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Sample records for juvenile white sturgeon

  1. Vulnerability of larval and juvenile white sturgeon to barotrauma: can they handle the pressure?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Richard S.; Cook, Katrina V.; Pflugrath, Brett D.; Rozeboom, Latricia L.; Johnson, Rachelle C.; McLellan, Jason; Linley, Timothy J.; Gao, Yong; Baumgartner, Lee J.; Dowell, Frederick E.; Miller, Erin A.; White, Timothy A.

    2013-07-01

    Techniques were developed to determine which life stages of fish are vulnerable to barotrauma from expansion of internal gases during decompression. Eggs, larvae and juvenile hatchery-reared white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus; up to 91 days post hatch; dph), were decompressed to assess vulnerability to barotrauma and identify initial swim bladder inflation. Barotrauma related injury and mortality were first observed 9 dph, on the same day as initial exogenous feeding. However, barotrauma related injury did not occur again until swim bladder inflation 75 dph (visible from necropsy and x-ray radiographs). Swim bladder inflation was not consistent among individuals, with only 44% being inflated 91 dph. Additionally, swim bladder inflation did not appear to be size dependent among fish ranging in total length from 61-153 mm at 91 dph. The use of a combination of decompression tests and x-ray radiography was validated as a method to determine initial swim bladder inflation and vulnerability to barotrauma. Extending these techniques to other species and life history stages would help to determine fish susceptibility to hydroturbine passage and aid in fish conservation.

  2. Vulnerability of larval and juvenile white sturgeon to barotrauma: can they handle the pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Richard S; Cook, Katrina V; Pflugrath, Brett D; Rozeboom, Latricia L; Johnson, Rachelle C; McLellan, Jason G; Linley, Timothy J; Gao, Yong; Baumgartner, Lee J; Dowell, Frederick E; Miller, Erin A; White, Timothy A

    2013-01-01

    Techniques were developed to determine which life stages of fish are vulnerable to barotrauma from expansion of internal gases during decompression. Eggs, larvae, and juvenile hatchery-reared white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus; up to 91 days post hatch; d.p.h.) were decompressed to assess vulnerability to barotrauma and identify initial swim bladder inflation. Barotrauma-related injury and mortality were first observed 9 d.p.h., on the same day as initial exogenous feeding. However, barotrauma-related injury did not occur again until swim bladder inflation 75 d.p.h. (visible at necropsy and on radiographs). Swim bladder inflation was not consistent among individuals, with only 44% being inflated 91 d.p.h. Additionally, swim bladder inflation did not appear to be size dependent among fish ranging in total length from 61 to 153 mm at 91 d.p.h. The use of a combination of decompression tests and radiography was validated as a method to determine initial swim bladder inflation and vulnerability to barotrauma. Extending these techniques to other species and life-history stages would help to determine the susceptibility of fish to hydro turbine passage and aid in fish conservation.

  3. The interactive effects of selenomethionine and methylmercury on their absorption, disposition, and elimination in juvenile white sturgeon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Susie Shih-Yin; Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Fadel, James G.

    2013-01-01

    in juvenile white sturgeon, a benthic fish species at high risk to exposures of both contaminants. Selenium and Hg were provided as L-selenomethionine (SeMet) and methylmercury (MeHg), respectively. Groups of 10 sturgeon were orally intubated with a single dose of either 0 (control), SeMet (500 µg Se/kg body...... weight; BW), MeHg (850 µg Hg/kg BW), or their combination (Se/Hg; 500 µg Se/kg and 850 µg Hg/kg BW). The blood was repeatedly sampled and urine collected from the fish, over a 48 h post intubation period. At 48 h, the fish were sacrificed for Se and Hg tissue concentration and distribution. The co...

  4. Responses of heat shock protein 70 and caspase-3/7 to dietary selenomethionine in juvenile white sturgeon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weifang Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the responses of juvenile white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus to elevated dietary selenium (Se based on the determination of the RNA/DNA ratio in muscle, heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70, and caspase-3/7 in muscle and/or liver tissues. Four semi-purified test diets were prepared by adding different levels of L-selenomethionine (0, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg diet. The analytical determinations of total Se were 2.2, 19.7, 40.1, and 77.7 mg/kg diet. The sturgeon (initial body weight: 30 ± 2 g; mean ± SEM were raised in indoor tanks provided with flow through freshwater (18–19 °C. There were three replicates for each dietary treatment with 25 fish per replicate. The liver and muscle tissues were collected at 4 and 8 weeks after feeding the test diets. A significant interaction between duration and levels of dietary Se exposures on RNA/DNA ratio in the muscle tissue was detected (P < 0.05. Although there was no significant main effect due to the duration of dietary Se exposures (i.e., 4 weeks versus 8 weeks on muscle RNA/DNA ratio (P ≥ 0.05, the ratio was significantly decreased with increasing dietary Se levels. Significant main effects were caused by the duration and levels of dietary Se exposures on Hsp70 in both the muscle and liver tissues, with significant increases in Hsp70 due to a longer exposure (8 weeks and higher levels (40.1 and 77.7 mg Se/kg diet of dietary Se. The caspase-3/7 activity in the liver were significantly higher in fish fed the diets containing 40.1 and 77.7 mg Se/kg diet than those fed the other diets. The toxic thresholds of Se in the muscle were estimated to be 32.2 and 26.6 mg Se/kg for the depressed specific growth rate and the induced Hsp70 response in muscle, respectively. This result indicated that the Hsp70 response in muscle is a more sensitive biomarker than the SGR of sturgeon for evaluating Se toxicity in white sturgeon. Results of the

  5. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations; White Sturgeon Spawning and Recruitment Evaluation, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rust, Pete; Wakkinen, Virginia (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2005-06-01

    the Set and Jet Program. Sixteen larval fish were collected, but no prejuvenile white sturgeon were collected. Juvenile white sturgeon sampling started July 14, 2003 and continued through September 18, 2003. A total of 330 h of gillnetting effort captured 238 hatchery white sturgeon and three wild white sturgeon.

  6. Columbia River White Sturgeon Genetics and Early Life History: Population Segregation and Juvenile Feeding Behavior, 1987 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brannon, Ernest L.

    1988-06-01

    The geographic area of the genetics study broadly covered the distribution range of sturgeon in the Columbia from below Bonneville Dam at Ilwaco at Lake Roosevelt, the Upper Snake River, and the Kootenai River. The two remote river sections provided data important for enhancement considerations. There was little electrophoretic variation seen among individuals from the Kootenai River. Upper Snake river sturgeon showed a higher percentage of polymorphic loci than the Kootenai fish, but lower than the other areas in the Columbia River we sampled. Sample size was increased in both Lake Roosevelt and at Electrophoretic variation was specific to an individual sampling area in several cases and this shaped our conclusions. The 1987 early life history studies concentrated on the feeding behavior of juvenile sturgeon. The chemostimulant components in prey attractive to sturgeon were examined, and the sensory systems utilized by foraging sturgeon were determined under different environmental conditions. These results were discussed with regard to the environmental changes that have occurred in the Columbia River. Under present river conditions, the feeding mechanism of sturgeon is more restricted to certain prey types, and their feeding range may be limited. In these situations, enhancement measures cannot be undertaken without consideration given to the introduction of food resources that will be readily available under present conditions. 89 refs., 7 figs., 11 tabs.

  7. White Sturgeon Bibliography, 1985 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fickeisen, Duane H. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA)

    1986-03-01

    This bibliography presents citations to the majority of published materials on white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus). The purpose was to assist in planning and implementing research on white sturgeon in the Columbia River system. (ACR)

  8. Radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauble, D.D.; Price, K.R.; Poston, T.M.

    1993-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) review and summarize historical data on radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River, (2) determine present-day radionuclide tissue burdens from different locations in the Columbia River, and (3) compare historical data with current data. We first reviewed and summarized the historical literature on radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Hanford Reach. Field studies were then conducted to evaluate the relationship among sample locations, age/length of white sturgeon, and present radionuclide tissue burdens. Results and comparisons are discussed in the remainder of this report

  9. White Sturgeon Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for WHITE STURGEON contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear...

  10. Lake Roosevelt White Sturgeon Recovery Project : Annual Progress Report, January 2003 – March 2004.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, Matthew D.; McLellan, Jason G. [Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife

    2009-07-15

    This report summarizes catch data collected from white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus in Lake Roosevelt during limited setlining and gill netting activities in the fall of 2003, and documents progress toward development of a U.S. white sturgeon conservation aquaculture program for Lake Roosevelt. From 27-30 October, 42 overnight small mesh gill net sets were made between Marcus and Northport, WA for a total catch of 15 juvenile white sturgeon (275-488 mm FL). All sturgeon captured were of Canadian hatchery origin. These fish had been previously released as sub-yearlings into the Canadian portion (Keenleyside Reach) of the Transboundary Reach of the Columbia River during 2002 and 2003. Most sturgeon (n=14) were caught in the most upstream area sampled (Northport) in low velocity eddy areas. Five fish exhibited pectoral fin deformities (curled or stunted). Growth rates were less than for juvenile sturgeon captured in the Keenleyside Reach but condition factor was similar. Condition factor was also similar to that observed in juvenile sturgeon (ages 1-8) captured in the unimpounded Columbia River below Bonneville Dam between 1987-92. From 10-14 November, 28 overnight setline sets were made in the Roosevelt Reach between the confluence of the Spokane River and Marcus Island for a total catch of 17 white sturgeon (94-213 cm FL). Catch was greatest in the most upstream areas sampled, a distribution similar to that observed during a WDFW setline survey in Lake Roosevelt in 1998. The mean W{sub r} index of 110% for fish captured this year was higher than the mean W{sub r} of 91% for fish captured in 1998. Excellent fish condition hindered surgical examination of gonads as lipid deposits made the ventral body wall very thick and difficult to penetrate with available otoscope specula. Acoustic tags (Vemco model V16 coded pingers, 69 kHz, 48-month life expectancy) were internally applied to 15 fish for subsequent telemetry investigations of seasonal and reproductively

  11. Growth, food consumption, and energy status of juvenile pallid sturgeon fed natural or artificial diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Hilary A.; Chipps, Steven R.; Graeb, Brian D. S.; Klumb, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Stocking of hatchery-raised fish is an important part of the pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus recovery program. In the wild, juvenile pallid sturgeon consume primarily aquatic insects, although little is known about specific dietary needs. In hatchery settings, pallid sturgeon are fed commercial diets that are formulated for salmonids. To compare food consumption, growth, and energy status of pallid sturgeon fed artificial or natural diets, we conducted a laboratory study using 24 juvenile pallid sturgeon (initial fork length 153–236 mm). Pallid sturgeon were fed a daily ration of either commercial pellets (1 mm, slow sinking; 45% protein, 19% fat) or chironomid larvae for 5 wk. Natural-fed pallid sturgeon exhibited a greater specific growth rate (2.12% d−1) than pellet-fed fish (0.06% d−1). Similarly, relative condition was greater for natural-fed sturgeon (Kn = 1.11) than that observed for pellet-fed fish (Kn = 0.87). In contrast, the hepatosomatic index was significantly higher in pellet-fed fish (2.5%), indicating a high lipid diet compared with natural-fed sturgeon (1.4%). Given the importance of natural diets to fish digestion and growth, it is suggested that a more holistic approach be applied in the development of a practical diet for pallid sturgeon that incorporates attributes of natural prey.

  12. Effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and determine status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake Rivers upstream from the McNary Dam. Annual progress report, April 1994--March 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beiningen, K.T.

    1996-03-01

    The author reports on progress from April 1994 through March 1994 of research on white sturgeon in the lower Columbia River. The study began in July 1986 and is a cooperative effort of federal, state and tribal fisheries entities to determine the (1) the status and habitat requirements, and (2) the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the lower Columbia River. This report describes activities conducted during the third year of this contract's second phase. Information was collected, analyzed, and evaluated on subadult and adult life histories, population dynamics, quantity and quality of habitat, and production enhancement strategies. The report is divided into sections that evaluate success of developing and implementing a management plan for white sturgeon; evaluate growth, mortality, and contributions to fisheries of juvenile white sturgeon transplanted from areas downstream; describe the life history and population dynamics of subadult and adult white sturgeon; define habitat requirements for spawning and rearing of white sturgeon and quantify the extent of habitat available; describe reproductive and early life history characteristics of white sturgeon; and quantify physical habitat used by spawning and rearing white sturgeon in the free-flowing portion of the Columbia River

  13. Effects of Mitigative Measures on Productivity of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam; Determine Status and Habitat Requirements of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from the McNary Dam, 1994-1995 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiningen, Kirk T. [Oregon Dept. of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR (US)

    1996-03-01

    The author reports on progress from April 1994 through March 1995 of research on white sturgeon in the lower Columbia River. The study began in July 1986 and is a cooperative effort of federal, state and tribal fisheries entities to determine the (1) the status and habitat requirements, and (2) the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the lower Columbia River. This report describes activities conducted during the third year of this contract's second phase. Information was collected, analyzed, and evaluated on sub-adult and adult life histories, population dynamics, quantity and quality of habitat, and production enhancement strategies. The report is divided into sections that evaluate success of developing and implementing a management plan for white sturgeon; evaluate growth, mortality, and contributions to fisheries of juvenile white sturgeon transplanted from areas downstream; describe the life history and population dynamics of sub-adult a nd adult white sturgeon; define habitat requirements for spawning and rearing of white sturgeon and quantify the extent of habitat available; describe reproductive and early life history characteristics of white sturgeon; and quantify physical habitat used by spawning and rearing white sturgeon in the free-flowing portion of the Columbia River.

  14. Ontogenetic behavior and dispersal of Sacramento River white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus, with a note on body color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kynard, B.; Parker, E.

    2005-01-01

    We studied Sacramento River white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus, in the laboratory to develop a conceptual model of ontogenetic behavior and provide insight into probable behavior of wild sturgeon. After hatching, free embryos initiated a low intensity, brief downstream dispersal during which fish swam near the bottom and were photonegative. The weak, short dispersal style and behavior of white sturgeon free embryos contrasts greatly with the intense, long dispersal style and behavior (photopositive and swimming far above the bottom) of dispersing free embryos of other sturgeon species. If spawned eggs are concentrated within a few kilometers downstream of a spawning site, the adaptive significance of the free embryo dispersal is likely to move fish away from the egg deposition site to avoid predation and reduce fish density prior to feeding. Larvae foraged on the open bottom, swam innate fish dispersal and post-dispersal rearing habitat, which is now highly altered by damming and reservoirs. Sacramento River white sturgeon has a two-step downstream dispersal by the free embryo and juvenile life intervals. Diel activity of all life intervals peaked at night, whether fish were dispersing or foraging. Nocturnal behavior is likely a response to predation, which occurs during both activities. An intense black-tail body color was present on foraging larvae, but was weak or absent on the two life intervals that disperse. Black-tail color may be an adaptation for avoiding predation, signaling among aggregated larvae, or both, but not for dispersal. ?? Springer 2005.

  15. Radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauble, D.D.; Price, K.R.; Poston, T.M.

    1992-09-01

    Although radioactive releases from the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site have been monitored in the environment since the reactors began operating in 1945, recent information regarding historical releases of radionuclides has led to renewed interest in estimating human exposure to radionuclides at Hanford. Knowledge of the fate of radionuclides in some fish species may be important because of the potential for food-chain transfer to humans. White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) were selected for study because they are long-lived, reside year-round in the Hanford Reach, are benthic, and are an important commercial and sport species in the Columbia River. They also have a greater potential for accumulating persistent radionuclides than shorter-lived species with pelagic and/or anadromous life histories. The purpose of our study was to summarize data on historical concentrations of industrial radionuclides in white sturgeon and to collect additional data on current body burdens in the Columbia River

  16. Radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauble, D.D.; Price, K.R.; Poston, T.M.

    1992-09-01

    Although radioactive releases from the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site have been monitored in the environment since the reactors began operating in 1945, recent information regarding historical releases of radionuclides has led to renewed interest in estimating human exposure to radionuclides at Hanford. Knowledge of the fate of radionuclides in some fish species may be important because of the potential for food-chain transfer to humans. White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) were selected for study because they are long-lived, reside year-round in the Hanford Reach, are benthic, and are an important commercial and sport species in the Columbia River. They also have a greater potential for accumulating persistent radionuclides than shorter-lived species with pelagic and/or anadromous life histories. The purpose of our study was to summarize data on historical concentrations of industrial radionuclides in white sturgeon and to collect additional data on current body burdens in the Columbia River.

  17. Radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauble, D.D.; Price, K.R.; Poston, T.M.

    1992-09-01

    Although radioactive releases from the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site have been monitored in the environment since the reactors began operating in 1945, recent information regarding historical releases of radionuclides has led to renewed interest in estimating human exposure to radionuclides at Hanford. Knowledge of the fate of radionuclides in some fish species may be important because of the potential for food-chain transfer to humans. White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) were selected for study because they are long-lived, reside year-round in the Hanford Reach, are benthic, and are an important commercial and sport species in the Columbia River. They also have a greater potential for accumulating persistent radionuclides than shorter-lived species with pelagic and/or anadromous life histories. The purpose of our study was to summarize data on historical concentrations of industrial radionuclides in white sturgeon and to collect additional data on current body burdens in the Columbia River.

  18. Dispersal and survival of stocked juvenile hatchery-reared Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapusta Andrzej

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The post-stocking dispersal of juvenile Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus Mitchill in the Wis3oka River (southern Poland was investigated using biotelemetry. Thirty-five hatchery-reared juvenile A. oxyrinchus were tagged with radio or acoustic transmitters and tracked using mobile surveys and fixed receivers. Daily movement patterns were similar in 2009 and 2010. The sturgeon migrated with a mean speed of 1.42 km h-1 in 2009 and of 2.06 km h-1 in 2010. Migration rate was not regarded as being dependent on juvenile sturgeon size. The confirmed survival of individuals from the two field seasons differed slightly over the course of this study. Short-term survival of A. oxyrinchus was 86.7 and 90% in 2009 and 2010, respectively.

  19. Simulated Impacts of Juvenile Mortality on Gulf of Mexico Sturgeon Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William B. Tate

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We used an age-structured computer model to assess the impact of changes in juvenile mortality on the Gulf of Mexico sturgeon population in the Suwannee River, Florida. We simulated population trends under four levels of annual juvenile mortality (20, 25, 30, and 35%. As the rate of mortality increased, population size decreased, and rates of population growth shifted from positive to negative. Our models indicated that juvenile survival is important to the success of gulf sturgeon populations, and mortality estimates are needed to predict population viability. We suggest that life history studies in estuaries should be conducted, and bycatch rates for commercial fisheries should be quantified to aid in the management and conservation of gulf sturgeon.

  20. Radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauble, D.D.; Price, K.R.; Poston, T.M.

    1993-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) review and summarize historical data on radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River, (2) determine present-day radionuclide tissue burdens from different locations in the Columbia River, and (3) compare historical data with current data. We first reviewed and summarized the historical literature on radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Hanford Reach. Field studies were then conducted to evaluate the relationship among sample locations, age/length of white sturgeon, and present radionuclide tissue burdens. Results and comparisons are discussed in the remainder of this report.

  1. White Sturgeon Management Plan in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams; Nez Perce Tribe, 1997-2005 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nez Perce Tribe Resources Management Staff, (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID)

    2005-09-01

    White sturgeon in the Hells Canyon reach (HCR) of the Snake River are of cultural importance to the Nez Perce Tribe. However, subsistence and ceremonial fishing opportunities have been severely limited as a result of low numbers of white sturgeon in the HCR. Hydrosystem development in the Columbia River Basin has depressed numbers and productivity of white sturgeon in the HCR by isolating fish in impounded reaches of the basin, restricting access to optimal rearing habitats, reducing the anadromous forage base, and modifying early life-history habitats. Consequently, a proactive management plan is needed to mitigate for the loss of white sturgeon production in the HCR, and to identify and implement feasible measures that will restore and rebuild the white sturgeon population to a level that sustains viability and can support an annual harvest. This comprehensive and adaptive management plan describes the goals, objectives, strategies, actions, and expected evaluative timeframes for restoring the white sturgeon population in the HCR. The goal of this plan, which is to maintain a viable, persistent population that can support a sustainable fishery, is supported by the following objectives: (1) a natural, stable age structure comprising both juveniles and a broad spectrum of spawning age-classes; (2) stable or increasing numbers of both juveniles and adults; (3) consistent levels of average recruitment to ensure future contribution to reproductive potential; (4) stable genetic diversity comparable to current levels; (5) a minimum level of abundance of 2,500 adults to minimize extinction risk; and (6) provision of an annual sustainable harvest of 5 kg/ha. To achieve management objectives, potential mitigative actions were developed by a Biological Risk Assessment Team (BRAT). Identified strategies and actions included enhancing growth and survival rates by restoring anadromous fish runs and increasing passage opportunities for white sturgeon, reducing mortality rates

  2. Chronic sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc in laboratory water-only exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Dorman, Rebecca A.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Mebane, Christopher A.; Kunz, James L.; Hardesty, Douglas K.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc to white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was evaluated in water-only exposures started with newly hatched larvae or approximately 1-mo-old juveniles. The 20% effect concentration (EC20) for cadmium from the sturgeon tests was higher than the EC20 from the trout tests, whereas the EC20 for copper, lead, or zinc for the sturgeon were lower than those EC20s for the trout. When the EC20s from the present study were included in compiled toxicity databases for all freshwater species, species mean chronic value for white sturgeon was in a relatively low percentile of the species sensitivity distribution for copper (9th percentile) and in the middle percentile for cadmium (55th percentile), zinc (40th percentile), or lead (50th percentile). However, the species mean chronic value for rainbow trout was in a high percentile for copper, lead, and zinc (∼68th–82nd percentile), but in a low percentile for cadmium (23rd percentile). The trout EC20s for each of the 4 metals and the sturgeon EC20s for cadmium or lead were above US Environmental Protection Agency chronic ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) or Washington State chronic water quality standards (WQS), whereas the sturgeon EC20s for copper or zinc were approximately equal to or below the chronic AWQC and WQS. In addition, acute 50% effect concentrations (EC50s) for copper obtained in the first 4 d of the chronic sturgeon test were below the final acute value used to derive acute AWQC and below acute WQS for copper.

  3. A spatial model of white sturgeon rearing habitat in the lower Columbia River, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatten, J.R.; Parsley, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Concerns over the potential effects of in-water placement of dredged materials prompted us to develop a GIS-based model that characterizes in a spatially explicit manner white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus rearing habitat in the lower Columbia River, USA. The spatial model was developed using water depth, riverbed slope and roughness, fish positions collected in 2002, and Mahalanobis distance (D2). We created a habitat suitability map by identifying a Mahalanobis distance under which >50% of white sturgeon locations occurred in 2002 (i.e., high-probability habitat). White sturgeon preferred relatively moderate to high water depths, and low to moderate riverbed slope and roughness values. The eigenvectors indicated that riverbed slope and roughness were slightly more important than water depth, but all three variables were important. We estimated the impacts that fill might have on sturgeon habitat by simulating the addition of fill to the thalweg, in 3-m increments, and recomputing Mahalanobis distances. Channel filling simulations revealed that up to 9 m of fill would have little impact on high-probability habitat, but 12 and 15 m of fill resulted in habitat declines of ???12% and ???45%, respectively. This is the first spatially explicit predictive model of white sturgeon rearing habitat in the lower Columbia River, and the first to quantitatively predict the impacts of dredging operations on sturgeon habitat. Future research should consider whether water velocity improves the accuracy and specificity of the model, and to assess its applicability to other areas in the Columbia River.

  4. How Low Can You Go? Determining a Size Threshold for Implantation of a New Acoustic Transmitter in Age-0 White Sturgeon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashton, Neil K.; Liss, Stephanie A.; Walker, Ricardo W.; Brown, Richard S.; Klassen, Cheryl; Backhouse, Stephanie; Bates, Phil; Townsend, Richard L.

    2017-01-01

    Telemetry studies are often used to investigate sturgeon habitat use and movement patterns; however, existing acoustic transmitters are generally too large to implant into age-0 sturgeon without harming the fish. Recent development of a miniaturized acoustic transmitter (cylindrical, 0.7 g in air, 24.2 mm long, 5.0 mm diameter) with up to 365 d battery life has the potential to advance our understanding of age-0 sturgeon ecology in rivers and lakes. Prior to use in field studies, it is essential to conduct experiments evaluating potential adverse transmitter effects on fish. We tested transmitter retention, fish survival, and growth of a broad size range of age-0 white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus; 158–277 mm fork length; 26–126 g; 0.6–2.6% transmitter burden) in an 84 d laboratory study, with an ultimate goal of determining a minimum size threshold of sturgeon that can be implanted with this acoustic transmitter. At 84 d post-implantation, transmitter retention and fish survival were 100%. Specific growth rates were reduced at 7 and 14 d post-implantation, resulting in minimum fork length thresholds of 250 and 171 mm, respectively. Juveniles implanted with transmitters regained their growth potential by 28 d post-implantation and no size differences were detected in comparisons with unmarked control fish. This study demonstrates the ability to implant small age-0 sturgeon with high transmitter retention and fish survival, and only minor growth effects. Use of new miniaturized acoustic transmitters may give researchers a means to address questions about young-of-the-year fish recruitment, ecological patterns, and potentially advance conservation management of sturgeon populations.

  5. Substrate and flow characteristics associated with White Sturgeon recruitment in the Columbia River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatten, James R.; Parsley, Michael; Barton, Gary; Batt, Thomas; Fosness, Ryan L.

    2018-01-01

    A study was conducted to identify habitat characteristics associated with age 0+ White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus Richardson, 1863) recruitment in three reaches of the Columbia River Basin: Skamania reach (consistent recruitment), John Day reach (intermittent/inconsistent recruitment), and Kootenai reach (no recruitment). Our modeling approach involved numerous steps. First, we collected information about substrate, embeddedness, and hydrodynamics in each reach. Second, we developed a set of spatially explicit predictor variables. Third, we built two habitat (probability) models with Skamania reach training data where White Sturgeon recruitment was consistent. Fourth, we created spawning maps of each reach by populating the habitat models with in-reach physical metrics (substrate, embeddedness, and hydrodynamics). Fifth, we examined model accuracy by overlaying spawning locations in Skamania and Kootenai reaches with habitat predictions obtained from probability models. Sixth, we simulated how predicted habitat changed in each reach after manipulating physical conditions to more closely match Skamania reach. Model verification confirmed White Sturgeon generally spawned in locations with higher model probabilities in Skamania and Kootenai reaches, indicating the utility of extrapolating the models. Model simulations revealed significant gains in White Sturgeon habitat in all reaches when spring flow increased, gravel/cobble composition increased, or embeddedness decreased. The habitat models appear well suited to assist managers when identifying reach-specific factors limiting White Sturgeon recruitment in the Columbia River Basin or throughout its range.

  6. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, David L.; Kern, J. Chris; Hughes, Michele L. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife)

    2004-02-01

    We report on our progress from April 2002 through March 2003 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam.

  7. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, David L.; Kern, J. Chris; Hughes, Michele L.

    2003-12-01

    We report on our progress from April 2001 through March 2002 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam.

  8. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Recovery Implementation Plan and Schedule; 2005-2010, Technical Report 2004-2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, Paul

    2007-03-01

    sturgeon spawning has been documented during most years from 1990 through 2005. Finally, no larvae and very few wild juveniles have been collected during recent decades despite years of intensive sampling. Concurrently, post-release hatchery reared juveniles (as young as 9 months of age at release) consistently exhibit successful growth and survival (Ireland et al. 2002). Recruitment has failed, in part because fish are currently spawning at sites where or when conditions appear unsuitable for successful incubation and early rearing. Research to date suggests that recruitment failure is caused by egg or larval suffocation, predation and/or other mortality factors associated with these early life stages. A variety of interrelated factors have clearly contributed to the decline of Kootenai white sturgeon; various hypotheses for recruitment failure are not mutually exclusive. Anders et al. (2002) suggested that Kootenai River white sturgeon recruitment failure is likely the result of additive mortality from: (1) increased predation efficiencies due to low turbidity, velocity, and an relative increase in predatory fishes, (2) a reduced number of eggs produced by a dwindling spawning population, and (3) spawning in habitat lacking interstitial space (embryo suffocation). Quite simply, the combined egg and embryo mortality from all biotic and abiotic factors kills more eggs and embryos than the dwindling wild population is currently capable of producing. Thus, natural recruitment failure appears to be caused by some combination of habitat and stock limitation, by the mechanisms mentioned above. Although past research has helped narrow the range of possible causes of natural recruitment failure, the relative significance of each potential impact remains uncertain because multiple ecological, biological, and physical habitat changes occurred simultaneously. This makes it difficult to choose among competing hypotheses and difficult to know where exactly to focus recovery efforts

  9. Kootenai River white sturgeon investigations. Chapter 1: Kootenai River white sturgeon spawning and recruitment evaluation; Annual report, January 1--December 31, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paragamian, V.L.; Kruse, G.; Wakkinen, V.

    1997-09-01

    Test flows for Kootenai River white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus spawning, scheduled for June 1996, were postponed until July. However, an estimated 126% snow pack and unusually heavy precipitation created conditions for sturgeon spawning that were similar to those occurring before construction of Libby Dam. Discharge in the Kootenai River at Bonners Ferry rose to nearly 1,204 m 3 /s (42,500 cfs) during May and water temperature ranged from 5.8 C to 8.4 C (42 F to 47 F). Migration of adult white sturgeon into spawning areas occurred in late May during a rising hydrograph. Discharge and water temperature were rising and had reached approximately 1,077 m 3 /s (38,000 cfs) and 8 C (46 F). Discharge at Bonners Ferry peaked at about 1,397 m 3 /s (49,300 cfs) on June 5. A total of 348 eggs (and one egg shell) were collected with 106,787 h of mat effort during the flow events. The first white sturgeon eggs were collected on June 8 and continued through June 30. Staging of eggs and back-calculating to spawning dates indicated there were at least 18 spawning episodes between June 6 and June 25. Discharge on June 6 was 1,196 m 3 /s (42,200 cfs) and decreased steadily to 850 m 3 /s (30,000 cfs) by June 26. Although sturgeon spawned in the same reach of river that they had during 1994 and 1995, the majority of eggs were found significantly (P = 0.0001) farther upstream than 1994 and 1995 and this in turn may be related to elevation of Kootenay Lake

  10. Use of geometric morphometrics to identify ecophenotypic variation of juvenile Persian sturgeon Acipenser persicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Bakhshalizadeh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Study of phenotypic variation is essential for identifying discrete phenotypic stocks. We sampled immature Persian sturgeon from the eastern and western portion of the southern Caspian Sea to test for morphological differences that could predict the ecophenotypic variation of Persian sturgeon. Geometric morphometric methods were used to quantify body shape. Configuration of landmark coordinates of fish body were scaled, translated and rotated using generalized Procrustes analysis, followed by univariate analysis of variance of resulting shape coordinates to evaluate potential morphological differences between regions. A principal component analysis was carried out to reduce the number of dimensions without the loss of information. The discriminate function analysis was performed to determine the efficacy of body landmarks for discrimination by geographic variants. Within-group linkage was inferred for dendrogram clusters using Pearson correlation distance on the basis of the average linkage method as a complement for discriminate analysis. Principle component analysis revealed that the largest differences were in body size. Most notable were differences in distance between head landmarks and the dorsal fin between eastern and western regions. Fish from the western region exhibited a longer distance from head landmarks to the dorsal fin than fish from the eastern region. Furthermore, the ventral portion of fish from the western region was longer than that of the eastern individuals. These findings show that juvenile Persian sturgeon already possess morphological traits that can be used to discriminate fish from different regions. Furthermore, these differences are discernible in spite of the volume of artificially-inseminated sturgeon larva that have been released during the past 40 years.

  11. Radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeons from the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauble, D.D.; Poston, T.M.

    1994-01-01

    We summarized radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeons Acipenser transmontanus from the Columbia River during a period when several plutonium-production reactors were operating at the Hanford Site in Washington State and compared these values to those measured several years after reactor shutdown. Studies conducted in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River during 1953-1955 indicated that high concentrations of radionuclides (as total beta) were present in some internal organs on the external surface of white sturgeons. Average concentrations were about 1,480 Bq/kg for liver and kidney and exceeded 2,200 Bq/kg for fins and scutes. The principal radionuclides in the tissues of white sturgeons from the Hanford Reach during 1963-1967, the peak reactor operation interval, were 32 P, 65 Zn, and 51 Cr. Average concentrations of 32 P in muscle ranged from 925 to 2,109 Bq/kg and were typically two to seven times greater than 65 Zn. Average concentrations of radionuclides were usually in the order of gut contents much-gt carcass > muscle. Studies from 1989 to 1990 showed that radionuclide concentrations had decreased dramatically in white sturgeon tissue since the time of reactor operation. Maximum concentrations for artificial radionuclides ( 90 Sr, 60 Co, 137 Cs) in muscle and cartilage of white sturgeons in the Columbia River had declined to less than 4 Bq/kg. Formerly abundant radionuclides, including 32 P, 65 Zn, and 51 Cr, could not be detected in recent tissue samples. Further, radionuclide tissue burden in populations of sturgeons from the Hanford Reach and the upstream or downstream reference locations did not differ significantly. 34 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  12. A proteomic analysis of green and white sturgeon larvae exposed to heat stress and selenium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Frédéric; Linares-Casenave, Javier; Doroshov, Serge I.; Kültz, Dietmar

    2012-01-01

    Temperature and selenium are two environmental parameters that potentially affect reproduction and stock recruitment of sturgeon in the San Francisco Bay / Delta Estuary. To identify proteins whose expression is modified by these environmental stressors, we performed a proteomic analysis on larval green and white sturgeons exposed to 18 or 26°C and micro-injected with Seleno-L-Methionine to reach 8 μg g-1 selenium body burden, with L-Methionine as a control. Selenium and high temperature induced mortalities and abnormal morphologies in both species, with a higher mortality in green sturgeon. Larval proteins were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and differential abundances were detected following spot quantitation and hierarchical cluster analysis. In green sturgeon, 34 of 551 protein spots detected on gels showed a variation in abundance whereas in white sturgeon only 9 of 580 protein spots were differentially expressed (P<0.01). Gel replicates were first grouped according to heat treatment. Fifteen of these spots were identified using MALDI TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. Proteins involved in protein folding, protein synthesis, protein degradation, ATP supply and structural proteins changed in abundance in response to heat and/or selenium. 40S ribosomal protein SA, FK506-binding protein 10, 65 kDa regulatory subunit A of protein phosphatase 2, protein disulfide isomerase, stress-induced-phosphoprotein 1, suppression of tumorigenicity 13 and collagen type II alpha 1, were differentially expressed in high temperature treatment only. Serine/arginine repetitive matrix protein 1, creatine kinase, serine peptidase inhibitor Kazal type 5 and HSP90 were sensitive to combined temperature and selenium exposure. Valosin-containing protein, a protein involved in aggresome formation and in protein quality control decreased more than 50% in response to selenium treatment. Potential use of such proteins as biomarkers of environmental stressors in larval sturgeons

  13. White sturgeon mitigation and restoration in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from Bonneville Dam, Annual Progress Report April 2006 - March 2007. Report C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsley, M.J.; Kofoot, P.

    2008-01-01

    Describe reproduction and early life history characteristics of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River between Bonneville and Priest Rapids dams. Define habitat requirements for spawning and rearing white sturgeon and quantify the extent of habitat available in the Columbia River between Bonneville and Priest Rapids dams. Progress updates on young-of-the-year recruitment in Bonneville Reservoir and indices of white sturgeon spawning habitat for 2006 for McNary, John Day, The Dalles, and Bonneville dam tailrace spawning areas.

  14. Ontogeny of salinity tolerance and evidence for seawater-entry preparation in juvenile green sturgeon, Acipenser medirostris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Peter J; McEnroe, Maryann; Forostyan, Tetyana; Cole, Stephanie; Nicholl, Mary M; Hodge, Brian; Cech, Joseph J

    2011-12-01

    We measured the ontogeny of salinity tolerance and the preparatory hypo-osmoregulatory physiological changes for seawater entry in green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris), an anadromous species occurring along the Pacific Coast of North America. Salinity tolerance was measured every 2 weeks starting in 40-day post-hatch (dph) juveniles and was repeated until 100% survival at 34‰ was achieved. Fish were subjected to step increases in salinity (5‰ 12 h(-1)) that culminated in a 72-h exposure to a target salinity, and treatment groups (0, 15, 20, 25, 30, 34‰; and abrupt exposure to 34‰) were adjusted as fish developed. After 100% survival was achieved (134 dph), a second experiment tested two sizes of fish for 28-day seawater (33‰) tolerance, and gill and gastrointestinal tract tissues were sampled. Their salinity tolerance increased and plasma osmolality decreased with increasing size and age, and electron microscopy revealed three types of mitochondria-rich cells: one in fresh water and two in seawater. In addition, fish held on a natural photoperiod in fresh water at 19°C showed peaks in cortisol, thyroid hormones and gill and pyloric ceca Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activities at body sizes associated with seawater tolerance. Therefore, salinity tolerance in green sturgeon increases during ontogeny (e.g., as these juveniles may move down estuaries to the ocean) with increases in body size. Also, physiological and morphological changes associated with seawater readiness increased in freshwater-reared juveniles and peaked at their seawater-tolerant ages and body sizes. Their seawater-ready body size also matched that described for swimming performance decreases, presumably associated with downstream movements. Therefore, juvenile green sturgeon develop structures and physiological changes appropriate for seawater entry while growing in fresh water, indicating that hypo-osmoregulatory changes may proceed by multiple routes in sturgeons.

  15. Gonad organochlorine concentrations and plasma steroid levels in white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) from the Columbia River, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, E.P.; Fitzpatrick, M.S.; Feist, G.W.; Schreck, C.B.; Yates, J.

    2001-01-01

    Sturgeon are an important fishery resource world-wide, providing food and income through commercial, sport, and tribal fisheries. However, sturgeon populations are imperiled in many areas due to overharvest, habitat loss, and pollution. White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) are found along the west coast of North America from San Francisco Bay, USA to British Columbia, Canada. The Columbia River, located in the Pacific Northwest USA, supports active commercial, sport, and tribal white sturgeon fisheries. The white sturgeon fishery in the Columbia River estuary is one of the most productive sturgeon fisheries in the World. Despite the success of the Columbia River estuary white sturgeon fishery, the populations within the impounded sections (i.e. behind the hydroelectric dams) of the Columbia River experience poor reproductive success (Beamesderfer et al. 1995). This poor reproductive success has been attributed to hydroelectric development, but water pollution could also be a significant factor. The bottom dwelling life history and late maturing reproductive strategy for this species may make it particularly sensitive to the adverse effects of bioaccumulative pollutants.The Columbia River receives effluent from bleached-kraft pulp mills, aluminum smelters, municipal sewage treatment plants and runoff from agricultural. industrial, and urban areas. Bioaccumulative contaminants that have the potential for endocrine disruption have been detected in fish and sediments from the Columbia River (Foster et al. 1999). An integrated system of hormones control reproduction in vertebrates. Plasma steroids direct developmental events essential for reproduction. Disruption of endocrine control by contaminants has been linked to reproductive anomalies and failure in a number of vertebrate species (Guillette et al. 1996; Jobling et al. 1996). Because of this, it is important to understand if organochlorine compounds are accumulating in Columbia River white sturgeon and having

  16. Defining winter trophic habitat of juvenile Gulf Sturgeon in the Suwannee and Apalachicola rivermouth estuaries, acoustic telemetry investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulak, K.J.; Randall, M.T.; Edwards, R.E.; Summers, T.M.; Luke, K.E.; Smith, W.T.; Norem, A.D.; Harden, William M.; Lukens, R.H.; Parauka, F.; Bolden, S.; Lehnert, R.

    2009-01-01

    Three automated listening post-telemetry studies were undertaken in the Suwannee and Apalachicola estuaries to gain knowledge of habitats use by juvenile Gulf Sturgeons (Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi) on winter feeding grounds. A simple and reliable method for external attachment of small acoustic tags to the dorsal fin base was developed using shrink-tubing. Suspending receivers on masts below anchored buoys improved reception and facilitated downloading; a detection range of 500–2500 m was realized. In the Apalachicola estuary, juvenile GS stayed in shallow water (days at a time. For juvenile sturgeons, the stress and metabolic cost of enduring high salinity (Jarvis et al., 2001; McKenzie et al., 2001; Singer and Ballantyne, 2002) for short periods in deep offshore waters seems adaptively advantageous relative to the risk of cold-event mortality in shallow inshore waters of lower salinity. Thus, while juveniles can tolerate high salinities for days to weeks to escape cold events, they appear to make only infrequent use of open polyhaline waters. Throughout the winter foraging period, juvenile GS stayed primarily within the core area of Suwannee River mouth influence, extending about 12 km north and south of the river mouth, and somewhat seaward of Suwannee Reef (< 5 km offshore). None were detected departing the core area past either of the northern or southern acoustic gates, located 66 and 52 km distant from the river mouth, respectively.

  17. Morphometric Characteristics and Length-Weight Relationship of Russian Sturgeon Juveniles Fed with Different Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Cristina ANDREI(GURIENCU

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to analyze some morphometric characteristics and the correlation between them for Russian sturgeon juveniles (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii reared in a recirculating aquaculture system fed at different fed with different ratio: 1% body weight (BW, 1.5% BW, 2% BW and ad libitum feeding (which was around 2.8% BW.Fish, with an average body mass around 248.194 ± 1.59 g. Following biometric measurements were made for each fish, including weight (W, total length (TL, standard length (SL, fork length (FL, maximum body depth (last depth of caudal peduncle, H; preanal distance (AD, predorsal distance (PD, length of head (C, preorbital distance (PO, length of pectoral fin (LPF, interorbital distance (ID, maximum width of head (MH, width of mouth (WM, width of the head at the level of the mouth (WHM. The obtained results showed significant differences between all morphometric measurements (p<0.05 for all the experimental variants, emphasizing that in the ad libitum feeding all morphometric measurements were significantly higher than in the other experimental variants. In order to highlight more eloquent these differences, were developed some linear regressions between the morphometric measurements and significant positive correlation (p<0.05 between dependent and independent variables were found.

  18. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rien, Thomas A.; Hughes, Michele L.; Kern, J. Chris (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Clackamas, OR)

    2006-03-01

    We report on our progress from April 2004 through March 2005 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete; therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported.

  19. White Sturgeon Mitgation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rein, Thomas A.; Hughes, Michele L.; Kern, J. Chris (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Clackamas, OR)

    2005-08-01

    We report on our progress from April 2003 through March 2004 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete; therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported.

  20. Effects of lecithin on growth and hematological indices in juveniles of Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baeri Brandet 1869)

    OpenAIRE

    Najafipour Moghadam, E.; Falahatkar, B.; Kalbassi, M.R.

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of dietary lecithin on growth performance and hematological indices in juveniles of Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baeri). Fish with initial average weight of 32.9±0.3 grams were fed five isoproteic and isolipidic formulated diets with different soybean lecithin levels including 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10% in triplicate groups for 8 weeks. Results showed that lecithin supplementation to 7.5% significantly increased some growth indices such as body w...

  1. Characterization of the contents and histology of the gastrointestinal tracts of White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) captured from Upper Lake Roosevelt, Washington, October 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsley, Michael J.; van der Leeuw, Bjorn K.; Elliott, Diane G.

    2010-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tracts of 37 juvenile white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) captured from the upper part of Lake Roosevelt during October 2008, were examined to identify prey taxa and to determine if the fish were consuming smelter slag along with other sediments. Histological examination of the gastrointestinal tract tissues and comparison with similar tissues from hatchery-reared fish also was performed. The contents of the gastro-intestinal tracts (guts) indicated that white sturgeon were actively foraging on various benthic invertebrates and the diet was quite diverse, with more than 50 percent of the fish feeding on five or more different taxa. Slag was present in 76 percent of the guts examined. Although not all guts contained slag particles, larger fish tended to have greater amounts of slag in their guts. Histology of the gut tissues showed the presence of a chronic inflammatory response, and the severity of the response had a significant positive correlation (P = 0.01) with fish length and weight suggesting that the inflammation represented a response to long-term exposure to one or more stressors. However, additional work is needed to determine if the physical or chemical properties of slag contributed to this response.

  2. White sturgeon mitigation and restoration in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from Bonneville Dam Report C, Annual Progress Report April 2003 - March 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsley, Michael J.; Gadomski, Dena M.; Kofoot, Pete

    2005-01-01

    River discharge and water temperatures that occurred during April through July 2003 provided conditions suitable for spawning by white sturgeon downstream from Bonneville, The Dalles, John Day, and McNary dams. Although optimal spawning temperatures in the four tailraces occurred for less than two weeks, they coincided with a period of relatively high river discharge. Bottom-trawl sampling in Bonneville and The Dalles Reservoirs revealed the presence of young-of-the-year (YOY) white sturgeon in Bonneville Reservoir, but none were captured in The Dalles Reservoir. A comparison of five years of indices of abundance of YOY sturgeon from sampling done by ODFW with gillnets and the USGS with bottom trawls was completed. Despite obvious differences in gear sampling characteristics (e.g. one gear is actively fished, one passively fished), it appears that either gear can be used to assess relative trends in YOY white sturgeon abundance. The analyses suffered due to poor catches of YOY fish, as YOY were only captured in The Dalles Reservoir during three of the five years of comparison sampling, and during only one of four years in John Day Reservoir. However, both gears detected the presence or absence of YOY white sturgeon within a reservoir equally. That is, if any YOY white sturgeon were captured in any year in a reservoir, both gears captured at least one fish, and if one gear failed to collect any YOY white sturgeon, both gears failed. Concerns have been raised that the Wang et al. (1985) egg development relationships for Sacramento River white sturgeon may not be applicable to Columbia Basin stocks. However, using laboratory experiments with white sturgeon eggs incubated at 10, 12, 15, and 18o C, we found no significant differences in development rates of eggs of Columbia, Kootenai, Snake, and Sacramento river fish.

  3. Movement and habitat studies of chinook salmon and white sturgeon. [Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, Acipenser transmontanus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynes, J.M.

    1978-09-01

    Swimming depths of adult chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), in relation to hydroelectric dam created gas supersaturation levels in the Snake River, were evaluated using pressure-sensitive radiofrequency transmitters. Gas saturation levels in spring 1976 ranged from 120 to 130% and chinook salmon depth of travel averaged 6.4 m. In fall 1976 and spring 1977, when gas saturation levels were below 108%, average salmon depths of travel were 3.0 and 4.0 m, respectively. In all cases, average depth of travel was below the critical zone (110% effective saturation), but spring 1976 chinook salmon traveled significantly deeper than fall 1976 and spring 1977 salmon. Internal and external radio transmitter attachment techniques were compared and results indicated the methods are equally reliable given proper insertion and attachment procedures. Percent returning and travel times to upstream dams were compared between equal numbers of radiotagged and spaghetti-anchor tagged control salmon. There were no significant differences in percent return or travel times between control and externally tagged salmon, but procedural difficulties involving internally tagged salmon altered their behavior to preclude such comparisons. Presence and operation of hydroelectric dams delayed salmon passage through the river and appeared to alter upstream migratory behavior. Movements of radiotagged white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) from 1975 through 1977 were highly seasonal, beginning in June and ending in October. River temperatures apparently influenced both seasonal and diurnal movement activities. Movements began in June after water temperatures passed 13/sup 0/C and ceased when temperatures reached 13/sup 0/C (again) in autumn each year. Information derived from sturgeon carrying temperature sensing transmitters, combined with position determinations, indicated apparent diurnal movement cycles for sturgeon.

  4. Physical characteristics of the lower San Joaquin River, California, in relation to white sturgeon spawning habitat, 2011–14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marineau, Mathieu D.; Wright, Scott A.; Whealdon-Haught, Daniel R.; Kinzel, Paul J.

    2017-07-19

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service confirmed that white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) recently spawned in the lower San Joaquin River, California. Decreases in the San Francisco Bay estuary white sturgeon population have led to an increased effort to understand their migration behavior and habitat preferences. The preferred spawning habitat of other white sturgeon (for example, those in the Columbia and Klamath Rivers) is thought to be areas that have high water velocity, deep pools, and coarse bed material. Coarse bed material (pebbles and cobbles), in particular, is important for the survival of white sturgeon eggs and larvae. Knowledge of the physical characteristics of the lower San Joaquin River can be used to preserve sturgeon spawning habitat and lead to management decisions that could help increase the San Francisco Bay estuary white sturgeon population.Between 2011 and 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, assessed selected reaches and tributaries of the lower river in relation to sturgeon spawning habitat by (1) describing selected spawning reaches in terms of habitat-related physical characteristics (such as water depth and velocity, channel slope, and bed material) of the lower San Joaquin River between its confluences with the Stanislaus and Merced Rivers, (2) describing variations in these physical characteristics during wet and dry years, and (3) identifying potential reasons for these variations.The lower San Joaquin River was divided into five study reaches. Although data were collected from all study reaches, three subreaches where the USFWS collected viable eggs at multiple sites in 2011–12 from Orestimba Creek to Sturgeon Bend were of special interest. Water depth and velocity were measured using two different approaches—channel cross sections and longitudinal profiles—and data were collected using an acoustic Doppler current profiler.During the first year of data collection (water

  5. Exposure-related effects of Zequanox on juvenile lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) and lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoma, James A.; Severson, Todd J.; Wise, Jeremy K.; Barbour, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    The environmental fate, persistence, and non-target animal impacts of traditional molluscicides for zebra, Dreissena polymorpha, and quagga, D. bugensis, mussel control led to the development of the biomolluscicide Zequanox. Although previous research has demonstrated the specificity of Zequanox, one study indicated sensitivity of salmonids and lake sturgeon, Acipenser fulvescens, following non-label compliant exposures to Zequanox. This study was conducted to evaluate sublethal and lethal impacts of Zequanox exposure on juvenile lake sturgeon and lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush, following applications that were conducted in a manner consistent with the Zequanox product label. Fish were exposed to 50 or 100 mg/L of Zequanox as active ingredient for 8 h and then held for 33 d to evaluate latent impacts. No acute mortality was observed in either species; however, significant latent mortality (P < 0.01, df = 9; 46.2%) was observed in lake trout that were exposed to the highest dose of Zequanox. Statistically significant (P < 0.03, df = 9), but biologically minimal differences were observed in the weight (range 20.17 to 21.49 g) of surviving lake sturgeon at the termination of the 33 d post-exposure observation period. Statistically significant (P < 0.05, df = 9) and biologically considerable differences were observed in the weight (range 6.19 to 9.55 g) of surviving lake trout at the termination of the 33 d post-exposure observation period. Histologic evaluation of lake trout gastrointestinal tracts suggests that the mode of action in lake trout is different from the mode of action that induces zebra and quagga mussel mortality. Further research could determine the sensitivity of other salmonid species to Zequanox and determine if native fish will avoid Zequanox treated water.

  6. Effect of morphological fin curl on the swimming performance and station-holding ability of juvenile shovelnose sturgeon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deslauriers, David; Johnston, Ryan; Chipps, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the effect of fin-curl on the swimming and station-holding ability of juvenile shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus (mean fork length = 17 cm; mean weight = 16 g; n = 21) using a critical swimming speed test performed in a small swim chamber (90 L) at 20°C. We quantified fin-curl severity using the pectoral fin index. Results showed a positive relationship between pectoral fin index and critical swimming speed indicative of reduced swimming performance displayed by fish afflicted with a pectoral fin index < 8%. Fin-curl severity, however, did not affect the station-holding ability of individual fish. Rather, fish affected with severe fin-curl were likely unable to use their pectoral fins to position their body adequately in the water column, which led to the early onset of fatigue. Results generated from this study should serve as an important consideration for future stocking practices.

  7. Co-infection of Acipenserid herpesvirus 2 (AciHV-2) and Streptococcus iniae in cultured white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Esteban; Richey, Christine; Stevens, Brittany; Yun, Susan; Kenelty, Kirsten; Reichley, Stephen; Griffin, Matt; Kurobe, Tomofumi; Camus, Al

    2017-03-30

    A mortality event in cultured white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus (Richardson, 1836) sub-adults was investigated. After transfer between farms, high mortality was observed in fish, associated with back arching, abnormal swimming, and ulcerative skin lesions. Necropsy of moribund individuals revealed hemorrhagic ascites and petechial hemorrhages in the coelomic peritoneum and serosa of internal organs. Acipenserid herpesvirus 2 (AciHV-2) was isolated from external tissue samples, then identified and genotyped by sequencing of the terminase and polymerase genes. In addition, Streptococcus iniae was recovered from internal organs of affected fish. Histologic changes were limited to interstitial hematopoietic areas of the kidney and consisted of small foci of necrosis accompanied by fibrin deposition, minimal inflammatory response, and small numbers of bacterial cocci compatible with streptococci. Identity was confirmed by partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA, rpoB, and gyrB genes. Genetic fingerprinting demonstrated a genetic profile distinct from S. iniae isolates recovered from previous outbreaks in wild and cultured fish in North America, South America, and the Caribbean. Although the isolates were resistant to white sturgeon complement in serum killing assays, in vivo challenges failed to fulfill Koch's postulates. However, the clinical presentation, coupled with consistent recovery of S. iniae and AciHV-2 from moribund fish, suggests viral and bacterial co-infection were the proximate cause of death. To our knowledge, this represents the first report of AciHV-2 and S. iniae co-infection in cultured white sturgeon.

  8. Acute and chronic sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc in laboratory water-only exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Contributions by Wang, Ning; Calfee, Robin D.; Beahan, Erinn; Brumbaugh, William G.; Dorman, Rebecca A.; Hardesty, Doug K.; Kunz, James L.; Little, Edward E.; Mebane, Christopher A.; Puglis, Holly J.

    2014-01-01

    White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) are experiencing poor recruitment in the trans boundary reach of the upper Columbia River in eastern Washington State. Limited toxicity data indicated that early life stages of white sturgeon are sensitive to metals. In acute 4-day (d) exposures with larval white sturgeon, previous studies have reported that the 4-day median lethal concentrations (LC50) based on biotic ligand model (BLM) normalization for copper were below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency national recommended acute water-quality criterion. In previously published chronic 66-d exposures starting with newly fertilized eggs of white sturgeon, 20-percent lethal effect concentrations (LC20s) for copper, cadmium, or zinc generally were within a factor of two of the chronic values of the most sensitive fish species in the databases of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency water-quality criteria (WQC) for the three metals. However, there were some uncertainties in the chronic exposures previously performed with white sturgeon, including (1) low control survival (37 percent), (2) more control fish tested in each replicate compared to other treatments, (3) limited replication of treatments (n=2), (4) lack of reported growth data (such as dry weight), and (5) wide dilution factors for exposure concentrations (6- to 8-fold dilutions). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency concluded that additional studies are needed to generate more toxicity data to better define lethal and sublethal toxicity thresholds for metals for white sturgeon. The objective of the study was to further evaluate the acute and chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc to early life stages of white sturgeon in water-only exposures. Toxicity tests also were performed with commonly tested rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) under similar test conditions to determine the relative sensitivity between white sturgeon and rainbow trout to these metals. Toxicity data generated from

  9. Sediment cores and chemistry for the Kootenai River White Sturgeon Habitat Restoration Project, Boundary County, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Gary J.; Weakland, Rhonda J.; Fosness, Ryan L.; Cox, Stephen E.; Williams, Marshall L.

    2012-01-01

    The Kootenai Tribe of Idaho, in cooperation with local, State, Federal, and Canadian agency co-managers and scientists, is assessing the feasibility of a Kootenai River habitat restoration project in Boundary County, Idaho. This project is oriented toward recovery of the endangered Kootenai River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) population, and simultaneously targets habitat-based recovery of other native river biota. Projects currently (2010) under consideration include modifying the channel and flood plain, installing in-stream structures, and creating wetlands to improve the physical and biological functions of the ecosystem. River restoration is a complex undertaking that requires a thorough understanding of the river. To assist in evaluating the feasibility of this endeavor, the U.S. Geological Survey collected and analyzed the physical and chemical nature of sediment cores collected at 24 locations in the river. Core depths ranged from 4.6 to 15.2 meters; 21 cores reached a depth of 15.2 meters. The sediment was screened for the presence of chemical constituents that could have harmful effects if released during restoration activities. The analysis shows that concentrations of harmful chemical constituents do not exceed guideline limits that were published by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in 2006.

  10. Status and Habitat Requirements of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam, 1988-1989 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigro, Anthony A. (Oregon Dept. of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR (USA))

    1989-09-01

    We report on our progress from April 1988 through March 1989 on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam. Highlights of results of our work in the Dalles and Bonneville reservoirs are: using setlines, we caught 1,586 sturgeon in The Dalles Reservoir and 484 sturgeon in Bonneville Reservoir in 1988. Fork length of fish caught ranged from 34 cm to 274 cm. Of the fish caught we marked 1,248 in The Dalles Reservoir and 341 in Bonneville Reservoir. Of the fish marked in 1988, we recaptured 82 in The Dalles Reservoir and none in Bonneville Reservoir. We recaptured 89 fish marked in 1987 in The Dalles Reservoir. Anglers recaptured 35 fish marked in 1988 and 16 fish marked in 1987 in The Dalles Reservoir. Anglers recaptured 2 sturgeon marked in 1988 in Bonneville Reservoir. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base.

  11. Relating river discharge and water temperature to the recruitment of age‐0 White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus Richardson, 1836) in the Columbia River using over‐dispersed catch data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counihan, Timothy D.; Chapman, Colin G.

    2018-01-01

    The goals were to (i) determine if river discharge and water temperature during various early life history stages were predictors of age‐0 White Sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus, recruitment, and (ii) provide an example of how over‐dispersed catch data, including data with many zero observations, can be used to better understand the effects of regulated rivers on the productivity of depressed sturgeon populations. An information theoretic approach was used to develop and select negative binomial and zero‐inflated negative binomial models that model the relation of age‐0 White Sturgeon survey data from three contiguous Columbia River reservoirs to river discharge and water temperature during spawning, egg incubation, larval, and post‐larval phases. Age‐0 White Sturgeon were collected with small mesh gill nets in The Dalles and John Day reservoirs from 1997 to 2014 and a bottom trawl in Bonneville Reservoir from 1989 to 2006. Results suggest that seasonal river discharge was positively correlated with age‐0 recruitment; notably that discharge, 16 June–31 July was positively correlated to age‐0 recruitment in all three reservoirs. The best approximating models for two of the three reservoirs also suggest that seasonal water temperature may be a determinant of age‐0 recruitment. Our research demonstrates how over‐dispersed catch data can be used to better understand the effects of environmental conditions on sturgeon populations caused by the construction and operation of dams.

  12. Effects of thermal regime on ovarian maturation and plasma sex steroids in farmed white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, M.A.H.; Van Eenennaam, J. P.; Feist, G.W.; Linares-Casenave, J.; Fitzpatrick, M.S.; Schreck, C.B.; Doroshov, S.I.

    2001-01-01

    Recently, commercial aquaculture farms in Northern California have exposed gravid, cultured white sturgeon females to cold water (12 ?? 1??C) throughout the late phase of vitellogenesis and ovarian follicle maturation resulting in improved ovulation rates and egg quality. However, the optimum timing for transfer of broodfish to the cold water and the capacity of transferred broodfish to maintain reproductive competence over an extended time in cold water had not been evaluated. Gravid white sturgeon females that have been raised at water temperatures of 16-20??C were transported to either cold water (12 ?? 1??C; Group 1) in November 1997 or maintained in ambient water temperatures (10-19??C; Group 2) until early spring. In March 1998, half of the fish in Group 2 had regressed ovaries, but the remaining females had intact ovarian follicles and were transported to the cold water. Ovarian follicles and blood were collected from females until they reached the stage of spawning readiness (determined by germinal vesicle position and an oocyte maturation assay) or underwent ovarian regression. Exposure of gravid sturgeon females to ambient water temperatures (14.5 ?? 2.3??C, mean ?? S.D.) from October to March led to a decrease in plasma sex steroids and a high incidence of ovarian regression in fish with a more advanced stage of oocyte development. Transfer of females with intact ovarian follicles to cold water (12 ?? 1??C) in the fall or early spring resulted in normal ovarian development in the majority of females. Holding females in cold water does not seem to override their endogenous reproductive rhythms but extends their capacity to maintain oocyte maturational competence over a longer period of time. A temperature-sensitive phase in ovarian development may occur during the transition from vitellogenic growth to oocyte maturation, and the degree and timing of sensitivity to environmental temperature are dependent on the female's endogenous reproductive rhythm

  13. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kern, J. Chris; Ward, David L.; Farr, Ruth A. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife)

    2002-02-01

    We report on our progress from April 2000 through March 2001 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW; Report A), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW; Report B), U.S. Geological Survey Biological Resources Division (USGS; Report C), Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC; Report D), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS; Report E), and Oregon State University (OSU; Report F). This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete; therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported. Highlights of results of our work from April 2000 through March 2001 are listed.

