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Sample records for juvenile sex offender

  1. Moral development of solo juvenile sex offenders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vugt, E.; Stams, G.J.; Dekovic, M.; Brugman, D.; Rutten, E.; Hendriks, J.

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the moral development of solo juvenile male sex offenders (n = 20) and juvenile male non-offenders (n = 76), aged 13-19 years, from lower socioeconomic and educational backgrounds. The Moral Orientation Measure (MOM) was used to assess punishment- and victim-based moral

  2. Incarcerated Dutch Juvenile Sex Offenders Compared with Non-Sex Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Anton Ph.; Vreugdenhil, Coby; van Horn, Joan; Vermeiren, Robert; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.

    2007-01-01

    There is some debate about whether or not sex offenders are similar to non-sex offenders with regard to family background (parental characteristics), personality, and psychopathology. The central aim of this study focused on the comparison of juvenile sex offenders and non-sex offenders. The sample consisted of incarcerated juvenile male sex (n =…

  3. Criminal Profiles of Violent Juvenile Sex and Violent Juvenile Non-Sex Offenders: An Explorative Longitudinal Study

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    van Wijk, Anton Ph.; Mali, Bas R. F.; Bullens, Ruud A. R.; Vermeiren, Robert R.

    2007-01-01

    Few studies have longitudinally investigated the criminal profiles of violent juvenile sex and violent juvenile non-sex offenders. To make up for this lack, this study used police records of juveniles to determine the nature of the criminal profiles of violent sex offenders (n = 226) and violent non-sex offenders (n = 4,130). All offenders…

  4. Juvenile Sex Offending Through a Developmental Life Course Criminology Perspective.

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    Lussier, Patrick

    2017-02-01

    Current American policies and responses to juvenile sex offending have been criticized for being based on myths, misconceptions, and unsubstantiated claims. In spite of the criticism, no organizing framework has been proposed to guide policy development with respect to the prevention of juvenile sex offending. This article proposes a developmental life course (DLC) criminology perspective to investigate the origins, development, and termination of sex offending among youth. It also provides a review of the current state of knowledge regarding various parameters characterizing the development of sex offending (e.g., prevalence, age of onset, frequency, persistence, continuity in adulthood, and versatility). The review highlights some heterogeneity across these developmental parameters suggesting the presence of different sex offending patterns among youth. In fact, it is proposed that, based on the current knowledge, such heterogeneity can be accounted for by a dual taxonomy of adolescents involved in sexual offenses: (a) the adolescent-limited and (b) the high-rate/slow-desister. The DLC criminology approach and the dual taxonomy are proposed as organizing frameworks to conduct prospective longitudinal research to better understand the origins and development of sex offending and to guide policy development and responses to at-risk youth and those who have committed sexual offenses.

  5. Motivational Counseling: Implications for Counseling Male Juvenile Sex Offenders

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    Patel, Samir H.; Lambie, Glenn W.; Glover, Michelle Muenzenmeyer

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile sex offenders (JSOs) often appear unmotivated to change, which thus necessitates a therapeutic approach that matches "resistant" client characteristics. In this article, the authors review common traits of JSOs, introduce motivational counseling as an effective treatment modality, and offer a case illustration. (Contains 1 table and 1…

  6. Myth Information and Bizarre Beliefs of Male Juvenile Sex Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakey, Joyce F.

    1992-01-01

    Describes mythical beliefs, thinking errors, and faulty attitudes collected from a group of 67 male juvenile sex offenders. Addresses four major thinking errors: pretentiousness, uniqueness, failure to assume responsibility, and distorted values. Notes that therapists need this information to develop effective treatment strategies for replacing…

  7. Juvenile sex offenders: Personality profile, coping styles and parental care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margari, Francesco; Lecce, Paola Alessandra; Craig, Francesco; Lafortezza, Elena; Lisi, Andrea; Pinto, Floriana; Stallone, Valentina; Pierri, Grazia; Pisani, Rossella; Zagaria, Giuseppina; Margari, Lucia; Grattagliano, Ignazio

    2015-09-30

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in juvenile sex offenders showing that this population is highly heterogeneous. The aim of the present study was to identify possible different profiles that could help understand the motivation behind offending, comparing 31 Juvenile Sexual Offenders (JSOs), 31 Juvenile Sexual Non Offenders (JSNOs) and 31 Juvenile Non Offenders (Control Group). A data collection form, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent (MMPI-A) or Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2), the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) and the Parental Bonding Inventory (PBI) were administered to all participants. The results show that JSOs differs from JNSOs in some domains, such as living in single-parent homes, while maintain some common aspects such as academic failure and previous sexual intercourse. Moreover, JNSOs showed more abnormal personality traits, such as Authority Problems, MacAndrew Alcoholism, Acknowledgement and Alcohol-Drug Problem Proneness compared to JSOs and the Control Group, while JSOs and JNSOs use a coping strategy more oriented to Avoidance and Distraction compared to the Control group. Finally, JSOs described the relationships with fathers characterized by higher care and protection than JNSOs. These findings provide additional evidence with respect the prevention and treatment of criminal sexual behavior in adolescent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Academic and Vocational Education for Incarcerated Adult and Juvenile Sex Offenders: A National Study.

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    Vaughn, Michael S.

    1992-01-01

    Examined adult and juvenile sex offender academic and vocational education programs. Data were collected from 103 sex offender treatment providers. Findings revealed that both adult and juvenile sex offender education programs provided wide variety of service choices in academic and vocational programs. Adult programs averaged slightly more…

  9. Group sex offending by juveniles: coercive sex as a group activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijleveld, C.C.J.H.; Weerman, F.; Looije, D.; Hendriks, J.

    2007-01-01

    We study sex offences carried out by groups of juveniles, focusing on offender characteristics and the interaction patterns within offender groups and between offenders and victims. Using reconstructions of offences from court files as well as information retrieved from personality screenings, we

  10. Sex differences in empathy and its relation to juvenile offending.

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    Broidy, Lisa; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Espelage, Dorothy L; Mazerolle, Paul; Piquero, Alex

    2003-10-01

    Implicit in most theoretical accounts of sex differences in offending is the assumption that females are less likely than males to engage in crime--especially serious, violent crime--in part because of their comparatively higher levels of concern for others and stronger affiliative ties. Much research suggests that significant sex differences in both empathy and serious offending emerge in adolescence, with females displaying notably higher levels of empathy and males engaging in notably higher levels of serious offending. However, there has been little empirical work assessing the degree to which sex differences in empathy among adolescents can account for sex differences in offending. This research uses data from a sample of adolescents attending public high schools in Philadelphia (n = 425) and a sample of adolescents incarcerated in the California Youth Authority (CYA) (n = 232) to examine the relation between empathy and serious offending. Results suggest that empathy acts as a protective factor for both males and females but that there are subtle differences among males and females in the relation between empathy and offending.

  11. Sex differences in predictors of violent and non-violent juvenile offending.

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    Stephenson, Zoe; Woodhams, Jessica; Cooke, Claire

    2014-01-01

    In response to concerns regarding the rise in female juvenile violent crime and the dearth of gender-specific research, this study aimed to identify predictors of violent offending in female offenders. Data were extracted from risk assessments of 586 male and female juvenile offenders (aged 11-17 years) conducted between 2005 and 2009 by the Youth Offending Service in Gloucestershire, an English county. Information regarding the young people's living arrangements, family and personal relationships, education, emotional/mental health, thinking and behavior, and attitudes to offending was recorded. Comparisons were made between the violent male offenders (N = 185), the violent female offenders (N = 113), the non-violent male offenders (N = 150), and the non-violent female offenders (N = 138) for these variables. These were followed by a multinomial logistic regression analysis. The findings indicated that engaging in self-harm was the best predictor of being a female violent offender, with the predictors of giving into pressure from others and attempted suicide nearing significance. Furthermore, non-violent females were significantly less likely to lose control of their temper and more likely to give in to pressure from others than their violent counterparts. Non-violent males were significantly less likely to lose control of their temper and more likely to self-harm and give in to pressure from others than violent males. Although many similarities existed between sexes for predictors of violent offending, the findings of this study indicate that more attention needs to be paid to the mental health of female offenders. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Review of risk assessment instruments for juvenile sex offenders : What is next?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hempel, I.; Buck, N.M.L.; Cima-Knijff, M.J.; van Marle, H.

    2013-01-01

    Risk assessment is considered to be a key element in the prevention of recidivism among juvenile sex offenders (JSOs), often by imposing long-term consequences based on that assessment. The authors reviewed the literature on the predictive accuracy of six well-known risk assessment instruments used

  13. A developmental taxonomy of juvenile sex offenders for theory, research, and prevention: the adolescent-limited and the high-rate slow desister

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lussier, P.; van den Berg, C.; Bijleveld, C.; Hendriks, J.

    2012-01-01

    The current study investigates the offending trajectories of juvenile sex offenders (JSOs) across and beyond adolescence. In doing so, the study examines the number, the rate, and the shape of nonsexual and sexual offending trajectories in a sample of JSOs followed retrospectively and prospectively

  14. A Developmental Taxonomy of Juvenile Sex Offenders for Theory, Research, and Prevention: The Adolescent-Limited and the High-Rate Slow Desister

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lussier, P; van den Berg, C.J.W.; Bijleveld, C.C.J.H.; Hendriks, J.

    2012-01-01

    The current study investigates the offending trajectories of juvenile sex offenders (JSOs) across and beyond adolescence. In doing so, the study examines the number, the rate, and the shape of nonsexual and sexual offending trajectories in a sample of JSOs followed retrospectively and prospectively

  15. Prolonged Exposure Treatment of Chronic PTSD in Juvenile Sex Offenders: Promising Results from Two Case Studies

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    Hunter, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Prolonged exposure (PE) was used to treat chronic PTSD secondary to severe developmental trauma in two adolescent male sex offenders referred for residential sex offender treatment. Both youth were treatment resistant prior to initiation of PE and showed evidence of long-standing irritability and depression/anxiety. Clinical observation and…

  16. Changing approaches of prosecutors towards juvenile repeated sex-offenders: A Bayesian evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar; Sinha, Debajyoti; Lipsitz, Stuart; Letourneau, Elizabeth

    2010-06-01

    Existing state-wide data bases on prosecutors' decisions about juvenile offenders are important, yet often un-explored resources for understanding changes in patterns of judicial decisions over time. We investigate the extent and nature of change in judicial behavior towards juveniles following the enactment of a new set of mandatory registration policies between 1992 and 1996 via analyzing the data on prosecutors' decisions of moving forward for youths repeatedly charged with sexual violence in South Carolina. We use a novel extension of random effects logistic regression model for longitudinal binary data via incorporating an unknown change-point year. For convenient physical interpretation, our models allow the proportional odds interpretation of effects of the explanatory variables and the change-point year with and without conditioning on the youth-specific random effects. As a consequence, the effects of the unknown change-point year and other factors can be interpreted as changes in both within youth and population averaged odds of moving forward. Using a Bayesian paradigm, we consider various prior opinions about the unknown year of the change in the pattern of prosecutors' decision. Based on the available data, we make posteriori conclusions about whether a change-point has occurred between 1992 and 1996 (inclusive), evaluate the degree of confidence about the year of change-point, estimate the magnitude of the effects of the change-point and other factors, and investigate other provocative questions about patterns of prosecutors' decisions over time.

  17. Hypnotic Psychotherapy with Sex Offenders

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    Moseley, Sullivan; Briggs, Wanda P.; Magnus, Virginia

    2005-01-01

    The authors review the literature on the prevalence of sex offenders; multiple treatment modalities; and implications of the use of hypnotic psychotherapy, coupled with cognitive behavioral treatment programs, for treating sex offenders. (Contains 2 tables.)

  18. Intelligence Score Profiles of Female Juvenile Offenders

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    Werner, Shelby Spare; Hart, Kathleen J.; Ficke, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have found that male juvenile offenders typically obtain low scores on measures of intelligence, often with a pattern of higher scores on measures of nonverbal relative to verbal tasks. The research on the intelligence performance of female juvenile offenders is limited. This study explored the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for…

  19. Do juveniles bully more than young offenders?

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    Ireland, Jane L

    2002-04-01

    This study compares bullying behaviour among juvenile and young offenders and incorporates two different methods to measure bullying. Ninety-five male juvenile and 196 male young offenders completed two questionnaires, one that measured bullying directly and one that measured behaviours indicative of "being bullied" or of "bullying others". Juveniles perceived a higher extent of bullying than young offenders. Juveniles reported significantly more physical, psychological or verbal and overall direct forms of bullying behaviour than young offenders. A number of differences were found between juveniles and young offenders with regard to the types of prisoners likely to become victims, who they would advise a victim to speak to and how bullying could be prevented. The results are discussed in relation to developmental theories of aggression and how bullying behaviour can be defined and measured among prisoners. Copyright 2002 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Results from a Multi-Modal Program Evaluation of a Four Year Statewide Juvenile Sex Offender Treatment and Reentry Program

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    Underwood, Lee A.; Dailey, Frances L. L.; Merino, Carrie; Crump, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    The results of the Program Evaluation show the OJJ Statewide Sex Offender Treatment program is exceptionally productive in meeting over 90% of its established performance markers. These markers included successful screening and assessment of risk and psychosocial needs, completion of initial and master treatment plans, establishment of sex…

  1. The differences between sex offenders who victimise older women and sex offenders who offend against children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, K D; Hines, Morag; Tully, Ruth J

    2018-01-01

    Within the literature on sex offending, much attention is paid to the distinction between those sex offenders who offend against adults and those who offend against children. In contrast, there is a paucity of research into sex offenders who offend specifically against elderly or older victims. A detailed interview and psychometric tests were conducted with a sample of 28 sex offenders who had been convicted of a sexually motivated offence against an older female. These data were compared to a sample of 23 child sex offenders. Results indicate that amongst other significant differences between these sub-groups, men who offend against older women are generally younger, are more violent, and are more likely to use a weapon and cause injury and death compared to child sex offenders. The men who offended against children were more likely to think about and plan their offending, spend more time with the victim pre and post offence, admit sexual arousal during the offence, and admit to a sexual motivation for the offence. This study suggests that men who sexually offend against older women and men who sexually offend against children are distinct groups. Treatment and risk management strategies should take this into account. Further exploration of this sub-group of offenders is recommended to help inform treatment and risk management strategies for sex offenders who offend against older people.

  2. The semantic sphere of juvenile offenders

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    Oshevsky D.S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a preliminary empirical study aimed to identify features of the semantic sphere of adolescents who have committed illegal, including aggressive acts. The study included 50 male juveniles aged of 16 - 17 years. The first group consisted of adolescents convicted of aggressive and violent crimes; the second – of property socially dangerous acts (SDA. It is shown that evaluation of such adolescents is generally categorical and polar, the semantic field is subdifferentiable, less hierarchic, and has not enough realistic structure of meanings. Developed structure of motives and meanings is the basis of voluntary regulation of socially significant behavior. Thus, assessing the semantic sphere of juvenile offenders we can highlight its characteristics as risk factors of unlawful behavior, as well as the resource side, that will contribute to addressing issues of prevention and correction of unlawful behavior. Key words: juvenile offenders, semantic field of juvenile offenders, unlawful behavior.

  3. Preliminary Results of the Louisiana Sex Offender Treatment Program

    OpenAIRE

    Lee A. Underwood; Frances L.L. Dailey; Carrie Merino; Yolanda Crump

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to offer preliminary support for the Louisiana Sex Offender Treatment Program (LSOTP) in addressing the needs of juvenile sex offenders. Research objectives were (1) to offer statistical evidence for reductions in anxiety, depression, cognitive distortion and negative attitudes towards women comparing a group of 21 adolescents, 12 of whom received services as usual and nine of whom participated in the LSOTP. A controlled experimental evaluation design was utilize...

  4. Alcohol and Sex Offending: What Do Child Sex Offenders Think about Drinking?

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    Monson, Candice M.; Jones, Lisa M.; Rivers, P. Clayton; Blum, Steven B.

    1998-01-01

    Examines relationships between general and sex-specific alcohol expectancies and drinking before offending with child sex offenders. Results show that sex-specific expectancies were the best predictor of the proportion of times the offenders reported drinking before offending. Highlights the importance of assessing expectancies related to…

  5. Everyday life in UK Probation Approved Premises for sex offenders

    OpenAIRE

    Reeves, Carla

    2016-01-01

    This international edited volume of cutting-edge critical prison research explores key themes of deprivations, stigma, power, culture and vulnerability in a breadth of penal settings and prisoner populations. Ranging across North America and Canada, Western, Central and Eastern Europe, Australia, this research considers: young offenders and juvenile institutions; sex offenders; therapeutic environments; wrongfully convicted prisoners; female prisons and prisoners; parents in prison; post-rele...

  6. Preliminary Results of the Louisiana Sex Offender Treatment Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee A. Underwood

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to offer preliminary support for the Louisiana Sex Offender Treatment Program (LSOTP in addressing the needs of juvenile sex offenders. Research objectives were (1 to offer statistical evidence for reductions in anxiety, depression, cognitive distortion and negative attitudes towards women comparing a group of 21 adolescents, 12 of whom received services as usual and nine of whom participated in the LSOTP. A controlled experimental evaluation design was utilized. The juvenile sex offenders were randomly assigned to the experimental group for 12 weeks receiving treatment services and a control group receiving care “as usual” in a residential group care program. Participants in the experimental group experienced statistically significant decreases in cognitive distortions related specifically to rape and molestation.The results of this study offer preliminary support of the LSOTP as a best practices alternative to other treatment modalities.

  7. Sexual Murderers: Sex Offender, Murderer, or Both?

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    Beauregard, Eric; DeLisi, Matt; Hewitt, Ashley

    2017-06-01

    Sexual murderers perpetrate homicide and rape/sexual abuse, but it is unclear whether they should primarily be considered homicide offenders, sexual offenders, or both. Most studies have merged together different types of non-homicidal sex offenders (NHSOs), neglecting to consider the potential differences between the nonviolent and violent sex offenders. Here, we suggest it is important to isolate those violent sex offenders who inflict severe physical injuries that could potentially lead to a lethal outcome. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to compare different measures of the criminal career on three groups of sex offenders: NHSOs, violent NHSOs, and sexual homicide offenders (SHOs) using data from 616 incarcerated male sex offenders in a Federal penitentiary in Canada. Interestingly, the group of sex offenders with the worst criminal career profile was not the SHOs, but the violent NHSOs. Violent NHSOs had the greatest number of prior convictions and the most varied and versatile criminal career. Therefore, we suggest that based on their criminal career, SHOs should be considered more as murderers than sex offenders. However, to fully answer this question, future studies should include a group of non-sexual homicide offenders.

  8. Predictors of Sex Offender Treatment Completion.

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    Moore, Donna L.; Bergman, Barbara A.; Knox, Pamela L.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews records of 126 incarcerated offenders who participated in a prison-based sex offender treatment program. Discriminate function analysis reveals that offenders who completed treatment were more often diagnosed with a substance disorder, had a history of nonviolence offenses, and were less often diagnosed as having an antisocial personality…

  9. Sexuality and Autistic-Like Symptoms in Juvenile Sex Offenders: A Follow-Up after 8 Years

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    Baarsma, M. Ewoud; Boonmann, Cyril; 't Hart-Kerkhoffs, Lisette A.; de Graaf, Hanneke; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.; Vermeiren, Robert R. J. M.; Jansen, Lucres M. C.

    2016-01-01

    Juveniles who have committed a sexual offense (JSOs) are thought to have abnormal sexual development, as well as increased ASD symptoms. In the current study, sexual development and behavior, as well as stability of ASD-like symptoms were assessed in a sample of 44 male JSOs (mean age 24.7 ± 1.5 years) 8 years after their sexual offence. JSOs…

  10. Female Sex Offenders: Public Awareness and Attributions.

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    Cain, Calli M; Anderson, Amy L

    2016-12-01

    Traditional gender roles, sex scripts, and the way female sex offenders are portrayed in the media may lead to misconceptions about who can commit sexual offenses. Sexual crimes by women may go unnoticed or unreported if there is a general lack of awareness that females commit these crimes. Data from the 2012 Nebraska Annual Social Indicators Survey were used to determine whether the public perceives women as capable sex offenders and the perceived causes of female sex offending. The traditional focus on male sex offenders by researchers, media, and politicians, in addition to gender stereotypes, introduces the possibility of group differences (e.g., between men and women) in perceptions of female sex offenders. Consequently, two secondary analyses were conducted that tested for group differences in both the public's perception of whether females can commit sex offenses and the explanations selected for why females sexually offend. The findings suggest that the public does perceive women as capable sex offenders, although there were group differences in the causal attributions for female sex offending.

  11. Autism spectrum disorder symptoms in juvenile suspects of sex offenses.

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    't Hart-Kerkhoffs, Lisette A; Jansen, Lucres M; Doreleijers, Theo A; Vermeiren, Robert; Minderaa, Ruud B; Hartman, Catharina A

    2009-02-01

    To investigate autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms in juvenile suspects of sex offenses. A group of 175 juvenile suspected sex offenders (all males, mean +/- SD age = 14.9 +/- 1.4 years) was compared with a matched healthy control group (N = 500, mean +/- SD age = 14.0 +/- 1.4 years) and a group of children with DSM-IV-diagnosed ASD (N = 114, mean +/- SD age = 14.2 +/- 1.9 years) with respect to autistic symptoms as measured by means of a standardized questionnaire, the Children's Social Behavior Questionnaire. Furthermore, specific subgroups of sexual offenders, i.e., child molesters, solo peer offenders, and group offenders, were compared with regard to levels of ASD symptoms. The study was conducted from May 2003 to December 2006. Significantly higher levels of ASD symptoms were found in juvenile sex offenders than in healthy controls, while levels were lower than in the ASD group (F = 148.259, p symptoms than group offenders (F = 5.127, p symptoms are higher in juvenile suspects of sex offenses as compared to the healthy population, which argues for considering specific diagnostic assessment in this population, especially in solo offenders and child molesters. Copyright 2009 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  12. Female Sex Offenders: Is There a Difference Between Solo and Co-Offenders?

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    Ten Bensel, Tusty; Gibbs, Benjamin; Burkey, Chris Rush

    2016-10-01

    Studies on female sex offending have been limited for a number of reasons, such as societal perceptions that females are incapable of engaging in such behaviors because of their role as caretakers and nurturers in society. However, over the past few decades, studies examining female sex offenders have increased, revealing that females do commit sexual offenses and differ from their male counterparts. We examined offender, victim, and offense characteristics of female sex offenders who were convicted from 1995 to 2013 ( N = 223) in Arkansas and were sentenced to serve time in prison or placed on probation. We focused on the similarities and differences of solo and co-female sex offenders because we know from previous studies that the pathway of offending can differ between solo and co-female offenders, yet few studies have exclusively compared the similarities and differences among female sex offenders. Our data were collected from offender files that included basic personal offender information, offender survey and social history, criminal history, incident reports while incarcerated, court records, police investigation reports, initial offender and victim statements (prior to offender incarceration), and probation/parole reports. We believe the results of this study will provide further insight into the types of female sex offenders as well as the possible differences between co- and solo-offenders in relation to their victim preferences, risk levels, rehabilitation amenability, and recidivism propensities.

  13. Physical (Surgical) Castration as Treatment of Male Sex Offenders?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Škvain, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 1 (2014), s. 40-47 ISSN 0026-9301 Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : sex offenders * treatment of sex offenders * Czech Republic Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences Impact factor: 0.136, year: 2014

  14. Psychopathology, symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and risk factors in juvenile offenders

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    Margari F

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Francesco Margari,1 Francesco Craig,2 Lucia Margari,2 Emilia Matera,2 Anna Linda Lamanna,2 Paola Alessandra Lecce,2 Donatella La Tegola,3 Felice Carabellese3 1Psychiatry Unit, 2Child Neuropsychiatry Unit, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neurosciences and Sense Organs of the Aldo Moro University of Bari, 3Section of Criminology and Forensic Psychiatry, Department of Internal Medicine and Public Medicine, University of Bari, Bari, Italy Background: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of potential environmental and psychopathological risk factors, with special focus on symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, in a sample of adolescent offenders in relation to the type of crime committed.Methods: The assessment included data collection and administration of clinical standardized scales such as the Youth Self-Report and Conners’ Adolescent Self-Report Scale. A total of 135 juvenile offenders participated in the study. In relation to the type of crime committed, we identified three groups matched for age and sex (crimes against people, property crimes, and alcohol-drug-related crimes.Results: Fifty-two percent of juvenile offenders reported educational achievement problems and 34% reported a family history of psychiatric disorders. We detected a statistically significant difference between the three groups with regard to ADHD (P=0.01 and conduct problems (P=0.034. Juvenile offenders who had committed crimes against people showed more ADHD symptoms (18% and conduct problems (20% than adolescents who had committed property crimes and alcohol-drug-related crimes. Sixty percent of the juvenile offenders who had committed property crimes and 54% of those who had committed alcohol-drug-related crimes showed problems in academic achievement.Conclusion: These findings suggest the need to implement specific interventions for prevention and treatment of specific criminal behavior. Keywords: juvenile offenders

  15. Sex Offender Rehabilitation Programs in State Prisons: A Nationwide Survey.

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    Sapp, Allen D.; Vaughn, Michael S.

    1991-01-01

    Examined programs and strategies for rehabilitation used in adult sex offender treatment programs in state-operated adult correctional institutions. Questionnaires were completed by 73 adult sex offender treatment providers. The results revealed that incarcerated adult sex offenders were receiving comprehensive psychotherapy and behavior…

  16. Restorative Justice: New Horizons in Juvenile Offender Counseling

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    Ryals, John S. Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Treatment strategies of the juvenile justice system focus singularly on rehabilitation of offenders, and victims and communities are excluded from the rehabilitative process. Restorative justice views victims and communities as essential components in rehabilitative efforts. In this article, the principles and practices of restorative justice,…

  17. The Effectiveness of Aftercare for Juvenile and Young Adult Offenders

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    James, Chrissy; Asscher, Jessica J.; Stams, Geert Jan J M; Van Der Laan, Peter H.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the New Perspectives Aftercare Program (NPAP) for serious juvenile and young adult offenders in The Netherlands. Participants (n = 127) were randomly assigned to NPAP (n = 66) or existing aftercare services ("treatment as usual" [TAU], n = 61). The aim was to determine whether

  18. The effectiveness of aftercare for juvenile and young adult offenders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    James, Chrissy; Asscher, J.J.; Stams, G.J.J.M; van der Laan, Peter H.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the New Perspectives Aftercare Program (NPAP) for serious juvenile and young adult offenders in The Netherlands. Participants (n = 127) were randomly assigned to NPAP (n = 66) or existing aftercare services ("treatment as usual" [TAU], n = 61). The aim was to determine whether

  19. Psychological characteristics of juvenile offenders with constant integration problems

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    Démuthová Slávka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify the typical psychological, demographic, socio-economical, educational, health, and criminological characteristics of juvenile delinquents who tend to continue in their criminal career to adulthood and therefore obstruct the possibility of successful, non-offending integration to society. Subjects of research were young male prisoners jailed in the Juvenile imprisonment house that completed the test battery. By ex-post analysis after a period of five years, the differences between offenders and non-offenders were identified. Results show significant differences in the age of prisoners, length of imprisonment, presence of violent offence (esp. robbery in the criminal history, number of previous offences recorded, differences in factors i, h, and q1 from the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire, responses within the Hand test characteristic (affection, dependence, and communication, and in several signs of the drawings in a Draw-A-Person test. The importance and influence of listed factors is discussed.

  20. PERSONALITY AND CLINICAL TESTS IN SPANISH FOR ASSESSING JUVENILE OFFENDERS

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    Lorena Wenger

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The psychological assessment of offenders throughout the different stages in the juvenile justice system is essential. It ensures the adequacy of the legal and educational measures to be applied in the process. This paper reviews the main tests of psychological assessment available in Spanish, suitable for use by psychology professionals who work with young offenders in the juvenile justice services in Spanish-speaking countries. We classify these tools into three groups: a personological, i.e. generic tools, suitable for any professional context in psychology, b clinical, i.e. tools whose initial use has been limited to working with adolescents with mental health needs, and c forensic, tools that have been specially developed for use in the juvenile justice population. This last group is described in the second part of this article (which appears in this same issue. The most important instruments of proven utility are presented and reviewed for each group.

  1. Juvenile offenders: competence to stand trial.

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    Soulier, Matthew

    2012-12-01

    This article details the legal background and assists the reader in the preparation and practical conduct of evaluations regarding juvenile adjudicative competency. The material is presented to be useful as a guide to direct questions of competency and covers aspects of evaluation that include: legal standard for competency to stand trial, developmental immaturity, current practice in juvenile competency to stand trial, forensic evaluation of juvenile competency to stand trial, organizing the evaluation, collateral sources of information, psychiatric evaluation of juvenile adjudicative competency, assessment of mental disorder and intellectual disability, assessment of developmental status, assessment of functional abilities for adjudicative competence, and reaching the forensic opinion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Learning Handicapped and Nonlearning Handicapped Female Juvenile Offenders: Educational and Criminal Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fejes-Mendoza, Kathy E.; Rutherford, Robert B., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Interviews with 30 female juvenile offenders were conducted to (1) describe their educational and criminal backgrounds and (2) describe a subgroup of learning handicapped juvenile female offenders. Nearly one third had received special education services prior to their incarceration with additional offenders diagnosed as handicapped upon entry…

  3. Defining Probability in Sex Offender Risk Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwood, Richard W

    2016-12-01

    There is ongoing debate and confusion over using actuarial scales to predict individuals' risk of sexual recidivism. Much of the debate comes from not distinguishing Frequentist from Bayesian definitions of probability. Much of the confusion comes from applying Frequentist probability to individuals' risk. By definition, only Bayesian probability can be applied to the single case. The Bayesian concept of probability resolves most of the confusion and much of the debate in sex offender risk assessment. Although Bayesian probability is well accepted in risk assessment generally, it has not been widely used to assess the risk of sex offenders. I review the two concepts of probability and show how the Bayesian view alone provides a coherent scheme to conceptualize individuals' risk of sexual recidivism.

  4. [Sex-linked juvenile retinoschisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, P; Turut, P; Soltysik, C; Hache, J C

    1976-02-01

    About 13 observations of sexe linked juvenile retinoschisis, the authors describe the ophthalmoscopic, fluorographic and functional aspects of the disease whose caracteristics are:--its sexe linked recessive heredity; --its clinical characterestics associating: a microcystic macular degeneration, peripheral retinal lesions, vitreous body alterations, --an electroretinogram of the negative type.

  5. THE STUDY OF FEATURES OF GUILT OF JUVENILE OFFENDERS IN THE CONTEXT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalija Vladimirovna Galkina

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the results of empirical studies of the experiences of guilt of juvenile offenders in the context of juvenile justice where a minor appears as the subject of legal relations. Restorative approach of juvenile justice is based on an admission of guilt to the victim. In connection with it, the research of features of the guilt of minors who have committed an offence and the conditions for the development of the subjectivity will enhance understanding of the possibilities of restorative juvenile justice system in the prevention of juvenile delinquency.Thus, the results of empirical research presented in the article are important for determining of the psychological bases of realization of rehabilitation programs in the context of juvenile justice. In particular, the results are important for the organization and conduct of psychological work to overcome the psychological barriers in the behavior of juveniles having inherently maladaptive guilt and destructive psychological defense mechanisms.

  6. Program Performance Inventory: Six Juvenile Offender Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomalla, Terri Groff; Dougherty, Victoria J.

    This report describes the performance of 6 Connecticut juvenile justice alternative sanction programs in 14 qualitative areas: community reintegration; outcomes and evaluation; assessment methods; risk factors; escalation of criminal activity; family involvement; community involvement; work ethic and vocational training; education and life skills;…

  7. Metamorphosis: How Missouri Rehabilitates Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubin, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Juveniles convicted of serious offenses usually end up in large correctional facilities that focus on punishment--not rehabilitation. The state of Missouri, however, has found a better way to help end the cycle of crime: by creating a network of small facilities that provide therapy and educational opportunities, it has dramatically reduced…

  8. The ability of juvenile offenders with personality immaturity to conscious leadership by their actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedonkina A.A.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the characteristics of the phenomenon of personality immaturity, stand out its main features, described differences in their quantitative representation of juvenile offenders, clinical features the diagnosis of mental disorders in juvenile offenders with personality immaturity. Special attention is given to how identified characteristics of personality immaturity affects to the ability of juvenile offenders to conscious regulation of their activities, including the potential ability and current ability of minors accused to realize the significance of their actions and control them when they commit socially dangerous acts. The studied parameters are compared in samples of juvenile offenders with personality immaturity and without it.

  9. [Studying dysfunctional personality trends among sex offenders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrot, M; Bénony, H; Chahraoui, K; Juif, C

    2014-10-01

    A review of the literature reveals a consensus on the high prevalence of personality disorders among sexual offenders. Studies show that there is no unique personality profile for sex offenders. In France, little research has been conducted on this population with standardized assessment tools. The objective of the present study is to identify the distribution of personality disorders among sexual offenders using a new French questionnaire, i.e. the TD12. In view of the literature, we postulate that this tool will identify the diversity of personality disorders observed by various authors, but with a higher proportion of cluster B disorders. This study was conducted among 56 men, including 28 sex offenders aged from 21 to 70 years old, and a control group of 28 men without psychiatric disorders. The sex offenders in this study are men convicted or charged with sex offenses of various kinds: exhibitionism, the recording, distribution and possession of pornography depicting minors, aggravated corruption of a minor, sexual assault of a minor, or rape of a minor. They were examined using an inventory of dysfunctional trends recently developed by Rolland and Pichot with the aim of assessing dysfunctional personality styles. The TD-12 questionnaire is composed of 140 items describing thoughts, feelings and behaviors. It is based on the diagnostic criteria of Axis II of DSM IV-TR and consists of twelve scales that match the personality disorders described in this diagnostic manual (ten officially recognized disorders and two additional disorders). From a categorical viewpoint, results indicate rigid dysfunctional trends with regard to avoidant personality disorder in sex offenders compared to the control group (Chi(2)=9.16; P=0.005). However, there were no significant differences between the two groups regarding the number of rigid dysfunctional trends. Potentially controllable dysfunctional personality trends are identified for the dependent personality (Chi(2

  10. The attitudes of professionals towards implementation of the registry of offenders of sexual abuse of juveniles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petković Nikola

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The sexual victimization of children has always drawn great attention from experts and criminal policy makers due to the nature of the violent behavior and the developmental specific characteristics of the victims which enjoy special criminal law protection in a developed society. The high dark number and sex offender recidivism, as referenced by the frequent media reports about new cases of sexual violence towards the youngest memebers of society, highlight the need to search for the most appropriate social response to this form of sexual offending. The establishment of a register of convicted sex offenders for acts of sexual violence committed against minors, as one approach with a primary special preventive purpose, found its application in criminal law theory and practice of the Republic of Serbia. The aim of the paper is to present the results of an attitudinal survey of professionals employed in the field of justice and social welfare in the Republic of Serbia on the provisions of the special measures to prevent the commission of crimes of sexual abuse against juveniles and the establishment of the register of sex offenders.

  11. Sociodemographic Predictors of Sex Offender Stigma: How Politics Impact Attitudes, Social Distance, and Perceptions of Sex Offender Recidivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLuca, Joseph S; Vaccaro, John; Rudnik, Amalia; Graham, Nicole; Giannicchi, Anna; Yanos, Philip T

    2017-08-01

    Stigma toward general criminal offenders has been found to be particularly salient among community members who identify as politically conservative; however, less is known about how political identification relates to stigma toward sex offenders. This is a particularly important area of inquiry, given that criminal jurisprudence and politics legitimatize stigmatizing labels attributed to sex offenders through laws and policies that apply specifically to this group. A nonrandom sample ( N = 518) of participants living in the United States was recruited for this survey study. Findings indicated that a specific aspect of conservative political ideology-right-wing authoritarianism (RWA)-significantly predicts negative attitudes and intended social distancing behavior toward sex offenders, even when controlling for other important predictors, such as education and prior contact. RWA was found to be the strongest predictor of negative attitudes and estimations of sex offender recidivism, and also significantly predicted intended social distancing behavior. Implications for addressing stigma toward sex offenders are discussed.

  12. The role of theory in the assessment of sex offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quackenbush, Ray E

    2003-01-01

    No generally accepted theory of sex offender behavior exists at this point. As clinical experience and research findings interact within an evolving theoretical framework, the picture of what is important, as well as what is possible to know about a sex offender, is rapidly changing. It is vital that mental health professionals, the legal system, social service agencies, and other consumers and providers of sex offender assessments be aware of both what is possible to learn about an offender as well as the limitations on that knowledge and its application. Prominent theories that influence the assessment of offenders in North America and Europe are presented and examined. Uses and limitations of each theory are discussed. Several trends emerge which could influence the future of sex offender assessment, treatment, management, and policy.

  13. Judicial Decision-Making and Juvenile Offenders: Effects of Medical Evidence and Victim Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falligant, John Michael; Fix, Rebecca L; Alexander, Apryl A

    2017-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that jurors place greater weight on DNA or other types of forensic evidence than non-forensic evidence (Cole & Dioso-Villa, 2009). For cases involving child sexual abuse, certain types of evidence, including forensic medical evidence, may be viewed as more important or indicative of abuse than other types of evidence, such as victim statements or disclosure. The present study evaluated perceptions of juvenile offenders and victim credibility across four vignettes that systematically manipulated variables related to victim age and physical indicators of abuse. A sample of 636 participants read vignettes and answered questions pertaining to the vignette. Participants also provided demographic information and responded to a series of items assessing participants' judicial decision-making strategies and outcomes. Broadly, the presence of medical evidence significantly influenced participants' decision-making across a variety of variables, including verdict outcome, verdict confidence, confidence that the victim was truthful, and determinations involving sex offender registration and notification requirements. The influence of medical evidence and victim age on perceptions and sentencing of juvenile sex offenders across these and additional outcome variables will be discussed.

  14. Computer-Tailored Intervention for Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    LEVESQUE, DEBORAH A.; JOHNSON, JANET L.; WELCH, CAROL A.; PROCHASKA, JANICE M.; FERNANDEZ, ANNE C.

    2012-01-01

    Studies assessing the efficacy of juvenile justice interventions show small effects on recidivism and other outcomes. This paper describes the development of a prototype of a multimedia computer-tailored intervention (“Rise Above Your Situation”or RAYS) that relies on an evidence-based model of behavior change, the Transtheoretical Model, and expert system technology to deliver assessments, feedback, printed reports, and counselor reports with intervention ideas. In a feasibility test involving 60 system-involved youths and their counselors, evaluations of the program were favorable: 91.7% of youths agreed that the program could help them make positive changes, and 86.7% agreed that the program could give their counselor helpful information about them. PMID:23264754

  15. Electronic Monitoring of Sex Offenders: Identifying Unanticipated Consequences and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demichele, Matthew; Payne, Brian K.; Button, Deeanna M.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, increased legislative attention has been given to strategies to supervise sex offenders in the community. Among other policies, several states have passed laws calling for the use of electronic monitoring technologies to supervise sex offenders in the community. When initially developed, this community-based sanction was designed…

  16. Before the Doors Are Locked: Effective Alternatives to Incarceration for Non-Violent Juvenile Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voices for Illinois Children, Chicago.

    Juvenile crime threatens the immediate safety and well-being of its victims. The cost of processing and punishing the offender takes money from more productive purposes. If the juvenile offender either continues a life of crime or otherwise drops out of the lawful economy, the cost to the community is a long-term burden. In the early 1970s, many…

  17. The treatment of sex offenders: evidence, ethics, and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birgden, Astrid; Cucolo, Heather

    2011-09-01

    Public policy is necessarily a political process with the law and order issue high on the political agenda. Consequently, working with sex offenders is fraught with legal and ethical minefields, including the mandate that community protection automatically outweighs offender rights. In addressing community protection, contemporary sex offender treatment is based on management rather than rehabilitation. We argue that treatment-as-management violates offender rights because it is ineffective and unethical. The suggested alternative is to deliver treatment-as-rehabilitation underpinned by international human rights law and universal professional ethics. An effective and ethical community-offender balance is more likely when sex offenders are treated with respect and dignity that, as human beings, they have a right to claim.

  18. Juvenile Residential Facility Census, 2010: Selected Findings. Juvenile Offenders and Victims: National Report Series. Bulletin NCJ 241134

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockenberry, Sarah; Sickmund, Melissa; Sladky, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    This bulletin is part of the "Juvenile Offenders and Victims National Report Series." The "National Report" offers a comprehensive statistical overview of the problems of juvenile crime, violence, and victimization and the response of the juvenile justice system. During each interim year, the bulletins in the "National…

  19. FORENSIC TESTS IN SPANISH FOR ASSESSING JUVENILE OFFENDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Wenger

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectively and rigorously understanding the individual psychological characteristics of adolescent offenders, such as intelligence, personality traits and others of a clinical and criminological nature, is essential when developing appropriate processes for intervention in educational and judicial measures in the context of juvenile justice. However, the clinical and personological tools described in the previous article (Wenger & Andrés-Pueyo, 2016 are not enough to address the criminogenic needs of the adolescents and other, more specific, tools are needed. In this article, a number of complementary instruments developed specifically for the forensic area are reviewed. These tools enable us to carry out very specific assessments in this context, such as the evaluation of the risk of violence or the assessment of psychopathy. A review is also presented of the forensic psychological tests available in Spanish for professionals in the field of juvenile justice.

  20. A critical review of objective personality inventories with sex offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Karen M; Archer, Robert P

    2010-12-01

    This review provides a critical analysis of the ability of multiscale inventories to distinguish between sex offender and nonoffender control groups, as well as to discriminate sex offenders from other types of offenders. In addition to expanding upon previous reviews that examined the utility of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) with this population (e.g., Levin & Stava, 1987), the current review included studies that utilized other multiscale inventories commonly used in forensic practice (i.e., MMPI-2, Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III [MCMI-III], Personality Assessment Inventory) and, when possible, provides effect sizes to evaluate group differences. Based on the review, the various forms of the MMPI and MCMI are clearly the most widely used instruments in sex offender populations. The MMPI Pd scale has shown moderate to large effect sizes when distinguishing between sex offender and nonsex offender groups, but this relationship may be reflective of antisocial behavior in general rather than traits specific to sex offenders. Recommendations to standardize future research classification strategies and more effectively utilize these instruments when assessing sex offenders are also provided. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Youth Drug Offenders: An Examination of Criminogenic Risk and Juvenile Recidivism

    OpenAIRE

    Papp, Jordan; Campbell, Christina; Onifade, Eyitayo; Anderson, Valerie; Davidson, William; Foster, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the criminogenic risk factors and treatment needs of juvenile drug offenders is important because of the myriad negative outcomes that befall juveniles that are involved in drugs. A widely used juvenile risk assessment tool, the Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory (YLS/CMI) was utilized to explore criminogenic risk factors and treatment needs to predict recidivism. Demographic differences between drug and nondrug offenders were also examined. Results ...

  2. Treating the Adolescent Victim-Turned-Offender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muster, Nori J.

    1992-01-01

    Many juvenile sex offenders are also victims of sexual abuse. Treatment primarily focuses on juvenile's criminal acts in confrontational, nonsympathetic manner. Surveyed 18 professionals in sexual abuse treatment field to assess attitudes toward juvenile sex offender treatment. Those in corrections field were greatest supporters of confrontational…

  3. The Effectiveness of the Tupiq Program for Inuit Sex Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Lynn A; Hamilton, Ellen; Wilton, Geoff; Cousineau, Colette; Varrette, Steven K

    2015-11-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of the Tupiq program, a culturally specific program for Inuit sex offenders that incorporates cognitive behavioural methods with traditional Inuit knowledge and culture led by Inuit healers and facilitators. Outcomes of 61 offenders who participated in the Tupiq program and were released were compared with outcomes of a cohort of 114 released Inuit sex offenders incarcerated during the same time period who had taken alternative sex offender treatment programs, or had not attended any sex offender program. On release, Tupiq participants had significantly lower rates of general reoffending and violent reoffending than those in the combined comparison group. The hazard of reoffending for the comparison group was almost twice that of the Tupiq group. Although the sexual reoffending rate for the Tupiq participants was less than half of that of the comparison group, the difference between the two groups was not significant because of reduced statistical power. Survival analysis controlling for covariates confirmed significantly lower rates of general reoffending for the Tupiq group. Further analyses comparing the outcomes of the subgroup of offenders in the comparison group who participated in alternative sex offender treatment programs with those who participated in Tupiq indicated that Tupiq participants had significantly lower rates of both general and sexual reoffending. These positive results for this culturally specific program suggest that similarly designed interventions have a probability of contributing to the reduction of sexual offending within Inuit communities and, potentially, other jurisdictions that work with cultural minority sex offender groups from relatively isolated communities. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Criminal history and future offending of juveniles convicted of the possession of child pornography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aebi, Marcel; Plattner, Belinda; Ernest, Melanie; Kaszynski, Katie; Bessler, Cornelia

    2014-08-01

    Most child pornography is distributed online. It is estimated that 3% to 15% of child pornography consumers are juveniles. The present study analyzed a consecutive sample of 54 male juveniles convicted of the possession of child pornography. Demographic characteristics, criminal history, and subsequent offending were assessed from criminal files and official reports. Juvenile possessors of child pornography were compared to three different groups of juveniles: Juvenile possessors of other illegal pornography (n = 42), juveniles who committed a sexual contact offense against a child (n = 64), and juveniles who committed a sexual contact offense against a peer or adult (n = 104). Juvenile possessors of child pornography were found to have downloaded the illegal material more frequently and over a longer time period than juvenile possessors of other illegal pornography. Furthermore, juvenile possessors of child pornography differed from juveniles who had committed a sexual contact offense in terms of demographics and showed fewer previous and subsequent offending than juveniles who sexually offended against a peer or adult. We conclude that juvenile possessors of child pornography need a specific target intervention focusing on dysfunctional Internet use and sexually deviant arousal. © The Author(s) 2013.

  5. Juvenile Delinquency and Teenage Pregnancy: A Comparison of Ecological Risk Profiles among Midwestern White and Black Female Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Atika; Cooksey, Elizabeth C.; Gavazzi, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined ecological risk factors associated with teen pregnancy with a sample of 1,190 court-involved female juvenile offenders between 11 and 18 years of age. Data were obtained from five Midwestern juvenile county courts using a recently developed youth risk assessment instrument called the global risk assessment device (GRAD). In…

  6. The Role of Family Affect in Juvenile Drug Court Offenders' Substance Use and HIV Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolou-Shams, Marina; Hadley, Wendy; Conrad, Selby M.; Brown, Larry K.

    2012-01-01

    Family-based interventions targeting parenting factors, such as parental monitoring and parent-child communication, have been successful in reducing adolescent offenders' substance use and delinquency. This pilot, exploratory study focuses on family and parenting factors that may be relevant in reducing juvenile offenders' substance use and sexual…

  7. Moral development and juvenile sex offending

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vugt, E.S.

    2011-01-01

    Eveline van Vugt onderzocht gewetensontwikkeling en delinquentie. Uit haar onderzoek bleek dat delinquenten met een gebrekkige gewetensontwikkeling een groot risico lopen om terug te vallen in delinquent gedrag. Opvallend was dat jongeren die een zedendelict hadden gepleegd eenzelfde

  8. Prevalence of traumatic brain injury in juvenile offenders: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrer, Thomas J; Frost, R Brock; Hedges, Dawson W

    2013-01-01

    Studies of traumatic brain injury (TBI) among adult populations demonstrate that such injuries can lead to aggressive behaviors. Related findings suggest that incarcerated individuals have high rates of brain injuries. Such studies suggest that traumatic brain injury may be related to the etiology and recidivism of criminal behavior. Relatively few studies have examined the prevalence of TBI using a delinquent juvenile sample. In order to assess the relationship between TBI and juvenile offender status, the current study used meta-analytic techniques to examine the odds of having a TBI among juvenile offenders. Across 9 studies, we found that approximately 30% of juvenile offenders have sustained a previous brain injury. Across 5 studies that used a control group, a calculated summary odds ratio of 3.37 suggests that juvenile offenders are significantly more likely to have a TBI compared to controls. Results suggest that the rate of TBIs within the juvenile offender population is significant and that there may be a relationship between TBIs and juvenile criminal behavior.

  9. Assessing Violence Risk and Psychopathy in Juvenile and Adult Offenders: A Survey of Clinical Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viljoen, Jodi L.; McLachlan, Kaitlyn; Vincent, Gina M.

    2010-01-01

    This study surveyed 199 forensic clinicians about the practices that they use in assessing violence risk in juvenile and adult offenders. Results indicated that the use of risk assessment and psychopathy tools was common. Although clinicians reported more routine use of psychopathy measures in adult risk assessments compared with juvenile risks…

  10. Examining the effectiveness of a restorative justice program for various types of juvenile offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergseth, Kathleen J; Bouffard, Jeffrey A

    2013-09-01

    Restorative justice (RJ) programs have become widespread in the United States and in other countries. These programs are often seen as a viable alternative to traditional retributive processing, especially for minor, and sometimes more serious, forms of delinquency and adult criminality. The programs hold promise for achieving several goals, including increased community and victim involvement, greater satisfaction with the case outcomes, improved offender compliance, increased perceptions of fairness, and even recidivism reduction. Meta-analyses have demonstrated varying degrees of program success in recidivism reduction, which may in part reflect differential effectiveness of the RJ approach for various kinds of offenders. This study examined whether an RJ program for juvenile offenders had differential impacts on recidivism across various offender characteristics (including age, gender, racial group, offending history, and current offense). Results generally support the effectiveness of the program for many types of offenders. Implications for future research and potential improvements to the RJ model are discussed.

  11. Perceived Police Injustice, Moral Disengagement, and Aggression Among Juvenile Offenders: Utilizing the General Strain Theory Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapolski, Tamika C B; Banks, Devin E; Lau, Katherine S L; Aalsma, Matthew C

    2018-04-01

    Although many juvenile offenders report experiencing police injustice, few studies have examined how this source of strain may impact youths' behavioral outcomes, including risk for future recidivism. This study begins to address that gap in the literature. We applied the general strain theory as our theoretical framework to examine the interactive effect of perceived police injustice and moral disengagement on juvenile aggressive behavior. Our sample included 95 juvenile offenders who completed questionnaires on measures of perceived police injustice and moral disengagement. Results supported our hypothesis, such that moral disengagement predicted past month aggression among juvenile offenders, but only by youth who reported mean and high levels of perceived police injustice. While more research is needed in this area, this study's findings underscore the need to address both perceived police engagement and moral disengagement among youth at-risk of engaging in delinquent behaviors. Implications for intervention programs are also presented.

  12. Recidivism Patterns Among Two Types of Juvenile Homicide Offenders: A 30-Year Follow-Up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khachatryan, Norair; Heide, Kathleen M; Hummel, Erich V

    2018-02-01

    Although juvenile homicide has been a matter of concern in the United States since the 1980s, prior research has not addressed long-term recidivism patterns for convicted juvenile murderers. Furthermore, a prominent juvenile homicide typology had not previously been tested with U.S. offenders. The present study examined whether juvenile offenders who killed or attempted to kill during the commission of a crime differed from those who killed due to some type of conflict on pre-incarceration, incarceration, and post-incarceration variables. These offenders were sentenced to adult prison in the early 1980s. Follow-up data spanned 30 years. The results indicated that approximately 88% of released offenders have been rearrested. Analyses of pre-incarceration variables revealed that crime-oriented offenders were significantly more likely to commit the homicide offense using accomplices than conflict-oriented offenders, and the latter were significantly more likely to use a firearm during the homicide incident. The circumstances of the homicide, however, were not significantly related to any other pre-incarceration variables, release from prison, number of post-release arrests, and number of post-release violent offenses. The implications of the findings, their comparability to previous follow-up research on this typology, and avenues for future research are discussed.

