of masquerade glaucoma caused by increased episcleral venous pressure from adnexal lymphoma. The patient presented as a referral for unilateral glaucoma with intraocular pressures (IOPs) consistently >40 mm Hg (right eye). We present data conclusively demonstrating extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue in the involved eye, and provide an account of the treatment of the tumor with sustained regression and complete resolution of his elevated IOP. We conclude with a discussion of the proposed mechanism. This case serves as a reminder that unilateral open-angle glaucoma can be a sign of indolent ocular adnexal lymphoma. The case also provides a useful model for increased IOP with orbital lesions.

  3. Compensatory treatment of Angle Class III malocclusion with anterior open bite and mandibular asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Costa Sobral

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Class III malocclusion is characterized by anterior posterior dental disharmony, either with or without skeletal discrepancies. Facial esthetics may be compromised to a greater or lesser degree, depending on the magnitude of the discrepancy, and is one of the main factors motivating individuals to seek orthodontic treatment. In adult patients, therapy may be performed by means of dental compensation, in simpler cases, or in more severe situations, by means of association between Orthodontics and Orthognathic Surgery. The present article is a clinical case report of a patient with a vertical facial pattern, Angle Class III malocclusion, with open bite and important facial asymmetry. The patient was treated in a compensatory manner with extractions, using extra-oral appliances on the mandibular arch with high pull, applying the principles of the Tweed-Merrifield technique. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Facial Orthopedics (BBO as part of the requisites for becoming a BBO Diplomate.

  4. Risk Factors for Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma in Western Turkey

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    Güliz Fatma Yavaş

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: To evaluate the prevalence of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG in subjects aged over 40 years in Western Turkey and to quantify its association with several systemic risk factors. Ma te ri al and Met hod: The research was conducted in Afyonkarahisar, a middle Anatolian city, between November 2005 and February 2006. A total of 1533 subjects aged 40 years or more were included in the study. Diabetes mellitus, hypertension, atherosclerotic cardiac disease, obesity, smoking, alcohol consumption, and dietary habitus (meat, chicken, and fish consumption were asked. Level of blood glucose, serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, very-low-density lipoprotein, Vitamin B12, and thyroid-stimulating-hormone were determined. Ophthalmic examination was performed, and intraocular pressure was measured by tonopen. Subjects with an IOP of 21 mmHg or more and/or with a cupping/disc ratio of 0.3 or more were told to come to the clinic for visual field analysis and gonioscopy. Subjects with a typical glaucomatous visual field defect and an open angle were recorded as POAG. Risk factors for POAG were determined by chi-square test. Re sults: Prevalence of POAG was found to be 2% (30 subjects and the only associated risk factor was age (p=0.05. Dietary habitus was also not associated with glaucoma (p>0.05. Dis cus si on: This study provides a population-based data about the prevalence and risk factors of POAG in Turkey. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 87-90

  5. Association Between Peripheral Vascular Endothelial Function and Progression of Open-Angle Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chun-Hsiu; Su, Wei-Wen; Shie, Shian-Sen; Cheng, Shih-Tsung; Su, Cheng-Wen; Ho, Wang-Jing

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the relationship between Humphrey visual field progression and peripheral vascular endothelial function in patients with open-angle glaucoma (OAG), assessed by noninvasive endothelium-dependent flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD).Forty OAG patients, among which 22 had normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) and 18 had primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) were enrolled. Each enrolled patient underwent a thorough ophthalmological examination including the Humphrey visual field test and measurement of FMD via high-resolution 2-dimensional ultrasonographic imaging of the brachial artery. Blood samples were evaluated for biochemistry and lipid profiles as well as levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). The annual change of threshold sensitivity of the visual field in each test location were analyzed with pointwise linear regression. The correlation between long-term visual field progression and FMD was evaluated.A mean follow-up of 7.47 ± 1.84 years revealed a faster progression rate over the superior visual field in all 40 OAG patients (superior field -0.24 ± 0.67 dB/y, inferior field -0.10 ± 0.59 dB/y, P = 0.37). However, only the annual sensitivity change of the inferior peripheral field showed correlation with baseline FMD. There was no significant difference in the change slope of visual field between NTG and POAG patients.A correlation between baseline brachial artery FMD and visual field progression was observed in the inferior peripheral field in patients with NTG and POAG. This result suggests that peripheral vascular endothelial dysfunction may be related to glaucoma progression.

  6. Analysis of the qualitative dermatoglyphics of the digito-palmar complex in patients with primary open angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak-Laus, Katia; Milicić, Jasna; Tedeschi-Reiner, Eugenia; Iveković, Renata; Korsić, Jadranka; Zrinsćak, Ognjen; Mandić, Zdravko

    2006-03-01

    The primary open-angle glaucomas are a group of diseases that have in common characteristic morphological changes at the optic nerve head and retinal nerve fiber layer, progressive retinal ganglion cells death and characteristic visual field loss. The risk for primary open angle glaucoma rises continuously with the level of the intraocular pressure. The disease advances slowly and there are no symptoms. Primary open angle glaucoma is caused by abnormal aqueous humour outflow in the trabecular meshwork in the open angle. Etiopathogenesis of primary open angle glaucoma is unclear. The increased risk of glaucoma in relatives has long been recognized. Frequency for manifestation of the disease is 10-30% in family members. The discovery of the specific gene loci responsible for the manifestation of glaucoma has helped us to understand its mechanism of origin and definitely confirmed the hereditary nature of this disease. Digito-palmar dermatoglyphs were already used to determine hereditary base of many diseases and it was the reason for investigation of their qualitative patterns in patients with glaucoma (22 males and 23 females), their immediate relatives (19 males and 23 females) in comparison to a group of phenotypically healthy population (52 males and 56 females). The results pointed a connection with the dermatoglyphic traits of the digito-palmar complex between patients with glaucoma and their immediate relatives. There is a possible discrimination of patients and their immediate relatives from phenotypically healthy population, too.

  7. Clinical and genetic study of a juvenile-onset Huntington disease%少年型亨廷顿病临床与基因突变分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝莹; 陈园园; 顾卫红; 王国相; 马惠姿; 李丽林; 王康; 金淼; 段晓慧

    2012-01-01

    Background Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant hereditary progressive neurodegenerative disorder with a distinct phenotype characterized by chorea, dementia, cognitive and affective impairment. There are selective neural cell loss and atrophy in the caudate and putamen. Dr. George Huntington firstly described the disease accurately and insightfully, which led to a widespread recognition of the inherited chorea that now bears his name. Huntington disease gene (1T15) locus on chromosome 4p16.3, and encompasses 67 exons with a trinucleotide repeat (CAG) in the first exon.The CAG repeat length is highly polymorphic in the population and expanded on at least one chromosome of individuals with HD. Clinically, patient with HD are often onset in adulthood. Juvenile - onset HD is relatively rare. Adult-onset HD patients usually have a CAG expansion from 40 to 55 whereas those with juvenile - onset greater than 60 which are often inherited from the father. We investigated the clinical features of a juvenile-onset case with Huntington disease and dynamic mutation of his family. Methods The CAG repeats of 1T15 gene were detected using polymerase chain reaction and capillary electrophoresis in 115 individuals with preliminary diagnosis as Huntington disease. The repeat numbers of some samples carried expanded or intermediate alleles were verified by the pMD18-T vector clone sequencing. Results Fragment analysis showed that one juvenile - onset case presenting with cognitive dysfunction and hypokinesis carried 15/68 CAG repeats of 1T15. His father carried 17/37 and mother carried 15/17. Conclusion 1) The juvenile-onset case of HD presented with different clinical features compared with adult-onset cases. The typical signs of adult-onset cases include progressive chorea, rigidity and dementia. The most common sign of juvenile-onset Huntington disease is cognitive decline. 2) The dynamic mutation of IT15 gene expansion of the CAG repeats in the intergenerational

  8. Clinical results with the Trabectome, a novel surgical device for treatment of open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minckler, Don; Baerveldt, George; Ramirez, Marina Alfaro; Mosaed, Sameh; Wilson, Richard; Shaarawy, Tarek; Zack, Barend; Dustin, Laurie; Francis, Brian

    2006-01-01

    To describe treatment outcomes after Trabectome surgery in an initial series of 101 patients with open-angle glaucoma. A 19-gauge microelectrosurgical device enabled ab interno removal of a strip of trabecular meshwork and inner wall of Schlemm's canal under gonioscopic control with continual infusion and foot-pedal control of aspiration and electrosurgery. A smooth, pointed ceramic-coated insulating footplate was inserted into Schlemm's canal to act as a guide within the canal and to protect adjacent structures from mechanical or heat injury during ablation of a 30- to 90-degree arc of angle tissue. Mean preoperative intraocular pressure (IOP) in the initial 101 patients was 27.6 +/- 7.2 mm Hg. Thirty months postoperatively, mean IOP was 16.3 +/- 3.3 mm Hg (n = 11). The mean percentage drop over the whole course of follow-up was 40%. At all times postoperatively, the absolute and percent decrease in IOP from preoperative levels were statistically significant (paired t test, P < .0001). Overall success (IOP

  9. Trabecular-Iris Circumference Volume in Open Angle Eyes Using Swept-Source Fourier Domain Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography

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    Mohammed Rigi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To introduce a new anterior segment optical coherence tomography parameter, trabecular-iris circumference volume (TICV, which measures the integrated volume of the peripheral angle, and establish a reference range in normal, open angle eyes. Methods. One eye of each participant with open angles and a normal anterior segment was imaged using 3D mode by the CASIA SS-1000 (Tomey, Nagoya, Japan. Trabecular-iris space area (TISA and TICV at 500 and 750 µm were calculated. Analysis of covariance was performed to examine the effect of age and its interaction with spherical equivalent. Results. The study included 100 participants with a mean age of 50 (±15 years (range 20–79. TICV showed a normal distribution with a mean (±SD value of 4.75 µL (±2.30 for TICV500 and a mean (±SD value of 8.90 µL (±3.88 for TICV750. Overall, TICV showed an age-related reduction (P=0.035. In addition, angle volume increased with increased myopia for all age groups, except for those older than 65 years. Conclusions. This study introduces a new parameter to measure peripheral angle volume, TICV, with age-adjusted normal ranges for open angle eyes. Further investigation is warranted to determine the clinical utility of this new parameter.

  10. Influence of the jet opening angle on the derived kinematical parameters of blazar jets having uniform and stratified bulk motion

    CERN Document Server

    Gopal-Krishna, Samir; Sircar, Pronoy; Wiita, Paul J

    2007-01-01

    We present analytical modelling of conical relativistic jets, in order to evaluate the role of the jet opening angle on certain key parameters that are inferred from VLBI radio observations of blazar nuclear jets. The key parameters evaluated are the orientation angle (i.e., the viewing angle) of the jet and the apparent speed and Doppler factor of the radio knots on parsec scales. Quantitative comparisons are made of the influence of the jet opening angle on the above parameters of the radio knots, as would be estimated for two widely discussed variants of relativistic nuclear jets, namely, those having uniform bulk speed and those in which the bulk Lorentz factor of the flow decreases with distance from the jet axis (a `spine--sheath' flow). Our analysis shows that for both types of jet velocity distributions the expectation value of the jet orientation angle at first falls dramatically with increases in the (central) jet Lorentz factor, but it levels off at a fraction of the opening angle for extremely rel...

  11. Using the Utah Population Database to assess familial risk of primary open angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaolei; Harmon, Jennifer; Zabrieskie, Norman; Chen, Yuhong; Grob, Seanna; Williams, Brice; Lee, Clara; Kasuga, Daniel; Shaw, Peter X; Buehler, Jeanette; Wang, Ningli; Zhang, Kang

    2010-11-23

    Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is a leading cause of irreversible blindness in the elderly. Previous epidemiological studies have identified family history, ethnic origin, age, high intraocular pressure and diabetes mellitus as risk factors. However, it is difficult to assess the extent family history plays in this disease process. The Utah Population Database (UPDB), created by the University of Utah, has recently become a resource for which greater than 9 million records are available for use. The UPDB is divided into two major data sets from which family members can be identified, namely 1.6 million genealogy records and 2 million Utah birth certificates. This study utilizes these resources to assess the familial risk of POAG within the Utah Population. The University of Utah's hospital and clinic records were searched for patients with primary and chronic open angle glaucoma (ICD9 codes 365.04 and 365.11) between the years 1995 and 2005. A case-control analysis was then performed with specialized UPDB software that was modified to constrain the control and pedigree populations to over 1 million University of Utah-UPDB linked records. Controls were matched to cases by gender and birth year (±2.5years) with only one control being used per case. Population-attributable risk (PAR) to familial factors and relative risk (RR) were computed using conditional logistic regression (CLR). From the original 1.5 million medical records, 6198 patients with glaucoma were identified. Of these, 3391 met the inclusion criteria, which required patients to have at least one parent or one child in the UPDB. The PAR in this population was found to be 0.20, indicating 20% of the risk for glaucoma is attributable to genetic factors. CLR computations also showed a significantly increased relative risk (pfamilial data, there is a significantly higher prevalence of glaucoma in both first and second generation relatives of those affected as compared to relatives in the control group

  12. The association between primary open-angle glaucoma and fall: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanabe S

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Sachiko Tanabe1,2*, Kenya Yuki1*, Naoki Ozeki1, Daisuke Shiba1, Kazuo Tsubota11Department of Ophthalmology, Keio University School of Medicine, Shinanomachi 35, Tokyo, Japan; 2Tanabe Eye Clinic, Kai City, Yamanashi, Japan*These authors contributed equally to this workPurpose: Falls are among the most serious public health concerns for the elderly. Information conveyed via the visual sense is relevant to postural balance and movement, and proper visual function is essential to avoid falls. Here we investigated the prevalence of injurious falls among patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG who were more than 45 years old, compared with comparably aged healthy subjects.Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. Consecutive patients who visited the Tanabe Eye Clinic, Yamanashi, Japan between January 1 and March 30, 2009 were screened for eligibility by ophthalmic examination. A total of 117 control subjects (77 men, 40 women; aged 60.2 ± 7.5 years who were free of ocular disease and 101 POAG patients (58 men, 43 women; aged 62.3 ± 8.7 years were consecutively enrolled. Participants answered a questionnaire on injurious fall experience during the previous 10 years. The prevalence of injurious fall in subjects with POAG versus healthy controls was examined with Fisher's exact test. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated with logistic regression models for the subjects with POAG (factors: age, gender, mean deviation in the better eye or worse eye.Results: The self-reported prevalence of injurious fall was 0.9% (1/117 in the control group and 6.9% (7/101 in the POAG group. The association between injurious fall and POAG was statistically significant (P = 0.026, Fisher's exact test. Within the POAG patients, the group reporting falls was significantly older and had a lower BMI, worse BCVA, and worse mean deviation in both the better and worse eye than the group reporting no falls. Worse mean deviation in the eye with

  13. The role of clinical parapapillary atrophy evaluation in the diagnosis of open angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua R Ehrlich

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Joshua R Ehrlich, Nathan M RadcliffeDepartment of Ophthalmology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, USAPurpose: To determine if clinical evaluation of parapapillary atrophy (PPA significantly improves the ability to distinguish open-angle glaucoma (OAG patients from glaucoma suspects.Methods: Patients in this study were under evaluation for glaucoma and had open angles, at least one reliable 24-2 SITA-standard automatic perimetry, and digital stereophotographs of the optic disc. PPA was identified clinically as a parapapillary region of absent (βPPA or hyper/hypopigmented (αPPA retinal pigment epithelium. A single masked observer evaluated photos for: vertical cup-to-disc ratio (CDR, clock hours of total and βPPA, βPPA as percentage width of the optic disc, presence or absence of βPPA at each disc quadrant, and ordinal rating of total PPA. Generalized linear models were used to determine odds of an abnormal or borderline glaucoma hemifield test (GHT as a function of PPA variables and covariates; model fit was assessed using the log-likelihood ratio test.Results: Of 410 consecutive patients, 540 eyes (of 294 patients met inclusion criteria. Mean age was greater among patients with abnormal compared with normal GHT (P < 0.001, but sex and race/ethnicity did not differ between groups (P ≥ 0.22. Age, central corneal thickness (CCT and CDR (P ≤ 0.006, but not intraocular pressure (IOP (P = 0.71, were significant univariable predictors of the odds of an abnormal GHT. All PPA parameters significantly ­predicted GHT (P ≤ 0.03, except presence of temporal βPPA (P = 0.25. Adjustment for age, CCT, IOP, and CDR reduced the association between PPA and GHT, and model fit was not greatly improved by addition of PPA variables.Conclusions: Addition of most PPA parameters to a model already containing commonly assessed variables including age, CCT, IOP, and CDR does not significantly improve the ability to distinguish OAG patients from

  14. Genetic and environmental risk factors for primary open-angle glaucoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范宝剑; 梁旭辉; 汪宁; 林顺潮; 刘瑶; 谭霭仙; 彭智培

    2004-01-01

    Background Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is characterized by optic nerve damage and consists of a group of genetically heterogeneous disorders. This study was to investigate the associations of genetic and environmental factors with POAG in a hospital-based Chinese population.Methods Thirty-two adult onset POAG patients and 96 age-sex matched control subjects were studied by multivariable logistic regression analysis for the relationships between POAG and its risk factors including family history, diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and polymorphisms of the myocilin and the optineurin genes.Results Univariate analysis showed that POAG was related to family history, cardiovascular disease, alcohol consumption and a myocilin sequence alteration (T353I) (P<0.04). Multivariable logistic regression analysis confirmed that POAG was significantly associated with family history (OR=20.2), hypertension (OR=3.58), cigarette smoking (OR=10.8), alcohol consumption (OR=0.028) and T353I (OR=6.03, all P<0.05).Conclusions Family history, hypertension, cigarette smoking and T353I in the myocilin gene are risk factors for POAG. Alcohol consumption, however, has a protective effect.

  15. Literature review and meta-analysis of translaminar pressure difference in open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siaudvytyte, L; Januleviciene, I; Daveckaite, A; Ragauskas, A; Bartusis, L; Kucinoviene, J; Siesky, B; Harris, A

    2015-10-01

    There is increasing evidence in the literature regarding translaminar pressure difference's (TPD) role in the pathophysiology of glaucoma. The optic nerve is exposed not only to intraocular pressure in the eye, but also to intracranial pressure (ICP), as it is surrounded by cerebrospinal fluid in the subarachnoid space. Although pilot studies have identified the potential importance of TPD in glaucoma, limited available data currently prevent a comprehensive description of the role that TPD may have in glaucomatous pathophysiology. In this review, we present all available qualified data from a systematic review of the literature of the role of TPD in open-angle glaucoma (OAG). PubMed (Medline), OVID Medline, ScienceDirect, SpringerLink, and all available library databases were reviewed and subsequent meta-analysis of pooled mean differences are presented where appropriate. Five papers including 396 patients met criteria for inclusion to the analysis. Importantly, we included all observational studies despite differences in ICP measurement methods, as there is no consensus regarding best-practice ICP measurements in glaucoma. Our results show that not only TPD is higher in glaucoma patients compared with healthy subjects, it is related to structural glaucomatous changes of the optic disc. Our analysis suggests further longitudinal prospective studies are needed to investigate the influence of TPD in OAG, with a goal of overcoming methodological weaknesses of previous studies.

  16. Comparative study of fracture appearance in crack tip opening angle testing of gas pipeline steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashemi, S.H., E-mail: shhashemi@birjand.ac.ir [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Birjand, PO Box 97175-376, Birjand (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    The crack tip opening angle (CTOA) experiments were conducted on API X65, X70, X80 and X100 steels using a modified double cantilever beam (MDCB) geometry. The fracture surfaces of the test specimens were examined after fracture tests by optical and scanning electron microscopy. The fracture surfaces of the lower grade X65 and X70 steels had fully ductile features including classic flat and slant fracture characteristics. However, repetitive propagation and arrest of quasi-cleavage in the form of chevron arrow-head fractures was observed on the fracture surfaces of higher grade X80 and X100 steels. Interestingly, the analysis of load-displacement records from the latter steels demonstrated local ragged patterns after the test peak load, associated with the repetitive low energy quasi-cleavage mechanism. Detailed discussion on the micro-fractographs of the tested steels and comparison of the test observations with the only newly published work in this filed conclude the paper.

  17. Assessment of polygenic effects links primary open-angle glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Craig, Jamie E; Burdon, Kathryn P; Wang, Jie Jin; Vote, Brendan J; Souzeau, Emmanuelle; McAllister, Ian L; Isaacs, Timothy; Lake, Stewart; Mackey, David A; Constable, Ian J; Mitchell, Paul; Hewitt, Alex W; MacGregor, Stuart

    2016-05-31

    Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are leading causes of irreversible blindness. Several loci have been mapped using genome-wide association studies. Until very recently, there was no recognized overlap in the genetic contribution to AMD and POAG. At genome-wide significance level, only ABCA1 harbors associations to both diseases. Here, we investigated the genetic architecture of POAG and AMD using genome-wide array data. We estimated the heritability for POAG (h(2)g = 0.42 ± 0.09) and AMD (h(2)g = 0.71 ± 0.08). Removing known loci for POAG and AMD decreased the h(2)g estimates to 0.36 and 0.24, respectively. There was evidence for a positive genetic correlation between POAG and AMD (rg = 0.47 ± 0.25) which remained after removing known loci (rg = 0.64 ± 0.31). We also found that the genetic correlation between sexes for POAG was likely to be less than 1 (rg = 0.33 ± 0.24), suggesting that differences of prevalence among genders may be partly due to heritable factors.

  18. Extracting Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma from Electronic Medical Records for Genetic Association Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole A Restrepo

    Full Text Available Electronic medical records (EMRs are being widely implemented for use in genetic and genomic studies. As a phenotypic rich resource, EMRs provide researchers with the opportunity to identify disease cohorts and perform genotype-phenotype association studies. The Epidemiologic Architecture for Genes Linked to Environment (EAGLE study, as part of the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE I study, has genotyped more than 15,000 individuals of diverse genetic ancestry in BioVU, the Vanderbilt University Medical Center's biorepository linked to a de-identified version of the EMR (EAGLE BioVU. Here we develop and deploy an algorithm utilizing data mining techniques to identify primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG in African Americans from EAGLE BioVU for genetic association studies. The algorithm described here was designed using a combination of diagnostic codes, current procedural terminology billing codes, and free text searches to identify POAG status in situations where gold-standard digital photography cannot be accessed. The case algorithm identified 267 potential POAG subjects but underperformed after manual review with a positive predictive value of 51.6% and an accuracy of 76.3%. The control algorithm identified controls with a negative predictive value of 98.3%. Although the case algorithm requires more downstream manual review for use in large-scale studies, it provides a basis by which to extract a specific clinical subtype of glaucoma from EMRs in the absence of digital photographs.

  19. An Updated Review on the Genetics of Primary Open Angle Glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Abu-Amero

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies suggest that by 2020 the prevalence of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG is estimated to increase to 76.0 million, and to 111.8 million by 2040 globally due to the population aging. The prevalence of POAG is the highest among those of African descent, followed by Asians, and the lowest in Europeans. POAG is a genetically complex trait with a substantial fraction exhibiting a significant heritability. Less than 10% of POAG cases in the general population are caused by specific gene mutations and the remaining cases are polygenic. Quantitative traits related to POAG pathogenesis such as intra-ocular pressure (IOP, vertical cup/disc ratio (VCDR, optic disc area, and central corneal thickness (CCT are highly heritable, and likely to be influenced at least in part by genes and show substantial variation in human populations. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs at different loci including CAV1/CAV2, TMCO1, CDKN2B-AS1, CDC7-TGFBR3, SIX1/SIX6, GAS7 and ATOH7 to be associated with POAG and its related quantitative traits (endophenotypes. The chapter provides a brief overview on the different GWAS and SNP association studies and their correlation with various clinical parameters important for POAG in the population worldwide, including the Middle East.

  20. Common genetic determinants of intraocular pressure and primary open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Koolwijk, Leonieke M E; Ramdas, Wishal D; Ikram, M Kamran; Jansonius, Nomdo M; Pasutto, Francesca; Hysi, Pirro G; Macgregor, Stuart; Janssen, Sarah F; Hewitt, Alex W; Viswanathan, Ananth C; ten Brink, Jacoline B; Hosseini, S Mohsen; Amin, Najaf; Despriet, Dominiek D G; Willemse-Assink, Jacqueline J M; Kramer, Rogier; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Struchalin, Maksim; Aulchenko, Yurii S; Weisschuh, Nicole; Zenkel, Matthias; Mardin, Christian Y; Gramer, Eugen; Welge-Lüssen, Ulrich; Montgomery, Grant W; Carbonaro, Francis; Young, Terri L; Bellenguez, Céline; McGuffin, Peter; Foster, Paul J; Topouzis, Fotis; Mitchell, Paul; Wang, Jie Jin; Wong, Tien Y; Czudowska, Monika A; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Wolfs, Roger C W; de Jong, Paulus T V M; Oostra, Ben A; Paterson, Andrew D; Mackey, David A; Bergen, Arthur A B; Reis, André; Hammond, Christopher J; Vingerling, Johannes R; Lemij, Hans G; Klaver, Caroline C W; van Duijn, Cornelia M

    2012-01-01

    Intraocular pressure (IOP) is a highly heritable risk factor for primary open-angle glaucoma and is the only target for current glaucoma therapy. The genetic factors which determine IOP are largely unknown. We performed a genome-wide association study for IOP in 11,972 participants from 4 independent population-based studies in The Netherlands. We replicated our findings in 7,482 participants from 4 additional cohorts from the UK, Australia, Canada, and the Wellcome Trust Case-Control Consortium 2/Blue Mountains Eye Study. IOP was significantly associated with rs11656696, located in GAS7 at 17p13.1 (p=1.4×10(-8)), and with rs7555523, located in TMCO1 at 1q24.1 (p=1.6×10(-8)). In a meta-analysis of 4 case-control studies (total N = 1,432 glaucoma cases), both variants also showed evidence for association with glaucoma (p=2.4×10(-2) for rs11656696 and p=9.1×10(-4) for rs7555523). GAS7 and TMCO1 are highly expressed in the ciliary body and trabecular meshwork as well as in the lamina cribrosa, optic nerve, and retina. Both genes functionally interact with known glaucoma disease genes. These data suggest that we have identified two clinically relevant genes involved in IOP regulation.

  1. Analysis of COCH and TNFA Variants in East Indian Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhadip Chakraborty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma represents a heterogeneous group of optic neuropathies with a complex genetic basis. It is the second-largest cause of blindness in the world that reduces vision without warning and often without symptoms. Among 3 major subtypes of glaucoma, primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG is the most common form. The focus of this study is to understand the molecular basis of the disease among Indian patients with respect to two genes, Cochlin (COCH and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFA, selected based on reports of possible association with POAG. The genes were screened in patients and controls by PCR and direct sequencing. Although two novel changes (–450 C/T and –79 G/G were identified in the 5′upstream region of COCH, no causal variant could be identified in either gene. –450 C/T was detected in 3 patients and 2 controls and –79 G/C in a single patient. Further, we did not observe significant association with the promoter SNPs of TNFA that had been previously reported to be associated with POAG pathogenesis. Thus, our study suggests lack of association of both COCH and TNFA with POAG pathogenesis.

  2. Common genetic determinants of intraocular pressure and primary open-angle glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonieke M E van Koolwijk

    Full Text Available Intraocular pressure (IOP is a highly heritable risk factor for primary open-angle glaucoma and is the only target for current glaucoma therapy. The genetic factors which determine IOP are largely unknown. We performed a genome-wide association study for IOP in 11,972 participants from 4 independent population-based studies in The Netherlands. We replicated our findings in 7,482 participants from 4 additional cohorts from the UK, Australia, Canada, and the Wellcome Trust Case-Control Consortium 2/Blue Mountains Eye Study. IOP was significantly associated with rs11656696, located in GAS7 at 17p13.1 (p=1.4×10(-8, and with rs7555523, located in TMCO1 at 1q24.1 (p=1.6×10(-8. In a meta-analysis of 4 case-control studies (total N = 1,432 glaucoma cases, both variants also showed evidence for association with glaucoma (p=2.4×10(-2 for rs11656696 and p=9.1×10(-4 for rs7555523. GAS7 and TMCO1 are highly expressed in the ciliary body and trabecular meshwork as well as in the lamina cribrosa, optic nerve, and retina. Both genes functionally interact with known glaucoma disease genes. These data suggest that we have identified two clinically relevant genes involved in IOP regulation.

  3. Shock train generated turbulence inside a nozzle with a small opening angle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grzona, A.; Olivier, H. [RWTH Aachen University, Shock Wave Laboratory, Aachen (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    The flow inside an over expanding rectangular nozzle with a small opening angle of 1.6 is investigated by means of high-speed schlieren and shadowgraph photography, pressure probes and hot-wire anemometry on the nozzle centre line in order to measure the turbulent fluctuations generated by the occurring shock wave/boundary layer interaction. Additionally, an optical shock capturing tool is deployed to measure the amplitude and frequency of the shock train oscillation. Varying the back pressure, the pre-shock Mach number is changed between Ma{sub 1} = 1.1 and 2.1. Two different modes of turbulence generation and distribution are detected. For a single normal shock and a normal shock train, the normal Reynolds stress u{sup '2} on the channel axis is only slightly increased compared to the free stream value, whereas for the cases of a lambda foot shock train and an x-type shock train, a strong intensification by forming a turbulent mixing zone can be observed. (orig.)

  4. [Effect of physical and psychological stress on the course of primary open angle glaucoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marc, Alexandra; Stan, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Analyzing how mutch mental or physical stress influences the elevation of intraocular pressure (lOP) and therefore the influence of stress over the progress of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), monitoring the changes of the glaucoma parameters that occur either under stress or under normal life conditions. Observational analytical prospective nonexposed-exposed study that took place over a period of 18 months and reviewed 151 patients. Of the 64 patients that had mental stress before presenting to the doctor, in 47 (73%) of them, were foud increased lOP and visual field changes at regular consultation and 17 (27%) have experienced mental stress without increasing lOP values or any visual field change. Of the 69 patients that reported insomnia, 47 (68%) had elevated lOP, while 22 (32%) had unchanged IOP values. Of the 42 patients that had an increased stress score due to physical fatigue, 22 (52%) had increased lOP and visual field changes (CV) and 20 (48%) had no change in lOP or visual field. The presence of mental stress in a glaucomatous patient increases lOP values and leads to the worsening of the disease, while insomnia represents only a potential risk factor for POAG and physical exercise might even have a beneficial effect.

  5. Bimatoprost: a review of its use in open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Monique P

    2009-01-01

    Bimatoprost (Lumigan) is a synthetic prostamide that reduces intraocular pressure (IOP) by increasing the outflow of aqueous humour. In patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension, long-term treatment (for up to 48 months) with once-daily bimatoprost 0.03% ophthalmic solution was more effective than timolol twice daily in providing a sustained and stable reduction in IOP. Bimatoprost 0.03% ophthalmic solution demonstrated efficacy similar to, or greater than, the prostaglandin analogues latanoprost and travoprost in reducing IOP and achieving target IOP levels. Switching to bimatoprost was as effective in maintaining diurnal IOP control as switching to a fixed combination of latanoprost/timolol (in patients with IOP levels controlled with a nonfixed combination of latanoprost plus timolol), and similarly, or more, effective in lowering IOP and providing overall diurnal IOP control than switching to a combination of dorzolamide/timolol (in patients with IOP inadequately controlled with other antiglaucoma agents including timolol). Treatment with bimatoprost was generally well tolerated, with conjunctival hyperaemia (mostly mild), growth of eyelashes and ocular pruritus being commonly reported. Other adverse events included increases in the pigmentation of the iris, perorbital areas and eyelashes.

  6. Open angle glaucoma in a case of Type IV Ehler Danlos syndrome: A rarely reported association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arijit Mitra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 26-year-old male presented to us with defective vision in the left eye. He had best corrected visual acuity (BCVA of hand movement (HM in right eye and 6/9 in left eye. He had ptosis with ectropion in both eyes and relative afferent pupillary defect (RAPD in right eye. Intraocular pressure (IOP was 46 and 44 mmHg in right and left eye, respectively. Fundus showed glaucomatous optic atrophy (GOA in right eye and cup disc ratio (CDR of 0.75 with bipolar rim thinning in left eye. Systemic examination showed hyperextensible skin and joints, acrogeria, hypodontia, high arched palate, and varicose veins. He gave history of easy bruising and tendency to fall and history of intestinal rupture 5 years ago for which he had undergone surgery. He was diagnosed as a case of Type IV Ehler-Danlos syndrome (EDS with open angle glaucoma. He underwent trabeculectomy in both eyes. This is a rare case that shows glaucoma in a patient of EDS Type IV. Very few such cases have been reported in literature.

  7. Open angle glaucoma in a case of Type IV Ehler Danlos syndrome: a rarely reported association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Arijit; Ramakrishnan, R; Kader, Mohideen Abdul

    2014-08-01

    A 26-year-old male presented to us with defective vision in the left eye. He had best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of hand movement (HM) in right eye and 6/9 in left eye. He had ptosis with ectropion in both eyes and relative afferent pupillary defect (RAPD) in right eye. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was 46 and 44 mmHg in right and left eye, respectively. Fundus showed glaucomatous optic atrophy (GOA) in right eye and cup disc ratio (CDR) of 0.75 with bipolar rim thinning in left eye. Systemic examination showed hyperextensible skin and joints, acrogeria, hypodontia, high arched palate, and varicose veins. He gave history of easy bruising and tendency to fall and history of intestinal rupture 5 years ago for which he had undergone surgery. He was diagnosed as a case of Type IV Ehler-Danlos syndrome (EDS) with open angle glaucoma. He underwent trabeculectomy in both eyes. This is a rare case that shows glaucoma in a patient of EDS Type IV. Very few such cases have been reported in literature.

  8. Common genetic determinants of intraocular pressure and primary open-angle glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonieke M E van Koolwijk

    Full Text Available Intraocular pressure (IOP is a highly heritable risk factor for primary open-angle glaucoma and is the only target for current glaucoma therapy. The genetic factors which determine IOP are largely unknown. We performed a genome-wide association study for IOP in 11,972 participants from 4 independent population-based studies in The Netherlands. We replicated our findings in 7,482 participants from 4 additional cohorts from the UK, Australia, Canada, and the Wellcome Trust Case-Control Consortium 2/Blue Mountains Eye Study. IOP was significantly associated with rs11656696, located in GAS7 at 17p13.1 (p=1.4×10(-8, and with rs7555523, located in TMCO1 at 1q24.1 (p=1.6×10(-8. In a meta-analysis of 4 case-control studies (total N = 1,432 glaucoma cases, both variants also showed evidence for association with glaucoma (p=2.4×10(-2 for rs11656696 and p=9.1×10(-4 for rs7555523. GAS7 and TMCO1 are highly expressed in the ciliary body and trabecular meshwork as well as in the lamina cribrosa, optic nerve, and retina. Both genes functionally interact with known glaucoma disease genes. These data suggest that we have identified two clinically relevant genes involved in IOP regulation.

  9. Fascicular Visual Field Defects in Open-Angle Glaucoma: Evaluation with Microperimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrico, Loredana; Giannotti, Rossella; Fratipietro, Manuela; Malagola, Romualdo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Use of microperimetry (Mp-1), correlating with Humphrey perimetry (30-2 program), in patients affected by primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) with perimetric defects, in order to obtain an evaluation of the accuracy of the results obtained by Mp-1. Materials and Methods. In this study 40 eyes of 25 patients affected by POAG with perimetric defects were included. All patients underwent microperimetry test by Nidek Mp-1 (NAVIS software version 1.7.2, Nidek Technologies). Mean sensitivity values expressed in decibel (dB) of all tested dots and mean values for each quadrant obtained by microperimetric test were correlated with corresponding quadrants obtained by static perimetry analysis. Data were analyzed by Pearson's correlation and Bland-Altman analysis. Results. Interpolated data showed that mean sensitivity values in all spots tested by Mp-1 (11.98 dB, SD 4.31) may be significantly correlated with mean total values obtained by Humphrey 30-2 perimetry (17.95, SD 4.32), with correlation coefficient of 0.556. Conclusions. Topographic visualization of the perimetric alteration by microperimetry allows retesting areas with reduced sensitivity which are topographically visualized and displayable on the ocular fundus examination, avoiding worsening of the functional defect by better modulation of the antiglaucoma therapy and therefore it allows better monitoring of the pathologic functional damage.

  10. [Effects of nootropic agents on visual functions and lacrimal antioxidative activity in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davydova, N G; Kuznetsova, T P; Borisova, S A; Abdulkadyrova, M Zh

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents the results of an investigation of the effect of the nootropic agents pantogam and nooclerine on visual functions in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma. These agents have been found to have a beneficial effect on the functional activity of the retina and optic nerve, light sensitivity, hemo- and hydrodynamics of the eye.

  11. Myopia as a Risk Factor for Open-Angle Glaucoma : A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcus, Michael W.; de Vries, Margriet M.; Montolio, Francisco G. Junoy; Jansonius, Nomdo M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the association between myopia and open-angle glaucoma. Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Participants: Thirteen studies involving 48 161 individuals. Methods: Articles published between 1994 and 2010 were identified in PubMed, Embase, and

  12. Myopia as a Risk Factor for Open-Angle Glaucoma : A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcus, Michael W.; de Vries, Margriet M.; Montolio, Francisco G. Junoy; Jansonius, Nomdo M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the association between myopia and open-angle glaucoma. Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Participants: Thirteen studies involving 48 161 individuals. Methods: Articles published between 1994 and 2010 were identified in PubMed, Embase, and

  13. Open-loop GPS signal tracking at low elevation angles from a ground-based observation site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyerle, Georg; Zus, Florian

    2017-01-01

    A 1-year data set of ground-based GPS signal observations aiming at geometric elevation angles below +2° is analysed. Within the "GLESER" measurement campaign about 2600 validated setting events were recorded by the "OpenGPS" open-loop tracking receiver at an observation site located at 52.3808° N, 13.0642° E between January and December 2014. The measurements confirm the feasibility of open-loop signal tracking down to geometric elevation angles of -1 to -1.5° extending the corresponding closed-loop tracking range by up to 1°. The study is based on the premise that observations of low-elevation events by a ground-based receiver may serve as test cases for space-based radio occultation measurements, even if the latter proceed at a significantly faster temporal scale. The results support the conclusion that the open-loop Doppler model has negligible influence on the derived carrier frequency profile for strong signal-to-noise density ratios above about 30 dB Hz. At lower signal levels, however, the OpenGPS receiver's dual-channel design, which tracks the same signal using two Doppler models differing by 10 Hz, uncovers a notable bias. The repeat patterns of the GPS orbit traces in terms of azimuth angle reveal characteristic signatures in both signal amplitude and Doppler frequency with respect to the topography close to the observation site. Mean vertical refractivity gradients, extracted from ECMWF meteorological fields, correlate weakly to moderately with observed signal amplitude fluctuations at geometric elevation angles between +1 and +2°. Results from multiple phase screen simulations support the interpretation that these fluctuations are at least partly produced by atmospheric multipath; at negative elevation angles diffraction at the ground surface seems to contribute.

  14. Association of primary open-angle glaucoma with mitochondrial variants and haplogroups common in African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudiseva, Harini V.; Trachtman, Benjamin; Bowman, Anita S.; Sagaser, Anna; Sankar, Prithvi; Miller-Ellis, Eydie; Lehman, Amanda; Addis, Victoria; O'Brien, Joan M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the population frequencies of all common mitochondrial variants and ancestral haplogroups among 1,999 subjects recruited for the Primary Open-Angle African American Glaucoma Genetics (POAAGG) Study, including 1,217 primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) cases and 782 controls, and to identify ancestral subpopulations and mitochondrial mutations as potential risk factors for POAG susceptibility. Methods Subject classification by characteristic glaucomatous optic nerve findings and corresponding visual field defects, as defined by enrolling glaucoma specialists, stereo disc photography, phlebotomy, extraction of total DNA from peripheral blood or saliva, DNA quantification and normalization, PCR amplification of whole mitochondrial genomes, Ion Torrent deep semiconductor DNA sequencing on DNA pools (“Pool-seq”), Sanger sequencing of 3,479 individual mitochondrial DNAs, and bioinformatic analysis. Results The distribution of common African haplogroups within the POAAGG study population was broadly similar to prior surveys of African Americans. However, the POAG case population was found to be enriched in L1c2 haplogroups, which are defined in part by missense mutations m.6150G>A (Val83Ile, odds ratio [OR] 1.8, p=0.01), m.6253C>T (Met117Thr, rs200165736, OR 1.6, p=0.04), and m.6480G>A (Val193Ile, rs199476128, OR 4.6, p=0.04) in the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (MT-CO1) gene and by a variant, m.2220A>G (OR 2.0, p=0.01), in MT-RNR2, which encodes the mitochondrial ribosomal 16s RNA gene. L2 haplogroups were predicted to be overrepresented in the POAG case population by Pool-seq, and the difference was confirmed to be significant with Sanger sequencing, that targeted the L2-associated variants m.2416T>C (rs28358580, OR 1.2, p=0.02) and m.2332C>T (OR 1.2, p=.02) in MT-RNR2. Another variant within MT-RNR2, m.3010G>A (rs3928306), previously implicated in sensitivity to the optic neuropathy-associated antibiotic linezolid, and arising on D4 and J1

  15. [Computer-assisted multimedia interactive learning program "Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, V B; Zenz, H; Eisenmann, D; Tekaat, C J; Wagner, R; Jacobi, K W

    1996-05-01

    Advances in the area of information technology have opened up new possibilities for the use of interactive media in the training of medical students. Classical instructional technologies, such as video, slides, audio cassettes and computer programs with a textbook orientation, have been merged into one multimedia computer system. The medical profession has been increasingly integrating computer-based applications which can be used, for example, for record keeping within a medical practice. The goal of this development is to provide access to all modes of information storage and retrieval as well as documentation and training systems within a specific context. Since the beginning of the winter semester 1995, the Department of Ophthalmology in Giessen has used the learning program "Primary Open Angle Glaucoma" in student instruction. One factor that contributed to the implementation of this project was that actual training using patients within the clinic is difficult to conduct. Media-supported training that can provide a simulation of actual practice offers a suitable substitute. The learning program has been installed on Power PCs (Apple MacIntosh), which make up the technical foundation of our system. The program was developed using Hypercard software, which provides userfriendly graphical work environment. This controls the input and retrieval of data, direct editing of documents, immediate simulation, the creation of on-screen documents and the integration of slides that have been scanned in as well as QuickTime films. All of this can be accomplished without any special knowledge of programming language or operating systems on the part of the user. The glaucoma learning program is structured along the lines of anatomy, including an explanation of the circulation of the aqueous humor, pathology, clinical symptoms and findings, diagnosis and treatment. This structure along with the possibility for creating a list of personal files for the user with a collection

  16. Axial Myopia Is Associated with Visual Field Prognosis of Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Qiu

    Full Text Available To identify whether myopia was associated with the visual field (VF progression of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG.A total of 270 eyes of 270 POAG followed up for more than 3 years with ≥9 reliable VFs by Octopus perimetry were retrospectively reviewed. Myopia was divided into: mild myopia (-2.99 diopter [D], 0, moderate myopia (-5.99, 3.00 D, marked myopia (-9.00, -6.00 D and non-myopia (0 D or more. An annual change in the mean defect (MD slope >0.22 dB/y and 0.30 dB/y was defined as fast progression, respectively. Logistic regression was performed to determine prognostic factors for VF progression.For the cutoff threshold at 0.22 dB/y, logistic regression showed that vertical cup-to-disk ratio (VCDR; p = 0.004 and the extent of myopia (p = 0.002 were statistically significant. When logistic regression was repeated after excluding the extent of myopia, axial length (AL; p = 0.008, odds ratio [OR] = 0.796 reached significance, as did VCDR (p = 0.001. Compared to eyes with AL≤23 mm, the OR values were 0.334 (p = 0.059, 0.309 (p = 0.044, 0.266 (p = 0.019, 0.260 (p = 0.018, respectively, for 23 26 mm. The significance of vertical cup-to-disk ratio of (p = 0.004 and the extent of myopia (p = 0.008 did not change for the cutoff threshold at 0.30dB/y.VCDR and myopia were associated with VF prognosis of POAG. Axial myopia may be a protective factor against VF progression.

  17. Cytokine biomarkers in tear film for primary open-angle glaucoma

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    Gupta D

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Divakar Gupta,1,* Joanne C Wen,2,* Janet L Huebner,3 Sandra Stinnett,1 Virginia B Kraus,3,4 Henry C Tseng,1 Molly Walsh1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, 2Department of Ophthalmology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, 3Duke Molecular Physiology Institute, 4Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: To determine the utility of tear film cytokines as biomarkers for early primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG. Methods: Patients without POAG and eye drop-naïve patients with newly diagnosed POAG were recruited from an academic hospital-based glaucoma practice. Tear films of recruited patients were obtained and analyzed using a multiplex, high-sensitivity electrochemiluminescent enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for proinflammatory cytokines (IFNγ, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, and TNFα. Results: Mean concentrations of tear film cytokines were lower in the glaucoma group for 8 of 10 cytokines tested. IL-12p70 (3.94±2.19 pg/mL in control vs 2.31±1.156 pg/mL in POAG; P=0.035 was significantly lower in the tear film of patients with newly diagnosed POAG. Conclusion: Proinflammatory cytokines were lower in eye drop-naïve newly diagnosed glaucoma patients. Tear film cytokine profiles may be used as biomarkers of early POAG. Keywords: glaucoma, biomarkers, tear film, cytokines, glaucoma diagnosis, lower limit of detection

  18. Vascular tone pathway polymorphisms in relation to primary open-angle glaucoma

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    Kang, J H; Loomis, S J; Yaspan, B L; Bailey, J C; Weinreb, R N; Lee, R K; Lichter, P R; Budenz, D L; Liu, Y; Realini, T; Gaasterland, D; Gaasterland, T; Friedman, D S; McCarty, C A; Moroi, S E; Olson, L; Schuman, J S; Singh, K; Vollrath, D; Wollstein, G; Zack, D J; Brilliant, M; Sit, A J; Christen, W G; Fingert, J; Forman, J P; Buys, E S; Kraft, P; Zhang, K; Allingham, R R; Pericak-Vance, M A; Richards, J E; Hauser, M A; Haines, J L; Wiggs, J L; Pasquale, L R

    2014-01-01

    Aims Vascular perfusion may be impaired in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG); thus, we evaluated a panel of markers in vascular tone-regulating genes in relation to POAG. Methods We used Illumina 660W-Quad array genotype data and pooled P-values from 3108 POAG cases and 3430 controls from the combined National Eye Institute Glaucoma Human Genetics Collaboration consortium and Glaucoma Genes and Environment studies. Using information from previous literature and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways, we compiled single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 186 vascular tone-regulating genes. We used the ‘Pathway Analysis by Randomization Incorporating Structure' analysis software, which performed 1000 permutations to compare the overall pathway and selected genes with comparable randomly generated pathways and genes in their association with POAG. Results The vascular tone pathway was not associated with POAG overall or POAG subtypes, defined by the type of visual field loss (early paracentral loss (n=224 cases) or only peripheral loss (n=993 cases)) (permuted P≥0.20). In gene-based analyses, eight were associated with POAG overall at permuted P<0.001: PRKAA1, CAV1, ITPR3, EDNRB, GNB2, DNM2, HFE, and MYL9. Notably, six of these eight (the first six listed) code for factors involved in the endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity, and three of these six (CAV1, ITPR3, and EDNRB) were also associated with early paracentral loss at P<0.001, whereas none of the six genes reached P<0.001 for peripheral loss only. Discussion Although the assembled vascular tone SNP set was not associated with POAG, genes that code for local factors involved in setting vascular tone were associated with POAG. PMID:24603425

  19. DNA Copy Number Variants of Known Glaucoma Genes in Relation to Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma

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    Liu, Yutao; Garrett, Melanie E.; Yaspan, Brian L.; Bailey, Jessica Cooke; Loomis, Stephanie J.; Brilliant, Murray; Budenz, Donald L.; Christen, William G.; Fingert, John H.; Gaasterland, Douglas; Gaasterland, Terry; Kang, Jae H.; Lee, Richard K.; Lichter, Paul; Moroi, Sayoko E.; Realini, Anthony; Richards, Julia E.; Schuman, Joel S.; Scott, William K.; Singh, Kuldev; Sit, Arthur J.; Vollrath, Douglas; Weinreb, Robert; Wollstein, Gadi; Zack, Donald J.; Zhang, Kang; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.; Haines, Jonathan L.; Pasquale, Louis R.; Wiggs, Janey L.; Allingham, R. Rand; Ashley-Koch, Allison E.; Hauser, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. We examined the role of DNA copy number variants (CNVs) of known glaucoma genes in relation to primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). Methods. Our study included DNA samples from two studies (NEIGHBOR and GLAUGEN). All the samples were genotyped with the Illumina Human660W_Quad_v1 BeadChip. After removing non–blood-derived and amplified DNA samples, we applied quality control steps based on the mean Log R Ratio and the mean B allele frequency. Subsequently, data from 3057 DNA samples (1599 cases and 1458 controls) were analyzed with PennCNV software. We defined CNVs as those ≥5 kilobases (kb) in size and interrogated by ≥5 consecutive probes. We further limited our investigation to CNVs in known POAG-related genes, including CDKN2B-AS1, TMCO1, SIX1/SIX6, CAV1/CAV2, the LRP12-ZFPM2 region, GAS7, ATOH7, FNDC3B, CYP1B1, MYOC, OPTN, WDR36, SRBD1, TBK1, and GALC. Results. Genomic duplications of CDKN2B-AS1 and TMCO1 were each found in a single case. Two cases carried duplications in the GAS7 region. Genomic deletions of SIX6 and ATOH7 were each identified in one case. One case carried a TBK1 deletion and another case carried a TBK1 duplication. No controls had duplications or deletions in these six genes. A single control had a duplication in the MYOC region. Deletions of GALC were observed in five cases and two controls. Conclusions. The CNV analysis of a large set of cases and controls revealed the presence of rare CNVs in known POAG susceptibility genes. Our data suggest that these rare CNVs may contribute to POAG pathogenesis and merit functional evaluation. PMID:25414181

  20. Evaluation of Factors Influencing the Outcomes of Selective Laser Trabeculoplasty in Primary Open-Angle Glaucom

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    Necip Kara

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: To determine demographic and clinical factors that affect the outcomes of selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG. Ma te ri al and Met hod: In this retrospective study, we analyzed the medical records of 54 eyes of 39 patients who underwent SLT treatment for POAG. Effects of demographic characteristics including age, sex, treated eyes, and family history of glaucoma on SLT success were investigated. Effects of clinical features including baseline intraocular pressure (IOP, baseline number of antiglaucomatous medications, baseline cup to disc ratio (c/d, trabecular meshwork (TM pigmentation, central corneal thickness, and number of laser spots on SLT success were also evaluated. Success was defined as a ≥ 20% reduction in IOP without additional medications, laser, or glaucoma surgery. Re sults: Overall, 1-year after SLT, the mean IOP reduction was 4.7±3.2 mmHg and the mean success rate was 59.3±6%. Among the all investigated factors, only baseline IOP was a significant predictor for the efficacy of SLT in POAG (p<0.001, r=570. The SLT success was 45±10% in patients with a baseline IOP values less than 21 mmHg and 72±8% in patients with a baseline IOP of 21 mmHg or higher (p=0.036. Other factors were not significantly associated with SLT treatment efficacy. Dis cus si on: SLT success is significantly predicted by baseline IOP value. However, age, sex, family history of glaucoma, treated eye, baseline number of medications, c/d, degree of TM pigmentation, CCT, and number of laser spots are not associated with SLT efficacy. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2011; 41: 304-8

  1. The efficacy of viscocanalostomy for uncontrollable primary open-angle glaucoma in a developing country

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    Khodadad Moradian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of viscocanalostomy in the management of medically uncontrollable primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG in a developing country. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective, non-randomized case series of 14 consecutive eyes with medically uncontrollable POAG, all subjected to viscocanalostomy. The main outcome measure was success rate based on the intraocular pressure (IOP level achieved post-operatively. The procedure was considered a complete success if IOP was less than 21 mmHg without any anti-glaucoma medication. Qualified success was defined as IOP of less than 21 mmHg with anti-glaucoma medication. All patients had a regular follow-up of at least 12 months. Results: IOP was reduced from a mean baseline value of 27.9 ± 7.3 mmHg (range: 21-40 mmHg to a mean final value of 16.0 ± 2.7 mmHg (range: 13-22 mmHg, which was statistically highly significant (P < 0.005. The mean number of pre-operative anti-glaucoma medications was 3.0 ± 0.4 (range: 2-4, which was reduced significantly (P < 0.0001 to 0.3 ± 0.6 (range: 0-2 at the last follow-up visit. One year post-operatively, complete success was achieved in 71% and qualified success was observed in 21.4% of patients, summing up to an overall success rate of 92.4%. There were no major complications in any of the patients. Conclusion: Viscocanalostomy could be performed effectively and safely for control of POAG in developing countries.

  2. Myocilin polymorphisms and primary open-angle glaucoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Jin-Wei Cheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness in the world. Recent evidence indicates a role for genetic susceptibility to primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG. The relation between myocilin polymorphisms and POAG susceptibility has been studied in different populations. METHODS: A meta-analysis of 32 published genetic association case-control studies, which examined the relation between POAG and the R46X, R76K, Y347Y, T353I, and Q368X polymorphisms of the myocilin gene, was carried out. RESULTS: In meta-analysis, significant associations were observed between POAG risk and two myocilin polymorphisms with summarized odds ratio of 4.68 (95%CI, 2.02-10.85 for Q368X and 2.17 (95% CI, 1.32-3.57 for T353I. Both Q368X and T353I were significantly associated with high-tension glaucoma, with summarized odds ratio of 4.26 (1.69, 10.73 and 2.26 (1.37-3.72. In Westerners, significant association was observed for Q368X mutation (odds ratio, 5.17; 95% CI, 2.16-12.40. However, in Asians it was for T353I (odds ratio, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.32-3.57. CONCLUSIONS: There is strong evidence that myocilin polymorphisms are associated with POAG susceptibility, and the prevalence of myocilin mutations might be ethnicity-dependent in Caucasians for Q368X and in Asians for T353I.

  3. Discovery and functional annotation of SIX6 variants in primary open-angle glaucoma.

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    Megan Ulmer Carnes

    Full Text Available Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness worldwide. Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG is the most common subtype and is a complex trait with multigenic inheritance. Genome-wide association studies have previously identified a significant association between POAG and the SIX6 locus (rs10483727, odds ratio (OR = 1.32, p = 3.87×10(-11. SIX6 plays a role in ocular development and has been associated with the morphology of the optic nerve. We sequenced the SIX6 coding and regulatory regions in 262 POAG cases and 256 controls and identified six nonsynonymous coding variants, including five rare and one common variant, Asn141His (rs33912345, which was associated significantly with POAG (OR = 1.27, p = 4.2×10(-10 in the NEIGHBOR/GLAUGEN datasets. These variants were tested in an in vivo Danio rerio (zebrafish complementation assay to evaluate ocular metrics such as eye size and optic nerve structure. Five variants, found primarily in POAG cases, were hypomorphic or null, while the sixth variant, found only in controls, was benign. One variant in the SIX6 enhancer increased expression of SIX6 and disrupted its regulation. Finally, to our knowledge for the first time, we have identified a clinical feature in POAG patients that appears to be dependent upon SIX6 genotype: patients who are homozygous for the SIX6 risk allele (His141 have a statistically thinner retinal nerve fiber layer than patients homozygous for the SIX6 non-risk allele (Asn141. Our results, in combination with previous SIX6 work, lead us to hypothesize that SIX6 risk variants disrupt the development of the neural retina, leading to a reduced number of retinal ganglion cells, thereby increasing the risk of glaucoma-associated vision loss.

  4. Association of open-angle glaucoma loci with incident glaucoma in the Blue Mountains Eye Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdon, Kathryn P; Mitchell, Paul; Lee, Anne; Healey, Paul R; White, Andrew J R; Rochtchina, Elena; Thomas, Peter B M; Wang, Jie Jin; Craig, Jamie E

    2015-01-01

    To determine if open-angle glaucoma (OAG)-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with incident glaucoma and if such genetic information is useful in OAG risk prediction. Case-control from within a population-based longitudinal study. study population: Individuals aged over 49 years of age living in the Blue Mountains region west of Sydney and enrolled in the Blue Mountains Eye Study. observation: Cases for this sub-study (n = 67) developed incident OAG between baseline and 10-year visits, in either eye, while controls (n = 1919) had no evidence for OAG at any visit. All participants had an ocular examination and DNA genotyped for reported OAG risk SNPs. main outcome measure: Incident OAG. Two loci also known to be associated with cup-to-disc ratio as well as OAG (9p21 near CDKN2B-AS1 and SIX1/SIX6) were both significantly associated with incident OAG in the Blue Mountains Eye Study cohort (P = .006 and P = .004, respectively). The TMCO1 locus was nominally associated (P = .012), while the CAV1/CAV2 and 8q22 loci were not associated. Multivariate logistic regression and neural network analysis both indicated that the genetic risk factors contributed positively to the predictive models incorporating traditional risk factors. This study shows that previously reported genetic variations related to OAG and cup-to-disc ratio are associated with the onset of OAG and thus may become useful in risk prediction algorithms designed to target early treatment to those most at risk of developing glaucoma. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Mitochondrial sequence variation in African-American primary open-angle glaucoma patients.

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    David W Collins

    Full Text Available Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG is a major cause of blindness and results from irreversible retinal ganglion cell damage and optic nerve degeneration. In the United States, POAG is most prevalent in African-Americans. Mitochondrial genetics and dysfunction have been implicated in POAG, and potentially pathogenic sequence variations, in particular novel transversional base substitutions, are reportedly common in mitochondrial genomes (mtDNA from POAG patient blood. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the spectrum of sequence variation in mtDNA from African-American POAG patients and determine whether novel nonsynonymous, transversional or other potentially pathogenic sequence variations are observed more commonly in POAG cases than controls. mtDNA from African-American POAG cases (n = 22 and age-matched controls (n = 22 was analyzed by deep sequencing of a single 16,487 base pair PCR amplicon by Ion Torrent, and candidate novel variants were validated by Sanger sequencing. Sequence variants were classified and interpreted using the MITOMAP compendium of polymorphisms. 99.8% of the observed variations had been previously reported. The ratio of novel variants to POAG cases was 7-fold lower than a prior estimate. Novel mtDNA variants were present in 3 of 22 cases, novel nonsynonymous changes in 1 of 22 cases and novel transversions in 0 of 22 cases; these proportions are significantly lower (p<.0005, p<.0004, p<.0001 than estimated previously for POAG, and did not differ significantly from controls. Although it is possible that mitochondrial genetics play a role in African-Americans' high susceptibility to POAG, it is unlikely that any mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction is due to an abnormally high incidence of novel mutations that can be detected in mtDNA from peripheral blood.

  6. Structure and Function Relationship of Activated Retinal Glia in Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma Patients

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    Christoph Nützi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate clinically activated retinal astrocytes and Müller cells (ARAM regarding retinal sensitivity and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG. Methods. Central visual field (VF; i.e., retinal sensitivity was measured with a custom-made macular pattern by microperimetry and correlated with the presence (ARAM+ or absence (ARAM− of ARAM on red-free fundus photography and with the corresponding RNFL by optical coherence tomography (OCT. Results. In the eyes of POAG patients, ARAM+ had overall a significantly lower retinal sensitivity (ARAM+: 7.34 dB, ARAM−: 11.9 dB; p<0.001 and lower RNFL thickness in the inferior peripapillary quadrants compared to ARAM− (RNFL superior: ARAM+ 74.2 μm, ARAM− 77.5 μm; RNFL temporal: ARAM+ 46.8 μm, ARAM− 53.0 μm, p<0.001; and RNFL inferior: ARAM+ 63.2 μm, ARAM− 73.1 μm, p<0.001. Within the same eye, ARAM+ showed a lower retinal sensitivity compared to ARAM− ([ARAM− (11.13 dB] − [ARAM+ (9.56 dB = 1.57 dB; p=0.25. The proportion of ARAM+ per eye correlated strongly with reduced retinal light sensitivity (p=0.02, corresponding lower peripapillary RNFL thickness (p=0.02, and lower RNFL temporal quadrant thickness (p<0.01, but not with greater age (p=0.45. Conclusion. ARAM was more frequently identified in the eyes with a lower retinal sensitivity and peripapillary RNFL thickness and may be a clinical sign in the macula for an advanced stage of POAG.

  7. Rehabilitation of vision disorder and improved quality of life in patients with primary open angle glaucoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Rong-jiang; LIU Shao-rui; TIAN Zhen; ZHU Wen-hui; ZHUO YE-hong; LIAO Rui-duan

    2011-01-01

    Background Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is a common cause of irreversible blindness.The variable etiology of POAG poses significant challenges for treatment and rehabilitation.We analyzed a large POAG patient cohort during treatment to reveal possible causes of vision disorder,assess vision-related quality of life (VRQL),and to evaluate the efficacy of rehabilitative treatments.Methods We analyzed the visional disturbances in 500 POAG patients (890 eyes) by regular ophthalmic examination and visual field examination using Humphrey 30° perimetry.Appropriate rehabilitative treatments for POAG were prescribed based on results of clinical examination and included correction of ametropia,health education,counseling,and the fitting of typoscopes.VRQL was assessed before and after treatment by a VRQL self-assessment questionnaire.Results Scores on the VRQL self-assessment were significantly lower compared to healthy controls.The primary cause of the vision disturbances was ametropia (97.99%),and 51.61% of the ametropia eyes had not received appropriate correction.The secondary causes of visual impairment were glaucomatous neurodegeneration (26.29%),complicated cataract,or other accompanying eye diseases.The causes of the clinical low vision (44 patients) were glaucomatous neurodegeneration (32 eyes),fundus diseases (23 eyes),keratopathy (11 eyes),and other eye diseases (10 eyes).The VRQL scores of patients improved significantly after rehabilitation and the correction of ametropia (P<0.01).Twenty-five patients with low vision were provided with typoscopes,and 21 (84%) experienced significant functional recovery,while the remaining low vision patients could see letter lines two or more levels lower (smaller) on visual charts in a near vision test.Conclusions Vision disorders in POAG patients are common and severe.Appropriate rehabilitation,especially the correction of ametropia,can significantly improve VRQL as revealed by the self-assessment of POAG patients.

  8. Hierarchical cluster analysis of progression patterns in open-angle glaucoma patients with medical treatment.

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    Bae, Hyoung Won; Rho, Seungsoo; Lee, Hye Sun; Lee, Naeun; Hong, Samin; Seong, Gong Je; Sung, Kyung Rim; Kim, Chan Yun

    2014-04-29

    To classify medically treated open-angle glaucoma (OAG) by the pattern of progression using hierarchical cluster analysis, and to determine OAG progression characteristics by comparing clusters. Ninety-five eyes of 95 OAG patients who received medical treatment, and who had undergone visual field (VF) testing at least once per year for 5 or more years. OAG was classified into subgroups using hierarchical cluster analysis based on the following five variables: baseline mean deviation (MD), baseline visual field index (VFI), MD slope, VFI slope, and Glaucoma Progression Analysis (GPA) printout. After that, other parameters were compared between clusters. Two clusters were made after a hierarchical cluster analysis. Cluster 1 showed -4.06 ± 2.43 dB baseline MD, 92.58% ± 6.27% baseline VFI, -0.28 ± 0.38 dB per year MD slope, -0.52% ± 0.81% per year VFI slope, and all "no progression" cases in GPA printout, whereas cluster 2 showed -8.68 ± 3.81 baseline MD, 77.54 ± 12.98 baseline VFI, -0.72 ± 0.55 MD slope, -2.22 ± 1.89 VFI slope, and seven "possible" and four "likely" progression cases in GPA printout. There were no significant differences in age, sex, mean IOP, central corneal thickness, and axial length between clusters. However, cluster 2 included more high-tension glaucoma patients and used a greater number of antiglaucoma eye drops significantly compared with cluster 1. Hierarchical cluster analysis of progression patterns divided OAG into slow and fast progression groups, evidenced by assessing the parameters of glaucomatous progression in VF testing. In the fast progression group, the prevalence of high-tension glaucoma was greater and the number of antiglaucoma medications administered was increased versus the slow progression group. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  9. Stab Incision Glaucoma Surgery: A Modified Guarded Filtration Procedure for Primary Open Angle Glaucoma.

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    Jacob, Soosan; Figus, Michele; Ashok Kumar, Dhivya; Agarwal, Ashvin; Agarwal, Amar; Areeckal Incy, Saijimol

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To describe a modified guarded filtration surgery, stab incision glaucoma surgery (SIGS), for primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). Methods. This prospective, interventional case series included patients with POAG (IOP ≥21 mmHg with glaucomatous visual field defects). After sliding superior conjunctiva down over limbus, 2.8 mm bevel-up keratome was used to create conjunctival entry and superficial corneoscleral tunnel in a single step starting 1.5 mm behind limbus. Lamellar corneoscleral tunnel was carefully dissected 0.5-1 mm into cornea and anterior chamber (AC) was entered. Kelly Descemet's punch (1 mm) was slid along the tunnel into AC to punch internal lip of the tunnel, thereby compromising it. Patency of ostium was assessed by injecting fluid in AC and visualizing leakage from tunnel. Conjunctival incision alone was sutured. Results. Mean preoperative IOP was 27.41 ± 5.54 mmHg and mean postoperative IOP was 16.47 ± 4.81 mmHg (n = 17). Mean reduction in IOP was 38.81 ± 16.55%. There was significant reduction of IOP (p < 0.000). 64.7% had IOP at final follow-up of <18 mmHg without medication and 82.35% had IOP <18 mmHg with ≤2 medications. No sight threatening complications were encountered. Conclusion. Satisfactory IOP control was noted after SIGS in interim follow-up (14.18 ± 1.88 months).