  14. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam, 1999-2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, David L. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR)

    2001-04-01

    We report on our progress from April 1999 through March 2000 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW; Report A), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW; Report B), U.S. Geological Survey Biological Resources Division (USGS; Report C), Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC; Report D), and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS; Report E). This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete. Therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported. Highlights of results of our work from April 1999 through March 2000 are given.

  15. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 1998-1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, David L.

    2000-12-01

    The authors report on their progress from April 1998 through March 1999 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW; Report A), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW; Report B), U.S. Geological Survey Biological Resources Division (USGS; Report C), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS; Report D), Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC; Report E), and the University of Idaho (UI; Report F). This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete. Therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported. Highlights of results of our work from April 1998 through March 1999 are given.

  16. Columbia River White Sturgeon (Acipenser Transmontanus) Population Genetics and Early Life History Study, January 1, 1986 to December 31, 1986, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brannon, Ernest L.

    1986-12-01

    The 1986 Columbia River white sturgeon investigations continued to assess genetic variability of sturgeon populations isolated in various areas of the Columbia River, and to examine environmental factors in the habitat that may affect early life history success. Baseline data have been collected for three character sets. Twenty-eight loci have been analyzed for differences using electrophoresis, snout shapes were assessed for multivariate distinction, and scute counts have been examined as an index of variability. Fish that reside in the mid-Columbia and lower river have been sufficiently characterized by electrophoresis to compare with up-river areas. To date, few electrophoretic differences have been identified. However, Lake Roosevelt sturgeon sample size will be increased to determine if some of the observed differences from lower river fish are significant. Snout shape has been shown to be easily quantifiable using the digitizing technique. Scute count data initially indicate that variability exists within as well as between areas. Patterns of differentiation of one or more of these data sets may be used to formulate stock transplant guidelines essential for proper management or enhancement of this species. The historical habitat available to sturgeon in the Columbia River has changed through the development of hydroelectric projects. Dams have reduced the velocity and turbulence, and increased light penetration in the water column from less silt. These changes have affected the ability of sturgeon to feed and have made them more vulnerable to predation, which appear to have altered the ability of populations isolated in the reservoirs to sustain themselves. Present studies support the theory that both the biological and physical habitat characteristics of the Columbia River are responsible for reduced sturgeon survival, and justify consideration of enhancement initiatives above Bonneville to improve sturgeon reproductive success.

  17. Effects of Mitigation Measures on Productivity of the White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam, and Status and Habitat Requirements of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from McNary Dam, 1992-1993 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beamesdorfer, Raymond C.; Nigro, Anthony A. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR)

    1993-12-01

    We report on our progress from April 1992-March 1993 in research on white sturgeon in the lower Columbia River. The study began in July 1986 and progress through 1992 was summarized in a comprehensive report in 2 volumes (Beamesderfer and Nigro 1993a, 1993b). This report details activities during the first year of Phase II of this sturgeon research. In Phase I, we assessed the status and habitat requirements of the white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam. Phase II will examine the effects on white sturgeon productivity of mitigative measures recommended in Phase I. The status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations upstream from McNary Dam will also be examined in Phase II. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Washington Department of Fisheries, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and National Marine Fisheries Service. Work during the past year has focused on: (1) analysis of results of limited sampling conducted in 1992, (2) submission of Phase I results to the peer-review literature to ensure widespread dissemination, clarity of presentation, and credibility of findings, and (3) preparations for additional field work in 1993. In report sections A to D, each agency reports 1992 results if applicable and the current status of manuscripts. Results of field work conducted in 1993 will be reported in the 1994 annual report.

  18. Effects of Dietary Garlic Extracts on Whole Body Amino Acid and Fatty Acid Composition, Muscle Free Amino Acid Profiles and Blood Plasma Changes in Juvenile Sterlet Sturgeon,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hoon Lee

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A series of studies were carried out to investigate the supplemental effects of dietary garlic extracts (GE on whole body amino acids, whole body and muscle free amino acids, fatty acid composition and blood plasma changes in 6 month old juvenile sterlet sturgeon (Acipenser ruthenus. In the first experiment, fish with an average body weight of 59.6 g were randomly allotted to each of 10 tanks (two groups of five replicates, 20 fish/tank and fed diets with (0.5% or without (control GE respectively, at the level of 2% of fish body weight per day for 5 wks. Whole body amino acid composition between the GE and control groups were not different (p>0.05. Among free amino acids in muscle, L-glutamic acid, L-alanine, L-valine, L-leucine and L-phenylalanine were significantly (p0.05 were noticed at 12 h (74.6 vs 73.0. Plasma insulin concentrations (μIU/ml between the two groups were significantly (p<0.05 different at 1 (10.56 vs 5.06 and 24 h (32.56 vs 2.96 after feeding. The present results suggested that dietary garlic extracts could increase dietary glucose utilization through the insulin secretion, which result in improved fish body quality and feed utilization by juvenile sterlet sturgeon.

  19. Status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, annual progress report, July 1986 - March 1987.; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife; Washington Department of Fisheries

    1987-01-01

    Measure 804(e)(8) of the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) Fish and Wildlife Program states that Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) ''shall fund research to determine the impacts of development and operation of the hydroelectric power system on sturgeon in the Columbia River Basin...'' In June 1985, BPA sponsored a workshop to define and list in priority order research needs in the basin (Fickeisen 1985a). In December 1985, BPA submitted a research program implementation plan (Fickeisen 1985b) to the NPPC. The purpose of the plan is to provide guidance for conducting research necessary to address four objectives identified by regional fishery interests for protecting, mitigating and enhancing white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River basin. The plan's objectives are: (1) Assess the current status of Columbia River basin white sturgeon stocks. (2) Provide the basis to evaluate the need for protection, mitigation and enhancement of white sturgeon in the Columbia River system. (3) Provide information that can be used to evaluate potential methods of protection, mitigation and enhancement of existing stocks. (4) Provide tools to assess the effectiveness of protection, mitigation and enhancement efforts

  20. Status and Habitat Requirements of the White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam, 1990-1991 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigro, Anthony A. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR)

    1991-09-01

    We report on our effort from April 1990 to March 1991 to describe the life history and population dynamics of white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus in.John Day Reservoir. We set 1188 set lines and 26 gill nets. We caught 623 white sturgeon with set lines and 236 with gill nets. Catch per unit effort was much higher in areas near the tailrace than in downstream sites. Our setlines were size selective. We recaptured 3 fish released in John Day Reservoir in 1989 and 28 fish released in 1990. Sport and commercial fishermen recovered 62 tags from fish we tagged in Bonneville, The Dalles and John Day reservoirs, 1987-1990. We observed extensive movements of marked sturgeon within the reservoirs. We completed aging of available samples from all three reservoirs from 1987-1990. We aged fish as old as 46 years. Bone marks were observed on 74 of 78 fish previously injected with oxytetracycline and annulus formation was generally complete after June. We estimated parameters in a length-weight equation. About 1.5% of the female white sturgeon we examined to date had early or late vitellogenic eggs and would be expected to spawn the following year.

  1. Status and Habitat Requirements of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam, 1986-1987 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, Jr., George T. (National Marine Fisheries Service, Environmental and Technical Services Division, Portland, OR); Beckman, Lance G. (US Fish and Wildlife Service, Portland, OR); Kreitman, Gayle (Washington Department of Fisheries, Olympia, WA)

    1987-06-01

    Measure 804(e)(8) of the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) Fish and Wildlife Program states that Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) ''shall fund research to determine the impacts of development and operation of the hydroelectric power system on sturgeon in the Columbia River Basin...'' In June 1985, BPA sponsored a workshop to define and list in priority order research needs in the basin (Fickeisen 1985a). In December 1985, BPA submitted a research program implementation plan (Fickeisen 1985b) to the NPPC. The purpose of the plan is to provide guidance for conducting research necessary to address four objectives identified by regional fishery interests for protecting, mitigating and enhancing white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River basin. The plan's objectives are: (1) Assess the current status of Columbia River basin white sturgeon stocks. (2) Provide the basis to evaluate the need for protection, mitigation and enhancement of white sturgeon in the Columbia River system. (3) Provide information that can be used to evaluate potential methods of protection, mitigation and enhancement of existing stocks. (4) Provide tools to assess the effectiveness of protection, mitigation and enhancement efforts.

  2. Status and habitat requirements of the white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigro, A.A.

    1991-09-01

    We report on our progress from April 1990 through March 1991 on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), Washington Department of Fisheries (WDF), US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). Study objectives addressed by each agency are to describe the life history and population dynamics of subadults and adults between Bonneville and McNary dams and evaluate the need and identify potential methods for protecting, mitigating and enhancing populations downstream from NcNary Dam; to describe the white sturgeon recreational fishery between Bonneville and McNary dams, describe reproductive and early life history characteristics downstream from Bonneville Dam and describe life history and population dynamics of subadults and adults downstream from Bonneville Dam; to describe reproduction and early life history characteristics, define habitat requirements for spawning and rearing and quantify extent of habitat available between Bonneville and McNary dams; and to describe reproduction and early life history characteristics, define habitat requirements for spawning and rearing and quantify extent of habitat available downstream from Bonneville Dam. Our approach is to work concurrently downstream and upstream from Bonneville Dam. Upstream from Bonneville Dam we began work in the Dalles Reservoir in 1987 and expanded efforts to Bonneville Reservoir in 1988 and John Day Reservoir in 1989. Highlights of results of this work in the Dalles, Bonneville and John Day reservoirs are included in the four pages included in this report

  3. Toxicity of smelter slag-contaminated sediments from Upper Lake Roosevelt and associated metals to early life stage White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus Richardson, 1836)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, E.E.; Calfee, R.D.; Linder, G.

    2014-01-01

    The toxicity of five smelter slag-contaminated sediments from the upper Columbia River and metals associated with those slags (cadmium, copper, zinc) was evaluated in 96-h exposures of White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus Richardson, 1836) at 8 and 30 days post-hatch. Leachates prepared from slag-contaminated sediments were evaluated for toxicity. Leachates yielded a maximum aqueous copper concentration of 11.8 μg L−1 observed in sediment collected at Dead Man's Eddy (DME), the sampling site nearest the smelter. All leachates were nonlethal to sturgeon that were 8 day post-hatch (dph), but leachates from three of the five sediments were toxic to fish that were 30 dph, suggesting that the latter life stage is highly vulnerable to metals exposure. Fish maintained consistent and prolonged contact with sediments and did not avoid contaminated sediments when provided a choice between contaminated and uncontaminated sediments. White Sturgeon also failed to avoid aqueous copper (1.5–20 μg L−1). In water-only 96-h exposures of 35 dph sturgeon with the three metals, similar toxicity was observed during exposure to water spiked with copper alone and in combination with cadmium and zinc. Cadmium ranging from 3.2 to 41 μg L−1 or zinc ranging from 21 to 275 μg L−1 was not lethal, but induced adverse behavioral changes including a loss of equilibrium. These results suggest that metals associated with smelter slags may pose an increased exposure risk to early life stage sturgeon if fish occupy areas contaminated by slags.

  4. Effects of Mitigative Measures on Productivity of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam; Determine Status and Habitat Requirements of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from McNary Dam, 1995-1996 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rien, Thomas A.; Beiningen, Kirk T. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR)

    1997-07-01

    This project began in July 1986 and is a cooperative effort of federal, state, and tribal fisheries entities to determine (1) the status and habitat requirements, and (2) effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the lower Colombia and Snake rivers.

  5. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; Annual Progress Report, April 2007 - March 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallette, Christine [Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife

    2009-07-28

    We report on our progress from April 2007 through March 2008 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW; Report A), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW; Report B), Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC; Report C), and Montana State University (MSU; Report D). This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete; therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported.

  6. Effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake Rivers upstream from McNary Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beamesderfer, R.C.; Nigro, A.A.

    1993-12-01

    This report details activities during the first year of Phase II of this sturgeon research. In Phase I, the authors assessed the status and habitat requirements of the white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam. Phase II will examine the effects on white sturgeon productivity of mitigative measures recommended in Phase I. The status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations upstream from McNary Dam will also be examined in Phase II. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Washington Department of Fisheries, US Fish and Wildlife Service, and National Marine Fisheries Service. Work during the past year has focused on: (1) analysis of results of limited sampling conducted in 1992, (2) submission of Phase I results to the peer-review literature to ensure widespread dissemination, clarity of presentation, and credibility of findings, and (3) preparation for additional field work in 1993. In report sections A to D, each agency reports 1992 results if applicable and the current status of manuscripts. Results of field work conducted in 1993 will be reported in the 1994 annual report

  7. Status and habitat requirements of the white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam. Volume 2: Supplemental papers and data documentation; Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beamesderfer, R.C.; Nigro, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    This is the final report for research on white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus from 1986--92 and conducted by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), and Washington Department of Fisheries (WDF). Findings are presented as a series of papers, each detailing objectives, methods, results, and conclusions for a portion of this research. This volume includes supplemental papers which provide background information needed to support results of the primary investigations addressed in Volume 1. This study addresses measure 903(e)(1) of the Northwest Power Planning Council's 1987 Fish and Wildlife Program that calls for ''research to determine the impact of development and operation of the hydropower system on sturgeon in the Columbia River Basin.'' Study objectives correspond to those of the ''White Sturgeon Research Program Implementation Plan'' developed by BPA and approved by the Northwest Power Planning Council in 1985. Work was conducted on the Columbia River from McNary Dam to the estuary

  8. Columbia River White Sturgeon (Acipenser Transmontanus) Early Life History and Genertics Study, August 1, 1984 to December 31, 1985 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brannon, Ernest L.

    1985-12-01

    Research on Columbia River white sturgeon has been directed at their early life history as it may apply to production and enhancement strategies for management of the species. The river environment in which sturgeon historically migrated, spawned, and reared has changed through development. Habitat changes are expected to precipitate genetic changes in the fish, as well as reduce the fitness in populations. Genetic analysis of samples taken from various locations over the length of the Columbia River have indicated that observed gene frequencies in all areas sampled were not in Hardy-Weinburg equilibrium, which could suggest that the general population is experiencing perturbation in the system. Analysis thus far has exposed few differences between samples from the lower, middle, and upper portions of the system. Allelic differences were identified in fish from the Roosevelt Lake, which may be evidence of unique characteristics among fish from that general area.

  9. Status of White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus Richardson, 1863) throughout the species range, threats to survival, and prognosis for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, L. R.; Drauch Schreier, Andrea; Lepla, K.; McAdam, S. O.; McLellan, J; Parsley, Michael J.; Paragamian, V L; Young, S P

    2016-01-01

    White Sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus (WS), are distributed throughout three major river basins on the West Coast of North America: the Sacramento-San Joaquin, Columbia, and Fraser River drainages. Considered the largest North American freshwater fish, some WS use estuarine habitat and make limited marine movements between river basins. Some populations are listed by the United States or Canada as threatened or endangered (upper Columbia River above Grand Coulee Dam; Kootenai River; lower, middle and, upper Fraser River and Nechako River), while others do not warrant federal listing at this time (Sacramento-San Joaquin Rivers; Columbia River below Grand Coulee Dam; Snake River). Threats that impact WS throughout the species’ range include fishing effects and habitat alteration and degradation. Several populations suffer from recruitment limitations or collapse due to high early life mortality associated with these threats. Efforts to preserve WS populations include annual monitoring, harvest restrictions, habitat restoration, and conservation aquaculture. This paper provides a review of current knowledge on WS life history, ecology, physiology, behavior, and genetics and presents the status of WS in each drainage. Ongoing management and conservation efforts and additional research needs are identified to address present and future risks to the species.

  10. Status and Habitat Requirements of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam, 1989-1990 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigro, Anthony A. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR)

    1990-09-01

    We report on our progress from April 1989 through March 1990 on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), Washington Department of Fisheries (WDF), US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). Study objectives addressed by each agency are to describe the life history and population dynamics of subadults and adults between Bonneville and McNary dams and evaluate the need and identify potential methods for protecting, mitigating and enhancing populations downstream from McNary Dam, to describe the white sturgeon recreational fishery between Bonneville and McNary dams, describe reproductive and early life history characteristics downstream from Bonneville Dam and describe life history and population dynamics of subadults and adults downstream from Bonneville Dam, to describe reproduction and early life history characteristics, define habitat requirements for spawning and rearing and quantify extent of habitat available between Bonneville and McNary dams, and to describe reproduction and early life history characteristics, define habitat requirements for spawning and rearing and quantify extent of habitat available downstream from Bonneville Dam. Our approach is to work concurrently downstream and upstream from Bonneville Dam. Upstream from Bonneville Dam we began work in the Dalles Reservoir in 1987 and expanded efforts to Bonneville Reservoir in 1988 and John Day Reservoir in 1989. Highlights from this work is also included. 47 refs., 33 figs., 66 tabs.

  11. Effects of temperature and fatigue on the metabolism and swimming capacity of juvenile Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xi; Zhou, Yi-Hong; Huang, Ying-Ping; Guo, Wen-Tao; Johnson, David; Jiang, Qing; Jing, Jin-Jie; Tu, Zhi-Ying

    2017-10-01

    Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) is a critically endangered species. A flume-type respirometer, with video, was used to conduct two consecutive stepped velocity tests at 10, 15, 20, and 25 °C. Extent of recovery was measured after the 60-min recovery period between trials, and the recovery ratio for critical swimming speed (U crit ) averaged 91.88% across temperatures. Temperature (T) effects were determined by comparing U crit , oxygen consumption rate (MO 2 ), and tail beat frequency (TBF) for each temperature. Results from the two trials were compared to determine the effect of exercise. The U crit occurring at 15 °C in both trials was significantly higher than that at 10 and 25 °C (p swimming temperature 3.28 BL/s at 15.96 °C (trial 1) and 2.98 BL/s at 15.85 °C (trial 2). In trial 1, MO 2 increased rapidly with U, but then declined sharply as swimming speed approached U crit . In trial 2, MO 2 increased more slowly, but continuously, to U crit . TBF was directly proportional to U and the slope (dTBF/dU) for trial 2 was significantly lower than that for trial 1. The inverse slope (tail beats per body length, TB/BL) is a measure of swimming efficiency and the significant difference in slopes implies that the exercise training provided by trial 1 led to a significant increase in swimming efficiency in trial 2.

  12. Isolation and characterization of an atypical Siberian sturgeon herpesvirus strain in Russia: novel North American Acipenserid herpesvirus 2 strain in Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doszpoly, A; Kalabekov, I M; Breyta, R; Shchelkunov, I S

    2017-10-01

    Siberian sturgeon herpesvirus (SbSHV) was isolated in Russia for the first time in 2006. Nine SbSHV isolates were recovered from different fish hatcheries producing the same cytopathic effect in cell cultures, the same clinical signs and mortality kinetics in virus-infected fish and the same virus neutralization pattern and shared identical nucleotide sequences. In 2011, a new isolate was recovered from juvenile sturgeon, which caused completely different cytopathic effect. That isolate was not readily neutralized by Siberian sturgeon hyperimmune antisera, and its DNA was not recognized by the routine PCR developed for SbSHV detection. Molecular study of the novel isolate revealed that it was more closely related to North American Acipenserid herpesvirus 2 (AciHV-2) isolates from white sturgeon, while the genome sequences of the former SbSHV isolates showed high similarity to the AciHV-2 isolated from shortnose sturgeon. While clinical signs and mortality caused by the novel isolate in infected Siberian sturgeon were similar to those of the formerly described SbSHV isolates, the incubation period and mean time to death produced by the novel isolate were twice as long. The differences between the former isolates and the recent one suggest that a novel SbSHV strain emerged in Europe and the molecular findings imply its North American origin. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Ontogenetic behavior and migration of Atlantic sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, and shortnose sturgeon, A. brevirostrum, with notes on social behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kynard, B.; Horgan, M.

    2002-01-01

    Ontogenetic behavior of Hudson River Atlantic sturgeon and Connecticut River shortnose sturgeon early life intervals were similar during laboratory observations. After hatching, free embryos were photonegative and sought cover. When embryos developed into larvae, fish left cover, were photopositive, and initiated downstream migration. Free embryos may remain at the spawning site instead of migrating downstream because the risk of predation at spawning sites is low. The two species are sympatric, but not closely related, so the similarities in innate behaviors suggest common adaptations, not phylogenetlc relationship. Atlantic sturgeon migrated downstream for 12 days (peak, first 6 days), shortnose sturgeon migrated for 3 days, and year-0 juveniles of both species did not resume downstream migration. Short or long migrations of larvae may reflect different styles related to the total migratory distance from spawning sites to juvenile rearing areas. Atlantic sturgeon need to move a short distance to reach rearing areas and they had a long 1-step migration of 6-12 days. In contrast, shortnose sturgeon need to move a long distance to reach all rearing areas. This may be accomplished by a 2-step migration, of which the brief migration of larvae is only the first step. Early migrant Atlantic sturgeon were nocturnal, while late migrants were diurnal, and shortnose sturgeon were diurnal. These diel differences may also be adaptations for long (Atlantic sturgeon) or short (shortnose sturgeon) migrations. Cultured shortnose sturgeon, and possibly Atlantic sturgeon, have a dominance hierarchy with large fish dominant when competing for limited foraging space. Social behavior may be more important in the life history of wild sturgeons than is generally recognized.

  14. Effects of Mitigative Measures on Productivity of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam: Determine Status and Habitat Requirements of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from McNary Dam, 1997-1998 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, David L. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR)

    1999-02-01

    The authors report on their progress from April 1997 through March 1998 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW; Report A), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW; Report B), U.S. Geological Survey Biological Resources Division (USGS; Report C), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS; Report D), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS; Report E), and Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC; Report F). This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete. Therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported. Highlights of results of the work from April 1997 through March 1998 listed.

  15. Status and Habitat Requirements of the White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam Volume II; Supplemental Papers and Data Documentation, 1986-1992 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beamesderfer, Raymond C.; Nigro, Anthony A. [Oregon Dept. of Fish and Wildlife, Clackamas, OR (US)

    1995-01-01

    This is the final report for research on white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus from 1986--92 and conducted by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), and Washington Department of Fisheries (WDF). Findings are presented as a series of papers, each detailing objectives, methods, results, and conclusions for a portion of this research. This volume includes supplemental papers which provide background information needed to support results of the primary investigations addressed in Volume 1. This study addresses measure 903(e)(1) of the Northwest Power Planning Council's 1987 Fish and Wildlife Program that calls for ''research to determine the impact of development and operation of the hydropower system on sturgeon in the Columbia River Basin.'' Study objectives correspond to those of the ''White Sturgeon Research Program Implementation Plan'' developed by BPA and approved by the Northwest Power Planning Council in 1985. Work was conducted on the Columbia River from McNary Dam to the estuary.

  16. Management applications of genetic structure of anadromous sturgeon populations in the Lower Danube River (LDR, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ONĂRĂ Dalia Florentina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, the over-exploitation of sturgeon stocks for caviar production simultaneously with severe habitat deteriorations has led to drastic declines in the natural populations of the Danube River. As a result of (i decrease of sturgeon catches from 37.5 tons in year 2002 to 11.8 tons in year 2005, (ii disrupted age class structure of sturgeon adult cohorts in years 2003 and 2004, and (iii lack or low recruitment in the period 2001 – 2004, in 2005 the Romanian Government started the Supportive Stocking Program of Lower Danube River with hatchery-produced young sturgeons in Romania. Subsequently, in 2006 the commercial sturgeon fishing in Romania was banned for a 10-year period. Genetic investigations were undertaken as an attempt to assess the genetic variability of the sturgeon brood fish, captured from the wild, used in two aquaculture facilities in Romania for obtaining juveniles for supportive stocking of LDR with young sturgeons produced by artificial propagation in year 2007. Our data indicate strong genetic diversity in case of stellate sturgeon and lack of diversity within the batch of beluga sturgeon brood fish captured in 2007, analyzed in the current study. Specific measures that could improve the management plan of sturgeon brood fish in the Romanian part of LDR in the light of recent FAO guidelines regarding the sturgeon hatchery practices and management for release were suggested

  17. First insights into the vocal repertoire of infant and juvenile Southern white rhinoceros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, Sabrina N; Boeer, Michael; Scheumann, Marina

    2018-01-01

    Describing vocal repertoires represents an essential step towards gaining an overview about the complexity of acoustic communication in a given species. The analysis of infant vocalisations is essential for understanding the development and usage of species-specific vocalisations, but is often underrepresented, especially in species with long inter-birth intervals such as the white rhinoceros. Thus, this study aimed for the first time to characterise the infant and juvenile vocal repertoire of the Southern white rhinoceros and to relate these findings to the adult vocal repertoire. The behaviour of seven mother-reared white rhinoceros calves (two males, five females) and one hand-reared calf (male), ranging from one month to four years, was simultaneously audio and video-taped at three zoos. Normally reared infants and juveniles uttered four discriminable call types (Whine, Snort, Threat, and Pant) that were produced in different behavioural contexts. All call types were also uttered by the hand-reared calf. Call rates of Whines, but not of the other call types, decreased with age. These findings provide the first evidence that infant and juvenile rhinoceros utter specific call types in distinct contexts, even if they grow up with limited social interaction with conspecifics. By comparing our findings with the current literature on vocalisations of adult white rhinoceros and other solitary rhinoceros species, we discuss to which extent differences in the social lifestyle across species affect acoustic communication in mammals.

  18. First insights into the vocal repertoire of infant and juvenile Southern white rhinoceros

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeer, Michael; Scheumann, Marina

    2018-01-01

    Describing vocal repertoires represents an essential step towards gaining an overview about the complexity of acoustic communication in a given species. The analysis of infant vocalisations is essential for understanding the development and usage of species-specific vocalisations, but is often underrepresented, especially in species with long inter-birth intervals such as the white rhinoceros. Thus, this study aimed for the first time to characterise the infant and juvenile vocal repertoire of the Southern white rhinoceros and to relate these findings to the adult vocal repertoire. The behaviour of seven mother-reared white rhinoceros calves (two males, five females) and one hand-reared calf (male), ranging from one month to four years, was simultaneously audio and video-taped at three zoos. Normally reared infants and juveniles uttered four discriminable call types (Whine, Snort, Threat, and Pant) that were produced in different behavioural contexts. All call types were also uttered by the hand-reared calf. Call rates of Whines, but not of the other call types, decreased with age. These findings provide the first evidence that infant and juvenile rhinoceros utter specific call types in distinct contexts, even if they grow up with limited social interaction with conspecifics. By comparing our findings with the current literature on vocalisations of adult white rhinoceros and other solitary rhinoceros species, we discuss to which extent differences in the social lifestyle across species affect acoustic communication in mammals. PMID:29513670

  19. Characterization of channel substrate, and changes in suspended-sediment transport and channel geometry in white sturgeon spawning habitat in the Kootenai River near Bonners Ferry, Idaho, following the closure of Libby Dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Gary J.

    2004-01-01

    Many local, State, and Federal agencies have concerns over the declining population of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) in the Kootenai River and the possible effects of the closure and subsequent operation of Libby Dam in 1972. In 1994, the Kootenai River white sturgeon was listed as an Endangered Species. A year-long field study was conducted in cooperation with the Kootenai Tribe of Idaho along a 21.7-kilometer reach of the Kootenai River including the white sturgeon spawning reach near Bonners Ferry, Idaho, approximately 111 to 129 kilometers below Libby Dam. During the field study, data were collected in order to map the channel substrate in the white sturgeon spawning reach. These data include seismic subbottom profiles at 18 cross sections of the river and sediment cores taken at or near the seismic cross sections. The effect that Libby Dam has on the Kootenai River white sturgeon spawning substrate was analyzed in terms of changes in suspended-sediment transport, aggradation and degradation of channel bed, and changes in the particle size of bed material with depth below the riverbed. The annual suspended-sediment load leaving the Kootenai River white sturgeon spawning reach decreased dramatically after the closure of Libby Dam in 1972: mean annual pre-Libby Dam load during 1966–71 was 1,743,900 metric tons, and the dam-era load during 1973–83 was 287,500 metric tons. The amount of sand-size particles in three suspended-sediment samples collected at Copeland, Idaho, 159 kilometers below Libby Dam, during spring and early summer high flows after the closure of Libby Dam is less than in four samples collected during the pre-Libby Dam era. The supply of sand to the spawning reach is currently less due to the reduction of high flows and a loss of 70 percent of the basin after the closure of Libby Dam. The river's reduced capacity to transport sand out of the spawning reach is compensated to an unknown extent by a reduced load of sand entering the

  20. Green Sturgeon Acoustic Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database is used to hold tracking data for green sturgeon tagged in Central California. The data collection began in late 2002 and is ongoing.

  1. Juvenile Delinquency and Teenage Pregnancy: A Comparison of Ecological Risk Profiles among Midwestern White and Black Female Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Atika; Cooksey, Elizabeth C.; Gavazzi, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined ecological risk factors associated with teen pregnancy with a sample of 1,190 court-involved female juvenile offenders between 11 and 18 years of age. Data were obtained from five Midwestern juvenile county courts using a recently developed youth risk assessment instrument called the global risk assessment device (GRAD). In…

  2. Juvenile salmonid monitoring in the White Salmon River, Washington, post-Condit Dam removal, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezorek, Ian G.; Hardiman, Jill M.

    2017-06-23

    Condit Dam, at river kilometer 5.3 on the White Salmon River, Washington, was breached in 2011 and removed completely in 2012, allowing anadromous salmonids access to habitat that had been blocked for nearly 100 years. A multi-agency workgroup concluded that the preferred salmonid restoration alternative was natural recolonization with monitoring to assess efficacy, followed by a management evaluation 5 years after dam removal. Limited monitoring of salmon and steelhead spawning has occurred since 2011, but no monitoring of juveniles occurred until 2016. During 2016, we operated a rotary screw trap at river kilometer 2.3 (3 kilometers downstream of the former dam site) from late March through May and used backpack electrofishing during summer to assess juvenile salmonid distribution and abundance. The screw trap captured primarily steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss; smolts, parr, and fry) and coho salmon (O. kisutch; smolts and fry). We estimated the number of steelhead smolts at 3,851 (standard error = 1,454) and coho smolts at 1,093 (standard error = 412). In this document, we refer to O. mykiss caught at the screw trap as steelhead because they were actively migrating, but because we did not know migratory status of O. mykiss caught in electrofishing surveys, we simply refer to them as O. mykiss or steelhead/rainbow trout. Steelhead and coho smolts tagged with passive integrated transponder tags were subsequently detected downstream at Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River. Few Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) fry were captured, possibly as a result of trap location or effects of a December 2015 flood. Sampling in Mill, Buck, and Rattlesnake Creeks (all upstream of the former dam site) showed that juvenile coho were present in Mill and Buck Creeks, suggesting spawning had occurred there. We compared O. mykiss abundance data in sites on Buck and Rattlesnake Creeks to pre-dam removal data. During 2016, age-0 O. mykiss were more abundant in Buck Creek than in 2009 or

  3. Evaluate Potential Means of Rebuilding Sturgeon Populations in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams, 1998 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everett, Scott R.; Tuell, Michael A. (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID)

    2002-03-01

    In 1998 white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) were captured, marked, and population data were collected in the Snake River between Lower Granite Dam and the mouth of the Salmon River. A total of 13,785 hours of setline effort and 389 hours of hook-and-line effort was employed in 1998. Of the 278 white sturgeon captured in the Snake River, 238 were marked for future identification. Three sturgeon were captured in the Salmon River and none were captured in the Clearwater River. Since 1997, 6.9% of the tagged fish have been recovered. Movement of recaptured white sturgeon ranged from 98.5 kilometers downstream to 60.7 kilometers upstream, however, less than 25% of the fish moved more than 16 kilometers (10 miles). In the Snake River, white sturgeon ranged in total length from 51.5 cm to 286 cm and averaged 118.9 cm. Differences were detected in the length frequency distributions of sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir and the free-flowing Snake River (Chi-Square test, P < 0.05). In addition, the proportion of white sturgeon greater than 92 cm (total length) in the free-flowing Snake River has shown an increase of 37% since the 1970's. Analysis of the length-weight relationship indicated that white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir were slightly larger than white sturgeon in the free-flowing Snake River.

  4. 33 CFR 162.125 - Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc. 162.125 Section 162.125 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.125 Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship...

  5. Evaluate Potential Means of Rebuilding Sturgeon Populations in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everett, Scott R.; Tuell, Michael A. (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fishereis Resource Management, Lapwai, ID)

    2003-03-01

    The specific research goal of this project is to identify means to restore and rebuild the Snake River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) population to support a sustainable annual subsistence harvest equivalent to 5 kg/ha/yr (CBFWA 1997). Based on data collected, a white sturgeon adaptive management plan will be developed. This 2000 annual report covers the fourth year of sampling of this multi-year study. In 2000 white sturgeon were captured, marked, and population data were collected in the Snake and Salmon rivers. The Snake River was sampled between Lower Granite Dam (rkm 174) and the mouth of the Salmon River (rkm 303), and the Salmon River was sampled from its mouth upstream to Hammer Creek (rkm 84). A total of 53,277 hours of setline effort and 630 hours of hook-and-line effort was employed in 2000. A total of 538 white sturgeon were captured and tagged in the Snake River and 25 in the Salmon River. Since 1997, 32.8 percent of the tagged white sturgeon have been recaptured. In the Snake River, white sturgeon ranged in total length from 48 cm to 271 cm and averaged 107 cm. In the Salmon River, white sturgeon ranged in total length from 103 cm to 227 cm and averaged 163 cm. Using the Jolly-Seber open population estimator, the abundance of white sturgeon <60 cm, between Lower Granite Dam and the mouth of the Salmon River, was estimated at 2,725 fish, with a 95% confidence interval of 1,668-5,783. A total of 10 white sturgeon were fitted with radio-tags. The movement of these fish ranged from 54.7 km (34 miles) downstream to 78.8 km (49 miles) upstream; however, 43.6 percent of the detected movement was less than 0.8 km (0.5 mile). Both radio-tagged fish and recaptured white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir appear to move more than fish in the free-flowing segment of the Snake River. No seasonal movement pattern was detected, and no movement pattern was detected for different size fish. Differences were detected in the length frequency distributions of

  6. Evaluate Potential Means of Rebuilding Sturgeon Populations in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams, 1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuell, Michael A.; Everett, Scott R. (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID)

    2003-03-01

    The specific research goal of this project is to identify means to restore and rebuild the Snake River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) population to support a sustainable annual subsistence harvest equivalent to 5 kg/ha/yr (CBFWA 1997). Based on data collected, a white sturgeon adaptive management plan will be developed. This 1999 annual report covers the third year of sampling of this multi-year study. In 1999 white sturgeon were captured, marked and population data were collected in the Snake and Salmon rivers. A total of 33,943 hours of setline effort and 2,112 hours of hook-and-line effort was employed in 1999. A total of 289 white sturgeon were captured and tagged in the Snake River and 29 in the Salmon River. Since 1997, 11.1 percent of the tagged white sturgeon have been recaptured. In the Snake River, white sturgeon ranged in total length from 27 cm to 261 cm and averaged 110 cm. In the Salmon River, white sturgeon ranged in total length from 98 cm to 244 cm and averaged 183.5 cm. Using the Jolly-Seber model, the abundance of white sturgeon < 60 cm, between Lower Granite Dam and the mouth of the Salmon River, was estimated at 1,823 fish, with a 95% confidence interval of 1,052-4,221. A total of 15 white sturgeon were fitted with radio-tags. The movement of these fish ranged from 6.4 km (4 miles) downstream to 13.7 km (8.5 miles) upstream; however, 83.6 percent of the detected movement was less than 0.8 kilometers (0.5 miles). Both radio-tagged fish and recaptured white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir appear to move more than fish in the free-flowing segment of the Snake River. No seasonal movement pattern was detected, and no movement pattern was detected for different size fish. Differences were detected in the length frequency distributions of white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir and the free-flowing Snake River (Chi-Square test, P < 0.05). The proportion of white sturgeon greater than 92 cm (total length) in the free-flowing Snake River

  7. Observations on the identification of larval and juvenile Scaphirhynchus spp. in the lower Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartfield, Paul D.; Kuntz, Nathan M.; Schramm, Harold L.

    2013-01-01

    Scaphirhynchus albus (Pallid Sturgeon) and S. platorynchus (Shovelnose Sturgeon) are sympatric and not uncommon in the lower Mississippi River from the confluence of the Ohio River to the Gulf of Mexico, and in its distributary, the Atchafalaya River. Reports of sturgeon larvae have been rare in the Mississippi River but have been increasing with more effective collection methods. A suite of characters identified in hatchery-reared larval Pallid Sturgeon and Shovelnose Sturgeon from the Yellowstone and upper Missouri rivers has been used to distinguish larval Scaphirhynchus spp. In the Mississippi River; however, a large proportion of wild Scaphirhynchus spp. larvae are intermediate in these characters and have been identified by some as hybridized Pallid Sturgeon and Shovelnose Sturgeon. We applied three diagnostic characters developed from Missouri River sturgeon larvae to hatchery-reared progeny of Atchafalaya River Pallid Sturgeon and found them inadequate to identify most of the known Pallid sturgeon larvae. Additionally, fewer than 10% of a large sample of wild Scaphirhynchusspp. larvae from the lower Mississippi River conformed to either Pallid Sturgeon or Shovelnose Sturgeon at two or more of the characters. We also found a small mouth width relative to head width and a concave forward barbel position may be useful for the identification of 30% or more Scaphirhynchus spp. larvae and postlarval young-of-year as Shovelnose Sturgeon. Established adult character indices and diagnostic measurement proportionalities also failed to correctly identify any hatchery-reared Pallid Sturgeon juveniles recaptured 6–7 years following their release.

  8. Evaluate Potential Means of Rebuilding Sturgeon Populations in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams, 1997 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoefs, Nancy (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID)

    2004-02-01

    During 1997 the first phase of the Nez Perce Tribe White Sturgeon Project was completed and the second phase was initiated. During Phase I the ''Upper Snake River White Sturgeon Biological Assessment'' was completed, successfully: (1) compiling regional white sturgeon management objectives, and (2) identifying potential mitigation actions needed to rebuild the white sturgeon population in the Snake River between Hells Canyon and Lower Granite dams. Risks and uncertainties associated with implementation of these potential mitigative actions could not be fully assessed because critical information concerning the status of the population and their habitat requirements were unknown. The biological risk assessment identified the fundamental information concerning the white sturgeon population that is needed to fully evaluate the effectiveness of alternative mitigative strategies. Accordingly, a multi-year research plan was developed to collect specific biological and environmental data needed to assess the health and status of the population and characterize habitat used for spawning and rearing. In addition, in 1997 Phase II of the project was initiated. White sturgeon were captured, marked, and population data were collected between Lower Granite Dam and the mouth of the Salmon River. During 1997, 316 white sturgeon were captured in the Snake River. Of these, 298 were marked. Differences in the fork length frequency distributions of the white sturgeon were not affected by collection method. No significant differences in length frequency distributions of sturgeon captured in Lower Granite Reservoir and the mid- and upper free-flowing reaches of the Snake River were detected. The length frequency distribution indicated that white sturgeon between 92 and 183 cm are prevalent in the reaches of the Snake River that were sampled. However, white sturgeon >183 have not changed markedly since 1970. I would speculate that some factor other than past over

  9. North American sturgeon otolith morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Dittman, Dawn E.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate expedient species identification of deceased sturgeon (Acipenseridae) when external physical characteristic analysis is inconclusive has become a high priority due to the endangered or threatened status of sturgeon species around the world. Examination of otoliths has provided useful information to aid in population management, age and size-class analysis, understanding predator–prey interactions, and archeological research in other fish species. The relationship between otolith characteristics and sturgeon species has remained unknown. Therefore, we analyzed the shape of otoliths from the eight species of sturgeon found in North America to test the utility of otolith characteristic morphology in species identification. There were distinct differences in the size and shape of the otoliths between species of sturgeon with little shape variation among individuals of the same species. The relationship between otolith length axes was linear, and most of the variability was explained by a Log (axis + 1) transformation of the x and y axes (r2 = 0.8983) using the equation y = 0.73x + 0.0612. Images of otoliths from all eight North American species are presented to assist in the identification process.

  10. Potential for electropositive metal to reduce the interactions of Atlantic sturgeon with fishing gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouyoucos, Ian; Bushnell, Peter; Brill, Richard

    2014-02-01

    Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrhynchus) populations have been declared either endangered or threatened under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Effective measures to repel sturgeon from fishing gear would be beneficial to both fish and fishers because they could reduce both fishery-associated mortality and the need for seasonal and area closures of specific fisheries. Some chondrostean fishes (e.g., sturgeons and paddlefishes) can detect weak electric field gradients (possibly as low as 5 Μv/cm) due to arrays of electroreceptors (ampullae of Lorenzini) on their snout and gill covers. Weak electric fields, such as those produced by electropositive metals (typically mixtures of the lanthanide elements), could therefore potentially be used as a deterrent. To test this idea, we recorded the behavioral responses of juvenile Atlantic sturgeon (31-43 cm fork length) to electropositive metal (primarily a mixture of the lanthanide elements neodymium and praseodymium) both in the presence and absence of food stimuli. Trials were conducted in an approximately 2.5 m diameter × 0.3 m deep tank, and fish behaviors were recorded with an overhead digital video camera. Video records were subsequently digitized (x, y coordinate system), the distance between the fish and the electropositive metal calculated, and data summarized by compiling frequency distributions with 5-cm bins. Juvenile sturgeon showed clear avoidance of electropositive metal but only when food was present. On the basis of our results, we conclude that the electropositive metals, or other sources of weak electric fields, may eventually be used to reduce the interactions of Atlantic sturgeon with fishing gear, but further investigation is needed. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  11. Ontogenetic behavior, migration, and social behavior of pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus, and shovelnose sturgeon, S. platorynchus, with notes on the adaptive significance of body color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kynard, B.; Henyey, E.; Horgan, M.

    2002-01-01

    We conducted laboratory studies on the ontogenetic behavior of free embryos (first life interval after hatching) and larvae (first feeding interval) of pallid and shovelnose sturgeon. Migration styles of both species were similar for timing of migration (initiation by embryos on day 0 after hatching and cessation by larvae on days 12-13 at 236-243 cumulative temperature degree units), migration distance (about 13 km), life interval when most distance was moved (embryo), and diel behavior of embryos (diurnal). However, the species differed for two behaviors: movement characteristics of embryos (peak movement rate of pallid sturgeon was only one-half the peak rate of shovelnose sturgeon, but pallid sturgeon continued the lower rate for twice as long) and diel behavior of larvae (pallid sturgeon were diurnal and shovelnose sturgeon were nocturnal). Thus, the species used different methods to move the same distance. Migrating as poorly developed embryos suggests a migration style to avoid predation at the spawning site, but moving from spawning habitat to rearing habitat before first feeding could also be important. Migrants of both species preferred bright habitat (high illumination intensity and white substrate), a behavioral preference that may characterize the migrants of many species of sturgeon. Both species were remarkably similar for swimming height above the bottom by age, and day 7 and older migrants may swim far above the bottom and move far downstream. A migration of 12 or 13 days will probably not distribute larvae throughout the population's range, so an older life interval likely initiates a second longer downstream migration (2-step migration). By day 2, individuals of both species were a black-tail phenotype (light grey body with a black-tail that moved conspicuously during swimming). Aggregation behavior suggests that black-tail is a visual signal used for group cohesion.

  12. Evaluate Potenial Means of Rebuilding Sturgeon Populations in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everett, Scott R.; Tuell, Michael A.; Hesse, Jay A. (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Management, Lapwai, ID)

    2004-02-01

    The specific research goal of this project is to identify means to restore and rebuild the Snake River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) population to support a sustainable annual subsistence harvest equivalent to 5 kg/ha/yr (CBFWA 1997). Based on data collected, a white sturgeon adaptive management plan will be developed. This report presents a summary of results from the 1997-2002 Phase II data collection and represents the end of phase II. From 1997 to 2001 white sturgeon were captured, marked, and population data were collected in the Snake and Salmon. A total of 1,785 white sturgeon were captured and tagged in the Snake River and 77 in the Salmon River. Since 1997, 25.8 percent of the tagged white sturgeon have been recaptured. Relative density of white sturgeon was highest in the free-flowing segment of the Snake River, with reduced densities of fish in Lower Granite Reservoir, and low densities the Salmon River. Differences were detected in the length frequency distributions of white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir, the free-flowing Snake River and the Salmon River (Chi-Square test, P<0.05). The proportion of white sturgeon greater than 92 cm (total length) in the free-flowing Snake River has shown an increase of 30 percent since the 1970's. Using the Jolly-Seber model, the abundance of white sturgeon <60 cm, between Lower Granite Dam and the mouth of the Salmon River, was estimated at 2,483 fish, with a 95% confidence interval of 1,208-7,477. Total annual mortality rate was estimated to be 0.14 (95% confidence interval of 0.12 to 0.17). A total of 35 white sturgeon were fitted with radio-tags during 1999-2002. The movement of these fish ranged from 53 km (33 miles) downstream to 77 km (48 miles) upstream; however, 38.8 percent of the detected movement was less than 0.8 km (0.5 mile). Both radio-tagged fish and recaptured white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir appear to move more than fish in the free-flowing segment of the Snake River. No

  13. Phenological responses of juvenile pecan and white oak on an upland site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecan (Carya illinoiensis) and white oak (Quercus alba) produce multiple products and wildlife values, but their phenological responses to N fertilization have not been well characterized in an mixed species agroforestry practice. We compared tree height at planting and for six consecutive growing ...

  14. Phenological responses of juvenile pecan and white oak on an upland site

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. M. Burner; D. K. Brauer; J. L. Snider; C. A. Harrington; P. A. Moore

    2014-01-01

    Pecan (Carya illinoiensis) and white oak (Quercus alba) produce multiple products and wildlife values, but their phenological responses to N fertilization have not been well characterized. We compared tree growth at planting and for six consecutive growing seasons during establishment (2003–2008, Test 1), and determined if...

  15. Contaminants in Atlantic sturgeon and shortnose sturgeon recovered from the Penobscot and Kennebec rivers, Maine.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — In the Gulf of Maine, the shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) is a federally‐listed endangered species and the Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus) is a...

  16. 77 FR 21890 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Sturgeon Bay, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... Street and Maple-Oregon Bridges so vehicular traffic congestion would not develop on downtown Sturgeon... the efficient movement of vehicular traffic in Sturgeon Bay. The Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal is... experiences a significant increase in vehicular and vessel traffic during the peak tourist and navigation...

  17. 77 FR 44140 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Sturgeon Bay, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ... Maple-Oregon Bridges so vehicular traffic congestion would not develop on downtown Sturgeon Bay streets... movement of vehicular traffic in Sturgeon Bay. The Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal is approximately 8.6 miles long... significant increase in vehicular and vessel traffic during the peak tourist and navigation season between...

  18. Evaluation of a recirculating pond system for rearing juvenile freshwater mussels at White Sulphur Springs National Fish Hatchery, West Virginia, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mummert, A.; Newcomb, T.J.; Neves, R.J.; Parker, B.

    2006-01-01

    A recirculating double-pond system at White Sulphur Springs National Fish Hatchery in West Virginia, U.S.A., was evaluated for suitability for culturing juvenile freshwater mussels. Newly metamorphosed juveniles of Villosa iris and Lampsilis fasciola were placed in the system, and their growth and survival were evaluated for 94 days. Throughout the study, parameters of water quality remained within ranges suitable for mussel survival. Planktonic algal densities in the pond system ranged from 2850 to 6892 cells/ml. Thirty-seven algal taxa were identified, primarily green algae (Chlorophyta), diatoms (Bacillariophyceae), and blue-green algae (Cyanoprokaryota). Over the culture period, juveniles of L. fasciola experienced significantly lower (p fasciola may indicate a failure of the flow-through pond environment to meet its habitat requirements or that variable microhabitat conditions within culture containers existed. Growth did not differ significantly between the species (p = 0.13). Survival of V. iris and growth of both species were similar to previous trials to culture juvenile mussels. Survival rates as high as 66.4% at 93 days for V. iris suggest that juveniles of some riverine species can be successfully cultured in a recirculating pond environment.

  19. Effect of silver nanoparticles on the metabolic rate, hematological response, and survival of juvenile white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez-Moreno, Karla; Mejía-Ruiz, Claudio Humberto; Díaz, Fernando; Reyna-Verdugo, Horacio; Re, Ana Denisse; Vazquez-Felix, Edgar F; Sánchez-Castrejón, Edna; Mota-Morales, Josué D; Pestryakov, Alexey; Bogdanchikova, Nina

    2017-02-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is highly lethal and contagious in shrimps; its outbreaks causes an economic crisis for aquaculture. Several attempts have been made to treat this disease; however, to date, there is no effective cure. Because of their antimicrobial activities, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are the most studied nanomaterial. Although the antiviral properties of AgNPs have been studied, their antiviral effect against viral infection in aquaculture has not been reported. The AgNPs tested herein are coated with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and possess multiple international certifications for their use in veterinary and human applications. The aim of this work was to evaluate the survival rate of juvenile white shrimps (Litopenaeus vannamei) after the intramuscular administration of AgNPs. For this, different concentrations of metallic AgNPs and PVP alone were injected into the organisms. After 96 h of administration, shrimp survival was more than 90% for all treatments. The oxygen consumption routine rate and total hemocyte count remained unaltered after AgNP injection, reflecting no stress caused. We evaluated whether AgNPs had an antiviral effect in shrimps infected with WSSV. The results revealed that the survival rate of WSSV-infected shrimps after AgNP administration was 80%, whereas the survival rate of untreated organisms was only 10% 96 h after infection. These results open up the possibility to explore the potential use of AgNPs as antiviral agents for the treatment of diseases in aquaculture organisms, particularly the WSSV in shrimp culture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Potential of using tropical brown macroalgae sargassum cristaefolium meal in the diets for juvenile white shrimp (litopenaeus vannamei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudaryono, A.; Sukardi, P.; Yudiarti, E.; Hardi, E. H.; Hastuti, S.; Susilowati, T.

    2018-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of different dietary levels of tropical marine brown macroalgae, Sargassum cristaefolium meal (SCM) on growth performance and feed utilization efficiency of juvenile white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (mean initial weight 2.65±0.1 g). The algae were collected from Bandengan Coast, Jepara, Indonesia. The study used a completely randomized design with 5 treatments of dietary different S. cristaefolium meal levels (0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 g algae meal/kg feed) in triplicates. The results showed that the different levels of dietary SCM did not significantly affect (P>0.05) average daily growth (ADG;.204-224 mg/day) and survival (80-97%) of the shrimp after a 42-day feeding period. However, the test diets significantly affected (P<0.05) feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and protein efficiency ratio (PER). Better FCR (2.13) and PER (1.34) was found by the diet with 2% SCM compared to the control diet (no SCM) (FCR 3.42 and PER 0.81). This finding indicates that the supplement of dietary 2% SCM (20 g/kg feed) can increase the feed utilization efficiency up to 62% or reduce the FCR up to 38% without any adverse in growth performance.

  1. Main hematological parameters of sturgeon species (Acipenseridae (review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Simon

    2017-03-01

    fact that the analysis of blood as the most labile system of fish organism, not only clearly reflects the physiological state of the individual in specific conditions of existence, but is also used in genetic and population studies. Thus, the knowledge of the basic patterns of the formation of blood composition of sturgeon fish is necessary for further research in fisheries science. An array of the generalized information will be useful for the creation of replacement broodstocks, assessment of the quality of juveniles, determination of the readiness degree of broodfish for spawning, in ichthyopathological situations at fish farms, etc.

  2. Juvenile growth of white mullet Mugil curema (Teleostei: Mugilidae in a coastal lagoon southwest of the Gulf of California Crecimiento de juveniles de la lisa blanca Mugil curema (Teleostei: Mugilidae en una laguna costera del suroeste del golfo de California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casimiro Quiñonez-Velázquez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Otolith micro structure was used to determine the age and evaluate the growth of juvenile white mullet (Mugil curema during their residence in the coastal lagoon El Conchalito, B.C.S., Mexico, from May 1997 to May 1998. Juveniles were sampled monthly during the full and ebbing phases of the maximum high tide. The juveniles studied were between 16 and 42 mm standard length (SL and from 22 to 109 days old. The Gompertz growth model appropriately described the relationship between age and SL (r = 0.94. The average growth rate was 0.29 mm d-1 between 20 and 110 days of age, which was lower than the growth rate of the juveniles prior to entering the lagoon. This suggests that growth is faster along the coast than in the lagoon. The strategy of entering protected areas allows individuals to reach a size that maximizes escape from predators and, therefore, the probability of survival when reentering the coastal habitat.Utilizando la microestructura de los otolitos se determinó la edad y se evaluó el crecimiento de juveniles de lisa blanca Mugil curema durante su permanencia en la laguna costera El Conchalito, B.C.S., México, de mayo de 1997 a mayo de 1998. Los juveniles se recolectaron durante la fase estacionaria y de descenso de la maxima pleamar de cada mes. Durante el estudio, se analizaron juveniles de 16 a 42 mm de longitud estándar (LE con edad entre 22 y 109 días. El modelo de Gompertz describió adecuadamente la relación entre la edad y LE (r² = 0,94. La tasa promedio de crecimiento entre 20 y 110 días de edad fue de 0,29 mm día-1 , menor que la tasa de crecimiento de los juveniles antes de incorporarse a la laguna. Esto sugiere que el crecimiento es más rápido en la costa que en la laguna, y la estrategia de introducirse a zonas protegidas es para alcanzar una longitud que maximice el escape a la depredación y maximice la probabilidad de supervivencia cuando se reincorporen al ambiente costero.

  3. Bacterial flora of sturgeon fingerling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arani, A.S.; Mosahab, R.

    2008-01-01

    The study on microbial populations is a suitable tool to understand and apply control methods to improve the sanitary level of production in fish breeding and rearing centers, ensure health of sturgeon fingerlings at the time of their release into the rivers and also in the conversation and restoration of these valuable stocks in the Caspian Sea, Iran. A laboratory research based on Austin methods (Austin, B., Austin, D.A. 1993) was conducted for bacterial study on 3 sturgeon species naming A. persicus, A. stellatus and A. nudiventris during different growth stages. Bacterial flora of Acinetobacter, Moraxella, Aeromonas, Vibrio, Edwardsiella, Staphylococcus, Proteus, Yersinia, Pseudomonas and Plesiomonas were determined. The factors which may induce changes in bacterial populations during different stages of fife are the followings: quality of water in rearing ponds, different conditions for growth stages, suitable time for colonization of bacterial flora in rearing pond, water temperature increase in fingerlings size and feeding condition. (author)

  4. Lake sturgeon response to a spawning reef constructed in the Detroit river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseman, Edward F.; Manny, B.; Boase, J.; Child, M.; Kennedy, G.; Craig, J.; Soper, K.; Drouin, R.

    2011-01-01

    collected during May and June 2009. Additional eggs and spawning-ready adults were found in 2010 (no larval sampling occurred in 2010) as well as collection of three age-0 juvenile lake sturgeon in bottom trawls fished downstream of the reef during July 2010. Spawning lake sturgeon showed no repeatable preference for any of the four particular substrate types but showed a high degree of preference for the island side of the channel, where faster water current velocities occurred. In 2009, overall lake sturgeon egg densities across all replicates averaged 102 m-2 and seven larvae were found in night drift-net samples. In 2010, average lake sturgeon egg density was 12 m-2 and three age-0 lake sturgeon averaging 120 mm TL were collected in bottom trawls in deepwater (∼8 m depth) downstream from the constructed reef. These results demonstrated successful reproduction by lake sturgeon on a man-made reef and suggested that additions and improvements to fish spawning habitat could enhance reproduction and early life history survival of lake sturgeon in the Detroit River.

  5. Dual annual spawning races in Atlantic sturgeon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew T Balazik

    Full Text Available Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, Acipenseridae populations in the United States were listed as either endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 2012. Because of the endangered/threatened status, a better understanding of Atlantic sturgeon life-history behavior and habitat use is important for effective management. It has been widely documented that Atlantic sturgeon reproduction occurs from late winter to early summer, varying clinally with latitude. However, recent data show Atlantic sturgeon also spawn later in the year. The group that spawns later in the year seems to be completely separate from the spring spawning run. Recognition of the later spawning season has drastically modified estimates of the population status of Atlantic sturgeon in Virginia. With the combination of new telemetry data and historical documentation we describe a dual spawning strategy that likely occurs in various degrees along most, if not all, of the Atlantic sturgeon's range. Using new data combined with historical sources, a new spawning strategy emerges which managers and researchers should note when determining the status of Atlantic sturgeon populations and implementing conservation measures.

  6. Assessing water quality suitability for shortnose sturgeon in the Roanoke River, North Carolina, USA with an in situ bioassay approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, W.G.; Holliman, F.M.; Kwak, T.J.; Oakley, N.C.; Lazaro, P.R.; Shea, D.; Augspurger, T.; Law, J.M.; Henne, J.P.; Ware, K.M.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the suitability of water quality in the Roanoke River of North Carolina for supporting shortnose sturgeon Acipenser brevirostrum, an endangered species in the United States. Fathead minnows Pimephales promelas were also evaluated alongside the sturgeon as a comparative species to measure potential differences in fish survival, growth, contaminant accumulation, and histopathology in a 28-day in situ toxicity test. Captively propagated juvenile shortnose sturgeon (total length 49??8mm, mean??SD) and fathead minnows (total length 39??3mm, mean??SD) were used in the test and their outcomes were compared to simultaneous measurements of water quality (temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, conductivity, total ammonia nitrogen, hardness, alkalinity, turbidity) and contaminant chemistry (metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organochlorine pesticides, current use pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls) in river water and sediment. In the in situ test, there were three non-riverine control sites and eight riverine test sites with three replicate cages (25??15-cm (OD) clear plexiglass with 200-??m tear-resistant Nitex?? screen over each end) of 20 shortnose sturgeon per cage at each site. There was a single cage of fathead minnows also deployed at each site alongside the sturgeon cages. Survival of caged shortnose sturgeon among the riverine sites averaged 9% (range 1.7-25%) on day 22 of the 28-day study, whereas sturgeon survival at the non-riverine control sites averaged 64% (range 33-98%). In contrast to sturgeon, only one riverine deployed fathead minnow died (average 99.4% survival) over the 28-day test period and none of the control fathead minnows died. Although chemical analyses revealed the presence of retene (7-isopropyl-1-methylphenanthrene), a pulp and paper mill derived compound with known dioxin-like toxicity to early life stages of fish, in significant quantities in the water (251-603ngL-1) and sediment (up to 5000ngg-1

  7. Application of Spirulina platensis for prevention of white spot syndrome virus in post larvae and juvenile black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemtanon, P.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the extract of Spirulina platensis were examined in vitro to inhibit white spot syndrome virus (WSSV and application of dry S. platensis in diet for prevention of white spot syndrome (WSS in post larvae and juvenile black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon. The results showed that the lowest concentration of the extract for inhibiting WSSV was 0.01 mg/ml, while the optimum concentration was found to be 0.1 mg/ ml in which the mortality rate of the shrimp was 4 percents and infection was not detected from survivalshrimp by the immunohistochemistry method.Furthermore, The results showed that the survival rate of the post larvae fed on steamed egg containing dry S. platensis 5 g/kg of diet was higher than that of the control (p<0.05 when challenged with WSSV and no WSSV infected shrimp examine by polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay. In the case of juvenile shrimp, the survival rate of shrimp fed pellets containing dry S. platensis 10 g/kg of diet was higher than that of the control group (p<0.05 after challenging with WSSV. Moreover percent of WSSV infection in the survival shrimp using the immunohistochemistry method was lower than that of the control group.