  13. Online child pornography offenders are different: a meta-analysis of the characteristics of online and offline sex offenders against children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babchishin, Kelly M; Hanson, R Karl; VanZuylen, Heather

    2015-01-01

    The current meta-analysis compared the characteristics of online child pornography-only offenders, typical (offline) sex offenders against children, and offenders with both child pornography and contact sex offences against children (mixed). Based on 30 unique samples (comparison ns ranging from 98 to 2,702), the meta-analysis found key differences between groups. Offenders who committed contact sex offences were more likely to have access to children than those with only child pornography offences. In contrast, offenders who used the internet to commit sexual offences had greater access to the internet than those with contact sex offenders. Differences between the groups, however, were not limited to differential opportunities. Sex offenders against children and mixed offenders were found to score higher on indicators of antisociality than online child pornography offenders (CPOs). CPOs were also more likely to have psychological barriers to sexual offending than sex offenders against children and mixed offenders (e.g., greater victim empathy). Mixed offenders were found to be the most pedophilic, even more than CPOs. The findings suggest that offenders who restricted their offending behavior to online child pornography offences were different from mixed offenders and offline sex offenders against children, and that mixed offenders were a particularly high risk group.

  14. Sentencing Male Sex Offenders Under the Age of 14: A Law Reform Advocacy Journey in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Wai-Ching Irene; Cheung, Monit; Ma, Anny Kit-Ying

    2015-01-01

    The common law presumption that a boy under the age of 14 is incapable of sexual intercourse has provoked controversial debates in Hong Kong. This article describes a 6-step advocacy journey to examine how community efforts have helped modify this law so that juvenile male sexual offenders under the age of 14 who have committed the crime of having sexual intercourse with underage females can be sentenced to receive appropriate treatment. Seven court cases provided by the magistrates' courts in Hong Kong were used in this advocacy effort for the removal of the presumption in July 2012. Although this effort has yet to reveal signs of effectiveness, it represents greater public awareness about providing rehabilitation appropriate for juvenile sex offenders through a formal sentence. Restorative justice, as opposed to retributive or punitive justice, places an emphasis on rehabilitation of the offender and restoration of victims to a place of wholeness.

  15. The effectiveness of reintegrative shaming and restorative justice conferences: focusing on juvenile offenders' perceptions in Australian reintegrative shaming experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Joo; Gerber, Jurg

    2012-10-01

    This article examines the effectiveness of diversionary restorative justice (RJ) conferences through the eyes of juvenile offenders. In Australia, Reintegrative Shaming Experiments (RISE) are based on Braithwaite's theory of reintegrative shaming. Previous studies, although showing that RISE reported high levels of victim satisfaction and positive changes in the attitudes of offenders, also demonstrated that it has different outcomes for juvenile offenders depending on the type of offense with which they were charged. However, the effectiveness of RISE in terms of the offenders' perceptions has not been addressed, and the impact of the offenders' perceptions about RISE still remains under investigation. Using Australian data from RISE between 1995 and 1999, this article examines juvenile offenders' perceptions on preventing reoffending, repaying the victim and society, and the degree of repentance. The data were taken from interviews with juvenile offenders to measure their perceptions after the court or RISE processing. A comparison of standard court processing effects and RISE on juvenile offending, including property crime, shoplifting, and violent offenses, was undertaken. The results from this study were somewhat inconsistent with previous research. In this study, there was no significant relationship between RJ conference and the offenders' own perceptions on the prevention of future offending. However, it was found that there were treatment effects on repaying the victim, repaying society, and the degree of feeling repentance, and that younger offenders wanted to repay the victim/society and feel repentance.

  16. 75 FR 27362 - Supplemental Guidelines for Sex Offender Registration and Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... posting, pursuant to the KIDS Act, 42 U.S.C. 16915a. (3) Require jurisdictions to have sex offenders...] RIN 1105-AB36 Supplemental Guidelines for Sex Offender Registration and Notification AGENCY: Department of Justice. ACTION: Notice; Proposed guidelines. SUMMARY: The Sex Offender Registration and...

  17. 76 FR 1630 - Supplemental Guidelines for Sex Offender Registration and Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ... posting, pursuant to the KIDS Act, 42 U.S.C. 16915a. (3) Require jurisdictions to have sex offenders... on the sex offender does not have to be disclosed to these entities. B. Internet Identifiers The KIDS...] RIN 1105-AB36 Supplemental Guidelines for Sex Offender Registration and Notification AGENCY...

  18. Factors Related to Co-Offending and Coerced Offending Among Female Sex Offenders: The Role of Childhood and Adult Trauma Histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comartin, Erin B; Burgess-Proctor, Amanda; Kubiak, Sheryl; Kernsmith, Poco

    2018-02-01

    Research suggests two important domains of women's sexual offending: co-offending, in which additional perpetrators are present with the woman during the crime, and coerced offending, in which the woman feels pressured by someone else to commit the crime. This exploratory analysis examines these 2 domains using self-report data from 60 incarcerated female sex offenders (FSOs) in a Midwestern state. In addition to indicating whether a co-offender was present and whether they felt pressure to commit the sex offense for which they were incarcerated, participants provided demographic information about themselves, the victim, and the offense, as well as about their own trauma, substance abuse, and mental illness histories. Results indicate that childhood and adult trauma histories are related to both co-offending and coerced offending among FSOs. Implications for theory, policy and practice, and future research are discussed.

  19. Stress experiences of family members of registered sex offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewksbury, Richard; Levenson, Jill

    2009-01-01

    The collateral consequences of sex offender registration and notification (SORN) have been well established, although little evidence has supported the efficacy of SORN. Based on the belief that family members provide some of the most consistent, important, and intense forms of support for criminal offenders in general and registered sex offenders (RSOs) more specifically, the experiences of sanctions, losses, and stresses of these individuals is examined. Using survey responses from 584 individuals known to visit online support and advocacy groups for RSOs and their loved ones, this study identifies the stress levels and stressors experienced by this population. Findings show that family members of RSOs experience high levels of social isolation, fear, shame, property damage, and forced residential relocation. Perceived stress is significantly higher for those who are of lower economic means, feel isolated, have high levels of fear and shame/embarrassment, or were forced to move. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. The care of Filipino juvenile offenders in residential facilities evaluated using the risk-need-responsivity model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruit, A.; Wissink, I.B.; Stams, G.J.J.M.

    According to the risk-need-responsivity model of offender, assessment and rehabilitation treatment should target specific factors that are related to re-offending. This study evaluates the residential care of Filipino juvenile offenders using the risk-need-responsivity model. Risk analyses and

  1. Adolescent Fathers Who Are Incarcerated Juvenile Offenders: Explanatory Study of the Co-Occurrence of Two Problem Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unruh, Deanne; Bullis, Michael; Yovanoff, Paul

    2004-01-01

    We identify explanatory risk variables associated with the co-occurrence of two problem behaviors: juvenile offending and adolescent fatherhood. Data were gathered from a 5-year prospective, longitudinal study of 531 incarcerated juvenile offenders as they transitioned from youth correction facilities back into the community. Of the total sample,…

  2. Sex Offenders in Prison: Are They Socially Isolated?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, C.J.W.; Beijersbergen, K.A.; Nieuwbeerta, P.; Dirkzwager, A.J.E.

    2017-01-01

    Empirical literature has revealed that social isolation can affect the rehabilitation of sex offenders after serving their sentence. This process of social isolation can already start during incarceration due to strained relationships with fellow prisoners and correctional staff. The current study

  3. Neighborhood Characteristics and the Social Control of Registered Sex Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socia, Kelly M.; Stamatel, Janet P.

    2012-01-01

    This study uses geospatial and regression analyses to examine the relationships among social disorganization, collective efficacy, social control, residence restrictions, spatial autocorrelation, and the neighborhood distribution of registered sex offenders (RSOs) in Chicago. RSOs were concentrated in neighborhoods that had higher levels of social…

  4. Referring Sex Offenders for Psychosexual Evaluation: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Robert J.; Purdy, Linda A.

    1999-01-01

    Provides guidance to counselors who are referred identified and alleged sex offenders for psychosexual evaluations. Reviews the critical legal, ethical, and clinical issues that counselors should consider when responding to these referral requests. This article can be used to educate referral sources about the indications of evaluations of this…

  5. Evolution of recidivism risk, using the YLS/CMI Inventory in a population of juvenile offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keren Cuervo Gómez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Risk assessment in juvenile recidivism allows understanding the specific factors that drives the juvenile to the commission of offences. Most of these juveniles will have a punctual relation with the justice system and only a small percentage will persist in this type of conducts. However, it seems that society perceives these juveniles as high risk offenders with high rates of recidivism. Hence, with the aim to clarify this topic, the objective of this paper is to explore the general risk of recidivism and the areas with higher risk, examining the risk of recidivism in a follow up period. Participants in this research were juveniles with a criminal record in the Juvenile Court of Castellón (N = 210. The Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory (YLS/CMI was administered to the juveniles along the follow up period of two years. Results show a majoritary profile of low risk juveniles, and a punctual relation with justice, rejecting the belief of dangerousness on juvenile offenders. On the contrary, juvenile recidivists with long criminal trajectories are in fact characterized by a high risk that would increase throughout the follow up period.

  6. Substance involvement among juvenile murderers: comparisons with older offenders based on interviews with prison inmates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendrich, M; Mackesy-Amiti, M E; Goldstein, P; Spunt, B; Brownstein, H

    1995-09-01

    We evaluated substance involvement among incarcerated juvenile offenders convicted of murder of manslaughter. Patterns of substance involvement among juvenile offenders were compared with patterns found in older offenders. Irrespective of age group, close to one-third of all homicide perpetrators reported that they were affected by alcohol prior to the offense. In every age group, alcohol was the substance showing the highest rate of "regular" lifetime use and the highest rate of ingestion in the week preceding the homicide. In many respects, the reported substance use patterns in the 16-17-year-old age group were closer to the patterns demonstrated by the oldest (36+) age group than they were to the adjacent 18-20-year-old group. Juvenile offenders were generally less substance involved than all but the oldest group of offenders. Almost all of the juveniles who were substance involved prior to the homicide attributed the homicide to the effects of those substances. Narrative accounts suggest that substances (almost always alcohol) escalated impulsive, spontaneous violent outbursts. Implications for the interpretation of self-reports about substance use provided by murderers are also discussed.

  7. Substance misuse and substance use disorders in sex offenders: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraanen, Fleur L; Emmelkamp, Paul M G

    2011-04-01

    Substance abuse has often been associated with committing sex offenses. In this article, the following will be reviewed: 1) studies that assessed substance abuse in sex offenders; 2) differences in substance abuse among different types of sex offenders; 3) differences in substance abuse between sex offenders and nonsexual offenders and substance abuse in the normal population; 4) sex offenders' intoxication at the time of the offense; and 5) differences in intoxication at the time of the offense among different types of sex offenders. Studies will be discussed according to the method they used to assess substance abuse, i.e., file research, screening instruments or semi-structured interviews. This review shows that about half of the sex offenders has a history of substance abuse, a quarter to half of the sex offenders has a history of alcohol misuse and that about one fifth to a quarter of the sex offenders has a history of drug misuse. Furthermore, about a quarter to half of the sex offenders appeared to be intoxicated at the time of the offense. The review results in recommendations for future research. Because of the high prevalence of substance abuse in sex offenders it is advisable to routinely screen for substance abuse and, if necessary, to treat substance abuse. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessment of moral judgment and empathy in young sex offenders: a comparison of clinical judgment and test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vugt, Eveline; Asscher, Jessica; Hendriks, Jan; Stams, Geert Jan; Bijleveld, Catrien; van der Laan, Peter

    2012-10-01

    Professional decision making in forensic clinical practice may have lifelong consequences for offenders. Although information on moral development is important for prediction of reoffending and referral to adequate treatment, conclusions regarding moral development are still largely based on unstructured clinical judgment instead of assessment instruments. For this study, the authors examined to what extent unstructured clinical judgment of both moral judgment and victim empathy concurred with test results in a group of young sex offenders. Moral judgment was measured with the Sociomoral Reflection Measure-Short Form (SRM-SF), whereas victim empathy was measured with an extended version of the Basic Empathy Scale (BES). No significant associations were found between clinical judgment of moral judgment and the mean scores on the SRM-SF. However, clinical judgment of victim empathy was significantly associated with victim empathy on the Victim Empathy Scale but not consistently in the expected direction. Juvenile sex offenders, who were judged by clinicians to show little victim empathy, displayed lower mean scores on the Victim Empathy Scale than juvenile sex offenders who were evaluated to lack victim empathy or to have intact victim empathy. This study showed unstructured clinical judgment of moral development not to concur with test results. To improve decision-making processes regarding moral development, clinicians are advised to rely on instruments that assess moral development to inform clinical judgment. Further research is needed to examine which predictions are more accurate and to establish the predictive validity of moral development evaluations.

  9. A Restorative Justice Approach to Empathy Development in Sex Offenders: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseman, Christopher P.; Ritchie, Martin; Laux, John M.

    2009-01-01

    The authors describe an exploratory study in sex offender treatment using a restorative justice approach to examine the shame, guilt, and empathy development of convicted sexual offenders. Implications for clinical practice and future research are highlighted. (Contains 3 tables.)

  10. Portraits of Dysfunction: Criminal, Education, and Family Profiles of Juvenile Female Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fejes-Mendoza, Kathy; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Interviews with 40 incarcerated juvenile female offenders found they typically reported failing 1 or more grades; more than having serious arrest; using drugs prior to crimes and as part of their lifestyle; and acting intentionally, and most often with others, to commit crimes. Critical factors included academic deficiencies, siblings who were…

  11. Evaluating effects of residential treatment for juvenile offenders by statistical metaanalysis : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grietens, H; Hellinckx, W

    Statistical metaanalyses on the effects of residential treatment for juvenile offenders were reviewed to examine the mean effect sizes and reductions of recidivism reported for this group. Five metaanalyses (three on North American and two on European studies) were selected and synthesized in a

  12. Children with Disabilities in Poor Households: Association with Juvenile and Adult Offending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Karen M Matta; Huang, Jin; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Drake, Brett

    2010-06-01

    Disabled youths are arrested, adjudicated, and recidivate at higher rates than their nondisabled peers. Although multiple theories have been offered to explain the relationship between disability and delinquency, the empirical evidence is limited and contradictory. Little is known about how disability may be associated with offending once poverty and family risks like maltreatment are controlled for. Using administrative data from a Midwest state, this article discusses results from a Cox regression of juvenile and young adult offending outcomes for low income disabled compared with nondisabled youths (N = 1,568). Youths with disabilities had higher rates of juvenile court petitions than similarly low-income peers. In models of adult offending, there was no relationship between disability status and adult arrest, but youths who had received educational services for emotional disturbance or other categories of health impairment had higher risk of entering adult corrections.

  13. Substance misuse and substance use disorders in sex offenders: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraanen, F.L.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.

    2011-01-01

    Substance abuse has often been associated with committing sex offenses. In this article, the following will be reviewed: 1) studies that assessed substance abuse in sex offenders; 2) differences in substance abuse among different types of sex offenders; 3) differences in substance abuse between sex

  14. A Two-Week Psychosocial Intervention Reduces Future Aggression and Incarceration in Clinically Aggressive Juvenile Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Ashley D; Emerson, Erin M; Hartmann, William E; Zinbarg, Richard E; Donenberg, Geri R

    2017-12-01

    There is a largely unmet need for evidence-based interventions that reduce future aggression and incarceration in clinically aggressive juvenile offenders serving probation. We addressed this gap using a group randomized controlled trial. Offenders both with and without clinical aggression were included, enabling comparison of intervention effects. Juveniles 13 to 17 years old (N = 310, mean = 16 years, 90% African-American, 66% male) on probation were assigned to a 2-week intervention targeting psychosocial factors implicated in risky behavior (e.g., learning strategies to manage "hot" emotions that prompt risk taking) or to an equally intensive health promotion control. Participants completed aggression measures at baseline, 6-, and 12-month follow-up and reported on incarceration at 12 months. Spline regression tested symptom change. Among clinically aggressive offenders (n = 71), the intervention arm showed significantly greater reductions in aggression over the first 6 months compared with controls. Juveniles from the intervention no longer met clinical criteria, on average, but clinically significant symptoms persisted in the control group. By 12 months, participants from the intervention appeared to maintain treatment gains, but their symptom levels no longer differed significantly from those in the control. However, the intervention group was nearly 4 times less likely than controls to report incarceration. Intervention effects were significantly stronger for offenders with clinical than with nonclinical (n = 239) baseline aggression. A 2-week intervention expedited improvements in aggression and reduced incarceration in clinically aggressive juvenile offenders. The findings underscore the importance of directing intervention resources to the most aggressive youth. Clinical trial registration information-PHAT Life: Preventing HIV/AIDS Among Teens in Juvenile Justice (PHAT Life); http://clinicaltrials.gov/; NCT02647710. Copyright © 2017 American

  15. Contextualizing the Policy and Pragmatics of Reintegrating Sex Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Kathryn J

    2017-02-01

    As sanctions for those convicted of sex offenses have increased over recent years, the risk for reoffense presented by social isolation increases. Because most jurisdictions struggle with how best to manage and reintegrate sex offenders, this study analyzes bureaucratic and contextual issues with arranging community-based reintegration programs. Specifically, this qualitative, process-oriented study examines and compares Circles of Support & Accountability (CoSA) programs from the United States (specifically, Vermont) and New Zealand. CoSAs provide support for medium- to high-risk sex offenders as they are released to communities. The programs are compared with regard to their structures, the relationship to Corrections, the role of communities, and core members' reentry challenges. The implications of each configuration are explored. As most of the existing research on CoSAs is focused on recidivism, and as the U.S. federal government is expanding the use of CoSA, this article fills a void in our understanding of the role that communities can play in reintegrating sexual offenders and how program structures shape reentry.

  16. Youth Offender Care Needs Assessment Tool (YO-CNAT): an actuarial risk assessment tool for predicting problematic child-rearing situations in juvenile offenders on the basis of police records

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Put, C.E.; Stams, G.J.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    In the juvenile justice system, much attention is paid to estimating the risk for recidivism among juvenile offenders. However, it is also important to estimate the risk for problematic child-rearing situations (care needs) in juvenile offenders, because these problems are not always related to

  17. 75 FR 81849 - Office of the Attorney General; Applicability of the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... offender's history of recidivism. Offenders in different tiers are treated differently under SORNA's... on the basis of juvenile delinquency adjudications than on the basis of adult convictions. Juvenile delinquency adjudications count as ``convictions'' that trigger SORNA's requirements only if the juvenile is...

  18. HIV testing among non-incarcerated substance-abusing juvenile offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolou-Shams, Marina; Conrad, Selby; Louis, Alaina; Shuford, Sarah Hart; Brown, Larry K

    2015-11-01

    Juvenile offenders are a subgroup of adolescents at particular risk for HIV/STI infection. Although HIV prevalence among these youth is low (justice system, which is known to have an extremely high rate of HIV infection. US constitutional mandates provide HIV/STI testing for incarcerated juveniles, but close to 80% of juvenile arrestees are never detained. Moreover, although they engage in similar HIV risk behaviors as those detained, they have limited access to available HIV/STI testing services. Thus, our study examined rates of lifetime HIV testing among a pilot sample of 60 court-involved, substance-using juveniles monitored in the community to explore rates of testing and the reasons related to lifetime testing among a high-risk, yet understudied US juvenile population.

  19. Accounts, excuses and apologies of juvenile sexual offenders in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The excuses of the offenders for their abusive behaviour hinged on unfulfilled sexual needs, drug influence, ignorance of the law, impulse disorder, alcohol, senility, the urge to feel in control and powerful or the identification with young children as a result of arrested emotional development. The study concludes that the ...

  20. ESTIMATING A DOSE-RESPONSE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LENGTH OF STAY AND FUTURE RECIDIVISM IN SERIOUS JUVENILE OFFENDERS*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughran, Thomas A.; Mulvey, Edward P.; Schubert, Carol A.; Fagan, Jeffrey; Piquero, Alex R.; Losoya, Sandra H.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of sanctions on subsequent criminal activity is of central theoretical importance in criminology. A key question for juvenile justice policy is the degree to which serious juvenile offenders respond to sanctions and/or treatment administered by the juvenile court. The policy question germane to this debate is finding the level of confinement within the juvenile justice system that maximizes the public safety and therapeutic benefits of institutional confinement. Unfortunately, research on this issue has been limited with regard to serious juvenile offenders. We use longitudinal data from a large sample of serious juvenile offenders from two large cities to 1) estimate a causal treatment effect of institutional placement, as opposed to probation, on future rate of rearrest and 2) investigate the existence of a marginal effect (i.e., benefit) for longer length of stay once the institutional placement decision had been made. We accomplish the latter by determining a dose-response relationship between the length of stay and future rates of rearrest and self-reported offending. The results suggest that an overall null effect of placement exists on future rates of rearrest or self-reported offending for serious juvenile offenders. We also find that, for the group placed out of the community, it is apparent that little or no marginal benefit exists for longer lengths of stay. Theoretical, empirical, and policy issues are outlined. PMID:20052309

  1. The Effect of Adolescent Sex Offender Abuse History on Counselor Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carone, Stacia S.; LaFleur, N. Kenneth

    2000-01-01

    Examines judgment of counseling students, with history of sexual or physical abuse, about their attitudes towards counseling adolescent sex offenders. Reports sexually abused counselors desired to see physically abused offenders as clients over sexually abused offenders. Presents implications for counseling, including ways in which nonabused…

  2. Bem Sex Role Inventory Undifferentiated Score: A Comparison of Sexual Dysfunction Patients with Sexual Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Margretta; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Examined Bem Sex Role undifferentiated scores on 93 male sex offenders as compared with 50 male sexually dysfunctional patients. Chi-square analyses revealed significant difference: offenders obtained undifferentiated scores more often than did sexual dysfunctional population. Concluded that Bem Sex Role Inventory is useful in identifying sexual…

  3. Sex Offenders Seeking Treatment for Sexual Dysfunction--Ethics, Medicine, and the Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Elizabeth A; Rajender, Archana; Douglas, Thomas; Brandon, Ashley F; Munarriz, Ricardo

    2015-07-01

    The treatment of sexual dysfunction in patients with prior sexual offenses poses ethical and legal dilemmas. Sex offenders are not obligated by law to disclose this history to medical professionals. Over 20% of sex offenders experience sexual dysfunction; however, the number of sex offenders seeking evaluation for sexual dysfunction is unknown. The aims of this study were to determine the incidence and characteristics of sex offenders seeking treatment in our clinic; and to review data regarding sex offender recidivism and ethics pertaining to the issue as it relates to treating physicians. Sex offenders were identified via three methods: new patient screening in a dedicated sexual medicine clinic, chart review of those on intracavernosal injection (ICI) therapy for erectile dysfunction (ED), and review of patient's status-post placement of penile prosthesis. Charts were cross-referenced with the U.S. Department of Justice National Sex Offender Public Website. Patient characteristics and details of offenses were collected. The main outcome measures used were a self-reported sexual offense and national registry data. Eighteen male sex offenders were identified: 13 via new patient screening; 3 by review of ICI patients; 1 by review of penile prosthesis data; and 1 prior to penile prosthesis placement. All were primarily referred for ED. Of those with known offenses, 64% were level 3 offenders (most likely to re-offend). The same number had committed crimes against children. All those with complete data had multiple counts of misconduct (average 3.6). Ninety-four percent (17/18) had publicly funded health care. Twelve (67%) were previously treated for sexual dysfunction. Registered sex offenders are seeking and receiving treatment for sexual dysfunction. It is unknown whether treatment of sexual dysfunction increases the risk of recidivism of sexual offenses. Physicians currently face a difficult choice in deciding whether to treat sexual dysfunction in sex

  4. Understanding the school outcomes of juvenile offenders: an exploration of neighborhood influences and motivational resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, He Len; Mulvey, Edward P; Steinberg, Laurence

    2011-08-01

    As a group, delinquent youth complete less education and show poor academic outcomes compared to their non-delinquent peers. To better understand pathways to school success, this study integrated individual- and neighborhood-level data to examine academic functioning among 833 White, Black, and Hispanic male juvenile offenders (age 14-17) living in two urban communities. A multilevel path analysis confirmed that youth in relatively more affluent communities report greater access to opportunities in the areas of education and employment, and that these opportunities are associated with higher expectations to succeed and better grades. Findings highlight the importance of taking an ecological approach for understanding processes that shape school effort and achievement. Implications are discussed in the context of promoting academic success among juvenile offenders, specifically, and for understanding pathways to healthy adjustment, more generally.

  5. Psychopathology and personality in juvenile sexual homicide offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, W C; Blashfield, R

    1997-01-01

    This project describes the psychopathology and personality findings in 14 juveniles who committed sexual homicide. These incarcerated youth were assessed using a structured interview, a personality assessment instrument, correctional files review, and an author-designed clinical interview. Nearly all of these youth met DSM-III-R conduct disorder criteria at the time of the crime. The presence of personality disorders and moderately high psychopathy scores at follow-up were common. Two-thirds of these youth reported the presence of violent sexual fantasies before their crimes. Weapons, most often knives, were used by these juvenile sexual murderers to kill known victims in a majority of the cases. They usually acted alone and selected a low risk victim. These findings suggest that juvenile sexual murderers are an emotionally and behaviorally disturbed population with identifiable psychopathology, personality disturbances, and criminal patterns.

  6. An Independent Evaluation of Mode Deactivation Therapy for Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoder, Vincent J.; Cautilli, Joseph D.

    2011-01-01

    Juveniles who commit crimes are likely to exhibit conduct problems in their youth. Persistent and long-term antisocial behavior can be seen in very young children. To treat these children, programs must be designed to meet the needs of them on an individualized basis. Residential treatment, typically, is the answer, but research has shown its…

  7. The Impact of Risk Factors on the Treatment of Adolescent Sex Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Sharon M.; Lewis, Kathy; Sigal, Janet

    2004-01-01

    The authors investigated the impact that 5 selected risk factors have on the treatment outcome of adolescent male sex offenders. The results indicated that the greatest risk factor among sex offenders was having a mother who had a substance abuse problem. Study participants were 35 adolescent boys in a New Jersey residential facility for…

  8. Differences between juvenile offenders with and without intellectual disabilities in the importance of static and dynamic risk factors for recidivism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Put, C.E.; Asscher, J.J.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Moonen, X.M.H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Juvenile offenders with intellectual disability (ID) have been largely ignored in the literature of risk assessment, while they are overrepresented in the criminal justice system, and ID is a risk factor for juvenile delinquency and recidivism. The aim of this study was to examine whether

  9. An ecological process model of female sex offending: the role of victimization, psychological distress, and life stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCou, Christopher R; Cole, Trevor T; Rowland, Sarah E; Kaplan, Stephanie P; Lynch, Shannon M

    2015-06-01

    Female sex offenders may be implicated in up to one fifth of all sex crimes committed in the United States. Despite previous research findings that suggest unique patterns of offending among female sex offenders, limited empirical research has investigated the motivations and processes involved. The present study qualitatively examined female sex offenders' offense-related experiences and characterized the internal and external factors that contributed to offending. Semi-structured interviews with 24 female sex offenders were analyzed by a team of coders with limited exposure to the existing literature using grounded theory analysis. A conceptual framework emerged representing distinctive processes for solo- and co-offending, contextualized within ecological layers of social and environmental influence. This model extends previous work by offering an example of nested vulnerabilities proximal to female sexual offending. Implications for future research, prevention, and treatment are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. A Comparison of Individual-Level and Community-Level Predictors of Marijuana and Cocaine Use among a Sample of Newly Arrested Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Kristina; Dembo, Richard; Belenko, Steven; Wareham, Jennifer; Schmeidler, James

    2011-01-01

    Variations in drug use have been found across individual-level factors and community characteristics, and by type of drug used. Relatively little research, however, has examined this variation among juvenile offenders. Based on a sample of 924 newly arrested juvenile offenders, two multilevel logistic regression models predicting marijuana test…

  11. Helping sex offenders to desist offending: The gains and drains for CoSA volunteers. A review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoïng, M.; Bogaerts, S.; Vogelvang, B.

    2016-01-01

    In Circles of Support and Accountability (CoSA), a group of trained volunteers support sex offenders in their desistance process by engaging in a long-lasting empathic relationship. Is it safe to employ volunteers in this way? This literature review provides an overview of both theoretical

  12. A classification of risk factors in serious juvenile offenders and the relation between patterns of risk factors and recidivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Eva; Brand, Eddy; Bullens, Ruud; Van Marle, Hjalmar

    2010-02-01

    There has been a lot of research on risk factors for recidivism among juvenile offenders, in general, and on individual risk factors, but less focus on subgroups of serious juvenile offenders and prediction of recidivism within these. To find an optimal classification of risk items and to test the predictive value of the resultant factors with respect to severity of recidivism among serious juvenile offenders. Seventy static and dynamic risk factors in 1154 juvenile offenders were registered with the Juvenile Forensic Profile. Recidivism data were collected on 728 of these offenders with a time at risk of at least 2 years. After factor analysis, independent sample t-tests were used to indicate differences between recidivists and non-recidivists. Logistic multiple linear regression analyses were used to test the potential predictive value of the factors for violent or serious recidivism. A nine-factor solution best accounted for the data. The factors were: antisocial behaviour during treatment, sexual problems, family problems, axis-1 psychopathology, offence characteristics, conscience and empathy, intellectual and social capacities, social network, and substance abuse. Regression analysis showed that the factors antisocial behaviour during treatment, family problems and axis-1 psychopathology were associated with seriousness of recidivism. The significance of family problems and antisocial behaviour during treatments suggest that specific attention to these factors may be important in reducing recidivism. The fact that antisocial behaviour during treatment consists mainly of dynamic risk factors is hopeful as these can be influenced by treatment. Consideration of young offenders by subgroup rather than as a homogenous population is likely to yield the best information about risk of serious re-offending and the management of that risk.

  13. Predictors of the sex offender civil commitment trial outcomes in New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yunmei; Freeman, Naomi J; Sandler, Jeffrey C

    2015-10-01

    The present study analyzed sex offender civil management (i.e., civil commitment) legal proceedings in New York State and identified factors that predict trial results. Specifically, the current study compared a sample of 38 sex offenders who were released to the community after winning their civil management trials to 183 sex offenders who lost their civil management trials. Additionally, for the 183 sex offenders who lost their civil management trials, the current study compared 146 offenders who were ordered to inpatient civil commitment to 37 offenders who were deemed fit for civil management in the community. Results of the analyses indicated that sexual criminality, sexual deviance, and criminality involving child victims increased the likelihood of offenders both losing their civil management trial and being found to be in need of inpatient care, while the presence of variables associated with nonsexual criminality increased the likelihood of offenders both winning their civil management trials and being deemed fit for management in the community. The findings of this study provide guidance for psychiatric examiners who testify in civil management legal proceedings, as well as for legal professionals specializing in civil management cases. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. The Public Safety Impact of Community Notification Laws: Rearrest of Convicted Sex Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Naomi J.

    2012-01-01

    Sex offender management is one of the highest-profile issues in public safety today. Although states have enacted community notification laws as a means to protect communities from sexual offending, limited research has been conducted to examine the impact of these laws on public safety. As such, this study used a quasi-experimental design to…

  15. Comparisons of Sex Offenders with Non-Offenders on Attitudes Toward Masturbation and Female Fantasy as Related to Participation in Human Sexuality Sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotten-Hustan, Annie L.

    1983-01-01

    Examined the effects of sexuality classes on 23 sex offenders and 28 college students. Results showed that compared to controls, participants had more positive attitudes toward masturbation and a disgust of perverse fantasies about women, suggesting human sexuality education may be useful in preventing sex offenses and rehabilitating offenders.…

  16. Sex offender punishment and the persistence of penal harm in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Chrysanthi S

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. has dramatically revised its approach to punishment in the last several decades. In particular, people convicted of sex crimes have experienced a remarkable expansion in social control through a wide-range of post-conviction interventions. While this expansion may be largely explained by general punishment trends, there appear to be unique factors that have prevented other penal reforms from similarly modulating sex offender punishment. In part, this continuation of a "penal harm" approach to sex offenders relates to the past under-valuing of sexual victimization. In the "bad old days," the law and its agents sent mixed messages about sexual violence and sexual offending. Some sexual offending was mere nuisance, some was treatable, and a fraction "deserved" punishment equivalent to other serious criminal offending. In contrast, today's sex offender punishment schemes rarely distinguish formally among gradations of harm or dangerousness. After examining incarceration trends, this article explores the historical context of the current broad brush approach and reviews the unintended consequences. Altogether, this article reinforces the need to return to differentiation among sex offenders, but differentiation based on science and on the experience-based, guided discretion of experts in law enforcement, corrections, and treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Needs assessment and design of the intervention for high risk sex offenders social reintegration

    OpenAIRE

    García Díez, César; Soler Iglesias, Carles

    2014-01-01

    Executive report of the adaptation study "Needs assessment and design of the intervention for high risk sex offenders social reintegration: Adaptation of the Circles of Support and Accountability to the Penal Enforcement System of Catalonia".

  18. The Study of Semantic Constructs Reflecting the Attitude towards Nationalities and Nationalism in Juvenile Offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurina O.D.,

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Wide distribution of xenophobia and hostility towards other nationalities among adolescents is a danger to society. The problem of relations of adolescents with illegal conduct towards nationalism and ethnic groups is poorly understood. Clarification of the nature of semantic constructs that reflect the attitude toward nationality and nationalism in juvenile offenders without nationalistic motivation, and those who have committed the crime of aggression on a national basis, is important to choose the right correction and rehabilitation work with juvenile offenders. The current study involved 62 adolescent males aged 14 to 18 years. We used color relations test as a psychosemantic technique. As a result, it was found that solidarisation with ideology of nationalism, negative attitudes towards other nationalities, and problematic gender identity formation increase the risk of delinquency on a national basis and contribute to them. At the same time, the lack of focus on the nationalism values and identification with the group of "skinheads" restrains offenses on a national basis.

  19. Predictors of emotional and physical dating violence in a sample of serious juvenile offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeten, Gary; Larson, Matthew; Piquero, Alex R

    2016-10-01

    We estimate group-based dating violence trajectories and identify the adolescent risk factors that explain membership in each trajectory group. Using longitudinal data from the Pathways to Desistance Study, which follows a sample of 1354 serious juvenile offenders from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and Phoenix, Arizona between mid-adolescence and early adulthood, we estimate group-based trajectory models of both emotional dating violence and physical dating violence over a span of five years in young adulthood. We then estimate multinomial logistic regression models to identify theoretically motivated risk factors that predict membership in these groups. We identified three developmental patterns of emotional dating violence: none (33%), low-level (59%) and high-level decreasing (8%). The best-fitting model for physical dating violence also had three groups: none (73%), low-level (24%) and high-level (3%). Race/ethnicity, family and psychosocial variables were among the strongest predictors of both emotional and physical dating violence. In addition, delinquency history variables predicted emotional dating violence and relationship variables predicted physical dating violence. Dating violence is quite prevalent in young adulthood among serious juvenile offenders. Numerous predictors distinguish between chronic dating violence perpetrators and other groups. These may suggest points of intervention for reducing future violence. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Homeless Shelters' Policies on Sex Offenders: Is This Another Collateral Consequence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolfe, Shawn M; Tewksbury, Richard; Schroeder, Ryan D

    2017-12-01

    The primary focus of sex offender research has been on the efficacy and collateral consequences of sex offender registration and notification (SORN) and residence restrictions. Past scholarship has found these laws to cause numerous re-entry barriers for sex offenders. Such barriers have affected sex offenders' ability to find and maintain housing, employment, and social support. Moreover, registered sex offenders (RSOs) have become homeless due to such laws. Although previous scholarship has highlighted the collateral consequences of SORN, there is a lack of scholarship addressing homeless sex offenders. Specifically, the current study assesses policies regarding RSO access to homeless shelters in a four-state region, focusing on the effect of structural, procedural, and geographic factors, as well as a shelter's proximity to children. Drawing on the loose coupling organizational framework, the findings suggest that a small maximum occupancy, unwritten policies for RSOs, being in Kentucky or Tennessee, being located near a school, and being near a higher proportion of homes with children all decrease the odds that a homeless shelter allows RSOs. Furthermore, although unwilling to make exceptions to the policies regarding RSOs, shelters were generally willing to make exceptions to other policies governing shelter accessibility.

  1. Association of Normative Beliefs and Anger with Aggression and Antisocial Behavior in Russian Male Juvenile Offenders and High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhodolsky, Denis G.; Ruchkin, Vladislav V.

    2004-01-01

    Examined the association of anger experience and two types of normative beliefs with physical aggression and nonaggressive antisocial behavior in 361 juvenile offenders and 206 high school students in Russia. All participants were male and ranged in age from 14 to 18 years. Higher frequency of aggressive acts was significantly associated with…

  2. Female and Male Juvenile Offenders with Disabilities: Differences in the Barriers to Their Transition to the Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unruh, Deanne; Bullis, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This article examined differences between young women and men who were incarcerated juvenile offenders with disabilities in Oregon in terms of the barriers they faced in their transition from the correctional system back into the community. Data were gathered on 72 females and 276 males, all of whom presented disabilities and who were…

  3. Lifetime criminal history of sex offenders seen for psychological assessment in five decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langevin, Ron; Curnoe, Suzanne

    2012-10-01

    A sample of 2,190 sex offenders seen between 1966 and 2009 was compared on lifetime sexual and all offending, using charges, convictions, court appearances, and self-report as criteria. Of these various criteria, between 47.4% and 81.1% reoffended. Canadian child abuse reporting laws, which came into effect in the 1980s, were associated with increased charges and convictions for offenders, who victimized children, and with a reduction in their longer term reoffense rates. Immigration and population mobility, use of aliases, study follow-up time, and self-reported undetected sex crimes influenced reoffense rates. Results indicate that sex offenders continued to have short prison sentences and/or spend little or no time incarcerated during the latter part of the 20th century.

  4. Offense Trajectories, the Unfolding of Sexual and Non-Sexual Criminal Activity, and Sex Offense Characteristics of Adolescent Sex Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cale, Jesse; Smallbone, Stephen; Rayment-McHugh, Sue; Dowling, Chris

    2016-12-01

    The current study examines offending trajectories of adolescent sexual offenders (ASOs). Until recently, classification frameworks have not been designed to account for the heterogeneity of offending patterns in adolescence, how these are associated with the unfolding of sexual and non-sexual criminal activity, and whether and to what extent they are related to the characteristics of sex offenses in adolescence. The current study takes a longitudinal view of offending in adolescence by examining retrospective longitudinal data of 217 ASOs referred for treatment to a clinical service between 2001 and 2009 in Australia. General offending trajectories in adolescence were examined using semi-parametric group-based modeling, and compared according to non-violent non-sexual, violent-non-sexual, and sex offending criminal activity parameters (e.g., participation, onset, frequency, specialization/versatility) and the characteristics of the referral sexual offense. The results show distinct differences in the unfolding of sexual and non-sexual criminal activity along different offending trajectories of ASOs, and further, that these trajectories were differentially associated with the characteristics of the sexual offenses they committed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Self-reported sexual assault in convicted sex offenders and community men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widman, Laura; Olson, Michael A; Bolen, Rebecca M

    2013-05-01

    Although self-reported sexual assault perpetrated by men against women has been well documented among college men, less is known about self-reported perpetration among convicted sex offenders and community men. This study provides unique descriptive and comparative information on sexual assaults in these understudied populations. Participants were 40 convicted sex offenders and 49 demographically comparable community men who completed the Sexual Experiences Survey (SES; Abbey, Parkhill, & Koss, 2005; Koss, Gidycz, & Wisniewski, 1987) and other surveys to capture the promiscuous sex and hostile masculinity pathways posited by the confluence model (Malamuth, 2003). We found notably few differences between sex offenders and community men in the rate and severity of sexual assault perpetration and the tactics used to obtain unwanted sexual contact. Specifically, 68% of sex offenders and 59% of community men acknowledged they had perpetrated sexual assault. Both groups used guilt and anger as the most frequent tactics to obtain unwanted sexual activity from their female victims. Consistent with the confluence model, an impersonal orientation toward sexual relationships was associated with sexual assault for both sex offenders and community men. Future directions for research on sexual assault perpetration and violence prevention efforts are discussed in light of these findings.

  6. Psychosocial adversity, delinquent pathway and internalizing psychopathology in juvenile male offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Ida; Faísca, Luis

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of a set of risk factors relating to childhood life events and other psychosocial factors that may be associated with criminal indicators and with the prevalence of internalizing psychopathology in a sample of adolescent offenders. Fifty male adolescents in the custody of the Portuguese Juvenile Justice System participated in the study (M=15.8 years of age). The Adolescent Psychopathology Scale - Short Form (APS-SF) was administered in a structured interview format, and the sociodemographic, family and criminal data questionnaire was filled in by the justice professional after consulting the adolescent's file. Forty-six percent of all subjects had previous delinquent behavior. About 32% of the boys had committed violent offenses and 88% acted with peers. Also, the persistence of the delinquent behavior (50% of the offenders), coupled with the increase in the severity of the crimes committed (38% of the sample), suggests that these adolescents were at risk for serious and chronic delinquency at the time of the intervention. About 32% of the participants reported posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, 20% had suicide ideation, and a lower percentage reported other internalizing problems. Institutionalization, maltreatment and conduct problems in childhood, and family risk factors (parental conflict, absence of a father figure, lack of parental control and family substance addiction) were related with the report of internalizing problems. Moreover, the increase in the severity of criminal offenses and living in a correctional facility were associated with higher levels of posttraumatic stress, interpersonal problems, anxiety and depression. This study draws attention to the importance of assessing indicators of psychopathology and of psychosocial risk in intervention programs with young offenders, but also to the need of family focused interventions in order to help prevent recidivism. Copyright

  7. Death penalty support for special offender populations of legally convicted murderers: juveniles, the mentally retarded, and the mentally incompetent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boots, Denise Paquette; Heide, Kathleen M; Cochran, John K

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Supreme Court recently re-examined the constitutionality of the death penalty in the context of two of three special offender populations of murderers (juveniles, mentally retarded, and mentally incompetent). The Court reaffirmed the imposition of the death penalty for juveniles 16 and 17, while reversing itself on the mentally retarded. In reaching its decision, the Court relied on society's "evolving standards of decency." Using Likert-type items, this study is the first to have prospective jurors assess support for the death penalty for these specific offender groups. The public's support for the execution of each of the groups is then compared with existing case law. Descriptive statistics and regression analyses indicate that, as expected, the levels of support for the applicability of capital punishment to the various special offender populations are much lower than that for the general adult offender. Moreover, these findings are congruent with the holdings of the Court with one notable exception: a slight majority of respondents supported executing the mentally incompetent. Reasons for the public's apparent departure from the Supreme Court holding prohibiting the execution of mentally incompetent convicted murderers are discussed. The Court's continued role in protecting marginalized populations from "cruel and unusual punishment" is explored in the context of strong public sentiment demanding justice and finality despite changes in offenders' mental capacity. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Treatment Effect on Recidivism for Juveniles Who Have Sexually Offended: a Multilevel Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Beek, Ellis; Spruit, Anouk; Kuiper, Chris H Z; van der Rijken, Rachel E A; Hendriks, Jan; Stams, Geert Jan J M

    2018-04-01

    The current study investigated the effect on recidivism of treatment aimed at juveniles who have sexually offended. It also assessed the potential moderating effect of type of recidivism, and several treatment, participant and study characteristics. In total, 14 published and unpublished primary studies, making use of a comparison group and reporting on official recidivism rates, were included in a multilevel meta-analysis. This resulted in the use of 77 effect sizes, and 1726 participants. A three-level meta-analytic model was used to calculate the combined effect sizes (Cohens d) and to perform moderator analyses. Study quality was assessed with the EPHPP Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies. A moderate effect size was found (d = 0.37), indicating that the treatment groups achieved an estimated relative reduction in recidivism of 20.5% as compared to comparison groups. However, after controlling for publication bias, a significant treatment effect was no longer found. Type of recidivism did not moderate the effect of treatment, indicating that treatment groups were equally effective for all types of recidivism. Also, no moderating effects of participant or treatment characteristics were found. Regarding study characteristics, a shorter follow up time showed a trend for larger effect sizes, and the effect size calculation based on proportions yielded larger effect sizes than calculation via mean frequency of offending. Implications for future research and clinical practice are discussed.

  9. THERAPEUTIC EFFECTS OF A COGNITIVE-BEHAVIOURAL TREATMENT WITH JUVENILE OFFENDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Andrés-Pueyo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Several treatment evaluations have highlighted the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioural programmes with both youth and adult offenders. This paper describes the application and assessment of a cognitive-behavioural treatment (adapted to Spanish from Ross and Fabiano’s Reasoning & Rehabilitation Programme with juvenile offenders serving community orders in an educational measure called in Spanish ‘libertad vigilada’ (similar to parole. The intervention comprised six different therapeutic components: self-control, cognitive restructuring, problem solving, social skills/assertiveness, values/empathy, and relapse prevention. Treatment effectiveness was tested using a quasi-experimental design involving two groups and pre/post evaluation. The results show that the programme was effective (with low to moderate effect sizes in improving participants’ social skills and self-esteem, as well as in reducing their aggressiveness. However, the intervention had no positive influence on empathy, cognitive distortions or impulsiveness. These results are in line with those of many other correctional studies, in which the treatment applied had a significant but partial effect on participants.

  10. A meta-analysis of experimental studies of diversion programs for juvenile offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwalbe, Craig S; Gearing, Robin E; MacKenzie, Michael J; Brewer, Kathryne B; Ibrahim, Rawan

    2012-02-01

    Research to establish an evidence-base for the treatment of conduct problems and delinquency in adolescence is well established; however, an evidence-base for interventions with offenders who are diverted from the juvenile justice system has yet to be synthesized. The purpose of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis of experimental studies testing juvenile diversion programs and to examine the moderating effect of program type and implementation quality. A literature search using PsycINFO, Web of Science, and the National Criminal Justice Reference Service data-bases and research institute websites yielded 28 eligible studies involving 57 experimental comparisons and 19,301 youths. Recidivism was the most common outcome reported across all studies. Overall, the effect of diversion programs on recidivism was non-significant (k=45, OR=0.83, 95%CI=0.43-1.58). Of the five program types identified, including case management (k=18, OR=0.78), individual treatment (k=11, OR=0.83), family treatment (k=4, OR=0.57), youth court (k=6, OR=0.93), and restorative justice (k=6, OR=0.87), only family treatment led to a statistically significant reduction in recidivism. Restorative justice studies that were implemented with active involvement of researchers led to statistically significant reductions in recidivism (k=3, OR=0.69). Other outcomes, including frequency of offending, truancy, and psycho-social problems were reported infrequently and were not subjected to meta-analysis. High levels of heterogeneity characterize diversion research. Results of this study recommend against implementation of programs limited to case management and highlight the promise of family interventions and restorative justice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Clinical characteristics associated with paedophilia and child sex offending - Differentiating sexual preference from offence status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerwinn, Hannah; Weiß, Simone; Tenbergen, Gilian; Amelung, Till; Födisch, Carina; Pohl, Alexander; Massau, Claudia; Kneer, Jonas; Mohnke, Sebastian; Kärgel, Christian; Wittfoth, Matthias; Jung, Stefanie; Drumkova, Krassimira; Schiltz, Kolja; Walter, Martin; Beier, Klaus M; Walter, Henrik; Ponseti, Jorge; Schiffer, Boris; Kruger, Tillmann H C

    2018-06-01

    Contrary to public perception, child sex offending (CSO) and paedophilia are not the same. Only half of all cases of CSO are motivated by paedophilic preference, and a paedophilic preference does not necessarily lead to CSO. However, studies that investigated clinical factors accompanying and contributing to paedophilia so far mainly relied on paedophiles with a history of CSO. The aim of this study was to distinguish between factors associated with sexual preference (paedophile versus non-paedophile) and offender status (with versus without CSO). Accordingly, a 2 (sexual preference) × 2 (offender status) factorial design was used for a comprehensive clinical assessment of paedophiles with and without a history of CSO (n = 83, n = 79 respectively), child sex offenders without paedophilia (n = 32) and healthy controls (n = 148). Results indicated that psychiatric comorbidities, sexual dysfunctions and adverse childhood experiences were more common among paedophiles and child sex offenders than controls. Offenders and non-offenders differed in age, intelligence, educational level and experience of childhood sexual abuse, whereas paedophiles and non-paedophiles mainly differed in sexual characteristics (e.g., additional paraphilias, onset and current level of sexual activity). Regression analyses were more powerful in segregating offender status than sexual preference (mean classification accuracy: 76% versus 68%). In differentiating between offence- and preference-related factors this study improves clinical understanding of both phenomena and may be used to develop scientifically grounded CSO prevention and treatment programmes. It also highlights that some deviations are not traceable to just one of these two factors, thus raising the issue of the mechanism underlying both phenomena. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. The relation between abuse and violent delinquency: the conversion of shame to blame in juvenile offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Jason; Sullivan, Margaret Wolan; Lewis, Michael

    2011-07-01

    While the relationship between abusive parenting and violent delinquency has been well established, the cognitive and emotional processes by which this occurs remain relatively unidentified. The objective of this work is to apply a conceptual model linking abusive parenting to the conversion of shame into blaming others and therefore to violent delinquency. A retrospective study of 112 adolescents (90 male; 22 female; ages 12-19 years; M=15.6; SD=1.4) who were incarcerated in a juvenile detention facility pending criminal charges, completed measures of exposure to abusive and nonabusive discipline, expressed and converted shame, and violent delinquency. Findings tend to confirm the conceptual model. Subjects who converted shame (i.e., low expressed shame, high blaming others) tended to have more exposure to abusive parenting and showed more violent delinquent behavior than their peers who showed expressed shame. Subjects who showed expressed shame (i.e., high expressed shame, low blaming others) showed less violent delinquency than those who showed converted shame. Abusive parenting impacts delinquency directly and indirectly through the effects of shame that is converted. Abusive parenting leads to the conversion of shame to blaming others, which in turn leads to violent delinquent behavior. For juvenile offenders, the conversion of shame into blaming others appears to contribute to pathological outcomes in relation to trauma. Translation of this work into clinical practice is recommended. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sex offender risk assessment: the need to place recidivism research in the context of attrition in the criminal justice system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larcombe, Wendy

    2012-04-01

    Jurisdictions in the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia now have laws that enable preventive detention of post-sentence sex offenders based on an assessment of the offender's likely recidivism. Measures of recidivism, or risk assessments, rely on the criminal justice process to produce the "pool" of sex offenders studied. This article argues that recidivism research needs to be placed in the context of attrition studies that document the disproportionate and patterned attrition of sexual offenses and sexual offenders from the criminal justice process. Understanding the common biases that affect criminal prosecution of sex offenses would improve sexual violence prevention policies.

  14. Reculer Pour Mieux Sauter: A Review of Attachment and Other Developmental Processes Inherent in Identified Risk Factors for Juvenile Delinquency and Juvenile Offending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianna T. Kenny

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The task of this paper is to identify the causes of juvenile delinquency and juvenile offending. The French proverb chosen for its title (Step back in order to jump better reflects the inherent challenge in this task; that is, how far back must we step in order to gain a complete understanding of these causes? Do we commence with adolescence, childhood, birth, pregnancy, conception, or the young person’s parents and their life experiences? How wide a net do we cast? Should we focus primarily on intra-individual factors, or the social ecologies in which young delinquents are found? Every story must have a beginning. In this story about young people who fall off the prosocial developmental trajectory, all sign posts point to attachment and the quality of the child’s first attachment experiences. This review will examine, from attachment and other developmental perspectives, how many of the more proximal causes of delinquency and youth offending have their origins in the emotional deficits suffered in early life. We will argue that delinquent and offending behavior represent attempts to redress these deficits. Consequently, interventions that attempt to prevent offending and reduce recidivism that do not address attachment ruptures and other early deficits cannot expect satisfactory outcomes.