  10. Stab Incision Glaucoma Surgery: A Modified Guarded Filtration Procedure for Primary Open Angle Glaucoma

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    Soosan Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To describe a modified guarded filtration surgery, stab incision glaucoma surgery (SIGS, for primary open angle glaucoma (POAG. Methods. This prospective, interventional case series included patients with POAG (IOP ≥21 mmHg with glaucomatous visual field defects. After sliding superior conjunctiva down over limbus, 2.8 mm bevel-up keratome was used to create conjunctival entry and superficial corneoscleral tunnel in a single step starting 1.5 mm behind limbus. Lamellar corneoscleral tunnel was carefully dissected 0.5–1 mm into cornea and anterior chamber (AC was entered. Kelly Descemet’s punch (1 mm was slid along the tunnel into AC to punch internal lip of the tunnel, thereby compromising it. Patency of ostium was assessed by injecting fluid in AC and visualizing leakage from tunnel. Conjunctival incision alone was sutured. Results. Mean preoperative IOP was 27.41±5.54 mmHg and mean postoperative IOP was 16.47±4.81 mmHg (n=17. Mean reduction in IOP was 38.81±16.55%. There was significant reduction of IOP (p<0.000. 64.7% had IOP at final follow-up of <18 mmHg without medication and 82.35% had IOP <18 mmHg with ≤2 medications. No sight threatening complications were encountered. Conclusion. Satisfactory IOP control was noted after SIGS in interim follow-up (14.18±1.88 months.

  11. Differential protein expression in tears of patients with primary open angle and pseudoexfoliative glaucoma.

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    Pieragostino, Damiana; Bucci, Sonia; Agnifili, Luca; Fasanella, Vincenzo; D'Aguanno, Simona; Mastropasqua, Alessandra; Ciancaglini, Marco; Mastropasqua, Leonardo; Di Ilio, Carmine; Sacchetta, Paolo; Urbani, Andrea; Del Boccio, Piero

    2012-04-01

    Primary open angle (POAG) and pseudoexfoliative glaucoma (PXG) are the most common primary and secondary forms of glaucoma, respectively. Even though the patho-physiology, aqueous humor composition, risk factors, clinical features, therapy and drug induced ocular surface changes in POAG and PXG have been widely studied, to date information concerning tear protein characterization is lacking. Tears are a source of nourishment for ocular surface tissues and a vehicle to remove local waste products, metabolized drugs and inflammatory mediators produced in several ophthalmic diseases. In glaucoma, the proteomic definition of tears may provide insights concerning patho-physiology of the disease and ocular surface modifications induced by topical therapy. Our study aimed at characterizing protein patterns in tears of patients with medically controlled POAG and PXG. A comparative tears proteomic analysis by label-free LC-MS(E) highlighted differences in the expression of several proteins in the two glaucoma sub-types and control subjects, highlighting inflammation pathways expressed in both diseases. Results were independently reconfirmed by SDS-PAGE and linear MALDI-TOF MS, validating altered levels of Lysozyme C, Lipocalin-1, Protein S100, Immunoglobulins and Prolactin Inducible Protein. Moreover, we found a differential pattern of phosphorylated Cystatin-S that distinguishes the two pathologies. The most relevant results suggest that in both pathologies there may be active inflammation pathways related to the disease and/or induced by therapy. We show, for the first time, tear protein patterns expressed under controlled intraocular pressure conditions in POAG and PXG subjects. These findings could help in the understanding of molecular machinery underlying these ophthalmologic diseases, resulting in early diagnosis and more specific therapy.

  12. Zinc transporter-8 autoantibodies can replace IA-2 autoantibodies as a serological marker for juvenile onset type 1 diabetes in India

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    C Shivaprasad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Zinc transporter-8 (ZnT8 is an islet cell secretory granule membrane protein recently identified as an autoantigen in type 1 diabetes (T1D. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of antibodies to ZnT8 (ZnT8A in juvenile onset T1D and to determine the utility of ZnT8A as an independent marker of autoimmunity either alone in antibody-negative subjects or in conjunction with glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD and insulinoma-2 antigen antibodies (GADA and IA2A. Research Design: ZnT8A, GADA, and IA2A were measured in sera of consecutive T1D patients (n = 88, age range 2-18 years within 4 years of diagnosis and 88 sex-matched controls. Results: The prevalences of GADA, ZnT8a, and IA2A were 64.7%, 31.8% and 19.3%, respectively. In newly diagnosed patients, the frequency of ZnT8A was 45%. ZnT8A were positive in 26% of patients negative for both GADA and IA2A. IA2A were positive only in two patients who were negative for other two antibodies. Combined use of ZnT8A and GADA could detect 97% of antibody positive patients. In receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis, the performances of GADA and ZnT8As were better than that of IA2A; and AUCs of GADA, ZnT8A, and IA2A for the prediction of T1D were 0.8, 0.65, and 0.59, respectively. Conclusions: ZnT8A complements GADA and increases the diagnostic sensitivity for detection of autoimmunity in juvenile-onset T1D. Inclusion of ZnT8A increases the proportion of patients with antibody positivity to nearly 80%. ZnT8A can replace IA2A as a serological marker for autoimmunity in Indian T1D patients without loss of sensitivity and specificity.

  13. Enhanced Apoptosis of Monocytes from Complication-Free Juvenile-Onset Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 May Be Ameliorated by TNF-α Inhibitors

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    Jolanta Myśliwska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus type 1 is associated with an enhanced apoptosis of different cells and tissues, accelerating occurrence of diabetic microvascular complications. The aim of our study was to determine spontaneous apoptotic potential of the monocyte subsets in juvenile-onset complication-free diabetes mellitus type 1 and to compare them with the corresponding values of the healthy. Moreover, we wanted to assess effects of TNF-R1 blocking agents and those of general TNF-α blocker (Infliximab on spontaneous apoptosis of monocytes. Sixty randomly selected DM1 patients (14.5 ± 3.2 years and 30 healthy (13.5 ± 2.8 years volunteers were enrolled in the study. Our results indicate that three monocyte subsets are distinguishable in the groups of young diabetic patients and the healthy, similarly to in the blood of adults. DM1 patients were characterized by higher values of apoptotic monocytes than the healthy. The manipulation with drugs inhibiting TNF-R1 expression diminished the pool of CD16+ apoptotic monocytes. Infliximab reduced the apoptotic CD16− cells. In conclusion, diabetes mellitus type 1 is associated with greater apoptosis of three monocyte subsets which may contribute to the development of microvascular complications. TNF-α modifiers appear to ameliorate monocyte apoptosis. They may be useful for controlling excessive monocyte apoptosis in diabetic patients.

  14. The relationship between CAG repeat length and age of onset differs for Huntington's disease patients with juvenile onset or adult onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, J Michael; Gayán, Javier; Djoussé, Luc; Roberts, Simone; Brocklebank, Denise; Cherny, Stacey S; Cardon, Lon R; Gusella, James F; MacDonald, Marcy E; Myers, Richard H; Housman, David E; Wexler, Nancy S

    2007-05-01

    Age of onset for Huntington's disease (HD) varies inversely with the length of the disease-causing CAG repeat expansion in the HD gene. A simple exponential regression model yielded adjusted R-squared values of 0.728 in a large set of Venezuelan kindreds and 0.642 in a North American, European, and Australian sample (the HD MAPS cohort). We present evidence that a two-segment exponential regression curve provides a significantly better fit than the simple exponential regression. A plot of natural log-transformed age of onset against CAG repeat length reveals this segmental relationship. This two-segment exponential regression on age of onset data increases the adjusted R-squared values by 0.012 in the Venezuelan kindreds and by 0.035 in the HD MAPS cohort. Although the amount of additional variance explained by the segmental regression approach is modest, the two slopes of the two-segment regression are significantly different from each other in both the Venezuelan kindreds [F(2, 439) = 11.13, P= 2 x 10(-5)] and in the HD MAPS cohort [F(2, 688) = 38.27, P= 2 x 10(-16)]. In both populations, the influence of each CAG repeat on age of onset appears to be stronger in the adult-onset range of CAG repeats than in the juvenile-onset range.

  15. Variants in the ASB10 Gene Are Associated with Primary Open Angle Glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shazia Micheal

    Full Text Available Recently nonsynonymous coding variants in the ankyrin repeats and suppressor of cytokine signaling box-containing protein 10 (ASB10 gene were found to be associated with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG in cohorts from Oregon and Germany, but this finding was not confirmed in an independent cohort from Iowa. The aim of the current study was to assess the role of ASB10 gene variants in Pakistani glaucoma patients.Sanger sequencing of the coding exons and splice junctions of the ASB10 gene was performed in 30 probands of multiplex POAG families, 208 sporadic POAG patients and 151 healthy controls from Pakistan. Genotypic associations of individual variants with POAG were analyzed with the Fisher's exact or Chi-square test.In total 24 variants were identified in POAG probands and sporadic patients, including 11 novel variants and 13 known variants. 13 of the variants were nonsynonymous, 6 were synonymous, and 5 were intronic. Three nonsynonymous variants (p.Arg49Cys, p.Arg237Gly, p.Arg453Cys identified in the probands were not segregating in the respective families. This is not surprising since glaucoma is a multifactorial disease, and multiple factors are likely to be involved in the disease manifestation in these families. However a nonsynonymous variant, p.Arg453Cys (rs3800791, was found in 6 sporadic POAG patients but not in controls, suggesting that it infers increased risk for the disease. In addition, one synonymous variant was found to be associated with sporadic POAG: p.Ala290Ala and the association of the variant with POAG remained significant after correction for multiple testing (uncorrected p-value 0.002, corrected p-value 0.047. The cumulative burden of rare, nonsynonymous variants was significantly higher in sporadic POAG patients compared to control individuals (p-value 0.000006.Variants in ASB10 were found to be significantly associated with sporadic POAG in the Pakistani population. This supports previous findings that sequence

  16. Influence of initial visual field sensitivity on visual field loss progression in open angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hentova-Senćanić Paraskeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. It is important to know the risk factors for visual field defect progression in order to predict the future development of glaucoma. Objective. To investigate the influence of visual field initial sensitivity on the rate of visual field progression. Methods. A minimum of five visual fields were performed using computerized perimetry (Octopus over a mean follow- up 4-year period (48.85±17.84 months in 64 persons (114 eyes with primary open angle glaucoma. The rate of change of the whole central visual field and each of the seven regions of the field were measured by linear regression analysis of the mean sensitivity value versus time. Based on the slope of the regression line of visual field mean sensitivity over time the eyes were divided into two groups: the group with stable and the group with progressive visual field. The comparison of the mean sensitivity of the whole central visual field between the groups was performed using the Mann-Whitney U-test. The Spearman rang correlation coefficient and the Spearman probability p values were calculated to assess the mean sensitivity of the whole central visual field and of each visual field regions determined at the beginning of the study. Results. The initial mean sensitivity of the whole central visual field was lower in the group with progressive visual field (16.62±6.35 dB. Correlation between the initial mean sensitivity and the slope of the regression line was negative. The lowest mean sensitivity was in the group with progressive visual field in the upper temporal (13.73±7.35 dB, nasal (14.74±7.23 dB and upper nasal (15.03±7.75 dB regions. Conclusion. The lower mean sensitivity value of the visual field, especially in the nasal and upper nasal visual field regions, carries a greater risk for delayed progressive loss of the visual field in persons with glaucoma.

  17. Body height, estimated cerebrospinal fluid pressure and open-angle glaucoma. The Beijing Eye Study 2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jost B Jonas

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To examine potential associations between body height, cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP, trans-lamina cribrosa pressure difference (TLCPD and prevalence of open-angle glaucoma (OAG in a population-based setting. METHODS: The population-based Beijing Eye Study 2011 included 3468 individuals with a mean age of 64.6 ± 9.8 years (range:50-93 years. A detailed ophthalmic examination was performed. Based on a previous study with lumbar cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP measurements, CSFP was calculated as CSFP[mmHg] = 0.44 × Body Mass Index[kg/m(2] + 0.16 × Diastolic Blood Pressure[mmHg]-0.18 × Age[Years]-1.91. RESULTS: Data of IOP and CSFP were available for 3353 (96.7% subjects. Taller body height was associated with higher CSFP (P<0.001; standardized correlation coefficient beta:0.13; regression coefficient B:0.29; 95% confidence interval (CI:0.25,0.33 after adjusting for male gender, urban region of habitation, higher educational level, and pulse rate. If TLCPD instead of CSFP was added, taller body height was associated with lower TLCPD (P<0.001;beta:-0.10;B:-0.20;95%CI:-0.25,-0.15. Correspondingly, higher CSFP was associated with taller body height (P = 0.003;beta:0.02;B:0.01;95%CI:0.00,0.02, after adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, pulse, systolic blood pressure, and blood concentration of cholesterol. If IOP was added to the model, higher CSFP was associated with higher IOP (P<0.001;beta:0.02;B:0.02;95%CI:0.01,0.03. TLCPD was associated with lower body height (P = 0.003;beta:-0.04;B -0.02,95%CI:-0.04,-0.01 after adjusting for age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, pulse, blood concentrations of triglycerides, axial length, central corneal thickness, corneal curvature radius, and anterior chamber depth. Adding the prevalence of OAG to the multivariate analysis revealed, that taller body height was associated with a lower OAG prevalence (P = 0.03;beta:-0.03;B:-1.20;95%CI:-2.28,-0.12 after adjusting for

  18. Cognitive performance of primary open-angle glaucoma and normal-tension glaucoma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Bulut

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To assess cognitive performance differences among primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG patients, normal-tension glaucoma (NTG patients, and healthy control (C subjects. Methods: A total of 60 participants (20 POAG, 20 NTG, and 20 C subjects were included in this study. A detailed ophthalmologic examination was performed on all participants. A spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT system was used to measure the ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GC-IPL and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thicknesses. To assess the cognitive performance of all participants, detailed neurological examinations, including the mini-mental state examination (MMSE, were performed by the same neurologist. Results: There were no significant differences among the groups in terms of age (p =0.348 or gender (p =0.935. The mean RNFL thicknesses were significantly different among the groups (85.2 ± 14.7, 76.8 ± 10.3, and 91.4 ± 7.7 µm in the POAG, NTG, and C subjects, respectively; p <0.001. The mean GC-IPL thicknesses were 77.5 ± 9.7 µm in the POAG group, 73.4 ± 7.8 µm in the NTG group, and 78.8 ± 3.8 µm in the C group. Differences among the groups were not statistically significant (p =0.085. MMSE scores were 26.1 ± 1.4, 25.7 ± 2.3, and 28.8 ± 0.9 in the POAG, NTG, and C groups, respectively. There were significant differences among the three groups (p <0.001. Specifically, there were significant differences between the NTG and C groups (p <0.001, and between the POAG and C groups (p =0.001. There was no significant difference between the POAG and NTG groups (p =0.595. Conclusions: There appear to be similar risk factors in glaucoma and neurodegenerative disorders that cause deterioration in cognitive performance. Comparing the low MMSE scores of the POAG and NTG patients with the scores of healthy C participants supports our hypothesis. Consequently, it is recommended that a neurologist should also examine glaucoma patients.

  19. Comparison of ocular response analyzer parameters in primary open angle glaucoma and exfoliative glaucoma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emrullah Beyazyildiz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: We sought to identify differences in the following measures of the ocular response analyser (ORA between primary open angle glaucoma (POAG and exfoliative glaucoma (EXG patients: Corneal hysteresis (CH, corneal resistance factor (CRF, corneal-compensated intraocular pressure (IOPcc and Goldmann-correlated intraocular pressure (IOPg. We also sought to relate these ORA measures with central corneal thickness (CCT. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on a total of 162 individuals (46 EXG patients, 66 POAG patients and 50 healthy subjects without any ocular and systemic disease. ORA measurements were performed, and a minimum of three readings were obtained from each test subject. Groups were compared according to their ORA parameters. Results: The mean CH levels of the EXG, POAG and healthy subjects were 7.6 ± 2.1, 9.1 ± 1.9 and 9.6 ± 1.7 mmHg, respectively. CH was significantly lower in the EXG patients compared to the other groups (P < 0.001.The mean CRF levels of the EXG, POAG and healthy subjects were 9.0 ± 2.0, 10.1 ± 1.7 and 9.8 ± 1.8mmHg, respectively. CRF levels in the eyes of the EXG patients were significantly lower compared to those of either the POAG patients (P = 0.005 or the healthy subjects (P = 0.03, but there was no significant difference in CRF levels between the POAG patients and the healthy subjects (P = 0.59. There was a significant positive correlation between CH and CCT in the EXG patients and healthy subjects (P < 0.001, but this correlation was not present in the POAG patients (P = 0.70. Conclusions: In this study, CH and CRF were found to be significantly reduced in the eyes of EXG patients compared to both the POAG patients and healthy subjects. Reduced CH in EXG patients might result in decreased support of peripapillary scleral structure and increased damage to the optic nerve during IOP increase.

  20. Comparison of Dimensional Accuracy between Open-Tray and Closed-Tray Implant Impression Technique in 15° Angled Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balouch F.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Various impression techniques have different effects on the accuracy of final cast dimensions. Meanwhile; there are some controversies about the best technique. Purpose: This study was performed to compare two kinds of implant impression methods (open tray and closed tray on 15 degree angled implants.Materials and Method: In this experimental study, a steel model with 8 cm in diameter and 3 cm in height were produced with 3 holes devised inside to stabilize 3 implants. The central implant was straight and the other two implants were 15° angled. The two angled implants had 5 cm distance from each other and 3.5 cm from the central implant. Dental stone, high strength (type IV was used for the main casts. Impression trays were filled with poly ether, and then the two impression techniques (open tray and closed tray were compared. To evaluate positions of the implants, each cast was analyzed by CMM device in 3 dimensions (x,y,z. Differences in the measurements obtained from final casts and laboratory model were analyzed using t-Test. Results: The obtained results indicated that closed tray impression technique was significantly different in dimensional accuracy when compared with open tray method. Dimensional changes were 129 ± 37μ and 143.5 ± 43.67μ in closed tray and open tray, while coefficient of variation in closed- tray and open tray were reported to be 27.2% and 30.4%, respectively.Conclusion: Closed impression technique had less dimensional changes in comparison with open tray method, so this study suggests that closed tray impression technique is more accurate.

  1. Short-term effect of latanoprost and timolol eye drops on tear fluid and the ocular surface in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, John; Aaen, Kim; Theodorsen, F.;

    2000-01-01

    ophthalmology, open-angle glaucoma, ocular hypertension, glaucoma therapy, latanoprost, timolol, Rose-Bengal test, break-up time, Schirmer-1-test, conjunctival impression cytology......ophthalmology, open-angle glaucoma, ocular hypertension, glaucoma therapy, latanoprost, timolol, Rose-Bengal test, break-up time, Schirmer-1-test, conjunctival impression cytology...

  2. A novel MYOC heterzygous mutation identified in a Chinese Uygur pedigree with primary open-angle glaucoma

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Su-ping; Muhemaiti, Paerheti; Yin, Yan; Cheng, Hongbo; Di Ya, A.; Keyimu, Maliyamu; Cao, Xu; Fan, Ning; JIANG, LIQIONG; Yan, Naihong; Zhou, Xiaomin; Wang, Yun; Liu, Xuyang

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To characterize the clinical features of a Chinese Uygur pedigree with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and to identify mutations in two candidate genes, trabecular meshwork inducible glucocorticoid response (MYOC/TIGR) and human dioxin-inducible cytochrome P450 (CYP1B1). Methods Twenty one members from a Chinese Uygur family of four generations were included in the study. All participants underwent complete ophthalmologic examinations. Five were diagnosed as POAG, four as glaucoma ...

  3. Comparison of Dimensional Accuracy between Open-Tray and Closed-Tray Implant Impression Technique in 15° Angled Implants

    OpenAIRE

    Balouch F.; Jalalian E; Nikkheslat M.; Ghavamian R.; Toopchi Sh.; Jallalian F.; Jalalian S.

    2013-01-01

    Statement of Problem: Various impression techniques have different effects on the accuracy of final cast dimensions. Meanwhile; there are some controversies about the best technique. Purpose: This study was performed to compare two kinds of implant impression methods (open tray and closed tray) on 15 degree angled implants. Materials and Method: In this experimental study, a steel model with 8 cm in diameter and 3 cm in height were produced with 3 holes devised inside to stabilize 3 implants....

  4. Comment on “Short-term effects of relaxation music on patients suffering from primary open-angle glaucoma”

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Abdullah Kaya,1 Yakup Aksoy,2 Mehmet Koray Sevinç,3 Oktay Diner41Department of Ophthalmology, Anittepe Military Dispansery, Ankara, Turkey; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Girne Military Hospital, Girne, Cyprus; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Beytepe Military Hospital, Ankara, 4Department of Ophthalmology, Erzurum Military Hospital, Erzurum, TurkeyWe read the current study “Short-term effects of relaxation music on patients suffering from primary open-angle glaucoma” by Bertel...

  5. Changes of fundus blood flow state of patients with open-angle glaucoma before and after the treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huai-Jie Huang; Mei-Min Niu; Yi Yang; Ke-Qin Li

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To To study and observe the change situation of fundus blood flow state of patients with open-angle glaucoma before and after the treatment.Methods:A total of 60 patients with open-angle glaucoma treated in our hospital from October 2013 to May 2015 were selected as the observation group, and 60 healthy persons with physical examination at the same period were the control group, then the RI, PI, PSV, EDV and VM levels of ocular artery, central retinal artery and posterior ciliary artery of observation group before the treatment and at 2th, 4th, 8th and 12th week after the treatment and control group were compared.Results:The RI and PI levels of ocular artery, central retinal artery and posterior ciliary artery of observation group before the treatment and at 2th, 4th and 8th week after the treatment were higher than those of control group, while the PSV, EDV and VM levels of ocular artery, central retinal artery and posterior ciliary artery were lower than those of control group. The detection results of observation group at different time after the treatment were better than those before the treatment, and there were significant differences (P0.05).Conclusions:The changes of fundus blood flow state of patients with open-angle glaucoma before and after the treatment are great, and the various artery blood flow presents continuous improvement.

  6. The Effect of Confluence Angle on the Flow Pattern at a Rectangular Open-Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Rooniyan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Flow connection in channels is a phenomenon which frequently happens in rivers, water and drainage channels and urban sewage systems. The phenomenon appears to be more complex in rivers than in channels, especially at the y-junction bed joint that causes erosion and sedimentation at some areas resulting to morphological changes. Flow behavior at the channel junction area depends on variables such as channel geometry, discharge ratio, tributary width and y-junction connection angle of the channel, bed level changes at the bed joint, flow characteristic at the bed joint upstream and flow Froude number in different sections. In this research, fluent numerical model and junction angles of 30o, 45o & 60o are used to analyze and evaluate the effect of channel junction geometry on the flow pattern and the flow separation zone dimensions in different ratios of flow discharge (upstream channel discharge to total discharge of the flow. Results for two ratios of flow discharge are represented. Results are in agreement with earlier studies and it is shown that the change of the channel crossing angle affects the flow pattern in the main channel and also that the dimensions of the created separation zone in the main channel become larger when the crossing angle increases. This phenomenon can also be observed when the flow discharge ratio is lower. Analysis showed that the least dimension of the separation zone will be at the crossing angle of 45o .

  7. Validity and cost-effectiveness of methods for screening of primary open angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fröschl, Barbara

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Health political background: About 950,000 people are affected by glaucoma in Germany, about 50% of which are undiagnosed. The German Ophthalmological Society and the German Association of Ophthalmologists recommend a screening for glaucoma according to their guidelines. The Federal Joint Committee disapproved a glaucoma-screening program on expense of the compulsory health insurance in 2004. Scientific background: Primary open angle glaucoma is diagnosed by evaluation of the optic disc, the retinal fibre layer and the visual field. The main examinations are ophthalmoscopy, scanning laser polarimetry, confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, retinal thickness analysis and optical coherence tomography. Scotomas are diagnosed by perimetry (standard automated perimetry, short wavelength automated perimetry and frequency doubling perimetry. The intraocular pressure is the most important treatable risk factor and is measured by (contact or non-contact tonometry. Research questions: The aim of this HTA-report is to investigate the diagnostic validity and cost effectiveness of diagnostic techniques or combinations of these methods with respect to the use in a screening setting in Germany. Methods: A systematic literature research was performed in 35 international databases and yielded 2602 articles. Overall 57 publications were included for assessment, according to predefined selection criteria. Results: The 55 medical articles deal mainly with frequency doubling perimetry, confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and scanning laser polarimetry. Few articles cover short wavelength automated perimetry, tonometry and ophalmocopic evaluations by ophthalmologists. The quality of the papers is generally low, as far as the evidence in respect of screening is concerned. No single method exists with both, high sensitivity and high specificity for screening purpose. Data are also not sufficient to recommend combinations of methods. Only two economic models on cost

  8. 幼年发病型脊柱关节病的临床特征%Clinical characters of juvenile onset spondyloarthropathies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张江林; 黄烽

    2001-01-01

    目的 提高对幼年发病型脊柱关节病(JSpA)的认识。方法 分析190例JSpA患者的临床、实验室及放射学资料,并对幼年发病关节炎的诊断、分类和鉴别进行讨论。结果 190例JSpA中,男性163例,女性27例,男女之比为6∶1,发病年龄3~16岁,平均(12±3)岁,8岁后发病175例,占92.1%;157例(82.6%)患者首先出现的是外周关节炎,23例(12.1%)以腰背痛为第一症状,病程中共有187例(98.4%)的患者出现了外周关节炎,123例(64.7%)患者有或有过腰背疼痛史,外周关节炎与腰背疼痛出现的时间间隔,从同时发生到间隔20年,平均3.2年。67例(35.3%)有肌腱端炎的表现,20例(10.5%)腊肠指(趾),9例虹膜炎。HLA-B27的阳性率为87.9%,76.0%有X线证实的骶髂关节炎。在190例患者中,106例患者确诊幼年强直性脊柱炎(JAS),此组患者平均病程6.3年,明显长于JSpA组(P<0.01)。结论 JSpA的概念有助于提高对儿童关节炎的认识,半数以上JSpA患者约在发病6.3年后发展为幼年强直性脊柱炎。%Objective To better understand the clinical characters of juvenile onset spondyloarthropa-thies (JSpA).Methods The clinical and laboratory data of 190 in-patients with JSpA were analyzed and the diagnosis,classification and differentiation of juvenile onset arthritis were discussed.Results Among these 190 patients,163 were male,with a male to female ratio 6∶1.Of them 92.1% had the disease after the age of 8.Peak of age at onset was 12 to 15 years;157(82.6%) patients had peripheral arthritis and only 23(12.1%) patients felt low back pain at onset.During the disease course, peripheral arthritis was found in 187(98.4%) patients and the history of low back pain or buttock pain was recorded in 123(64.7%).The interval between peripheral arthritis and low back pain was from 0 to 20 years,with an average of (3.2±4.5)years.Extra-articular features including enthesitis in 67

  9. A comparison of the circadian rhythm of intraocular pressure in primary phronic angle closure glaucoma, primary open angle glaucoma and normal eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sihota Ramanjit

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the circadian rhythm of intraocular pressure (IOP in primary chronic angle closure glaucoma (PCACG, primary open angle glaucoma (POAG, and normal eyes. Methods: Cross-sectional study of newly diagnosed patients of POAG (60 eyes, PCACG following laser iridotomy (75 eyes, and age and sex matched normal controls (75 eyes. All subjects underwent applanation tonometry at 7 a.m., 10 a.m., 1 p.m., 4 p.m., 7 p.m., and 10 p.m. by a masked observer. Circadian rhythms were classified based upon the timing and presence of peak pressure. Results: Age and gender in all three groups were comparable. Diurnal IOP fluctuations were significantly higher in PCACG (7.69 + 3.03 mmHg and POAG (8.31 + 2.58 mmHg groups compared to normal controls (4.83 + 2.46 mmHg. PCACG eyes and controls had similarly timed circadian rhythms, with PCACG eyes having a consistently higher IOP. At 7 and 10 a.m., IOP peaked more often in POAG eyes compared to PCACG eyes. A plateau type of circadian rhythm was most common in normal eyes. The timing of peak IOP could be significantly correlated with the type of primary glaucoma examined. Conclusion: Afternoon peaks were more common in postiridotomy PCACG eyes, similar to the rhythm in normal eyes. Morning peaks were more frequent in POAG eyes. Diurnal fluctuation > 6 mmHg, associated with an IOP of 21 mmHg or more was never seen in a normal eye.

  10. Relative size of the eye and orbit: an evolutionary and craniofacial constraint model for examining the etiology and disparate incidence of juvenile-onset myopia in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Michael P

    2012-05-01

    within the confines of the orbital walls. The results of this study indicate that future research examining the etiology of juvenile-onset myopia, and particularly its correlation with ancestry, sex, age, and intelligence, should consider how the eye interacts with the matrix of structural and functional components of the skull during both ontogenetic and evolutionary morphogenesis.

  11. The influence of venous blood flow on the retinal ganglion cell complex in patients with primary open angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Kurysheva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the influence of venous blood flow on the ganglion cell complex (GCC in patients with preperimetric and perimetric open angle glaucoma.Methods: 74 patients were included in the research. 59 eyes and 62 eyes were diagnosed with preperimetric and perimetric open angle glaucoma respectively. The mean age was 56.5±10.5 years. 22 (12 female and 10 male healthy individuals constituted the control group. The ganglion cell complex and retinal nerve fibre layer were evaluated with the help of optical coherence tomography (RTVue-100 OCT, Optovue, Inc., Fremont, CA. Ocular blood flow was measured by Color Doppler Imaging (multifunctional VOLUSON 730 ProSystem. The statistical analysis included correlation between GCC and RNFL thickness in both glaucoma groups.Results: The results showed a statistically significant reduction of venous blood flow velocity in both glaucoma groups compared to the control group. No difference in venous blood flow parameters between two glaucoma groups was found, except resistance index, which was higher in perimetric group in comparison to preperimetric group. A correlation was also obtained between venous blood flow parameters and GCC and RNFL thickness in both glaucoma groups.Conclusion: Early GCC damage in glaucoma might occur due to venous blood flow reduction. This fact may be of great value in understanding glaucoma pathogenesis and search for novel treatment options.

  12. Effects of self-relaxation methods and visual imagery on IOP in patients with open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluza, G; Strempel, I

    1995-01-01

    In this study, the effects of a training in relaxation and visual imagery on the intra-ocular pressure (IOP) of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma were investigated. Twenty-three patients, aged 24-69 years, were assigned either to a training group or to a waiting-list control group. The intervention included a basic programme (BP) of standard autogenic relaxation exercises and an advanced programme (AP) in which special exercises in ocular relaxation and imagination of aqueous humour drainage were conducted. IOP was measured before and after each training session. Twenty-four-hour IOP profiles were ascertained, and the water drinking test to provoke maximum IOP levels was performed during clinical assessments prior to the training, between the BP and the AP and after termination of the training. Results indicate only slight short-term changes of IOP levels immediately after each training session. However, during the course of the BP as well as of the AP a relevant decrease in IOP could be measured. Twenty-four-hour IOP profiles as well as the water drinking test also showed significant reductions of IOP during time. Medication could be reduced for 56% of the initially treated patients. The findings suggest that relaxation and visual imagery techniques can be beneficial in reducing elevated IOP levels in patients with open-angle glaucoma though the conclusiveness of the data is limited due to methodological shortcomings.

  13. Constraining the lifetime and opening angle of quasars using fluorescent Ly a emission: the case of Q0420-388

    CERN Document Server

    Borisova, Elena; Cantalupo, Sebastiano; Prochaska, J Xavier; Rakic, Olivera; Worseck, Gabor

    2015-01-01

    A toy model is developed to understand how the spatial distribution of fluorescent emitters in the vicinity of bright quasars could be affected by the geometry of the quasar bi-conical radiation field and by the quasar lifetime. We then compare the predictions of this model to a sample of high equivalent width Ly a emitters (EW0 > 100 A) that were identified in a deep narrow-band 36x36 arcmin2 image centered on the luminous quasar Q0420-388. These are identified to the edge of the field and show some evidence of an azimuthal asymmetry on the sky of the type expected if the quasar is radiating in a bipolar cone. If these sources are being fluorescently illuminated by the quasar, then the two most distant sources require a lifetime of at least 15 Myr for an opening angle of 60 degrees or more, increasing to more than 40 Myr if the opening angle is reduced to a minimum 30 degrees. The overall distribution of all of the sources across the field gives best fit lifetimes in the range 20 < t < 50 Myr for openi...

  14. Evalutation of efficiency of dynamic laser magnetic stimulation of eye drainage system of patients with open angle glaucomatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidelnikova V.S.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to develop a comprehensive treatment aimed at improving uveoscleral outflow in the application of dynamic laser magnetic stimulation of the drainage system of the eye and evaluation of its effectiveness in treating patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG. Material. 106 patients diagnosed POAG I, II, III stages were examined. Group 1 consisted of 62 patients treated with medical therapy and dynamic laser magnetic stimulation of the drainage system of the eye using the "AMO-ATOS-ICL", produced by JSC "TRIMA", Saratov. Group 2 consisted of 64 patients who received only medical therapy. Comprehensive survey including standard eye examination, static perimetry, visual evoked potentials study, the study of intraocular blood flow was conducted to all patients. Analysis of the results of the complex therapeutic effects showed that as the result of treatment 73% of patients had a decrease of intraocular pressure and the ease factor outflow increase. 52% of patients had a decrease in the number and area of relative. 63% of patients had activation of intraocular blood flow. These indices remained stable for three months. Conclusion. The treatment with the technique of dynamic laser magnetic stimulation of the drainage system of the eye of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma leads to lower intraocular pressure, and to the improvement of dopple-rographic and perimetric indications.

  15. Open-loop GPS signal tracking at low elevation angles from a ground-based observation site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyerle, Georg; Zus, Florian

    2016-04-01

    For more than a decade space-based global navigation satellite system (GNSS) radio occultation (RO) observations are used by meteorological services world-wide for their numerical weather prediction models. In addition, climate studies increasingly rely on validated GNSS-RO data sets of atmospheric parameters. GNSS-RO profiles typically cover an altitude range from the boundary layer up to the upper stratosphere; their highest accuracy and precision, however, are attained at the tropopause level. In the lower troposphere, multipath ray propagation tend to induce signal amplitude and frequency fluctuations which lead to the development and implementation of open-loop signal tracking methods in GNSS-RO receiver firmwares. In open-loop mode the feed-back values for the carrier tracking loop are derived not from measured data, but from a Doppler frequency model which usually is extracted from an atmospheric climatology. In order to ensure that this receiver-internal parameter set, does not bias the carrier phase path observables, dual-channel open-loop GNSS-RO signal tracking was suggested. Following this proposal the ground-based "GLESER" (GPS low-elevation setting event recorder) campaign was established. Its objective was to disproof the existence of model-induced frequency biases using ground-based GPS observations at very low elevation angles. Between January and December 2014 about 2600 validated setting events, starting at geometric elevation angles of +2° and extending to -1°… - 1.5°, were recorded by the single frequency "OpenGPS" GPS receiver at a measurement site located close to Potsdam, Germany (52.3808°N, 13.0642°E). The study is based on the assumption that these ground-based observations may be used as proxies for space-based RO measurements, even if the latter occur on a one order of magnitude faster temporal scale. The "GLESER" data analysis shows that the open-loop Doppler model has negligible influence on the derived frequency profile

  16. On the mechanics of low-angle normal faults: interdisciplinary observations and open questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collettini, C.

    2016-12-01

    "Standard" frictional fault reactivation predicts that in an extending crust normal faults should cease to slip at dips of 30°. This mechanical prediction is consistent with the absence on continental low-angle normal faults, LANF, of moderate-to-large earthquakes where the rupture plane is unambiguously discriminated. In marked contrast, widespread geological data and seismic reflection profiles show that LANF have played a key-role in crustal extension. In the last 15 years we have tried to address this LANF paradox focusing on the Northern Apennines of Italy by comparing active with ancient-exhumed LANFs of the same fault system. In the active (3 mm/yr) extending area geophysical data define a regional LANF characterized by locked and creeping (1.7 mm/yr) portions with interspersed microseismicity (about 3 events per day, ML seismological records. Although the above conditions can be invoked to explain some aspects of LANF mechanics, they do not represent the solution of the LANF paradox. First, a widespread development of phyllosilicates does not seem to be a common feature in plenty of exhumed LANF. Second, a significant number of LANF formed as gently dipping structures within a brittle crust characterized by a vertical S1 and a well-constrained mechanical explanation for LANF initiation is still lacking. These two points highlight an important gap of knowledge in fault mechanics.

  17. Large angle CMB anisotropy in an open universe in the one-bubble inflationary scenario

    CERN Document Server

    Yamamoto, K; Tanaka, T; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Sasaki, Misao; Tanaka, Takahiro

    1995-01-01

    We consider an alternative scenario of inflation which can account for a spatially open universe. It is similar to the old inflation in which the bubble nucleation occurs in the sea of false vacuum, but differs from it in that the second slow rollover inflation occurs inside a nucleated bubble. Hence our observable universe is entirely contained in one nucleated bubble. The significance of the scenario is that apart from a variance due to model parameters it gives us a definite prediction on the spectrum of the primordial density perturbations, hence is observationally testable. Here we investigate the spectrum of CMB anisotropies on large angular scales. We find that the contribution from peculiar modes which never appear in the usual harmonic analysis is significant in the case \\Omega_0\\lesssim0.1.

  18. The impact of changing solar screen rotation angle and its opening aspect ratios on Daylight Availability in residential desert buildings

    KAUST Repository

    Sherif, Ahmed H.

    2012-11-01

    In desert sunny clear-sky regions solar penetration can become excessive. This can cause non-uniform daylight distribution, glare and high solar heat gain, affecting both visual and thermal comfort. Shading devices, such as solar screens, were usually used to diffuse and prevent direct solar penetration into spaces. This paper investigates the impact of changing solar screen axial rotation angle and screen opening aspect ratio on daylighting performance in a typical residential living room space under the desert sunny clear-sky. The larger aim is to arrive at efficient solar screen designs that suit the different orientations.The study was divided into three consecutive phases. In phase one, the effect of the two parameters on Daylight Availability was tested. The solar screen was axially rotated by three different angles at 10° increments. Also, the aspect ratio of the screen opening in both horizontal and vertical directions was changed systematically. Simulation was conducted using the annual Daylight Dynamic Performance Metrics (DDPMs). In phase two, the Annual Daylight Glare Probability (DGP) metric was evaluated for the cases that were found adequate in phase one. In the third phase, the annual solar energy transmittance through the screen was calculated for the cases that achieved acceptable performance in the two previous phases in order to identify the more energy efficient screens.Solar screens with openings having horizontal aspect ratios were found to be the most effective, while those with vertical aspect ratios were achieved the lowest performance. In the North orientation, since almost all the cases that were tested in this research provided acceptable daylighting performance, the designer now have a variety of options to choose from. Preference should be given to screen openings of horizontal aspect ratios, especially the 12:1 and 18:1 (H:V) screens that achieved the best performance where 92% of the space was " daylit" in comparison with only 53

  19. Latanoprost ophthalmic solution in the treatment of open angle glaucoma or raised intraocular pressure: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Russo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Andrea Russo, Ivano Riva, Teodoro Pizzolante, Federico Noto, Luciano QuarantaCattedra di Malattie dell’Apparato Visivo, Università degli studi di Brescia, USVD “Centro per lo studio del Glaucoma” Spedali Civili di BresciaAbstract: Latanoprost is a prostaglandin F2-alpha isopropyl ester prodrug which is rapidly hydrolyzed by esterases in the cornea to the biologically active latanoprost acid. When latanoprost is topically administered into the eye, the cornea seems to act like as a slow-release depot to the anterior segment. One hour after administration maximum concentration is found in the iris, followed by the anterior chamber and the ciliary body. Despite extensive research, controversy remains about the real mechanism of action of this drug. Immunohistochemical data have shown that the intraocular pressure (IOP reduction with topical prostaglandin F2-alpha is associated with a reduction of collagens within the uveoscleral outflow pathway. Evidence from several experimental and clinical studies suggests that latanoprost is a valuable addition first-line treatment alternatives for glaucoma, ocular hypertension and even angle-closure glaucoma. Strong points are its efficacy, which is demonstrated to be higher than that of brimonidine, dorzolamide and timolol with fewer systemic adverse effects; a convenient administration schedule; and the IOP-controlling pattern, which is relatively flat compared with timolol and dorzolamide, and enables better control in glaucoma progression, since large fluctuations may be associated with the risk of developing glaucoma in untreated ocular hypertensive subjects.Keywords: latanoprost, intraocular pressure, glaucoma, ocular hypertension

  20. The use of amniotic membrane in trabeculectomy for the treatment of primary open-angle glaucoma: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavrakas P

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Panagiotis Stavrakas1, Gerasimos Georgopoulos1, Maria Milia1, Dimitris Papaconstantinou1, Maria Bafa2, Efthymios Stavrakas2, Mihalis Moschos11Department of Ophthalmology, University of Athens Medical School, General Hospital of Athens (Geniko Kratiko Hospital, Athens, Greece; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Thriassio General Hospital, Athens, GreeceBackground: To investigate the effectiveness of amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT on improving the outcomes of trabeculectomy in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG.Methods: Fifty-nine eyes affected by primary open-angle glaucoma were enrolled in this prospective randomized study. Thirty-two eyes underwent amnion-shielded trabeculectomy (study group and 27 eyes underwent trabeculectomy without any antimetabolites (control group. Success was defined as intraocular pressure (IOP <21 mmHg without any medications at 24 months follow-up. The two groups were compared in terms of IOP, bleb morphology, bleb survival and risk of failure, glaucoma medications, and complications.Results: There was no statistically significant difference in terms of postoperative IOP between the two groups and at 24 months median IOP was 15.5 mmHg for the AMT group and 16 mmHg for the control group. IOP postoperative reduction was 8 mmHg for the AMT group versus 6 mmHg for the non AMT group (P = 0.276. Two patients from the study group developed IOP >21 mmHg in contrast to seven patients from the classic trabeculectomy group. The study group had 61.0% less risk of developing IOP >21 mmHg (P = 0.203. No major complications in the AMT group were observed. AMT blebs were diffuse with mild vascularization.Conclusion: In patients with POAG, AMT showed favorable effects on bleb survival, however data failed to provide firm evidence that AMT could be used as a routine procedure in trabeculectomy.Keywords: amniotic membrane, trabeculectomy, primary open-angle glaucoma, glaucoma filtering blebIn memory of Professor Mihalis Moschos. "We

  1. The Association between Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma and Blood Pressure: Two Aspects of Hypertension and Hypotension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Jin Chung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness worldwide. Although the mechanism of the development of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG is not fully understood, elevated intraocular pressure (IOP is considered the most important risk factor. Several vascular factors have also been identified as risk factors and can lead to hypoperfusion of the optic nerve head and thus may play an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of POAG. The results of the present study suggest that both high and low blood pressure (BP are associated with an increased risk of POAG based on a comprehensive literature review. Elevated BP is associated with elevated IOP, leading to increased risk of glaucoma, but excessive BP lowering in glaucoma patients may cause a drop in ocular perfusion pressure (OPP and subsequent ischemic injury. The relationship between IOP, OPP, and BP suggests that the relationship between BP and glaucoma progression is U-shaped.

  2. Treatment with citicoline eye drops enhances retinal function and neural conduction along the visual pathways in open angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, Vincenzo; Centofanti, Marco; Ziccardi, Lucia; Tanga, Lucia; Michelessi, Manuele; Roberti, Gloria; Manni, Gianluca

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the retinal function and the neural conduction along the visual pathways after treatment with citicoline eye drops in patients with open angle glaucoma (OAG). Fifty-six OAG patients (mean age 52.4 ± 4.72 years, IOP  0.01) PERG and VEP values in GC and GP eyes were observed. After treatment with topical citicoline, a significant (p  0.01) to baseline ones. GP eyes showed not significant changes of PERG and VEP values during the entire follow-up. Topical treatment with citicoline in OAG eyes induces an enhancement of the retinal bioelectrical responses (increase of PERG amplitude) with a consequent improvement of the bioelectrical activity of the visual cortex (shortening and increase of VEP implicit time and amplitude, respectively).

  3. Comment on “Short-term effects of relaxation music on patients suffering from primary open-angle glaucoma”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaya A

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abdullah Kaya,1 Yakup Aksoy,2 Mehmet Koray Sevinç,3 Oktay Diner41Department of Ophthalmology, Anittepe Military Dispansery, Ankara, Turkey; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Girne Military Hospital, Girne, Cyprus; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Beytepe Military Hospital, Ankara, 4Department of Ophthalmology, Erzurum Military Hospital, Erzurum, TurkeyWe read the current study “Short-term effects of relaxation music on patients suffering from primary open-angle glaucoma” by Bertelmann and Strempel, with great interest. The authors investigated if relaxation music had a positive effect on glaucoma.We congratulate the authors for this innovative study and want to make some contributions that may widen the impression area of this study.  View original article by Bertelmann and Strempel.

  4. The Effect of Laser Trabeculoplasty on Posture-Induced Intraocular Pressure Changes in Patients with Open Angle Glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jee Myung Yang

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of argon laser trabeculoplasty (ALT on posture-induced intraocular pressure (IOP changes in patients with open angle glaucoma (OAG.Thirty eyes of 30 consecutive patients with OAG who underwent ALT were prospectively analyzed. The IOP was measured using Icare PRO in the sitting position, supine position, and dependent lateral decubitus position (DLDP before ALT and at 1 week, 1 month, 2 months, and 3 months after ALT.Compared to the baseline values, the IOP in each position was significantly decreased after ALT (all P 0.05.ALT appears to be effective in lowering the IOP in various body positions, but the degree of this effect was significantly lower in DLDP. In addition, ALT seemed to have limited effects on posture-induced IOP changes.

  5. [The effect of parenteral citicoline on visual functions and life quality of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolov, M A; Gonchar, P A; Barashkov, V I; Kumar, V; Morozova, N S; Frolov, A M; Kazakova, K A

    2011-01-01

    The effect of nootropic drug citicoline on visual functions, perimetric indexes of static automated perimetry, morphometric characteristics of retinal tomography and life quality of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) stage I-III and normalized intraocular pressure (IOP) was studied. 40 patients aged 46-78 years old with POAG stage I-III and normalized IOP were treated with citicoline. Among them there were 24 female and 16 male. The patients were divided into 2 equal groups--experimental and control. Patients of both groups were treated with intravenous citicoline for 10 days. The dose of citicoline in experimental group was 1000 mg/day, in control--500 mg/day. After treatment in both groups visual functions, perimetric indexes of static automated perimetry, morphometric characteristics of retinal tomography and life quality showed improvement. Citicoline has significant neuroprotective effect preventing apoptosis.

  6. Association of Myopic Deformation of Optic Disc with Visual Field Progression in Paired Eyes with Open-Angle Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hangai, Masanori; Ishikawa, Makoto; Yoshitomi, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The influence of myopia on glaucoma progression remains unknown, possibly because of the multifactorial nature of glaucoma and difficulty in assessing a solo contribution of myopia. The purpose of this study is to investigate the association of myopia with visual field (VF) progression in glaucoma using a paired-eye design to minimize the influence of confounding systemic factors that are diverse among individuals. Methods This retrospective study evaluated 144 eyes of 72 subjects with open-angle glaucoma, with similar intra-ocular pressure between paired eyes, spherical equivalent (SE) ≤ -2 diopter (D), and axial length ≥ 24 mm. Paired eyes with faster and slower VF progression were grouped separately, according to the global VF progression rate assessed by automated pointwise linear regression analysis. The SE, axial length, tilt ratio and torsion angle of optic discs, Bruch’s membrane (BM) opening area, and gamma zone parapapillary atrophy (PPA) width were compared between the two groups. Factors associated with faster VF progression were determined by logistic regression analysis. Results The mean follow-up duration was 8.9 ± 4.4 years. The mean value of SE and axial length were -6.31 ± 1.88 D and 26.05 ± 1.12 mm, respectively. The mean global visual field progression rate was -0.32 ± 0.38 dB/y. Tilt ratio, BM opening area, and gamma zone PPA width were significantly greater in the eyes with faster VF progression than those with slower progression. In multivariate analysis, these factors were significantly associated with faster VF progression (all P < 0.05), while SE and axial length were not associated with it. Conclusion In myopic glaucoma subjects, tilt of the optic disc and temporal shifting and enlargement of the BM opening were associated with faster rate of VF progression between paired eyes. This suggests that myopia influences VF progression in glaucomatous eyes via optic disc deformations rather than via refractive error itself

  7. Assessing the Association of Mitochondrial Genetic Variation With Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma Using Gene-Set Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, Anthony P; Cooke Bailey, Jessica N; Kang, Jae Hee; Allingham, R Rand; Hauser, Michael A; Brilliant, Murray; Budenz, Donald L; Christen, William G; Fingert, John; Gaasterland, Douglas; Gaasterland, Terry; Kraft, Peter; Lee, Richard K; Lichter, Paul R; Liu, Yutao; Medeiros, Felipe; Moroi, Syoko E; Richards, Julia E; Realini, Tony; Ritch, Robert; Schuman, Joel S; Scott, William K; Singh, Kuldev; Sit, Arthur J; Vollrath, Douglas; Wollstein, Gadi; Zack, Donald J; Zhang, Kang; Pericak-Vance, Margaret; Weinreb, Robert N; Haines, Jonathan L; Pasquale, Louis R; Wiggs, Janey L

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies indicate that mitochondrial proteins may contribute to the pathogenesis of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). In this study, we examined the association between POAG and common variations in gene-encoding mitochondrial proteins. We examined genetic data from 3430 POAG cases and 3108 controls derived from the combination of the GLAUGEN and NEIGHBOR studies. We constructed biological-system coherent mitochondrial nuclear-encoded protein gene-sets by intersecting the MitoCarta database with the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database. We examined the mitochondrial gene-sets for association with POAG and with normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) and high-tension glaucoma (HTG) subsets using Pathway Analysis by Randomization Incorporating Structure. We identified 22 KEGG pathways with significant mitochondrial protein-encoding gene enrichment, belonging to six general biological classes. Among the pathway classes, mitochondrial lipid metabolism was associated with POAG overall (P = 0.013) and with NTG (P = 0.0006), and mitochondrial carbohydrate metabolism was associated with NTG (P = 0.030). Examining the individual KEGG pathway mitochondrial gene-sets, fatty acid elongation and synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies, both lipid metabolism pathways, were significantly associated with POAG (P = 0.005 and P = 0.002, respectively) and NTG (P = 0.0004 and P < 0.0001, respectively). Butanoate metabolism, a carbohydrate metabolism pathway, was significantly associated with POAG (P = 0.004), NTG (P = 0.001), and HTG (P = 0.010). We present an effective approach for assessing the contributions of mitochondrial genetic variation to open-angle glaucoma. Our findings support a role for mitochondria in POAG pathogenesis and specifically point to lipid and carbohydrate metabolism pathways as being important.

  8. Relationship between consecutive deterioration of mean deviation value and progression of visual field defect in open-angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naito T

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tomoko Naito,1 Keiji Yoshikawa,2 Shiro Mizoue,3 Mami Nanno,4 Tairo Kimura,5 Hirotaka Suzumura,6 Ryuji Takeda,7 Fumio Shiraga1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Okayama, 2Yoshikawa Eye Clinic, Tokyo, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Ehime, 4Kagurazaka Minamino Eye Clinic, 5Ueno Eye Clinic, 6Suzumura Eye Clinic, Tokyo, 7Department of Agriculture, Kinki University, Nara, Japan Purpose: To analyze the relationship between consecutive deterioration of mean deviation (MD value and glaucomatous visual field (VF progression in open-angle glaucoma (OAG, including primary OAG and normal tension glaucoma.Patients and methods: The subjects of the study were patients undergoing treatment for OAG who had performed VF tests at least 10 times with a Humphrey field analyzer (SITA standard, C30-2 program. The VF progression was defined by a significantly negative MD slope (MD slope worsening at the final VF test during the follow-up period. The relationship between the MD slope worsening and the consecutive deterioration of MD value were retrospectively analyzed.Results: A total of 165 eyes of 165 patients were included in the analysis. Significant progression of VF defects was observed in 72 eyes of 72 patients (43.6%, while no significant progression was evident in 93 eyes of 93 patients (56.4%. There was significant relationship between the frequency of consecutive deterioration of MD value and MD slope worsening (P<0.0001, Cochran–Armitage trend test. A significant association was observed for MD slope worsening in the eyes with three (odds ratio: 2.1, P=0.0224 and four (odds ratio: 3.6, P=0.0008 consecutive deterioration of MD value in multiple logistic regression analysis, but no significant association in the eyes with two consecutive deterioration (odds ratio: 1.1, P=0.8282. The eyes with VF progression had significantly lower intraocular pressure reduction rate (P<0

  9. Multifocal VEP and OCT findings in patients with primary open angle glaucoma: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moschos Marilita M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bakground To evaluate objectively the anatomical and functional changes of optic nerve in eyes with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG by the joint use of optical coherence tomography (OCT and multifocal visual evoked potentials (mfVEP. Methods 29 eyes with open angle glaucoma and visual field defects, as well as 20 eyes of 10 age-matched control normal subjects were tested. All participants underwent a complete ophthalmological examination. Moreover, Humphrey visual field test, OCT examination and recording of mfVEP were performed. Amplitude and implicit time of mfVEP, as well as RNFL thickness were measured. Differences in density components of mfVEP and in RNFL thickness among POAG eyes and control eyes were examined using Student’s t-test. Results In glaucomatous eyes the mean Retinal Response Density (RRD was lower than normal in ring 1, 2 and 3 of mfVEP (p 2, 6.9 ± 4.8 nV/deg2 and 2.6 ± 1.6 nV/deg2 in rings 1, 2 and 3 respectively. In contrast the mean implicit time was similar to control eyes. In addition, the mean RNFL thickness in POAG eyes was estimated at 76.8 ± 26.6 μm in the superior area, 52.1 ± 16.3 μm in the temporal area, 75.9 ± 32.5 μm in the inferior area and 58.6 ± 19.4 μm in the nasal area. There was a statistically significant difference in RNFL thickness in all peripapillary areas (p  Conclusions Our study shows that, although Standard Automatic Perimetry is the gold standard to evaluate glaucomatous neuropathy, the joint use of mfVEP and OCT could be useful in better monitoring glaucoma progression.

  10. Pattern of intraocular pressure reduction following laser trabeculoplasty in open-angle glaucoma patients: comparison between selective and nonselective treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Jr ED

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Eglailson Dantas Almeida Júnior1, Luciano Moreira Pinto1,2, Rodrigo Antonio Brant Fernandes1,2, Tiago Santos Prata1,31Department of Ophthalmology, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Cerpo Oftalmologia, São Paulo, Brazil; 3Hospital Medicina dos Olhos, São Paulo, BrazilObjective: To compare the pattern of intraocular pressure (IOP reduction following selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT versus argon laser trabeculoplasty (ALT in open-angle glaucoma (OAG patients, and to investigate the ability of initial IOP reduction to predict mid-term success.Methods: A prospective, nonrandomized, interventional case series was carried out. Consecutive uncontrolled OAG glaucoma patients underwent SLT or ALT; the same preoperative medical regimen was maintained during follow-up. Data collected included age, type of OAG, pre- and postoperative IOP, number of glaucoma medications, and surgical complications. Post-treatment assessments were scheduled at day 1 and 7 and months 1, 3, and 6.Results: A total of 45 patients (45 eyes were enrolled [SLT group (n = 25; ALT group (n = 20]. Groups were similar for age, baseline IOP, and number of glaucoma medications (P ≥ 0.12. We found no significant differences in mean IOP reduction between SLT (5.1 ± 2.5 mmHg; 26.6% and ALT (4.4 ± 2.8 mmHg; 22.8% groups at month 6 (P = 0.38. Success rates (IOP ≤ 16 mmHg and IOP reduction ≥25% at last follow-up visit were similar for SLT (72% and ALT (65% groups (P = 0.36. Comparing the pattern of IOP reduction (% of IOP reduction at each visit between groups, we found a greater effect following SLT compared with ALT at day 7 (23.7% ± 13.7% vs 8.1% ± 9.5%; P < 0.001. No significant differences were observed at other time points (P ≥ 0.32. Additionally, the percentage of IOP reduction at day 7 and at month 6 were significantly correlated in the SLT group (R2 = 0.36; P < 0.01, but not in the ALT group (P = 0.89. Early postoperative success predicted late

  11. Pengaruh Lamanya Pemberian Citicoline dalam Memperbaiki Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer (Rnfl dan Lapang Pandangan pada Primary Open Angle Glaucoma (Poag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemala Sayuti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakTujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menilai pengaruh lamanya pemberian citicoline dalam memperbaiki kualitas RNFL dan lapang pandangan pada POAG. Penelitian ini dilakukan pada pasien POAG yang datang dari bulan September 2010 – Januari 2011 dengan tehnik consecutive sampling. Semua subjek penelitian yang sudah diskrining dilakukan pemeriksaan OCT dan perimetri segera sebelum pemberian citicoline, pemeriksaan ulangan dilakukan setelah 10 hari pertama, 10 hari kedua, dan 10 hari ketiga pemberian citicoline. Dari penelitian ini didapatkan perbaikan ketebalan RNFL dengan pemeriksaan OCT lebih banyak terjadi pada pemberian citicoline selama 10 hari III (45.7% dibandingkan dengan pemberian 10 hari I (25,7% dan 10 hari II (42,9%. Perbaikan mean sensitivity lapang pandangan dengan pemeriksaan perimetri lebih banyak terjadi pada pemberian citicoline selama 10 hari III (51,4% dibandingkan dengan pemberian 10 hari I (32.4% dan 10 hari II (37.2%. Lama pemberian citicoline sangat berpengaruh meningkatkan ketebalan RNFL dengan pemeriksaan OCT dan mean sensitivity lapang pandangan dengan pemeriksaan perimetri pada pasien POAG dan bermakna secara statistik dengan p=0.000 dan p=0.001Kata kunci: Primary Open Angle Glaucoma, Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer, CiticolineAbstractThe objective of this study was to assessing the influence of duration of citicoline administration in improve the quality of RNFL and visual field in POAG. The study was conducted in patients with POAG who take place in September 2010 - January 2011 with consecutive sampling technique. After screening examination, subjects underwent OCT examination and early perimetry after the administration of citicoline, re-examination were in first 10 days, second 10 days, and third 10 days. RNFL thickness by OCT examination were much more going in citicoline administered for the third 10 days (45.7% compared with the provision of first 10 days (25.7% and second 10 day (42.9%. Mean sensitivity

  12. Multicenter, prospective, open-label, observational study of bimatoprost 0.01% in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laube T

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Stefan Pfennigsdorf,1 Osman Ramez,2 Gerrit von Kistowski,3 Birgit Mäder,4 Peter Eschstruth,5 Michael Froböse,6 Ulrich Thelen,7 Christoph Spraul,8 Dietmar Schnober,9 Hazel Cooper,10 Thomas Laube111Polch Ophthalmology Practice, Polch, 2Buxtehude Ophthalmology Practice, Buxtehude, 3Nürnberg Ophthalmology Practice, Nürnberg, 4Weißwasser Ophthalmology Practice, Weißwasser, 5Ophthalmology Practice, Kiel, 6Ophthalmology Practice, Bielefeld, 7Group Practice, Münster, 8Group Practice, Ulm, 9Ophthalmology Practice, Werdohl, Germany; 10Allergan, Marlow, UK, 11Group Practice, Düsseldorf, GermanyBackground: Bimatoprost 0.01% was developed for improved tolerability over bimatoprost 0.03%, while maintaining efficacy in lowering intraocular pressure (IOP. This multicenter, prospective, open-label, observational study was designed to investigate the efficacy and tolerability of bimatoprost 0.01% in routine clinical practice.Methods: Data were collected from 10,337 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension attending 1334 centers in Germany. The primary efficacy outcome was mean change in IOP in each eye from baseline to 10–14 weeks after initiation of bimatoprost 0.01%. Target IOP, prior therapies, additional treatments, and adverse events were also assessed. All treatment decisions were at the physicians’ discretion.Results: Bimatoprost 0.01% significantly lowered mean IOP from baseline by –4.1 mmHg (P < 0.0001 in all patients after a mean of 10.45 weeks. In patients without previous treatment, bimatoprost 0.01% reduced mean IOP from baseline by –6.5 mmHg (P < 0.0001. Bimatoprost 0.01% also significantly reduced IOP in patients previously treated with monotherapy of β-blockers, prostaglandin analogs, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors or bimatoprost 0.03%. No adverse events were reported by 93.9% of patients during treatment with bimatoprost 0.01%; the most commonly reported adverse events were eye irritation (2.0%, ocular

  13. Bimatoprost/timolol fixed combination (BTFC) in patients with primary open angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotsos, Tryfon G.; Kliafa, Vasso G.; Asher, Kevin J.; Papaconstantinou, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of the fixed combination of bimatoprost 0.03% and timolol 0.5% (BTFC) in patients in Greece with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) or ocular hypertension (OHT) whose previous therapy provided insufficient lowering of intraocular pressure (IOP). METHODS A multicenter, prospective, open-label, non-interventional, observational study of the use of BTFC in clinical practice was conducted at 41 sites in Greece. The primary endpoint was the reduction in IOP from baseline at study end, approximately 12wk after initiation of BTFC therapy. RESULTS A total of 785 eligible patients were enrolled in the study and 97.6% completed the study. The mean±SD IOP reduction from baseline at 12wk after initiation of BTFC was 6.3±2.8 mm Hg (n=764; P<0.001). In patients (n=680) who replaced their previous IOP-lowering monotherapy (a single drug, or a fixed combination of 2 drugs in a single ophthalmic drop) with once-daily BTFC, the mean±SD IOP reduction from baseline at 12wk was 6.2±2.8 mm Hg (P<0.001). IOP was reduced from baseline in 99.2% of patients, and 58.0% of patients reached or exceeded their target IOP. Substantial mean IOP reductions were observed regardless of the previous therapy. BTFC was well tolerated, with 96.0% of patients who completed the study rating the tolerability of BTFC as “good” or “very good.” Adverse events were reported in 8.3% of patients; only 0.6% of patients discontinued the study due to adverse events. CONCLUSION In clinical practice in Greece, BTFC is well tolerated and effectively lower the IOP in patients with POAG or OHT who requires additional IOP lowering on their previous therapy. PMID:26949613

  14. A new connection between the opening angle and the large-scale morphology of extragalactic radio sources

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, Martin; Riley, Julia; Hopton, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    In the case of an initially conical jet, we study the relation between jet collimation by the external pressure and large-scale morphology. We first consider the important length-scales in the problem, and then carry out axisymmetric hydrodynamic simulations that include, for certain parameters, all these length-scales. We find three important scales related to the collimation region: (i) where the sideways ram-pressure equals the external pressure, (ii) where the jet density equals the ambient density, and (iii) where the forward ram-pressure falls below the ambient pressure. These scales are set by the external Mach-number and opening angle of the jet. We demonstrate that the relative magnitudes of these scales determine the collimation, Mach-number, density and morphology of the large scale jet. Based on analysis of the shock structure, we reproduce successfully the morphology of Fanaroff-Riley (FR) class I and II radio sources. Within the framework of the model, an FR I radio source must have a large intr...

  15. Graph theoretical analysis reveals the reorganization of the brain network pattern in primary open angle glaucoma patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jieqiong [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Management and Control for Complex Systems, Institute of Automation, Beijing (China); Li, Ting; Xian, Junfang [Capital Medical University, Department of Radiology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Beijing (China); Wang, Ningli [Capital Medical University, Department of Ophthalmology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Beijing (China); He, Huiguang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Management and Control for Complex Systems, Institute of Automation, Beijing (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences, Research Center for Brain-Inspired Intelligence, Institute of Automation, Beijing (China)

    2016-11-15

    Most previous glaucoma studies with resting-state fMRI have focused on the neuronal activity in the individual structure of the brain, yet ignored the functional communication of anatomically separated structures. The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficiency of the functional communication change or not in glaucoma patients. We applied the resting-state fMRI data to construct the connectivity network of 25 normal controls and 25 age-gender-matched primary open angle glaucoma patients. Graph theoretical analysis was performed to assess brain network pattern differences between the two groups. No significant differences of the global network measures were found between the two groups. However, the local measures were radically reorganized in glaucoma patients. Comparing with the hub regions in normal controls' network, we found that six hub regions disappeared and nine hub regions appeared in the network of patients. In addition, the betweenness centralities of two altered hub regions, right fusiform gyrus and right lingual gyrus, were significantly correlated with the visual field mean deviation. Although the efficiency of functional communication is preserved in the brain network of the glaucoma at the global level, the efficiency of functional communication is altered in some specialized regions of the glaucoma. (orig.)

  16. Optic nerve head slope-based quantitative parameters for identifying open-angle glaucoma on SPECTRALIS OCT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hinnawi, Abdel-Razzak M; Al-Naami, Bassam O; Al-Latayfeh, Motasem M

    2017-08-01

    To investigate monitoring slope-based features of the optic nerve head (ONH) cup as open-angle glaucoma (OAG) occurs. A dataset of 46 retrospective OCT cases was acquired from the SPECTRALIS Heidelberg Engineering OCT device. A set of five parameters, which are based on the ONH cup-incline, are measured on the OAG and normal subjects in the dataset. Then, three new ONH cup-shape indices were deduced. The ONH cup-incline parameters and ONH cup-shape indices are analyzed to estimate their clinical value. The statistical difference between measurements on normal and glaucoma eyes was remarkably significant for all of the analyzed parameters and indices (p value < 0.001). The geometric shape of the ONH cup can be transferred to numerical parameters and indices. The proposed ONH cup-incline parameters and ONH cup-shape indices have shown suggestive clinical value to identify the development of OAG. As OAG appears, the top ONH cup-incline parameters decrease while the bottom ONH cup-incline parameters increase. The ONH cup-shape indices suggest capability to discriminate OAG from normal eyes.