  8. Chemical characteristics and antithrombotic effect of chondroitin sulfates from sturgeon skull and sturgeon backbone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Meng; Song, Juyi; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Shun; Wu, Ruiyun; Ma, Changwei; Li, Pinglan

    2015-06-05

    Chondroitin sulfates (CSs) were extracted from sturgeon skull and backbone, and their chemical composition, anticoagulant, anti-platelet and thrombolysis activities were evaluated. The average molecular weights of CS from sturgeon skull and backbone were 38.5kDa and 49.2kDa, respectively. Disaccharide analysis indicated that the sturgeon backbone CS was primarily composed of disaccharide monosulfated in position four of the GalNAc (37.8%) and disaccharide monosulfated in position six of the GalNAc (59.6%) while sturgeon skull CS was primarily composed of nonsulfated disaccharide (74.2%). Sturgeon backbone CS showed stronger antithrombotic effect than sturgeon skull CS. Sturgeon backbone CS could significantly prolong activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and thrombin time (TT), inhibited ADP-induced platelet aggregation and dissolved platelet plasma clots in vitro. The results suggested that sturgeon backbone CS can be explored as a functional food with antithrombotic function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Students Collaborating to Undertake Tracking Efforts for Sturgeon(SCUTES)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Students Collaborating to Undertake Tracking Efforts for Sturgeon (SCUTES) is a collaboration between NOAA Fisheries, sturgeon researchers, and teachers/educators in...

  10. Integrating water flow, locomotor performance and respiration of Chinese sturgeon during multiple fatigue-recovery cycles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Cai

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to provide information on metabolic changes occurring in Chinese sturgeon (an ecologically important endangered fish subjected to repeated cycles of fatigue and recovery and the effect on swimming capability. Fatigue-recovery cycles likely occur when fish are moving through the fishways of large dams and the results of this investigation are important for fishway design and conservation of wild Chinese sturgeon populations. A series of four stepped velocity tests were carried out successively in a Steffensen-type swimming respirometer and the effects of repeated fatigue-recovery on swimming capability and metabolism were measured. Significant results include: (1 critical swimming speed decreased from 4.34 bl/s to 2.98 bl/s; (2 active oxygen consumption (i.e. the difference between total oxygen consumption and routine oxygen consumption decreased from 1175 mgO2/kg to 341 mgO2/kg and was the primary reason for the decrease in Ucrit; (3 excess post-exercise oxygen consumption decreased from 36 mgO2/kg to 22 mgO2/kg; (4 with repeated step tests, white muscle (anaerobic metabolism began contributing to propulsion at lower swimming speeds. Therefore, Chinese sturgeon conserve energy by swimming efficiently and have high fatigue recovery capability. These results contribute to our understanding of the physiology of the Chinese sturgeon and support the conservation efforts of wild populations of this important species.

  11. FEATURES DIGESTION OF STURGEON SPECIES (ACIPENSERIDAE (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Simon

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To review scientific sources are about the anatomical, physiological and biochemical characteristics of the digestive system and proper digestion process in the sturgeon species (Acipenseridae. Outline the common anatomical and morphological characteristics of the gastrointestinal tract. Consider the activity of digestive enzymes and the influence of various factors. Findings. Review of scientific papers reveals that although the digestion of sturgeon are broadly similar to those of the cartilaginous and bony fish, there are a number of species specificity. In particular, sturgeon enzymes have a wider temperature and hydrogen ranges. It is confirmed that temperature adaptations of digestive system poikilothermic organ-isms are realised mainly thanks to reorganisations of fermental systems. It is shown that enzymes in sturgeons are adjustable, as their activity level significantly changes under the influence of divalent metal ions (Mn2+, Fe2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+. The assumption that evolutionary adaptation of hydrolytic function of intestines of fishes to temperature conditions of an inhabitancy takes place, apparently, is made. The paper describes the effect of sex and age factors on the level of activity of enzymes of sturgeons. Set out the regularities of circadian rhythms of the fish of this family. Showed specific features of the liver and its involvement in lipid metabolism and antioxidant defense system. Practical value. The knowledge of hydrolysis characteristics of a diet of sturgeon species is important for the efficiency estimation of feeding and understanding of evolutionary and ecological aspects of digestion physiology. Systematized data on the digestive system of fish sturgeon species are of interest a wide range of research in two main areas. Firstly, although the sturgeon are relict species, but the adaptation of their digestive system is still going on, allowing you to analyze the evolutionary development of the

  12. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix C: Anadromous Fish and Juvenile Fish Transportation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)

    1995-11-01

    This Appendix C of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System discusses impacts on andromous fish and juvenile fish transportation. The principal andromous fish in the Columbia basin include salmonid species (Chinook, coho, and sockeye salmon, and steelhead) and nonsalmoinid andromous species (sturgeon, lamprey, and shad). Major sections in this document include the following: background, scope and process; affected environment for salmon and steelhead, shaded, lamprey, sturgeon; study methods; description of alternatives: qualitative and quantitative findings.

  13. Mentoring Children of Incarcerated Parents: A Synthesis of Research and Input from the Listening Session Held by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention and the White House Domestic Policy Council and Office of Public Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarjoura, G. Roger; DuBois, David L.; Shlafer, Rebecca J.; Haight, Konrad A.

    2013-01-01

    In September 2013, a Listening Session on Mentoring Children of Incarcerated Parents was held in Washington, DC. This session was organized by the U.S. Department of Justice's Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention in partnership with the White House Domestic Policy Council and Office of Public Engagement. It continues the…

  14. Sex assignment of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fluvescens) based on plasma sex hormone and vitellogenin levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, J.M.; Papoulias, D.M.; Thomas, M.V.; Annis, M.L.; Boase, J.

    2009-01-01

    This study focused on identifying the sex of lake sturgeon by measuring the sex hormones estradiol and testosterone, and the phosphoprotein vitellogenin (Vtg) in blood plasma by radioimmunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively, and evaluating these techniques as tools in lake sturgeon population management. Surveys of the St Clair River (SCR) lake sturgeon population have characterized it as rebounding by having steady or increasing recruitment since 1997. However, researchers have not been able to effectively determine the sex for most of the sturgeon they capture because few fish caught during surveys are releasing gametes. A total of 115 fish were sampled from May through June in 2004 and 2005 from the SCR, Michigan, USA. Of these, only four females and eight males were verified (i.e. they were releasing gametes at time of capture), resulting in very few fish with which to validate blood hormone and Vtg biomarkers of sex. Fifty-six percent of the fish were assigned a sex designation based on biomarker criteria. Correspondence between actual gonadal sex and biomarker-directed classification was good for the small subset of fish for which gonadal sex was definitively determined. Moreover, application of the steroid values in a predictive sex assignment model developed for white sturgeon misclassified only the same two fish that were misclassified with the steroid and Vtg biomarkers. The experimental results suggest a sex ratio of 1 : 2.7 (F:M), however more conclusive methods are needed to confirm this ratio because so few fish were available for sex validation. Of the 43 males, 14 were within the legal slot limit, 11 were smaller than 1067 mm total length (TL), and 18 were larger than 1270 mm TL. All 15 females were larger than 1270 mm TL, and thus protected by the slot limit criteria. Considering that lake sturgeon are threatened in Michigan, an advantage to using blood plasma assays was that fish were not harmed, and sample collection was

  15. Lake sturgeon population characteristics in Rainy Lake, Minnesota and Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, W.E.; Kallemeyn, L.W.; Willis, D.W.

    2006-01-01

    Rainy Lake contains a native population of lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens that has been largely unstudied. The aims of this study were to document the population characteristics of lake sturgeon in Rainy Lake and to relate environmental factors to year-class strength for this population. Gill-netting efforts throughout the study resulted in the capture of 322 lake sturgeon, including 50 recaptures. Lake sturgeon in Rainy Lake was relatively plump and fast growing compared with a 32-population summary. Population samples were dominated by lake sturgeon between 110 and 150 cm total length. Age–structure analysis of the samples indicated few younger (<10 years) lake sturgeon, but the smallest gill net mesh size used for sampling was 102 mm (bar measure) and would not retain small sturgeon. Few lake sturgeon older than age 50 years were captured, and maximum age of sampled fish was 59 years. Few correlations existed between lake sturgeon year-class indices and both annual and monthly climate variables, except that mean June air temperature was positively correlated with year-class strength. Analysis of Rainy Lake water elevation and resulting lake sturgeon year-class strength indices across years yielded consistent but weak negative correlations between late April and early June, when spawning of lake sturgeon occurs. The baseline data collected in this study should allow Rainy Lake biologists to establish more specific research questions in the future.

  16. Horizontal transmission dynamics of White spot syndrome virus by cohabitation trials in juvenile Penaeus monodon and P. vannamei

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngo Xuan, T.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Vlak, J.M.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), a rod-shaped double-stranded DNA virus, is an infectious agent causing fatal disease in shrimp farming around the globe. Within shrimp populations WSSV is transmitted very fast, however, the modes and dynamics of transmission of this virus are not well understood.

  17. Rethinking the influence of hydroelectric development on gene flow in a long-lived fish, the Lake Sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig A McDougall

    Full Text Available Many hydroelectric dams have been in place for 50 - >100 years, which for most fish species means that enough generations have passed for fragmentation induced divergence to have accumulated. However, for long-lived species such as Lake Sturgeon, Acipenser fulvescens, it should be possible to discriminate between historical population structuring and contemporary gene flow and improve the broader understanding of anthropogenic influence. On the Winnipeg River, Manitoba, two hypotheses were tested: 1 Measureable quantities of former reservoir dwelling Lake Sturgeon now reside downstream of the Slave Falls Generating Station, and 2 genetically differentiated populations of Lake Sturgeon occur upstream and downstream, a result of historical structuring. Genetic methods based on ten microsatellite markers were employed, and simulations were conducted to provide context. With regards to contemporary upstream to downstream contributions, the inclusion of length-at-age data proved informative. Both pairwise relatedness and Bayesian clustering analysis substantiated that fast-growing outliers, apparently entrained after residing in the upstream reservoir for several years, accounted for ~15% of the Lake Sturgeon 525-750 mm fork length captured downstream. With regards to historical structuring, upstream and downstream populations were found to be differentiated (FST = 0.011, and 0.013-0.014 when fast-growing outliers were excluded, and heterozygosity metrics were higher for downstream versus upstream juveniles. Historical asymmetric (downstream gene flow in the vicinity of the generating station was the most logical explanation for the observed genetic structuring. In this section of the Winnipeg River, construction of a major dam does not appear to have fragmented a previously panmictic Lake Sturgeon population, but alterations to habitat may be influencing upstream to downstream contributions in unexpected ways.

  18. Juvenile angiofibroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasal tumor; Angiofibroma - juvenile; Benign nasal tumor; Juvenile nasal angiofibroma; JNA ... Juvenile angiofibroma is not very common. It is most often found in adolescent boys. The tumor contains many blood ...

  19. Sturgeon in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Watershed: New Insights to Support Conservation and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Peter Klimley

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2015v13iss4art1The goal of a day-long symposium on March 3, 2015, Sturgeon in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Watershed: New Insights to Support Conservation and Management, was to present new information about the physiology, behavior, and ecology of the green (Acipenser medirostris and white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus to help guide enhanced management and conservation efforts within the Sacramento–San Joaquin watershed. This symposium identified current unknowns and highlighted new electronic tracking technologies and physiological techniques to address these knowledge gaps. A number of presentations, each reviewing ongoing research on the two species, was followed by a round-table discussion, in which each of the participants was asked to share recom-mendations for future research on sturgeon in the watershed. This article presents an in-depth review of the scientific information presented at the sympo-sium with a summary of recommendations for future research.

  20. Acute paretic syndrome in juvenile White Leghorn chickens resembles late stages of acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathies in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preisinger Rudolf

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sudden limb paresis is a common problem in White Leghorn flocks, affecting about 1% of the chicken population before achievement of sexual maturity. Previously, a similar clinical syndrome has been reported as being caused by inflammatory demyelination of peripheral nerve fibres. Here, we investigated in detail the immunopathology of this paretic syndrome and its possible resemblance to human neuropathies. Methods Neurologically affected chickens and control animals from one single flock underwent clinical and neuropathological examination. Peripheral nervous system (PNS alterations were characterised using standard morphological techniques, including nerve fibre teasing and transmission electron microscopy. Infiltrating cells were phenotyped immunohistologically and quantified by flow cytometry. The cytokine expression pattern was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. These investigations were accomplished by MHC genotyping and a PCR screen for Marek's disease virus (MDV. Results Spontaneous paresis of White Leghorns is caused by cell-mediated, inflammatory demyelination affecting multiple cranial and spinal nerves and nerve roots with a proximodistal tapering. Clinical manifestation coincides with the employment of humoral immune mechanisms, enrolling plasma cell recruitment, deposition of myelin-bound IgG and antibody-dependent macrophageal myelin-stripping. Disease development was significantly linked to a 539 bp microsatellite in MHC locus LEI0258. An aetiological role for MDV was excluded. Conclusions The paretic phase of avian inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuritis immunobiologically resembles the late-acute disease stages of human acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, and is characterised by a Th1-to-Th2 shift.

  1. Sex in the Suwannee, the secretive love life of Gulf Sturgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulak, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    Mid-February in the Gulf of Mexico and a timeless ritual is about to repeat itself for perhaps the millionth time. Some mysterious signal, possibly increasing day length, flips an internal switch, feeding stops, and the homeward migration begins for the Gulf Sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi). From far flung places along the Gulf Coast, Gulf Sturgeons start heading back to their natal rivers – they know the way instinctively. Maybe they seek out the special chemical taste of their home river, imprinted at hatching. Or perhaps the ultrasensitive electric organs decorating the underside of the snout can follow the map of the earth’s magnetic field. Either way, time to make a beeline for the welcoming waters of the Suwannee River, or maybe the Apalachicola, Choctawhatchee, or one of four other spawning rivers. Some of the adults are on a special mission – time to spawn, time to perpetuate the species. Mature males form the first wave in this homebound marathon, eager to get to the spawning grounds, eager to be the first to greet ready females with a series of sharp clicking sounds. Only spawning once each three years, females laden with large black eggs demure, taking their time, arriving in mid to late March, a month behind the early males. But most sturgeons, juveniles and immature adults not ready to spawn, are simply heading home. Not prompted by the spawning urge, they are just following the ancient annual cycle of intense winter feeding in the Gulf, followed by several months of fasting and R&R in the river.

  2. 76 FR 28309 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Sturgeon Bay, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... vehicular traffic congestion would not develop on downtown Sturgeon Bay streets due to unscheduled bridge... schedules during the peak tourist and navigation seasons to provide for the efficient movement of vehicular... between Lake Michigan and Green Bay. The area experiences a significant increase in vehicular and vessel...

  3. NEW BIOTECHNOLOGICAL METHODS FOR CRYOPRESERVATION OF REPRODUCTIVE CELLS OF STURGEON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Ponomareva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to increase the survivability of reproductive cells of sturgeon at cryopreservation and developing reliable technology suitable for use on an industrial scale.Methods. We have used standard methods of freezing, thawing reproductive cells, fertilization and incubation of eggs and larval rearing of sturgeon. Fundamentally new is cryoprotective composition: for sperm we have adjusted the composition of cryoprotective medium (for beluga 3% of dimethyl sulfoxide, for Russian sturgeon 4% of dimethyl sulfoxide; for freezing the eggs we have used cryoprotective mixture of unrefined vegetable and animal oils.Results. Survivability of defrosted sperm sturgeon has been increased: for Beluga it is up to 20%, for Russian sturgeon - 47%. At insemination of cryopreserved eggs of Russian sturgeon with native sperm the fertilization rate has made 41%.Main conclusions. The research proves the effectiveness of reducing the toxic effect of cryoprotective substances, thus leading to increased survivability of reproductive cells of sturgeon. During the insemination of eggs, stored in liquid nitrogen, the resulting offspring were viable and by the reactivity of the central nervous system and receptor complex it does not differ from the young obtained by conventional technology.

  4. Reproductive physiology of Missouri River gravid pallid sturgeon and shovelnose sturgeon during the 2005 and 2006 spawning seasons: Chapter C in Factors affecting the reproduction, recruitment, habitat, and population dynamics of pallid sturgeon and shovelnose sturgeon in the Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoulias, Diana M.; Annis, Mandy L.; Delonay, Aaron J.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2007-01-01

    In a natural, unaltered river, the location and timing of sturgeon spawning will be dictated by the prevailing environmental conditions to which the sturgeon have adapted. A goal of the Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Program (CSRP; see chap. A) at the U.S. Geological Survey Columbia Environmental Research Center is to identify where, when, and under what conditions shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) and pallid sturgeon (S. albus) spawn in the altered Missouri River so that those conditions necessary for spawning success can be defined. One approach to achieving this goal is to exploit what is known about fish reproductive physiology to develop and apply a suite of diagnostic indicators of readiness to spawn. In 2005 and 2006, gravid shovelnose sturgeon and a limited number of pallid sturgeon were fitted with transmitters and tracked on their spawning migration. A suite of physiological indicators of reproductive state such as reproductive hormones and oocyte development were measured. These same measurements were made on tissues collected from additional fish, presumably migrating to spawn, that were not tagged or tracked. The data presented here indicating the sturgeons’ readiness to spawn are to be evaluated together with their behavior and the environmental conditions. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (ACOE) Sturgeon Response to Flow Modification (SRFM; see chap. A) study, initiated in 2006, provides additional opportunities to experimentally evaluate the sturgeon reproductive response indicators relative to changes in flow. In this chapter, we report progress made on identifying and developing the physiological indicators and summarize 2 years’ worth of indicator data collected thus far.

  5. Passage and behaviour of cultured Lake Sturgeon in a prototype side-baffle fish ladder: I. Ladder hydraulics and fish ascent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kynard, B.; Pugh, D.; Parker, T.

    2011-01-01

    Research and development of a fish ladder for sturgeons requires understanding ladder hydraulics and sturgeon behaviour in the ladder to insure the ladder is safe and provides effective passage. After years of research and development, we designed and constructed a full-scale prototype side-baffle ladder inside a spiral flume (38.3m long??1m wide??1m high) on a 6% (1:16.5) slope with a 1.92-m rise in elevation (bottom to top) to test use by sturgeons. Twenty-eight triangular side baffles, each extending part way across the flume, alternated from inside wall to outside wall down the ladder creating two major flow habitats: a continuous, sinusoidal flow down the ladder through the vertical openings of side-baffles and an eddy below each side baffle. Ascent and behaviour was observed on 22 cultured Lake Sturgeon=LS (Acipenser fulvescens) repeatedly tested in groups as juveniles (as small as 105.1cm TL, mean) or as adults (mean TL, 118cm) during four periods (fall 2002 and 2003; spring 2003 and 2007). Percent of juveniles entering the ladder that ascended to the top was greater in spring (72.7%) than in fall (40.9-45.5%) and 90.9% of 11 adults, which ascended as juveniles, ascended to the top. Six LS (27.3%) never swam to the top and seven (31.8%) swam to the top in all tests, indicating great variability among individuals for ascent drive. Some LS swam directly to the top in <1min, but most rested in an eddy during ascent. Juveniles swimming through outside wall baffle slots (mean velocity, 1.2ms-1) swam at 1.8-2.2body lengthss-1 and 3.2-3.3tail beatss-1, either at or approaching prolonged swimming speed. The side-baffle ladder was stream-like and provided key factors for a sturgeon ladder: a continuous flow and no full cross-channel walls, abundant eddies for resting, an acceptable water depth, and a water velocity fish could ascend swimming 2bls-1. A side-baffle ladder passes LS and other moderate-swimming fishes. ?? 2011 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

  6. REFERENCED TECHNOLOGICAL PERFORMANCES FOR STURGEON FINGERLING BREEDING IN INTENSIVE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARILENA TALPES

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Work objective is to present an oversight regarding the modality to rearing the descendents of anadromous sturgeon species, Acipenser stellatus, Acipenser gueldenstaedti and Huso huso, obtained trough artificial reproduction, indicating successively, the production system, its management, alimentation strategy for sturgeon species and technological performances registered by these. Experiments developed during two phases, respectively the post-embryonary one and sapling rearing during of a 168 days period. Registered performances of sturgeon species material were assessed in conformity with specifically biotechnological indicators.

  7. Factors affecting the reproduction, recruitment, habitat, and population dynamics of pallid sturgeon and shovelnose sturgeon in the Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korschgen, Carl E.

    2007-01-01

    For more than a hundred years, human activities have modified the natural forces that control the Missouri River and its native fish fauna. While the ecological effects of regulation and channel engineering are understood in general, the current understanding is not sufficient to guide river restoration and management. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is in the third year of a multiagency research effort to determine the ecological requirements for reproduction and survival of the endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) and shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorhynchus) in the Missouri River. The multidisciplinary research strategy includes components of behavior, physiology, habitat use, habitat availability, and population modeling of all life stages. Shovelnose sturgeon are used to design the strategy because they are closely related to the pallid sturgeon and are often used as a surrogate species to develop new research tools or to examine the effects of management actions or environmental variables on sturgeon biology and habitat use. During fiscal years 2005 and 2006, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) provided funds to USGS for tasks associated with the Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Program (CSRP) and for tasks associated with evaluation of the Sturgeon Response to Flow Modifications (SRFM). Because work activities of CSRP and SRFM are so integrated, we are providing information on activities that have been consolidated at the task level. These task activities represent chapters in this report.

  8. Gulf sturgeon Critical Habitat Units 1-7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the critical habitat for Gulf Sturgeon as designated by Federal Register Vol. 68, No. 53, Wednesday, March 19, 2003, Rules and Regulations.

  9. Biology and control of reproduction of sturgeons in fish farm

    OpenAIRE

    Billard, R.

    2000-01-01

    Over the last century the reproduction of sturgeon has been intensively studied par Russian scientists who established a technology for the ranching of alevins which included artificial fertilization of gametes taken from wild broodfish and larvae rearing. More recently, since 1970, major contributions originated from teams in the USA, the EU, Japan and Iran. A rather good knowledge of the reproductive physiology of sturgeon is now available: gametogenesis, reproductive cycle, ovulation, sper...

  10. Best management practices guide for waterpower projects: lake sturgeon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-06-15

    There are challenges and potential risks inherent in waterpower generation activities and this guide focuses on the fish species of lake sturgeon in Ontario and provides a synthesis of industry-wide knowledge and best available science indicators regarding hydropower impacts. This manual is written as guidance to proponents and practitioners but also to owners and operators, and provides them with tools and approaches to implement management strategies that will minimize potential impacts of waterpower generation installations on lake sturgeon and its habitat.

  11. Population Viability Analysis of the Endangered Shortnose Sturgeon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ll- 1 ) 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 Sturgeon ( left ) Prey ( right ) Figure 11. Model-simulated shortnose sturgeon population dynamics and prey dynamics over a...indicate low substrate diversity dominated by silt/sand substrate. ix ACRONYMS DO Dissolved oxygen DOC Dissolved organic carbon EFDC...fewer fish than the largest known population in the Hudson River ( Bain et al. 2007). Population estimates for this population have varied between 75

  12. Environmental contaminants in shortnose sturgeon from Bears Bluff National Fish Hatchery, Wadmalaw Island, South Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — The shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) is a federally‐listed endangered species. In 2008, eleven shortnose sturgeon, reared at the Bears Bluff National Fish...

  13. Reconnecting fragmented sturgeon populations in North American rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager, Henriette; Parsley, Michael J.; Cech, Joseph J. Jr.; McLaughlin, R.L.; Forsythe, Patrick S.; Elliott, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    The majority of large North American rivers are fragmented by dams that interrupt migrations of wide-ranging fishes like sturgeons. Reconnecting habitat is viewed as an important means of protecting sturgeon species in U.S. rivers because these species have lost between 5% and 60% of their historical ranges. Unfortunately, facilities designed to pass other fishes have rarely worked well for sturgeons. The most successful passage facilities were sized appropriately for sturgeons and accommodated bottom-oriented species. For upstream passage, facilities with large entrances, full-depth guidance systems, large lifts, or wide fishways without obstructions or tight turns worked well. However, facilitating upstream migration is only half the battle. Broader recovery for linked sturgeon populations requires safe “round-trip” passage involving multiple dams. The most successful downstream passage facilities included nature-like fishways, large canal bypasses, and bottom-draw sluice gates. We outline an adaptive approach to implementing passage that begins with temporary programs and structures and monitors success both at the scale of individual fish at individual dams and the scale of metapopulations in a river basin. The challenge will be to learn from past efforts and reconnect North American sturgeon populations in a way that promotes range expansion and facilitates population recovery.

  14. Detection of Adult Green Sturgeon Using Environmental DNA Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul S Bergman

    Full Text Available Environmental DNA (eDNA is an emerging sampling method that has been used successfully for detection of rare aquatic species. The Identification of sampling tools that are less stressful for target organisms has become increasingly important for rare and endangered species. A decline in abundance of the Southern Distinct Population Segment (DPS of North American Green Sturgeon located in California's Central Valley has led to its listing as Threatened under the Federal Endangered Species Act in 2006. While visual surveys of spawning Green Sturgeon in the Central Valley are effective at monitoring fish densities in concentrated pool habitats, results do not scale well to the watershed level, providing limited spatial and temporal context. Unlike most traditional survey methods, environmental DNA analysis provides a relatively quick, inexpensive tool that could efficiently monitor the presence and distribution of aquatic species. We positively identified Green Sturgeon DNA at two locations of known presence in the Sacramento River, proving that eDNA can be effective for monitoring the presence of adult sturgeon. While further study is needed to understand uncertainties of the sampling method, our study represents the first documented detection of Green Sturgeon eDNA, indicating that eDNA analysis could provide a new tool for monitoring Green Sturgeon distribution in the Central Valley, complimenting traditional on-going survey methods.

  15. Juvenile Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile arthritis (JA) is arthritis that happens in children. It causes joint swelling, pain, stiffness, and loss of motion. It can affect any joint, but ... of JA that children get is juvenile idiopathic arthritis. There are several other forms of arthritis affecting ...

  16. The pallid sturgeon: Scientific investigations help understand recovery needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLonay, Aaron J.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding of the pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) has increased significantly since the species was listed as endangered over two decades ago. Since 2005, scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Columbia Environmental Research Center (CERC) have been engaged in an interdisciplinary research program in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Missouri River Recovery Program, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Nebraska Game and Parks Commission, and numerous other State and Federal cooperators to provide managers and policy makers with the knowledge needed to evaluate recovery options. During that time, the USGS has worked collaboratively with river scientists and managers to develop methods, baseline information, and research approaches that are critical contributions to recovery success. The pallid sturgeon is endangered throughout the Missouri River because of insufficient reproduction and survival of early life stages. Primary management actions on the Missouri River designed to increase reproductive success and survival have focused on flow regime, channel morphology, and propagation. The CERC research strategies have, therefore, been designed to examine the linkages among flow regime, re-engineered channel morphology, and reproductive success and survival. Specific research objectives include the following: (1) understanding reproductive physiology of pallid sturgeon and relations to environmental conditions; (2) determining movement, habitat use, and reproductive behavior of pallid sturgeon; and (3) quantifying availability and dynamics of aquatic habitats needed by pallid sturgeon for all life stages.

  17. The origin and migration of primordial germ cells in sturgeons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiju Saito

    Full Text Available Primordial germ cells (PGCs arise elsewhere in the embryo and migrate into developing gonadal ridges during embryonic development. In several model animals, formation and migration patterns of PGCs have been studied, and it is known that these patterns vary. Sturgeons (genus Acipenser have great potential for comparative and evolutionary studies of development. Sturgeons belong to the super class Actinoptergii, and their developmental pattern is similar to that of amphibians, although their phylogenetic position is an out-group to teleost fishes. Here, we reveal an injection technique for sturgeon eggs allowing visualization of germplasm and PGCs. Using this technique, we demonstrate that the PGCs are generated at the vegetal pole of the egg and they migrate on the yolky cell mass toward the gonadal ridge. We also provide evidence showing that PGCs are specified by inheritance of maternally supplied germplasm. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the migratory mechanism is well-conserved between sturgeon and other remotely related teleosts, such as goldfish, by a single PGCs transplantation (SPT assay. The mode of PGCs specification in sturgeon is similar to that of anurans, but the migration pattern resembles that of teleosts.

  18. Effect of replacing fish meal with extruded soybean meal on growth, feed utilization and apparent nutrient digestibility of juvenile white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qihui; Tan, Beiping; Dong, Xiaohui; Chi, Shuyan; Liu, Hongyu

    2015-10-01

    Extruded soybean meal (ESBM) was evaluated as a protein source for partial replacement of fish meal (FM) in diets of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei. In the control diet (Diet 1), FM protein was replaced with increasing dietary levels of ESBM (4.28%, 8.40%, 12.62%, 16.82%, and 25.26%) at 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 60% levels (Diets 2 to 6, respectively). An eight-week feeding trial was conducted on 720 juvenile shrimp (0.67 g ± 0.01 g mean initial weight), and nutrient digestibility of the six diets was determined. ESBM could replace 20% of FM without causing a significant reduction in growth of shrimp, but other dietary treatments strongly affected whole body composition. Crude protein content of the whole body fed Diet 6 was significantly lower than that fed Diet 2 ( P digestibilities of Diets 5 and 6 were significantly lower than that of Diet 1 ( P Digestibility of lipids ranged from 96.97% in Diet 6 to 98.34% in Diet 3, whereas dry matter digestibility decreased with increasing replacement level. This study indicates that 20% FM replacement with ESBM in the basic diet containing 40% protein and 30% FM is optimal for juvenile L. vannamei.

  19. Juvenile Firesetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Brittany; Freeman, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile firesetting is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Male gender, substance use, history of maltreatment, interest in fire, and psychiatric illness are commonly reported risk factors. Interventions that have been shown to be effective in juveniles who set fires include cognitive behavior therapy and educational interventions, whereas satiation has not been shown to be an effective intervention. Forensic assessments can assist the legal community in adjudicating youth with effective interventions. Future studies should focus on consistent assessment and outcome measures to create more evidence for directing evaluation and treatment of juvenile firesetters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Gulf Sturgeon in the Suwannee River - Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulak, Kenneth J.; Randall, Michael T.

    2009-01-01

    Sturgeons and paddlefishes are modern descendants of an ancient group of freshwater fishes, the Chondrostei (a group of bony fishes with mostly cartilaginous skeletons). Sturgeons evolved during the Age of the Dinosaurs, and have prospered in the large rivers and lakes of North America, Europe and Asia for 200 million years. Together with alligators and crocodiles, they survived the mass extinction at the end of the Mesozoic Era, when the dinosaurs and many other groups of animals disappeared forever. They originated prior to the creation of the Atlantic Ocean, when the Northern Hemisphere supercontinent Pangea broke into North America and Eurasia. Most sturgeons are highly specialized to feed in the sediment on small invertebrate prey, a radical evolutionary departure from most of their fish-eating ancestors.

  1. Juvenile Prostitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csapo, Marg

    1986-01-01

    Recent research and Canadian government committee reports concerning juvenile prostitution are reviewed. Proposals are made in the realms of law and social policy; and existing programs are described. (DB)

  2. Annual variation of hematology and plasma chemistry in shortnose sturgeon, Acipenser brevirostrum, during a dam-impeded spawning run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsche, Mark A; Gibbons, Jarrett

    2012-12-01

    Shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) spawning migrations on the Cooper River are impeded by Pinopolis Dam, Lake Moultrie, South Carolina. Sturgeon and other species aggregate below the dam in late winter/early spring and are subjected to a variety of stressors stemming from crowding, poor habitat quality, and injuries that appear to be caused by boat propeller or turbine strikes. Spawning has been documented in the tailrace, but reproductive success has not been verified as no juveniles have been captured. Fish within the dam tailrace were captured by gill net during winter, 2005 and 2007-2011, and physiological condition was assessed using a panel of hematologic and biochemical indices. Plasma phosphorus and calcium were significantly higher in females, while PCV and aspartate aminotransferase were significantly higher in males, indicating sex-specific physiological changes triggered during maturity. A marked leucopenia, accompanied by lymphopenia and neutrophilia, was evident in both sexes and was consistent across years, indicating that these fish were under chronic stress. Testosterone and estradiol levels and hematologic and biochemical reference intervals are provided for comparative purposes.

  3. Features oxidative processes in sturgeons fish (Acipenseridae (review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Symon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To anayze scientific sources on physiological-biochemical pecularities of reducing-oxidizing processes, including peroxide oxidation of lipids and work of the system of antioxidant protection system in sturgeon species (Acipenseridae. The initiation and process of the oxidative stress have been described. The main products of peroxide oxidation of lipids, antioxidants of natural and artificial origin, organs and tissues for the studies of reducing-oxidizing processes have been examined. Findings. The work generalizes the processes of lipid peroxidation. Briefly outlined the main mechanism of action of antioxidant enzymes. Antioxidant defense system plays one of key role in the life of organism due regulating its series of metabolic processes, use of assessing of its state gives an opportunity obtain quantitative information on the progress of these processes. The products of free radical peroxidation (dien conjugates and malonic dialdehyde can also act as a sort of biomarkers of tissue damage, because their content can judge about the intensity of the flow of free radical processes in the various systems in organism. The review contains a description of the peculiarities of the liver and its involvement in lipid metabolism and antioxidant defense system. It is shown the most common antioxidants used in the feeding of sturgeon. Organs and tissues, which should be used for studying the processes of peroxide oxidation of lipids in sturgeon species, have been examined. Practical value. The systematized data regarding peroxide oxidation of lipids, oxidative stress and antioxidant protection system allow finding a balance between these processes. The data on antioxidants, which are used in feeds for sturgeon species, will be useful for sturgeon culturists. The array of the generalized information will be important for scientists who study the pecularities of the processes of peroxide oxidation of lipids and antioxidant protection system in

  4. Assessing the risk to green sturgeon from application of imidacloprid to control burrowing shrimp in Willapa Bay, Washington--Part II: controlled exposure studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frew, John A; Grue, Christian E

    2015-11-01

    The activities of 2 species of burrowing shrimp have a negative impact on the growth and survival of oysters reared on intertidal mudflats in Willapa Bay and Grays Harbor, Washington (USA). To maintain viable harvests, oyster growers proposed the application of the neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid onto harvested beds for the control of burrowing shrimp. In test applications, water column concentrations of imidacloprid were relatively low and dissipated rapidly. The foraging activities of the green sturgeon (listed in the US Endangered Species Act) could result in exposure to higher, more sustained imidacloprid concentrations within sediment porewater and from the consumption of contaminated shrimp. Controlled experiments were conducted using surrogate white sturgeon to determine acute and chronic effect concentrations, to examine overt effects at more environmentally realistic concentrations and durations of exposure, and to assess chemical depuration. The 96-h median lethal concentration was 124 mg L(-1) , and the predicted 35-d no-observed-adverse-effect concentration was 0.7 mg L(-1) . No overt effects were observed following environmentally relevant exposures. Imidacloprid half-life in plasma was greater than 32 h. Measured concentrations of imidacloprid in porewater were significantly lower than the derived acute and chronic effect concentrations for white sturgeon. Exposure risk quotients were calculated using the effect concentrations and estimated environmental exposure. The resulting values were considerably below the level of concern for direct effects from either acute or chronic exposure to an endangered species. © 2015 SETAC.

  5. Evidence of natural reproduction of Atlantic sturgeon in the Connecticut River from unlikely sources.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Savoy

    Full Text Available Atlantic Sturgeon is listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act as five Distinct Population Segments (DPS. The "endangered" New York Bight (NYB DPS is thought to only harbor two populations; one in the Hudson River and a second smaller one in the Delaware River. Historically, the Connecticut River probably supported a spawning population of Atlantic Sturgeon that was believed extirpated many decades ago. In 2014, we successfully collected pre-migratory juvenile specimens from the lower Connecticut River which were subjected to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA control region sequence and microsatellite analyses to determine their genetic relatedness to other populations coastwide. Haplotype and allelic frequencies differed significantly between the Connecticut River collection and all other populations coastwide. Sibship analyses of the microsatellite data indicated that the Connecticut River collection was comprised of a small number of families that were likely the offspring of a limited number of breeders. This was supported by analysis of effective population size (Ne and number of breeders (Nb. STRUCTURE analysis suggested that there were 11 genetic clusters among the coastwide collections and that from the Connecticut River was distinct from those in all other rivers. This was supported by UPGMA analyses of the microsatellite data. In AMOVA analyses, among region variation was maximized, and among population within regions variation minimized when the Connecticut River collection was separate from the other two populations in the NYB DPS indicating the dissimilarity between the Connecticut River collection and the other two populations in the NYB DPS. Use of mixed stock analysis indicated that the Connecticut River juvenile collection was comprised of specimens primarily of South Atlantic and Chesapeake Bay DPS origins. The most parsimonious explanation for these results is that the Connecticut River hosted successful natural reproduction in 2013

  6. Modification and Validation of the Triglyceride-to-HDL Cholesterol Ratio as a Surrogate of Insulin Sensitivity in White Juveniles and Adults without Diabetes Mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulmichl, Katharina; Hatunic, Mensud; Højlund, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The triglyceride-to-HDL cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio was introduced as a tool to estimate insulin resistance, because circulating lipid measurements are available in routine settings. Insulin, C-peptide, and free fatty acids are components of other insulin-sensitivity indices...... but their measurement is expensive. Easier and more affordable tools are of interest for both pediatric and adult patients. METHODS: Study participants from the Relationship Between Insulin Sensitivity and Cardiovascular Disease [43.9 (8.3) years, n = 1260] as well as the Beta-Cell Function in Juvenile Diabetes...... and Obesity study cohorts [15 (1.9) years, n = 29] underwent oral-glucose-tolerance tests and euglycemic clamp tests for estimation of whole-body insulin sensitivity and calculation of insulin sensitivity indices. To refine the TG/HDL ratio, mathematical modeling was applied including body mass index (BMI...

  7. Juvenile angiofibromer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Anne Daugaard; Jakobsen, John; Nepper-Rasmussen, Jørgen

    2005-01-01

    Juvenile angiofibroma is a rare, benign, rich vascular tumor, and approximately one new case is diagnosed in Denmark each year. It sits in the foramen sphenopalatinum and occurs in boys from 14 to 25 years of age. The most frequent initial symptoms are nasal obstruction and epistaxis. Through...... the years, the treatment of juvenile angiofibroma has included many methods, including surgical excision, electrocoagulation, interstitial or external radiation therapy, cryosurgery, hormone administration and chemotherapy. Radiation, chemotherapy and surgery have proven to be the most effective treatments...

  8. TO THE ISSUE OF PRESERVATION AND RESTORATION OF STURGEON STOCKS IN THE VOLGA-CASPIAN BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Vasilieva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that for the preservation and restoration of natural sturgeon populations it is necessary to increase the eff iciency of reproduction, both natural and artificial Article determines the crucial role of artificial reproduction of sturgeon at the present stage to keep the gene pool of these valuable fish species and restoration of biological resources for commercial fishing.The article contains a set of measures for the conservation, restoration and rational use of natural resources of sturgeon.

  9. Toxicity assessment of silver nanoparticles in Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) and starry sturgeon (Acipenser stellatus) during early life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banan, Ashkan; Kalbassi Masjed Shahi, Mohammad Reza; Bahmani, Mahmoud; Yazdani Sadati, Mohammad Ali

    2016-05-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely used in consumer products mainly due to their antimicrobial action. The rapidly increasing use of nanoparticles (NPs) has driven more attention to their possible ecotoxicological effects. In this study, the acute toxicity of colloidal AgNPs was evaluated during the embryonic stage of Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) and starry sturgeon (Acipenser stellatus) at concentrations of 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8 mg/L. Fertilized eggs (75 eggs per replicate) were exposed to aforementioned concentrations for 96 h in triplicate. 96-h LC50 values in Persian sturgeon and starry sturgeon were calculated as 0.163 and 0.158 mg/L, respectively. Furthermore, in starry sturgeon, the short-term effects of AgNPs on the hatching rate, survival rate, and Ag accumulation during early life stages (before active feeding commences) were also analyzed at concentrations of 0, 0.025, 0.05, and 0.1 mg/L of colloidal AgNPs. The highest silver accumulation occurred in larvae exposed to 0.1 mg/L AgNPs; however, the body burden of silver did not alter survival rate, and there were no significant differences among treatments. Based on the obtained results from the acute toxicity exposures, AgNPs induced a concentration-dependent toxicity in both species during early life stages, while complementary studies are suggested for investigating their short-term effects in detail.

  10. Identification of a new mineralized tissue in the notochord of reared Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leprévost, Amandine; Azaïs, Thierry; Trichet, Michael; Sire, Jean-Yves

    2017-11-01

    In a study aiming to improve knowledge on the mineralization of the axial skeleton in reared Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii Brandt, 1869), we discovered a new mineralized tissue within the notochord. To our knowledge, such a structure has never been reported in any vertebrate species with the exception of the pathological mineralization of the notochord remains in degenerative intervertebral disks of mammals. Here, we describe this enigmatic tissue using X-ray microtomography, histological analyses and solid state NMR-spectroscopy. We also performed a 1-year monitoring of the mineral content (MC) of the notochord in relation with seasonal variations of temperature. In all specimens studied from 2-year-old juveniles onwards, this mineralized structure was found within a particular region of the notochord called funiculus. This feature first appears in the abdominal region then extends posteriorly with ageing, while the notochord MC also increases. The mineral phase is mainly composed of amorphous calcium phosphate, a small amount of which changes into hydroxyapatite with ageing. The putative role of this structure is discussed as either a store of minerals available for the phosphocalcic metabolism, or a mechanical support in a species with a poorly mineralized axial skeleton. A pathological feature putatively related to rearing conditions is also discussed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Susceptibility of juvenile European lobster Homarus gammarus to shrimp products infected with high and low doses of white spot syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, K S; Munro, J; Uglow, B; Small, H J; Stentiford, G D

    2012-08-27

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the most important pathogen known to affect the sustainability and growth of the global penaeid shrimp farming industry. Although most commonly associated with penaeid shrimp farmed in warm waters, WSSV is also able to infect, cause disease in and kill a wide range of other decapod crustaceans, including lobsters, from temperate regions. In 2005, the European Union imported US$500 million worth of raw frozen or cooked frozen commodity products, much of which originated in regions positive for white spot disease (WSD). The presence of WSSV within the UK food market was verified by means of nested PCR performed on samples collected from a small-scale survey of supermarket commodity shrimp. Passage trials using inoculum derived from commodity shrimp from supermarkets and delivered by injection to specific pathogen-free Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei led to rapid mortality and pathognomonic signs of WSD in the shrimp, demonstrating that WSSV present within commodity shrimp was viable. We exposed a representative European decapod crustacean, the European lobster Homarus gammarus, to a single feeding of WSSV-positive, supermarket-derived commodity shrimp, and to positive control material (L. vannamei infected with a high dose of WSSV). These trials demonstrated that lobsters fed positive control (high dose) frozen raw products succumbed to WSD and displayed pathognomonic signs associated with the disease as determined by means of histology and transmission electron microscopy. Lobsters fed WSSV-positive, supermarket-derived commodity shrimp (low dose) did not succumb to WSD (no mortality or pathognomonic signs of WSD) but demonstrated a low level or latent infection via PCR. This study confirms susceptibility of H. gammarus to WSSV via single feedings of previously frozen raw shrimp products obtained directly from supermarkets.

  12. Project overview: Chapter A in Factors affecting the reproduction, recruitment, habitat, and population dynamics of pallid sturgeon and shovelnose sturgeon in the Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLonay, Aaron J.; Papoulias, Diana M.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Wildhaber, Mark L.; Simpkins, Darin G.; Korschgen, Carl E.

    2007-01-01

    For more than a hundred years, human activities have modified the natural forces that control the Missouri River and its native fish fauna. While the ecological effects of regulation and channel engineering are understood in general, the current understanding is not sufficient to guide river restoration and management. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is in the third year of a multiagency research effort to determine the ecological requirements for reproduction and survival of the endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) and shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorhynchus) in the Missouri River. The multidisciplinary research strategy includes components of behavior, physiology, habitat use, habitat availability, and population modeling of all life stages. Shovelnose sturgeon are used to design the strategy because they are closely related to the pallid sturgeon and are often used as a surrogate species to develop new research tools or to examine the effects of management actions or environmental variables on sturgeon biology and habitat use. During fiscal years 2005 and 2006, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) provided funds to USGS for tasks associated with the Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Program (CSRP) and for tasks associated with evaluation of the Sturgeon Response to Flow Modifications (SRFM). Because work activities of CSRP and SRFM are so integrated, we are providing information on activities that have been consolidated at the task level. These task activities represent chapters in this report.

  13. Use of navigation channels by Lake Sturgeon: Does channelization increase vulnerability of fish to ship strikes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darryl W Hondorp

    Full Text Available Channelization for navigation and flood control has altered the hydrology and bathymetry of many large rivers with unknown consequences for fish species that undergo riverine migrations. In this study, we investigated whether altered flow distributions and bathymetry associated with channelization attracted migrating Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens into commercial navigation channels, potentially increasing their exposure to ship strikes. To address this question, we quantified and compared Lake Sturgeon selection for navigation channels vs. alternative pathways in two multi-channel rivers differentially affected by channelization, but free of barriers to sturgeon movement. Acoustic telemetry was used to quantify Lake Sturgeon movements. Under the assumption that Lake Sturgeon navigate by following primary flow paths, acoustic-tagged Lake Sturgeon in the more-channelized lower Detroit River were expected to choose navigation channels over alternative pathways and to exhibit greater selection for navigation channels than conspecifics in the less-channelized lower St. Clair River. Consistent with these predictions, acoustic-tagged Lake Sturgeon in the more-channelized lower Detroit River selected the higher-flow and deeper navigation channels over alternative migration pathways, whereas in the less-channelized lower St. Clair River, individuals primarily used pathways alternative to navigation channels. Lake Sturgeon selection for navigation channels as migratory pathways also was significantly higher in the more-channelized lower Detroit River than in the less-channelized lower St. Clair River. We speculated that use of navigation channels over alternative pathways would increase the spatial overlap of commercial vessels and migrating Lake Sturgeon, potentially enhancing their vulnerability to ship strikes. Results of our study thus demonstrated an association between channelization and the path use of migrating Lake Sturgeon that could prove

  14. Heavy metal bio-accumulation in tissues of sturgeon species of the Lower Danube River, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ONĂRĂ Dalia Florentina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates bio-accumulation of heavy metals in tissues of sturgeons of the North-Western Black Sea and Lower Danube River (LDR. Samples (10 – 30 gr of liver, muscle, fat, gonads and skin tissues collected in October 2003 from 21 adult specimens of three sturgeon species: Acipenser stellatus (10, A. gueldenstaedtii (2, and Huso huso (9 were analysed for content in Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb, Mn, Fe and Ni, using VARIAN Spectra A100. The highest concentrations of Zn, Cu and Cd were found in liver and the smallest in muscles of sturgeons. The highest heavy metal content was detected in tissues of stellate sturgeons, followed by Russian sturgeons. In all three species Cd and Cu content of the liver as well as of the stellate sturgeon muscle surpassed the admitted limits for human consumption (Cd – 0.05; Zn - 50; Cu – 5.0; Pb – 0.3 [mg / kg wet weight]. In view of a future re-opening of the commercial fishing of wild sturgeons it is strongly recommended testing the heavy metal level prior delivering sturgeon products to the market. Avoiding human consumption of liver of sturgeons captured in the LDR is strongly recommended as well. In the case of Cd a bio-accumulation with age of sturgeons was visible. In all species males seem to accumulate more heavy metals in their tissues. We explain this as effect of more frequent spawning migration of males in the LDR, the major contamination source. Beluga sturgeons show less heavy metal bio-accumulation of tissues.

  15. What Is Juvenile Arthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Initiative Breadcrumb Home Health Topics English Español Juvenile Arthritis Basics In-Depth Download Download EPUB Download PDF What is it? Points To Remember About Juvenile Arthritis Juvenile arthritis is the term used to describe ...

  16. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... joints. This form of JIA may turn into rheumatoid arthritis. It may involve 5 or more large and ... no known prevention for JIA. Alternative Names Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA); Juvenile chronic polyarthritis; Still disease; Juvenile spondyloarthritis ...

  17. REARING OF PELED (COREGONUS PELED Gmelin IN POLYCULTURE WITH CYPRINIDS (CYPRINIDAE AND STURGEONS (ACIPENSERIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kurinenko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze the results of rearing and provide aquaculture-biological characteristic of peled reared in polyculture with sturgeons and cyprinids based on pond technology. Methodology. The material for the studies were fry, young-of-the-year, yearlings and age-1+ peled produced from eggs exported in March 2009 from Russian Federation. Rearing of peled was carried out based on the technology developed by the All-Union Scientific and Research Institute of Pond Fish Culture for coregonids with the use of methodical recommendations on the biotechnology of industrial rearing of seed coregonids. Studies were carried out at the pond fish farm “Korop” of Lviv region. Water supply of rearing ponds was done by self-flow. The investigation of fish diet and hydrobiological studies were carried out using conventional methods. Findings. We performed a study of fish egg incubation and produced larvae with their further rearing in floating cages to the fingerling stage. Rearing of peled in polyculture allows increasing the fish productivity parameters at the first year of rearing by 1.3%, at the second year by 0.9%. Average weights of age-1 and age-1+ peled were 185.3 g and 450 g, respectively. In these rearing conditions, daily growth of the young-of-the-year was within 0.1-1.5 g, age-1+ – 1.1-3.3 g. As a positive result of rearing, we should note high weight gain during winter period that was more than 50%. We also investigated qualitative and quantitative composition of zooplankton and peled juvenile diet. Originality. The works of peled rearing based on pond technology in polyculture with sturgeons and cyprinids were carried out in the conditions of Ukraine for the first time. Practical value. The results of the performed works along with similar previous works on peled rearing in ponds will be used for the creation of methodical recommendations on rearing of peled seeds, which will be used by Ukrainian fish farms in future.

  18. The Relationship Between Acoustic Target Strength and Body Length for Atlantic Sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    sturgeon feeding portray them as opportunistic benthivores, feeding primar- ily on mollusks, polychaete worms, amphipods, isopods, shrimp and small bottom...dwelling fishes and insect larvae (Gilbert 1989; Smith 1985). The Atlantic sturgeon is anadromous, entering freshwater rivers to spawn at water...bottom (small rubble, gravel, hard clay, and limestone) is required for successful egg attachment and incubation, while also protecting larvae from

  19. 75 FR 53598 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Threatened Status for Shovelnose Sturgeon Under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... (Service 1993, p. 3). Current known threats to the pallid sturgeon include habitat modification, small... current maximum harvest size limits for shovelnose sturgeon on the Mississippi River (81.3 cm (32 in... reduction in supply resulted in exponential increase in caviar prices subsequent to the 1978 peak (Bardi and...

  20. 78 FR 46813 - Safety Zone; Evening on the Bay Fireworks; Sturgeon Bay, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Evening on the Bay Fireworks; Sturgeon Bay, WI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION.... This temporary safety zone will restrict vessels from a portion of Sturgeon Bay due to a fireworks... hazards associated with the fireworks display. DATES: This rule is effective from 8 p.m. until 10 p.m. on...

  1. Mattagami River Lake sturgeon entrainment : Little Long generating station facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seyler, J.; Evers, J.; McKinley, S.; Evans, R.R.; Prevost, G.; Carson, R.; Phoenix, D.

    1996-01-01

    This project and publication is the result of a collaborative effort by other Large River Ecosystem Unit of Northeast Science (NEST), Ontario Hydro in Kapuskasing, and the New Post First Nation in Cochrane, Ontario, designed to investigate potential solutions to minimize or eliminate the problem of trapped lake sturgeon in the Adam Creek Diversion. The Adam Creek Dam is used to divert excess water from the Mattagami River hydroelectric complex which consists of the Little Long, Smoky Falls, Harmon and Kipling generating stations. The lake sturgeon entrainment problem in the area was discovered in 1990. Potential solutions to the problem include the redirection of flows to mainstream, the placement of a rope barrier, electrical deterrents, physical/electrical guidance systems, sound deterrents, gate modifications, and the continued relocation of fish. The advantages and disadvantages of each of these potential solutions are discussed. Results of the analysis indicated that perceptual and physical barriers have the greatest potential to minimize lake sturgeon entrainment in Adam Creek. 25 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs., 6 appendices

  2. Adult Pacific Lamprey Migration Behavior and Escapement in the Bonneville Reservoir and Lower Columbia River Monitored Using the Juvenile Salmonid Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS), 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    sea lions (Zalophus californicus, Eumetopias jubatus) or white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) in the tailrace, moved to spawning tributaries...and management of three parasitic lampreys of North America. Fisheries 35:580-594. Close, D. A., M. Fitzpatrick, and H. Li. 2002. The ecological

  3. Reintroduction of Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) into the St. Regis River, NY: Post-release assessment of habitat use and growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittman, Dawn E.; Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Johnson, James H.; Snyder, James

    2015-01-01

    One of the depleted endemic fish species of the Great Lakes, Acipenser fulvescens (Lake Sturgeon), has been the target of extensive conservation efforts. One strategy is reintroduction into historically productive waters. The St. Regis River, NY, represents one such adaptive-management effort, with shared management between New York and the St. Regis Mohawk Tribe. Between 1998 and 2004, a total of 4977 young-of-year Lake Sturgeon were released. Adaptive management requires intermediate progress metrics. During 2004 and 2005, we measured growth, habitat use, and survivorship metrics of the released fish. We captured a total of 95 individuals of all stocked ages. Year-class minimal-survival rates ranged from 0.19–2.1%. The size-at-age and length/biomass relationships were comparable to those reported for juveniles in other Great Lakes waters. These intermediate assessment metrics can provide feedback to resource managers who make restoration-program decisions on a much shorter time-scale than the time-frame in which the ultimate goal of a self-sustaining population can be attained.

  4. A novel approach to surveying sturgeon using side-scan sonar and occupancy modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, H. Jared; Hightower, Joseph E.

    2013-01-01

    Technological advances represent opportunities to enhance and supplement traditional fisheries sampling approaches. One example with growing importance for fisheries research is hydroacoustic technologies such as side-scan sonar. Advantages of side-scan sonar over traditional techniques include the ability to sample large areas efficiently and the potential to survey fish without physical handling-important for species of conservation concern, such as endangered sturgeons. Our objectives were to design an efficient survey methodology for sampling Atlantic Sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus by using side-scan sonar and to developmethods for analyzing these data. In North Carolina and South Carolina, we surveyed six rivers thought to contain varying abundances of sturgeon by using a combination of side-scan sonar, telemetry, and video cameras (i.e., to sample jumping sturgeon). Lower reaches of each river near the saltwater-freshwater interface were surveyed on three occasions (generally successive days), and we used occupancy modeling to analyze these data.We were able to detect sturgeon in five of six rivers by using these methods. Side-scan sonar was effective in detecting sturgeon, with estimated gear-specific detection probabilities ranging from 0.2 to 0.5 and river-specific occupancy estimates (per 2-km river segment) ranging from 0.0 to 0.8. Future extensions of this occupancy modeling framework will involve the use of side-scan sonar data to assess sturgeon habitat and abundance in different river systems.

  5. Review of BPA funded sturgeon, resident fish and wildlife projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) held a public meeting on November 19--21, 1991, for the purpose of review, coordination, and consultation of the BPA-funded projects for sturgeon, resident fish, and wildlife in the Columbia River Basin (Basin). The comments received after the meeting were favorable and the participants agreed that the meeting was stimulating and productive. The information exchanged should lead to better coordination with other projects throughout the Basin. This document list the projects by title, the project leaders and BPA's project officers, and an abstract of each leader's presentation

  6. PROPAGACIÓN POR ESTACAS JUVENILES DEL BALSO BLANCO (Heliocarpus americanus L. Sin. H. popayanensis UTILIZANDO PROPAGADORES DE SUBIRRIGACIÓN PROPAGATION OF WHITE BALSUM (Heliocarpus americanus L. Sin. H. popayanensis CUTTINGS USING NONMIST PROPAGATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Vásquez Restrepo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El mercado mundial de edulcorantes orgánicos es una oportunidad para la panela, producto básico de la canasta familiar que representa ingresos importantes para la población rural colombiana. El balso blanco (Heliocarpus americanus L. Sin. H. popayanensis Hook & Arn. es la especie más usada en procesos de clarificación de la panela en Antioquia y las zonas cañeras húmedas colombianas. Pero la extracción de la corteza de árboles obtenidos de la regeneración natural comienza a ser insostenible, por el daño causado a los individuos y la presión creciente a este recurso. La prohibición del uso de sustancias químicas en procesos de clarificación de panela ha aumentado la demanda de la corteza del balso blanco. En este trabajo se estimó el enraizamiento de estacas juveniles de balso blanco, por propagadores de subirrigación. Se realizaron dos experimentos, utilizando ácido anaftalenacético (ANA. En el primero se evaluó el efecto del transporte, cicatrizante y sustrato sobre el enraizamiento de las estacas de balso blanco. El mejor medio de transporte fue en cristales de hidrogel para mantener la humedad de las estacas, sin utilizar cicatrizante y sembrándolas en el sustrato tierra (55 % de enraizamiento. En el segundo se analizó la influencia de la intensidad lumínica y el área foliar en el porcentaje de enraizamiento de las estacas. El más alto enraizamiento se obtuvo con el tratamiento de doble sombra y un área foliar de 20 cm² (25 % de enraizamiento. Aunque los mejores resultados indican un relativo éxito en el uso de medios de enraizamiento, es una primera aproximación para propagar esta especie que necesita ser protegida.The world market of organic edulcorants is an opportunity for “panela”, a basic domestic consumption product that provides important income to rural population. White balsum (Heliocarpus americanus L. Sin. H. popayanensis Hook & Arn. is the most used species in the panela clarification processes in

  7. Modification and Validation of the Triglyceride-to-HDL Cholesterol Ratio as a Surrogate of Insulin Sensitivity in White Juveniles and Adults without Diabetes Mellitus: The Single Point Insulin Sensitivity Estimator (SPISE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulmichl, Katharina; Hatunic, Mensud; Højlund, Kurt; Jotic, Aleksandra; Krebs, Michael; Mitrakou, Asimina; Porcellati, Francesca; Tura, Andrea; Bergsten, Peter; Forslund, Anders; Manell, Hannes; Widhalm, Kurt; Weghuber, Daniel; Anderwald, Christian-Heinz

    2016-09-01

    The triglyceride-to-HDL cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio was introduced as a tool to estimate insulin resistance, because circulating lipid measurements are available in routine settings. Insulin, C-peptide, and free fatty acids are components of other insulin-sensitivity indices but their measurement is expensive. Easier and more affordable tools are of interest for both pediatric and adult patients. Study participants from the Relationship Between Insulin Sensitivity and Cardiovascular Disease [43.9 (8.3) years, n = 1260] as well as the Beta-Cell Function in Juvenile Diabetes and Obesity study cohorts [15 (1.9) years, n = 29] underwent oral-glucose-tolerance tests and euglycemic clamp tests for estimation of whole-body insulin sensitivity and calculation of insulin sensitivity indices. To refine the TG/HDL ratio, mathematical modeling was applied including body mass index (BMI), fasting TG, and HDL cholesterol and compared to the clamp-derived M-value as an estimate of insulin sensitivity. Each modeling result was scored by identifying insulin resistance and correlation coefficient. The Single Point Insulin Sensitivity Estimator (SPISE) was compared to traditional insulin sensitivity indices using area under the ROC curve (aROC) analysis and χ(2) test. The novel formula for SPISE was computed as follows: SPISE = 600 × HDL-C(0.185)/(TG(0.2) × BMI(1.338)), with fasting HDL-C (mg/dL), fasting TG concentrations (mg/dL), and BMI (kg/m(2)). A cutoff value of 6.61 corresponds to an M-value smaller than 4.7 mg · kg(-1) · min(-1) (aROC, M:0.797). SPISE showed a significantly better aROC than the TG/HDL-C ratio. SPISE aROC was comparable to the Matsuda ISI (insulin sensitivity index) and equal to the QUICKI (quantitative insulin sensitivity check index) and HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance) when calculated with M-values. The SPISE seems well suited to surrogate whole-body insulin sensitivity from inexpensive fasting single-point blood draw and BMI

  8. Food habits of Atlantic sturgeon off the central New Jersey coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. H.; Dropkin, D.S.; Warkentine, B.E.; Rachlin, J.W.; Andrews, W.D.