  15. A comparison of modified versions of the Static-99 and the Sex Offender Risk Appraisal Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Kevin L; Firestone, Philip; Bradford, John M; Greenberg, David M; Broom, Ian

    2002-07-01

    The predictive validity of 2 risk assessment instruments for sex offenders, modified versions of the Static-99 and the Sex Offender Risk Appraisal Guide, was examined and compared in a sample of 258 adult male sex offenders. In addition, the independent contributions to the prediction of recidivism made by each instrument and by various phallometric indices were explored. Both instruments demonstrated moderate levels of predictive accuracy for sexual and violent (including sexual) recidivism. They were not significantly different in terms of their predictive accuracy for sexual or violent recidivism, nor did they contribute independently to the prediction of sexual or violent recidivism. Of the phallometric indices examined, only the pedophile index added significantly to the prediction of sexual recidivism, but not violent recidivism, above the Static-99 alone.

  16. Social phobia as a comorbid condition in sex offenders with paraphilia or impulse control disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyer, J; Kunst, H; Schmidt, A

    2001-07-01

    Studies on the prevalence of social anxiety in sex offenders show mixed results. This may be due to social anxiety being heightened only in diagnostic subgroups of sex offenders, namely in paraphiliacs. In study 1, 72 mentally disordered sexual delinquents and 30 controls were screened for social anxiety with the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and the Social Phobia Scale by Mattick and Clarke (German versions). In study 2, 55 mentally disordered sexual delinquents were diagnosed with a structured clinical interview. In both studies, sex offenders were categorized as either paraphilic or impulse control disordered (without paraphilia) according to research criteria. Study 1 showed markedly heightened scores for social anxiety in paraphiliacs, particularly for social interaction anxiety. Study 2 found a high lifetime and point prevalence of social phobia in paraphiliacs for which corroborating evidence was again found in questionnaire results. Implications for further research, diagnostic procedures, and therapy are discussed.

  17. The Impact of Interpersonal Style on Ruptures and Repairs in the Therapeutic Alliance Between Offenders and Therapists in Sex Offender Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Rachael; Thomas, Stuart; Daffern, Michael

    2017-10-01

    The therapeutic relationship is a critical component of psychological treatment. Strain can occur in the relationship, particularly when working with offenders, and more specifically, those offenders with interpersonal difficulties; strain can lead to a rupture, which may affect treatment participation and performance. This study examined ruptures in the therapeutic relationship in sexual offenders participating in offense-focused group treatment. Fifty-four sex offenders rated the therapeutic alliance at the commencement and completion of treatment; at the completion of treatment, they also reported on the occurrence of ruptures and whether they believed these ruptures were repaired. Ruptures were separated by type, according to severity-Each relationship was therefore characterized as experiencing no rupture, a minor rupture, or a major rupture. Offender characteristics including interpersonal style (IPS) and psychopathy were assessed at the commencement of treatment; their relationship with ruptures was examined. Results revealed that more than half of the offenders (approximately 55%) experienced a rupture in the therapeutic alliance, with one in four of these ruptures remaining unresolved. Offenders who did not report a rupture rated the therapeutic alliance significantly higher at the end of treatment compared with those offenders who reported a rupture that was not repaired. Offenders who reported a major rupture in the therapeutic relationship were higher in interpersonal hostility and hostile-dominance. No interpersonal or offense-specific factors affected the likelihood of a rupture repair.

  18. Collateral Consequences and Effectiveness of Sex Offender Registration and Notification: Law Enforcement Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubellis, Michelle A; Walfield, Scott M; Harris, Andrew J

    2018-03-01

    A growing body of research has examined the collateral effects of sex offender registration and notification (SORN), particularly those related to offenders' social and economic reintegration into society. Although studies have examined public, offender, treatment provider, and other criminal justice perspectives on SORN's collateral impacts, few have elicited the views of law enforcement (LE) professionals who have contact with registered offenders. This study presents results from a mixed method study examining LE perspectives on collateral consequences and effectiveness of SORN. Results indicate that, although overall LE concern regarding collateral impacts is limited, those who are most engaged in SORN-related duties are significantly more likely to indicate such concern, and also more likely to believe that SORN was an effective public safety tool. Importantly, respondents in states with larger registries expressed greater concern over collateral consequences, and less belief in SORN's public safety efficacy. Implications for policy and practice are discussed.

  19. Application of a sex identification technique in juvenile ostriches and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DNA-based sex identification provides a solution and is amenable to large-scale application. The application of the multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to determine the sex of 6-months old juvenile ostriches. The blood from four mature males and four mature females were used to verify the assay. The test ...

  20. An application of the rational choice approach to the offending process of sex offenders: a closer look at the decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauregard, Eric; Leclerc, Benoît

    2007-06-01

    Although the study of both offense processes and implicit theories provides in-depth knowledge about the decision-making of sex offenders, these studies focus solely on the internal psychological processes of the offender leading to the commission of a sexual assault. These studies neglect to look specifically at the offender's decision-making during the offense in interaction with the immediate situations encountered at the offense scene, such as the choices of behavior while interacting with the victim in a specific context. Based on a rational choice approach, this study investigates the decision-making involved in the offending process of 69 serial sexual offenders who have committed their crimes against stranger victims. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with offenders in order to identify the rationale behind their actions during the pre-crime phase (premeditation of the crime, estimation of risk of apprehension by the offender, and forensic awareness of the offender), crime phase (use of a weapon, use of restraints, use of a vehicle, and level of force used), and the post-crime phase (event leading to the end of crime and victim release site location choice). Results show that sex offenders, even if traditionally described as "irrational" and impulsive individuals, are capable, up to a certain point, of an analysis of the costs/benefits related to their actions. Moreover, results emphasize the important role of situational factors, such as victim resistance, on the decision-making process of sex offenders. Implications of the results are briefly discussed in regard of clinical practice and crime prevention.

  1. Risk Assessment of Girls : Are There Any Sex Differences in Risk Factors for Re-offending and in Risk Profiles?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Put, Claudia E.; Dekovic, Maja; Hoeve, Machteld; Stams, Geert Jan J. M.; van der Laan, Peter H.; Langewouters, Femke E. M.

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were (a) to investigate sex differences in risk factors for re-offending and (b) to provide a risk assessment model for girls. The data of 1,396 adolescents who committed a criminal offense were examined. Both generic and sex-specific risk factors for re-offending were found.

  2. An Integrated Groupwork Methodology for Working with Sex Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Andrew; Ware, Jayson; Boer, Douglas P.

    2009-01-01

    There is now a considerable literature on the assessment and treatment of sexual offenders. There exists another substantial literature on therapeutic groupwork and its relevance to a range of clinical populations. These bodies of work have made reference to the other in terms of their mutual relevance. However, there has been no comprehensive…

  3. Public Perceptions of GPS Monitoring for Convicted Sex Offenders: Opinions on Effectiveness of Electronic Monitoring to Reduce Sexual Recidivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budd, Kristen M; Mancini, Christina

    2017-09-01

    In the United States, electronic monitoring (EM) and global positioning systems (GPS) are new applications that are used to extensively monitor and track convicted sex offenders. What is unclear though are public perceptions of this strategy. This research examines public perceptions of a national sample of Americans on the use of GPS/EM with convicted sex offenders as a method to reduce their sexual recidivism. Using a multinomial regression model, we analyze the effects of sex offender myths and parental status on public perceptions that sex offender GPS/EM is very effective in reducing sexual recidivism. Findings suggest that public perceptions of effectiveness are partially driven by myths and also that parents are unsure of this strategy. The analysis contributes to the growing body of knowledge on public perceptions of GPS/EM to manage sex offenders in communities. Implications of the study and areas for future research are discussed in light of the findings.

  4. The Viability and Constitutionality of the South African National Register for Sex Offenders: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Mollema

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Section 42 of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters Amendment Act 32 of 2007 established a National Register for Sex Offenders where the particulars of all offenders guilty of sexual transgressions against children or mentally-ill persons have to be included, regardless of whether they were found guilty before or after the coming into force of the Act. Although the purpose of the Act clearly is to protect and promote the constitutional rights of victims and society in general, it is apparent that the register may infringe on the rights of sexual offenders. The inclusion of the personal details of sex offenders in a register without their permission and sometimes without their knowledge amounts to a violation amongst other rights of the right to privacy stipulated in section 14 of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996. In this article the constitutionality of the South African register will be examined by means of a comparative study with the United States and United Kingdom, where similar registers are already in place. This legislative assessment will also provide answers as to the viability of the South African register. It is argued that South Africa's sex offender registration system may not fulfil the function it was designed for because of misconceptions as well as serious implementation and administrative issues; and that alternative solutions may be more suitable in this regard.

  5. Disorganized Amygdala Networks in Conduct-Disordered Juvenile Offenders With Callous-Unemotional Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghajani, Moji; Klapwijk, Eduard T; van der Wee, Nic J; Veer, Ilya M; Rombouts, Serge A R B; Boon, Albert E; van Beelen, Peter; Popma, Arne; Vermeiren, Robert R J M; Colins, Olivier F

    2017-08-15

    The developmental trajectory of psychopathy seemingly begins early in life and includes the presence of callous-unemotional (CU) traits (e.g., deficient emotional reactivity, callousness) in conduct-disordered (CD) youth. Though subregion-specific anomalies in amygdala function have been suggested in CU pathophysiology among antisocial populations, system-level studies of CU traits have typically examined the amygdala as a unitary structure. Hence, nothing is yet known of how amygdala subregional network function may contribute to callous-unemotionality in severely antisocial people. We addressed this important issue by uniquely examining the intrinsic functional connectivity of basolateral amygdala (BLA) and centromedial amygdala (CMA) networks across three matched groups of juveniles: CD offenders with CU traits (CD/CU+; n = 25), CD offenders without CU traits (CD/CU-; n = 25), and healthy control subjects (n = 24). We additionally examined whether perturbed amygdala subregional connectivity coincides with altered volume and shape of the amygdaloid complex. Relative to CD/CU- and healthy control youths, CD/CU+ youths showed abnormally increased BLA connectivity with a cluster that included both dorsal and ventral portions of the anterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortices, along with posterior cingulate, sensory associative, and striatal regions. In contrast, compared with CD/CU- and healthy control youths, CD/CU+ youths showed diminished CMA connectivity with ventromedial/orbitofrontal regions. Critically, these connectivity changes coincided with local hypotrophy of BLA and CMA subregions (without being statistically correlated) and were associated to more severe CU symptoms. These findings provide unique insights into a putative mechanism for perturbed attention-emotion interactions, which could bias salience processing and associative learning in youth with CD/CU+. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  6. 45 CFR 2540.203 - When must I conduct a State criminal registry check and a National Sex Offender Public Web site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... check and a National Sex Offender Public Web site check on an individual in a covered position? 2540.203... National Sex Offender Public Web site check on an individual in a covered position? (a) The State criminal... enrolls in, or is hired by, your program on or after October 1, 2009. (b) The National Sex Offender Public...

  7. Utility of the Static-99 and Static-99R With Latino Sex Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leguízamo, Alejandro; Lee, Seung C; Jeglic, Elizabeth L; Calkins, Cynthia

    2017-12-01

    The predictive validity of the Static-99 measures with ethnic minorities in the United States has only recently been assessed with mixed results. We assessed the predictive validity of the Static-99 and Static-99R with a sample of Latino sex offenders ( N = 483) as well as with two subsamples (U.S.-born, including Puerto Rico, and non-U.S.-born). The overall sexual recidivism rate was very low (1.9%). Both the Static-99 measures were able to predict sexual recidivism for offenders born in the United States and Puerto Rico, but neither was effective in doing so for other Latino immigrants. Calibration analyses ( N = 303) of the Static-99R were consistent with the literature and provided support for the potential use of the measure with Latinos born in the United States and Puerto Rico. These findings and their implications are discussed as they pertain to the assessment of Latino sex offenders.

  8. Assessment and treatment of sex offenders: the Prince of Wales Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConaghy, N

    1990-06-01

    The treatment programme for sex offenders at the Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney, is described. Penile circumference assessment is not used as there is no evidence it provides a valid measure of individuals' paedophile or rapist tendencies. Sex offenders' self-reports remain the major source of information in their assessment. The development of the two major techniques used--imaginal desensitization and short-term medroxyprogesterone--is outlined. About 80% of subjects can be expected to show a good response to one or other of these therapies. Of those who do not, most respond to the alternative or aversive therapy. Adolescent offenders appear to require more intensive treatment. Results appear comparable with those of more intensive programmes in use overseas.

  9. Il trattamento dei detenuti sex offenders nel carcere di Castelvetrano (TP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Adragna

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the analysis of a treatment program provided to sex offenders in Castelvetrano Prison, from 2009 to 2012, as part of the project “Come and talk to us” (“www…parliamonepure”. In particular, the analysis showed that sex offenders, despite their “requested invisibility” in the prison, need specific actions, inside and outside prison walls, in order to avoid the recidivism.In this respect, it is to be hoped that psycho-social resocialisation programs can be carried out ensuring continuity both inside and outside the prison walls. Outside the prison walls, the offender would be taken over by probation services during the first phases of their re-entry to the society through post-penitentiary assistance and subsequently health care treatment if needed.

  10. Entertainment and music magazine reading and binge drinking among a group of juvenile offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Steven R; Rekve, Dag

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the relative contribution of exposure to entertainment and music magazines on binge drinking among a group of teenagers under the supervision of a juvenile court system in a medium-sized western United States community. Despite having a large proportion of adolescent readers, entertainment and music magazines typically include a substantial number of advertisements for alcoholic beverages in each issue. Data were collected via a self-report questionnaire administered to 342 juvenile offenders (ages 12-18 years). Three-quarters of our respondents reported they have used alcohol and about 37% indicated they were binge drinkers. As anticipated, binge drinkers were more frequent readers of entertainment and music magazines than non-binge drinkers. Binge drinkers also estimated that larger portions of their classmates used alcohol and would be more accepting of regular drinking than non-binge drinkers. Results of a multivariate logistic regression analysis to predict whether our subjects typically consumed five or more drinks during a drinking episode indicated that perceived ease of access, age, gender, the number of best friends who drink, parental drinking (inversely), and entertainment and music magazine reading frequency were significant predictors of binge drinking. We conclude that the predictive influence entertainment and music magazine reading frequency may actually reflect a selectivity bias among a segment of the youth sub-culture already inclined toward alcohol use and abuse. We recommend that entertainment and music magazine reading should be considered only within the constellation of other risk factors when assessing risk for potential alcohol abuse.

  11. Legal Constraints on the Indeterminate Control of 'Dangerous' Sex Offenders in the Community: The English Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Padfield (Nicola)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis article explores the legal constraints imposed on the ris- ing number of so-called ‘dangerous’ sex offenders in Eng- land and Wales, in particular once they have been released from prison into the community. The main methods of constraint are strict licence conditions, Multi-Agency

  12. Effectively Utilizing the "Behavioral" in Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy of Sex Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Jerry L.; Deming, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Although cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is touted as the predominant approach in sex offender-specific group treatment, a review of the field shows that the "behavioral" part of CBT has become minimal in relation to that which is cognitive. The authors show how a revitalized "behavioral sensibility" may help to enhance…

  13. Conceptualizing Sex Offender Denial from a Multifaceted Framework: Investigating the Psychometric Qualities of a New Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sandy; Daniels, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the psychometric properties of a clinician-rated measure of sex offender denial. Convergent and discriminant validity for the measure was supported, and given its relationship to treatment attitudes, the measure demonstrated utility for assessing treatment change and readiness. (Contains 3 tables.)

  14. A comparison of the predictive properties of nine sex offender risk assessment instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, W.J.; Kamphuis, J.H.; Wever, E.C.; van Beek, D.J.

    2014-01-01

    Sex offender treatment is most effective when tailored to risk-need-responsivity principles, which dictate that treatment levels should match risk levels as assessed by structured risk assessment instruments. The predictive properties, missing values, and interrater agreement of the scores of 9

  15. Interpreting child sexual abuse: Empathy and offense-supportive cognitions among child sex offenders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hempel, I.S.; Buck, N.M.L.; van Vugt, E.S.; van Marle, H.J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have suggested that child sex offenders hold distorted views on social interactions with children. Misinterpreting children’s behavior and intentions could lead to sexually abusive behavior toward children. It is further suggested that the interpretation process is influenced by

  16. Predicting recidivism in sex offenders with the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Glenn D; Deming, Adam; Casbon, Todd

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS) was capable of predicting recidivism in 322 male sex offenders released from prison-based sex offender programs in a Midwestern state. The Static-99R and PICTS General Criminal Thinking (GCT), Reactive (R), and Entitlement (En) scores all correlated significantly with general recidivism, the Static-99R correlated significantly with violent recidivism, and the Static-99R score and PICTS GCT, Proactive (P), and En scores correlated significantly with failure to register as a sex offender (FTR) recidivism. Area under the curve effect size estimates varied from small to large, and Cox regression analyses revealed that the PICTS En score achieved incremental validity relative to the Static-99R in predicting general recidivism and the PICTS GCT, P, and En scores achieved incremental validity relative to the Static-99R in predicting FTR recidivism. It is speculated that the PICTS in general and the En scale in particular may have utility in risk management and treatment planning for sex offenders by virtue of their focus on antisocial thinking. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Pedophilic sex offenders are characterised by reduced GABA concentration in dorsal anterior cingulate cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inka Ristow

    Full Text Available A pedophilic disorder is characterised by abnormal sexual urges towards prepubescent children. Child abusive behavior is frequently a result of lack of behavioral inhibition and current treatment options entail, next to suppressing unchangeable sexual orientation, measures to increase cognitive and attentional control. We tested, if in brain regions subserving attentional control of behavior and perception of salient stimuli, such inhibition deficit can be observed also on the level of inhibitory neurotransmitters. We measured GABA concentration in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC and in a control region, the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC in pedophilic sex offenders (N = 13 and matched controls (N = 13 using a 7 Tesla STEAM magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS. In dACC but not in the control region pedophilic sex offenders showed reduced GABA/Cr concentrations compared to healthy controls. The reduction was robust after controlling for potential influence of age and gray matter proportion within the MRS voxel (p < 0.04. Importantly, reduced GABA/Cr in patients was correlated with lower self-control measured with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (p = 0.028, r = −0.689. In a region related to cognitive control and salience mapping, pedophilic sex offenders showed reduction of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA which may be seen as a neuronal correlate of inhibition and behavioral control. Keywords: Child sexual abuse, Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, GABA, Magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Pedophilic sex offenders

  18. Sex Offenders with Intellectual Disabilities and Their Academic Observers: Popular Methodologies and Research Interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollomotz, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Over the past two decades, disability activists and scholars have developed research paradigms that aim to place (some of the) control over the research process in the hands of disabled people. This paper discusses the appropriateness of applying such paradigms to sex offenders with intellectual disabilities (ID). It exposes to what…

  19. Risk Factors for School Dropout in a Sample of Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Suárez, Asunción; Herrero, Juan; Pérez, Beatriz; Juarros-Basterretxea, Joel; Rodríguez-Díaz, Francisco J.

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds: The high rates of school dropout worldwide and their relevance highlight the need for a close study of its causes and consequences. Literature has suggested that school dropout might be explained by multiple causes at different levels (individual, family, school, and neighborhood). The aim of the current study is to examine the relation between individual (defiant attitude, irresponsibility, alcohol abuse, and illegal drugs use), family (educational figure absent and parental monitoring), school factors (truancy and school conflict) and school dropout. Method: Judicial files of all juvenile offenders (218 males and 46 females) with a judicial penal measure in Asturias (Spain) in the year 2012 were examined. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the relationships between school dropout and individual, family and school variables. Results: As for the individual characteristics, results showed that school dropouts were more irresponsible than non-dropouts. Also they had higher rates of illegal drug use and alcohol abuse. Moreover, lack of parental monitoring emerged as a key predictive factor of school dropout, beyond the type of family structure in terms of the presence of both or only one educational figure. Finally, school factors did not show a significant relationship to school dropout. Conclusions: These findings indicate that school dropout is a multidimensional process. School and family policies that emphasize the role of parental monitoring and prevent alcohol and substance abuse are recommended. PMID:28082934

  20. Risk Factors for School Dropout in a Sample of Juvenile Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Suárez, Asunción; Herrero, Juan; Pérez, Beatriz; Juarros-Basterretxea, Joel; Rodríguez-Díaz, Francisco J

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds: The high rates of school dropout worldwide and their relevance highlight the need for a close study of its causes and consequences. Literature has suggested that school dropout might be explained by multiple causes at different levels (individual, family, school, and neighborhood). The aim of the current study is to examine the relation between individual (defiant attitude, irresponsibility, alcohol abuse, and illegal drugs use), family (educational figure absent and parental monitoring), school factors (truancy and school conflict) and school dropout. Method: Judicial files of all juvenile offenders (218 males and 46 females) with a judicial penal measure in Asturias (Spain) in the year 2012 were examined. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the relationships between school dropout and individual, family and school variables. Results: As for the individual characteristics, results showed that school dropouts were more irresponsible than non-dropouts. Also they had higher rates of illegal drug use and alcohol abuse. Moreover, lack of parental monitoring emerged as a key predictive factor of school dropout, beyond the type of family structure in terms of the presence of both or only one educational figure. Finally, school factors did not show a significant relationship to school dropout. Conclusions : These findings indicate that school dropout is a multidimensional process. School and family policies that emphasize the role of parental monitoring and prevent alcohol and substance abuse are recommended.

  1. Sex Differences in Trajectories of Offending among Puerto Rican Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Wesley G.; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Piquero, Alex R.; Odgers, Candice L.; Bird, Hector; Canino, Glorisa

    2010-01-01

    Although sex is one of the strongest correlates of crime, contentions remain regarding the necessity of sex-specific theories of crime. The current study examines delinquent trajectories across sex among Puerto Rican youth socialized in two different cultural contexts (Bronx, United States; and San Juan, Puerto Rico). Results indicate similar…

  2. An injury awareness education program on outcomes of juvenile justice offenders in Western Australia: an economic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Kwok M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Injury is a major cause of mortality and morbidity of young people and the cost-effectiveness of many injury prevention programs remains uncertain. This study aimed to analyze the costs and benefits of an injury awareness education program, the P.A.R.T.Y. (Prevent Alcohol and Risk-related Trauma in Youth program, for juvenile justice offenders in Western Australia. Methods Costs and benefits analysis based on effectiveness data from a linked-data cohort study on 225 juvenile justice offenders who were referred to the education program and 3434 who were not referred to the program between 2006 and 2011. Results During the study period, there were 8869 hospitalizations and 113 deaths due to violence or traffic-related injuries among those aged between 14 and 21 in Western Australia. The mean length of hospital stay was 4.6 days, a total of 320 patients (3.6% needed an intensive care admission with an average length of stay of 6 days. The annual cost saved due to serious injury was $3,765 and the annual net cost of running this program was $33,735. The estimated cost per offence prevented, cost per serious injury avoided, and cost per undiscounted and discounted life year gained were $3,124, $42,169, $8,268 and $17,910, respectively. Increasing the frequency of the program from once per month to once per week would increase its cost-effectiveness substantially. Conclusions The P.A.R.T.Y. injury education program involving real-life trauma scenarios was cost-effective in reducing subsequent risk of committing violence or traffic-related offences, injuries, and death for juvenile justice offenders in Western Australia.

  3. Pedophilic sex offenders are characterised by reduced GABA concentration in dorsal anterior cingulate cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristow, Inka; Li, Meng; Colic, Lejla; Marr, Vanessa; Födisch, Carina; von Düring, Felicia; Schiltz, Kolja; Drumkova, Krasimira; Witzel, Joachim; Walter, Henrik; Beier, Klaus; Kruger, Tillmann H C; Ponseti, Jorge; Schiffer, Boris; Walter, Martin

    2018-01-01

    A pedophilic disorder is characterised by abnormal sexual urges towards prepubescent children. Child abusive behavior is frequently a result of lack of behavioral inhibition and current treatment options entail, next to suppressing unchangeable sexual orientation, measures to increase cognitive and attentional control. We tested, if in brain regions subserving attentional control of behavior and perception of salient stimuli, such inhibition deficit can be observed also on the level of inhibitory neurotransmitters. We measured GABA concentration in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and in a control region, the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC) in pedophilic sex offenders ( N  = 13) and matched controls ( N  = 13) using a 7 Tesla STEAM magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). In dACC but not in the control region pedophilic sex offenders showed reduced GABA/Cr concentrations compared to healthy controls. The reduction was robust after controlling for potential influence of age and gray matter proportion within the MRS voxel ( p  < 0.04). Importantly, reduced GABA/Cr in patients was correlated with lower self-control measured with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (p = 0.028, r = -0.689). In a region related to cognitive control and salience mapping, pedophilic sex offenders showed reduction of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA which may be seen as a neuronal correlate of inhibition and behavioral control.

  4. Child sex tourism: extending the borders of sexual offender legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, William J; Holt, Ben W; Rabun, John S; Phillips, Gary; Scott, Charles L

    2011-01-01

    Child sex tourism, the act of traveling to engage in sexual acts with minors, plagues developing nations worldwide. Several laws have been passed internationally in recent years designed to curtail this practice. Government entities and human rights organizations have driven these efforts. United States citizens represent a significant proportion of participants in child sex tourism. The PROTECT Act of 2003 prohibits United States citizens from participating in sexual acts with minors while traveling, and establishes extraterritorial jurisdiction. The case of Michael Lewis Clark, the first United States citizen convicted under this legislation, is highlighted. Child sex tourism poses unique issues to courts that will require ongoing clarification as challenges arise. This article discusses potential future challenges, describes strategies to address this problem, and relates this issue to psychiatry. Mental health providers may have the role of evaluating both the victims and perpetrators of child sex tourism. The authors propose a classification system for offenses and an initial list of topics to discuss with victims. The authors also describe the proper mechanism for reporting United States citizens suspected of participating in child sex tourism. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Does diagnosis affect the predictive accuracy of risk assessment tools for juvenile offenders: Conduct Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Dinesh; Shaw, Jenny; Dolan, Mairead; Lennox, Charlotte

    2014-10-01

    Studies have suggested an increased risk of criminality in juveniles if they suffer from co-morbid Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) along with Conduct Disorder. The Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY), the Psychopathy Checklist Youth Version (PCL:YV), and Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory (YLS/CMI) have been shown to be good predictors of violent and non-violent re-offending. The aim was to compare the accuracy of these tools to predict violent and non-violent re-offending in young people with co-morbid ADHD and Conduct Disorder and Conduct Disorder only. The sample included 109 White-British adolescent males in secure settings. Results revealed no significant differences between the groups for re-offending. SAVRY factors had better predictive values than PCL:YV or YLS/CMI. Tools generally had better predictive values for the Conduct Disorder only group than the co-morbid group. Possible reasons for these findings have been discussed along with limitations of the study. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Factors associated with trait anger level of juvenile offenders in Hubei province: A binary logistic regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Li-Na; Ye, Xiao-Zhou; Yan, Qiu-Ge; Chang, Hong-Juan; Ma, Yu-Qiao; Liu, De-Bin; Li, Zhi-Gen; Yu, Yi-Zhen

    2017-02-01

    The risk factors of high trait anger of juvenile offenders were explored through questionnaire study in a youth correctional facility of Hubei province, China. A total of 1090 juvenile offenders in Hubei province were investigated by self-compiled social-demographic questionnaire, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), and State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-II (STAXI-II). The risk factors were analyzed by chi-square tests, correlation analysis, and binary logistic regression analysis with SPSS 19.0. A total of 1082 copies of valid questionnaires were collected. High trait anger group (n=316) was defined as those who scored in the upper 27th percentile of STAXI-II trait anger scale (TAS), and the rest were defined as low trait anger group (n=766). The risk factors associated with high level of trait anger included: childhood emotional abuse, childhood sexual abuse, step family, frequent drug abuse, and frequent internet using (P0.05). It was suggested that traumatic experience in childhood and unhealthy life style may significantly increase the level of trait anger in adulthood. The risk factors of high trait anger and their effects should be taken into consideration seriously.

  7. Crime Victims and Offenders: A Question of Race and Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, B.J.; Smith, Willy Demarcell

    1981-01-01

    This study of the interactive effects of race and sex on crime reaffirms previous conclusions that Black males are disproportionately and adversely affected by crime and the administration of criminal law. Interpretations of statistical data on victimization and imprisonment rates are presented. (JCD)

  8. Linguagem oral e escrita em adolescentes infratores institucionalizados Oral and written language in institutionalized juvenile offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Maria Ariano Destro

    2012-12-01

    / or written language disturbances in a group of institutionalized juvenile offenders, checking how possible language and communication difficulties impact on these subjects' social life. METHOD: exploratory and descriptive study, with 40 interns of Fundação Casa / IU 25 unit - Rio Negro/ Franco da Rocha city complex - SP, between 15 and 18 year old. For collecting the data we applied the Mini-Mental State Examination - MMSE test, to detect individuals who may have cognitive impairment; the Montreal test, to examine simple oral and written language abilities and a semi-structured an interview, whose script was related to General Health, School Path, Vocational Path and perceptions of criminal behavior. RESULTS: the results showed that the majority of the population was literate and there was no occurrence of cognitive impairment. There was a high rate of school dropouts due from difficulties in following school curriculum and adapting to school rules and dynamics, indicating the impacts referring to language difficulties, especially written language, on condition that, in combination with other factors favored the conduct infractions. CONCLUSION: the young offenders had problems to develop and to engage in socio-cultural patterns and values, including school rules, which impose limits on their discursive access and movement, by restricting the uses of language, as a path to the development of personal social practice and citizenship. The findings provide evidence, among other factors, on the social impact that poor schooling and socialization of young people may come to cause. The study demonstrates that language should be designed as a social practice, mostly in the expression and communication forms of these subjects.

  9. Therapists’ Experiences in Their Work With Sex Offenders and People With Pedophilia: A Literature Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hardeberg Bach, Maria; Demuth, Carolin

    2018-01-01

    This article presents a review of the literature that pertains to the experiences of therapists who work with child sex offenders and/or people with pedophilia. We draw together results from studies that attempted to identify how therapists experience such work and how they were impacted by it....... Usually, such studies are embedded within one of the following theoretical frameworks: “secondary traumatic stress”, “vicarious traumatization” and “burnout”. As such, most literature to date on the topic has sought to determine to what extent, and why, work-related stress responses may occur among...

  10. Therapists’ Experiences in Their Work With Sex Offenders and People With Pedophilia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Maria Hardeberg; Demuth, Carolin

    2018-01-01

    impacted by it. Usually, such studies are embedded within one of the following theoretical frameworks: Secondary traumatic stress, compassion fatigue, vicarious traumatization and burnout. Most literature on the topic has therefore sought to determine to what extent and why, work-related stress responses......This article presents a review of the literature that pertains to the experiences of therapists who work directly with child sex offenders and/or people with pedophilia. We draw together results from studies that attempted to identify how therapists experience such work and how they were personally...

  11. The consumption of Internet child pornography and violent and sex offending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laubacher Arja

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an ongoing debate on whether consumers of child pornography pose a risk for hands-on sex offenses. Up until now, there have been very few studies which have analyzed the association between the consumption of child pornography and the subsequent perpetration of hands-on sex offenses. The aim of this study was to examine the recidivism rates for hands-on and hands-off sex offenses in a sample of child pornography users using a 6 year follow-up design. Methods The current study population consisted of 231 men, who were subsequently charged with consumption of illegal pornographic material after being detected by a special operation against Internet child pornography, conducted by the Swiss police in 2002. Criminal history, as well as recidivism, was assessed using the criminal records from 2008. Results 4.8% (n = 11 of the study sample had a prior conviction for a sexual and/or violent offense, 1% (n = 2 for a hands-on sex offense, involving child sexual abuse, 3.3% (n = 8 for a hands-off sex offense and one for a nonsexual violent offense. When applying a broad definition of recidivism, which included ongoing investigations, charges and convictions, 3% (n = 7 of the study sample recidivated with a violent and/or sex offense, 3.9% (n = 9 with a hands-off sex offense and 0.8% (n = 2 with a hands-on sex offense. Conclusion Consuming child pornography alone is not a risk factor for committing hands-on sex offenses – at least not for those subjects who had never committed a hands-on sex offense. The majority of the investigated consumers had no previous convictions for hands-on sex offenses. For those offenders, the prognosis for hands-on sex offenses, as well as for recidivism with child pornography, is favorable.

  12. The consumption of Internet child pornography and violent and sex offending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endrass, Jérôme; Urbaniok, Frank; Hammermeister, Lea C; Benz, Christian; Elbert, Thomas; Laubacher, Arja; Rossegger, Astrid

    2009-01-01

    Background There is an ongoing debate on whether consumers of child pornography pose a risk for hands-on sex offenses. Up until now, there have been very few studies which have analyzed the association between the consumption of child pornography and the subsequent perpetration of hands-on sex offenses. The aim of this study was to examine the recidivism rates for hands-on and hands-off sex offenses in a sample of child pornography users using a 6 year follow-up design. Methods The current study population consisted of 231 men, who were subsequently charged with consumption of illegal pornographic material after being detected by a special operation against Internet child pornography, conducted by the Swiss police in 2002. Criminal history, as well as recidivism, was assessed using the criminal records from 2008. Results 4.8% (n = 11) of the study sample had a prior conviction for a sexual and/or violent offense, 1% (n = 2) for a hands-on sex offense, involving child sexual abuse, 3.3% (n = 8) for a hands-off sex offense and one for a nonsexual violent offense. When applying a broad definition of recidivism, which included ongoing investigations, charges and convictions, 3% (n = 7) of the study sample recidivated with a violent and/or sex offense, 3.9% (n = 9) with a hands-off sex offense and 0.8% (n = 2) with a hands-on sex offense. Conclusion Consuming child pornography alone is not a risk factor for committing hands-on sex offenses – at least not for those subjects who had never committed a hands-on sex offense. The majority of the investigated consumers had no previous convictions for hands-on sex offenses. For those offenders, the prognosis for hands-on sex offenses, as well as for recidivism with child pornography, is favorable. PMID:19602221

  13. Influences of Neighborhood Context, Individual History and Parenting Behavior on Recidivism among Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunwald, Heidi E.; Lockwood, Brian; Harris, Philip W.; Mennis, Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of neighborhood context on juvenile recidivism to determine if neighborhoods influence the likelihood of reoffending. Although a large body of literature exists regarding the impact of environmental factors on delinquency, very little is known about the effects of these factors on juvenile recidivism. The sample…

  14. Relations between Neighborhood Factors, Parenting Behaviors, Peer Deviance, and Delinquency among Serious Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, He Len; Steinberg, Laurence

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined relations among neighborhood structural and social characteristics, parenting practices, peer group affiliations, and delinquency among a group of serious adolescent offenders. The sample of 14-18-year-old boys (N = 488) was composed primarily of economically disadvantaged, ethnic-minority youth living in urban…

  15. The exclusion-inclusion spectrum in state and community response to sex offenders in Anglo-American and European jurisdictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrunik, Michael; Deutschmann, Linda

    2008-10-01

    Continental European and Anglo-American jurisdictions differ with regard to criminal justice and community responses to sex offenders on an exclusion-inclusion spectrum ranging from community protection measures on one end to therapeutic programs in the middle and restorative justice measures on the other end. In the United States, populist pressure has resulted in a community protection approach exemplified by sex offender registration, community notification, and civil commitment of violent sexual predators. Although the United Kingdom and Canada have followed, albeit more cautiously, the American trend to adopt exclusionist community protection measures, these countries have significant community-based restorative justice initiatives, such as Circles of Support and Accountability. Although sex offender crises have recently occurred in continental Europe, a long-standing tradition of the medicalization of deviance, along with the existence of social structural buffers against the influence of victim-driven populist penal movements, has thus far limited the spread of formal community protection responses.

  16. Abuse Experiences of Family Members, Child Maltreatment, and the Development of Sex Offending Among Incarcerated Adolescent Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCuish, Evan C; Cale, Jesse; Corrado, Raymond R

    2017-02-01

    Child sexual abuse is considered a risk factor for the development of sexual offending in adolescence. Beyond this, comparisons of the risk factor profiles between adolescent sex offenders (ASOs) and adolescent non-sex offenders (ANSOs) have uncovered minimal differences. However, differences between ASOs and ANSOs in terms of patterns in the abuse histories of their family members have rarely been studied. The aim in the current study was to retrospectively examine histories of abuse among family members of ASOs compared with ANSOs to determine whether and how these were related to youth abuse experiences and sexual offending in adolescence. The current study is based on a sample of 482 incarcerated male adolescents (ASOs = 67, ANSOs = 415). Latent class analysis was conducted to determine multidimensional familial abuse profiles, and a series of logistic regression models were used to examine the relationship between family abuse profiles, youth abuse experiences, and adolescent sexual offending. Overall, familial abuse profiles were related to subsequent youth abuse experiences and sexual offending, and these abuse profiles differentiated ASOs and ANSOs.

  17. The role of central and peripheral hormones in sexual and violent recidivism in sex offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Drew A; Seto, Michael C; Ahmed, Adekunle G; Fedoroff, Paul; Firestone, Philip; Bradford, John M

    2012-01-01

    Hormonal factors are important in multifactorial theories of sexual offending. The relationship between hormones and aggression in nonhumans is well established, but the putative effect in humans is more complex, and the direction of the effect is usually unclear. In this study, a large sample (N = 771) of adult male sex offenders was assessed between 1982 and 1996. Gonadotrophic (follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone) and androgen hormone (total and free testosterone; T) levels were assessed at Time 1, along with indicators of sex drive and hostility. Individuals were observed up to 20 years in the community, with an average time at risk of 10.9 years (SD 4.6). Gonadotrophic hormones correlated positively with self-reported hostility and were better predictors of recidivism than was T (area under the curve (AUC), 0.58-0.63). Self-reported hostility emerged as a partial mediator of this relationship between gonadotrophic hormones and recidivism. These results point to a potentially new area of investigation for hormones and sexual aggression.

  18. From Family Violence Exposure to Violent Offending: Examining Effects of Race and Mental Health in a Moderated Mediation Model Among Confined Male Juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fix, Rebecca L; Alexander, Apryl A; Burkhart, Barry R

    2017-09-01

    Depression, substance use, and impulsivity have been linked to family violence exposure and to the development of violent offending during adolescence. Additionally, the indirect effects associated with these factors may not generalize across different racial/ethnic adolescent populations. The present study tested whether race/ethnicity moderated the mediated relationship between family violence exposure and violent offending, with depression, substance use, and impulsivity as mediators. A sample of 1,359 male adolescents was obtained from a juvenile correctional program. Between-racial/ethnic group comparisons were generally consistent with previous findings. The overall moderated mediation model was significant in predicting violence for both racial/ethnic groups. Different factors influenced violent offending among African Americans and European Americans in the tested model. Furthermore, race/ethnicity moderated the relationship between family violence exposure and impulsivity and substance use. Implications and future directions resolving issues are discussed concerning whether race/ethnicity should be included as a moderator in models of violence.

  19. Patterns of Competence and Adjustment Among Adolescents from Authoritative, Authoritarian, Indulgent, and Neglectful Homes: A Replication in a Sample of Serious Juvenile Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Laurence; Blatt-Eisengart, Ilana; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2006-03-01

    The correlates of authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and neglectful parenting were examined within a sample of 1,355 14- to 18-year-olds adjudicated of serious criminal offenses. The sample is composed primarily of poor, ethnic-minority youth living in impoverished urban neighborhoods. As has been found in community samples, juvenile offenders who describe their parents as authoritative are more psychosocially mature, more academically competent, less prone to internalized distress, and less prone to externalizing problems than their peers,whereas those who describe their parents as neglectful are less mature, less competent, and more troubled. Juvenile offenders who characterize their parents as either authoritarian or indulgent typically score somewhere between the two extremes, although those from authoritarian homes are consistently better functioning than those from indulgent homes. These patterns did not vary as a function of adolescents' ethnicity or gender.

  20. Characterization of juvenile play in rats: importance of sex of self and sex of partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argue, Kathryn J; McCarthy, Margaret M

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile social play is observed in many mammalian species, and its disruption in several neuropsychiatric disorders has greatly increased interest in understanding the origins and sources of variability in this behavior. We quantified social play behavior in juvenile rats and investigated the impact of sex and familiarity of the play partner. Sex differences in play behavior were investigated by comparing males and females from either same- or mixed-sex pairs with data pooled over 12 days of analysis. Whether play was altered based on the sex of the play partner was assessed using a paired analysis to compare play with a same- or opposite-sex play partner for both males and females. Additionally, a repeated measures design was utilized to determine whether play changed with increasing age. On postnatal day 33, a novel play partner was introduced. We used a repeated measures analysis to compare postnatal day 33 with the previous day. These approaches were used to assess the effects of age, sex, sex of partner, and familiarity of partner on total social play behavior as well as how play was broken down into components, such as pouncing, pinning, chasing, and boxing. There were sex differences in total frequency of play, and specific parameters of play behavior, such as chasing, pouncing, pinning, and boxing. Additionally, males significantly altered their play behavior in response to the sex of their play partner, whereas females were more sensitive to the familiarity of the play partner. This study provides critical groundwork for uncovering factors that regulate social play behavior and can be used to guide future mechanistic based work.

  1. "I am a different man now” Sex offenders in Circles of Support and Accountability : A prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Höing, M.A.; Vogelvang, B.; Bogaerts, S.

    2017-01-01

    In Circles of Support and Accountability (CoSA), a group of trained and supervised volunteers support a sex offender (core member in a circle), with the aim of supporting the core member’s transitions toward full desistance. A prospective, multi-method design was used to explore psychological and

  2. "But I didn't do it!": ethical treatment of sex offenders in denial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, Jill S

    2011-09-01

    This article addresses ethical questions and issues related to the treatment of sex offenders in denial, using the empirical research literature and the ethical codes of American Psychological Association (APA) and National Association of Social Workers (NASW) to guide the ethical decision-making process. The empirical literature does not provide an unequivocal link between denial and recidivism, though some studies suggest that decreased denial and increased accountability appear to be associated with greater therapeutic engagement and reduced recidivism for some offenders. The ethical codes of APA and NASW value the client's self-determination and autonomy, and psychologists and social workers have a duty to empower individual well-being while doing no harm to clients or others. Clinicians should view denial not as a categorical construct but as a continuum of distorted cognitions requiring clinical attention. Denial might also be considered as a responsivity factor that can interfere with treatment progress. Offering a reasonable time period for therapeutic engagement might provide a better alternative than automatically refusing treatment to categorical deniers.

  3. Sociodemographic, Delinquency-Abuse History, and Psychosocial Functioning Differences among Juvenile Offenders of Various Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembo, Richard; Schmeidler, James; Nini-Gough, Banni; Manning, Darrell

    1998-01-01

    Sociodemographic characteristics, delinquency and dependency referral histories, and psychosocial functioning were compared for three groups of youth (N=9,583) at a juvenile assessment center. Findings indicate that eight- to twelve- year olds tend to be ethnic minorities, live in mother-headed households of low economic status, and have a…

  4. Safe Harbor Legislation for Juvenile Victims of Sex Trafficking: A Myopic View of Improvements in Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Mehlman-Orozco

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Current social and political realties have focused attention on human trafficking in the United States. Although new mechanisms for criminalizing offenders and protecting victims are increasingly funded and implemented across the country, empirical exploration into the efficacy of these interventions is lacking. This article uses yearly count data on juvenile prostitution arrests aggregated at the state level to explore the criminalization of commercial sexually exploited children post safe harbor policy implementation. Preliminary data from four states suggests that the passage of safe harbor laws may not reduce the number of juveniles arrested for prostitution crimes. Implications for future research are discussed.

  5. Comparing the Central Eight Risk Factors: Do They Differ Across Age Groups of Sex Offenders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilpert, Julia; van Horn, Joan E; Boonmann, Cyril

    2018-02-01

    Following the risk-need-responsivity (RNR) model, cognitive-behavioral therapy is considered most effective in reducing recidivism when based on dynamic risk factors. As studies have found differences of these factors across age, exploring this seems beneficial. The current study investigates the Central Eight (C8) risk factors across six age groups of outpatient sex offenders ( N = 650). Results showed that recidivism rates and age were inversely related from 19 years and up. Half of the C8 did not predict general recidivism at all, substance abuse, antisocial cognition, antisocial associates, and history of antisocial behavior in only one or several age groups. However, factors differed between age groups, with the youngest group demonstrating the most dysfunction in several areas and the oldest group the least. It is concluded that the C8 risk factors seem to lose significance in the older age groups. Results may benefit targeting treatment goals.

  6. Circles of Support and Accountability for Sex Offenders: A Systematic Review of Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Martin; Brown, Susan; Völlm, Birgit

    2017-08-01

    We conducted a systematic review of studies reporting on the effectiveness of Circles of Support and Accountability (Circles). Circles use volunteers to provide support for sex offenders living in the community. We searched 10 databases up to the end of 2013 and identified 3 relevant outcome studies. An additional 12 papers or reports were identified by searching reference lists, Google, and contacting key authors and Circles providers to obtain unpublished data. These 15 studies comprised one randomized controlled trial, three retrospective cohorts with matched controls, and 11 case series. The majority reported measures of recidivism, particularly reconviction. The 4 studies with controls generally reported that participation in Circles was associated with lower recidivism although there were few statistically significant differences. Few studies examined changes in risk or psychosocial outcomes. A number of methodological issues are discussed. Longer term, prospective follow-up studies with control groups are required to address these issues.

  7. Empathy in the field: Towards a taxonomy of empathic communication in information gathering interviews with suspected sex offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coral June Dando

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Research suggests that those suspected of sexual offending might be more willing to reveal information about their crimes if interviewers display empathic behaviour. However, the literature concerning investigative empathy is in its infancy, and so as yet is not well understood. This study explores empathy in a sample of real-life interviews conducted by police officers in England with suspected sex offenders. Using qualitative methodology, the presence and type of empathic verbal behaviours displayed was examined. Resulting categories were quantitatively analysed to investigate their occurrence overall, and across interviewer gender. We identified four distinct types of empathy, some of which were used significantly more often

  8. Addressing Social Anxiety Concurrently With Prison-Based Sex Offender Treatment: A Case of Individual Needs in an Era of Manualized Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasher, Michael P; Webb, Jon R; Stinson, Jill D; Cantrell, Peggy J

    2017-07-01

    Emotional regulation may be an underaddressed therapeutic target in sex offender treatment. This article presents a case report of "Adam," a Caucasian male referred to a prison-based sex offender treatment program. Adam's social anxiety was recognized as an antecendent to his sexual offending, and treatment of such, as a critical adjunct to sex offender treatment, is discussed herein. Adam's individualized treatment included aspects of rational emotive behavior therapy and time-limited dynamic psychotherapy. Adam showed an increased understanding of his anxiety and improvement in his social interactions, both in the context of treatment groups and with female staff, and was willing to continue follow-up care in the community. This case provides support for the individualized treatment of incarcerated offenders as opposed to exclusively utilizing manualized psychoeducational interventions.

  9. A dimensional approach to personality disorders in a sample of juvenile offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Cantone

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In a sample of 60 male Italian subjects imprisoned at a juvenile detention institute (JDI, psychopathological aspects of the AXIS II were described and the validity of a psychopathological dimensional approach for describing criminological issues was examined. The data show that the sample has psychopathological characteristics which revolve around ego weakness and poor management of relations and aggression. Statistically these psychopathological characteristics explain 85% of criminal behavior.

  10. "They Treat Us Like Human Beings"--Experiencing a Therapeutic Sex Offenders Prison: Impact on Prisoners and Staff and Implications for Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagden, Nicholas; Winder, Belinda; Hames, Charlie

    2016-03-01

    Research evidence demonstrates that sex offender treatment programmes (SOTPs) can reduce the number of sex offenders who are reconvicted. However, there has been much less empirical research exploring the experiences and perspectives of the prison environment within which treatment takes place. This is important, particularly for sexual offenders, as they often face multiple stigmas in prison. This study used a mixed-methods approach to explore the experiences of prisoners and staff at a therapeutically orientated sexual offenders' prison to understand whether the prison environment was conducive to rehabilitation. The quantitative strand of the research sampled prisoners (n = 112) and staff (n = 48) from a therapeutically orientated sex offenders prison. This strand highlighted that both prisoners and staff had positive attitudes toward offenders and high beliefs that offenders could change. Importantly, the climate was rated positively and, in particular, participants had very high ratings of "experienced safety." The qualitative strand of the research consisted of semistructured interviews with prisoners (n = 15) and a range of prison staff (n = 16). The qualitative analysis revealed positive prisoner views toward staff relationships, with most participants articulating that the prison and its staff had contributed to positive change in prisoners. Crucially, the environment was perceived as safe and allowed prisoners "headspace" to work through problems and contemplate change. This research offers some support to the notion that context is important for sex offender rehabilitation. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. A comparative analysis of the early memories of juvenile offenders who have committed crimes of varying severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levin L.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the problem of early memories and engaging in more of the authors (A. Adler, D. MC Adams, A. Kronik, A. Rean, V. Nurkova, etc.. The relevance of studying the relationship of early memories and the criminal lifestyle dictated by the need of confirmation or refutation of psychological concepts, studying this phenomenon. In this regard, the study aims at highlighting the specific features of early memories of juvenile offenders. Database studies provided PKU "Mozhaisk educational colony," the FPS of Russia in Moscow region, PKU "Criminal-Executive inspection" of the FPS of Russia in Moscow, GBOU SPO "Polytechnical College № 2". In total, the study involved 75 adolescents aged 14 to 18 years: 25 minors sentenced to deprivation of liberty; 25 convicted minors consisting on the account in criminally-Executive inspection; 25 prosocial adolescents. The study had identified the specific features of early memories in each group of adolescents on the basis of which it was confirmed that there was an impact of early memories on the formation of a criminal lifestyle.

  12. Neuroticism in child sex offenders and its association with sexual dysfunctions, cognitive distortions, and psychological complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boillat, Coralie; Deuring, Gunnar; Pflueger, Marlon O; Graf, Marc; Rosburg, Timm

    Studies in child sex offenders (CSO) often report deviant personality characteristics. In our study, we investigated neuroticism in CSO and tested the hypothesis that CSO with high neuroticism show more serious abuse behavior and are more likely to exhibit sexual dysfunction and cognitive distortions, as compared to CSO with low neuroticism. A sample of 40 CSO (both child sexual abusers and child sexual material users) was split into two subsamples based on their neuroticism scores, obtained by the NEO-Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R) questionnaire. Subsequently, we compared their scores in the Multiphasic Sex Inventory (MSI) questionnaire and Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R). Our results show that CSO exhibited higher levels of neuroticism than controls, but were still in the normal range. In CSO, neuroticism was associated with sexual dysfunction and cognitive distortions, rather than with more severe abuse behavior. Moreover, neuroticism in this group was linked to a broad range of psychological problems and psychopathological symptoms, such as somatization or anxiety. Our findings suggest that neuroticism even below the level of personality disorder is associated with a broader range of psychological problems in CSO, which should be addressed in therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Factors contributing to perceptions about policies regarding the electronic monitoring of sex offenders: the role of demographic characteristics, victimization experiences, and social disorganization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Deeanna M; Tewksbury, Richard; Mustaine, Elizabeth E; Payne, Brian K

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore factors contributing to perceptions about electronic monitoring policies governing sex offenders. Guided by Tannenbaum's theory of attribution and Shaw and McKay's theory of social disorganization, the authors examine the influence of demographic characteristics, victimization experiences, and neighborhood characteristics on perceptions about policies regarding the electronic monitoring of sex offenders. Ordinary least squares regression and logistic regression analyses of stratified telephone survey data reveal that factors associated with favorable views on the use of global positioning satellite monitoring for registered sex offenders appear to stem primarily from individuals' demographic characteristics. Experiential and neighborhood factors do provide some influence over individuals' views of electronic monitoring policies for sex offenders. Theoretical and policy implications are discussed.