  17. Elevated Plasma Endothelin-1 Levels in Normal Tension Glaucoma and Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shengjie; Zhang, Aiping

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this meta-analysis was to clarify the association between the plasma endothelin-1 level and the risks of normal tension glaucoma (NTG) and primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Methods. Relevant publications were collected from three databases including PubMed, EMBASE, and the Web of Science through December 31, 2015. In this study, the terms “(endothelin OR ET) AND glaucoma” were searched. Review Manager 5.2 was used to process the data. Results. Seven studies (212 cases, 164 controls) were included for the NTG analysis. The mean plasma endothelin-1 level in the NTG subjects was 0.60 pg/mL (p = 0.02, 95% CI: 0.17–1.04) higher than that of the healthy controls. Six studies (160 cases, 174 controls) were included for the POAG analysis, and the endothelin-1 level was 0.63 pg/mL (p = 0.007, 95% CI: 0.12–1.15) higher in the POAG subjects than in the healthy controls. Additionally, two studies influenced the meta-analysis results regarding the association of plasma endothelin-1 with POAG by sensitivity analysis, and the probability of publication bias was low. Conclusions. The observation that NTG and POAG subjects showed significantly elevated endothelin-1 plasma concentrations suggests that a higher plasma level of endothelin-1 might increase the risk of NTG and POAG development. PMID:27965889

  18. [TNF-alfa (-857C/T) polymorphism in open angle glaucoma in Romania -- results of a pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simionescu, Ruxandra; Voinea, Liliana; Cornăţeanu, Roxana Sfrenţ

    2013-01-01

    Primary open angle glaucoma is a progressive optic neuropathy with multiple causative factors including genetic immune disregulation. TNF-alfa has pro-apoptotic effects on the retinal ganglion cells, thus being directly involved in the neurodegeneration of the optic nerve head. Our purpose was to investigate the influence on susceptibility and/or clinical and characteristics of TNF-alfa promoter polymorphism -857 C/T in Romanian patients diagnosed with POAG. We assessed 159 Romanian subjects, 61 diagnosed with glaucoma (F/M 39/22) and 98 healthy unrelated matched controls-HC for the polymorphism -857 C/T, genotyped by Real Time PCR (Taqman SNP Genotyping Assay C_2215707_10, Applied Biosystems, USA). The diagnosis and the staging of the disease in the POAG group were assessed using the current guidelines. Association tests for the SNP were performed using SPSS 11.2 (Fisher test) and p values < or = 0.05 were considered significant. The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium assessed using Chi-square test was respected in both studied groups- POAG and HC (p = 0.000009 and respectively p = 0.04771). There was no association found between the frequencies of alleles between studied groups (CC/CT/TT= 0.81/0.09/0.08 respectively 0.70/0.23/0.06). TNF-alfa promoter polymorphism -857 C/T doesn't seem to influence the susceptibility to POAG and the results should be confirmed on larger cohorts.

  19. Safety and efficacy of bimatoprost/timolol fixed combination in Chinese patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Zhihong; Zhang Mingchang; Hu Yizhen; Yin Zhengqin; Xing Yiqiao; Fang Aiwu; Ye Jian

    2014-01-01

    Background Lowering intraocular pressure (lOP) is currently the only therapeutic approach in primary open-angle glaucoma.and the fixed-combination medications are needed to achieve sufficiently low target lOP.A multicenter prospective study in the Chinese population was needed to confirm the safety and efficacy of Bimatoprost/Timolol Fixed Combination Eye Drop in China.In this study,we evaluated the safety and efficacy of Bimatoprost/Timolol Fixed Combination with concurrent administration of its components in Chinese patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension.Methods In this multicenter,randomized,double-masked,parallel controlled study,patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension who were insufficiently responsive to monotherapy with either topical β-blockers or prostaglandin analogues were randomized to one of two active treatment groups in a 1:1 ratio at 11 Chinese ophthalmic departments.Bimatoprost/timolol fixed combination treatment was a fixed combination of 0.03% bimatoprost and 0.5% timolol (followed by vehicle for masking) once daily at 19:00 P.M.and concurrent treatment was 0.03% bimatoprost followed by 0.5% timolol once daily at 19:00 P.M.The primary efficacy variable was change from baseline in mean diurnal intraocular pressure (IOP) at week 4 visit in the intent-to-treat (ITr) population.Primary analysis evaluated the non-inferiority of bimatoprost/timolol fixed combination to concurrent with respect to the primary variable using a confidence interval (CI) approach.Bimatoprost/timolol fixed combination was to be considered non-inferior to concurrent if the upper limit of the 95% CI for the between-treatment (bimatoprost/timolol fixed combination minus concurrent) difference was-≤1.5 mmHg.Adverse events were collected and slit-lamp examinations were performed to assess safety.Between-group comparisons of the incidence of adverse events were performed using the Pearson chi-square test or Fisher's exact test

  20. Genome-wide linkage scan for primary open angle glaucoma: influences of ancestry and age at diagnosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristy R Crooks

    Full Text Available Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG is the most common form of glaucoma and one of the leading causes of vision loss worldwide. The genetic etiology of POAG is complex and poorly understood. The purpose of this work is to identify genomic regions of interest linked to POAG. This study is the largest genetic linkage study of POAG performed to date: genomic DNA samples from 786 subjects (538 Caucasian ancestry, 248 African ancestry were genotyped using either the Illumina GoldenGate Linkage 4 Panel or the Illumina Infinium Human Linkage-12 Panel. A total of 5233 SNPs was analyzed in 134 multiplex POAG families (89 Caucasian ancestry, 45 African ancestry. Parametric and non-parametric linkage analyses were performed on the overall dataset and within race-specific datasets (Caucasian ancestry and African ancestry. Ordered subset analysis was used to stratify the data on the basis of age of glaucoma diagnosis. Novel linkage regions were identified on chromosomes 1 and 20, and two previously described loci-GLC1D on chromosome 8 and GLC1I on chromosome 15--were replicated. These data will prove valuable in the context of interpreting results from genome-wide association studies for POAG.

  1. Association of Common Variants in eNOS Gene with Primary Open Angle Glaucoma: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To clarify the association of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS polymorphisms and primary open angle glaucoma (POAG. Methods. After a systematic literature search in the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and ISI Web of Science databases, all relevant studies evaluating the association between the polymorphisms (rs2070744 and rs1799983 of eNOS gene and POAG were screened and included. The pooled odds ratios (ORs and the 95% confidence interval (CI of each single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in five genetic models were estimated using fixed-effect model if I2<50% in the test for heterogeneity; otherwise the random-effects model was used. Results. Thirty-one records were obtained, with five being suitable for meta-analysis. The overall results showed that both TT genotype in rs2070744 and GG genotype in rs1799983 are associated with decreased risk of POAG susceptibility. Stratified analysis based on ethnicity showed that the association of rs2070744 with POAG remained only in Caucasians. Results of subgroup analysis by sex indicated association between both polymorphisms and POAG in female group, but not in male group. Conclusions. TT genotype and/or T-allele in rs2070744, as well as GG genotype and/or G-allele in rs1799983, was associated with decreased risk for POAG overall and in female group.

  2. Evaluation of genetic association of the INK4 locus with primary open angle glaucoma in East Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishal, Mansi; Sharma, Anchal; Kaurani, Lalit; Chakraborty, Subhadip; Ray, Jharna; Sen, Abhijit; Mukhopadhyay, Arijit; Ray, Kunal

    2014-05-30

    INK4 locus at chromosome 9p21 has been reported to be associated with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and its subtypes along with the associated optic disc parameters across the populations of European, Japanese and African ancestries. The locus encodes three tumor suppressor genes namely CDKN2A, ARF, CDKN2B and a long non-coding RNA CDKN2B-AS1 (also known as ANRIL). Here, we report association study of 34 SNPs from INK4 locus with POAG in a population of Indo-European ancestry from the eastern part of India (350 patients and 354 controls). With 81% power to detect genetic association we observed only nominal association of rs1011970 (uncorrected p = 0.048) with POAG and rs10120688 (uncorrected p = 0.048) in patients without a high intra-ocular pressure (IOPgenetic association of INK4 locus with POAG in East Indian population which needs to be replicated in larger studies in diverse world populations.

  3. Current concepts on primary open-angle glaucoma genetics: a contribution to disease pathophysiology and future treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemenetzi, M; Yang, Y; Lotery, A J

    2012-03-01

    Glaucoma is a common, complex, heterogenous disease and it constitutes the major cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is the most common type of glaucoma in all populations. Most of the molecular mechanisms leading to POAG development are still unknown. Gene mutations in various populations have been identified by genetic studies and a genetic basis for glaucoma pathogenesis has been established. Linkage analysis and association studies are genetic approaches in the investigation of the genetic basis of POAG. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are more powerful compared with linkage analysis in discovering genes of small effect that might contribute to the development of the disease. POAG links to at least 20 genetic loci, but only 2 genes identified in these loci, myocilin and optineurin, are considered as well-established glaucoma-causing genes, whereas the role of other loci, genes, and variants implicated in the development of POAG remains controversial. Gene mutations associated with POAG result in retinal ganglion cell death, which is the common outcome of pathogenetic mechanisms in glaucoma. In future, if the sensitivity and specificity of genotyping increases, it may be possible to screen individuals routinely for disease susceptibility. This review is an update on the latest progress of genetic studies associated with POAG. It emphasizes the correlation of recent achievements in genetics with glaucoma pathophysiology, glaucoma treatment perspectives, and the possibility of future prevention of irreversible visual loss caused by the disease.

  4. Fluctuation in systolic blood pressure is a major systemic risk factor for development of primary open-angle glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Na Young; Jung, Younhea; Han, Kyungdo; Park, Chan Kee

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the risk of development of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) in terms of variability in BP using a nationwide, population-based, 11-year longitudinal study using the Korean National Health Insurance Research Database. We included patients who underwent health care examinations more than twice between January 2002 and December 2006. We divided all subjects by the quartiles of variability in systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and the difference between SBP and DBP. Of the total of 80,021 included subjects, 910 were diagnosed with POAG between January 2007 and December 2013. Both the Kaplan-Meier survival curves and log-rank test data indicated that patients with higher-level BP variability developed POAG significantly more frequently than did patients with lower-level variability (P < 0.001). On multivariate Cox’s regression modeling including gender, age, sex, household income, smoking status, level of alcohol intake, extent of exercise, diabetes mellitus status, dyslipidemia status, SBP, and DBP; the hazard ratios among the highest and lowest quartiles of SD SBP and CV SBP were 1.256 and 1.238, respectively. Our findings suggest that subjects in the highest quartile of SBP variability were significantly more likely to develop POAG in our population-based sample of Korean adults. PMID:28262703

  5. Novel therapeutic approaches to correct retinal metabolic abnormalities in primary open-angle glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Mirzabekova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Common pathogenic aspects of age-related macular degeneration (AMD and primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG, i.e., the role of free radicals inducing oxidative damage of the retina and optic nerve, are discussed. Factors that activate free radical reactions as well as multilevel antioxidant protection system are reviewed. Data derived from studies on current antioxidants that are used to treat and prevent dry AMD and glaucomatous optic nerve damage are compared. Neuroprotection for glaucoma will be considered soon as a basis for its treatment. B vitamins are generally included into therapeutic algorithms for glaucomatous optic neuropathy. While being metabolic therapeutics, they stimulate adaptive compensatory mechanisms and reduce the severity of various pathological processes, e.g., hypoxia, lipid peroxidation etc. Neurotrophic, antioxidant, and regenerative effects of B vitamins as wells as their involvement in metabolism, myelinsynthesis and other processes are of special importance for ophthalmologists. Currently, several vitamin and mineral supplements that differ in composition, dosage, and schedule are approved in Russia. SuperOptic, a biologically activeadditive, contains more free lutein (10 mg and zeaxanthin (500 μg as well as potent antioxidants (vitamin E and vitamin C, microelements (zinc and copper, and balanced vitamin B complex. These components play an important role in ocular health. SuperOptic can be recommended for the prevention and treatment of AMD and glaucomatous optic nerve damage.

  6. Novel therapeutic approaches to correct retinal metabolic abnormalities in primary open-angle glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Mirzabekova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Common pathogenic aspects of age-related macular degeneration (AMD and primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG, i.e., the role of free radicals inducing oxidative damage of the retina and optic nerve, are discussed. Factors that activate free radical reactions as well as multilevel antioxidant protection system are reviewed. Data derived from studies on current antioxidants that are used to treat and prevent dry AMD and glaucomatous optic nerve damage are compared. Neuroprotection for glaucoma will be considered soon as a basis for its treatment. B vitamins are generally included into therapeutic algorithms for glaucomatous optic neuropathy. While being metabolic therapeutics, they stimulate adaptive compensatory mechanisms and reduce the severity of various pathological processes, e.g., hypoxia, lipid peroxidation etc. Neurotrophic, antioxidant, and regenerative effects of B vitamins as wells as their involvement in metabolism, myelinsynthesis and other processes are of special importance for ophthalmologists. Currently, several vitamin and mineral supplements that differ in composition, dosage, and schedule are approved in Russia. SuperOptic, a biologically activeadditive, contains more free lutein (10 mg and zeaxanthin (500 μg as well as potent antioxidants (vitamin E and vitamin C, microelements (zinc and copper, and balanced vitamin B complex. These components play an important role in ocular health. SuperOptic can be recommended for the prevention and treatment of AMD and glaucomatous optic nerve damage.

  7. Mapping cortical thickness of the patients with unilateral end-stage open angle glaucoma on planar cerebral cortex maps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Bogorodzki

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To estimate and compare cerebral cortex thickness in patients with unilateral end-stage glaucoma with that of age-matched individuals with unaffected vision. METHODS: 14 patients with unilateral end-stage primary open angle glaucoma (POAG and 12 age-matched control individuals with no problems with vision were selected for the study based on detailed ophthalmic examination. For each participant 3D high-resolution structural brain T1-weighted magnetization prepared MR images were acquired on a 3.0 T scanner. Brain cortex thickness was estimated using the FreeSurfer image analysis environment. After warping of subjects' cortical surfaces to FreeSurfer common space, differences between POAG and control groups were inferred at the group analysis level with the General Linear Model. RESULTS: The analysis performed revealed local thinning in the visual cortex areas in the POAG group. Statistically significant differences form 600 mm2 clusters located in the Brodmann area BA19 in the left and right hemisphere. CONCLUSION: Unilateral vision loss due to end-stage neuropathy from POAG is associated with significant thinning of cortical areas employed in vision.

  8. A genome-wide association study for primary open angle glaucoma and macular degeneration reveals novel Loci.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd E Scheetz

    Full Text Available Glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration (AMD are the two leading causes of visual loss in the United States. We utilized a novel study design to perform a genome-wide association for both primary open angle glaucoma (POAG and AMD. This study design utilized a two-stage process for hypothesis generation and validation, in which each disease cohort was utilized as a control for the other. A total of 400 POAG patients and 400 AMD patients were ascertained and genotyped at 500,000 loci. This study identified a novel association of complement component 7 (C7 to POAG. Additionally, an association of central corneal thickness, a known risk factor for POAG, was found to be associated with ribophorin II (RPN2. Linked monogenic loci for POAG and AMD were also evaluated for evidence of association, none of which were found to be significantly associated. However, several yielded putative associations requiring validation. Our data suggest that POAG is more genetically complex than AMD, with no common risk alleles of large effect.

  9. Goldmann applanation tonometry compared with corneal-compensated intraocular pressure in the evaluation of primary open-angle Glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehrlich Joshua R

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To better understand the role of corneal properties and intraocular pressure (IOP in the evaluation of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG; and to determine the feasibility of identifying glaucomatous optic neuropathy (GON using IOP corrected and uncorrected for corneal biomechanics. Methods Records from 1,875 eyes of consecutively evaluated new patients were reviewed. Eyes were excluded if central corneal thickness (CCT or Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA measurements were unavailable. Presence or absence of GON was determined based on morphology of the optic disc, rim and retinal nerve fiber layer at the time of clinical examination, fundus photography and Heidelberg Retinal Tomography. Goldmann-applanation tonometry (GAT in the untreated state was recorded and Goldmann-correlated (IOPg and corneal-compensated IOP (IOPcc were obtained using the ORA. Glaucomatous eyes were classified as normal or high-tension (NTG, HTG using the conventional cutoff of 21 mm Hg. One eligible eye was randomly selected from each patient for inclusion. Results A total of 357 normal, 155 HTG and 102 NTG eyes were included. Among NTG eyes, IOPcc was greater than GAT (19.8 and 14.4 mm Hg; p  Conclusions IOPcc may account for measurement error induced by corneal biomechanics. Compared to GAT, IOPcc may be a superior test in the evaluation of glaucoma but is unlikely to represent an effective diagnostic test.

  10. Analysis of MYOC gene mutation in a Chinese glaucoma family with primary open-angle glaucoma and primary congenital glaucoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUO Ye-hong; WANG Mei; WEI Yan-tao; HUANG Ya-lin; GE Jian

    2006-01-01

    Background Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of blindness in the world. Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) are subtypes of glaucoma. Myocillin is the first gene identified to be involved in POAG. Recently, myocillin mutation has been found in PCG In this context, we reported a special glaucoma pedigree, which was composed of both PCG and POAG patients, and analyzed the mutation of myocillin in this pedigree.Methods The family was composed of the parents, a son and a daughter. All members of the family underwent the complete ophthalmologic examinations. All coding exons 1-3 and flanking introns of myocilin gene were screened for sequence alterations by polymerase chain reaction and direct DNA sequencing.Results The son was the proband, who was diagnosed as PCG in both eyes. The father was diagnosed as POAG in the right eye, the left eye was still normal. Both the sister and the mother of the proband had normal intraocular pressure without glaucomatous optic disc changes. The mutations in intron 2 of myocilin gene were detected in the family. While the proband and the father were homozygous, the mother and the sister were heterozygous for the mutation.Conclusions Homozygous mutation in intron 2 of myocilin gene is involved in both POAG and PCG. It is suggested that the pathogenesis might be overlapping in POAG and PCG.

  11. Results of a modified non-penetrating deep sclerectomy in the treatment of open angle glaucoma with or without cataract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Kitsos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available George Kitsos1, Miltiades Aspiotis1, Yannis Alamanos2, Konstantinos Psilas11Department of Ophthalmology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece; 2Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Medical School, University of Patras, Patras, GreecePurpose: To present the technique of a modified deep sclerectomy, which we will call “reversed” deep sclerectomy (RDS and the results and our observations of its use in patients with open angle glaucoma (OAG and with or without cataract extraction (phacoemulsification.Materials and methods: This prospective study included 132 eyes which underwent RDS: 37 eyes (group A with uncontrolled OAG and 95 eyes (group B with OAG and visually significant cataract. Mean pressure preoperatively for group A was 24.48 ± 4.92 mmHg and for group B was 22.99 ± 3.00. The mean number of antiglaucoma drugs received was 2.97 ± 0.69 and 2.56 ± 0.73 for groups A and B respectively. The RDS was performed where the deep scleral stroma is prepared in 2 parts, folded and inserted under the lateral sides of the sclerectomy, and the Schlemm’s canal is opened prior to deep scleral stroma preparation. Cataract was extracted by phacoemulsification through the same scleral opening. The follow-up for group A was 22.23 ± 10.18 months and for group B, 25.36 ± 10.12 months. Results: Postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP ≤ 21 mmHg was achieved for group A in 40.5% without antiglaucoma drugs and 94.6% with antiglaucoma drugs, and for group B in 66.3% and in 94.7% respectively. Mean IOP reduction was 7.02 ± 6.35 mmHg (28.67%, P < 0.05 for group A and 5.26 ± 3.72 mmHg (25.06%, P ≤ 0.05 for group B, while mean drug reduction was 1.97 ± 1.09 (P < 0.01 and 2.14 ± 0.95 (P ≤ 0.01 respectively. 5-Fluorouracil was used in 8 eyes of group A and in 5 eyes of group B.Conclusion: In the follow-up time during which the two groups were under study, the RDS was effective with a few complications, similar to the classic deep

  12. New insights into the genetics of primary open-angle glaucoma based on meta-analyses of intraocular pressure and optic disc characteristics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Springelkamp, H. (Henriët); Iglesias, A.I. (Adriana); Mishra, A. (Aniket); Höhn, R. (René); Wojciechowski, R. (Robert); Khawaja, A.P. (Anthony); Nag, A. (Abhishek); Wang, Y.X. (Ya Xing); Wang, J.J. (Jie Jin); Cuellar-Partida, G. (Gabriel); Gibson, J. (Jane); Cooke Bailey, J.N. (Jessica); Vithana, E.N. (Eranga); Gharahkhani, P. (Puya); Boutin, T. (Thibaud); Ramdas, W.D. (Wishal); Zeller, T. (Tanja); Luben, R.N. (Robert); Yonova-Doing, E. (Ekaterina); Viswanathan, A.C. (Ananth); Yazar, S. (Seyhan); Cree, A.J. (Angela); Haines, J.L. (Jonathan); Koh, J.Y. (Jia Yu); Souzeau, E. (Emmanuelle); Wilson, J.F. (James); Amin, N. (Najaf); Müller, C. (Christian); Venturini, C. (Cristina); Kearns, L.S. (Lisa); Hee Kang, J. (Jae); Consortium, N. (Neighborhood); Tham, Y.C. (Yih Chung); Zhou, T. (Tiger); van Leeuwen, E.M. (Elisabeth); Nickels, S. (Stefan); Sanfilippo, P. (Paul); Liao, J. (Jiemin); Linde, H.V. (Herma van der); Zhao, W. (Wanting); van Koolwijk, L.M. (Leonieke); Zheng, L. (Li); Rivadeneira, F. (Fernando); Baskaran, M. (Mani); van der Lee, S.J. (Sven); Perera, S. (Shamira); de Jong, P.T. (Paulus); Oostra, B.A. (Ben); Uitterlinden, A.G. (André); Fan, Q. (Qiao); Hofman, A. (Albert); Shyong Tai, E. (E-); Vingerling, J.R. (Johannes); Sim, X. (Xueling); Wolfs, R.C. (Roger); Teo, Y.Y. (Yik Ying); Lemij, H.G. (Hans); Khor, C.C. (Chiea Chuen); Willemsen, R. (Rob); Lackner, K.J. (Karl); Aung, T. (Tin); Jansonius, N.M. (Nomdo); Montgomery, G. (Grant); Wild, P.S. (Philipp); Young, T.L. (Terri); Burdon, K.P. (Kathryn); Hysi, P.G. (Pirro); Pasquale, L.R. (Louis); Wong, T.Y. (Tien Yin); Klaver, C.C. (Caroline); Hewitt, A.W. (Alex); Jonas, J.B. (Jost); Mitchell, P. (Paul); Lotery, A.J. (Andrew); Foster, P.J. (Paul); Vitart, V. (Veronique); Pfeiffer, N. (Norbert); Craig, J.E. (Jamie); Mackey, D.A. (David); Hammond, C.J. (Christopher); Wiggs, J.L. (Janey); Cheng, C.Y. (Ching-Yu); van Duijn, C.M. (Cornelia); MacGregor, S. (Stuart)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractPrimary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), the most common optic neuropathy, is a heritable disease. Siblings of POAG cases have a ten-fold increase risk of developing the disease. Intraocular pressure (IOP) and optic nerve head characteristics are used clinically to predict POAG risk. We

  13. New insights into the genetics of primary open-angle glaucoma based on meta-analyses of intraocular pressure and optic disc characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Springelkamp, Henriët; Iglesias, Adriana I; Mishra, Aniket; Höhn, René; Wojciechowski, Robert; Khawaja, Anthony P; Nag, Abhishek; Wang, Ya Xing; Wang, Jie Jin; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Gibson, Jane; Cooke Bailey, Jessica N; Vithana, Eranga N; Gharahkhani, Puya; Boutin, Thibaud; Ramdas, Wishal D; Zeller, Tanja; Luben, Robert N; Yonova-Doing, Ekaterina; Viswanathan, Ananth C; Yazar, Seyhan; Cree, Angela J; Haines, Jonathan L; Koh, Jia Yu; Souzeau, Emmanuelle; Wilson, James F; Amin, Najaf; Müller, Christian; Venturini, Cristina; Kearns, Lisa S; Hee Kang, Jae; Consortium, Neighborhood; Tham, Yih Chung; Zhou, Tiger; van Leeuwen, Elisabeth M; Nickels, Stefan; Sanfilippo, Paul; Liao, Jiemin; Linde, Herma van der; Zhao, Wanting; van Koolwijk, Leonieke M E; Zheng, Li; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Baskaran, Mani; van der Lee, Sven J; Perera, Shamira; de Jong, Paulus T V M; Oostra, Ben A; Uitterlinden, André G; Fan, Qiao; Hofman, Albert; Shyong Tai, E-; Vingerling, Johannes R; Sim, Xueling; Wolfs, Roger C W; Teo, Yik Ying; Lemij, Hans G; Khor, Chiea Chuen; Willemsen, Rob; Lackner, Karl J; Aung, Tin; Jansonius, Nomdo M; Montgomery, Grant; Wild, Philipp S; Young, Terri L; Burdon, Kathryn P; Hysi, Pirro G; Pasquale, Louis R; Wong, Tien Yin; Klaver, Caroline C W; Hewitt, Alex W; Jonas, Jost B; Mitchell, Paul; Lotery, Andrew J; Foster, Paul J; Vitart, Veronique; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Craig, Jamie E; Mackey, David A; Hammond, Christopher J; Wiggs, Janey L; Cheng, Ching-Yu; van Duijn, Cornelia M; MacGregor, Stuart

    2017-01-01

    Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), the most common optic neuropathy, is a heritable disease. Siblings of POAG cases have a ten-fold increase risk of developing the disease. Intraocular pressure (IOP) and optic nerve head characteristics are used clinically to predict POAG risk. We conducted a

  14. New insights into the genetics of primary open-angle glaucoma based on meta-analyses of intraocular pressure and optic disc characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Springelkamp, H.; Iglesias, A.I.; Mishra, A; Hohn, R.; Wojciechowski, R.; Khawaja, A.P.; Nag, A.; Wang, Y.X.; Wang, J.J.; Cuellar-Partida, G.; Gibson, J.; Bailey, J.N.; Vithana, E.N.; Gharahkhani, P.; Boutin, T.; Ramdas, W.D.; Zeller, T.; Luben, R.N.; Yonova-Doing, E.; Viswanathan, A.C.; Yazar, S.; Cree, A.J.; Haines, J.L.; Koh, J.Y.; Souzeau, E.; Wilson, J.F.; Amin, N.; Muller, C.; Venturini, C.; Kearns, L.S.; Kang, J.H.; Tham, Y.C.; Zhou, T.; Leeuwen, E.M. van; Nickels, S.; Sanfilippo, P.; Liao, J.; Linde, H. van der; Zhao, W.; Koolwijk, L.M. van; Zheng, L.; Rivadeneira, F.; Baskaran, M.; Lee, S.J. van der; Perera, S.; Jong, P.T.; Oostra, B.A.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Fan, Q.; Hofman, A.; Tai, E.S.; Vingerling, J.R.; Sim, X.; Wolfs, R.C.; Teo, Y.Y.; Lemij, H.G.; Khor, C.C.; Willemsen, R.; Lackner, K.J.; Aung, T.; Jansonius, N.M.; Montgomery, G.; Wild, P.S.; Young, T.L.; Burdon, K.P.; Hysi, P.G.; Pasquale, L.R.; Wong, T.Y.; Klaver, C.C.W.; Hewitt, A.W.; Jonas, J.B.; Mitchell, P.; Lotery, A.J.; Foster, P.J.; Vitart, V.; Pfeiffer, N.; Craig, J.E.; Mackey, D.A.; Hammond, C.J.; Wiggs, J.L.; Cheng, C.Y.; Duijn, C.M. van; MacGregor, S.

    2017-01-01

    Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), the most common optic neuropathy, is a heritable disease. Siblings of POAG cases have a ten-fold increased risk of developing the disease. Intraocular pressure (IOP) and optic nerve head characteristics are used clinically to predict POAG risk. We conducted a

  15. New insights into the genetics of primary open-angle glaucoma based on meta-analyses of intraocular pressure and optic disc characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Springelkamp, Henriët; Iglesias, Adriana I; Mishra, Aniket; Höhn, René; Wojciechowski, Robert; Khawaja, Anthony P; Nag, Abhishek; Wang, Ya Xing; Wang, Jie Jin; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Gibson, Jane; Cooke Bailey, Jessica N; Vithana, Eranga N; Gharahkhani, Puya; Boutin, Thibaud; Ramdas, Wishal D; Zeller, Tanja; Luben, Robert N; Yonova-Doing, Ekaterina; Viswanathan, Ananth C; Yazar, Seyhan; Cree, Angela J; Haines, Jonathan L; Koh, Jia Yu; Souzeau, Emmanuelle; Wilson, James F; Amin, Najaf; Müller, Christian; Venturini, Cristina; Kearns, Lisa S; Hee Kang, Jae; Consortium, Neighborhood; Tham, Yih Chung; Zhou, Tiger; van Leeuwen, Elisabeth M; Nickels, Stefan; Sanfilippo, Paul; Liao, Jiemin; Linde, Herma van der; Zhao, Wanting; van Koolwijk, Leonieke M E; Zheng, Li; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Baskaran, Mani; van der Lee, Sven J; Perera, Shamira; de Jong, Paulus T V M; Oostra, Ben A; Uitterlinden, André G; Fan, Qiao; Hofman, Albert; Shyong Tai, E-; Vingerling, Johannes R; Sim, Xueling; Wolfs, Roger C W; Teo, Yik Ying; Lemij, Hans G; Khor, Chiea Chuen; Willemsen, Rob; Lackner, Karl J; Aung, Tin; Jansonius, Nomdo M; Montgomery, Grant; Wild, Philipp S; Young, Terri L; Burdon, Kathryn P; Hysi, Pirro G; Pasquale, Louis R; Wong, Tien Yin; Klaver, Caroline C W; Hewitt, Alex W; Jonas, Jost B; Mitchell, Paul; Lotery, Andrew J; Foster, Paul J; Vitart, Veronique; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Craig, Jamie E; Mackey, David A; Hammond, Christopher J; Wiggs, Janey L; Cheng, Ching-Yu; van Duijn, Cornelia M; MacGregor, Stuart

    2017-01-01

    Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), the most common optic neuropathy, is a heritable disease. Siblings of POAG cases have a ten-fold increase risk of developing the disease. Intraocular pressure (IOP) and optic nerve head characteristics are used clinically to predict POAG risk. We conducted a genom

  16. New insights into the genetics of primary open-angle glaucoma based on meta-analyses of intraocular pressure and optic disc characteristics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Springelkamp, H. (Henriët); Iglesias, A.I. (Adriana); Mishra, A. (Aniket); Höhn, R. (René); Wojciechowski, R. (Robert); Khawaja, A.P. (Anthony); Nag, A. (Abhishek); Wang, Y.X. (Ya Xing); Wang, J.J. (Jie Jin); Cuellar-Partida, G. (Gabriel); Gibson, J. (Jane); Cooke Bailey, J.N. (Jessica); Vithana, E.N. (Eranga); Gharahkhani, P. (Puya); Boutin, T. (Thibaud); Ramdas, W.D. (Wishal); Zeller, T. (Tanja); Luben, R.N. (Robert); Yonova-Doing, E. (Ekaterina); Viswanathan, A.C. (Ananth); Yazar, S. (Seyhan); Cree, A.J. (Angela); Haines, J.L. (Jonathan); Koh, J.Y. (Jia Yu); Souzeau, E. (Emmanuelle); Wilson, J.F. (James); Amin, N. (Najaf); Müller, C. (Christian); Venturini, C. (Cristina); Kearns, L.S. (Lisa); Hee Kang, J. (Jae); Consortium, N. (Neighborhood); Tham, Y.C. (Yih Chung); Zhou, T. (Tiger); van Leeuwen, E.M. (Elisabeth); Nickels, S. (Stefan); Sanfilippo, P. (Paul); Liao, J. (Jiemin); Linde, H.V. (Herma van der); Zhao, W. (Wanting); van Koolwijk, L.M. (Leonieke); Zheng, L. (Li); Rivadeneira, F. (Fernando); Baskaran, M. (Mani); van der Lee, S.J. (Sven); Perera, S. (Shamira); de Jong, P.T. (Paulus); Oostra, B.A. (Ben); Uitterlinden, A.G. (André); Fan, Q. (Qiao); Hofman, A. (Albert); Shyong Tai, E. (E-); Vingerling, J.R. (Johannes); Sim, X. (Xueling); Wolfs, R.C. (Roger); Teo, Y.Y. (Yik Ying); Lemij, H.G. (Hans); Khor, C.C. (Chiea Chuen); Willemsen, R. (Rob); Lackner, K.J. (Karl); Aung, T. (Tin); Jansonius, N.M. (Nomdo); Montgomery, G. (Grant); Wild, P.S. (Philipp); Young, T.L. (Terri); Burdon, K.P. (Kathryn); Hysi, P.G. (Pirro); Pasquale, L.R. (Louis); Wong, T.Y. (Tien Yin); Klaver, C.C. (Caroline); Hewitt, A.W. (Alex); Jonas, J.B. (Jost); Mitchell, P. (Paul); Lotery, A.J. (Andrew); Foster, P.J. (Paul); Vitart, V. (Veronique); Pfeiffer, N. (Norbert); Craig, J.E. (Jamie); Mackey, D.A. (David); Hammond, C.J. (Christopher); Wiggs, J.L. (Janey); Cheng, C.Y. (Ching-Yu); van Duijn, C.M. (Cornelia); MacGregor, S. (Stuart)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractPrimary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), the most common optic neuropathy, is a heritable disease. Siblings of POAG cases have a ten-fold increase risk of developing the disease. Intraocular pressure (IOP) and optic nerve head characteristics are used clinically to predict POAG risk. We condu

  17. Ocular rigidity, outflow facility, ocular pulse amplitude, and pulsatile ocular blood flow in open-angle glaucoma: a manometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastiridou, Anna I; Tsironi, Evangelia E; Tsilimbaris, Miltiadis K; Ginis, Harilaos; Karyotakis, Nikos; Cholevas, Pierros; Androudi, Sofia; Pallikaris, Ioannis G

    2013-07-10

    To compare ocular rigidity (OR) and outflow facility (C) coefficients in medically treated open-angle glaucoma (OAG) patients and controls, and to investigate differences in ocular pulse amplitude (OPA) and pulsatile ocular blood flow (POBF) between the two groups. Twenty-one OAG patients and 21 controls undergoing cataract surgery were enrolled. Patients with early or moderate primary or pseudoexfoliative OAG participated in the glaucoma group. A computer-controlled system, consisting of a pressure transducer and a microstepping device was employed intraoperatively. After cannulation of the anterior chamber, IOP was increased by infusing the eye with microvolumes of saline solution. IOP was recorded after each infusion step. At an IOP of 40 mm Hg, an IOP decay curve was recorded for 4 minutes. OR coefficients, C, OPA, and POBF were estimated from IOP and volume recordings. There were no differences in age or axial length in the two groups. The OR coefficient was 0.0220 ± 0.0053 μl(-1) in the OAG and 0.0222 ± 0.0039 μl(-1) in the control group (P = 0.868). C was 0.092 ± 0.082 μL/min/mm Hg in the glaucoma group compared with 0.149 ± 0.085 μL/min/mm Hg in the control group at an IOP of 35 mm Hg (P 0.05). Manometric data reveal lower C in OAG patients and increased C with increasing IOP. There were no differences in the OR coefficient, OPA, and POBF between medically treated OAG patients and controls, failing to provide evidence of altered scleral distensibility and choroidal blood flow in OAG.

  18. A novel MYOC heterozygous mutation identified in a Chinese Uygur pedigree with primary open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Su-ping; Muhemaiti, Paerheti; Yin, Yan; Cheng, Hongbo; Di Ya, A; Keyimu, Maliyamu; Cao, Xu; Fan, Ning; Jiang, Liqiong; Yan, Naihong; Zhou, Xiaomin; Wang, Yun; Liu, Xuyang

    2012-01-01

    To characterize the clinical features of a Chinese Uygur pedigree with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and to identify mutations in two candidate genes, trabecular meshwork inducible glucocorticoid response (MYOC/TIGR) and human dioxin-inducible cytochrome P450 (CYP1B1). Twenty one members from a Chinese Uygur family of four generations were included in the study. All participants underwent complete ophthalmologic examinations. Five were diagnosed as POAG, four as glaucoma suspects, and the rest were asymptomatic. Molecular genetic analysis was performed on all subjects included in the study. All exons of CYP1B1 and MYOC were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), sequenced and compared with a reference database. The variations detected were evaluated in available family members as well as 102 normal controls. Possible changes in structure and function of the protein induced by amino acid variance were predicted by bioinformatics analysis. Elevated intraocular pressure and late-stage glaucomatous cupping of the optic disc were found in five patients of this family. A novel heterozygous missense mutation c.1151 A>G in exon 3 of MYOC was found in all five patients diagnosed as POAG and four glaucoma suspects, but not in the rest of the family members and 102 normal controls. This mutation caused an amino acid substitution of aspartic acid to glycine at position 384 (p. D384G) of the MYOC protein. This substitution may cause structural and functional changes of the protein based on bioinformatics analysis. No mutations were found in CYP1B1. Our study suggests that the novel mutation D384G of MYOC is likely responsible for the pathogenesis of POAG in this pedigree.

  19. The role of base excision repair in the development of primary open angle glaucoma in the Polish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuchra, Magda; Markiewicz, Lukasz; Mucha, Bartosz; Pytel, Dariusz; Szymanek, Katarzyna; Szemraj, Janusz; Szaflik, Jerzy; Szaflik, Jacek P; Majsterek, Ireneusz

    2015-08-01

    Glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible blindness in developing countries. Previous data have shown that progressive loss of human TM cells may be connected with chronic exposure to oxidative stress. This hypothesis may suggest a role of the base excision repair (BER) pathway of oxidative DNA damage in primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) patients. The aim of our study was to evaluate an association of BER gene polymorphism with a risk of POAG. Moreover, an association of clinical parameters was examined including cup disk ratio (c/d), rim area (RA) and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) with glaucoma progression according to BER gene polymorphisms. Our research included 412 patients with POAG and 454 healthy controls. Gene polymorphisms were analyzed by PCR-RFLP. Heidelberg Retinal Tomography (HRT) clinical parameters were also analyzed. The 399 Arg/Gln genotype of the XRCC1 gene (OR 1.38; 95% CI 1.02-1.89 p = 0.03) was associated with an increased risk of POAG occurrence. It was indicated that the 399 Gln/Gln XRCC1 genotype might increase the risk of POAG progression according to the c/d ratio (OR 1.67; 95% CI 1.07-2.61 P = 0.02) clinical parameter. Moreover, the association of VF factor with 148 Asp/Glu of APE1 genotype distribution and POAG progression (OR 2.25; 95% CI 1.30-3.89) was also found. Additionally, the analysis of the 324 Gln/His MUTYH polymorphism gene distribution in the patient group according to RNFL factor showed that it might decrease the progression of POAG (OR 0.47; 95% CI 0.30-0.82 P = 0.005). We suggest that the 399 Arg/Gln polymorphism of the XRCC1 gene may serve as a predictive risk factor of POAG.

  20. Measurement of Systemic Mitochondrial Function in Advanced Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma and Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole J Van Bergen

    Full Text Available Primary Open Angle Glaucoma (POAG is a common neurodegenerative disease characterized by the selective and gradual loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs. Aging and increased intraocular pressure (IOP are glaucoma risk factors; nevertheless patients deteriorate at all levels of IOP, implying other causative factors. Recent evidence presents mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS complex-I impairments in POAG. Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON patients suffer specific and rapid loss of RGCs, predominantly in young adult males, due to complex-I mutations in the mitochondrial genome. This study directly compares the degree of OXPHOS impairment in POAG and LHON patients, testing the hypothesis that the milder clinical disease in POAG is due to a milder complex-I impairment. To assess overall mitochondrial capacity, cells can be forced to produce ATP primarily from mitochondrial OXPHOS by switching the media carbon source to galactose. Under these conditions POAG lymphoblasts grew 1.47 times slower than controls, whilst LHON lymphoblasts demonstrated a greater degree of growth impairment (2.35 times slower. Complex-I enzyme specific activity was reduced by 18% in POAG lymphoblasts and by 29% in LHON lymphoblasts. We also assessed complex-I ATP synthesis, which was 19% decreased in POAG patients and 17% decreased in LHON patients. This study demonstrates both POAG and LHON lymphoblasts have impaired complex-I, and in the majority of aspects the functional defects in POAG were milder than LHON, which could reflect the milder disease development of POAG. This new evidence places POAG in the spectrum of mitochondrial optic neuropathies and raises the possibility for new therapeutic targets aimed at improving mitochondrial function.

  1. Measurement of Systemic Mitochondrial Function in Advanced Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma and Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bergen, Nicole J; Crowston, Jonathan G; Craig, Jamie E; Burdon, Kathryn P; Kearns, Lisa S; Sharma, Shiwani; Hewitt, Alex W; Mackey, David A; Trounce, Ian A

    2015-01-01

    Primary Open Angle Glaucoma (POAG) is a common neurodegenerative disease characterized by the selective and gradual loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Aging and increased intraocular pressure (IOP) are glaucoma risk factors; nevertheless patients deteriorate at all levels of IOP, implying other causative factors. Recent evidence presents mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complex-I impairments in POAG. Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON) patients suffer specific and rapid loss of RGCs, predominantly in young adult males, due to complex-I mutations in the mitochondrial genome. This study directly compares the degree of OXPHOS impairment in POAG and LHON patients, testing the hypothesis that the milder clinical disease in POAG is due to a milder complex-I impairment. To assess overall mitochondrial capacity, cells can be forced to produce ATP primarily from mitochondrial OXPHOS by switching the media carbon source to galactose. Under these conditions POAG lymphoblasts grew 1.47 times slower than controls, whilst LHON lymphoblasts demonstrated a greater degree of growth impairment (2.35 times slower). Complex-I enzyme specific activity was reduced by 18% in POAG lymphoblasts and by 29% in LHON lymphoblasts. We also assessed complex-I ATP synthesis, which was 19% decreased in POAG patients and 17% decreased in LHON patients. This study demonstrates both POAG and LHON lymphoblasts have impaired complex-I, and in the majority of aspects the functional defects in POAG were milder than LHON, which could reflect the milder disease development of POAG. This new evidence places POAG in the spectrum of mitochondrial optic neuropathies and raises the possibility for new therapeutic targets aimed at improving mitochondrial function.

  2. Genetic correlations between intraocular pressure, blood pressure and primary open-angle glaucoma: a multi-cohort analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschard, Hugues; Kang, Jae H; Iglesias, Adriana I; Hysi, Pirro; Cooke Bailey, Jessica N; Khawaja, Anthony P; Allingham, R Rand; Ashley-Koch, Allison; Lee, Richard K; Moroi, Sayoko E; Brilliant, Murray H; Wollstein, Gadi; Schuman, Joel S; Fingert, John H; Budenz, Donald L; Realini, Tony; Gaasterland, Terry; Scott, William K; Singh, Kuldev; Sit, Arthur J; Igo, Robert P; Song, Yeunjoo E; Hark, Lisa; Ritch, Robert; Rhee, Douglas J; Gulati, Vikas; Haven, Shane; Vollrath, Douglas; Zack, Donald J; Medeiros, Felipe; Weinreb, Robert N; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Chasman, Daniel I; Christen, William G; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Liu, Yutao; Kraft, Peter; Richards, Julia E; Rosner, Bernard A; Hauser, Michael A; Klaver, Caroline C W; vanDuijn, Cornelia M; Haines, Jonathan; Wiggs, Janey L; Pasquale, Louis R

    2017-08-30

    Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is the most common chronic optic neuropathy worldwide. Epidemiological studies show a robust positive relation between intraocular pressure (IOP) and POAG and modest positive association between IOP and blood pressure (BP), while the relation between BP and POAG is controversial. The International Glaucoma Genetics Consortium (n=27 558), the International Consortium on Blood Pressure (n=69 395), and the National Eye Institute Glaucoma Human Genetics Collaboration Heritable Overall Operational Database (n=37 333), represent genome-wide data sets for IOP, BP traits and POAG, respectively. We formed genome-wide significant variant panels for IOP and diastolic BP and found a strong relation with POAG (odds ratio and 95% confidence interval: 1.18 (1.14-1.21), P=1.8 × 10(-27)) for the former trait but no association for the latter (P=0.93). Next, we used linkage disequilibrium (LD) score regression, to provide genome-wide estimates of correlation between traits without the need for additional phenotyping. We also compared our genome-wide estimate of heritability between IOP and BP to an estimate based solely on direct measures of these traits in the Erasmus Rucphen Family (ERF; n=2519) study using Sequential Oligogenic Linkage Analysis Routines (SOLAR). LD score regression revealed high genetic correlation between IOP and POAG (48.5%, P=2.1 × 10(-5)); however, genetic correlation between IOP and diastolic BP (P=0.86) and between diastolic BP and POAG (P=0.42) were negligible. Using SOLAR in the ERF study, we confirmed the minimal heritability between IOP and diastolic BP (P=0.63). Overall, IOP shares genetic basis with POAG, whereas BP has limited shared genetic correlation with IOP or POAG.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 30 August 2017; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2017.136.

  3. Steroid-induced glaucoma treated with trabecular ablation in a matched comparison with primary open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Yalong; Kaplowitz, Kevin; Parikh, Hardik A; Roy, Pritha; Loewen, Ralitsa T; Francis, Brian A; Loewen, Nils A

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the outcomes of trabectome-mediated ab interno trabeculectomy in patients with steroid-induced glaucoma (SIG). A retrospective, observational cohort study performed in the Department of Ophthalmology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. The data of 60 patients with SIG and 484 controls with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) matched by age, gender and glaucoma index were collected from the Trabectome Study Group database. Reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP) and medications were compared between POAG and SIG by multivariate regression. Kaplan-Meier was used for survival analysis. Success was defined as IOP ≤21 mmHg and at least 20% IOP reduction from baseline for any two consecutive visits after 3 months without secondary glaucoma surgery. Postoperative IOP and number of medications were compared with baseline in the SIG subgroups by the Wilcoxon test. Intraocular pressure reduction and 1-year success rate. Patients with SIG had a higher baseline IOP (31.4 ± 10.4 vs. 24.1 ± 7.6 mmHg, P SIG had an IOP reduction of 6.7 ± 1.1 mmHg more than those with POAG. Survival rates at 12 months were comparable at 86% in the SIG group and 85% in the POAG group (P = 0.47). Patients with SIG with a high baseline IOP, younger age and advanced glaucoma experienced a larger IOP drop. Trabectome appears to be an effective surgical treatment in reducing IOP for patients with SIG. © 2016 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  4. Does Helicobacter pylori Eradication Reduce the Risk of Open Angle Glaucoma in Patients With Peptic Ulcer Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsin-Yi; Lin, Cheng-Li; Chen, Wen-Chi; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-09-01

    To investigate whether Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) eradication would influence the risk of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) in patients with peptic ulcer disease. From the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000, 6061 patients with peptic ulcer and receiving H pylori eradication therapy were recruited. The study cohort was subdivided into early (within 1 year) and late (after 1 year) eradication cohorts. The 24,244 control cohort subjects were those who without peptic ulcer and without receiving H pylori eradication therapy and were frequency-matched with the H pylori eradication cohort by age, sex, and the year of receiving H pylori eradication therapy. The higher incidence of POAG was observed in late H pylori eradication cohort and in early H pylori eradication cohort than in control cohort (1.57, 1.32, and 0.95, per 1000 person-year, respectively). However, overall risk of glaucoma was not significantly higher in the late eradication than in the early eradication (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.85, 95% confidence interval = 0.48-1.53). The POAG incidence was greater in the late H pylori eradication cohort when follow-up duration ≤ 5 years (1.59, per 1000 person-years). However, when follow-up duration >5 years, the incidence of POAG was greater in the early H pylori eradication cohort (1.68, per 1000 person-years). These relationships were not associated with a significantly increased or decreased risk of POAG in multivariable analyses. Either early or late H pylori eradication does not significantly reduce the risk of glaucoma in patients with peptic ulcer disease compared with normal control.

  5. Age-based analysis of choroidal thickness and choroidal vessel diameter in primary open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toprak, Ibrahim; Yaylalı, Volkan; Yildirim, Cem

    2016-04-01

    We aimed to assess choroidal thickness and vessel diameter in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) using enhanced depth imaging (EDI) optical coherence tomography (OCT) with age-based analysis. Fifty-four patients with a confirmed diagnosis of POAG and 44 age-sex matched healthy subjects were included into the study. A masked physician performed measurements of largest choroidal vessel diameter and choroidal thicknesses (subfoveal, nasal, and temporal) using EDI OCT. Subgroup analyses were performed to compare choroidal measurements based on age (with a cut point of 70 years). The study cohort comprised 54 patients with POAG (mean age of 63.2 ± 8.8 years) and 44 healthy control subjects (mean age of 62.9 ± 8.5 years) (P = 0.870). We found no significant differences in terms of choroidal measurements (P > 0.05) between the glaucoma and control groups. However, in the glaucoma group, patients with an age ≥70 years had significantly thinner subfoveal and nasal choroid compared to those of the patients with choroidal thickness and vessel measurements showed no significant difference when the subjects were subgrouped according to the age cut point (P > 0.05). Choroidal thickness and vessel caliber seem not to differ between patients with POAG and healthy controls. However, an age ≥70 years might be associated with thinning in subfoveal and nasal choroid in patients with POAG. Further studies are needed to elucidate whether choroidal thinning is a cause or result in POAG.

  6. Diabetes Pathology and Risk of Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma: Evaluating Causal Mechanisms by Using Genetic Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ling; Walter, Stefan; Melles, Ronald B; Glymour, M Maria; Jorgenson, Eric

    2016-01-15

    Although type 2 diabetes (T2D) predicts glaucoma, the potential for unmeasured confounding has hampered causal conclusions. We performed separate sample genetic instrumental variable analyses using the Genetic Epidemiology Research Study on Adult Health and Aging cohort (n = 69,685; 1995-2013) to estimate effects of T2D on primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG; 3,554 cases). Genetic instrumental variables for overall and mechanism-specific (i.e., linked to T2D via influences on adiposity, β-cell function, insulin regulation, or other metabolic processes) T2D risk were constructed by using 39 genetic polymorphisms established to predict T2D in other samples. Instrumental variable estimates indicated that T2D increased POAG risk (odds ratio = 2.53, 95% confidence interval: 1.04, 6.11). The instrumental variable for β-cell dysregulation also significantly predicted POAG (odds ratioβ-cell = 5.26, 95% confidence interval: 1.75, 15.85), even among individuals without diagnosed T2D, suggesting that metabolic dysregulation may increase POAG risk prior to T2D diagnosis. The T2D risk variant in the melatonin receptor 1B gene (MTNR1B) predicted risk of POAG independently of T2D status, indicating possible pleiotropic physiological functions of melatonin, but instrumental variable effect estimates were significant even excluding MTNR1B variants. To our knowledge, this is the first genetic instrumental variable study of T2D and glaucoma, providing a novel approach to evaluating this hypothesized relationship. Our findings substantially bolster observational evidence that T2D increases POAG risk.

  7. Correlation between peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and fundus autofluorescence in primary open-angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reznicek L

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Lukas Reznicek,* Florian Seidensticker,* Thomas Mann, Irene Hübert, Alexandra Buerger, Christos Haritoglou, Aljoscha S Neubauer, Anselm Kampik, Christoph Hirneiss, Marcus Kernt Department of Ophthalmology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: To investigate the relationship between retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness and retinal pigment epithelium alterations in patients with advanced glaucomatous visual field defects. Methods: A consecutive, prospective series of 82 study eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma and advanced glaucomatous visual field defects were included in this study. All study participants underwent a full ophthalmic examination followed by visual field testing with standard automated perimetry as well as spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT for peripapillary RNFL thickness and Optos wide-field fundus autofluorescence (FAF images. A pattern grid with corresponding locations between functional visual field sectors and structural peripapillary RNFL thickness was aligned to the FAF images at corresponding location. Mean FAF intensity (range: 0 = black and 255 = white of each evaluated sector (superotemporal, temporal, inferotemporal, inferonasal, nasal, superonasal was correlated with the corresponding peripapillary RNFL thickness obtained with SD-OCT. Results: Correlation analyses between sectoral RNFL thickness and standardized FAF intensity in the corresponding topographic retina segments revealed partly significant correlations with correlation coefficients ranging between 0.004 and 0.376 and were statistically significant in the temporal inferior central field (r = 0.324, P = 0.036 and the nasal field (r = 0.376, P = 0.014. Conclusion: Retinal pigment epithelium abnormalities correlate with corresponding peripapillary RNFL damage, especially in the temporal inferior sector of patients with advanced glaucomatous visual field defects. A

  8. Estimating the Rate of Progressive Visual Field Damage in Those with Open-Angle Glaucoma, from Cross-Sectional Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broman, Aimee Teo; Quigley, Harry A.; West, Sheila K.; Katz, Joanne; Munoz, Beatriz; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Tielsch, James M.; Friedman, David S.; Crowston, Jonathan; Taylor, Hugh R.; Varma, Rohit; Leske, M. Cristina; Bengtsson, Boel; Heijl, Anders; He, Mingguang; Foster, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the rate of visual field progression in open-angle glaucoma (OAG) subjects, by using data from population-based cross-sectional studies. Methods Subjects with OAG were identified in nine surveys of randomly sampled populations using standard criteria for glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Subjects were of European, African, Chinese, and Hispanic ethnicity. The measure of OAG damage was the mean deviation (MD) of an automated visual field test (Humphrey Field Analyzer; Carl Zeiss Meditec, Inc., Dublin, CA). The rate of progression was the mean of all subjects’ damage in the worse eye divided by an average time since onset. Time since onset was estimated from age-specific prevalence rates. Results A total of 1066 subjects with OAG contributed visual field data. The mean worsening in decibels per year was: European-derived, −1.12; Hispanic, −1.26; African-derived, −1.33; and Chinese −1.56 (difference among ethnicities, P = 0.16). The mean duration of disease was lowest among Chinese persons at 10.5 years (95% CI: 8.8–12.6) and was highest in African-derived subjects at 15.4 years (95% CI: 14.6–15.9). The progression rate was not consistently related to age or gender. By combining disease duration and progression rate, the model predicted that 15% or fewer of the worse eyes would reach the end of the field damage scale in the patient’s lifetime. Conclusions The estimates of typical worsening per year in the worse eye among subjects with OAG suggested slightly more rapid progression than in some clinic-based studies. The rate did not differ significantly by ethnicity or gender, but was worse in those with known, treated OAG and in pseudophakic subjects. PMID:18172076

  9. Clinical relevance of the glucocorticoid receptor gene polymorphisms in glucocorticoid-induced ocular hypertension and primary open angle glaucoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu-Qing; Wang; Zhao-Xia; Duan; Xiang-Ge; He; Xi-Yuan; Zhou

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To avoid the side effects of ocular hypertension of glucocorticoid(GC) usage in eye, we must identify susceptible individuals, which exists in about one-third of all population. Further, the majority of all primary open angle glaucoma(POAG) patients show this phenotype.Glucocorticoid receptor(GR) regulates C responsiveness in trabecular meshwork(TM) cells. In this study, single nucleotide polymorphism(SNP) genotyping was used to determine whether there are differences in the Bcl I(rs41423247) and N363S(rs6195) polymorphisms of the GR gene in healthy and POAG patients, and glucocorticoid-induced ocular hypertension(GIOH)populations.METHODS: Three hundred and twenty-seven unrelated Chinese adults, including 111 normal controls, 117 GIOH subjects and 99 POAG patients, were recruited. DNA samples were prepared and the Bcl I and N363 S polymorphisms were screened using real-time polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism(RFLP) analysis. Frequencies of the Bcl I and N363 S polymorphisms were determined and compared using Fisher’s exact test and the Chi-squared test.RESULTS: Only the Bcl I polymorphism was identified in the Chinese Han population. The frequency of the G allele was 21.6 % in normal controls, 18.3% in GIOH patients, and 13.64% in the POAG patients. There was no significant difference in polymorphism or allele frequency in the 3 groups. Furthermore, no N363 S polymorphism was found in the study subjects.CONCLUSION: The Bcl I polymorphisms in GR gene had no association with GIOH and POAG patients, and N363 S polymorphism might not exist in the Chinese Han population. Therefore, the Bcl I polymorphism might not be responsible for the development of GC-induced ocular hypertension or POAG.

  10. Anterior Lamina Cribrosa Surface Depth in Open-Angle Glaucoma: Relationship with the Position of the Central Retinal Vessel Trunk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baek-Lok Oh

    Full Text Available To determine the factors influencing the anterior lamina cribrosa (LC surface depth (LCD in patients with open-angle glaucoma (OAG, focusing on the association between LCD and the position of the central retinal vessel trunk (CRVT at the anterior LC surface.Optic nerve heads of 205 OAG eyes were scanned using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT. After processing the images using adaptive compensation, the LCD was determined from 11 horizontal B-scan images that divided the optic disc vertically into 12 equal parts. Eyes were divided into two groups (central or peripheral according to where the CRVT exits from the anterior LC surface. The influence of CRVT position on LCD was evaluated, taking into account age, gender, untreated intraocular pressure (IOP, IOP at optic-disc scanning, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness, visual-field mean deviation, central corneal thickness, and axial length.Patients in the peripheral CRVT group were younger and more myopic, and had a larger mean LCD and thinner global RNFL than those in the central CRVT group (all P≤0.023. On multivariate analysis, the peripheral CRVT location was significantly associated with a larger LCD (P = 0.002, together with the significant association of younger age (P<0.001, higher untreated IOP (P = 0.010, and thinner RNFL (P = 0.003 on the larger LCD.In OAG, CRVT location was an independent factor influencing the LCD, together with age, untreated IOP, and global RNFL thickness. The data indicate that the CRVT may contribute to the resistance of the LC against deformation. A longitudinal prospective observation is required to clarify this relationship.

  11. Measurement of Systemic Mitochondrial Function in Advanced Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma and Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bergen, Nicole J; Crowston, Jonathan G.; Craig, Jamie E.; Burdon, Kathryn P.; Kearns, Lisa S.; Sharma, Shiwani; Hewitt, Alex W.; Mackey, David A.; Trounce, Ian A.

    2015-01-01

    Primary Open Angle Glaucoma (POAG) is a common neurodegenerative disease characterized by the selective and gradual loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Aging and increased intraocular pressure (IOP) are glaucoma risk factors; nevertheless patients deteriorate at all levels of IOP, implying other causative factors. Recent evidence presents mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complex-I impairments in POAG. Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON) patients suffer specific and rapid loss of RGCs, predominantly in young adult males, due to complex-I mutations in the mitochondrial genome. This study directly compares the degree of OXPHOS impairment in POAG and LHON patients, testing the hypothesis that the milder clinical disease in POAG is due to a milder complex-I impairment. To assess overall mitochondrial capacity, cells can be forced to produce ATP primarily from mitochondrial OXPHOS by switching the media carbon source to galactose. Under these conditions POAG lymphoblasts grew 1.47 times slower than controls, whilst LHON lymphoblasts demonstrated a greater degree of growth impairment (2.35 times slower). Complex-I enzyme specific activity was reduced by 18% in POAG lymphoblasts and by 29% in LHON lymphoblasts. We also assessed complex-I ATP synthesis, which was 19% decreased in POAG patients and 17% decreased in LHON patients. This study demonstrates both POAG and LHON lymphoblasts have impaired complex-I, and in the majority of aspects the functional defects in POAG were milder than LHON, which could reflect the milder disease development of POAG. This new evidence places POAG in the spectrum of mitochondrial optic neuropathies and raises the possibility for new therapeutic targets aimed at improving mitochondrial function. PMID:26496696

  12. Expression profile of the matricellular protein osteopontin in primary open-angle glaucoma and the normal human eye.

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    Chowdhury, Uttio Roy; Jea, Seung-Youn; Oh, Dong-Jin; Rhee, Douglas J; Fautsch, Michael P

    2011-08-16

    PURPOSE. To characterize the role of osteopontin (OPN) in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and normal eyes. METHODS. OPN quantification was performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in aqueous humor (AH) obtained from human donor eyes (POAG and normal) and surgical samples (POAG and elective cataract removal). OPN expression and localization in whole eye tissue sections and primary normal human trabecular meshwork (NTM) cells were studied by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Latanoprost-free acid (LFA)-treated NTM cells were analyzed for OPN gene and protein expression. Intraocular pressure was measured by tonometry, and central corneal thickness was measured by optical coherence tomography in young OPN(-/-) and wild-type mice. RESULTS. OPN levels were significantly reduced in donor POAG AH compared with normal AH (0.54 ± 0.18 ng/μg [n = 8] vs. 0.77 ± 0.23 ng/μg [n = 9]; P = 0.039). A similar trend was observed in surgical AH (1.05 ± 0.31 ng/μg [n = 20] vs. 1.43 ± 0.88 ng/μg [n = 20]; P = 0.083). OPN was present in the trabecular meshwork, corneal epithelium and endothelium, iris, ciliary body, retina, vitreous humor, and optic nerve. LFA increased OPN gene expression, but minimal change in OPN protein expression was observed. No difference in intraocular pressure (17.5 ± 2.0 mm Hg [n = 56] vs. 17.3 ± 1.9 mm Hg [n = 68]) but thinner central corneal thickness (91.7 ± 3.6 μm [n = 50] vs. 99.2 ± 5.5 μm [n = 70]) was noted between OPN(-/-) and wild-type mice. CONCLUSIONS. OPN is widely distributed in the human eye and was found in lower concentrations in POAG AH. Reduction of OPN in young mice does not affect IOP.

  13. The measurement of opening angle and orifice area of a bileaflet mechanical valve using multidetector computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Hyeon; Youn, Ho-Joong; Shim, Sung-Bo; Lee, Sun-Hee; Jung, Jung-Im; Jung, Seung-Eun; Choi, Yun-Seok; Park, Chul-Soo; Oh, Yong-Seog; Chung, Wook-Sung; Kim, Jae-Hyung

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess mechanical valve function using 64-slice multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). In 20 patients (mean age, 50+/-12 years; male-to-female ratio, 10:10), 30 St. Jude bileaflet mechanical valves (15 aortic and 15 mitral valves) were evaluated using MDCT. We selected images vertical and parallel to the mechanical valve. The valve orifice area (OA) and valve length were determined by manual tracing and the opening and closing angles were measured using a protractor. The OA and length of the mechanical valves were compared with the manufacturer's values. The geometric orifice areas (GOAs) based on the manufacturer's values and the OAs determined by MDCT were 3.4+/-0.2 cm(2) and 3.4+/-0.3 cm(2) for the mitral valves and 2.1+/-0.3 cm(2) and 2.1+/-0.4 cm(2) for the aortic valves, respectively. The correlation coefficients between the OA measures were 0.433 for the mitral valves and 0.874 for the aortic valves (both pvalves and 21.5+/-2.1 mm and 20.7+/-2.3 mm for the aortic valves, respectively. The correlation coefficients between the measures were 0.651 for the mitral valve and 0.846 for the aortic valve (both pvalves and 11.1+/-0.9 degrees and 120.6+/-1.7 degrees for the aortic valves, respectively. MDCT is an accurate modality with which to assess the function and morphology of bileaflet mechanical valves.

  14. Correlation of endothelin-1 concentration in aqueous humor with intraocular pressure in primary open angle and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choritz, Lars; Machert, Maren; Thieme, Hagen

    2012-10-23

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) has been found in elevated concentrations in the aqueous humor of glaucoma patients. Indirect evidence from animal studies suggests that ET-1 might directly influence intraocular pressure (IOP). The aim of this study was to determine whether ET-1 concentrations in aqueous humor of cataract and glaucoma patients correlate with IOP. Aqueous humor and blood samples from patients with either cataract (control, n = 38), primary open angle glaucoma (POAG, n = 35), or pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (PEXG, n = 21), without other ocular or systemic disease, were collected during routine cataract surgery or trabeculectomy. ET-1 concentration was determined by an ET-1 ELISA kit. IOP was measured preoperatively by standard Goldmann applanation tonometry. All statistical analysis was performed using commercial predictive analytics software. Both IOP and ET-1 concentration in aqueous humor were significantly increased in POAG (23.4 ± 6.8 mm Hg, 5.9 ± 2.9 pg/mL) and PEXG (24.3 ± 8.8 mm Hg, 7.7 ± 2.1 pg/mL) compared with control (15.0 ± 2.9 mm Hg, 4.3 ± 2.4 pg/mL). No difference was detected for plasma ET-1 concentrations. IOP and ET-1 in the aqueous humor were significantly correlated (R = 0.394, R² = 0.155, P < 0.001), although no correlation was found between IOP and ET-1 in blood plasma or between ET-1 in aqueous humor and ET-1 in plasma. In this study, a small but highly significant correlation between IOP and the ET-1 concentration in the aqueous humor was found. Although no causative relationship can be deduced from this, ocular ET-1 effects on IOP control may merit further investigation.

  15. GALC deletions increase the risk of primary open-angle glaucoma: the role of Mendelian variants in complex disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutao Liu

    Full Text Available DNA copy number variants (CNVs have been reported in many human diseases including autism and schizophrenia. Primary Open Angle Glaucoma (POAG is a complex adult-onset disorder characterized by progressive optic neuropathy and vision loss. Previous studies have identified rare CNVs in POAG; however, their low frequencies prevented formal association testing. We present here the association between POAG risk and a heterozygous deletion in the galactosylceramidase gene (GALC. This CNV was initially identified in a dataset containing 71 Caucasian POAG cases and 478 ethnically matched controls obtained from dbGAP (study accession phs000126.v1.p1. (p = 0.017, fisher's exact test. It was validated with array comparative genomic hybridization (arrayCGH and realtime PCR, and replicated in an independent POAG dataset containing 959 cases and 1852 controls (p = 0.021, OR (odds ratio = 3.5, 95% CI -1.1-12.0. Evidence for association was strengthened when the discovery and replication datasets were combined (p = 0.002; OR = 5.0, 95% CI 1.6-16.4. Several deletions with different endpoints were identified by array CGH of POAG patients. Homozygous deletions that eliminate GALC enzymatic activity cause Krabbe disease, a recessive Mendelian disorder of childhood displaying bilateral optic neuropathy and vision loss. Our findings suggest that heterozygous deletions that reduce GALC activity are a novel mechanism increasing risk of POAG. This is the first report of a statistically-significant association of a CNV with POAG risk, contributing to a growing body of evidence that CNVs play an important role in complex, inherited disorders. Our findings suggest an attractive biomarker and potential therapeutic target for patients with this form of POAG.