    1997-01-01

    Limited information exists on the marine diet of the Atlantic sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus. We examined the food habits of 275 Atlantic sturgeon (total length, 106-203 cm) caught in the commercial fishery off the coast of New Jersey. Stomachs were provided by fishermen. Significantly more stomachs were empty in the spring than in the fall. Sand and organic debris were a major component in the stomachs (26.3-75.4% by weight). Polycheates were the primary pre group consumed, although the isopod Politolana conchorum was the most important individual prey eaten. Mollusks and fish contributed little to the diet. Some prey taxa (i.e., polychaetes, isopods, amphipods) exhibited seasonal variation in importance in the diet of Atlantic sturgeon. Identification of the offshore diet of Atlantic sturgeon is an important step in developing a better understanding of the life history requirements and marine ecology of this species.

  9. Diet composition of larval and young-of-year shovelnose sturgeon in the Upper Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braaten, P. J.; Fuller, D.B.; McClenning, N.D.

    2007-01-01

    Obtaining food following the transition from endogenous to exogenous feeding and during the first year of life is a critical event that strongly influences growth and survival of young-of-year fishes. For shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus, limited information is available on food habits during the first year of life. The objective of this study was to quantify diet components of shovelnose sturgeon during the transition from endogenous to exogenous feeding and during the young-of-year life stage in the North Dakota and Montana portions of the Missouri River. Young-of-year shovelnose sturgeon were sampled between early August and early September 2003. Shovelnose sturgeon initiated exogenous feeding by 16 mm, and individuals 16–140 mm fed exclusively on two macroinvertebrate orders (Diptera and Ephemeroptera). Young-of-year shovelnose sturgeon exhibited an apparently high feeding success as 99 of 100 individuals contained food in the gut. The number of organisms in the gut increased exponentially with fish length for larval Diptera (r2 = 0.73, P the number of Diptera pupae in the gut was not significantly related (P = 0.55) to length of young-of-year shovelnose sturgeon. The length of ingested prey was linearly related to fish length for Diptera larvae (r2 = 0.20, P = 0.002), whereas the relationship between lengths of ingested Ephemeroptera larvae and lengths of young-of-year shovelnose sturgeon was best described by a power function (r2 = 0.50, P the first quantification of feeding dynamics for young-of-year shovelnose sturgeon in a natural river environment.

  10. Green sturgeon distribution in the Pacific Ocean estimated from modeled oceanographic features and migration behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, David D; Lindley, Steven T; Wells, Brian K; Chai, Fei

    2012-01-01

    The green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris), which is found in the eastern Pacific Ocean from Baja California to the Bering Sea, tends to be highly migratory, moving long distances among estuaries, spawning rivers, and distant coastal regions. Factors that determine the oceanic distribution of green sturgeon are unclear, but broad-scale physical conditions interacting with migration behavior may play an important role. We estimated the distribution of green sturgeon by modeling species-environment relationships using oceanographic and migration behavior covariates with maximum entropy modeling (MaxEnt) of species geographic distributions. The primary concentration of green sturgeon was estimated from approximately 41-51.5° N latitude in the coastal waters of Washington, Oregon, and Vancouver Island and in the vicinity of San Francisco and Monterey Bays from 36-37° N latitude. Unsuitably cold water temperatures in the far north and energetic efficiencies associated with prevailing water currents may provide the best explanation for the range-wide marine distribution of green sturgeon. Independent trawl records, fisheries observer records, and tagging studies corroborated our findings. However, our model also delineated patchily distributed habitat south of Monterey Bay, though there are few records of green sturgeon from this region. Green sturgeon are likely influenced by countervailing pressures governing their dispersal. They are behaviorally directed to revisit natal freshwater spawning rivers and persistent overwintering grounds in coastal marine habitats, yet they are likely physiologically bounded by abiotic and biotic environmental features. Impacts of human activities on green sturgeon or their habitat in coastal waters, such as bottom-disturbing trawl fisheries, may be minimized through marine spatial planning that makes use of high-quality species distribution information.

  11. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, M.

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted.

  12. Ecological requirements for pallid sturgeon reproduction and recruitment in the Lower Missouri River: Annual report 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLonay, Aaron J.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Papoulias, Diana M.; Wildhaber, Mark L.; Chojnacki, Kimberly A.; Pherigo, Emily K.; Haas, Justin D.; Mestl, Gerald E.

    2012-01-01

    The Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Project is a multiyear, multiagency collaborative research framework developed to provide information to support pallid sturgeon recovery and Missouri River management decisions. The project strategy integrates field and laboratory studies of sturgeon reproductive ecology, early life history, habitat requirements, and physiology. The project scope of work is developed annually with cooperating research partners and in collaboration with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Missouri River Recovery—Integrated Science Program. The research consists of several interdependent and complementary tasks that engage multiple disciplines. The research tasks in the 2010 scope of work primarily address spawning as a probable factor limiting pallid sturgeon survival and recovery, although limited pilot studies also have been initiated to examine the requirements of early life stages. The research is designed to inform management decisions affecting channel re-engineering, flow modification, and pallid sturgeon population augmentation on the Missouri River, and throughout the range of the species. Research and progress made through this project are reported to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers annually. This annual report details the research effort and progress made by the Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Project during 2010.

  13. Diet composition of larval and young-of-year shovelnose sturgeon in the Upper Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braaten, P. J.; Fuller, D.B.; McClenning, N.D.

    2007-01-01

    Obtaining food following the transition from endogenous to exogenous feeding and during the first year of life is a critical event that strongly influences growth and survival of young-of-year fishes. For shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus, limited information is available on food habits during the first year of life. The objective of this study was to quantify diet components of shovelnose sturgeon during the transition from endogenous to exogenous feeding and during the young-of-year life stage in the North Dakota and Montana portions of the Missouri River. Young-of-year shovelnose sturgeon were sampled between early August and early September 2003. Shovelnose sturgeon initiated exogenous feeding by 16 mm, and individuals 16–140 mm fed exclusively on two macroinvertebrate orders (Diptera and Ephemeroptera). Young-of-year shovelnose sturgeon exhibited an apparently high feeding success as 99 of 100 individuals contained food in the gut. The number of organisms in the gut increased exponentially with fish length for larval Diptera (r2 = 0.73, P feeding dynamics for young-of-year shovelnose sturgeon in a natural river environment.

  14. Reconsidering residency: Characterization and conservation implications of complex migratory patterns of shortnose sturgeon (Acispenser brevirostrum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionne, Phillip E.; Zydlewski, Gayle B.; Kinnison, Michael T.; Zydlewski, Joseph D.; Wippelhauser, Gail S.

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to conserve endangered species usually involve attempts to define and manage threats at the appropriate scale of population processes. In some species that scale is localized; in others, dispersal and migration link demic units within larger metapopulations. Current conservation strategies for endangered shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) assume the species is river resident, with little to no movement between rivers. However we have found that shortnose sturgeon travel more than 130 km through coastal waters between the largest rivers in Maine. Indeed, acoustic telemetry shows that shortnose sturgeon enter six out of the seven acoustically monitored rivers we have monitored, with over 70% of tagged individuals undertaking coastal migrations between river systems. Four migration patterns were identified for shortnose sturgeon inhabiting the Penobscot River, Maine: river resident (28%), spring coastal emigrant (24%), fall coastal emigrant (33%), and summer coastal emigrant (15%). No shortnose sturgeon classified as maturing female exhibited a resident pattern, indicating differential migration. Traditional river-specific assessment and management of shortnose sturgeon could be better characterized using a broader metapopulation scale, at least in the Gulf of Maine, that accounts for diverse migratory strategies and the importance of migratory corridors as critical habitat.

  15. Juvenile Court Statistics - 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Youth Development (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    This report is a statistical study of juvenile court cases in 1972. The data demonstrates how the court is frequently utilized in dealing with juvenile delinquency by the police as well as by other community agencies and parents. Excluded from this report are the ordinary traffic cases handled by juvenile court. The data indicate that: (1) in…

  16. Juvenile Court Statistics, 1974.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Jacqueline; Vereb, Thomas S.

    This report presents information on juvenile court processing of youth in the U.S. during 1974. It is based on data gathered under the National Juvenile Court Statistical Reporting System. Findings can be summarized as follows: (1) 1,252,700 juvenile delinquency cases, excluding traffic offenses, were handled by courts in the U.S. in 1974; (2) the…

  17. Population viability analysis of the Endangered shortnose sturgeon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jager, Yetta [ORNL; Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL; Peterson, Douglas L. [University of Georgia, Athens, GA

    2011-07-01

    This study used population viability analysis (PVA) to partition the influences of potential threats to the endangered shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum). A workshop brought together experts to help identify potential threats including groundwater withdrawal, poor water quality, saltwater intrusion, mercury effects, harvest as by-catch, and sedimentation of spawning habitat. During the course of the project, we eliminated some threats and added new ones. Groundwater withdrawal was dismissed after a study failed to identify connection with groundwater and the majority of pumping is from a confined aquifer. We also eliminated activities on Fort Stewart as influences on spawning habitat because any successful spawning must occur upstream of Fort Stewart. We added climate change to the list of threats based on our assessment of temperature effects and expectations of sea-level rise. Our study highlighted the role of populations in nearby rivers in providing metapopulation support, raising the concern that the population in the Ogeechee River acts as a demographic sink. As part of this study, we carried out a field sampling study to analyze effects of training activities on headwater streams. We developed a new methodology for sampling design as part of this effort and used a mixed-modeling approach to identify relationships between land cover-land use, including those associated with military training activity and water quality. We found that tank training was associated with higher suspended sediment and equipment training was associated with higher organic carbon) and water quality. We detected effects of training on suspended sediment and organic carbon. We also carried out a field sampling effort in the Canoochee and Ogeechee Rivers. In the Ogeechee River, we found that dissolved oxygen in 40% of measurements during summer were below 4 mg L-1. To evaluate mercury as a potential threat, we developed a mercury uptake model and analyzed mercury levels in

  18. Genetic differentiation of spring-spawning and fall-spawning male Atlantic sturgeon in the James River, Virginia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew T Balazik

    Full Text Available Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, Acipenseridae populations are currently at severely depleted levels due to historic overfishing, habitat loss, and pollution. The importance of biologically correct stock structure for effective conservation and management efforts is well known. Recent improvements in our understanding of Atlantic sturgeon migrations, movement, and the occurrence of putative dual spawning groups leads to questions regarding the true stock structure of this endangered species. In the James River, VA specifically, captures of spawning Atlantic sturgeon and accompanying telemetry data suggest there are two discrete spawning groups of Atlantic sturgeon. The two putative spawning groups were genetically evaluated using a powerful microsatellite marker suite to determine if they are genetically distinct. Specifically, this study evaluates the genetic structure, characterizes the genetic diversity, estimates effective population size, and measures inbreeding of Atlantic sturgeon in the James River. The results indicate that fall and spring spawning James River Atlantic sturgeon groups are genetically distinct (overall FST = 0.048, F'ST = 0.181 with little admixture between the groups. The observed levels of genetic diversity and effective population sizes along with the lack of detected inbreeding all indicated that the James River has two genetically healthy populations of Atlantic sturgeon. The study also demonstrates that samples from adult Atlantic sturgeon, with proper sample selection criteria, can be informative when creating reference population databases. The presence of two genetically-distinct spawning groups of Atlantic sturgeon within the James River raises concerns about the current genetic assignment used by managers. Other nearby rivers may also have dual spawning groups that either are not accounted for or are pooled in reference databases. Our results represent the second documentation of genetically

  19. Sperm proteins in teleostean and chondrostean (sturgeon) fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Hulak, Martin; Linhart, Otomar

    2009-11-01

    Sperm proteins in the seminal plasma and spermatozoa of teleostean and chondrostean have evolved adaptations due to the changes in the reproductive environment. Analysis of the composition and functions of these proteins provides new insights into sperm motility and fertilising abilities, thereby creating possibilities for improving artificial reproduction and germplasm resource conservation technologies (e.g. cryopreservation). Seminal plasma proteins are involved in the protection of spermatozoa during storage in the reproductive system, whereas all spermatozoa proteins contribute to the swimming and fertilising abilities of sperm. Compared to mammalian species, little data are available on fish sperm proteins and their functions. We review here the current state of the art in this field and focus on relevant subjects that require attention. Future research should concentrate on protein functions and their mode of action in fish species, especially on the role of spermatozoa surface proteins during fertilisation and on a description of sturgeon sperm proteins.

  20. Desk-study on habitat quality for the European Sturgeon in the Dutch Rhine and southern North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter, H.V.; Teal, L.R.; Wolfshaar, van de K.E.; Griffioen, A.B.; Houben, B.; Breve, N.W.P.

    2015-01-01

    One of the most endangered fish species worldwide is the European sturgeon Acipenser sturio. The River Rhine was home to an important sturgeon population that went locally extinct in the first half of the 20th century. In recent decades, many improvements of the ecological quality of the Rhine have

  1. Comparison of select hematology and serum chemistry analtyes between wild-caught and aquarium-housed lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiVincenti, Louis; Priest, Heather; Walker, Kyle J.; Wyatt, Jeffrey D.; Dittman, Dawn

    2013-01-01

    Hematology and serum chemistry analytes were compared between wild-caught and aquarium-housed lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) to potentially improve understanding of medical issues in lake sturgeon. Blood samples were taken from 30 lake sturgeon exhibited in 11 institutions in the United States and from 23 experimentally stocked lake sturgeon caught in gill nets in the lower Genesee River in Rochester, New York, USA. For hematology, only segmented neutrophil count was significantly different, with wild-caught fish having a higher number of circulating neutrophils. For clinical chemistry analytes, chloride, uric acid, calcium, phosphate, glucose, aspartate aminotransferase, triglycerides, and creatine kinase were significantly different between the two cohorts. These differences are likely not clinically significant and are attributable to handling stress, variability in environmental parameters, or differences in nutritional status. This is the first report of hematology and serum chemistry values in aquarium-housed lake sturgeon and provides useful reference intervals for clinicians.

  2. Lake Sturgeon, Acipenser fulvescens, movements in Rainy Lake, Minnesota and Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, W.E.; Kallemeyn, L.W.; Willis, D.W.

    2006-01-01

    Rainy Lake, Minnesota-Ontario, contains a native population of Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) that has gone largely unstudied. The objective of this descriptive study was to summarize generalized Lake Sturgeon movement patterns through the use of biotelemetry. Telemetry data reinforced the high utilization of the Squirrel Falls geographic location by Lake Sturgeon, with 37% of the re-locations occurring in that area. Other spring aggregations occurred in areas associated with Kettle Falls, the Pipestone River, and the Rat River, which could indicate spawning activity. Movement of Lake Sturgeon between the Seine River and the South Arm of Rainy Lake indicates the likelihood of one integrated population on the east end of the South Arm. The lack of re-locations in the Seine River during the months of September and October may have been due to Lake Sturgeon moving into deeper water areas of the Seine River and out of the range of radio telemetry gear or simply moving back into the South Arm. Due to the movements between Minnesota and Ontario, coordination of management efforts among provincial, state, and federal agencies will be important.

  3. Spring habitat use by stocked one year old European sturgeon Acipenser sturio in the freshwater-oligohaline area of the Gironde estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acolas, M. L.; Le Pichon, C.; Rochard, E.

    2017-09-01

    for areas with crustacea or nematodea and avoidance for areas with mollusks, insects or oligochaeta occured. We explain our results in light of foraging behavior and adaptation to the wild environment after captivity. For sturgeon population restoration projects in western Europe, these habitat preferences are key-features needed to evaluate the essential habitat availability for A. sturio juveniles in the tidal area at the front of the freshwater/saline transition waters.

  4. Evidence of circadian rhythm, oxygen regulation capacity, metabolic repeatability and positive correlations between forced and spontaneous maximal metabolic rates in lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon C Svendsen

    Full Text Available Animal metabolic rate is variable and may be affected by endogenous and exogenous factors, but such relationships remain poorly understood in many primitive fishes, including members of the family Acipenseridae (sturgeons. Using juvenile lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens, the objective of this study was to test four hypotheses: 1 A. fulvescens exhibits a circadian rhythm influencing metabolic rate and behaviour; 2 A. fulvescens has the capacity to regulate metabolic rate when exposed to environmental hypoxia; 3 measurements of forced maximum metabolic rate (MMR(F are repeatable in individual fish; and 4 MMR(F correlates positively with spontaneous maximum metabolic rate (MMR(S. Metabolic rates were measured using intermittent flow respirometry, and a standard chase protocol was employed to elicit MMR(F. Trials lasting 24 h were used to measure standard metabolic rate (SMR and MMR(S. Repeatability and correlations between MMR(F and MMR(S were analyzed using residual body mass corrected values. Results revealed that A. fulvescens exhibit a circadian rhythm in metabolic rate, with metabolism peaking at dawn. SMR was unaffected by hypoxia (30% air saturation (O(2sat, demonstrating oxygen regulation. In contrast, MMR(F was affected by hypoxia and decreased across the range from 100% O(2sat to 70% O(2sat. MMR(F was repeatable in individual fish, and MMR(F correlated positively with MMR(S, but the relationships between MMR(F and MMR(S were only revealed in fish exposed to hypoxia or 24 h constant light (i.e. environmental stressor. Our study provides evidence that the physiology of A. fulvescens is influenced by a circadian rhythm and suggests that A. fulvescens is an oxygen regulator, like most teleost fish. Finally, metabolic repeatability and positive correlations between MMR(F and MMR(S support the conjecture that MMR(F represents a measure of organism performance that could be a target of natural selection.

  5. Ecological Requirements for Pallid Sturgeon Reproduction and Recruitment in the Lower Missouri River: A Research Synthesis 2005-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLonay, Aaron J.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Papoulias, Diana M.; Simpkins, Darin G.; Wildhaber, Mark L.; Reuter, Joanna M.; Bonnot, Tom W.; Chojnacki, Kimberly A.; Korschgen, Carl E.; Mestl, Gerald E.; Mac, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This report provides a synthesis of results obtained between 2005 and 2008 from the Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Program, an interagency collaboration between the U.S. Geological Survey, Nebraska Game and Parks Commission, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Missouri River Recovery - Integrated Science Program. The goal of the Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Program is to improve fundamental understanding of reproductive ecology of the pallid sturgeon with the intent that improved understanding will inform river and species management decisions. Specific objectives include: *Determining movement, habitat-use, and reproductive behavior of pallid sturgeon; *Understanding reproductive physiology of pallid sturgeon and relations to environmental conditions; *Determining origin, transport, and fate of drifting pallid sturgeon larvae, and evaluating bottlenecks for recruitment of early life stages; *Quantifying availability and dynamics of aquatic habitats needed by pallid sturgeon for all life stages; and *Managing databases, integrating understanding, and publishing relevant information into the public domain. Management actions to increase reproductive success and survival of pallid sturgeon in the Lower Missouri River have been focused on flow regime, channel morphology, and propagation. Integration of 2005-08 Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Program research provides insight into linkages among flow regime, re-engineered channel morphology, and pallid sturgeon reproduction and survival. The research approach of the Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Program integrates opportunistic field studies, field-based experiments, and controlled laboratory studies. The field study plan is designed to explore the role of flow regime and associated environmental cues using two complementary approaches. An upstream-downstream approach compares sturgeon reproductive behavior between an upstream section of the Lower Missouri River with highly

  6. Science information to support Missouri River Scaphirhynchus albus (pallid sturgeon) effects analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert B.; Parsley, Michael J.; Annis, Mandy L.; Colvin, Michael E.; Welker, Timothy L.; James, Daniel A.

    2016-01-26

    The Missouri River Pallid Sturgeon Effects Analysis (EA) was commissioned by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to develop a foundation of understanding of how pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) population dynamics are linked to management actions in the Missouri River. The EA consists of several steps: (1) development of comprehensive, conceptual ecological models illustrating pallid sturgeon population dynamics and links to management actions and other drivers; (2) compilation and assessment of available scientific literature, databases, and models; (3) development of predictive, quantitative models to explore the system dynamics and population responses to management actions; and (4) analysis and assessment of effects of system operations and actions on species’ habitats and populations. This report addresses the second objective, compilation and assessment of relevant information.

  7. Life history and status of shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) in the Potomac River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, Micah

    2009-01-01

    We collected the first life history information on shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) in any of the rivers to Chesapeake Bay, the geographic center of the species range. In the Potomac River, two telemetry-tagged adult females used 124 km of river: a saltwater/freshwater reach at river km (rkm) 63-141 was the foraging-wintering concentration area, and one female migrated to spawn at rkm 187 in Washington, DC. The spawning migration explained the life history context of an adult captured 122 years ago in Washington, DC, supporting the idea that a natal population once lived in the river. Repeated homing migrations to foraging and wintering areas suggested the adults were residents, not transient coastal migrants. All habitats that adults need to complete life history are present in the river. The Potomac River shortnose sturgeon offers a rare opportunity to learn about the natural rebuilding of a sturgeon population.

  8. Reproductive traits of shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus (Rafinesque, 1820) in the lower Platte River, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, M. J.; Rugg, M.L.; Pegg, M.A.; Patino, Reynaldo; Hammen, J.J.

    2015-01-01

    We assessed reproductive status, fecundity, egg size, and spawning dynamics of shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus in the lower Platte River. Shovelnose sturgeon were captured throughout each year during 2011 and 2012 using a multi-gear approach designed to collect a variety of fish of varying sizes and ages. Fish were collected monthly for a laboratory assessment of reproductive condition. Female shovelnose sturgeon reached fork length at 50% maturity (FL50) at 547 mm and at a minimum length of 449 mm. The average female spawning cycle was 3–5 years. Mean egg count for adult females was 16 098 ± 1103 (SE), and mean egg size was 2.401 ± 0.051 (SE) mm. Total fecundity was positively correlated with length (r2 = 0.728; P  0.05). Male shovelnose sturgeon reached FL50 at 579 mm and at a minimum length of 453 mm. The average male spawning cycle was 1–2 years. Reproductively viable male and female sturgeon occurred during the spring (March–May) and autumn (September–October) in both years, indicating spring and potential autumn spawning events. Shovelnose sturgeon in the lower Platte River are maturing at a shorter length and younger age compared to populations elsewhere. Although it is unknown if the change is plastic or evolutionary, unfavorable environmental conditions or over-harvest may lead to hastened declines compared to other systems.

  9. Juvenile Confinement in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendel, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    For more than a century, the predominant strategy for the treatment and punishment of serious and sometimes not-so-serious juvenile offenders in the United States has been placement into large juvenile corrections institutions, alternatively known as training schools, reformatories, or youth corrections centers. America's heavy reliance on…

  10. Juvenile giant fibroadenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipul Yagnik

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Fibroadenomas are benign solid tumor associated with aberration of normal lobular development. Juvenile giant fibroadenoma is usually single and >5 cm in size /or >500 gms in weight. Important differential diagnoses are: phyllodes tumor and juvenile gigantomastia. Simple excision is the treatment of choice.

  11. Missouri River Scaphirhynchus albus (pallid sturgeon) effects analysis—Integrative report 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert B.; Annis, Mandy L.; Colvin, Michael E.; James, Daniel A.; Welker, Timothy L.; Parsley, Michael J.

    2016-07-15

    The Missouri River Pallid Sturgeon Effects Analysis was designed to carry out three components of an assessment of how Missouri River management has affected, and will affect, population dynamics of endangered Scaphirhynchus albus (pallid sturgeon): (1) collection of reliable scientific information, (2) critical assessment and synthesis of available data and analyses, and (3) analysis of the effects of actions on listed species and their habitats. This report is a synthesis of the three components emphasizing development of lines of evidence relating potential future management actions to pallid sturgeon population dynamics. We address 21 working management hypotheses that emerged from an expert opinion-based filtering process.The ability to quantify linkages from abiotic changes to pallid sturgeon population dynamics is compromised by fundamental information gaps. Although a substantial foundation of pallid sturgeon science has been developed during the past 20 years, our efforts attempt to push beyond that understanding to provide predictions of how future management actions may affect pallid sturgeon responses. For some of the 21 hypotheses, lines of evidence are limited to theoretical deduction, inference from sparse empirical datasets, or expert opinion. Useful simulation models have been developed to predict the effects of management actions on survival of drifting pallid sturgeon free embryos in the Yellowstone and Upper Missouri River complex (hereafter referred to as the “upper river”), and to assess the effects of flow and channel reconfigurations on habitat availability in the Lower Missouri River, tributaries, and Mississippi River downstream of Gavins Point Dam (hereafter referred to as the “lower river”). A population model also has been developed that can be used to assess sensitivity of the population to survival of specific life stages, assess some hypotheses related to stocking decisions, and explore a limited number of management

  12. Assessment of whether upstream passage for Lake Sturgeon is needed at the Pointe du Bois Generating Station (Winnipeg River)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, T.

    2010-01-01

    This document reviewed Manitoba Hydro's proposal to modernize the Pointe du Bois Generating Station (GS) on the Winnipeg River, with particular reference to the potential impacts on Lake Sturgeon in Management Unit 5 (MU5) where large numbers of the fish spawn at the base of the falls. The modernization will involve replacing the spillway, dam segments and replacing or repairing the powerhouse. The pros and cons of providing upstream fish passage for Lake Sturgeon and the generating station were outlined. The only spawning area in the MU5 area may be altered considerably due to changes in water flow, depending on the design chosen for modernization. A potential benefit of providing upstream fish passage for Lake Sturgeon would be to increase genetic diversity within the Winnipeg River. Another potential benefit would be to allow Lake Sturgeon, from the relatively dense population below the GS, to move upstream into MU4 where unfilled habitat may be available and Lake Sturgeon abundance is lower. A potential disadvantage of providing fish passage would be the loss of individual Lake Sturgeon from the healthy population in MU5 with no accompanying benefit to MU4. There would be no net gain to MU4 or MU5 if migrating Lake Sturgeon returned to MU5 rather than proceeding upstream. It was concluded that these current gaps in knowledge must be filled in order to fully assess the environmental impacts. 2 figs.

  13. Juvenile mammary papillomatosis; Papilomatosis juvenil mamaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, M.; Jimenez, A. V. [Hospital Reina Sofia. Cordoba (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    Juvenile mammary papillomatosis is a benign proliferative disease of young patients, generally under 30 years of age. The most frequent clinical presentation is the existence of an elastic and mobile lymph node of the breast. Anatomopathologically, it is characterized because it presents ductal epithelial hyperplasia, sometimes with marked atypia, and there are numerous cysts having different sizes among the findings. It has been associated with an increase in the incidence of breast cancer, both in the patient herself as well as her family. We review the literature on the subject and present the mammographic and ultrasonographic findings of a 22 year old woman diagnosed of juvenile mammary papillomatosis. (Author) 12 refs.

  14. Race and the fragility of the legal distinction between juveniles and adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneeta Rattan

    Full Text Available Legal precedent establishes juvenile offenders as inherently less culpable than adult offenders and thus protects juveniles from the most severe of punishments. But how fragile might these protections be? In the present study, simply bringing to mind a Black (vs. White juvenile offender led participants to view juveniles in general as significantly more similar to adults in their inherent culpability and to express more support for severe sentencing. Indeed, these differences in participants' perceptions of this foundational legal precedent distinguishing between juveniles and adults accounted for their greater support for severe punishment. These results highlight the fragility of protections for juveniles when race is in play. Furthermore, we suggest that this fragility may have broad implications for how juveniles are seen and treated in the criminal justice system.

  15. High-throughput sequencing of microRNA transcriptome and expression assay in the sturgeon, Acipenser schrenckii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihong Yuan

    Full Text Available Sturgeons are considered as living fossils and have very high evolutionary, economical and conservation values. The multiploidy of sturgeon that has been caused by chromosome duplication may lead to the emergence of new microRNAs (miRNAs involved in the ploidy and physiological processes. In the present study, we performed the first sturgeon miRNAs analysis by RNA-seq high-throughput sequencing combined with expression assay of microarray and real-time PCR, and aimed to discover the sturgeon-specific miRNAs, confirm the expressed pattern of miRNAs and illustrate the potential role of miRNAs-targets on sturgeon biological processes. A total of 103 miRNAs were identified, including 58 miRNAs with strongly detected signals (signal >500 and P≤0.01, which were detected by microarray. Real-time PCR assay supported the expression pattern obtained by microarray. Moreover, co-expression of 21 miRNAs in all five tissues and tissue-specific expression of 16 miRNAs implied the crucial and particular function of them in sturgeon physiological processes. Target gene prediction, especially the enriched functional gene groups (369 GO terms and pathways (37 KEGG regulated by 58 miRNAs (P<0.05, illustrated the interaction of miRNAs and putative mRNAs, and also the potential mechanism involved in these biological processes. Our new findings of sturgeon miRNAs expand the public database of transcriptome information for this species, contribute to our understanding of sturgeon biology, and also provide invaluable data that may be applied in sturgeon breeding.

  16. High-throughput sequencing of microRNA transcriptome and expression assay in the sturgeon, Acipenser schrenckii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Lihong; Zhang, Xiujuan; Li, Linmiao; Jiang, Haiying; Chen, Jinping

    2014-01-01

    Sturgeons are considered as living fossils and have very high evolutionary, economical and conservation values. The multiploidy of sturgeon that has been caused by chromosome duplication may lead to the emergence of new microRNAs (miRNAs) involved in the ploidy and physiological processes. In the present study, we performed the first sturgeon miRNAs analysis by RNA-seq high-throughput sequencing combined with expression assay of microarray and real-time PCR, and aimed to discover the sturgeon-specific miRNAs, confirm the expressed pattern of miRNAs and illustrate the potential role of miRNAs-targets on sturgeon biological processes. A total of 103 miRNAs were identified, including 58 miRNAs with strongly detected signals (signal >500 and P≤0.01), which were detected by microarray. Real-time PCR assay supported the expression pattern obtained by microarray. Moreover, co-expression of 21 miRNAs in all five tissues and tissue-specific expression of 16 miRNAs implied the crucial and particular function of them in sturgeon physiological processes. Target gene prediction, especially the enriched functional gene groups (369 GO terms) and pathways (37 KEGG) regulated by 58 miRNAs (P<0.05), illustrated the interaction of miRNAs and putative mRNAs, and also the potential mechanism involved in these biological processes. Our new findings of sturgeon miRNAs expand the public database of transcriptome information for this species, contribute to our understanding of sturgeon biology, and also provide invaluable data that may be applied in sturgeon breeding.

  17. 78 FR 27187 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Green Sturgeon Endangered Species Act Take...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Green Sturgeon Endangered Species Act Take Exceptions and Exemptions AGENCY...) of the Endangered Species Act (ESA) were promulgated for the species on June 2, 2010 (75 FR 30714... information collection, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. DATES: Written comments must be...

  18. Sensitivity of shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) and pallid sturgeon (S. albus) early life stages to 3,30,4,40,5-pentachlorobiphenyl and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckler, Justin; Candrl, James S.; McKee, Michael J.; Papoulias, Diana M.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Galat, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Concern exists that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may be contributing to the current decline of shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) and the US federally endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus). Waterborne exposures with newly fertilized eggs were used to assess developmental and morphological effects of 2 of the most potent aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists, 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB-126) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), on early life stage shovelnose and pallid sturgeon. No dose-related effects of PCB-126 were observed on percent development or hatch in either species at concentrations as high as 1711 ng/g egg. Effects of TCDD on percent development were not assessed in shovelnose sturgeon. However, percent development was not affected by TCDD in pallid sturgeon, and percent hatch was unaffected by TCDD doses as high as 60 ng/g egg to 81 ng/g egg in either species. Morphological pathologies such as yolk sac edema and craniofacial deformities were typical of AhR agonist exposure and were similar in both species. Calculated PCB-126 50% lethal dose (LD50, 95% fiducial limits) values were 196 ng/g egg (188–203 ng/g) for shovelnose and 159 ng/g egg (122–199 ng/g) for pallid sturgeon. Likewise, calculated TCDD LD50 values were 13 ng/g egg (11–15 ng/g) for shovelnose and 12 ng/g egg (10–14 ng/g) for pallid sturgeon. These LD50 values are among the highest recorded in early life stage fish, suggesting that early life stage Scaphirhynchus sturgeon may be comparatively insensitive to AhR agonists.

  19. Juvenil idiopatisk arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlin, Troels

    2002-01-01

    The new classification of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is described in this review. Clinical characteristics divide JIA in to subtypes: systemic, oligoarticular (persistent and extended type), RF-positive and--negative polyarticular, enthesitis-related arthritis and psoriatic arthritis...

  20. Juvenile Rockfish Recruitment Cruise

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 1983, the groundfish analysis project began a series of yearly cruises designed to assess the annual abundance of juvenile rockfish along the central California...

  1. Juvenile Justice in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Frías Armenta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The first tribunal in Mexico was established in the central state of San Luis Potosi in 1926. The Law Regarding Social Prevention and Juvenile Delinquency for the Federal District and Mexican territories was promulgated in 1928. In 2005, Article 18 of the Mexican Constitution was modified to establish a comprehensive system (“Sistema Integral de justicia” in Spanish of justice for juveniles between 12 and 18 years old who had committed a crime punishable under criminal law. Its objective was to guarantee juveniles all the due process rights established for adults, in addition to the special ones recognized for minors. The constitutional reform also provides a framework that includes special tribunals as well as alternative justice options for juveniles. With these reforms, institutionalization of minors was to be considered an extreme measure applicable only to felonies and to juveniles older than 14. In 2006, all states within the Mexican federation enacted the “Law of justice for adolescents”. This system, at both the federal and state levels, formalizes a new global paradigm with regard to the triangular relationship between children, the State and the Law. It recognizes that children are also bearers of the inherent human rights recognized for all individuals, instead of simply objects in need of protection. However, despite formally aligning Mexican juvenile justice law with the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC, issues of actual substantive rights remained and new ones have appeared. For example, juveniles younger than 14 who have not committed a felony are released from institutions without any rehabilitation or treatment options, and alternative forms of justice were included without evaluating their possibilities of application or their conditions for success. In addition, the economic status of most juvenile detainees continues to be one of the most important determining factors in the administration of justice

  2. Electronic tagging of green sturgeon reveals population structure and movement among estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, S.T.; Erickson, D.L.; Moser, M.L.; Williams, G.; Langness, O.P.; McCovey, B.W.; Belchik, M.; Vogel, D.; Pinnix, W.; Kelly, J.T.; Heublein, J.C.; Klimley, A.P.

    2011-01-01

    Green sturgeon Acipenser medirostris spend much of their lives outside of their natal rivers, but the details of their migrations and habitat use are poorly known, which limits our understanding of how this species might be affected by human activities and habitat degradation.We tagged 355 green sturgeon with acoustic transmitters on their spawning grounds and in known nonspawning aggregation sites and examined their movement among these sites and other potentially important locations using automated data-logging hydrophones. We found that green sturgeon inhabit a number of estuarine and coastal sites over the summer, including the Columbia River estuary, Willapa Bay, Grays Harbor, and the estuaries of certain smaller rivers in Oregon, especially the Umpqua River estuary. Green sturgeon from different natal rivers exhibited different patterns of habitat use; most notably, San Francisco Bay was used only by Sacramento River fish, while the Umpqua River estuary was used mostly by fish from the Klamath and Rogue rivers. Earlier work, based on analysis of microsatellite markers, suggested that the Columbia River mixed stock was mainly composed of fish from the Sacramento River, but our results indicate that fish from the Rogue and Klamath River populations frequently use the Columbia River as well. We also found evidence for the existence of migratory contingentswithin spawning populations.Our findings have significant implications for the management of the threatened Sacramento River population of green sturgeon, which migrates to inland waters outside of California where anthropogenic impacts, including fisheries bycatch and water pollution, may be a concern. Our results also illustrate the utility of acoustic tracking to elucidate the migratory behavior of animals that are otherwise difficult to observe. ?? American Fisheries Society 2011.

  3. Microsatellites variation in sterlet sturgeon, Acipenser ruthenus from the Lower Danube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Dudu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Sturgeons represent an ancient group of fish with an important scientific and commercial value. The economical significance of these species is due to their meat and roes that are considered to be a gastronomic delicacy. Unfortunately, precisely due to their economical value the sturgeons have been overexploited by fishing and poaching and nowadays are facing extinction. Currently, in the Ponto-Caspian region is found the greatest diversity of acipenserid species and the Lower Danube is the last refuge for the sturgeons from the Black Sea. Acipenser ruthenus (sterlet is a fresh water sturgeon species which has undergone a large population decline, but local populations are still surviving in most parts of the rivers draining to Black, Azov and Caspian Seas. In order to have successful conservation programs of this species is essential to evaluate its genetic diversity. Microsatellites represent valuable markers for genetic analyses aiming the assessment of genetic variability of population. In our study we analyzed the cross-amplification and the polymorphism in A. ruthenus population from the Lower Danube of seven microsatellite loci (LS-19, LS-34, LS-54, LS-57, LS-68, Aox23 and Aox45, originally isolated in North-American sturgeon species. Among the seven loci, three (LS57, Aox23 and Aox45 have showed a tetrasomic profile. The most polymorphic loci were LS-57 with 12 alleles in population, followed by Aox23 and Aox45 with 11 alleles and LS-68 with 10 alleles. Four loci (LS-19, LS-34 and LS-54 presented a lower level of polymorphism, only three alleles being identified for the analyzed individuals.

  4. Functional C1q is present in the skin mucus of Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chunxin; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Xuguang; Song, Jiakun

    2015-01-01

    The skin mucus of fish acts as the first line of self-protection against pathogens in the aquatic environment and comprises a number of innate immune components. However, the presence of the critical classical complement component C1q, which links the innate and adaptive immune systems of mammalians, has not been explored in a primitive actinopterygian fish. In this study, we report that C1q is present in the skin mucus of the Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii). The skin mucus was able to inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli. The bacteriostatic activity of the skin mucus was reduced by heating and by pre-incubation with EDTA or mouse anti-human C1q antibody. We also detected C1q protein in skin mucus using the western blot procedure and isolated a cDNA that encodes the Siberian sturgeon C1qC, which had 44.7-51.4% identity with C1qCs in teleosts and tetrapods. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that Siberian sturgeon C1qC lies at the root of the actinopterygian branch and is separate from the tetrapod branch. The C1qC transcript was expressed in many tissues as well as in skin. Our data indicate that C1q is present in the skin mucus of the Siberian sturgeon to protect against water-borne bacteria, and the C1qC found in the sturgeon may represent the primitive form of teleost and tetrapod C1qCs. © 2014 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. Juvenile polyposis syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Hsiao, Yi-Han; Wei, Chin-Hung; Chang, Szu-Wen; Chang, Lung; Fu, Yu-Wei; Lee, Hung-Chang; Liu, Hsuan-Liang; Yeung, Chun-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Juvenile polyposis syndrome, a rare disorder in children, is characterized with multiple hamartomatous polyps in alimentary tract. A variety of manifestations include bleeding, intussusception, or polyp prolapse. In this study, we present an 8-month-old male infant of juvenile polyposis syndrome initially presenting with chronic anemia. To the best of our knowledge, this is the youngest case reported in the literature. Methods: We report a rare case of an 8-month-old male...

  6. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    OpenAIRE

    Hoeve, M.

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted. The first study addressed a meta-analysis on parenting characteristics and styles in relation to delinquency. In this meta-analysis, previous manuscripts were systematically analyzed, computing mean ...

  7. Morphology, chemical contents and physiology of chondrostean fish sperm: a comparative study between Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) and sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pšenička, M.; Hadi Alavi, S.M.; Číčová, Zdeňka; Gela, D.; Cosson, J.; Nebesářová, Jana; Linhart, O.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 4 (2008), s. 371-377 ISSN 0175-8659 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA524/06/0817 Program:GA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : NORTH-AMERICAN STURGEONS * TRANSMISSION ELECTRON-MICROSCOPY * CELL ULTRASTRUCTURE * SHOVELNOSE STURGEON * LAKE STURGEON * MOTILITY * SPERMATOZOA * PADDLEFISH * SALMON * OSMOLALITY Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 0.638, year: 2008

  8. Development of working hypotheses linking management of the Missouri River to population dynamics of Scaphirhynchus albus (pallid sturgeon)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert B.; Parsley, Michael J.; Annis, Mandy L.; Colvin, Michael E.; Welker, Timothy L.; James, Daniel A.

    2016-01-20

    This report documents a process of filtering of hypotheses that relate Missouri River Scaphirhynchus albus (pallid sturgeon) population dynamics to management actions including flow alterations, channel reconfigurations, and pallid sturgeon population augmentation. The filtering process was a partnership among U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to contribute to the Missouri River Recovery Management Plan process. The objective of the filtering process was to produce a set of hypotheses with high relevance to pallid sturgeon population dynamics and decision making on the Missouri River. The Missouri River Pallid Sturgeon Effects Analysis team filtered hundreds of potential hypotheses implicit in conceptual ecological models to develop a set of 40 candidate dominant hypotheses that were identified by experts as being important in pallid sturgeon population dynamics. Using a modified Delphi process and additional expert opinion, the team reduced this set of hypotheses to 23 working dominant hypotheses. We then matched the 23 hypotheses with management actions that could influence the biotic outcomes, resulting in as many as 176 potential effects between management actions and pallid sturgeon in the Missouri River. This number was consolidated to a candidate set of 53 working management hypotheses because some management actions applied to multiple life stages of the pallid sturgeon. We used an additional round of expert surveys to identify a set of 30 working management hypotheses. Finally, the set of working management hypotheses was filtered by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Missouri River Recovery Program for actions that were within the agency’s authority and jurisdiction. This round resulted in a set of 21 hypotheses for initial modeling of linkages from management to pallid sturgeon population responses.

  9. Ecological requirements for pallid sturgeon reproduction and recruitment in the Missouri River—A synthesis of science, 2005 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delonay, Aaron J.; Chojnacki, Kimberly A.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Albers, Janice L.; Braaten, Patrick J.; Bulliner, Edward A.; Elliott, Caroline M.; Erwin, Susannah O.; Fuller, David B; Haas, Justin D.; Ladd, Hallie L.A.; Mestl, Gerald E.; Papoulias, Diana M.; Wildhaber, Mark L.

    2016-01-20

    This report is intended to synthesize the state of the scientific understanding of pallid sturgeon ecological requirements to provide recommendations for future science directions and context for Missouri River restoration and management decisions. Recruitment of pallid sturgeon has been low to non-existent throughout its range. Emerging understanding of the genetic structure of pallid sturgeon populations sets a broad framework for species and river management decisions, including decisions about managing the future genetic diversity of the species, but also decisions about where and what type of river restoration actions will be effective for subpopulations of this highly migratory species. Adult pallid sturgeon may migrate hundreds of kilometers (km) to spawn and their progeny may disperse even greater distances downstream as drifting free embryos. As a result of their complex life history pallid sturgeon naturally exploit a wide range of habitats during their life cycles. The construction of dams and reservoirs has fragmented habitats and may have shifted Missouri River subpopulations downstream. Research has not identified one primary biological or ecological constraint that appears to limit populations of the pallid sturgeon. With the present (2013) state of knowledge many life stages and life-stage transitions cannot be ruled out as contributing to recruitment failure.

  10. Life history and status of Shortnose Sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum LeSueur, 1818)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kynard, Boyd; Bolden, Stephania; Kieffer, Micah; Collins, Mark; Brundage, Hal; Hilton, Eric; Litvak, Mark; Kinnison, Michael T.; King, Timothy L.; Peterson, Douglas C.

    2016-01-01

    Shortnose Sturgeon = SNS (Acipenser brevirostrum) is a small diadromous species with most populations living in large Atlantic coast rivers and estuaries of North America from New Brunswick, Canada, to GA, USA. There are no naturally landlocked populations, so all populations require access to fresh water and salt water to complete a natural life cycle. The species is amphidromous with use of fresh water and salt water (the estuary) varied across the species range, a pattern that may reflect whether freshwater or saltwater habitats provide optimal foraging and growth conditions. Migration is a dominant behavior during life history, beginning when fish are hatchling free embryos (southern SNS) or larvae (northeastern and far northern SNS). Migration continues by juveniles and nonspawning adult life stages on an individual time schedule with fish moving between natal river and estuary to forage or seek refuge, and by spawning adults migrating to and from riverine spawning grounds. Coastal movements by adults throughout the range (but particularly in the Gulf of Maine = GOM and among southern rivers) suggest widespread foraging, refuge use, and widespread colonization of new rivers. Colonization may also be occurring in the Potomac River, MD–VA–DC (midAtlantic region). Genetic studies (mtDNA and nDNA) identified distinct individual river populations of SNS, and recent rangewide nDNA studies identified five distinct evolutionary lineages of SNS in the USA: a northern metapopulation in GOM rivers; the Connecticut River; the Hudson River; a Delaware River–Chesapeake Bay metapopulation; and a large southern metapopulation (SC rivers to Altamaha River, GA). The Saint John River, NB, Canada, in the Bay of Fundy (north of the GOM), is the sixth distinct genetic lineage within SNS. Life history information from telemetry tracking supports the genetic information documenting extensive movement of adults among rivers within the three metapopulations. However

  11. The evidence of apelin has the bidirectional effects on feeding regulation in Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jin; Liu, Qing; Zhang, Xin; Wu, Yuanbing; Zhu, Jieyao; Qi, Jinwen; Tang, Ni; Wang, Shuyao; Wang, Hong; Chen, Defang; Li, Zhiqiong

    2017-08-01

    Apelin is a peptide, mainly produced in the brain, which participates in several physiologic effects. However, knowledge about the mechanism of appetite regulation in teleosts, including the role of apelin is not well understood. The aim of this study is to explore the effect of feeding status on the expression of apelin mRNA in the whole brain and the effects of injection of apelin on food intake in Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii). In this study, we first cloned the apelin cDNA sequence of the Siberian sturgeon. We obtained a 1046-bp cDNA fragment, including a 237-bp open reading frame (ORF) that encoded 78 amino acids. Apelin was widely distributed in 11 tissues related to feeding regulation, with the highest expression in thewhole brain, followed by the spleen and trunk kidney. In addition, we measured the effects of periprandial (preprandial and postprandial) change, fasting and re-feeding on apelin mRNA expression in whole brain. The level of apelin mRNA was significantly decreased 1h after feeding. The results of the fasting experiment showed that the expression of apelin mRNA in the brain was significantly reduced after 1day of fasting but consistently increased throughout the 15-day food deprivation period. When the 15-day fasted fish were re-fed, apelin mRNA expression in the brain was significantly increased as compared to that of the control. These results suggest that apelin may play a bidirectional role in the regulation of food intake in the Siberian sturgeon. In order to further examine the effect of apelin on feeding regulation in Siberian sturgeons, acute and chronic intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection experiments were performed and food intakes were recorded. Results showed that acute i.p. injection of apelin-13 reduced food intake, however, chronic i.p. injection apelin-13 increased the food intake for 7days in Siberian sturgeons. In conclusion, our results show that apelin has a bidirectional effect on feeding regulation in Siberian sturgeons

  12. Extending juvenility in grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaeppler, Shawn; de Leon Gatti, Natalia; Foerster, Jillian

    2017-04-11

    The present invention relates to compositions and methods for modulating the juvenile to adult developmental growth transition in plants, such as grasses (e.g. maize). In particular, the invention provides methods for enhancing agronomic properties in plants by modulating expression of GRMZM2G362718, GRMZM2G096016, or homologs thereof. Modulation of expression of one or more additional genes which affect juvenile to adult developmental growth transition such as Glossy15 or Cg1, in conjunction with such modulation of expression is also contemplated. Nucleic acid constructs for down-regulation of GRMZM2G362718 and/or GRMZM2G096016 are also contemplated, as are transgenic plants and products produced there from, that demonstrate altered, such as extended juvenile growth, and display associated phenotypes such as enhanced yield, improved digestibility, and increased disease resistance. Plants described herein may be used, for example, as improved forage or feed crops or in biofuel production.

  13. Miastenia gravis juvenil Juvenile myasthenia gravis

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar Papazian; Israel Alfonso; Nayle Araguez

    2009-01-01

    La miastenia gravis juvenil (MGJ) es un trastorno crónico auto inmune en el cual existen anticuerpos séricos que al unirse a los receptores de acetilcolin nicotínicos de la membrana muscular de la placa motora alteran la transmisión neuromuscular. El resultado es fatiga muscular precoz con progresión a la parálisis durante estados de contracción muscular iterativos (movimientos) o sostenidos (posturas) y más raramente parálisis permanente durante el reposo. Los músculos inervados por los nerv...

  14. White Ring; White ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, H.; Yuzawa, H. [Nikken Sekkei Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1998-01-05

    White Ring is a citizen`s gymnasium used for figure skating and short track speed skating games of 18th Winter Olympic Games in 1998. White Ring is composed of a main-arena and a sub-arena. For the main-arena with an area 41mtimes66m, an ice link can be made by disengaging the potable floor and by flowing brine in the bridged polystyrene pipes embedded in the concrete floor. Due to the fortunate groundwater in this site, well water is used for the outside air treatment energy in 63% during heating and in 35% during cooling. Ammonia is used as a cooling medium for refrigerating facility. For the heating of audience area in the large space, heat load from the outside is reduced by enhancing the heat insulation performance of the roof of arena. The audience seats are locally heated using heaters. For the White Ring, high quality environment is realized for games through various functions of the large-scale roof of the large space. Success of the big event was expected. 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Barut

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is the most common chronic rheumatic disease of unknown aetiology in childhood and predominantly presents with peripheral arthritis. The disease is divided into several subgroups, according to demographic characteristics, clinical features, treatment modalities and disease prognosis. Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis, which is one of the most frequent disease subtypes, is characterized by recurrent fever and rash. Oligoarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis, common among young female patients, is usually accompanied by anti-nuclear antibodie positivity and anterior uveitis. Seropositive polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis, an analogue of adult rheumatoid arthritis, is seen in less than 10% of paediatric patients. Seronegative polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis, an entity more specific for childhood, appears with widespread large- and small-joint involvement. Enthesitis-related arthritis is a separate disease subtype, characterized by enthesitis and asymmetric lower-extremity arthritis. This disease subtype represents the childhood form of adult spondyloarthropathies, with human leukocyte antigen-B27 positivity and uveitis but commonly without axial skeleton involvement. Juvenile psoriatic arthritis is characterized by a psoriatic rash, accompanied by arthritis, nail pitting and dactylitis. Disease complications can vary from growth retardation and osteoporosis secondary to treatment and disease activity, to life-threatening macrophage activation syndrome with multi-organ insufficiency. With the advent of new therapeutics over the past 15 years, there has been a marked improvement in juvenile idiopathic arthritis treatment and long-term outcome, without any sequelae. The treatment of juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients involves teamwork, including an experienced paediatric rheumatologist, an ophthalmologist, an orthopaedist, a paediatric psychiatrist and a physiotherapist. The primary goals

  16. DERMATOMIOSITIS JUVENIL Y EMBARAZO

    OpenAIRE

    Evans M,Gregorio; Poulsen R,Ronald; Blanco R,Romiely; Luna V,Viviana

    2002-01-01

    La dermatomiositis juvenil es un desorden inflamatorio crónico multisistémico del tejido conectivo. Tiene una incidencia de 2-3/100.000/año. Con la disminución en la mortalidad experimentada en los últimos decenios, la atención está cifrada en la morbilidad a largo plazo y en las alteraciones funcionales. Con un tratamiento agresivo los niños con dermatomiositis juvenil generalmente tienen un futuro promisorio, sin incapacidad o con incapacidad mínima. La mortalidad actualmente se estima cerc...

  17. Divergent migration within lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) populations: Multiple distinct patterns exist across an unrestricted migration corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Steven T.; Hondorp, Darryl W.; Holbrook, Christopher; Boase, James C.; Chiotti, Justin A.; Thomas, Michael V.; Wills, Todd C.; Roseman, Edward; Drouin, Richard; Krueger, Charles C.

    2018-01-01

    Population structure, distribution, abundance, and dispersal arguably underpin the entire field of animal ecology, with consequences for regional species persistence, and provision of ecosystem services. Divergent migration behaviours among individuals or among populations is an important aspect of the ecology of highly-mobile animals, allowing populations to exploit spatially- or temporally-distributed food and space resources.This study investigated the spatial ecology of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) within the barrier free Huron-Erie Corridor (HEC), which connects Lake Huron and Lake Erie of the North American Laurentian Great Lakes.Over six years (2011 – 2016), movements of 268 lake sturgeon in the HEC were continuously monitored across the Great Lakes using acoustic telemetry (10 yr battery life acoustic transmitters). Five distinct migration behaviours were identified with hierarchical cluster analysis, based on the phenology and duration of river and lake use.Lake sturgeon in the HEC were found to contain a high level of intraspecific divergent migration, including partial migration with the existence of residents. Specific behaviours included year-round river residency and multiple lake-migrant behaviours that involved movements between lakes and rivers. Over 85% of individuals were assign to migration behaviours as movements were consistently repeated over the study, which suggested migration behaviours were consistent and persistent in lake sturgeon. Differential use of specific rivers or lakes by acoustic-tagged lake sturgeon further subdivided individuals into 14 “contingents” (spatiotemporally segregated subgroups).Contingents associated with one river (Detroit or St. Clair) were rarely detected in the other river, which confirmed that lake sturgeon in the Detroit and St. Clair represent two semi-independent populations that could require separate management consideration for their conservation. The distribution of migration behaviours

  18. PECULIARITIES OF THE TRANSITION OF EARLY STURGEON (ACIPENSERIDAE FRY TO ARTIFICIAL FORMULATED FEEDS IN RAS (A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Simon

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To review scientific sources on the morphological and ecophysiological peculiarities of the transition of early sturgeon fry (Acipenseridae to artificial formulated feeds. To summarize the biotechnological fundamentals of the use of artificial formulated feeds in the conditions of recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS. Findings. The transition of early sturgeon fry to artificial formulated feeds is one of the most difficult stages of their rearing, even under controlled conditions of RAS. The review contains the description of the peculiarities of sturgeon embryogenesis, their behavior and morpho-physiological changes at this stage of their development. It contains main requirements for the rearing of sturgeon larvae in RAS. We showed that the ultimate refuse from natural (live or frozen forage organisms is not advisable; the optimum is their combination with artificial feeds with gradual predominance of the latters. We provided the schemes of their feeding based on the combination of natural and artificial feeds. We reviewed the most common biologically active supplements, which contributed to better feed digestion during the periods of the transition to exogenous feeding. We highlighted the effect of feeding with brine shrimp nauplii enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids on the growth and development of early sturgeon fry. Practical value. The array of the summarized information will be important for scientists who study the peculiarities of the transition of early sturgeon fry to artificial formulated feeds in RAS. The data on the biotechnologies of rational feeding of early sturgeon fry in RAS in this period are important in the conditions of continuous search for the most effective replacement of live forage organisms and reduction of fish fry mortality in postembryogenesis.

  19. A habitat suitability model for Chinese sturgeon determined using the generalized additive method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yujun; Sun, Jie; Zhang, Shanghong

    2016-03-01

    The Chinese sturgeon is a type of large anadromous fish that migrates between the ocean and rivers. Because of the construction of dams, this sturgeon's migration path has been cut off, and this species currently is on the verge of extinction. Simulating suitable environmental conditions for spawning followed by repairing or rebuilding its spawning grounds are effective ways to protect this species. Various habitat suitability models based on expert knowledge have been used to evaluate the suitability of spawning habitat. In this study, a two-dimensional hydraulic simulation is used to inform a habitat suitability model based on the generalized additive method (GAM). The GAM is based on real data. The values of water depth and velocity are calculated first via the hydrodynamic model and later applied in the GAM. The final habitat suitability model is validated using the catch per unit effort (CPUEd) data of 1999 and 2003. The model results show that a velocity of 1.06-1.56 m/s and a depth of 13.33-20.33 m are highly suitable ranges for the Chinese sturgeon to spawn. The hydraulic habitat suitability indexes (HHSI) for seven discharges (4000; 9000; 12,000; 16,000; 20,000; 30,000; and 40,000 m3/s) are calculated to evaluate integrated habitat suitability. The results show that the integrated habitat suitability reaches its highest value at a discharge of 16,000 m3/s. This study is the first to apply a GAM to evaluate the suitability of spawning grounds for the Chinese sturgeon. The study provides a reference for the identification of potential spawning grounds in the entire basin.

  20. Effects of acclimation on poststocking dispersal and physiological condition of age-1 pallid sturgeon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenburg, E.W.; Guy, C.S.; Cureton, E.S.; Webb, M.A.H.; Gardner, W.M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of acclimation to flow and site-specific physicochemical water conditions on poststocking dispersal and physiological condition of age-1 hatchery-reared pallid sturgeon. Fish from three acclimation treatments were radio-tagged, released at two locations (Missouri River and Marias River), and monitored using passive telemetry stations. Marias treatment was acclimated to flow and site-specific physicochemical conditions, Bozeman treatment was acclimated to flow only, and controls had no acclimation (reared under traditional conservation propagation protocol). During both years, fish released in the Missouri River dispersed less than fish released in the Marias River. In 2005, Marias treatment dispersed less and nearly twice as many fish remained in the Missouri River reach as compared to control fish. In 2006, pallid sturgeon dispersed similarly among treatments and the number of fish remaining in the Missouri River reach was similar among all treatments. Differences in poststocking dispersal between years were related to fin curl which was present in all fish in 2005 and only 26% in 2006. Pallid sturgeon from all treatments in both years had a greater affinity for the lower reaches of the Missouri River than the upper reaches. Thus, release site influenced poststocking dispersal more than acclimation treatment. No difference was observed in relative growth rate among treatments. However, acclimation to flow (i.e., exercise conditioning) prevented fat accumulation from rupturing hepatocytes. Acclimation conditions used in this study did not benefit pallid sturgeon unless physiological maladies were present. Overriding all treatment effects was stocking location; thus, natural resource agencies need to consider stocking location carefully to reduce poststocking dispersal. ?? 2011 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

  1. Site heteroplasmy in the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene of the sterlet sturgeon Acipenser ruthenus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Dudu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sturgeons are fish species with a complex biology. They are also characterized by complex aspects including polyploidization and easiness of hybridization. As with most of the Ponto-Caspian sturgeons, the populations of Acipenser ruthenus from the Danube have declined drastically during the last decades. This is the first report on mitochondrial point heteroplasmy in the cytochrome b gene of this species. The 1141 bp sequence of the cytb gene in wild sterlet sturgeon individuals from the Lower Danube was determined, and site heteroplasmy evidenced in three of the 30 specimens collected. Two nucleotide sequences were identified in these heteroplasmic individuals. The majority of the heteroplasmic sites are synonymous and do not modify the sequence of amino acids in cytochrome B protein. To date, several cases of point heteroplasmy have been reported in animals, mostly due to paternal leakage of mtDNA. The presence of specific point heteroplasmic sites might be interesting for a possible correlation with genetically distinct groups in the Danube River.

  2. Fall spawning of Atlantic sturgeon in the Roanoke River, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joseph A.; Hightower, Joseph E.; Flowers, H. Jared

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) declared Atlantic Sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus to be threatened or endangered throughout its range in U.S. waters. Restoration of the subspecies will require much new information, particularly on the location and timing of spawning. We used a combination of acoustic telemetry and sampling with anchored artificial substrates (spawning pads) to detect fall (September–November) spawning in the Roanoke River in North Carolina. This population is included in the Carolina Distinct Population Segment, which was classified by NOAA as endangered. Sampling was done immediately below the first shoals encountered by anadromous fishes, near Weldon. Our collection of 38 eggs during the 21 d that spawning pads were deployed appears to be the first such collection (spring or fall) for wild-spawned Atlantic Sturgeon eggs. Based on egg development stages, estimated spawning dates were September 17–18 and 18–19 at water temperatures from 25.3°C to 24.3°C and river discharge from 55 to 297 m3/s. These observations about fall spawning and habitat use should aid in protecting critical habitats and planning research on Atlantic Sturgeon spawning in other rivers.

  3. Genetic diversity, kinship analysis, and broodstock management of captive Atlantic sturgeon for population restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, A.P.; Spidle, A.P.; King, T.L.