  14. Investigating probation strategies with juvenile offenders: the influence of officers' attitudes and youth characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwalbe, Craig S; Maschi, Tina

    2009-10-01

    Probation officers are the focal point for most interventions with delinquent youths in the juvenile justice system. The present study examines probation strategies and interventions in a sample of 308 probation officers who completed the Probation Practices Assessment Survey (PPAS) in a web-based survey. The PPAS measures six probation approaches: deterrence, restorative justice, treatment, confrontation, counseling, and behavioral tactics. Structural equation models and latent class analyses showed that probation officers use multiple approaches with delinquent youths consistent with the balanced and restorative justice movement. Younger youths, high-risk youths, and youths with prior social service involvements are likely to receive more intensive interventions. The implications of these findings for improving probation practices with delinquent youth are discussed.

  15. A female sex offender with multiple paraphilias: a psychologic, physiologic (laboratory sexual arousal) and endocrine case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, A J; Swaminath, S; Baxter, D; Poulin, C

    1990-05-01

    A 20 year old female pedophile exhibiting multiple paraphilias and who had been both a victim of incest and an active participant, undertook extensive clinical, psychometric, endocrine and laboratory sexual arousal studies. Her psychiatric, psychometric and physiologic arousal profiles showed similarities to those of a sizable proportion of male child molesters, especially incestors. It is suggested that laboratory arousal tests (using the vaginal photoplethysmograph) may have a role in the assessment of some female sex offenders.

  16. Assessing the psychometric properties and the perceived usefulness of the BasisRaadsOnderzoek (BARO as a first-line screening instrument for juvenile offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Loosbroek Erik

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to investigate the psychometric properties and the perceived usefulness of the BARO (Dutch: BAsisRaadsOnderzoek; Protection Board Preliminary Examination of Juvenile Suspects. The BARO is a first-line screening instrument for the identification of psychiatric disorders, adverse environmental factors, and levels of (dysfunction in adolescent offenders (age 12 to 18, to be used by social workers of the Child Protection Board (CPB following a police arrest. Method CPB workers administered the BARO to 295 juvenile offenders (91% boys, 9% girls. A subgroup of 66 offenders (89% boys, 11% girls underwent an elaborate diagnostic assessment by forensic psychologists and psychiatrists. Using these assessments the most relevant psychometric properties of the BARO were studied. The perceived usefulness was studied using questionnaires to be filled in by the CPB social workers. Results The internal consistency of the instrument was sufficient to good, the concurrent validity of the CPB social workers applying the BARO and the forensic experts carrying out the comprehensive diagnostic assessment was strong, the discriminatory value of the instrument was moderate to strong, and the perceived usefulness of the instrument was evaluated as good to very good by the majority of the CPB workers. Discussion The BARO has sufficient to good psychometric properties including moderate to strong discriminatory value and is considered a good screening instrument by the CPB social workers. In conclusion, the BARO seems to be a very promising first-line screening instrument to identify psychiatric and psychosocial problems in young offenders.

  17. Depressiveness and social relations of juvenile offenders deprived of their liberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrnčić Jasna

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the interrelations between depressiveness and social relations of adolescents, deprived of their liberty due to their offences. The model of unipolar depression is proposed, that assumes that basic conditions for occurrence of depression are adversity and insufficiency of current and past, real or internalized affective relations with social environment, and inefficiency of adaptive mechanisms to overcome that state. 191 male juveniles 15 - 22 years of age, in residential and correctional institutions in Serbia, completed three self-rating scales of depression, and 18 self-rating scales of family and peer relations. The correlation between depression and social relations was 0.745 that explains even 55.50% of the variance. It was largely explained by negative and dismissive family and peer relations, and insufficient individuation in a family. Both family and peer variables gave significant mutually independent contribution to the explanation of depressiveness. Both current and past peer relations had significant mutually independent contribution to the explanation of depressiveness. Findings are in favor to proposed model of depression.

  18. Embedding Psychodrama in a Wilderness Group Program for Adolescent Sex Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambie, Ian; Robson, Marlyn; Simmonds, Les

    1997-01-01

    Describes the technique of psychodrama to facilitate victim empathy with adolescent sexual offenders. Discusses other psychodramatic methods of role training, sociodrama, mirroring, and modeling, and their applications to working with adolescent sexual offenders. Outlines the history of the psychodrama technique's implementation in a…

  19. Turning a Blind Eye: Public Support of Emergency Housing Policies for Sex Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socia, Kelly M; Dum, Christopher P; Rydberg, Jason

    2017-07-01

    In this study, we examine the influences of citizen decision making in the context of four policy scenarios that would affect the living conditions of sex offenders (SOs) residing at an "emergency shelter" budget motel. We surveyed 773 citizens in an online survey about their support for four policy scenarios that would improve the living conditions of SOs: (a) at no cost to the respondent, (b) in exchange for a US$100 tax increase, and (c) by relocating SOs within the respondent's neighborhood (i.e., "in my backyard"/IMBY scenario). The fourth scenario involved moving nearby SOs into substandard housing located far away from the respondent (i.e., "not in my backyard"/NIMBY). While prior research finds that the public overwhelmingly supports punitive SO policies, we find that indifference is a mainstay of public opinion about improving SO housing conditions. That is, we find only modest levels of average support for any of the policy scenarios, and policy support decreased when increased taxes would be involved, compared with a "no cost" scenario. While no respondent characteristics significantly predicted policy support consistently across all four scenarios, some scenarios showed stark differences in support when considering specific respondent characteristics. Overall, these results suggest that what does affect support depends on the details of the policy being proposed, as well as who is considering the policy. We end by discussing the policy implications of our study for both policymakers and the public.

  20. Dissociable relations between amygdala subregional networks and psychopathy trait dimensions in conduct-disordered juvenile offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghajani, Moji; Colins, Olivier F; Klapwijk, Eduard T; Veer, Ilya M; Andershed, Henrik; Popma, Arne; van der Wee, Nic J; Vermeiren, Robert R J M

    2016-11-01

    Psychopathy is a serious psychiatric phenomenon characterized by a pathological constellation of affective (e.g., callous, unemotional), interpersonal (e.g., manipulative, egocentric), and behavioral (e.g., impulsive, irresponsible) personality traits. Though amygdala subregional defects are suggested in psychopathy, the functionality and connectivity of different amygdala subnuclei is typically disregarded in neurocircuit-level analyses of psychopathic personality. Hence, little is known of how amygdala subregional networks may contribute to psychopathy and its underlying trait assemblies in severely antisocial people. We addressed this important issue by uniquely examining the intrinsic functional connectivity of basolateral (BLA) and centromedial (CMA) amygdala networks in relation to affective, interpersonal, and behavioral traits of psychopathy, in conduct-disordered juveniles with a history of serious delinquency (N = 50, mean age = 16.83 ± 1.32). As predicted, amygdalar connectivity profiles exhibited dissociable relations with different traits of psychopathy. Interpersonal psychopathic traits not only related to increased connectivity of BLA and CMA with a corticostriatal network formation accommodating reward processing, but also predicted stronger CMA connectivity with a network of cortical midline structures supporting sociocognitive processes. In contrast, affective psychopathic traits related to diminished CMA connectivity with a frontolimbic network serving salience processing and affective responding. Finally, behavioral psychopathic traits related to heightened BLA connectivity with a frontoparietal cluster implicated in regulatory executive functioning. We suggest that these trait-specific shifts in amygdalar connectivity could be particularly relevant to the psychopathic phenotype, as they may fuel a self-centered, emotionally cold, and behaviorally disinhibited profile. Hum Brain Mapp 37:4017-4033, 2016. © 2016 The Authors Human

  1. Dissociable relations between amygdala subregional networks and psychopathy trait dimensions in conduct‐disordered juvenile offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colins, Olivier F.; Klapwijk, Eduard T.; Veer, Ilya M.; Andershed, Henrik; Popma, Arne; van der Wee, Nic J.; Vermeiren, Robert R.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Psychopathy is a serious psychiatric phenomenon characterized by a pathological constellation of affective (e.g., callous, unemotional), interpersonal (e.g., manipulative, egocentric), and behavioral (e.g., impulsive, irresponsible) personality traits. Though amygdala subregional defects are suggested in psychopathy, the functionality and connectivity of different amygdala subnuclei is typically disregarded in neurocircuit‐level analyses of psychopathic personality. Hence, little is known of how amygdala subregional networks may contribute to psychopathy and its underlying trait assemblies in severely antisocial people. We addressed this important issue by uniquely examining the intrinsic functional connectivity of basolateral (BLA) and centromedial (CMA) amygdala networks in relation to affective, interpersonal, and behavioral traits of psychopathy, in conduct‐disordered juveniles with a history of serious delinquency (N = 50, mean age = 16.83 ± 1.32). As predicted, amygdalar connectivity profiles exhibited dissociable relations with different traits of psychopathy. Interpersonal psychopathic traits not only related to increased connectivity of BLA and CMA with a corticostriatal network formation accommodating reward processing, but also predicted stronger CMA connectivity with a network of cortical midline structures supporting sociocognitive processes. In contrast, affective psychopathic traits related to diminished CMA connectivity with a frontolimbic network serving salience processing and affective responding. Finally, behavioral psychopathic traits related to heightened BLA connectivity with a frontoparietal cluster implicated in regulatory executive functioning. We suggest that these trait‐specific shifts in amygdalar connectivity could be particularly relevant to the psychopathic phenotype, as they may fuel a self‐centered, emotionally cold, and behaviorally disinhibited profile. Hum Brain Mapp 37:4017–4033, 2016. © 2016

  2. An analysis of racial and sex differences for smoking among adolescents in a juvenile correctional center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropsey, Karen L; Linker, Julie A; Waite, Dennis E

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate racial and sex differences on the risk factors for smoking initiation and daily smoking among juvenile justice adolescents, a population that is traditionally ignored in school-based epidemiological samples. This study used archival data collected by juvenile justice authorities for a large sample of juvenile justice adolescents (N=4381), examining interaction terms to determine race and sex differences for risk factors. About 70% of juvenile justice adolescents reported ever having smoked cigarettes while almost half reported daily smoking. Overall predictors of ever and daily smoking included older age, being female, White, use of alcohol, cannabis, and cocaine in the past year, affiliation with smoking peers, not living with at least one parent, and a diagnosis of ADHD. While differences were seen between individual predictor models for both race and sex, the interaction terms did not add significantly to the overall model. These important racial and gender differences in this study suggest that tailored prevention messages and interventions may be needed to be most effective with adolescents in the juvenile justice system. While this study provides a basic foundation of risk factors for smoking among juvenile justice adolescents, future research is needed to assess the efficacy of treatment and prevention interventions with this high risk group of adolescent smokers.

  3. Comparing Offenders against Women and Offenders against Children on Treatment Outcome in Offenders with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, William R.; Michie, Amanda M.; Steptoe, Lesley; Moore, Fhionna; Haut, Fabian

    2011-01-01

    Background: Several studies have shown the positive effects of sex offender treatment for men with intellectual disabilities who have perpetrated sex offences or inappropriate sexual behaviour. The present study investigates the process of treatment change and compares two groups of offenders against adults and offenders against children. Method:…

  4. A linguistic analysis of grooming strategies of online child sex offenders: Implications for our understanding of predatory sexual behavior in an increasingly computer-mediated world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Pamela J; Wollis, Melissa; Woodworth, Michael; Hancock, Jeffrey T

    2015-06-01

    There is a large body of evidence to suggest that child sex offenders engage in grooming to facilitate victimization. It has been speculated that this step-by-step grooming process is also used by offenders who access their underage victims online; however, little research has been done to examine whether there are unique aspects of computer-mediated communication that impact the traditional face-to-face grooming process. This study considered the similarities and differences in the grooming process in online environments by analyzing the language used by online offenders when communicating with their victims. The transcripts of 44 convicted online offenders were analyzed to assess a proposed theory of the online grooming process (O'Connell, 2003). Using a stage-based approach, computerized text analysis examined the types of language used in each stage of the offender-victim interaction. The transcripts also were content analyzed to examine the frequency of specific techniques known to be employed by both face-to-face and online offenders, such as flattery. Results reveal that while some evidence of the strategies used by offenders throughout the grooming process are present in online environments, the order and timing of these stages appear to be different. The types (and potential underlying pattern) of strategies used in online grooming support the development of a revised model for grooming in online environments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Vasopressin regulates social recognition in juvenile and adult rats of both sexes, but in sex- and age-specific ways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenema, A H; Bredewold, R; De Vries, G J

    2012-01-01

    In adult male rats, vasopressin (AVP) facilitates social recognition via activation of V1a receptors within the lateral septum. Much less is known about how AVP affects social recognition in adult females or in juvenile animals of either sex. We found that administration of the specific V1a receptor antagonist d(CH(2))(5)[Tyr(Me)(2)]AVP into the lateral septum of adult rats impaired, whereas AVP extended, social discrimination in both sexes. In juveniles, however, we detected a sex difference, such that males but not females showed social discrimination. Interestingly, administration of the V1a receptor antagonist to juveniles (either intracerebroventricularly or locally in the lateral septum) did not prevent social discrimination, but instead significantly decreased the investigation of a novel as opposed to a familiar animal in both sexes, with stronger effects in males. V1a receptors were found to be abundantly expressed in the lateral septum with higher binding density in females than in males. These findings demonstrate that activation of V1a receptors in the lateral septum is important for social recognition in both sexes, and that the roles of septal V1a receptors in social recognition change during development. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Alternatives to criminal procedure against juvenile and young adult offenders and alternative to criminal procedure in the cases of domestic violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvjetko Božica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, the author is analyzing the Act on juvenile courts of the Republic of Croatia, which foresees a broad possibility of implementing the principle of opportunity in the pre-trial, i.e. reinvestigation phase of the procedure in terms of the decision of the public prosecutor about the criminal charge against these persons, including the implementation of particular obligations as informal sanctions. Particular attention is paid to the special obligation called off-court agreement. The aim of the off-court agreement is “reconciliation between the juvenile or young adult offender and the victim of the crime, and establishment of the social peace”. Similar project and the implementation of the principle of opportunity is used in the cases of the criminal offence of domestic violence. The main aim of these obligations is to offer professional assistance to the families which are in crisis and have difficulties related to the violent behavior of one family member - mostly the father. Such an approach is more efficient than the long lasting criminal procedure, testifying and strengthening the crisis in the family. This paper gives also an insight into the legal provisions concerning this measure and its implementation in practice.

  7. Gender constructions of male sex offenders in Germany: narrative analysis from group psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moertl, Kathrin; Buchholz, Michael B; Lamott, Franziska

    2010-02-01

    This study was conducted to analyze how male sexual offenders construct mental images of masculinity and femininity to provide insight into therapeutic treatment for such patients. Thematerial examined in this studywas comprised of 21 videotaped prison group therapy sessions in which the participating sexual offenders talked about their crimes and biographies. Aqualitative data analysis softwarewas usedto apply a modified grounded theorymethodology to the transcribed sessions. The resulting categories can be understood as descriptions of how the imprisoned men constructed gender images, and were based on three narrative levels: the structure of narration, the narrative positions in the story, and the interaction between the narrator and the other participants. According to the categories describedin the narrative positions (the narrated self and the narrated significant male others), we constructed masculinity categorizations which corresponded to specific images of femininity (derived from the narrated significant female others).The constructionsprovided insight into the selfimage of the narrator, as well as the accountability and positioning of himself and the other in regard to perpetrator-victim constructions. The study further revealed whether the participants either accepted or rejected responsibility and guilt for their crimes; this is essential for psychotherapeutic process and treatment.

  8. Sex differences in metabolic and adipose tissue responses to juvenile-onset obesity in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloor, Ian D; Sébert, Sylvain P; Saroha, Vivek; Gardner, David S; Keisler, Duane H; Budge, Helen; Symonds, Michael E; Mahajan, Ravi P

    2013-10-01

    Sex is a major factor determining adipose tissue distribution and the subsequent adverse effects of obesity-related disease including type 2 diabetes. The role of gender on juvenile obesity and the accompanying metabolic and inflammatory responses is not well established. Using an ovine model of juvenile onset obesity induced by reduced physical activity, we examined the effect of gender on metabolic, circulatory, and related inflammatory and energy-sensing profiles of the major adipose tissue depots. Despite a similar increase in fat mass with obesity between genders, males demonstrated a higher storage capacity of lipids within perirenal-abdominal adipocytes and exhibited raised insulin. In contrast, obese females became hypercortisolemic, a response that was positively correlated with central fat mass. Analysis of gene expression in perirenal-abdominal adipose tissue demonstrated the stimulation of inflammatory markers in males, but not females, with obesity. Obese females displayed increased expression of genes involved in the glucocorticoid axis and energy sensing in perirenal-abdominal, but not omental, adipose tissue, indicating a depot-specific mechanism that may be protective from the adverse effects of metabolic dysfunction and inflammation. In conclusion, young males are at a greater risk than females to the onset of comorbidities associated with juvenile-onset obesity. These sex-specific differences in cortisol and adipose tissue could explain the earlier onset of the metabolic-related diseases in males compared with females after obesity.

  9. Demographic and Motivation Differences Among Online Sex Offenders by Type of Offense: An Exploration of Routine Activities Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Jordana N; Jasinski, Jana L

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of the relationship between online sexual offenders' demographic background and characteristics indicative of motivation and offense type. Specifically, we investigate whether these characteristics can distinguish different online sexual offender groups from one another as well as inform routine activity theorists on what potentially motivates perpetrators. Using multinomial logistic regression, this study found that online sexual offenders' demographic backgrounds and characteristics indicative of motivation do vary by offense types. Two important implications of this study are that the term "online sexual offender" encompasses different types of offenders, including some who do not align with mainstream media's characterization of "predators," and that the potential offender within routine activity theory can be the focus of empirical investigation rather than taken as a given in research.

  10. Age-dependent plasticity of sex pheromone response in the moth, Agrotis ipsilon: combined effects of octopamine and juvenile hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarriault, David; Barrozo, Romina B; de Carvalho Pinto, Carlos J

    2009-01-01

    Male moths use sex pheromones to find their mating partners. In the moth, Agrotis ipsilon, the behavioral response and the neuron sensitivity within the primary olfactory centre, the antennal lobe (AL), to sex pheromone increase with age and juvenile hormone (JH) biosynthesis. By manipulating...

  11. Increasing Valid Profiles in Phallometric Assessment of Sex Offenders with Child Victims: Combining the Strengths of Audio Stimuli and Synthetic Characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschall-Lévesque, Shawn; Rouleau, Joanne-Lucine; Renaud, Patrice

    2018-02-01

    Penile plethysmography (PPG) is a measure of sexual interests that relies heavily on the stimuli it uses to generate valid results. Ethical considerations surrounding the use of real images in PPG have further limited the content admissible for these stimuli. To palliate this limitation, the current study aimed to combine audio and visual stimuli by incorporating computer-generated characters to create new stimuli capable of accurately classifying sex offenders with child victims, while also increasing the number of valid profiles. Three modalities (audio, visual, and audiovisual) were compared using two groups (15 sex offenders with child victims and 15 non-offenders). Both the new visual and audiovisual stimuli resulted in a 13% increase in the number of valid profiles at 2.5 mm, when compared to the standard audio stimuli. Furthermore, the new audiovisual stimuli generated a 34% increase in penile responses. All three modalities were able to discriminate between the two groups by their responses to the adult and child stimuli. Lastly, sexual interest indices for all three modalities could accurately classify participants in their appropriate groups, as demonstrated by ROC curve analysis (i.e., audio AUC = .81, 95% CI [.60, 1.00]; visual AUC = .84, 95% CI [.66, 1.00], and audiovisual AUC = .83, 95% CI [.63, 1.00]). Results suggest that computer-generated characters allow accurate discrimination of sex offenders with child victims and can be added to already validated stimuli to increase the number of valid profiles. The implications of audiovisual stimuli using computer-generated characters and their possible use in PPG evaluations are also discussed.

  12. Influence of Propylparaben on Vitellogenesis and Sex Ratio in Juvenile Zebrafish (Danio rerio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Přemysl Mikula

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the xeno-oestrogenic potential of propylparaben in vivo using zebrafish (Danio rerio. Experimental juvenile zebrafish (20 days post hatching were fed a feed containing 500, 1000, or 2000 mg kg-1 of propylparaben, fish in a positive control group were given a feed treated with 20 mg kg-1 of 17β-oestradiol, and the control fish were given the feed free of either tested substance. The exposure of fish to propylparaben did not affect vitellogenesis after 20 days exposure but seemed to influence the sex differentiation processes, as evidenced by a sex ratio significantly skewed towards females in the group fed 500 mg kg-1 of propylparaben following 45 days of exposure. The potential of the fish to respond to oestrogenic stimulation was confirmed, since significantly higher vitellogenin concentrations were detected in the fish from the positive control group.

  13. Sex differences in the effects of juvenile and adult diet on age-dependent reproductive effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houslay, T M; Hunt, J; Tinsley, M C; Bussière, L F

    2015-05-01

    Sexual selection should cause sex differences in patterns of resource allocation. When current and future reproductive effort trade off, variation in resource acquisition might further cause sex differences in age-dependent investment, or in sensitivity to changes in resource availability over time. However, the nature and prevalence of sex differences in age-dependent investment remain unclear. We manipulated resource acquisition at juvenile and adult stages in decorated crickets, Gryllodes sigillatus, and assessed effects on sex-specific allocation to age-dependent reproductive effort (calling in males, fecundity in females) and longevity. We predicted that the resource and time demands of egg production would result in relatively consistent female strategies across treatments, whereas male investment should depend sharply on diet. Contrary to expectations, female age-dependent reproductive effort diverged substantially across treatments, with resource-limited females showing much lower and later investment in reproduction; the highest fecundity was associated with intermediate lifespans. In contrast, long-lived males always signalled more than short-lived males, and male age-dependent reproductive effort did not depend on diet. We found consistently positive covariance between male reproductive effort and lifespan, whereas diet altered this covariance in females, revealing sex differences in the benefits of allocation to longevity. Our results support sex-specific selection on allocation patterns, but also suggest a simpler alternative: males may use social feedback to make allocation decisions and preferentially store resources as energetic reserves in its absence. Increased calling effort with age therefore could be caused by gradual resource accumulation, heightened mortality risk over time, and a lack of feedback from available mates. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary

  14. Sex Determination in Bees. IV. Genetic Control of Juvenile Hormone Production in MELIPONA QUADRIFASCIATA (Apidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Warwick Estevam; Akahira, Yukio; Camargo, Conceição A.

    1975-01-01

    Cell number and volume of corpora allata was determined for 8 phases of development, the first prepupal stage to adults 30 days old, in the social Apidae Melipona quadrifasciata. In the second prepupal stage a strong correlation was found between cell number and body weight ( r=0.651**), and cell number and corpora allata volume in prepupal stage (r=0.535*), which indicates that juvenile hormone has a definite role in caste determination in Melipona. The distribution of the volume of corpus allatum suggest a 3:1 segregation between bees with high volume of corpora allata against low and medium volume. This implies that genes xa and xb code for an enzyme that directly participates in juvenile hormone production. It was also concluded that the number of cells in the second prepupal stage is more important than the weight of the prepupa for caste determination. A scheme summarizing the genic control of sex and caste determination in Melipona bees in the prepupal phase is given. PMID:1213273

  15. Juvenile Myasthenia Gravis in Korea: Subgroup Analysis According to Sex and Onset Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ha Neul; Kang, Hoon-Chul; Lee, Joon Soo; Kim, Heung Dong; Shin, Ha Young; Kim, Seung Min; Sunwoo, Il Nam; Lee, Young-Mock

    2016-12-01

    Juvenile myasthenia gravis presents before 18 years of age with different characteristics according to racial background and pubertal development. The authors aimed to determine the clinical characteristics of children and adolescents of Korean ethnicity with myasthenia gravis, and evaluate the presentation and clinical outcomes according to the sex and onset age of the patients. The authors recruited 88 Korean juvenile myasthenia gravis patients between September 2005 and August 2015. Worse clinical severity from presentation, more aggressive treatment strategies, and worse final treatment outcomes were noted in girls with postpubertal onset than in the other patients. The symptoms were milder (pure ocular presentation in 96.6% [85/88]) and the disease course was more benign (94.3% [83/88]) in this study than in the literature. The homogenous racial background might have contributed to these results. These findings highlight the influence of pubertal development and the need for timely and appropriate active treatment, including thymectomy, to improve prognosis. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Sex and Race Differences in Mental Health Symptoms in Juvenile Justice: The MAYSI-2 National Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Gina M.; Grisso, Thomas; Terry, Anna; Banks, Steven

    2008-01-01

    The study uses the MAYSI-2 gathered data from multiple US juvenile justice systems to examine whether mental health symptoms were connected to consistent sex and ethnicity/race-related differences. Results concluded a greater proportion of girls having serious mental health problems and though whites had problems with alcohol and drugs, they were…

  17. Adult-onset offenders: Is a tailored theory warranted?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckley, Amber L.; Caspi, Avshalom; Harrington, Honalee; Houts, Renate M.; Mcgee, Tara Renae; Morgan, Nick; Schroeder, Felix; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To describe official adult-onset offenders, investigate their antisocial histories and test hypotheses about their origins. Methods We defined adult-onset offenders among 931 Dunedin Study members followed to age 38, using criminal-court conviction records. Results Official adult-onset offenders were 14% of men, and 32% of convicted men, but accounted for only 15% of convictions. As anticipated by developmental theories emphasizing early-life influences on crime, adult-onset offenders’ histories of antisocial behavior spanned back to childhood. Relative to juvenile-offenders, during adolescence they had fewer delinquent peers and were more socially inhibited, which may have protected them from conviction. As anticipated by theories emphasizing the importance of situational influences on offending, adult-onset offenders, relative to non-offenders, during adulthood more often had schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and alcohol-dependence, had weaker social bonds, anticipated fewer informal sanctions, and self-reported more offenses. Contrary to some expectations, adult-onset offenders did not have high IQ or high socioeconomic-status families protecting them from juvenile conviction. Conclusions A tailored theory for adult-onset offenders is unwarranted because few people begin crime de novo as adults. Official adult-onset offenders fall on a continuum of crime and its correlates, between official non-offenders and official juvenile-onset offenders. Existing theories can accommodate adult-onset offenders. PMID:27134318

  18. Juvenile Confinement in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendel, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    For more than a century, the predominant strategy for the treatment and punishment of serious and sometimes not-so-serious juvenile offenders in the United States has been placement into large juvenile corrections institutions, alternatively known as training schools, reformatories, or youth corrections centers. America's heavy reliance on…

  19. Characteristics of females who sexually offend: a comparison of solo and co-offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Steven M; Williams, Rebecca; Elliott, Ian A; Eldridge, Hilary J; Ashfield, Sherry; Beech, Anthony R

    2015-06-01

    Although recent typologies of female sexual offenders have recognized the importance of having a co-offender, the clinical characteristics of solo and co-female sexual offenders remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to compare solo (n = 20) and co- (n = 20) female sexual offenders on a variety of clinical characteristics. It was found that although solo and co-offenders reported similar developmental experiences and psychological dispositions, differences were found in environmental niche, offense preceding, and positive factors. Specifically, solo offenders demonstrated a greater presence of personal vulnerabilities including mental health and substance abuse difficulties. Co-offenders reported a greater presence of environmentally based factors, including a current partner who was a known sex offender and involvement with antisocial peers. It is suggested that these results have implications for understanding assessment and intervention needs for these groups of sexual offenders. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Juvenile neurogenesis makes essential contributions to adult brain structure and plays a sex-dependent role in fear memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Daniel Cushman

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Postnatal-neurogenesis (PNN contributes neurons to olfactory bulb (OB and dentate gyrus (DG throughout juvenile development, but the quantitative amount, temporal dynamics and functional roles of this contribution have not been defined. By using transgenic mouse models for cell lineage tracing and conditional cell ablation, we found that juvenile neurogenesis gradually increased the total number of granule neurons by approximately 40% in OB, and by 25% in DG, between two weeks and two months of age, and that total numbers remained stable thereafter. These findings indicate that the overwhelming majority of net postnatal neuronal addition in these regions occurs during the juvenile period and that adult neurogenesis contributes primarily to replacement of granule cells in both regions. Behavioral analysis in our conditional cell ablation mouse model showed that complete loss of PNN throughout both the juvenile and adult period produced a specific set of sex-dependent cognitive changes. We observed normal hippocampus-independent delay fear conditioning, but excessive generalization of fear to a novel auditory stimulus, which is consistent with a role for PNN in psychopathology. Standard contextual fear conditioning was intact, however, pre-exposure dependent contextual fear was impaired suggesting a specific role for PNN in incidental contextual learning. Contextual discrimination between two highly similar contexts was enhanced; suggesting either enhanced contextual pattern separation or impaired temporal integration. We also observed a reduced reliance on olfactory cues, consistent with a role for OB PNN in the efficient processing of olfactory information. Thus, juvenile neurogenesis adds substantively to the total numbers of granule neurons in OB and DG during periods of critical juvenile behavioral development, including weaning, early social interactions and sexual maturation, and plays a sex-dependent role in fear memories.

  1. The effects of violence exposure on the development of impulse control and future orientation across adolescence and early adulthood: Time-specific and generalized effects in a sample of juvenile offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Kathryn C; King, Kevin M; Shulman, Elizabeth P; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Chassin, Laurie

    2015-11-01

    Impulse control and future orientation increase across adolescence, but little is known about how contextual factors shape the development of these capacities. The present study investigates how stress exposure, operationalized as exposure to violence, alters the developmental pattern of impulse control and future orientation across adolescence and early adulthood. In a sample of 1,354 serious juvenile offenders, higher exposure to violence was associated with lower levels of future orientation at age 15 and suppressed development of future orientation from ages 15 to 25. Increases in witnessing violence or victimization were linked to declines in impulse control 1 year later, but only during adolescence. Thus, beyond previous experiences of exposure to violence, witnessing violence and victimization during adolescence conveys unique risk for suppressed development of self-regulation.

  2. Brief Report: The Sexual and Physical Abuse Histories of Offenders with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, W.; Steptoe, L.; Haut, F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Some studies have found higher rates of childhood sexual abuse in sex offenders while others have failed to find such relationships. Method: This study reviews the sexual and physical abuse histories of 156 male sex offenders with intellectual disability (ID), 126 non-sexual male offenders with ID and 27 female offenders with ID.…

  3. Personality and Background Characteristics of Adolescent Sexual Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, Edward E., Jr.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined personality and background characteristics of adolescent sexual offenders (n=21) and oppositional defiant adolescents (n=17) who completed High School Personality Questionnaire. Findings revealed no significant difference between offenders and oppositional defiant adolescents using multiple analysis of variance. Sex offenders tended to be…

  4. Handedness, criminality, and sexual offending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaert, A F

    2001-01-01

    A very large database was used to investigate whether men with a history of criminality and/or sexual offending have a higher incidence of nonright-handedness (NRH) relative to a control sample of nonoffender men. The sample (N>8000) comprised interviews by investigators at the Kinsey Institute for Sex and Reproduction in Indiana. The general offender group and a subsample of sex offenders (e.g. pedophiles) had a significantly higher rate of NRH relative to the control (nonoffender) men. In addition, evidence was found that the general criminality/NRH relationship might result from increased educational difficulties that some nonright-handers experience. In contrast, education was unrelated to the handedness/pedophilia relationship, suggesting that there may be a different mechanism underlying the handedness/pedophile relationship than the handedness/(general) criminality relationship. Finally, as a cautionary note, it is stressed that the effects are small and that NRH should not be used as a marker of criminality.

  5. Effects of larval-juvenile treatment with perchlorate and co-treatment with thyroxine on zebrafish sex ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhi, S.; Torres, L.; Patino, R.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of larval-juvenile exposure to perchlorate, a thyroid hormone synthesis inhibitor, on the establishment of gonadal sex ratios in zebrafish. Zebrafish were exposed to untreated water or water containing perchlorate at 100 or 250 ppm for a period of 30 days starting at 3 days postfertilization (dpf). Recovery treatments consisted of a combination of perchlorate and exogenous thyroxine (T4; 10 nM). Thyroid histology was assessed at the end of the treatment period (33 dpf), and gonadal histology and sex ratios were determined in fish that were allowed an additional 10-day period of growth in untreated water. As expected, exposure to perchlorate caused changes in thyroid histology consistent with hypothyroidism and these effects were reversed by co-treatment with exogenous T4. Perchlorate did not affect fish survival but co-treatment with T4 induced higher mortality. However, relative to the corresponding perchlorate concentration, co-treatment with T4 caused increased mortality only at a perchlorate concentration of 100 ppm. Perchlorate alone or in the presence of T4 suppressed body length at 43 dpf relative to control values. Perchlorate exposure skewed the sex ratio toward female in a concentration-dependent manner, and co-treatment with T4 not only blocked the feminizing effect of perchlorate but also overcompensated by skewing the sex ratio towards male. Moreover, co-treatment with T4 advanced the onset of spermatogenesis in males. There was no clear association between sex ratios and larval survival or growth. We conclude that endogenous thyroid hormone plays a role in the establishment of gonadal sex phenotype during early development in zebrafish. ?? 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Social Support, Motivation, and the Process of Juvenile Reentry: An Exploratory Analysis of Desistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panuccio, Elizabeth A.; Christian, Johnna; Martinez, Damian J.; Sullivan, Mercer L.

    2012-01-01

    Many scholarly works and studies have explored the experience of reentry and desistance for adult offenders, but fewer studies have focused on these processes among juvenile offenders. Using qualitative case studies of juveniles released from secure confinement, this study explores the desistance process during juvenile reentry by examining how…

  7. Comparing Male and Female Juveniles Charged with Homicide: Child Maltreatment, Substance Abuse, and Crime Details

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe-Sepowitz, Dominique Eve

    2009-01-01

    This study examines a sample of 136 male and female juveniles charged with attempted homicide or homicide. The purpose of this study is to explore the differences between nondirect file male and female juvenile homicide offenders regarding individual, family, and crime circumstances. Findings suggest that compared to male juvenile offenders,…

  8. Factors Affecting Sentence Severity for Young Adult Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Peter W.; And Others

    This document analyzes the sentencing of young adult defendants in comparison with older adult and younger juvenile offenders, and disputes prior research which held that young adults received more lenient sentencing, perhaps because of the restrictions on disclosing juvenile delinquency histories. The document presents data from samples of young…

  9. Institutional games played by confined juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartollas, C; Sieverdes, C M

    1983-01-01

    This study examined the games played by 561 juvenile offenders confined in six coeducational correctional facilities in one state. The types of games these residents used against staff and peers within the confines of the institution varied considerably. The study documented nineteen games used by males and females, twelve to deal with staff and seven to deal with peers. The games were defined as therapeutic games, material games, psychological games, and physical games. Peer-oriented games included attention-seeking activities and a variety of dominance games. Additionally, these games were described and tabulated according to the sex and race of the residents. The conclusion was that game-playing behavior was no less frequent in coeducational institutions than it was in single-sex institutions.

  10. Sex-specific modulation of juvenile social play behavior by vasopressin and oxytocin depends on social context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredewold, Remco; Smith, Caroline J. W.; Dumais, Kelly M.; Veenema, Alexa H.

    2014-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that vasopressin (AVP) in the lateral septum modulates social play behavior differently in male and female juvenile rats. However, the extent to which different social contexts (i.e., exposure to an unfamiliar play partner in different environments) affect the regulation of social play remains largely unknown. Given that AVP and the closely related neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) modulate social behavior as well as anxiety-like behavior, we hypothesized that these neuropeptides may regulate social play behavior differently in novel (novel cage) as opposed to familiar (home cage) social environments. Administration of the specific AVP V1a receptor (V1aR) antagonist (CH2)5Tyr(Me2)AVP into the lateral septum enhanced home cage social play behavior in males but reduced it in females, confirming our previous findings. These effects were context-specific because V1aR blockade did not alter novel cage social play behavior in either sex. Furthermore, social play in females was reduced by AVP in the novel cage and by OXT in the home cage. Additionally, females administered the specific OXT receptor antagonist desGly-NH2,d(CH2)5−[Tyr(Me)2,Thr4]OVT showed less social play in the novel as compared to the home cage. AVP enhanced anxiety-related behavior in males (tested on the elevated plus-maze), but failed to do so in females, suggesting that exogenous AVP alters social play and anxiety-related behavior via distinct and sex-specific mechanisms. Moreover, none of the other drug treatments that altered social play had an effect on anxiety, suggesting that these drug-induced behavioral alterations are relatively specific to social behavior. Overall, we showed that AVP and OXT systems in the lateral septum modulate social play in juvenile rats in neuropeptide-, sex- and social context-specific ways. These findings underscore the importance of considering not only sex, but also social context, in how AVP and OXT modulate social behavior. PMID:24982623

  11. Sex-specific modulation of juvenile social play behavior by vasopressin and oxytocin depends on social context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remco eBredewold

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We recently demonstrated that vasopressin (AVP in the lateral septum modulates social play behavior differently in male and female juvenile rats. However, the extent to which different social contexts (i.e., exposure to an unfamiliar play partner in different environments affect the regulation of social play remains largely unknown. Given that AVP and the closely related neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT modulate social behavior as well as anxiety-like behavior, we hypothesized that these neuropeptides may regulate social play behavior differently in novel (novel cage as opposed to familiar (home cage social environments. Administration of the specific AVP V1a receptor (V1aR antagonist (CH25Tyr(Me2AVP into the lateral septum enhanced home cage social play behavior in males but reduced it in females, confirming our previous findings. These effects were context-specific because V1aR blockade did not alter novel cage social play behavior in either sex. Furthermore, social play in females was reduced by AVP in the novel cage and by OXT in the home cage. Additionally, females administered the specific OXT receptor antagonist desGly-NH2,d(CH25-[Tyr(Me2,Thr4]OVT showed less social play in the novel as compared to the home cage. AVP enhanced anxiety-related behavior in males (tested on the elevated plus-maze, but failed to do so in females, suggesting that exogenous AVP alters social play and anxiety-related behavior via distinct and sex-specific mechanisms. Moreover, none of the other drug treatments that altered social play had an effect on anxiety, suggesting that these drug-induced behavioral alterations are relatively specific to social behavior. Overall, we showed that AVP and OXT systems in the lateral septum modulate social play in juvenile rats in neuropeptide-, sex- and social context-specific ways. These findings underscore the importance of considering not only sex, but also social context, in how AVP and OXT modulate social behavior.

  12. Sex ratios in juveniles and adults of Dichroplus maculipennis (Blanchard and Borellia bruneri (Rehn (Orthoptera: Acrididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanina Mariottini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dichroplus maculipennis and Borellia bruneri are two of the 18 grasshopper species of actual or potential economic relevance as pests in Argentina. The objective of this study was to estimate the sex ratios for adults and older nymphs of D. maculipennis and B. bruneri in the field, and analyze possible temporal variations. The study was conducted during seven seasons (2005-06 to 2011-12 in representative plant communities of the southern Pampas region. A total of 4536 individuals of D. maculipennis, and 6038 individuals of B. bruneri were collected. The sex ratio registered in older nymphs for D. maculipennis and B. bruneri did not deviate from a 1:1 ratio (p > 0.05, suggesting that these species have such a primary sex ratio. However, a significant bias in sex composition in adults of both species was observed (p < 0.05. The sex ratio in adults of D. maculipennis was different in five of the 18 sampling dates carried out. In three sampling dates it was biased toward males, while in the other two it was biased toward females. Taking into account the sex ratio by sampling season, significant differences were recorded in two seasons. In 2007-08 the sex ratio was biased toward males (1 F:2.26 M, while in 2008-09 it was biased toward females (1.35 F:1 M. The sex ratio in adults of B. bruneri was always biased toward males (p < 0.05. We conclude that results obtained in this study indicate that various factors like differential survival, dispersion, predation, among others, could have modified the primary sex ratio in these species.

  13. Alcohol and drugs in relation to sexual offending

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraanen, F.L.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Sanders, T.

    2017-01-01

    There has been a significant increase in the focus on sex offending in recent years. This has occurred in both the academic and the public spheres. In attempting to understand sexual offending, this collection recognizes two different discourses that currently operate in relation to sex crime. At

  14. Predicting violent infractions in a Swiss state penitentiary: A replication study of the PCL-R in a population of sex and violent offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laubacher Arja

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research conducted with forensic psychiatric patients found moderate correlations between violence in institutions and psychopathy. It is unclear though, whether the PCL-R is an accurate instrument for predicting aggressive behavior in prisons. Results seem to indicate that the instrument is better suited for predicting verbal rather than physical aggression of prison inmates. Methods PCL-R scores were assessed for a sample of 113 imprisoned sex and violent offenders in Switzerland. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate physical and verbal aggression as a function of the PCL-R sum score. Additionally, stratified analyses were conducted for Factor 1 and 2. Infractions were analyzed as to their motives and consequences. Results The mean score of the PCL-R was 12 points. Neither the relationship between physical aggression and the sum score of the PCL-R, nor the relationship between physical aggression and either of the two factors of the PCL-R were significant. Both the sum score and Factor 1 predicted the occurrence of verbal aggression (AUC = 0.70 and 0.69, while Factor 2 did not. Conclusion Possible explanations are discussed for the weak relationship between PCL-R scores and physically aggressive behavior during imprisonment. Some authors have discussed whether the low base rate of violent infractions can be considered an explanation for the non-significant relation between PCL-R-score and violence. The base rate in this study, however, with 27%, was not low. It is proposed that the distinction between reactive and instrumental motives of institutional violence must be considered when examining the usefulness of the PCL-R in predicting in-prison physical aggressive behavior.

  15. Adolescent neglect, juvenile delinquency and the risk of recidivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joseph P; Williams, Abigail B; Courtney, Mark E

    2013-03-01

    Victims of child abuse and neglect are at an increased risk of involvement with the juvenile justice and adult correctional systems. Yet, little is known about the continuation and trajectories of offending beyond initial contact with law enforcement. Neglect likely plays a critical role in continued offending as parental monitoring, parental rejection and family relationships are instrumental in explaining juvenile conduct problems. This study sought to determine whether neglect is associated with recidivism for moderate and high risk juvenile offenders in Washington State. Statewide risk assessments and administrative records for child welfare, juvenile justice, and adult corrections were analyzed. The sample was diverse (24 % female, 13 % African American, 8 % Hispanic, 5 % Native American) and included all moderate and high risk juvenile offenders screened by juvenile probation between 2004 and 2007 (n = 19,833). Official records from child protection were used to identify juvenile offenders with a history of child neglect and to identify juvenile offenders with an ongoing case of neglect. Event history models were developed to estimate the risk of subsequent offending. Adolescents with an ongoing case neglect were significantly more likely to continue offending as compared with youth with no official history of neglect. These findings remain even after controlling for a wide range of family, peer, academic, mental health, and substance abuse covariates. Interrupting trajectories of offending is a primary focus of juvenile justice. The findings of the current study indicate that ongoing dependency issues play a critical role in explaining the outcomes achieved for adolescents in juvenile justice settings. The implications for improved collaboration between child welfare and juvenile justice are discussed.

  16. Effect of estradiol-17β on the sex ratio, growth and survival of juvenile common snook (Centropomus undecimalis)

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Vaz Avelar de Carvalho; Gabriel Passini; Wanessa de Melo Costa; Beatriz Nunes Vieira; Vinicius Ronzani Cerqueira

    2014-01-01

    Sex control in fish is a promising technique for aquaculture, since it gives advantages associated with one sex. The aim of this study was to investigate the feminization of common snook (Centropomus undecimalis) by oral administration of two doses of estradiol-17β (50 and 100 mg E2 kg-1 feed) and control treatment for 45 days and to evaluate their effects on the sex ratio, growth and survival of common snook juveniles. After this period, fish were fed only with commercial feed without hormon...

  17. Maternal malnutrition and offspring sex determine juvenile obesity and metabolic disorders in a swine model of leptin resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Barbero

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to determine, in a swine model of leptin resistance, the effects of type and timing of maternal malnutrition on growth patterns, adiposity and metabolic features of the progeny when exposed to an obesogenic diet during their juvenile development and possible concomitant effects of the offspring sex. Thus, four groups were considered. A CONTROL group involved pigs born from sows fed with a diet fulfilling their daily maintenance requirements for pregnancy. The treated groups involved the progeny of females fed with the same diet but fulfilling either 160% or 50% of pregnancy requirements during the entire gestation (OVERFED and UNDERFED, respectively or 100% of requirements until Day 35 of pregnancy and 50% of such amount from Day 36 onwards (LATE-UNDERFED. OVERFED and UNDERFED offspring were more prone to higher corpulence and fat deposition from early postnatal stages, during breast-feeding; adiposity increased significantly when exposed to obesogenic diets, especially in females. The effects of sex were even more remarkable in LATE-UNDERFED offspring, which had similar corpulence to CONTROL piglets; however, females showed a clear predisposition to obesity. Furthermore, the three groups of pigs with maternal malnutrition showed evidences of metabolic syndrome and, in the case of individuals born from OVERFED sows, even of insulin resistance and the prodrome of type-2 diabetes. These findings support the main role of early nutritional programming in the current rise of obesity and associated diseases in ethnics with leptin resistance.

  18. Juvenile exposure to vinclozolin shifts sex ratios and impairs reproductive capacity of zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lor, Yer; Revak, Andrew; Weigand, Jenna; Hicks, Elisabeth; Howard, David R; King-Heiden, Tisha C

    2015-12-01

    Exposure to endocrine disruptors during critical periods of development can impact the sustainability of wild fish populations. Anti-androgenic compounds have received less attention, but are capable of modulating gonad differentiation and maturation, and impairing reproduction in fish. The fungicide vinclozolin (VZ) has been shown to impair reproduction in adult fish, but less is known about its effects following exposure earlier in development. Here we show that waterborne exposure to 400μg VZ/L during critical periods of sex differentiation (21-35 days post fertilization) permanently shifts sex ratios towards females, and alters the maturation of the gonad. Both fecundity and fertility were reduced, even when oogenesis and spermatogenesis recover and sperm motility is not altered. These results demonstrate the need to better understand the impacts of early exposure to anti-androgenic compounds on fish. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Sex differences in the outcome of juvenile social isolation on HPA axis function in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisu, M G; Garau, A; Boero, G; Biggio, F; Pibiri, V; Dore, R; Locci, V; Paci, E; Porcu, P; Serra, M

    2016-04-21

    Women are more likely than men to suffer from anxiety disorders and major depression. These disorders share hyperresponsiveness to stress as an etiological factor. Thus, sex differences in brain arousal systems and their regulation by chronic stress may account for the increased vulnerability to these disorders in women. Social isolation is a model of early life stress that results in neurobiological alterations leading to increased anxiety-like and depressive-like behaviors. Here we investigated the sex difference in the effects of post-weaning social isolation on acute stress sensitivity and behavior in rats. In both sexes, social isolation at weaning reduced basal levels of the neuroactive steroid allopregnanolone in the brain and of corticosterone in plasma. Moreover, acute stress increased plasma corticosterone levels in both group-housed and socially isolated male and female rats; however this effect was greater in male than female rats subjected to social isolation. Intriguingly, group-housed female rats showed no change in plasma and brain levels of allopregnanolone after acute foot-shock stress. The absence of stress-induced effects on allopregnanolone synthesis might be due to the physiologically higher levels of this hormone in females vs. males. Accordingly, increasing allopregnanolone levels in male rats blunted the response to foot-shock stress in these animals. Socially isolated male, but not female, rats also display depressive-like behavior and increased hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). The ovarian steroids could "buffer" the effect of this adverse experience in females on these parameters. Finally, the dexamethasone (DEX) suppression test indicated that the chronic stress associated with social isolation impairs feedback inhibition in both sexes in which an increase in the abundance of glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) in the hippocampus was found. Altogether, these results demonstrate that social isolation affects neuroendocrine

  20. The use of cyproterone acetate in a forensic psychiatric cohort of male sex offenders and its associations with sexual activity and sexual functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Lippi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cyproterone acetate (CPA is a steroidal anti-androgenic medication used in the field of psychiatry for the treatment of paraphilic disorders, hypersexuality, and inappropriate sexual behaviour which may be present in patients with disorders such as mild and major neurocognitive disorders. In the forensic psychiatric population, it is prescribed for these indications especially for patients with a history of committing a sexual offence or who are at moderate to high risk of recidivism. Objectives: To investigate the use of CPA in a forensic psychiatric cohort of male sex offenders and its associations with sexual activity and sexual functioning. Methods: Seventy-six forensic psychiatric patients from Weskoppies Hospital in Pretoria, South Africa, participated in the study which measured their sexual functioning. A specifically designed questionnaire was used to capture relevant background information. The use of CPA was studied. The Changes in Sexual Functioning Questionnaire, Male Clinical Version (CSFQ-M-C was used to measure sexual functioning of participants. The CSFQ-M-C scores, and those of all its subscales, of participants on CPA were compared to those not on the drug. Relevant statistical analyses were performed. Results: Thirteen out of the 76 participants were being treated with CPA (17.11%. In total, 53.85% of the participants on CPA and 65.08% not on CPA had scores indicating the presence of sexual dysfunction. The total CSFQ-M-C scores for participants on CPA (mean = 40.54; median = 42 were not statistically significantly lower than those not on the drug (mean = 41.22; median = 41. More notable is that the use of CPA in this population was associated with lower levels of desire, frequency of and pleasure from sexual activity. There was an association between having intellectual disability and being treated with CPA. Conclusion: That all the participants were being treated with psychotropic medication could account for

  1. Reformations in Zimbabwe's juvenile justice system | Ruparanganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Children in conflict with the law are often stigmatized and shunned by society as they are perceived as a threat to society. Historically, Zimbabwe's juvenile justice system has been retributive and focused on punishing the juvenile offender. As a result, it has been criticised from a number of viewpoints, including the need to ...

  2. Toxicokinetics of tetrabromoethylcyclohexane (TBECH) in juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta) and effects on plasma sex hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gemmill, Bonnie; Pleskach, Kerri; Peters, Lisa; Palace, Vince; Wautier, Kerry; Park, Brad; Darling, Colin; Rosenberg, Bruno; McCrindle, Robert; Tomy, Gregg T.