  16. Measurement of opening and closing angles of aortic valve prostheses in vivo using dual-source computed tomography: Comparison with those of manufacturers' in 10 different types

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    Suh, Young Joo; Kim, Young Jin; Hong, Yoo Jin; Lee, Hye Jeong; Hur, Jin; Im, Dong Jin; Kim, Yun Jung; Choi, Byoung Wook [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The aims of this study were to compare opening and closing angles of normally functioning mechanical aortic valves measured on dual-source computed tomography (CT) with the manufacturers' values and to compare CT-measured opening angles according to valve function. A total of 140 patients with 10 different types of mechanical aortic valves, who underwent dual-source cardiac CT, were included. Opening and closing angles were measured on CT images. Agreement between angles in normally functioning valves and the manufacturer values was assessed using the interclass coefficient and the Bland-Altman method. CT-measured opening angles were compared between normal functioning valves and suspected dysfunctioning valves. The CT-measured opening angles of normally functioning valves and manufacturers' values showed excellent agreement for seven valve types (intraclass coefficient [ICC], 0.977; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.962-0.987). The mean differences in opening angles between the CT measurements and the manufacturers' values were 1.2° in seven types of valves, 11.0° in On-X valves, and 15.5° in ATS valves. The manufacturers' closing angles and those measured by CT showed excellent agreement for all valve types (ICC, 0.953; 95% CI, 0.920-0.972). Among valves with suspected dysfunction, those with limitation of motion (LOM) and an increased pressure gradient (PG) had smaller opening angles than those with LOM only (p < 0.05). Dual-source cardiac CT accurately measures opening and closing angles in most types of mechanical aortic valves, compared with the manufacturers' values. Opening angles on CT differ according to the type of valve dysfunction and a decreased opening angle may suggest an elevated PG.

  17. A Common Variant in MIR182 Is Associated With Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma in the NEIGHBORHOOD Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yutao; Bailey, Jessica Cooke; Helwa, Inas; Dismuke, W Michael; Cai, Jingwen; Drewry, Michelle; Brilliant, Murray H; Budenz, Donald L; Christen, William G; Chasman, Daniel I; Fingert, John H; Gaasterland, Douglas; Gaasterland, Terry; Gordon, Mae O; Igo, Robert P; Kang, Jae H; Kass, Michael A; Kraft, Peter; Lee, Richard K; Lichter, Paul; Moroi, Sayoko E; Realini, Anthony; Richards, Julia E; Ritch, Robert; Schuman, Joel S; Scott, William K; Singh, Kuldev; Sit, Arthur J; Song, Yeunjoo E; Vollrath, Douglas; Weinreb, Robert; Medeiros, Felipe; Wollstein, Gadi; Zack, Donald J; Zhang, Kang; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Gonzalez, Pedro; Stamer, W Daniel; Kuchtey, John; Kuchtey, Rachel W; Allingham, R Rand; Hauser, Michael A; Pasquale, Louis R; Haines, Jonathan L; Wiggs, Janey L

    2016-08-01

    Noncoding microRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of glaucoma. We aimed to identify common variants in miRNA coding genes (MIR) associated with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Using the NEIGHBORHOOD data set (3853 cases/33,480 controls with European ancestry), we first assessed the relation between 85 variants in 76 MIR genes and overall POAG. Subtype-specific analyses were performed in high-tension glaucoma (HTG) and normal-tension glaucoma subsets. Second, we examined the expression of miR-182, which was associated with POAG, in postmortem human ocular tissues (ciliary body, cornea, retina, and trabecular meshwork [TM]), using miRNA sequencing (miRNA-Seq) and droplet digital PCR (ddPCR). Third, miR-182 expression was also examined in human aqueous humor (AH) by using miRNA-Seq. Fourth, exosomes secreted from primary human TM cells were examined for miR-182 expression by using miRNA-Seq. Fifth, using ddPCR we compared miR-182 expression in AH between five HTG cases and five controls. Only rs76481776 in MIR182 gene was associated with POAG after adjustment for multiple comparisons (odds ratio [OR] = 1.23, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.11-1.42, P = 0.0002). Subtype analysis indicated that the association was primarily in the HTG subset (OR = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.08-1.47, P = 0.004). The risk allele T has been associated with elevated miR-182 expression in vitro. Data from ddPCR and miRNA-Seq confirmed miR-182 expression in all examined ocular tissues and TM-derived exosomes. Interestingly, miR-182 expression in AH was 2-fold higher in HTG patients than nonglaucoma controls (P = 0.03) without controlling for medication treatment. Our integrative study is the first to associate rs76481776 with POAG via elevated miR-182 expression.

  18. The role of base excision repair in the development of primary open angle glaucoma in the Polish population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuchra, Magda; Markiewicz, Lukasz; Mucha, Bartosz [Department of Clinical Chemistry and Biochemistry, Medical University of Lodz (Poland); Pytel, Dariusz [The Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, Department of Cancer Biology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Hollings Cancer Center, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); Szymanek, Katarzyna [Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of Warsaw, SPKSO Hospital, Warsaw (Poland); Szemraj, Janusz [Department of Medical Biochemistry, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz (Poland); Szaflik, Jerzy; Szaflik, Jacek P. [Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of Warsaw, SPKSO Hospital, Warsaw (Poland); Majsterek, Ireneusz, E-mail: ireneusz.majsterek@umed.lodz.pl [Department of Clinical Chemistry and Biochemistry, Medical University of Lodz (Poland)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • We suggested the association of XRCC1 gene with the increase risk of POAG development. • We indicated the association of clinical factor and XRCC1, MUTYH, ADPRT and APE1 genes with POAG progression. • We postulated the increase level of oxidative DNA damage in group of patients with POAG in relation to healthy controls. • We suggested the slightly decrease ability to repair of oxidative DNA damage. • This is the first data that showed the role of BER mechanism in POAG pathogenesis. - Abstract: Glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible blindness in developing countries. Previous data have shown that progressive loss of human TM cells may be connected with chronic exposure to oxidative stress. This hypothesis may suggest a role of the base excision repair (BER) pathway of oxidative DNA damage in primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) patients. The aim of our study was to evaluate an association of BER gene polymorphism with a risk of POAG. Moreover, an association of clinical parameters was examined including cup disk ratio (c/d), rim area (RA) and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) with glaucoma progression according to BER gene polymorphisms. Our research included 412 patients with POAG and 454 healthy controls. Gene polymorphisms were analyzed by PCR-RFLP. Heidelberg Retinal Tomography (HRT) clinical parameters were also analyzed. The 399Arg/Gln genotype of the XRCC1 gene (OR 1.38; 95% CI 1.02–1.89 p = 0.03) was associated with an increased risk of POAG occurrence. It was indicated that the 399Gln/Gln XRCC1 genotype might increase the risk of POAG progression according to the c/d ratio (OR 1.67; 95% CI 1.07–2.61 P = 0.02) clinical parameter. Moreover, the association of VF factor with 148Asp/Glu of APE1 genotype distribution and POAG progression (OR 2.25; 95% CI 1.30–3.89) was also found. Additionally, the analysis of the 324Gln/His MUTYH polymorphism gene distribution in the patient group according to RNFL factor showed that it might

  19. Effect of high myopia on 24-hour intraocular pressure in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ying-xin; WANG Ning-li; WU Lie; ZHEN Yi; WANG Tao; REN Cai-xia; PENG Xiao-xia; HAO Jie; XIA Yan-ting

    2012-01-01

    Background As intraocular pressure (lOP) and lOP fluctuation are known risk factors for glaucoma,it is important to understand the effects of high myopia on these ocular parameters.The aim of this study was to investigate if primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients with high myopia exhibit higher lOP and greater lOP fluctuations at resting conditions over 24 hours.@@Methods We designed a prospective control clinical study.Eighty-two eyes of 82 high-tension Chinese POAG patients only on prostaglandin analogue locally were divided into 3 groups according to various myopic grades (<-6.0 D,n=27 and between -0.76 and -5.99 D,n=33) or without myopia (-0.75 to 0.75 D,n=22).Single time lOP at 10 am,mean corrected 24-hour lOP,mean corrected night lOP,24-hour lOP fluctuation and lOPs of 10 am,2 pm,6 pm,10 pm,2 am,6 am and 8 am were measured.@@Results The lOP was higher in POAG patients with high myopia over those POAG alone in three ways:the elevated lOP value was 0.65 mmHg measured in single time lOP at 10 am,0.84 mmHg in mean corrected 24-hour lOP,0.97 mmHg in mean corrected night lOP.The 24-hour lOP fluctuation was lower in the two myopia groups than in non-myopia group.Further,using repeated measurement analysis of variance,there was no statistical significance among groups regarding the lOPs at the seven time points (P=0.77) and there was no interaction between groups and time points (P=0.71),but the difference of lOPs at the seven time points in same group was statistically significant (P=0.01).@@Conclusion High-tension POAG patients with high myopia,even on pharmacological glaucoma therapy,still have higher lOp,but 24-hour lOP fluctuation at resting conditions was lower in these patients.

  20. Association of Geroprotective Effects of Metformin and Risk of Open-Angle Glaucoma in Persons With Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsien-Chang; Stein, Joshua D; Nan, Bin; Childers, David; Newman-Casey, Paula Anne; Thompson, Debra A; Richards, Julia E

    2015-08-01

    Caloric restriction mimetic drugs have geroprotective effects that delay or reduce risks for a variety of age-associated systemic diseases, suggesting that such drugs might also have the potential to reduce risks of blinding ophthalmologic conditions for which age is a major risk factor. To determine whether the caloric restriction mimetic drug metformin hydrochloride is associated with reduced risk of open-angle glaucoma (OAG) in persons with diabetes mellitus. Retrospective cohort study of patients aged 40 years or older with diabetes mellitus and no preexisting record of OAG in a large US managed care network from January 1, 2001, through December 31, 2010. Quantity of metformin and other prescribed diabetes medications as captured from outpatient pharmacy records. Risk of developing OAG. Of 150 016 patients with diabetes mellitus, 5893 (3.9%) developed OAG. After adjusting for confounding factors, those prescribed the highest quartile of metformin hydrochloride (>1110 g in 2 years) had a 25% reduced OAG risk relative to those who took no metformin (hazard ratio = 0.75; 95% CI, 0.59-0.95; P = .02). Every 1-g increase in metformin hydrochloride use was associated with a 0.16% reduction in OAG risk (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.99984; 95% CI, 0.99969-0.99999; P = .04), which predicts that taking a standard dose of 2 g of metformin hydrochloride per day for 2 years would result in a 20.8% reduction in risk of OAG. After accounting for potential confounders, including metformin and diabetic medications, the risk of developing OAG was increased by 8% (hazard ratio = 1.08; 95% CI, 1.03-1.13; P = .003) for each unit of increase in glycated hemoglobin level. Metformin use is associated with reduction in risk of developing OAG, and risk is reduced even when accounting for glycemic control in the form of glycated hemoglobin level. Other diabetes medications did not confer a similar OAG risk reduction. This study suggests that metformin may be

  1. Minimally-invasive glaucoma surgeries (MIGS) for open angle glaucoma: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavia, Carlo; Dallorto, Laura; Maule, Milena; Ceccarelli, Manuela; Fea, Antonio Maria

    2017-01-01

    MIGS have been developed as a surgical alternative for glaucomatous patients. To analyze the change in intraocular pressure (IOP) and glaucoma medications using different MIGS devices (Trabectome, iStent, Excimer Laser Trabeculotomy (ELT), iStent Supra, CyPass, XEN, Hydrus, Fugo Blade, Ab interno canaloplasty, Goniscopy-assisted transluminal trabeculotomy) as a solo procedure or in association with phacoemulsification. Randomized control trials (RCT) and non-RCT (non randomized comparative studies, NRS, and before-after studies) were included. Studies with at least one year of follow-up in patients affected by primary open angle glaucoma, pseudoexfoliative glaucoma or pigmentary glaucoma were considered. Risk of Bias assessment was performed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias and the ROBINS-I tools. The main outcome was the effect of MIGS devices compared to medical therapy, cataract surgery, other glaucoma surgeries and other MIGS on both IOP and use of glaucoma medications 12 months after surgery. Outcomes measures were the mean difference in the change of IOP and glaucoma medication compared to baseline at one and two years and all ocular adverse events. The current meta-analysis is registered on PROSPERO (reference n° CRD42016037280). Over a total of 3,069 studies, nine RCT and 21 case series with a total of 2.928 eyes were included. Main concerns about risk of bias in RCTs were lack of blinding, allocation concealment and attrition bias while in non-RCTs they were represented by patients' selection, masking of participants and co-intervention management. Limited evidence was found based on both RCTs and non RCTs that compared MIGS surgery with medical therapy or other MIGS. In before-after series, MIGS surgery seemed effective in lowering both IOP and glaucoma drug use. MIGS showed a good safety profile: IOP spikes were the most frequent complications and no cases of infection or BCVA loss due to glaucoma were reported. Although MIGS seem efficient in the

  2. Two-Year COMPASS Trial Results: Supraciliary Microstenting with Phacoemulsification in Patients with Open-Angle Glaucoma and Cataracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vold, Steven; Ahmed, Iqbal Ike K; Craven, E Randy; Mattox, Cynthia; Stamper, Robert; Packer, Mark; Brown, Reay H; Ianchulev, Tsontcho

    2016-10-01

    We evaluated 2-year safety and efficacy of supraciliary microstenting (CyPass Micro-Stent; Transcend Medical, Inc., Menlo Park, CA) for treating mild-to-moderate primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) in patients undergoing cataract surgery. Multicenter (24 US sites), interventional randomized clinical trial (RCT) (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT01085357). Subjects were enrolled beginning July 2011, with study completion in March 2015. Subjects had POAG with mean diurnal unmedicated intraocular pressure (IOP) 21-33 mmHg and were undergoing phacoemulsification cataract surgery. After completing cataract surgery, subjects were intraoperatively randomized to phacoemulsification only (control) or supraciliary microstenting with phacoemulsification (microstent) groups (1:3 ratio). Microstent implantation via an ab interno approach to the supraciliary space allowed concomitant cataract and glaucoma surgery. Outcome measures included percentage of subjects achieving ≥20% unmedicated diurnal IOP lowering versus baseline, mean IOP change and glaucoma medication use, and ocular adverse event (AE) incidence through 24 months. Of 505 subjects, 131 were randomized to the control group and 374 were randomized to the microstent group. Baseline mean IOPs in the control and microstent groups were similar: 24.5±3.0 and 24.4±2.8 mmHg, respectively (P > 0.05); mean medications were 1.3±1.0 and 1.4±0.9, respectively (P > 0.05). There was early and sustained IOP reduction, with 60% of controls versus 77% of microstent subjects achieving ≥20% unmedicated IOP lowering versus baseline at 24 months (P = 0.001; per-protocol analysis). Mean IOP reduction was ↓7.4 mmHg for the microstent group versus ↓5.4 mmHg in controls (P control versus 85% of microstent subjects were medication free. Mean medication use in controls decreased from 1.3±1.0 drugs at baseline to 0.7±0.9 and 0.6±0.8 drugs at 12 and 24 months, respectively, and in the microstent group from 1.4±0.9 to 0.2±0

  3. Prospective, unmasked evaluation of the iStent® inject system for open-angle glaucoma: synergy trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voskanyan, Lilit; García-Feijoó, Julián; Belda, Jose I; Fea, Antonio; Jünemann, Anselm; Baudouin, Christophe

    2014-02-01

    Micro-invasive glaucoma surgical implantation of trabecular micro-bypass stents, previously shown to be safe and effective for open-angle glaucoma (OAG) subjects during cataract surgery, was considered for evaluation as a sole procedure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering efficacy after ab interno implantation of two Glaukos Trabecular Micro-Bypass iStent inject second generation devices in subjects with OAG. This study was performed at sites in France, Germany, Italy, Republic of Armenia, and Spain. In this pan-European, multi-center prospective, post-market, unmasked study, 99 patients with OAG on at least two topical ocular hypotensive medications who required additional IOP lowering to control glaucoma disease underwent implantation of two GTS400 stents in a stand-alone procedure. Patients were qualified if they presented with preoperative mean IOP between 22 and 38 mmHg after medication washout. Postoperatively, subjects were assessed at Day 1, Months 1, 3, 6, 7, 9, and 12. IOP, medication use and safety were assessed at each visit. Sixty-six percent of subjects achieved IOP ≤18 mmHg at 12 months without medication, and 81% of subjects achieved Month 12 IOP ≤ 18 mmHg with either a single medication or no medication. Mean baseline washout IOP values decreased by 10.2 mmHg or 39.7% from 26.3 (SD 3.5) mmHg to 15.7 (SD 3.7) mmHg at Month 12. Mean IOP at 12 months was 14.7 (SD 3.1) mmHg in subjects not using ocular hypotensive medications. Reduction from preoperative medication burden was achieved in 86.9% of patients, including 15.2% with reduction of one medication and 71.7% with reduction of two or more medications. Postoperative complications occurred at a low rate and resolved without persistent effects. In this series, implantation of two trabecular micro-bypass second generation stents in subjects with OAG resulted in IOP and medication reduction and favorable safety outcomes.

  4. A COMPARATIVE STUDY TO ASSESS THE EFFICACY AND TOLERABILITY OF LATANOPROST, BIMATOPROST AND TRAVOPROST IN PATIENTS WITH OPEN ANGLE GLAUCOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prempal

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness in the world as it can remain asymptomatic until it causes severe visual loss. The target intraocular pressure with which progression is slowed sufficiently to avoid functional impairment should be achieved with the fewest medications and minimum adverse effects. The choice of medicine may be influenced by efficacy, cost, adverse effects, and dosing schedules. In general, prostaglandin analogues (PGA are the first-line of medical therapy. These drugs are administered once at night and have few systemic adverse effects. The study was conducted to compare the efficacy and safety of available PGAs. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study was conducted on sixty diagnosed cases of primary open angle glaucoma visiting the Outpatient Department of Regional Institute of Ophthalmology, Government Medical College, Amritsar. They were divided into three groups of twenty each. Each group was put on either of these anti-glaucoma topical drug (PGA - latanoprost 0.005%, travoprost 0.004% and bimatoprost 0.03% for three months duration. IOP at 9:00 AM ± 1 hr. and 4:00 PM ± 1 hr. were taken before and after 1 month and 3 months of treatment. The results of the reduction in mean IOP in each group were compared and analysed. OBSERVATIONS Mean baseline IOP at 8 AM in each group was similar (p value 0.772. Average decrease in IOP between the pretreatment (Baseline IOP and post-treatment levels (i.e. at 3 months was 31.90% in Group 1 (Bimatoprost Group, 32.97% in Group 2 (Latanoprost Group and 34.75% in Group 3 (Travoprost Group. When we applied paired t test, in each group, p value was <0.001, showing a statistically significant change. Once the efficacy of drugs was seen, we compared the efficacy of 3 groups with each other by applying ANOVA, P value was 0.108 which is not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS Individually Bimatoprost, Latanoprost and Travoprost significantly lowered the intraocular pressure but

  5. Comparison of the Efficacy of Latanoprost, Bimatoprost, and Travoprost in Patients with Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma and Ocular Hypertension

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    Nur Çolak

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this prospective study was to compare the efficacy of latanoprost, bimatoprost, and travoprost in lowering intraocular pressure (IOP and in preventing or delaying visual field loss in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG and ocular hypertension (OH. Materials and Methods: The study included 124 eyes of 73 patients who were diagnosed in our clinic as having POAG or OH. All of the patients had IOP values of 22-34 mmHg, an early diagnosis of POAG or OH, without any previous treatment. The patients were randomly divided into 3 Groups: Group 1; 42 eyes treated with latanoprost (0.005%, Group 2; 40 eyes treated with bimatoprost (0.03%, and Group 3; 42 eyes treated with travoprost (0.004%. The visual field has been evaluated via the Humprey visual field evaluation of statistical program Statpac mean deviation (MD and pattern standard deviation (PSD. The IOP, MD, and PSD values have been measured initially and at the end of the first year of treatment. Results: In comparison to the baseline, the mean changes of IOP values after one year of treatment were 6.99, 6.79 and 5.87 mmHg for the 3 Groups, respectively. The decrease in the IOP was statistically significant for each of the treatment groups (p0.05. Comparison of the MD and PSD values revealed no significant differences among the treatment groups both initially and at the end of the first year (p>0.05. The mean changes in MD and PSD values at the end of the first year were similar among the treatment groups (p>0.05. Conclusion: In patients with POAG and OH, treatment with latanoprost, bimatoprost, and travoprost decrease the IOP effectively. After a one-year treatment, no significant difference has been found between the efficacy of the 3 drugs in lowering IOP and in preventing or delaying visual field loss. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 170-4

  6. Efficacy of Monotherapy with Either Bimatoprost or Travoprost in Patients with Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma Resistant to Latanoprost Therapy

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    Yusuf Koçluk

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: This prospective study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of monotherapy with either bimatoprost or travoprost in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG resistant to latanoprost therapy. Patients and Methods: Forty patients with POAG who received therapy with topical latanoprost at Gaziantep University Hospital, Department of Ophthalmology between March 2009 and March 2010 were chosen to participate in this study. The decision to stop latanoprost therapy in these patients was made either due to the fact that they were resistant to therapy or due to the necessity to further decrease the intraocular pressure (IOP; 20 subjects were chosen to receive monotherapy with bimatoprost and 20 were chosen to receive monotherapy with travoprost. The patients were observed for 6 months with follow-up visits at 1 week, 1 month, 3 months and 6 months. Results: For the group of patients receiving therapy with bimatoprost, the average decrease in IOP was measured to be 2.05 mmHg at 1 week, 2.25 mmHg at 1 month, 1.90 mmHg at 3 months and 2.40 mmHg at 6 months. For the group of patients receiving therapy with travoprost, the average decrease in IOP was measured to be 1.47 mmHg at 1 week, 1.75 mmHg at 1 month, 1.42 mmHg at 3 months and 1.27 mmHg at 6 months. At the end of 6 months, there were no significant changes observed in the mean deviation and central corneal thickness in both therapy groups. Conjunctival hyperemia and ocular irritation were the most common side effects observed in both groups, with the bimatoprost therapy group showing higher values than the travoprost group. Discussion: For patients resistant to latanoprost therapy, prior to any adjuvant therapy, monotherapy with either bimatoprost, which is a prostamide, or travoprost, a prostaglandin analogue, has been shown to be effective at lowering IOP. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2011; 41: 295-8

  7. Retinal and choroidal oxygen saturation of the optic nerve head in open-angle glaucoma subjects by multispectral imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gai-Yun; Al-Wesabi, Samer Abdo; Zhang, Hong

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether differences exist in oxygen supply to the optic nerve head (ONH) from the retinal and choroidal vascular layers in patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) using multispectral imaging (MSI).This ia an observational, cross-sectional study.Multispectral images were acquired from 38 eyes of 19 patients with POAG, and 42 healthy eyes from 21 matched volunteers with Annidis' RHA multispectral digital ophthalmoscopy. Superficial and deeper oxygen saturation of the optic disc was represented by the mean gray scale values on the retinal and choroidal oxy-deoxy maps, respectively. Statistical analysis was performed to detect differences in ONH oxygen saturation between the 2 groups. Oxygen saturation levels in the eyes of POAG patients with severe glaucoma were compared to those of fellow eyes from the same subjects. Linear correlation analysis was performed to assess the association between ONH oxygen saturation and systemic and ocular parameters.No statistical difference was found in retinal and choroidal oxygen saturation between the POAG and control groups. In the glaucoma patients, retinal oxygen saturation was lower for eyes with worse visual fields than in those with good visual fields (t = 4.009, P = 0.001). In POAG patients, retinal oxygen saturation was dependent on mean defect of visual field and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) (r = 0.511, 0.504, P = 0.001, 0.001, respectively), whereas the choroid vasculature oxygen saturation was inversely related to RNFLT (r = -0.391, P = 0.015). An age-dependent increase in retinal oxygen saturation was found for both the POAG and control groups (r = 0.473, 0.410, P = 0.007, 0.003, respectively).MSI revealed a significant correlation between functional and structural impairments in glaucoma and retinal oxygen saturation. MSI could provide objective assessments of perfusion impairments of the glaucomatous ONH. This is a

  8. DTI analysis in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma: impact of registration on Voxel-Wise statistics.

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    Manuel A Schmidt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS has been used to assess the integrity of the visual pathway in glaucoma patients. TBSS uses the subjects' FA data to create a mean FA skeleton of white matter tracts before running voxel-wise cross-subject statistics. We compared four different approaches of registration of FA maps to create the skeleton and evaluated alignment and subsequently the impact of the chosen registration on voxel-wise statistics. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Our study comprised 69 subjects, i.e. 46 patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG and a healthy, age-matched control group of 23 subjects. Mean FA skeletons were created using the following registration approaches: registration to a standard template (T, registration to the group mean (GM, registration to a group-wise atlas (GW and registration to the most typical subject (N. Subsequently, maps of standard deviation of the 4D images were created to assess the alignment. Voxel-wise statistics for each registration approach were performed. RESULTS: We found distinct differences in voxel-wise statistics depending on the chosen registration approach. Best alignment results were achieved by registration to a study specific template, i.e. to the group mean (GM or to a group-wise atlas (GW. Overall alignment did not differ between these two approaches. However, voxel-wise statistics showed clusters of significantly decreased FA values in the T and GM approach, which were not significant after GW registration. These voxels of significantly decreased FA values after T and GM registration did not represent white matter tracts and correlated with higher standard deviation in FA maps across subjects, thus implying registration errors, especially in the optic radiation. CONCLUSION: Registration to a study-specific template, i.e. to the group mean or a group-wise atlas seems to be the method of choice in TBSS-analysis of glaucoma patients as it shows better alignment

  9. Efficacy and safety of brinzolamide/timolol fixed combination compared with timolol in Japanese patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension [Erratum

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    Yoshikawa K

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available  Yoshikawa K, Kozaki J, Maeda H. Efficacy and safety of brinzolamide/timolol fixed combination compared with timolol in Japanese patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Clin Ophthalmol. 2014;8:389–399.The Acknowledgments on page 397 contains an error: "Hidehito Kawabata (Kusakari Eye Clinic, Chiba, Japan" should be "Hidehito Kawabata (Kawabata Eye Clinic, Chiba, Japan".Read the original article

  10. Low cerebrospinal fluid pressure in the pathogenesis of primary open-angle glaucoma: epiphenomenon or causal relationship? The Beijing Intracranial and Intraocular Pressure (iCOP) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ningli; Yang, Diya; Jonas, Jost B

    2013-01-01

    Previous experimental and clinical investigations have suggested that some patients with primary open-angle glaucoma may have an abnormally low orbital cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP). A meta-analysis of available clinical data showed a marked overlap in lumbar CSFP measurements between patients with normal-tension glaucoma and healthy subjects, so that the question arises as to which additional factors play a role in the pathogenesis of glaucomatous optic neuropathy.

  11. Cost of the medical management and prescription pattern for primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) in Ghana–a retrospective cross-sectional study from three referral facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Ocansey, Stephen; Kyei, Samuel; Diafo, Ama; Darfor, Kwabena Nkansah; Boadi-Kusi, Samuel Bert; Aglobitse, Peter B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness globally, and treatment involves considerable cost to stakeholders in healthcare. However, there is infrequent availability of cost information and patterns of management, especially in developing countries. This study determined the cost of the medical management of POAG, adherence, and pattern of medication prescription in Ghana. Methods A retrospective cross-sectional study involving 891 Primary Open Angle Glaucoma (POAG) c...

  12. Comment on “Short-term effects of relaxation music on patients suffering from primary open-angle glaucoma”

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Abdullah Kaya,1 Yakup Aksoy,2 Mehmet Koray Sevinç,3 Oktay Diner41Department of Ophthalmology, Anittepe Military Dispansery, Ankara, Turkey; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Girne Military Hospital, Girne, Cyprus; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Beytepe Military Hospital, Ankara, 4Department of Ophthalmology, Erzurum Military Hospital, Erzurum, TurkeyWe read the current study “Short-term effects of relaxation music on patients suffering from primary open-angle glaucoma&rdqu...

  13. PPAR-γ and CYP46A1 genes polymorphism is associated with Primary Open Angle Glaucoma (POAG) in hypertensive North Indians

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Tasleem Raza; Saliha Rizvi; Luxmi Singh; Shania Abbas; Zeashan Haider Zaidi; Farzana Mahdi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Involvement of genetic factors like gene polymorphisms was found to contribute significantly to development and progression of Primary Open Angle Glaucoma (POAG) in the last few decades. Aim of study: The present study was carried out to investigate association of PPAR-γ (rs10865710) and CYP46A1 (rs754203) gene polymorphism with development of POAG in hypertensive North Indians. Patients and methods: Study included 328 individuals, 226 as POAG cases and 102 controls. PPAR-γ ...

  14. Association between primary open angle glaucoma and genetic polymorphisms GSTM1/GSTT1 in patients from Goiânia Central-West Region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, C T X; Costa, N B; Silva, K S F; Silva, R E; Moura, K K V O

    2014-10-31

    In this study, we evaluated the genotype profile of GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms in patient carriers of primary open-angle glaucoma in the population of Goiânia, GO, Brazil. This case-control study included 100 Brazilian patients with glaucoma and 53 patients without glaucoma. Blood samples were genotyped for polymorphisms in GST genes using polymerase chain reaction-based methods. Polymorphism frequencies were compared using the X(2) test and odds ratio (α = 0.05). The GSTM1-present genotype was 40% in the glaucoma group and 71.6% in the control group, while the GSTM1 null genotype was 60 and 28.3% in the same groups, respectively. The GSTT1-present genotype was 52% in the primary open-angle glaucoma group and 66% in the control group; the null genotype was 48% in the case group and 34% in the control group. The GSTM1 null genotype was more frequent in the glaucoma group than in the control group (P = 0.0004; odds ratio = 6.7; 95% confidence interval = 2.7- 20.3). The combined GSTM1 null and GSTT1-present genotypes were more frequent in the primary open-angle glaucoma group compared to the control group (P = 0.02; odds ratio = 3.1; 95% confidence interval = 1.2-7.9).

  15. Violation of the vascular platelet hemostasis as a risk factor of primary open-angle glaucoma progression

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    N. I. Kurysheva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to study the vascular platelet hemostasis parameters in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG.Patients and methods: ophthalmic examination, plasma level of spontaneous and induced platelet aggregation and von Willebrand factor (vWF were performed in 67 patients with high pressure glaucoma (HPG, 41 patients had normal tension glaucoma (NTG and 38 were in control group. Period of study was 36 months. The statistical analysis included standard methods of variation statistics. The threshold P value for statistical significance was 0.05.Results: platelet aggregation was increased in glaucoma (adrenalin-induced aggregation in HPG was 63,34 %±20,42 %, р = 0,043, in NTG 62,35 %±11,53 %, р = 0,047, in comparison with control group — 49,71 %±15,96 %; ristocetin-induced aggregation in HPG was 79,45 %±28,63 %, р = 0,015, in NTG 68,98 %±12,42 %, р = 0,022, and in control group 53,56 %±8,80 % accordingly; the mean level of vWF was increased in HPG (113,25 %±24,31 %, р = 0,009 and NTG (106,85 %±21,02 %, р = 0,012 in comparisonwith control group (93,86 %±17,13 %. Patients with normal level of vWF did not have a progression of glaucoma optical neuropathy. Patients with normalized level of vWF under treatment had significant improvement of MD in 6 months (from –4,916±5,121 to –4,103±4,658, р = 0,037 and were stable in the further follow up period. Patients with increased level of vWF had deterioration of MD in 36 months (from –4,616dB±8,426 dB to –5,974dB±8,852 dB, р = 0,042, increase of cup / disk ratio (from 0,59±0,21 to 0,66±0,24, р = 0,041 and thinning of average RNFL according to HRT and OCT (from 0,21±0,09 μm to 0,17±0,08 μm, р = 0,04; from 74,37±15,34 μm to 69,44±15,12 μm, р = 0,04.Conclusion. The obtained results indicate the importance of the vascular platelet hemostasis in POAG pathogenesis and the perspectives of its correction in glaucoma treatment.

  16. A prospective 3-year follow-up trial of implantation of two trabecular microbypass stents in open-angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donnenfeld ED

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Eric D Donnenfeld,1 Kerry D Solomon,2 Lilit Voskanyan,3 David F Chang,4 Thomas W Samuelson,5 Iqbal Ike K Ahmed,6 L Jay Katz7 1Ophthalmic Consultants of Long Island, Rockville Centre, NY, 2Carolina Eyecare Physicians, Mt Pleasant, SC, USA; 3S.V. Malayan Ophthalmology Centre, Yerevan, Armenia; 4Altos Eye Physicians, Los Altos, CA, 5Minnesota Eye Consultants, Minneapolis, MN, USA; 6University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; 7Wills Eye Hospital, Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, PA, USA Purpose: To evaluate 3-year safety and intraocular pressure (IOP following two trabecular microbypass stents in phakic and pseudophakic subjects with open-angle glaucoma (OAG not controlled on preoperative medication. Patients and methods: In this prospective pilot study, phakic or pseudophakic subjects with OAG and IOP between 18 mmHg and 30 mmHg on one preoperative topical ocular hypotensive medication underwent medication washout. Thirty-nine qualified subjects with preoperative unmedicated IOP ≥22 mmHg and ≤38 mmHg received two stents. Postoperative examinations were scheduled at Day 1, Week 1, Months 1, 3, 6, and 12, and semiannually through Month 60. Ocular hypotensive medication was considered if postoperative IOP exceeded 21 mmHg. IOP, medication use, and safety were assessed at each visit. Subject follow-up through Month 36 was completed. Results: Thirty-six eyes (92.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 79.1%, 98.4% achieved the primary efficacy end point of Month 12 reduction in IOP ≥20% from baseline (unmedicated IOP without ocular hypotensive medication. Four subjects required medication during the Month 36 follow-up period. Mean IOP at 36 months for subjects not taking medication was 15.2 mmHg. At 36 months, subjects sustained mean IOP decrease of 9.1±2.7 mmHg (95% CI 8.0 mmHg, 10.14 mmHg, or 37% IOP reduction, from unmedicated baseline IOP. Compared to preoperative medicated IOP, subjects had mean reduction at Month 36 of 5.5±2

  17. The Q angle analysis, during resistance training, on open kinematics chain and intermidiate closed kinematics chain, through photogrametry

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    Ayslan Jorge Santos de Araujo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available To examine the Q angle, during the resistance training by "Leg Press 45" and the "extensor chair". 14 female subjects practitioners gym carried out exercises at OKC and ICKC, ranging from 0° to 90° of flexion, where images were recorded each 10°. Through SAPO v.068, the Q angles were measured; and conducted a T-test for independent samples with p<0.05. The resistance training should include muscle exercises in OKC and ICKC, with special attention to the last one, contradicting the view of some authors. The Q angle, when compared to OKC and ICKC, changed with the increase of bending the knee for both knees to normal as the valgus, validating the combination of exercises in OKC and ICKC in muscle strengthening, for possible trend to the pathologic valgus.

  18. [A challenge to primary open-angle glaucoma including normal-pressure. Clinical problems and their scientific solution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Kazuhisa

    2012-03-01

    Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), including normal-tension glaucoma (NTG), is reported by the Tajimi Study to afflict 3.9% of the total population, and this represents about 80% of all total glaucoma cases which, in total, afflict 5.0% of the population. We tried to analyze the clinical problems relating to POAG by looking at the pathogenesis, intraocular pressure (IOP), therapy, neuroprotection and surgery of the disease. To elucidate the pathogenesis of glaucoma progression, we measured retinal nerve fiber layer defect (RNFLD) angles', and divided the NTG cases into 2 groups, enlarged RNFLD and stable RNFLD. Disc hemorrhages were found to be significantly more frequent in the enlarged group than in the stable group. RNFLD was enlarged in the direction of disc hemorrhage in over 80% of the eyes. In the majority of the eyes of the enlarged group, the enlargement of RNFLD was toward the fovea. The enlargement of RNFLD in NTG was closely associated with disc hemorrhage and the deterioration of the visual field. We developed a simultaneous structure and function evaluation technique combining spectral-domain (SD) optical coherence tomography (OCT) and fundus-oriented perimeters for the detection of visual field abnormalities in the RNFLD area. We superimposed the ganglion cell complex map obtained by SD-OCT on the fundus-oriented perimeter image. We observed very early or preperimetric normal pressure glaucoma as well as disc hemorrhage adjacent to the borders of the RNFLD. The borderline of the RNFLD seemed to be the thinnest RNFL and had the lowest retinal sensitivity (Active site for RNFLD progression). To clarify the role of the circadian clock genes in the generation of a 24-hour IOP rhythm, we used the microneedle method to measure the IOP at eight time points daily, both in wild type mice and Cry-deficient (Cry 1-/-Cry 2-/-) mice. In the wild-type mice living in light-dark conditions, the pressure measured in the light phase was significantly lower than in

  19. Five-year extension of a clinical trial comparing the EX-PRESS glaucoma filtration device and trabeculectomy in primary open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Leo; Lafuma, Antoine; Aguadé, Anne-Sophie; Berdeaux, Gilles

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the efficacy of the EX-PRESS(®) glaucoma filtration device and trabeculectomy in primary open-angle glaucoma up to five years after surgery. Patients from a previously reported randomized, open-label, parallel-arm clinical trial in which 78 patients received either the EX-PRESS glaucoma filtration device or underwent a trabeculectomy were followed for up to an additional four years (five total) beyond the original study (39 eyes per treatment group). Risk-benefit data were obtained for up to five years after glaucoma surgery. Outcome variables were intraocular pressures and intraocular pressure medications. Complete success was denoted by intraocular pressure values ≤ 18 mmHg without medication. The EX-PRESS glaucoma filtration device controlled intraocular pressure more effectively without medication for more patients from year 1 (86.8% versus 61.5%, P = 0.01) to year 3 (66.7% versus 41.0%, P = 0.02) than trabeculectomy. At year 1, only 12.8% of patients required intraocular pressure medication after EX-PRESS implantation, compared with 35.9% after trabeculectomy. The proportions became closer at year 5 (41% versus 53.9%). The responder rate was higher with EX-PRESS and time to failure was longer. In addition, surgical interventions for complications were fewer after EX-PRESS implantation. This five-year analysis confirmed and extended the results reported after one year. Compared with trabeculectomy, EX-PRESS provided better intraocular pressure control in the first three years, and patients required fewer intraocular pressure medications and fewer surgical interventions during the five-year study period. For patients with primary open-angle glaucoma, the EX-PRESS glaucoma filtration device, implanted under a superficial scleral flap, produced significantly higher success rates than trabeculectomy. EX-PRESS is an effective device for long-term treatment of primary open-angle glaucoma.

  20. Má oclusão Classe I de Angle, com mordida aberta anterior, tratada com extração de dentes permanentes Angle Class I malocclusion, with anterior open bite, treated with extraction of permanent teeth

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    Mírian Aiko Nakane Matsumoto

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A mordida aberta é uma anomalia com características distintas que, além da complexidade dos múltiplos fatores etiológicos, traz consequências estéticas e funcionais. Muitas alternativas têm sido utilizadas em seu tratamento, entre elas a grade palatina, forças ortopédicas, ajuste oclusal, camuflagem com ou sem exodontias, mini-implantes ou miniplacas e cirurgia ortognática. O diagnóstico preciso e a determinação da etiologia permitem estabelecer os objetivos e o plano de tratamento ideal para essa má oclusão. O presente relato descreve o tratamento de uma má oclusão Classe I de Angle, com padrão esquelético de Classe II e mordida aberta anterior, realizado em duas fases e que foi apresentado à diretoria do Board Brasileiro de Ortodontia e Ortopedia Facial (BBO, representando a categoria 2, como parte dos requisitos para a obtenção do título de Diplomado pelo BBO.Open bite is an anomaly with distinct characteristics which, in addition to involving complex, multiple etiologic factors, entails aesthetic and functional consequences. Many alternative approaches have been employed to treat open bite, including palatal crib, orthopedic forces, occlusal adjustment, camouflage with or without extractions, mini-implants or mini-plates, and orthognathic surgery. By determining accurate diagnosis and etiology professionals can set the goals and ideal treatment plan for this malocclusion. This report, describing the two stages treatment of a Angle Class I malocclusion with Class II skeletal pattern and anterior open bite, was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO, representative of category 2, as partial fulfillment of the requirements for obtaining the title of BBO Diplomate.

  1. OBLIQUE TOWING TEST AND MANEUVER SIMULATION AT LOW SPEED AND LARGE DRIFT ANGLE FOR DEEP SEA OPEN-FRAMED REMOTELY OPERATED VEHICLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Shi-bo; LIAN Lian; REN Ping; HUANG Guo-liang

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the newly designed oblique towing test in the horizontal plane for the scaled model of 4 500 m deep sea open-framed Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV),which is being researched and developed by Shanghai Jiao Toug University.Accurate hydrodynamics coefficients measurement is significant for the maneuverability and control system design.The scaled model of ROV was constructed by 1∶1.6.Hydrodynamics tests of large drift angle were conducted through Large Amplitude Horizontal Planar Motion Mechanism (LAHPMM) under low speed.Multiple regression method is adopted to process the test data and obtain the related hydrodynamic coefficients.Simulations were designed for the horizontal plane motion of large drift angle to verify the coefficients calculated.And the results show that the data can satisfy with the design requirements of the ROV developed.

  2. Using Support Vector Machines to Automatically Extract Open Water Signatures from POLDER Multi-Angle Data Over Boreal Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, J.; Diaz-Barrios, M.; Pinzon, J.; Ustin, S. L.; Shih, P.; Tournois, S.; Zarco-Tejada, P. J.; Vanderbilt, V. C.; Perry, G. L.; Brass, James A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This study used Support Vector Machines to classify multiangle POLDER data. Boreal wetland ecosystems cover an estimated 90 x 10(exp 6) ha, about 36% of global wetlands, and are a major source of trace gases emissions to the atmosphere. Four to 20 percent of the global emission of methane to the atmosphere comes from wetlands north of 4 degrees N latitude. Large uncertainties in emissions exist because of large spatial and temporal variation in the production and consumption of methane. Accurate knowledge of the areal extent of open water and inundated vegetation is critical to estimating magnitudes of trace gas emissions. Improvements in land cover mapping have been sought using physical-modeling approaches, neural networks, and active microwave, examples that demonstrate the difficulties of separating open water, inundated vegetation and dry upland vegetation. Here we examine the feasibility of using a support vector machine to classify POLDER data representing open water, inundated vegetation and dry upland vegetation.

  3. Changes in the retrobulbar arterial circulation after decrease of the elevated intraocular pressure in men and women with primary open angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. An altered perfusion of the optic nerve head has been proposed as a pathogenic factor of glaucoma. Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes of the hemodynamic parameters in the retrobulbar arterial circulation after decrease of the elevated intraocular pressure (IOP in women and men with primary open angle glaucoma. Methods. The study included 60 patients (33 males and 27 females older than 50 years, with diagnosed and treated primary open angle glaucoma (77 eyes of 39 patients had increased IOP, >25 mm Hg. They were examined at the Clinic of Eye Diseases (complete ophthalmologic exam and Clinic of Neurology, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, from December 2009 to December 2010. Imaging of hemodynamic parameters of three retrobulbar arterial vessels: ophthalmic, central retinal and posterior ciliary arteries with color Doppler was performed. Results. Among women, hemodynamic arterial parameter of the peak-systolic velocity was increased in the central retinal artery and decreased in the ophthalmic artery and posterior ciliary arteries; end- diastolic velocity was increased in all three retrobulbar vascular levels; Pourcelot resistivity index was increased, but pulsatility index was decreased in all three vessels. Among men, peak-systolic velocity, end-diastolic velocity and pulsatility index were decreased in all three vessels; resistivity index was increased in the ophthalmic artery, but decreased in the central retinal artery and posterior ciliary arteries. There was a significant change of the ophthalmic artery pulsatility index in women, and the end-diastolic velocity of the ophthalmic artery in men. Conclusion. There was a difference of the retrobulbar arterial circulation between women and men with primary open angle glaucoma after decrease of the elevated intraocular pressure. The role of vascular factors in the supply of the optic disc neuroretinal rim is important.

  4. [Interactive, multimedia learning system for the study of primary open angle glaucoma--system description from the viewpoint of the computer scientist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenz, H; Maresch, H; Faulborn, J

    1994-01-01

    For use on an Apple Macintosh PC, a software packet was developed with the aid of which medical students can learn all about primary open-angle glaucoma; at the same time, it is also highly suitable for supplementing lectures. The subject is subdivided into the three sections anatomy, pathology and clinical picture. All the possibilities of computer technology, for example controllable animation, video sequences and special graphic effects are utilized. A special lexicon, a complex of questions and all the possible cross-references combine to make the learning system a very flexible and highly effective learning tool.

  5. New insights into the genetics of primary open-angle glaucoma based on meta-analyses of intraocular pressure and optic disc characteristics.

    OpenAIRE

    Springelkamp, H.; Iglesias, A. I.; A.; Mishra; Höhn, R; Wojciechowski, R.; Khawaja, A.P. (Anthony); Nag, A.; Wang, Y.X.; Wang, J. J.; Cuellar-Partida, G.; Gibson, J.; Cooke Bailey, J.N. (Jessica); Vithana, E. N.; Gharahkhani, P.; Boutin, T.

    2017-01-01

    textabstractPrimary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), the most common optic neuropathy, is a heritable disease. Siblings of POAG cases have a ten-fold increase risk of developing the disease. Intraocular pressure (IOP) and optic nerve head characteristics are used clinically to predict POAG risk. We conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of IOP and optic disc parameters and validated our findings in multiple sets of POAG cases and controls. Using imputation to the 1000 genomes (1000G) re...

  6. No association of genetic polymorphisms in CYP1B1 with primary open-angle glaucoma: a meta- and gene-based analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Shuqian; Yang, Jingyun; Yu, Weihong; Kota, Pravina; Xia, Xiaobo; Xu, Huizhuo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To examine the effects of genetic polymorphisms in cytochrome P450, subfamily 1, polypeptide 1 (C1P1B1) on primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Methods A systematic literature search was performed, and random-effects meta-analyses were used to evaluate genetic polymorphisms in CYP1B1 with POAG. A gene-based analysis was conducted to investigate the cumulative effects of genetic polymorphisms in CYP1B1. Results A total of six studies from published papers were included in our analysis. ...

  7. Camouflage of a high-angle skeletal Class II open-bite malocclusion in an adult after mini-implant failure during treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzotti Sant'Anna, Eduardo; Carneiro da Cunha, Amanda; Paludo Brunetto, Daniel; Franzotti Sant'Anna, Claudia

    2017-03-01

    The treatment of skeletal anterior open-bite malocclusion requires complex orthodontic planning that considers its multifactorial etiology, treatment limitations, and high relapse rates. This case report illustrates a successful treatment approach for a skeletal high-angle Class II malocclusion in an adult with a severe open bite. The treatment consisted of a high-pull headgear therapy after mini-implants failure during fixed orthodontic therapy. Adequate esthetics and function were achieved. Despite its low probability, the unexpected event of mini-implant loosening during complex treatments should be considered. Therefore, classic orthodontic mechanics should be established, especially when treating patients for whom invasive procedures such as miniplates or orthognathic surgery are not available options.

  8. Intergeneration CAG expansion in a Wuhan juvenile-onset Huntingto ndisease family%武汉地区CAG扩增突变致青少年发病的亨廷顿舞蹈病的家系分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘媛; 沈滟; 李和; 王慧; 杨真荣; 陈燕; 唐艳平

    2007-01-01

    目的 对青少年发病的亨廷顿舞蹈病(Huntington disease)家系进行致病IT15基因早期诊断分析,为家系成员提供遗传咨询,并为后续的HD发病机制及实验治疗研究提供依据.方法 按照知情同意原则抽取家系成员外周血,提取基因组DNA,采用改良的降落PCR方法扩增IT15基因致病区域,DNA测序检测异常等位基因(CAG)n三核苷酸重复次数.结果 在该家系三代25名成员中,共发现8名致病IT15基因携带者,其中,Ⅲ10、Ⅲ12、Ⅲ14、Ⅳ3和Ⅴ2 CAG三核苷酸的拷贝数均为48,Ⅳ11和Ⅳ12均为(CAG)67,Ⅳ14为(CAG)63,而对照组35名正常人的CAG三核苷酸的拷贝数为8-25,两者之间没有重叠.结论 家系中第四代致病基因携带者Ⅳ14与第三代患者Ⅲ10比较,CAG三核苷酸重复次数增加15次,即本家系IT15基因在传递过程中发生了扩增突变.同时,扩增突变导致该家系出现青少年发病及遗传早现现象.%Objective To make early diagnosis of IT15 gene mutation in a Wuhan juvenile-onset Huntington disease (HD)family, for providing them with genetic counseling, and making preparation for the further research on pathogenesis and experimental therapy of HD. Methods According to the principle of informed consent, we extracted genomic DNA from peripheral blood samples and carried genetic diagnosis of pathogenic exon 1 of IT15 gene by modified touchdown PCR and DNA sequencing methods. Results Eight of twenty-five family members carried abnormal allele: Ⅲ10, Ⅲ12, Ⅲ14, Ⅳ3,and Ⅴ2 carried (CAG) 48, Ⅳ11 and Ⅳ12 carried (CAG) 67, and Ⅳ14 carried (CAG) 63, in contrast with the 8-25 CAG trinucleotides in the members of control group. Ⅳ14 carried 15 more CAG trinucleotides than her father Ⅲ10. Conclusion The results definitely confirm the diagnosis of HD and indicate the CAG trinucleotide repeat expansion of IT15 gene in this HD family.In addition, CAG expansion results in juvenile-onset and anticipation (characterized

  9. The analysis of the risk factors for sacroiliac joint damage in juvenile-onset spondyloarthropathy%212例少年脊柱关节病骶髂关节损害相关危险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单鸣凤; 郭君; 陈鸿健

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨少年脊柱关节病(juvenile-onset spondyloarthropathy,JSpA)患者出现骶髂关节损害的相关危险因素,为选择恰当的治疗方案提供依据.方法:对212例JSpA患者的人口学因素、遗传学因素、受累部位、各个实验室指标等进行分析.将患者按照年龄段(≤11岁及12~16岁)分为两组.分别采用Logistic回归的方法进行分析,筛选出JSpA出现骶髂关节损害的相关发病因素.结果:本组212例患者中有骶髂关节损害者124例,占58.5%.单因素分析显示多个因素在骶髂关节损害中有统计学意义;多因素Logistic逐步回归分析显示病程、起病时外周关节炎尤其是下肢大关节、持续肌腱端炎、HLA-B27阳性、家族史是JSpA并发骶髂关节损害的相关危险因素.结论:JSpA患者出现骶髂关节损害的发生率较高,与多种因素有关,当患者出现这些危险因素时,应早期积极干预治疗,定期检查骶髂关节MRI,减轻或延缓病情的进展.%Objective:To investigate the risk factors of sacroiliac joint damage in patients with juvenile-onset spondyloarthropathy (JSpA),and to provide reference for the selection of appropriate treatment strategy. Methods:To analysis the clinical data of 212 cases of JSpA,including demographic factors(sex,age) .genetic factors,the affected area,laboratories indicators. Patients were divided into two groups according to age (≤ 11 years old and 12~16 years old). Using the Logistic regression to filter out the risk factors of sacroiliac joint damage in patients with JSpA. Results:Out of the 212 cases, 124 (58.5%) patients suffered from sacroiliac joint damage. Single factor analysis showed that a number of factors were related to sacroiliac joint damage. Logistic regression analysis showed that the course of disease, at the onset of peripheral arthritis, particularly the large joints of lower limbs, tendon-sustained inflammation and HLA-B27-positive, family history were the risk

  10. Increased Fas and Bcl-2 Expression on Peripheral Blood T and B Lymphocytes from Juvenile-Onset Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, but not from Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis and Juvenile Dermatomyositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadete L. Liphaus

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Defective regulation of apoptosis may play a role in the development of autoimmune diseases. Fas and Bcl-2 proteins are involved in the control of apoptosis. The aims of this study were to determine the expression of Fas antigen and Bcl-2 protein on peripheral blood T and B lymphocytes from patients with juvenile-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA and juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM. Thirty-eight patients with JSLE, 19 patients with JRA, 10 patients with JDM and 25 healthy controls entered the study. Freshly isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC were stained for lymphocyte markers CD3, CD4, CD8, CD19 and for Fas and Bcl-2 molecules. Expressions were measured by three-color flow cytometry. Statistical analysis was performed using Kruskal–Wallis test. Percentages of freshly isolated T lymphocytes positively stained for Fas protein from JSLE patients were significantly increased compared to healthy controls, patients with JRA and patients with JDM. Percentages of B lymphocytes positive for Fas from JSLE patients were higher than healthy controls and JRA patients. In addition, Fas expression on T cells from patients with JRA was increased compared to JDM patients. Otherwise, Fas expression on T and B cells from JRA and JDM patients were similar to healthy controls. MFI of Bcl-2 positive T lymphocytes from JSLE patients were significantly increased compared to healthy controls and JRA patients. MFI of Bcl-2 protein on B lymphocytes from JSLE patients was similar to healthy controls and patients with JRA and JDM. Bcl-2 expression did not differ between JRA and JDM patients and healthy controls. In conclusion, increased expression of Fas and Bcl-2 proteins observed in circulating T and B lymphocytes from patients with JSLE, but not from patients with JRA and JDM, suggests that abnormalities of apoptosis may be related to the pathogenesis of JSLE and probably are not a result of chronic inflammation.

  11. Increased Fas and Bcl-2 expression on peripheral blood T and B lymphocytes from juvenile-onset systemic lupus erythematosus, but not from juvenile rheumatoid arthritis and juvenile dermatomyositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liphaus, Bernadete L; Kiss, Maria H B; Carrasco, Solange; Goldenstein-Schainberg, Claudia

    2006-01-01

    Defective regulation of apoptosis may play a role in the development of autoimmune diseases. Fas and Bcl-2 proteins are involved in the control of apoptosis. The aims of this study were to determine the expression of Fas antigen and Bcl-2 protein on peripheral blood T and B lymphocytes from patients with juvenile-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE), juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) and juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM). Thirty-eight patients with JSLE, 19 patients with JRA, 10 patients with JDM and 25 healthy controls entered the study. Freshly isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were stained for lymphocyte markers CD3, CD4, CD8, CD19 and for Fas and Bcl-2 molecules. Expressions were measured by three-color flow cytometry. Statistical analysis was performed using Kruskal-Wallis test. Percentages of freshly isolated T lymphocytes positively stained for Fas protein from JSLE patients were significantly increased compared to healthy controls, patients with JRA and patients with JDM. Percentages of B lymphocytes positive for Fas from JSLE patients were higher than healthy controls and JRA patients. In addition, Fas expression on T cells from patients with JRA was increased compared to JDM patients. Otherwise, Fas expression on T and B cells from JRA and JDM patients were similar to healthy controls. MFI of Bcl-2 positive T lymphocytes from JSLE patients were significantly increased compared to healthy controls and JRA patients. MFI of Bcl-2 protein on B lymphocytes from JSLE patients was similar to healthy controls and patients with JRA and JDM. Bcl-2 expression did not differ between JRA and JDM patients and healthy controls. In conclusion, increased expression of Fas and Bcl-2 proteins observed in circulating T and B lymphocytes from patients with JSLE, but not from patients with JRA and JDM, suggests that abnormalities of apoptosis may be related to the pathogenesis of JSLE and probably are not a result of chronic inflammation.

  12. Lipid profiles of adipose and muscle tissues in mouse models of juvenile onset of obesity without high fat diet induction: a Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Ilke; Bozkurt, Ozlem; Aras, Ebru; Heise, Sebastian; Brockmann, Gudrun Anni; Severcan, Feride

    2015-06-01

    The current study aims to determine lipid profiles in terms of the content and structure of skeletal muscle and adipose tissues to better understand the characteristics of juvenile-onset spontaneous obesity without high fat diet induction. For the purposes of this study, muscle (longissimus, quadriceps) and adipose (inguinal, gonadal) tissues of 10-week-old male DBA/2J and Berlin fat mouse inbred (BFMI) lines (BFMI856, BFMI860, BFMI861) fed with a standard breeding diet were used. Biomolecular structure and composition was determined using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy, and muscle triglyceride content was further quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with an evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD). The results revealed a loss of unsaturation in BFMI860 and BFMI861 lines in both muscles and inguinal adipose tissue, together with a decrease in the hydrocarbon chain length of lipids, especially in the BFMI860 line in muscles, suggesting an increased lipid peroxidation. There was an increase in saturated lipid and triglyceride content in all tissues of BFMI lines, more profoundly in longissimus muscle, where the increased triglyceride content was quantitatively confirmed by HPLC-ELSD. Moreover, an increase in the metabolic turnover of carbohydrates in muscles of the BFMI860 line was observed. The results demonstrated that subcutaneous (inguinal) fat also displayed considerable obesity-induced alterations. Taken together, the results revealed differences in lipid structure and content of BFMI lines, which may originate from different insulin sensitivity levels of the lines, making them promising animal models for spontaneous obesity. The results will contribute to the understanding of the generation of insulin resistance in obesity without high fat diet induction.

  13. Identification of Mutations in Myocilin and Beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase 3 Genes in a Chinese Family with Primary Open-angle Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Rong-Feng; Zhong, Zi-Lin; Ye, Min-Jie; Han, Li-Yun; Ye, Dong-Qing; Chen, Jian-Jun

    2016-12-05

    Glaucoma is a major cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. There is evidence showing that a subset of the disease is genetically determined. In this study, we screened for mutations in chromosome 1q-linked open-angle glaucoma (GLC1A) in a Chinese family with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). A total of 23 members from five generations of a family were enrolled and underwent thorough ophthalmologic examinations. In addition, 200 unrelated healthy Chinese controls were also recruited as normal control. GLC1A gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction, and DNA sequencing was performed to screen for mutations. Six members were diagnosed as POAG, with severe clinical manifestations, and history of high intraocular pressures. The mean age of disease onset was 26.3 years. However, the others were asymptomatic. In six affected and three asymptomatic members, gene sequencing revealed a mutation c.C1456T in exon 3 of myocilin gene (MYOC). Furthermore, we also identified a novel mutation c.G322A in beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase 3 (B4GALT3) gene in all six affected and three asymptomatic members, which was not reported previously in POAG patients. The two newly identified variants were absent in other family members as well as controls. The mutations c.1456C family.

  14. [Clinical phenotype of a Japanese family with primary open-angle glaucoma caused by a Ala 363 Thr mutation in the MYOC gene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohyama, Akihiro; Fujimaki, Takuro; Kimura, Tairoh; Kawabata, Kiho; Fujiki, Keiko; Ishikawa, Karin; Mashima, Yukihiko; Murakami, Akira

    2006-01-01

    Myocilin is a gene that causes primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). We report a family whose members had an Ala 363 Thr mutation in the myocilin gene. We present the clinical phenotype of this family. The proband was a 57-year-old man diagnosed with POAG. His younger sister (50 years old) was also diagnosed with POAG. Visual field impairment did not worsen and ocular pressure decreased with eyedrop treatment. Although two of their children in their 30s had ocular hypertension, they did not have any sign of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Genetic analysis revealed that all four family members had an Ala 363 Thr mutation in myocilin gene. Ala 363 Thr mutation was considered to be the cause of open-angle glaucoma. In this family, age at onset was comparatively high The two patients in their 30s had high intraocular pressure but no loss in visual acuity. The family members who had POAG and those who did not have POAG were not different from each other in the results of standard ocular examinations, only in age. Patients with this mutation will develop high intraocular pressure after 30 years of age and glaucomatous neuropathy after 50 years of age. When this gene mutation is detected in juvenile patients, careful follow-up and early therapy are necessary.

  15. Examining Delay Intervals in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Primary Open Angle Glaucoma in an Egyptian Population and Its Impact on Lifestyle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Hussein, Nahla B.; Habib, Ahmed E.; El Sayed, Yasmine M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To examine causes as well as extent of delay in diagnosis and treatment of primary open angle glaucoma patients in a sample of Egyptians. Patients and Methods. 440 patients with primary open angle glaucoma were interviewed to evaluate delay in their diagnosis and treatment. The extent and cause of delay were investigated. The total delay interval, if any, was correlated with socioeconomic and other factors. Results. The median total delay was one year, with 50% of patients having a total delay of 1 year or less, of which 25% exhibited zero total delay. 25% of patients had a delay ranging from 1 to 3 years, and 25% had a total delay ranging from 3 to 27 years. Diagnostic delay accounted for 43.03% of cases. Longer delays were met in patients with certain socioeconomic factors. Patients with a positive family history of glaucoma displayed shorter delay periods. Conclusion. Significant delay in the diagnosis and treatment of glaucoma was found. Poor socioeconomic status seems to hinder timely diagnosis and treatment of POAG. Certain socioeconomic factors seem to correlate with the extent of delay. More effort is thus needed to subsidize the cost of investigations and treatment for glaucoma patients. PMID:28116140

  16. Comparative study of the retinal nerve fibre layer thickness performed with optical coherence tomography and GDx scanning laser polarimetry in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasyluk, Jaromir T; Jankowska-Lech, Irmina; Terelak-Borys, Barbara; Grabska-Liberek, Iwona

    2012-03-01

    We compared the parameters of retinal nerve fibre layer in patients with advanced glaucoma with the use of different OCT (Optical Coherence Tomograph) devices in relation to analogical measurements performed with GDx VCC (Nerve Fiber Analyzer with Variable Corneal Compensation) scanning laser polarimetry. Study subjects had advanced primary open-angle glaucoma, previously treated conservatively, diagnosed and confirmed by additional examinations (visual field, ophthalmoscopy of optic nerve, gonioscopy), A total of 10 patients were enrolled (9 women and 1 man), aged 18-70 years of age. Nineteen eyes with advanced glaucomatous neuropathy were examined. 1) Performing a threshold perimetry Octopus, G2 strategy and ophthalmoscopy of optic nerve to confirm the presence of advanced primary open-angle glaucoma; 2) performing a GDx VCC scanning laser polarimetry of retinal nerve fibre layer; 3) measuring the retinal nerve fibre layer thickness with 3 different optical coherence tomographs. The parameters of the retinal nerve fibre layer thickness are highly correlated between the GDx and OCT Stratus and 3D OCT-1000 devices in mean retinal nerve fibre layer thickness, retinal nerve fibre layer thickness in the upper sector, and correlation of NFI (GDx) with mean retinal nerve fibre layer thickness in OCT examinations. Absolute values of the retinal nerve fibre layer thickness (measured in µm) differ significantly between GDx and all OCT devices. Examination with OCT devices is a sensitive diagnostic method of glaucoma, with good correlation with the results of GDx scanning laser polarimetry of the patients.

  17. Establishing Age-Adjusted Reference Ranges for Iris-Related Parameters in Open Angle Eyes with Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey R Peterson

    Full Text Available Define criteria for iris-related parameters in an adult open angle population as measured with swept source Fourier domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT.Ninety-eight eyes of 98 participants with open angles were included and stratified into 5 age groups (18-35, 36-45, 46-55, 56-65, and 66-79 years. ASOCT scans with 3D mode angle analysis were taken with the CASIA SS-1000 (Tomey Corporation, Nagoya, Japan and analyzed using the Anterior Chamber Analysis and Interpretation software. Anterior iris surface length (AISL, length of scleral spur landmark (SSL to pupillary margin (SSL-to-PM, iris contour ratio (ICR = AISL/SSL-to-PM, pupil radius, radius of iris centroid (RICe, and iris volume were measured. Outcome variables were summarized for all eyes and age groups, and mean values among age groups were compared using one-way analysis of variance. Stepwise regression analysis was used to investigate demographic and ocular characteristic factors that affected each iris-related parameter.Mean (±SD values were 2.24 mm (±0.46, 4.06 mm (±0.27, 3.65 mm (±0.48, 4.16 mm (±0.47, 1.14 (±0.04, 1.51 mm2 (±0.23, and 38.42 μL (±4.91 for pupillary radius, RICe, SSL-to-PM, AISL, ICR, iris cross-sectional area, and iris volume, respectively. Both pupillary radius (P = 0.002 and RICe (P = 0.027 decreased with age, while SSL-to-PM (P = 0.002 and AISL increased with age (P = 0.001. ICR (P = 0.54 and iris volume (P = 0.49 were not affected by age.This study establishes reference values for iris-related parameters in an adult open angle population, which will be useful for future studies examining the role of iris changes in pathologic states.

  18. Epidemiological characterization of primary open-angle glaucoma Caracterización epidemiológica del glaucoma primario de ángulo abierto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Rafael Milanés Armengol

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The primary open-angle glaucoma is a problem for public health all over the world. It is a silent and slowly progressive disease leading to blindness. In most patients this can be prevented if the risk factors leading to the disease are detected in time. Objective: To describe some epidemiological factors of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma. Methods: Clinical, epidemiological, prospective and longitudinal study in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma who attended the glaucoma consultation of the Provincial General University Hospital "Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima" of Cienfuegos, from January to February 2009. The following variables were analyzed: age, sex, family and personal medical history, toxic habits and time of diagnosis of the disease. Results: There was prevalence of primary open-angle glaucoma (87, 5% mostly in females (53, 6% and patients over 61 years old as well as in white skinned patients (52 and 62% respectively. Hypertension was the leading entity referred to as pathological personal and family antecedent (62 and 42% respectively. Glaucoma and myopia predominated as previous eye history. The most frequent toxic habits were the consumption of more than 2 cups of coffee a day (53% and smoking (32%. The largest amount of patients had more than 5 years evolution of the disease. Conclusions: Primary open-angle glaucoma occurred mainly in female patients and those with a historyFundamento: el glaucoma primario de ángulo abierto constituye un problema de salud pública a nivel mundial, es una enfermedad silente y lentamente progresiva que conduce a la ceguera; en la mayoría de los enfermos esto puede prevenirse si son detectados tempranamente los factores de riesgo que pueden llevar a esta enfermedad. Objetivo: describir algunos factores epidemiológicos de pacientes portadores de glaucoma

  19. Intraocular pressure lowering efficacy and safety of travoprost 0.004% as a replacement therapy in patients with open angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Jian; SUN Xing-huai; WANG Ning-li; ZHAO Jia-liang; WU Ling-ling; CHEN Xiao-ming; WANG Zhi-xin; Benny Li

    2010-01-01

    Background Travoprost has been widely used for the treatment of patients with open-angle glaucoma (OAG) or ocular hypertension (OH). The aim of this study was to evaluate the intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering efficacy of travoprost 0.004% monotherapy in patients previously treated with other topical hypotensive medications, and in previously untreated patients.Methods This open-label, 12-week study in 1651 adult patients with ocular hypertension or open-angle glaucoma who were untreated or required a change in therapy (due to either inadequate efficacy or safety issues) as judged by the investigator was conducted at 6 sites in China. Previously treated patients were instructed to discontinue their prior medications at the first visit. All the patients were dosed with travoprost 0.004% once-daily at 8 p.m. In both eyes for 12 weeks. Efficacy and safety evaluations were conducted at week 4 and 12. IOP measurements were performed at the same time of day at the follow-up visits.Results For patients transitioned to travoprost, mean IOP reductions from baseline in untreated and treated patients with different prior medications at week 12 were: latanoprost, (4.3±4.6) mmHg; β-blocker, (6.3±4.0) mmHg; a-agonist, (7.5±4.3) mmHg; topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, (8.0±4.9) mmHg. All mean IOP changes from baseline were statistically significant (P <0.001). No treatment-related serious adverse events were reported in this study.Conclusions In patients treated with other hypotensive medications or untreated, the IOP reduction with travoprost was significant. The results of this study demonstrated the potential benefit of using travoprost as a replacement therapy in order to ensure adequate IOP control. Travoprost administered once daily was safe and well tolerated in patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension.