    2005-01-01

    Captive Atlantic sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus considered for use as broodstock in a restoration program were genotyped using nuclear DNA microsatellites and compared to wild collections from the Hudson River, New York (source of parents of the captive sturgeon) and from Albemarle Sound, North Carolina. Because the potential broodfish were the progeny of a small number of parents, maintaining genetic diversity and minimizing inbreeding is essential to a successful breeding and supplementation program. The microsatellite loci used in this analysis generated unique multilocus genotypes for each of 136 Atlantic sturgeon. Analyses indicated significant genetic separation between the New York and North Carolina collections and correctly identified the potential broodstock as a subset of the Hudson River population. Pairwise genetic distance (-In proportion of shared alleles) between half and full siblings in the potential broodfish was as great as 1.386, a value exceeded by only 36% of the sampled broodfish pairs available for mating. Because the current broodstock population does not seem to have deviated far from their ancestral population in the Hudson River, progeny from that broodstock, or the parents themselves, would seem to be genetically suitable for release back into the Hudson River.

  4. Assessment of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) spawning efforts in the lower St. Clair River, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, S. Jerrine; Kennedy, Gregory; Crawford, Eric; Allen, Jeffrey; French, John; Black, Glen; Blouin, Marc; Hickey, James P.; Chernyak, Sergei; Haas, Robert; Thomas, Michael

    2003-01-01

    One of the most threatened remaining populations of lake sturgeon in the Great Lakes is found in the connecting channels between Lake Huron and Lake Erie. Only two spawning grounds are presently known to be active in this region, and both are in the St. Clair River. The spawning reef in the St. Clair River delta has been recently colonized by round gobies (Neogobius melanostomus) in densities up to 25/m2, raising concerns regarding predation on the benthic-oriented eggs and larvae of the sturgeon. Investigations in 1998–1999 showed that while round goby predation does occur, a number of other factors may be equally affecting sturgeon spawning success, including few spawning adults (noted in either year. There were factors other than predation affecting larval survival in 1999. There was a higher silt load on the reef than in 1998 and large numbers of dead larvae were found. Recruitment success from this site could be improved by utilizing techniques to increase the number of eggs on the reef, such as reducing the illegal take of adult fish and by placing eggs in predator-exclusion chambers to increase hatch rate.

  5. Assigning sex and reproductive stage to adult Lake Sturgeon using ultrasonography and common morphological measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiotti, Justin A.; Boase, James C.; Hondorp, Darryl W.; Briggs, Andrew S.

    2016-01-01

    Sex determination of fish species is difficult to assess when sexual dimorphism and gametes are not apparent. For threatened and endangered fish species, noninvasive techniques are needed when determining sex to minimize stress and the potential for mortality. We evaluated the use of a portable ultrasound unit to determine sex of Lake Sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens in the field. Ultrasound images were collected from 9 yellow-egg (F2, F3), 32 black-egg (F4, F5), and 107 fully developed male (M2) Lake Sturgeon. Two readers accurately assigned sex to 88–96% of fish, but accuracy varied in relation to maturity stage. Black-egg females and fully developed males were correctly identified for 89–100% of the fish sampled, while these two readers identified yellow-egg females only 33% and 67% of the time. Time spent collecting images ranged between 2 and 3 min once the user was comfortable with operating procedures. Discriminant analysis revealed the total length : girth ratio was a strong predictor of sex and maturity, correctly classifying 81% of black-egg females and 97% of the fully developed males. However, yellow-egg females were incorrectly classified on all occasions. This study shows the utility of using ultrasonography and a total length : girth ratio for sex determination of Lake Sturgeon in later reproductive stages around the spawning season.

  6. Efficacy of iodine for disinfection of Lake Sturgeon eggs from the St. Lawrence River, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Dittman, Dawn E.; Starliper, Clifford E.; Iwanowicz, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Optimal fish husbandry to reduce the risk of disease is particularly important when using wild fish as the source for gametes. The propagation and reestablishment of Lake Sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens in New York waters to become a viable self-sustaining population is considered a high priority by managers. While standard hatchery egg disinfection practices have been used to prevent the transmission of diseases, data on the bacterial loads present on egg surfaces following iodine disinfection is lacking. Our study investigated the bacteria present on the outer surface of Lake Sturgeon eggs and the effectiveness of an iodine disinfection treatment in eliminating bacteria that could pose a threat to egg survival and cause hatchery disease outbreaks. During the springs of 2011–2013, 12 to 41 different species of bacteria were recovered from the outer egg surfaces prior to an iodine treatment; Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Shewanella, and Chryseobacterium were the most common genera identified. Cohort eggs treated using the standard protocol of a single treatment of 50 mg/L iodine for 30 min resulted in an average of 57.8% reduction in bacterial CFU/g. While this is a significant reduction, bacteria were not completely eliminated and hatchery managers should be aware that pathogens could remain on Lake Sturgeon eggs following the standard iodine disinfection treatment.

  7. Accelerometer-derived activity correlates with volitional swimming speed in lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiem, J.D.; Dawson, J.W.; Gleiss, A.C.; Martins, E.G.; Haro, Alexander J.; Castro-Santos, Theodore R.; Danylchuk, A.J.; Wilson, R.P.; Cooke, S.J.

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying fine-scale locomotor behaviours associated with different activities is challenging for free-swimming fish.Biologging and biotelemetry tools can help address this problem. An open channel flume was used to generate volitionalswimming speed (Us) estimates of cultured lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens Rafinesque, 1817) and these were paired withsimultaneously recorded accelerometer-derived metrics of activity obtained from three types of data-storage tags. This studyexamined whether a predictive relationship could be established between four different activity metrics (tail-beat frequency(TBF), tail-beat acceleration amplitude (TBAA), overall dynamic body acceleration (ODBA), and vectorial dynamic body acceleration(VeDBA)) and the swimming speed of A. fulvescens. Volitional Us of sturgeon ranged from 0.48 to 2.70 m·s−1 (0.51–3.18 bodylengths (BL) · s−1). Swimming speed increased linearly with all accelerometer-derived metrics, and when all tag types werecombined, Us increased 0.46 BL·s−1 for every 1 Hz increase in TBF, and 0.94, 0.61, and 0.94 BL·s−1 for every 1g increase in TBAA,ODBA, and VeDBA, respectively. Predictive relationships varied among tag types and tag-specific parameter estimates of Us arepresented for all metrics. This use of acceleration data-storage tags demonstrated their applicability for the field quantificationof sturgeon swimming speed.

  8. Juvenile polyposis syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Yi-Han; Wei, Chin-Hung; Chang, Szu-Wen; Chang, Lung; Fu, Yu-Wei; Lee, Hung-Chang; Liu, Hsuan-Liang; Yeung, Chun-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Juvenile polyposis syndrome, a rare disorder in children, is characterized with multiple hamartomatous polyps in alimentary tract. A variety of manifestations include bleeding, intussusception, or polyp prolapse. In this study, we present an 8-month-old male infant of juvenile polyposis syndrome initially presenting with chronic anemia. To the best of our knowledge, this is the youngest case reported in the literature. Methods: We report a rare case of an 8-month-old male infant who presented with chronic anemia and gastrointestinal bleeding initially. Panendoscopy and abdominal computed tomography showed multiple polyposis throughout the entire alimentary tract leading to intussusception. Technetium-99m-labeled red blood cell (RBC) bleeding scan revealed the possibility of gastrointestinal tract bleeding in the jejunum. Histopathological examination on biopsy samples showed Peutz-Jeghers syndrome was excluded, whereas the diagnosis of juvenile polyposis syndrome was established. Results: Enteroscopic polypectomy is the mainstay of the treatment. However, polyps recurred and occupied the majority of the gastrointestinal tract in 6 months. Supportive management was given. The patient expired for severe sepsis at the age of 18 months. Conclusion: Juvenile polyposis syndrome is an inherited disease, so it is not possible to prevent it. Concerning of its poor outcome and high mortality rate, it is important that we should increase awareness and education of the parents at its earliest stages. PMID:27631205

  9. [ABOUT JUVENILE NASOPHARYNGEAL ANGIOFIBROMA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbain, V; Meunier, P; Otto, B

    2015-09-01

    We report the case of a young man with a juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma. In this paper, we will first remind the clinical signs of this pathology and its radiological appearance (localisation and extensions). Then we will explain how radioembolisation techniques were used to facilitate the surgical intervention. Finally we will discuss the histology of this tumor.

  10. Naevoxanthoendothelioma (Synonym: Juvenile Xanthogranuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Handa

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of naevoxanthoendothelioma juvenile xanthogranuloma is reported with rare features like late onset of the disease, involvement of liver and diffuse cutaneous lesions including cafe au lait spots and pigmented naevus. Final diagnosis could be achieved only on histopathology report.

  11. Electronic archival tags provide first glimpse of bathythermal habitat use by free-ranging adult lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Andrew S.; Hondorp, Darryl W.; Quinlan, Henry R.; Boase, James C.; Mohr, Lloyd C.

    2016-01-01

    Information on lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) depth and thermal habitat use during non-spawning periods is unavailable due to the difficulty of observing lake sturgeon away from shallow water spawning sites. In 2002 and 2003, lake sturgeon captured in commercial trap nets near Sarnia, Ontario were implanted with archival tags and released back into southern Lake Huron. Five of the 40 tagged individuals were recaptured and were at large for 32, 57, 286, 301, and 880 days. Temperatures and depths recorded by archival tags ranged from 0 to 23.5 ºC and 0.1 to 42.4 m, respectively. For the three lake sturgeon that were at large for over 200 days, temperatures occupied emulated seasonal fluctuations. Two of these fish occupied deeper waters during winter than summer while the other occupied similar depths during non-spawning periods. This study provides important insight into depth and thermal habitat use of lake sturgeon throughout the calendar year along with exploring the feasibility of using archival tags to obtain important physical habitat attributes during non-spawning periods.

  12. Analysis of piscicultural-biological results of works with Russian sturgeon brood fish at the sturgeon hatchery “Lebyazhy” (Astrakhan region, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. V. Kononenko

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The state of world stocks of sturgeons is on the edge of catastrophe. These species are either extinct or under threat of extinction under human impacts. At the same time, there are enterprises, fish hatcheries, which deal with restoration and replenishment of natural stocks with of endangered fish species. One of such hatcheries is the sturgeon hatchery “Lebyazhy” (Astrakhan region, Russian Federation. The aim of the study was an analysis of piscicultural-biological features of the Russian sturgeon brood fish. During the study, which was conducted in April–May 2011, 34 Russian sturgeon females were used in two rounds, 17 individuals each. For stimulating gametes maturation, the Derzhavin’s physiological method was used. Caviar was obtained by stripping the eggs under strict hygienic and sanitary norms. Eggs fertilization with the semi-dry method used the male milt that bought at the “Raskat” LLC. Egg stickiness elimination was performed with the aid of talc and apparatuses for the egg stickiness elimination. Eggs incubation was performed in the “Osetr” apparatuses until yolk-sac larvae hatching. The domesticated fish were subjected to bonitation for determining their readiness for spawning. As a result of this bonitation, the brood fish were separated into two groups: first round of rearing works: females with mean weight of 34.8 kg and age of 9 years; second round: females with mean weight of 32.3 kg and the same age. Among injected females of the first round, 100% positive reaction for the stimulating injection was observed, but 95% – among females of the second round. Maturation time of females of both rounds varied from 25 to 30 hours. The maturation state of gametes of sturgeon females or males was determined based on samples obtained. 90.2 kg of eggs were obtained from females of the first round. At the same time, the maximum quantity was observed in the female of 50.5 kg – 9.2 kg of caviar, and the least quantity

  13. Effect of starvation and refeeding on digestive enzyme activities in sturgeon (Acipenser naccarii) and trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furné, Miriam; García-Gallego, Manuel; Hidalgo, M Carmen; Morales, Amalia E; Domezain, Alberto; Domezain, Julio; Sanz, Ana

    2008-04-01

    The digestive enzyme activities were determined in Adriatic sturgeon and rainbow trout during starvation and refeeding period. Overall, the digestive enzyme activities are affected in the same sense in both species. The protease and lipase activities were decreased later than amylase activity. Even after 1 month of starvation, both species would be prepared to digest protein and lipids in an effective way. After 72 days of starvation, the digestive machinery of the sturgeon and of the trout shows an altered capacity to digest macronutrients. The capacity to digest proteins and lipids, after 60 days of refeeding, begins to become re-established in sturgeon and trout. In contrast, in this period, the capacity to digest carbohydrates remains depressed in both species.

  14. Preventing Juvenile Delinquency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina dos Reis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to problematize discourses about protection and care that have surrounded compulsory hospitalization by evidencing its use as a control and punishment mechanism that increases the social vulnerability of young drug users. For such, we analyze lawsuits involving juveniles who were consigned to psychiatric institutions for drug addiction treatment as a protection measure in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, in Brazil. The analysis of the materials has evidenced discourses that have circumscribed young drug users and constructed this population as potentially dangerous subjects as well as a population category at risk. In this sense, we point out how compulsory hospitalization has emerged out of the lawsuits as a tool for prevention of juvenile delinquency.

  15. Late Onset Juvenile Xanthogranuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punithwavathy K

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A 19 year old female was seen with multiple skin coloured and hyperpigmented macules, discrete as well as grouped papules and nodules of varying sizes distributed over the face, neck, extensor and flexor aspects of both upper and lower extremities including joints. The trunk was spared. Some of the lesions showed features of spontaneous regression. Investigations confirmed the diagnosis of juvenile xanthogranuloma. Lesions regressed satisfactorily with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy.

  16. Migrations and swimming capabilities of endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) to guide passage designs in the fragmented Yellowstone River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braaten, P. J.; Elliott, Caroline M.; Rhoten, Jason C.; Fuller, D. B.; McElroy, Brandon J.

    2015-01-01

    Fragmentation of the Yellowstone River is hypothesized to preclude recruitment of endangered Scaphirhynchus albus (pallid sturgeon) by impeding upstream spawning migrations and access to upstream spawning areas, thereby limiting the length of free-flowing river required for survival of early life stages. Building on this hypothesis, the reach of the Yellowstone River affected by Intake Diversion Dam (IDD) is targeted for modification. Structures including a rock ramp and by-pass channel have been proposed as restoration alternatives to facilitate passage. Limited information on migrations and swimming capabilities of pallid sturgeon is available to guide engineering design specifications for the proposed structures. Migration behavior, pathways (channel routes used during migrations), and swimming capabilities of free-ranging wild adult pallid sturgeon were examined using radiotelemetry, and complemented with hydraulic data obtained along the migration pathways. Migrations of 12–26% of the telemetered pallid sturgeon population persisted to IDD, but upstream passage over the dam was not detected. Observed migration pathways occurred primarily through main channel habitats; however, migrations through side channels up to 3.9 km in length were documented. The majority of pallid sturgeon used depths of 2.2–3.4 m and mean water velocities of 0.89–1.83 m/s while migrating. Results provide inferences on depths, velocities, and habitat heterogeneity of reaches successfully negotiated by pallid sturgeon that may be used to guide designs for structures facilitating passage at IDD. Passage will provide connectivity to potential upstream spawning areas on the Yellowstone River, thereby increasing the likelihood of recruitment for this endangered species.

  17. The influence of dietary fatty acid composition on the respiratory and cardiovascular physiology of Adriatic sturgeon (Acipenser naccarii): a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKenzie, DJ; Piraccini, G; Agnisola, C

    1999-01-01

    as 15% of dry feed weight), with an elevated content of highly unsaturated fatty acids of the co3 series (¿3 HUFA), had a significantly lower standard metabolic rate (SMR) and routine oxygen consumption (Mo2) than those fed a diet enriched with the same quantity of hydrogenated coconut oil......This paper reviews evidence that the fatty acid composition of dietary lipids influences the respiratory and cardiovascular physiology of Adriatic sturgeon {Acipenser naccarii) and, thereby, their tolerance of the stress of hypoxia. Sturgeon fed a commercial diet enriched in fish oil (menhaden oil...

  18. Triploidy in the hematology of jundia juveniles (Siluriformes: Heptapteridae)

    OpenAIRE

    Fukushima, H; Bailone, RL; Weiss, LA; Martins, ML; Zaniboni-Filho, E

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the hematological characteristics of diploid and triploid of jundia, Rhamdia quelen juveniles, an important freshwater fish cultured in south Brazil. Hematological morphometry of erythrocytes were determined in blood smears under a light microscope. The blood was used to measure the number of red blood cells (RBC) with a hemocytometer Neubauer chamber, and the numbers of white blood cells (WBC) and thrombocytes that were obtained using an indirect method. The results showe...

  19. Acoustic tag detections of green sturgeon in the Columbia River and Coos Bay estuaries, Washington and Oregon, 2010–11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansel, Hal C.; Romine, Jason G.; Perry, Russell W.

    2017-11-08

    The Columbia River, in Washington and Oregon, and Coos Bay, in Oregon, are economically important shipping channels that are inhabited by several fishes protected under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Maintenance of shipping channels involves dredge operations to maintain sufficient in-channel depths to allow large ships to navigate the waterways safely. Fishes entrained by dredge equipment often die or experience delayed mortality. Other potential negative effects of dredging include increased turbidity, reductions in prey resources, and the release of harmful contaminants from the dredged sediments. One species of concern is the ESA-listed green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris; Southern Distinct Population Segment). In this study, we used acoustic telemetry to identify habitat use, arrival and departure timing, and the extent of upstream migration of green sturgeon in the Columbia River and Coos Bay to help inform dredge operations to minimize potential take of green sturgeon. Autonomous acoustic receivers were deployed in Coos Bay from the mouth to river kilometer (rkm) 21.6 from October 2009 through October 2010. In the Columbia River Estuary, receivers were deployed between the mouth and rkm 37.8 from April to November in 2010 and 2011. A total of 29 subadult and adult green sturgeon were tagged with temperature and pressure sensor tags and released during the study, primarily in Willapa Bay and Grays Harbor, Washington, and the Klamath River, Oregon. Green sturgeon detected during the study but released by other researchers also were included in the study.The number of tagged green sturgeon detected in the two estuaries differed markedly. In Coos Bay, only one green sturgeon was detected for about 2 hours near the estuary mouth. In the Columbia River Estuary, 9 green sturgeon were detected in 2010 and 10 fish were detected in 2011. Green sturgeon entered the Columbia River from May through October during both years, with the greatest numbers of fish being

  20. Hematocrit and plasma osmolality values of young-of-year shortnose sturgeon following acute exposures to combinations of salinity and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegeweid, J.R.; Black, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the physiological capabilities of young-of-year (YOY) shortnose sturgeon. In this study, plasma osmolality and hematocrit values were measured for YOY shortnose sturgeon following 48-h exposures to 12 different combinations of salinity and temperature. Hematocrit levels varied significantly with temperature and age, and plasma osmolalities varied significantly with salinity and age. Plasma osmolality and hematocrit values were similar to previously published values for other sturgeons of similar age and size in similar treatment conditions. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  1. Assessing dorsal scute microchemistry for reconstruction of shortnose sturgeon life histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenritter, Matthew E.; Kinnison, Michael T.; Zydlewski, Gayle B.; Secor, David H.; Zydlewski, Joseph D.

    2015-01-01

    The imperiled status of sturgeons worldwide places priority on the identification and protection of critical habitats. We assessed the micro-structural and micro-chemical scope for a novel calcified structure, dorsal scutes, to be used for reconstruction of past habitat use and group separation in shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum). Dorsal scutes contained a dual-layered structure composed of a thin multi-layered translucent zone lying dorsally above a thicker multi-layered zone. Banding in the thick multi-layered zone correlated strongly with pectoral fin spine annuli supporting the presence of chronological structuring that could contain a chemical record of past environmental exposure. Trace element profiles (Sr:Ca), collected using both wavelength dispersive electron microprobe analysis and laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry, suggest scutes record elemental information useful for tracing transitions between freshwater and marine environments. Moreover, mirror-image like Sr:Ca profiles were observed across the dual-zone structuring of the scute that may indicate duplication of the microchemical profile in a single structure. Additional element:calcium ratios measured in natal regions of dorsal scutes (Ba:Ca, Mg:Ca) suggest the potential for further refinement of techniques for identification of river systems of natal origin. In combination, our results provide proof of concept that dorsal scutes possess the necessary properties to be used as structures for reconstructions of past habitat use in sturgeons. Importantly, scutes may be collected non-lethally and with less injury than current structures, like otoliths and fin spines, affording an opportunity for broader application of microchemical techniques.

  2. Estimating abundance without recaptures of marked pallid sturgeon in the Mississippi River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedenberg, Nicholas A; Hoover, Jan Jeffrey; Boysen, Krista; Killgore, K Jack

    2018-04-01

    Abundance estimates are essential for assessing the viability of populations and the risks posed by alternative management actions. An effort to estimate abundance via a repeated mark-recapture experiment may fail to recapture marked individuals. We devised a method for obtaining lower bounds on abundance in the absence of recaptures for both panmictic and spatially structured populations. The method assumes few enough recaptures were expected to be missed by random chance. The upper Bayesian credible limit on expected recaptures allows probabilistic statements about the minimum number of individuals present in the population. We applied this method to data from a 12-year survey of pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) in the lower and middle Mississippi River (U.S.A.). None of the 241 individuals marked was recaptured in the survey. After accounting for survival and movement, our model-averaged estimate of the total abundance of pallid sturgeon ≥3 years old in the study area had a 1%, 5%, or 25% chance of being <4,600, 7,000, or 15,000, respectively. When we assumed fish were distributed in proportion to survey catch per unit effort, the farthest downstream reach in the survey hosted at least 4.5-15 fish per river kilometer (rkm), whereas the remainder of the reaches in the lower and middle Mississippi River hosted at least 2.6-8.5 fish/rkm for all model variations examined. The lower Mississippi River had an average density of pallid sturgeon ≥3 years old of at least 3.0-9.8 fish/rkm. The choice of Bayesian prior was the largest source of uncertainty we considered but did not alter the order of magnitude of lower bounds. Nil-recapture estimates of abundance are highly uncertain and require careful communication but can deliver insights from experiments that might otherwise be considered a failure. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  3. Miastenia gravis juvenil Juvenile myasthenia gravis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Papazian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La miastenia gravis juvenil (MGJ es un trastorno crónico auto inmune en el cual existen anticuerpos séricos que al unirse a los receptores de acetilcolin nicotínicos de la membrana muscular de la placa motora alteran la transmisión neuromuscular. El resultado es fatiga muscular precoz con progresión a la parálisis durante estados de contracción muscular iterativos (movimientos o sostenidos (posturas y más raramente parálisis permanente durante el reposo. Los músculos inervados por los nervios craneales, especialmente los extraoculares y elevadores de los párpados, tienen más tendencia a la debilidad muscular persistente que los inervados por otros pares craneales y las extremidades. Las formas clínicas de presentación son generalizadas, oculares y respiratorias. El diagnóstico se sospecha mediante la anamnesia, la fatiga anormal se comprueba mediante el examen físico y la estimulación eléctrica iterativa del nervio que inerva al músculo afectado pero no paralizado. Se corrobora mediante la administración de inhibidores de la acetilcolin esterasa (IACE que al aumentar la cantidad de acetilcolin en la hendidura sináptica, corrigen la fatiga o la debilidad muscular transitoriamente. Se hace el diagnóstico de certeza mediante la demostración sérica de anticuerpos contra los receptores de acetilcolin (ACRA. El tratamiento es a largo plazo sintomático con IACE y etiopatogénico con inmunosupresores, plasmaféresis, gamma globulina endovenosa y timectomía. El curso es crónico. La remisión espontánea o después de tratamiento sintomático o etiopatogénico ocurre entre 1-10 años respectivamente. La mortalidad es prácticamente nula aun durantes las crisis miastenias gracias a la educación de padres, pacientes y público en general sobre el tema, al desarrollo del sistema de respuesta rápida de auxilio domiciliario y las unidades de cuidados intensivos y el empleo de la ventilación asistida profiláctica, plasmaféresis y

  4. Sturgeon and paddlefish (Acipenseridae) sagittal otoliths are composed of the calcium carbonate polymorphs vaterite and calcite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pracheil, B M; Chakoumakos, B C; Feygenson, M; Whitledge, G W; Koenigs, R P; Bruch, R M

    2017-02-01

    This study sought to resolve whether sturgeon (Acipenseridae) sagittae (otoliths) contain a non-vaterite fraction and to quantify how large a non-vaterite fraction is using neutron diffraction analysis. This study found that all otoliths examined had a calcite fraction that ranged from 18 ± 6 to 36 ± 3% by mass. This calcite fraction is most probably due to biological variation during otolith formation rather than an artefact of polymorph transformation during preparation. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  5. Juvenile psittacine environmental enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone-Freilicher, Elisabeth; Rupley, Agnes E

    2015-05-01

    Environmental enrichment is of great import to the emotional, intellectual, and physical development of the juvenile psittacine and their success in the human home environment. Five major types of enrichment include social, occupational, physical, sensory, and nutritional. Occupational enrichment includes exercise and psychological enrichment. Physical enrichment includes the cage and accessories and the external home environment. Sensory enrichment may be visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory, or taste oriented. Nutritional enrichment includes variations in appearance, type, and frequency of diet, and treats, novelty, and foraging. Two phases of the preadult period deserve special enrichment considerations: the development of autonomy and puberty. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Juvenile Dermatomyositis in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Emeka Madu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile dermatomyositis has variable clinical presentations both in and outside of pregnancy. A literature review indicated that optimal maternal and fetal outcomes can be anticipated when the pregnancy is undertaken while the disease is in remission. Poorer outcomes are associated with flare-up of the disease in early pregnancy compared with exacerbation in the second or third trimester, when fetal prognosis is usually good. We present a case of JDM in pregnancy with disease exacerbation late in pregnancy and review of the relevant literature.

  7. Fine-scale habitat preference of green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris) within three spawning locations in the Sacramento River, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, Megan T.; Thomas, Michael J.; McDonald, Richard R.; Hearn, Alexander R.; Battleson, Ryan D.; Chapman, Eric D.; Kinzel, Paul J.; Minear, J. Tobey; Mora, Ethan A.; Nelson, Jonathan M.; Pagel, Matthew D.; Klimley, A. Peter

    2018-01-01

    Vast sections of the Sacramento River have been listed as critical habitat by the National Marine Fisheries Service for green sturgeon spawning (Acipenser medirostris), yet spawning is known to occur at only a few specific locations. This study reveals the range of physical habitat variables selected by adult green sturgeon during their spawning period. We integrated fine-scale fish positions, physical habitat characteristics, discharge, bathymetry, and simulated velocity and depth using a 2-dimensional hydraulic model (FaSTMECH). The objective was to create habitat suitability curves for depth, velocity, and substrate type within three known spawning locations over two years. An overall cumulative habitat suitability score was calculated that averaged the depth, velocity, and substrate scores over all fish, sites, and years. A weighted usable area (WUA) index was calculated throughout the sampling periods for each of the three sites. Cumulative results indicate that the microhabitat characteristics most preferred by green sturgeon in these three spawning locations were velocities between 1.0-1.1 m/s, depths of 8-9 m, and gravel and sand substrate. This study provides guidance for those who may in the future want to increase spawning habitat for green sturgeon within the Sacramento River.

  8. Broadening the regulated-river management paradigm: A case study of the forgotten dead zone hindering Pallid Sturgeon recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Christopher S.; Treanor, Hilary B.; Kappenman, Kevin M.; Scholl, Eric A.; Ilgen, Jason E.; Webb, Molly A. H.

    2015-01-01

    The global proliferation of dams within the last half century has prompted ecologists to understand the effects of regulated rivers on large-river fishes. Currently, much of the effort to mitigate the influence of dams on large-river fishes has been focused on downriver effects, and little attention has been given to upriver effects. Through a combination of field observations and laboratory experiments, we tested the hypothesis that abiotic conditions upriver of the dam are the mechanism for the lack of recruitment in Pallid Sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus), an iconic large-river endangered species. Here we show for the first time that anoxic upriver habitat in reservoirs (i.e., the transition zone between the river and reservoir) is responsible for the lack of recruitment in Pallid Sturgeon. The anoxic condition in the transition zone is a function of reduced river velocities and the concentration of fine particulate organic material with high microbial respiration. As predicted, the river upstream of the transition zone was oxic at all sampling locations. Our results indicate that transition zones are an ecological sink for Pallid Sturgeon. We argue that ecologists, engineers, and policy makers need to broaden the regulated-river paradigm to consider upriver and downriver effects of dams equally to comprehensively mitigate altered ecosystems for the benefit of large-river fishes, especially for the Pallid Sturgeon.

  9. 75 FR 2102 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Rule To List the Shovelnose Sturgeon as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    ... receive public comments on the proposal. If you have previously submitted comments, please do not resubmit... on the length of written comments submitted to us. If you have any questions concerning the [[Page...; Proposed Rule To List the Shovelnose Sturgeon as Threatened Due to Similarity of Appearance AGENCY: Fish...

  10. The second highest chromosome count among vertebrates is observed in cultured sturgeon and is associated with genome plasticity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havelka, M.; Bytyutskyy, D.; Symonová, R.; Ráb, Petr; Flajšhans, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 12 (2016) ISSN 0999-193X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-02940S Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : sturgeon * spontaneous autopolyploidy * image-analysis densitometry Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.964, year: 2016

  11. The effect of thermal shock on morphological characteristics of blood cells in Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii triploids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Wlasow

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of thermal shock on morphotic blood elements in Siberian sturgeon Acipenser baerii triploids. The thermal shock (37 °C for 2 min was applied in the 18th min after fertilization. Blood was sampled from parallel cultured ten triploids and ten diploids on day 70 after hatching. Ploidy was assessed with the cytogenetic method and measurements of cellular nuclei. In the blood of triploids, significant dominance of immature red blood cells, erythrocytes with a displaced nucleus, microcytes and erythroplastids were observed. The blood of triploids was also characterized by a reduced number of lymphocytes. The percentage of neutrophil and eosinophil granulocytes was elevated; increased share of neutrophil granulocytes with a 4-, 5- or 6-segmented nucleus and eosinophil granulocytes with a nucleus consisting of three and more segments was observed. Disturbances in the picture of red blood cells can be considered as an expression of intensification of end-stage changes in triploids. The response to these changes in the blood of triploid Siberian sturgeon is an increase in the share of polymorphonuclear PMN, cells counted as microphages. Frequent presence of immature red blood cells in triploid Siberian sturgeon is a process that aims at counterbalancing the loss among these blood cells. It is the first report on morphological changes and proportions among blood cells in triploid Siberian sturgeon.

  12. Effects of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) on Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) fingerlings performance and its gastrointestinal tract microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najdegerami, Ebrahim H; Tran, Tiet Ngoc; Defoirdt, Tom; Marzorati, Massimo; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Boon, Nico; Bossier, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) is a natural polymer that can be depolymerized into water-soluble short-chain fatty acid monomers. These monomers can act as microbial control agents. In this study, the effects of partially replacing the diet of Siberian sturgeon fingerlings with 2% and 5% PHB were investigated. Replacing 2% of the diet with PHB improved weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR) and survival in the sturgeon fingerlings during the 10-week experimental period. Community-level physiological profiling and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) were used to analyze the microbial community diversity and community organization in the sturgeon gastrointestinal tract. DGGE analysis revealed that PHB affected the intestinal microbial species richness and diversity. The highest species richness was observed with 2% PHB. DNA sequencing of the dominant bands in 2% and 5% PHB treatments revealed that PHB stimulated bacteria belonging to the genera Bacillus and Ruminococcaceae. Principal component analysis, Lorenz curves and the Shannon index of Biolog Ecoplate data revealed that aerobic metabolic potential of the bacterial community was different in the PHB-treated fishes as compared with the control situation. Overall, our results indicate that PHB act as microbial control agents and replacement of 2% of Siberian sturgeon fingerling diet with PHB has beneficial effects.

  13. Investigation of some characteristics of enzymes that ensure the process of membrane digestion in paddlefish and Russian sturgeon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Nevalennyy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex research of characteristics of some enzymes which are carrying out membrane hydrolysis of food at a spoonbilled cat and Russian sturgeon is carried out. High thermostability enzymes the squirrel of all investigated enzymes is marked.

  14. Divergent migration within lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) populations: Multiple distinct patterns exist across an unrestricted migration corridor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Steven T; Hondorp, Darryl W; Holbrook, Christopher M; Boase, James C; Chiotti, Justin A; Thomas, Michael V; Wills, Todd C; Roseman, Edward F; Drouin, Richard; Krueger, Charles C

    2018-01-01

    Population structure, distribution, abundance and dispersal arguably underpin the entire field of animal ecology, with consequences for regional species persistence, and provision of ecosystem services. Divergent migration behaviours among individuals or among populations are an important aspect of the ecology of highly mobile animals, allowing populations to exploit spatially or temporally distributed food and space resources. This study investigated the spatial ecology of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) within the barrier free Huron-Erie Corridor (HEC), which connects Lake Huron and Lake Erie of the North American Laurentian Great Lakes. Over 6 years (2011-2016), movements of 268 lake sturgeon in the HEC were continuously monitored across the Great Lakes using acoustic telemetry (10 years battery life acoustic transmitters). Five distinct migration behaviours were identified with hierarchical cluster analysis, based on the phenology and duration of river and lake use. Lake sturgeon in the HEC were found to contain a high level of intraspecific divergent migration, including partial migration with the existence of residents. Specific behaviours included year-round river residency and multiple lake-migrant behaviours that involved movements between lakes and rivers. Over 85% of individuals were assigned to migration behaviours as movements were consistently repeated over the study, which suggested migration behaviours were consistent and persistent in lake sturgeon. Differential use of specific rivers or lakes by acoustic-tagged lake sturgeon further subdivided individuals into 14 "contingents" (spatiotemporally segregated subgroups). Contingents associated with one river (Detroit or St. Clair) were rarely detected in the other river, which confirmed that lake sturgeon in the Detroit and St. Clair represent two semi-independent populations that could require separate management consideration for their conservation. The distribution of migration behaviours

  15. Status of scientific knowledge, recovery progress, and future research directions for the Gulf Sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi Vladykov, 1955

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulak, Kenneth J.; Parauka, F; Slack, W. Todd; Ruth, T; Randall, Michael T.; Luke, K; Mette, M. F; Price, M. E

    2016-01-01

    The Gulf Sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi, is an anadromous species of Acipenseridae and native to North America. It currently inhabits and spawns in the upper reaches of seven natal rivers along the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico from the Suwannee River, Florida, to the Pearl River, Louisiana, during spring to autumn. Next to the Alligator Gar (Atractosteus spatula), the Gulf Sturgeon is currently the largest fish species occurring in U.S. Gulf Coast rivers, attaining a length of 2.35 m and weights exceeding 135 kg, but historically attained a substantially larger size. Historically, the spawning populations existed in additional rivers from which the species has been wholly or nearly extirpated, such as the Mobile and Ochlockonee rivers, and possibly the Rio Grande River. Most Gulf Sturgeon populations were decimated by unrestricted commercial fishing between 1895–1910. Subsequently most populations remained unrecovered or extirpated due to continued harvest until the 1970s–1980s, and the construction of dams blocking access to ancestral upriver spawning grounds. Late 20th Century harvest bans and net bans enacted by the several Gulf Coast states have stabilized several populations and enabled the Suwannee River population to rebound substantially and naturally. Hatchery supplementation has not been necessary in this regard to date. Sturgeon are resilient and adaptable fishes with a geological history of 150 million years. Research undertaken since the 1970s has addressed many aspects of Gulf Sturgeon life history, reproduction, migration, population biology, habitat requirements, and other aspects of species biology. However, many knowledge gaps remain, prominently including the life history of early developmental stages in the first year of life. Natural population recovery is evident for the Suwannee River population, but seems promising as well for at least four other populations. The Pascagoula and Pearl River populations face a challenging

  16. Gender and gonadal maturity stage identification of captive Chinese sturgeon, Acipenser sinensis, using ultrasound imagery and sex steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hao; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Leng, Xiaoqian; Zhang, Shuhuan; Luo, Jiang; Liu, Zhigang; Qiao, Xingmei; Kynard, Boyd; Wei, Qiwei

    2017-05-01

    Long lifespan and late maturation make it difficult to establish gamete maturity and breeding age of captive endangered Chinese sturgeon, Acipenser sinensis. This greatly handicaps timely breeding and future conservation stocking efforts. We used ultrasound imagery and sex steroids to determine the gender and gonadal maturity stage of captive Chinese sturgeon (age, 10-17years old). The echogenicity of the reproductive organs and the respective morphology of the gonads were described and two quantitative parameters p o (proportion of the ovary to the entire reproductive organs) and d (thickness of the reproductive organs) were measured to characterize sex and maturity stage of Chinese sturgeon. Females were accordingly placed fish into several categories: F II (F II - , F II , F II + ), F III (F III , F III + ) and F IV (F IV , F IV + ) and F VI and males as M II , M III , M IV , M V and M VI . The accuracy of gender and maturity stage determination provided by ultrasonographic methods was 72.7% for F II - ovary (n=11) and 76.2% for M II testis (n=42). Accuracy of sex and maturity determination using only serum sex steroid of testosterone (T) and estradiol-17β (E 2 ) was low (58-73%, depending on maturity stage). However, when the two methods were used together, accuracy increased sharply, especially for immature (II stage) females. In summary, of 151 Chinese sturgeon, whose sex and maturity stage were independently confirmed, 88.1% (n=133), 62.9% (n=95), and 96.7% (n=146) were successfully sexed and staged using ultrasound, sex steroids, or both methods, respectively. The results provide reliable non-invasive techniques for determining sex and gonadal maturation of captive Chinese sturgeon. These methods can track individual gonad characteristics over multi-year reproductive cycles, which will assist captive broodstock management, artificial reproduction, and future conservation stocking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Hierarchical Bayesian Markov switching models with application to predicting spawning success of shovelnose sturgeon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holan, S.H.; Davis, G.M.; Wildhaber, M.L.; DeLonay, A.J.; Papoulias, D.M.

    2009-01-01

    The timing of spawning in fish is tightly linked to environmental factors; however, these factors are not very well understood for many species. Specifically, little information is available to guide recruitment efforts for endangered species such as the sturgeon. Therefore, we propose a Bayesian hierarchical model for predicting the success of spawning of the shovelnose sturgeon which uses both biological and behavioural (longitudinal) data. In particular, we use data that were produced from a tracking study that was conducted in the Lower Missouri River. The data that were produced from this study consist of biological variables associated with readiness to spawn along with longitudinal behavioural data collected by using telemetry and archival data storage tags. These high frequency data are complex both biologically and in the underlying behavioural process. To accommodate such complexity we developed a hierarchical linear regression model that uses an eigenvalue predictor, derived from the transition probability matrix of a two-state Markov switching model with generalized auto-regressive conditional heteroscedastic dynamics. Finally, to minimize the computational burden that is associated with estimation of this model, a parallel computing approach is proposed. ?? Journal compilation 2009 Royal Statistical Society.

  18. Effects of Exposure to the Sound from Seismic Airguns on Pallid Sturgeon and Paddlefish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur N Popper

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of exposure to a single acoustic pulse from a seismic airgun array on caged endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus and on paddlefish (Polyodon spathula in Lake Sakakawea (North Dakota, USA. The experiment was designed to detect the onset of physiological responses including minor to mortal injuries. Experimental fish were held in cages as close as 1 to 3 m from the guns where peak negative sound pressure levels (Peak- SPL reached 231 dB re 1 μPa (205 dB re 1 μPa2·s sound exposure level [SEL]. Additional cages were placed at greater distances in an attempt to develop a dose-response relationship. Treatment and control fish were then monitored for seven days, euthanized, and necropsied to determine injuries. Necropsy results indicated that the probability of delayed mortality associated with pulse pressure following the seven day monitoring period was the same for exposed and control fish of both species. Exposure to a single pulse from a small air gun array (10,160 cm3 was not lethal for pallid sturgeon and paddlefish. However, the risks from exposure to multiple sounds and to sound exposure levels that exceed those reported here remain to be examined.

  19. Penicillin improves the milt quality of Persian sturgeon, Acipenser persicus during short-term storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Halimi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to examine the effects of antibiotic (5000 units of penicillin on sperm quality of Persian sturgeon, Acipenser persicus during 9 days in vitro storage of milt. For this purpose, the milt samples were stored in the presence and absence of 5000 units of penicillin. Freshwater was used as sperm activator. The milt samples were stored at 4°C and the motility indices were measured 0, 3, 6 and 9 days after storage. The sperm duration and percentage of sperm motility decreased after 6 days of storage both in the presence and absence of antibiotic, although this decrease was more significant in the absence of antibiotic. After 9 days of storage, the lowest values of sperm motility indices was recorded for antibiotic receiving milt samples while no motile spermatozoa observed for antibiotic-free milt samples. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that 5000 units of penicillin improve the Persian sturgeon milt quality during short-term storage.

  20. Vegetable Production in an Integrated Aquaponic System with Stellate Sturgeon and Spinach – Matador variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Mihai Petrea

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to reveal the performances parameters, both in terms of quantity and quality, for spinach (Spinacia oleracea - Matador variety, growth in an aquaponic integrated system, along with stellate sturgeons (A. stellatus under three crops densities (V1 - 59 crops/m2, V2 – 48 crops/m2 and V3 – 39 crops/m2, by using hydroton as growing substrate, under a continuous flow hydraulic regime. The experiment was run in triplicate for each one of the three variants. The water quality was monitored and a series of growth parameters were determined, as follows: leaf area index (LAI, relative growth rate (RGR, average net assimilation rate (NAR, mean leaf area ratio (LAR and crop growth rate (CGR. Also the concentration of chlorophyll a, b, carotenoids, ash and dry matter for spinach leaf, from each of the three experimental variants was determined and compared with the one of marketable spinach, growth conventional, in soil. It can be concluded that statistical significant differences (p<0.05 were recorded in terms of growth performance and crops quality, between the experimental variants. Also the quality of spinach grown in aquaponic conditions, by using effluent derived from stellate sturgeon intensive aquaculture is similar to that of the marketable spinach, growth conventional.

  1. Juvenile hyperthyroidism: an experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadada, S; Bhansali, A; Velayutham, P; Masoodi, S R

    2006-04-01

    To analyze the clinical profile of juvenile hyperthyroidism at presentation, their treatment outcome; predictors of remission and relapse. Retrospective analysis of medical records of 56 patients with juvenile hyperthyroidism seen over a period of 16 years. A cohort of 38 females and 18 males with mean (+/-SD) age of 14.9 +/- 3.4 years (range 3 to 18 years) was analyzed. Majority of patients was in the age group of 12-16 years. Common symptoms observed at presentation were weight loss (82.1%), excessive sweating (78.6%), heat intolerance (76.8%), increased appetite (73.2%) and diarrhea in 48.2%. In addition, accelerated linear growth was observed in 7.1% of patients. Goiter was present in 98.2% of children; 94.5% of which was diffuse and 4.8% was multinodular. The mean ((+/-SD) T3 was 4.8 +/- 3.4 ng/mL (N, 0.6-1.6), T4 was 218 +/- 98 ng/mL (N, 60-155) and TSH was 0.44 +/- 0.36 (N, 0.5-5.5 microIU/mL). TMA positivity seen in 36.9% of patients. All patients were treated with carbimazole; subsequently 4 patients required thyroidectomy and one required radioactive iodine ablation. Mean (+/-SD) duration of follow-up in our patients was 4.9 +/- 3 years, ranging between 1.6 to 16 years and mean (+/-SD) duration of treatment was 34.4 +/- 22.6 months (range 12 to 120 months). Mean (+/-SD) duration to achieve euthyroidism was 5.2 +/- 4.7 months, ranging between 1-33 months. On intention to treat analysis, remission with carbimazole was achieved in 47.6%, remaining patients failed to achieve remission with drug treatment. Graves disease is the commonest cause of juvenile hyperthyroidism. Carbimazole is safe, effective, cheap, and easily available form of therapy. It is occasionally associated with serious side effects but requires prolonged follow up.

  2. Juvenile prison in parallel legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutovac Mitar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for punishment of juveniles occurred from the time when there was no clear line separating them from the adult criminal population. At the same time, the evolution of the juvenile punishment is not in itself involve substantial changes to their criminal status. On the contrary, the status of minors in society did not show serious differences regarding the status of young adults, as well as the adult elderly. On the other hand, on the ground of their punishment is recorded deviations that go in the direction of application of mild corporal punishment. Closing the minor was performed in a physically separate parts of the general penal institutions with the use of a lower degree of restrictions while serving juvenile prison. Due to the different treatment of minors during the evolution of their criminal status leads to their different treatment in comparative law. That is why we are witnessing the existence of numerous differences in the juvenile punishment in some countries in the world. On the European continent there is a wide range of different legal solutions when it comes to punishing juveniles. There are considerable differences in the procedure pronouncing juvenile prison and in particular penal treatment of juveniles in penitentiary institutions. For these reasons, the author has decided to show the basic statutory provisions in the part that relates to the issue of punishment of minors in the legislation of individual countries.

  3. Natural growth and diet of known-age pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) early life stages in the upper Missouri River basin, Montana and North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braaten, P.J.; Fuller, D.B.; Lott, R.D.; Haddix, T.M.; Holte, L.D.; Wilson, R.H.; Bartron, M.L.; Kalie, J.A.; DeHaan, P.W.; Ardren, W.R.; Holm, R.J.; Jaeger, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Prior to anthropogenic modifications, the historic Missouri River provided ecological conditions suitable for reproduction, growth, and survival of pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus. However, little information is available to discern whether altered conditions in the contemporary Missouri River are suitable for feeding, growth and survival of endangered pallid sturgeon during the early life stages. In 2004 and 2007, nearly 600 000 pallid sturgeon free embryos and larvae were released in the upper Missouri River and survivors from these releases were collected during 2004–2010 to quantify natural growth rates and diet composition. Based on genetic analysis and known-age at release (1–17 days post-hatch, dph), age at capture (dph, years) could be determined for each survivor. Totals of 23 and 28 survivors from the 2004 and 2007 releases, respectively, were sampled. Growth of pallid sturgeon was rapid (1.91 mm day−1) during the initial 13–48 dph, then slowed as fish approached maximum length (120–140 mm) towards the end of the first growing season. The diet of young-of-year pallid sturgeon was comprised of Diptera larvae, Diptera pupae, and Ephemeroptera nymphs. Growth of pallid sturgeon from ages 1–6 years was about 48.0 mm year−1. This study provides the first assessment of natural growth and diet of young pallid sturgeon in the wild. Results depict pallid sturgeon growth trajectories that may be expected for naturally produced wild stocks under contemporary habitat conditions in the Missouri River and Yellowstone River.

  4. Commercial fishing gear modifications to reduce interactions between Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus) and the southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma) fishery in North Carolina (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, Juan C; Hager, Christian; Diaddorio, Eric; Dickey, R Jason

    2016-01-01

    Bycatch of protected species in commercial fishing operations is a primary concern to fishery managers because it threatens the conservation, protection, and recovery of fragile species, such as the Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus). One potential solution to reduce the risk associated with commercial fishing operations is to design commercial fishing gear that is more selective in terms of interactions between Atlantic sturgeon and commercial fisheries. Given this conservation and management need, the overarching goal was to reduce Atlantic sturgeon fishery interactions and maintain southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma) catch in North Carolina. The specific objectives of this study were to design and evaluate the effectiveness of a modified gillnet. Overall, the results proved that lowering the profile and amount of webbing had a beneficial impact at reducing Atlantic sturgeon incidental encounters and bycatch. The modified gillnet reduced bycatch and Atlantic sturgeon encounters by 39.6% and 60.9%, respectively. Our design entangled 51.6% fewer southern flounder, which corresponded to a 48.9% reduction in total weight; the modified gear entangled slightly larger southern flounder than the control gear. Our findings showed the number of Atlantic sturgeon encounters was positively associated with mean water depth, with more Atlantic sturgeon encountered in deeper (5.1-6.3 m) than shallower waters; 75% were encountered at depths between 4.6 and 6.1 m. Most southern flounder (n = 518, 39.7%) were taken at a water depth between 3.76 and 5.0 m. This observation suggests that southern flounder prefer slightly shallower waters than Atlantic sturgeon.

  5. Recurrent giant juvenile fibroadenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn S. King

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Breast masses in children, though rare, present a difficult clinical challenge as they can represent a wide variety of entities from benign fibroadenomas to phyllodes tumors. Rapidly growing or recurrent masses can be particularly concerning to patients, families and physicians alike. Clinical examination and conventional imaging modalities are not efficacious in distinguishing between different tumor types and surgical excision is often recommended for both final diagnosis and for treatment of large or rapidly growing masses. While surgical excision can result in significant long-term deformity of the breast there are some surgical techniques that can be used to limit deformity and/or aid in future reconstruction. Here we present a case of recurrent giant juvenile fibroadenoma with a review of the clinical presentation, diagnostic tools and treatment options.

  6. Fetal and juvenile radiotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    A number of studies conducted under this project have demonstrated that many of the biological parameters used to calculate permissible levels of exposure of adults to radioactive materials are inappropriate for the rapidly growing infant or child or for the pregnant female. These include age-related differences in radionuclide deposition, distribution, and retention and associated differences in microdosimetry, as well as the greater intrinsic radiosensitivity of the immature organism. These findings emphasize the need for more detailed information on the metabolism and toxicity of radionuclides in the prenatal and juvenile mammal. The continuing objective of this project is to obtain such information, which is needed to establish appropriate exposure limits for radionuclides of greatest potential hazard to these age groups

  7. White House

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... content Jump to navigation the WHITE HOUSE President Donald J. Trump Get in Touch Home Briefing Room From the ... For All Americans The Administration The Administration President Donald J. Trump Vice President Mike Pence First Lady Melania Trump ...

  8. Preliminary evaluation of the effectiveness of visible implant elastomer and coded wire tags for tagging young-of-the-year Atlantic sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapusta Andrzej

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the retention rates of visible implant elastomer (VIE and coded wire tags (CWT and the impact tagging had on the growth of Atlantic sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus Mitchill, during an eight-week rearing period under laboratory conditions. Two size groups of young-of-the-year (YOY sturgeon were used in the study. The tagging was not found to have a significant impact on the final total length or body weight or the condition coefficient of the sturgeon from either size group. Sturgeon survival in the different groups ranged from 90.6 to 100%. Mortality was not noted until two (CWT and four (VIE weeks following tagging and was probably not linked to tagging. The retention rate for VIE tags implanted in the rostrum in both size groups was 100%, while for tags implanted at the base of the pectoral fin was 93.5%. The retention of CWT in the smaller fish was 90%, and in the larger sturgeon it was 100%. Tagging small sturgeon with CWT and VIE is minimally invasive, and it did not impact the growth or condition of the tagged fish.

  9. Juvenile delinquency and correctional treatment in Britain

    OpenAIRE

    堀尾, 良弘; ホリオ, ヨシヒロ; Yoshihiro, Horio

    2006-01-01

    Japanese modernistic culture is influenced not a little from Britain. In looking at the Juvenile Law and the history of correctional treatment in Britain, understanding of today's juvenile delinquency and treatment deepen. Moreover, the background and issue of juvenile delinquency in Britain are also discussed. As a feature of the juvenile delinquency in Britain, the common field with Japan and the field peculiar to Britain became clear in each. It is common to the world that the juvenile del...

  10. Group Work with Juvenile Delinquents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimpfer, David G.

    1992-01-01

    Reviews group work literature on juvenile delinquents. Presents overview of interventions, including positive peer culture, cognitive-behavioral treatment, psychoeducational treatment, treatment of learned behavior, action-oriented treatment, milieu therapy, parental involvement, assertiveness training, and music therapy. Discusses outcome…

  11. Juvenile Angiofibroma: Evolution of Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolai, Piero; Schreiber, Alberto; Bolzoni Villaret, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Juvenile angiofibroma is a rare benign lesion originating from the pterygopalatine fossa with distinctive epidemiologic features and growth patterns. The typical patient is an adolescent male with a clinical history of recurrent epistaxis and nasal obstruction. Although the use of nonsurgical therapies is described in the literature, surgery is currently considered the ideal treatment for juvenile angiofibroma. Refinement in preoperative embolization has provided significant reduction of complications and intraoperative bleeding with minimal risk of residual disease. During the last decade, an endoscopic technique has been extensively adopted as a valid alternative to external approaches in the management of small-intermediate size juvenile angiofibromas. Herein, we review the evolution in the management of juvenile angiofibroma with particular reference to recent advances in diagnosis and treatment. PMID:22164185

  12. Juvenile Angiofibroma: Evolution of Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Nicolai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile angiofibroma is a rare benign lesion originating from the pterygopalatine fossa with distinctive epidemiologic features and growth patterns. The typical patient is an adolescent male with a clinical history of recurrent epistaxis and nasal obstruction. Although the use of nonsurgical therapies is described in the literature, surgery is currently considered the ideal treatment for juvenile angiofibroma. Refinement in preoperative embolization has provided significant reduction of complications and intraoperative bleeding with minimal risk of residual disease. During the last decade, an endoscopic technique has been extensively adopted as a valid alternative to external approaches in the management of small-intermediate size juvenile angiofibromas. Herein, we review the evolution in the management of juvenile angiofibroma with particular reference to recent advances in diagnosis and treatment.

  13. Bilateral, independent juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkenborg, Marie-Louise; Frendø, M; Stavngaard, T

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a benign, vascular tumour that primarily occurs in adolescent males. Despite its benign nature, aggressive growth patterns can cause potential life-threatening complications. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is normally unilateral, originating...... from the sphenopalatine artery, but bilateral symptoms can occur if a large tumour extends to the contralateral side of the nasopharynx. This paper presents the first reported case of true bilateral extensive juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma involving clinically challenging pre-surgical planning...... embolisation. Radical removal performed as one-step, computer-assisted functional endoscopic sinus surgery was performed. The follow-up period was uncomplicated. CONCLUSION: This case illustrates the importance of suspecting bilateral juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma in patients presenting with bilateral...

  14. A Giant Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüce, Salim; Uysal, İsmail Önder; Doğan, Mansur; Polat, Kerem; Şalk, İsmail; Müderris, Suphi

    2012-01-01

    Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) are locally growing highly vascular tumours. They are treated primarily by surgical excision ranging from open approach to endoscopic approach. We presented a 20-year-old male with a giant nasopharyngeal juvenile angiofibroma obliterating the pterygopalatine fossa bilaterally, invasing the sphenoid bone and extending to the left nasal passage. His complaints were epistaxis and nasal obstruction. After embolization, the patient was treated surgically with endoscopic approach and discharged as cured without any complication. PMID:23714961

  15. Failure after Farrell: Violence and Inadequate Mental Health Care in California's Division of Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajmani, Nisha; Webster, Erica

    2016-01-01

    From its inception in 1891 to present day, California's state youth corrections system has been mired in violence and abuse. In 1914, IQ testing and eugenics at state juvenile facilities resulted in the forced sterilization of poor, primarily non-white youth. In 1939, the suspicious suicide of a 13-year-old boy, the maltreatment of Latino youth,…

  16. White Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 19 April 2002) The Science 'White Rock' is the unofficial name for this unusual landform which was first observed during the Mariner 9 mission in the early 1970's. As later analysis of additional data sets would show, White Rock is neither white nor dense rock. Its apparent brightness arises from the fact that the material surrounding it is so dark. Images from the Mars Global Surveyor MOC camera revealed dark sand dunes surrounding White Rock and on the floor of the troughs within it. Some of these dunes are just apparent in the THEMIS image. Although there was speculation that the material composing White Rock could be salts from an ancient dry lakebed, spectral data from the MGS TES instrument did not support this claim. Instead, the White Rock deposit may be the erosional remnant of a previously more continuous occurrence of air fall sediments, either volcanic ash or windblown dust. The THEMIS image offers new evidence for the idea that the original deposit covered a larger area. Approximately 10 kilometers to the southeast of the main deposit are some tiny knobs of similarly bright material preserved on the floor of a small crater. Given that the eolian erosion of the main White Rock deposit has produced isolated knobs at its edges, it is reasonable to suspect that the more distant outliers are the remnants of a once continuous deposit that stretched at least to this location. The fact that so little remains of the larger deposit suggests that the material is very easily eroded and simply blows away. The Story Fingers of hard, white rock seem to jut out like icy daggers across a moody Martian surface, but appearances can be deceiving. These bright, jagged features are neither white, nor icy, nor even hard and rocky! So what are they, and why are they so different from the surrounding terrain? Scientists know that you can't always trust what your eyes see alone. You have to use other kinds of science instruments to measure things that our eyes can

  17. Fetal and juvenile radiotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikov, M.R.

    1985-01-01

    This project is directed at obtaining detailed comparative information on the deposition, distribution, retention, and toxicity of radionuclides in the prenatal and juvenile mammal. Because quantitative data cannot necessarily be extrapolated to man, emphasis is also directed toward establishing patterns, phenomenologic interactions, and relationships which will be useful in determining appropriate exposure levels for rapidly growing infants or children and for pregnant women. Further dosimetry for an experiment to evaluate the effects of foster-rearing of newborn rats on the lifetime effects of 239 Pu exposure has demonstrated that most of the lifetime burden is derived from prenatal exposure and that milk contributes little in addition. Other measurements have confirmed a tentative observation that the lifetime burden in offspring is greater with near-term exposure than with exposure earlier in gestation. Additional results from a comparison of the embryotoxicity of 239 Pu and 241 Am have confirmed that, on the basis of dose administered to the dam, the former has a greater effect on the conceptus. Pilot studies indicate that 233 U is teratogenic, acting as a chemical rather than as a radiological teratogen. Studies with 239 Pu-exposed pregnant rabbits have shown that maternal distribution differs from that in rodents; concentration patterns in the placenta and membranes also differed. 4 figures, 1 table

  18. [Localized eruptive juvenile xanthogranuloma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanotti, S; Chiaverini, C; Rostain, G; Cardot-Leccia, N; Lacour, J-P

    2014-03-01

    Juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG) is a non-Langerhans histiocytosis of young children characterized by solitary or multiple yellowish cutaneous nodules. Atypical skin lesions such as lichenoid eruptions, and pedunculated, maculopapular, plaque-like or linear lesions have been described. We report a case of eruptive XGJ en plaque in the left leg in an infant. A 13-month-old child presented asymptomatic eruptive, yellowish papules of the leg measuring 5 to 10mm since the age of 2months. There was no cutaneous infiltration between the lesions. Darier's sign was negative. Histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of JXG. The course of the disease comprised a gradual decrease in the number of active lesions with slight residual pigmentation. Our case was suggestive of JXG en plaque. Only 7 cases have been reported in the literature, all appearing before the age of 5months. The lesions corresponded mostly to an asymptomatic erythematous plaque studded with small yellowish/red nodules of variable localisation. Spontaneous involvement was noted in all cases. No systemic involvement was found. Herein we present a unique case of localised multiple JXG without evident clinical infiltrating plaque progressing with self-resolving flares. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Fetal and juvenile radiotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikov, M.R.

    1982-01-01

    This project is directed at obtaining detailed comparative information on the deposition, distribution, retention, and toxicity of radionuclides in the prenatal and juvenile mammal. Because quantitative data cannot necessarily be extrapolated to man, our emphasis is directed toward establishing patterns, phenomenologic interactions, and relationships which will be useful in determining appropriate exposure levels for the rapidly growing infant or child, and for pregnant women. Recent results demonstrated that injection of pregnant rats with 23 Pu had the greatest effect on longevity and bone-tumor incidence of the offspring when exposure occurred at 19 days of gestation (dg); less effect at 15 dg and the least effect at 9 dg. Ongoing distribution studies are providing data which confirm our tentative explanation that marked variations in the anatomic distributions of bone tumors, with age at the time of injection, were attributable to age-related differences in 239 Pu microdosimetry and concentrations among skeletal components. Other studies, using a placental perfusion technique, have demonstrated that intravenous injection of 239 Pu in pregnant guinea pigs leads to a marked decrease in maternal blood flow to the placenta

  20. JUVENILE RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I N Sartika

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA is the most common rheumatic condition in children. JRA is defined as persistent arthritis in 1 or more joints for at least 6 weeks, with the onset before age 16 years. The etiology of JRA is unknown. Antigen activated CD4+ T cell stimulate monocytes, macrophages, and synovial fibroblasts to produce the cytokines Interleukin-1 (IL-1, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-? and to secrete matrix metalloproteinases, which lead to chronic inflammation due to infiltration of inflammatory cell, angiogenesis, destruction of cartilage and bone with pannus formation. The 3 major subtypes of JRA are based on the symptoms at disease onset and are designated systemic onset, pauciarticular onset, and polyarticular onset. For all patients, the goals of therapy are to decrease chronic joint pain and suppress the inflammatory process. Poor prognostic have been observed in patients with polyarticular onset, rheumatoid factor, persistent morning stiffness, tenosynovitis, involvement of the small joints, rapid appearance of erosions, active late onset childhood, subcutaneous nodules, or antinuclear antibody.