    2011-01-01

    Technical 1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2 dibromoethyl)cyclohexane or tetrabromoethylcyclohexane (TBECH) used primarily as an additive flame retardant in polystyrene foams, contains two diastereoisomers, α- and β- present in equimolar amounts. At temperatures in excess of 125 o C, isomerization to two other isoforms, δ- and γ- is possible. The recent detection of TBECH in the environment and studies suggesting that isomers are androgenic prompted us to examine the toxicokinetics and biochemical effects of one of the isomers, β-, in a controlled laboratory environment. Juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta) were exposed to three different amounts of the β-isomer (low, medium and high) via the food followed by a period in which they were exposed to unfortified food. A fourth group of fish was exposed to unfortified food for the duration of the experiment. On days 0, 7, 14, 21, 35, 49, 56, 63, 77, 91, 105, and 133, eight fish from each treatment group were euthanized and liver, plasma, lower jaw (i.e., thyroid tissue) and gonad were collected and the remaining tissue ('whole-fish') was retained. β-Isomer content was measured in whole-fish and in liver while estradiol (E2), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and testosterone (T) were measured in plasma. Based on liver and gonad somatic indices, no apparent effects on liver or gonad development in fish from any of the treatment groups were observed. The bioaccumulation of β-isomer was similar in fish from all treatment groups with steady-state occurring before the end of the uptake phase. Depuration of the β-isomer from fish obeyed first order kinetics and there were no statistically significant differences in the depuration half life (t 1/2 ) among the treatment groups: 22.5 ± 10.4 (low), 13.5 ± 5.9 (med) and 13.8 ± 2.2 (high) days. Steady-state biomagnification factors were much smaller than 1 for fish in all treatment groups. Debrominated metabolites were not detected in composite liver or whole-fish extracts and there was no

  3. Toxicokinetics of tetrabromoethylcyclohexane (TBECH) in juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta) and effects on plasma sex hormones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gemmill, Bonnie [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Arctic Aquatic Research Division, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N6 (Canada); Department of Environment and Geography, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada); Pleskach, Kerri [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Arctic Aquatic Research Division, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N6 (Canada); Peters, Lisa [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Arctic Aquatic Research Division, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N6 (Canada); Department of Environment and Geography, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada); Palace, Vince [Department of Environment and Geography, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada); Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Environmental Science Division, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N6 (Canada); Wautier, Kerry; Park, Brad [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Environmental Science Division, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N6 (Canada); Darling, Colin; Rosenberg, Bruno [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Arctic Aquatic Research Division, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N6 (Canada); McCrindle, Robert [Wellington Laboratories Incorporated, Research Division, Guelph, ON N1G 3M5 (Canada); Tomy, Gregg T., E-mail: gregg.tomy@dfo-mpo.gc.ca [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Arctic Aquatic Research Division, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N6 (Canada); Department of Environment and Geography, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada)

    2011-01-25

    Technical 1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2 dibromoethyl)cyclohexane or tetrabromoethylcyclohexane (TBECH) used primarily as an additive flame retardant in polystyrene foams, contains two diastereoisomers, {alpha}- and {beta}- present in equimolar amounts. At temperatures in excess of 125 {sup o}C, isomerization to two other isoforms, {delta}- and {gamma}- is possible. The recent detection of TBECH in the environment and studies suggesting that isomers are androgenic prompted us to examine the toxicokinetics and biochemical effects of one of the isomers, {beta}-, in a controlled laboratory environment. Juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta) were exposed to three different amounts of the {beta}-isomer (low, medium and high) via the food followed by a period in which they were exposed to unfortified food. A fourth group of fish was exposed to unfortified food for the duration of the experiment. On days 0, 7, 14, 21, 35, 49, 56, 63, 77, 91, 105, and 133, eight fish from each treatment group were euthanized and liver, plasma, lower jaw (i.e., thyroid tissue) and gonad were collected and the remaining tissue ('whole-fish') was retained. {beta}-Isomer content was measured in whole-fish and in liver while estradiol (E2), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and testosterone (T) were measured in plasma. Based on liver and gonad somatic indices, no apparent effects on liver or gonad development in fish from any of the treatment groups were observed. The bioaccumulation of {beta}-isomer was similar in fish from all treatment groups with steady-state occurring before the end of the uptake phase. Depuration of the {beta}-isomer from fish obeyed first order kinetics and there were no statistically significant differences in the depuration half life (t{sub 1/2}) among the treatment groups: 22.5 {+-} 10.4 (low), 13.5 {+-} 5.9 (med) and 13.8 {+-} 2.2 (high) days. Steady-state biomagnification factors were much smaller than 1 for fish in all treatment groups. Debrominated metabolites were not

  4. Universo moral de jovens internos da Febem Moral universe of juvenile offenders in internment at the São Paulo state Fundação do Bem-Estar do Menor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Felix de Carvalho Noguchi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, apresentamos elementos do universo moral de jovens internos da Fundação do Bem-Estar do Menor do Estado de São Paulo. Entrevistamos 14 sujeitos sobre o tema do 'Seguro', uma forma de organização criada pelos próprios jovens internos, que está baseada em regras precisas cuja desobediência implica a exclusão do transgressor. Procuramos verificar as formas de legitimação da referida organização, e os valores morais que a sustentam. As categorias de análise dos dados foram: autonomia/heteronomia, virtudes e personalidade moral. Os dados apontam para o predomínio de formas heteronômicas de legitimação das regras, para a valorização de certos traços de caráter (virtudes como a 'firmeza', a 'virilidade', a 'coragem' e para a franca desvalorização de seus contrários (fraqueza, homossexualidade, medo. Os dados também apontam para a construção de uma identidade que inclui valores do chamado 'mundo do crime' e que se opõe claramente ao 'mundão', que inclui as pessoas que não são os 'malandros'.This study describes the moral universe of juvenile offenders in internment at the São Paulo State Fundação do Bem-Estar do Menor. Fourteen male adolescents were interviewed on the subject of 'Seguro', i.e., an organisational code created by themselves, involving a precise set of rules whose inobservance implies the exclusion of the transgressor. We aimed at investigating this code legitimacy, as well as the moral values supporting it. The categories devised for data analysis were: autonomy/heteronomy; virtues, and moral self. The data show a prominence of heteronomous forms of legitimation of rules; the valorization of certain character traits (virtues such as strength, virility, and courage, and the sharp devaluation of their opposites: weakness, homosexuality, and fear. Our results also point out to the construction of an identity which encompasses values in the so-called "crime world", clearly opposed to those

  5. Análise do discurso da imprensa sobre rebeliões de jovens infratores em regime de privação de liberdade Discourse analysis on press coverage of riots by juvenile law offenders in correctional facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathie Njaine

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta uma análise qualitativa da informação produzida pela imprensa escrita sobre as rebeliões e fugas de adolescentes em conflito com a lei, no Rio de Janeiro. Seu objetivo é identificar como esse sujeito social é apresentado pela mídia escrita à sociedade. O método utilizado para o aprofundamento das mensagens é a análise de discurso, que embora compreenda várias vertentes teóricas e técnicas, aqui é abordado dentro da proposta de Norman Fairclough. O estudo da abordagem de três jornais sobre rebeliões de internos infratores se justifica em função da freqüência e da forma como a mídia tem destacado o tema. As conclusões apontam para o papel da mídia no fortalecimento da visão negativa e incriminadora dos jovens, que pode contribuir com ações mais violentas contra esse grupo. Muito raramente revela as questões sociais, institucionais e de inadequação pedagógica que permeiam tais eventos.This study presents a qualitative analysis of information produced by the press on riots and escapes by juvenile offenders under correctional custody in Rio de Janeiro. The objective was to identify how the printed media portrays these social subjects to society. The method used to unveil the messages was discourse analysis, which includes various theoretical and technical approaches but was used here as proposed by Norman Fairclough. The study on three newspapers covering inmate riots was justified by the frequency and way by which the media approached the theme. The conclusions point to the media's role in bolstering a negative and incriminatory view of adolescents under correctional custody which has the potential to spawn further violent measures against this group. Very rarely does the coverage reveal the social or institutional issues or pedagogical insufficiencies permeating such events.

  6. Family transitions and juvenile delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Ryan D; Osgood, Aurea K; Oghia, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    There is a large body of research that shows children from non-intact homes show higher rates of juvenile delinquency than children from intact homes, partially due to weaker parental control and supervision in non-intact homes. What has not been adequately addressed in the research is the influence of changes in family structure among individual adolescents over time on delinquent offending. Using the first and third waves of the National Youth Study, we assess the effect of family structure changes on changes in delinquent offending between waves through the intermediate process of changes in family time and parental attachment. Although prior research has documented adolescents in broken homes are more delinquent than youth in intact homes, the process of family dissolution is not associated with concurrent increases in offending. In contrast, family formation through marriage or cohabitation is associated with simultaneous increases in offending. Changes in family time and parental attachment account for a portion of the family formation effect on delinquency, and prior parental attachment and juvenile offending significantly condition the effect of family formation on offending.

  7. Educating Youthful Offenders in a Youth Development Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Stephanie

    2004-01-01

    Educating incarcerated youthful offenders is described from the perspective of a teacher who incorporates W. Glasser's (1998) counseling philosophy into her relationships with students. She reveals the results of her caring, encouraging, and goal-directed behavior with sex offenders and other young inmates.

  8. Sex-specific effect of juvenile diet on adult disease resistance in a field cricket.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clint D Kelly

    Full Text Available Food limitation is expected to reduce an individual's body condition (body mass scaled to body size and cause a trade-off between growth and other fitness-related traits, such as immunity. We tested the condition-dependence of growth and disease resistance in male and female Gryllus texensis field crickets by manipulating diet quality via nutrient content for their entire life and then subjecting individuals to a host resistance test using the live bacterium Serratia marcescens. As predicted, crickets on a high-quality diet eclosed more quickly, and at a larger body size and mass. Crickets on a high-quality diet were not in better condition at the time of eclosion, but they were in better condition 7-11 days after eclosion, with females also being in better condition than males. Despite being in better condition, however, females provided with a high-quality diet had significantly poorer disease resistance than females on a low-quality diet and in poor condition. Similarly, males on low- and high-quality diets did not differ in their disease resistance, despite differing in their body condition. A sex difference in disease resistance under diet-restriction suggests that females might allocate resources toward immunity during development if they expect harsh environmental conditions as an adult or it might suggest that females allocate resources toward other life history activities (i.e. reproduction when food availability increases. We do not know what immune effectors were altered under diet-restriction to increase disease resistance, but our findings suggest that increased immune function might provide an explanation for the sexually-dimorphic increase in longevity generally observed in diet-restricted animals.

  9. «…For our happy childhood»: juvenile criminal liability in soviet legislation of 1920–1940

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Еvgeny F. Krinko

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is concerned with the dynamics of juvenile criminal liability in Soviet legislation of 1920–1940 and states tightening penalties for young and juvenile offenders under rise in child crime.

  10. Menores infractores ¿Es posible un modelo compartido de reeducación y reinserción en el ámbito europeo?/Juvenile offenders: Do is possible a model shared re-education and reintegration at european level?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis De La Cuesta (España

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La posibilidad de construcción en el marco europeo de un modelo compartido de reeducación y reinserción social respecto a los menores infractores obliga a analizar si las instituciones europeas son o no competentes en la cuestión. Para atajar de forma sustancial la posibilidad de construcción en el marco europeo de la delincuencia juvenil, se requiere una estrategia integrad a escala tanto nacional como europea que combine tres directrices: medidas de prevención, judiciales y extrajudiciales y medidas de inclusión social de todos los jóvenes. Las medidas de reclusión y las sanciones penales deben constituir el último recurso y aplicarse únicamente en aquellos casos que se consideren absolutamente necesarios. The possibility of building on the European framework of a shared model of re-education and social reintegration with respect to juvenile offenders forces to analyze whether or not the European institutions are competent in the matter. To address substantially the possibility to construction within the European framework of the crime juvenile, a strategy is required integrity at both national and European level that combines three guidelines: prevention, judicial and extrajudicial measures and measures for the social inclusion of all young people. Detention measures and criminal sanctions should be the last resort and applied only in those cases that are considered absolutely necessary.

  11. Effects of changes in food supply at the time of sex differentiation on the gonadal transcriptome of juvenile fish. Implications for natural and farmed populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Díaz

    Full Text Available Food supply is a major factor influencing growth rates in animals. This has important implications for both natural and farmed fish populations, since food restriction may difficult reproduction. However, a study on the effects of food supply on the development of juvenile gonads has never been transcriptionally described in fish.This study investigated the consequences of growth on gonadal transcriptome of European sea bass in: 1 4-month-old sexually undifferentiated fish, comparing the gonads of fish with the highest vs. the lowest growth, to explore a possible link between transcriptome and future sex, and 2 testis from 11-month-old juveniles where growth had been manipulated through changes in food supply. The four groups used were: i sustained fast growth, ii sustained slow growth, iii accelerated growth, iv decelerated growth. The transcriptome of undifferentiated gonads was not drastically affected by initial natural differences in growth. Further, changes in the expression of genes associated with protein turnover were seen, favoring catabolism in slow-growing fish and anabolism in fast-growing fish. Moreover, while fast-growing fish took energy from glucose, as deduced from the pathways affected and the analysis of protein-protein interactions examined, in slow-growing fish lipid metabolism and gluconeogenesis was favored. Interestingly, the highest transcriptomic differences were found when forcing initially fast-growing fish to decelerate their growth, while accelerating growth of initially slow-growing fish resulted in full transcriptomic convergence with sustained fast-growing fish.Food availability during sex differentiation shapes the juvenile testis transcriptome, as evidenced by adaptations to different energy balances. Remarkably, this occurs in absence of major histological changes in the testis. Thus, fish are able to recover transcriptionally their testes if they are provided with enough food supply during sex

  12. Effects of changes in food supply at the time of sex differentiation on the gonadal transcriptome of juvenile fish. Implications for natural and farmed populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Noelia; Ribas, Laia; Piferrer, Francesc

    2014-01-01

    Food supply is a major factor influencing growth rates in animals. This has important implications for both natural and farmed fish populations, since food restriction may difficult reproduction. However, a study on the effects of food supply on the development of juvenile gonads has never been transcriptionally described in fish. This study investigated the consequences of growth on gonadal transcriptome of European sea bass in: 1) 4-month-old sexually undifferentiated fish, comparing the gonads of fish with the highest vs. the lowest growth, to explore a possible link between transcriptome and future sex, and 2) testis from 11-month-old juveniles where growth had been manipulated through changes in food supply. The four groups used were: i) sustained fast growth, ii) sustained slow growth, iii) accelerated growth, iv) decelerated growth. The transcriptome of undifferentiated gonads was not drastically affected by initial natural differences in growth. Further, changes in the expression of genes associated with protein turnover were seen, favoring catabolism in slow-growing fish and anabolism in fast-growing fish. Moreover, while fast-growing fish took energy from glucose, as deduced from the pathways affected and the analysis of protein-protein interactions examined, in slow-growing fish lipid metabolism and gluconeogenesis was favored. Interestingly, the highest transcriptomic differences were found when forcing initially fast-growing fish to decelerate their growth, while accelerating growth of initially slow-growing fish resulted in full transcriptomic convergence with sustained fast-growing fish. Food availability during sex differentiation shapes the juvenile testis transcriptome, as evidenced by adaptations to different energy balances. Remarkably, this occurs in absence of major histological changes in the testis. Thus, fish are able to recover transcriptionally their testes if they are provided with enough food supply during sex differentiation; however

  13. Sociodemographic and diagnostic characteristics of homicidal and nonhomicidal sexual offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Judith; Berner, Wolfgang; Hill, Andreas; Briken, Peer

    2011-11-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and "psychopathy" in homicidal and nonhomicidal sexual offenders and to investigate the specificity of previous studies on psychiatric morbidity of a sample of sexual murderers. Information from court reports of 166 homicidal and 56 nonhomicidal sex offenders was evaluated using standardized instruments (SCID-II, PCL-R) and classification systems (DSM-IV). Sexual murderers were diagnosed more often with a personality disorder (80.1% vs. 50%; p murderers have more and a greater variety of psychiatric disorders when compared to nonhomicidal sex offenders. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  14. Gender differences in the impact of abuse and neglect victimization on adolescent offending behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asscher, J.J.; van der Put, C.E.; Stams, G.J.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examines gender differences in the association between abuse and neglect during childhood, and sexual and violent offending in juvenile delinquents. Female juvenile delinquents were more frequently victim of sexual and physical abuse and had a history of neglect and maltreatment

  15. Improving Negative Emotion Recognition in Young Offenders Reduces Subsequent Crime.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Hubble

    Full Text Available Children with antisocial behaviour show deficits in the perception of emotional expressions in others that may contribute to the development and persistence of antisocial and aggressive behaviour. Current treatments for antisocial youngsters are limited in effectiveness. It has been argued that more attention should be devoted to interventions that target neuropsychological correlates of antisocial behaviour. This study examined the effect of emotion recognition training on criminal behaviour.Emotion recognition and crime levels were studied in 50 juvenile offenders. Whilst all young offenders received their statutory interventions as the study was conducted, a subgroup of twenty-four offenders also took part in a facial affect training aimed at improving emotion recognition. Offenders in the training and control groups were matched for age, SES, IQ and lifetime crime level. All offenders were tested twice for emotion recognition performance, and recent crime data were collected after the testing had been completed.Before the training there were no differences between the groups in emotion recognition, with both groups displaying poor fear, sadness and anger recognition. After the training fear, sadness and anger recognition improved significantly in juvenile offenders in the training group. Although crime rates dropped in all offenders in the 6 months following emotion testing, only the group of offenders who had received the emotion training showed a significant reduction in the severity of the crimes they committed.The study indicates that emotion recognition can be relatively easily improved in youths who engage in serious antisocial and criminal behavior. The results suggest that improved emotion recognition has the potential to reduce the severity of reoffending.

  16. Improving Negative Emotion Recognition in Young Offenders Reduces Subsequent Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubble, Kelly; Bowen, Katharine L; Moore, Simon C; van Goozen, Stephanie H M

    2015-01-01

    Children with antisocial behaviour show deficits in the perception of emotional expressions in others that may contribute to the development and persistence of antisocial and aggressive behaviour. Current treatments for antisocial youngsters are limited in effectiveness. It has been argued that more attention should be devoted to interventions that target neuropsychological correlates of antisocial behaviour. This study examined the effect of emotion recognition training on criminal behaviour. Emotion recognition and crime levels were studied in 50 juvenile offenders. Whilst all young offenders received their statutory interventions as the study was conducted, a subgroup of twenty-four offenders also took part in a facial affect training aimed at improving emotion recognition. Offenders in the training and control groups were matched for age, SES, IQ and lifetime crime level. All offenders were tested twice for emotion recognition performance, and recent crime data were collected after the testing had been completed. Before the training there were no differences between the groups in emotion recognition, with both groups displaying poor fear, sadness and anger recognition. After the training fear, sadness and anger recognition improved significantly in juvenile offenders in the training group. Although crime rates dropped in all offenders in the 6 months following emotion testing, only the group of offenders who had received the emotion training showed a significant reduction in the severity of the crimes they committed. The study indicates that emotion recognition can be relatively easily improved in youths who engage in serious antisocial and criminal behavior. The results suggest that improved emotion recognition has the potential to reduce the severity of reoffending.

  17. Psychopathic traits in young offenders vs. non-offenders in similar socioeconomic condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo B. Castellana

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the differences in psychopathic traits between offender and non-offender youths with similar socioeconomic backgrounds. Method: The Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL-R scale was used to identify whether 39 young offenders with no history of mental disorders or criteria for psychopathy exhibited differences in its total score, and specifically for factor 1 or factor 2 of this scale, when compared with 32 other young people, living in similar socioeconomic conditions, who had not committed offenses. Results: We observed statistically significant between-group differences (p < 0.01 in mean PCL-R scores, with a mean score of 13.4 in the offender group vs. 2.1 in the non-offender group. We also detected significant between-group differences when we analyzed mean factor 1 (p < 0.01 and factor 2 (p < 0.01 scores separately. Although the groups exhibited statistically significant difference in educational attainment, between-group comparison of mean PCL-R scores controlling for educational attainment by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA showed that the difference in PCL-R scores remained statistically significant (p < 0.01. Conclusions: We conclude that, in this sample, the presence of both primary (interpersonal/affective characteristics and secondary (lifestyle/antisocial behavior psychopathic traits differed between offender and non-offender youths, even when excluding psychopathy and other mental disorders from the assessments. These results suggest a need for wide-ranging interventions, not restricted to socioeconomic aspects, for the management of juvenile delinquency.

  18. Therapeutic Responses of Psychopathic Sexual Offenders: Treatment Attrition, Therapeutic Change, and Long-Term Recidivism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olver, Mark E.; Wong, Stephen C. P.

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined the therapeutic responses of psychopathic sex offenders (greater than or equal to 25 Psychopathy Checklist-Revised; PCL-R) in terms of treatment dropout and therapeutic change, as well as sexual and violent recidivism over a 10-year follow-up among 156 federally incarcerated sex offenders treated in a high-intensity inpatient…

  19. Substance use disorders in forensic psychiatry: differences among different types of offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraanen, Fleur L; Scholing, Agnes; Emmelkamp, Paul M G

    2012-12-01

    This is the first study that compared different types of offenders in forensic outpatient treatment (i.e., offenders of general violence [GV], intimate partner violence [IPV], sex crimes, and "other offenses" such as drug smuggling and property crimes) regarding the prevalence of substance use disorders at the time of the offense. In total, 35.8% of participants (n = 187) were diagnosed with any substance use disorder. Specifically, 61.5% of GV perpetrators, 30.9% of IPV perpetrators, 9.1% of sex offenders, and 26.7% of "other offenders" were diagnosed with substance abuse or dependence. More GV offenders and less sex offenders fulfilled diagnostic criteria for a substance use disorder. Furthermore, 29.9% of the offenders were intoxicated by substances at the moment they committed the offense (48.5% of GV perpetrators, 25.0% of IPV perpetrators, 17.4% of sex offenders, and 21.0% of other offenders). More GV perpetrators were intoxicated during the offense. As there is a clear association between substance abuse and criminal behavior, substance abuse in offenders should be assessed and, if present, be treated.

  20. Prevalência de transtornos psiquiátricos em jovens infratores na cidade do Rio de Janeiro (RJ, Brasil: estudo de gênero e relação com a gravidade do delito Prevalence of psychiatric disorders in juvenile offenders in the city of Rio de Janeiro (RJ, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Candido de Andrade

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Cresce no Brasil a prevalência de jovens infratores, principalmente do gênero feminino. A literatura aponta para prevalências aumentadas de transtornos mentais entre esses jovens em vários países, mas no Brasil faltam estudos. O objetivo é avaliar a prevalência de transtornos mentais em adolescentes sob medida socioeducativa, considerando como hipótese sua diferença entre gêneros com base no tipo de delito cometido. O instrumento usado foi o K-SADS-PL. Como resultados, alta prevalência de transtornos psiquiátricos entre adolescentes infratores, sendo os mais prevalentes: transtorno de déficit de atenção com hiperatividade (33%, transtorno da conduta (77%, transtorno desafiador opositivo (50%, transtornos de ansiedade (70%, transtorno depressivo (50%, abuso de drogas ilícitas (70% e abuso de álcool (52%. O abuso de álcool aumentou em 2,4 vezes a chance de um adolescente cometer delito violento. Esses dados sugerem às autoridades em saúde pública que tanto a detecção quanto o tratamento precoce de transtornos psiquiátricos na infância podem ajudar na prevenção de atos infratores. Sugerem também que o tratamento em saúde mental dos jovens sob custódia da lei deve ser parte fundamental da recuperação e da ressocialização deles.The prevalence of juvenile offenders in Brazil, mainly among young females, is on the increase. The literature on this issue indicates an increased incidence of mental disorders among young offenders in several countries, though studies in Brazil are lacking. The aim of this article is to study the prevalence of mental disorders in adolescents from a socio-educational standpoint, taking as a hypothesis the gender difference and the type of offense committed. The instrument used was the K-SADS-PL. As results, we found a high prevalence of psychiatric disorders among juvenile offenders, the most common being: attention deficit hhyperactivity disorder (33.3%; behavioral disorder (77

  1. Child maltreatment among boy and girl probationers: Does type of maltreatment make a difference in offending behavior and psychosocial problems?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Put, C.E.; Lanctot, N.; de Ruiter, C.; van Vugt, E.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined differences in offending behavior and psychosocial problems between juvenile offenders who have been sexually abused (n = 231), physically abused (n = 1,568), neglected (n = 1,555), exposed to multiple forms of maltreatment (n = 1,767), and non-victims (n = 8,492). In addition,

  2. Race and the fragility of the legal distinction between juveniles and adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneeta Rattan

    Full Text Available Legal precedent establishes juvenile offenders as inherently less culpable than adult offenders and thus protects juveniles from the most severe of punishments. But how fragile might these protections be? In the present study, simply bringing to mind a Black (vs. White juvenile offender led participants to view juveniles in general as significantly more similar to adults in their inherent culpability and to express more support for severe sentencing. Indeed, these differences in participants' perceptions of this foundational legal precedent distinguishing between juveniles and adults accounted for their greater support for severe punishment. These results highlight the fragility of protections for juveniles when race is in play. Furthermore, we suggest that this fragility may have broad implications for how juveniles are seen and treated in the criminal justice system.

  3. Los Angeles County Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act. Fiscal Year 2009-2010 Report. Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fain, Terry; Turner, Susan; Ridgeway, Greg

    2012-01-01

    In 2000, the California State Legislature passed what is now known as the Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act (JJCPA). This effort was designed to provide a stable funding source to counties for juvenile programs that have been proven effective in curbing crime among juvenile probationers and young at-risk offenders. The Corrections Standards…

  4. Sex-specific effects of the local social environment on juvenile post-fledging dispersal in great tits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michler, Stephanie P. M.; Nicolaus, Marion; Ubels, Richard; van der Velde, Marco; Komdeur, Jan; Both, Christiaan; Tinbergen, Joost M.; Gibson, R.

    2011-01-01

    An individual's decision to disperse from the natal habitat can affect its future fitness prospects. Especially in species with sex-biased dispersal, we expect the cost benefit balance for dispersal to vary according to the social environment (e.g., local sex ratio and density). However, little is

  5. Klinefelter’s Syndrome and sexual offending: a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    O'Donovan, Rebecca; Völlm, Birgit

    2017-01-01

    Background: Klinefelter’s Syndrome is a sex chromosome abnormality affecting approximately 1 in 1000 males. There have been suggestions that it is associated with a higher than average prevalence of sexual offending but to what extent does research evidence support this assertion?\\ud Aims: To conduct a systematic review of published research to establish the prevalence of sexual offending in males with Klinefelter’s Syndrome.\\ud Method: The databases MEDLINE, PsycINFO and EMBASE were searched...

  6. Juvenile angiofibroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasal tumor; Angiofibroma - juvenile; Benign nasal tumor; Juvenile nasal angiofibroma; JNA ... Juvenile angiofibroma is not very common. It is most often found in adolescent boys. The tumor contains many blood ...

  7. THE LIFE EXPERIENCES OF ADOLESCENT SEXUAL OFFENDERS: FACTORS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO OFFENDING BEHAVIOURS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naidoo, Linda

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study, based on the case studies of 25 adolescent sex offenders, was designed to understand those factors that contribute to adolescent sexual offending. Although the focus is primarily on the micro level, we acknowledge the impacts of mezzo- and macro-level factors on family and individual functioning. External structural factors such as poverty, inequality, unemployment, societal values regarding sexuality, lack of support systems and violence penetrate the lives of individuals and families to manifest in a range of problems that human service professionals such as psychiatrists, social workers and psychologists deal with on a daily basis

  8. Factors Involved in Juveniles' Decisions about Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimler, Edward; Beach, Lee Roy

    1981-01-01

    Investigated whether delinquency is the result of a rational decision. The Subjective Expected Utility (SEU) model from decision theory was used with male juvenile offenders (N=45) as the model of the decision process. Results showed that the SEU model predicted 62.7 percent of the subjects' decisions. (Author/RC)

  9. Juvenile Court Commitment Rates: The National Picture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosin, Michael

    There is less geographic variation in the commitment rate of juvenile offenders than is commonly assumed. Apparently, judges across the country develop a similar standard of what percentage of youths they face should be committed. This standard may be similar across the country because it represents broadly shared ideals. However, there is much…

  10. Social use of alcohol among adolescent offenders: a fundamental approach toward human needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo D?Andrea

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examined some basic health care approaches toward human needs, with a particular focus on nursing. We aimed to incorporate these approaches into the discussion of the mental health of adolescent offenders who consume alcohol. We discuss specific needs of the delinquent group, critique policies that prioritize coercion of adolescent offenders, and the role that nurses could play in the sphere of juvenile delinquency.

  11. Wide area continuous offender monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshen, J. [Lucent Technologies (United States); Drake, G. [New Mexico Dept. of Corrections, Santa Fe, NM (United States); Spencer, D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-11-01

    The corrections system in the U.S. is supervising over five million offenders. This number is rising fast and so are the direct and indirect costs to society. To improve supervision and reduce the cost of parole and probation, first generation home arrest systems were introduced in 1987. While these systems proved to be helpful to the corrections system, their scope is rather limited because they only cover an offender at a single location and provide only a partial time coverage. To correct the limitations of first-generation systems, second-generation wide area continuous electronic offender monitoring systems, designed to monitor the offender at all times and locations, are now on the drawing board. These systems use radio frequency location technology to track the position of offenders. The challenge for this technology is the development of reliable personal locator devices that are small, lightweight, with long operational battery life, and indoors/outdoors accuracy of 100 meters or less. At the center of a second-generation system is a database that specifies the offender`s home, workplace, commute, and time the offender should be found in each. The database could also define areas from which the offender is excluded. To test compliance, the system would compare the observed coordinates of the offender with the stored location for a given time interval. Database logfiles will also enable law enforcement to determine if a monitored offender was present at a crime scene and thus include or exclude the offender as a potential suspect.

  12. Substance use disorders in forensic psychiatry: differences among different types of offenders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraanen, F.L.; Scholing, A.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.

    2012-01-01

    This is the first study that compared different types of offenders in forensic outpatient treatment (i.e., offenders of general violence [GV], intimate partner violence [IPV], sex crimes, and "other offenses" such as drug smuggling and property crimes) regarding the prevalence of substance use

  13. Social and psychological aspects of criminal juvenile justice in the world practice (Anglo-Saxon model of juvenile justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.S. Oshevsky

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is the final part of the review of existing foreign models of juvenile criminal justice system. We analyze the principles of juvenile justice in the criminal trial: protective orientation, personalization and social richness of the trial, the emphasis on educational influences. We present the foreign experience of incorporating social, psychological and clinical special knowledge into specialized justice concerning juvenile offenders. We analyze modern trends in the development of juvenile justice in the United States and Canada. We present material related to methods of risk assessment of re-offending among adolescents. We highlight approaches to complex long-term follow-up of juvenile offenders in Anglo-Saxon juvenile justice. We describe some aspects of the probation service using the method of case management. In the context of the accepted “National Strategy for Action for the Benefit of Children for 2012-2017”, the prospects for the development of specialized criminal justice for young offenders in the Russian Federation are discussed

  14. Individual cybercrime offenders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weulen Kranenbarg, Marleen; van der Laan, André; de Poot, C.J.; Verhoeven, Maite; van der Wagen, Wytske; Weijters, Gijs; Leukfeldt, Rutger

    2017-01-01

    Weulen Kranenbarg, M., Laan, A. van der, Poot, C. de, Verhoeven, M., Wagen, W. van der, Weijters, G. (2017). Individual Cybercrime Offenders. In E.R. Leukfeldt (Ed.), Research Agenda: The Human Factor in Cybercrime and Cybersecurity. Den Haag: Eleven International Publishing.

  15. The Process of Change in the Sexual Attitudes of Sexual Offenders in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boksun Yang, RN, PhD

    2007-09-01

    Conclusion: The results of the study can provide school nurses and sex educators with useful knowledge grounded in actual sexual offense cases, not only to refine the interventions for sexual offenders but also to prevent future sexual offenses.

  16. Growth of juvenile shrimp Metapenaeus monoceros fed with squid and mussel

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Achuthankutty, C.T.; Nair, S.R.S.; Krishnakumari, L.

    Small juveniles of both sexes and females of large juveniles of Metapenaeus monoceros attained faster growth with squid diet. Males of large juveniles registered better growth with mussel diet. No significant difference was observed in moult weights...

  17. Dynamic changes in extracellular release of GABA and glutamate in the lateral septum during social play behavior in juvenile rats: Implications for sex-specific regulation of social play behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredewold, Remco; Schiavo, Jennifer K.; van der Hart, Marieke; Verreij, Michelle; Veenema, Alexa H.

    2015-01-01

    Social play is a motivated and rewarding behavior that is displayed by nearly all mammals and peaks in the juvenile period. Moreover, social play is essential for the development of social skills and is impaired in social disorders like autism. We recently showed that the lateral septum (LS) is involved in the regulation of social play behavior in juvenile male and female rats. The LS is largely modulated by GABA and glutamate neurotransmission, but their role in social play behavior is unknown. Here, we determined whether social play behavior is associated with changes in the extracellular release of GABA and glutamate in the LS and to what extent such changes modulate social play behavior in male and female juvenile rats. Using intracerebral microdialysis in freely behaving rats, we found no sex difference in extracellular GABA concentrations, but extracellular glutamate concentrations are higher in males than in females under baseline condition and during social play. This resulted in a higher glutamate/GABA concentration ratio in males versus females and thus, an excitatory predominance in the LS of males. Furthermore, social play behavior in both sexes is associated with significant increases in extracellular release of GABA and glutamate in the LS. Pharmacological blockade of GABA-A receptors in the LS with bicuculline (100 ng/0.5 µl, 250 ng/0.5 µl) dose-dependently decreased the duration of social play behavior in both sexes. In contrast, pharmacological blockade of ionotropic glutamate receptors (NMDA and AMPA/kainate receptors) in the LS with AP-5 + CNQX (2 mM+0.4 mM/0.5 µl, 30 mM+3 mM/0.5 µl) dose-dependently decreased the duration of social play behavior in females, but did not alter social play behavior in males. Together, these data suggest a role for GABA neurotransmission in the LS in the regulation of juvenile social play behavior in both sexes, while glutamate neurotransmission in the LS is involved in the sex-specific regulation of juvenile

  18. Characteristics of young offenders depending on the type of crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keren Cuervo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to define a profile of juvenile offenders depending on the type of crime (againstproperty or against persons, according to several socio?demographic variables, and a number of indicatorsof juvenile risk. Participants were 395 adolescents between the ages of 14 and 18 with a criminal record inthe juvenile court over a two-year follow-up period. Results showed that in property-related offences theoffender is more likely to be male, from an Eastern European country, and with inconsistent parenting. Onthe other hand, crimes against persons would be committed mostly by girls, Latin American or Africanjuveniles, and with individual factors such as aggressive behaviour, outbursts of anger, poor frustrationtolerance, or little concern for others. These results may be useful in designing crime prevention andoffender intervention programmes.

  19. Comorbid Internalizing and Disruptive Behavior Disorder in Adolescents: Offending, Trauma, and Clinical Characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, M.; McReynolds, L.S.; Wasserman, G.A.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined differences between comorbid internalizing and disruptive behavior disorder (DBD), and those with either internalizing disorder or DBD. We focused on differences with regard to trauma exposure and offending characteristics in 8,431 juvenile justice youths. Self-reported,

  20. Bullying and (re)offending: results from three samples in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijleveld, C.; van der Geest, V.; Hendriks, J.

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between bullying and (re)offending. Carrying out bivariate analyses and multivariate analyses (controlling for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), parental abuse and neglect and impulsivity) on three large high-risk groups (male and female juveniles with

  1. Money Matters: Cost-Effectiveness of Juvenile Drug Court with and without Evidence-Based Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheidow, Ashli J.; Jayawardhana, Jayani; Bradford, W. David; Henggeler, Scott W.; Shapiro, Steven B.

    2012-01-01

    The 12-month cost-effectiveness of juvenile drug court and evidence-based treatments within court were compared with traditional Family Court for 128 substance-abusing/dependent juvenile offenders participating in a 4-condition randomized trial. Intervention conditions included Family Court with community services (FC), Drug Court with community…

  2. A Critical Appraisal of the Juvenile Justice System under Cameroon's 2005 Criminal Procedure Code: Emerging Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Tabe

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to examine the changes introduced by the 2005 Cameroonian Criminal Procedure Code on matters of juvenile justice, considering that before this Code, juvenile justice in Cameroon was governed by extra-national laws. In undertaking this analysis, the article highlights the evolution of the administration of juvenile justice 50 years after independence of Cameroon. It also points out the various difficulties and shortcomings in the treatment of juvenile offenders in Cameroon since the enactment of the new Criminal Procedure Code. The article reveals that the 2005 Code is an amalgamation of all hitherto existing laws in the country that pertained to juvenile justice, and that despite the considerable amount of criticism it has received, the Code is clearly an improvement of the system of juvenile justice in Cameroon, since it represents a balance of the due process rights of young people, the protection of society and the special needs of young offenders. This is so because the drafters of the Code took a broad view of the old laws on juvenile justice. Also a wide range of groups were consulted, including criminal justice professionals, children’s service organisations, victims, parents, young offenders, educators, advocacy groups and social-policy analysts. However, to address the challenges that beset the juvenile justice system of Cameroon, the strategy of the government should be focussed on three areas: the prevention of youth crime, the provision of meaningful consequences for the actions of young people, and the rehabilitation and reintegration of young offenders. Cameroonian law should seek educative solutions rather than to impose prison sentences or other repressive measures on young offenders. Special courts to deal with young offenders should be established outside the regular penal system and should be provided with resources that are adequate for and appropriate to fostering their understanding of

  3. Characteristics of Female Solo and Female Co-Offenders and Male Solo Sexual Offenders Against Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Rebecca; Gillespie, Steven M; Elliott, Ian A; Eldridge, Hilary J

    2017-09-01

    Studies have highlighted differences in the victim choice, offender, and offense characteristics of female and male sexual offenders. However, little is known about how solo and co-offending females differ from solo male sexual offenders. We compared the characteristics of 20 solo and 20 co-offending females (co-offended with a male and/or female accomplice), and 40 male sexual offenders against children. We found that solo female offenders showed the most evidence of personal problems, including depression and sexual dissatisfaction. Compared with male offenders, female co-offenders showed poorer self-management, but better sexual self-regulation. Male offenders had a greater history of offending and showed more evidence of sexual abuse supportive cognitions relative to both solo and co-offending females. These results are consistent with the need for a gender-specific approach to working with sexual offenders and may have implications for understanding the often complex treatment needs of these clients.

  4. The incidence of dyslexia among young offenders in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbeheri, Gad; Everatt, John; Al Malki, Mohammad

    2009-05-01

    This paper investigates the incidence of dyslexia among young offenders in Kuwait. A total of 91 children/young adults from 8 juvenile delinquent welfare centres across Kuwait were interviewed and tested. A measure of non-verbal reasoning ability was used to exclude those with low general ability. The remaining 53 participants were tested on their ability to identify alliteration and rhyme, retain and manipulate sequences of digit and letter names, decode novel letter strings and identify words within letter chains. Participants' reading accuracy, rate of reading, reading comprehension and ability to spell correctly dictated text were also assessed. These measures were used to determine those with indicators of dyslexia. The results indicated that the percentage of individuals presenting evidence of dyslexia was much larger (greater than 20%) in this population of young offenders than would be expected based on the national average (around 6%) of dyslexics in Kuwait derived from a nationwide study (A survey study of dyslexia in Kuwait, Kuwait Dyslexia Association: Kuwait City; 2002). These findings replicate previous evidence for an increased frequency of dyslexia among young offenders. The implications of such findings are discussed in terms of dyslexia awareness, socio-cultural factors, education and intervention, particularly in Kuwait juvenile delinquent welfare centres.

  5. Beauty and the Eye of the Beholder: Gender and Attractiveness Affect Judgments in Teacher Sex Offense Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackelprang, Emily; Becker, Judith V

    2017-06-01

    The present study investigated the effects of gender and attractiveness on judgments of bail requirements, incarceration, and sex offender registration lengths, and attitudes toward offenders and victims in a teacher-student sexual perpetration scenario. Researchers presented 432 undergraduate students at a large southwestern university with one of four vignettes detailing a sexual relationship between a 35-year-old teacher and a 14-year-old student. Vignettes varied by both attractiveness and gender of the offender (using heterosexual offender-victim dyads). Results indicate that both gender and attractiveness affect judgments of sex offenders; specifically, female sexual offenders were viewed more leniently and judged less punitively than male sexual offenders. Although attractive female sexual offenders were given particularly lenient treatment, attractiveness did not affect judgments toward male sex offenders. In addition, although male and female participants tended to rate male offenders similarly, male participants were more lenient toward female offenders than were female participants. Finally, post hoc analyses revealed that, for many variables, unattractive female sexual offenders may not be viewed differently from male sexual offenders. These results have serious implications for the legal system, sex offender management, and societal views regarding male and female sexual offenders and their victims.

  6. 77 FR 73558 - Sex Offender Registration Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    .... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Rorey Smith, Deputy General Counsel, (202) 220-5797, or rorey.smith... Registration and Notification Act (SORNA), Title I of the Adam Walsh Child Protection and Safety Act of 2006... (SORNA), Title I of the Adam Walsh Child Protection and Safety Act of 2006, (Pub. L. 109-248), requires a...

  7. Filling Service Gaps: Providing Intensive Treatment Services for Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Douglas W.; Farrell, Jill L.; Henderson, Craig E.; Taxman, Faye S.

    2009-01-01

    Consistent with the few studies that have previously examined treatment prevalence and access in the adult and juvenile justice systems, the recent National Criminal Justice Treatment Practices (NCJTP) survey indicated that there is a particular need to expand intensive treatment modalities for offenders in both institutional and community corrections settings. Applying multilevel modeling techniques to NCJTP survey data, this study explores conditions and factors that may underlie the wide variation among states in the provision of intensive treatment for offenders. Results indicate that states' overall rates of substance abuse and dependence, funding resources, and the state governor's political party affiliation were significantly associated with intensive treatment provision. Numerous factors that have been implicated in recent studies of evidence-based practice adoption, including state agency executives' views regarding rehabilitation, agency culture and climate, and other state-level measures (e.g., household income, crime rates, expenditures on treatment for the general population) were not associated with treatment provision. Future research should examine further variations in offenders' service needs, the role of legislators' political affiliations, and how other factors may interact with administrator characteristics in the adoption and expansion of intensive treatment services for offenders. PMID:19261394

  8. Recidivistic offending and mortality in alcoholic violent offenders: a prospective follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikkanen, Roope; Holi, Matti; Lindberg, Nina; Tiihonen, Jari; Virkkunen, Matti

    2009-06-30

    Predictive data supporting prevention of violent criminality are scarce. We examined risk factors for recidivism and mortality among non-psychotic alcoholic violent offenders, the majority having antisocial or borderline personality disorders, or both, which is a group that commits the majority of violent offences in Finland. Criminal records and mortality data on 242 male alcoholic violent offenders were analysed after a 7- to 15-year follow-up, and compared between themselves and with those of 1210 age-, sex- and municipality-matched controls. Recidivism and mortality rates were high. The risk of recidivistic violence was increased by antisocial or borderline personality disorder, or both, childhood maltreatment, and a combination of these. A combination of borderline personality disorder and childhood maltreatment was particularly noxious, suggesting an additive risk increase for a poor outcome. Accurate diagnosis and careful childhood interview may help to predict recidivism and premature death.

  9. Neuropsychological Assessment of Adult Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marceau, Roger; Meghani, Rehana; Reddon, John R.

    2008-01-01

    This report is primarily concerned with reporting on the normative results obtained on a large sample of serious adult offenders. An expanded Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery was administered to 584 adult offenders (OF), 132 normal controls (NC), and 494 acute psychiatric patients (PP). Subjects were between 18 and 44 years of age.…

  10. Tennessee Offender Management Information System

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, Tim

    1993-01-01

    This article describes the integration of a knowledge-based system with a large COBOL-DB2-based offender management system. The knowledge-based application, developed for the purpose of offender sentence calculation, is shown to provide several benefits, including a shortened development cycle, simplified maintenance, and improved accuracy over a previous COBOL-based application.

  11. Dual process interaction model of HIV-risk behaviors among drug offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Susan L; Grenard, Jerry L; Stacy, Alan W

    2013-03-01

    This study evaluated dual process interaction models of HIV-risk behavior among drug offenders. A dual process approach suggests that decisions to engage in appetitive behaviors result from a dynamic interplay between a relatively automatic associative system and an executive control system. One synergistic type of interplay suggests that executive functions may dampen or block effects of spontaneously activated associations. Consistent with this model, latent variable interaction analyses revealed that drug offenders scoring higher in affective decision making were relatively protected from predictive effects of spontaneous sex associations promoting risky sex. Among drug offenders with lower levels of affective decision making ability, spontaneous sexually-related associations more strongly predicted risky sex (lack of condom use and greater number of sex partners). These findings help elucidate associative and control process effects on appetitive behaviors and are important for explaining why some individuals engage in risky sex, while others are relatively protected.

  12. Identifying Gender Differences in an Australian Youth Offender Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephane M. Shepherd

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study examined gender differences in risk factors for violence in a sample of 213 male and female youths held in Youth Justice Centres in Victoria, Australia. Although violence risk factors are considered to be commensurate across gender, a growing body of international literature is categorizing gender-specific criminal trajectories. The study aimed to investigate this concept in an Australian juvenile context. Through the use of a widely validated youth violence risk assessment inventory, the prevalence of salient risk items was compared across gender. Young female offenders were found to present with higher levels of family dysfunction, peer rejection and self-injurious behavior reflecting international female offending pathways literature.

  13. Offense History and the Effectiveness of Juvenile Diversion Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osgood, D. Wayne; And Others

    Some evaluations have concluded that diversion programs for juvenile offenders (programs intended as community-based alternatives to formal justice dispositions) reduce recidivism only among youths with the least serious offense histories. To investigate the relationship of offense history to program effectiveness, three diversion programs were…

  14. Juvenile Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile arthritis (JA) is arthritis that happens in children. It causes joint swelling, pain, stiffness, and loss of motion. It can affect any joint, but ... of JA that children get is juvenile idiopathic arthritis. There are several other forms of arthritis affecting ...

  15. Reevaluating Interrater Reliability in Offender Risk Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Knaap, L.M.; Leenarts, L.E.W.; Born, M.P.; Oosterveld, P.

    2012-01-01

    Offender risk and needs assessment, one of the pillars of the risk-need-responsivity model of offender rehabilitation, usually depends on raters assessing offender risk and needs. The few available studies of interrater reliability in offender risk assessment are, however, limited in the

  16. Reevaluating Interrater Reliability in Offender Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Knaap, Leontien M.; Leenarts, Laura E. W.; Born, Marise Ph.; Oosterveld, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Offender risk and needs assessment, one of the pillars of the risk-need-responsivity model of offender rehabilitation, usually depends on raters assessing offender risk and needs. The few available studies of interrater reliability in offender risk assessment are, however, limited in the generalizability of their results. The present study…

  17. Age onset of offending and serious mental illness among forensic psychiatric patients: A latent profile analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, Stephanie R; Prosser, Aaron; Simpson, Alexander I F

    2018-01-16

    Developmental typologies regarding age of onset of violence and offending have not routinely taken account of the role of serious mental illness (SMI), and whether age of onset of offending in relation to onset of illness impacts on the manifestation of offending over the life course. To test whether forensic psychiatric patients can be classified according to age of onset of SMI and offending, and, if so, whether subtypes differ by sex. Details of all 511 patients enrolled into a large forensic mental health service in Ontario, Canada, in 2011 or 2012 were collected from records. A latent profile analysis supported a 2-class solution in both men and women. External validation of the classes demonstrated that those with a younger age onset of serious mental illness and offending were characterised by higher levels of static risk factors and criminogenic need than those whose involvement in both mental health and criminal justice systems was delayed to later life. Our findings present a new perspective on life course trajectories of offenders with SMI. While analyses identified just two distinct age-of-onset groups, in both the illness preceded the offending. The fact that our sample was entirely drawn from those hospitalised may have introduced a selection bias for those whose illness precedes offending, but findings underscore the complexity and level of need among those with a younger age of onset. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Theories of cognitive distortions in sexual offending: what the current research tells us.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O Ciardha, Caoilte; Ward, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive distortions in sex offenders are specific or general beliefs/attitudes that violate commonly accepted norms of rationality that have been shown to be associated with the onset and maintenance of sexual offending. In this article, we describe the major theories that have been formulated to explain the role of distorted cognition in initiating and maintaining sexual offending. We evaluate each theory in light of a set of theory appraisal criteria and the available empirical research. Finally, we conclude by drawing together the results of this theory evaluation process and highlight the major implications for treatment and future research.

  19. Domestic Violence Courts: A Multisite Test of Whether and How They Change Offender Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cissner, Amanda B; Labriola, Melissa; Rempel, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Findings are from an investigation of 24 criminal domestic violence courts (DVCs) across New York, testing their effect on recidivism, case processing, and case resolutions. Overall, we found a small positive impact on recidivism among convicted offenders. We further found that the sex of defendants moderated the court impact on case resolutions; that is, among male defendants only, DVCs increased conviction rates and sentences involving jail or prison. In addition, multi-level, multivariate analyses found that court policies specifically designed to increase victim safety, hold offenders accountable, and reduce offender recidivism (through deterrence or rehabilitation) were instrumental in reducing recidivism. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Emotional Congruence With Children Is Associated With Sexual Deviancy in Sexual Offenders Against Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Chantal A; McPhail, Ian V; Helmus, L Maaike; Hanson, R Karl

    2017-09-01

    Emotional congruence with children is a psychologically meaningful risk factor for sexual offending against children. The present study examines the correlates of emotional congruence with children in a sample of 424 adult male sexual offenders who started a period of community supervision in Canada, Alaska, and Iowa between 2001 and 2005. Consistent with previous work, we found sexual offenders against children high in emotional congruence with children were more likely to be sexually deviant, have poor sexual self-regulation, experience social loneliness, and have more distorted cognitions about sex with children. Overall, our findings are most consistent with a sexual deviancy model, with some support for a blockage model.

  1. Are dangerous offenders different from other offenders? A clinical profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langevin, Ron; Curnoe, Suzanne

    2014-07-01

    The Canadian dangerous offender (DO) statute requires the assistance of psychiatrists and psychologists in evaluating offenders' potential danger and risk of future offenses, without substantive supporting empirical clinical research on the topic. The present study compared 62 men facing Canadian DO applications to 2,414 non-DO sexual and violent offenders (ACs) and 62 non-DO offenders matched on offense type (MCs). DOs differed significantly from ACs on 30 of 45 variables and from MCs only on 6. More DOs than MCs had an extensive criminal history, were psychopaths, and had more school truancy. Compared with ACs, DOs had less education and more school adjustment problems, more disturbed childhoods, and more often were diagnosed with sadism, psychopathy, and substance abuse problems. Total sexual and violent offense convictions provided the best but weak distinction of DOs from ACs. The "three strikes" law is noted and early intervention in DOs' criminal careers is discussed. © The Author(s) 2013.

  2. Juvenile Firesetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Brittany; Freeman, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile firesetting is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Male gender, substance use, history of maltreatment, interest in fire, and psychiatric illness are commonly reported risk factors. Interventions that have been shown to be effective in juveniles who set fires include cognitive behavior therapy and educational interventions, whereas satiation has not been shown to be an effective intervention. Forensic assessments can assist the legal community in adjudicating youth with effective interventions. Future studies should focus on consistent assessment and outcome measures to create more evidence for directing evaluation and treatment of juvenile firesetters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Juvenile Prostitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csapo, Marg

    1986-01-01

    Recent research and Canadian government committee reports concerning juvenile prostitution are reviewed. Proposals are made in the realms of law and social policy; and existing programs are described. (DB)

  4. A Multimethod Assessment of Juvenile Psychopathy: Comparing the Predictive Utility of the PCL:YV, YPI, and NEO PRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauffman, Elizabeth; Kimonis, Eva R.; Dmitrieva, Julia; Monahan, Kathryn C.