  20. Fixed combination of bimatoprost and timolol in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension with inadequate IOP adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrett Brief

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Gerrett Brief1, Tobias Lammich2, Edgar Nagel3, Sabine Pfennigsdorf4, Christoph W Spraul5, Selwyn Ho61Facharzt für Augenheilkunde, Dortmund, Germany; 2Neubrandenburg, Germany; 3Augenarztpraxis Rudolstadt, Germany; 4Polch, Germany; 5Geiselhart, Ulm, Germany; 6Allergan Europe, Marlow, UKObjective: To assess the efficacy and tolerability of a fixed combination of bimatoprost and timolol (BTFC in a large patient sample in a clinical setting.Methods: In this multicenter, observational, noncontrolled, open-label study, patients (n = 1862 with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension were treated with BTFC. Assessments were made at baseline, six weeks, and three months.Results: Prior to starting BTFC, 92.3% of patients were taking other ocular hypotensive medications. In the overall group at three months, mean intraocular pressure was reduced from baseline (21.7 ± 4.5 mmHg and 21.8 ± 4.9 mmHg for the right and left eye, respectively to 16.1 ± 3.0 mmHg for each eye (P < 0.0001. The majority of patients (92% reported no adverse events. The most commonly reported adverse events (in >1% of patients were eye irritation, and ocular and conjunctival hyperemia. Adherence to treatment was generally better than (35.4% or the same as (57.5% with prior therapy. BTFC tolerability was rated as excellent or good by 92.3% of physicians and 85.8% of patients.Conclusions: In a large group of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension, treatment with BTFC was associated with consistent reductions in IOP, improved adherence to treatment, and good tolerability.Keywords: bimatoprost, timolol, intraocular pressure, fixed combination, glaucoma

  1. ACTIVATION OF VASTUS MEDIALIS OBLIQUES AT DIFFERENT KNEE ANGLES IN CLOSED KINETIC CHAIN AND OPEN KINETIC CHAIN POSITION IN SUBJECTS WITH PATELLO FEMORAL PAIN SYNDROME

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    Ujwal Bhattacharya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patello femoral pain syndrome is one of the most common musculoskeletal disorders and is reported to affect 15% - 33% of an active adult population and 21%-45% of adolescents thereby decreasing the work capacity of an individual. Patello femoral pain syndrome as implicated is due to inappropriate neural control of the quadriceps femoris muscle. Since Vastus medialis muscle is regarded as the dynamic medial stabilizer of patella so it’s important to understand the activation of Vastus Medialis Oblique’s in patients with patello femoral pain syndrome The purpose of this study is to assess the activation of Vastus Medialis Oblique’s at different knee angles between closed kinetic chain position and open kinetic chain position and the information thus gained can be used to design training program aimed at controlling patello femoral joint dysfunction. Methods: Thirty subjects with patello femoral pain syndrome (assessed through history and examination were assigned to two groups. Group A was made to perform open kinetic chain activity(i.e. sitting on high plinth and Group B was made to perform a closed kinetic chain activity(i.e. standing The outcome measure were amplitude and duration. Analyses were performed using independent t-Test. Results: Significant difference was found between the groups for amplitude and duration at varying angles. Amplitude: 0 degree (p=0.004, 60 degrees (p=0.015, 90 degrees (p=0.004. Duration: 0 degree (p=0.007, 60 degrees (p=0.008,90 degrees (p=0.002 Conclusion: Based on the outcome of the study it’s concluded that there is greater activation of Vastus Medialis Oblique’s muscle while performing close kinetic chain activity than in open kinetic chain.

  2. Role of apoptosis in the рathogenesis of glaucomatous optic nerve damage during primary open-angle glaucoma

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    M. A. Frolov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This work is devoted to the study of the molecular mechanisms of programmed cell death or apoptosis in primary open-angleglaucoma. As one of the main factors in the pathogenesis of this disease appears the loss of retinal ganglion cells. Their death occursby apoptosis — programmed suicide mechanism. We consider two major apoptotic pathways, which are described in the literature —Fas-mediated and Bcl-2-dependent or mitochondrial. The existence of these paths and their regulators in many organs and tissues isdescribed, including the retina and optic nerve. Based on the analysis of domestic and foreign literature is presented modern view ofthe stages of this process in glaucoma. A thorough understanding of the mechanisms of apoptosis and their regulation may contribute to the development of new pharmacological methods of prevention and treatment of eye diseases

  3. Role of apoptosis in the рathogenesis of glaucomatous optic nerve damage during primary open-angle glaucoma

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    M. A. Frolov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is devoted to the study of the molecular mechanisms of programmed cell death or apoptosis in primary open-angleglaucoma. As one of the main factors in the pathogenesis of this disease appears the loss of retinal ganglion cells. Their death occursby apoptosis — programmed suicide mechanism. We consider two major apoptotic pathways, which are described in the literature —Fas-mediated and Bcl-2-dependent or mitochondrial. The existence of these paths and their regulators in many organs and tissues isdescribed, including the retina and optic nerve. Based on the analysis of domestic and foreign literature is presented modern view ofthe stages of this process in glaucoma. A thorough understanding of the mechanisms of apoptosis and their regulation may contribute to the development of new pharmacological methods of prevention and treatment of eye diseases

  4. Prospective, noncomparative, nonrandomized case study of short-term outcomes of 360° suture trabeculotomy ab interno in patients with open-angle glaucoma

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    Sato T

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomoki Sato,1 Akira Hirata,2 Takanori Mizoguchi31Sato Eye Clinic, Arao City, Kumamoto, 2Hayashi Eye Hospital, Fukuoka, 3Mizoguchi Eye Clinic, Nagasaki, JapanBackground: In this paper, we describe 360° suture trabeculotomy (360°LOT ab interno and the short-term course in patients who underwent this procedure.Methods: We prospectively studied 12 patients (12 eyes with open-angle glaucoma who underwent 360°LOT ab interno at the Sato Eye Clinic between February and July 2014. The surgical procedure involved making a 1.7 mm temporal corneal incision, exposing an approximately 15° opening in the inner wall of Schlemm’s canal (nasal side using a Trabectome with a gonioscope, and inserting a 5-0 nylon suture rounded at the tip into Schlemm’s canal opened via the anterior chamber. The suture was then threaded around Schlemm’s canal, and the tip of the suture that emerged on the other side was then advanced through the opening to make a circumferential incision. Intraocular pressure (IOP, number of anti-glaucoma medications used, complications, and the surgery completion rate were prospectively studied.Results: Mean IOP, which was 19.4 mmHg at baseline, showed a significant decrease at each of the monthly observation points, reaching 13.8 mmHg at 6 months after surgery (P=0.0004, paired t-test. The mean number of anti-glaucoma medications decreased from 3.2 at baseline to 1.1 at 6 months after surgery. IOP spikes ≥30 mmHg were seen in 25% of patients, but there were no other serious complications and the surgery completion rate was 92%.Conclusion: The 360°LOT ab interno procedure preserves the conjunctiva and sclera, and has a high surgery completion rate when using the anterior chamber approach, and could therefore be an effective short-term treatment of open-angle glaucoma.Keywords: non-penetrating surgery, intraocular pressure, Schlemm’s canal, corneal incision, Trabectome

  5. Association of NT-proANP Level in Plasma and Humor Aqueous with Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma.

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    Baumane, Kristine; Ranka, Renate; Laganovska, Guna

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study is to determine differences in the levels of NT-proANP in the plasma and aqueous humor of glaucoma and cataract patients and to evaluate whether any relationships are present. The study group consisted of 58 patients with primary-open glaucoma (POAG) undergoing trabeculectomy surgery. The control group was comprised of 32 age-matched cataract patients. The concentration of the N-terminal fragment of the proatrial natriuretic peptide (NT-proANP, 1-98) in the aqueous humor and blood plasma samples was measured using an immunochemical method (ELISA). The plasma NT-proANP concentration was significantly increased in patients with POAG compared to that in the control group (7.00 vs. 4.65 nmol/L, P = 0.0054). Similarly, the NT-proANP concentration in the aqueous humor was significantly higher in the POAG patients (0.47 vs. 0.09 nmol/L, P = 0.0112). However, there was no correlation between the NT-proANP values in the aqueous humor and the plasma of the POAG patients, as well as between the NT-proANP values in the aqueous humor and the intraocular pressure. We identified an association between the levels of NT-proANP in the plasma and the aqueous humor with POAG. Our data support the idea of the involvement of NP system in the development of POAG and highlight ANP as a possible biomarker of glaucoma.

  6. 叶片安放角对开启涡轮式搅拌器的影响%Impact of Blade Installing Angle on Open Turbine Stirrer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周超; 赵恒文; 郑建坤

    2013-01-01

    开启涡轮式搅拌器是水处理、化工、冶金等行业中的常见搅拌设备.叶片安放角影响其搅拌功率、流态.首先应用计算流体力学(CFD)软件对不同叶片安放角下的开启涡轮式搅拌器流场进行数值模拟,得出功率曲线和流场分布,然后通过实验验证了数值模拟的正确性,为开启涡轮式搅拌器的选型和设计提供了参考依据.结果表明当雷诺数(Re)较小时,随着安放角(θ)的增大功率增大并不明显,当Re足够大,水流处于湍流状态时,随着θ的增大功率急剧增大;当安放角为90°时,搅拌槽内水流以径向流为主,并以叶轮为界形成上循环流和下循环流,循环较弱,当叶片安放角为24°或45°或60°时,水流以轴向流为主,并沿搅拌槽区域形成整体循环流,循环较强.%Open turbine stirrers are common mixing equipment in water treatment of chemical industry, metallurgy industry, etc. Installing angles of blades affect its stirring power and the flow pattern. First of all, the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software is applied to numerically simulating the flow field of open turbine stirrer under different installing angles of blades, in order to obtain the stirring power curves and flow distribution, and then the correctness of the numerical simulation is verified by experiment,and a reference is given to the selection and design ot the open turbine stirrer. The results show that when Reynolds number (He) is small , with installing angle of blade (6) increasing, the stirring power indistinctly increases, when Re becomes large enough, the water flow in a turbulent state , with 8 increasing, the stirring power increases quickly ; When the blades are installed at right angle, the main flow pattern of the water in the stirred tank is radial flow ,the water above and below the impellers forms weak circulating flow. When the blades are installed at twenty-four, forty-five degrees or sixty angles, the main flow pattern

  7. Hypothesis-independent pathway analysis implicates GABA and acetyl-CoA metabolism in primary open-angle glaucoma and normal-pressure glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Jessica N Cooke; Yaspan, Brian L; Pasquale, Louis R; Hauser, Michael A; Kang, Jae H; Loomis, Stephanie J; Brilliant, Murray; Budenz, Donald L; Christen, William G; Fingert, John; Gaasterland, Douglas; Gaasterland, Terry; Kraft, Peter; Lee, Richard K; Lichter, Paul R; Liu, Yutao; McCarty, Catherine A; Moroi, Sayoko E; Richards, Julia E; Realini, Tony; Schuman, Joel S; Scott, William K; Singh, Kuldev; Sit, Arthur J; Vollrath, Douglas; Wollstein, Gadi; Zack, Donald J; Zhang, Kang; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Allingham, R Rand; Weinreb, Robert N; Haines, Jonathan L; Wiggs, Janey L

    2014-10-01

    Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is a leading cause of blindness worldwide. Using genome-wide association single-nucleotide polymorphism data from the Glaucoma Genes and Environment study and National Eye Institute Glaucoma Human Genetics Collaboration comprising 3,108 cases and 3,430 controls, we assessed biologic pathways as annotated in the KEGG database for association with risk of POAG. After correction for genic overlap among pathways, we found 4 pathways, butanoate metabolism (hsa00650), hematopoietic cell lineage (hsa04640), lysine degradation (hsa00310) and basal transcription factors (hsa03022) related to POAG with permuted p glaucoma (NPG), the butanoate metabolism pathway was also significantly associated (p glaucoma pathogenesis, and suggest new potential therapeutic targets.

  8. Association of pattern reversal VEP parameters with the mean defect of Humphrey visual field in patients of primary open angle glaucoma.

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    Kothari, Ruchi; Singh, Ramji; Singh, Smita; Bokariya, Pradeep

    2013-01-01

    Glaucoma is a chronic, progressive bilateral optic neuropathy which disturbs the structural or functional integrity of the optic nerve that causes characteristic atrophic changes in it, which leads to specific visual field defects over time with loss of visual function. Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is the most common form of glaucoma in India and is fast emerging as a major cause of bilateral blindness. This rural hospital based study was conducted to evaluate whether glaucomatous visual field defects particularly the mean defect of Humphrey visual field could be related to VEP parameters of patients having POAG. Visual field by Humphrey perimeter and simultaneous recordings of pattern reversal visual evoked potential (PRVEP) were assessed in 100 patients with POAG. There was a significant (P VEP changes observed by us in POAG patients were consistent with the progressing mean defect quantitatively. Therefore, it can be concluded that the VEP parameters can be useful quantitative indices in the evaluation of glaucomatous visual function damage.

  9. The novel Y371D myocilin mutation causes an aggressive form of juvenile open-angle glaucoma in a Caucasian family from the Middle-East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avisar, Inbal; Lusky, Moshe; Robinson, Anat; Shohat, Mordechai; Dubois, Stéphane; Raymond, Vincent; Gaton, Dan D

    2009-09-24

    To search for the genetic cause of juvenile open-angle glaucoma (JOAG) in a Caucasian family and to perform genotype/phenotype correlation studies in the kindred. Six members of a three-generation family originating from Uzbekistan and now living in the Middle East were recruited from one large clinic in Israel. Ophthalmologic investigations comprised of visual field assessments, intraocular pressure measurements, optic disc evaluation, and gonioscopy. Medical charts were obtained to date the onset of glaucoma and to evaluate aggressivity of the trait. We screened the myocilin gene (MYOC, OMIM 601652) by direct genomic sequencing of its three exons in all family members. JOAG segregated as an autosomal dominant trait in four members of the family. The proband, a 14-year-old girl, had been diagnosed with juvenile open-angle glaucoma at 12 years old. Her mother, maternal aunt, and maternal grandfather all had JOAG that started at an early age. The disorder progressed rapidly even under optimal medical treatment, and all four patients had to undergo trabeculectomy. One missense mutation, Y371D (1111t-->g, Tyr [Y] 371 Asp [D]), was identified. This mutation cosegregated with the disorder in all affected members and was absent in 200 Caucasian controls. The Y371D MYOC mutation has not been reported before. One cousin of the proband was a silent heterozygotic carrier of the mutation and was still asymptomatic at nine years of age. We identified a novel mutation (Y371D) in MYOC from a Caucasian family who presented with an aggressive form of JOAG that required early trabeculectomy. Genetic screening of the MYOC mutation was beneficial in predicting one asymptomatic heterozygotic carrier.

  10. Identification of Mutations in Myocilin and Beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase 3 Genes in a Chinese Family with Primary Open-angle Glaucoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong-Feng Liao; Zi-Lin Zhong; Min-Jie Ye; Li-Yun Han; Dong-Qing Ye; Jian-Jun Chen

    2016-01-01

    Background:Glaucoma is a major cause of irreversible blindness worldwide.There is evidence showing that a subset of the disease is genetically determined.In this study,we screened for mutations in chromosome 1q-linked open-angle glaucoma (GLC1A) in a Chinese family with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG).Methods:A total of 23 members from five generations of a family were enrolled and underwent thorough ophthalmologic examinations.In addition,200 unrelated healthy Chinese controls were also recruited as normal control.GLC1A gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction,and DNA sequencing was performed to screen for mutations.Results:Six members were diagnosed as POAG,with severe clinical manifestations,and history of high intraocular pressures.The mean age of disease onset was 26.3 years.However,the others were asymptomatic.In six affected and three asymptomatic members,gene sequencing revealed a mutation c.C1456T in exon 3 of myocilin gene (MYOC).Furthermore,we also identified a novel mutation c.G322A in beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase 3 (B4GALT3) gene in all six affected and three asymptomatic members,which was not reported previously in POAG patients.The two newly identified variants were absent in other family members as well as controls.Conclusion:The mutations c.1456C<T (p.L486F) in MYOC and c.322G<A (p.V108I) in B4GALT3 are likely responsible for the pathogenesis of POAG in this family.

  11. Identification of Mutations in Myocilin and Beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase 3 Genes in a Chinese Family with Primary Open-angle Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Rong-Feng; Zhong, Zi-Lin; Ye, Min-Jie; Han, Li-Yun; Ye, Dong-Qing; Chen, Jian-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Glaucoma is a major cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. There is evidence showing that a subset of the disease is genetically determined. In this study, we screened for mutations in chromosome 1q-linked open-angle glaucoma (GLC1A) in a Chinese family with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Methods: A total of 23 members from five generations of a family were enrolled and underwent thorough ophthalmologic examinations. In addition, 200 unrelated healthy Chinese controls were also recruited as normal control. GLC1A gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction, and DNA sequencing was performed to screen for mutations. Results: Six members were diagnosed as POAG, with severe clinical manifestations, and history of high intraocular pressures. The mean age of disease onset was 26.3 years. However, the others were asymptomatic. In six affected and three asymptomatic members, gene sequencing revealed a mutation c.C1456T in exon 3 of myocilin gene (MYOC). Furthermore, we also identified a novel mutation c.G322A in beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase 3 (B4GALT3) gene in all six affected and three asymptomatic members, which was not reported previously in POAG patients. The two newly identified variants were absent in other family members as well as controls. Conclusion: The mutations c.1456C

  12. Apolipoprotein E gene ε4ε4 is associated with elevated risk of primary open angle glaucoma in Asians: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies have evaluated the association between Apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene ε2/ε3/ε4 polymorphism and glaucoma susceptibility. However, the published data are still inconclusive. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the impact of APOE gene ε2/ε3/ε4 polymorphism on glaucoma risk by using meta-analysis. Methods A comprehensive literature search of PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, Elsevier Science Direct and CNKI databases was conducted to identify relevant articles, with the last report up to January 5, 2014. Pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to assess the strength of association by using the fixed or random effect model. Results Fifteen separate studies including 2,700 cases and 2,365 controls were included in the meta-analysis. We did not detect a significant association between APOE gene ε2/ε3/ε4 polymorphism and glaucoma in overall population (P > 0.0083). In Asians, we detected an association of the ε4ε4 genotype with elevated risk for glaucoma (OR = 5.22, 95% CI = 1.85-14.68, P = 0.002), mainly for primary open angle glaucoma (OR = 4.98, 95% CI = 1.75-14.20, P = 0.003). Conclusions The meta-analysis suggests that APOE gene ε4ε4 may be associated with elevated risk for primary open angle glaucoma in Asians. However, more epidemiologic studies based on larger sample size, case–control design and stratified by ethnicity as well as types of glaucoma are suggested to further clarify the relationship between APOE gene ε2/ε3/ε4 polymorphism and genetic predisposition to glaucoma. PMID:24885013

  13. The p53 codon 72 PRO/PRO genotype may be associated with initial central visual field defects in caucasians with primary open angle glaucoma.

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    Janey L Wiggs

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Loss of vision in glaucoma is due to apoptotic retinal ganglion cell loss. While p53 modulates apoptosis, gene association studies between p53 variants and glaucoma have been inconsistent. In this study we evaluate the association between a p53 variant functionally known to influence apoptosis (codon 72 Pro/Arg and the subset of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG patients with early loss of central visual field. METHODS: Genotypes for the p53 codon 72 polymorphism (Pro/Arg were obtained for 264 POAG patients and 400 controls from the U.S. and in replication studies for 308 POAG patients and 178 controls from Australia (GIST. The glaucoma patients were divided into two groups according to location of initial visual field defect (either paracentral or peripheral. All cases and controls were Caucasian with European ancestry. RESULTS: The p53-PRO/PRO genotype was more frequent in the U.S. POAG patients with early visual field defects in the paracentral regions compared with those in the peripheral regions or control group (p=2.7 × 10(-5. We replicated this finding in the GIST cohort (p  =7.3 × 10(-3, and in the pooled sample (p=6.6 × 10(-7 and in a meta-analysis of both the US and GIST datasets (1.3 × 10(-6, OR 2.17 (1.58-2.98 for the PRO allele. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the p53 codon 72 PRO/PRO genotype is potentially associated with early paracentral visual field defects in primary open-angle glaucoma patients.

  14. Contribution and significance of Heidelberg retinal tomography II in diagnostics of ocular hypertension and its conversion into primary open-angle glaucoma

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    Marković Vujica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. A term 'ocular hypertension' is used when IOP is found to be > 21 mmHg on two consecutive occasions, in the absence of detectable glaucomatous damage. The aim of this study was to determine the significance and contribution of Heidelberg Retinal Tomography II (HRT II results that show very early, subtle changes in retinal neurofibre layers (RNFL in the optic nerve head that are specific for glaucoma itself (the loss of neuroretinal rim area and an increase of Cup/Disc ratio, but are not possible to register by an ophthalmoscope. Also, when the results of the functional tests remain unchanged, that confirms the conversion of ocular hypertension into glaucoma. Methods. During a 5-year study period (2002-2007, 29 patients with ocular hypertension were examined. The frequency of control examinations, based on the presence of risk factors for glaucoma development, was 3-6 months. The examination also included IOP measurements with Goldmann Applanation Tonometry (GAT, central corneal thickness (CCT determination by pachymetry, the examination of chamber angle using indirect gonioscopy, visual field tests by computerized perimetry and also papillae nervi optici (PNO examination by using HRT II. The application of HRT II enables a great number of stereometric parameters of optic disc, the most important being the rim area and Cup/Disc (C/D ratio, which was followed during the control examination by each segment, as well as PNO in global. Results. In the examination period, three cases of conversion of ocular hypertension into a primary open-angle glaucoma were found. In the group of patients with ocular hypertension, HRT II results after six months did not show a significant increase in C/D ratio. No significant loss of rim area or rim volume was found either. In three cases of conversion, HRT II results after 3 months showed an increase of C/D ratio and also a significant loss in rim volume at first examination (0.413 comparing to the

  15. Influence of surgical implantation angle of left ventricular assist device outflow graft and management of aortic valve opening on the risk of stroke in heart failure patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivukula, V. Keshav; McGah, Patrick; Prisco, Anthony; Beckman, Jennifer; Mokadam, Nanush; Mahr, Claudius; Aliseda, Alberto

    2016-11-01

    Flow in the aortic vasculature may impact stroke risk in patients with left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) due to severely altered hemodynamics. Patient-specific 3D models of the aortic arch and great vessels were created with an LVAD outflow graft at 45, 60 and 90° from centerline of the ascending aorta, in order to understand the effect of surgical placement on hemodynamics and thrombotic risk. Intermittent aortic valve opening (once every five cardiac cycles) was simulated and the impact of this residual native output investigated for the potential to wash out stagnant flow in the aortic root region. Unsteady CFD simulations with patient-specific boundary conditions were performed. Particle tracking for 10 cardiac cycles was used to determine platelet residence times and shear stress histories. Thrombosis risk was assessed by a combination of Eulerian and Lagrangian metrics and a newly developed thrombogenic potential metric. Results show a strong influence of LVAD outflow graft angle on hemodynamics in the ascending aorta and consequently on stroke risk, with a highly positive impact of aortic valve opening, even at low frequencies. Optimization of LVAD implantation and management strategies based on patient-specific simulations to minimize stroke risk will be presented

  16. Preservative-free bimatoprost 0.03% in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension in clinical practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillunat, Lutz E; Eschstruth, Peter; Häsemeyer, Stefan; Thelen, Ulrich; Foja, Christian; Leaback, Richard; Pfennigsdorf, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Background Intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering medications for primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension commonly contain preservatives that can cause ocular surface damage in many patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of, and compliance to, preservative-free (PF) bimatoprost 0.03% in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension (IOP ≥18 mmHg) in a clinical practice setting. Methods This open-label study observed patients who were switched to PF bimatoprost 0.03% for medical reasons. IOP was measured at baseline and ~12 weeks later at the final visit, and the change in IOP was calculated. Tolerability and continuation of therapy were assessed at two follow-up visits. Results A total of 1,830 patients were included in the study, and complete IOP data were available for 1,543 patients. Mean IOP was reduced by 23% from 21.64 mmHg to 16.59 mmHg (P<0.0001). In subgroup analyses, the mean IOP was significantly reduced compared with baseline, regardless of prior therapy, including those previously treated with PF monotherapy. A total of 85.7% of physicians reported the IOP-lowering efficacy of PF bimatoprost 0.03% to be as expected or better than expected. Adverse events (AEs) were experienced by 5.7% of patients, and there were no serious AEs reported. The most common AEs were eye irritation (1.7%) and hyperemia (1.4%). Physician-reported treatment compliance was reported as better than (48.7%) or equal to (43.6%) prior treatment in most patients. Most patients (82%) were expected to continue PF bimatoprost 0.03% after the end of the study. Conclusion This observational study showed that, in clinical practice, switching to PF bimatoprost 0.03% was associated with a significant IOP reduction from baseline. There was a low AE rate. PF bimatoprost 0.03% may, therefore, be an effective treatment option for patients who are intolerant of preservatives or have an inadequate response to prior IOP

  17. Preservative-free bimatoprost 0.03% in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension in clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pillunat LE

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Lutz E Pillunat,1 Peter Eschstruth,2 Stefan Häsemeyer,3 Ulrich Thelen,4 Christian Foja,5 Richard Leaback,6 Stefan Pfennigsdorf7 1Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden, 2Ophthalmology Practice, Kiel, 3Eye Center Kraichgau, Wiesloch, 4Department of Ophthalmology, University of Münster, Münster, 5Ophthalmology Practice, Leipzig, Germany; 6Allergan Holdings Ltd., Marlow, UK; 7Ophthalmology Practice, Polch, Germany Background: Intraocular pressure (IOP-lowering medications for primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension commonly contain preservatives that can cause ocular surface damage in many patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of, and compliance to, preservative-free (PF bimatoprost 0.03% in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension (IOP ≥18 mmHg in a clinical practice setting. Methods: This open-label study observed patients who were switched to PF bimatoprost 0.03% for medical reasons. IOP was measured at baseline and ~12 weeks later at the final visit, and the change in IOP was calculated. Tolerability and continuation of therapy were assessed at two follow-up visits. Results: A total of 1,830 patients were included in the study, and complete IOP data were available for 1,543 patients. Mean IOP was reduced by 23% from 21.64 mmHg to 16.59 mmHg (P<0.0001. In subgroup analyses, the mean IOP was significantly reduced compared with baseline, regardless of prior therapy, including those previously treated with PF monotherapy. A total of 85.7% of physicians reported the IOP-lowering efficacy of PF bimatoprost 0.03% to be as expected or better than expected. Adverse events (AEs were experienced by 5.7% of patients, and there were no serious AEs reported. The most common AEs were eye irritation (1.7% and hyperemia (1.4%. Physician-reported treatment compliance was reported as better than (48.7% or equal to (43.6% prior treatment in

  18. Efficacy and safety of benzalkonium chloride-free fixed-dose combination of latanoprost and timolol in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension

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    Bhagat P

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purvi Bhagat,1 Kalyani Sodimalla,2 Chandrima Paul,3 Surinder S Pandav,4 Ganesh V Raman,5 Rengappa Ramakrishnan,6 Abhijeet Joshi,7 Atul Raut7 1Glaucoma Clinic, M & J Western Regional Institute of Ophthalmology, Civil Hospital, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India; 2Glaucoma Department, PBMA’s H.V. Desai Eye Hospital, Maharashtra, India; 3Glaucoma Service, B B Eye Foundation, Kolkata, India; 4Advanced Eye Centre, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India; 5Glaucoma Clinic, Aravind Eye Hospital, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India; 6Glaucoma Clinic, Aravind Eye Hospital, Tirunelveli, Tamilnadu, India; 7Clinical Research Department, Sun Pharma Advanced Research Company Ltd, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India Background: Benzalkonium chloride (BAK is a common preservative in topical ocular preparations; however, prolonged use may lead to deleterious effects on the ocular surface, affecting quality of life and reducing adherence to treatment and overall outcomes. This study compared the intraocular pressure (IOP-lowering efficacy and safety of a novel once-daily, BAK-free, fixed-dose combination of latanoprost plus timolol with latanoprost or timolol administered as monotherapy or concomitantly. Methods: This was a 6-week, randomized, open-label, parallel-group, active-controlled study in patients aged ≥18 years with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. A total of 227 patients were randomized to either a once-daily, BAK-free, fixed-dose combination of latanoprost 0.005%/timolol 0.5% ophthalmic solution or concomitant administration of once-daily latanoprost 0.005% plus twice-daily timolol 0.5% or once-daily latanoprost 0.005% monotherapy, or twice-daily timolol 0.5% monotherapy. Efficacy end points were assessed at three time points on visits at weeks 1, 2, 4, and 6 versus baseline. Results: The IOP-lowering efficacy of the fixed-dose combination of latanoprost/timolol was similar to that of latanoprost plus timolol administered

  19. Energy and pitch-angle dispersions of LLBL/cusp ions seen at middle altitudes: predictions by the open magnetosphere model

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    M. Lockwood

    Full Text Available Numerical simulations are presented of the ion distribution functions seen by middle-altitude spacecraft in the low-latitude boundary layer (LLBL and cusp regions when reconnection is, or has recently been, taking place at the equatorial magnetopause. From the evolution of the distribution function with time elapsed since the field line was opened, both the observed energy/observation-time and pitch-angle/energy dispersions are well reproduced. Distribution functions showing a mixture of magnetosheath and magnetospheric ions, often thought to be a signature of the LLBL, are found on newly opened field lines as a natural consequence of the magnetopause effects on the ions and their flight times. In addition, it is shown that the extent of the source region of the magnetosheath ions that are detected by a satellite is a function of the sensitivity of the ion instrument . If the instrument one-count level is high (and/or solar-wind densities are low, the cusp ion precipitation detected comes from a localised region of the mid-latitude magnetopause (around the magnetic cusp, even though the reconnection takes place at the equatorial magnetopause. However, if the instrument sensitivity is high enough, then ions injected from a large segment of the dayside magnetosphere (in the relevant hemisphere will be detected in the cusp. Ion precipitation classed as LLBL is shown to arise from the low-latitude magnetopause, irrespective of the instrument sensitivity. Adoption of threshold flux definitions has the same effect as instrument sensitivity in artificially restricting the apparent source region

    Key words. Low-latitude boundary layer · Cusp regions · Open magnetosphere model · Mid-altitudes

  20. Efficacy and safety of prostaglandin analogues in patients with predominantly primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension: a meta-analysis

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    Oghenowede Eyawo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Oghenowede Eyawo1, Jean Nachega2,3, Pierre Lefebvre4, David Meyer5, Beth Rachlis6, Chia-Wen Lee7, Steven Kelly7, Edward Mills81Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, Canada; 2Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; 3Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, USA; 4Department of Ophthalmology, Moorfields Eye Hospital, London, United Kingdom; 5Department of Ophthalmology, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa; 6Department of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada; 7Outcome Research and Evidence Based Medicine, Pfizer Ltd UK. Tadworth, UK; 8Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, CanadaBackground: First-line therapy for primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension generally involves prostaglandin analogue therapy. The relative efficacy of differing prostaglandin therapy is disputed.Methods: A meta-analysis was conducted of head-to-head randomized trials of prostaglandin therapies. We included randomized trials assessing head-to-head evaluations of prostaglandin analogues travoprost, latanoprost and bimatoprost in patients with predominantly primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Findings were interpreted in light of equivalence margins.Results: Our search identified 16 eligible trials, of which 15 were included in the meta-analysis. Trials were, in general, poorly reported. We pooled 9 trials assessing IOP-lowering effects of travoprost vs latanoprost (total n = 1098, weighted mean difference [WMD], –0.24 mmHg, 95% CI, –0.87 to 0.38, P = 0.45, I2 = 56%, 95% CI, 0 to 0.77, heterogeneity P = 0.01. Eight trials assessed travoprost vs bimatoprost (total n = 714, WMD, 0.88 mmHg, 95% CI, 0.13 to 1.63, P = 0.02, I2 = 56%, 95% CI, 0% to 78%, heterogeneity P = 0.02. And 8 trials assessed latanoprost vs bimatoprost (total n = 943, WMD, 0.73 mmHg, 95% CI, 0.10 to 1

  1. Comparative studies of RNFL thickness measured by OCT with global index of visual fields in patients with ocular hypertension and early open angle glaucoma

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    Sergios Taliantzis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Sergios Taliantzis, Dimitris Papaconstantinou, Chrysanthi Koutsandrea, Michalis Moschos, Michalis Apostolopoulos, Gerasimos GeorgopoulosAthens University Medical School, Department of Ophthalmology, Athens, GreecePurpose: To compare the functional changes in visual fields with optical coherence tomography (OCT findings in patients with ocular hypertension, open angle glaucoma, and suspected glaucoma. In addition, our purpose is to evaluate the correlation of global indices with the structural glaucomatous defect, to assess their statistical importance in all the groups of our study, and to estimate their validity to the clinical practice.Methods: One hundred sixty nine eyes (140 patients were enrolled. The patients were classified in three groups. Group 1 consisted of 54 eyes with ocular hypertension, group 2 of 42 eyes with preperimetric glaucoma, and group 3 of 73 eyes with chronic open angle glaucoma. All of them underwent ophthalmic examination according to a prefixed protocol, OCT exam (Stratus 3000 for retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness measurement with fast RNFL thickness protocol and visual fields (VF examination with Octopus perimeter (G2 program, central 30–2 threshold strategy. Pearson correlation was calculated between RNFL thickness and global index of VF.Results: A moderate correlation between RNFL thickness and indices mean sensitivity (MS, mean defect (MD and loss variance (LV of VF (0.547, -0.582, -0.527, respectively; P < 0.001 was observed for all patients. Correlations of the ocular hypertension and preperimetric groups are weak. Correlation of RNFL thickness with global indices becomes stronger as the structural alterations become deeper in OCT exam. Correlation of RNFL thickness with the global index of VF, in respective segments around optic disk was also calculated and was found significant in the nasal, inferior, superior, and temporal segments.Conclusion: RNFL average thickness is not a reliable index for early

  2. Mechanism Research on the Primary Open-angle Glaucoma%原发性开角型青光眼发病机制的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永梅; 于蒙; 莫日根

    2016-01-01

    青光眼是现今主要的致盲疾病之一,是一组以特征性视神经损害和视野缺损为共同特征的疾病.原发性开角型青光眼是青光眼的重要类型,发病机制尚未阐明,其临床特点是起病隐匿,多数患者眼内压升高,特征性视盘改变,进行性视神经损害,最终导致不可逆的视野缺损乃至失明.青光眼造成的视功能损伤是不可逆的,后果极为严重.在长期的医学实践中,人们发现很多青光眼有明显的遗传倾向.但是,遗传因素并不能完全解释原发性开角型青光眼的发病,同时还伴随着很多危险因素.本文对原发性开角型青光眼的危险因素和致病基因进行了概述.%Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is a kind of irreversible blindness with the feature of optic nerve damage and visual field defect.POAG is an important type of glaucoma,and the mechanism is unknown.The clincial characteristic of POAG are high intraocular pressure,a characteristic change of the optic disc,and progressive optic nerve damage.The results were irreversible visual field defects and even blindness.Visual function damage of glaucoma is irreversible and had serious consequences.People find that glaucoma was significant genetic predisposition in long time medical practices.However,genetic factors do not explain the pathogenesis of primary open-angle glaucoma completely,and by a lot of risk factors were accompanied with POAG.The risk factors and disease genes of POAG are summarized.

  3. A randomized control trial to evaluate the effect of adjuvant selective laser trabeculoplasty versus medication alone in primary open-angle glaucoma: preliminary results

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    Lee JWY

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Jacky WY Lee,1,2 Catherine WS Chan,2 Mandy OM Wong,3 Jonathan CH Chan,3 Qing Li,2 Jimmy SM Lai2 1The Department of Ophthalmology, Caritas Medical Centre, 2The Department of Ophthalmology, The University of Hong Kong, 3The Department of Ophthalmology, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong Background: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of adjuvant selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT versus medication alone on intraocular pressure (IOP control, medication use, and quality of life in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma.Methods: This prospective, randomized control study recruited 41 consecutive primary open-angle glaucoma subjects with medically-controlled IOP ≤21 mmHg. The SLT group (n=22 received a single 360-degree SLT treatment. The medication-only group (n=19 continued with their usual treatment regimen. In both groups, medication was titrated to maintain a target IOP defined as a 25% reduction from baseline IOP without medication, or <18 mmHg, whichever was lower. Outcomes, which were measured at baseline and at 6 months, included the Glaucoma Quality of Life-15 (GQL-15 and Comparison of Ophthalmic Medications for Tolerability (COMTOL survey scores, IOP, and the number of antiglaucoma medicines. Results: The baseline IOP was 15.8±2.7 mmHg and 14.5±2.5 mmHg in the SLT and medication-only groups, respectively (P=0.04. Both groups had a comparable number of baseline medication (P=0.2, GQL-15 (P=0.3 and COMTOL scores (P=0.7. At 6 months, the SLT group had a lower IOP (P=0.03 and required fewer medications compared with both baseline (P<0.0001 and with the medication-only group (P=0.02. There was no statistically significant difference in the 6-month GQL-15 or COMTOL score as compared to baseline (P≥0.4 or between the two treatment groups (P≥0.2.Conclusion: A single session of adjuvant SLT provided further reductions in IOP and medication without substantial changes in quality of life or medication tolerability at 6

  4. CDKN2B polymorphism is associated with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG in the Afro-Caribbean population of Barbados, West Indies.

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    Dan Cao

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to confirm previously reported associations of common variants in or near CDC7/TGFBR3, ZP4, SRBD1, ELOVL5, CAV1/CAV2, TLR4, CDKN2B, CDKN2B-AS1, ATOH7, PLXDC2, TMTC2, SIX1, and CARD10, with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG in the Afro-Caribbean population of Barbados, West Indies. A total of 437 unrelated subjects from the Barbados Family Study of Open Angle Glaucoma (BFSG, including 272 with POAG and 165 unaffected individuals were included in this study. Eighteen SNPs were genotyped by using the multiplex SNaPshot method. Allelic, genotypic and model-based (dominant, recessive, and additive associations of the SNPs with POAG were analyzed using Chi-squared tests and logistic regression. SNP rs1063192 (near CDKN2B was found to be significantly associated with POAG (allelic P = 0.0008, genotypic P = 0.0029, and the minor allele C of rs1063192 was protective against POAG (OR = 0.39; 95%CI = 0.22-0.69. Suggestive association was also noted for rs7916697 (near ATHO7, allelic P = 0.0096, genotypic P = 0.01 with the minor allele being protective (OR = 0.67; 95% CI = 0.50-0.91, although this finding did not withstand correction for multiple testing. However, a significant interactive effect on POAG risk was identified between rs1063192 and rs7916697 (P-interaction = 2.80 × 10(-5. Individuals with the rs1063192 protective genotype CC or CT and also rs7916697 genotypes GG or GA show a significantly decreased risk of POAG (OR = 0.17, 95%CI: 0.07-0.41. Our study confirms the significant association between SNP rs1063192 (CDKN2B, previously shown to influence vertical cup-to-disc ratio and POAG at 9p21 and POAG in the Afro-Caribbean population of Barbados. The minor allele of rs1063192 interacts with that of rs7916697 (ATOH7 to reduce POAG risk. Our results also suggest that rs1063912 is a common protective variant for POAG in populations of African as well as European descent.

  5. Safety and efficacy of fixed-combination travoprost/timolol in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension not controlled with timolol monotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordão, Marcelo Lopes da Silva; Hatanaka, Marcelo; Ogundele, Abayomi; de Moraes Silva, Maria Rosa Bet; Vessani, Roberto Murad

    2014-01-01

    To assess the intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering effect of travoprost 0.004%/timolol 0.5% fixed-dose combination (TRAV/TIM-FC) in patients not achieving the target IOP of ≤18 mmHg while on timolol 0.5% (TIM) monotherapy. A multicenter, prospective, open-label study (NCT01336569) was conducted in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Eligible patients were receiving TIM monotherapy with a screening/baseline IOP of 19-35 mmHg in ≥1 eye. TIM was discontinued on the baseline visit day (no washout period) and TRAV/TIM-FC was initiated and administered once daily at 8 pm for 4-6 weeks. The primary efficacy variable was mean change in IOP from TIM-treated baseline to study end, measured by Goldmann applanation tonometry. Results were analyzed by analysis of variance and paired samples t-test (5% significance). A total of 49 patients were enrolled (mean age, 63 [range, 42-82] years; 55.1% White; 73.5% women), and 45 were included in the intent-to-treat (ITT) population. Mean duration of treatment with TRAV/TIM-FC was 31 days. Mean ± standard deviation IOP reduction from baseline (TIM) to the follow-up visit (TRAV/TIM-FC) was -5.0±3.6 mmHg. IOP decreased significantly (PTRAV/TIM-FC lowered IOP in patients who were not at target IOP while receiving TIM monotherapy, with most patients achieving an IOP ≤18 mmHg with TRAV/TIM-FC. TRAV/TIM-FC was well tolerated in this population.

  6. Comparative efficacy and safety of the fixed versus unfixed combination of latanoprost and timolol in Chinese patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension

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    Sun Nai-Xue

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A noninferiority trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a single evening dose of fixed-combination latanoprost 50 μg/mL and timolol 0.5 mg/mL (Xalacom®; LTFC, in Chinese patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG or ocular hypertension (OH who were insufficiently controlled on β-blocker monotherapy or β-blocker-based dual therapy. Methods This 8-week, randomized, open-label, parallel-group, noninferiority study compared once-daily evening dosing of LTFC with the unfixed combination of latanoprost, one drop in the evening, and timolol, one drop in the morning (LTuFC. The primary efficacy endpoint was the mean change from baseline to week 8 in diurnal intraocular pressure (IOP; mean of 8 AM, 10 AM, 2 PM, 4 PM IOPs. LTFC was considered noninferior to LTuFC if the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval (CI of the difference was Results Baseline characteristics were similar for LTFC (N = 125; POAG, 70%; mean IOP, 25.8 mmHg and LTuFC (N = 125; POAG, 69%; mean IOP, 26.0 mmHg. Mean diurnal IOP changes from baseline to week 8 were -8.6 mmHg with LTFC and -8.9 mmHg with LTuFC (between-treatment difference: 0.3 mmHg; 95%-CI, -0.3 to 1.0. Both treatments were well tolerated. Conclusions A single evening dose of LTFC was at least as effective as the unfixed combination of latanoprost in the PM and timolol in the AM in reducing IOP in Chinese subjects with POAG or OH whose IOP was insufficiently reduced with β-blocker monotherapy or β-blocker-based dual therapy. LTFC is an effective and well tolerated once-daily treatment for POAG and OH. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov registration: NCT00219596

  7. An observational study of bimatoprost 0.01% in treatment-naïve patients with primary open angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension: the CLEAR trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Donald R; Simonyi, Susan; Bhogal, Meetu; Sigouin, Christopher S; Crichton, Andrew C; Discepola, Marino; Hutnik, Cindy ML; Yan, David B

    2012-01-01

    Background This study was designed to evaluate the occurrence and severity of ocular hyperemia in subjects with elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) due to primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) or ocular hypertension (OHT) following treatment with bimatoprost 0.01% in a real-world clinical setting. Methods This was an open-label, observational study conducted at 67 centers in Canada. Subjects with elevated IOP due to POAG or OHT instilled bimatoprost 0.01% topically as monotherapy once daily. Ocular hyperemia was graded by the investigator at baseline and weeks 6 and 12 using a photographic five-point grading scale. Change in IOP from baseline was also evaluated at these time points. This analysis includes only the subgroup of 522 subjects who were naïve to IOP-lowering medication prior to the study. Results After 12 weeks of treatment with bimatoprost 0.01%, hyperemia was graded as none-to-mild (grades 0, +0.5, or +1) for 93.3% of subjects and as moderate-to-severe (grades +2 or +3) for 6.7%. At weeks 6 and 12, most subjects (93.2% and 93.5%) had no change in hyperemia grade from baseline. IOP was reduced by 7.4 mmHg (29.8%) at week 6 and 7.7 mmHg (30.9%) at week 12 from baseline. Conclusion This real-world, observational study found that bimatoprost 0.01% instilled once daily reduced IOP by a mean of 30% from baseline without moderate or severe ocular hyperemia in 93% of treatment-naïve subjects with POAG or OHT. PMID:23269858

  8. Intraocular pressure-lowering effects of commonly used fixed combination drugs with timolol in the management of primary open angle glaucoma

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    Murat Atabey Ozer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To evaluate intraocular pressure (IOP-lowering effect and ocular tolerability of brimonidine/timolol, dorzolamide/timolol and latanoprost/timolol fixed combination therapies in the management of primary open angle glaucoma.METHODS:Each drug was administered for two months, after which a circadian tonometric curve was recorded using a Goldmann applanation tonometer. Ocular discomfort (conjunctival hyperemia, burning or stinging, foreign body sensation, itching, ocular pain of each eye was assessed by the subject on a standardized ocular discomfort scale.RESULTS:Among the three study groups, there were no significant differences in the mean baseline IOP measurements, mean 2nd mo IOP measurements, and mean (% change of IOPs from baseline. Among the three study groups, there were no significant differences in the mean IOP measurements obtained at circadian tonometric curves at baseline and at two months controls. In sum brimonidine/timolol, dorzolamide/timolol and latanoprost/timolol fixed combination therapies showed similar effects on IOP levels.CONCLUSION:Brimonidine/timolol, dorzolamide/timolol and latanoprost/timolol fixed combination therapies showed similar lowering efficaties on IOP levels whereas there was no any difference between each other.

  9. Structural and functional brain changes in early- and mid-stage primary open-angle glaucoma using voxel-based morphometry and functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ming-Ming; Zhou, Qing; Liu, Xiao-Yong; Shi, Chang-Zheng; Chen, Jian; Huang, Xiang-He

    2017-03-01

    To investigate structural and functional brain changes in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) by using voxel-based morphometry based on diffeomorphic anatomical registration through exponentiated Lie algebra (VBM-DARTEL) and blood oxygenation level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI), respectively.Thirteen patients diagnosed with POAG and 13 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled in the study. For each participant, high-resolution structural brain imaging and blood flow imaging were acquired on a 3.0-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. Structural and functional changes between the POAG and control groups were analyzed. An analysis was carried out to identify correlations between structural and functional changes acquired in the previous analysis and the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL).Patients in the POAG group showed a significant (P < 0.001) volume increase in the midbrain, left brainstem, frontal gyrus, cerebellar vermis, left inferior parietal lobule, caudate nucleus, thalamus, precuneus, and Brodmann areas 7, 18, and 46. Moreover, significant (P < 0.001) BOLD signal changes were observed in the right supramarginal gyrus, frontal gyrus, superior frontal gyrus, left inferior parietal lobule, left cuneus, and left midcingulate area; many of these regions had high correlations with the RNFL.Patients with POAG undergo widespread and complex changes in cortical brain structure and blood flow. (ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT02570867).

  10. Quantification of Valleys of Randomly Textured Substrates as a Function of Opening Angle: Correlation to the Defect Density in Intrinsic nc-Si:H.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do Yun; Hänni, Simon; Schüttauf, Jan-Willem; van Swaaij, René A C M M; Zeman, Miro

    2016-08-17

    Optical and electrical properties of hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si:H) solar cells are strongly influenced by the morphology of underlying substrates. By texturing the substrates, the photogenerated current of nc-Si:H solar cells can increase due to enhanced light scattering. These textured substrates are, however, often incompatible with defect-less nc-Si:H growth resulting in lower Voc and FF. In this study we investigate the correlation between the substrate morphology, the nc-Si:H solar-cell performance, and the defect density in the intrinsic layer of the solar cells (i-nc-Si:H). Statistical surface parameters representing the substrate morphology do not show a strong correlation with the solar-cell parameters. Thus, we first quantify the line density of potentially defective valleys of randomly textured ZnO substrates where the opening angle is smaller than 130° (ρSi:H (ρdefect), which is obtained by fitting external photovoltaic parameters from experimental results and simulations. We confirm that when ρ<130 increases the Voc and FF significantly drops. It is also observed that ρdefect increases following a power law dependence of ρ<130. This result is attributed to more frequently formed defective regions for substrates having higher ρ<130.

  11. Association of glutathione S-transferase polymorphisms (GSTM1 and GSTT1) with primary open-angle glaucoma: an evidence-based meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenbin; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Minwen; Chen, Shida; Zhang, Xiulan

    2013-09-10

    Studies investigating the associations between glutathione S-transferase (GST) genetic polymorphisms and primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) have reported controversial results. Therefore, a meta-analysis was performed to clarify the effects of GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms on POAG risk. Published literatures from PubMed, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science and CBM databases were retrieved. All studies evaluating the association between GSTM1/GSTT1 polymorphisms and POAG were included. Pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using fixed- or random-effects model. Eleven studies on GSTM1 (1339 cases and 1412 controls) and seven studies on GSTT1 (958 cases, 1003 controls) were included. Overall analysis showed that the association between GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotype and POAG risk is not statistically significant. Subgroup analyses showed that the null genotype of GSTM1 increased the risk of POAG in Asians. In GSTM1-GSTT1 interaction analysis, individuals with dual null genotype were associated with a significantly increased risk of POAG when compared with the dual present genotype. In conclusion, the present meta-analysis suggested that GSTM1 null genotypes are associated with increased POAG risk in Asian populations but not in Caucasian and mixed populations. Dual null genotype of GSTM1/GSTT1 is associated with increased risk of POAG. Given the limited sample size, the finding on GST polymorphisms needs further investigation.

  12. Exome Sequencing Identifies a Missense Variant in EFEMP1 Co-Segregating in a Family with Autosomal Dominant Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma.

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    Donna S Mackay

    Full Text Available Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG is a clinically important and genetically heterogeneous cause of progressive vision loss as a result of retinal ganglion cell death. Here we have utilized trio-based, whole-exome sequencing to identify the genetic defect underlying an autosomal dominant form of adult-onset POAG segregating in an African-American family. Exome sequencing identified a novel missense variant (c.418C>T, p.Arg140Trp in exon-5 of the gene coding for epidermal growth factor (EGF containing fibulin-like extracellular matrix protein 1 (EFEMP1 that co-segregated with disease in the family. Linkage and haplotype analyses with microsatellite markers indicated that the disease interval overlapped a known POAG locus (GLC1H on chromosome 2p. The p.Arg140Trp substitution was predicted in silico to have damaging effects on protein function and transient expression studies in cultured cells revealed that the Trp140-mutant protein exhibited increased intracellular accumulation compared with wild-type EFEMP1. In situ hybridization of the mouse eye with oligonucleotide probes detected the highest levels of EFEMP1 transcripts in the ciliary body, cornea, inner nuclear layer of the retina, and the optic nerve head. The recent finding that a common variant near EFEMP1 was associated with optic nerve-head morphology supports the possibility that the EFEMP1 variant identified in this POAG family may be pathogenic.

  13. Genome-wide association analysis identifies TXNRD2, ATXN2 and FOXC1 as susceptibility loci for primary open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Jessica N Cooke; Loomis, Stephanie J; Kang, Jae H; Allingham, R Rand; Gharahkhani, Puya; Khor, Chiea Chuen; Burdon, Kathryn P; Aschard, Hugues; Chasman, Daniel I; Igo, Robert P; Hysi, Pirro G; Glastonbury, Craig A; Ashley-Koch, Allison; Brilliant, Murray; Brown, Andrew A; Budenz, Donald L; Buil, Alfonso; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Choi, Hyon; Christen, William G; Curhan, Gary; De Vivo, Immaculata; Fingert, John H; Foster, Paul J; Fuchs, Charles; Gaasterland, Douglas; Gaasterland, Terry; Hewitt, Alex W; Hu, Frank; Hunter, David J; Khawaja, Anthony P; Lee, Richard K; Li, Zheng; Lichter, Paul R; Mackey, David A; McGuffin, Peter; Mitchell, Paul; Moroi, Sayoko E; Perera, Shamira A; Pepper, Keating W; Qi, Qibin; Realini, Tony; Richards, Julia E; Ridker, Paul M; Rimm, Eric; Ritch, Robert; Ritchie, Marylyn; Schuman, Joel S; Scott, William K; Singh, Kuldev; Sit, Arthur J; Song, Yeunjoo E; Tamimi, Rulla M; Topouzis, Fotis; Viswanathan, Ananth C; Verma, Shefali Setia; Vollrath, Douglas; Wang, Jie Jin; Weisschuh, Nicole; Wissinger, Bernd; Wollstein, Gadi; Wong, Tien Y; Yaspan, Brian L; Zack, Donald J; Zhang, Kang; Study, Epic-Norfolk Eye; Weinreb, Robert N; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Small, Kerrin; Hammond, Christopher J; Aung, Tin; Liu, Yutao; Vithana, Eranga N; MacGregor, Stuart; Craig, Jamie E; Kraft, Peter; Howell, Gareth; Hauser, Michael A; Pasquale, Louis R; Haines, Jonathan L; Wiggs, Janey L

    2016-02-01

    Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is a leading cause of blindness worldwide. To identify new susceptibility loci, we performed meta-analysis on genome-wide association study (GWAS) results from eight independent studies from the United States (3,853 cases and 33,480 controls) and investigated the most significantly associated SNPs in two Australian studies (1,252 cases and 2,592 controls), three European studies (875 cases and 4,107 controls) and a Singaporean Chinese study (1,037 cases and 2,543 controls). A meta-analysis of the top SNPs identified three new associated loci: rs35934224[T] in TXNRD2 (odds ratio (OR) = 0.78, P = 4.05 × 10(-11)) encoding a mitochondrial protein required for redox homeostasis; rs7137828[T] in ATXN2 (OR = 1.17, P = 8.73 × 10(-10)); and rs2745572[A] upstream of FOXC1 (OR = 1.17, P = 1.76 × 10(-10)). Using RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, we show TXNRD2 and ATXN2 expression in retinal ganglion cells and the optic nerve head. These results identify new pathways underlying POAG susceptibility and suggest new targets for preventative therapies.

  14. A Novel Genome-Wide Association Study Approach Using Genotyping by Exome Sequencing Leads to the Identification of a Primary Open Angle Glaucoma Associated Inversion Disrupting ADAMTS17.

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    Oliver P Forman

    Full Text Available Closed breeding populations in the dog in conjunction with advances in gene mapping and sequencing techniques facilitate mapping of autosomal recessive diseases and identification of novel disease-causing variants, often using unorthodox experimental designs. In our investigation we demonstrate successful mapping of the locus for primary open angle glaucoma in the Petit Basset Griffon Vendéen dog breed with 12 cases and 12 controls, using a novel genotyping by exome sequencing approach. The resulting genome-wide association signal was followed up by genome sequencing of an individual case, leading to the identification of an inversion with a breakpoint disrupting the ADAMTS17 gene. Genotyping of additional controls and expression analysis provide strong evidence that the inversion is disease causing. Evidence of cryptic splicing resulting in novel exon transcription as a consequence of the inversion in ADAMTS17 is identified through RNAseq experiments. This investigation demonstrates how a novel genotyping by exome sequencing approach can be used to map an autosomal recessive disorder in the dog, with the use of genome sequencing to facilitate identification of a disease-associated variant.

  15. Role of the APOE ε2/ε3/ε4 polymorphism in the development of primary open-angle glaucoma: evidence from a comprehensive meta-analysis.

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    Qinglu Song

    Full Text Available Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG is one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide. The association between the APOE ε2/ε3/ε4 polymorphism and the risk of POAG has been widely reported, but the results of previous studies remain controversial. To comprehensively evaluate the APOE ε2/ε3/ε4 polymorphism on the genetic risk for POAG, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of previously published studies. The PubMed and Web of Science databases were systematically searched to identify relevant studies. Data were extracted from these studies and odds ratios with corresponding 95% confidence intervals were computed to estimate the strength of the association. Stratified analyses according to ethnicity and sensitivity analyses were also conducted for further confirmation. A total of nine studies were eligible for the meta-analysis, and these studies included data on 1928 POAG cases and 1793 unrelated match controls. The combined results showed that there were no associations between the APOE ε2/ε3/ε4 polymorphism and POAG risk in any of the 10 comparison models. The analysis that was stratified by ethnicity subgroups also failed to reveal a significant association. The sensitivity analysis confirmed the stability and reliability of the findings. There was no risk of publication bias. Our meta-analysis provides strong evidence that the APOE ε2/ε3/ε4 polymorphism is not associated with POAG susceptibility in any populations.

  16. Association between the p53 codon 72 polymorphism and primary open-angle glaucoma risk: Meta-analysis based on 11 case–control studies

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    Mohsen Gohari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The TP53 is important in functions of cell cycle control, apoptosis, and maintenance of DNA integrity. Studies on the association between p53 codon 72 polymorphism and primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG risk have yielded conflicting results. Published literature from PubMed and Web of Science databases was retrieved. All studies evaluating the association between p53 codon 72 polymorphisms and POAG were included. Pooled odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI were calculated. Eleven separate studies including 2541 cases and 1844 controls were pooled in the meta-analysis. We did not detect a significant association between POAG risk and p53 codon 72 polymorphism overall population except allele genetic model (C vs. G: OR = 0.961, 95% CI = 0.961–0.820, P = 0.622. In the stratified analysis for Asians and Caucasians, there was an association between p53 codon 72 polymorphism and POAG. In the dominant model in the overall population and by ethnicity subgroups, the highest elevated POAG risk was presented. In summary, these results indicate that p53 codon 72 polymorphism is likely an important genetic factor contributing to susceptibility of POAG. However, more case–controls studies based on larger sample size and stratified by ethnicity are suggested to further clarify the relationship between p53 codon 72 polymorphism and POAG.

  17. A Study of CYP1B1 Gene Prevalent Mutations in Patients With Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma in Sistan and Baluchestan Province, Iran

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    Narooie-Nejad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness worldwide, and it is associated with increased intraocular pressure and visual field loss. The most common type of glaucoma, primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG, involves progressive optic nerve damage and the death of ganglion cells in adults. Despite the unknown etiology, genetic predisposition plays a significant role in the development of the disease. Objectives In order to identify the genetic basis of POAG in Zahedan, Iran, three common mutations of the CYP1B1 gene (G61E, R390H, and R469W were evaluated in this study. Patients and Methods Forty patients with POAG were recruited from the ophthalmic divisions of Alzahra hospital, which is associated with Zahedan University of Medical Sciences. The CYP1B1 prevalent mutations of p.G61E, p.R390H, and p.R469W were identified in DNA extracted from the blood samples of patients using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP technique. Results We identified no mutations in these patients in the three screened positions. Conclusions To ensure that these genes play no role in the disease, evaluation of the non-coding regions of both the CYP1B1 and MYOC genes is strongly recommended, since other genes are involved in the pathogenesis of glaucoma.

  18. Ultra-high resolution profiles of macular intra-retinal layer thicknesses and associations with visual field defects in primary open angle glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi; Huang, Shenghai; Ma, Qingkai; Lin, Huiling; Pan, Mengmeng; Liu, Xinting; Lu, Fan; Shen, Meixiao

    2017-02-01

    The structural characteristics of the outer retinal layers in primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) are still controversial, and these changes, along with those in the inner retinal layers, could have clinical and/or pathophysiological significance. A custom-built ultra-high resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR-OCT) combined with an automated segmentation algorithm can image and measure the eight intra-retinal layers. The purpose of this study is to determine the thickness characteristics of the macular intra-retinal layers, especially the outer layers, in POAG patients. Thirty-four POAG patients (56 eyes) and 33 normal subjects (63 eyes) were enrolled. Thickness profiles of the eight intra-retinal layers along a 6-mm length centred on the fovea at the horizontal and vertical meridians were obtained and the regional thicknesses were compared between two groups. The associations between the thicknesses of each intra-retinal layer and the macular visual field (VF) sensitivity were then analysed. POAG affected not only the inner retinal layers but also the photoreceptor layers and retinal pigment epithelium of the outer retina. However, the VF loss was correlated mainly with the damage of the inner retinal layers. UHR-OCT with automated algorithm is a useful tool in detecting microstructural changes of macula with respect to the progression of glaucoma.

  19. Mapping of the disease locus and identification of ADAMTS10 as a candidate gene in a canine model of primary open angle glaucoma.

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    John Kuchtey

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG is a leading cause of blindness worldwide, with elevated intraocular pressure as an important risk factor. Increased resistance to outflow of aqueous humor through the trabecular meshwork causes elevated intraocular pressure, but the specific mechanisms are unknown. In this study, we used genome-wide SNP arrays to map the disease gene in a colony of Beagle dogs with inherited POAG to within a single 4 Mb locus on canine chromosome 20. The Beagle POAG locus is syntenic to a previously mapped human quantitative trait locus for intraocular pressure on human chromosome 19. Sequence capture and next-generation sequencing of the entire canine POAG locus revealed a total of 2,692 SNPs segregating with disease. Of the disease-segregating SNPs, 54 were within exons, 8 of which result in amino acid substitutions. The strongest candidate variant causes a glycine to arginine substitution in a highly conserved region of the metalloproteinase ADAMTS10. Western blotting revealed ADAMTS10 protein is preferentially expressed in the trabecular meshwork, supporting an effect of the variant specific to aqueous humor outflow. The Gly661Arg variant in ADAMTS10 found in the POAG Beagles suggests that altered processing of extracellular matrix and/or defects in microfibril structure or function may be involved in raising intraocular pressure, offering specific biochemical targets for future research and treatment strategies.