  1. Fetal and juvenile radiotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikov, M.R.

    1983-01-01

    Comparative information on the deposition, distribution, retention, and toxicity of radionuclides in the prenatal and juvenile mammal is reported. Emphasis is toward establishing patterns, phenomenologic interactions, and relationships which will be useful in determining appropriate exposure levels for the rapidly growing infant or child and for pregnant women. Recent results have shown that injection of pregnant rats with 239 Pu increases the incidence and severity of adenomatous hyperplasia of the liver in the offspring; the magnitude of these effects is relatd to dose and prenatal age at exposure. Analysis of combined data from several experiments leads to the conclusion that perinatal rats are more sensitive to bone tumor induction by 239 Pu alpha-particle irradiation than are adults. Further histopathologic evaluations of material from earlier experiments have demonstrated that most of the increased incidence of thyroid tumors following 131 I exposure is attributable to follicular tumors. An analysis of the literature led to the conclusion that prenatal irradiation can lead to an increased or decreased incidence of tumors, depending on the specific details of the experimental design and system

  2. Fetal and juvenile radiotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikov, M.R.

    1984-01-01

    This project is directed at obtaining detailed comparative information on the deposition, distribution, retention, and toxicity of radionuclides in the prenatal and juvenile mammal. Because quantitative data cannot necessarily be extrapolated to man, emphasis is also directed toward establishing patterns, phenomenologic interactions, and relationships which will be useful in determining appropriate exposure levels for the rapidly growing infant or child and for pregnant women. An experiment to evaluate the effects of foster-rearing of newborn rats on the lifetime effects of 239 Pu exposure has demonstrated that, while longevity is primarily dependent on radiation history, growth rate and adult body weight are related to the exposure and fitness of the foster dam. Results from an ongoing comparison of the dosimetry and embryotoxicity of 239 Pu and 241 Am confirm that the former has a greater effect on the conceptus, on the basis of dose administered to the dam. Studies in the guinea-pig perfusion system have confirmed that maternal blood flow to the placenta is decreased by intravenous doses of 30 nCi/g 239 Pu and suggest that the threshold lies at approximately 5 nCi/g body weight. A dose of 30 nCi/g of 241 Am does not affect blood flow. Clearance of the two actinides is similar when blood flow effects are not considered. 3 figures, 3 tables

  3. Inheritance of microsatellite loci in the polyploid lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyatskowit, J.D.; Krueger, C.C.; Kincaid, H.L.; May, B.

    2001-01-01

    Inheritance in the expression of amplicons for four microsatellite primer pairs was determined using 10 families created from gametes of wild lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens). Loci Afu34 and Afu68 expressed a maximum of two even-intensity bands per individual and had progeny genotype ratios that fit disomic inheritance (P > 0.05). Some variation exhibited at Afu34 and Afu68 was attributable to a null allele. Genotype expression at both loci also indicated that one female parent had transmitted unreduced gametes. Primer Afu39 amplified products that exhibited four gene doses, where genotype counts fit expected ratios for disomic inheritance (P > 0.05) indicating amplification of products from two disomic loci that share alleles. Meiotic drive was evident at the Afu39 loci based on a test for random segregation (P inheritance based on a single progeny potentially produced by a double reduction gamete. No evidence for proposed octoploid inheritance was observed.

  4. Evaluating interception of larval pallid sturgeon on the Lower Missouri River- data acquisition, interpolation, and visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulliner, E. A., IV; Erwin, S. O.; Anderson, B. J.; Wilson, H.; Jacobson, R. B.

    2016-12-01

    The transition from endogenous to exogenous feeding is an important life-stage transition for many riverine fish larvae. On the Missouri River, U.S., riverine alteration has decreased connectivity between the navigation channel and complex, food-producing and foraging areas on the channel margins, namely shallow side channels and sandbar complexes. A favored hypothesis, the interception hypothesis, for recruitment failure of pallid sturgeon is that drifting larvae are not able to exit the highly engineered navigation channel, and therefore starve. We present work exploring measures of hydraulic connectivity between the navigation channel and channel margins using multiple data-collection protocols with acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs). As ADCP datasets alone often do not have high enough spatial resolution to characterize interception and connectivity sufficiently at the scale of drifting sturgeon larvae, they are often supplemented with physical and empirical models. Using boat-mounted ADCPs, we collected 3-dimensional current velocities with a variety of driving techniques (specifically, regularly spaced transects, reciprocal transects, and irregular patterns) around areas of potential larval interception. We then used toolkits based in Python to interpolate 3-dimensional velocity fields at spatial scales finer than the original measurements, and visualized resultant velocity vectors and flowlines in the software package Paraview. Using these visualizations, we investigated the necessary resolution of field measurements required to model connectivity with channel margin areas on large, highly engineered river ecosystems such as the Missouri River. We anticipate that results from this work will be used to help inform models of larval interception under current conditions. Furthermore, results from this work will be useful in developing monitoring strategies to evaluate the restoration of channel complexity to support ecological functions.

  5. Characteristics and Significance of Magma Emplacement Horizons, Black Sturgeon Sill, Nipigon, Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieg, M. J.; Hone, S. V.

    2017-12-01

    Spatial scales strongly control the timescales of processes in igneous intrusions, particularly through the thermal evolution of the magma, which in turn governs the evolution of crystallinity, viscosity, and other important physical and chemical properties of the system. In this study, we have collected a highly detailed data set comprising geochemical (bulk rock composition), textural (size and alignment of plagioclase crystals), and mineralogical (modal abundance) profiles through the central portion of the 250 m thick Black Sturgeon diabase sill. In this data, we have identified characteristic signals in texture (soft and somewhat diffuse chills), composition (reversals in differentiation trends), and mineralogy (olivine accumulations), all coinciding and recurring at roughly 10 meter intervals. Based on these signatures, we are able to map out multiple zones representing discrete pulses of magma that were emplaced sequentially as the intrusion was inflated. Simple thermal calculations suggest that each 10 meters of new crystallization would require repose times on the order of 10-100 years. To build up 250 meters of magma at this rate would only require approximately 250-2500 years, significantly less than the thermal lifetime of the entire sill. The soft chills we observe in the Black Sturgeon sill are therefore consistent with a system that remained warm throughout the emplacement process. Successive pulses were injected into partially crystalline mush, rather than pure liquid (which would result in hybridization) or solid (which would produce sharp hard chills). Episodic emplacement is by now widely recognized as a fundamental process in the formation of large felsic magma chambers; our results suggest that this also may be an important consideration in understanding the evolution of smaller mafic intrusions.

  6. Identifying temporal bottlenecks for the conservation of large-bodied fishes: Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens show highly restricted movement and habitat use over-winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donnette Thayer

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between species’ size and home range size has been well studied. In practice, home range may provide a good surrogate of broad spatial coverage needed for species conservation, however, many species can show restricted movement during critical life stages, such as breeding and over-wintering. This suggests the existence of either a behavioral or habitat mediated ‘temporal bottleneck,’ where restricted or sedentary movement can make populations more susceptible to harm during specific life stages. Here, we study over-winter movement and habitat use of Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens, the largest freshwater fish in North America. We monitored over-winter movement of 86 fish using a hydro-acoustic receiver array in the South Saskatchewan River, Canada. Overall, 20 fish remained within our study system throughout the winter. Lake Sturgeon showed strong aggregation and sedentary movement over-winter, demonstrating a temporal bottleneck. Movement was highly restricted during ice-on periods (ranging from 0.9 km/day in November and April to 0.2 km/day in mid-November to mid-March, with Lake Sturgeon seeking deeper, slower pools. We also show that Lake Sturgeon have strong aggregation behavior, where distance to conspecifics decreased (from 575 to 313 m in preparation for and during ice-on periods. Although the Lake Sturgeon we studied had access to 1100 kilometers of unfragmented riverine habitat, we show that during the over-winter period Lake Sturgeon utilized a single, deep pool (<0.1% of available habitat. The temporal discrepancy between mobile and sedentary behaviors in Lake Sturgeon suggest adaptive management is needed with more localized focus during periods of temporal bottlenecks, even for large-bodied species.

  7. Shifting distributions of adult Atlantic sturgeon amidst post-industrialization and future impacts in the Delaware River: a maximum entropy approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W Breece

    Full Text Available Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus experienced severe declines due to habitat destruction and overfishing beginning in the late 19(th century. Subsequent to the boom and bust period of exploitation, there has been minimal fishing pressure and improving habitats. However, lack of recovery led to the 2012 listing of Atlantic sturgeon under the Endangered Species Act. Although habitats may be improving, the availability of high quality spawning habitat, essential for the survival and development of eggs and larvae may still be a limiting factor in the recovery of Atlantic sturgeon. To estimate adult Atlantic sturgeon spatial distributions during riverine occupancy in the Delaware River, we utilized a maximum entropy (MaxEnt approach along with passive biotelemetry during the likely spawning season. We found that substrate composition and distance from the salt front significantly influenced the locations of adult Atlantic sturgeon in the Delaware River. To broaden the scope of this study we projected our model onto four scenarios depicting varying locations of the salt front in the Delaware River: the contemporary location of the salt front during the likely spawning season, the location of the salt front during the historic fishery in the late 19(th century, an estimated shift in the salt front by the year 2100 due to climate change, and an extreme drought scenario, similar to that which occurred in the 1960's. The movement of the salt front upstream as a result of dredging and climate change likely eliminated historic spawning habitats and currently threatens areas where Atlantic sturgeon spawning may be taking place. Identifying where suitable spawning substrate and water chemistry intersect with the likely occurrence of adult Atlantic sturgeon in the Delaware River highlights essential spawning habitats, enhancing recovery prospects for this imperiled species.

  8. Optimizing the co-feeding strategy of Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus larvae using Artemia nauplii and formulated diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Agh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available High mortality and labor costs are associated with first-feeding sturgeon culture, particularly during the period of dietary transition from live to formulated feed. Therefore we investigated the effects of various feeding treatments on the survival and growth of the Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus larvae during a 20-day culture period. Three replicate groups (250 fish/replicate of first-feeding larvae were fed according to four main feeding regimes: (1 live food (live nauplii of brine shrimp Artemia urmiana; (2 indirect transition (5 days live food followed by gradual transition to formulated diet; (3 direct transition (using different combinations of live and formulated diet from the start feeding onwards; (4 formulated feed (FD from the start feeding. Results indicated that growth and survival were higher in the indirect transition feeding regime than in other regimes. Based on our study, co-feeding of A. persicus should start five days after prior feeding with live food.

  9. Adaption of egg and larvae sampling techniques for lake sturgeon and broadcast spawning fishes in a deep river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseman, Edward F.; Kennedy, Gregory W.; Craig, Jaquelyn; Boase, James; Soper, Karen

    2011-01-01

    In this report we describe how we adapted two techniques for sampling lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) and other fish early life history stages to meet our research needs in the Detroit River, a deep, flowing Great Lakes connecting channel. First, we developed a buoy-less method for sampling fish eggs and spawning activity using egg mats deployed on the river bottom. The buoy-less method allowed us to fish gear in areas frequented by boaters and recreational anglers, thus eliminating surface obstructions that interfered with recreational and boating activities. The buoy-less method also reduced gear loss due to drift when masses of floating aquatic vegetation would accumulate on buoys and lines, increasing the drag on the gear and pulling it downstream. Second, we adapted a D-frame drift net system formerly employed in shallow streams to assess larval lake sturgeon dispersal for use in the deeper (>8 m) Detroit River using an anchor and buoy system.

  10. White Paranoia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørholt, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Inspired by Alain Robbe-Grillet’s novel La Jalousie (1957), the essay contends that Michael Haneke’s Caché (2005) takes its viewers inside a postcolonial white paranoia which is, arguably, the root cause of the exclusion, segregation and racist discrimination that many immigrants from the former ...

  11. European Whiteness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    2008-01-01

    Born out of the United States’ (U.S.) history of slavery and segregation and intertwined with gender studies and feminism, the field of critical whiteness studies does not fit easily into a European setting and the particular historical context that entails. In order for a field of European...

  12. Area-use patterns and diel movements of white steenbras ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mean length of estuary used by the 15 individuals was 1 888 m (SD 666). There was a distinct diel activity pattern, with certain individuals utilising deeper parts of the estuary during the day and shallow regions at night. The results indicate that the shallow littoral zone is a critical habitat for juvenile white steenbras.

  13. Assessment of the impacts of the Salem and Hope Creek Stations on shortnose sturgeon, 'Acipenser brevirostrum' lesueur. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masnik, M.T.; Wilson, J.H.

    1980-04-01

    Acipenser brevirostrum, a federally recognized endangered species, is known from the Delaware River in the vicinity of the Salem and Hope Creek Nuclear Stations. The potential for adverse impact to this species due to the completion of construction and the operation of these stations is assessed. A review of the literature pertaining to the distribution, life history, and tolerance of this species is presented. Both historical records and current status of the shortnose sturgeon population in the Delaware River are discussed

  14. Effects of stocking density on lipid deposition and expression of lipid-related genes in Amur sturgeon (Acipenser schrenckii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yuanyuan; Wen, Haishen; Li, Yun; Li, Jifang; He, Feng; Ni, Meng

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the correlation between lipid deposition variation and stocking density in Amur sturgeon (Acipenser schrenckii) and the possible physiological mechanism, fish were conducted in different stocking densities (LSD 5.5 kg/m 3 , MSD 8.0 kg/m 3 , and HSD 11.0 kg/m 3 ) for 70 days and then the growth index, lipid content, lipase activities, and the mRNA expressions of lipid-related genes were examined. Results showed that fish subjected to higher stocking density presented lower final body weights (FBW), specific growth ratio (SGR), and gonad adipose tissue index (GAI) (P density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) decreased significantly with increasing stocking density, while no significant change was observed for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Furthermore, the cDNAs encoding lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic lipase (HL) were isolated in Amur sturgeon, respectively. The full-length LPL cDNA was composed of 1757 bp with an open reading frame of 501 amino acids, while the complete nucleotide sequences of HL covered 1747 bp encoding 499 amino acids. In the liver, the activities and mRNA levels of LPL were markedly lower in HSD group, which were consistent with the variation tendency of HL. Fish reared in HSD group also presented lower levels of activities and mRNA expression of LPL in the muscle and gonad. Moreover, the expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) in both the liver and skeletal muscle were significantly upregulated in HSD group. Overall, the results indicated that high stocking density negatively affects growth performance and lipid deposition of Amur sturgeon to a certain extent. The downregulation of LPL and HL and the upregulation of PPARα may be responsible for the lower lipid distribution of Amur sturgeon in higher stocking density.

  15. PSYCHOSOCIAL PROFILE OF JUVENILE DIABETES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dass, Jyoti; Dhavale, H.S.; Rathi, Anup

    1999-01-01

    A study of the complex relationships between the patient characteristics, family and environmental influences, physician's behaviour and the demands of the disease with its management in Juvenile Diabetics was taken up at a general hospital. 90 subjects were selected for the study and grouped into three. Group A consisted of 30 Juvenile Diabetics, Group B of 30 Adult Diabetics and Group C of 30 Normal healthy adolescents. The impact of the illness was measured on the Diabetes Impact Measurement Scale (DIMS), the behavioural deviations and the parental attitudes towards child rearing on the Fallstrom's Questionnaire (FQ) and the family environment on the Family Climate Scale (FCS). Psychiatric morbidity was assessed using DSM-IV criteria. Group A & B were compared on the DIMS and Group A & C on FQ & FCS. Adult diabetics had a greater impact of diabetes. Juvenile diabetics had significantly higher frequency of behavioural deviations as compared to controls. Also there was a higher number of responses on questions indicating an overprotecting attitude amongst parents of juvenile diabetics. There was an increased incidence of psychiatric morbidity in juvenile diabetics as compared to normal adolescents irrespective of the family environment. The results are discussed in relation to current literature. PMID:21430802

  16. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naz, S.; Mushtaq, A.; Bari, A.; Maqsud, A.; Khan, M. Z.; Ahmad, T. M.; Saira Rehman

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the spectrum of clinical presentation, laboratory parameters and drug therapy in patients with Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (JRA). Study Design: Case series. Place and Duration of Study: The Children's Hospital and The Institute of Child Health, Lahore, from October 2008 to October 2011. Methodology: All patients who fulfilled the American College of Rheumatology criteria for JRA were enrolled. Their clinical features, investigations done and treatment received for JRA were noted. Statistical analysis of data was done on SPSS version 16.0 for obtaining descriptive statistics. Results: Out of 185 patients, 50.3% (n = 93) were females; 54% (n = 100) were between 10 - 15 years of age. Polyarthritis was found in 71.9% (n = 133) followed by oligoarthritis (22.7%, n = 42) and systemic onset disease (5.4%, n = 10). Morning stiffness (78%) and fever (68%) were the most common clinical presentations. All patients with systemic onset disease had fever (n = 10) followed by skin rash, hepatosplenomegaly and lymphadenopathy. Uveitis was found in 2 patients, and both belonged to the oligoarticular group. Rheumatoid factor was found in 10.27% (n = 19) of all patients. All patients were given non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Disease modifying agents (methotrexate) were given to 43.8% (n = 81). Steroids were used in 61% (n = 113) of patients either with NSAIDs alone or NSAIDs plus methotrexate. Conclusion: Disease profile of JRA at the study centre showed that polyarthritis is the commonest type. Recognition of subtypes will help in planning the management of these patients. (author)

  17. The relationship between morphological and sexual indices in suitable brood Russian sturgeon Acipenser gueldenstaedtii (Brandt and Ratzeburg, 1833

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Falahatkar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Owing to reduction of sturgeon stocks in various water bodies, artificial propagation has become significantly important for stock restoration and appropriate broodstock selection is vital in this process. Selection of suitable broodstocks may influence the quality and quantity of obtained eggs and larva. The present study aimed to examine correlation between some morphometric and reproductive parameters to find suitable brood fish for artificial reproduction in Russian sturgeon, Acipenser gueldenstaedtii. Forty fish free of any external disease symptom and abnormality were selected for the study. Following biometric measurements including weight, total length, abdominal girth, PV (distance between pectoral and pelvic fins, LX (distance between anal and caudal fins, polarization index (PI, gonadosomatic index, absolute fecundity, and fertilization rate, correlations between these morphometric and biological characteristics with emphasis on breeding were calculated. There was higher correlation between weight-absolute fecundity and length-PV in fish responded to artificial breeding, while correlation between age-PV, length-PV and weight-abdominal girth were higher in those fish not responded to artificial breeding. The results suggests that it is quite possible to select suitable Russian sturgeon spawners for artificial propagation based on combination of body weight, LX, PV, age, abdominal girth and total length, however the most useful criteria for the selection seems to be precise measurement of the polarization index.

  18. 2005 Annual Synthesis Report, Pallid Sturgeon Population Assessment Program and Associated Fish Community Monitoring for the Missouri River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldenburg, Eric W.; Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Bellgraph, Brian J.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Allwardt, Craig H.

    2008-08-12

    Pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus, have declined throughout the Missouri River since dam construction and inception of the Bank Stabilization and Navigation Project in 1912. Their decline likely is due to the loss and degradation of their natural habitat as a result of changes in the river’s structure and function, as well as the pallid sturgeon’s inability to adapt to these changes. The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers has been working with state and federal agencies to develop and conduct a Pallid Sturgeon Monitoring and Assessment Program (Program), with the goal of recovering pallid sturgeon populations. The Program has organized the monitoring and assessment efforts into distinct geographic segments, with state and federal resource management agencies possessing primary responsibility for one or more segment. To date, the results from annual monitoring have been reported for individual Program segments. However, monitoring results have not been summarized or evaluated for larger spatial scales, encompassing more than one Program segment. This report describes a summary conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that synthesizes the 2005 sampling year monitoring results from individual segments.

  19. 2006 Annual Synthesis Report, Pallid Sturgeon Population Assessment Program and Associated Fish Community Monitoring for the Missouri River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldenburg, Eric W.; Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Bellgraph, Brian J.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Allwardt, Craig H.

    2008-08-12

    Pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus, have declined throughout the Missouri River since dam construction and inception of the Bank Stabilization and Navigation Project in 1912. Their decline likely is due to the loss and degradation of their natural habitat as a result of changes in the river’s structure and function, as well as the pallid sturgeon’s inability to adapt to these changes. The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers has been working with state and federal agencies to develop and conduct a Pallid Sturgeon Monitoring and Assessment Program (Program), with the goal of recovering pallid sturgeon populations. The Program has organized the monitoring and assessment efforts into distinct geographic segments, with state and federal resource management agencies possessing primary responsibility for one or more segment. To date, the results from annual monitoring have been reported for individual Program segments. However, monitoring results have not been summarized or evaluated for larger spatial scales, encompassing more than one Program segment. This report describes a summary conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that synthesizes the 2006 sampling year monitoring results from individual segments.

  20. REFORMATIONS IN ZIMBABWE'S JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mugumbate

    1996-05-23

    May 23, 1996 ... The article is based on a desk review of existing literature on juvenile crime in the country. ... that Zimbabwe's juvenile justice system is transforming from being ... recommendations include expanding the Pre-trial Diversion ...

  1. Evolution of Juvenile Ankylosing Spondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye.V. Prohorov

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Evolution of juvenile ankylosing spondylitis tend to follow a more frequent involvement in the pathological process of elbow and ankle joints, development of enthesiopathies, changes of intraarticular meniscal horns, forming of Baker’s cysts, cartilage flaps and systemic osteoporosis, and total value of all these signs 13 times exceeds thereof in patients with with the debut of disease in adulthood, but for juvenile ankylosing spondylitis vertebral lesion is less common. Age dimorphism of the use of certain groups of drugs and physiotherapy facilities is observed.

  2. Juvenile technologies in foreign publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shpagina E.M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article provides the review of foreign publications, concerning the juvenile technologies used in France, Canada, Germany and Switzerland. The paper presents legal, social and psychotherapeutic aspects of juvenile judiciary in foreign countries. The authors paid special attention to the complexity of approaches to young children and teenagers who found themselves in complicated life circumstances or got into trouble with the law. The article gives examples of using the following techniques: cognitive-behavioral intervention, mediation, family therapy (including family background and family history, relations theory, narrative practices, utilization of «emotional intelligence» resources.

  3. An analysis of racial and sex differences for smoking among adolescents in a juvenile correctional center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropsey, Karen L; Linker, Julie A; Waite, Dennis E

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate racial and sex differences on the risk factors for smoking initiation and daily smoking among juvenile justice adolescents, a population that is traditionally ignored in school-based epidemiological samples. This study used archival data collected by juvenile justice authorities for a large sample of juvenile justice adolescents (N=4381), examining interaction terms to determine race and sex differences for risk factors. About 70% of juvenile justice adolescents reported ever having smoked cigarettes while almost half reported daily smoking. Overall predictors of ever and daily smoking included older age, being female, White, use of alcohol, cannabis, and cocaine in the past year, affiliation with smoking peers, not living with at least one parent, and a diagnosis of ADHD. While differences were seen between individual predictor models for both race and sex, the interaction terms did not add significantly to the overall model. These important racial and gender differences in this study suggest that tailored prevention messages and interventions may be needed to be most effective with adolescents in the juvenile justice system. While this study provides a basic foundation of risk factors for smoking among juvenile justice adolescents, future research is needed to assess the efficacy of treatment and prevention interventions with this high risk group of adolescent smokers.

  4. Juvenile Courts. Creation and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat GONZÁLEZ FERNÁNDEZ

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the creation of Juvenile or Children's Courts in Spain, analysing their reasons and aims, as well as the ethical and political connotations present on their way of acting. Their history and the one of the institutions that complement them is built from the legislation, writings and ideas of their promoters.

  5. Juvenile Justice: A Bibliographic Essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondak, Ann

    1979-01-01

    Provides information on the background and legal framework of the juvenile justice system, the issues that confront it, and the pressures for change, as well as noting some sources of information on the system. Available from American Association of Law Libraries, 53 West Jackson Blvd., Suite 1201, Chicago, Illinois 60604; sc $4.00. (Author/IRT)

  6. [Sex-linked juvenile retinoschisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, P; Turut, P; Soltysik, C; Hache, J C

    1976-02-01

    About 13 observations of sexe linked juvenile retinoschisis, the authors describe the ophthalmoscopic, fluorographic and functional aspects of the disease whose caracteristics are:--its sexe linked recessive heredity; --its clinical characterestics associating: a microcystic macular degeneration, peripheral retinal lesions, vitreous body alterations, --an electroretinogram of the negative type.

  7. Juvenile European anchovy otolith microstructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Cermeño

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus has a complex incremental growth pattern that was studied using scanning electron microscope (SEM and optical microscope observations. Daily increments were identified and related to rhythmic growth patterns while double-band structures were identified as one increment. The causes of these growth patterns are discussed.

  8. CT appearance of juvenile angiofibroma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, Jun; Hara, Kazuo (Sumitomo Hospital, Osaka (Japan)); Fukuzumi, Akio; Uchida, Hideo

    1983-06-01

    Three verified cases of juvenile angiofibroma were presented. All of them were young and adolescent male CT proved to be an ideal tool in evaluating the extension of this tumor. The appearance on plain CT was multilobulated with displacement of the adjacent bony structures. On enhancement, there was intense staining of the tumor.

  9. What is Justice for Juveniles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, Jennifer Truran

    1997-01-01

    Provides background information and related learning activities for three areas of inquiry involving youth and violence: (1) "Evolution of the Juvenile Justice System"; (2) "The Literature of Crime and Poverty"; (3) "Youth Crime and Public Policy." Includes a list of six recommended Web sites. (MJP)

  10. Lake Sturgeon, Lake Whitefish, and Walleye egg deposition patterns with response to fish spawning substrate restoration in the St. Clair–Detroit River system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Jason L.; Pritt, Jeremy J.; Roseman, Edward; Prichard, Carson G.; Craig, Jaquelyn M.; Kennedy, Gregory W.; Manny, Bruce A.

    2018-01-01

    Egg deposition and use of restored spawning substrates by lithophilic fishes (e.g., Lake Sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens, Lake Whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis, and Walleye Sander vitreus) were assessed throughout the St. Clair–Detroit River system from 2005 to 2016. Bayesian models were used to quantify egg abundance and presence/absence relative to site-specific variables (e.g., depth, velocity, and artificial spawning reef presence) and temperature to evaluate fish use of restored artificial spawning reefs and assess patterns in egg deposition. Lake Whitefish and Walleye egg abundance, probability of detection, and probability of occupancy were assessed with detection-adjusted methods; Lake Sturgeon egg abundance and probability of occurrence were assessed using delta-lognormal methods. The models indicated that the probability of Walleye eggs occupying a site increased with water velocity and that the rate of increase decreased with depth, whereas Lake Whitefish egg occupancy was not correlated with any of the attributes considered. Egg deposition by Lake Whitefish and Walleyes was greater at sites with high water velocities and was lower over artificial spawning reefs. Lake Sturgeon eggs were collected least frequently but were more likely to be collected over artificial spawning reefs and in greater abundances than elsewhere. Detection-adjusted egg abundances were not greater over artificial spawning reefs, indicating that these projects may not directly benefit spawning Walleyes and Lake Whitefish. However, 98% of the Lake Sturgeon eggs observed were collected over artificial spawning reefs, supporting the hypothesis that the reefs provided spawning sites for Lake Sturgeon and could mitigate historic losses of Lake Sturgeon spawning habitat.

  11. A Practical Approach to Juvenile Dermatomyositis and Juvenile Scleroderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Liza J; Pain, Clare E

    2016-02-01

    Juvenile dermatomyositis and juvenile scleroderma are rare multisystem autoimmune disorders. Although they share some pathognomonic hallmarks with adult onset myositis or scleroderma, there are significant differences in presentation, characteristics and associated features when the diseases present in childhood. In view of this, and the rarity of the conditions, it is important for care to be led by teams with expertise in pediatric rheumatology conditions. Prognosis has improved significantly in the West; likely due to early diagnosis and aggressive treatment with immunosuppressive medications. However, this trend is not replicated in the developing world. Early recognition of these diseases is crucial to achieve rapid and sustained remission and prevent disease or medication associated complications. This article aims to provide a practical overview for recognition, diagnosis and treatment of these conditions.

  12. Effect of temperature on the standard metabolic rates of juvenile and adult Exopalaemon carinicauda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chengsong; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai

    2015-03-01

    Ridgetail white prawn ( Exopalaemon carinicauda) are of significant economic importance in China where they are widely cultured. However, there is little information on the basic biology of this species. We evaluated the effect of temperature (16, 19, 22, 25, 28, 31, and 34°C) on the standard metabolic rates (SMRs) of juvenile and adult E. carinicauda in the laboratory under static conditions. The oxygen consumption rate (OCR), ammonia-N excretion rate (AER), and atomic ratio of oxygen consumed to nitrogen consumed (O:N ratio) of juvenile and adult E. carinicauda were significantly influenced by temperature ( P 0.05). The O:N ratio in juveniles was significantly higher than that in the adults over the entire temperature range ( P values. Results from the present study may be used to guide pond culture production of E. carinicauda.

  13. Who gets a second chance? An investigation of Ohio's blended juvenile sentence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheesman, Fred L; Waters, Nicole L; Hurst, Hunter

    2010-01-01

    Factors differentiating blended sentencing cases (Serious Youthful Offenders or SYOs) from conventional juvenile cases and cases transferred to the adult criminal court in Ohio were investigated using a two-stage probit. Conventional juvenile cases differed from cases selected for non-conventional processing (i.e., SYO or transfer) according to offense seriousness, number of prior Ohio Department of Youth Services placements, age and gender. Controlling for probability of selection for nonconventional processing, transfers differed from SYOs according to age, gender, and race. Minorities were significantly more likely than Whites to be transfers rather than SYOs, suggesting possible bias in the decision-making process. Objective risk and needs assessments should be used to identify the most suitable candidates for blended sentences and adult transfer and enhanced services should be provided to juvenile offenders given blended sentences.

  14. Metallothionein as potential biomarker of cadmium exposure in Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariati, Fatemeh; Esaili Sari, Abbas; Mashinchian, Ali; Pourkazemi, Mohammad

    2011-10-01

    Metallothionein (MT) concentration in gills, liver, and kidney tissues of Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) were determined following exposure to sublethal levels of waterborne cadmium (Cd) (50, 400, and 1,000 μg l(-1)) after 1, 2, 4, and 14 days. The increases of MT from background levels were 4.6-, 3-, and 2.8-fold for kidney, liver, and gills, respectively. The results showed that MT level change in the kidney is time and concentration dependent. Also, cortisol measurement revealed elevation at the day 1 of exposure and followed by MT increase in the liver. Cd concentrations in the cytosol of experimental tissues were measured, and the results indicated that Cd levels in the cytosol of liver, kidney, and gills increased 240.71-, 32.05-, and 40.16-fold, respectively, 14 days after exposure to 1,000 μg l(-1) Cd. The accumulation of Cd in cytosol of tissues is in the order of liver > gills > kidney. Pearson correlation coefficients showed that the MT content in kidney is correlated with Cd concentration, the value of which is more than in liver and gills. Thus, kidney can be considered as a tissue indicator in A. persicus for waterborne Cd contamination.

  15. Understanding the basis of shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) partial migration in the Gulf of Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenritter, Matthew E.; Zydlewski, Gayle B.; Kinnison, Michael T.; Zydlewski, Joseph D.; Wippelhauser, Gail S.

    2018-01-01

    Movement of shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) among major river systems in the Gulf of Maine is common and has implications for the management of this endangered species. Directed movements of 61 telemetered individuals monitored between 2010 and 2013 were associated with the river of tagging and individual characteristics. While a small proportion of fish tagged in the Kennebec River moved to the Penobscot River (5%), a much higher proportion of fish tagged in the Penobscot River moved to the Kennebec River (66%), during probable spawning windows. This suggests that Penobscot River fish derive from a migratory contingent within a larger Kennebec River population. Despite this connectivity, fish captured in the Penobscot River were larger (∼100 mm fork length) and had higher condition factors (median Fulton’s K: 0.76) than those captured in the Kennebec River (median Fulton’s K: 0.61). Increased abundance and resource limitation in the Kennebec River may be constraining growth and promoting migration to the Penobscot River by individuals with sufficient initial size and condition. Migrants could experience an adaptive reproductive advantage relative to nonmigratory individuals.

  16. Decision 99-18: Range Petroleum Corporation application for a well licence, Sturgeon Lake Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-07-01

    Range Petroleum Corporation (Range) applied to the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) pursuant to Section 2.020 of the Oil and Gas Conservation Regulations for a well licence to drill a sour oil well from a surface location in Legal Subdivision 4, Section 34, West of the fifth Meridian, directionally to a bottom-hole location under Sturgeon Lake. The purpose of the proposed well would be to obtain sour oil production from the Leduc Formation. The well would be a Level 1 well because it would have a potential maximum hydrogen sulphide release rate of 0.0412 cubic m/s. The EUB received objections to the application from landowners, cattle ranchers, farmers, residents, and cottage owners in the area of the proposed well. The application and intervention were considered at a public hearing on 26 January 1999 in Grande Prairie, Alberta, and the Board viewed the proposed surface location, the previous Lds 3-2 surface location, and the surrounding area prior to the hearing. Having carefully considered the evidence, the Board believed that it would be possible to drill the proposed well safely and with minimal risk, subject to attached conditions. But in light of the unique setting of the area, including the residences and the road and lake configurations, and the difficulty that would exist preparing an effective environmental review process (ERP), the Board deferred its decision on the well licence application until an approved ERP is in place

  17. A bibliography of all known publications & reports on the Gulf sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Melissa; Adler, Jennifer; Littles, Chanda; Randolph, April Norem; Nash, Ursula A.; Gillett, Bethan; Randall, Michael T.; Sulak, Kenneth J.; Walsh, Stephen J.; Brownell, Prescott

    2013-01-01

    This functional bibliography is meant to be a complete and comprehensive bibliography of all discoverable reports containing information on the Gulf Sturgeon (GS). This bibliography contains all known reports presenting, documenting, summarizing, listing, or interpreting information on the GS through 31 December 2013. Report citations are organized into four sections. Section I includes published scientific journal articles, books, dissertations and theses, published and unpublished technical reports, published harvest prohibitions, and online articles reporting substantive scientific information. Section II includes newspaper, newsletter, magazine, book, agency news releases, and online articles reporting on GS occurrences, mortalities, captures, jumping, boat collisions, aquaculture, historical photographs, and other largely non-scientific or anecdotal issues. Section III consists of books, theses, ecotour-guides, media articles, editorials, and blogs reporting a mix of anecdotal information, historical information, and opinion on GS conservation, habitat issues, exploitation, aquaculture, and human interaction - but presenting very limited or no substantive scientific information. Section IV includes videos, films and audio recordings documenting GS life history and behavior.

  18. Sex and Race Differences in Mental Health Symptoms in Juvenile Justice: The MAYSI-2 National Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Gina M.; Grisso, Thomas; Terry, Anna; Banks, Steven

    2008-01-01

    The study uses the MAYSI-2 gathered data from multiple US juvenile justice systems to examine whether mental health symptoms were connected to consistent sex and ethnicity/race-related differences. Results concluded a greater proportion of girls having serious mental health problems and though whites had problems with alcohol and drugs, they were…

  19. Juvenile morphology in baleen whale phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Hsiu; Fordyce, R Ewan

    2014-09-01

    Phylogenetic reconstructions are sensitive to the influence of ontogeny on morphology. Here, we use foetal/neonatal specimens of known species of living baleen whales (Cetacea: Mysticeti) to show how juvenile morphology of extant species affects phylogenetic placement of the species. In one clade (sei whale, Balaenopteridae), the juvenile is distant from the usual phylogenetic position of adults, but in the other clade (pygmy right whale, Cetotheriidae), the juvenile is close to the adult. Different heterochronic processes at work in the studied species have different influences on juvenile morphology and on phylogenetic placement. This study helps to understand the relationship between evolutionary processes and phylogenetic patterns in baleen whale evolution and, more in general, between phylogeny and ontogeny; likewise, this study provides a proxy how to interpret the phylogeny when fossils that are immature individuals are included. Juvenile individuals in the peramorphic acceleration clades would produce misleading phylogenies, whereas juvenile individuals in the paedomorphic neoteny clades should still provide reliable phylogenetic signals.

  20. An unusual presentation of juvenile lupus nephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malleshwar Bottu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of juvenile lupus varies widely ranging between 4 and 250 per 100,000 population. Most common organ involvement in juvenile lupus is kidney. Neurological, cutaneous and hematological involvements are also involved. Skeletal muscle involvement in the form of myositis is rare. Myositis as presenting manifestation in juvenile lupus is also unusual. Herein, we report one such case wherein myositis preceded the onset of lupus nephritis

  1. Neonatal infection produces significant changes in immune function with no associated learning deficits in juvenile rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Brittany F; Caulfield, Jasmine I; Solomotis, Samantha A; Schwarz, Jaclyn M

    2017-10-01

    The current experiments examined the impact of early-life immune activation and a subsequent mild immune challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 25µg/kg) on hippocampal-dependent learning, proinflammatory cytokine expression in the brain, and peripheral immune function in juvenile male and female rats at P24, an age when hippocampal-dependent learning and memory first emerges. Our results indicate that neonatal infection did not produce learning deficits in the hippocampal-dependent context pre-exposure facilitation effect paradigm in juvenile males and females, contrary to what has been observed in adults. Neonatal infection produced an increase in baseline IL-1β expression in the hippocampus (HP) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of juvenile rats. Furthermore, neonatally infected rats showed exaggerated IL-1β expression in the HP following LPS treatment as juveniles; and juvenile females, but not males, showed exaggerated IL-1β expression in the mPFC following LPS treatment. Neonatal infection attenuated the production of IL-6 expression following LPS treatment in both the brain and the spleen, and neonatal infection decreased the numbers of circulating white blood cells in juvenile males and females, an effect that was further exacerbated by subsequent LPS treatment. Together, our data indicate that the consequences of neonatal infection are detectable even early in juvenile development, though we found no concomitant hippocampal-dependent learning deficits at this young age. These findings underscore the need to consider age and associated on-going neurodevelopmental processes as important factors contributing to the emergence of cognitive and behavioral disorders linked to early-life immune activation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 77: 1221-1236, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Juvenile offenders: competence to stand trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulier, Matthew

    2012-12-01

    This article details the legal background and assists the reader in the preparation and practical conduct of evaluations regarding juvenile adjudicative competency. The material is presented to be useful as a guide to direct questions of competency and covers aspects of evaluation that include: legal standard for competency to stand trial, developmental immaturity, current practice in juvenile competency to stand trial, forensic evaluation of juvenile competency to stand trial, organizing the evaluation, collateral sources of information, psychiatric evaluation of juvenile adjudicative competency, assessment of mental disorder and intellectual disability, assessment of developmental status, assessment of functional abilities for adjudicative competence, and reaching the forensic opinion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Growth potential and habitat requirements of endangered age-0 pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) in the Missouri River, USA, determined using a individual-based model framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deslauriers, David; Heironimus, Laura B.; Rapp, Tobias; Graeb, Brian D. S.; Klumb, Robert A.; Chipps, Steven R.

    2018-01-01

    An individual-based model framework was used to evaluate growth potential of the federally endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) in the Missouri River. The model, developed for age-0 sturgeon, combines information on functional feeding response, bioenergetics and swimming ability to regulate consumption and growth within a virtual foraging arena. Empirical data on water temperature, water velocity and prey density were obtained from three sites in the Missouri River and used as inputs in the model to evaluate hypotheses concerning factors affecting pallid sturgeon growth. The model was also used to evaluate the impacts of environmental heterogeneity and water velocity on individual growth variability, foraging success and dispersal ability. Growth was simulated for a period of 100 days using 100 individuals (first feeding; 19 mm and 0.035 g) per scenario. Higher growth was shown to occur at sites where high densities of Ephemeroptera and Chironomidae larvae occurred throughout the growing season. Highly heterogeneous habitats (i.e., wide range of environmental conditions) and moderate water velocities (0.3 m/s) were also found to positively affect growth rates. The model developed here provides an important management and conservation tool for evaluating growth hypotheses and(or) identifying habitats in the Missouri River that are favourable to age-0 pallid sturgeon growth.

  4. Narrative Constructions of Whiteness among White Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foste, Zak

    2017-01-01

    This critical narrative inquiry was guided by two overarching research questions. First, this study examined how white undergraduates interpreted and gave meaning to their white racial identities. This line of inquiry sought to understand how participants made sense of their white racial selves, the self in relation to people of color, and the…

  5. Phylogeography of the European sturgeon (Acipenser sturio): A critically endangered species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassaing, Olivier; Desse-Berset, Nathalie; Hänni, Catherine; Hughes, Sandrine; Berrebi, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The European sturgeon (Acipenser sturio) was once a common species throughout Europe, but the sole remaining natural population presently inhabits the Gironde Estuary in France (Atlantic coast). The species was classified as 'Critically Endangered' in 1996, and the Gironde population is now on the verge of extinction. In this setting, and for the first time, we present the past phylogeographical features of this species throughout Europe along with an assessment of its former genetic diversity. This study was based on a molecular analysis (mtDNA CR sequencing) of 10 living specimens from the Gironde Estuary, 55 museum specimens that had been caught along 19th and 20th centuries, and 59 archaeological remains dating back to 260-5000years BP, from which mitochondrial DNA was extracted and amplified. Although discontinuous, the produced data provided a realistic image of the former structure of A. sturio in Europe. Reconstruction of the phylogenetic trees and haplotypes network led to the identification of several clades. The mitochondrial genetic diversity of this species was found to be much greater at the core (Iberian Peninsula, Mediterranean and Adriatic regions) than along the margins (Atlantic-Northern Europe, Black Sea) of its range. A series of hypotheses on the dates and causes of changes in the species' major structures are put forward on the basis of these data. Finally, competition with A. oxyrinchus, a sibling species whose presence in Northern Europe was recently reconsidered, is presented as a major factor in the evolution of this species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Seasonal variation in plasma nonesterified fatty acids of Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) in the vicinity of hydroelectric facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinley, R.S.; Power, G.; Singer, T.D.; Ballantyne, J.S.

    1993-01-01

    To establish the effects of hydroelectric generation on the health of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), seasonal variations in plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) upstream and downstream from hydroelectric stations were measured over a 2-y period. Plasma NEFA profiles were also compared up- and downstream of the stations for differences in utilization of individual NEFA species as substrates for lipid oxidation. Significantly higher levels of total plasma NEFA were found in lake sturgeon upstream (2355 ± 395.9 nmole/ml) compared with those downstream (798 ± 133.5 nmole/ml) of the generating stations during the spring. The NEFA profiles for several key fatty acid species differed significantly among seasons up- and downstream of the facilities. In particular, during spring and summer, the levels of oleic acid (18:1n9) were highest upstream of the stations and levels of a polyunsaturated fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n3), were higher below rather than above the stations. The differences in plasma NEFA concentration may be attributed to altered nutritional status due to the varying flow regime located downstream of the hydroelectric stations. 33 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  7. Effects of multiple collections on spermatozoa quality of Persian sturgeon, Acipenser persicus: motility, density and seminal plasma composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramli, M S; Kalbassi, M R; Gharibi, M R

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of multiple collections of sperm on the endangered Persian sturgeon, Acipenser persicus, in terms of a number of sperm functional parameters (percentage of motile spermatozoa, total time period of motility and sperm concentration) as well as on the ionic composition, protein concentration and osmolality of seminal plasma. Semen samples were collected from 12 induced male fish in three experimental groups that had been injected intramuscularly with LHRH-A2, at dosages of 5 μg/kg body weight, at a number of time regimes: at 12 h, 17 h and 24 h after spawning induction (1); at 24, 29 and 34 h after spawning induction (2); and at 36, 41 and 46 h after spawning induction (3). The percentage of motile spermatozoa and the period of sperm motility decreased significantly (p collections. The concentration of spermatozoa decreased after the third collection, but this decline was not significant. No significant effect of multiple collections on protein concentration and ionic content (with exception of the Cl(-) ion) of seminal plasma was observed. In all experimental groups, a moderate impact of sequential collection on the osmolality (p collections on spermatological characteristics in the Persian sturgeon. Our results confirm that sequential stripping after the third collections has a negative effect on a number of functional parameters associated with sperm. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Determination of hematology and plasma chemistry reference intervals for 3 populations of captive Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsche, Mark A; Arnold, Jill; Jenkins, Erin; Townsend, Howard; Rosemary, Kevin

    2014-09-01

    The imperiled status of Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus), a large, long-lived, anadromous fish found along the Atlantic coast of North America, has prompted efforts at captive propagation for research and stock enhancement. The purpose of this study was to establish hematology and plasma chemistry reference intervals of captive Atlantic sturgeon maintained under different culture conditions. Blood specimens were collected from a total of 119 fish at 3 hatcheries: Lamar, PA (n = 36, ages 10-14 years); Chalk Point, MD (n = 40, siblings of Lamar); and Horn Point, Cambridge, MD (n = 43, mixed population from Chesapeake Bay). Reference intervals (using robust techniques), median, mean, and standard deviations were determined for WBC, RBC, thrombocytes, PCV, HGB, MCV, MCH, MCHC, and absolute counts for lymphocytes (L), neutrophils (N), monocytes, and eosinophils. Chemistry analytes included concentrations of total proteins, albumin, glucose, urea, calcium, phosphate, sodium, potassium, chloride, and globulins, AST, CK, and LDH activities, and osmolality. Mean concentrations of total proteins, albumin, and glucose were at or below the analytic range. Statistical comparisons showed significant differences among hatcheries for each remaining plasma chemistry analyte and for PCV, RBC, MCHC, MCH, eosinophil and monocyte counts, and N:L ratio throughout all 3 groups. Therefore, reference intervals were calculated separately for each population. Reference intervals for fish maintained under differing conditions should be established per population. © 2014 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology and European Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  9. Fins improve the swimming performance of fish sperm: a hydrodynamic analysis of the Siberian sturgeon Acipenser baerii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Eric A; Bondarenko, Volodymyr; Cosson, Jacky; Pacey, Allan A

    2013-02-01

    The flagella of sturgeon sperm have an ultrastructure comprising paddle-like fins extending along most of their length. These fins are seen in several other marine and freshwater fish. The sperm of these fish are fast swimmers and are relatively short lived: it is therefore tempting to think of these fins as having evolved for hydrodynamic advantage, but the actual advantage they impart, at such a small length scale and slow speed, is unclear. The phrase "the fins improve hydrodynamic efficiency" is commonly found in biological literature, yet little hydrodynamic analysis has previously been used to support such conjectures. In this paper, we examine various hydrodynamic models of sturgeon sperm and investigate both swimming velocity and energy expenditure. All of the models indicate a modest hydrodynamic advantage of finned sperm, in both straight line swimming speed and a hydrodynamic efficiency measure. We find a hydrodynamic advantage for a flagellum with fins, over one without fins, of the order of 15-20% in straight line propulsive velocity and 10-15% in a hydrodynamic efficiency measure. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Age and Heat Stress as Determinants of Telomere Length in a Long-Lived Fish, the Siberian Sturgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simide, Rémy; Angelier, Frédéric; Gaillard, Sandrine; Stier, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    Telomeres shorten at each cell division due to the end-replication problem but also in response to oxidative stress. Consequently, telomeres shorten with age in many endotherms, and this shortening is accelerated under stressful environmental conditions. Data in ectotherm vertebrates remain scarce so far, so our goal was to review existing data for fish and to test the influence of age and stress on telomere length in a very long-lived fish, the Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii). Our review of the literature revealed age-related telomere shortening in approximately half of the published studies. In the Siberian sturgeon, we found a significant telomere shortening with age, both at the intraindividual level using red blood cells (-12.5% in 16 mo) and at the interindividual level using cross-sectional samples of fin over an age range of 8 yr. We also found that heat stress (30°C) significantly reduced telomere length by 15.0% after only 1 mo of exposure. Our results highlight that both age and stressful environmental conditions might be important determinants of telomere length in fish.

  11. Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis. Radiological diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuentes, R.; Sar, V.; Cabrera, J.J.; Diaz, L.; Hernandez, B.; Valeron, P.; Baez, O.; Rodriguez, M.

    1993-01-01

    Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis (JHF) is a rare disorder of unknown etiology, very few cases of which have been reported in the literature. It presents similarities to other fibromatosys, but has its particular radiological features which differentiate it from them. The clinical findings consist of several, slow growing, subcutaneous nodules, flexion contractures of the joints which can lead to disability, gingival hypertrophy and muscular atrophy. The suspected radiological diagnosis is confirmed by electron microscopy study of the nodules, although light microscopy can also reveal suggestive images. Author (9 refs.)

  12. Juvenile eye growth, when completed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fledelius, Hans C; Christensen, Anders S; Fledelius, Christian

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To test Sorsby's classical statement of axial eye growth as completed at the age of 13 years, with a view also to differentiating between basic eye growth and juvenile elongation associated with eventual refractive change towards myopia. METHODS: (i) A total of 160 healthy eyes close...... about age 13 as general limit found support from the cross-sectional data, which suggested stable emmetropic eye size from about 11-12 years, with an average apparently outgrown male emmetropic value of 23.5 mm versus females' 22.9 mm. The longitudinal data, however, showed emmetropic growth also beyond...

  13. Juvenile ossifying fibroma: Psammamatoid variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivani Aggarwal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile ossifying fibroma is a rare fibro-osseous lesion containing variable amount of calcified masses, which resembles bone or cementum within a fibrocellular connective tissue stroma. It has variable clinical behavior, highly aggressive in nature including invasion and destruction of adjacent anatomic structures with a strong tendency to recur. We reported a 28-year-old female patient with a growth in the upper left vestibule region extending from canine to molar region with clinical, histopathological, and radiological features are presented. Surgical management was done, and regular follow-up was advised.

  14. Sensitivity of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) early life stages to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-P-dioxin and 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillitt, Donald E.; Buckler, Justin A.; Nicks, Diane; Candrl, James; Claunch, Rachel; Gale, Robert W.; Puglis, Holly J.; Little, Edward E.; Linbo, Tiffany L.; Baker, Mary

    2017-01-01

    The aquatic food web of the Great Lakes has been contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) since the mid-20th century. Threats of PCB exposures to long-lived species of fish, such as lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), have been uncertain because of a lack of information on the relative sensitivity of the species. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the sensitivity of early–life stage lake sturgeon to 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB-126) or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) exposure. Mortality, growth, morphological and tissue pathologies, swimming performance, and activity levels were used as assessment endpoints. Pericardial and yolk sac edema, tubular heart, yolk sac hemorrhaging, and small size were the most commonly observed pathologies in both TCDD and PCB-126 exposures, beginning as early as 4 d postfertilization, with many of these pathologies occurring in a dose-dependent manner. Median lethal doses for PCB-126 and TCDD in lake sturgeon were 5.4 ng/g egg (95% confidence interval, 3.9–7.4 ng/g egg) and 0.61 ng/g egg (0.47–0.82 ng/g egg), respectively. The resulting relative potency factor for PCB-126 (0.11) was greater than the World Health Organization estimate for fish (toxic equivalency factor = 0.005), suggesting that current risk assessments may underestimate PCB toxicity toward lake sturgeon. Swimming activity and endurance were reduced in lake sturgeon survivors from the median lethal doses at 60 d postfertilization. Threshold and median toxicity values indicate that lake sturgeon, like other Acipenser species, are more sensitive to PCB and TCDD than the other genus of sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus, found in North America. Indeed, lake sturgeon populations in the Great Lakes and elsewhere are susceptible to PCB/TCDD-induced developmental toxicity in embryos and reductions in swimming performance.

  15. THE STUDY OF FEATURES OF GUILT OF JUVENILE OFFENDERS IN THE CONTEXT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalija Vladimirovna Galkina

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the results of empirical studies of the experiences of guilt of juvenile offenders in the context of juvenile justice where a minor appears as the subject of legal relations. Restorative approach of juvenile justice is based on an admission of guilt to the victim. In connection with it, the research of features of the guilt of minors who have committed an offence and the conditions for the development of the subjectivity will enhance understanding of the possibilities of restorative juvenile justice system in the prevention of juvenile delinquency.Thus, the results of empirical research presented in the article are important for determining of the psychological bases of realization of rehabilitation programs in the context of juvenile justice. In particular, the results are important for the organization and conduct of psychological work to overcome the psychological barriers in the behavior of juveniles having inherently maladaptive guilt and destructive psychological defense mechanisms.

  16. Juvenile animal cruelty and firesetting behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglivio, Michael T; Wolff, Kevin T; DeLisi, Matt; Vaughn, Michael G; Piquero, Alex R

    2017-12-01

    There is a view that young people presenting with an animal cruelty and firesetting combination represent a uniquely risky group, but prior work has relied on samples with insufficient power. What is the prevalence of the co-occurrence of animal cruelty and firesetting behaviour among young delinquents? What other features correlate with this? We measured the prevalence of animal cruelty and firesetting among 292,649 juvenile offenders and used rare events logistic regression to examine demographic, criminal, mental health and family histories as correlates. The prevalence of animal cruelty was 0.59%, accounting for 1732 young people, and of firesetting 1.56% (n = 4553). The co-occurrence of these behaviours was rare: 0.17% (n = 498), but approximately twice that expected by chance based on the prevalence of each behaviour individually (0.59% × 1.56% = 0.009%). Rates were higher in males, older youths and Whites. Among historical variables, criminal history was the strongest correlate, followed by mental health problems, then familial and individual indicators. As only male gender and being a victim of sexual abuse increased the odds of evidencing both animal cruelty and firesetting behaviour substantially above the odds for each behaviour individually, there thus appears to be little that is unique to the co-occurrence. Our findings suggest that sensitivity to the occurrence of each is the best way forward, with rather familiar assessments and interventions offering some hope of reducing these seriously damaging behaviours. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Juveniles' Motivations for Remaining in Prostitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Shu-Ling; Bedford, Olwen

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were collected in 1990-1991, 1992, and 2000 with 49 prostituted juveniles remanded to two rehabilitation centers in Taiwan. These data are analyzed to explore Taiwanese prostituted juveniles' feelings about themselves and their work, their motivations for remaining in prostitution, and their difficulties…

  18. Moral development of solo juvenile sex offenders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vugt, E.; Stams, G.J.; Dekovic, M.; Brugman, D.; Rutten, E.; Hendriks, J.

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the moral development of solo juvenile male sex offenders (n = 20) and juvenile male non-offenders (n = 76), aged 13-19 years, from lower socioeconomic and educational backgrounds. The Moral Orientation Measure (MOM) was used to assess punishment- and victim-based moral

  19. Juvenile Obesity, Physical Activity, and Lifestyle Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Or, Oded

    2000-01-01

    Because many obese children become obese adults, the recent rapid increase in juvenile obesity poses a major public health challenge. Enhanced physical activity is a cornerstone in a multidisciplinary approach to preventing and treating juvenile obesity. Giving exercise recommendations focused for obese youth is critical. Cutting down on sedentary…

  20. Juvenile dispersal in Calomys venustus (Muridae: Sigmodontinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priotto, José; Steinmann, Andrea; Provensal, Cecilia; Polop, Jaime

    2004-05-01

    Both spacing behaviour and dispersal movement are viewed as hierarchical processes in which the effects may be expressed at spatial scale. This research was carried out to examine the hypothesis that the presence of parents promotes the dispersal of juveniles from their natal nest and their father or mother home-range, in Calomys venustus.The study was carried out in four 0.25 ha fences (two controls and two experimentals), in a natural pasture. This study had two periods: Father Removal (FR) (August and December 1997; year one) and Mother Removal (MR) (August 1998 and January 1999; year two). For the FR treatment fathers were removed after juveniles were born, but in the MR treatment mothers were removed after the juveniles were weaned. The effect of parents on the dispersal distance of juveniles was analysed with respect to their natal nest and their mother and father home-range. Dispersal distance from the nest of C. venustus was independent of either male or female parent. Juveniles were more dispersing in relation to the centre of activity of their mothers than to that of their fathers, and females were more dispersing than males. Female juveniles overlap their home-range with their parents less than male juveniles do. The differences observed between female and male juveniles would be related to their different sexual maturation times, as well as to the female territoriality.

  1. Using the Juvenile Justice Poster. Teaching Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Update on Law-Related Education, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Presents a lesson that can help students review and summarize what they have learned about the juvenile justice system. Explains that the students discuss how the juvenile justice system can be improved and conduct a survey on how it might be changed in the future. Provides a copy of the survey and directions. (CMK)

  2. Intelligence Score Profiles of Female Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Shelby Spare; Hart, Kathleen J.; Ficke, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have found that male juvenile offenders typically obtain low scores on measures of intelligence, often with a pattern of higher scores on measures of nonverbal relative to verbal tasks. The research on the intelligence performance of female juvenile offenders is limited. This study explored the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for…

  3. Reformations in Zimbabwe's juvenile justice system | Ruparanganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Children in conflict with the law are often stigmatized and shunned by society as they are perceived as a threat to society. Historically, Zimbabwe's juvenile justice system has been retributive and focused on punishing the juvenile offender. As a result, it has been criticised from a number of viewpoints, including the need to ...

  4. White spot syndrome virus epizootic in cultured Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, L; Lin, W-H; Wang, P-C; Tsai, M-A; Hsu, J-P; Chen, S-C

    2013-12-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has caused significant losses in shrimp farms worldwide. Between 2004 and 2006, Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) were collected from 220 farms in Taiwan to determine the prevalence and impact of WSSV infection on the shrimp farm industry. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis detected WSSV in shrimp from 26% of farms. Juvenile shrimp farms had the highest infection levels (38%; 19/50 farms) and brooder shrimp farms had the lowest (5%; one of 20 farms). The average extent of infection at each farm was as follows for WSSV-positive farms: post-larvae farms, 71%; juvenile farms, 61%; subadult farms, 62%; adult farms, 49%; and brooder farms, 40%. Characteristic white spots, hypertrophied nuclei and basophilic viral inclusion bodies were found in the epithelia of gills and tail fans, appendages, cephalothorax and hepatopancreas, and virions of WSSV were observed. Of shrimp that had WSSV lesions, 100% had lesions on the cephalothorax, 96% in gills and tail fans, 91% on appendages and 17% in the hepatopancreas. WSSV was also detected in copepoda and crustaceans from the shrimp farms. Sequence comparison using the pms146 gene fragment of WSSV showed that isolates from the farms had 99.7-100% nucleotide sequence identity with four strains in the GenBank database--China (AF332093), Taiwan (AF440570 and U50923) and Thailand (AF369029). This is the first broad study of WSSV infection in L. vannamei in Taiwan. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Do juveniles bully more than young offenders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Jane L

    2002-04-01

    This study compares bullying behaviour among juvenile and young offenders and incorporates two different methods to measure bullying. Ninety-five male juvenile and 196 male young offenders completed two questionnaires, one that measured bullying directly and one that measured behaviours indicative of "being bullied" or of "bullying others". Juveniles perceived a higher extent of bullying than young offenders. Juveniles reported significantly more physical, psychological or verbal and overall direct forms of bullying behaviour than young offenders. A number of differences were found between juveniles and young offenders with regard to the types of prisoners likely to become victims, who they would advise a victim to speak to and how bullying could be prevented. The results are discussed in relation to developmental theories of aggression and how bullying behaviour can be defined and measured among prisoners. Copyright 2002 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Erick A. White | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, 2011 B.S., Chemical Engineering, University of Colorado at Boulder Research Assistant, Colorado School of Mines, Department of Chemical Engineering, 2006-2011 Field Team Erick A. White Photo of Erick A. White Erick White Chemical Reaction Engineer Erick.White@nrel.gov

  7. Family transitions and juvenile delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Ryan D; Osgood, Aurea K; Oghia, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    There is a large body of research that shows children from non-intact homes show higher rates of juvenile delinquency than children from intact homes, partially due to weaker parental control and supervision in non-intact homes. What has not been adequately addressed in the research is the influence of changes in family structure among individual adolescents over time on delinquent offending. Using the first and third waves of the National Youth Study, we assess the effect of family structure changes on changes in delinquent offending between waves through the intermediate process of changes in family time and parental attachment. Although prior research has documented adolescents in broken homes are more delinquent than youth in intact homes, the process of family dissolution is not associated with concurrent increases in offending. In contrast, family formation through marriage or cohabitation is associated with simultaneous increases in offending. Changes in family time and parental attachment account for a portion of the family formation effect on delinquency, and prior parental attachment and juvenile offending significantly condition the effect of family formation on offending.