    2009-01-01

    The current study compares 3 distinct approaches for measuring juvenile psychopathy and their utility for predicting short- and long-term recidivism among a sample of 1,170 serious male juvenile offenders. The assessment approaches compared a clinical interview method (the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version [PCL:YV]; Forth, Kosson, & Hare,…

  5. Tried as an adult, housed as a juvenile: a tale of youth from two courts incarcerated together.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtold, Jordan; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2014-04-01

    Research has questioned the wisdom of housing juveniles who are convicted in criminal court in facilities with adult offenders. It is argued that minors transferred to criminal court should not be incarcerated with adults, due to a greater likelihood of developing criminal skills, being victimized, and attempting suicide. Alternatively, it has been suggested that the other option, housing these youth with minors who have committed less serious crimes and who are therefore adjudicated in juvenile courts, might have unintended consequences for juvenile court youth. The present study utilizes a sample of youth incarcerated in one secure juvenile facility, with some offenders processed in juvenile court (n = 261) and others processed in adult court (n = 103). We investigate whether youth transferred to adult court engage in more institutional offending (in particular, violence) and experience less victimization than their juvenile court counterparts. Results indicate that although adult court youth had a greater likelihood of being convicted of violent commitment offenses than juvenile court youth, the former engaged in less offending during incarceration than the latter. In addition, no significant differences in victimization were observed. These findings suggest that the concern about the need for separate housing for adult court youth is unfounded; when incarcerated together, those tried in adult court do not engage in more institutional violence than juvenile court youth. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Habitat selection influences sex distribution, morphology, tissue biochemistry, and parasite load of juvenile coho salmon in the West Fork Smith River, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Given the strong influence of water temperature on salmonid physiology and behavior, in the summers of 2004 and 2005 we studied juvenile male and female coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch in two reaches of Oregon’s West Fork Smith River with different thermal profiles. Our goals we...

  7. Psychopathy in Adolescence and Criminal Recidivism in Young Adulthood. Longitudinal Results from a Multiethnic Sample of Youthful Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edens, John F.; Cahill, Melissa A.

    2007-01-01

    Very few studies to date have examined the long-term predictive validity of psychopathy among juveniles. The current study reports general and violent recidivism data for an ethnically heterogeneous sample of male offenders (n = 75) who had been administered the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL: YV) in 1996 when they were on average 16…

  8. [Phalloplethysmography findings in pedophilia and exhibitionism offenders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichý, P

    1996-08-21

    Exhibitionist behaviour focused on children (usually girls) is one of the most frequent forms of sexual child abuse. Exposure in the presence of children signalizes possible pedophil inclinations of the offender. The present paper presents the results of PPG examinations of these offenders with special attention to assessment how often these men have an objective phallographic pedophil orientation. The results of PPG examinations in this group of sexual delinquents are also compared with the findings in a control group of men who report a heterosexual orientation and preference of objects of suitable age. Using an electrocapacitance phalloplythysmographic apparatus the authors examined 50 men (mean age 36.3 years, range 17-67 years) who committed exhibitionist activities in the presence of girls under 12 years. The PPG examination was made under standard conditions; all examined subjects were shown sets of coloured slides with adult and child objects of hetero and homosexual character. In the same way a control group was examined formed by 50 male volunteers of similar age and social background. The men in the control group responded more frequently and more merkedly by positive vasomotor reactions to adult heterosexual objects than subjects who committed pedophil exhibitionist offences. The latter reacted significantly more often to child objects of both sexes. In more than half the delinquent group (in 26 men) there was an undefined differentiation of age as regards objects of female sex and 6 (12%) men of this group had preference for heterosexual child objects, i.e. an obvious pedophil orientation. In men of the control group only in one case there was an indication of an ill defined differentiation of age, in all the others an unequivocal or clearly indicated preference of heterosexual objects was found. PPG examinations confirmed that only a minor part of subjects committing pedophil exhibitionist offences have a deviant orientation. It was revealed that the

  9. Troubled adolescents: substance abuse and mental disorder in young offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas-Siñol, Maria; Del Prado-Sanchez, Noemi; Claramunt-Mendoza, Jaume; Civit-Ramirez, Monica; Canalias-Perez, Oriol; Ochoa, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Many studies indicate the high prevalence of juvenile substance abuse. There is increasingly more dual diagnosis and mental illnesses in adolescents and many juvenile offenses are related to drug abuse. This is a descriptive study about the relationship between drug abuse and clinical, demographic and criminal characteristics in a sample of 144 youths seen in the Therapeutic Juvenile Justice Unit (UTJJ) of the Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Deu. A total of 65.3% of the sample had a disorder on Axis I, 22.2% of which were related with the psychotic spectrum and 18.1% ADHD. Personality disorder occurred in 42.4%, the most frequent ones being antisocial disorder (16%), and borderline personality disorder (6.9%). Of the sample, 78.5% were drug consumers and 51.4% of the total only consumed 1 substance. There is a tendency among psychotic teenagers to consume cannabis and ADHD patients to consume cannabis and cocaine. A significant relationship is found between nationality and inhalants drugs, social and economic level and sedative drugs and alcohol, and parental death and alcohol (p<0.05-0.005). The level of drug use/abuse in juvenile justice is very high. Although there is no evidence about the relationship between the substance they consume and the profile of the young offender, some tendencies are observed.

  10. Effects of Changes in Food Supply at the Time of Sex Differentiation on the Gonadal Transcriptome of Juvenile Fish. Implications for Natural and Farmed Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz, Noelia; Ribas, Laia; Piferrer, Francesc

    2014-01-01

    Background: Food supply is a major factor influencing growth rates in animals. This has important implications for both natural and farmed fish populations, since food restriction may difficult reproduction. However, a study on the effects of food supply on the development of juvenile gonads has never been transcriptionally described in fish. Methods and Findings: This study investigated the consequences of growth on gonadal transcriptome of European sea bass in: 1) 4-month-old sexually undif...

  11. Criminal offending and distinguishing features of offenders among persons experiencing a first episode of psychosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hodgins, Sheilagh

    2011-02-01

    Persons with severe mental illness (SMI) are at increased risk of criminal offending, particularly violent offending, as compared with the general population. Most offenders with SMI acquire convictions prior to contact with mental health services. This study examined offending among 301 individuals experiencing their first episode of psychosis.

  12. Private vs. Public Care for Juvenile Offenders: A Qualitative Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronick, Robert F.

    1993-01-01

    Examined effectiveness of methods used by public and private institutions' handling of incarcerated delinquents. Concluded that organizational culture is key concept in delivery of services to incarcerated children and youth; that private sector provides alternative to public in delivery of services; that alcohol and drug treatment programs are…

  13. THE PUPPET THERAPY AS PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSISTANCE FOR JUVENILE OFFENDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Gennadievna Telnova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Both foreign and Russian psychologists agree that art therapy has proved effective in working with children in conflict with the law. The most effective means of transferring ideas about themselves, their feelings and attitudes is doll made by teenagers. Sometimes a doll symbolizes the essence of the hero or something in his nature that needs to be discovered. Two criteria are taken into account when choosing the material for making dolls: the ability to make changes in the doll without sacrificing the overall aesthetic impression and the possibility of more improvisation in making a doll. In this regard, advantages of clay, including polymeric clay, over other materials are described in the article. The scheme of the analysis of a clay doll presented in article and based on FEATS has become one of the results of workshops with adolescents. Some peculiarities of teenagers’ dolls are also described in the article.

  14. THE PUPPET THERAPY AS PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSISTANCE FOR JUVENILE OFFENDERS

    OpenAIRE

    Larisa Gennadievna Telnova

    2014-01-01

    Both foreign and Russian psychologists agree that art therapy has proved effective in working with children in conflict with the law. The most effective means of transferring ideas about themselves, their feelings and attitudes is doll made by teenagers. Sometimes a doll symbolizes the essence of the hero or something in his nature that needs to be discovered. Two criteria are taken into account when choosing the material for making dolls: the ability to make changes in the doll without sacri...

  15. The Experience of Violence by Male Juvenile Offenders Convicted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Christopher R Stones

    psychological, personal and social dimensions. ... mostly emotional in nature and included emotions such as anger, rage and fury. ... police statistics do not differentiate between age .... and adolescents have perceptual tendencies that are.

  16. Elder-Abuse Offenders: A Typology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey-Klawsnik, Holly

    2000-01-01

    Addresses some of the perplexing issues involved in understanding and responding to elder-abuse offenders. Offers a typology of offenders to elucidate the dynamics when people mistreat the elderly. (Contains 13 references.) (Author)

  17. Juvenile angiofibromer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Anne Daugaard; Jakobsen, John; Nepper-Rasmussen, Jørgen

    2005-01-01

    Juvenile angiofibroma is a rare, benign, rich vascular tumor, and approximately one new case is diagnosed in Denmark each year. It sits in the foramen sphenopalatinum and occurs in boys from 14 to 25 years of age. The most frequent initial symptoms are nasal obstruction and epistaxis. Through...... the years, the treatment of juvenile angiofibroma has included many methods, including surgical excision, electrocoagulation, interstitial or external radiation therapy, cryosurgery, hormone administration and chemotherapy. Radiation, chemotherapy and surgery have proven to be the most effective treatments...

  18. Adolescents who assault their parents:a different family profile of young offenders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Lourdes; Cano, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Some authors have proposed that the mechanisms underlying adolescent-to-parent abuse seem to be different from other forms of juvenile delinquency. Given that this aggression is exerted within the family setting, our study was aimed to explore if there was a differential family profile for those adolescents who commit a parent abuse offense compared to those who commit other types of offenses. Judicial files of 1,046 young offenders from the Juvenile Justice Service of Jaén (Spain) were examined. The final sample (654 young offenders) was divided into 2 groups: those who had committed offenses against a parent (parent abuse group) and those who had committed other types of offenses (other offenses group). Results showed that families with parent abuse have differential characteristics, especially regarding the family size, type of household, parenting styles, and the patterns of interactions between the family members.

  19. In search of psychosocial variables linked to the recidivism in young offenders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen Cano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the literature on juvenile delinquency is aimed to the identification of the protective and risk factors of the antisocial and criminal behaviors. In this line, a study was carried out to assess whether the family setting, personal variables of the youngster and variables linked to the judicial measure execution mediate in recidivism. For this reason, all the closed judicial files of the young offenders from the Service of Juvenile Justice in Jaén (Spain have been analysed. The results showed that such family setting variables as broken homes, large families, low incomes, deprived neighborhoods, criminal records, drug abuse, children protection records and crime legitimacy are linked to recidivism. As for personal variables of the youngster, the findings illustrate that re-offenders are characterized by external attribution, deficits in social skills, deficits in self-control, violent behaviors and low tolerance to frustration. In relation to the judicial measure execution variables, data support that the non re-offenders are defined in contrast to re-offenders, by a high compliance with rules and timetables and with the established objectives, as well as a high family involvement during the judicial measure execution. The implications of the results for prevention of recidivism are discussed.

  20. The intergenerational transmission of violent offending

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Weijer, S.G.A.; Bijleveld, C.C.J.H.; Blokland, A.A.J.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examines the intergenerational transmission and concentration of violent offending using conviction data of 3,440 persons from three consecutive generations from the Dutch Transfive study. Violent offending is more concentrated within nuclear families than non-violent offending,

  1. "Deterrability" among Gang and Nongang Juvenile Offenders: Are Gang Members More (or Less) Deterrable than Other Juvenile Offenders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxson, Cheryl L.; Matsuda, Kristy N.; Hennigan, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of the threat of legal sanctions on intentions to commit three types of offenses with a representative sample of 744 officially adjudicated youth with varying histories of offenses and gang involvement. In a departure from previous research, the authors find small severity effects for property crimes that are not…

  2. Motives, Offending Behavior, and Gender Differences in Murder Perpetrators With or Without Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachtel, Henning; Nixon, Margaret; Bennett, Debra; Mullen, Paul; Ogloff, James

    2018-05-01

    Little is known whether differences exist in motivation and reactive/instrumental offense behaviors between murder offenders with and without psychotic disorder. To contribute to better prevention strategies, the aim of this study was to investigate offense characteristics in murder offenders with a psychotic, nonpsychotic or no psychiatric diagnosis, and whether these factors differ according to sex. This data study examined the population of murder offenders between 1997 and 2005 ( N = 435) in Victoria, Australia. Apparent motive for murder was allocated to one of six classifications. Assignations of reactive versus instrumental offense categories, co-offending, victim-offender relationship were determined by review of case material. Mental health service usage and prevalence of mental illnesses were identified through data with the statewide register of contacts with the public mental health system. Of the 435 offenders, 43 (9.9%) had been diagnosed with a psychotic illness. Gender differences between and within offenders with and without a psychotic disorder were analyzed. Murder offenders with a psychotic disorder were 3.19 (95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.27, 8.03]) times more likely to be motivated by revenge than nonpsychotic offenders and those with no diagnosis (odds ratio [OR] = 2.46, 95% CI = [1.10, 5.53]). The diagnostic groups did not differ on premeditation of their offenses or prior convictions. Perpetrators with psychotic illness were significantly more likely to kill family members and others known to them. It appears that for the psychotic disorder group, the perception of having been wronged in some way is a potential risk marker for planning and committing a serious offense. Care should be taken to improve adherence and access to care to avoid possible future serious violence especially in female patients with a high burden of mental illness like schizophrenia or severe mood disorders.

  3. Sex-specific effects of neonatal exposures to low levels of cadmium through maternal milk on development and immune functions of juvenile and adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillet, Stephane; Rooney, Andrew A.; Bouquegneau, Jean-Marie; Cyr, Daniel G.; Fournier, Michel

    2005-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a major environmental contaminant. Although immunotoxic effects have been associated with Cd exposure, the inconsistency of experimental results underlines the need of an experimental approach more closely related to environmental conditions. We investigated the effects of exposing neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats to environmentally relevant doses of Cd through maternal milk. Dams received 10 parts per billion (ppb) or 5 parts per million (ppm) Cd chloride (CdCl 2 ) in drinking water from parturition until the weaning of the pups. Half of the offspring was sampled at weaning time. The remaining juvenile rats received water without addition of Cd until adulthood. Cd accumulation in kidneys of juvenile rats fed from dams exposed to Cd indicated the transfer of the metal from mother to pups through maternal milk. This neonatal exposure resulted in decreased body, kidney and spleen weights of just weaned females but not of males. This effect was more pronounced in the less exposed females fed from dams exposed to 10 ppb Cd, which also displayed lower hepatic metallothionein-1 (MT-1) mRNA levels. The effect of Cd exposure on body and organ weights did not persist to adulthood. In contrast, we observed gender-specific effects of neonatal Cd exposure on the cytotoxic activity of splenic NK-cells of both juvenile and adult rats. Cd also strongly inhibited the proliferative response of Con A-stimulated thymocytes in both male and female adult rats 5 weeks after the cessation of Cd exposure. These immunotoxic effects were observed at doses much lower than those reported to produce similar effects when exposure occurred during adulthood. In conclusion, neonatal exposures to environmentally relevant levels of Cd through maternal milk represent a critical hazard liable to lead to both transitory and persistent immunotoxic effects

  4. EFFECT OF ACUTE STRESS ON PLASMA CONCENTRATIONS OF SEX AND STRESS HORMONES IN JUVENILE ALLIGATORS LIVING IN CONTROL AND CONTAMINATED LAKES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental contaminants can act as stressors, inducing elevated circulating concentrations of stress hormones such as corticosterone and cortisol. Development in contaminated eggs has been reported to modify circulating sex steroid hormone concentrations in alligators (Alligat...

  5. Offending prior to first psychiatric contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevens, H; Agerbo, E; Dean, K

    2012-01-01

    There is a well-established association between psychotic disorders and subsequent offending but the extent to which those who develop psychosis might have a prior history of offending is less clear. Little is known about whether the association between illness and offending exists in non-psychot......-psychotic disorders. The aim of this study was to determine whether the association between mental disorder and offending is present prior to illness onset in psychotic and non-psychotic disorders.......There is a well-established association between psychotic disorders and subsequent offending but the extent to which those who develop psychosis might have a prior history of offending is less clear. Little is known about whether the association between illness and offending exists in non...

  6. Exploring the role of the internet in juvenile prostitution cases coming to the attention of law enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Melissa; Mitchell, Kimberly J; Ji, Kai

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory analysis examines the role of the Internet in juvenile prostitution cases coming to the attention of law enforcement. The National Juvenile Prostitution Study (N-JPS) collected information from a national sample of law enforcement agencies about the characteristics of juvenile prostitution cases. In comparison to non-Internet juvenile prostitution cases, Internet juvenile prostitution cases involved younger juveniles and police were more likely to treat juveniles as victims rather than offenders. In addition, these cases were significantly more likely to involve a family or acquaintance exploiter. This analysis suggests that the role of the Internet may impact legal and social service response to juveniles involved in prostitution. In addition, it highlights the need for interventions that acknowledge the vulnerabilities of youth involved in this type of commercial sexual exploitation.

  7. Juvenile delinquency in Russia: Ccriminal justice, trends, key issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Milica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the literature, as well as in international statistical surveys, we can rarely find more detailed information on juvenile delinquency in the Russian Federation, as well as on the criminal reaction towards juvenile offenders. Due to the turbulent conditions and great social turmoil which took place in the last few decades in this country, there should be a greater interest in the problem of juvenile delinquency. For Serbia, the experience of the Russian Federation could be especially important if one bears in mind that our country is still going through a transition, population stratification and through economic crisis, and also that Serbia and the Russian Federation share some cultural and religious similarities. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to present, in the summary way, the basic features of juvenile delinquency and the criminal justice system, and thereby build a basis for future research and comparison.

  8. What Is Juvenile Arthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Initiative Breadcrumb Home Health Topics English Español Juvenile Arthritis Basics In-Depth Download Download EPUB Download PDF What is it? Points To Remember About Juvenile Arthritis Juvenile arthritis is the term used to describe ...

  9. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... joints. This form of JIA may turn into rheumatoid arthritis. It may involve 5 or more large and ... no known prevention for JIA. Alternative Names Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA); Juvenile chronic polyarthritis; Still disease; Juvenile spondyloarthritis ...

  10. Testing the direct, indirect, and moderated effects of childhood animal cruelty on future aggressive and non-aggressive offending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Glenn D

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between childhood cruelty toward animals and subsequent aggressive offending was explored in 1,336 (1,154 male, 182 female) participants from the 11-wave Pathways to Desistance study (Mulvey, 2013). Aggressive and income offending at Waves 1 through 10 were regressed onto a dichotomous measure of prior involvement in animal cruelty and four control variables (age, race, sex, early onset behavior problems) assessed at Wave 0 (baseline). Results indicated that childhood animal cruelty was equally predictive of aggressive and non-aggressive (income) offending, a finding inconsistent with the hypothesis that cruelty toward animals desensitizes a person to future interpersonal aggression or in some way prepares the individual for interpersonal violence toward humans. Whereas a significant sex by animal cruelty interaction was predicted, there was no evidence that sex or any of the other demographic variables included in this study (age, race) consistently moderated the animal cruelty-subsequent offending relationship. On the other hand, two cognitive-personality measures (interpersonal hostility, callousness/unemotionality) were found to successfully mediate the animal cruelty-subsequent offending relationship. Outcomes from this study imply that a causal nexus-partially or fully mediated by hostility, callousness/unemotionality, and other cognitive-personality variables-may exist between childhood animal cruelty and subsequent offending, although the effect is not specific to violence. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Parental and perinatal risk factors for sexual offending in men: a nationwide case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babchishin, K M; Seto, M C; Sariaslan, A; Lichtenstein, P; Fazel, S; Långström, N

    2017-01-01

    Prior studies suggest parental and perinatal risk factors are associated with later offending. It remains uncertain, however, if such risk factors are similarly related to sexual offending. We linked socio-demographic, family relations, and perinatal (obtained at birth) data from the nationwide Swedish registers from 1973 to 2009 with information on criminal convictions of cases and control subjects. Male sex offenders (n = 13 773) were matched 1:5 on birth year and county of birth in Sweden to male controls without sexual or non-sexual violent convictions. To examine risk-factor specificity for sexual offending, we also compared male violent, non-sexual offenders (n = 135 953) to controls without sexual or non-sexual violent convictions. Predictors included parental (young maternal or paternal age at son's birth, educational attainment, violent crime, psychiatric disorder, substance misuse, suicide attempt) and perinatal (number of older brothers, low Apgar score, low birth weight, being small for gestational age, congenital malformations, small head size) variables. Conditional logistic regression models found consistent patterns of statistically significant, small to moderate independent associations of parental risk factors with sons' sexual offending and non-sexual violent offending. For perinatal risk factors, patterns varied more; small for gestational age and small head size exhibited similar risk effects for both offence types whereas a higher number of older biological brothers and any congenital malformation were small, independent risk factors only for non-sexual violence. This nationwide study suggests substantial commonalities in parental and perinatal risk factors for the onset of sexual and non-sexual violent offending.

  12. Towards a neurobiological model of offending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Ian J; Beech, Anthony R

    2011-07-01

    In this paper we consider how disturbances in the neurobiological/neurochemical processes at a young age lead to problematic attachment styles in later life, and which can potentiate probability of offending behavior. In particular, we will contrast attachment and offending patterns of the more generalist type of offender (i.e., those who have a varied criminal career, committing both violent and non-violent offenses, in extremis the psychopathic type of offender), with the more specialist sexual offender (prototypically, the fixated pedophile), in the light of a preliminary neurobiological model. Here, we will argue that these two extremes of offenders show, or are predicted to show, differential patterns of neurochemical/neurobiological functioning. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. “All in the family?” : The Relationship Between Sibling Offending and Offending Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijers, J.E.H.; Bijleveld, C.C.J.H.; van de Weijer, S.G.A.; Liefbroer, A.C.

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to investigate the associations between criminality of family members and individual offending. The main focus is on investigating the extent to which criminal offending by siblings is associated with individual offending, as well as the extent to which parental

  14. All in the family?” The relationship between sibling offending and offending risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijers, J.; Bijleveld, C.; van de Weijer, S.; Liefbroer, A.C.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to investigate the associations between criminality of family members and individual offending. The main focus is on investigating the extent to which criminal offending by siblings is associated with individual offending, as well as the extent to which parental

  15. Serious, Violent Young Offenders in South Africa : Are They Life-Course Persistent Offenders?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souverein, F.A.; Ward, C.L.; Visser, I.; Burton, P.

    2016-01-01

    Life-course persistent offending contributes greatly to violent offending in any country. South Africa has high rates of violence; this study investigated what proportion of young South African offenders might be identified as life-course persistent, and what risk factors identified this group.

  16. "The Effects of Mixing Offenders with Non-Offenders: Findings from a Danish Quasi Experiment"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær Minke, Linda

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the effects of mixing offenders with nonoffenders at Skejby half-way house in Denmark. Skejby halfway house constitutes an outstanding social experiment, as offenders are deliberately mixed with non-offenders in order to reduce their risk of recidivism. The treatment group...

  17. Abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in male psychopathic offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppenbrouwers, Sylco S; De Jesus, Danilo R; Sun, Yinming; Stirpe, Tania; Hofman, Dennis; McMaster, Jeff; Hughes, Ginny; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Schutter, Dennis J L G

    2014-01-01

    Psychopathic offenders inevitably violate interpersonal norms and frequently resort to aggressive and criminal behaviour. The affective and cognitive deficits underlying these behaviours have been linked to abnormalities in functional interhemispheric connectivity. However, direct neurophysiological evidence for dysfunctional connectivity in psychopathic offenders is lacking. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with electroencephalography to examine interhemispheric connectivity in the dorsolateral and motor cortex in a sample of psychopathic offenders and healthy controls. We also measured intracortical inhibition and facilitation over the left and right motor cortex to investigate the effects of local cortical processes on interhemispheric connectivity. We enrolled 17 psychopathic offenders and 14 controls in our study. Global abnormalities in right to left functional connectivity were observed in psychopathic offenders compared with controls. Furthermore, in contrast to controls, psychopathic offenders showed increased intracortical inhibition in the right, but not the left, hemisphere. The relatively small sample size limited the sensitivity to show that the abnormalities in interhemispheric connectivity were specifically related to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in psychopathic offenders. To our knowledge, this study provides the first neurophysiological evidence for abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in psychopathic offenders and may further our understanding of the disruptive antisocial behaviour of these offenders.

  18. Sex Offenses Against Minors in China: An Empirical Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ming; Liang, Bin; Huang, Siwen

    2017-08-01

    In recent years, due to a number of notorious sex offense cases against minors, a new punitive public attitude emerged in China and pressed for harsher crackdown and punishment against sex offenders. In particular, an "engagement in prostitution with a minor" law (Article 360 of the Criminal Law) was targeted as "unjust" based on the belief that offenders of such crimes often received "lenient" punishment, and many called for its abolition. In this study, based on 440 adjudicated sex offense cases, we examine potential differences across three sex offenses (including rape, child molestation, and engagement in prostitution with a minor) in the demographics of defendants and victims, offending characteristics, and trials and sentences of convicted offenders. Our empirical inquiry pointed to the unique nature of engagement in prostitution with a minor. Offenders of such crimes seemingly carried a different profile, compared with offenders of the other two sex crimes. Moreover, our data casted some doubt on the "lenient" punishment received by offenders of engagement in prostitution with a minor. Policy implications were also drawn based on our findings.

  19. Laser capture microdissection of gonads from juvenile zebrafish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne; Nielsen, John; Morthorst, Jane Ebsen

    2009-01-01

    was adjusted and optimised to isolate juvenile zebrafish gonads. Results: The juvenile zebrafish gonad is not morphologically distinguishable when using dehydrated cryosections on membrane slides and a specific staining method is necessary to identify the gonads. The protocol setup in this study allows......Background: Investigating gonadal gene expression is important in attempting to elucidate the molecular mechanism of sex determination and differentiation in the model species zebrafish. However, the small size of juvenile zebrafish and correspondingly their gonads complicates this type...... of investigation. Furthermore, the lack of a genetic sex marker in juvenile zebrafish prevents pooling gonads from several individuals. The aim of this study was to establish a method to isolate the gonads from individual juvenile zebrafish allowing future investigations of gonadal gene expression during sex...

  20. Trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress, and comorbidities in female adolescent offenders: findings and implications from recent studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Foy

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: While males constitute the majority, female adolescent offenders are a sizeable minority of the overall delinquent population. Further, those females who become involved in delinquent activities appear to be doing so at a younger age, and they are involved in a wide range of criminal activities, including violent offenses. Objective: The goal of this article is to consolidate an empirical base for our current knowledge about female juvenile offenders’ trauma-related mental health and rehabilitation issues. Method: We searched for studies using PILOTS, PsycLIT, PsycINFO, and EBSCOhost electronic databases. Results: Accordingly, we present a review of findings from 33 recent studies showing consistently high rates of trauma exposure, PTSD, and common comorbidities among female adolescent offenders. We also examined recent literature on risk and protective factors for female delinquency, as well as treatments for offenders, and found that there was some early representation of trauma and PTSD as important variables to be considered in etiology and treatment. Conclusion: Future plans for addressing the mental health needs of female offenders should be better informed by these recent findings about widespread trauma exposure and related psychological consequences.

  1. [Drug abuse in adolescent offenders: analysis of the psychosocial variables involved].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras Martínez, Lourdes; Molina Banqueri, Virginia; Cano Lozano, Ma Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Research shows that drugs and delinquency are frequently linked, the abuse of various types of substance being a widespread practice among young offenders. At the same time, some psychosocial characteristics are associated with both drug abuse and criminal/antisocial behavior. To help us explore the relationship between young offenders' drug abuse and certain psychosocial variables, we examined closed judicial files on young offenders from the Juvenile Justice Service in Jaen (Spain) corresponding to the period 2001 to 2010. From the contents of these judicial files we analyzed demographic variables such as gender and age, as well as psychosocial variables such as drug abuse, peer group, violent behavior, self-control, tolerance to frustration and attributional style. The results show that most of the young offenders use some type of drug, as well as revealing differential patterns of use according to gender. Also observed is a link between drug abuse and deviant peer group, violent behavior and the above-mentioned psychological variables. Finally, we found some differences in these psychological variables depending on the type of drug used.

  2. Who gets a second chance? An investigation of Ohio's blended juvenile sentence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheesman, Fred L; Waters, Nicole L; Hurst, Hunter

    2010-01-01

    Factors differentiating blended sentencing cases (Serious Youthful Offenders or SYOs) from conventional juvenile cases and cases transferred to the adult criminal court in Ohio were investigated using a two-stage probit. Conventional juvenile cases differed from cases selected for non-conventional processing (i.e., SYO or transfer) according to offense seriousness, number of prior Ohio Department of Youth Services placements, age and gender. Controlling for probability of selection for nonconventional processing, transfers differed from SYOs according to age, gender, and race. Minorities were significantly more likely than Whites to be transfers rather than SYOs, suggesting possible bias in the decision-making process. Objective risk and needs assessments should be used to identify the most suitable candidates for blended sentences and adult transfer and enhanced services should be provided to juvenile offenders given blended sentences.

  3. Sexual dimorphism and plumage characteristics of juvenile Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Juveniles, or birds in their first year, were genetically sexed. Standardised photographs were taken of plucked juvenile breast feathers and analysed using Adobe Photoshop. Pixel counts were taken to analyse the streak coverage of a single feather. A scale from 0 to 3 was used to score streak intensity of the entire breast.

  4. Dangerous Liaisons: Substance Abuse and Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.

    This report takes a comprehensive look at the connections between alcohol, drug use, and sex. Two national data sets on more than 34,000 teenagers and two sets on arrested and incarcerated sex offenders were analyzed. A review of the literature, interviews with experts, and an examination of programs aimed at prevention of abuse were included in…

  5. Antisocial personalities: Measuring prevalence among offenders in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The identification of offenders who meet the criteria for psychopathy, antisocial personality disorder or dissocial personality disorder could be of significant value to help address the violent crime crisis in South Africa. A sample of 500 male maximum security offenders was selected to determine the prevalence of these ...

  6. Removing the Ex-Offenders' Catch-22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Timothy

    1975-01-01

    Describes problems persons with a criminal record encounter in attempting to locate a job. Describes the National Clearinghouse on Offender Employment Restrictions established in 1971 and the steps it is taking to change laws to make it easier for ex-offenders to obtain jobs. (EJT)

  7. "Scared Straight" and other juvenile awareness programs for preventing juvenile delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrosino, A; Turpin-Petrosino, C; Buehler, J

    2002-01-01

    'Scared Straight' and other programmes involve organised visits to prison by juvenile delinquents or children at risk for criminal behavior. programmes are designed to deter participants from future offending through first-hand observation of prison life and interaction with adult inmates. These programmes remain in use world-wide despite studies and reviews questioning their effectiveness. To assess the effects of programmes comprising organised visits to prisons by juvenile delinquents (officially adjudicated or convicted by a juvenile court) or pre-delinquents (children in trouble but not officially adjudicated as delinquents), aimed at deterring them from criminal activity. Handsearching by the first author in identifying randomised field trials 1945-1993 relevant to criminology was augmented by structured searches of 16 electronic data bases, including the Campbell SPECTR database of trials and the Cochrane CCTR. Experts in the field were consulted and relevant citations were followed up. Studies that tested the effects of any program involving the organised visits of juvenile delinquents or children at-risk for delinquency to penal institutions were included. Studies that included overlapping samples of juvenile and young adults (e.g. ages 14-20) were included. We only considered studies that randomly or quasi-randomly (i.e. alternation) assigned participants to conditions. Each study had to have a no-treatment control condition with at least one outcome measure of "post-visit" criminal behavior. We report narratively on the nine eligible trials. We conducted one meta-analysis of post-intervention offending rates using official data. Information from other sources (e.g. self-report) was either missing from some studies or critical information was omitted (e.g. standard deviations). We examined the immediate post-treatment effects (i.e. "first-effects") by computing Odds Ratios (OR) for data on proportions of each group re-offending, and assumed both fixed and

  8. Defense styles of pedophilic offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drapeau, Martin; Beretta, Véronique; de Roten, Yves; Koerner, Annett; Despland, Jean-Nicolas

    2008-04-01

    This pilot study investigated the defense styles of pedophile sexual offenders. Interviews with 20 pedophiles and 20 controls were scored using the Defense Mechanisms Rating Scales. Results showed that pedophiles had a significantly lower overall defensive functioning score than the controls. Pedophiles used significantly fewer obsessional-level defenses but more major image-distorting and action-level defenses. Results also suggested differences in the prevalence of individual defenses where pedophiles used more dissociation, displacement, denial, autistic fantasy, splitting of object, projective identification, acting out, and passive aggressive behavior but less intellectualization and rationalization.

  9. Risk assessment of girls: are there any sex differences in risk factors for reoffending and in risk profiles?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Put, C.E.; Deković, M.; Hoeve, M.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; van der Laan, P.H.; Langewouters, F.E.M.

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were (a) to investigate sex differences in risk factors for re-offending and (b) to provide a risk assessment model for girls. The data of 1,396 adolescents who committed a criminal offense were examined. Both generic and sex-specific risk factors for re-offending were found.

  10. Traumatic experiences in childhood and psychopathy: a study on a sample of violent offenders from Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Craparo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The link between early traumatic experiences of abuse/neglect and criminal behaviour has been widely demonstrated. Less is known, however, about the relationship between these experiences and the development of psychopathic personality. Objective: This study investigated childhood relational trauma in a group of violent offenders from Italy. We hypothesised a higher level of early relational trauma associated with higher scores on psychopathy. Method: Twenty-two offenders convicted for violent crimes aged 22–60 (M=38, SD=11 participated in this study. Participants were selected by the Italian justice system for an experimental research programme aiming at the evaluation of psychopathic personality traits among violent offenders. Within the group, 14 participants (64% had committed murder, 4 (18% had committed rape, and 4 (18% were convicted child sex offenders. The Traumatic Experience Checklist was used to assess childhood relational trauma; the Hare Psychopathy Checklist—Revised (PCL-R was used to assess psychopathy. Results: There was a high prevalence of childhood experiences of neglect and abuse among the offenders. Higher levels of childhood relational trauma were found among participants who obtained high scores on the PCL-R. There was also a significant negative association between age of first relational trauma and psychopathy scores. Conclusions: Findings of this study suggest that an early exposure to relational trauma in childhood can play a relevant role in the development of more severe psychopathic traits.For the abstract or full text in other languages, please see Supplementary files under Article Tools online

  11. An Examination of Counseling Professionals/Paraprofessionals Attitudes Toward Adolescent Sexual Offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward C. Jones

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available One hundred thirty-three counseling professionals/paraprofessionals were recruited from adolescent residential treatment programs located in Michigan. Participants were assessed using the Community Attitudes Toward Sex Offender Scale (CATSO. Of the participants, 32.3% (n = 43 of the participants were female and 67.7% (n = 90 were male. Years of experience working directly with adolescent sexual offenders of participants ranged from 0 to 18 years (M = 2.48 years, SD = 3.48. The number of months participants received sexual offender training ranged from 0 to 60 (M = 3.44, SD = 9.48. No statistical differences in attitudes were found between females and males toward adolescent sexual offenders. No statistically significant relationship was found between years of experience and the four factors on the CATSO survey (Social Isolation, Capacity to Change, Severity/Dangerousness, and Deviancy. A significant relationship was found between experience and the Deviancy factor. No statistically significant relationship was found between months of training and attitudes. Overall, attitudes toward adolescent sexual offenders were positive.

  12. A prospective examination of whether childhood sexual abuse predicts subsequent sexual offending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widom, Cathy Spatz; Massey, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse has been assumed to increase the risk for sexual offending. However, despite methodological limitations of prior research, public policies and clinical practice have been based on this assumption. To empirically examine the commonly held belief that sexually abused children grow up to become sexual offenders and specialize in sex crimes. This prospective cohort study and archival records check included cases and control individuals originally from a metropolitan county in the Midwest. Children with substantiated cases of physical and sexual abuse and neglect (aged 0-11 years) were matched with children without such histories on the basis of age, sex, race/ethnicity, and approximate family social class (908 cases and 667 control individuals). Both groups were followed up into adulthood (mean age, 51 years). The court cases were from 1967 to 1971; the follow-up extended to 2013. Criminal history information was collected from federal and state law enforcement agency records at 3 points in time and from state sex offender registries. Overall, individuals with histories of childhood abuse and neglect were at increased risk for being arrested for a sex crime compared with control individuals (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.17; 95% CI, 1.38-3.40), controlling for age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Specifically, individuals with histories of physical abuse (AOR, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.02-4.16) and neglect (AOR, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.39-3.51) were at significantly increased risk for arrest for sex offenses, whereas for sexual abuse, the AOR (2.13; 95% CI, 0.83-5.47) did not reach significance. Physically abused and neglected males (not females) were at increased risk and physically abused males also had a higher mean number of sex crime arrests compared with control individuals. The results did not provide support for sex crime specialization. The widespread belief that sexually abused children are uniquely at risk to become sex offenders was not supported by

  13. "Foi normal, não foi forçado!" versus "Fui abusada sexualmente": uma interpretação dos discursos de agressores sexuais, das suas vítimas e de testemunhas "It was normal, it was not forced!" versus "I was sexually abused": an interpretation of the discourses of sex offenders, their victims and witnesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gonçalo Pais Estrela da Silveira Zúquete

    2012-01-01

    the testimonies of victims and family members recorded in court document. It is a qualitative study, using techniques such as individual interviews with defendants sentenced to prison, as well as court documents pertaining to the sex crime against children and adolescents. The reconstruction of the sexual offense on the part of inmates, victims and witnesses differ much. Some of the attackers admit the sex offense, but their justifications go towards shirk responsibility by claiming the victim's consent; others consider his crime an elaborated lie concocted by third parties in order to cause harm. The shared beliefs between them make them minimize their criminal conduct, declaring that sexual abuse has not been forced under threats or that it brought physical and psychological effects on victims. The arguments presented by the sexual offenders often expose an exchange of roles; the attacker becomes the victim. These sexual offenders also do not recognize the fact that the victims are left with injuries resulting from sexual violence that may put their future in question.

  14. Girls arrested for murder: an empirical analysis of 32 years of U.S. data by offender age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heide, Kathleen M; Sellers, Brian G

    2014-01-01

    Most studies on juvenile homicide offenders (JHOs) have used small samples and have concentrated on adolescent male offenders. As a result, little is known about the population of female juveniles arrested for murder. This study utilized the Supplementary Homicide Report (SHR) database to investigate age differences between younger (aged 6-12 years) and older (aged 13-17 years) females arrested for murder in the United States from 1976 to 2007. As predicted, six variables used to test seven hypotheses with respect to younger and older female JHOs in single victim incidents were significant (victim age, victim gender, victim offender relationship, murder weapon, offender count, and homicide circumstance). Regression analysis revealed that younger girls were seven times more likely than older girls to kill children aged 0-12 years. Girls aged 6-12 years were five times more likely than their teen counterparts to be involved in conflict-related homicides as opposed to crime-related homicides. Although approximately the same percentages of younger and older girls killed infants under the age of 1, the victims were significantly different for the two offender age groups. This article concludes with a discussion of our findings and directions for future research. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Scum cuddlers:police and the sex offenders’ register in England and Wales

    OpenAIRE

    Nash, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Police in England and Wales have been given an increasingly important role in community offender management. In many ways removed from what might be regarded as ‘real’ police work, it has nonetheless become a standard way of working for large numbers of police officers. An aspect of this work has brought the police into much closer and lasting professional contact with sex offenders as a result of new responsibilities given them under the Sexual Offenders Act, 1997. This article will discuss ...

  16. Nasopharyngeal juvenile angiofibroma: updating of radiotherapy results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alert Silva, Jose; Caballero Aguirrechu, Iraida; Reno Cespedes, Jesus; Perez Penna, Lourdes

    2010-01-01

    The nasopharyngeal juvenile angiofibroma is a uncommon benign tumor composed of fibrous connective tissue and many vascular spaces covered by endothelium. It is almost exclusive of male sex and of adolescents. Choice treatment is the exeresis without obviate other possibilities as the radiotherapy. The aim of present study was to show the results of this latter as therapeutical option

  17. Specialization in and within sexual offending in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Philip D; Barnett, Georgia D; Mann, Ruth E

    2014-06-01

    Existing evidence suggests that offenders tend not to specialize in sexual offending in general but that there is some specialization in particular types of sexual offending. This study examined the sexual histories and reoffending of a large, national data set of offenders convicted of a sexual offense and managed in England and Wales by the National Offender Management Service (N = 14,804). The study found that specialization in sexual offending compared to nonsexual offending was most evident for offenders with convictions for accessing indecent images. We also found considerable evidence of specialization within sexual offending, most notably for noncontact offenders, especially again indecent images offenders. Crossover between sexual offense types was very rare for those with contact adult offenses and for noncontact offenders although those with child contact offenses sometimes crossed over to indecent images reoffending. If specialization within sexual offending exists, the use of single risk assessment instruments to predict all types of sexual recidivism may be less effective than previously assumed. A comparison of different prediction models indicated that some items presently used in one-size-fits-all risk tools to predict any sexual reoffending only effectively predict certain subtypes of sexual offending. Statistically there appear to be some potential benefits to creating specialist risk predictors for different subtypes of offending, but further work is needed to justify the implementation demands that would be caused by abandoning one-size-fits-all tools.

  18. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, M.

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted.

  19. No guts, no gains! The relation between living group climate and social development of juvenile delinquents in detention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heynen, E.J.E.

    2016-01-01

    One of the main goals of imprisonment of juvenile offenders is treatment and rehabilitation into the social world. Youth detention is living with strict rules and regulations and can negatively affect juvenile’s behavior. Today, there is abundant knowledge on the effects of individual treatment of

  20. Original research: online social networking patterns among adolescents, young adults, and sexual offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdell, Elizabeth B; Burgess, Ann W; Flores, J Robert

    2011-07-01

    The use of online social networks like Facebook continues to increase rapidly among all age groups and segments of our society, presenting new opportunities for the exchange of sexual information as well as for potentially unsafe encounters between predators and the vulnerable or young. This study surveyed middle school, high school, and college-age students, as well as sexual offenders, regarding their use of social networking sites in order to provide information to better focus education and prevention efforts from nurses and other health care providers. Written questionnaires asking about various characteristics of participants' use of social networking sites were distributed to each group and filled out by 404 middle school students, 2,077 high school students, 1,284 students drawn from five traditional four-year colleges, and 466 adults who had committed either an Internet sexual offense or a hands-on sexual offense (in some cases both). Notable findings emerging from our analysis of the questionnaire responses included the following: offenders and students both frequent social networking sites, although at the time of the study offenders reported that they preferred Myspace and students that they preferred Facebook; nearly two-thirds of the Internet offenders said they'd initiated the topic of sex in their first chat session; more than half of the Internet offenders disguised their identity when online; most Internet offenders we surveyed said they preferred communicating with teenage girls rather than teenage boys; high school students' experience with "sexting" (sharing nude photos of themselves or others on cell phones or online) differed significantly according to their sex; a small number of students are being threatened and assaulted by people they meet online; avatar sites such as Second Life were used both by students and offenders, with both child molesters and Internet offenders expressing interest in Second Life. The use of the Internet presents

  1. Juvenile Court Statistics - 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Youth Development (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    This report is a statistical study of juvenile court cases in 1972. The data demonstrates how the court is frequently utilized in dealing with juvenile delinquency by the police as well as by other community agencies and parents. Excluded from this report are the ordinary traffic cases handled by juvenile court. The data indicate that: (1) in…

  2. Juvenile Court Statistics, 1974.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Jacqueline; Vereb, Thomas S.

    This report presents information on juvenile court processing of youth in the U.S. during 1974. It is based on data gathered under the National Juvenile Court Statistical Reporting System. Findings can be summarized as follows: (1) 1,252,700 juvenile delinquency cases, excluding traffic offenses, were handled by courts in the U.S. in 1974; (2) the…

  3. Socialization Processes and Clergy Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jane

    2016-01-01

    This article uses feminist theory to investigate how the socialization processes used to maintain the clergy community in the Roman Catholic Church contributes to a vulnerability in some clergy for sexually abusing children. This vulnerability is identified first in an examination of the literature on the impact of socialization processes on clergy offenders between the 1960s and 1980s. A comparison is then made with the implications of the apostolic exhortation, Pastores Dabo Vobis, which provides a theological basis to clergy formation. The article argues that the document works to ensure a continuity of socialization processes that not only have been shown to create a vulnerability for committing child sexual abuse but compound existing vulnerabilities. The article concludes that constraints produced by the preservation of a hegemonic masculinity and patriarchy retain a threat of violence against children and require recommended reforms.

  4. Delincuencia y responsabilidad penal juvenil en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Montalvo Velásquez

    2011-01-01

    England in 1815, “Juvenile delinquency is defined as the set of crimes, misdemeanors or socially reprehensible conduct, committed by young people considered by the law”. Each state is subject to its own legal system, for some it is the adolescent juvenile who commits sanctioned by the law regardless of their severity, other states only consider the youth as a juvenile offender who commits a serious criminal act.The phenomenon of juvenile delinquency is something that fits in the space of a society in which its material structure, and its consequent social formation, is in deep crisis. That younger as organized criminal gangs are telling us that result in the same general crime that has gripped society in perspective to survive materially. Capitalism is not only accumulation of wealth, but concentration of the very few hands, and all the legal and institutional system tends to favor this phenomenon because it is the structure above the capitalist mode of production. Just as adults are organized to commit crimes, do children and young people from an age in which they can see that society is not healthy and have no human future on it. Abandoned and subject to the violence that begets the system, they simply respond in a demonstration of conditioned reflexes that sustain survival in an instinctive way, “children do not know about laws but about ways to survive such a situation, the survival instinct does not ages or the regulations is liable to affect the.Key WordsJuvenile Delinquency, Youth Crime, Family Factors, criminal act, criminal liability.

  5. Clarifying the link between childhood abuse history and psychopathic traits in adult criminal offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargis, Monika; Newman, Joseph; Koenigs, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Childhood abuse is a risk factor for the development of externalizing characteristics and disorders, including antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy. However, the precise relationships between particular types of childhood maltreatment and subsequent antisocial and psychopathic traits remain unclear. Using a large sample of incarcerated adult male criminal offenders (n = 183), the current study confirmed that severity of overall childhood maltreatment was linked to severity of both psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder in adulthood. Moreover, this relationship was particularly strong for physical abuse and the antisocial facet of psychopathy. Sexual abuse history was uniquely related to juvenile conduct disorder severity, rather than adult psychopathy or antisocial behaviors. Additionally, there was a significantly stronger relationship between childhood maltreatment and juvenile conduct disorder than between childhood maltreatment and ASPD or psychopathy. These findings bolster and clarify the link between childhood maltreatment and antisocial behavior later in life. PMID:26389621

  6. JUVENILE DELINQUENCY: TRENDS (REGIONAL ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Selezneva

    2017-01-01

    psychological portrait” of a juvenile offender, identified the main motives that caused teenagers to commit various crimes, considered in detail the structure of their crimes. The problem of motivation has received considerable attention, as its study brings researchers to the subjective knowledge of the motor components, causing a minor to commit a crime. It is equally important that, given the socio-economic factors in the analysis of human aggression is of great value not only for theoretical analysis through a systemic approach, but also for further improvement of preventive, rehabilitative work with young offenders. The process of modernization of the Russian society have not only brought much positive change, but destroying the traditional way of life, have brought cardinal changes in communication processes of the younger generation. Overall, the article gives some increase of knowledge in the identified scientific fields, contributes to the development of the science and practice of studying of illegal behaviour of minors and promotes the understanding of problems related to social processes in modern society. Having carefully studied the main factors that intensify illegal behavior of adolescents in the period of economic transformation of society, the authors come to the conclusion that the processes of industrialization, urbanization, changing economic structure has had on the structure and activity of deviant behavior of teenagers in the period under review, a significant impact. This is probably due to the fact that these processes at the initial stage of its development has resulted in significant changes in the internal foundations of the structure of society.

  7. Locus of Control in Offenders and Alleged Offenders with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Wendy; Leggett, Janice; Garrett, Tanya

    2007-01-01

    Locus of control can be a useful measure of treatment outcome in offenders from the general population. However, there is little information regarding locus of control and offenders with learning disabilities. Existing measures of locus of control use complex language and abstract ideas that may not be accessible to individuals in this group. A…

  8. How Rape Offenders View Their Crimes: A Study of Offenders in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    How Rape Offenders View Their Crimes: A Study of Offenders in Selected Police Cells and the Central Prison in Kumasi, Ghana. ... Regarding punishment, some respondents expressed a preference for the handling of rape cases within the community, suggesting that the sanctions for those cases were less severe than ...

  9. The Impact of Gender on the Processing of Probation Violations and Contempt: A Study of One Juvenile Court

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dyan McGuire

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There is substantial evidence to suggest that in at least some contexts juvenile court judges are circumventing the proscription contained in the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act (“JJDPA”, which prohibits the secure confinement of status offenders, by securely detaining status offenders for contempt.  Some evidence also indicates that gender may influence whether a juvenile is detained as a result of violating a valid court order.  This study seeks to expand existing research by examining what happens to court order violators beyond detention and by explicitly comparing the treatment of court order violators with the treatment of probation violators in terms of detention, adjudication and confinement to shed light on how gender influences these decision points.  While high rates of detention and commitment were uncovered, these results do not suggest that females were more likely to experience these consequences than males.

  10. Use of prescription drugs and future delinquency among adolescent offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazdowski, Tess K; Jäggi, Lena; Borre, Alicia; Kliewer, Wendy L

    2015-01-01

    Non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) by adolescents is a significant public health concern. The present study investigated the profile of NMUPD in 1349 adolescent offenders from the Pathways to Desistance project, and whether NMUPD predicted future delinquency using longitudinal data. Results indicated that increased frequency and recency of NMUPD in adolescent offenders are related to some demographic factors, as well as increased risk for violence exposure, mental health diagnoses, other drug use, and previous delinquency, suggesting that severity of NMUPD is important to consider. However, ANCOVA analyses found that NMUPD was not a significant predictor of drug-related, non-aggressive, or aggressive delinquency 12 months later beyond other known correlates of delinquency. Age, sex, exposure to violence, lower socioeconomic status, more alcohol use, and having delinquency histories were more important than NMUPD in predicting future delinquency. These findings suggest that although NMUPD is an important risk factor relating to many correlates of delinquency, it does not predict future delinquency beyond other known risk factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of Gun Carrying on Perceptions of Risk Among Adolescent Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughran, Thomas A; Reid, Joan A; Collins, Megan Eileen; Mulvey, Edward P

    2016-02-01

    We observed how perceptions of risks, costs, crime rewards, and violence exposure change as individual gun-carrying behavior changes among high-risk adolescents. We analyzed a longitudinal study (2000-2010) of serious juvenile offenders in Maricopa County, Arizona, or Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, assessing within-person changes in risk and reward perceptions, and violence exposure as individuals initiated or ceased gun carrying. Despite being associated with heightened exposure to violence, gun carrying was linked to lower perceptions of risks and costs and higher perceived rewards of offending. Gun carrying was not time-stable, as certain individuals both started and stopped carrying during the study. Within-person changes in carrying guns were associated with shifting perceptions of risks, costs, and rewards of crime, and changes in exposure to violence in expected directions. Gun carrying reduces perceptions of risks associated with offending while increasing actual risk of violence exposure. This suggests that there is an important disconnect between perceptions and objective levels of safety among high-risk youths. Gun-carrying decisions may not only be influenced by factors of protection and self-defense, but also by perceptions of risks and reward associated with engaging in crime more generally.

  12. Healing the victim, the young offender, and the community via restorative justice: an international perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goren, S

    2001-03-01

    The 1990s saw the enactment of much "get tough with young offenders" legislation in the United States. At the same, problems with our present punishment and treatment model, in which many youngsters cycle repeatedly through the justice and mental health systems, raised interest in restorative justice, a community-based alternative model emphasizing a balanced, negotiated approach to the needs of victims, offenders, and the community. After summarizing the philosophical bases underlying both models, this article describes the practice of restorative justice in New Zealand, where it was pioneered. Restorative justice has special relevance for Maori community in New Zealand and minority communities in the United States, where youth are consistently overrepresented in the courts, detention centers, and jails, and in which the juvenile justice system is seen as hostile and biased. Outcome data from New Zealand and early outcome research from the United States suggest that the restorative model, in which offenses are understood as a breakdown in social bonds, offers a hopeful alternative for offending youngsters, their families, and their communities.