  20. Ultra-high resolution profiles of macular intra-retinal layer thicknesses and associations with visual field defects in primary open angle glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi; Huang, Shenghai; Ma, Qingkai; Lin, Huiling; Pan, Mengmeng; Liu, Xinting; Lu, Fan; Shen, Meixiao

    2017-01-01

    The structural characteristics of the outer retinal layers in primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) are still controversial, and these changes, along with those in the inner retinal layers, could have clinical and/or pathophysiological significance. A custom-built ultra-high resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR-OCT) combined with an automated segmentation algorithm can image and measure the eight intra-retinal layers. The purpose of this study is to determine the thickness characteristics of the macular intra-retinal layers, especially the outer layers, in POAG patients. Thirty-four POAG patients (56 eyes) and 33 normal subjects (63 eyes) were enrolled. Thickness profiles of the eight intra-retinal layers along a 6-mm length centred on the fovea at the horizontal and vertical meridians were obtained and the regional thicknesses were compared between two groups. The associations between the thicknesses of each intra-retinal layer and the macular visual field (VF) sensitivity were then analysed. POAG affected not only the inner retinal layers but also the photoreceptor layers and retinal pigment epithelium of the outer retina. However, the VF loss was correlated mainly with the damage of the inner retinal layers. UHR-OCT with automated algorithm is a useful tool in detecting microstructural changes of macula with respect to the progression of glaucoma. PMID:28169283

  1. Safety and efficacy of fixed-combination travoprost/timolol in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension not controlled with timolol monotherapy

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    Jordão MLS

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Marcelo Lopes da Silva Jordão,1 Marcelo Hatanaka,2 Abayomi Ogundele,3 Maria Rosa Bet de Moraes Silva,4 Roberto Murad Vessani5 1Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 2University of São Paulo School of Medicine, São Paulo, Brazil; 3Global Medical Affairs, Alcon Laboratories, Inc., Fort Worth, TX, USA; 4Faculty of Medicine of Botucatu, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil; 5General Hospital of Itapecerica da Serra, Serviço Social da Construção Civil do Estado de São Paulo (SECONCI-SP São Paulo, Brazil Objective: To assess the intraocular pressure (IOP-lowering effect of travoprost 0.004%/timolol 0.5% fixed-dose combination (TRAV/TIM–FC in patients not achieving the target IOP of ≤18 mmHg while on timolol 0.5% (TIM monotherapy. Methods: A multicenter, prospective, open-label study (NCT01336569 was conducted in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Eligible patients were receiving TIM monotherapy with a screening/baseline IOP of 19–35 mmHg in ≥1 eye. TIM was discontinued on the baseline visit day (no washout period and TRAV/TIM–FC was initiated and administered once daily at 8 pm for 4–6 weeks. The primary efficacy variable was mean change in IOP from TIM-treated baseline to study end, measured by Goldmann applanation tonometry. Results were analyzed by analysis of variance and paired samples t-test (5% significance. Results: A total of 49 patients were enrolled (mean age, 63 [range, 42–82] years; 55.1% White; 73.5% women, and 45 were included in the intent-to-treat (ITT population. Mean duration of treatment with TRAV/TIM–FC was 31 days. Mean ± standard deviation IOP reduction from baseline (TIM to the follow-up visit (TRAV/TIM–FC was -5.0±3.6 mmHg. IOP decreased significantly (P<0.0001 from baseline (22.1±2.6 mmHg to study end (17.1±3.9 mmHg in the ITT population, with a mean IOP reduction of 22.3%. Most patients (n=33/45; 73

  2. The additional yield of a periodic screening programme for open-angle glaucoma : a population-based comparison of incident glaucoma cases detected in regular ophthalmic care with cases detected during screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoutenbeek, R.; de Voogd, S.; Wolfs, R. C. W.; Hofman, A.; de Jong, P. T. V. M.; Jansonius, N. M.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To study the additional yield of a periodic screening programme for open-angle glaucoma (OAG) by comparing, in a population-based setting, incident OAG (iOAG) cases detected in regular ophthalmic care with those detected during screening. Methods: Participants aged 55 and over from the populati

  3. An observational study of bimatoprost 0.01% in treatment-naïve patients with primary open angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension: the CLEAR trial

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    Nixon DR

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Donald R Nixon,1 Susan Simonyi,2 Meetu Bhogal,2 Christopher S Sigouin,3 Andrew C Crichton,4 Marino Discepola,5 Cindy ML Hutnik,6 David B Yan71Private Practice, Barrie, ON, 2Allergan Inc, Markham, ON, 3CLINWest Research, Burlington, ON, 4University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, 5McGill University, Montreal, QC, 6London Health Sciences Centre, London, ON, 7University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, CanadaBackground: This study was designed to evaluate the occurrence and severity of ocular hyperemia in subjects with elevated intraocular pressure (IOP due to primary open angle glaucoma (POAG or ocular hypertension (OHT following treatment with bimatoprost 0.01% in a real-world clinical setting.Methods: This was an open-label, observational study conducted at 67 centers in Canada. Subjects with elevated IOP due to POAG or OHT instilled bimatoprost 0.01% topically as monotherapy once daily. Ocular hyperemia was graded by the investigator at baseline and weeks 6 and 12 using a photographic five-point grading scale. Change in IOP from baseline was also evaluated at these time points. This analysis includes only the subgroup of 522 subjects who were naïve to IOP-lowering medication prior to the study.Results: After 12 weeks of treatment with bimatoprost 0.01%, hyperemia was graded as none-to-mild (grades 0, +0.5, or +1 for 93.3% of subjects and as moderate-to-severe (grades +2 or +3 for 6.7%. At weeks 6 and 12, most subjects (93.2% and 93.5% had no change in hyperemia grade from baseline. IOP was reduced by 7.4 mmHg (29.8% at week 6 and 7.7 mmHg (30.9% at week 12 from baseline.Conclusion: This real-world, observational study found that bimatoprost 0.01% instilled once daily reduced IOP by a mean of 30% from baseline without moderate or severe ocular hyperemia in 93% of treatment-naïve subjects with POAG or OHT.Keywords: glaucoma, intraocular pressure, hyperemia, bimatoprost

  4. 高度近视与原发性开角型青光眼%Relationship between high myopia and primary open-angle glaucoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王平; 姜德咏

    2004-01-01

    目的:从流行病学、临床特征及诊断、遗传学说及机制等方面对高度近视与原发性开角型青光眼的关系及研究进展进行综述.方法:仔细分析了28篇原文,总结出高度近视与原发性开角型青光眼的可能机理.结果:高度近视与原发性开角型青光眼密切相关,其可能的机制有:①升压基因学说.②胶原基因学说.结论:高度近视与原发性开角型青光眼密切相关,根据TIGR基因理论和胶原基因理论,高度近视与原发性开角型青光眼都与TIGR基因突变和胶原疾病有关.%AIM: To review the relationship between high myopia (HM) and primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) from the aspects of epidemiological features, clinic features, diagnosis, as well as genetic and molecular mechanism.METHODS: Twenty-eight original articles related to thisissue were selected. These articles were carefully reviewed to find out the possible mechanism of the relationship between HM and POAG.RESULTS: CONCLUSIONS: HM and POAG are closely related toHM is a genetically-associated disease and isclosely related with POAG. According to the TIGR gene theory and the collagen gene theory, HM and POAG are both associated with the mutations of TIGR and collagenous lesions.each other in that their mechanisms are both related to hypertension gene and collagen gene.

  5. Comparison of the efficacy and safety of travoprost with a fixed-combination of dorzolamide and timolol in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Emilio Rintaro; Franklin, Luciana Meirelles; da Silva, Luciano José Basilio; Figueiredo, Carlos R L; Netto, Joao Agostini; Batista, Wagner Duarte

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare travoprost (TRAV; travoprost 0.004%) and the fixed-combination of dorzolamide/timolol (DTFC; dorzolamide 2.0%/timolol maleate 0.5%) ophthalmic solutions for reducing intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (OAG) or ocular hypertension (OHT). This was a randomized single masked, study with parallel controls. The TRAV group (n = 29) dosed once daily at 9:00 PM while the DTFC group (n = 27) dosed twice daily at 9:00 AM and 9:00 PM. IOP was measured at baseline, and following 3 weeks and 6 weeks of treatment at 8:00 AM, 12:00 PM, 4:00 PM, and 8:00 PM. Mean average IOP reductions from baseline during the course of the day were 7.5 (32.7%) and 7.1 (30.7%) mmHg for TRAV and 4.8 (23.1%) and 4.5 (21.7%) mmHg for DTFC at 3 weeks and 6 weeks, respectively. The greater IOP reduction for patients receiving TRAV was statistically significant at both the 3 and 6 week visits when averaged across all four time points (p < 0.01). The two products were well-tolerated over the course of the 6 week study. Some factors such as taste perversion were reported more often in the DTFC group. Travoprost monotherapy provided better efficacy in terms of IOP reduction and percentage of IOP reduction compared to dorzolamide 2.0%/timolol maleate 0.5% fixed combination.

  6. Age at natural menopause genetic risk score in relation to age at natural menopause and primary open-angle glaucoma in a US-based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquale, Louis R; Aschard, Hugues; Kang, Jae H; Bailey, Jessica N Cooke; Lindström, Sara; Chasman, Daniel I; Christen, William G; Allingham, R Rand; Ashley-Koch, Allison; Lee, Richard K; Moroi, Sayoko E; Brilliant, Murray H; Wollstein, Gadi; Schuman, Joel S; Fingert, John; Budenz, Donald L; Realini, Tony; Gaasterland, Terry; Gaasterland, Douglas; Scott, William K; Singh, Kuldev; Sit, Arthur J; Igo, Robert P; Song, Yeunjoo E; Hark, Lisa; Ritch, Robert; Rhee, Douglas J; Gulati, Vikas; Havens, Shane; Vollrath, Douglas; Zack, Donald J; Medeiros, Felipe; Weinreb, Robert N; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Liu, Yutao; Kraft, Peter; Richards, Julia E; Rosner, Bernard A; Hauser, Michael A; Haines, Jonathan L; Wiggs, Janey L

    2017-02-01

    Several attributes of female reproductive history, including age at natural menopause (ANM), have been related to primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). We assembled 18 previously reported common genetic variants that predict ANM to determine their association with ANM or POAG. Using data from the Nurses' Health Study (7,143 women), we validated the ANM weighted genetic risk score in relation to self-reported ANM. Subsequently, to assess the relation with POAG, we used data from 2,160 female POAG cases and 29,110 controls in the National Eye Institute Glaucoma Human Genetics Collaboration Heritable Overall Operational Database (NEIGHBORHOOD), which consists of 8 datasets with imputed genotypes to 5.6+ million markers. Associations with POAG were assessed in each dataset, and site-specific results were meta-analyzed using the inverse weighted variance method. The genetic risk score was associated with self-reported ANM (P = 2.2 × 10) and predicted 4.8% of the variance in ANM. The ANM genetic risk score was not associated with POAG (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.002; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.998, 1.007; P = 0.28). No single genetic variant in the panel achieved nominal association with POAG (P ≥0.20). Compared to the middle 80 percent, there was also no association with the lowest 10 percentile or highest 90 percentile of genetic risk score with POAG (OR = 0.75; 95% CI: 0.47, 1.21; P = 0.23 and OR = 1.10; 95% CI: 0.72, 1.69; P = 0.65, respectively). A genetic risk score predicting 4.8% of ANM variation was not related to POAG; thus, genetic determinants of ANM are unlikely to explain the previously reported association between the two phenotypes.

  7. Phacoemulsification versus phacoemulsification with micro-bypass stent implantation in primary open-angle glaucoma: randomized double-masked clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fea, Antonio M

    2010-03-01

    To compare phacoemulsification alone and phacoemulsification with micro-bypass stent implantation in eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma. Instituto di Fisiopatologia Clinica, Clinica Oculistica, Universita' di Torino, Torino, Italy. In this prospective double-masked randomized clinical trial, patients had phacoemulsification alone (control group) or phacoemulsification with iStent implantation (combined group). Primary outcomes were intraocular pressure (IOP) and reduction in medication use over 15 months and IOP after a 1-month washout of ocular hypotensive agents (ie, 16 months postoperatively). The baseline IOP was similar between groups (combined group: 17.9 mm Hg +/- 2.6 [SD]; control group: 17.3 +/- 3.0 mm Hg) (P = .512). Three patients in the control group were lost to follow-up. The mean IOP was 14.8 +/- 1.2 mm Hg in the combined group and 15.7 +/- 1.1 mm Hg in the control group at 15 months and 16.6 +/- 3.1 mm Hg and 19.2 +/- 3.5 mm Hg, respectively, after washout; the IOP was statistically significantly lower in the combined group than in the control group at both time points (P = .031 and P = .042, respectively). At 15 months, the mean number of medications was lower in the combined group than in the control group (0.4 +/- 0.7 and 1.3 +/- 1.0, respectively; P = .007), as was the proportion of patients on ocular hypotensive medication (33% and 76%, respectively). Phacoemulsification with stent implantation was more effective in controlling IOP than phacoemulsification alone; the safety profiles were similar. Copyright 2010 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Correlation Between Humphrey Visual Field, Optical Coherence Tomography and Heidelberg Retina Tomograph Parameters in Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma, Normal-Tension Glaucoma and Ocular Hypertension

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    Ziya Ayhan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the correlation of Humphrey visual field (VF parameters (MD and PSD with Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRT 3 and Stratus optical coherence tomography (OCT parameters in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG, normal-tension glaucoma (NTG and ocular hypertension (OHT. Material and Method: Fifty-five eyes of 29 POAG patients, 32 eyes of 16 OHT patients and 26 eyes of 13 NTG patients were enrolled in the study prospectively. Humphrey visual field test as well as optic nerve head and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness analysis with HRT 3 and Stratus OCT were performed in all patients; the measurements were repeated every 6 months. Results: The mean age of the patients was 66.4±10.0 years and the mean follow-up time was 22±2.2 months. In POAG and NTG groups, MD and PSD correlated with all analyzed parameters in HRT, except for the height variation contour (HVC. In POAG group, MD and PSD values correlated with all analyzed parameters in OCT, except for the rim area (RA. In NTG group, correlation was found between MD values and all parameters in OCT. In NTG group, PSD correlated with all parameters in OCT, except for the RNFL thickness. In OHT group, no correlation was found between MD, PSD values and HRT parameters. In OHT group, only RA values in OCT correlated with MD and PSD. In all groups, there was no statistically significant difference between the first and last examinations for MD and PSD values and for the mean RNFL thickness measured with OCT and HRT. Discussion: In our study, it was found that in POAG and NTG patients, there was a general correlation of Humphrey VF parameters with HRT 3 and Stratus OCT parameters. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2011; 41: 143-50

  9. Comparison of the diagnostic ability of Moorfield′s regression analysis and glaucoma probability score using Heidelberg retinal tomograph III in eyes with primary open angle glaucoma

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    Jindal Shveta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the diagnostic performance of the Heidelberg retinal tomograph (HRT glaucoma probability score (GPS with that of Moorfield′s regression analysis (MRA. Materials and Methods: The study included 50 eyes of normal subjects and 50 eyes of subjects with early-to-moderate primary open angle glaucoma. Images were obtained by using HRT version 3.0. Results: The agreement coefficient (weighted k for the overall MRA and GPS classification was 0.216 (95% CI: 0.119 - 0.315. The sensitivity and specificity were evaluated using the most specific (borderline results included as test negatives and least specific criteria (borderline results included as test positives. The MRA sensitivity and specificity were 30.61 and 98% (most specific and 57.14 and 98% (least specific. The GPS sensitivity and specificity were 81.63 and 73.47% (most specific and 95.92 and 34.69% (least specific. The MRA gave a higher positive likelihood ratio (28.57 vs. 3.08 and the GPS gave a higher negative likelihood ratio (0.25 vs. 0.44.The sensitivity increased with increasing disc size for both MRA and GPS. Conclusions: There was a poor agreement between the overall MRA and GPS classifications. GPS tended to have higher sensitivities, lower specificities, and lower likelihood ratios than the MRA. The disc size should be taken into consideration when interpreting the results of HRT, as both the GPS and MRA showed decreased sensitivity for smaller discs and the GPS showed decreased specificity for larger discs.

  10. The progression of the molecular biology of optineurin and primary open angle gloucoma%OPTN基因与POAG的分子生物学研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘健楠; 原慧萍

    2016-01-01

    Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is a synthetically genetic heterogeneity in neurodegenerative disease, characterized by a gradual loss of vision.The optineurin (OPTN) gene has already been identified as one of the genes that cause POAG.OPTN mutation may result in structural and functional changes of its protein, optineurin.Optineurin has been shown to bind with a number of specific ligands.Optineurin mutation may break the interactions with proteins or make the function of binding complexes abnormal.The location, the structure of the OPTN gene, binding partners and molecular biology functions of optineurin, and the relationship between the mutation of the OPTN gene and POAG are introduced one by one in this review.%原发性开角型青光眼(POAG)是以视野渐进性缺损为特点的遗传异质性的综合性神经退行性疾病.OPTN基因是近年来已被确认的POAG的致病基因,该基因的突变可导致其所表达蛋白Optineurin结构及功能的异常.Optineurin与一些特定蛋白配体偶联后发挥相应的分子生物学功能,当其结构异常时,将导致Optineurin不能与其配体偶联或者偶联后功能异常.本综述主要介绍OPTN基因的结构、定位,其表达蛋白Optineurin的结构,Optineurin与配体偶联后的分子生物学功能,以及OPTN基因突变后与POAG发病的关系等方面的研究进展.

  11. Influence of BAK-Preserved Prostaglandin Analog Treatment on the Ocular Surface Health in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Tomić

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG, a chronic, degenerative optic neuropathy, requires persistent decrease of intraocular pressure so as to prevent visual impairment and blindness. However, long-term use of topical ocular medications may affect ocular surface health. Purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of BAK-preserved prostaglandin analog treatment on the ocular surface health in patients with newly diagnosed POAG. Methods. 40 newly diagnosed POAG patients were included in this prospective study. Intraocular pressure (IOP, tear break-up time (TBUT, and ocular surface disease index (OSDI were assessed at baseline and 3-month after starting treatment with BAK-preserved travoprost 0.004%. Results. IOP decreased in all patients from baseline to 3-month final visit (23.80 ± 1.73 mmHg versus 16.78 ± 1.27 mmHg; P<0.001. Mean TBUT decreased from 11.70±1.86 seconds at baseline to 8.30 ± 1.29 seconds at 3-month final visit (<0.001. Mean OSDI score increased from 31.63 ± 18.48 to 44.41 ± 16.48 (P<0.001. Conclusions. This study showed that BAK-preserved travoprost 0.004% is an effective medication in newly diagnosed POAG patients, but its long-term use may negatively influence ocular surface health by disrupting the tear film stability. Further studies are needed to better understand the clinical effects of different preservative types and concentrations on the ocular surface.

  12. New insights into the genetics of primary open-angle glaucoma based on meta-analyses of intraocular pressure and optic disc characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springelkamp, Henriët; Iglesias, Adriana I; Mishra, Aniket; Höhn, René; Wojciechowski, Robert; Khawaja, Anthony P; Nag, Abhishek; Wang, Ya Xing; Wang, Jie Jin; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Gibson, Jane; Bailey, Jessica N Cooke; Vithana, Eranga N; Gharahkhani, Puya; Boutin, Thibaud; Ramdas, Wishal D; Zeller, Tanja; Luben, Robert N; Yonova-Doing, Ekaterina; Viswanathan, Ananth C; Yazar, Seyhan; Cree, Angela J; Haines, Jonathan L; Koh, Jia Yu; Souzeau, Emmanuelle; Wilson, James F; Amin, Najaf; Müller, Christian; Venturini, Cristina; Kearns, Lisa S; Kang, Jae Hee; Tham, Yih Chung; Zhou, Tiger; van Leeuwen, Elisabeth M; Nickels, Stefan; Sanfilippo, Paul; Liao, Jiemin; van der Linde, Herma; Zhao, Wanting; van Koolwijk, Leonieke M E; Zheng, Li; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Baskaran, Mani; van der Lee, Sven J; Perera, Shamira; de Jong, Paulus T V M; Oostra, Ben A; Uitterlinden, André G; Fan, Qiao; Hofman, Albert; Tai, E-Shyong; Vingerling, Johannes R; Sim, Xueling; Wolfs, Roger C W; Teo, Yik Ying; Lemij, Hans G; Khor, Chiea Chuen; Willemsen, Rob; Lackner, Karl J; Aung, Tin; Jansonius, Nomdo M; Montgomery, Grant; Wild, Philipp S; Young, Terri L; Burdon, Kathryn P; Hysi, Pirro G; Pasquale, Louis R; Wong, Tien Yin; Klaver, Caroline C W; Hewitt, Alex W; Jonas, Jost B; Mitchell, Paul; Lotery, Andrew J; Foster, Paul J; Vitart, Veronique; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Craig, Jamie E; Mackey, David A; Hammond, Christopher J; Wiggs, Janey L; Cheng, Ching-Yu; van Duijn, Cornelia M; MacGregor, Stuart

    2017-01-15

    Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), the most common optic neuropathy, is a heritable disease. Siblings of POAG cases have a ten-fold increased risk of developing the disease. Intraocular pressure (IOP) and optic nerve head characteristics are used clinically to predict POAG risk. We conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of IOP and optic disc parameters and validated our findings in multiple sets of POAG cases and controls. Using imputation to the 1000 genomes (1000G) reference set, we identified 9 new genomic regions associated with vertical cup-disc ratio (VCDR) and 1 new region associated with IOP. Additionally, we found 5 novel loci for optic nerve cup area and 6 for disc area. Previously it was assumed that genetic variation influenced POAG either through IOP or via changes to the optic nerve head; here we present evidence that some genomic regions affect both IOP and the disc parameters. We characterized the effect of the novel loci through pathway analysis and found that pathways involved are not entirely distinct as assumed so far. Further, we identified a novel association between CDKN1A and POAG. Using a zebrafish model we show that six6b (associated with POAG and optic nerve head variation) alters the expression of cdkn1a. In summary, we have identified several novel genes influencing the major clinical risk predictors of POAG and showed that genetic variation in CDKN1A is important in POAG risk. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Influence of BAK-Preserved Prostaglandin Analog Treatment on the Ocular Surface Health in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomić, Martina; Kaštelan, Snježana; Metež Soldo, Kata; Salopek-Rabatić, Jasminka

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), a chronic, degenerative optic neuropathy, requires persistent decrease of intraocular pressure so as to prevent visual impairment and blindness. However, long-term use of topical ocular medications may affect ocular surface health. Purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of BAK-preserved prostaglandin analog treatment on the ocular surface health in patients with newly diagnosed POAG. Methods. 40 newly diagnosed POAG patients were included in this prospective study. Intraocular pressure (IOP), tear break-up time (TBUT), and ocular surface disease index (OSDI) were assessed at baseline and 3-month after starting treatment with BAK-preserved travoprost 0.004%. Results. IOP decreased in all patients from baseline to 3-month final visit (23.80 ± 1.73 mmHg versus 16.78 ± 1.27 mmHg; P < 0.001). Mean TBUT decreased from 11.70 ± 1.86 seconds at baseline to 8.30 ± 1.29 seconds at 3-month final visit (<0.001). Mean OSDI score increased from 31.63 ± 18.48 to 44.41 ± 16.48 (P < 0.001). Conclusions. This study showed that BAK-preserved travoprost 0.004% is an effective medication in newly diagnosed POAG patients, but its long-term use may negatively influence ocular surface health by disrupting the tear film stability. Further studies are needed to better understand the clinical effects of different preservative types and concentrations on the ocular surface. PMID:23971041

  14. Fixed combination of travoprost and timolol maleate reduces intraocular pressure in Japanese patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension: analysis by prostaglandin analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Tadashi; Mizoue, Shiro; Fuse, Nobuo; Iwase, Aiko; Matsumoto, Shun; Yoshikawa, Keiji

    2017-01-01

    Background We have shown a decrease in mean intraocular pressure (IOP) by switching to travoprost/timolol fixed combination (TTFC) in subjects receiving prostaglandin analogue (PGA) monotherapy and requiring additional medication in a previous report. For analyzing factors affecting IOP reduction, baseline IOP and preceding PGA were selected as statistically and clinically significant factors. In this report, we examine IOP-lowering effect and adverse drug reactions by preceding PGA. Methods Patients with primary open angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension who received monotherapy with one of four PGAs (travoprost, latanoprost, tafluprost, or bimatoprost) for at least 3 months at 26 institutions and were determined to require additional medication by their primary physician were included. IOP reduction and adverse events were examined at 4, 8, and 12 weeks for each of four PGAs after switching to TTFC. Results In total, 157 patients who could be followed up for at least 4 weeks after switching to TTFC were included in the efficacy analysis. Multiple regression analysis was performed, and baseline IOP and PGA were found to be significant factors to IOP reduction. IOP reduction at week 12, adjusted with the regression model, was −3.5, −1.8, and −1.4 mmHg in the tafluprost, latanoprost, and travoprost groups, whereas it was −0.5 mmHg in the bimatoprost group. Along with differences in baseline IOP between groups, an IOP-lowering effect of >1 mmHg was noted in the tafluprost, latanoprost, and travoprost groups after the switch. IOP was maintained at 13.8–14.8 mmHg throughout the follow-up period. No serious adverse events or noteworthy issues were observed in any group after the switch. Conclusion Clinically significant IOP-reducing effects of TTFC were observed in the latanoprost, travoprost, and tafluprost groups when switching from each PGA monotherapy, while there were some differences in effects between groups, with minimal safety concerns. PMID:28053501

  15. Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the CYP1B1 gene with the risk of primary open-angle glaucoma: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z; Li, M; Li, L; Sun, H; Lin, X Y

    2015-12-17

    Mutations in the CYP1B1 gene were detected in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients. However, the association between these mutations and the incidence of POAG remains to be elucidated. Here, we have conducted a meta-analysis to analyze this correlation, using relevant studies obtained from an extensive search of various electronic databases, including EMBase, Web of Science, and PubMed. The extracted studies were selected for the meta-analysis based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The quality of each included study was assessed by the Newcastle-Ottawa scale (NOS), and the I2 value was calculated to evaluate the heterogeneity between studies. The combined effect size was presented as the odds ratio (OR), and confidence intervals (CI) were used to assess the association between POAG and CYP1B1 mutations. Eight studies, each with a high NOS score, were included in the analysis. Compared to the mutant allele, the wild-type allele of the rs180040 polymorphism in POAG patients showed a 12% decrease in OR (OR = 0.88, 95%CI = 0.76- 1.00); also, the wild-type allele of rs1056827 showed a 23% decrease in OR of the incidence of POAG (OR = 0.77, 95%CI = 0.60-0.99). However, the latter result was controversial. Polymorphisms at rs1056836, rs10012, and rs1056837 were not correlated with the incidence of POAG (using any evaluation model). In conclusion, three of the tested SNPs in the CYP1B1 gene were correlated with POAG; however, the SNPs rs180040 and rs1056827 showed an association with risk of POAG. These results must be further validated with larger-scale evaluations.

  16. A randomised, controlled comparison of latanoprostene bunod and latanoprost 0.005% in the treatment of ocular hypertension and open angle glaucoma: the VOYAGER study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinreb, Robert N; Ong, Tuyen; Scassellati Sforzolini, Baldo; Vittitow, Jason L; Singh, Kuldev; Kaufman, Paul L

    2015-06-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of latanoprostene bunod (LBN) compared with latanoprost 0.005%, and to determine the optimum drug concentration(s) of LBN in reducing intraocular pressure (IOP) in subjects with open angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Randomised, investigator-masked, parallel-group, dose-ranging study. Subjects instilled one drop of study medication in the study eye once daily each evening for 28 days and completed five study visits. The primary efficacy endpoint was the reduction in mean diurnal IOP at Day 28. Of the 413 subjects randomised (LBN 0.006%, n=82; LBN 0.012%, n=85; LBN 0.024%, n=83; LBN 0.040%, n=81; latanoprost, n=82), 396 subjects completed the study. Efficacy for LBN was dose-dependent reaching a plateau at 0.024%-0.040%. LBN 0.024% led to significantly greater reductions in diurnal IOP compared with latanoprost at the primary endpoint, Day 28 (p=0.005), as well as Days 7 (p=0.033) and 14 (p=0.015). The incidence of adverse events, mostly mild and transient, was numerically higher in the LBN treatment groups compared with the latanoprost group. Hyperaemia was similar across treatments. LBN 0.024% dosed once daily was the lower of the two most effective concentrations evaluated, with significantly greater IOP lowering and comparable side effects relative to latanoprost 0.005%. LBN dosed once daily for 28 days was well tolerated. NCT01223378. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. New approach of surgical treatment for open-angle glaucoma%开角型青光眼手术治疗最新进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓蕾; 张秀兰

    2011-01-01

    The treatments for open-angle glaucoma include medication, laser and surgery.Trabeculectomy is still the first choice for its efficacy in controlling intraocular pressure. Good nonfiltering bleb surgeries have been developed recently, and the new surgeries include canaloplasty,trabecular bypass devices, the Glaukos iStent trabecular micro-bypass stent, Eyepass glaucoma implant, Gold Micro-Shunt implant, Trabectome, and excimer laser trabeculotomy ab interno. Other new alternatives such as the Ex-PRESS glaucoma shunt and pneumatic rabeculoplasty have also been developed. This article briefly reviews these new techniques.%开角型青光眼的治疗包括药物、激光和手术。小梁切除术因其降低眼压迅速、有效、成功率高,目前仍然是首选的滤过性手术。近年来,新型的治疗开角型青光眼的手术方式有了很大发展,其中以无滤过泡的(非滤过泡依赖的)滤过性手术为主,包括Schlemm管成形术、内引流iStent植入术、外引流Eyepass植入术、前房-脉络膜上腔分流装置Gold Micro-Shunt植入术、内路小梁切开术、内路准分子激光小梁切除术,这些都属于眼内引流手术;其他如Ex-PRESS青光眼微型引流钉植入术和真空小梁成形术等都显示出各自的特点。本综述将对这些最新手术的进展作一简要概述。

  18. Vascular and metabolic comorbidities in open-angle glaucoma with low- and high-teen intraocular pressure: a cross-sectional study from South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Si Hyung; Kim, Gyu Ah; Lee, Wonseok; Bae, Hyoung Won; Seong, Gong Je; Kim, Chan Yun

    2017-07-05

    To assess the associations between vascular and metabolic comorbidities and the prevalence of open-angle glaucoma (OAG) with low-teen and high-teen intraocular pressure (IOP) in Korea. Cross-sectional data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2008 to 2012 were analysed. Participants diagnosed with OAG with normal IOP were further classified into low-teen IOP (IOP ≤ 15 mmHg) and high-teen IOP (15 mmHg teen IOP groups. The prevalences of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, ischaemic heart disease, stroke and metabolic syndrome were significantly higher among subjects with low-teen OAG compared with normal subjects, while only the prevalences of hypertension and stroke were higher among subjects with high-teen OAG compared with normal subjects. In multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for confounding factors, low-teen OAG was significantly associated with hypertension (OR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.30-2.18), hyperlipidemia (OR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.07-2.08), ischaemic heart disease (OR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.07-3.11), stroke (OR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.12-3.25) and metabolic syndrome (OR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.12-1.90). High-teen OAG was only associated with stroke (OR, 2.58; 95% CI, 1.20-5.53). Various vascular and metabolic comorbidities were significantly associated with low-teen OAG, but not with high-teen OAG. These data support the hypothesis that vascular factors play a more significant role in the pathogenesis of OAG with low-teen baseline IOP. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Investigating the usefulness of a cluster-based trend analysis to detect visual field progression in patients with open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Shuichiro; Murata, Hiroshi; Fujino, Yuri; Matsuura, Masato; Miki, Atsuya; Tanito, Masaki; Mizoue, Shiro; Mori, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Katsuyoshi; Yamashita, Takehiro; Kashiwagi, Kenji; Hirasawa, Kazunori; Shoji, Nobuyuki; Asaoka, Ryo

    2017-04-27

    To investigate the usefulness of the Octopus (Haag-Streit) EyeSuite's cluster trend analysis in glaucoma. Ten visual fields (VFs) with the Humphrey Field Analyzer (Carl Zeiss Meditec), spanning 7.7 years on average were obtained from 728 eyes of 475 primary open angle glaucoma patients. Mean total deviation (mTD) trend analysis and EyeSuite's cluster trend analysis were performed on various series of VFs (from 1st to 10th: VF1-10 to 6th to 10th: VF6-10). The results of the cluster-based trend analysis, based on different lengths of VF series, were compared against mTD trend analysis. Cluster-based trend analysis and mTD trend analysis results were significantly associated in all clusters and with all lengths of VF series. Between 21.2% and 45.9% (depending on VF series length and location) of clusters were deemed to progress when the mTD trend analysis suggested no progression. On the other hand, 4.8% of eyes were observed to progress using the mTD trend analysis when cluster trend analysis suggested no progression in any two (or more) clusters. Whole field trend analysis can miss local VF progression. Cluster trend analysis appears as robust as mTD trend analysis and useful to assess both sectorial and whole field progression. Cluster-based trend analyses, in particular the definition of two or more progressing cluster, may help clinicians to detect glaucomatous progression in a timelier manner than using a whole field trend analysis, without significantly compromising specificity. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. The impact of chronic use of prostaglandin analogues on the biomechanical properties of the cornea in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meda, Roman; Wang, Qianqian; Paoloni, David; Harasymowycz, Paul; Brunette, Isabelle

    2017-01-01

    Aims To determine the influence of prostaglandin analogues (PGAs) on corneal biomechanical properties in patients undergoing chronic treatment for primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Methods Prospective, interventional case–control study. 70 eyes from 35 patients with POAG on chronic PGA therapy were recruited. One eye per patient underwent PGA cessation for 6 weeks while the contralateral eye continued to receive the treatment. Corneal hysteresis (CH), corneal resistance factor (CRF), corneal-compensated intraocular pressure (IOP) (IOPcc), central corneal thickness (CCT) and Goldmann tonometry (Haag-Streit AG, Koeniz, Switzerland) IOP (IOPGAT) were measured at baseline (visit 1), 6 weeks after PGA cessation (visit 2) and 6 weeks after PGAs reinitiation (visit 3) and were analysed using a linear mixed-effect model. The discrepancy between IOPcc and IOPGAT was defined as IOP bias (IOPcc—IOPGAT). Results Baseline characteristics were comparable between the two groups. In the study eyes, significant increases (p<0.0001) were detected at visit 2 in CH (9.0±1.8 vs 10.3±1.7 mm Hg), CRF (10.5±2.1 vs 11.7±2.1 mm Hg), CCT (541.8±43.2 vs 551.9±41.9 μm) and IOPGAT (15.4±3.0 vs 18.4±3.8 mm Hg). IOP bias in this group was significantly lowered at visit 2 (p<0.0001). These effects were reversed at visit 3. The control eyes did not demonstrate any significant changes over the study period. Conclusion Topical PGAs induce reversible reduction in CH, CRF and CCT in patients with POAG. These changes contribute to underestimation of the IOP measured by Goldmann applanation tonometry and warrant caution when assessing response to treatment. Trial registration number NCT02388360, Results. PMID:27162226

  1. Comparison of vision-related quality of life in primary open-angle glaucoma and dry-type age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadeniz Ugurlu, S; Kocakaya Altundal, A E; Altin Ekin, M

    2017-03-01

    PurposeTo compare quality of life (QoL) in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and dry-type age-related macular degeneration (AMD) with similar best-corrected visual acuity.MethodsAge-, sex-, and visual acuity-matched POAG and dry AMD patients were included in the study. Each patient performed 24-2 and 10-2 SITA standard visual field tests. Contrast sensitivity was evaluated with CSV-1000 HGT instrument. The 25 item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ-25) was used to analyze QoL. Overall and subscale scores were converted to scores between 0 and 100, the higher scores indicating better vision-related QoL.ResultsOverall NEI-VFQ-25 scores were 86.44 and 84.66 in glaucoma and AMD groups, respectively (P=0.244). The highest scores were obtained in 'vision-related dependency' subgroup in glaucoma and 'color and peripheral vision' in AMD group, whereas the lowest scores were noted 'in peripheral vision' in both glaucoma and AMD patients. Glaucoma patients had significantly lower scores in ocular pain, color vision, and peripheral vision subgroups compared with the AMD group, whereas AMD patients had lower scores in near and distance vision activities, vision-related social activity, and dependency subgroups. Contrast sensitivity results and mean defect values showed correlation with NEI-VFQ-25 scores in both groups.ConclusionsGlaucoma and AMD patients with similar visual acuity experienced similar overall impairment in QoL. However, glaucoma patients described more difficulty with peripheral vision and ocular pain, whereas AMD patients complained more about near and distance vision and dependency items.

  2. Presence of antibodies to cyclic citrullinated peptides in juvenile-onset systemic lupus erythematosus%儿童系统性红斑狼疮抗环瓜氨酸肽抗体检测及其临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海英; 刘云锋; 关启鸿; 钟艳玲; 皮蕾; 张白杜; 郭彩娇; 曾华松

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of antibodies to cyclic citrullinated peptides (antiCCP) in patients with juvenile-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE) and its potential clinical significance. Methods Anti-CCP was measured in sera from patients with JSLE (n=47), juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA, n=54) and the sera from age-matched healthy children (n=40) using the third generation of anti-CCP ELISA commercial kit. The association of anti-CCP with other laboratory parameters and clinical features, especially arthritic symptoms in JSLE was also analyzed. T-test, Mann-Whitney U test, Chi-square and Fisher's exact test were used for statistical analysis. Results Out of the 47 JSLE patients, 6 (13%) were anti-CCP positive, which was significantly higher than that of the healthy controls( 13% vs 0, P<0.05 ), but not different from that of the JIA group (26%, P=0.098). RF was more prevalent in JSLE patients with anti-CCP than patients without (83% vs 15%, P<0.01 ), but there was no difference in other laboratory parameters and the clinical features ineluding the occurrence of arthritis (67% vs 51%, P>0.05). As one of the initial symptoms, arthritis was observed in 25 of 47 JSLE patients and no one had developed deforming arthropathy.There was no statistical difference in anti-CCP positivity between JSLE patients with and without articular involvement ( 16% vs 9%, P>0.05 ). Anti-CCP was not detected in any of the 3 patients with JSLE who had experienced joint pain and limited activity during 3 years follow-up. Conclusion Anti-CCP could be detected in patients with JSLE. It is noteworthy when differentiate from juvenile idiopathic arthritis, but the presence of anti-CCP does not relate with the occurrence of arthritis at presentation and persistence of arthritis in JSLE.%目的 检测儿童系统性红斑狼疮(JSLE)患者血清抗环瓜氨酸肽(CCP)抗体水平,了解抗CCP抗体在该病中的阳性检出率以及探讨其与

  3. Retinal nerve fiber layer in primary open-angle glaucoma with high myopia determined by optical coherence tomography and scanning laser polarimetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-en; WANG Xiao-yu; GU Yang-shun; HUANG Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Background Fundus changes associated with high myopia (HM) may mask those associated with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG).This study aim to determine the characteristics of RNFL thickness changes in patients with both POAG and HM and compare these to changes in patients with only HM.The diagnostic capabilities of both OCT and GDxVCC in this subset of patients are also evaluated.Methods Twenty-two eyes with POAG and HM (spherical equivalent (SE) between-6.0 and-12.0 D) were evaluated,and 22 eyes with HM were used for comparison.Characteristic retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness profiles in patients with POAG and HM were examined using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal compensation (GDxVCC),and the diagnostic capabilities of these imaging modalities were compared.RNFL parameters evaluated included superior average (Savg-GDx),inferior average (lavg-GDx),temporal-superior-nasal-inferior-temporal (TSNIT) average,and nerve fiber indicator (NFI) on GDxVCC and superior average (Savg-OCT),inferior average (lavg-OCT),nasal average (Navg-OCT),temporal average (Tavg-OCT),and average thickness (AvgThick-OCT) on OCT (fast RNFL scan).Visual field testing was performed and defects were evaluated using mean defect (MD) and pattern standard deviation (PSD).Results The RNFL parameters (P <0.05) significantly different between groups included Savg-GDx,lavg-GDx,TSNIT average,NFI,Savg-OCT,lavg-OCT,Tavg-OCT,and AvgThick-OCT.Significant correlations existed between TSNIT average and AvgThick-OCT (r=0.778),TSNIT average and MD (r=0.749),AvgThick-OCT and MD (r=0.647),TSNIT average and PSD (r=-0.756),and AvgThick-OCT and PSD (r=-0.784).The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) values of TSNIT average,Savg-GDx,lavg-GDx,NFI,Savg-OCT,lavg-OCT,Navg-OCT,Tavg-OCT,and AvgThick-OCT were 0.947,0.962,0.973,0.994,0.909,0.917,0.511,0.906,and 0.913,respectively.The NFI AUROC was the highest value.Conclusions RNFL

  4. Clinical effectiveness of brinzolamide 1%–brimonidine 0.2% fixed combination for primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma S

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sourabh Sharma,1 Sameer Trikha,1 Shamira A Perera,1 Tin Aung1,2 1Glaucoma Department, Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore Abstract: The main first-line treatment strategy for glaucoma is to reduce intraocular pressure (IOP by topical ocular hypotensive medications, but many patients require multiple medications for adequate IOP control. Fixed-combination therapies provide several benefits, including simplified treatment regimens, theoretical improved treatment adherence, elimination of the potential for washout of the first drug by the second, and the reduction in ocular exposure to preservatives. β-Adrenoceptor antagonists (particularly 0.5% timolol are the most commonly used agents in combination with other classes of drugs as fixed-combination eyedrops, but they are contraindicated in many patients, owing to local allergy or systemic side effects. A fixed-combination preparation without a β-blocker is therefore warranted. This paper reviews the clinical effectiveness of brinzolamide 1% and brimonidine 0.2% fixed combination (BBFC for use in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension. We searched PubMed and the ClinicalTrials.gov registry, and identified three randomized controlled trials comparing BBFC vs its constituents (brimonidine vs brinzolamide, and one comparing BBFC with unfixed brimonidine and brinzolamide. All of the studies demonstrated mean diurnal IOP to be statistically significantly lower in the BBFC group compared with constituent groups and noninferior to that with the concomitant group using two separate bottles. The safety profile of BBFC was consistent with that of its individual components, the most common ocular adverse events being ocular hyperemia, visual disturbances, and ocular allergic reactions. Common systemic adverse effects included altered taste

  5. Comparison of the efficacy and safety of fixed combination travoprost/timolol and dorzolamide/timolol in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić Nikola

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Combining two medications in one bottle may improve compliance by reducing the time required to administer drops and the frequency of the total number of medication bottles. Objective. To compare the efficacy of reduced intraocular pressure (IOP and safety of fixed combination travoprost 0.004%/timolol 0.5% vs. fixed combination dorzolamide 2%/timolol 0.5% in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Methods. Prospective randomized clinical study included 60 patients divided into 2 groups. Follow-up was done at day 14 and 45 and month 3. IOP measurements were taken at each follow-up examination at 8 am, 10 am and 4 pm. Results. Both fixed combinations reduced IOP significantly compared to initial values at all follow-ups (p<0.001. Mean pooled IOP at all visits and time points was slightly lower in the travoprost/timolol group compared with the dorzolamide/timolol group (16.13 mmHg vs. 16.15 mmHg. Mean IOP reduction from baseline ranged from -7.46 mmHg to -9.92 mmHg in the travoprost/timolol group and from -6.93 mmHg to -8.93 mmHg for the dorzolamide/timolol group. Mean (±standard error of the mean reduction in diurnal IOP from baseline to 3rd month was 8.96±2.79 in the travoprost/timolol group versus 8.07±2.91 in patients receiving dorzolamide/timolol fixed combination (p=0.196. The most frequent treatment-related adverse events were conjunctival hyperemia in the travoprost/timolol group, and dry eye and foreign body sensation in the dorzolamide/timolol group. Conclusion. Travoprost/timolol fixed combination was slightly more effective than dorzolamide/timolol fixed combination in reducing mean diurnal IOP. Travoprost/timolol group resulted in an IOP reduction for up to 1.07 mmHg higher than dorzolamide/timolol group. Both fixed combinations were well tolerated and safe.

  6. Factors Influencing the Placebo Effect in Patients with Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma or Ocular Hypertension: An Analysis of Two Randomized Clinical Trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taichi Kawamura

    Full Text Available To explore factors related to the placebo effect in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG or ocular hypertension (OH.This was a retrospective cohort study of patients with POAG and patients with OH who were treated with placebo. The patients' data were extracted from two randomized, double-masked, parallel, multicenter clinical trials (trial 1 and trial 2 in Japan. We explored the baseline factors that were associated with the intraocular pressure (IOP-lowering effect of placebo ophthalmic solution after 4 weeks of instillation treatment at two time points by using multivariable models. The time points were Hour 0 (between 08:30 and 10:30 before instillation and Hour 2 (within 1.5 to 2.5 h after instillation and by 12:30 at the baseline date and after 4 weeks. The changes in IOP from baseline to 4 weeks at the two time points were evaluated for the IOP-lowering effect induced by placebo instillation.Of the 330 patients included in the two trials, 89 patients were eligible for the analysis. The results of the multivariable analysis for Hour 0 indicated a high IOP at the baseline date (coefficient: 0.24, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.02 to 0.46, P = 0.03, and the magnitude of the IOP fluctuation at the baseline date (coefficient: 0.57, 95% CI: 0.24 to 0.90, P = 0.001 was associated with the IOP-lowering effect after 4 weeks. With respect to Hour 2, the trial type was associated with the IOP-lowering effect (coefficient: -1.15, 95% CI: -2.14 to -0.16, P = 0.02.A large fluctuation in IOP during the day is associated with the IOP-lowering effect induced by placebo in patients with POAG or OH. This finding would be helpful to researchers when designing studies related to glaucoma in the early stages of clinical development of drugs.

  7. Fixed combination of latanoprost and timolol vs the individual components for primary open angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi; Xing; Fa-Gang; Jiang; Teng; Li

    2014-01-01

    AIM:To assess the effects of the fixed combination of0.005% latanoprost and 0.5% timolol(FCLT) vs their individual components for primary open angle glaucoma(POAG) and ocular hypertension(OHT).· METHODS:After searched PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library and SCI, all randomized controlled clinical trials(RCTs) and cross-over studies were included. The control groups were the monotherapy or the concomitant therapy of latanoprost and timolol. The outcomes were visual field defect, optic atrophy, mean intraocular pressure(IOP) and IOP fluctuation. The analysis was carried out in RevMan version 5.1 software.RESULTS:Thepost-interventionmeanIOPofFCLTwas significantly lower compared to timolol [mean difference(MD)-2.92, 95%CI-3.28 to-2.55, P <0.00001] and latanoprost(MD-1.11, 95%CI-1.51 to-0.72, P <0.00001). The postintervention IOP fluctuation was also significantly lower compared to timolol(MD-0.88, 95%CI-1.23 to-0.53, P <0. 00001) and latanoprost( MD- 0. 63, 95 % CI- 1. 04to-0.22, P =0.002). The mean IOP was higher in FCLT morning dose group than the one in unfixed combination of 0.005% latanoprost and 0.5% timolol(UFCLT)(MD1.10, 95% CI 0.81 to 1.39, P <0.00001). Otherwise, there was no difference between FCLT evening dose group and UFCLT(MD 0.34, 95% CI-0.01 to 0.69, P =0.06).There was no statistical difference for the incidence ofvisual field defect and optic atrophy between FCLT and the monotherapy of components.CONCLUSION:A better IOP lowering effect has been demonstrated for FCLT compared to the monotherapy of components. The IOP lowering effect was worse for FCLT morning dose and almost same for FCLT evening dose compared to the UFCLT. We need more long-term high quality RCTs to demonstrate the outcomes of visual field defect and optic atrophy.visual field defect and optic atrophy between FCLT and the monotherapy of components.CONCLUSION:A better IOP lowering effect has been demonstrated for FCLT compared to the monotherapy of components. The IOP lowering effect

  8. [Genetic variants of CYP1B1 and WDR36 in the patients with primary congenital glaucoma and primary open angle glaucoma from Saint-Petersburg].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motushchuk, A E; Komarova, T Iu; Grudinina, N A; Rakhmanov, V V; Mandel'shtam, M Iu; Astakhov, Iu S; Vasil'ev, V B

    2009-12-01

    In 32 patients with primary congenital glaucoma (PCG), a search for mutations in the myocilin (MYOC), cytochrome P450B1 (CYP1B1), and WDR36 genes was performed. The Q368X mutation in myocilin gene, typical of the patients with adult-onset primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), was not detected in the PCG patients. Screening of the CYP1B1 introns 2 and 3 for the presence of mutations in PCG patients revealed only six DNA polymorphisms, including IVS1-12ntT>C (g.3793 T>C), A119S (g.4160 G>T; GCC>TCC), G188G (g.4369 C>A; GGC>GGA), L432V (G.8131 C>G; CTG>GTG), D449D (g.8184 C>T; GAC>GAT), and N453S (g.8195 A>G; AAC>AGC) (nucleotide numbering is given in accordance with the GenBank sequence U56438). In the groups of PCG patients and donors without eye diseases, the frequencies of these variants were not statistically significantly different, pointing to the neutrality of these polymorphisms. Furthermore, the CYP1B1 polymorphism L432V, considered to be associated with POAG in some world populations, was not associated with this disease in the patients from St. Petersburg. DNA collections obtained from the POAG and PCG patients and from the control group were tested for the carriage of the worldwide distributed mutations of the WRD36 gene, D658G, R529Q, A449T, and N355S. D658G variant was found with equally low frequencies in the groups of POAG and PCG patients, as well as in the control group. Mutations A449T and R529Q were found only once each, while mutation N355S was not detected in any of the groups examined. Our results indicate that the WDR36 variants make no substantial contribution to the development of POAG and PCG in the patients from St. Petersburg and represent normal DNA polymorphism. It is likely that in most of the PCG patients from the population examined the disease is not associated with the CYP1B1 gene defects.

  9. Age at natural menopause genetic risk score in relation to age at natural menopause and primary open-angle glaucoma in a US-based sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquale, Louis R.; Aschard, Hugues; Kang, Jae H.; Bailey, Jessica N. Cooke; Lindström, Sara; Chasman, Daniel I.; Christen, William G.; Allingham, R. Rand; Ashley-Koch, Allison; Lee, Richard K.; Moroi, Sayoko E.; Brilliant, Murray H.; Wollstein, Gadi; Schuman, Joel S.; Fingert, John; Budenz, Donald L.; Realini, Tony; Gaasterland, Terry; Gaasterland, Douglas; Scott, William K.; Singh, Kuldev; Sit, Arthur J.; Igo, Robert P.; Song, Yeunjoo E.; Hark, Lisa; Ritch, Robert; Rhee, Douglas J.; Gulati, Vikas; Havens, Shane; Vollrath, Douglas; Zack, Donald J.; Medeiros, Felipe; Weinreb, Robert N.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.; Liu, Yutao; Kraft, Peter; Richards, Julia E.; Rosner, Bernard A.; Hauser, Michael A.; Haines, Jonathan L.; Wiggs, Janey L.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Several attributes of female reproductive history, including age at natural menopause (ANM), have been related to primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). We assembled 18 previously reported common genetic variants that predict ANM to determine their association with ANM or POAG. Methods: Using data from the Nurses’ Health Study (7,143 women), we validated the ANM weighted genetic risk score in relation to self-reported ANM. Subsequently, to assess the relation with POAG, we used data from 2,160 female POAG cases and 29,110 controls in the National Eye Institute Glaucoma Human Genetics Collaboration Heritable Overall Operational Database (NEIGHBORHOOD), which consists of 8 datasets with imputed genotypes to 5.6+ million markers. Associations with POAG were assessed in each dataset, and site-specific results were meta-analyzed using the inverse weighted variance method. Results: The genetic risk score was associated with self-reported ANM (P = 2.2 × 10–77) and predicted 4.8% of the variance in ANM. The ANM genetic risk score was not associated with POAG (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.002; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.998, 1.007; P = 0.28). No single genetic variant in the panel achieved nominal association with POAG (P ≥0.20). Compared to the middle 80 percent, there was also no association with the lowest 10th percentile or highest 90th percentile of genetic risk score with POAG (OR = 0.75; 95% CI: 0.47, 1.21; P = 0.23 and OR = 1.10; 95% CI: 0.72, 1.69; P = 0.65, respectively). Conclusions: A genetic risk score predicting 4.8% of ANM variation was not related to POAG; thus, genetic determinants of ANM are unlikely to explain the previously reported association between the two phenotypes. PMID:27760082

  10. Prospective unmasked randomized evaluation of the iStent inject® versus two ocular hypotensive agents in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fea, Antonio M; Belda, Jose I; Rękas, Marek; Jünemann, Anselm; Chang, Lydia; Pablo, Luis; Voskanyan, Lilit; Katz, L Jay

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare outcomes of subjects with open-angle glaucoma (OAG) not controlled on one medication who underwent either implantation of two iStent inject® trabecular micro-bypass devices or received medical therapy consisting of a fixed combination of latanoprost/timolol. Patients and methods Of 192 subjects who qualified for the study and were enrolled, 94 were randomized to surgery with implantation of two iStent inject® devices in the treated eye and 98 to receive medical therapy. Results At the month 12 visit, 94.7% of eyes (89/94) in the stent group reported an unmedicated intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction of ≥20% versus baseline unmedicated IOP, and 91.8% of eyes (88/98) in the medical therapy group reported an IOP reduction ≥20% versus baseline unmedicated IOP. A 17.5% between-group treatment difference in favor of the iStent inject group was statistically significant (P=0.02) at the ≥50% level of IOP reduction. An IOP ≤18 mmHg was reported in 92.6% of eyes (87/94) in the iStent inject group and 89.8% of eyes (88/98) in the medical therapy group. Mean (standard deviation) IOP decreases from screening of 8.1 (2.6) mmHg and 7.3 (2.2) mmHg were reported in the iStent inject and medical therapy groups, respectively. A high safety profile was also noted in this study in both the iStent inject and medical therapy groups, as measured by stable best corrected visual acuity, cup-to-disc ratio, and adverse events. Conclusion These data show that the use of iStent inject is at least as effective as two medications, with the clinical benefit of reducing medication burden and assuring continuous treatment with full compliance to implant therapy as well as having a highly favorable safety profile. PMID:24855336

  11. Cost-comparison of two trabecular micro-bypass stents versus selective laser trabeculoplasty or medications only for intraocular pressure control for patients with open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdahl, John P; Khatana, Anup K; Katz, L Jay; Herndon, Leon; Layton, Andrew J; Yu, Tiffany M; Bauer, Matthew J; Cantor, Louis B

    2017-07-01

    Patients with open-angle glaucoma (OAG) whose intraocular pressure is not adequately controlled by one medication have several treatment options in the US. This analysis evaluated direct costs of unilateral eye treatment with two trabecular micro-bypass stents (two iStents) compared to selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) or medications only. A population-based, annual state-transition, probabilistic, cost-of-care model was used to assess OAG-related costs over 5 years. Patients were modeled to initiate treatment in year zero with two iStents, SLT, or medications only. In years 1-5, patients could remain on initial treatment or move to another treatment option(s), or filtration surgery. Treatment strategy change probabilities were identified by a clinician panel. Direct costs were included for drugs, procedures, and complications. The projected average cumulative cost at 5 years was lower in the two-stent treatment arm ($4,420) compared to the SLT arm ($4,730) or medications-only arm ($6,217). Initial year-zero costs were higher with two iStents ($2,810) than with SLT ($842) or medications only ($996). Average marginal annual costs in years 1-5 were $322 for two iStents, $777 for SLT, and $1,044 for medications only. The cumulative cost differences between two iStents vs SLT or medications only decreased over time, with breakeven by 5 or 3 years post-initiation, respectively. By year 5, cumulative savings with two iStents over SLT or medications only was $309 or $1,797, respectively. This analysis relies on clinical expert panel opinion and would benefit from real-world evidence on use of multiple procedures and treatment switching after two-stent treatment, SLT, or polypharmaceutical initial approaches. Despite higher costs in year zero, annual costs thereafter were lowest in the two-stent treatment arm. Two-stent treatment may reduce OAG-related health resource use, leading to direct savings, especially over medications only or at longer time horizons.

  12. Retinal nerve fiber layer in primary open-angle glaucoma with high myopia determined by optical coherence tomography and scanning laser polarimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-en; Wang, Xiao-yu; Gu, Yang-shun; Huang, Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Fundus changes associated with high myopia (HM) may mask those associated with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). This study aim to determine the characteristics of RNFL thickness changes in patients with both POAG and HM and compare these to changes in patients with only HM. The diagnostic capabilities of both OCT and GDxVCC in this subset of patients are also evaluated. Twenty-two eyes with POAG and HM (spherical equivalent (SE) between -6.0 and -12.0 D) were evaluated, and 22 eyes with HM were used for comparison. Characteristic retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness profiles in patients with POAG and HM were examined using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal compensation (GDxVCC), and the diagnostic capabilities of these imaging modalities were compared. RNFL parameters evaluated included superior average (Savg-GDx), inferior average (Iavg-GDx), temporal-superior-nasal- inferior-temporal (TSNIT) average, and nerve fiber indicator (NFI) on GDxVCC and superior average (Savg-OCT), inferior average (Iavg-OCT), nasal average (Navg-OCT), temporal average (Tavg-OCT), and average thickness (AvgThick-OCT) on OCT (fast RNFL scan). Visual field testing was performed and defects were evaluated using mean defect (MD) and pattern standard deviation (PSD). The RNFL parameters (P < 0.05) significantly different between groups included Savg-GDx, Iavg-GDx, TSNIT average, NFI, Savg-OCT, Iavg-OCT, Tavg-OCT, and AvgThick-OCT. Significant correlations existed between TSNIT average and AvgThick-OCT (r = 0.778), TSNIT average and MD (r = 0.749), AvgThick-OCT and MD (r = 0.647), TSNIT average and PSD (r = -0.756), and AvgThick-OCT and PSD (r = -0.784). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) values of TSNIT average, Savg-GDx, Iavg-GDx, NFI, Savg-OCT, Iavg-OCT, Navg-OCT, Tavg-OCT, and AvgThick-OCT were 0.947, 0.962, 0.973, 0.994, 0.909, 0.917, 0.511, 0.906, and 0.913, respectively. The NFI AUROC was the

  13. Prospective unmasked randomized evaluation of the iStent inject® versus two ocular hypotensive agents in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fea AM

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Antonio M Fea,1 Jose I Belda,2 Marek Rękas,3 Anselm Jünemann,4 Lydia Chang,5 Luis Pablo,6 Lilit Voskanyan,7 L Jay Katz81Università degli Studi di Torino, Clinica Oculistica, Torino, Italy; 2Hospital Torrevieja Salud, UTE, Servicio de Oftalmologia, Alicante, Spain; 3Military Institute of Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology, Warsaw, Poland; 4Universitätsaugenklinik, Erlangen, Germany; 5Hinchingbrooke Hospital NHS Trust and Moorfields Bedford Hospital NHS Trust, United Kingdom; 6Hospital Universitario Miguel Servet, Servicio Oftalmologico, Zaragoza, Spain; 7SV Malayan Ophthalmological Center, Yerevan, Armenia; 8Wills Eye Institute, Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, PA, USAPurpose: The purpose of this study was to compare outcomes of subjects with open-angle glaucoma (OAG not controlled on one medication who underwent either implantation of two iStent inject® trabecular micro-bypass devices or received medical therapy consisting of a fixed combination of latanoprost/timolol.Patients and methods: Of 192 subjects who qualified for the study and were enrolled, 94 were randomized to surgery with implantation of two iStent inject® devices in the treated eye and 98 to receive medical therapy.Results: At the month 12 visit, 94.7% of eyes (89/94 in the stent group reported an unmedicated intraocular pressure (IOP reduction of ≥20% versus baseline unmedicated IOP, and 91.8% of eyes (88/98 in the medical therapy group reported an IOP reduction ≥20% versus baseline unmedicated IOP. A 17.5% between-group treatment difference in favor of the iStent inject group was statistically significant (P=0.02 at the ≥50% level of IOP reduction. An IOP ≤18 mmHg was reported in 92.6% of eyes (87/94 in the iStent inject group and 89.8% of eyes (88/98 in the medical therapy group. Mean (standard deviation IOP decreases from screening of 8.1 (2.6 mmHg and 7.3 (2.2 mmHg were reported in the iStent inject and medical therapy groups, respectively. A high

  14. 原发性开角型青光眼的基因学研究进展%Advances in molecular genetic study of primary open angle glaucoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德贵

    2013-01-01

    原发性开角型青光眼(POAG)是一组威胁和损害视神经视觉功能,与病理性眼压升高有关的临床眼病,其全球范围内的致盲率仅次于白内障.近几年来,遗传学的研究方法在眼科基础研究中应用较多,主要有家系连锁分析、全基因组关联分析、病例对照相关研究等,通过这些方法已发现多个相关基因.目前已发现报道超过20个染色体位点与POAG相关,较为公认的有MYOC、OPTN、WDR36.然而这3个基因的突变能解释的POAG仅占不到10%.只有一小部分POAG病例遵循孟德尔遗传规律,更多的是由多个基因共同作用所导致.就目前较为明确的POAG相关基因位点,尤其是已确认的MYOC、OPTN、WDR36,以及最新发现的CAVI/CAV24个相关致病基因的定位、结构、功能和突变等方面进行综述,希望能揭示研究相关的一些规律,为POAG进一步的遗传研究提供理论参考.%Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is a group of disorders characterized by loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) associated with optic nerve degeneration and visual field damage.With the application of molecular biology in ophthalmology,at least 20 chromosome loci have been identified to be linked to POAG.Only 3 causative genes were identified from these loci,i.e.myocilin (MYOC),optineurin (OPTN) and WD repeat domain 36 (WDR36),which altogether account for less than 10% of POAG.Only a portion of POAG Complies with Mendelian inheritance,and a considerable fraction results from a large number of variants in multiple genes,each contributing less effects.The main technological approaches include family linkage analysis,genome-wide scan,casecontrol association study,etc.Association studies found at least 16 genes to be related to POAG,but reports on glaucoma-causing effects of these genes are conflicting.In this article,we reviewed the POAG related genes,especially the four well known causative genes of MYOC,OPTN,WDR36,and CA V1/CA V2,in terms of

  15. Effects of preservative-free tafluprost on tear film osmolarity, tolerability, and intraocular pressure in previously treated patients with open-angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janulevičienė I

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ingrida Januleviciene, Irmante Derkac, Lina Grybauskiene, Ruta Paulauskaite, Ruta Gromnickaite, Loreta KuzmieneEye Clinic of Kaunas Medical Academy of Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, LithuaniaPurpose: To compare the effects on tolerability, tear osmolarity, and intraocular pressure (IOP-lowering effect of switching from benzalkonium chloride (BAK containing prostaglandin analog (PGA latanoprost to preservative-free tafluprost.Patients and methods: Thirty patients with open-angle glaucoma (N = 60 eyes, 26 women (87% and four men (13% aged 64.1 (SD 14.1 years, showing abnormal values of tear osmolarity, corneal fluorescein staining, tear film break-up time (TBUT, or subjective discomfort with current latanoprost treatment were included. After tear osmolarity (TearLab™ Osmolarity System, TBUT, corneal fluorescein staining, and baseline IOP (Goldmann tonometer measurements and the completion of Ocular Surface Disease Index and Ocular Surface Symptoms in Glaucoma Scale questionnaires, patients were assigned to preservative-free tafluprost treatment. Measurements were repeated 2, 6 and 12 weeks after change of medication.Results: No statistically significant differences in IOP were observed 2, 6, and 12 weeks after switching to preservative-free tafluprost. Mean IOP at baseline was 16.4 mmHg (SD 2.9, after 2 weeks 16.2 mmHg (2.8, after 6 weeks 16.2 (2.6, and after 12 weeks 16.3 mmHg (2.3. Mean tear osmolarity decreased significantly from 315.7 mOsm/L (SD 15.1 at baseline to 308.0 ± 14.4 mOsm/L (P = 0.002, 301.7 ± 14.5 mOsm/L (P < 0.001, and 302.0 ± 9.9 mOsm/L (P < 0.001 2, 6, and 12 weeks after changing medication to preservative-free tafluprost, respectively. Tear osmolarity was lower in 37 eyes (61.7% after 2 weeks, in 46 eyes (76.7% after 6 weeks, and in 49 eyes (81.7% after 12 weeks (P < 0.005; t-test. At baseline corneal fluorescein staining was observed in 43 eyes (71.7%, after 2 weeks in 34 eyes (56.7%, after 6 weeks

  16. Efficacy of two trabecular micro-bypass stents combined with topical travoprost in open-angle glaucoma not controlled on two preoperative medications: 3-year follow-up

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    Chang DF

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available David F Chang,1 Eric D Donnenfeld,2 L Jay Katz,3 Lilit Voskanyan,4 Iqbal Ike K Ahmed,5 Thomas W Samuelson,6 Jane Ellen Giamporcaro,7 Dana M Hornbeak,7 Kerry D Solomon8 1Altos Eye Physicians, Los Altos, CA, 2Ophthalmic Consultants of Long Island, Rockville Centre, NY, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Wills Eye Hospital, Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 4S.V. Malayan Ophthalmology Centre, Yerevan, Armenia; 5Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; 6Minnesota Eye Consultants, Minneapolis, MN, 7Glaukos Corporation, San Clemente, CA, 8Carolina Eyecare Physicians, Mount Pleasant, SC, USA Purpose: To evaluate the long-term intraocular pressure (IOP-lowering effect and safety parameters following treatment with two trabecular micro-bypass stents and topical prostaglandin in phakic eyes with open-angle glaucoma (OAG not controlled on two preoperative medications. Methods: This prospective, single-arm, unmasked study enrolled 39 qualified phakic eyes with OAG not controlled on 2 medications, preoperative medicated IOP of 18–30 mmHg, and IOP following medication washout of 22–38 mmHg. Two trabecular micro-bypass stents were implanted as a standalone procedure, and travoprost was started on postoperative day 1. Evaluations included IOP, best-corrected visual acuity, medication use, fundus and slit-lamp examinations, visual field, cup:disc ratio, central corneal thickness, and ocular complications. Data through 18 months were summarized previously. Thirty-seven of the original 39 subjects have been followed for 3 years postoperatively; follow-up is continuing for 5 years. Results: At 3 years postoperative, 97% of eyes had achieved an IOP reduction of ≥20% from baseline with a reduction of 1 medication. Eighty-six percent of eyes had IOP of ≤18 mmHg with a reduction of 1 medication. Mean medicated IOP decreased to 14.0±2.6 mmHg on 1 medication versus 22.4±2.3 mmHg on 2 medications

  17. Prospective, randomized study of one, two, or three trabecular bypass stents in open-angle glaucoma subjects on topical hypotensive medication

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    Katz LJ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available L Jay Katz,1 Carl Erb,2 Amadeu Carceller Guillamet,3 Antonio M Fea,4 Lilit Voskanyan,5 Jeffrey M Wells,6 Jane Ellen Giamporcaro6 1Wills Eye Hospital, Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Eye Clinic Wittenbergplatz, Berlin, Germany; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital d’Hebron, Barcelona, Spain; 4University Eye Clinic of the University of Turin, Turin, Italy; 5SV Malayan Opthalmology Centre, Yerevan, Armenia; 6Glaukos Corporation, Laguna Hills, CA, USA Purpose: To assess the safety and efficacy of one, two, or three trabecular microbypass stents in eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma (OAG not controlled on ocular hypotensive medication. A total of 119 subjects were followed for 18 months postoperatively.Materials and methods: Subjects with medicated intraocular pressure (IOP 18–30 mmHg and postmedication-washout baseline IOP 22–38 mmHg were randomized to implantation of one, two, or three stents. Ocular hypotensive medication was to be used if postoperative IOP exceeded 18 mmHg.Results: A total of 38 subjects were implanted with one stent, 41 subjects with two stents, and 40 subjects with three stents. Both month 12 IOP reduction ≥20% without ocular hypotensive medication vs baseline unmedicated IOP and month 12 unmedicated IOP ≤18 mmHg were achieved by 89.2%, 90.2%, and 92.1% of one-, two-, and three-stent eyes, respectively. Furthermore, 64.9%, 85.4%, and 92.1% of the three respective groups achieved unmedicated IOP ≤15 mmHg. Over the 18-month follow-up period, medication was required in seven one-stent subjects, four two-stent subjects, and three three-stent subjects. At 18 months, mean unmedicated IOP was 15.9±0.9 mmHg in one-stent subjects, 14.1±1.0 mmHg in two-stent subjects, and 12.2±1.1 mmHg in three-stent subjects. Month 18 IOP reduction was significantly greater (P<0.001 with implantation of each additional stent, with mean differences in reduction of 1.84 mmHg (95% confidence interval 0.96

  18. Implantation of two second-generation trabecular micro-bypass stents and topical travoprost in open-angle glaucoma not controlled on two preoperative medications: 18-month follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdahl, John; Voskanyan, Lilit; Myers, Jonathan S; Hornbeak, Dana M; Giamporcaro, Jane Ellen; Katz, L Jay; Samuelson, Thomas W

    2017-04-06

    Additional data are sought regarding treatment options for glaucoma, a major cause of global blindness. The study assessed outcomes following standalone implantation of two second-generation trabecular micro-bypass stents and postoperative topical prostaglandin in eyes with open-angle glaucoma not controlled on two preoperative medications. The study design is a prospective, nonrandomized, open-label study at a tertiary-care ophthalmology centre. Subjects had open-angle glaucoma with preoperative intraocular pressure of 18-30 mmHg on two medications, a medication washout phase, and post-washout intraocular pressure of 22-38 mmHg. All subjects (N = 53) have been followed for 18 months. One day following implantation of two second-generation trabecular micro-bypass stents, subjects started topical travoprost. Medication washout was repeated at month 12. The main outcome measure was the proportion of eyes with intraocular pressure reduction ≥ 20% versus medicated baseline intraocular pressure with reduction of one medication at 12 months. At 12 months, 91% of eyes achieved intraocular pressure reduction ≥ 20% with reduction of one medication. All eyes had intraocular pressure ≤ 18 mmHg with reduction of one medication, and 87% had intraocular pressure ≤ 15 mmHg. Mean intraocular pressure on one medication was ≤ 13.0 mmHg (≥ 34% reduction) through 18 months. Mean post-washout intraocular pressure at month 13 was 33% lower than preoperative unmedicated intraocular pressure. No adverse events occurred through 18 months. In open-angle glaucoma eyes on two preoperative medications, treatment with two second-generation trabecular stents and one postoperative prostaglandin resulted in mean intraocular pressure ≤ 13 mmHg with reduction of one medication, with favourable safety. These findings show the utility of second-generation trabecular bypass with postoperative prostaglandin in patients with open-angle glaucoma. © 2017 The Authors

  19. Factores de riesgo vascular en el glaucoma primario de ángulo abierto Vascular risk factors in primary open angle glaucoma

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    A. Belzunce

    2004-12-01

    enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica (EPOC es el GRD más frecuente (6%. El factor de riesgo vascular más frecuente en ambos grupos es la hipertensión arterial (54 frente a un 40% seguido del accidente cerebrovascular (26 frente al 12% del grupo control. El tratamiento médico más utilizado en estos pacientes son los betabloqueantes solos (24,3% o en asociación (18,9% Conclusiones. El GPAA está asociado con la enfermedad cerebrovascular y las variaciones de la presión arterial (hiper/hipotensión. Las enfermedades del sistema respiratorio (neumonía y EPOC, circulatorio (insuficiencia cardiaca congestiva-ICC- y cardiopatía isquémica son la causa de morbilidad más prevalente en este grupo. El tratamiento médico del glaucoma más utilizado son los betabloqueantes que están contraindicados en pacientes con EPOC e ICC.Purpose. To determine whether cardiovascular risk factors distribution differ between primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG and control subjects. To assess the strength of this association in POAG. To analyze the most frequent patology in this group of patients for a better selection of medical treatment. Methods. Observational cross-sectional study in patients with a diagnosis of POAG. Fifty glaucoma patients were selected with consecutive sampling between those who had been admitted to an terciary hospital by any reason and compared with fifty admitted to the same hospital patients without POAG diagnosis in the same period of time. The variables age, sex, the reason for admission to hospital clasificated by diagnosis related group (DRG and diagnostic mayor criteria (DMC, treatment for glaucoma, stroke, diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure, ischaemic cardiopathy, Raynaud phenomenon, low blood pressure, hypercholesterolemia and tobacco were investigated. Results. An association was found between POAG and stroke (prevalence ratio=2.16;CI al 95%=1.01-2.20; p=0.074*, low blood pressure (prevalence ratio=5; CI=1.14-2.63; p=0.092* and high blood pressure

  20. Glaukos iStent inject® Trabecular Micro-Bypass Implantation Associated with Cataract Surgery in Patients with Coexisting Cataract and Open-Angle Glaucoma or Ocular Hypertension: A Long-Term Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Arriola-Villalobos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of the iStent inject device (Glaukos Corporation, Laguna Hills, CA combined with phacoemulsification in patients with coexistent cataract and open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension (OHT. Methods. A prospective, uncontrolled, nonrandomized, interventional case series study was conducted in patients with both mild or moderate open-angle glaucoma or OHT and cataract. Patients underwent cataract surgery along with the implant of two iStent inject devices. Outcome measures were intraocular pressure (IOP, topical hypotensive medications required, and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA. Results. 20 patients were enrolled. Mean follow-up was 47.4±18.46 months. Mean baseline IOP was 19.95±3.71 mmHg with medication and 26±3.11 mmHg after washout. Mean end-follow-up IOP was 16.25±1.99 mmHg, representing an IOP decrease of 36.92%, 9.74±3.14 mmHg (P<0.001, from baseline washout IOP. The mean number of medications was significantly reduced from 1.3±0.66 to 0.75±0.79 (P=0.017. 45% of patients were medication-free by the end of follow-up. Mean log⁡MAR BCVA improved significantly from 0.42±0.16 to 0.18±0.16 (P<0.001. No complications of surgery were observed. Conclusion. The iStent inject device combined with cataract surgery served to significantly reduce both IOP and medication use in the long term in patients with coexistent open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension (OHT and cataract.