  8. Juvenile Gaucher disease simulating osteomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.H.; Ortega, J.A.; Heisel, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    A case in which several imaging procedures suggested juvenile Gaucher disease in a child who presented with symptomatology of osteomyelitis is discussed. The 20-month girl was given a Technetium-99m radionuclide skeletal examination which revealed intense uptake of tracer agents along the shaft of the right femur. It was also found that the liver and spleen were dramatically Ga-67 avid. The bone pain symptomatology suggested an osteomyelitis of the femur, but skeletal scintigraphy with Tc-99m-labeled bone tracer demonstrated photopenic areas involving the femur, suggesting that the bone pain may have been due to marrow packed with Gaucher cells. This overexpansion of the marrow may lead to microfractures with remodeling seen radiographically as periosteal new bone and scintigraphically as increased periosteal deposition of tracer agent. The radiogallium study was useful to exclude an underlying osteomyelitis in the involved femurs. Although juvenile Gaucher disease is unusual, it should be considered in any child who presents with the constellation of hepatosplenomegaly and bone pain simulating osteomyelitis

  9. Juvenile Gaucher disease simulating osteomyelitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.H.; Ortega, J.A.; Heisel, M.A.

    1981-10-01

    A case in which several imaging procedures suggested juvenile Gaucher disease in a child who presented with symptomatology of osteomyelitis is discussed. The 20-month girl was given a Technetium-99m radionuclide skeletal examination which revealed intense uptake of tracer agents along the shaft of the right femur. It was also found that the liver and spleen were dramatically Ga-67 avid. The bone pain symptomatology suggested an osteomyelitis of the femur, but skeletal scintigraphy with Tc-99m-labeled bone tracer demonstrated photopenic areas involving the femur, suggesting that the bone pain may have been due to marrow packed with Gaucher cells. This overexpansion of the marrow may lead to microfractures with remodeling seen radiographically as periosteal new bone and scintigraphically as increased periosteal deposition of tracer agent. The radiogallium study was useful to exclude an underlying osteomyelitis in the involved femurs. Although juvenile Gaucher disease is unusual, it should be considered in any child who presents with the constellation of hepatosplenomegaly and bone pain simulating osteomyelitis.

  10. Atherosclerosis in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Jednacz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the arteries. Clinical consequences of the atherosclerotic process occur in the adult population, however atherosclerotic process begins in childhood. The classic risk factors for atherosclerosis include obesity, dyslipidaemia, age, gender or family history. In recent years, attention has been drawn to the similarity between atherosclerotic inflammatory processes and inflammatory changes in the course of systemic connective tissue disease, in particular systemic lupus etythematosus (SLE or rheumatoid arthritis (RA. There is also observed the similarity of the pathogenetic background of development of atherosclerosis and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA. Elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines are observed in the course of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Also homocysteine concentrations, which may play a significant role in the development of atherosclerotic lesions, are observed higher in patients with JIA. Some studies revealed higher carotid intima-media thickness (IMT index values in children with JIA. In view of the fact that atherosclerotic process begins as early as in childhood, the introduction of appropriate preventive measures in children is a matter of utmost importance.

  11. Angiofibroma juvenil nasofaríngeo Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Gualberto Lescaille Torres

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de un angiofibroma juvenil nasofaríngeo, en un paciente del consultorio médico No. 9, que pertenece al Policlínico Integral Docente "Carlos Manuel Portuondo" de Marianao. Se reconoce la importancia de realizar una historia clínica detallada, así como un minucioso examen físico, por el médico de familia y el otorrinolaringólogo del área de salud, que incluyó la rinoscopia posterior, para poder llegar al diagnóstico de esa patología, y realizar la extirpación precoz del angiofibroma, mediante el proceder quirúrgico. Se concluyó que el diagnóstico clínico se correspondió con el histopatológico, y que la conducta quirúrgica temprana es resolutiva en la afección.It is presented a case of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma in a patient with this pathology, from the clicial practice No. 9, in Comprehensive Teaching Polyclinic "Carlos Manuel Portuondo" in Marianao. It recognizes the importance of a thorough clinical history and careful physical examination by the family physician and the otolaryngologist in this health area, including a posterior rhinoscopy, to diagnose this disease and to achieve early removal of the angiofibroma, by a surgical procedure. It was concluded that the clinical diagnosis corresponded to the histopathological diagnosis, and that early surgical treatment is resolute in this condition.

  12. Vegetative propagation of mature and juvenile northern red oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    James J. Zaczek; K. C. Steiner; C. W., Jr. Heuser

    1993-01-01

    Rooting trials were established to evaluate rooting success of cuttings from mature and juvenile, grafted and ungrafted northern red oak (NRO). Buds from 4 mature NRO ortets and juvenile seedlings were grafted onto juvenile and mature rootstock. Cuttings were collected from the grafts and from juvenile and mature shoots developed in situ and...

  13. Gluconeogenesis during starvation and refeeding phase is affected by previous dietary carbohydrates levels and a glucose stimuli during early life in Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofang Liang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Gluconeogenesis responses was assessed during a short starvation period and subsequent refeeding in Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii previously fed different dietary carbohydrates levels and experienced to a glucose stimuli during early life. The sturgeon larvae were previously fed either a high glucose diet (G or a low glucose diet (F from the first feeding to yolk absorption (8 to 12 d post-hatching [dph]. Each group of fish was sub-divided into 2 treatments at 13 dph and was fed either a high-carbohydrate diet (H or a low carbohydrate diet (L until 20 wk. In the current study, the fish in 4 groups (GL, FL, GH and FH were experienced to starvation for 21 d following by re-feeding of their corresponding diets for 21 d. Fish were sampled at postprandial 6 and 24 h before starvation (P6h and P24h, starvation 7, 14 and 21 d (S7, S14 and S21 and 1, 7, 14 and 21 d during refeeding (R1, R7, R14 and R21. Plasma samples during refeeding were taken at P6h at each time point. Glycaemia levels, liver and muscle glycogen contents, activities and mRNA levels of hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes were examined. We found that both dietary carbohydrate levels and early glucose stimuli significantly affected the metabolic responses to starvation and refeeding in Siberian sturgeon (P < 0.05. During prolonged starvation, Siberian sturgeon firstly mobilized the liver glycogen and then improved gluconeogenesis when the dietary carbohydrates were abundant, whereas preserved the liver glycogen stores at a stable level and more effectively promoted gluconeogenesis when the dietary carbohydrates are absent to maintain glucose homoeostasis. During refeeding, as most teleostean, Siberian sturgeon failed controlling the activities and mRNA levels of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase cytosolic forms (PEPCK-C, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase, but particularly controlled phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase mitochondrial forms (PEPCK-M activities and mRNA expression

  14. Visual Basic, Excel-based fish population modeling tool - The pallid sturgeon example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Edward H.; Wildhaber, Mark L.; Green, Nicholas S.; Albers, Janice L.

    2016-02-10

    The model presented in this report is a spreadsheet-based model using Visual Basic for Applications within Microsoft Excel (http://dx.doi.org/10.5066/F7057D0Z) prepared in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. It uses the same model structure and, initially, parameters as used by Wildhaber and others (2015) for pallid sturgeon. The difference between the model structure used for this report and that used by Wildhaber and others (2015) is that variance is not partitioned. For the model of this report, all variance is applied at the iteration and time-step levels of the model. Wildhaber and others (2015) partition variance into parameter variance (uncertainty about the value of a parameter itself) applied at the iteration level and temporal variance (uncertainty caused by random environmental fluctuations with time) applied at the time-step level. They included implicit individual variance (uncertainty caused by differences between individuals) within the time-step level.The interface developed for the model of this report is designed to allow the user the flexibility to change population model structure and parameter values and uncertainty separately for every component of the model. This flexibility makes the modeling tool potentially applicable to any fish species; however, the flexibility inherent in this modeling tool makes it possible for the user to obtain spurious outputs. The value and reliability of the model outputs are only as good as the model inputs. Using this modeling tool with improper or inaccurate parameter values, or for species for which the structure of the model is inappropriate, could lead to untenable management decisions. By facilitating fish population modeling, this modeling tool allows the user to evaluate a range of management options and implications. The goal of this modeling tool is to be a user-friendly modeling tool for developing fish population models useful to natural resource

  15. Juvenile fibromyalgia syndrome. Interdisciplinary treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Siuchnińska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia syndrome (FM belongs to soft tissue pain syndromes of unknown cause, also referred to as “soft tissue rheumatism”. It is characterized by chronic widespread pain as well as additional symptoms such as fatigue, sleep and mood disturbance and cognitive problems. There is more and more data showing that this condition may start at a young age or even in childhood, adversely affecting development processes and resulting in dysfunctional social and family relationships. Because of the multifaceted character of fibromyalgia the efficient treatment of this disorder can be difficult and requires comprehensive care. This work reviews most recommended procedures used in integrated treatment programmes for juvenile fibromyalgia syndrome (JFM.

  16. [Physiotherapy for juvenile idiopathic arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spamer, M; Georgi, M; Häfner, R; Händel, H; König, M; Haas, J-P

    2012-07-01

    Control of disease activity and recovery of function are major issues in the treatment of children and adolescents suffering from juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Functional therapies including physiotherapy are important components in the multidisciplinary teamwork and each phase of the disease requires different strategies. While in the active phase of the disease pain alleviation is the main focus, the inactive phase requires strategies for improving motility and function. During remission the aim is to regain general fitness by sports activities. These phase adapted strategies must be individually designed and usually require a combination of different measures including physiotherapy, occupational therapy, massage as well as other physical procedures and sport therapy. There are only few controlled studies investigating the effectiveness of physical therapies in JIA and many strategies are derived from long-standing experience. New results from physiology and sport sciences have contributed to the development in recent years. This report summarizes the basics and main strategies of physical therapy in JIA.

  17. Law & psychiatry: punishing juveniles who kill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, Paul S

    2012-10-01

    Punishment of juvenile murderers forces policy makers to weigh the developmental immaturity of adolescents against the heinousness of their crimes. The U.S. Supreme Court has progressively limited the severity of punishments that can be imposed on juveniles, holding that their impulsivity, susceptibility to peer pressure, and more fluid character render them less culpable for their actions. Having eliminated the death penalty as a punishment, the Court recently struck down mandatory life sentences without prospect of parole. The decision is interesting for its emphasis on rehabilitation, opening the door to further restrictions on punitive sentences for juveniles-and perhaps for adults too.

  18. STUDIES REGARDING THE PRESENCE OF THE PATHOGENS BACTERIA INTO A RECIRCULATING SYSTEM OF BELUGA STURGEON INTENSIVE REARING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANGELICA DOCAN

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Recirculating aquaculture offers good potential for successful fish farming since is often independent of environmental conditions. Maintaining healthy fish in a recirculating system involves establishing adequate dissolved oxygen levels, removal of solid wastes, and sufficient ammonia nitrification to assure optimal rearing conditions. Neglecting these, the fish immune system will depress, the facultative pathogen germs will be able to provoke important disease outbreaks into cultured biomass, as was happened in our recirculating pilot system. In this study are presented the pathological aspects registered to the beluga sturgeon of 1 year, reared into our recirculating pilot system, pathological aspects generated by a haemorrhagic bacterial septicaemia which was manifested in the conditions of low concentrations of DO. The disease was diagnosed to the affected fish through anatomopathological and clinical exam, haematological exam and microbiological exam.

  19. Criteria for evaluating response and outcome in clinical trials for children with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Niemeyer, Charlotte M

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia is a rare myeloproliferative disease in young children. While hematopoietic stem cell transplantation remains the only curative therapeutic option for most patients, children with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia increasingly receive novel agents in phase I-II clinical trials as pre-transplant therapy or therapy for relapse after transplantation. However, response criteria or definitions of outcome for standardized evaluation of treatment effect in patients with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia are currently lacking. Here we propose criteria to evaluate the response to the non-transplant therapy and definitions of remission status after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. For the evaluation of non-transplant therapy, we defined 6 clinical variables (white blood cell count, platelet count, hematopoietic precursors and blasts in peripheral blood, bone marrow blast percentage, spleen size and extramedullary disease) and 3 genetic variables (cytogenetic, molecular and chimerism response) which serve to describe the heterogeneous picture of response to therapy in each individual case. It is hoped that these criteria will facilitate the comparison of results between clinical trials in juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia.

  20. Conceptualizing juvenile prostitution as child maltreatment: findings from the National Juvenile Prostitution Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kimberly J; Finkelhor, David; Wolak, Janis

    2010-02-01

    Two studies were conducted to identify the incidence (Study 1) and characteristics (Study 2) of juvenile prostitution cases known to law enforcement agencies in the United States. Study 1 revealed a national estimate of 1,450 arrests or detentions (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1,287-1,614) in cases involving juvenile prostitution during a 1-year period. In Study 2, exploratory data were collected from a subsample of 138 cases from police records in 2005. The cases are broadly categorized into three main types: (a) third-party exploiters, (b) solo prostitution, and (c) conventional child sexual abuse (CSA) with payment. Cases were classified into three initial categories based on police orientation toward the juvenile: (a) juveniles as victims (53%), (b) juveniles as delinquents (31%), and (c) juvenile as both victims and delinquents (16%). When examining the status of the juveniles by case type, the authors found that all the juveniles in CSA with payment cases were treated as victims, 66% in third-party exploiters cases, and 11% in solo cases. Findings indicate law enforcement responses to juvenile prostitution are influential in determining whether such youth are viewed as victims of commercial sexual exploitation or as delinquents.

  1. Using drift nets to capture early life stages and monitor spawning of the yangtze river chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Q.W.; Kynard, B.; Yang, D.G.; Chen, X.H.; Du, H.; Shen, L.; Zhang, H.

    2009-01-01

    A sampling system for capturing sturgeon eggs using a D-shaped bottom anchored drift net was used to capture early life stages (ELS) of Chinese sturgeon, Acipenser sinensis, and monitor annual spawning success at Yichang on the Yangtze River, 1996-2004, before and just after the Three Gorges Dam began operation. Captured were 96 875 ELS (early life stages: eggs, yolk-sac larvae = eleuthero embryos, and larvae); most were eggs and only 2477 were yolk-sac larvae. Most ELS were captured in the main river channel and inside the bend at the Yichang spawning reach. Yolk-sac larvae were captured for a maximum of 3 days after hatching began, indicating quick dispersal downstream. The back-calculated day of egg fertilization over the eight years indicated a maximum spawning window of 23 days (20 October-10 November). Spawning in all years was restricted temporally, occurred mostly at night and during one or two spawning periods, each lasting several days. The brief temporal spawning window may reduce egg predation by opportunistic predators by flooding the river bottom with millions of eggs. During 1996-2002, the percentage of fertilized eggs in an annual 20-egg sample was between 63.5 to 94.1%; however, in 2003 the percentage fertilized was only 23.8%. This sudden decline may be related to the altered environmental conditions at Yichang caused by operation of the Three Gorges Dam. Further studies are needed to monitor spawning and changes in egg fertilization in this threatened population. ?? 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis infection in Bester sturgeon, a cultured hybrid of Huso huso × Acipenser ruthenus, in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Hui; Hung, Shao-Wen; Shyu, Ching-Lin; Lin, Cheng-Chung; Liu, Pan-Chen; Chang, Chen-Hsuan; Shia, Wei-Yau; Cheng, Ching-Fu; Lin, Shiun-Long; Tu, Ching-Yu; Lin, Yu-Hsing; Wang, Way-Shyan

    2012-10-01

    Approximately 5300 hybrid sturgeons with an average body weight of 600-800 g were farmed in 3 round tankers measuring 3m in diameter each containing 28,000 L of aerated groundwater. According to the owner's description, the diseased fish had anorexia, pale body color, and reddish spots on the abdomen. The morbidity and lethality rates in this outbreak were about 70% (3706/5300) and 100% (3706/3706), respectively. The clinical examination revealed enteritis, enlarged abdomen, and rapid respiration rate. The gross findings revealed a volume of about 4 mL of ascites. The histopathological examination showed multiple massive, hemorrhagic or coagulative necrotic foci in the liver and spleen. Furthermore, there was diffuse infiltration of glycogen in hepatic cells, and a few polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leucocytes were observed surrounding the spleen. Some bacterial clumps were noted around the necrotic foci. We also observed that there was moderate to severe, acute, multifocal, coagulative necrosis in the renal parenchyma, with some necrotic foci present beneath the margin of the kidney. Additionally, multifocal, coagulative necrosis was found in the pancreas. Results of microbiologic examinations, including biochemical characteristics, PCR amplification of 16S rRNA gene, sequencing and comparison, and phylogenetic analysis, revealed the pathogen of this infection was Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, and based on the results of an antimicrobial agent sensitivity test the bacterium was only sensitive to ampicillin and florfenicol. Additionally, results of in vivo experimental infections in hybrid tilapia showed that 1×10(8) and 1×10(9) CFU/mL of our isolate caused death in all fish and LD(50) values ranged from 10(2) to 10(5) CFU/mL. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis infection in hybrid sturgeon. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The semantic sphere of juvenile offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oshevsky D.S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a preliminary empirical study aimed to identify features of the semantic sphere of adolescents who have committed illegal, including aggressive acts. The study included 50 male juveniles aged of 16 - 17 years. The first group consisted of adolescents convicted of aggressive and violent crimes; the second – of property socially dangerous acts (SDA. It is shown that evaluation of such adolescents is generally categorical and polar, the semantic field is subdifferentiable, less hierarchic, and has not enough realistic structure of meanings. Developed structure of motives and meanings is the basis of voluntary regulation of socially significant behavior. Thus, assessing the semantic sphere of juvenile offenders we can highlight its characteristics as risk factors of unlawful behavior, as well as the resource side, that will contribute to addressing issues of prevention and correction of unlawful behavior. Key words: juvenile offenders, semantic field of juvenile offenders, unlawful behavior.

  4. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease to fight microbial invaders and facilitate tissue repair. Normally, the body stops the inflammatory response after healing is complete to prevent damage to its own cells and tissues. In people with juvenile idiopathic arthritis , the inflammatory ...

  5. Juvenile Salmonid Metrics - Ocean Survival of Salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  6. Juvenile Pacific Salmon in Puget Sound

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fresh, Kurt L

    2006-01-01

    Puget sound salmon (genus Oncorhynchus) spawn in freshwater and feed, grow and mature in marine waters, During their transition from freshwater to saltwater, juvenile salmon occupy nearshore ecosystems in Puget Sound...

  7. The Impact of Banning Juvenile Gun Possession.

    OpenAIRE

    Marvell, Thomas B

    2001-01-01

    A 1994 federal law bans possession of handguns by persons under 18 years of age. Also in 1994, 11 states passed their own juvenile gun possession bans. Eighteen states had previously passed bans, 15 of them between 1975 and 1993. These laws were intended to reduce homicides, but arguments can be made that they have no effect on or that they even increase the homicide rate. This paper estimates the laws' impacts on various crime measures, primarily juvenile gun homicide victimizations and suic...

  8. Stocking density affects the growth performance and metabolism of Amur sturgeon by regulating expression of genes in the GH/IGF axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yuanyuan; Wen, Haishen; Li, Yun; Li, Jifang

    2017-07-01

    The effects of stocking density on the growth and metabolism of Amur sturgeon were assessed. Amur sturgeon were grown for 70 days at three different stocking densities (low stocking density, LSD: 5.5 kg/m3; medium stocking density, MSD: 8.0 kg/m3; and high stocking density, HSD: 11.0 kg/m3), and the biometric index, muscle composition, and serum biochemical parameters were evaluated. In addition, pituitary, liver, and muscle samples were collected for gene cloning and expression analyses. After 70 days of growth, the fish maintained at HSD had significantly lower final body weight and specific growth rate, and a higher feed conversion ratio than those of the fish in the MSD and LSD groups. The HSD group had the lowest lipid and protein concentrations in serum and muscle. The serum cortisol concentration increased significantly in the HSD group, indicating that the stress-response system was activated in these fish. There was no change in the concentration of serum insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2), while the concentrations of serum growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) decreased in the HSD group. The full-length cDNAs of GH and IGF-2 genes (995-bp and 1 207-bp long, respectively), were cloned and analyzed. In the HSD group, the expressions of GH in the pituitary and growth hormone receptor (GHR) and IGF-1 in the liver were down-regulated at the end of the 70-day experiment. In the HSD group, the transcript level of IGF-2 significantly decreased in the liver, but did not change in muscle. Overall, our results indicated that a HSD negatively affects the growth performance and leads to changes in lipid and protein metabolism in Amur sturgeon. The down-regulated expression of genes related to the GH/IGF axis may be responsible for the poor growth performance of Amur sturgeon under crowding stress.

  9. The structure of the conus arteriosus of the sturgeon (Acipenser naccarii) heart: II. The myocardium, the subepicardium, and the conus-aorta transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Icardo, José M; Colvee, Elvira; Cerra, Maria C; Tota, Bruno

    2002-12-01

    Sturgeons constitute a family of living "fossil" fish whose heart is related to that of other ancient fish and the elasmobranches. We have undertaken a systematic study of the structure of the sturgeon heart aimed at unraveling the relationship between the heart structure and the adaptive evolutionary changes. In a related paper, data were presented on the conus valves and the subendocardium. Here, the structure of the conus myocardium, the subepicardial tissue, and the conus-aorta transition were studied by conventional light, transmission, and scanning electron microscopy. In addition, actin localization by fluorescent phalloidin was used. The conus myocardium is organized into bundles whose spatial organization changes along the conus length. The variable orientation of the myocardial cell bundles may be effective in emptying the conus lumen during contraction and in preventing reflux of blood. Myocardial cell bundles are separated by loose connective tissue that contains collagen and elastin fibers, vessels, and extremely flat cells separating the cell bundles and enclosing blood vessels and collagen fibers. The ultrastructure of the myocardial cells was found to be very similar to that of other fish groups, suggesting that it is largely conservative. The subepicardium is characterized by the presence of nodular structures that contain lympho-hemopoietic (thymus-like) tissue in the young sturgeons and a large number of lymphocytes after the sturgeons reach sexual maturity. This tissue is likely implicated in the establishment and maintenance of the immune responses. The intrapericardial ventral aorta shows a middle layer of circumferentially oriented cells and internal and external layers with cells oriented longitudinally. Elastin fibers completely surround each smooth muscle cell, and the spaces between the different layers are occupied by randomly arranged collagen bundles. The intrapericardial segment of the ventral aorta is a true transitional segment

  10. JUVENILE DELINQUENCY: TRENDS (REGIONAL ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Selezneva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available he article analyzes the nature and internal structure of various types of crimes in which involved minors. Describes the main social factors contributing to this anomaly in the period of development of society. Investigated the motivation, the system and the types of crimes of minors in the Volgograd region, are the main trends of development of this phenomenon. The study also discusses the theoretical basis of the problem of the influence of economic stability on the species structure of juvenile delinquency. In this study the analysis of various types of deviance minors in different areas of the city of Volgograd. In the process of rapid modernization of communication processes most of today’s youth have not been able to quickly rebuild their behavior. Currently, the value-perception of the adolescents focused on the material benefits in terms of expanded economic interactions. In these conditions, social processes become increasingly removed from humane and spiritual orientations. The effective functioning of society in its interaction based on cooperation and understanding is of great importance to stimulate the positive trends in social sphere in modern Russia. The modern period of development, coupled with a drastic breaking of the foundations of life, the formation of new social relations and institutions and the destruction of the old, inevitably contributes to social tension, the reassessment of social and moral values and development of deviant behavior of minors. The advantages of this study are the involvement of local archives regional committees on Affairs of minors, was first introduced to active scientific revolution, as well as logical structuring and grouping of the main issues related to the dynamics and changes in the species structure of juvenile crime, which allowed us to perform a fairly extensive archive of statistical material. Based on this analysis, the authors made a

  11. Assessing the risk to green sturgeon from application of imidacloprid to control burrowing shrimp in Willapa Bay, Washington-Part I: exposure characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frew, John A; Sadilek, Martin; Grue, Christian E

    2015-11-01

    Willapa Bay and Grays Harbor (WA, USA) comprise the largest region of commercial oyster cultivation on the Pacific Coast. The activities of 2 species of burrowing shrimp impair growth and survival of oysters reared on the intertidal mudflats. To maintain viable harvests, the oyster growers have proposed controlling the shrimp by applying the insecticide imidacloprid onto harvested beds. Green sturgeon (listed in the Endangered Species Act) forage on burrowing shrimp and could be exposed to imidacloprid in the sediment porewater and through consumed prey. Studies were conducted to evaluate the likelihood that green sturgeon would be exposed to imidacloprid and to characterize the subsequent environmental exposure. Comparisons between treated and untreated control beds following test application of the insecticide suggested that green sturgeon fed opportunistically on imidacloprid-impaired shrimp. The highest interpolated imidacloprid residue concentrations in field samples following chemical application were 27.8 µg kg(-1) and 31.4 µg kg(-1) in porewater and shrimp, respectively. Results from modeled branchial and dietary uptake, based on conservative assumptions, indicated that the porewater exposure route had the greatest contribution to systemic absorption of imidacloprid. The highest average daily uptake from porewater (177.9 µg kg(-1) body wt) was 9.5-fold greater than total dietary uptake (18.8 µg kg(-1) body wt). Concentrations and durations of exposure would be lower than the levels expected to elicit direct acute or chronic toxic effects. © 2015 SETAC.

  12. A fully-stochasticized, age-structured population model for population viability analysis of fish: Lower Missouri River endangered pallid sturgeon example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildhaber, Mark L.; Albers, Janice; Green, Nicholas; Moran, Edward H.

    2017-01-01

    We develop a fully-stochasticized, age-structured population model suitable for population viability analysis (PVA) of fish and demonstrate its use with the endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) of the Lower Missouri River as an example. The model incorporates three levels of variance: parameter variance (uncertainty about the value of a parameter itself) applied at the iteration level, temporal variance (uncertainty caused by random environmental fluctuations over time) applied at the time-step level, and implicit individual variance (uncertainty caused by differences between individuals) applied within the time-step level. We found that population dynamics were most sensitive to survival rates, particularly age-2+ survival, and to fecundity-at-length. The inclusion of variance (unpartitioned or partitioned), stocking, or both generally decreased the influence of individual parameters on population growth rate. The partitioning of variance into parameter and temporal components had a strong influence on the importance of individual parameters, uncertainty of model predictions, and quasiextinction risk (i.e., pallid sturgeon population size falling below 50 age-1+ individuals). Our findings show that appropriately applying variance in PVA is important when evaluating the relative importance of parameters, and reinforce the need for better and more precise estimates of crucial life-history parameters for pallid sturgeon.

  13. Colour change and camouflage in juvenile shore crabs Carcinus maenas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eStevens

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Camouflage is perhaps the most widespread anti-predator defense in nature, with many different types thought to exist. Of these, resembling the general color and pattern of the background (background matching is likely to be the most common. Background matching can be achieved by adaptation of individual appearance to different habitats or substrates, behavioral choice, and color change. Although the ability to change coloration for camouflage over a period of hours or days is likely to be widely found among animals, few studies have quantified this against different backgrounds. Here, we test whether juvenile shore crabs (Carcinus maenas are capable of color change for camouflage by placing them on either black or white (experiment 1 or red and green (experiment 2 backgrounds. We find that crabs are capable of significant changes in brightness, becoming lighter on white backgrounds and darker on black backgrounds. Using models of predator (avian vision, we show that these differences are large enough in many individuals to lead to perceptible changes in appearance. Furthermore, comparisons of crabs with the backgrounds show that changes are likely to lead to significant improvements in camouflage and potentially reduced detection probabilities. Crabs underwent some changes on the red and green backgrounds, but visual modeling indicated that these changes were very small and unlikely to be detectable. Our experiment shows that crabs are able to adjust their camouflage by changes in brightness over a period of hours, and that this could influence detection probability by predators.

  14. Understanding the school outcomes of juvenile offenders: an exploration of neighborhood influences and motivational resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, He Len; Mulvey, Edward P; Steinberg, Laurence

    2011-08-01

    As a group, delinquent youth complete less education and show poor academic outcomes compared to their non-delinquent peers. To better understand pathways to school success, this study integrated individual- and neighborhood-level data to examine academic functioning among 833 White, Black, and Hispanic male juvenile offenders (age 14-17) living in two urban communities. A multilevel path analysis confirmed that youth in relatively more affluent communities report greater access to opportunities in the areas of education and employment, and that these opportunities are associated with higher expectations to succeed and better grades. Findings highlight the importance of taking an ecological approach for understanding processes that shape school effort and achievement. Implications are discussed in the context of promoting academic success among juvenile offenders, specifically, and for understanding pathways to healthy adjustment, more generally.

  15. White Dwarf Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Kepler, S. O.; Romero, Alejandra Daniela; Pelisoli, Ingrid; Ourique, Gustavo

    2017-01-01

    White dwarf stars are the final stage of most stars, born single or in multiple systems. We discuss the identification, magnetic fields, and mass distribution for white dwarfs detected from spectra obtained by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey up to Data Release 13 in 2016, which lead to the increase in the number of spectroscopically identified white dwarf stars from 5000 to 39000. This number includes only white dwarf stars with log g >= 6.5 stars, i.e., excluding the Extremely Low Mass white dw...

  16. [Bacteriological study on juvenile periodontitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, N

    1991-02-01

    The predominant cultivable microflora of 23 pockets in 15 juvenile periodontitis (JP) patients was studied for the first time in China using the current anaerobic methodology. Samples were taken with sterile paper points and dispersed on a vortex mixer. Then the diluted samples were plated on the non-selective blood agar plates and selective MGB medium which favors the growth of Actinobacillus actimycetemcomitans (Aa) and incubated in anaerobic chamber for 5 days. From each sample 15 or more isolated colonies were picked in sequence without selection and subcultured. The isolates were identified mainly by Schrechenberger's 4 hour rapid methods for biochemical and fermentative tests and the chromatographic analysis of acid end products using ion-chromatography. The results were as follows: 1. The microflora of healthy sulci of 7 healthy young subjects was significantly different from that in the pocket of JP patients. The predominant species in healthy sulci were Streptococcus spp and Capnocytophaga gingivalis. 2. The species increased significantly in JP patients in prevalence and proportions was Eubacterium. Other species in high proportions were Bacteroides oris, B. melaninogenicus, B. gingivalis, Capnocytophaga sputigena, and Actinomyces meyeri, etc. 3. Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans was not detected in any of the samples.

  17. Low White Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Low white blood cell count By Mayo Clinic Staff A low white blood cell count (leukopenia) is a decrease ... of white blood cell (neutrophil). The definition of low white blood cell count varies from one medical ...

  18. Age estimations of wild pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus, Forbes & Richardson 1905) based on pectoral fin spines, otoliths and bomb radiocarbon: inferences on recruitment in the dam-fragmented Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braaten, P. J.; Campana, S. E.; Fuller, D. B.; Lott, R. D.; Bruch, R. M.; Jordan, G. R.

    2015-01-01

    An extant stock of wild pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus persists in the fragmented upper Missouri River basin of Montana and North Dakota. Although successful spawning and hatch of embryos has been verified, long-term catch records suggest that recruitment has not occurred for several decades as the extant stock lacks juvenile size classes and is comprised exclusively of large, presumably old individuals. Ages of 11 deceased (death years 1997–2007) wild S. albus (136–166 cm fork length) were estimated based on pectoral fin spines, sagittal otoliths and bomb radiocarbon (14C) assays of otoliths to test the hypothesis that members of this stock are old and to provide inferences on recruitment years that produced the extant stock. Age estimations based on counts of presumed annuli were about 2 years greater for otoliths (mean = 51 years, range = 43–57 years) than spines (mean = 49 years, range = 37–59 years). Based on 14C assays, confirmed birth years for all individuals occurred prior to 1957, thus establishing known longevity of at least 50 years. Estimated age based on presumed otolith annuli for one S. albus was validated to at least age 49. Although 14C assays confirmed pre-1957 birth years for all S. albus, only 56% of estimated ages from spines and 91% of estimated ages from otoliths depicted pre-1957 birth years. Both ageing structures were subject to under-ageing error (up to 15 years). Lack of or severe curtailment of S. albus recruitment in the upper Missouri River basin since the mid-1950s closely parallels the 1953–1957 timeframe when a mainstem reservoir was constructed and started to fill. This reservoir may function as a system-wide stressor to diminish recruitment success of S. albus in the upper Missouri River basin.

  19. [Juvenile-onset ankylosing spondylitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menkes, C J; Job-Deslandre, C; Feldmann, J L

    1984-02-16

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) with juvenile onset (under 17 years of age) is not infrequent. Thirty-six cases were studied, amounting to 18% of patients hospitalized between 1977 and 1981. The following criteria were used for diagnosis: radiologic sacroiliitis (typical AS), presence of HLA B27 and/or pelvic or vertebral clinical manifestations (possible AS). 31 patients (85%) were boys. Mean age at onset was 12.3 +/- 2.8 years. In three cases, AS was found in a member of the family of the propositus and in one case there was cutaneous psoriasis. Usually (29 cases) onset was in the lower limbs: arthritis of the knee (14 cases), hip (9 cases), ankle (7 cases) or painful heel (4 cases). During the course (with a mean follow-up of 11.2 +/- 7 years), 35 patients exhibited peripheral joint diseases and 25 had axial involvement. Ocular involvement was present in 5 cases. 10 patients had a modification of respiratory function. Radiologic sacroiliitis was found in 31 patients but with a delay of 5.3 +/- 2.6 years. Vertebral radiologic lesions were only seen in 11 patients. Radiologic hip involvement was frequent (20 cases) with complete destruction in 6 patients. Erosion and ossification of the calcaneum were observed in 15 cases. The ESR was above 20 mm/first hour in 26 cases (72%). 81% of these patients were HLA B27 positive. Functional prognosis was good: 16 patients (51.6%) led an almost normal life, 6 were bedridden (Steinbrocker's grade IV), 3 had severe impairment (grade III) and 6 had slight impairment (grade II).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Diseases of white matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, B.A.

    1987-01-01

    The diagnosis of white matter abnormalities was revolutionized by the advent of computed tomography (CT), which provided a noninvasive method of detection and assessment of progression of a variety of white matter processes. However, the inadequacies of CT were recognized early, including its relative insensitivity to small foci of abnormal myelin in the brain when correlated with autopsy findings and its inability to image directly white matter diseases of the spinal cord. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), on the other hand, sensitive to the slight difference in tissue composition of normal gray and white matter and to subtle increase in water content associated with myelin disorders, is uniquely suited for the examination of white matter pathology. Its clinical applications include the evaluation of the normal process of myelination in childhood and the various white matter diseases, including disorders of demyelination and dysmyelination

  1. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis – an update on its diagnosis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-12-03

    Dec 3, 2015 ... Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common form of chronic arthritis in children and the most ... A swollen knee and uveitis in a young girl, for instance, is ..... Methotrexate for treating juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

  2. 83 CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS OF THE JUVENILE JUSTICE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    Juvenile justice administration in Nigeria is weak and has been given very .... The Nigerian criminal justice system, of which the juvenile justice system is an integral part, ... as instruments of security and justice but as weapons of oppression8.

  3. AFSC/ABL: Juvenile rockfish DNA species identification

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Many pelagic juvenile rockfish (Sebastes) were collected in juvenile salmonid surveys in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA) from 1998 to 2002. Often species identification of...

  4. Juvenile Fibromyalgia: A Multidisciplinary Approach to Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesher, Melissa S

    2015-06-01

    A 14-year-old boy presented with months of severe widespread musculoskeletal pain. He was profoundly fatigued and unable to attend school. Laboratory evaluation, including complete blood count, comprehensive metabolic panel, inflammatory markers, and thyroid function, was unrevealing. Physical examination was also normal except for multiple tender points. The patient was diagnosed with juvenile primary fibromyalgia syndrome and referred for multidisciplinary treatment including physical therapy, exercise, and counseling, and his daily functioning gradually improves. Juvenile fibromyalgia is a complex syndrome that often severely limits patients' activities and can impede normal adolescent development. Effective treatment requires an understanding of the biologic, psychologic, and social factors contributing to the perpetuation of chronic pain. The author reviews the diagnostic criteria, pathophysiology, and treatment of juvenile fibromyalgia. Medications, particularly antidepressants and anticonvulsants, can be useful adjuncts to therapy. However, multimodal pain management including intensive physical therapy, exercise, counseling, and sleep hygiene is most effective in treating fibromyalgia. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. Effect of TBT on Ruditapes decussatus juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, M R; Langston, W J; Bebianno, M J

    2006-06-01

    The effects of sublethal concentrations of tributyltin (TBT) on growth of juvenile clams Ruditapes decussatus were determined during exposure to TBT concentrations of 50, 100 and 250 ng l(-1) (as Sn) for a period up to two years. Length and weight of clams increased continuously in all treatments throughout the experimental period, and, overall, rates were not significantly influenced by TBT exposure, although final length and weight were inversely related to increasing TBT concentration. Juvenile R. decussatus therefore appear to be less sensitive to TBT than larval stages. Some juveniles exposed to TBT developed abnormal shell growth, laterally, changing the typical flattened shape of clams into a more "rounded" form. This characteristic was more visible in the anterior margins of valves than posteriorly, and mainly observed in clams exposed to TBT at 50 ng l(-1) (as Sn).

  6. Juvenile xanthogranuloma of the corneoscleral limbus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanoff, M; Perry, H D

    1995-07-01

    Juvenile xanthogranuloma is a rare and usually benign skin disease of unknown cause that occurs in infants and young children. We studied a case of juvenile xanthogranuloma of the corneoscleral limbus in a 17-year-old black boy, who presented with a 5-month history of a lump in the right eye. The lesion extended from the superior limbus, fanning out as it proceeded posteriorly for 6 mm with a width of 9 mm and a height of 2 to 3 mm. This yellow-orange mass was vascular and firmly fixed to the underlying tissue. The lesion was diagnosed as a dermoid and observed for 7 months without documented growth before an uneventful excisional biopsy was performed. The pathologic diagnosis showed the characteristic picture of juvenile xanthogranuloma with numerous Touton giant cells. Lipid stains provided further confirmation.

  7. Corporal and capital punishment of juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, H C

    1990-01-01

    There is a previously unobserved connection between corporal punishment of public school children and capital punishment of juveniles. Both are barometers of acceptable levels of violent punishment and their elimination is a hallmark of a maturing and decent society. Within a majority of the eighteen states where school authorities most frequently strike children are housed 25 of the nation's 28 juvenile death row inmates. On average, the homicide rates of these jurisdictions are two and a half times greater than those that have abolished both state-sanctioned corporal and capital punishment or limit death sentences to those age eighteen and older at the time of their crime(s). Most of the eighteen state abolitions of corporal punishment occurred in the 1980's. The US Supreme Court has ruled both corporal and capital punishment of juveniles constitutional. Additional state legislative abolition of both is anticipated in the 1990s.

  8. Delincuencia y responsabilidad penal juvenil en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Montalvo Velásquez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl término «delincuencia juvenil» fue acuñado en Inglaterra en el año 1815, “Se entiende por delincuencia juvenil el conjunto de delitos, contravenciones o comportamientos socialmente reprochables, que cometen las personas consideradas como jóvenes por la ley”1 . Cada Estado está sujeto a su propio sistema jurídico, para algunos es delincuente juvenil el adolescente que comete acciones sancionadas por la ley sin importar su gravedad, otros Estados sólo consideran como delincuente juvenil al joven que comete un acto delictivo grave.El fenómeno de la delincuencia juvenil es algo que se inscribe en los espacios de una sociedad en la cual su estructura material, y su formación social consecuente, se halla en una profunda crisis. Que jóvenes conformen bandas de delincuencia organizada nos está indicando que son el resultado de la misma criminalidad general que se ha apoderado de la sociedad en la perspectiva de lograr sobrevivir materialmente. El capitalismo no es sólo acumulación de riqueza sino concentración de la misma en muy pocas manos; y todo el sistema institucional y legal tiende a favorecer ese fenómeno porque éste constituye la supra estructura del modo de producción capitalista. Así como los adultos se organizan para delinquir, lo hacen los niños y los jóvenes a partir de una edad en la cual pueden percibir que la sociedad no es sana y no tienen porvenir humano en ella. Abandonados y sujetos a la violencia que engendra el sistema, ellos simplemente responden en una manifestación de reflejos condicionados que sostienen la sobrevivencia en forma instintiva; “los niños no saben de normas legales sino de formas de sobrevivir a semejante situación; el instinto de sobrevivencia no tiene edades ni la normatividad puede incidir en él”.Palabras ClavesDelincuencia juvenil, Jóvenes, Criminalidad, Familia, Factores, Acto delictivo, Responsabilidad Penal.AbstractThe term “juvenile delinquency” was coined in

  9. Imágenes juveniles, medios y nuevos escenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Aguilera Ruiz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo nace del análisis de los discursos radiales producidos exclusivamente para jóvenes en Santiago de Chile. Aborda además las categorías comprensivas de la vida juvenil, la vida juvenil de los años 90, el imaginario juvenil des-simbolizado, hacia una comprensión de lo juvenil, dinámica social propuesta por los medios y estrategias comunicacionales.

  10. The World of Juvenile Justice According to the Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozalski, Michael; Deignan, Marilyn; Engel, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    Intended to be an instructive, yet sobering, introduction to the complex and disturbing nature of the juvenile justice system, this article details the "numbers," including selected percentages, ratios, and dollar amounts, that are relevant to developing a better understanding of the juvenile justice system. General statistics about juvenile and…

  11. Challenges and prospects of the juvenile justice administration in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Juvenile justice administration in Nigeria is weak and has been given very little priority, despite Nigeria being signatory to the major international instruments relevant to the administration of juvenile justice. This is attributable to the history of the penal system of Nigeria, with laws guiding juvenile justice administration having ...

  12. THE WHITE BLOOD ANCESTOR?

    OpenAIRE

    M.Arulmani; V.R.Hema Latha

    2014-01-01

    This scientific research article focus that “Red colour blood” of human shall be considered as the 3rd generation Blood and the Human on origin shall be considered having white colour Blood. The white colour blood of human Ancestor shall be considered composed of only ions of Photon, Electron, Proton and free from Hydrogen, Carbon, Nitrogen, Ozone.

  13. Racializing white drag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhyne, Ragan

    2004-01-01

    While drag is primarily understood as a performance of gender, other performative categories such as race, class, and sexuality create drag meaning as well. Though other categories of identification are increasingly understood as essential elements of drag by performers of color, whiteness remains an unmarked category in the scholarship on drag performances by white queens. In this paper, I argue that drag by white queens must be understood as a performance of race as well as gender and that codes of gender excess are specifically constructed through the framework of these other axes of identity. This essay asks whether white performance by white queens necessarily reinscribes white supremacy through the performance of an unmarked white femininity, or might drag performance complicate (though not necessarily subvert) categories of race as well as gender? In this essay, I will suggest that camp drag performances, through the deployment of class as a crucial category of performative femininity, might indeed be a key site through which whiteness is denaturalized and its power challenged. Specifically, I will read on camp as a politicized mode of race, class and gender performance, focusing on the intersections of these categories of identity in the drag performance of Divine.

  14. Creating White Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLisky, Claire Louise; Carey, Jane

    Vedtagelsen af White Australien som regeringens politik i 1901 viser, at hvidheden var afgørende for den måde, hvorpå den nye nation i Australien blev konstitueret. Og alligevel har historikere i vid udstrækning overset hvidhed i deres studier af Australiens race fortid. 'Creating White Australia...

  15. Criminal Profiles of Violent Juvenile Sex and Violent Juvenile Non-Sex Offenders: An Explorative Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Anton Ph.; Mali, Bas R. F.; Bullens, Ruud A. R.; Vermeiren, Robert R.

    2007-01-01

    Few studies have longitudinally investigated the criminal profiles of violent juvenile sex and violent juvenile non-sex offenders. To make up for this lack, this study used police records of juveniles to determine the nature of the criminal profiles of violent sex offenders (n = 226) and violent non-sex offenders (n = 4,130). All offenders…

  16. Juvenile Residential Facility Census, 2010: Selected Findings. Juvenile Offenders and Victims: National Report Series. Bulletin NCJ 241134

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockenberry, Sarah; Sickmund, Melissa; Sladky, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    This bulletin is part of the "Juvenile Offenders and Victims National Report Series." The "National Report" offers a comprehensive statistical overview of the problems of juvenile crime, violence, and victimization and the response of the juvenile justice system. During each interim year, the bulletins in the "National…

  17. Development of polysomic microsatellite markers for characterization of population structuring and phylogeography in the shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Anne P.; King, Tim L.

    2012-01-01

    Shortnose sturgeon Acipenser brevirostrum is an endangered polyploid fish species for which no nuclear DNA markers previously existed. To address this need, 86 polysomic loci were developed and characterized in 20 A. brevirostrum from five river systems and eight members (parents and six progeny) of a captive-bred family. All markers proved to be polymorphic, polysomic, and demonstrated direct inheritance when tested in a captive family. Eleven loci were included in a range-wide survey of 561 fish sampled from 17 geographic collections. Allelic diversity at these markers ranged from 7 to 24 alleles/locus and averaged 16.5 alleles/locus; sufficient diversity to produce unique multilocus genotypes. In the range-wide survey, a Mantel comparison of an ecological (1-Jaccard’s) and genetic (ΦPT; an analog to FST) distance metrics, identified a strong positive correlation (r = 0.98, P PT represents a viable metric for assessing genetic relatedness using this class of marker.

  18. Establishment and long-term culture of the cell lines derived from gonad tissues of Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Hyung Ryu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To culture germline stem cells in vitro, establishment of the cell lines that can be used as the feeder cells is a prerequisite. In this study, we tried to establish gonad-derived cell lines in Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii. Five 1-year-old A. baerii were used as a donor of gonad tissues, and gonad-dissociated cells were cultured in vitro. Subsequently, determination of growth conditions, long-term culture, characterization, and cryopreservation of the cell lines were also conducted. Five gonad-derived cell lines were stably established and cultured continuously over at least the 73th passage and 402 culture days under the media containing 20 % fetal bovine serum at 28 °C. All cell lines consisted of two main cell types based on morphology even if the ratio of the two cell types was different depending on cell lines. Despite long-term culture, all cell lines maintained diploid DNA contents and expression of several genes that are known to express in the A. baerii gonad. After freezing and thawing of the cell lines, post-thaw cell viabilities between 57.6 and 92.9 % depending on cell lines were indentified, suggesting that stable cryopreservation is possible. The results and the cell lines established in this study will contribute to the development of an in vitro system for A. baerii germline stem cell culture.

  19. The taxonomic status of the white-tailed kite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, W.S.; Banks, R.C.

    1992-01-01

    The White-tailed Kite (Elanus leucurus) of the Americas has been merged with the Black-shouldered (or Black-winged) Kite (E. caeruleus) of the Old World and the Australian Black-shouldered Kite (E. axillaris) by North American authorities (but not elsewhere), primarily because of similarity in plumage. However, American kites differ from Old World kites in greater size and weight, in proportions (relatively longer tail and smaller bill and feet), plumage pattern (particularly of juveniles), and in behavior. Here we argue that these characters are sufficiently distinctive to warrant recognition of E. leucurus at the species level.

  20. A critical examination of "being Black" in the juvenile justice system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Jennifer H; Jennings, Wesley G

    2016-06-01

    The current study examined the role of race in juvenile court outcomes across 3 decision-making stages. This analysis was conducted with a random sample of all delinquent referrals in a Northeast state from January 2000 through December 2010 (N = 68,188). In addition to traditional logistic regression analysis, a propensity score matching (PSM) approach was utilized to create comparable samples of Black and White youth and provide a more rigorous methodological test of the relationship between race and juvenile court processing. Results indicated that even after the use of PSM techniques, race was still found to influence the likelihood of intake (OR = 1.54; 95% C.I. = 1.48-1.62, p social control. They also reaffirm the noticeable role that selection bias can play in the research surrounding race differences in juvenile court outcomes, and highlight the importance of utilizing a more stringent statistical model to control for selection bias. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Exercise therapy in juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takken, T.; van Brussel, M.; Engelbert, R. H. H.; van der Net, J.; Kuis, W.; Helders, P. J. M.

    2008-01-01

    Exercise therapy is considered an important component of the treatment of arthritis. The efficacy of exercise therapy has been reviewed in adults with rheumatoid arthritis but not in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). To assess the effects of exercise therapy on functional ability,

  2. Program Performance Inventory: Six Juvenile Offender Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomalla, Terri Groff; Dougherty, Victoria J.

    This report describes the performance of 6 Connecticut juvenile justice alternative sanction programs in 14 qualitative areas: community reintegration; outcomes and evaluation; assessment methods; risk factors; escalation of criminal activity; family involvement; community involvement; work ethic and vocational training; education and life skills;…

  3. Radium rentention and dosimetry in juvenile beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, R.D.; Jones, C.W.; Bruenger, F.W.; Atherton, D.R.; Mays, C.W.

    1983-01-01

    Retention of administered 226 Ra was substantially greater in beagles injected as 3-month-old juveniles than as 1.4-year-old adults, but the measured 222 Rn/ 226 Ra ratio in bone was significantly less in juveniles for about the first 600 days after injection. An equation that describes the total-body biological retention R in beagles injected with 226 Ra at 3 months of age at any time t (in days) after injection during the first 6.6 years is R = 0.331e/sup -0.206t/ + 0.245e/sup -0.00374t/ + 0.424e/sup -0.000114t/. The rate constant of the final term in the equation for juveniles is similar to that for young adults, suggesting that this component reflects the net turnover rate in the slowly remodeling component of adult bone. Compared to young adult beagles, animals injected as juveniles had a greater fraction of their retained 226 Ra in parts of the skeleton containing much cortical bone, such as paws, and a smaller fraction in those parts containing much trabecular bone

  4. Alteracioness cognitivas en familias con Parkinson juvenil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Lopera Restrepo

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available El Grupo de Neurociencias de la Universidad de Antioquia reportó por primera vez en Colombia cuatro familias afecatas por la Enfermedad de Parkinson Familiar Juvenil portadoras de la mutación G736A en el gen Parkin.

  5. Biological agents in polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amarilyo, Gil; Tarp, Simon; Foeldvari, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Although various biological agents are in use for polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (pJIA), head-to-head trials comparing the efficacy and safety among them are lacking. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of biological agents in pJIA using all currently...

  6. Antibodies in juvenile-onset myositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansley, Sarah L

    2016-11-01

    Juvenile-onset myositis is a highly heterogeneous disease. Myositis-specific and associated autoantibodies provide a potential means of subdividing patients into clinically homogenous subgroups. Given the increasing availability of autoantibody testing, this review explores the phenotypes associated with different autoantibodies in juvenile-onset myositis and the potential clinical utility of autoantibody testing. Autoantibodies can be identified in 60-70% of children with myositis and the recent discovery of novel myositis-associated autoantibodies in adult patients suggests this may increase in the near future. Detailed phenotype descriptions are now known for several autoantibodies commonly identified in juvenile-onset disease. Whilst there is insufficient evidence to recommend a differential treatment approach based on autoantibody status, it is becoming increasingly clear that some autoantibody subgroups are often treatment resistant and may benefit from a more aggressive approach. The validation of nonspecialised methods for myositis-specific autoantibody detection should lead to more widely available testing. In juvenile-onset disease, this will provide detailed prognostic information and in the future may also influence approach.

  7. Do burn centers provide juvenile firesetter intervention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrns-Klas, Karla S; Wahl, Wendy L; Hemmila, Mark R; Wang, Stewart C

    2012-01-01

    Juvenile firesetting activity accounts for a significant number of annual injuries and property damage, yet there is sparse information on intervention in the burn literature. To quantify juvenile firesetting intervention (JFSI) in burn centers, a 23-question survey was sent to all directors listed in the American Burn Association Burn Care Facilities Directory.Sixty-four out of 112 (57%) surveys were returned. This represents responses from 79% of currently verified burn centers. When queried on interventions provided to a juvenile firesetter admitted to their unit, 38% report having their own JFSI program and 38% refer the child to fire services. Two thirds of units without a JFSI program treat pediatric patients. Units that previously had a JFSI program report lack of staffing and funding as most common reasons for program discontinuation. Almost all (95%) stated that a visual tool demonstrating legal, financial, social, future, and career ramifications associated with juvenile firesetting would be beneficial to their unit. Many burn units that treat pediatric patients do not have JFSI and rely on external programs operated by fire services. Existing JFSI programs vary greatly in structure and method of delivery. Burn centers should be involved in JFSI, and most units would benefit from a new video toolkit to assist in providing appropriate JFSI. Study results highlight a need for burn centers to collaborate on evaluating effectiveness of JFSI programs and providing consistent intervention materials based on outcomes research.

  8. Retrocalcaneal bursitis in juvenile chronic arthritis.

    OpenAIRE

    Goldenstein-Schainberg, C; Homsi, C; Rodrigues Pereira, R M; Cossermelli, W

    1992-01-01

    Retrocalcaneal bursitis has been described in various adult rheumatic diseases and septic bursitis unrelated to previous bursal disease has been reported in children. The case is reported here of a girl with juvenile chronic arthritis who developed non-septic retrocalcaneal bursitis; the diagnosis was suggested by a combination of clinical and radiographic studies and was confirmed by ultrasonography.

  9. Retrocalcaneal bursitis in juvenile chronic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenstein-Schainberg, C; Homsi, C; Rodrigues Pereira, R M; Cossermelli, W

    1992-01-01

    Retrocalcaneal bursitis has been described in various adult rheumatic diseases and septic bursitis unrelated to previous bursal disease has been reported in children. The case is reported here of a girl with juvenile chronic arthritis who developed non-septic retrocalcaneal bursitis; the diagnosis was suggested by a combination of clinical and radiographic studies and was confirmed by ultrasonography. Images PMID:1444631

  10. Bilateral, independent juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mørkenborg, M-L; Frendø, M; Stavngaard, T; Von Buchwald, C

    2015-10-01

    Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a benign, vascular tumour that primarily occurs in adolescent males. Despite its benign nature, aggressive growth patterns can cause potential life-threatening complications. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is normally unilateral, originating from the sphenopalatine artery, but bilateral symptoms can occur if a large tumour extends to the contralateral side of the nasopharynx. This paper presents the first reported case of true bilateral extensive juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma involving clinically challenging pre-surgical planning and surgical strategy. A 21-year-old male presented with increasing bilateral nasal obstruction and discharge. Examination revealed tumours bilaterally and imaging demonstrated non-contiguous tumours. Pre-operative angiography showed strictly ipsilateral vascular supplies requiring bilateral embolisation. Radical removal performed as one-step, computer-assisted functional endoscopic sinus surgery was performed. The follow-up period was uncomplicated. This case illustrates the importance of suspecting bilateral juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma in patients presenting with bilateral symptoms. Our management, including successful pre-operative planning, enabled one-step total removal of both tumours and rapid patient recovery.

  11. Perceived Competence of Juvenile Delinquents and Nondelinquents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Peter G.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Thirty male juvenile delinquents and 90 male high achievers, low achievers, and students with behavior problems were compared using an adapted version of Harter's Perceived Competence Scale for Children. The Australian students (aged 12-15) were compared on 4 different domains of perceived competence--cognitive competence, social competence,…

  12. Factors Involved in Juveniles' Decisions about Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimler, Edward; Beach, Lee Roy

    1981-01-01

    Investigated whether delinquency is the result of a rational decision. The Subjective Expected Utility (SEU) model from decision theory was used with male juvenile offenders (N=45) as the model of the decision process. Results showed that the SEU model predicted 62.7 percent of the subjects' decisions. (Author/RC)

  13. Juvenile Court Commitment Rates: The National Picture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosin, Michael

    There is less geographic variation in the commitment rate of juvenile offenders than is commonly assumed. Apparently, judges across the country develop a similar standard of what percentage of youths they face should be committed. This standard may be similar across the country because it represents broadly shared ideals. However, there is much…

  14. Smerte og smertemestring ved juvenil idiopatisk artritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlin, Troels; Thastum, Mikael

    2008-01-01

    Pain is one of the primary symptoms of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). JIA patients have reduced pain tolerance and pain threshold compared to healthy controls. In children with JIA the greater use of coping strategies such as problem-solving, positive self-statements and distraction consist...

  15. Biologisk terapi ved juvenil idiopatisk artritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlin, Troels

    2008-01-01

    In recent years the treatment of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) has undergone marked changes. There is substantial evidence that inhibitors of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) like etanercept, infliximab and adalimumab show significant efficacy when standard therapy fails, and long-ter...

  16. Nasopharyngeal juvenile angiofibroma: updating of radiotherapy results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alert Silva, Jose; Caballero Aguirrechu, Iraida; Reno Cespedes, Jesus; Perez Penna, Lourdes

    2010-01-01

    The nasopharyngeal juvenile angiofibroma is a uncommon benign tumor composed of fibrous connective tissue and many vascular spaces covered by endothelium. It is almost exclusive of male sex and of adolescents. Choice treatment is the exeresis without obviate other possibilities as the radiotherapy. The aim of present study was to show the results of this latter as therapeutical option

  17. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia presenting as Juvenile Idiopathic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia in children commonly presents with osteo articular manifestations that may mimic Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis. This may create considerable diagnostic difficulty and lead to delay in commencing appropriate treatment. Case: An eight year old boy who presented with multiple ...

  18. Molecular basis of juvenile hormone signaling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jindra, Marek; Bellés, X.; Shinoda, T.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 11, Oct 09 (2015), s. 39-46 ISSN 2214-5745 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-23681S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : juvenile hormone * JH receptor * Drosophila melanogaster Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.719, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2214574515001297

  19. Metamorphosis: How Missouri Rehabilitates Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubin, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Juveniles convicted of serious offenses usually end up in large correctional facilities that focus on punishment--not rehabilitation. The state of Missouri, however, has found a better way to help end the cycle of crime: by creating a network of small facilities that provide therapy and educational opportunities, it has dramatically reduced…

  20. Shortening the juvenile phase for flowering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Higazy, M.K.M.T.

    1962-01-01

    Higazy tried to determine whether the duration of the juvenile phase for flowering was a fixed character or whether it could be influenced by external growth factors.

    Lunaria biennis was chosen as a cold-requiring biennial, Silene armeria as a long-day plant and Salvia

  1. The Diversity of Juvenile Sarcoidosis Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Vougiouka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of juvenile sarcoidosis, emphasizing the variety of clinical manifestations. The child had uveitis, which is among the most common manifestations of the disease. However, fever of unknown origin, glomerulonephritis and lymphadenopathy were also noticed, underscoring the diversity of the clinical spectrum of the disease.