  13. Detained Male Adolescent Offender's Emotional, Physical and Sexual Maltreatment Profiles and Their Associations to Psychiatric Disorders and Criminal Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aebi, Marcel; Linhart, Susanne; Thun-Hohenstein, Leonhard; Bessler, Cornelia; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Plattner, Belinda

    2015-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to analyse patterns of emotional, physical and sexual maltreatment in detained male juvenile offenders using latent class analysis (LCA). The association of maltreatment related LCA profiles with psychopathology and criminal behaviors was also studied. LCA based on the items of the Child Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) assessing childhood emotional, physical, and sexual abuse was performed in a sample of 260 male adolescent offenders (mean age = 16.5 years, SD = 1.29 years). Chi square tests and general linear models were performed to assess the associations of CTQ profiles with categorical interview-based psychiatric disorders, dimensional Youth Self-Report problem scales, and officially registered offenses. LCA suggested a three class solution: (1) a no/mild trauma (NM; 76 %) (2) emotional and physical trauma (EP; 18 %) and (3) emotional, physical, and sexual trauma (EPS; 8 %). The classes EP and EPS were related to a variety of psychiatric disorders and self-reported mental health problems. Furthermore, EPS showed higher presence of a subsequent re-incarceration compared to NM. A majority of sexually abused juveniles also experienced emotional and physical abuse reflecting gravely disturbed family systems. Multiple abuse in childhood was associated with a broad variety of disorders including externalizing disorders and repeated criminal offending. Such findings indicate that trauma assessment is also relevant in externalizing youth. A comprehensive treatment approach for detained boys with multiple abuse experiences is required targeting both mental health needs and the reduction of criminal behaviors.

  14. The differential influence of absent and harsh fathers on juvenile delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Cortney; Steinberg, Laurence; Frick, Paul J; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2018-01-01

    Researchers have identified father absence as a contributor to juvenile delinquency. Consequently, politicians and community leaders are making efforts to re-engage fathers. However, it is possible that the presence of fathers is not, in itself, a substantial protective factor and, in some cases, can even be more detrimental than father absence. Employing a diverse sample of male juvenile offenders in the U.S. (ages 13-17), the present study examined the differential effects of absent fathers and harsh fathers on delinquency. Results indicated that youth in the harsh-father group engaged in more offending behaviors and used more substances than youth in the absent-father group. This difference remained even after controlling for the mother-child relationship. Implications of these findings for future research and delinquency prevention programs are discussed. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Penitentiary Diagnosis of Crime Offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiola Friedrich

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the basic standards of serving the punishment of imprisonment is its individualization, which means varying interactions consisting in adjusting them to the personality of the offender and the purposes of executing the sentence. A properly served psychological diagnosis, especially the penitentiary diagnosis, should describe the studied phenomenon well. The content of the penitentiary diagnosis should include a description of the clinical picture of an imprisoned person and basic social rehabilitation indications. The paper was written on the basis of literature on the subject, legislation and available research results. The aim of this paper is to characterize the diagnosis performed for the needs of justice, which is continuous and should be performed at every stage of imprisonment. The effect of a properly formed psychological and penitentiary decision should be the placement of a prisoner in a suitable type, kind of prison and appropriate system of serving imprisonment, followed by the correct selection of educational measures which may imply the efficiency and effectiveness of the punishment of imprisonment.

  16. Reappraising the Impact of Offending on Victimization: A Propensity Score Matching Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posick, Chad

    2017-05-01

    Existing evidence clearly supports an empirical connection between offending and victimization. Often called the "victim-offender overlap," this relationship holds for both sexes, across the life course, and across a wide range of countries and cultural environments. In addition, the relationship is sustained regardless of the study sample and statistical methods applied in the analyses of the sample data. However, there has yet to be a study that examines this relationship for violent and property crime using quasi-experimental methods accounting for a wide range of potential confounders including individual differences and cultural contexts. This study subjects the victim-offender relationship to testing through propensity score matching for both violent and property crimes using an international dataset. The results show that previous violent and theft offending increases the odds of victimization when matching on individual and contextual factors. This finding supports previous literature and suggests that delinquent behavior may act as a "switch" that exposes one to subsequent violent and theft victimization.

  17. Treatment of Male Sexual Offenders in a Correctional Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitford, Robert W.

    1987-01-01

    Provides some background and treatment perspectives for counselors and psychologists who treat or contemplate treatment of adult male sexual offenders in prison settings. Discusses identification, assessment, amenability to treatment, assessment instruments, and treatment of sexual offenders. (ABL)

  18. Working With Female Juvenile Delinquents: What Youth Practitioners Need to Know

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy D. Patton

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is organized in a way to help youth practitioners recognize the most pertinent issues faced by female juveniles and to provide help in guiding professional interactions, communication and decision-making. The guidelines discussed are suggestions for practice based on an empirical review of the literature. Recent research has identified ten characteristics of female juvenile offenders to consider when working with this population. These areas include: (a impaired cognitive functioning, (b low academic achievement, (c weak language skills, (d peer relationships, (e onset of menarche, (f early sexual experiences, (g mental illness, (h victimization (i low self-esteem and (j race.

  19. Child maltreatment among boy and girl probationers: does type of maltreatment make a difference in offending behavior and psychosocial problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Put, Claudia E; Lanctôt, Nadine; de Ruiter, Corine; van Vugt, Eveline

    2015-08-01

    This study examined differences in offending behavior and psychosocial problems between juvenile offenders who have been sexually abused (n=231), physically abused (n=1,568), neglected (n=1,555), exposed to multiple forms of maltreatment (n=1,767), and non-victims (n=8,492). In addition, the moderating effect of gender in the association between type of maltreatment and offending behavior/psychosocial problems was examined. Results showed that violent offenses were more common in victims of physical abuse and victims of multiple forms of abuse than in non-victims, both in boys and girls. In boys, sexual offenses were far more common in victims of sexual abuse than in victims of other or multiple forms of maltreatment or in non-victims. In girls, no group differences were found in sexual offending behavior. For both boys and girls, externalizing problems were relatively common in victims of physical abuse and neglect whereas internalizing problems were relatively common in victims of sexual abuse. In victims of multiple forms of maltreatment, both internalizing and externalizing problems were relatively common. Implications for clinical practice are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Personal aspirations and concerns inventory for offenders: developments in the measurement of offenders' motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jacqui; Sellen, Joselyn L; McMurran, Mary

    2010-04-01

    It is important to attend to offenders' motivation for treatment and behaviour change, either as a treatment selection criterion or a pre-treatment need. One measure of motivation that has been used with forensic populations is the Personal Concerns Inventory (PCI) and a PCI-Offender Adaptation (PCI-OA). As well as demonstrating promise in measuring offenders' motivation, the administration of the PCI and PCI-OA shows potential as a motivation enhancer. However, a number of potentially useful changes to the PCI-OA that may maximise its potential have been identified. These are described here. The rationale and process of abridgement and further development of the PCI-OA into the Personal Aspirations and Concerns Inventory for Offenders (PACI-O) are described. Results of a pilot study with 22 prisoners are reported. The pilot study aimed to assess the acceptability of the PACI-O with an offender population. Findings demonstrated that the interview took less time, although similar concerns were still identified, consistent with the previous PCI-OA. Consistency with previous evidence, together with positive feedback, suggests that the PACI-O was acceptable with an offender population. Future research is required to assess the psychometric properties of the PACI-O, and to evaluate its potential as an assessment of offender motivation.

  1. Preventive detention of sex offenders: A comparative law perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Calkins Mercado

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En décadas recientes, la justicia penal y la legislación de salud mental en todo el mundo ha buscado manejar y prevenir el problema de se reiterada violencia sexual. Tal vez algunas de las medidas más restrictivas han sido aquellas dirigidas a la detención de aquellos abusadores sexuales que se supone son de un riesgo elevado de reincidencia. Este documento examina la Legislación del Depredador Sexual Violento (SVP considerada constitucional por la Corte Suprema de los Estados Unidos en Kansas contra Hendricks (1997, y compara este plan de compromiso civil post sentencia con los estatutos de la detención preventiva dirigidos a, o en otros casos aplicados a, los abusadores sexuales en varias de las naciones de la Commonwealth. Este documento examina, precisamente, a los delincuentes peligrosos (abusadores sexuales de Australia Acto (2003, el cual fue ratificado por la Fiscalía General (QLD contra. Fardon (2004 y el cual, al igual que la legislación SVP en Los Estados Unidos, permite la detención preventiva post sentencia de los delincuentes sexuales que se consideren de alto riesgo de reincidencia sexual. Más aun, este documento revisa la legislación canadiense sobre Delincuentes Peligrosos que permite la detención indeterminada de delincuentes condenados, así como la designación inglesa de Peligrosos y Severos Desórdenes de Personalidad (DSPD que autoriza transferir a sitios seguros a quienes se supone representan un alto riesgo de hacer daño a otros. Una breve discusión de estas ideas alternativas, concluye el documento

  2. Paraphilia and sex offending - A South African criminal law perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstens, Pieter; Stevens, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Historically, the link between sexual deviance and criminality has been described and documented, asserted by psychiatry, and manifested in law. Laws that have regulated sexual behaviour have referred to terms such as 'sexual deviation', 'sexual perversion' or even archaic moral terms such as 'unnatural acts and unspeakable crimes against nature'. A possible link between sexual perversion, psychopathy, and criminality, specifically manifesting in sexual homicide, has been the subject of remarkable research in forensic psychiatry. This contribution examines the phenomenon of paraphilia with specific reference to its definition, diagnostic classification and characteristics, as well as a few selections of incidences of paraphilia in South African criminal case law. A brief assessment is made of how South African criminal courts have dealt with paraphilia. In this regard, an analysis is made of the criminal liability of the paraphiliac. The South African response to sexual deviation as addressed in the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act 32 of 2007 will also be addressed with reference to its efficacy in addressing paraphilia within South African criminal law. The interface between criminal law and medical ethics within the context of this theme will also be canvassed. In conclusion, recommendations for possible reform are canvassed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Pharmacological interventions for those who have sexually offended or are at risk of offending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Omer; Ferriter, Michael; Huband, Nick; Powney, Melanie J; Dennis, Jane A; Duggan, Conor

    2015-02-18

    Sexual offending is a serious social problem, a public health issue, and a major challenge for social policy. Victim surveys indicate high incidence and prevalence levels and it is accepted that there is a high proportion of hidden sexual victimisation. Surveys report high levels of psychiatric morbidity in survivors of sexual offences.Biological treatments of sex offenders include antilibidinal medication, comprising hormonal drugs that have a testosterone-suppressing effect, and non-hormonal drugs that affect libido through other mechanisms. The three main classes of testosterone-suppressing drugs in current use are progestogens, antiandrogens, and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogues. Medications that affect libido through other means include antipsychotics and serotonergic antidepressants (SSRIs). To evaluate the effects of pharmacological interventions on target sexual behaviour for people who have been convicted or are at risk of sexual offending. We searched CENTRAL (2014, Issue 7), Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, and 15 other databases in July 2014. We also searched two trials registers and requested details of unidentified, unpublished, or ongoing studies from investigators and other experts. Prospective controlled trials of antilibidinal medications taken by individuals for the purpose of preventing sexual offences, where the comparator group received a placebo, no treatment, or 'standard care', including psychological treatment. Pairs of authors, working independently, selected studies, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias of included studies. We contacted study authors for additional information, including details of methods and outcome data. We included seven studies with a total of 138 participants, with data available for 123. Sample sizes ranged from 9 to 37. Judgements for categories of risk of bias varied: concerns were greatest regarding allocation concealment, blinding of outcome assessors, and incomplete outcome data (dropout rates in

  4. Effects of House Arrest with Electronic Monitoring on DUI Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtright, Kevin E.; Berg, Bruce L.; Mutchick, Robert J.

    1997-01-01

    Evaluates the first 57 offenders who participated in an electronic monitoring (EM) program and compared them to offenders who went to jail. Analysis revealed no difference between the groups with respect to rearrest, revocations, and detainers filed. The overwhelming majority of EM offenders completed their period of supervision without incident.…

  5. Self-conscious emotions and criminal offending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbetts, Stephen G

    2003-08-01

    This study examined the relation of personality traits--shame-proneness, guilt-proneness, and pride--on offending behavior. Using survey data from a sample of 224 college students, the construct and criterion-related validity of scales of the Shame Proneness Scale, the Test of Self-conscious Affect, and the Personality Feelings Questionnaire-2 were assessed. Regression analyses showed that self-conscious emotions are important in the etiology of criminal offending. Specifically, rated pride was positively correlated with self-reported criminal activity, whereas ratings of guilt were negatively associated with offending. The relation of shame with criminality varied depending on the type of measure used to indicate proneness to shame.

  6. Helping Female Juveniles Improve their On-Task Behavior and Academic Performance Using a Self-Management Procedure in a Correctional Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Stacy; Joseph, Laurice M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to teach female juvenile offenders with disabilities a self-management procedure to help improve on-task behavior and academic performance during independent practice of math calculation facts. Students were taught to set goals and were provided with incentives for goal attainment. A reversal single-case design…

  7. The reality of teenage driving: the results of a driving educational experience for teens in the juvenile court system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manno, Mariann; Maranda, Louise; Rook, Allison; Hirschfeld, Ryan; Hirsh, Michael

    2012-10-01

    In the United States, one third of all deaths in teens are a result of motor vehicle crashes, accounting for 6,000 deaths annually. Injury Free Coalition for Kids-Worcester in collaboration with Worcester Juvenile Court has developed an interactive program for first-time teenaged driving offenders, Reality Intensive Driver Education (Teen RIDE). This full-day program at the trauma center provides a realistic exposure to the consequences of risky driving behaviors. This article examined the driving offense recidivism rates for Teen RIDE participants versus a comparison group (CG). The intervention group (IG) consists of teenagers between 13 years and 17 years who have been arrested for the first time for a serious driving offense and are sentenced by a Worcester Juvenile Court Judge or Magistrate to the Teen RIDE program. They are required to attend the program as a condition of probation, so attendance is mandatory. Each participant in the IG completed the program and was tracked for driving reoffenses for 6 months after completion of the course. The CG consists of also first-time driving offenders. The CG was matched with the IG with respect to age (13-17 years), sex, and offense type. Springfield, Massachusetts, serves as the site for recruitment of the CG, since it is demographically similar to Worcester but 60 mi away. Students in the CG had no exposure to this program. Each CG member was also tracked for 6 months after arrest. The recidivism rate for Teen RIDE participants 6 months after the course is 6% with 0% reoffending more than once. The CG has a recidivism rate of 56% 6 months after the arrest and 14% have more than one reoffense. The CG is 13.062 (4.296-39.713) times more likely to reoffend, and this is significant (p Teen RIDE program provides an impactful exposure of the consequences of risky driving behaviors to teenaged participants. In addition, Teen RIDE participants are significantly less likely to reoffend after completion of the course

  8. Juvenile giant fibroadenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipul Yagnik

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Fibroadenomas are benign solid tumor associated with aberration of normal lobular development. Juvenile giant fibroadenoma is usually single and >5 cm in size /or >500 gms in weight. Important differential diagnoses are: phyllodes tumor and juvenile gigantomastia. Simple excision is the treatment of choice.

  9. Juvenile mammary papillomatosis; Papilomatosis juvenil mamaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, M.; Jimenez, A. V. [Hospital Reina Sofia. Cordoba (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    Juvenile mammary papillomatosis is a benign proliferative disease of young patients, generally under 30 years of age. The most frequent clinical presentation is the existence of an elastic and mobile lymph node of the breast. Anatomopathologically, it is characterized because it presents ductal epithelial hyperplasia, sometimes with marked atypia, and there are numerous cysts having different sizes among the findings. It has been associated with an increase in the incidence of breast cancer, both in the patient herself as well as her family. We review the literature on the subject and present the mammographic and ultrasonographic findings of a 22 year old woman diagnosed of juvenile mammary papillomatosis. (Author) 12 refs.

  10. Female Sexual Homicide Offenders: A Descriptive and Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skott, Sara; Beauregard, Eric; Darjee, Rajan

    2018-04-23

    Research on female sexual homicide has been very scarce. In Europe, it has rarely been examined, and in Scotland, it has never previously been studied. This exploratory study aims to examine the characteristics of sexual homicides involving female offenders between 1990 and 2015 in Scotland. Using data from the Scottish Homicide Database between 1990 and 2015, female sexual homicides (n = 7) were compared to nonsexual homicides committed by females (n = 106) and to sexual homicides committed by men (n = 89) using Fisher's exact tests. The findings show that although female sexual homicide offenders are similar to both female nonsexual homicide offenders and male sexual homicide offenders in certain aspects, there are important differences that distinguish sexual homicides involving female offenders from both groups. Female sexual homicide offenders can arguably be seen as a distinct group of offenders, with specific characteristics and specific needs. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  11. Preliminary Findings on Men's Sexual Self-Schema and Sexual Offending: Differences Between Subtypes of Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigre-Leirós, Vera; Carvalho, Joana; Nobre, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Available literature suggests that sexual self-schemas (i.e., cognitive generalizations about sexual aspects of oneself) influence sexual behavior. Nonetheless, there is a lack of research regarding their role in sexual offending. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the men's sexual self-schema dimensions (passionate-loving, powerful-aggressive, and open-minded-liberal) and different types of sexual-offending behavior. A total of 50 rapists, 65 child molesters (21 pedophilic, 44 nonpedophilic), and 51 nonsexual offenders answered the Men's Sexual Self-Schema Scale, the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), and the Socially Desirable Response Set Measure (SDRS-5). Data were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression, controlling for age, school education, psychological distress, and social desirability. Results showed that rapists as well as nonsexual offenders were more likely to hold the powerful-aggressive sexual self-view compared to pedophilic and nonpedophilic child molesters. Overall, findings seem to be consistent with both a sociocultural component of aggression and the general cognitive profile of offenders. If further research corroborates these preliminary findings, sexual self-concept may be integrated into a comprehensive multifactorial approach of offending behavior.

  12. Individual, family and offence characteristics of high risk childhood offenders: comparing non-offending, one-time offending and re-offending Dutch-Moroccan migrant children in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevens Gonneke WJM

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood offenders are at an increased risk for developing mental health, social and educational problems later in life. An early onset of offending is a strong predictor for future persistent offending. Childhood offenders from ethnic minority groups are a vulnerable at-risk group. However, up until now, no studies have focused on them. Aims To investigate which risk factors are associated with (re-offending of childhood offenders from an ethnic minority. Method Dutch-Moroccan boys, who were registered by the police in the year 2006-2007, and their parents as well as a control group (n = 40 were interviewed regarding their individual and family characteristics. Two years later a follow-up analysis of police data was conducted to identify one-time offenders (n = 65 and re-offenders (n = 35. Results All groups, including the controls, showed substantial problems. Single parenthood (OR 6.0 and financial problems (OR 3.9 distinguished one-time offenders from controls. Reading problems (OR 3.8, having an older brother (OR 5.5 and a parent having Dutch friends (OR 4.3 distinguished re-offenders from one-time offenders. First offence characteristics were not predictive for re-offending. The control group reported high levels of emotional problems (33.3%. Parents reported not needing help for their children but half of the re-offender's families were known to the Child Welfare Agency, mostly in a juridical framework. Conclusion The Moroccan subgroup of childhood offenders has substantial problems that might hamper healthy development. Interventions should focus on reaching these families tailored to their needs and expectations using a multi-system approach.

  13. Restorative justice for sexual violence: repairing victims, building community, and holding offenders accountable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, Mary P; Bachar, Karen J; Hopkins, C Quince

    2003-06-01

    Problems in criminal justice system response to date and acquaintance rape, and the nonpenetration sexual offenses are identified: (1) these crimes are often markers of a career of sexual offense, yet they are widely viewed as minor; (2) perpetrators of these crimes are now held accountable in ways that reduce their future threat of sex offending; and (3) current criminal justice response to these crimes disappoints and traumatizes victims and families. In response to these identified problems, we are implementing and evaluating RESTORE, an innovative victim-driven, community-based restorative justice program. Restorative justice views crime as harm for which the person responsible must be held accountable in meaningful ways. RESTORE uses a community conference to involve the victim, offender, and both parties' family and friends in a face-to-face dialogue directed at identifying the harm, and developing a plan for repair, rehabilitation, and reintegration into the community.

  14. Criminal Trajectories of White-collar Offenders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Onna, J.; van der Geest, V.R.; Huisman, W.; Denkers, A.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives:This article analyzes the criminal development and sociodemographic and criminal profile of a sample of prosecuted white-collar offenders. It identifies trajectory groups and describes their profiles based on crime, sociodemographic, and selection offence characteristics.Methods:The

  15. Strategies of Intervention with Public Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaneles, Sol, Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews intervention strategies with public offenders, including learning therapy, education, group assertive training, and the use of volunteers. The l0 articles deal with inmates' rights in terms of health care and psychotherapy, and evaluation of social programs, and a psychodrama program description/model. (JAC)

  16. Is Coersive Treatment of Offenders Morally Acceptable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Is it morally acceptable to instigate criminal offenders to participate in rehabilitative treatment by offering treatment in return for early release from prison? Some theorists have supported such treatment schemes by pointing to the beneficial consequences that follow from the treatment. Others...

  17. Mentally Disordered Non-Psychotic Criminal Offenders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottlieb, Peter; Gabrielsen, Gorm; Kørner, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Background: By including §69 into the Danish Penal Code, it has since 1975 been possible to use psychiatric measures as legal sanctions for even non-psychotic offenders-if the measure is believed to be preventive of future crime. To be able to decide on the applicability of treatment measures...

  18. Creating Hope for Life-Sentenced Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddell, Rick; Broom, Ian; Young, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Offenders sentenced to terms of life imprisonment pose special challenges for correctional systems. The Correctional Service of Canada collaborated with nongovernmental agencies to develop programmatic interventions to better prepare this population to survive their prison sentences and transition to the community. This study describes the…

  19. The Mentally Retarded Offender and Corrections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamour, Miles; West, Bernadette

    The booklet provides an overview of the issues involved in correctional rehabilitation for the mentally retarded offender. Reviewed are clinical and legal definitions of criminal behavior and retardation, and discussed are such issues as law enforcement and court proceedings problems, pros and cons of special facilities, labeling, normalization,…

  20. Statistical indicators and trends in juvenile delinquency in modern Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzikhanova E.G.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Statistics of juvenile delinquency in Russia for ten years, allowing to determine its current trends, is presented. It’s noted that earlier the proportion of juveniles among all criminals was about 11-12%. During the period from 2003 to 2013 the proportion of juveniles in the total number of identified offenders decreased to 6%. Despite the reduction in the number of crimes committed by this category of persons, for several years the largest criminal activity is maintained in the age group 16-17 years (70%. Smaller proportion is the age group 14-15 years, there’s a reduction in the number of committed crimes: from 49,300 in 2000 to 19,700 in 2013. Over the same period, the number of reported crimes committed by minors or with their complicity decreased almost three times. With all the ambiguity of attitude to the considered problem, the author defines the role of criminal law policy of the state in response to trends in juvenile crime taking into account its specificity, caused by the complex of interrelated factors related to age, social, psychological characteristics of juveniles as a special social group, the originality of their social status. The legislative novel is considered: the punishment in the form of arrest is not imposed on persons under the age of eighteen by the time of court verdict. It’s summarized that the problems of juvenile delinquency are only partly solved by the humanization of criminal law policy of the state in order to restore social justice, correct the convict and prevent new crimes commission.

  1. Rape myth acceptance in men who completed the prostitution offender program of British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Carolin; Kennedy, M Alexis; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2009-06-01

    In an effort to characterize the attitudes and characteristics of men who solicit sex, this study investigated rape myth acceptance as assessed by a modification of Burt's Rape Myth Acceptance Scale. The participants were all men who took part in the Prostitution Offender Program of British Columbia after being arrested for attempting to solicit sex from an undercover police officer. Relationships between endorsement of rape myths, other attitudes, sexual behavior, and demographic variables were examined. Results reveal that age, education, use of pornography, ideal frequency of intercourse, and believing that purchasing sex is a problem are all negatively correlated with rape myth acceptance. Positive correlations were found between rape myth acceptance and sexual conservatism, sexual violence/coercion, and social desirability. Results are discussed in terms of the association between rape myth acceptance and the violence frequently perpetrated against those working in the sex trade.

  2. Procedural protection of juvenile victims of negligence and abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Violence against children is often designated as the worst form of domestic violence, and violence in general. Such a conclusion is a result of multiple factors: children's age and vulnerability, the distinctive features in their physical and mental development which makes them inferior to adults, the kinship (blood relations] and emotional bonds between parents and children, etc. The positive trend in the evolution of the social response to violence against children is reflected in the effort to discover and prevent the abuse, to punish the offenders and to protect the child/victim from secondary victimization during the criminal proceedings. In the Republic of Serbia, the procedural measures governing the protection of juvenile victims/witnesses are set out in Part III of the Juvenile Justice Act (Act on the Juvenile Offenders and Criminal Law Protection of Minors]. However, it was soon evident that there was a need to provide a better legislative framework than the one envisaged in this Act, particularly in terms of ensuring a better protection of minors in the course of criminal proceedings involving children who are victims of abuse and neglect. For this purpose, in 2004, the legislator adopted the National Action Plan on Children in Adversity. This document envisaged the adoption of the General Protocol on the protection of children from abuse and negligence, as well as the adoption of subject-specific protocols which would further regulate the specific procedures for the protection of children-victims in particular social circumstances (health, education, justice] by different social institutions (police, social services]. In this paper, the author analyses the legal framework governing the procedural protection of juvenile victims in the course of criminal proceedings. In addition, the author also explores the statutory provisions (by-laws] adopted in order to establish specific standards and ensure a higher level of protection of

  3. Juvenil idiopatisk arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlin, Troels

    2002-01-01

    The new classification of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is described in this review. Clinical characteristics divide JIA in to subtypes: systemic, oligoarticular (persistent and extended type), RF-positive and--negative polyarticular, enthesitis-related arthritis and psoriatic arthritis...

  4. Juvenile Rockfish Recruitment Cruise

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 1983, the groundfish analysis project began a series of yearly cruises designed to assess the annual abundance of juvenile rockfish along the central California...

  5. Juvenile Justice in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Frías Armenta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The first tribunal in Mexico was established in the central state of San Luis Potosi in 1926. The Law Regarding Social Prevention and Juvenile Delinquency for the Federal District and Mexican territories was promulgated in 1928. In 2005, Article 18 of the Mexican Constitution was modified to establish a comprehensive system (“Sistema Integral de justicia” in Spanish of justice for juveniles between 12 and 18 years old who had committed a crime punishable under criminal law. Its objective was to guarantee juveniles all the due process rights established for adults, in addition to the special ones recognized for minors. The constitutional reform also provides a framework that includes special tribunals as well as alternative justice options for juveniles. With these reforms, institutionalization of minors was to be considered an extreme measure applicable only to felonies and to juveniles older than 14. In 2006, all states within the Mexican federation enacted the “Law of justice for adolescents”. This system, at both the federal and state levels, formalizes a new global paradigm with regard to the triangular relationship between children, the State and the Law. It recognizes that children are also bearers of the inherent human rights recognized for all individuals, instead of simply objects in need of protection. However, despite formally aligning Mexican juvenile justice law with the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC, issues of actual substantive rights remained and new ones have appeared. For example, juveniles younger than 14 who have not committed a felony are released from institutions without any rehabilitation or treatment options, and alternative forms of justice were included without evaluating their possibilities of application or their conditions for success. In addition, the economic status of most juvenile detainees continues to be one of the most important determining factors in the administration of justice

  6. Juvenile polyposis syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Hsiao, Yi-Han; Wei, Chin-Hung; Chang, Szu-Wen; Chang, Lung; Fu, Yu-Wei; Lee, Hung-Chang; Liu, Hsuan-Liang; Yeung, Chun-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Juvenile polyposis syndrome, a rare disorder in children, is characterized with multiple hamartomatous polyps in alimentary tract. A variety of manifestations include bleeding, intussusception, or polyp prolapse. In this study, we present an 8-month-old male infant of juvenile polyposis syndrome initially presenting with chronic anemia. To the best of our knowledge, this is the youngest case reported in the literature. Methods: We report a rare case of an 8-month-old male...

  7. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    OpenAIRE

    Hoeve, M.

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted. The first study addressed a meta-analysis on parenting characteristics and styles in relation to delinquency. In this meta-analysis, previous manuscripts were systematically analyzed, computing mean ...

  8. Using the Karolinska Scales of Personality on male juvenile delinquents: relationships between scales and factor structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dåderman, Anna M; Hellström, Ake; Wennberg, Peter; Törestad, Bertil

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate relationships between scales from the Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP) and the factor structure of the KSP in a sample of male juvenile delinquents. The KSP was administered to a group of male juvenile delinquents (n=55, mean age 17 years; standard deviation=1.2) from four Swedish national correctional institutions for serious offenders. As expected, the KSP showed appropriate correlations between the scales. Factor analysis (maximum likelihood) arrived at a four-factor solution in this sample, which is in line with previous research performed in a non-clinical sample of Swedish males. More research is needed in a somewhat larger sample of juvenile delinquents in order to confirm the present results regarding the factor solution.

  9. Offending and Victimization in the Digital Age : Comparing Correlates of Cybercrime and Traditional Offending-Only, Victimization-Only and the Victimization-Offending Overlap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenbarg, Marleen Weulen; Holt, Thomas J.; van Gelder, Jean Louis

    2017-01-01

    Cybercrime research suggests that, analogous to traditional crime, victims are more likely to be offenders. This overlap could be caused by shared risk factors, but it is unclear if these are comparable to traditional risk factors. Utilizing a high risk sample of computer-dependent cyber-offenders

  10. Adolescent delinquency and antisocial tendencies as precursors to adult violent offending: a prospective study of a representative sample of swiss men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubacher, Arja; Rossegger, Astrid; Endrass, Jérôme; Angst, Jules; Urbaniok, Frank; Vetter, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    Studies on adult sex and violent offenders have found high rates of adolescent delinquency, while early delinquency has been shown to be significantly associated with adult offending. The examined subsample (n = 123) of a longitudinal prospective study (n = 6,315) includes all men who at the age of 19 had an entry in the criminal records. During the observation period of 34 years, 68.3% of the sample had been reconvicted as adults, 23.6% for violent or sex offenses. The odds of adult sex or violent offending were 2.8 times higher for those who had committed a violent offense in adolescence and 1.05 times higher for any offense committed before the age of 19. The characteristics of criminal history showed the highest discriminative values (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.61-0.65). The most important finding of this study was that characteristics of adolescent delinquency predicted adult violent or sex offending, whereas socioeconomic and psychiatric characteristics did not.

  11. Safe sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sex; Sexually transmitted - safe sex; GC - safe sex; Gonorrhea - safe sex; Herpes - safe sex; HIV - safe sex; ... contact. STIs include: Chlamydia Genital herpes Genital warts Gonorrhea Hepatitis HIV HPV Syphilis STIs are also called ...

  12. The Development of Four Leading Principles of the Convention on the Rights of the Child in Vietnam´s Juvenile Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duc Nguyen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper sheds light on the latest development of four CRC principles in the administration of Vietnam’s juvenile justice after the recent amendment of the Penal Code and Criminal Procedural Code of Vietnam. It also assesses the compatibility of the Vietnamese juvenile justice system compared to international standards elaborated by the CRC Committee. At the same time, certain issues are raised regarding the implementation of such principles in practice. Finally, concluding remarks will be provided together with recommendations on how to develop the juvenile justice system in Vietnam. Keywords: Vietnam’s juvenile justice; Children’s rights; CRC leading principles; juvenile offenders; the rights of the child; non-discrimination; best interests of the child; children’s right to life; survival and development; children’s right to be heard.

  13. Australian Mass Shootings: An Analysis of Incidents and Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhedran, Samara

    2017-06-01

    Mass shooting events are relatively underresearched, and most study comes from the United States. Despite significant international interest, little is known about other countries' experiences of these events. The current study examines Australian mass shooting incidents and offenders, with emphasis on mental illness, life strains, and offenders' life histories. Australia had 14 mass shootings between 1964 and 2014. Most offenders experienced acute life stressors and/or chronic strains leading up to the event; however, diagnosed mental illness was less commonly documented. These observations provide new information about mass shooting incidents and offenders, and can help to inform international policy development.

  14. Early parenting styles and sexual offending behavior: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigre-Leirós, Vera; Carvalho, Joana; Nobre, Pedro J

    2016-01-01

    Sexual offenders, in general, report problematic rearing practices from their parents, lacking however more empirical research on this topic regarding particular subtypes of offenders. The current study examined the relationship between early parenting styles and different types of sexual offending. A total of 113 sexual offenders (rapists, pedophilic and nonpedophilic child molesters), and 51 nonsexual offenders completed the EMBU (My Memories of Upbringing), the Brief Symptom Inventory, and the Socially Desirable Response Set Measure. Results showed that rapists were less likely to remember their fathers as being emotionally warm compared with nonsexual offenders and pedophilic child molesters. In addition, compared with rapists, pedophilic offenders perceived their mothers as having been less emotionally warm to them. Overall, results showed that certain developmental experiences with parents were able to distinguish between subtypes of offenders supporting an association between distal interpersonal factors and sexual offending. These findings may have important implications for early intervention and prevention of sexual crimes. Further research using larger samples of pedophilic child molesters is recommended. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. SOME METHODOLOGICAL PROBLEMS IN THE STUDY OF THE INDIVIDUAL OFFENDER IN RELATION TO THE CONCEPT OF "OFFENDER"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novichkov Valery Evgenyevich

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses traditional and non-traditional, but scientifically sound and valid methodological approaches to the study of the individual offender and the offender in their relationship. In particular, substantiate the position criminological approach to the study of criminal behavior of the person and his personality in connection with the set of its biological, physiological, psychological, genetic, "from the outside coming" and other properties and qualities, and in criminal law the offender is to be regarded as persons subject to criminal liability and to include among the currently known characteristics of the individual offender, only those that are covered by the notion "subject of crime". In General, studying the phenomena of the terms "offender" and "offender" should not ignore the data on the "biologization" and "sociological" man, and passing his brain biochemical processes producing motives, feelings, motives, needs etc.

  16. Parent-child relationships of boys in different offending trajectories. A developmental perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keijsers, Loes; Loeber, Rolf; Branje, Susan; Meeus, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Background This study tested the theoretical assumption that transformations of parent-child relationships in late childhood and adolescence would differ for boys following different offending trajectories. Methods Using longitudinal multiinformant data of 503 boys (ages 7–19), we conducted Growth Mixture Modeling to extract offending trajectories. Developmental changes in child reports of parent-child joint activities and relationship quality were examined using Latent Growth Curves. Results Five offending trajectories were found: non-offenders, moderate childhood offenders, adolescent-limited offenders, serious childhood offenders, and serious persistent offenders. Non-offenders reported high and stable levels of relationship quality between age 10 and 16. Adolescent-limited offenders reported a similarly high relationship quality as non-offenders at ages 7 and 10, but a lower and decreasing relationship quality in adolescence. Compared with non-offenders, serious persistent offenders reported poorer parent-child relationship quality at all ages, and a decreasing relationship quality in adolescence. Serious persistent offenders and adolescent-limited offenders reported similar levels and changes in parent-child relationship quality in adolescence. Although serious persistent offenders reported fewer joint activities at age 10 and 13 than non-offenders, a similar linear decrease in joint activities in early to middle adolescence was found for boys in each trajectory. Conclusion Developmental changes in parent-child relationship quality differ for different types of offenders. This finding has scientific and practical implications. PMID:22816682

  17. Protective factors in male adolescents with a history of sexual and/or violent offending: a comparison between three subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Put, Claudia E; Asscher, Jessica J

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to examine the presence and impact of dynamic protective factors for delinquency in male adolescents with a history of sexual and/or violent offending. Bipolar factors (factors with risk and protective factors being the ends of the same continuum) were examined in male adolescents with a history of sexual offenses against younger children (CSOs; n = 341), a history of sexual offenses against peers and/or adult victims (PSOs; n = 207), and a history of nonsexual violent offenses (VOs; n = 1,356). We conducted secondary analyses on data collected with the Washington State Juvenile Court Assessment and on general recidivism data. ANOVA, correlations, Fisher's z tests, and logistic regression analyses were applied. Results showed that, in VOs, the number of risk factors was greater than the number of protective factors, whereas in PSOs, and especially CSOs, the number of protective factors was greater than the number of risk factors. Protective factors appeared to be especially important for juveniles with a history of sexual offenses for two reasons. First, the impact of most protective factors on recidivism was larger among juveniles with a history of sexual offenses than among those with a history of violent offenses. Second, protective factors added to the predictive accuracy over and above risk factors in juveniles with a history of sexual offenses, but not in those with a history of violent offenses. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. 7. Efektivitas Ecpat Indonesia Dalam Menangani Kejahatan Child Sex Tourism Di Indonesia: Studi Kasus Child Sex Tourism Di Bali Tahun 2012 -2014

    OpenAIRE

    Rizky Irawan, Noor Fathia; Susiatiningsih, Hermini; Paramasatya, Satwika

    2016-01-01

    The crime of child sex tourism in Bali making Indonesia was rated as the country's firstworld sex tourism, it is triggered by a lack of knowledge and lack of strong laws inIndonesia for the offender. Child sex tourism is a threat to children, since the perpetratorsare mostly foreign pedophiles who come on holiday to Indonesia. To overcome thisproblem ECPAT Indonesia undertaking various efforts to assist Indonesia in dealing withchild sex tourism crimes in particular areas of Bali. ECPAT Inter...

  19. Extending juvenility in grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaeppler, Shawn; de Leon Gatti, Natalia; Foerster, Jillian

    2017-04-11

    The present invention relates to compositions and methods for modulating the juvenile to adult developmental growth transition in plants, such as grasses (e.g. maize). In particular, the invention provides methods for enhancing agronomic properties in plants by modulating expression of GRMZM2G362718, GRMZM2G096016, or homologs thereof. Modulation of expression of one or more additional genes which affect juvenile to adult developmental growth transition such as Glossy15 or Cg1, in conjunction with such modulation of expression is also contemplated. Nucleic acid constructs for down-regulation of GRMZM2G362718 and/or GRMZM2G096016 are also contemplated, as are transgenic plants and products produced there from, that demonstrate altered, such as extended juvenile growth, and display associated phenotypes such as enhanced yield, improved digestibility, and increased disease resistance. Plants described herein may be used, for example, as improved forage or feed crops or in biofuel production.

  20. Miastenia gravis juvenil Juvenile myasthenia gravis

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar Papazian; Israel Alfonso; Nayle Araguez

    2009-01-01

    La miastenia gravis juvenil (MGJ) es un trastorno crónico auto inmune en el cual existen anticuerpos séricos que al unirse a los receptores de acetilcolin nicotínicos de la membrana muscular de la placa motora alteran la transmisión neuromuscular. El resultado es fatiga muscular precoz con progresión a la parálisis durante estados de contracción muscular iterativos (movimientos) o sostenidos (posturas) y más raramente parálisis permanente durante el reposo. Los músculos inervados por los nerv...

  1. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Barut

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is the most common chronic rheumatic disease of unknown aetiology in childhood and predominantly presents with peripheral arthritis. The disease is divided into several subgroups, according to demographic characteristics, clinical features, treatment modalities and disease prognosis. Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis, which is one of the most frequent disease subtypes, is characterized by recurrent fever and rash. Oligoarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis, common among young female patients, is usually accompanied by anti-nuclear antibodie positivity and anterior uveitis. Seropositive polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis, an analogue of adult rheumatoid arthritis, is seen in less than 10% of paediatric patients. Seronegative polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis, an entity more specific for childhood, appears with widespread large- and small-joint involvement. Enthesitis-related arthritis is a separate disease subtype, characterized by enthesitis and asymmetric lower-extremity arthritis. This disease subtype represents the childhood form of adult spondyloarthropathies, with human leukocyte antigen-B27 positivity and uveitis but commonly without axial skeleton involvement. Juvenile psoriatic arthritis is characterized by a psoriatic rash, accompanied by arthritis, nail pitting and dactylitis. Disease complications can vary from growth retardation and osteoporosis secondary to treatment and disease activity, to life-threatening macrophage activation syndrome with multi-organ insufficiency. With the advent of new therapeutics over the past 15 years, there has been a marked improvement in juvenile idiopathic arthritis treatment and long-term outcome, without any sequelae. The treatment of juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients involves teamwork, including an experienced paediatric rheumatologist, an ophthalmologist, an orthopaedist, a paediatric psychiatrist and a physiotherapist. The primary goals

  2. DERMATOMIOSITIS JUVENIL Y EMBARAZO

    OpenAIRE

    Evans M,Gregorio; Poulsen R,Ronald; Blanco R,Romiely; Luna V,Viviana

    2002-01-01

    La dermatomiositis juvenil es un desorden inflamatorio crónico multisistémico del tejido conectivo. Tiene una incidencia de 2-3/100.000/año. Con la disminución en la mortalidad experimentada en los últimos decenios, la atención está cifrada en la morbilidad a largo plazo y en las alteraciones funcionales. Con un tratamiento agresivo los niños con dermatomiositis juvenil generalmente tienen un futuro promisorio, sin incapacidad o con incapacidad mínima. La mortalidad actualmente se estima cerc...

  3. Tracking Offenders: The Child Victim. Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, Donald A.; Sedgwick, Jeffrey L., Ed.

    This research focused on the criminal justice system's handling of offenders against children, comparing it with the processing of offenders against all victims. Data were obtained from California, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Utah, and Virginia for offenses against children and against all victims in the areas of kidnapping, sexual assault,…

  4. Young Offenders' Perspectives on Their Literacy and Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Thomas; Clegg, Judy; Stackhouse, Joy

    2016-01-01

    Background: Research has revealed that the youth offending population has low language ability when assessed on standardized language measures. However, little is known about the perceptions young offenders (YOs) have of their own literacy ability and their communicative interactions with others. Such knowledge might further our understanding of…

  5. Effects of Psychoeducation for Offenders in a Community Correctional Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liau, Albert K.; Shively, Randy; Horn, Mary; Landau, Jennifer; Barriga, Alvaro; Gibbs, John C.

    2004-01-01

    The present study provided a randomized outcome evaluation of the psychoeducational component of the EQUIP program. The psychoeducational curriculum was implemented in a community correctional facility for adult felony offenders. The psychoeducational curriculum is designed to remedy offenders' delays in moral judgment maturity, social cognitive…

  6. Psychopathology and Deviant Sexual Arousal in Incarcerated Sexual Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serin, Ralph C.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between psychopathology and deviant sexual arousal in sexual offenders (n=65), with approximately equal numbers of rapists and child molesters. Differentiating between rapists, extrafamilial pedophiles, and incest offenders revealed that the relationship between psychopathology and arousal was most apparent for…

  7. Engaging Scottish Young Offenders in Education through Music and Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kirstin; Overy, Katie

    2010-01-01

    This study examined music and art classes as a way to engage young offenders in education, and to see if such engagement had an effect on their further participation in education, self-esteem, self-control, behaviour and literacy skills. The arts are often discussed as being an inviting and safe method of entry for young offenders who may have had…

  8. Offenders' Perceptions of House Arrest and Electronic Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jamie S.; Hanrahan, Kate; Bowers, James H., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on a study designed to examine the perceptions of house arrest (HA) and electronic monitoring (EM) among offenders who have recently experienced this criminal sentence. Data were gathered via a self-administered questionnaire and follow-up interviews with a sample of offenders. Our primary areas of interest were to assess (a)…

  9. Stroop tasks reveal abnormal selective attention among psychopathic offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiatt, Kristina D; Schmitt, William A; Newman, Joseph P

    2004-01-01

    Selective attention among offenders with psychopathy was investigated using 3 Stroop paradigms: a standard color-word (CW) Stroop, a picture-word (PW) Stroop, and a color-word Stroop in which the word and color were spatially separated (separated CW). Consistent with "overselective" attention, offenders with psychopathy displayed reduced Stroop interference on the separated CW and PW tasks relative to offenders who were not psychopathic. However, offenders with psychopathy displayed normal Stroop interference on the standard CW Stroop. Further, the reduced interference of offenders with psychopathy on the separated CW Stroop was accompanied by normal facilitation. These findings suggest a circumscribed attentional deficit in psychopathy that hinders the use of unattended information that is (a) not integrated with deliberately attended information and (b) not compatible with current goal-directed behavior. ((c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)

  10. Isolation, gratification, justification: offenders' explanations of child molesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Louanne

    2003-01-01

    Child sexual abusers' descriptions of their thoughts, behaviors, and relationships were identified by reviewing qualitative research studies published between 1982 and 2001. Offenders used cognitive distortions to meet personal needs, protect themselves from aversive self-awareness, and overcome internal inhibitions against engaging children in sexual activity. Offenders carefully groomed their victims by systematically separating them from their families and peers and socializing them into sexual relationships. Specific cognitive and behavioral processes were used to translate sexual arousal into offending behavior. Offenders justified the abuse by making excuses and redefining their actions as love and mutuality. Throughout the process, offenders exploited the power imbalance inherent in all adult-child relationships. The participants in these studies provided a unique perspective on child sexual abuse that can be used to help victims cope, guide treatment development and evaluation, and suggest new questions for future research.

  11. Juvenile polyposis syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Yi-Han; Wei, Chin-Hung; Chang, Szu-Wen; Chang, Lung; Fu, Yu-Wei; Lee, Hung-Chang; Liu, Hsuan-Liang; Yeung, Chun-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Juvenile polyposis syndrome, a rare disorder in children, is characterized with multiple hamartomatous polyps in alimentary tract. A variety of manifestations include bleeding, intussusception, or polyp prolapse. In this study, we present an 8-month-old male infant of juvenile polyposis syndrome initially presenting with chronic anemia. To the best of our knowledge, this is the youngest case reported in the literature. Methods: We report a rare case of an 8-month-old male infant who presented with chronic anemia and gastrointestinal bleeding initially. Panendoscopy and abdominal computed tomography showed multiple polyposis throughout the entire alimentary tract leading to intussusception. Technetium-99m-labeled red blood cell (RBC) bleeding scan revealed the possibility of gastrointestinal tract bleeding in the jejunum. Histopathological examination on biopsy samples showed Peutz-Jeghers syndrome was excluded, whereas the diagnosis of juvenile polyposis syndrome was established. Results: Enteroscopic polypectomy is the mainstay of the treatment. However, polyps recurred and occupied the majority of the gastrointestinal tract in 6 months. Supportive management was given. The patient expired for severe sepsis at the age of 18 months. Conclusion: Juvenile polyposis syndrome is an inherited disease, so it is not possible to prevent it. Concerning of its poor outcome and high mortality rate, it is important that we should increase awareness and education of the parents at its earliest stages. PMID:27631205

  12. [ABOUT JUVENILE NASOPHARYNGEAL ANGIOFIBROMA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbain, V; Meunier, P; Otto, B

    2015-09-01

    We report the case of a young man with a juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma. In this paper, we will first remind the clinical signs of this pathology and its radiological appearance (localisation and extensions). Then we will explain how radioembolisation techniques were used to facilitate the surgical intervention. Finally we will discuss the histology of this tumor.

  13. Naevoxanthoendothelioma (Synonym: Juvenile Xanthogranuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Handa

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of naevoxanthoendothelioma juvenile xanthogranuloma is reported with rare features like late onset of the disease, involvement of liver and diffuse cutaneous lesions including cafe au lait spots and pigmented naevus. Final diagnosis could be achieved only on histopathology report.

  14. Demographic origins of skewed operational and adult sex ratios: perturbation analyses of two-sex models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veran, Sophie; Beissinger, Steven R

    2009-02-01

    Skewed sex ratios - operational (OSR) and Adult (ASR) - arise from sexual differences in reproductive behaviours and adult survival rates due to the cost of reproduction. However, skewed sex-ratio at birth, sex-biased dispersal and immigration, and sexual differences in juvenile mortality may also contribute. We present a framework to decompose the roles of demographic traits on sex ratios using perturbation analyses of two-sex matrix population models. Metrics of sensitivity are derived from analyses of sensitivity, elasticity, life-table response experiments and life stage simulation analyses, and applied to the stable stage distribution instead of lambda. We use these approaches to examine causes of male-biased sex ratios in two populations of green-rumped parrotlets (Forpus passerinus) in Venezuela. Female local juvenile survival contributed the most to the unbalanced OSR and ASR due to a female-biased dispersal rate, suggesting sexual differences in philopatry can influence sex ratios more strongly than the cost of reproduction.

  15. Sex Disparities in Arrest Outcomes for Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Melissa; Worthen, Meredith G. F.

    2011-01-01

    Domestic violence arrests have been historically focused on protecting women and children from abusive men. Arrest patterns continue to reflect this bias with more men arrested for domestic violence compared to women. Such potential gender variations in arrest patterns pave the way to the investigation of disparities by sex of the offender in…

  16. Differential Associations and Daily Smoking of Adolescents: The Importance of Same-Sex Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nofziger, Stacey; Lee, Hye-Ryeon

    2006-01-01

    This article examines whether the importance of parents, siblings, best friends, and romantic interests are sex-specific in predicting daily juvenile smoking. Juveniles who smoke daily are strongly influenced by prosmoking attitudes and behaviors of same-sex family members. However, peers remain the most important associations in predicting daily…

  17. Assessment of Alcohol Use Disorders among Court-Mandated DWI Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasiewicz, Paul R.; Nochajski, Thomas H.; Homish, D. Lynn

    2007-01-01

    Convicted DWI offenders (N = 549) were assessed for alcohol use disorders. Repeat offenders had twice the rate of both lifetime and current alcohol use disorders compared with 1st-time offenders. Guidelines for determining alcohol problems in DWI offenders are recommended.