  1. Glaukos iStent inject® Trabecular Micro-Bypass Implantation Associated with Cataract Surgery in Patients with Coexisting Cataract and Open-Angle Glaucoma or Ocular Hypertension: A Long-Term Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-de-la-Casa, Jose Maria; Diaz-Valle, David; Morales-Fernandez, Laura; Fernandez-Perez, Cristina; Garcia-Feijoo, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of the iStent inject device (Glaukos Corporation, Laguna Hills, CA) combined with phacoemulsification in patients with coexistent cataract and open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension (OHT). Methods. A prospective, uncontrolled, nonrandomized, interventional case series study was conducted in patients with both mild or moderate open-angle glaucoma or OHT and cataract. Patients underwent cataract surgery along with the implant of two iStent inject devices. Outcome measures were intraocular pressure (IOP), topical hypotensive medications required, and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA). Results. 20 patients were enrolled. Mean follow-up was 47.4 ± 18.46 months. Mean baseline IOP was 19.95 ± 3.71 mmHg with medication and 26 ± 3.11 mmHg after washout. Mean end-follow-up IOP was 16.25 ± 1.99 mmHg, representing an IOP decrease of 36.92%, 9.74 ± 3.14 mmHg (P < 0.001), from baseline washout IOP. The mean number of medications was significantly reduced from 1.3 ± 0.66 to 0.75 ± 0.79 (P = 0.017). 45% of patients were medication-free by the end of follow-up. Mean log⁡MAR BCVA improved significantly from 0.42 ± 0.16 to 0.18 ± 0.16 (P < 0.001). No complications of surgery were observed. Conclusion. The iStent inject device combined with cataract surgery served to significantly reduce both IOP and medication use in the long term in patients with coexistent open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension (OHT) and cataract. PMID:27882243

  2. A combined analysis of four observational studies evaluating the intraocular pressure-lowering ability and tolerability of bimatoprost 0.01% in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Annemie; Iliev, Milko E; de Jong, Leo; Grobeiu, Ioana; Hommer, Anton

    2016-01-01

    Objective Combine and evaluate data from four clinical practice studies investigating the intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering ability, tolerability of and patient adherence to bimatoprost 0.01% therapy in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Methods Data were combined from four multicenter, prospective, observational studies. Patients (n=2,593) were recruited from 328 sites in Austria, Belgium, Switzerland, and the Netherlands. Assessments were at study entry (baseline) and after 10–14 weeks. Results Bimatoprost 0.01% lowered mean IOP by 5.0 mmHg from baseline to final visit (Pbimatoprost 0.01% monotherapy from previous monotherapy reduced mean IOP by a further 3.2±3.6 mmHg (17.2%, Pbimatoprost 0.01% from previous prostaglandin monotherapy reduced mean IOP by 2.9±3.5 mmHg (15.5%), including by 3.1±3.4 mmHg (15.8%) and 3.3±4.1 mmHg (16.9%) for previous latanoprost and travoprost treatment, respectively (all Pbimatoprost 0.01% lowered IOP effectively in treatment-naïve and previously treated ocular hypertension and primary open-angle glaucoma patients, and was associated with good tolerability and patient adherence over 12 weeks. PMID:27103783

  3. Numerical Calcultion on Hydrodynamic Characteristic of UUV with Cabin Door Opened at Small Angle of Attack%舱门开启状态下UUV小攻角水动力特性数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘立栋; 张宇文

    2012-01-01

    In order to master hydrodynamic characteristic of UUV whose cabin door is opened at small angle of attack,based on wind tunnel model experiment firstly, it is proved that numerical computation method used is accurate and effective;then the drag,lift and moment characteristic of UUV whose cabin door is opened are calculated numerically by this method,and the influence of load cabin and cabin door on the surface pressure distribution of UUV is analysed after cabin door is opened. The computation result shows that the high pressure difference between the front end and the back end of the load cabin results in a significant increase of the pressare drag of load cabin dragin UUV's, and the drag about zero angle of attack are not symmetrical,the main reason of which is that the pressure drag of load cabin increases with the increase of absolute value of angle of attack on the condition of negative angle of attack. Because of fluid block function of the average pressure on the canbin door's down surface is higher that the up one when the angle of attack is zero degree,so zero lift of UUV is positive,and zero lift angle of attack is about -3 degrees,besides zero moment is positive. Zero moment angle of attack is about -1 degrees.%为了掌握舱门开启状态下UUV小攻角水动力特性,首先基于风洞模型实验验证了所用数值计算方法的准确性与有效性,进而采用该方法对舱门开启状态UUV阻力、升力及力矩特性进行了数值模拟研究,分析了舱门开启后载荷舱及舱门对UUV表面压力分布的影响.计算结果表明,载荷舱前后端面形成的较大压力差,导致舱门开启状态UUV阻力显著提升,且阻力关于零攻角表现为不对称性,主要原因在于负攻角条件下载荷舱粘压阻力随攻角绝对值的增大而增大;由于载荷舱的流体阻滞作用,零攻角工况下舱门下表面平均压力高于上表面,UUV零攻角升力为正,零升力攻角约为-3.,

  4. Opening Angle and Impact Force Analysis of Different Types Flap Valve in Pumping Stations%泵站不同类型拍门的开启角和撞击力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志祥; 李端明; 李娜; 陈坚

    2012-01-01

    Deriving motion equation of flap valve with the energy method,calculating and analyzing the opening angle and impact force of different forms of installation(free rollover,free suspended,covers),different valve pages(single-leaf and double-leaf) and different materials(steel and composite materials) with the example of Bailizhou Pumping Station.Under the same conditions,the results show that:for single-block flap valve of different installations,opening angle of free rollover flap valve is bigger than free suspended flap valve at 22°,and bigger than cover flap valve at 12°,impact force of three installation forms flap valve is close.For different valve pages,opening angle of double-leaf flap valve is slightly larger than the single-leaf,impact force of free rollover double-leaf flap valve is 42% of the single-leaf,and cover double-leaf flap valve is 49% of the single-leaf.Comparing different materials,opening angle of free rollover composite flap valve is 4% bigger than the steel flap valve,its impact force is 9.6% smaller than steel flap valve,and opening angle of free suspended composite flap valve and cover composite flap valve is 10%~15% bigger than their steel flap valve,impact force of free suspended composite flap valve is 39.5% smaller than the steel flap valve,and cover composite flap valve is 28.5% smaller than the steel flap valve.This shows that,for the hydraulic performance,free rollover and composite material flap valve is worthy of popularization.%基于能量法推导了拍门的运动方程,结合百里洲泵站实例,分析计算了不同安装形式(自由侧翻式、自由起落式和井盖式)、不同门页数(单扇、双扇)和不同材质(钢质、复合材料)拍门的开启角和撞击力。同等条件下,计算结果表明:对不同安装形式的单块拍门,自由侧翻式拍门的开启角比自由起落式大22°,比井盖式大12°,撞击力三者相差不多;对不同的

  5. Correlation Between Quadrant Specific Automatic Visual Field Defect and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness as Measured by Scanning Laser Polarimetry in Patients With Primary Open Angle Glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yo-Chen Chang

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to correlate quadrant specific Humphrey visual field mean deviation (MD with retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness as measured by scanning laser polarimetry (GDx, and to determine whether there is a difference in the correlation with visual field defect between the Asian normative database provided by GDx (GDx database and our native normative database (KMU database. In an age-matched study, a control group of 240 normal eyes underwent GDx. Another 60 eyes with visual field defect due to primary angle glaucoma underwent autoperimetry and GDx examination. First, we compared four GDx measurements between the control and study groups. Next, we divided the visual field into four quadrants (superior, inferior, temporal, nasal and calculated the MD of each quadrant. We correlated the MD of superior, inferior and overall visual field with RNFL thickness judged by two databases (the GDx Asian internal normative database and the database from our control group. GDx detected abnormal RNFL thickness significantly more accurately when using the KMU database (p = 0.0473 for superior quadrant; p = 0.0074 for inferior quadrant; p = 0.0011 for average thickness than when using the GDx database. There was no significant difference in the specificity between these two databases. The normal ranges in the GDx internal normative database for Asians are too wide. By using our own GDx normative database, the correlations with MD of autoperimetry were significantly improved. We suggest that every laboratory and clinic establish its own normative database of GDx in Asia.

  6. High-resolution MR cisternography of the cerebellopontine angle, obtained with a three-dimensional fast asymmetric spin-echo sequence in a 0.35-T open MR imaging unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naganawa, S; Ito, T; Iwayama, E; Fukatsu, H; Ishigaki, T

    1999-01-01

    High-resolution MR cisternography performed with 3D fast asymmetric spin-echo imaging (3D fast spin-echo with an ultra-long echo train length and asymmetric Fourier imaging) was optimized in a 0.35-T open MR imaging unit. The 0.35- and 1.5-T images of the two volunteers and three patients with acoustic schwannomas were then compared. The optimal parameters for images obtained by 3D fast asymmetric spin-echo imaging at 0.35 T were as follows: field of view, 15 cm; matrix, 256 x 256 x 40; section thickness, 1 mm; echo train length, 76; and imaging time, 10 minutes 44 seconds. Scans obtained from both normal volunteers showed the facial, cochlear, and superior and inferior vestibular nerves separately in the internal auditory canal on both 0.35- and 1.5-T images. All three acoustic schwannomas were depicted on both 0.35- and 1.5-T images. Screening for disease at the cerebellopontine angle and in the internal auditory canal, without the administration of contrast material on a low-field open MR imaging unit and within a clinically acceptable imaging time, may be possible. Further controlled prospective studies are required, however, before implementation on a wide basis. If proved effective, this may be of particular value for reducing healthcare costs and for imaging claustrophobic and pediatric patients in an open system.

  7. Design and Development of a New Electrically Small 3D UHF Spherical Antenna with 360° of Opening Angle in the Whole Space for RFID, WSN, and RSN Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhamid Bou-El-Harmel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Several antenna designs have been made in order to obtain a novel electrically small 3D UHF spherical antenna (ka = 0.1916, which has a resonance frequency close to 915 MHz, produces a quasi-isotropic radiation with an opening angle equal to 360° in the whole space, and is used for RFID, WSN, and RSN applications. These antennas are based on different shapes and are wrapped on the Styrofoam sphere surface of dielectric constant close to air (ɛr=1.06. A T-match configuration is used to adapt the input impedance of antennas to a value of 50 Ω. The antennas form allows for placing the sensor electronics in its interior, to reconfigure it for numerous values of impedances and to operate it in other ISM bands by adjusting their geometric parameters.

  8. Research progress on related genes for primary open angle glaucoma%原发性开角型青光眼的相关基因研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾力江·艾尔肯; 具尔提·哈第尔

    2014-01-01

    原发性开角型青光眼( POAG )是以视野缺损和视神经损害为特征的致盲性眼病。最近几年越来越多学者的研究结果表明基因的变异及遗传在原发性开角型青光眼的发生发展中起非常重要的作用。现在已知的原发性开角型青光眼致病基因有20余种,现在就目前较为确定的原发性开角型青光眼的相关基因,尤其是已确认的MYOC、OPTN、WDR36及CAV1/CAV2基因的定位、结构及相关研究等方面进行综述,为在原发性开角型青光眼的遗传基因研究方面提供一点参考。%Primary open angle glaucoma ( POAG ) is the main cause of blindness with visual field damage and optic nerve degeneration.In recent years, a lot of researches have been done, showing that genetic factors and gene mutation play an important role in POAG.There are more than 20 related POAG genes. Now we will review the related genes of POAG, especially the well known causative genes of MYOC, OPTN, WDR36, and CAV1/CAV2, in terms of their locations, structures, research progress, et al, and provide a reference for genetic research in primary open-angle glaucoma.

  9. Ophthalmic and Glaucoma Treatment Characteristics Associated With Changes in Health-related Quality of Life Before and After Newly Diagnosed Primary Open-angle Glaucoma in Nurses' Health Study Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Lucy A; Okereke, Olivia I; Kawachi, Ichiro; Cioffi, George A; Pasquale, Louis R; Kang, Jae H

    2016-03-01

    To identify attributes related to glaucoma diagnosis or early glaucoma treatment patterns that are associated with changes in health-related quality of life among those with newly diagnosed primary open-angle glaucoma. Among Nurses' Health Study participants with incident medical record-confirmed primary open-angle glaucoma diagnosed in 1992 to 2000, we included 317 women who completed the Short Form-36 Health Survey prediagnosis and postdiagnosis. The 2 primary outcomes were 4-year changes (1992 to 1996 or 1996 to 2000) in the physical and mental component summary scores. Multiple regression models were used to estimate differences in score changes by early treatment pattern history and characteristics as of diagnosis (ie, number of eyes affected, history of cataract, macular degeneration, cup-to-disc ratio, intraocular pressure, visual field loss type). In multivariable models, no ophthalmologic characteristics were associated with physical component score change. However, compared with treatment with eye drops or pills only, laser trabeculoplasty treatment (concomitant with history of treatment with eye drops or pills in 84%) was associated with a worse mental component score change over 4 years (-2.5 units; 95% confidence interval: -4.6, -0.3); this association was stronger with a family history of glaucoma (P-interaction=0.04) or with bilateral disease (P-interaction=0.001). Among patients with incident glaucoma, no major factors were associated with change in physical well being. However, compared with medical treatment only, a history of laser trabeculoplasty, which was commonly accompanied with a history of medical treatment and likely represented the need for a second line of treatment, was associated with a worse decline in mental well being.

  10. A combined analysis of five observational studies evaluating the efficacy and tolerability of bimatoprost/timolol fixed combination in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pfennigsdorf S

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Stefan Pfennigsdorf,1 Leo de Jong,2 Stefan Makk,3 Yvette Fournichot,4 Alain Bron,5 Robert J Morgan-Warren,6 John Maltman6 1Ophthalmology Practice, Polch, Germany; 2Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands; 3Ophthalmology Practice, Graz, Austria; 4Ophthalmology Practice, Schlieren, Switzerland; 5Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital, Dijon, France; 6Allergan Ltd, Marlow, UK Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a fixed combination of bimatoprost 0.03% and timolol (BTFC in a clinical setting, in a large sample of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension and insufficient intraocular pressure (IOP lowering on prior therapy. Methods: Patient data were combined (n = 5556 from five multicenter, observational, non-controlled, open-label studies throughout Europe. Patients were identified from 830 sites in Austria, France, Germany, The Netherlands, and Switzerland. Assessments were made at baseline, 6 weeks (in Austrian, German and Swiss centers, and 12 weeks in all centers. Results: BTFC lowered mean IOP from baseline by 5.4 mmHg over the 12-week duration of the studies (P < 0.0001. At study entry, 92.9% of patients were receiving another ocular hypotensive medication. In patients with no previous treatment (n = 311, BTFC reduced IOP by -9.1 mmHg, corresponding to a reduction from baseline of 36.4% (P < 0.0001. In patients receiving prior therapy of a prostaglandin analog, a ß-blocker, or a fixed combination, BTFC reduced IOP by a further 24.5%, 25.9%, and 21.4%, respectively. The majority of patients (90.3% reported no adverse events. The most common adverse events were conjunctival hyperemia (3.2% and eye irritation (2.8%. BTFC was rated as "good" or "very good" by 92.5% of physicians and 88.0% of patients. Most patients (96.3% were equally or more compliant with BTFC than with their previous treatment. Conclusion: In routine clinical practice

  11. Effects of Latanoprost 0.005%/Timolol Maleate 0.5% and Dorzolamide 2%/Timolol Maleate 0.5% Fixed Combinations on 24-hour Intraocular Pressure in Patients with Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berna Yüce

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: To evaluate the effects of latanoprost/timolol maleate and dorzolamid/timolol maleate fixed combinations on-24 hours intraocular pressure in patients with open-angle glaucoma. Ma te ri als and Met hod: Forty-eight eyes of 24 patients with open-angle glaucoma were enrolled in the study. They were randomized to receive fixed combinations of either latanoprost/timolol maleate (Group 1 - 24 eyes of 12 patients or dorzolamid/timolol maleate (Group 2 - 24 eyes of 12 patients. Patients who achieved intraocular pressure of ≤ 21 mmHg 3 weeks after combined therapy were hospitalized and intraocular pressure was monitored at hour 06:00, 10:00, 14:00, 18:00, 22:00 and 02:00 for 24 hours. Diurnal and nocturnal fluctuations were determined by measurements done between 06:00 and 18:00 hours and between 22:00 and 02:00, respectively. Mean intraocular pressure and fluctuations of intraocular pressure between the two groups were compared. Re sults: There was no difference between the groups in terms of age, sex, visual acuity and cup/disc ratio (p>0.05. Three weeks after combined therapy, all patients achieved target intraocular pressure of ≤ 21 mmHg. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups with regard to mean intraocular pressure over 24 hours (17.1±2.3 mmHg and 17.27±2.3 mmHg for Group 1 and Group 2, respectively; p>0.05. Diurnal fluctuations were 3.6 mmHg for Group 1 and 4.7 mmHg for Group 2; nocturnal fluctuations were 4.3 mmHg for Group 1 and 2.3 mmHg for Group 2. Diurnal fluctuations in Group 1 were lower than in Group 2, while nocturnal fluctuations were lower in Group 2 than in Group 1 (p<0.05. Dis cus si on: Both latanoprost/timolol maleate and dorzolamid/timolol maleate fixed combinations are effective for 24-hour intraocular pressure control. Latanoprost/timolol maleate fixed combination is superior to dorzolamid/timolol maleate in controlling diurnal fluctuations, while dorzolamid/timolol maleate is

  12. 体位改变对开角型青光眼小梁切除术后眼压波动的影响%Effect of postural change on intraocular pressure fluctuation in open angle glaucoma patients after trabeculectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟

    2015-01-01

    To study the effect of postural change on intraocular pressure ( lOP ) fluctuation in open angle glaucoma patients after trabeculectomy, and to discuss the value of this investigation on prognosis.METHODS:Fifty-one cases (62 eyes) of primary open angle glaucoma were selected as the research object. Perkins ophthalmotonometer was used to test lOP at the time when patient seat ( first seat ) . The patients were asked to lie supine for 25min, detected lOP, and the patients seated again (final seat), sustaining for 15min, detected lOP. According to whether the lOP range was more than 5mmHg, they were divided into high volatility fluctuation group and low volatility fluctuation group. We recorded their visual field progression ( with AGlS score) , HPA staging, in order to evaluate the correlation of lOP range with them. Reviews were made 3mo a time, and lasted for 1a, in order to evaluate the relation between lOP range and AGlS scores.RESULTS: The lOP of first seat was 18. 1+2. 2mmHg. There was no significant difference in the same position (P>0. 05 ). The lOP range was 4. 1 ± 1. 5mmHg. Low volatility fluctuation group was more likely to have low AGlS score and to be early vision HPA ( P0.05),眼压极差4.1±1.5mmHg;低波动组AGIS视野稳定者及HPA早期者显著多于高波动组( P<0.001;P<0.05),眼压极差与 AGIS 显著正相关( r=0.412,P<0.001);随时间延长,视野进展人数上升,眼压极差上升,且任意时刻两者间均呈显著正相关(P<0.01)。结论:小梁切除术后患者体位改变下眼压波动与视野进展程度有关,可通过检测眼压波动简单预测患者预后,从而调整眼压控制方案。

  13. Efficacy and Tolerability of Travoprost 0.004%/Timolol 0.5% Fixed-Dose Combination for the Treatment of Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma or Ocular Hypertension Inadequately Controlled with Beta-Blocker Monotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ki Ho; Hubatsch, Douglas A.; Erichev, Valeriy; Paczka, Jose A.; Roberts, Timothy V.

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of travoprost 0.004%/timolol 0.5% fixed-dose combination (TTFC) in patients with open-angle glaucoma (OAG) or ocular hypertension (OHT) inadequately controlled on beta-blocker monotherapy. Methods. In this phase IV, open-label study, 156 patients on beta-blocker monotherapy with mean intraocular pressure (IOP) between 18 and 32 mmHg were randomized (no washout period) to receive TTFC for 8 weeks (TTFC group) or to continue beta-blocker monotherapy for 4 weeks followed by TTFC for the remaining 4 weeks (beta-blocker group). Results. The mean IOP (±standard deviation) at baseline in the TTFC and beta-blocker groups was 22.5 ± 2.5 mmHg and 22.2 ± 2.3 mmHg, respectively, and at weeks 4 and 8, was 16.7 ± 3.1 mmHg and 16.1 ± 3.1 mmHg, respectively, in TTFC group and 21.1 ± 3.1 mmHg and 16.1 ± 2.8 mmHg, respectively, in the beta-blocker group. There was a significant least squares mean difference between TTFC and beta-blocker in 8 a.m. IOP at week 4 (−4.6 mmHg; one-sided 95% confidence interval [−inf, −3.9]; p < 0.0001 [primary endpoint]); the upper bound of the 95% confidence interval was within the prespecified limit (<0). Both treatments were well tolerated. Conclusion. Superior IOP control was achieved with TTFC in patients with OAG or OHT previously uncontrolled with beta-blockers. No new safety findings were identified. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02003391. PMID:28239491

  14. Schlemm管切开加黏弹剂扩张术治疗开角型青光眼的临床研究现状%Recent advances in viscocanalostomy for primary open-angle glaucoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宗媛; 袁志兰

    2013-01-01

    Viscocanalostomy is used as the surgical intervention for open angle glaucoma.It has advantage of creating gradual filtration through the thin trabeculo-descemet membrane to reduce markedly the postoperative complications.Lately,many surgeons modified VCO,like combined it with phacoemulsification,or use the implant.Many to lower IOP to a greater degree and enhance success rates.This article reviewed the history of VCO,specially on the point of the surgical methods,effect,development,progress and tendency of VCO.%Schlemm管切开加黏弹剂扩张术(VCO)是一种治疗开角型青光眼的手术.它通过手术后遗留下的小梁网-后弹力层窗实现缓慢滤过,从而避免了眼压骤降,大大减少了术后的并发症.近来,许多术者对VCO手术不断地改进,如联合超声乳化白内障吸除术,术中使用植入物等.这些方法增强了VCO术降眼压的力度,使得术后成功率明显提高.本文对VCO手术的历史进行了回顾,着重阐述了VCO手术的方式、效果、创新发展及未来趋势.

  15. 原发性开角型青光眼致病基因研究进展及研究策略%Research progress and strategies on identification of disease-caused genes in primary open angle glaucoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾明亮

    2012-01-01

    Glaucoma is an optic nerve disease characterized by optic nerve damage and visual impairment.Its characteristics are progressive,irreversible and with genetic heterogeneity.It is the second most common causes,after cataract,of the blindness.Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is the most common type.In this review,we will provide a brief overview of glaucoma,including classical genetics research strategies,research progre.ss,and current research strategies,challenges and countermeasures in identification of causative genes by whole-exome sequencing.%青光眼是一种以视神经损伤和相应视功能损害为特征的视神经疾病,具有渐进性、不可逆性和遗传异质性的特点,是位居第二的致盲性疾病,其中原发性开角型青光眼则最为常见.此文对青光眼经典的遗传学研究策略及主要的研究进展进行简要的概述;对采取全外显子组测序(whole-exome sequencing)鉴定致病基因的策略、面临的挑战及采取的对策进行系统的阐述.

  16. Influence of lifestyle on primary open angle glaucoma patients%生活方式对原发性开角型青光眼患者的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘英姿; 方圆

    2016-01-01

    原发性开角型青光眼(POAG)患者应遵守医生制定的治疗方案进行治疗,定期复查,并坚持目前普遍认同的健康生活方式如拒绝吸烟、适量运动、多吃水果蔬菜等.根据现有的研究结果,POAG患者应尽量避免可能升高眼压的活动如某些瑜伽动作、长时间吹奏管乐器、过量饮用咖啡等,以最大限度降低青光眼进展的风险,保护视神经.%Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) patients should comply with medical therapy and follow-up recommendations by doctors provided.Doctors also suggest POAG patients advocating for activities consistent with overall good health such as avoidance of smoking,moderate exercise and a diet high in fruits and vegetables.According to the existing research results,POAG patients should avoid some activities that could elevate intraocular pressure such as certain yoga positions,playing high wind instruments for long periods of time,and drinking large amounts of caffeinated coffee,to reduce the risk of glaucoma progression and protect optic nerve.

  17. Size of the Optic Nerve Head and Its Relationship with the Thickness of the Macular Ganglion Cell Complex and Peripapillary Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer in Patients with Primary Open Angle Glaucoma

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    Nobuko Enomoto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the relationships among the optic nerve head (ONH area, macular ganglion cell complex (mGCC thickness, circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (cpRNFL thickness, and visual field defects in patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG. Methods. This retrospective study included 90 eyes of 90 patients with POAG. The ONH area, rim area, mGCC thickness, and cpRNFL thickness were measured using optical coherence tomography. Mean deviation (MD was measured using standard automated perimetry. The relationships among clinical factors including age, refraction, the ONH area, the rim area, the mGCC thickness, the cpRNFL thickness, and MD were evaluated using correlation coefficients and multiple regression analyses. Results. The significant correlation of the ONH area with refraction (r=0.362, P<0.001, the mGCC thickness (r=0.225, P=0.033, and the cpRNFL thickness (r=0.253, P=0.016 was found. Multiple regression analysis showed that the ONH area, rim area, and MD were selected as significant contributing factors to explain the mGCC thickness and cpRNFL thickness. No factor was selected to explain MD. Conclusions. The ONH area, in other words, the disc size itself may affect the mGCC thickness and cpRNFL thickness in POAG patients.

  18. Comparison of diagnostic capability of macular ganglion cell complex and retinal nerve fiber layer among primary open angle glaucoma, ocular hypertension, and normal population using Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography and determining their functional correlation in Indian population

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    Nabanita Barua

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Analysis of diagnostic ability of macular ganglionic cell complex and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL in glaucoma. Aim: To correlate functional and structural parameters and comparing predictive value of each of the structural parameters using Fourier-domain (FD optical coherence tomography (OCT among primary open angle glaucoma (POAG and ocular hypertension (OHT versus normal population. Setting and Design: Single centric, cross-sectional study done in 234 eyes. Materials and Methods: Patients were enrolled in three groups: POAG, ocular hypertensive and normal (40 patients in each group. After comprehensive ophthalmological examination, patients underwent standard automated perimetry and FD-OCT scan in optic nerve head and ganglion cell mode. The relationship was assessed by correlating ganglion cell complex (GCC parameters with mean deviation. Results were compared with RNFL parameters. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed with SPSS, analysis of variance, t-test, Pearson′s coefficient, and receiver operating curve. Results: All parameters showed strong correlation with visual field (P 0.5 when compared with other parameters. None of the parameters showed significant diagnostic capability to detect OHT from normal population. In diagnosing early glaucoma from OHT and normal population, only inferior GCC had statistically significant AUC value (0.715. Conclusion: In this study, GCC and RNFL parameters showed equal predictive capability in perimetric versus normal group. In early stage, inferior GCC was the best parameter. In OHT population, single day cross-sectional imaging was not valuable.

  19. Effect of lamina open angles in expansion of unilateral open-door laminoplasty on the clinical results in treating cervical myelopathy%颈椎单开门椎管扩大成形术椎板开门角度对脊髓型颈椎病疗效的影响

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    孙天威; 张杭; 卢守亮; 李辉南; 于斌; 张学利

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate and compare the relation between the efficacy and clinical results of expansion of open-door laminoplasty with different angles in lamina open- door.Method: 198 cases were select from July 2006 to January 2009 who underwent posterior cervical unilateral open-doorJaminoplasty and received treatment for more than 24 months follow-up of patients with cervical myelopathy.There were 115 male cases and 83 female case with the mean age of 49±5 years (range,29-72 years).There were 39 double-segment cases,including 11 C3-C5 cases and 28 C4-C6 cases;97 three-segment (C4-C7) cases and 62 four segment (C3-C7) cases.All of these cases iiad cervical spine anterior-posterior and lateral, oblique and double-bit excessive flexion and extension cervical spine X-ray,CT and MRI.Preoperative JOA scores were 4 to 9,an average of 6.3±2.9.By CT scan after 1 week in accordance with the measurement on the angle of the lamina to 30° for the open boundaries,the cases were divided into two groups,to compare operation time, blood loss,postoperative complications,C2-C7 Cobb angle,index of cervical lordosis,cervical movement and tovalues after the shift,and evaluate the neurological function at final follow-up and calculate improvement rate of nerve function.Result:Group A:a total of 76 cases had an opening angle change>30°.Group B: a total 122 cases had an opening angle change 15°-30°.In preoperative JOA scores,C2-C7 Cobb angle,index of cervical lordosis,cervical movement between the two groups showed no statistically significant difference (P>0.05).The surgical time and blood loss in group A were 110±13min and 250±80ml,and in group B respectively 120± 30min and 230±100ml,the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05).In group A,51 patients after surgery(67.1%) had axial symptoms,8 patients(10.4%) with C5 nerve root palsy, 1 patient(1.32%) with mild cervical kyphosis.In group B,37 cases (10.5%) had axial symptoms,3 patients (2.4%) with C5 nerve root

  20. Generation of reactive oxygen species in the anterior eye segment. Synergistic codrugs of N-acetylcarnosine lubricant eye drops and mitochondria-targeted antioxidant act as a powerful therapeutic platform for the treatment of cataracts and primary open-angle glaucoma

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    Mark A. Babizhayev

    2016-12-01

    Mitochondrial targeting of compounds with universal types of antioxidant activity represents a promising approach for treating a number of ROS-related ocular diseases of the aging eye and can be implicated in the management of cataracts and primary open-angle glaucoma.

  1. A combined analysis of four observational studies evaluating the intraocular pressure-lowering ability and tolerability of bimatoprost 0.01% in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension

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    Stevens A

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Annemie Stevens,1 Milko E Iliev,2 Leo de Jong,3 Ioana Grobeiu,4 Anton Hommer5 1Department of Ophthalmology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium; 2Department of Ophthalmology, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; 4Allergan Holdings Ltd, Marlow, UK; 5Private Office, Vienna, Austria Objective: Combine and evaluate data from four clinical practice studies investigating the intraocular pressure (IOP-lowering ability, tolerability of and patient adherence to bimatoprost 0.01% therapy in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Methods: Data were combined from four multicenter, prospective, observational studies. Patients (n=2,593 were recruited from 328 sites in Austria, Belgium, Switzerland, and the Netherlands. Assessments were at study entry (baseline and after 10–14 weeks. Results: Bimatoprost 0.01% lowered mean IOP by 5.0 mmHg from baseline to final visit (P<0.0001. Individual IOP goals were achieved in 75.5% of patients. Results were similar in right and left eyes; right-eye data are presented here for brevity. The greatest mean IOP reduction was 6.7±4.7 mmHg (28.8% reduction from baseline to final visit, P<0.0001 in treatment-naïve patients. Switching to bimatoprost 0.01% monotherapy from previous monotherapy reduced mean IOP by a further 3.2±3.6 mmHg (17.2%, P<0.0001. Switching to bimatoprost 0.01% from previous prostaglandin monotherapy reduced mean IOP by 2.9±3.5 mmHg (15.5%, including by 3.1±3.4 mmHg (15.8% and 3.3±4.1 mmHg (16.9% for previous latanoprost and travoprost treatment, respectively (all P<0.0001. IOP reduction in patients previously treated with a fixed combination was 2.7±4.0 mmHg (14.2%, P<0.0001. The most commonly reported adverse events were conjunctival hyperemia (5.2% and eye irritation (4.7%. Tolerability was rated as “very good” or “good” by 90.1% of patients. Adherence was rated by

  2. Non-compliance with Drug Therapy in Patients with Primary Open-angle Glaucoma No cumplimiento del tratamiento farmacológico en pacientes con glaucoma primario de ángulo abierto

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    Ariana Fernández García

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Early treatment and patient’s compliance with this treatment are the most effective ways of preventing glaucoma related blindness. Objectives: To identify the behavior of patients` compliance or non compliance with the treatment in cases of primary open-angle glaucoma. Methods: A descriptive and cross sectional study was conducted including 106 patients with confirmed primary open-angle glaucoma who were treated at the Glaucoma Service of the Dr. Salvador Allende Hospital in Havana during the first quarter of 2011. We analyzed the following variables: age, sex, educational level, personal pathological antecedents and family history of glaucoma, treatment and treatment compliance and self-reported general health condition and vision. Results: Average age among patients was 60.7 years old, 72.7% were women and 51.9% did not comply with drug treatment. 91, 6% of patients used monotherapy and 73.6% used timolol alone or in combination with another drug. 68, 9% had a family history of glaucoma. Hypertension (51, 1% was the most commonly reported chronic disease. The most referred self-assessment of general health and vision was that of regular (42, 5% and 49, 1% respectively. Conclusions: More than half of patients did not comply with drug therapy as indicated for the control of the disease. This behavior was associated with age in the cases included in this study.


    Fundamento: el tratamiento precoz y su cumplimiento, por parte del paciente, son las formas más efectivas de prevenir la ceguera por glaucoma. Objetivos: identificar el cumplimiento o no cumplimiento del tratamiento en pacientes con glaucoma primario de ángulo abierto. Métodos: estudio descriptivo,  transversal en 106 pacientes con glaucoma primario de ángulo abierto confirmado, atendidos en el

  3. A pharmacoeconomic analysis to determine the relative cost-effectiveness of bimatoprost 0.03% eye drops and brimonidine 0.2% eye drops in patients of primary open-angle glaucoma/ocular hypertension

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    Navreet Kaur Natt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim was to compare efficacy and cost-effectiveness of bimatoprost 0.03% and brimonidine 0.2% in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG/ocular hypertension (OHT. Settings and Design: Open, randomized, cross-over, comparative study. Materials and Methods: Forty patients of POAG or OHT with intraocular pressure (IOP <30 mm Hg were included in the study after a written informed consent. The patients were divided randomly into two groups of 20 patients each. Patients of group A were administered bimatoprost 0.03% eye drops once daily, and those of group B brimonidine 0.2% eye drops twice daily for a period of 4 weeks. After a washout period of 4 weeks, the patients were crossed over that is, group A was administered brimonidine 0.2% and group B bimatoprost 0.03%. Fall in IOP at 4 weeks was recorded. The daily cost of each drug was calculated by maximum retail price and the average number of drops per bottle. The cost-effectiveness was then calculated as the cost of drug/mm Hg fall in IOP. Statistics: Independent samples t-test was used to compare the efficacy of both drugs. Results: IOP lowering with bimatoprost (8.9 ± 1.598 mm Hg was significantly (P < 0.0001 higher than brimonidine (6.55 ± 1.26 mm Hg. The number of drops/ml were 33.43 ± 0.52 and 25.49 ± 0.26, respectively, for bimatoprost and brimonidine. Treatment with bimatoprost was costlier than brimonidine with daily costs/eye Rs. 4.02 ± 0.06 and 3.14 ± 0.03, yearly costs/eye Rs. 1467.46 ± 20.74 and 1147.75 ± 11.15, respectively. Bimatoprost was more cost-effective than brimonidine with the cost-effectiveness ratio (CER respectively Rs. 13.10 ± 2.61/mm Hg and Rs. 13.96 ± 2.86/mm Hg. Incremental CER Rs. 10.43/mm Hg implies lower costs/mm Hg extra IOP lowering by bimatoprost than Rs. 13.96 for brimonidine. Conclusion: In spite of being costlier, bimatoprost is more efficacious and cost-effective than brimonidine.

  4. Modeling of Accurate Variable Slope Angles in Open-Pit Mine Design Using Spline Interpolation / Modelowanie Zmiennego Kąta Nachylenia Stoku W Projektowaniu Kopalni Odkrywkowych Za Pomocą Interpolacji Funkcjami Sklejającymi (Metodą Spline'Ów)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishvan, Masoud Soleymani; Sattarvand, Javad

    2012-12-01

    In this paper a new method of modeling variable slope angles has been presented based on the spline interpolation method. Slope angle modeling and defining precedency of the blocks are the vital parts of almost any open pit optimization algorithm. Traditionally heuristic patterns such as 1:5 or 1:9 have been used to generate slope angles. Cone template based models were later employed in developing variable slope angles. They normally use a linear interpolation process for determination of slope angles between the given directions which leads to sharp and non-realistic pits. The other elliptical alternatives suffer from having limitations in defining slope angles in non-geographical directions. The method is capable to consider any number of slope angles in any desired direction as well as creating quite accurate and realistic pit shapes. Three major types of the spline interpolation including cubic, quadratic and cardinal are tested, however, the cubic form is preferred due to more realistic outcomes. Main steps of the method are described through a numerical case study.

  5. Genetic association of SNPs near ATOH7, CARD10, CDKN2B, CDC7 and SIX1/SIX6 with the endophenotypes of primary open angle glaucoma in Indian population.

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    Ferdinamarie Sharmila Philomenadin

    Full Text Available Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG belonging to a group of optic neuropathies, result from interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Study of associations with quantitative traits (QTs is one of the successful strategies to understand the complex genetics of POAG. The current study attempts to explore the association of variations near/in genes like ATOH7, SIX1/SIX6 complex, CDKN2B, CARD10, and CDC7 with POAG and its QTs including vertical cup to disc ratio (VCDR, central corneal thickness (CCT, intra ocular pressure (IOP, and axial length (AL. Case-control study design was carried out in a sample size of 97 POAG cases and 371 controls from South India. Model-based (additive, recessive, dominant association of the genotypes and their interaction was carried out between cases and controls using chi-square, linear and logistic regression methods. Nominal significance (P<0.05 was observed for QTs like i VCDR with SNPs rs1900004 (ATOH7; rs1192415 (CDC7; rs10483727 (SIX1/SIX6, rs9607469 (CARD10; ii CCT with rs1192415; iii IOP with rs1900004 and iv AL with rs1900004 and rs1063192 (CDKN2B. We were able to replicate previously known interactions between ATOH7-SIX6 and SIX6-CDKN2B along with few novel interactions between ATOH7-CDC7 and SIX6 with genes including CARD10 and CDC7. In summary, our results suggest that a probable interaction among the candidate genes for QTs, play a major role in determining the individual's susceptibility to POAG.

  6. A novel mutation in the myocilin gene identified in a Chinese primary open angle glaucoma family%原发性开角型青光眼家系一新的myocilin基因突变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田强; 李海云; 李富华; 赵堪兴; 王立; 单晓艳; 庞玉英; 李祎馨; 吴梅筠; 邱枫

    2007-01-01

    目的 探讨一个中国人原发性开角型青光眼(primary open angle glaucoma,POAG)家系的myocilin基因缺陷.方法 对一个5代POAG大家系进行全面的临床检查后,用聚合酶链反应扩增家系成员myocilin基因的所有外显子以及相邻部分内含子,对其产物直接测序.结果 家系的遗传方式符合常染色体显性遗传.确诊年龄在26~59岁之间.在所有青光眼患者,可疑者以及4例尚未出现明显青光眼体征的家系成员发现携带myocilin基因T455K突变.无该突变的家系成员中无POAG患者及可疑者.突变位于myocilin蛋白C-末端非常保守的氨基酸残基.结论 T455K突变是中国人所特有的新的致病性myocilin基因突变.突变的临床表型为混合发病年龄型POAG且具有很高的外显率.这个新基因突变的发现证实中国人的致病性myocilin基因突变类型与其他种族不同.

  7. 原发性开角型青光眼患者Myocilin基因的单核苷酸多态性%Single nucleotide polymorphisms of the myocilin gene in primary open-angle glaucoma patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范宝剑; 梁旭辉; 彭智培; Larry Baum; 谭霭仙; 汪宁; 林顺潮

    2004-01-01

    目的探讨Myocilin(MYOC)基因的单核苷酸多态性(single nucleotide polymorphisms, SNPs) 及其与原发性开角型青光眼(primary open-angle glaucoma, POAG)发病的关系.方法应用高通量构象敏感性凝胶电泳和荧光标记自动测序法筛选和鉴定香港157例POAG散发患者和155名对照MYOC基因的SNPs.结果在MYOC基因所有3个外显子及邻近的非编码区共检出17种SNPs:1-83G→A、G12R、P16L、A17S、R46X、R76K、R91X、T123T、D208E、L215P、730+35A→G、A260A、I288I、E300K、T353I、Y471C和1515+73G→C.其中,R91X、E300K和Y471C仅在POAG患者中检测到.此外,1515+73G→C各基因型在POAG患者与对照人群中的分布差异具有显著意义,POAG患者中CG型频率为0.6%,低于对照组的4.5%(P=0.036).其余16种SNPs各基因型在两组人群中的分布差异均无显著意义.结论 MYOC基因多态性可能与中国人POAG发病有关,提示MYOC基因是POAG的相关基因.

  8. A comparison of the sensitivity of EQ-5D, SF-6D and TTO utility values to changes in vision and perceived visual function in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma

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    Bozzani Fiammetta Maria

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Economic viability of treatments for primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG should be assessed objectively to prioritise health care interventions. This study aims to identify the methods for eliciting utility values (UVs most sensitive to differences in visual field and visual functioning in patients with POAG. As a secondary objective, the dimensions of generic health-related and vision-related quality of life most affected by progressive vision loss will be identified. Methods A total of 132 POAG patients were recruited. Three sets of utility values (EuroQoL EQ-5D, Short Form SF-6D, Time Trade Off and a measure of perceived visual functioning from the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (VFQ-25 were elicited during face-to-face interviews. The sensitivity of UVs to differences in the binocular visual field, visual acuity and visual functioning measures was analysed using non-parametric statistical methods. Results Median utilities were similar across Integrated Visual Field score quartiles for EQ-5D (P = 0.08 whereas SF-6D and Time-Trade-Off UVs significantly decreased (p = 0.01 and p = 0.001, respectively. The VFQ-25 score varied across Integrated Visual Field and binocular visual acuity groups and was associated with all three UVs (P ≤ 0.001; most of its vision-specific sub-scales were associated with the vision markers. The most affected dimension was driving. A relationship with vision markers was found for the physical component of SF-36 and not for any dimension of EQ-5D. Conclusions The Time-Trade-Off was more sensitive than EQ-5D and SF-6D to changes in vision and visual functioning associated with glaucoma progression but could not measure quality of life changes in the mildest disease stages.

  9. Acoustic Performance Analysis of the Varying Valve Opening Angle for the Muffler with Valve and Its Application%带阀消声器阀体开度变化的声学特性分析及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海涛; 郑四发; 但佳壁; 连小珉

    2015-01-01

    The order noise in low-frequency band has great impact on the sound quality of exhaust noise. The muffler with valve becomes one of the means to eliminate low-frequency noise. The actual muffler with valve is analyzed by experiment and three-dimensional numerical simulation methods. It is found that the resonance frequency shift towards high frequency as the valve’s opening degrees increase. Further, a sub structural unit, named adjustable lumped inertance resonator(ALIR), is extracted from the actual muffler with valve. Three-dimensional numerical simulation and an in-line lumped element model are used to calculate the lumped inertance of the valve structure with different opening angles. The lumped model of ALIR is established. The results show that the lumped inertance, which changes with the valve’s opening degrees, is the key factor on the shifting of resonance frequency. Therefore the low frequency silencer mechanism of the muffler with valve is successfully revealed. At last, actual vehicle test is implemented with the muffler with valve and a contrast muffler. It is found that the muffler with valve can effectively eliminate the order noise tracing the engine speed times.%低频阶次噪声对排气噪声声品质有着重要的影响,带阀消声器成为消除排气低频噪声的手段之一。对带阀消声器进行试验分析和三维数值仿真,发现随着阀体开度的增加,共振器的共振频率向高频移动。进一步从实际带阀消声器结构中提取出一种可调声质量抗共振器子结构单元,采用三维数值方法和集总阻抗传递矩阵模型计算出不同开度下的阀体结构的声质量抗,建立共振器的集总阻抗模型。结果显示,阀体开度变化改变了共振器的声质量抗,而声质量抗是影响共振频率的关键因素,揭示出带阀消声器消除低频阶次噪声的机理。将带阀消声器和对比消声器进行实车测试。结果表明,带阀消声器起

  10. Late-day intraocular pressure-lowering efficacy and tolerability of travoprost 0.004% versus bimatoprost 0.01% in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBiner, Harvey B; Hubatsch, Douglas A

    2014-11-28

    Medications to control intraocular pressure (IOP) are frequently preserved using benzalkonium chloride (BAK), which can negatively affect the ocular surface. Data are needed to assess efficacy and safety of prostaglandin drugs preserved with and without BAK. The present study compared the efficacy and safety of BAK-free travoprost 0.004% (TRAV) and BAK 0.02%-preserved bimatoprost 0.01% (BIM) during late-day time points in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. This was a 12-week, phase 4, randomized, investigator-masked, crossover study. 84 patients with IOP ≥24 and TRAV or BIM for 6 weeks followed by an additional 6-week crossover period. IOP was measured at the end of each treatment period at 4, 6, and 8 pm. TRAV was considered noninferior to BIM if the upper limit of the 95% CI of the between-group difference in mean IOP was ≤1.5 mmHg. Adverse events were assessed throughout the study. One patient discontinued due to allergic conjunctivitis, and 2 patients with missing data were excluded; 81 patients were included in the per-protocol population (mean ± SD age, 58.3 ± 11.4 years; TRAV/BIM, n = 41; BIM/TRAV, n = 40). After 6 weeks, mean IOP with TRAV (17.4 ± 2.7 mmHg; change from baseline, -6.0 mmHg) was similar to BIM (17.2 ± 2.6 mmHg; change from baseline, -6.3 mmHg); the between-group difference was 0.22 mmHg (95% CI, -0.22 to 0.67). Thus, noninferiority of TRAV versus BIM was demonstrated. Mean IOP at each time point and mean and percentage IOP change from baseline were not significantly different between treatments. All treatment-emergent adverse events were mild to moderate. The incidences of mild ocular hyperemia with TRAV and BIM were 31% and 39%, respectively; moderate hyperemia was observed in 2% of patients receiving BIM. Late-day IOP-lowering efficacy of BAK-free TRAV was noninferior to that of BAK 0.02%-preserved BIM; both reduced baseline IOP by 25%. Both treatments were well tolerated, although a higher incidence of

  11. Polystyrene-supported organotin dichloride as a recyclable catalyst in lactone ring-opening polymerization: assessment and catalysis monitoring by high-resolution magic-angle-spinning NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshayes, Gaëlle; Poelmans, Kevin; Verbruggen, Ingrid; Camacho-Camacho, Carlos; Degée, Philippe; Pinoie, Vanja; Martins, José C; Piotto, Martial; Biesemans, Monique; Willem, Rudolph; Dubois, Philippe

    2005-07-18

    Dialkyltin dichloride grafted to a cross-linked polystyrene, with the formula [P-H]((1-t))[P-(CH2)nSnBuCl2]t (P=[CH2CH(pC6H4)], t=the degree of functionalization, and n=6 or 11), is investigated as a recyclable catalyst in the ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of epsilon-caprolactone (CL). It is demonstrated that high-resolution magic-angle-spinning (HR-MAS) NMR spectroscopy is an invaluable tool to characterize completely the supported catalyst. The 2D 1H-13C HSQC HR-MAS spectrum, in particular, allowed extensive assignment of the 1H and 13C resonances, as well as accurate measurement of the (n)J((1)H-(117/119)Sn) and (n)J((13)C-(117/119)Sn) coupling constants. 1H and 119Sn HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy is presented as a monitoring tool for catalytic processes based on organotin compounds, particularly for the investigation of the extent to which polymerization residues are observable in situ in the material pores and for the assessment of the chemical integrity and recycling conditions of the grafted catalyst. From polymerization experiments with CL, initiated by n-propanol and with [P-H]((1-t))[P-(CH2)nSnBuCl2]t of various compositions as the supported catalyst, it appears that a partial 'burst' of the polystyrene support occurs when the length of the alkyl spacer is limited to n=6, as a result of polymer chains growing within the pores of the support. However, extension of the length of the aliphatic polymethylene spacer from 6 to 11 carbon atoms preserves the support integrity and allows the production of catalyst-deprived poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) oligomers. A preliminary attempt to recycle the heterogeneous catalyst has shown that very good reproducibility can be obtained, in terms of both catalyst activity and molecular-weight parameters of the as-recovered PCL polyester chains.

  12. GWAS for susceptibility genes of primary open-angle glaucoma%原发性开角型青光眼易感基因研究中 GWAS 的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐冰花; 曹文俊

    2016-01-01

    Primary open-angle glaucoma(PoaG)is a kind of complex diseases caused by interaction between multiple genes and environmental factors,and genetic factors play important roles in PoaG development. Genome-wide association study(GWas)is widely applied into genetic research for PoaG,and it has obtained a series of research results. this method can analyze candidate susceptibility genes in PoaG patients,and quantitatively analyze related genes of endophenotypes. Vertical cup-disc ratio(VCDr),intraocular pressure(IoP),central corneal thickness(CCt)and optic disc area(oDa)can also be analyzed. these abnormal phenotype-related genes are crucial in the development of PoaG. this article reviews the findings of GWas for PoaG.%原发性开角型青光眼(PoaG)是由多个基因及环境因素相互作用所致的复杂疾病,遗传因素在其发生发展中起重要作用。全基因组关联研究(GWas)方法被广泛应用到该病的遗传学研究中,并取得了一系列研究成果。该方法除可分析 PoaG 患者的候选易感基因外,还可定量分析 PoaG 内在表型有关基因,包括垂直杯盘比(VCDr)、眼内压(IoP)、中央角膜厚度(CCt)和视神经盘区(oDa),这些异常表型的相关基因在PoaG 的发展中是至关重要的。文章归纳了 GWas 在 PoaG 易感基因研究中的应用。

  13. 原发性开角型青光眼房水外流通路改变的研究进展%The progress of aqueous humor outflow pathway in open-angle glaucoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安琳; 季健

    2011-01-01

    原发性开角型青光眼(POAG)是一种以视神经轴索及相关视网膜神经节细胞丢失为特征的视神经病变.眼压升高是POAG最重要的危险因素.大多数POAG患者眼压升高主要是房水外流阻力异常增高所致.小梁网是产生房水排出阻力的主要部位.目前多数研究者认为POAG患者小梁网功能不良与致炎因子表达、细胞老化、氧化应激损伤及细胞质成分减少等因素有关.小梁网细胞本身及细胞外基质的变化均可以引起房水外流阻力的改变,进而导致眼内压的升高.为了进一步开展对POAG发病机制的研究,有必要就目前有关POAG患者房水外流通路改变的研究进展予以综述,旨在为POAG的深入研究提供参考依据.%Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is defined as an optic neuropathy characterized by loss of optic nerve axons and retinal ganglion cells.Increase of intraocular pressure (IOP) is a major risk factor for POAG,which is partially due to an abnormally high aqueous humor outflow resistance in trabecular meshwork ( TM ).Trabecular outflow pathway is a key element in drainage of aqueous humor.Malfunction of TM in POAG is associated with over expression of inflammatory markers,cellular senescence,oxidative stress,and decrease of cellularity.The biological changes of TM cell and extracellular matrix compromise trabecular pathway drainage resulting in an increased IOP.This article reviewed the progression in research on aqueous humor outflow pathway emphasizing the alteration of trabecular pathway.

  14. A new angle on the Euler angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markley, F. Landis; Shuster, Malcolm D.

    1995-01-01

    We present a generalization of the Euler angles to axes beyond the twelve conventional sets. The generalized Euler axes must satisfy the constraint that the first and the third are orthogonal to the second; but the angle between the first and third is arbitrary, rather than being restricted to the values 0 and pi/2, as in the conventional sets. This is the broadest generalization of the Euler angles that provides a representation of an arbitrary rotation matrix. The kinematics of the generalized Euler angles and their relation to the attitude matrix are presented. As a side benefit, the equations for the generalized Euler angles are universal in that they incorporate the equations for the twelve conventional sets of Euler angles in a natural way.

  15. 中国人近视与原发性开角型青光眼相关性的 Meta 分析%Meta-analysis of association between myopia and primary open angle glaucoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    项勇刚; 夏凌云; 张勇; 曾宪涛; 许玲

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the association between myopia and primary open angle glaucoma ( POAG) by Meta-analysis.Methods Relevant studies, published up to July 20, 2013, were searched from CNKI and VIP databases . After data extraction, a meta-analysis was performed using CMA (comprehensive meta analysis) v2.2 software.Results Five studies were finally recruited , including 3 studies that reported the association between myopia and POAG independ-ently.The results of meta-analysis showed that myopia evidently increases the risk of POAG by 3.07 times ( OR=3.07, 95%CI=1.90~4.96), and high myopia obviously increases the risk of POAG by 7.15 times (OR=7.15, 95% CI=4.01~12.75).Sensitivity analysis showed that the results were robust .The publication bias analysis was not conducted . Conclusion Based on the current evidence , myopia is probably an independent and significant risk factor for POAG , and the high myopia persons were with higher risk for POAG .%采用Meta分析的方法探讨中国人近视与原发性开角型青光眼( POAG)的相关性。方法检索CNKI和VIP数据库中自建库至2013年7月20日之间公开发表的文献,对符合纳入标准的研究进行数据提取之后,采用Comprehensive Meta Analysis ( CMA) v2.2软件进行 Meta分析。结果最终纳入5个研究,其中3个研究将高度近视作为暴露因素单独列出来。 Meta分析结果显示,暴露于近视的人群罹患POAG的风险增加3.07倍(OR =3.07,95%CI =1.90~4.96;P <0.01);暴露于高度近视者(屈光度数>-6.0 D),罹患POAG的风险增加7.15倍(OR =7.15,95%CI =4.01~12.75;P <0.01)。敏感性分析显示结果稳健性好,未行发表偏倚分析。结论当前证据表明近视很可能是开角型青光眼的一个独立的、有意义的危险因素,并且高度近视者罹患POAG的风险高。

  16. Comparison of macular choroidal thickness between primary open angle glaucoma and normal subjects%原发性开角型青光眼患者与正常人黄斑区脉络膜厚度的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张苗苗; 王建荣; 刘伟

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究原发性开角型青光眼(POAG)患者黄斑区脉络膜厚度与正常人之间的差异。方法应用增强深部成像的相干光断层扫描(EDI-OCT)仪测量60例(60只眼)POAG 患者(POAG 组)和60例(60只眼)正常人(对照组)黄斑区脉络膜厚度。组内相关系数(ICC)表示检测者内和检测者间信度分析。结果检测者内的 ICC 值为0.994~0.999(P <0.001),检测者间的 ICC 值为0.995~0.998(P <0.001)。黄斑区脉络膜厚度特征为黄斑中心凹下方最厚,鼻侧最薄。POAG 组黄斑区各象限脉络膜厚度均明显厚于对照组(t =3.114~4.456,P <0.05)。POAG 组和对照组黄斑区象限脉络膜厚度均随年龄增加及眼轴增长而变薄(r =-0.456~-0.520,-0.445~-0.491;P <0.05)。结论POAG 患者的黄斑区脉络膜厚度比正常人厚;POAG 患者黄斑区脉络膜增厚与青光眼的发病机制相关。%Objective To compare the macular choroidal thickness between primary open angle glaucoma (POAG)and normal subjects using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT).Methods Scans were per-formed by EDI-OCT in eyes of 60 POAG patients and 60 age-and sex-matched normal subjects.The reliability analysis of intra-and inter-observer was tested using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC).Results The intra-and inter-ob-server ICC values ranged from 0.994 to 0.999 and 0.995 to 0.998 respectively (both P <0.001).In the COPD pa-tients and controls,the choroidal thickness beneath the fovea was thickest and the nasal choroidal thickness was thin-nest.Each quadrant of choroidal thickness in POAG patients were thicker than that of the controls (t =3.114 to 4.456, P <0.05).For both subjects investigated,the choroidal thickness showed a negative correlation with age and axial length (r =-0.456 to -0.520,-0.445 to -0.491;P <0.05).Conclusion The choroidal thickness of POAG pa

  17. Effect of fundus image devices for early diagnosis of primary open angle glaucoma%眼底图像分析系统在原发性开角型青光眼早期诊断中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘英姿

    2009-01-01

    眼底图像分析技术的迅速发展使视神经损害的直接定量检测成为可能,同时因其检测手段客观、结果可靠而日益受到重视.但由于临床医师对眼底图像分析技术如海德堡视网膜断层扫描、相干光断层扫描等在青光眼早期诊断中的意义仍存在认识上的分歧,因此有必要就此问题进行论述.有多数研究结果表明,现有的检测设备不仅在分辨率和重复性方面已经达到临床要求,而且能够较好地区分正常人和青光眼的眼底改变,但现阶段利用视神经结构定量指标来实现对青光眼的早期诊断,其敏感性和特异性尚不尽如人意.其原因是多方面的,如结构指标个体差异较大,缺乏完善的正常人数据库,缺乏达成共识的敏感而特异的诊断指标等.尽管如此,现有的研究趋势表明,利用图像分析技术测量青光眼性视神经损害已显示出令人鼓舞的临床应用前景,临床医师若能充分了解各种图像分析手段的优缺点,这些新的检测技术将成为早期诊断原发性开角型青光眼的有益补充手段.%Evaluation of the optic disc and retinal nerve fiber layer measurements (RNFL) with sterephotography is the current "gold standard" for the diagnosis of early primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), but it is still subjective and is dependent too much upon an experienced observer.Substantial variability exists in the interpretation of optic disc change over time.There are consistent evidences that image analysis devices such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) and Heidelberg retina tomograph (HRT-Ⅱ) can detect early to moderate glaucoma as well as expert assessment of stereoscopic optic disc and RNFL photographs.Optic disc and RNFL defect can be quantitatively measured by these devices.But the sensitivity and specificity of the measurements obtained with these devices are not good enough for the early diagnosis of POAG at this time due to several reasons, such as

  18. 深层巩膜切除术联合透明质酸片植入治疗原发性开角型青光眼%Deep sclerectomy with hyaluronate implant for primary open-angle glaucoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜发纲; Klaus W.Ruprecht

    2004-01-01

    目的:探讨深层巩膜切除联合透明质酸片植入(DSHI)治疗原发性开角型青光眼(POAG)的临床疗效.方法:回顾性总结在Saarland大学眼科医院行DSHI治疗的POAG.结果:符合条件并入选的有216患者的377只POAG.平均随诊31(5~51)mo.术前平均眼压(28.3±8.4)mmHg(1mmHg=O.133kPa),术后1wk,6mo,1、2、3、4a眼压分别为(9.7±3.6)、(12.4+5.3)、(15.5±8.7)、(15.4±6.8)、(16.1±6.7)、(17.4±7.5)mmHg.术前平均视力为0.65,术后1wk,6mo,1、2、3、4a视力分别为0.63、O.68、0.72、0.71、0.76、0.70.术后la显效(不加抗青光眼药物且眼压≤21mmHg)率为89%,有效(加抗青光眼药物时眼压≤21mmHg)率为9%.术后4a时,显效率为45%,有效率48%.并发症包括切口渗漏、前房出血、脉络膜脱离等.结论:DSHI对POAG治疗效果良好,并发症少且轻微.%AIM: To explore the clinical effects of deep sclerectomy with hyaluronate implant (DSHI) for primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG).METHODS: A retrospective investigation was made in patients with POAG treated with DSHI in Saarland University.RESULTS: A tolal of 377 eyes in 216 patients with POAG were selected. The average follow-up was 31months (5-51 months). The mean intraocular pressure (IOP) was 28.3+8.4 mmHg (1mmHg=0.133kPa) before surgery, and9.7+3.6, 12.4+5.3, 15.5+8.7, 15.4+6.8,16.1+6.7 and 17.4+7.5 mmHg respectively at 1 week, 6months, 1 year, 2 years, 3 years and 4 years after surgery. The mean visual acuity was 0.65 before surgery,and 0.63, 0.68, 0.72, 0.71, 0.76, 0.70 respectively at 1week, 6 months, 1 year, 2 years, 3 years and 4 years after surgery. Complete success rate (IOP≤21 mmHg without antiglaucoma medication) was 89% and qualified success rate (IOP≤21mmHg with antiglaucoma medication) was 9% at 1 year after surgery. They were 45%and 48% at 4 years after surgery respectively. Complications included wound leak, hyphema and choroidal detachment, etc.CONCLUSION: DSHI is efficacious for POAG. Complications following

  19. Contact Angle Goniometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:The FTA32 goniometer provides video-based contact angle and surface tension measurement. Contact angles are measured by fitting a mathematical expression...