  2. Musculoskeletal MRI findings of juvenile localized scleroderma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eutsler, Eric P. [Nemours Children' s Health System/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Wilmington, DE (United States); Washington University School of Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis, MO (United States); Horton, Daniel B. [Nemours Children' s Health System/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Division of Rheumatology, Department of Pediatrics, Wilmington, DE (United States); Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Department of Pediatrics, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Epelman, Monica [Nemours Children' s Health System/Nemours Children' s Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Orlando, FL (United States); Finkel, Terri [Nemours Children' s Health System/Nemours Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Orlando, FL (United States); Averill, Lauren W. [Nemours Children' s Health System/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Wilmington, DE (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Juvenile localized scleroderma comprises a group of autoimmune conditions often characterized clinically by an area of skin hardening. In addition to superficial changes in the skin and subcutaneous tissues, juvenile localized scleroderma may involve the deep soft tissues, bones and joints, possibly resulting in functional impairment and pain in addition to cosmetic changes. There is literature documenting the spectrum of findings for deep involvement of localized scleroderma (fascia, muscles, tendons, bones and joints) in adults, but there is limited literature for the condition in children. We aimed to document the spectrum of musculoskeletal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of both superficial and deep juvenile localized scleroderma involvement in children and to evaluate the utility of various MRI sequences for detecting those findings. Two radiologists retrospectively evaluated 20 MRI studies of the extremities in 14 children with juvenile localized scleroderma. Each imaging sequence was also given a subjective score of 0 (not useful), 1 (somewhat useful) or 2 (most useful for detecting the findings). Deep tissue involvement was detected in 65% of the imaged extremities. Fascial thickening and enhancement were seen in 50% of imaged extremities. Axial T1, axial T1 fat-suppressed (FS) contrast-enhanced and axial fluid-sensitive sequences were rated most useful. Fascial thickening and enhancement were the most commonly encountered deep tissue findings in extremity MRIs of children with juvenile localized scleroderma. Because abnormalities of the skin, subcutaneous tissues and fascia tend to run longitudinally in an affected limb, axial T1, axial fluid-sensitive and axial T1-FS contrast-enhanced sequences should be included in the imaging protocol. (orig.)

  3. Musculoskeletal MRI findings of juvenile localized scleroderma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eutsler, Eric P.; Horton, Daniel B.; Epelman, Monica; Finkel, Terri; Averill, Lauren W.

    2017-01-01

    Juvenile localized scleroderma comprises a group of autoimmune conditions often characterized clinically by an area of skin hardening. In addition to superficial changes in the skin and subcutaneous tissues, juvenile localized scleroderma may involve the deep soft tissues, bones and joints, possibly resulting in functional impairment and pain in addition to cosmetic changes. There is literature documenting the spectrum of findings for deep involvement of localized scleroderma (fascia, muscles, tendons, bones and joints) in adults, but there is limited literature for the condition in children. We aimed to document the spectrum of musculoskeletal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of both superficial and deep juvenile localized scleroderma involvement in children and to evaluate the utility of various MRI sequences for detecting those findings. Two radiologists retrospectively evaluated 20 MRI studies of the extremities in 14 children with juvenile localized scleroderma. Each imaging sequence was also given a subjective score of 0 (not useful), 1 (somewhat useful) or 2 (most useful for detecting the findings). Deep tissue involvement was detected in 65% of the imaged extremities. Fascial thickening and enhancement were seen in 50% of imaged extremities. Axial T1, axial T1 fat-suppressed (FS) contrast-enhanced and axial fluid-sensitive sequences were rated most useful. Fascial thickening and enhancement were the most commonly encountered deep tissue findings in extremity MRIs of children with juvenile localized scleroderma. Because abnormalities of the skin, subcutaneous tissues and fascia tend to run longitudinally in an affected limb, axial T1, axial fluid-sensitive and axial T1-FS contrast-enhanced sequences should be included in the imaging protocol. (orig.)

  4. Musculoskeletal MRI findings of juvenile localized scleroderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eutsler, Eric P; Horton, Daniel B; Epelman, Monica; Finkel, Terri; Averill, Lauren W

    2017-04-01

    Juvenile localized scleroderma comprises a group of autoimmune conditions often characterized clinically by an area of skin hardening. In addition to superficial changes in the skin and subcutaneous tissues, juvenile localized scleroderma may involve the deep soft tissues, bones and joints, possibly resulting in functional impairment and pain in addition to cosmetic changes. There is literature documenting the spectrum of findings for deep involvement of localized scleroderma (fascia, muscles, tendons, bones and joints) in adults, but there is limited literature for the condition in children. We aimed to document the spectrum of musculoskeletal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of both superficial and deep juvenile localized scleroderma involvement in children and to evaluate the utility of various MRI sequences for detecting those findings. Two radiologists retrospectively evaluated 20 MRI studies of the extremities in 14 children with juvenile localized scleroderma. Each imaging sequence was also given a subjective score of 0 (not useful), 1 (somewhat useful) or 2 (most useful for detecting the findings). Deep tissue involvement was detected in 65% of the imaged extremities. Fascial thickening and enhancement were seen in 50% of imaged extremities. Axial T1, axial T1 fat-suppressed (FS) contrast-enhanced and axial fluid-sensitive sequences were rated most useful. Fascial thickening and enhancement were the most commonly encountered deep tissue findings in extremity MRIs of children with juvenile localized scleroderma. Because abnormalities of the skin, subcutaneous tissues and fascia tend to run longitudinally in an affected limb, axial T1, axial fluid-sensitive and axial T1-FS contrast-enhanced sequences should be included in the imaging protocol.

  5. The Embeddedness of White Fragility within White Pre-Service Principals' Reflections on White Privilege

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Mack T., III

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes the prevalence of white fragility within the six white, pre-service principals' online responses to readings about white privilege. Six white, pre-service principals were asked to provide commentary to class readings on the relevance of white privilege to their preparation for future positions as principals. The findings showed…

  6. Seasonal movements among river reaches, migration strategies, and population structure of the divided Connecticut River shortnose sturgeon population: the effects of Holyoke Dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kynard, Boyd; Kieffer, Micah; Vinogradov, Phil; Kynard, B.; Bronzi, P.; Rosenthal, H.

    2012-01-01

    Even after 155 years, each population segment seasonally migrates toward the other attempting to maintain the natural connection. Migration timing and style of pre-spawning and post-spawning males and females is discussed, as is homing. The impact of Holyoke Dam on population size and growth is characterized and turbine mortality of adult sturgeon passing through a Kaplan turbine at the dam is estimated. The chapter also identifies a behavioral dysfunction that results when migrations are blocked by a dam and are not completed at the correct stage of life. Many unknown effects of damming on other long-lived riverine fishes are likely captured in this 16-year study.

  7. Simulation of Changes of Activity Level of Some Carbohydrazes of Russian Sturgeon by the Influence of Environmental Osmotic Pressure by Means of Hybrid Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Tuktarov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of simulation of the influence environmental osmotic pressure to the activity level of maltase and α-amilase of intestinal mucous tunic of Russian sturgeon. For the solving of this problem methods of neural networks and fuzzy logic are used. Create models are rated as the category of adaptive neural-fuzzy inference systems. Regularities of this influence were researched; created models have high approximate property and generalize well.

  8. Hypermedicalization in White Noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Josef

    2015-09-01

    The Nazis hijacked Germany's medical establishment and appropriated medical language to hegemonize their ideology. In White Noise, shifting medical information stifles the public into docility. In Nazi Germany the primacy of language and medical authority magnified the importance of academic doctors. The muddling of identities caused complex insecurities and the need for psychological doubles. In White Noise, Professor Gladney is driven by professional insecurities to enact a double in Murray. Through the manipulation of language and medical overreach the U.S., exemplified in the novel White Noise, has become a hypermedicalized society where the spirit of the Hippocratic Oath has eroded.

  9. Growth of sterlet Acipenser ruthenus under experimental and farm conditions of the Czech Republic, with remarks on other sturgeons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prokeš, Miroslav; Baruš, Vlastimil; Mareš, J.; Peňáz, Milan; Baránek, V.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 6 (2011), s. 281-290 ISSN 1211-8516 R&D Projects: GA MZe QH71305 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : sterlet juveniles and adults * specific growth rate * length-weight relationship * condition factor Subject RIV: GL - Fishing http://www.mendelu.cz/dok_server/slozka.pl?id=51329;download=85841

  10. Hyperconnectivity in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy: a network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caeyenberghs, K; Powell, H W R; Thomas, R H; Brindley, L; Church, C; Evans, J; Muthukumaraswamy, S D; Jones, D K; Hamandi, K

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is a common idiopathic (genetic) generalized epilepsy (IGE) syndrome characterized by impairments in executive and cognitive control, affecting independent living and psychosocial functioning. There is a growing consensus that JME is associated with abnormal function of diffuse brain networks, typically affecting frontal and fronto-thalamic areas. Using diffusion MRI and a graph theoretical analysis, we examined bivariate (network-based statistic) and multivariate (global and local) properties of structural brain networks in patients with JME (N = 34) and matched controls. Neuropsychological assessment was performed in a subgroup of 14 patients. Neuropsychometry revealed impaired visual memory and naming in JME patients despite a normal full scale IQ (mean = 98.6). Both JME patients and controls exhibited a small world topology in their white matter networks, with no significant differences in the global multivariate network properties between the groups. The network-based statistic approach identified one subnetwork of hyperconnectivity in the JME group, involving primary motor, parietal and subcortical regions. Finally, there was a significant positive correlation in structural connectivity with cognitive task performance. Our findings suggest that structural changes in JME patients are distributed at a network level, beyond the frontal lobes. The identified subnetwork includes key structures in spike wave generation, along with primary motor areas, which may contribute to myoclonic jerks. We conclude that analyzing the affected subnetworks may provide new insights into understanding seizure generation, as well as the cognitive deficits observed in JME patients.

  11. The relationship between substance use, drug selling, and lethal violence in 25 juvenile murderers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclaughlin, C R; Daniel, J; Joost, T F

    2000-03-01

    The goal of the present study was to determine the relationship between substance use, drug selling, and lethal violence in adolescent male homicide offenders and their victims. The study employed a retrospective review of criminal justice databases and medical examiner records for murders committed by 25 adolescent males incarcerated in the Commonwealth of Virginia juvenile correctional centers from February 1992 to July 1996. The perpetrator sample was 84% African American and 16% white. The average age at the time of the offense was 15.0 years (range = 13.0 to 17.7 years). The victims were 84% male, 60% African American and 32% white. The median victim age was 28.0 years (mean = 34.8, range = 17 months to 75 years). The results indicated that 52% of the murders were committed by juveniles with identified involvement in drug selling, and 28% of the murders were drug-related. Toxicology results indicated recent drug or alcohol use in 27% of the victims; while 74% of the perpetrators reported substance use, 35% indicating daily use. Using discriminant analysis, it was possible to accurately classify 86% of the drug-related murders with the variables of recent victim drug use and perpetrator substance use history. The results indicated that adolescent males involved in the sale and distribution of illegal drugs comprised a significant percentage of those incarcerated for murder. Recent victim drug use and perpetrator substance use may be important variables in identifying drug-related juvenile homicides. These results underscore the link between substance use, drug selling, and lethal violence.

  12. Orofacial pain, jaw function, and temporomandibular disorders in adult women with a history of juvenile chronic arthritis or persistent juvenile chronic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakke, M.; Zak, M.; Jensen, B.L.

    2001-01-01

    Orofacial pain, jaw function, temporomandibular disorders, adult women persistent juvenil chronic arthritis......Orofacial pain, jaw function, temporomandibular disorders, adult women persistent juvenil chronic arthritis...

  13. Glycogen and proximate content of white shrimp fed on different carbohydrate level and feeding frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    , Zainuddin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT White shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is one of penaeid shrimp which can be cultured either in traditional and advanced technology scale. One problem that commonly faced by pond farmer is the high price of feed with high protein content. This research was to identify the optimal level of carbohydrate and feeding frequency on glycogen deposit and chemical composition of white shrimp juvenile. Research used factorial completely randomized design with two factors in triplicates. Treatments were factor A, carbohydrate level in feed respectively A1 (30%, A2 (37%, A3 (44%, A4 (50%, and factor B daily feeding frequency respectively B1 (twice, B2 (four times, and B3 (six times respectively. White shrimp used had an initial average body weight of 0.3 g/shrimp. Feeding level was 10% of shrimp body weight. Results showed that both factors, carbohydrate level in feed, feeding frequency and their interactions were not significantly different on glycogen deposit of white shrimp juvenile. Analysis result on chemical compositions of white shrimp juvenile consisted of protein, lipid, nitrogen-free extract, crude fiber, ash, and energy were generally increased after treatments. Keywords: glycogen deposit, feeding frequency, chemical composition, carbohydrate level ABSTRAK Udang vaname Litopenaeus vannamei merupakan salah satu jenis udang penaeid yang dapat dibudidayakan baik dalam skala teknologi tradisional maupun skala teknologi maju. Salah satu masalah yang dihadapi para petani tambak adalah tingginya harga pakan yang disebabkan karena tingginya kandungan protein pakan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji efek pemberian pakan dengan kadar karbohidrat dan frekuensi pemberian berbeda terhadap deposit glikogen dan komposisi kimia tubuh juvenil udang vanamei. Penelitian menggunakan desain rancangan acak lengkap pola faktorial dengan dua faktor dan setiap faktor diberi masing-masing tiga ulangan. Perlakuan yang diuji adalah faktor A, kadar karbohidrat

  14. ESCO White Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA developed this white paper to explore energy performance contracting with Energy Service Companies (ESCOs) and its potential to be a best practice for installing solar thermal water heating systems in the commercial and industrial sector.

  15. Northeast Atlantic blue whiting

    OpenAIRE

    Heino, Mikko

    2010-01-01

    Heino, M. 2010. Northeast Atlantic blue whiting. In Life cycle spatial patterns of small pelagic fish in the Northeast Atlantic, pp. 59-64. Ed by P. Petitgas. ICES Cooperative Research Report 306. ICES, Copenhagen.

  16. White House Communications Agency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gimble, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    ...; and the Deputy Secretary of Defense requested the audit. The Deputy Secretary of Defense emphasized that this review should be as thorough as possible of all White House Communications Agency (WHCA...

  17. Progenitors of white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drilling, J.S.; Schoenberner, D.

    1985-01-01

    Direct observational evidence is presented which indicates that the immediate progenitors of white dwarfs are the central stars of planetary nebulae (approximately 70%), other post-AGB objects (approximately 30%), and post-HB objects not massive enough to climb the AGB (approximately 0.3%). The combined birth rate for these objects is in satisfactory agreement with the death rate of main-sequence stars and the birth rate of white dwarfs

  18. Chemical composition and natural durability of juvenile and mature heartwood of Robinia pseudoacacia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João V.F Latorraca

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the properties of juvenile and mature heartwood of Robinia pseudoacacia L. (black locust. The content, the composition, and subcellular localization of heartwood extractives were studied in 14 old-grown trees from forest sites in Germany and Hungary, as well as in 16 younger trees of four clone types. Heartwood extractives (methanol and acetone extraction were analysed by HPLC-chromatography. UV microspectrophotometry was used to localize the extractives in the wood cell walls. The natural durability of juvenile and mature heartwood was analysed according to the European standard EN 350-1. Growth analyses, as well as the chemical analyses, showed that in Robinia the formation of juvenile wood is restricted to the first 10-15 years of cambial growth. In the heartwood high contents of phenolic compounds and flavonoids were present, which were in high concentrations in the cell walls of the axial parenchyma and of the vessels. In the juvenile heartwood, the content of these extractives is significantly lower than in the mature heartwood. In agree, the juvenile heartwood had a lower resistance to decay by Coniophora puteana (brown rot fungus and Coriolus versicolor (white rot fungus compared to the mature.O objetivo deste estudo foi caracterizar as propriedades da região de cerne dos lenhos juvenis e adultos de Robinia pseudoacacia L. O conteúdo, a composição, bem como a localização subcelular dos extrativos foram estudados em 14 árvores de florestas de produção na Alemanha e na Hungria, assim como em 16 árvores de quatro tipos clone. Os extrativos (metanol e acetona extração foram analisados por cromatografia-HPLC. O microespectrofotômetro de ultra violeta foi utilizado para localizar os extrativos nas paredes celulares da madeira. A durabilidade natural do lenho juvenil e adulto foi analisada de acordo com a norma europeia EN 350-1. Análises do incremento, bem como as análises qu

  19. Acupuntura em adolescentes com fibromialgia juvenil Acupuntura en adolescentes con fibromialgia juvenil Acupuncture in adolescents with juvenile fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marialda Höfling P. Dias

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a utilização da acupuntura em adolescentes com fibromialgia juvenil. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo realizado em pacientes com fibromialgia juvenil (critérios do Colégio Americano de Reumatologia submetidos a, pelo menos, 11 sessões semanais de acupuntura. As avaliações antes e após acupuntura incluíram dados demográficos, características da dor musculoesquelética, número de pontos dolorosos (NPD, escala visual analógica (EVA de dor, algiometria e índice miálgico (IM. Durante o estudo, os pacientes puderam usar analgésicos, amitriptilina e foram orientados a praticar atividade física aeróbica. Os resultados antes e após acupuntura foram comparados pelo teste não paramétrico de Wilcoxon. RESULTADOS: Dos 38 pacientes com fibromialgia juvenil acompanhados em oito anos consecutivos, 13 tinham todas as informações nos prontuários e nas fichas de acupuntura e foram avaliados. Destes 13, sete obtiveram melhora nos três parâmetros analisados (número de pontos dolorosos, EVA de dor e IM. As medianas do número de pontos dolorosos e da EVA de dor foram significativamente maiores antes do tratamento quando comparados ao final do tratamento com as sessões de acupuntura [14 (11-18 versus 10 (0-15, p=0,005; 6 (2-10 versus 3 (0-10, p=0,045; respectivamente]. Em contraste, a mediana do IM foi significativamente menor antes do tratamento [3,4 (2,49-4,39 versus 4,2 (2,71-5,99, p=0,02]. Nenhum dos pacientes com fibromialgia juvenil apresentou eventos adversos associados à acupuntura. CONCLUSÕES: Acupuntura é uma modalidade de Medicina Tradicional Chinesa que pode ser utilizada nos pacientes pediátricos com fibromialgia. Futuros estudos controlados serão necessários.OBJETIVO: Describir el uso de acupuntura en adolescentes con fibromialgia juvenil. MÉTODOS: Estudio retrospectivo realizado en pacientes con fibromialgia juvenil (criterios del Colegio Americano de Reumatología sometidos a al menos 11 sesiones

  20. Black and white holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeldovich, Ya.; Novikov, I.; Starobinskij, A.

    1978-01-01

    The theory is explained of the origination of white holes as a dual phenomenon with regard to the formation of black holes. Theoretically it is possible to derive the white hole by changing the sign of time in solving the general theory of relativity equation implying the black hole. The white hole represents the amount of particles formed in the vicinity of a singularity. For a distant observer, matter composed of these particles expands and the outer boundaries of this matter approach from the inside the gravitational radius Rsub(r). At t>>Rsub(r)/c all radiation or expulsion of matter terminates. For the outside observer the white hole exists for an unlimited length of time. In fact, however, it acquires the properties of a black hole and all processes in it cease. The qualitative difference between a white hole and a black hole is in that a white hole is formed as the result of an inner quantum explosion from the singularity to the gravitational radius and not as the result of a gravitational collapse, i.e., the shrinkage of diluted matter towards the gravitational radius. (J.B.)

  1. Black and white holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeldovich, Ya; Novikov, I; Starobinskii, A

    1978-07-01

    The theory is explained of the origination of white holes as a dual phenomenon with regard to the formation of black holes. Theoretically it is possible to derive the white hole by changing the sign of time in solving the general theory of relativity equation implying the black hole. The white hole represents the amount of particles formed in the vicinity of a singularity. For a distant observer, matter composed of these particles expands and the outer boundaries of this matter approach from the inside the gravitational radius R/sub r/. At t>>R/sub r//c all radiation or expulsion of matter terminates. For the outside observer the white hole exists for an unlimited length of time. In fact, however, it acquires the properties of a black hole and all processes in it cease. The qualitative difference between a white hole and a black hole is in that a white hole is formed as the result of an inner quantum explosion from the singularity to the gravitational radius and not as the result of a gravitational collapse, i.e., the shrinkage of diluted matter towards the gravitational radius.

  2. Impact of juvenile idiopathic arthritis on schooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouaddi Ilham

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA is the most common arthropathy of childhood. Different diseases affect school attendance to varying degrees. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA on Moroccan children’s schooling. Methods Thirty-three children with JIA were included in this study, having been previously diagnosed according to the classification criteria of the International League of Associations for Rheumatology (ILAR. Seventy-four healthy children were recruited to serve as controls. Data was obtained for all children on their school level, educational performance, and attendance. The rate of absenteeism due to health complications was noted. Results All healthy children were able to attend school (p Conclusions Our study suggested that the schooling of children with JIA was negatively impacted due to the disorder. More studies, with a larger sample of children, are needed to confirm our findings.

  3. Bacteriological study of juvenile periodontitis in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, N M; Xiao, X R; Zhang, L S; Ri, X Q; Zhang, J Z; Tong, Y H; Yang, M R; Xiao, Z R

    1991-09-01

    The predominant cultivable bacteria associated with juvenile periodontitis (JP) in China were studied for the first time. Subgingival plaque samples were taken on paper points from 23 diseased sites in 15 JP patients and from 7 healthy sites in 7 control subjects. Serially diluted plaque samples were plated on nonselective blood agar and on MGB agar, a selective medium for the isolation of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. Fifteen or more isolated colonies from each sample (in sequence without selection) were purified for identification. The results indicated that the microflora in healthy sulci of the 7 control subjects was significantly different from that in diseased sites of JP patients. The predominant species in healthy sulci were Streptococcus spp. and Capnocytophaga gingivalis. In JP patients, Eubacterium sp. was found in significantly higher frequency and proportion. Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans was not detected in any samples. It appears that this species is not associated with juvenile periodontitis in China.

  4. Simulation of hydrodynamics, water quality, and lake sturgeon habitat volumes in Lake St. Croix, Wisconsin and Minnesota, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Erik A.; Kiesling, Richard L.; Ziegeweid, Jeffrey R.; Elliott, Sarah M.; Magdalene, Suzanne

    2018-01-05

    Lake St. Croix is a naturally impounded, riverine lake that makes up the last 40 kilometers of the St. Croix River. Substantial land-use changes during the past 150 years, including increased agriculture and urban development, have reduced Lake St. Croix water-quality and increased nutrient loads delivered to Lake St. Croix. A recent (2012–13) total maximum daily load phosphorus-reduction plan set the goal to reduce total phosphorus loads to Lake St. Croix by 20 percent by 2020 and reduce Lake St. Croix algal bloom frequencies. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, developed a two-dimensional, carbon-based, laterally averaged, hydrodynamic and water-quality model, CE–QUAL–W2, that addresses the interaction between nutrient cycling, primary production, and trophic dynamics to predict responses in the distribution of water temperature, oxygen, and chlorophyll a. Distribution is evaluated in the context of habitat for lake sturgeon, including a combination of temperature and dissolved oxygen conditions termed oxy-thermal habitat.The Lake St. Croix CE–QUAL–W2 model successfully reproduced temperature and dissolved oxygen in the lake longitudinally (from upstream to downstream), vertically, and temporally over the seasons. The simulated water temperature profiles closely matched the measured water temperature profiles throughout the year, including the prediction of thermocline transition depths (often within 1 meter), the absolute temperature of the thermocline transitions (often within 1.0 degree Celsius), and profiles without a strong thermocline transition. Simulated dissolved oxygen profiles matched the trajectories of the measured dissolved oxygen concentrations at multiple depths over time, and the simulated concentrations matched the depth and slope of the measured concentrations.Additionally, trends in the measured water-quality data were captured by the model simulation, gaining some potential insights into the

  5. Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy: clinical and EEG features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S B; Petersen, K A

    1998-01-01

    We aimed to characterize the clinical profile and EEG features of 43 patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. In a retrospective design we studied the records of, and re-interviewed, 43 patients diagnosed with JME from the epilepsy clinic data base. Furthermore, available EEGs were re...... were sleep deprivation (84%), stress (70%), and alcohol consumption (51%). EEG findings included rapid spike-wave and polyspike-wave....

  6. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis-associated uveitis

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, Sarah; Sen, Ethan; Ramanan, Athimalaipet

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common rheumatic disease of childhood, with JIA-associated uveitis its most common extra-articular manifestation. JIA-associated uveitis is a potentially sight-threatening condition and thus carries a considerable risk of morbidity. The aetiology of the condition is autoimmune in nature with the predominant involvement of CD4(+) T cells. However, the underlying pathogenic mechanisms remain unclear, particularly regarding interplay between geneti...

  7. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma: Timisoara ENT Department's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovanescu, Gheorghe; Ruja, Steluta; Cotulbea, Stan

    2013-07-01

    Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a histologically benign, but very aggressive and destructive tumor found exclusively in young males. The management of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma has changed in recent years, but it still continues to be a challenge for the multidisciplinary head and neck surgical team. The purpose of this study was to review a series of 30 patients describing the treatment approach used and studying the outcome of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma in the ENT Department Timisoara, Romania for a period of 30 years. The patients were diagnosed and treated during the years 1981-2011. All patients were male. Tumors were classified using Radkowski's staging system. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging allowed for accurate diagnosis and staging of the tumors. Biopsies were not performed. Surgery represented the gold standard for treatment of juvenine nasopharyngeal angiofibroma. All patients had the tumor removed by an external approach, endoscopic surgical approach not being employed in this series of patients. All patients were treated surgically. Surgical techniques performed were: Denker-Rouge technique in 13 cases (43.33%), paralateronasal technique in 7 cases (23.33%), retropalatine technique in 5 cases (16.66%) and transpalatine technique in 5 cases (16.66%). No preoperative tumor embolization was performed. The recurrence rate was 16.66%. The follow-up period ranged from 1 year to 12 years. Management of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma remains a surgical challenge. Clinical evaluation and surgical experience are very important in selecting the proper approach. A multidisciplinary team, with an experienced surgeon and good collaboration with the anesthesiologist are needed for successful surgical treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Solitary ulcerated congenital giant juvenile xanthogranuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Yuen Ng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 3-month-old female patient with a giant ulcerated nodule over the back since birth was diagnosed as congenital giant juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG based on clinical and histopathological examination. Congenital giant JXG with ulceration at birth is a rare presentation of JXG and commonly misdiagnosed. This case emphasizes the importance of being aware of the myriad presentations of JXG in order to make a correct diagnosis and avoid unnecessary investigations or treatment.

  9. BILATERAL CHOROIDAL EXCAVATION IN JUVENILE LOCALIZED SCLERODERMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Mackenzie L; Day, Shelley

    2018-01-01

    To describe a case of bilateral choroidal excavation in a patient with juvenile localized scleroderma. Case report. An asymptomatic 12-year-old boy with localized scleroderma presented for examination and was found to have bilateral areas of choroidal excavation temporal to the fovea. Previous reports of ocular complications of localized scleroderma have primarily described adnexal and anterior segment changes. This is the second report of choroidal changes in a patient with localized scleroderma, and the first in a pediatric patient.

  10. Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy: clinical and EEG features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S B; Petersen, K A

    1998-01-01

    We aimed to characterize the clinical profile and EEG features of 43 patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. In a retrospective design we studied the records of, and re-interviewed, 43 patients diagnosed with JME from the epilepsy clinic data base. Furthermore, available EEGs were re-evaluated...... were sleep deprivation (84%), stress (70%), and alcohol consumption (51%). EEG findings included rapid spike-wave and polyspike-wave....

  11. [Social and cultural determinants of juvenile deliquency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roché, Sébastian

    2004-01-01

    Our knowledge of juvenile delinquency has progressed considerably since the early 1980s, thanks to self-reported delinquency surveys. They teach us that the determinants of delinquent behaviors among teenagers are dependent on the facility with which the offense is committed, the internal motivation (frustration in the family and school, observational learning of the use of violence in the media) and the weakness of social reactions.

  12. Biomarker responses in persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus exposed to benzo-a-pyrene and beta-naphthoflavone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimzadeh Katayoon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biotransformation enzymes of xenobiotics (ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase, cytochrome P4501A1 content and glutathione-S-transferase were investigated in the liver of Persian Sturgeon (Acipenser persicus after a 96-hour exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, premutagenic benzo[a]pyrene (BaP and beta-naphthoflavone (BNF. The fish were injected 10 mg/kg wet-body weight in corn oil for 96 hours every days. Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity (EROD and glutathione s-transferase activity (GST were measured in the fish liver. Cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1 content was estimated by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The response appeared as early as 12 hours post exposure. A time-dependent response was observed in the EROD activity, being significantly higher at 48 hours post exposure to 10 mg/kg of BaP. The greatest induction occurred in the fish treated with 10 mg/kg BaP, in which a 32.1- fold increase in EROD activity was observed. Results showed that EROD activity in A. persicus is significantly increased by BaP and BNF treatments. Both chemicals showed higher values of EROD activity compared to the liver CYP1A content. There was a rise in glutathione-S-transferase activity in fish exposed to BNF, but no increase was observed in fish treated with BaP. The results showed that hepatic CYP1A expression in terms of induction of EROD activity might be suited as a biomarker of organic contamination in aquatic environments and led to lower sensitivity of the second phase in the detoxification enzyme.

  13. Histopathological and bacterial study of Persian sturgeon fry, Acipenser persicus (Borodin, 1897) exposed to copper sulfate and potassium permanganate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshtaghi, Batol; Khara, Hossein; Pazhan, Zabiyollah; Shenavar, Alireza

    2016-09-01

    Persian sturgeon frys were exposed to different concentrations of copper sulfate and potassium permanganate in order to the evaluation of their impacts on bacterial load of skin, gill and surrounding water and also the histopathological alternations of gill tissue. For this purpose, the sublethal doses were determined after a pre-test and then the experiment was done in 4 (for copper sulfate: 0.07, 0.14, 026 and 0.5 mg/l) and 5 (for potassium permanganate: 0.07, 0.14, 026, 0.5 and 1 mg/l) treatments with three replicates inside the glass aquaria. Also, one group without disinfecting drug was considered as control for each experiment. The microbial and histopathological investigations were done after 96 h exposure. According to our results, a range of histopathological alternations were observed in gills tissue including mucus coagulation and secretion, hyperplasia, lamellar necrosis, hyperplasia, lamellar adhesion, haemorrhage, thickening of secondary lamellae, hypertrophy of supporter cartilage, clubbing of gill lamellae and sliming of primary lamellae. The severity of these alternations increased with increasing of the doses of the copper sulfate and potassium permanganate. The bacterial load (CFU/g) of gill, skin and surrounding water was lower in 0.07 mg/l copper sulfate treatment and 1 mg/l potassium permanganate treatment (P permanganate have disinfecting effects on bacterial load of gill, skin and surrounding water, although this is along with some histopathological alternations. Also, it seems that the copper sulfate has higher disinfecting power than potassium permanganate.

  14. CRYOPRESERVATION OF REPRODUCTIVE PRODUCTS AS AN EFFECTIVE METHOD FOR PRESERVING THE BIODIVERSITY OF STURGEON FISH SPECIES (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kononenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In recent years, cryopreservation of reproductive products has widely been used as one of the accessible and in some cases the only ways of preserving and supporting the number of endangered fish species including sturgeon fish species. Currently, the method of cryopreservation is represented by various techniques and ways using individual and species approaches. Numerous publications on the issue of fish sperm cryopreservation mostly contain inconsistent results and ambiguous data. Thus, the analysis of the existing information about principles and methods of fish sperm cryopreservation is an important issue for further studies. Moreover, summarizing the existing information will enable us to plan the experiment more efficiently and reasonably and to get the desired outcomes with higher reliability. Findings. The study presents main principles of widely used methods of fish sperm cryopreservation, the analysis of main factors of influence on outcomes of freezing or unfreezing as well as the analysis of results received when using various ways and methods of cryopreservation. Besides, the paper shows the importance of forming and full functioning of fish sperm cryobanks. Originality. The paper summarizes the existing information on the issue of fish sperm low temperature cryopreservation. The information is given in the form of successive presentation of the research outcomes received at each point of freezing or unfreezing when using different techniques as well as results of different factors influence on it. Moreover, a review of achievements in the field of cryopreservation and main principles of forming fish sperm cryobanks are given. Practical value. The presented review of traditional and modern literature data in the issue of cryopreservation can be used when planning, redesigning and experimenting fish sperm freezing or unfreezing.

  15. Radioangiography in diagnosis of juvenile angiofibroma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalantarov, K.D.; Anyutin, R.G.; Ashikhmina, I.G.

    1979-01-01

    To study the blood supply of juvenile angiofibroma of the nasopharynx 10 patients were examined (2 of them were examined twice). Four patients with the deseases of the nose and the nasopharynx of a nonvascular nature were in the control group. The authors used sup(99m)Tc for radioangiography. The investigations were made on the gamma-chamber ''Nuclear-Chicago'' connected to the computer ''Cina-200''. Ten patients with juvenile angiofibroma of the nasopharynx showed rapid accumulation of the radioactive substance at the site of the tumour exceeding its concentration in the carotic arteries by 4-10 times. In unilateral localization of angiofibroma, its blood supply was provided mainly through the external carotic artery at the affection site or evenly through the both external carotic arteries. The data on dynamic distribution of the radioactive substance, scintiphotograms and clinical observations allow a distinct differentiation between juvenile angiofibroma of the nasopharynx the adenoid tissue or any other tumour to determine the angiofibroma size as well as to follow the results of surgical and radiation treatment

  16. Computed tomography of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Cheong Hee; Yoo, Shi Joon; Lee, Yul; Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Man Chung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-02-15

    It is well known that computed tomography (CT) is useful in detecting accurately the location, extent, erosion and relationship of angiofibroma to surrounding structures such as pterygopalation fossa. It is well known that computed tomography (CT) is useful in detecting accurately the location, sphenoid sinus, and etc. CT of 20 patients with juvenile angiofibroma, which were examined for 5 yeas from February, 1979 to May, 1984 at Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, were retrospectively analyzed. The results were as follows: 1. All 20 patients of juvenile angiofibroma had tumors in nasopharynx and posterior nasal cavity showing homogeneously dense-enhancing soft tissue mass on CT. There was extension of the tumor from nasopharynx and posterior nasal cavity into paranasal sinus (60%, 12/20), pterygopalatine fossa (55%, 11/20), infratemporal fossa (30%, 6/20), posterior orbit (10%, 2/20) and cranial cavity (15%, 3/20). 2. Angiogrpahy usually adds little diagnostic information, but is still needed to identify the precise source of blood supply to the tumor, and to perform the pre-operative embolization. The use of CT has deferred angiography until just before surgery, permitting embolization at optimal time. 3. CT is almost always necessary to reveal accurately the full extent of the tumor, especially intracranial space in the axial and coronal planes with contrast enhancement. CT is useful both in diagnosis as a guide to angiography and in planning the adequate therapy of juvenile angiofibroma.

  17. Clinical presentation of juvenile Huntington disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruocco Heloísa H.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical presentation a group of patients with juvenile onset of Huntington disease. METHOD: All patients were interviewed following a structured clinical questioner. Patients were genotyped for the trinucleotide cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG repeat in the Huntington Disease gene. High resolution brain MRI was performed in all patients. RESULTS: We identified 4 patients with juvenile onset of disease among 50 patients with Huntington disease followed prospectively in our Neurogenetics clinic. Age at onset varied from 3 to 13 years, there were 2 boys, and 3 patients had a paternal inheritance of the disease. Expanded Huntington disease allele sizes varied from 41 to 69 trinucleotide repeats. The early onset patients presented with rigidity, bradykinesia, dystonia, dysarthria, seizures and ataxia. MRI showed severe volume loss of caudate and putamen nuclei (p=0.001 and reduced cerebral and cerebellum volumes (p=0.01. CONCLUSION: 8% of Huntington disease patients seen in our clinic had juvenile onset of the disease. They did not present with typical chorea as seen in adult onset Huntington disease. There was a predominance of rigidity and bradykinesia. Two other important clinical features were seizures and ataxia, which related with the imaging findings of early cortical atrophy and cerebellum volume loss.

  18. Sonographic diagnosis of juvenile polyps in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yao; Li, Shi-Xing; Xie, Li-Mei; Shi, Bo; Ju, Hao; Bai, Yu-Zuo; Zhang, Shu-Cheng

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of ultrasonography for juvenile polyps in children and their sonographic characteristics. A retrospective analysis was performed of the ultrasound findings in 27 children who were diagnosed preoperatively with juvenile polyp within the intestinal tract by ultrasonography and then confirmed by colonoscopy, laparotomy and histopathology. The ultrasonic finding common to all polyps was an isolated intraluminal nodular or massive protrusion, associated with multiple mesh-like fluid areas of different sizes. In 25 children, surrounding pedicle-like low echoes of varying lengths were seen connecting with the polyps to form "mushroom" sign. The color Doppler showed abundant blood flow signals within all polyps and pedicles in a shape of a branch or an umbrella. For seven children with an intussusception, the polyp shadow was detected in the cervical part or interior of the intussusception. Ultrasonography is, thus, considered to be a feasible method for diagnosing intestinal juvenile polyp. Copyright © 2012 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Distribution and derivation of white-winged dove harvests in Texas

    KAUST Repository

    Collier, Bret A.; Skow, Kevin L.; Kremer, Shelly R.; Mason, Corey D.; Snelgrove, Robert T.; Calhoun, Kirby W.

    2012-01-01

    Band recoveries provide requisite data for evaluating the spatial distribution of harvest relative to the distribution of breeding stocks for a wide variety of migratory species. We used direct and indirect band-recovery data to evaluate the distribution and derivation of harvest of white-winged doves (Zenaida asiatica) banded before hunting season in 3 distinct strata in Texas, USA, during 2007-2010. We banded 60,742 white-winged doves during 2007-2010, and based on 2,458 harvest recoveries, the majority (>95%) of white-winged dove harvest occurred during the first 2 months of the hunting season (Sep-Oct). Juvenile white-winged doves represented a greater percentage of the direct recoveries than adults across all strata (north = 80%, central = 69%, south = 82%) and the majority of direct band recoveries (north = 75%, central = 90%, south = 78%) occurred within the original banding strata. Age-specific weighting factors and harvest derivation indicated that both juvenile and adult harvest were highest within the strata of original banding. Harvest distribution data corrected for band-reporting rates indicated high fidelity of white-winged doves to specific geographic strata, with little interplay between strata. Our results suggest that population vital-rate estimates for survival and harvest for use in future Adaptive Harvest Management should focus on stock-specific levels. © 2012 The Wildlife Society.

  20. Distribution and derivation of white-winged dove harvests in Texas

    KAUST Repository

    Collier, Bret A.

    2012-04-25

    Band recoveries provide requisite data for evaluating the spatial distribution of harvest relative to the distribution of breeding stocks for a wide variety of migratory species. We used direct and indirect band-recovery data to evaluate the distribution and derivation of harvest of white-winged doves (Zenaida asiatica) banded before hunting season in 3 distinct strata in Texas, USA, during 2007-2010. We banded 60,742 white-winged doves during 2007-2010, and based on 2,458 harvest recoveries, the majority (>95%) of white-winged dove harvest occurred during the first 2 months of the hunting season (Sep-Oct). Juvenile white-winged doves represented a greater percentage of the direct recoveries than adults across all strata (north = 80%, central = 69%, south = 82%) and the majority of direct band recoveries (north = 75%, central = 90%, south = 78%) occurred within the original banding strata. Age-specific weighting factors and harvest derivation indicated that both juvenile and adult harvest were highest within the strata of original banding. Harvest distribution data corrected for band-reporting rates indicated high fidelity of white-winged doves to specific geographic strata, with little interplay between strata. Our results suggest that population vital-rate estimates for survival and harvest for use in future Adaptive Harvest Management should focus on stock-specific levels. © 2012 The Wildlife Society.

  1. Change in Family Structure and Rates of Violent Juvenile Delinquency

    OpenAIRE

    Fry, Jeannie A

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the question: Have the changes in family structure in the U.S. become a catalyst for juvenile delinquency? For this research, I use existing statistics for my three independent variables: divorce rates, rate of working mothers with children under age 18, percent female-headed households. My dependent variable, juvenile violent crime rates, is measured using data from the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. My control variables consist of the followin...

  2. Giant Bilateral Juvenile Fibroadenoma of the Breast in Prepubescent Girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Salma; Khan, Momna; Rafique, Sadia

    2015-10-01

    Juvenile fibroadenoma accounts for 4% of the total fibroadenomas. Giant juvenile fibroadenoma is found in only 0.5% of all fibroadenomas. The authors report a 10-year girl presenting with progressive enlargement of both breasts for one year. Based on clinical findings and Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC), a diagnosis of bilateral giant juvenile fibroadenomas of breast was made. She underwent bilateral lumpectomy with breast conservation and made uneventful postoperative recovery.

  3. Neurofibromatosis Type 1 Diagnosed in a Child Based on Multiple Juvenile Xanthogranulomas and Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jans, Sune R R; Schomerus, Eckhard; Bygum, Anette

    2015-01-01

    An association between juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG), neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), and juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) has been described in the literature but has only been documented in approximately 20 cases. We diagnosed a patient with NF1 at 25 months of age, before any cutaneous...... with chemotherapy and allogenic bone marrow transplantation. With increased awareness, patients with JXG and NF1 who develop symptoms possibly related to JMML, such as paleness, skin bleeding, cough, unexplained fever, and hepatosplenomegaly, should be further evaluated. We also emphasize that multiple JXG lesions...

  4. Penalty responsibility of juveniles in the Republic of Srpska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grbić-Pavlović Nikolina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The youngest members of organized society, more intensive than ever enter the circle of those whose behavior is deviant. Juvenile delinquency is a social problem, which recently experienced an expansion in all modern countries, including Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Republic of Srpska. Considering the fact that juvenile delinquency includes lighter criminal conducts, such as, for example misdemeanors, in this paper a position of juveniles when they are a perpetrators of misdemeanors will be analyzed. Also, the paper will statistically show the number of misdemeanors in the field of public peace and order that juveniles conducted in the Republic of Srpska in the period 2004-2009.

  5. Growth of juvenile shrimp Metapenaeus monoceros fed with squid and mussel

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Achuthankutty, C.T.; Nair, S.R.S.; Krishnakumari, L.

    Small juveniles of both sexes and females of large juveniles of Metapenaeus monoceros attained faster growth with squid diet. Males of large juveniles registered better growth with mussel diet. No significant difference was observed in moult weights...

  6. 78 FR 17184 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... COORDINATING COUNCIL ON JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION [OJP (OJJDP) Docket No. 1620] Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention AGENCY: Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The...

  7. 75 FR 53958 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-02

    ... COORDINATING COUNCIL ON JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION [OJP (OJJDP) Docket No. 1529] Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention AGENCY: Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The...

  8. 78 FR 58288 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... COORDINATING COUNCIL ON JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION [OJP (OJJDP) Docket No. 1634] Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention AGENCY: Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The...

  9. 78 FR 65297 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... COORDINATING COUNCIL ON JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION [OJP (OJJDP) Docket No. 1637] Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention AGENCY: Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The...

  10. 78 FR 38014 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... COORDINATING COUNCIL ON JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION [OJP (OJJDP) Docket No. 1625] Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention AGENCY: Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The...

  11. 75 FR 70216 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... COORDINATING COUNCIL ON JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION [OJP (OJJDP) Docket No. 1533] Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention AGENCY: Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The...

  12. 77 FR 24687 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... COORDINATING COUNCIL ON JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION [OJP (OJJDP) Docket No. 1587] Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention AGENCY: Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The...

  13. 77 FR 3453 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... COORDINATING COUNCIL ON JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION [OJP (OJJDP) Docket No. 1581] Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention AGENCY: Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The...

  14. 77 FR 70994 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ... COORDINATING COUNCIL ON JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION [OJP (OJJDP) Docket No. 1510] Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention AGENCY: Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The...

  15. 76 FR 26280 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... COORDINATING COUNCIL ON JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION [OJP (OJJDP) Docket No. 1549] Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention AGENCY: Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The...

  16. 76 FR 61672 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... COORDINATING COUNCIL ON JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION [OJP (OJJDP) Docket No. 1570] Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention AGENCY: Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The...

  17. 76 FR 39075 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ... COORDINATING COUNCIL ON JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION [OJP (OJJDP) Docket No. 1562] Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention AGENCY: Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The...

  18. 75 FR 16177 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention [OJP (OJJDP) Docket No. 1514] Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention AGENCY: Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. ACTION: Notice of...

  19. 77 FR 50486 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... COORDINATING COUNCIL ON JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION [OJP (OJJDP) Docket No. 1601] Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention AGENCY: Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The...

  20. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile primary lateral sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hung WY, Ouahchi K, Yan J, Azim AC, Cole N, Gascon G, Yagmour A, Ben-Hamida M, ... medicine? What is newborn screening? New Pages Lyme disease Fibromyalgia White-Sutton syndrome All New & Updated Pages ...

  1. Assessment of adult pallid sturgeon fish condition, Lower Missouri River—Application of new information to the Missouri River Recovery Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Michael T.; Colvin, Michael E.; Steffensen, Kirk D.; Welker, Timothy L.; Pierce, Landon L.; Jacobson, Robert B.

    2017-10-11

    During spring 2015, Nebraska Game and Parks Commission (NGPC) biologists noted that pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) were in poor condition during sampling associated with the Pallid Sturgeon Population Assessment Project and NGPC’s annual pallid sturgeon broodstock collection effort. These observations prompted concerns that reduced fish condition could compromise reproductive health and population growth of pallid sturgeon. There was a further concern that compromised condition could possibly be linked to U.S. Army Corps of Engineers management actions and increase jeopardy to the species. An evaluation request was made to the Missouri River Recovery Program and the Effects Analysis Team was chartered to evaluate the issue. Data on all Missouri River pallid sturgeon captures were requested and received from the National Pallid Sturgeon Database. All data were examined for completeness and accuracy; 12,053 records of captures between 200 millimeters fork length (mm FL) and 1,200 mm FL were accepted. We analyzed condition using (1) the condition formula (Kn) from Shuman and others (2011); (2) a second Kn formulation derived from the 12,053 records (hereafter referred to as “Alternative Kn”); and (3) an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) approach that did not rely on a Kn formulation. The Kn data were analyzed using group (average annual Kn) and individual (percentage in low, normal, and robust conditions) approaches. Using the Shuman Kn formulation, annual mean Kn was fairly static from 2005 to 2011 (although always higher in the upper basin), declined from 2012 to 2015, then remained either static (lower basin) or increasing (upper basin) in 2016. Under the Alternative Kn formulation, the upper basin showed no decline in Kn, whereas the lower basin displayed the same trend as the Shuman Kn formulation. Using both formulations, the individual approach revealed a more complex situation; at the same times and locations that there are fish in poor condition

  2. Adolescent neglect, juvenile delinquency and the risk of recidivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joseph P; Williams, Abigail B; Courtney, Mark E

    2013-03-01

    Victims of child abuse and neglect are at an increased risk of involvement with the juvenile justice and adult correctional systems. Yet, little is known about the continuation and trajectories of offending beyond initial contact with law enforcement. Neglect likely plays a critical role in continued offending as parental monitoring, parental rejection and family relationships are instrumental in explaining juvenile conduct problems. This study sought to determine whether neglect is associated with recidivism for moderate and high risk juvenile offenders in Washington State. Statewide risk assessments and administrative records for child welfare, juvenile justice, and adult corrections were analyzed. The sample was diverse (24 % female, 13 % African American, 8 % Hispanic, 5 % Native American) and included all moderate and high risk juvenile offenders screened by juvenile probation between 2004 and 2007 (n = 19,833). Official records from child protection were used to identify juvenile offenders with a history of child neglect and to identify juvenile offenders with an ongoing case of neglect. Event history models were developed to estimate the risk of subsequent offending. Adolescents with an ongoing case neglect were significantly more likely to continue offending as compared with youth with no official history of neglect. These findings remain even after controlling for a wide range of family, peer, academic, mental health, and substance abuse covariates. Interrupting trajectories of offending is a primary focus of juvenile justice. The findings of the current study indicate that ongoing dependency issues play a critical role in explaining the outcomes achieved for adolescents in juvenile justice settings. The implications for improved collaboration between child welfare and juvenile justice are discussed.

  3. WHITE COLLAR CRIME - Investigations

    OpenAIRE

    Nyagudi, Nyagudi Musandu

    2014-01-01

    WHITE COLLAR CRIME - Investigations Presentation By  Dr. Nyagudi MusanduForensic Criminologist 2nd International Securityand Safety Conference and Exhibition, 16th April, 2010 a forum hosted by Events Management Solutions at the Sarit Centre, Nairobi, Kenya  

  4. The White Sea, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Editor's Note: The caption below, published on May 10, 2001, is incorrect. According to Masha Vorontsova, director of the International Fund for Animal Welfare in Moscow, the situation with the seal pups in the White Sea is normal. There is no disaster and there never was. For more details, refer to the article entitled 'No Danger' on the New Scientist home page. The Earth Observatory regrets the earlier errant report. Original Caption According to the Russian Polar Research Institute for Fisheries and Oceanography, between 250,000 and 300,000 Greenland seal pups face death by starvation over the next two months due to a cruel trick by mother nature. The seals, most of them less than two months old, are trapped on ice sheets that remain locked in the White Sea, located near Archangel in Northern Russia. Typically, during the spring thaw the ice sheets break up and flow with the currents northward into the Barents Sea, the seals' spring feeding grounds. The seal pups hitch a ride on the ice floes, living on their own individual stores of fat until they arrive in the Barents Sea. Their mothers departed for the Barents Sea weeks ago. In a normal year, the seal pups' trip from the White Sea out to the Barents takes about six weeks and the seals have adapted to rely upon this mechanism of mother nature. During their yearly migration, the mother seals usually stay with their pups and feed them until their pelts turn from white to grey--a sign that the pups are mature enough to swim and feed themselves. Unfortunately, this year unusually strong northerly winds created a bottleneck of ice near the mouth of the white sea, thus blocking the flow of ice and trapping the pups. These true-color images of the White Sea were acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. This image, taken May 2, 2000 that there is usually much less ice in the White Sea this time of year as most of it is typically en route to the

  5. Dislipidemia em pacientes com dermatomiosite juvenil

    OpenAIRE

    Katia Tomie Kozu

    2012-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Avaliar a presença de dislipidemia em pacientes com dermatomiosite juvenil (DMJ) e seus possíveis fatores de risco. MÉTODO: 25 pacientes com DMJ foram comparados a 25 controles de acordo com dados demográficos, composição corporal, perfil lipídico, glicêmico, autoanticorpos e enzimas musculares. Foram avaliados os instrumentos de atividade da DMJ: Disease Activity Score (DAS), Childhood Myositis Assessment Scale (CMAS), Manual Muscle Testing (MMT), Myositis Disease Activity Assessme...

  6. CYCLOSPORIN A IN THERAPY FOR JUVENILE ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E S Fedorov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes approaches to using cyclosporin A (CsA in juvenile arthritis (JA. It shows the benefits of combination basic therapy with CsA and methotrexate included into a treatment regimen mainly for systemic JA and JA involving the eye (uveitis versus monotherapy with the above drugs. Attention is drawn to that the oral dose of glucocorticoids may be decreased when CsA is incorporated into the treatment regimen. CsA is shown to be of value as the drug of choice for the therapy of such a menacing complication of systemic JA as the macrophage activation syndrome

  7. Causas e importancia del desempleo juvenil

    OpenAIRE

    Vila Gómez, Juan Francisco

    1985-01-01

    A la hora de estudiar el problema del desempleo juvenil no hay que tener en cuenta solamente las causas de este problema; su conocimiento y análisis es importante para los encargados de las tomas de decisiones, planificadores y educadores. En el caso de España -y de la Comunidad Valenciana-, este problema se explica por la crisis económica de 1975, el Baby-Boom de los sesenta, la falta de relación entre los programas de enseñanza y demanda laboral, el proceso de innovación tecnológica y sus r...

  8. Heritability of body weight and resistance to ammonia in the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjia; Lu, Xia; Luan, Sheng; Luo, Kun; Sui, Juan; Kong, Jie

    2016-09-01

    Ammonia, toxic to aquaculture organisms, represents a potential problem in aquaculture systems, and the situation is exacerbated in closed and intensive shrimp farming operations, expecially for Litopenaeus vannamei. Assessing the potential for the genetic improvement of resistance to ammonia in L. vannamei requires knowledge of the genetic parameters of this trait. The heritability of resistance to ammonia was estimated using two descriptors in the present study: the survival time (ST) and the survival status at half lethal time (SS50) for each individual under high ammonia challenge. The heritability of ST and SS50 were low (0.154 4±0.044 6 and 0.147 5±0.040 0, respectively), but they were both significantly different from zero ( P0.05), suggesting that ST and SS50 could be used as suitable indicators for resistance to ammonia. There were also positive phenotypic and genetic correlation between resistance to ammonia and body weight, which means that resistance to ammonia can be enhanced by the improvement of husbandry practices that increase the body weight. The results from the present study suggest that the selection for higher body weight does not have any negative consequences for resistance to ammonia. In addition to quantitative genetics, tools from molecular genetics can be applied to selective breeding programs to improve the efficiency of selection for traits with low heritability.

  9. Temporal trends of polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and perfluorinated compounds in Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) eggs (1984-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianxian, Sun; Hui, Peng; Jianying, Hu

    2015-02-03

    Because investigation on the temporal trends of persistent halogenated compounds (PHCs) is necessary to predict their future impacts on the environment and human health and evaluate the effectiveness of regulations on their production and usage, it is of concern to investigate annual temporal trends of PHCs in biota samples. This study examined the temporal trends of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) eggs over a period of 25 years (1984-2008), and 62 PCBs (19.2-1030 ng/g dw for total PCBs), 16 PBDEs (4.7-572 ng/g dw for total PBDEs), and 14 PFCs (26-46 ng/g dw for total PFCs) were detected. Although a decreasing temporal trend was observed for total PCBs with annual reduction rate of 3.4% (ρ = 0.005), a clear break point was observed around 1991, indicating their continuing emission in the 1980s in China. All major PBDEs showed increasing temporal trends, with annual change rates at 3.5-10.2% over the 25 years, but a sharp decreasing trend was observed after 2006, indicating a rapid response to the banning of PBDE usage in China in 2004. The greatest annual rate of increase was observed for BDE-28 (10.2%) followed by BDE-100 (7.7%), which would be due to metabolism input from higher brominated PBDEs. Significantly increasing temporal trends were observed for all PFCs, and the annual rates of increase were 7.9% and 5.9% for total perfluorinated carboxylic acids and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), respectively. A peak concentration for PFOS was observed in 1989, which may be related to the import history of PFCs in China. The present study is the first report of systematic temporal trends of PHCs in biota samples from China and shows that regulatory policy is needed to reduce their potential health and ecological risk in China considering the increasing temporal trends of PBDEs and PFCs.

  10. Catch rate of juveniles Ethamatosa fimbriata , Sardinella maderensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We collected data on the quantity of juvenile fish and the daily duration of fishing trips in four landing sites over a two-week period Bernoulli random variables and properties of uniform distribution were used to analyze the data. Catch rates of juveniles Ethamatosa fimbriata, Sardinella maderensis, and Brachydeuterus ...

  11. Spatial dynamics of juvenile anchovy in the Bay of Biscay

    KAUST Repository

    Boyra, Guillermo; Peñ a, Marian; Cotano, Unai; Irigoien, Xabier; Rubio, Anna; Nogueira, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    In autumn 2009, the implementation of two successive acoustic surveys targeting juvenile anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) in the Bay of Biscay allowed us to monitor the changes in the spatial distribution and aggregation patterns of juveniles of this species during 45 days under fairly stable meteorological conditions. Juvenile anchovy changed its biological condition and behavior in a different manner in two distinct areas. In the Spanish sector, the juveniles migrated 20 nautical miles (n.mi.) towards the coast, but they remained on the shelf and near the surface during the whole surveyed period. As the advance towards the shelf break progressed, their area of distribution decreased, their density increased and the juveniles spread in fewer but heavier shoals. In the French sector, the juveniles also migrated from slope waters towards the coast at a similar velocity, but they crossed the shelf break into the continental shelf, where they increased their mean depth significantly until gradually adopting the typical nyctemeral migrations of adult anchovy. The mean length of the juveniles that adopted the nyctemeral migrations was significantly higher than that of the juveniles remaining at the surface, suggesting that body size is relevant to accomplish this change. Besides, the stronger temperature gradients between the shelf and oceanic waters in the Spanish sector, favored by a narrow shelf, may have acted as a barrier influencing the distinct observed spatial patterns in the two areas. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd

  12. Psychotic Symptomatology in a Juvenile Court Clinic Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Dorothy Otnow; And Others

    1973-01-01

    This report indicating an unexpectedly high incidence of psychotic symptomatology in a population of cases referred to the Juvenile Court Psychiatric Clinic of the Second District of Connecticut, manifests the necessity for juvenile court systems to be made aware of the possibility of psychosis in our delinquent populations. (CS)

  13. Spatial dynamics of juvenile anchovy in the Bay of Biscay

    KAUST Repository

    Boyra, Guillermo

    2016-07-08

    In autumn 2009, the implementation of two successive acoustic surveys targeting juvenile anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) in the Bay of Biscay allowed us to monitor the changes in the spatial distribution and aggregation patterns of juveniles of this species during 45 days under fairly stable meteorological conditions. Juvenile anchovy changed its biological condition and behavior in a different manner in two distinct areas. In the Spanish sector, the juveniles migrated 20 nautical miles (n.mi.) towards the coast, but they remained on the shelf and near the surface during the whole surveyed period. As the advance towards the shelf break progressed, their area of distribution decreased, their density increased and the juveniles spread in fewer but heavier shoals. In the French sector, the juveniles also migrated from slope waters towards the coast at a similar velocity, but they crossed the shelf break into the continental shelf, where they increased their mean depth significantly until gradually adopting the typical nyctemeral migrations of adult anchovy. The mean length of the juveniles that adopted the nyctemeral migrations was significantly higher than that of the juveniles remaining at the surface, suggesting that body size is relevant to accomplish this change. Besides, the stronger temperature gradients between the shelf and oceanic waters in the Spanish sector, favored by a narrow shelf, may have acted as a barrier influencing the distinct observed spatial patterns in the two areas. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd

  14. Social skills training for juvenile delinquents : post-treatment changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Stouwe, Trudy; Asscher, Jessica J.; Hoeve, Machteld; van der Laan, Peter H.; Stams, Geert Jan J M

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the post-treatment effectiveness of an outpatient, individual social skills training for juvenile delinquents in the Netherlands and to conduct moderator tests for age, gender, ethnicity, and risk of reoffending. Methods: The sample consisted of juveniles who received Tools4U,

  15. Social Skills Training for Juvenile Delinquents: Post-Treatment Changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Stouwe, Trudy; Asscher, J.J.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Hoeve, M.; van der Laan, Peter H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the post-treatment effectiveness of an outpatient, individual social skills training for juvenile delinquents in the Netherlands and to conduct moderator tests for age, gender, ethnicity, and risk of reoffending. Methods: The sample consisted of juveniles who received Tools4U,

  16. Social skills training for juvenile delinquents : Post-treatment changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Stouwe, T.; Asscher, J.J.; Hoeve, M.; van der Laan, P.H.; Stams, G.J.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the post-treatment effectiveness of an outpatient, individual social skills training for juvenile delinquents in the Netherlands and to conduct moderator tests for age, gender, ethnicity, and risk of reoffending. Methods The sample consisted of juveniles who received Tools4U, a

  17. Juvenile Dermatomyositis in a Nigerian Girl: a Case Report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Juvenile Dermatomyositis in a Nigerian Girl: a Case Report. MG Mustapha, MG Ashir, AA Mayun, Y Machoco, AB Ibrahim. Abstract. A case of Juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) in a 10 year old Nigerian girl is herein reported to discuss some of the features of the disease and challenges in management of such a rare but ...

  18. The Content Validity of Juvenile Psychopathy: An Empirical Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynam, Donald R.; Derefinko, Karen J.; Caspi, Avshalom; Loeber, Rolf; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the content validity of a juvenile psychopathy measure, the Childhood Psychopathy Scale (CPS; D. R. Lynam, 1997), based on a downward translation of an adult instrument, the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; R. D. Hare, 1991). The CPS was compared with two other indices of juvenile psychopathy: (a) an index derived…

  19. Effects of Juvenile Court Exposure on Crime in Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitclerc, Amelie; Gatti, Uberto; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The juvenile justice system's interventions are expected to help reduce recidivism. However, previous studies suggest that official processing in juvenile court fails to reduce adolescents' criminal behavior in the following year. Longer term effects have not yet been investigated with a rigorous method. This study used propensity…

  20. Delinquency Cases in Juvenile Court, 2002. OJJDP Fact Sheet #02

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Anne L.

    2006-01-01

    This fact sheet presents statistics on delinquency cases processed by juvenile courts in 2002. The number of delinquency cases handled by juvenile courts decreased 11 percent between 1997 and 2002. During this time, the number of person offense cases decreased 2 percent, property offense cases decreased 27 percent, drug law violation cases…