  20. 原发性开角型青光眼家系的MYOC基因突变研究%Analysis on the gene mutations of MYOC in primary open angle glaucoma pedigree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢小兵; 周新; 田艳丽; 曲喜英; 匡多秀; 朱惠斌; 喻京生; 宁兴旺

    2009-01-01

    目的 对来自重庆地区的1个原发性开角型青光眼(POAG)家系进行MYOC基因突变筛查,研究POAG与MYOC基因突变的相关性,探讨MYOC基因突变在中国人POAG发病中的作用.方法 1个4代共39例的青光眼家系,8例为已确诊患者,健康对照者100名.用单链构象多态性分析(SSCP)、PCR.限制性片段长度多态性(RFLP)和基因测序的方法筛选MYOC基因的突变(包括G34C、C136T、G144T、G227A、C624G、G736A、C1009G、A1036G、C1081T、G1099A、G1138A、A1139C、T1430A、C1441A和C1442T等),同时对检测到的突变结果进行生物信息学分析.结果 在该家系中,发现1个G227A(Arg76Lys)突变,该突变存在2例已确诊的POAG患者和1例家系表型正常者中,健康对照者中未榆出.发现1个缺失突变(C1009del),该突变存在于家系中所有发病患者和1例4岁的子代亲属,健康对照者中未检出.未发现其他突变.由于C1009del突变是首次发现,据此我们申请了GenBank号,已发表的GenBank序列号为FJ237047,对应的蛋白序列号为ACI62293.结论 G227A(Arg76Lys)突变为已报道的多态性位点,与该家系青光眼的发病无相关性.移码突变C1009del突变与青光眼的发病密切相关,也可由此推测青光眼患者亲属的发病率较正常人高.%Objective To screen the mutations of MYOC gene in a Chinese primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) family from Cbengqing and investigate the relationship between the mutations in MYOC/TIGR gene and POAG.Methods In a large 4-generation glaucoma family, myocilin gene (MYOC) was screened in 39 family members, 8 of which were confirmed patients. Normal controls included 100 normal Chinese subjects.The known mutations of MYOC gene ( including G34C, C136T, G144T, G227A, C624G,G736A, C1009G, A1036G, C1081T, G1099A, G1138A, A1139C, T1430A, C1441A and C1442T) were detected by single strand conformation polymorphism(SSCP) , po]ymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR

  1. 正常人眼前段组织与房角开放度数的关系%Relationship between Structure of Anterior Segment Tissue and Open Angle in Normal Subjects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾阳发; 刘杏; 王涛; 李媚; 李彬彬; 何明光

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] To study the relationship between structure of anterior segment tissues and open angle(AA) in normal subjects.[Methods] A total of 211 eyes from 211 normal subjects were enrolled,whose anterior chambers and lens were scanned using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT).The measuring items included AA,anterior chamber depth (ACD),anterior chamber horizontal diameter (ACHD),anatomical anterior chamber depth (AACD),ciliary band length (CBL),iris thickness (IT),lens thickness (LT),lens position (LP) and lens anterior apex position (LAAP).The relationship between the 8 biometric parameters and AA was analyzed using linear correlation,respectively.[Results] The mean of AA was (40 ± 17)°,with (44 ± 18)° in male,and (37 ± 16)° in female.The difference of AA between male and female was statistically significant (t = 2.893,P = 0.004).There was significant correlation between AA and ACD (r = 0.721,P = 0.000),LT (r = -0.545,P = 0.000),CBL (r = 0.615,P = 0.000),LAAP (r = -0.717,P = 0.000),LP (r = 0.557,P = 0.000),and ACHD (r = 0.175,P = 0.011).There was no significant correlation between AA and AACD (r = 0.130,P = 0.059),IT (r = 0.129,P = 0.061).[Conclusion] The AA of females was narrower than that of males.In normal subjects,the most important factors which determine AA are the lens,the location of the peripheral iris and ciliary body.%[目的] 分析正常人房角开放度数(AA)与眼前段结构的关系. [方法] 收集211例(211只眼)正常人,采用眼前段光学相干断层扫描仪(AS-OCT)扫描其前房和晶状体,并测量前房深度(ACD)、前房横径(ACHD)、解剖前房深度(AACD)、睫状体带长度(CBL)、虹膜厚度(IT)、晶状体厚度(LT)、晶状体位置(LP)以及晶状体前极的位置(LAAP).采用直线相关分析这8个参数与AA的关系. [结果] AA的均值为(40 ± 17)°,男性(44 ± 18)°,女性(37 ± 16)°,比较差异有统计学意义(t = 2.893,P = 0.004).AA

  2. 视网膜静脉阻塞患者中原发性开角型青光眼发病比例的研究%Percentage of primary open angle glaucoma in retinal vein occlusion patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许珂; 吴玲玲; 马志中; 刘瑜玲; 钱芳

    2016-01-01

    背景 有研究表明,高加索人视网膜静脉阻塞(RVO)与原发性开角型青光眼(POAG)的产生存在关联,但目前鲜见关于亚洲人群RVO患者中POAG发病比例的报道. 目的 观察以医院人群为基础的RVO患者中POAG的发病比例.方法 采用横断面观察性研究设计,连续纳入2011年10月至2013年5月在北京大学第三医院眼科确诊且病程在1年以内的RVO患者375例,患者均接受房角镜检查,POAG的诊断参照国际地域性和流行病学眼科学学会的青光眼诊断标准.根据眼底彩色照片和FFA将RVO分为视网膜中央静脉阻塞(CRVO)型、半侧视网膜静脉阻塞(HRVO)型和视网膜分支静脉阻塞(BRVO)型;按照静脉阻塞的部位分为动静脉交叉RVO(AV-RVO)型、视盘RVO(OC-RVO)型、无视盘水肿的视神经RVO(NONHS-RVO)型及有视盘水肿的视神经RVO(ONHS-RVO)型.分别统计不同RVO类型患者中POAG的发病比例.结果 共317例患者纳入青光眼筛查并完成各检查项目,应答率为84.5%.POAG在RVO患者中的发病比例为8.2%,其中在CRVO型中的比例为7.1%,在HRVO型中为23.5%,在BRVO型中为6.2%.OC-RVO型患者和NONHS-RVO型患者中POAG的发病比例分别为27.9%和13.2%,明显高于AV-RVO和ONHS-RVO中的4.7%和1.3%,差异均有统计学意义(均P<0.05). 结论 中国RVO患者中POAG的发病比例是正常人群的3~4倍;OC-RVO型和NONHS-RVO型患者中POAG的发病比例较高,提示RVO的发病可能与POAG的视盘结构改变密切相关.%Background Researches determined that the pathogenesis of retinal vein occlusion (RVO) is associated with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) in Caucasian population.However,the relationship between RVO and POAG in Asian population is unclear.Objective This study was to survey the percentage of POAG in RVO patients in China.Methods A prospective cross-sectional observational study based on hospital was performed.Three hundred and seventy five patients with newly

  3. Layer-by-layer analysis of retinal thickness in primary open-angle glaucoma using optical coherence tomography%POAG患者视网膜各层厚度的OCT分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张萌; 章畅; 王玉宏; 吕帆

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analysis each layer of retinal thickness,especially the ganglion cell layer (GCL) in the macular area,in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) using an RTVue OCT; to assess its value in the diagnosis of glaucoma.Methods In this prospective case-control study,76 patients (91 eyes) with POAG (30 patients [30 eyes] in the early stage,25 patients [29 eyes] in the middle stage and 21 patients [32 eyes] in late stage) and 32 healthy age-and gender-matched controls (32 eyes) were recruited.The macular area was scanned with an RTVue OCT,and the retina was divided into nine layers with self-programming retinal image processing software.The thickness of each layer and the total retinal thickness were calculated and an LSD-t test was used to compare the average thickness of the macular area in each retinal layer for early,middle and late POAG patients and the control group.Results In the early stage of POAG,the mean thicknesses of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and ganglion cell layer (GCL) were 31.6±9.2 μm and 33.9±5.0 μm,respectively,becoming thinner (P<0.05) than healthy controls.In the middle stage,the mean thicknesses of the RNFL and GCL were 31.2±3.4 μm and 34.1±3.9 μm,respectively,which was thinner than the control group (P<0.05).In the late stage,the mean thicknesses of the RNFL,GCL,inner plexiform layer (IPL),inner segment of the photoreceptor (IS),and total retina (TR) were 18.8±7.6 μm,24.2±7.9 μm,38.0±6.4 μm,22.8±4.4 μm and 299.5±15.1 μm,respectively,and all measurements were thinner than the controls (P<0.05).The mean thickness of the inner nuclear layer (INL) was 39.1±6.6 μm,which was thicker than the controls (P<0.05).Conclusion The mean thickness of the retinal macular area of POAG patients became obviously thinner.The GCL was especially affected by early POAG.GCL combined with clinical observations can be used as an early diagnostic indicator of POAG.%目的 利用RTVue OCT对POAG患者黄斑区视网

  4. Terapia combinada con timolol/dorzolamida versus timolol/pilocarpina en el glaucoma primario de ángulo abierto Combined therapy with timolol and dorzolamide vs timolol and pilocarpine used in primary open-angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank García González

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este trabajo fue evaluar la eficacia de la terapia combinada, timolol/dorzolamida, en comparación con timolol/pilocarpina. Se empleó tratamiento médico en 38 pacientes con glaucoma primario de ángulo abierto, a los que se les colocó en forma aleatoria timolol 0,5 %/dorzolamida 2 % (n. 19 o timolol 0,5 % y pilocarpina 2 % (n. 19 y posteriormente se analizaron los descensos de presión intraocular, efectividad durante cuatro semanas, efectos adversos locales y sistémicos. En el grupo de pacientes tratados con timolol/dorzolamida la presión intraocular media inicial (sin tratamiento descendió de 22,84 ± 1,77 mm Hg hasta 18,24 ± 1,84 mm Hg a las cuatro semanas de tratamiento, p. 0,01 (reducción de 4,60 mm Hg 22,14 %. En el grupo de pacientes tratados con timolol/pilocarpina la presión intraocular media inicial (sin tratamiento descendió de 23, 06 ± 1,29 mm Hg hasta 19,07 ± 1,23 mm Hg a la cuarta semana de tratamiento, p. 0,01 (reducción de 3,95 mm Hg /17,31 %, no se observaron diferencias significativas (p > 0,05 entre ambos tratamientos y fueron igualmente eficaces para reducir la presión intraocular. La calidad de vida de los pacientes que recibieron la dorzolamida como tratamiento coadyuvante fue superior, la dosificación disminuyó con respecto a la pilocarpina y no se presentaron efecto secundarios, tales como limitaciones para conducir y leer o dolor ocular, aunque refirieron sabor amargo cinco pacientes (26,31 % e irritación conjuntival dos pacientes (10,52 % relacionados con la dorzolamida. A mediano plazo se obtiene disminución de presión intraocular con dorzolamida como con la pilocarpina combinadas con el timolol. La dorzolamida demostró menos interferencia con la calidad de vida que la pilocarpinaThe objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of combined therapy with timolol and dorzolamide compared to timolol and pilocarpine. Thirty eight patients with primary open-angle glaucoma were

  5. 选择性激光小梁成形术治疗原发性开角型青光眼%Selective laser trabeculoplasty in the treatment for primary open-angle glaucoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于爱萍; 王瑞夫

    2011-01-01

    目的 评价选择性小梁激光成形术(SLT)治疗各类原发性开角性青光眼(POAG)的疗效观察.方法 79例(93眼)根据种族的不同(小梁Seheie色素分级)、年龄及眼压情况分为3组,采用国通公司倍频Q-开关.532 nm ND:YAG激光器,单脉冲,时间为3 ns,波长532 nm,光斑直径400μm,脉冲能量设置0.4~1.6 mJ.术前在盐酸奥布卡因表麻下放置前房角镜,瞄准功能小梁网,选择相应的脉冲能量、象限范围和激光点数进行治疗或重复治疗.术后随访眼压(1 h、1 d、1周、1个月、3个月、6个月、1年)、眼底及视野.结果 3个组79例(93眼)术前1年平均眼压依次为(23.1±6.3)mmHg、(26.52±6.1)mmHg和(29.52±6.1)mmHg;术后1年眼压依次为(12.52±4.3)mmHg、(15.58±4.7)mmHg和(16.65±4.5)mmHg.术前与术后眼压相比有显著下降(P<0.01).3个组眼底C/D比,术前为0.50~0.70±0.15~0.13;术后为0.57~0.68±0.16~0.42.视力:术前0.85~0.57±0.32~0.29;术后0.91~0.58±0.30~0.27,两者比较其差异均无统计学意义.结论 SLT对各类POAG均有显著降压作用.%Objective To evaluate selective laser trabeculoplasty(SLT) in treating primary open angle glaucoma(POAG) and observation on the therapeutic effect. Methods 79 patients, 93 eyes were divided into 3 groups acording to the different races, medical history, age, IOP. The ELLEX Laser distributed by GT-Medical Company,with double frequency, 532 nm, Nd:YAG, single pulse, pulse width 3ns, spot size 400 μm, pulse energy 0.4-1. 6mJ was used. Pre-op: Oxybuprocaine HCI for topical anesthesia, a gonioscope, aiming at functional trabecular meshwork, selected different pulse energy, quadrant, different spots, and/or retreatment. Post-op: IOP follow-up at 1 hour, 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, 3 months,6 months.1 year, retina, visual field, visual acuity. Results comparison on pre-op and post-op IOP, the three groups of 79 patients and 93 eyes, pre-op average IOP was (23. 134±6.34)mmHg, (26.524±6.11)mmHg and

  6. 中国原发性开角型青光眼一家系MYOC基因的突变分析%Analysis of MYOC gene mutation in a primary open angle glaucoma family from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凤云; 李杨; 兰兰; 李博; 陆晓和

    2014-01-01

    Background Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is one of the frequent glaucomatous types,and genetic factor participates in pathogenesis and development of the disease.Recently,MYOC mutation was found to be associated with POAG.Objective This study was to describe the clinical and genetic findings in a POAG family from Luoyang,China.Methods This study protocol was approved by Ethic Committee of Affiliated First Hospital of Henan University of Science and Technology.The study adhered to Declaration of Helsinki.A POAG family with 29 members of 5 generations was surveyed and followed-up for 5-year duration.The mode of inheritance was determined by the pedigree analysis.The periphery blood sample was collected form 12 families and 100 health controls for the extraction of genomic DNA under the informed consent.The third exon and its flanking introns of MYOC were amplified,and quantitative real time PCR products were sequenced,and the structure and function of mutated gene were examined by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.The predicted effects of the detected variants on the secondary structure of MYOC protein were evaluated using Garnier-Osguthorpe-Robson (GOR) method,and homology analysis of protein was carried out by Blast software provided by National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI).Results This POAG family included 29 members of 5 generations,and the clinical data were not clear in 11 family members.Three individuals from 3 generations were determined POAG,another one was ocular hypertension,and 2 were carriers.Pedigree analysis appeared an autosomal dominant inheritance.In 12 subjects included 6 members genetically affected and 6 members with normal phenotype,the heterozygous mutation was found in the third exon of MYOC gene in 6 genetically affected members,which revealed a T→C transition at position 1021 (p.S341P),resulting in a switch of serine (Ser) to proline (Pro).It was a missense mutation abolished a CviKI-1 restriction site

  7. Comment on {open_quotes}On the Longuet-Higgins phase and its relation to the electronic adiabatic{endash}diabatic transformation angle{close_quotes} [J. Chem. Phys. {bold 107}, 2694 (1997)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendrick, B.K. [Theoretical Division (T-12, MS-B268), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Mead, C.A. [92 Bartram Road, Savannah, Georgia 31411 (United States); Truhlar, D.G. [Department of Chemistry and Supercomputer Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

    1999-04-01

    We show that the new equation for nuclear motion obtained by Baer {ital et al.} is based on an invalid and self-contradictory approximation, and leads to incorrect results for the wave functions, energy levels, degeneracies, and matrix elements. Baer{close_quote}s conclusion about the connection between the Longuet{endash}Higgins (LH) phase and the adiabatic-diabatic transformation (ADT) angle is also shown to be incorrect. Applications of the method by Baer {ital et al.} are shown to contain further errors. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. 索矿露天边坡最终边坡角优化与破坏特征分析%The Analysis of the Final Sloping Angle Optimization and Failure Characteristics on the Slope in Suo Open Pit Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘武团; 高忠; 雷明礼; 赵文奇; 严文炳; 程三建

    2015-01-01

    露天边坡角优化的前提是保证边坡的稳定,以新疆索矿极坚硬岩石边坡为例,利用Hoek-Brown准则将室内岩石力学参数折减成岩体参数,借助FLAC3D软件,采用强度折减理论对极坚硬岩质最终边坡角进行优化研究.研究结果表明:最终边坡角由原设计的60°提高至65°,极坚硬岩质边坡破坏类型属于平面滑动破坏,坡体以剪切破坏为主,坡脚的剪应变增量最大,剪应变增量区域从坡脚贯通到坡顶;坡脚的位移量最大,其位移方向水平向左、向上,坡顶位移向下.%Ensuring the stability of the slope is the premise of the slope angle for optimization.Taking an extremely hard rocks slope in Xinjiang as an example, indoor rock mechanics parameters are reduced to the rock mass parameters by Hoek-Brown strength criterion firstly.Then the sloping angle is analyzed and optimized using the strength reduction theory by FLAC3D.The results show that the final sloping angle is increased from 60 to 65.Failure type of extremely hard rock be-longs to the plane sliding failure.Shear failure is the main failure type of the slope.The shear strain increment is taken from the bottom of the slope to the top and maximum shear strain increment appears at the bottom of the slope.The maximum dis-placement of the slope occurred in the slope foot and the displacement direction is horizontal to the left and up.The dis-placement direction of the top is down.

  9. LHC Report: playing with angles

    CERN Multimedia

    Mike Lamont for the LHC team

    2016-01-01

    Ready (after a machine development period), steady (running), go (for a special run)!   The crossing angles are an essential feature of the machine set-up. They have to be big enough to reduce the long-range beam-beam effect. The LHC has recently enjoyed a period of steady running and managed to set a new record for “Maximum Stable Luminosity Delivered in 7 days” of 3.29 fb-1 between 29 August and 4 September. The number of bunches per beam remains pegged at 2220 because of the limitations imposed by the SPS beam dump. The bunch population is also somewhat reduced due to outgassing near one of the injection kickers at point 8. Both limitations will be addressed during the year-end technical stop, opening the way for increased performance in 2017. On 10 and 11 September, a two day machine development (MD) period took place. The MD programme included a look at the possibility of reducing the crossing angle at the high-luminosity interaction points. The crossing angles are an ess...

  10. Reading Angles in Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izard, Véronique; O'Donnell, Evan; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2014-01-01

    Preschool children can navigate by simple geometric maps of the environment, but the nature of the geometric relations they use in map reading remains unclear. Here, children were tested specifically on their sensitivity to angle. Forty-eight children (age 47:15-53:30 months) were presented with fragments of geometric maps, in which angle sections…

  11. Photoelectric angle converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podzharenko, Volodymyr A.; Kulakov, Pavlo I.

    2001-06-01

    The photo-electric angle transmitter of rotation is offered, at which the output voltage is linear function of entering magnitude. In a transmitter the linear phototransducer is used on the basis of pair photo diode -- operating amplifier, which output voltage is linear function of the area of an illuminated photosensitive stratum, and modulator of a light stream of the special shape, which ensures a linear dependence of this area from an angle of rotation. The transmitter has good frequent properties and can be used for dynamic measurements of an angular velocity and angle of rotation, in systems of exact drives and systems of autocontrol.

  12. Angle-Ply Weaving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Gary L.

    1990-01-01

    Bias-direction or angle-ply weaving is proposed new process for weaving fibers along bias in conventional planar fabric or in complicated three-dimensional multilayer fabric preform of fiber-reinforced composite structure. Based upon movement of racks of needles and corresponding angle yarns across fabric as fabric being formed. Fibers woven along bias increases shear stiffness and shear strength of preform, increasing value of preform as structural member.

  13. Anticipation, anti-glaucoma drug treatment response and phenotype of a Chinese family with glaucoma caused by the Pro370Leu myocilin mutation

    OpenAIRE

    Chun-Mei Li; Yue-Hong Zhang; Rong-Hua Ye; Chang-Xian Yi; Yi-Min Zhong; Dan Cao; Xing Liu

    2014-01-01

    AIM:To describe the anticipation and anti-glaucoma drugs response of a Chinese family with juvenile-onset open angle glaucoma (JOAG) caused by the Pro370Leu myocilin (MYOC) mutation.METHODS: Fifteen members of a three-generation Chinese family with JOAG were recruited to this study. They all underwent ophthalmic common examinations. Patients suspected to have JOAG got an assessment of visual field and optical coherence tomography. Intraocular pressures (IOPs) of four patients were measured at...

  14. Limited Angle Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ho Kyung; Cho, Min Kook; Kim, Seong Sik [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    In computed tomography (CT), many situations are restricted to obtain enough number of projections or views to avoid artifacts such as streaking and geometrical distortion in the reconstructed images. Speed of motion of an object to be imaged can limit the number of views. Cardiovascular imaging is a representative example. Size of an object can also limit the complete traverse motion or geometrical complexity can obscure to be imaged at certain range of angles. These situations are frequently met in industrial nondestructive testing and evaluation. Dental CT also suffers from similar situation because cervical spine causes less x-ray penetration from some directions such that the available information is not sufficient for standard reconstruction algorithms. The limited angle tomography is now greatly paid attention as a new genre in medical and industrial imaging, popularly known as digital tomosynthesis. In this study, we introduce a modified filtered backprojection method in limited angle tomography and demonstrate its application for the dental imaging.

  15. Dynamical angled brane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Kei-ichi; Uzawa, Kunihito

    2016-12-01

    We discuss the dynamical D p -brane solutions describing any number of D p branes whose relative orientations are given by certain SU(2) rotations. These are the generalization of the static angled D p -brane solutions. We study the collision of the dynamical D3 brane with angles in type-II string theory, and show that the particular orientation of the smeared D3-brane configuration can provide an example of colliding branes if they have the same charges. Otherwise a singularity appears before D3 branes collide.

  16. The quadriceps angle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miles, James Edward; Frederiksen, Jane V.; Jensen, Bente Rona

    2012-01-01

    : Pelvic limbs from red foxes (Vulpes vulpes). METHODS: Q angles were measured on hip dysplasia (HD) and whole limb (WL) view radiographs of each limb between the acetabular rim, mid-point (Q1: patellar center, Q2: femoral trochlea), and tibial tuberosity. Errors of 0.5-2.0 mm at measurement landmarks...

  17. Black hole microstates from branes at angle

    CERN Document Server

    Pieri, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    We derive the leading g_s perturbation of the SUGRA fields generated by a supersymmetric configuration of respectively 1, 2 or 4 D3-branes intersecting at an arbitrary angle via the computation of the string theory disk scattering amplitude of one massless NSNS field interacting with open strings stretched between the branes. The configuration with four branes is expected to be relevant for black hole microstate counting in four dimensions.

  18. Evaluation of the anterior chamber angle in Asian Indian eyes by ultrasound biomicroscopy and gonioscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik Sushmita

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the ultrasound biomicroscopic measurement of the anterior chamber angle in Asian Indian eyes, with the angle width estimated by gonioscopy. Materials and Methods: Participants: Patients with open and closed angles attending a glaucoma clinic were recruited for the study. Observation Procedures: Temporal quadrants of the angles of patients were categorized by gonioscopy as Grade 0 to Grade 4, using Shaffer′s classification. These angles were quantified by ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM using the following biometric characteristics: Angle opening distance at 250 µ (AOD 250 and 500 µ (AOD 500 from the scleral spur and trabecular meshwork-ciliary process distance (TCPD. The angles were further segregated as "narrow angles" (Schaffer′s Grade 2 or less and "open angles" (Schaffer′s Grade 3 and 4. Main Outcome Measures: The UBM measurements were computed in each case and analyzed in relation to the gonioscopic angle evaluation. Results: One hundred and sixty three eyes of 163 patients were analyzed. One hundred and six eyes had "narrow angles" and 57 eyes had "open angles" on gonioscopy. There was a significant difference among the mean UBM measurements of each angle grade estimated by gonioscopy ( P < 0.001. The Pearson correlation coefficient between all UBM parameters and gonioscopy grades was significant at the 0.01 level. The mean AOD 250, AOD 500 and TCPD in narrow angles were 58±49 µ, 102±84 µ and 653±124 respectively, while it was 176±47 µ, 291±62 µ and 883±94 µ in eyes with open angles ( P < 0.001 respectively. Conclusions: The angle width estimated by gonioscopy correlated significantly with the angle dimensions measured by UBM. Gonioscopy, though a subjective test, is a reliable method for estimation of the angle width.

  19. Contact angle hysteresis explained.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lichao; McCarthy, Thomas J

    2006-07-04

    A view of contact angle hysteresis from the perspectives of the three-phase contact line and of the kinetics of contact line motion is given. Arguments are made that advancing and receding are discrete events that have different activation energies. That hysteresis can be quantified as an activation energy by the changes in interfacial area is argued. That this is an appropriate way of viewing hysteresis is demonstrated with examples.

  20. The lateral angle revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgan, Jeannie; Lynnerup, Niels; Hoppa, R.D.

    2013-01-01

    measurements taken from computed tomography (CT) scans. Previous reports have observed that the lateral angle size in females is significantly larger than in males. The method was applied to an independent series of 77 postmortem CT scans (42 males, 35 females) to validate its accuracy and reliability...... method appears to be of minimal practical use in forensic anthropology and archeology. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences....

  1. Relationship of carbonic anhydrase Ⅱgene polymorphism with primary open angle glaucoma genetic susceptibility%碳酸酐酶Ⅱ基因多态性与原发性开角型青光眼遗传易感性的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴安黛; 叶锌铭; 高和香; 李俊; 赵晨

    2016-01-01

    Abstract•AIM:To analyze the relationship of carbonic anhydraseⅡ gene polymorphism with primary open angle glaucoma genetic susceptibility.•METHODS:From January 2012 to December 2014, 50 cases in our hospital for treatment of primary open angle glaucoma ( study group ) and 50 cases in outpatient department of our hospital for health examination ( control group ) were tested. The conventional elbow venous blood was taken.The use of polymerase chain reaction ( PCR ) and restriction fragment length polymorphism test were used to detect the characteristics of carbonic anhydraseⅡgene polymorphism.•RESULTS:The locus site of rs3758078 and rs10504813 of the two groups were in line with Hardy -Weinberg equilibrium law ( Hardy -Weinberg equilibrium ) .The results displayed in rs10504813 site, the difference of genotype frequencies between the two groups was not statistically significant ( P>0.05 ) .But the difference in allele frequencies between the two groups was statistical significance (P0.05 ) .After the carbonic anhydrase Ⅱ polymorphism haplotype analysis in the two groups, TAC ( Tracking area code of cell served by neighbor Enb) haplotype carriers appeared lawer risk of primary open-angle glaucoma.•CONCLUSION:There is certain relation between the polymorphism and the risk of carbonic anhydrase primary open -angle glaucoma, and rs3758078 locus balance may be the main reason for low risk; TAC haplotype carriers appear lower risk of primary open angle glaucoma.%目的:分析碳酸酐酶Ⅱ基因多态性与原发性开角型青光眼遗传易感性的关系。方法:选取2012-01/2014-12在丽水市人民医院进行诊治的原发性开角型青光眼患者(观察组)50例与在丽水市人民医院门诊部体检的健康人(对照组)50例进行试验观察,常规肘静脉取血,使用聚合酶链反应和限制性片段长度多态性技术测试碳酸酐酶Ⅱ基因多态性的特点。结果:两组患者在和rs10504813位

  2. LOXL1基因多态性与四川地区原发性开角型青光眼的关联研究%Association between LOXL1 gene polymorphisms and primary open angle glaucoma in Sichuan population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚波; 李秀兰; 李宁; 郝芳; 陈蓉; 曾光群; 张丁丁

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate association between the lysyl oxidase-like 1 (LOXL1)gene single nucleotide polymorphism(SNP) and primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) in Sichuan population.Methods In this study,416 subjects with primary open-angle glaucoma and 997 normal controls were recruited.Three reported LOXL1 tag SNPs (rs1048661,rs3825942 and rs2165241)were genotyped by SNaPshot method.Results The study showed that the genotypes of LOXL1 rs1048661,rs3825942 and rs2165241 between POAG and control groups were not statistically significant (OR=1.085,95%CI 0.92-1.28,P=0.578 for rs1048661 ;OR=1.059,95%CI 0.82-1.37,P=0.846 for rs3825942; OR=1.006,95%CI 0.77-1.32,P=0.966 for rs2165241,respectively).There were no significant difference in allele frequency distribution ofLOXL1 rs1048661、rs3825942 and rs2165241 between POAG and normal controls (P=0.322,P=0.660,P=0.965).Conclusion The results from the present study do not indicate the association of LOXL1 SNPs (rs1048661,rs3825942 and rs2165241)with POAG in Sichuan population.%目的 探讨四川地区原发性开角型青光眼(primary open angle glaucoma,POAG)与LOXL1基因单核苷酸多态性(single nucleotide polymorphism,SNPs)位点rs1048661、rs3825942和rs2165241的关联性.方法 选取416例POAG患者及997名正常对照,采用病例-对照关联研究设计方法,用单碱基延伸(SNaPshot)法对已报道的LOXL1基因的3个标签SNPs位点(rs1048661、rs3825942和rs2165241)进行基因分型.结果 LOXL1基因的3个标签SNPs位点rs1048661、rs3825942和rs2165241的基因型频率在四川地区POAG病例组和对照组间差异无统计学意义(P=0.578、P=0.846、P=0.966),其相应的OR值(95%CI)分别是1.085 (0.92~1.28)、1.059 (0.82~1.37)和1.006(0.77~1.32).这3个位点的等位基因频率在POAG病例组和正常对照组间的差异也均无统计学意义(P=0.322、P=0.660、P=0.965).结论 LOXL1基因SNPs位点rs1048661、rs3825942和rs2165241与四川地区POAG无关联性.

  3. Effects comparison of tree prostaglandin eyedrops in reducing open-angle glaucoma intraocular pressure%不同种类前列腺素类滴眼液治疗原发性开角型青光眼的降眼压效果对比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洪涛

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the effect of latanoprost, travoprost and bimatoprost on the 24 h intraocular pressure (IOP) curve in open-angle glaucoma patients. Methods 78 patients with open-angle glaucoma were randomly divided into 3 groups according to different kinds of administration methods, with 26 cases in each group. GroupⅠ, groupIIand group Ⅲ were treated once daily with latanoprost, travoprost and bimatoprost eyedrops for four weeks,respectively. Be-fore and 4 weeks after the treatment, IOP was measured and compared at 4 time opints in 24 hours. Results There was no difference of IOP before the treatment among the three groups (P > 0.05), but IOP became lower at various time points among the three groups 4 weeks after the treatment, the differences were statistically significant (P0.05). There was no significant difference of IOP a-mong the three groups after 4 weeks' treatment (P>0.05). Conclusion The method is quite obvious by using latanoprost, travoprost and bimatoprost on the IOP in open-angle glaucoma patients.%目的:比较拉坦前列素、曲伏前列素及贝美前列素滴眼液治疗原发性开角型青光眼患者6周后的降眼压的效果.方法选取2012年10月~2013年10月于承德市中心医院门诊就诊的原发性开角型青光眼患者78例(141只眼).将其按照给药方法分为三组,每组均为26例,其中玉组给予拉坦前列素滴眼液(47只眼);域组给予曲伏前列素滴眼液(47只眼);芋组给予贝美前列素滴眼液(47只眼),三组均每日不同时间点滴眼1次,疗程为4周,测量比较三组用药前后的24 h内、不同时间点的眼压以及用药前后4周内眼压.结果三组治疗前眼压比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);三组治疗后24 h内各时间点眼压均明显下降,差异有统计学意义(P0.05);三组用药后4周眼压比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论采用拉坦前列素、曲伏前列素及贝美前列素滴眼液治疗原

  4. Relationship between the Angle of Repose and Angle of Internal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Angle of repose, angle of internal friction, granular materials, triaxial compression ... such a granular material is sharp, making a steep .... study. Therefore, grains had to be condi- tioned to the respective moisture contents by adding ...

  5. Epidemiologic and genetic insights into open-angle glaucoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.D. Ramdas (Wishal)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe eye is a very complex organ with a remarkable architecture (Figure 1). It is responsible for one of the main senses of the human being, in that every living person can observe the world through his/her eyes: “a mirror of life”. Loosing this sense, and thus loss of sight, leads to a s

  6. Compliance to Medical Therapy of Primary Open Angle Glaucoma in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    met the inclusion criteria, and then a standard questionnaire was filled for ... occupation, education / socio-economic status, family history, drugs prescribed ... some eyes may tolerate for long periods a pressure that would rapidly blind another.

  7. 4. Determinants of Primary Open Angle Glaucoma.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RICHY

    continued to cause high disease burden globally and. Zambia is no ... and gender, was used to examine the association between ... age, sex, education and diabetic retinopathy. Females ... the weight of disability associated with POAG.

  8. Open access

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkenburg, P.M.

    2015-01-01

    Open access week Van 19 tot en met 25 oktober 2015 vond wereldwijd de Open Access Week plaats. Tijdens deze week werden er over de hele wereld evenementen georganiseerd waar open access een rol speelt. Ook in Nederland zijn er diverse symposia, workshops en debatten georganiseerd zoals het debat in

  9. Variable angle correlation spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y K [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    In this dissertation, a novel nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique, variable angle correlation spectroscopy (VACSY) is described and demonstrated with {sup 13}C nuclei in rapidly rotating samples. These experiments focus on one of the basic problems in solid state NMR: how to extract the wealth of information contained in the anisotropic component of the NMR signal while still maintaining spectral resolution. Analysis of the anisotropic spectral patterns from poly-crystalline systems reveal information concerning molecular structure and dynamics, yet in all but the simplest of systems, the overlap of spectral patterns from chemically distinct sites renders the spectral analysis difficult if not impossible. One solution to this problem is to perform multi-dimensional experiments where the high-resolution, isotropic spectrum in one dimension is correlated with the anisotropic spectral patterns in the other dimensions. The VACSY technique incorporates the angle between the spinner axis and the static magnetic field as an experimental parameter that may be incremented during the course of the experiment to help correlate the isotropic and anisotropic components of the spectrum. The two-dimensional version of the VACSY experiments is used to extract the chemical shift anisotropy tensor values from multi-site organic molecules, study molecular dynamics in the intermediate time regime, and to examine the ordering properties of partially oriented samples. The VACSY technique is then extended to three-dimensional experiments to study slow molecular reorientations in a multi-site polymer system.

  10. Planejamento pré-operatório e técnica cirúrgica da osteotomia supracondiliana varizante de adição do fêmur para correção do geno valgo e fixação com implante de ângulo fixo Pre-operative planning and surgical technique of the open wedge supracondylar osteotomy for correction of valgus knee and fixation with a fixed-angle implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber Antonio Jansen Paccola

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available É apresentado o planejamento pré-operatório passo a passo da osteotomia de abertura supracondiliana do fêmur para a correção precisa do eixo de carga do membro inferior usando um implante de ângulo fixo (placa lâmina AO 95º. Também é apresentada a técnica cirúrgica e a utilização de enxerto ósseo do próprio local para o preenchimento da falha.The pre-operative planning is presented in a step by step fashion and the surgical technique of the lateral open wedge supracondylar femoral osteotomy for correction of the valgus knee using a fixed angle implant (95º AO angled blade plate. A surgical method for filling in the defect using an autologous bone graft is also presented.

  11. Angle-deviation optical profilometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen-Tai Tan; Yuan-Sheng Chan; Zhen-Chin Lin; Ming-Hung Chiu

    2011-01-01

    @@ We propose a new optical profilometer for three-dimensional (3D) surface profile measurement in real time.The deviation angle is based on geometrical optics and is proportional to the apex angle of a test plate.Measuring the reflectivity of a parallelogram prism allows detection of the deviation angle when the beam is incident at the nearby critical angle. The reflectivity is inversely proportional to the deviation angle and proportional to the apex angle and surface height. We use a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera at the image plane to capture the reflectivity profile and obtain the 3D surface profile directly.%We propose a new optical profilometer for three-dimensional (3D) surface profile measurement in real time.The deviation angle is based on geometrical optics and is proportional to the apex angle of a test plate.Measuring the refiectivity of a parallelogram prism allows detection of the deviation angle when the beam is incident at the nearby critical angle. The refiectivity is inversely proportional to the deviation angle and proportional to the apex angle and surface height. We use a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera at the image plane to capture the refiectivity profile and obtain the 3D surface profile directly.

  12. 基于换相与电流控制对无刷直流电机非理想反电势转矩脉动的控制%The suppression to Torque Ripple of Brushless DC Motor under Non-Ideal Back-EMF Circumstance by Combining the Advance Angle Opened Commutation Method with Current Control Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李劲松; 杨晓武; 李干蓉; 饶有祥

    2012-01-01

      从无刷直流电机转矩脉动产生的原理出发,分析了转矩脉动在非理想反电势情况下产生的原因,并提出通过提前角开通换相法与电流控制相结合的控制策略以减少电磁转矩脉动。仿真结果证明该控制策略能有效地控制由非理想反电势引起的无刷直流电机换向产生的电磁转矩脉动。%  Based on the principle of torque ripple produced brushless DC motor,the article analyzes the reasons for torque ripple under non-ideal Back-EMF circumstance,and puts forward the control strategy that combines the advance angle opened commutation method with current controlling to reduce the electromagnetic torque ripple. The simulation results prove that the control strategy can work effectively to control the electromagnetic torque ripple which produced by brushless DC motor under non-ideal Back-EMF circumstance.

  13. Heterodyne Interferometer Angle Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Inseob; Weilert, Mark A.; Wang, Xu; Goullioud, Renaud

    2010-01-01

    A compact, high-resolution angle measurement instrument has been developed that is based on a heterodyne interferometer. The common-path heterodyne interferometer metrology is used to measure displacements of a reflective target surface. In the interferometer setup, an optical mask is used to sample the measurement laser beam reflecting back from a target surface. Angular rotations, around two orthogonal axes in a plane perpendicular to the measurement- beam propagation direction, are determined simultaneously from the relative displacement measurement of the target surface. The device is used in a tracking telescope system where pitch and yaw measurements of a flat mirror were simultaneously performed with a sensitivity of 0.1 nrad, per second, and a measuring range of 0.15 mrad at a working distance of an order of a meter. The nonlinearity of the device is also measured less than one percent over the measurement range.

  14. Equilibrium contact angle or the most-stable contact angle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes Ruiz-Cabello, F J; Rodríguez-Valverde, M A; Cabrerizo-Vílchez, M A

    2014-04-01

    It is well-established that the equilibrium contact angle in a thermodynamic framework is an "unattainable" contact angle. Instead, the most-stable contact angle obtained from mechanical stimuli of the system is indeed experimentally accessible. Monitoring the susceptibility of a sessile drop to a mechanical stimulus enables to identify the most stable drop configuration within the practical range of contact angle hysteresis. Two different stimuli may be used with sessile drops: mechanical vibration and tilting. The most stable drop against vibration should reveal the changeless contact angle but against the gravity force, it should reveal the highest resistance to slide down. After the corresponding mechanical stimulus, once the excited drop configuration is examined, the focus will be on the contact angle of the initial drop configuration. This methodology needs to map significantly the static drop configurations with different stable contact angles. The most-stable contact angle, together with the advancing and receding contact angles, completes the description of physically realizable configurations of a solid-liquid system. Since the most-stable contact angle is energetically significant, it may be used in the Wenzel, Cassie or Cassie-Baxter equations accordingly or for the surface energy evaluation.

  15. CYP1B1基因突变与原发性开角型青光眼发病关系的研究进展%Study progress in the relationship of CYP1B1 gene mutation with primary open angle glaucoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄一鸿

    2014-01-01

    原发性青光眼包括原发性开角型青光眼(POAG)、原发性闭角型青光眼(PACG)及原发性婴幼儿青光眼(PCG).目前认为原发性青光眼的发病是遗传因素、环境因素、生活习惯等多种因素综合作用的结果,其中遗传因素,尤其是基因突变,在青光眼的发病过程中起着重要作用.自1997年发现CYP1B1基因为PCG的致病基因以来,关于CYP1B1基因突变与青光眼发病关系的研究成为青光眼遗传和基因研究的热点.随着研究的逐渐深入,许多学者认为CYP1B1基因也是POAG致病基因的候选基因.本研究对近十余年来对CYP1 B1基因的结构和功能以及CYP1B1基因突变与POAG发病及进展关系的研究进展进行总结.%Primary glaucoma is a group of blinding eye diseases,including of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG),primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) and primary congenital glaucoma (PCG).It is thought that the pathogenesis of primary glaucoma is a comprehensive action of genetic factor,environment factor and life style,and the genetic factor plays an important role.CYP1B1 gene was firstly identified as a causal gene for PCG in 1997.After that,thousands of reports on the pathogenesis of POAG focused on CYP1B1 gene mutation.With the developing of research,researches found that CYP1B1 gene to be one of the candidate genes of POAG.The structure and function of CYP1B1 gene,the relationship between CYP1B1 and POAG were reviewed.

  16. Open hardware for open science

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    Inspired by the open source software movement, the Open Hardware Repository was created to enable hardware developers to share the results of their R&D activities. The recently published CERN Open Hardware Licence offers the legal framework to support this knowledge and technology exchange.   Two years ago, a group of electronics designers led by Javier Serrano, a CERN engineer, working in experimental physics laboratories created the Open Hardware Repository (OHR). This project was initiated in order to facilitate the exchange of hardware designs across the community in line with the ideals of “open science”. The main objectives include avoiding duplication of effort by sharing results across different teams that might be working on the same need. “For hardware developers, the advantages of open hardware are numerous. For example, it is a great learning tool for technologies some developers would not otherwise master, and it avoids unnecessary work if someone ha...

  17. Open Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…

  18. Open Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…

  19. Generalization of the Euler Angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor); Shuster, Malcolm D.; Markley, F. Landis

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that the Euler angles can be generalized to axes other than members of an orthonormal triad. As first shown by Davenport, the three generalized Euler axes, hereafter: Davenport axes, must still satisfy the constraint that the first two and the last two axes be mutually perpendicular if these axes are to define a universal set of attitude parameters. Expressions are given which relate the generalized Euler angles, hereafter: Davenport angles, to the 3-1-3 Euler angles of an associated direction-cosine matrix. The computation of the Davenport angles from the attitude matrix and their kinematic equation are presented. The present work offers a more direct development of the Davenport angles than Davenport's original publication and offers additional results.

  20. Localização e freqüência das alterações de campo visual no glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto na estratégia SITA (Swedish Interactive Threshold Algorithm Location and frequency of visual field defects as measured by SITA (Swedish Interactive Threshold Algorithm strategy in primary open angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Cristina Ruegger Nascimento

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Caracterizar os defeitos de campo visual nos exames realizados com o perímetro Humphrey®, estratégia SITA - Swedish Interactive Threshold Algorithm - segundo sua freqüência e localização em pacientes com glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto (GPAA. MÉTODOS: Realizamos análise retrospectiva de 6.200 prontuários. Avaliamos o exame de campo visual dos pacientes que preenchiam os critérios de inclusão e os dividimos em glaucoma leve, moderado e grave de acordo com a classificação de Hodapp. Definimos os seguintes defeitos glaucomatosos: degrau nasal, escotoma paracentral, escotoma arqueado, escotoma Seidel, defeito temporal em cunha, diminuição generalizada de sensibilidade, escotoma anular e campo tubular. Utilizamos diagrama que correlaciona os pontos do campo visual com as regiões do disco óptico e avaliamos as regiões mais acometidas de acordo com a densidade de pontos comprometidos. A análise estatística foi realizada aplicando-se o teste t de Student. RESULTADOS: Selecionamos 152 pacientes com idade média de 66,5±9,6%, sendo 59,9% do sexo feminino. No glaucoma leve o defeito campimétrico mais freqüente foi o degrau nasal superior, seguido respectivamente pelo escotoma paracentral e degrau nasal inferior. A diminuição generalizada de sensibilidade, apesar de rara, ocorreu em 7,8% desses pacientes. A região superior foi mais acometida que a inferior. CONCLUSÃO: O degrau nasal superior e o escotoma paracentral foram os defeitos mais freqüentemente observados no glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto em fase inicial pela estratégia SITA, e o hemicampo superior foi a região mais acometida. A diminuição generalizada de sensibilidade foi defeito glaucomatoso precoce.PURPOSE: To evaluate the frequency, location and pattern of visual field defects as measured by SITA strategy in primary open angle glaucoma (POAG. METHODS: Six thousand and two-hundred charts were reviewed. One hundred and fifty two patients who

  1. Analysis on detecting primary open angle glaucoma based on retinal nerve fiber layer and ganglion cell complex thickness%基于视网膜神经纤维层厚度及神经节细胞复合体诊断POAG的效能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许畅; 毛晓春

    2016-01-01

    目的:比较原发性开角型青光眼( primary open angle glaucoma,POAG)与正常对照组盘周视网膜神经纤维层厚度( retinal nerve fiber layer thickness,RNFL)及黄斑区神经节细胞复合体( ganglion cell complex,GCC)厚度差异,并评价盘周 RNFL 厚度及黄斑 GCC 厚度在 POAG 中的诊断价值。  方法:采用横断面研究。连续的POAG患者56例纳入研究。选择同期年龄、性别、屈光度及眼轴匹配的正常人60名60眼作为正常对照组。用RTVue-100光学相干断层扫描技术( optical coherence tomography,OCT)检测并比较POAG组及对照组盘周RNFL厚度及黄斑GCC厚度。采用受试者工作特征曲线( receiver operating characteristic curve,ROC)及ROC曲线下面积( area under curve,AUC)评价盘周 RNFL 厚度及黄斑 GCC 厚度对青光眼的诊断价值。  结果:POAG组患者盘周所有象限RNFL均薄于正常对照组,差异有统计学意义( P  结论:POAG患者盘周RNFL厚度与黄斑GCC厚度均明显变薄,变薄的盘周RNFL厚度与黄斑GCC厚度与POAG诊断存在相关性。盘周RNFL厚度与黄斑GCC厚度均有较好的诊断价值。%AIM:To investigate the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer ( RNFL ) thickness and the macular ganglion cell complex ( GCC ) thickness in primary open angle glaucoma ( POAG ) eyes and to compare them with normal control eyes, and to evaluate the diagnostic ability of peripapillary RNFL thickness and macular GCC thickness in POAG. ●METHODS:This was a cross-sectional study consisting of 56 POAG patients. The control group consisted of 60 normal subjects (60 eyes) were matched in terms of age, sex, diopter and axial length. The peripapillary RNFL thickness and the macular GCC thickness of POAG eyes and normal control eyes were measured and compared by RTVue-100 optical coherence tomography ( OCT ) . To assess the diagnostic utility of peripapillary RNFL thickness and macular GCC thickness in POAG, receiver operating

  2. A study of the safety and efficacy of travoprost 0.004%/timolol 0.5% ophthalmic solution compared to latanoprost 0.005% and timolol 0.5% dosed concomitantly in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas J Rhee

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Douglas J Rhee1, James H Peace2, Sushanta Mallick3, Theresa A Landry3, Michael VW Bergamini3, and the Study Group*1Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA; 2Diabetic Eye Medical Clinic, Inglewood, CA, USA; 3Alcon Laboratories, Inc., Ft. Worth, TX, USA; *Study Group members listed in AppendixBackground/Aims: To compare the intraocular pressure (IOP-lowering efficacy of travoprost 0.004%/timolol 0.5% in fixed combination with the unfixed combination of latanoprost 0.005% and timolol 0.5% in open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension patients with IOP levels below 18 mmHg on the unfixed combination of latanoprost 0.005% and timolol 0.5%.Methods: Following a 30-day open-label run-in with latanoprost QD PM and timolol QD AM, subjects with intraocular pressure below 18 mmHg were randomized to continue concomitant latanoprost QD PM and timolol QD AM or switch to travoprost 0.004%/timolol 0.5% QD AM and vehicle QD PM in masked fashion and were followed for 3 months. The primary efficacy endpoint was mean IOP reduction from baseline.Results: There were no clinically relevant or statistically significant differences in mean IOP, mean IOP change from baseline, or percentage IOP change from baseline between the two treatment groups. Between-group differences in mean IOP were within ±0.3 mmHg at all time points (p ≥ 0.384, and between-group differences in mean IOP change from baseline were within ±0.4 mmHg at all time points. Overall, 88% of patients whose IOP was less than 18 mmHg on the unfixed combination of latanoprost and timolol remained well controlled on the same regimen in the masked portion of the study, compared with 92% who remained well controlled after switching to travoprost/timolol.Conclusion: Travoprost 0.004%/timolol 0.5% administered once daily and concomitant administration of timolol 0.5% and latanoprost 0.005% produce similar maintenance of IOP-lowering effect in patients who were previously well

  3. Small angle neutron scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cousin Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS is a technique that enables to probe the 3-D structure of materials on a typical size range lying from ∼ 1 nm up to ∼ a few 100 nm, the obtained information being statistically averaged on a sample whose volume is ∼ 1 cm3. This very rich technique enables to make a full structural characterization of a given object of nanometric dimensions (radius of gyration, shape, volume or mass, fractal dimension, specific area… through the determination of the form factor as well as the determination of the way objects are organized within in a continuous media, and therefore to describe interactions between them, through the determination of the structure factor. The specific properties of neutrons (possibility of tuning the scattering intensity by using the isotopic substitution, sensitivity to magnetism, negligible absorption, low energy of the incident neutrons make it particularly interesting in the fields of soft matter, biophysics, magnetic materials and metallurgy. In particular, the contrast variation methods allow to extract some informations that cannot be obtained by any other experimental techniques. This course is divided in two parts. The first one is devoted to the description of the principle of SANS: basics (formalism, coherent scattering/incoherent scattering, notion of elementary scatterer, form factor analysis (I(q→0, Guinier regime, intermediate regime, Porod regime, polydisperse system, structure factor analysis (2nd Virial coefficient, integral equations, characterization of aggregates, and contrast variation methods (how to create contrast in an homogeneous system, matching in ternary systems, extrapolation to zero concentration, Zero Averaged Contrast. It is illustrated by some representative examples. The second one describes the experimental aspects of SANS to guide user in its future experiments: description of SANS spectrometer, resolution of the spectrometer, optimization of

  4. Genetic correlates of early accelerated infant growth associated with juvenile-onset type 1 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kharagjitsingh, A.V.; de Ridder, M.A.J.; Alizadeh, B.Z.; Veeze, H.J.; Bruining, G.J.; Roep, B.O.; Koeleman, Bobby P.C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We previously showed that accelerated growth predisposing to development of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes (T1D) is restricted to the first year after birth. We assessed whether this phenomenon of increased early growth is associated with variants of two genes, insulin-like growth factor

  5. Hepatitis C virus antibodies in high risk juvenile onset systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikawa, Nádia E; Nascimento, Ana P; Hayata, André L S; Bonfá, Eloisa; Goldenstein-Schainberg, Cláudia

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in high risk juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE). Forty low income JSLE patients (6M:34F; mean age 19±4.4 yrs; mean disease duration 6±3.2 yrs) were studied. Twenty healthy children and adolescents matched for social economical level were included as controls. Anti-HCV tests were performed using a third generation microparticle enzyme immunoassay. Inclusion criterion was low social economical level. The frequencies of anti-HCV antibody were low and comparable between JSLE and control group (2.5% vs. 0, p=1.0). JSLE patients had significantly more risk factors for HCV infection compared to the control group, including immunosuppressive treatment (90% vs. 0, p<0.0001), hospitalization (50% vs. 12.5%, p=0.0006) and invasive procedures (47.5% vs. 12.5%, p=0.001). The observed low frequency of anti-HCV antibodies in high risk JSLE suggests that this virus does not seem to have a relevant role in the pathogenesis of this disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. Juvenile-onset spinal muscular atrophy caused by compound heterozygosity for mutations in the HEXA gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navon, R; Khosravi, R; Melki, J; Drucker, L; Fontaine, B; Turpin, J C; N'Guyen, B; Fardeau, M; Rondot, P; Baumann, N

    1997-05-01

    Progressive proximal muscle weakness is present both in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) type III (Kugelberg-Welander disease) and in GM2 gangliosidosis, diseases that segregate in an autosomal recessive fashion. The SMN gene for SMA and the HEXA gene for GM2 gangliosidosis were investigated in a woman with progressive proximal muscle weakness, long believed to be SMA type III (Kugelberg-Welander type). She and her family underwent biochemical studies for GM2 gangliosidosis. Analysis of SMN excluded SMA. Biochemical studies on GM2 gangliosidosis showed deficiency in hexosaminidase A activity and increased GM2 ganglioside accumulation in the patient's fibroblasts. The HEXA gene was first analyzed for the Gly269-->Ser mutation characteristic for adult GM2 gangliosidosis. Since the patient was carrying the adult mutation heterozygously, all 14 exons and adjacent intron sequences were analyzed. A novel mutation in exon 1 resulting in an A-to-T change in the initiation codon (ATG to TTG) was identified. The adult patient is a compound heterozygote, with each allele containing a different mutation. Although mRNA was transcribed from the novel mutant allele, expression experiments showed no enzyme activity, suggesting that neither the TTG nor an alternative codon serve as an initiation codon in the HEXA gene.

  7. Metabolic factors in the development of retinopathy of juvenile-onset type I diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosla P

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-five patients of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM were investigated for the effect of various metabolic factors on retinopathy. The severity of retinopathy increased with duration and age of onset of IDDM. Degree of glycaemia (fasting blood sugar, FBS was similar in patients with or without retinopathy. All IDDM patients as a group showed severe carbohydrate intolerance with lower basal and post glucose serum immunoreactive insulin (IRI levels and serum C-peptide radioimmunoreactivity (CPR as compared to controls. The insulin secretory response was similar in no retinopathy, mild retinopathy and severe retinopathy groups. Patients with retinopathy had higher incidence of hyperlipidemia but mean serum levels of cholesterol and triglyceride were similar. This study does not suggest a direct relationship between the various metabolic factors studied and retinopathy due to IDDM

  8. Genetic correlates of early accelerated infant growth associated with juvenile-onset type 1 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kharagjitsingh, Av; de Ridder, Maj; Alizadeh, Bz; Veeze, Hj; Bruining, Gj; Roep, Bo; Koeleman, Bobby Pc

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We previously showed that accelerated growth predisposing to development of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes (T1D) is restricted to the first year after birth. We assessed whether this phenomenon of increased early growth is associated with variants of two genes, insulin-like growth factor

  9. Condyloma in pregnancy is strongly predictive of juvenile-onset recurrent respiratory papillomatosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silverberg, Michael J.; Thorsen, Poul; Lindeberg, Henning

    2003-01-01

    risk of disease relative to births without a maternal history of genital warts. In women with genital warts, delivery times of more than 10 hours were associated with a two-fold greater risk of disease. Cesarean delivery was not found to be protective against respiratory papillomatosis, and no other...

  10. Juvenile and juvenile-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients: Clinical characteristics, disease activity and damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasha E. Gheith

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: The existence of differences in clinical phenotype has been confirmed, between JSLE and JO-SLE especially as regards serositis, nephritis and heamatological affection. The disease damage was comparable which denotes that the maximum organ involvement occurs in childhood with an almost stationary course.

  11. Geographical Clustering of Juvenile Onset Systemic Lupus Erythematosus within the Sultanate of Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Al-Zakwani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: While SLE is found worldwide, there is diversity in clinical presentation of the disease according to geographical variations. The aim of this study is to describe geographical distributions of childhood onset SLE within Oman to identify geographical clustering and to compare the demographic, clinical, and immunological characteristics of this cluster against the rest of Oman.Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the hospital charts of 104 consecutive children with childhood onset SLE who were seen in pediatric rheumatology centers in the Sultanate of Oman over a 15-year period between 1995 and 2010.Results: Geographical clustering of childhood onset SLE was identified in Sharqiya region, which constituted 41% (n=43 of all cases in Oman. This cohort of patients had characteristic disease features which consisted of significantly more boys affected with SLE compared to the rest of the country (42% versus 15%; p=0.002. These children also tended to be younger (10.3 versus 16.5 years; p=0.001, diagnosed at an earlier age (6.4 versus 9.4 years; p<0.001 with a stronger family history of SLE (58% versus 33%; p=0.010. These children also had increased incidence of mucocutanous changes (81% versus 62%; p=0.036 and decreased hematological abnormalities (30% versus 51%; p=0.036.Conclusion: We identified geographical clustering of childhood onset SLE to Sharqiya region in Oman which is associated with unique demographical and clinical features. Whether increased prevalence of disease in this region is due to geographical, environmental, ethnic or genetic factors is yet to be determined. However, it is likely to be interplay of known and other unrecognized factors.

  12. Comparison of intraocular pressure reducing effects of three prostaglandin eyedrops in open-angle glaucoma%三种前列腺素类滴眼液治疗原发性开角型青光眼的降眼压效果比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄海荔; 孙兴怀; 肖明

    2011-01-01

    目的 比较拉坦前列素、曲伏前列素及贝美前列素3种前列腺素类滴眼液治疗原发性开角型青光眼患者4周后的24h降眼压效果。方法 病例对照研究。选取2009年1月至6月门诊就诊的原发性开角型青光眼患者63例(63只眼)。其中拉坦前列素组21例(21只眼),曲伏前列素组22例(22只眼),贝美前列素组20例(20只眼),分别使用相应的滴眼液,均为每日滴药1次,共观察4周,测量用药前后的24h眼压曲线。3组间用药前或用药后24h不同时间点眼压值比较采用两因素重复测量的方差分析,眼压波动幅度比较采用单因素方差分析。结果 3组患者用药4周后眼压均明显下降,拉坦前列素组眼压从(18.9±2.1)mm Hg(1mm Hg =0.133 kPa)降至(15.3±2.7)mm Hg,下降幅度(用药前后眼压差值/用药前眼压值)为19.0%;曲伏前列素组眼压从(19.1±3.1)mm Hg降至(15.3 ±2.1)mm Hg,下降幅度为19.4%;贝美前列素组眼压从(18.6±1.9) mm Hg降至(14.9±1.9)mm Hg,下降幅度为19.9%。波幅下降幅度(用药前后波幅差值/用药前波幅值),拉坦前列素组为31.0%,曲伏前列素组为31.1%,贝美前列素组为31.9%。用药前及用药后3组间眼压值随时间点变化差异均无统计学意义(F= 1.501,P=0.110),3组间用药后眼压波幅下降幅度差异无统计学意义(F =0.286,P=0.752)。结论 拉坦前列素、曲伏前列素、贝美前列素3种滴眼液对原发性开角型青光眼的昼夜降眼压效果显著且无明显差别。%Objective To compare the efficacy of latanoprost, travoprost and bimatoprost given in the evening on the 24-hour intraocular pressure (IOP) curve in open-angle glaucoma patients. Methods It was a case-control study. Patients with primary open-angle glaucoma were selected for the present study.Twenty-one, 22 and 20 patients were treated once daily with latanoprost, travoprost and bimatoprost for 4

  13. The Study on Clinical Curative Effect of Timolol and Bimatoprost on Hemorrhage and Open-angle Glaucoma%噻吗洛尔与贝美前列素联合治疗开角型青光眼和高眼压症的临床效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘瑛; 胡丹

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨噻吗洛尔与贝美前列素联合治疗开角型青光眼和高眼压症的临床效果.方法 选择原发性开角型青光眼患者13 例,分为噻吗洛尔组和联合用药组,联合组滴用0.03% 贝美前列腺素每日1次和0.5% 噻吗洛尔每日2次,疗程均为12 周.噻吗洛尔组仅仅使用0.5% 噻吗洛尔每日2次;治疗前、治疗后1月、2月及3月随访,测量眼压并观察眼局部及全身不良反应;对所有患者详细记录治疗前及治疗后用Goldmann 压平眼压计测量的眼压,眼压测定时间为上午8时、11 时,下午4时.结果 用药1个月、2个月、3个月与用药前比较,差异均有统计学意义,P0.05,但A组,平均降压幅度大于B组,且长时间维持眼压水平更为稳定;在一天的各时段,0.03% 的联合用药每日1次的降眼压效果较0.5% 的噻吗洛尔每日2次的降眼压效果明显(P<0.01),两组比较差异有统计学意义,P<0.05,且每日内贝美前列腺素联合组,维持眼压水平更为稳定.结论 噻吗洛尔与贝美前列素联合组降眼压疗效明确,且无明显毒副作用.%Objective:This article aim at exploring clinical curative effect of timolol and bimatoprost on hemorrhage and open-angle glaucoma. Methods: select primary open-angle glaucoma 91 cases were randomly divided into A (bimatoprost) group and B(timolol) group with drops of 0.03% bimatoprost daily 1 times and 0.5% timolol 2 times A day, and treatment are 12 weeks. Before treatment, after treatment, January, February and march, measuring intraocular pressure and observe follow-up eye local and systemic adverse reactions; All of the patients detailed records of before and after treatment with treatment Goldmann planish intraocular pressure measuring intraocular pressure, elevated iop project for measuring time 8:00 a.m., 11, when four in the afternoon. Results: A (bimatoprost) group and B(timolol) group, 1 month, 2 months, 3 months and drug use are compared, differences before

  14. Application of the blue-on-yellow perimetry with visual electrophysiological tests on the early diagnosis of primary open angle glaucoma%蓝黄视野联合图形视觉电生理检查在原发性开角型青光眼早期诊断中应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    海鸥; 安洁

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical value of blue-on-yellow perimetry combined with visual electrophysiology on the early diagnosis of primary open angle glaucoma. Methods Thirty-six(fifty-two eyes) suspected open angle glaucoma served as SOAG group,and thirty-two ( fifty-four eyes) normal subjects served as control group. B/Y P, P-ERG and P-VEP were examined in two groups. Results (1)The mean sensitivity of SOAG group and control group were(16. 39 ± 3. 26) dB and(21. 65 ± 2. 14) dB,there was a significant difference between two groups(t=3. 62,P<0. 01). The mean defect of SOAG group and control group were(4. 32 ± 2. 18) dB and(2. 85 ±1. 83) dB,there was a significant difference between two groups(t=2. 45,P<0. 05). (2)The amplitude and latency of N95 in SOAG group were(8. 16 ± 2. 53) μV and(96. 75 ± 11. 29) ms,and the amplitude and latency of N95 in control groupwere(9.82±2.25) μVand(91.43±9.63) ms.Therewasalsosignificantdifferenceinboththeamplitudeandlatency(t=4. 69,t=3. 15,P<0. 01). (3)The amplitude and latency of P100 in SOAG group were(8. 73 ± 2. 54) μV and(102. 36 ± 3. 29) ms, the amplitude and latency of P100 in control group were(10. 58 ± 2. 26) μV and(98. 28 ± 2. 75) ms. There was significant difference in the amplitude and latency(t=3. 48,2. 24,P<0. 05). Conclusion Blue-on-yellow perimetry combined with the electrophysiologi-cal tests can be used in the early diagnosis of primary open-angle glaucoma.%目的:探讨蓝黄视野和图形视觉电生理检查在原发性开角型青光眼早期诊断中的敏感性,为临床早期诊断提供依据。方法选择36例(52眼)可疑青光眼患者和32例(54眼)正常对照者进行蓝黄视野(B/YP)、图形视网膜点图(P-ERG)和图形视网膜诱发电位( P-VEP)检查。 B/YP采用Humphrey-750型全自动电脑视野计进行检查,P-ERG和P-VEP采用RE-TIscan和RETI-port视觉电生理检查系统进行检测。结果(1)可疑青光眼组中全视网膜光敏度均值为(16.39±3.26) d

  15. Open Source and Open Standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koper, Rob

    2006-01-01

    Publication reference: Koper, R. (2008). Open Source and Open Standards. In J. M. Spector, M. Merrill, J. van Merriënboer & M. P. Driscol (Eds.), Handbook of Research on Educational Communications and Technology (3rd ed., pp. 355-368). New York: Routledge.

  16. From every angle

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2013-01-01

    For nearly 60 years, CERN’s surveyors have measured the Laboratory’s tunnels and caverns both in preparation for the accurate positioning of magnets and detectors, and to plot their shapes, dimensions and other lumps and bumps. Now that they have the very latest 3D laser scanner, nothing will get past them.   A measurement campaign carried out using laser scanners in the ISOLDE Hall. About 15 years ago, the arrival of 3D laser scanners, digital devices which can reconstruct various objects in the form of 3D images, opened the door to a whole host of possibilities in the topography world. These new tools have been used at CERN since 2004 to produce increasingly detailed digital images of the LHC tunnels and experiments. The CERN surveyors’ high-performance laser scanner has become an irreplaceable tool in many instances. It is capable of measuring every 2 millimetres from a distance of 10 metres (and therefore 4 millimetres from a distance of 2...

  17. Role of Optical Coherence Tomography in Assessing Anterior Chamber Angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochupurakal, Reema Thomas; Jha, Kirti Nath; Rajalakshmi, A.R.; Nagarajan, Swathi; Ezhumalai, G.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Gonioscopy is the gold standard in assessing anterior chamber angles. However, interobserver variations are common and there is a need for reliable objective method of assessment. Aim To compare the anterior chamber angle by gonioscopy and Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) in individuals with shallow anterior chamber. Materials and Methods This comparative observational study was conducted in a rural tertiary multi-speciality teaching hospital. A total of 101 eyes of 54 patients with shallow anterior chamber on slit lamp evaluation were included. Anterior chamber angle was graded by gonioscopy using the shaffer grading system. Angles were also assessed by SD-OCT with Trabecular Iris Angle (TIA) and Angle Opening Distance (AOD). Chi-square test, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value to find correlation between OCT parameters and gonioscopy grading. Results Females represented 72.7%. The mean age was 53.93 ±8.24 years and mean anterior chamber depth was 2.47 ± 0.152 mm. Shaffer grade ≤ 2 were identified in 95(94%) superior, 42(41.5%) inferior, 65(64.3%) nasal and 57(56.4%) temporal quadrants. Cut-off values of TIA ≤ 22° and AOD ≤ 290 μm were taken as narrow angles on SD-OCT. TIA of ≤ 22° were found in 88(92.6%) nasal and 87(87%) temporal angles. AOD of ≤ 290 μm was found in 73(76.8%) nasal and 83(83%) temporal quadrants. Sensitivity in detecting narrow angles was 90.7% and 82.2% for TIA and AOD, while specificity was 11.7% and 23.4%, respectively. Conclusion Individuals were found to have narrow angles more with SD-OCT. Sensitivity was high and specificity was low in detecting narrow angles compared to gonioscopy, making it an unreliable tool for screening. PMID:27190851

  18. Open IS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Germonprez, Matt; Crowston, Kevin; Avital, Michel

    2013-01-01

    The collective intelligence and collective action of “open” communities have produced a variety of complex knowledge goods and radical social change. The Information Systems (IS) community has invested significant effort into researching open communities and the ecosystems in which they operate...... therefore seeks to stimulate a thoughtful and dynamic discussion around the proposition that becoming a more open community will enhance the IS discipline’s scholarly inquiry and global impact....

  19. Open IS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Germonprez, Matt; Crowston, Kevin; Avital, Michel

    2013-01-01

    The collective intelligence and collective action of “open” communities have produced a variety of complex knowledge goods and radical social change. The Information Systems (IS) community has invested significant effort into researching open communities and the ecosystems in which they operate...... therefore seeks to stimulate a thoughtful and dynamic discussion around the proposition that becoming a more open community will enhance the IS discipline’s scholarly inquiry and global impact....

  20. Constraining the Jet Structure of Gamma-Ray Bursts from Viewing Angle Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, N; Bartos, I

    2015-01-01

    The angular dependence of emission in gamma-ray bursts (GRB) is of fundamental importance in understanding the underlying physical mechanisms, as well as in multimessenger search efforts. We examine