  18. Differences between Homicides Committed by Lone and Multiple Offenders in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jisun; Cho, Joon Tag

    2018-05-16

    The aim of this study was to differentiate between homicides committed by multiple offenders and homicides committed by lone offenders. Using data on homicide incidents that occurred in South Korea between 1985 and 2008, we compared 134 homicides committed by multiple offenders, with 369 homicides committed by lone offenders. A greater proportion of homicides committed by multiple offenders involved injuries to the victim's head compared to homicides by lone offenders. Homicides committed by multiple offenders were more likely to involve blunt instruments and ligatures, whereas homicides by lone offenders were more likely to involve sharp instruments. In addition, a majority of the homicides committed by multiple offenders were planned. The results of this study have practical implications for homicide investigations, as well as theoretical implications for homicide research on the difference in offense behaviors based on the number of offenders. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  19. Parental Psychiatric Disease and Risks of Attempted Suicide and Violent Criminal Offending in Offspring: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Pearl L H; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker; Springate, David; Astrup, Aske; Kapur, Nav; Antonsen, Sussie; Mors, Ole; Webb, Roger T

    2016-10-01

    Self-directed and interpersonal violence share some common risk factors such as a parental history of mental illness. However, relationships between the full spectrum of parental psychiatric disease and these 2 related outcomes are unclear. To examine associations between the full spectrum of parental psychiatric disease and risks of attempted suicide and violent offending among offspring. Population-based cohort study of all persons born in Denmark 1967 through 1997, followed up from their 15th birthday until occurrence of adverse outcome or December 31, 2012, whichever came first. Array of parental psychiatric disorders and parental suicide attempt, delineated from records of secondary care treatments. Using survival analyses techniques, incidence rate ratios were estimated for offspring suicide attempt and violent offending. We examined 1 743 525 cohort members (48.7% female; total follow-up, 27.2 million person-years). Risks for offspring suicide attempt and violent offending were elevated across virtually the full spectrum of parental psychiatric disease. Incidence rate ratios were the most elevated for parental diagnoses of antisocial personality disorder (suicide attempt, 3.96; 95% CI, 3.72-4.21; violent offending, 3.62; 95% CI, 3.41-3.84) and cannabis misuse (suicide attempt, 3.57; 95% CI, 3.25-3.92; violent offending, 4.05; 95% CI, 3.72-4.39), and for parental suicide attempt (suicide attempt, 3.42; 95% CI, 3.29-3.55; violent offending, 3.31; 95% CI, 3.19-3.44). Parental mood disorders (and bipolar disorder in particular) conferred more modest risk increases. A history of mental illness or suicide attempt in both parents was associated with double the risks compared with having just 1 affected parent. Associations between parental psychiatric disease and offspring violent offending were stronger for female than for male offspring, whereas little sex difference in risk was found for offspring suicide attempt. The similarities in risk patterns observed

  20. When love hurts: assessing the intersectionality of ethnicity, socio-economic status, parental connectedness, child abuse, and gender attitudes in juvenile violent delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahlah, Esmah; Lens, Kim M E; Bogaerts, Stefan; van der Knaap, Leontien M

    2013-11-01

    Researchers have not yet reached agreement about the validity of several competing explanations that seek to explain ethnic differences in juvenile violent offending. Ethnicity cannot solely explain why boys with an ethnic minority background commit more (violent) crimes. By assessing the intersectionality of structural, cultural and individual considerations, both the independent effects as well as the interplay between different factors can be examined. This study shows that aforementioned factors cumulatively play a role in severe violent offending, with parental connectedness and child abuse having the strongest associations. However, since most variables interact and ethnicity is associated with those specific factors, a conclusion to be drawn is that ethnicity may be relevant as an additional variable predicting severe violent offending although indirectly. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Visual attention in violent offenders: Susceptibility to distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotboom, Jantine; Hoppenbrouwers, Sylco S; Bouman, Yvonne H A; In 't Hout, Willem; Sergiou, Carmen; van der Stigchel, Stefan; Theeuwes, Jan

    2017-05-01

    Impairments in executive functioning give rise to reduced control of behavior and impulses, and are therefore a risk factor for violence and criminal behavior. However, the contribution of specific underlying processes remains unclear. A crucial element of executive functioning, and essential for cognitive control and goal-directed behavior, is visual attention. To further elucidate the importance of attentional functioning in the general offender population, we employed an attentional capture task to measure visual attention. We expected offenders to have impaired visual attention, as revealed by increased attentional capture, compared to healthy controls. When comparing the performance of 62 offenders to 69 healthy community controls, we found our hypothesis to be partly confirmed. Offenders were more accurate overall, more accurate in the absence of distracting information, suggesting superior attention. In the presence of distracting information offenders were significantly less accurate compared to when no distracting information was present. Together, these findings indicate that violent offenders may have superior attention, yet worse control over attention. As such, violent offenders may have trouble adjusting to unexpected, irrelevant stimuli, which may relate to failures in self-regulation and inhibitory control. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Pharmacological treatment of sexual offenders in German outpatient treatment centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Daniel; Gregório Hertz, Priscilla; Sauter, Julia; Briken, Peer; Rettenberger, Martin

    2018-05-04

    In Germany, depending on a sexual offender's culpability and the severity of the offence, he/she can be placed either in the forensic-psychiatric or the correctional system. Numbers related to the pharmacological treatment of sexual offenders for the correctional system are missing so far. In sexual offenders, the pharmacological treatment of paraphilic disorders is of special importance. The present study aimed at assessing the prevalence of pharmacological sexual offender treatment in German outpatient treatment centers supervising mainly clients from the correctional sector. An online questionnaire was sent to 112 outpatient treatment centers and 21 provided data relevant for the present study. The included institutions reported about a total of 813 sexual offenders, of whom 200 (24.6%) were treated with pharmacological agents, most frequently antipsychotics (14.8%) and selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors (7.1%). Of the total sample, 26.7% of sexual offenders were diagnosed with a paraphilic - mainly with a pedophilic - disorder. Only 2% were treated with androgen-deprivation therapy. Compared with forensic-psychiatric institutions, only a minority of sexual offenders are treated with medication specifically addressing paraphilic symptomatology. However, the prevalence of paraphilic disorders found in the present study suggests that pharmacological treatment of paraphilic fantasies and behaviors could be of great importance in the correctional sector as well.

  3. Mentally disordered criminal offenders in the Swedish criminal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svennerlind, Christer; Nilsson, Thomas; Kerekes, Nóra; Andiné, Peter; Lagerkvist, Margareta; Forsman, Anders; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Malmgren, Helge

    2010-01-01

    Historically, the Swedish criminal justice system conformed to other Western penal law systems, exempting severely mentally disordered offenders considered to be unaccountable. However, in 1965 Sweden enforced a radical penal law abolishing exceptions based on unaccountability. Mentally disordered offenders have since then been subjected to various forms of sanctions motivated by the offender's need for care and aimed at general prevention. Until 2008, a prison sentence was not allowed for offenders found to have committed a crime under the influence of a severe mental disorder, leaving forensic psychiatric care the most common sanction in this group. Such offenders are nevertheless held criminally responsible, liable for damages, and encumbered with a criminal record. In most cases, such offenders must not be discharged without the approval of an administrative court. Two essentially modern principles may be discerned behind the "Swedish model": first, an attempted abolishment of moral responsibility, omitting concepts such as guilt, accountability, atonement, and retribution, and, second, the integration of psychiatric care into the societal reaction and control systems. The model has been much criticized, and several governmental committees have suggested a re-introduction of a system involving the concept of accountability. This review describes the Swedish special criminal justice provisions on mentally disordered offenders including the legislative changes in 1965 along with current proposals to return to a pre-1965 system, presents current Swedish forensic psychiatric practice and research, and discusses some of the ethical, political, and metaphysical presumptions that underlie the current system. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Offenders With Antisocial Personality Disorder Display More Impairments in Mentalizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbury-Helps, John; Feigenbaum, Janet; Fonagy, Peter

    2017-04-01

    This study was designed to test the hypothesis that individuals with antisocial, particularly violent, histories of offending behavior have specific problems in social cognition, notably in relation to accurately envisioning mental states. Eighty-three male offenders on community license, 65% of whom met the threshold for antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), completed a battery of computerized mentalizing tests requiring perspective taking (Perspectives Taking Test), mental state recognition from facial expression (Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test), and identification of mental states in the context of social interaction (Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition). The results were compared with a partially matched sample of 42 nonoffending controls. The offender group showed impaired mentalizing on all of the tasks when compared with the control group for this study when controlling for demographic and clinical variables, and the offending group performed poorly in comparisons with participants in published studies, suggesting that limited capacity to mentalize may be part of the picture presented by individuals with histories of offending behavior. Offenders with ASPD demonstrated greater difficulty with mentalizing than non-ASPD offenders. Mentalization subscales were able to predict offender status and those with ASPD, indicating that specific impairments in perspective taking, social cognition, and social sensitivity, as well as tendencies toward hypomentalizing and nonmentalizing, are more marked in individuals who meet criteria for a diagnosis of ASPD. Awareness of these deficits may be helpful to professionals working with offenders, and specifically addressing these deficits may be a productive aspect of therapy for this "hard to reach" clinical group.

  5. Preventing Juvenile Delinquency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina dos Reis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to problematize discourses about protection and care that have surrounded compulsory hospitalization by evidencing its use as a control and punishment mechanism that increases the social vulnerability of young drug users. For such, we analyze lawsuits involving juveniles who were consigned to psychiatric institutions for drug addiction treatment as a protection measure in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, in Brazil. The analysis of the materials has evidenced discourses that have circumscribed young drug users and constructed this population as potentially dangerous subjects as well as a population category at risk. In this sense, we point out how compulsory hospitalization has emerged out of the lawsuits as a tool for prevention of juvenile delinquency.

  6. Late Onset Juvenile Xanthogranuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punithwavathy K

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A 19 year old female was seen with multiple skin coloured and hyperpigmented macules, discrete as well as grouped papules and nodules of varying sizes distributed over the face, neck, extensor and flexor aspects of both upper and lower extremities including joints. The trunk was spared. Some of the lesions showed features of spontaneous regression. Investigations confirmed the diagnosis of juvenile xanthogranuloma. Lesions regressed satisfactorily with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy.

  7. Prosocial reasoning and emotions in young offenders and non-offenders

    OpenAIRE

    Llorca-Mestre, Anna; Malonda-Vidal, Elisabeth; Samper-García, Paula

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to analyse the cognitive processes (prosocial moral reasoning, perspective taking) and emotional processes (empathic concern, emotional instability, state-trait anger) which interact in predicting aggressive behaviour and prosocial behaviour of adolescents who have committed a crime and those who have not, for the purpose of establishing the predictor variables in both groups. Participants were 440 adolescents, 220 of them young offenders residing in four yo...

  8. Evidence for superior neurobiological and behavioral inhibitory control abilities in non-offending as compared to offending pedophiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kärgel, Christian; Massau, Claudia; Weiß, Simone; Walter, Martin; Borchardt, Viola; Krueger, Tillmann H C; Tenbergen, Gilian; Kneer, Jonas; Wittfoth, Matthias; Pohl, Alexander; Gerwinn, Hannah; Ponseti, Jorge; Amelung, Till; Beier, Klaus M; Mohnke, Sebastian; Walter, Henrik; Schiffer, Boris

    2017-02-01

    Neurobehavioral models of pedophilia and child sexual offending suggest a pattern of temporal and in particular prefrontal disturbances leading to inappropriate behavioral control and subsequently an increased propensity to sexually offend against children. However, clear empirical evidence for such mechanisms is still missing. Using a go/nogo paradigm in combination with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we compared behavioral performance and neural response patterns among three groups of men matched for age and IQ: pedophiles with (N = 40) and without (N = 37) a history of hands-on sexual offences against children as well as healthy non-offending controls (N = 40). As compared to offending pedophiles, non-offending pedophiles exhibited superior inhibitory control as reflected by significantly lower rate of commission errors. Group-by-condition interaction analysis also revealed inhibition-related activation in the left posterior cingulate and the left superior frontal cortex that distinguished between offending and non-offending pedophiles, while no significant differences were found between pedophiles and healthy controls. Both areas showing distinct activation pattern among pedophiles play a critical role in linking neural networks that relate to effective cognitive functioning. Data therefore suggest that heightened inhibition-related recruitment of these areas as well as decreased amount of commission errors is related to better inhibitory control in pedophiles who successfully avoid committing hands-on sexual offences against children. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1092-1104, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Some Evidence of Race Bias in the Diagnosis and Treatment of the Juvenile Offender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Dorothy Otnow; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Clinical and epidemiological evidence is presented indicating that many more Black delinquent children and their families fail to receive needed psychiatric and medical services than do White delinquents. (Author)

  10. Bulletin 3: Explanations for Offending : Study Group on the Transitions between Juvenile Delinquency and Adult Crime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr Andrea Donker; David Petechuk; Mauri Matsuda; Ann Masten; Peggy Giordano; Erik Bulten; Christopher Uggen; Terence Thornberry

    2013-01-01

    The transition from adolescence to adulthood also has been described as a window of opportunity or vulnerability when developmental and contextual changes converge to support positive turnarounds and redirections (Masten, Long, Kuo, McCormick, & Desjardins, 2009; Masten, Obradović, & Burt, 2006).

  11. Maternal Care, Maltreatment and Callous-Unemotional Traits among Urban Male Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimonis, Eva R.; Cross, Brittany; Howard, Aisha; Donoghue, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    Callous-unemotional (CU) traits (i.e., lack of empathy/guilt, uncaring attitudes) are believed to be a developmental antecedent to adult psychopathy and identify antisocial youth at risk for severe and persistent aggression. The psychosocial histories of antisocial and aggressive individuals with psychopathic traits are characterized by abusive or…

  12. A media violence-inspired juvenile sexual homicide offender 13 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Wade C; Eggleston, Chris F; Smoak, Pamela

    2003-11-01

    No follow-up studies exist on how minors who commit sexual homicides adjust once released back into the community. This is an important question given the extreme nature of their crimes, lack of recidivism data, and the expectation that one-half of them will be freed from prison by mid-life. Likewise, no studies exist on the role our culture's pervasive media violence plays in these offenses. This report describes a 13-year-old boy who committed a witnessed media violence-inspired sexual homicide. Follow-up information is provided on his community adjustment as an adult four years after release from prison. He had multiple indicators of brain dysfunction, and watched a "slasher" film just before committing the blitz style crime upon a female neighbor. Media violence literature is reviewed--against a backdrop of developmental abnormalities, neuropsychiatric vulnerabilities, family dysfunction, and mental illness. This case illustrates how the confluence of such variables, combined with the tinder of erotic screen violence, may lead to sexual murder.

  13. The Relation between Abuse and Violent Delinquency: The Conversion of Shame to Blame in Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Jason; Sullivan, Margaret Wolan; Lewis, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Objective: While the relationship between abusive parenting and violent delinquency has been well established, the cognitive and emotional processes by which this occurs remain relatively unidentified. The objective of this work is to apply a conceptual model linking abusive parenting to the conversion of shame into blaming others and therefore to…

  14. From child pornography offending to child sexual abuse : A review of child pornography offender characteristics and risks for cross-over

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtepen, J.A.B.M.; Sijtsema, J.J.; Bogaerts, S.

    2014-01-01

    In this review, concrete directions are provided for individual risk assessment, treatment planning, and future research on child pornography offending. First, based on reviewing offender characteristics, including demographics, socio-affective difficulties, cognitive distortions and psychosexual

  15. A longitudinal examination of offending and specialization among a sample of Massachusetts domestic violence offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Tara N; Jennings, Wesley G; Tomsich, Elizabeth A; Gover, Angela R

    2013-02-01

    A paucity of existing research focuses on longitudinal examinations of criminal trajectories among reoffenses committed by domestic violence offenders. Specifically, few studies have longitudinally assessed whether domestic violence offenders specialize, recidivating in domestic violence assault, or generalize, committing a range of personal and property crimes. Acknowledging these research deficiencies, the current study uses longitudinal data from a cohort of 317 batterers who were processed in a domestic violence court to investigate the trajectories of domestic violence arrests and nondomestic violence arrests over a 10-year period. The degree of overlap between domestic and nondomestic violence arrest trajectory groups is examined through a cross-tabulation and chi-square analysis. Logistic and multinomial regression models are applied to identify risk factors that distinguish trajectory groups. A PROC TRAJ procedure identifies two trajectory groups for domestic violence arrests (low and high rate) and three trajectory groups for nondomestic violence arrests (very low, low, and high rate). Results indicate that specialization among domestic violence offenders is rare-prior alcohol and drug crimes predict membership in the high-rate domestic violence arrest trajectory group and prior domestic violence arrests predict membership in both the low-rate and high-rate nondomestic violence arrest trajectories. Implications for future research and policy are discussed in this article.

  16. "Brincar de osadia": sexualidade e socialização infanto-juvenil no universo de classes populares "Sex-daring games": sexuality and gender socialization in the working-class children's universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jucélia Santos Bispo Ribeiro

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo focaliza o processo de socialização infanto-juvenil no que diz respeito ao gênero e sexualidade, a partir de uma perspectiva sócio-antropológica. O trabalho baseia-se em pesquisa de cunho etnográfico, que teve como alvo grupos de crianças de ambos os sexos, dos 5 aos 14 anos de idade, pertencentes a famílias das camadas populares de uma comunidade na Baía de Todos os Santos, Bahia, Brasil. O estudo mostrou que, apesar da forte influência da família e da escola na socialização primária, as crianças reproduzem e reelaboram representações sobre gênero e conduta sexual adequada, sobretudo com seus pares, principalmente no contexto de diferentes brincadeiras infantis. A pesquisa analisa as representações e as práticas dos grupos observados nesse processo socializador, revelando como gênero e sexualidade são construídos socialmente, dependendo dos contextos em que se dão as diferentes interações sociais.This article focuses on the socialization of children and youth with respect to gender and sexuality, from a socio-anthropological perspective. The work is based on ethnographic research in a group of 5-14-year-old boys and girls in a community in Baia de Todos os Santos, Bahia, Brazil. Despite the strong influence of family and school in primary socialization, the children reproduced and re-elaborated norms and practices on appropriate gender and sexual conduct, especially among their peers, and primarily in the context of play. The research analyzes the children’s representations and practices in this socializing process, showing how gender and sexuality are socially constructed according to the contexts in which the different social interactions take place.

  17. Consumo y percepción juvenil sobre la ficción seriada televisiva: influencia por sexo y edad (Young adult consumption and perception of TV fiction: sex –and age– based influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Menéndez Menéndez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo se centra en la influencia de la ficción seriada televisiva en la construcción de la identidad juvenil. Los objetivos del trabajo son conocer la dieta mediática de la juventud española sobre ficción seriada, así como la percepción que tiene sobre la influencia de dichos formatos en sus vidas. Las principales conclusiones revelan el todavía gran consumo de series de ficción televisiva entre jóvenes en nuestro país, aunque se aprecian diferencias significativas entre los gustos masculinos y femeninos y entre las distintas edades, además de la mayor percepción de influencia entre las chicas en todos los ítems cuestionados. | This paper focuses on the influence of fictional TV series on the identity construction of young adults. The aims of the project are to acquire knowledge about the youth’s habits of consumption of TV series and to learn about their perception of the influence of this type of product on their lives. Our main conclusions reveal that there still exists an important habit of consumption of TV series among the youth in our country, although significant variations can be appreciated in the preferences of male and female informants of different age groups. To this we can add that girls have a stronger perception of the influence of all the items in the questionnaire.

  18. Sexual Homicide by Older Male Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Wade C; Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Mariano, Timothy Y; Safarik, Mark E; Geberth, Vernon J

    2017-07-01

    Recent research has expanded our understanding of sexual homicide offenders (SHOs). However, little exists beyond case reports for older SHOs. We characterized male SHOs ≥ 55 years, comparing them to typical adult male SHOs who are in their 20s. Analysis of 37 years (1976-2012) of US Supplementary Homicide Reports data provided a large SHO sample (N = 3453). Three case reports provide clinical context for the diverse nature and patterns of older SHOs. Only 32 older male SHOs and no older female SHOs were identified. Murders by older SHOs accounted for only 0.5% of US sexual homicides. Unlike typical SHOs that generally target young adult females, over two-thirds of older SHO victims were ≥40 years, and one-third were ≥55 years. Sexual homicides by older SHOs, like sexual homicide in general, decreased over the study period. These crimes, while exceedingly rare, do occur, warranting special consideration. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  19. Economic Evaluation of the Juvenile Drug Court/Reclaiming Futures (JDC/RF) Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollister, Kathryn; Baumer, Pamela; Davis, Monica; Greene, Alison; Stevens, Sally; Dennis, Michael

    2018-07-01

    Juvenile drug court (JDC) programs are an increasingly popular option for rehabilitating juvenile offenders with substance problems, but research has found inconsistent evidence regarding their effectiveness and economic impact. While assessing client outcomes such as reduced substance use and delinquency is necessary to gauge program effectiveness, a more comprehensive understanding of program success and sustainability can be attained by examining program costs and economic benefits. As part of the National Cross-Site Evaluation of JDC and Reclaiming Futures (RF), an economic analysis of five JDC/RF programs was conducted from a multisystem and multiagency perspective. The study highlights the direct and indirect costs of JDC/RF and the savings generated from reduced health problems, illegal activity, and missed school days. Results include the average (per participant) cost of JDC/RF, the total economic benefits per JDC/RF participant, and the net savings of JDC/RF relative to standard JDC.

  20. Using Goal Achievement Training in juvenile justice settings to improve substance use services for youth on community supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jacqueline Horan; Becan, Jennifer E; Harris, Philip W; Nager, Alexis; Baird-Thomas, Connie; Hogue, Aaron; Bartkowski, John P; Wiley, Tisha

    2018-04-30

    The link between substance use and involvement in the juvenile justice system has been well established. Justice-involved youth tend to have higher rates of drug use than their non-offending peers. At the same time, continued use can contribute to an elevated risk of recidivism, which leads to further, and oftentimes more serious, involvement with the juvenile justice system. Because of these high rates of use, the juvenile justice system is well positioned to help identify youth with substance use problems and connect them to treatment. However, research has found that only about 60% of juvenile probation agencies screen all youth for substance involvement, and even fewer provide comprehensive assessment or help youth enroll in substance use treatment. This paper describes an integrated training curriculum that was developed to help juvenile justice agencies improve their continuum of care for youth probationers with substance use problems. Goal Achievement Training (GAT) provides a platform for continuous quality improvement via two sessions delivered onsite to small groups of staff from juvenile justice and behavioral health agencies. In the first session, participants are taught to identify goals and goal steps for addressing identified areas of unmet need (i.e., screening, assessment, and linkage to treatment services). In the second session, participants learn principles and strategies of data-driven decision-making for achieving these goals. This paper highlights GAT as a model for the effective implementation of cost-efficient training strategies designed to increase self-directed quality improvement activities that can be applied to any performance domain within juvenile justice settings. Efforts to monitor implementation fidelity of GAT within the specific context of the juvenile justice settings are highlighted. Challenges to setting the stage for process improvement generally, as well as specific hurdles within juvenile justice settings are discussed

  1. The demographic, clinical and forensic profile of offenders ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The demographic, clinical and forensic profile of offenders diagnosed with epilepsy referred to the Free State Psychiatric Complex Observation Unit in terms of section 77 and/or 78 of the Criminal Procedure Act 51 of 1977.

  2. Target Selection Models with Preference Variation Between Offenders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Townsley, Michael; Birks, Daniel; Ruiter, Stijn; Bernasco, Wim; White, Gentry

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study explores preference variation in location choice strategies of residential burglars. Applying a model of offender target selection that is grounded in assertions of the routine activity approach, rational choice perspective, crime pattern and social disorganization theories,

  3. Evaluating shame transformation in group treatment of domestic violence offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffler, Christopher H; Prelog, Andrew J; Unnithan, N Prabha; Pogrebin, Mark R

    2010-08-01

    Offender rehabilitation, pitting the rational ability of criminal justice against the seeming irrationality of criminal behavior, remains controversial. Psychology highlights the importance of emotions in mediating individual behavior. Borrowing from restorative justice as a more emotionally intelligent form of justice, this article examines the role of shame and guilt in a domestic violence offender treatment program. The emotions are differentiated and then activated, similar to the use of reintegrative shaming in restorative justice, to promote greater offender accountability and empathy. Using a two-group comparison of male domestic violence offenders, measurements were taken on three sets of scales in assessing the outcome of the shame transformation process. Statistically significant effects were found for self-esteem and empathetic concern. Findings and future research are discussed.

  4. The Criminogenic and Noncriminogenic Treatment Needs of Intimate Partner Violence Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, N Zoe; Radatz, Dana L

    2017-11-01

    The criminogenic needs of general offenders have been empirically studied, but the criminogenic treatment needs of intimate partner violence (IPV) offenders, or how they compare with other violent or nonviolent offenders, have not been as thoroughly explored. Therefore, we examined and compared the criminogenic and noncriminogenic needs of 99 IPV offenders, 233 non-IPV violent offenders, and 103 nonviolent offenders, all of whom were men who had undergone institutional forensic assessment. Results indicated that IPV offenders had more treatment needs than the other two offender groups, including the Central Eight criminogenic needs. These findings support a focus on criminogenic treatment needs in batterer intervention programs for men, consistent with the principles of effective intervention for offenders.

  5. Female juvenile murderers: Biological and psychological dynamics leading to homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heide, Kathleen M; Solomon, Eldra P

    2009-01-01

    The increasing involvement of girls under 18 in violent crime has been a matter of growing concern in the United States in recent years. This article reviews the arrests of female juveniles for violent crime and then focuses specifically on their involvement in homicide. Arrests of girls for murder, unlike arrests for assault, have not risen over the last 30 years, suggesting that the dynamics that propel female juveniles to engage in lethal violence differ from those contributing to assaultive behavior by this same group. A review of the literature indicates that theories as to why female adolescents kill do not take into account recent scientific findings on brain development and the biological effects of early trauma in explaining serious violent behavior by girls. Three cases, evaluated by the authors, involving female adolescents charged with murder or attempted murder, are presented. The authors focus on the biological and psychological dynamics that help explain their violent behavior. They discuss the effects of insecure attachment and child maltreatment, and trace a critical pathway between these early experiences and future risk of violent behavior. The dynamics of child maltreatment in fostering rage and violence are discussed thereafter in terms of offender accountability. The article concludes with a discussion of treatment and recommendations for future research.

  6. Offer and Acceptance of Apology in Victim-Offender Mediation

    OpenAIRE

    Dhami, MK; Dhami, MK

    2012-01-01

    Past research on restorative justice (RJ) has highlighted the importance of apology for both victims and offenders and the prevalence of apology during the RJ process. The present study moves this work further by examining the nature of the apologies that are offered during victim-offender mediation, as well as the individual-, case-, and mediation-level factors that can affect the offer and acceptance of apology. In addition, we measure the implications that the offer and acceptance of apolo...

  7. Criando Caim e Abel: pensando a prevenção da infração juvenil Raising Caim and Abel: thinking on juvenile delinquency prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Gonçalves de Assis

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo é parte de uma pesquisa que envolveu adolescentes infratores e seus irmãos não infratores, realizada nas cidades do Rio de Janeiro e Recife. O principal objetivo foi o de conhecer os motivos que levam jovens a trilhar caminhos distintos, visando à prevenção da delinqüência juvenil. Foram incluídos casos de homicídio, assalto à mão armada, lesão corporal, estupro e atentado violento ao pudor e tráfico de drogas. A técnica de história de vida foi usada em entrevistas semi-estruturadas que foram aplicadas a 61 infratores e 31 não infratores. Nelas, buscou-se conhecer a sua realidade familiar, comunitária e social. A técnica de análise de conteúdo foi utilizada nas entrevistas. Foi feita ainda uma abordagem quantitativa dos dados (estudo de concordância e de associação de variáveis com o objetivo de identificar os fatores predisponentes à infração. No presente trabalho apresenta-se um modelo teórico explicativo da gênese da delinqüência juvenil e suas formas de prevenção; uma síntese dos achados qualitativos e quantitativos da pesquisa; e um ensaio de proposta para identificação dos fatores envolvidos na rede causal da infração cometida por adolescentes.This article is part of a research with juvenile delinquents and its siblings non delinquents. It was realized in the cities of Rio de Janeiro and Recife. It has the objective of studying the reasons that take young people to choose different roads, seeking the prevention of the juvenile delinquency. Cases of homicide, armed robbery, assault, rape and indecent act using force and drug traffic were included. The technique of life history was used in semi-structured interviews that were applied to 61 offenders and 31 non offenders. It stressed themes like family, community and social reality. The technique of content analysis was used in the interviews. It was still made a quantitative analysis of the data (agreement study and of association of

  8. Persistence of addictive disorders in a first-offender driving while impaired population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapham, Sandra C; Stout, Robert; Laxton, Georgia; Skipper, Betty J

    2011-11-01

    We compared the prevalence of alcohol use and other psychiatric disorders in offenders 15 years after a first conviction for driving while impaired with a general population sample. To determine whether high rates of addictive and other psychiatric disorders previously demonstrated in this sample remain disproportionately higher compared with a matched general population sample. Point-in-time cohort study. Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation, Albuquerque, New Mexico. We interviewed convicted first offenders using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 15 years after referral to a screening program in Bernalillo County, New Mexico. We calculated rates of diagnoses for non-Hispanic white and Hispanic women (n = 362) and men (n = 220) adjusting for missing data using multiple imputation and compared psychiatric diagnoses with findings from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication by sex and Hispanic ethnicity. Eleven percent of non-Hispanic white women and 12.8% of Hispanic women in the driving while impaired sample reported 12-month alcohol abuse or dependence, compared with 1.0% and 1.8%, respectively, in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (comparison) sample. Almost 12% of non-Hispanic white men and 17.5% of Hispanic men in the driving while impaired sample reported 12-month alcohol abuse or dependence, compared with to 2.0% and 1.8%, respectively, in the comparison sample. These differences were statistically significant. Rates of drug use disorders and nicotine dependence were also elevated compared with the general population sample, while rates of major depressive disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder were similar. In this sample, high rates of addictive disorders persisted over 10 years among first offenders and greatly exceeded those found in a general population sample.

  9. Public health system and psychiatry in the treatment of 'dangerous' young offenders in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Rafael Bernardon; Cordeiro, Quirino; Taborda, José G V

    2015-01-01

    We describe the Experimental Health Unit, a special forensic mental health facility in Brazil, created by court order and administered by the São Paulo Department of Health. It was designed for young offenders receiving compulsory inpatient treatment for severe personality disorders. All nine patients admitted to date came from Foundation CASA (a socio-educational centre of assistance for adolescents, the juvenile correctional centres managed by the São Paulo state Department of Justice). The court decision is questionable, relying on a new interpretation of the Child and Adolescent Statute and the law that regulates psychiatric treatment in Brazil. The public health system and psychiatry have been supporting the isolation of some individuals from society, based on the seriousness of their crimes and possession of particular personality characteristics. The decision to commit and send a small group of personality disordered individuals to this unit as inpatients is an unfair decision, since jails and correctional centres hold a high number of psychopathic who have also committed barbaric crimes. The central mental health issue is the role that the public health system should play in the custody of dangerous people; the cost-effectiveness of this model, the accuracy of risk assessment and tractability of people with severe personality disorders are also debatable. From a legal perspective, the operation of this facility raises questions about age of legal majority, the maximum period of incarceration of young offenders and use of whole-life sentences for certain types of crimes and criminals in Brazil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Traumatic brain injury, mental health, substance use, and offending among incarcerated young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Elizabeth; Indig, Devon; Haysom, Leigh

    2014-01-01

    Despite being at high risk, little is known about traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) among incarcerated young people. This study aims to describe the prevalence of TBI among incarcerated young people and assess the association with mental health, substance use, and offending behaviors. The 2009 NSW Young People in Custody Health Survey was conducted in 9 juvenile detention centers. A total of 361 young people agreed to participate, representing 80% of all incarcerated young people. Young people were asked if they ever had a head injury where they became unconscious or "blacked-out." The survey used the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders for Children to assess for psychiatric disorders, the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test, and the Severity of Dependence Scale to measure problematic substance use. The sample comprised 88% man, 48% Aboriginal, with an average age of 17 years. One-third (32%) of young people reported ever experiencing a TBI, and 13% reported multiple TBIs. The majority (92%) of "most serious" TBIs were defined as mild, and the most common cause was an assault (62% woman, 34% man). Young people who reported a history of TBI (compared with those reporting no TBI) were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with a mental health disorder, psychological distress, a history of bullying, problematic substance use, participation in fights, and offending behaviors. Reporting multiple (>2) TBIs conferred a higher risk of psychological disorders and problematic substance use. Incarcerated young people have high rates of TBI. Enhanced detection of TBI among incarcerated young people will assist clinicians in addressing the associated psychosocial sequelae.

  11. Diminished fronto-limbic functional connectivity in child sexual offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneer, Jonas; Borchardt, Viola; Kärgel, Christian; Sinke, Christopher; Massau, Claudia; Tenbergen, Gilian; Ponseti, Jorge; Walter, Henrik; Beier, Klaus M; Schiffer, Boris; Schiltz, Kolja; Walter, Martin; Kruger, Tillmann H C

    2018-02-22

    Child sexual abuse and neglect have been related to an increased risk for the development of a wide range of behavioral, psychological, and sexual problems and increased rates of suicidal behavior. Contrary to the large amount of research focusing on the negative mental health consequences of child sexual abuse, very little is known about the characteristics of child sexual offenders and the neuronal underpinnings contributing to child sexual offending. This study investigates differences in resting state functional connectivity (rs-FC) between non-pedophilic child sexual offenders (N = 20; CSO-P) and matched healthy controls (N = 20; HC) using a seed-based approach. The focus of this investigation of rs-FC in CSO-P was put on prefrontal and limbic regions highly relevant for emotional and behavioral processing. Results revealed a significant reduction of rs-FC between the right centromedial amygdala and the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in child sexual offenders compared to controls. Given that, in the healthy brain, there is a strong top-down inhibitory control of prefrontal over limbic structures, these results suggest that diminished rs-FC between the amygdala and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and may foster sexual deviance and sexual offending. A profound understanding of these concepts should contribute to a better understanding of the occurrence of child sexual offending, as well as further development of more differentiated and effective interventions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevalence of Mental Disorders and Recidivism in Young Offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Machado Dias

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies report that incarcerated young offenders show a high rate of psychiatric disorders whereas associations between specific psychiatric disorders and recidivism remain unknown. The Brazilian legal system has created a unique opportunity for the study of this issue when consider young offenders not that guilty in spite of the severity of the crime, settling in three years the maximum period of incarceration. This study aims to determine the rate of psychiatric disorders in a cohort of incarcerated young offenders and evaluate the possible psychiatric connections of primary offenders and recidivism. A group of 898 incarcerated young offenders at Fundação Casa answered psychiatric interviews and was diagnosed according to the criteria of ICD-10. Statistic connections were analyzed using the tests of Pearson and Cramer. The cohort was comprised of 619 primaries and 267 recidivists. 'Psychoactive Substance Use' and 'Disorders of Adult Personality and Behavior' categories were related to recidivism, whereas 'Organic Mental Disorders', 'Mood Disorders', and 'Stress-related Disorders' were related to primary offenders. Discriminating disorders were the most likely to represent reactions to primary incarceration. In relation to associations that might represent predictors of crime, it became highly suggestive that substance abuse is the main cause of incarceration for the entire cohort.

  13. Miastenia gravis juvenil Juvenile myasthenia gravis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Papazian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La miastenia gravis juvenil (MGJ es un trastorno crónico auto inmune en el cual existen anticuerpos séricos que al unirse a los receptores de acetilcolin nicotínicos de la membrana muscular de la placa motora alteran la transmisión neuromuscular. El resultado es fatiga muscular precoz con progresión a la parálisis durante estados de contracción muscular iterativos (movimientos o sostenidos (posturas y más raramente parálisis permanente durante el reposo. Los músculos inervados por los nervios craneales, especialmente los extraoculares y elevadores de los párpados, tienen más tendencia a la debilidad muscular persistente que los inervados por otros pares craneales y las extremidades. Las formas clínicas de presentación son generalizadas, oculares y respiratorias. El diagnóstico se sospecha mediante la anamnesia, la fatiga anormal se comprueba mediante el examen físico y la estimulación eléctrica iterativa del nervio que inerva al músculo afectado pero no paralizado. Se corrobora mediante la administración de inhibidores de la acetilcolin esterasa (IACE que al aumentar la cantidad de acetilcolin en la hendidura sináptica, corrigen la fatiga o la debilidad muscular transitoriamente. Se hace el diagnóstico de certeza mediante la demostración sérica de anticuerpos contra los receptores de acetilcolin (ACRA. El tratamiento es a largo plazo sintomático con IACE y etiopatogénico con inmunosupresores, plasmaféresis, gamma globulina endovenosa y timectomía. El curso es crónico. La remisión espontánea o después de tratamiento sintomático o etiopatogénico ocurre entre 1-10 años respectivamente. La mortalidad es prácticamente nula aun durantes las crisis miastenias gracias a la educación de padres, pacientes y público en general sobre el tema, al desarrollo del sistema de respuesta rápida de auxilio domiciliario y las unidades de cuidados intensivos y el empleo de la ventilación asistida profiláctica, plasmaféresis y

  14. Juvenile animal cruelty and firesetting behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglivio, Michael T; Wolff, Kevin T; DeLisi, Matt; Vaughn, Michael G; Piquero, Alex R

    2017-12-01

    There is a view that young people presenting with an animal cruelty and firesetting combination represent a uniquely risky group, but prior work has relied on samples with insufficient power. What is the prevalence of the co-occurrence of animal cruelty and firesetting behaviour among young delinquents? What other features correlate with this? We measured the prevalence of animal cruelty and firesetting among 292,649 juvenile offenders and used rare events logistic regression to examine demographic, criminal, mental health and family histories as correlates. The prevalence of animal cruelty was 0.59%, accounting for 1732 young people, and of firesetting 1.56% (n = 4553). The co-occurrence of these behaviours was rare: 0.17% (n = 498), but approximately twice that expected by chance based on the prevalence of each behaviour individually (0.59% × 1.56% = 0.009%). Rates were higher in males, older youths and Whites. Among historical variables, criminal history was the strongest correlate, followed by mental health problems, then familial and individual indicators. As only male gender and being a victim of sexual abuse increased the odds of evidencing both animal cruelty and firesetting behaviour substantially above the odds for each behaviour individually, there thus appears to be little that is unique to the co-occurrence. Our findings suggest that sensitivity to the occurrence of each is the best way forward, with rather familiar assessments and interventions offering some hope of reducing these seriously damaging behaviours. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Juvenile psittacine environmental enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone-Freilicher, Elisabeth; Rupley, Agnes E

    2015-05-01

    Environmental enrichment is of great import to the emotional, intellectual, and physical development of the juvenile psittacine and their success in the human home environment. Five major types of enrichment include social, occupational, physical, sensory, and nutritional. Occupational enrichment includes exercise and psychological enrichment. Physical enrichment includes the cage and accessories and the external home environment. Sensory enrichment may be visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory, or taste oriented. Nutritional enrichment includes variations in appearance, type, and frequency of diet, and treats, novelty, and foraging. Two phases of the preadult period deserve special enrichment considerations: the development of autonomy and puberty. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Juvenile Dermatomyositis in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Emeka Madu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile dermatomyositis has variable clinical presentations both in and outside of pregnancy. A literature review indicated that optimal maternal and fetal outcomes can be anticipated when the pregnancy is undertaken while the disease is in remission. Poorer outcomes are associated with flare-up of the disease in early pregnancy compared with exacerbation in the second or third trimester, when fetal prognosis is usually good. We present a case of JDM in pregnancy with disease exacerbation late in pregnancy and review of the relevant literature.

  17. The evaluation of violent thinking in adult offenders and non-offenders using the Maudsley Violence Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Julian; Bowes, Nicola

    2013-04-01

    The Maudsley Violence Questionnaire (MVQ) was designed to measure explicit rules and beliefs associated with violence. Previous studies with young people and offenders with mental disorder found the MVQ to be a valid and reliable measure of violent thinking. This study explores the use of the MVQ with a 'normal' (non-offender) population and an offender population without mental illness in order to evaluate how the MVQ's subscales related to violence within these groups. The MVQ was given to 78 adult male participants along with a measure of self-reported violence; demographic information and criminal history were also recorded. Thirty-five of the participants were convicted adult male offenders resident of an adult male closed prison in South Wales; 43 were volunteers from the staff group in the same prison. The MVQ factors were compared with self-reported violence and with officially recorded violent convictions. Although both subscales of the MVQ related to self-reported violence, 'Machismo' showed a stronger relationship to both self-reported and officially recorded violence. Violent thinking, specifically beliefs measured by the Machismo subscale of the MVQ, was robustly associated with self-reported and officially recorded violence in this study with offender and non-offender adults. The MVQ is a valid and feasible measure for use with adult populations. Violent thinking (specifically Machismo thinking styles) should be included in the assessments of violent offenders. Work on violent thinking and reducing 'macho' thinking could be a useful adjunct to anger management work with violent offenders. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Testicular juvenile granulosa cell tumor in a newborn: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexiev, Borislav A; Alaish, Samuel M; Sun, Chen-Chih

    2007-07-01

    Juvenile granulosa cell tumor of the testis of neonates and infants is an uncommon lesion frequently associated with abnormal sex chromosome and ambiguous genitalia. This report describes a juvenile granulosa cell tumor arising in the testis of a neonate. Chromosome analysis of the tumor showed a normal male karyotype 46 XY. Histopathology and immunohistochemical studies revealed the occurrence of 2 well-differentiated epithelial-like and smooth muscle-like components in the neoplasm. The morphologic clues leading to the correct diagnosis of juvenile granulosa cell tumor and the possible histogenesis are briefly discussed.

  19. Oppositional defiant disorder dimensions and subtypes among detained male adolescent offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aebi, Marcel; Barra, Steffen; Bessler, Cornelia; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Walitza, Susanne; Plattner, Belinda

    2016-06-01

    In adolescent offenders, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and its dimensions/subtypes have been frequently ignored due to the stronger focus on criminal behaviours. The revised criteria of the DSM-5 now allow diagnosing ODD in older youths independent of conduct disorder (CD). This study aimed at analysing ODD dimensions/subtypes and their relation to suicidality, comorbid psychiatric disorders, and criminal behaviours after release from detention in a sample of detained male adolescents. Suicidality and psychiatric disorders (including ODD symptoms) were assessed in a consecutive sample of 158 male adolescents (Mage  = 16.89 years) from the Zurich Juvenile Detention Centre. Based on previous research findings, an irritable ODD dimension and a defiant/vindictive ODD dimension based on ODD symptoms were defined. Latent Class Analysis (LCA) was used to identify distinct subtypes of adolescent offenders according to their ODD symptom profiles. Logistic regression and Cox regression were used to analyse the relations of ODD dimensions/ODD subtypes to comorbid psychopathology and criminal reoffenses from official data. The ODD-irritable dimension, but not the ODD defiant/vindictive dimension predicted comorbid anxiety, suicidality and violent reoffending. LCA identified four subtypes, namely, a no-ODD subtype, a severe ODD subtype and two moderate ODD subtypes with either defiant or irritable symptoms. The irritable ODD subtype and the severe ODD subtype were related to suicidality and comorbid affective/anxiety disorders. The irritable ODD subtype was the strongest predictor of criminal (violent) reoffending even when controlling for CD. The present findings confirm the presence of ODD dimensions/subtypes in a highly disturbed adolescent offender sample. Irritable youths were at risk of suicide and persistent criminal behaviours. Due to the severe consequences of irritability, a standardized assessment approach and a specific treatment is needed in prison to

  20. Predicting recidivism among adult male child pornography offenders: Development of the Child Pornography Offender Risk Tool (CPORT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Michael C; Eke, Angela W

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we developed a structured risk checklist, the Child Pornography Offender Risk Tool (CPORT), to predict any sexual recidivism among adult male offenders with a conviction for child pornography offenses. We identified predictors of sexual recidivism using a 5-year fixed follow-up analysis from a police case file sample of 266 adult male child pornography offenders in the community after their index offense. In our 5-year follow-up, 29% committed a new offense, and 11% committed a new sexual offense, with 3% committing a new contact sexual offense against a child and 9% committing a new child pornography offense. The CPORT items comprised younger offender age, any prior criminal history, any contact sexual offending, any failure on conditional release, indication of sexual interest in child pornography material or prepubescent or pubescent children, more boy than girl content in child pornography, and more boy than girl content in other child depictions. The CPORT was significantly associated with any sexual recidivism, with moderate predictive accuracy, and thus has promise in the risk assessment of adult male child pornography offenders with further cross-validation. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Pre-offense alcohol intake in homicide offenders and victims: A forensic-toxicological case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedlund, Jonatan; Forsman, Jonas; Sturup, Joakim; Masterman, Thomas

    2018-05-01

    Alcohol is associated with violent behavior, although little is known regarding to what extent alcohol increases homicide risk. We aimed to estimate risks of homicide offending and victimization conferred by the presence of ethanol in blood by using toxicological data from homicide victims and offenders and from controls who had died in vehicle-related accidents. From nationwide governmental registries and databases, forensic-toxicological results were retrieved for victims (n = 200) and offenders (n = 105) of homicides committed during the years 2007-2009 and individuals killed in vehicle-related accidents (n = 1629) during the years 2006-2014. Ethanol levels in blood exceeding 0.01 g/100 ml were considered positive. Using logistic regression, we found that the presence of ethanol in blood conferred a significantly increased risk of homicide offending (age-adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.6, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 2.3-5.6) and homicide victimization (aOR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.4-3.0). After stratification by sex, risk estimates in females were about 3-fold greater than in males for both homicide offending ([aOR = 11.0, 95% CI = 2.4-49.8] versus [aOR = 3.1, 95% CI = 1.9-4.9]) and victimization ([aOR = 5.4, 95% CI = 2.4-12.2] versus [aOR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.1-2.8]). Sensitivity analyses yielded similar estimates. The results of the present study are consistent with prior findings suggesting alcohol to be an important risk factor for homicide offending and victimization. Surprisingly, however, associations were more pronounced in females, although additional studies that control for potential confounders are warranted to facilitate speculations about causality. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  2. Psychosocial health among young victims and offenders of direct and indirect bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wal, Marcel F; de Wit, Cees A M; Hirasing, Remy A

    2003-06-01

    To assess the association between bullying (both directly and indirectly) and indicators of psychosocial health for boys and girls separately. A school-based questionnaire survey of bullying, depression, suicidal ideation, and delinquent behavior. Primary schools in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. A total of 4811 children aged 9 to 13. Depression and suicidal ideation are common outcomes of being bullied in both boys and girls. These associations are stronger for indirect than direct bullying. After correction, direct bullying had a significant effect on depression and suicidal ideation in girls, but not in boys. Boy and girl offenders of bullying far more often reported delinquent behavior. Bullying others directly is a much greater risk factor for delinquent behavior than bullying others indirectly. This was true for both boys and girls. Boy and girl offenders of bullying also more often reported depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation. However, after correction for both sexes only a significant association still existed between bullying others directly and suicidal ideation. The association between bullying and psychosocial health differs notably between girls and boys as well as between direct and indirect forms of bullying. Interventions to stop bullying must pay attention to these differences to enhance effectiveness.

  3. Sex Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sex therapy Overview Sex therapy is a type of psychotherapy — a general term for treating mental health problems by talking with a mental health professional. Through sex therapy, you can address concerns about sexual function, ...

  4. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Criminal Propensity Among Intimate Partner Violence Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, N Zoe; Ham, Elke; Green, Michelle M

    2016-10-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), defined as exposure to abuse and adverse household events, are prevalent among certain offenders including those who commit intimate partner violence (IPV). However, it is not clear how ACEs relate to criminal propensity among IPV offenders, who have been shown to exhibit less antisociality and institutional violence than other offenders. We compared 99 male offenders with a current or previous offense of IPV with 233 non-IPV violent offenders and 103 nonviolent offenders undergoing institutional forensic assessment. This convenience sample allowed for use of extensive psychosocial records as well as study of institutional violence. IPV offenders had the highest mean ACE score and more extensive criminal propensity on some measures (violent and nonviolent criminal history and psychopathy) than both other groups. ACEs were associated with most measures of criminal propensity in the whole sample but with only one (actuarial risk of violent recidivism) in the subsample of IPV offenders. Finding that ACEs are prevalent among IPV offenders even in this sample with extensive mental illness demonstrates the robustness of this phenomenon. IPV offenders, though, are similar to other violent offenders in this respect, and there is insufficient evidence that ACEs represent a criminogenic need among IPV offenders specifically. Further research could draw from the batterer typology literature and attend to IPV offenders' broader criminal careers.

  5. Exploring detection of contact vs. fantasy online sexual offenders in chats with minors: Statistical discourse analysis of self-disclosure and emotion words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Ming Ming; Seigfried-Spellar, Kathryn C; Ringenberg, Tatiana R

    2018-05-03

    This exploratory study is the first to identify content differences between youths' online chats with contact child sex offenders (CCSOs; seek to meet with youths) and those with fantasy child sex offenders (FCSOs; do not meet with youths) using statistical discourse analysis (SDA). Past studies suggest that CCSOs share their experiences and emotions with targeted youths (self-disclosure grooming tactic) and encourage them to reciprocate, to build trust and closer relationships through a cycle of self-disclosures. In this study, we examined 36,029 words in 4,353 messages within 107 anonymized online chat sessions by 21 people, specifically 12 youths and 9 arrested sex offenders (5 CCSOs and 4 FCSOs), using SDA. Results showed that CCSOs were more likely than FCSOs to write online messages with specific words (first person pronouns, negative emotions and positive emotions), suggesting the use of self-disclosure grooming tactics. CCSO's self-disclosure messages elicited corresponding self-disclosure messages from their targeted youths. These results suggest that CCSOs use grooming tactics that help engender youths' trust to meet in the physical world, but FCSOs do not. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Implementation outcomes of Multidimensional Family Therapy-Detention to Community: a reintegration program for drug-using juvenile detainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddle, Howard A; Dakof, Gayle A; Henderson, Craig; Rowe, Cindy

    2011-06-01

    Responding to urgent calls for effective interventions to address young offenders' multiple and interconnected problems, a new variant of an existing empirically-validated intervention for drug-using adolescents, Multidimensional Family Therapy (MDFT)-Detention to Community (DTC) was tested in a two-site controlled trial. This article (a) outlines the rationale and protocol basics of the MDFT-DTC intervention, a program for substance-using juvenile offenders that links justice and substance abuse treatment systems to facilitate adolescents' post-detention community reintegration; (b) presents implementation outcomes, including fidelity, treatment engagement and retention rates, amount of services received, treatment satisfaction, and substance abuse-juvenile justice system collaboration outcomes; and (c) details the implementation and sustainability challenges in a cross-system (substance abuse treatment and juvenile justice) adolescent intervention. Findings support the effectiveness of the MDFT-DTC intervention, and the need to develop a full implementation model in which transfer and dissemination issues could be explored more fully, and tested experimentally.

  7. How Individual and Contextual Factors Affects Antisocial and Delinquent Behaviors: A Comparison between Young Offenders, Adolescents at Risk of Social Exclusion, and a Community Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Duran-Bonavila

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The problems associated with violence during adolescence have been on the rise in recent decades. Many studies have focused only on environmental causes or individual causes of violence, although a combination of both variables would seem to be the best option for prediction. The current study aims to assess the relevance of individual characteristics (personality traits, intelligence, and historical and clinical factors linked to the risk of violence, contextual risk factors and protective factors in explaining antisocial and delinquent behaviors in adolescence by comparing three different samples: a community sample, a sample at risk of social exclusion, and a sample of juvenile offenders. The results show that the samples at risk of social exclusion and the sample of juvenile offenders have a very similar profile in terms of personality traits and intelligence, although they differ from the community sample. However, these two samples do differ in such contextual variables as peer delinquency, poor parental management, community disorganization, or early caregiver disruption.

  8. Juvenile hyperthyroidism: an experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadada, S; Bhansali, A; Velayutham, P; Masoodi, S R

    2006-04-01

    To analyze the clinical profile of juvenile hyperthyroidism at presentation, their treatment outcome; predictors of remission and relapse. Retrospective analysis of medical records of 56 patients with juvenile hyperthyroidism seen over a period of 16 years. A cohort of 38 females and 18 males with mean (+/-SD) age of 14.9 +/- 3.4 years (range 3 to 18 years) was analyzed. Majority of patients was in the age group of 12-16 years. Common symptoms observed at presentation were weight loss (82.1%), excessive sweating (78.6%), heat intolerance (76.8%), increased appetite (73.2%) and diarrhea in 48.2%. In addition, accelerated linear growth was observed in 7.1% of patients. Goiter was present in 98.2% of children; 94.5% of which was diffuse and 4.8% was multinodular. The mean ((+/-SD) T3 was 4.8 +/- 3.4 ng/mL (N, 0.6-1.6), T4 was 218 +/- 98 ng/mL (N, 60-155) and TSH was 0.44 +/- 0.36 (N, 0.5-5.5 microIU/mL). TMA positivity seen in 36.9% of patients. All patients were treated with carbimazole; subsequently 4 patients required thyroidectomy and one required radioactive iodine ablation. Mean (+/-SD) duration of follow-up in our patients was 4.9 +/- 3 years, ranging between 1.6 to 16 years and mean (+/-SD) duration of treatment was 34.4 +/- 22.6 months (range 12 to 120 months). Mean (+/-SD) duration to achieve euthyroidism was 5.2 +/- 4.7 months, ranging between 1-33 months. On intention to treat analysis, remission with carbimazole was achieved in 47.6%, remaining patients failed to achieve remission with drug treatment. Graves disease is the commonest cause of juvenile hyperthyroidism. Carbimazole is safe, effective, cheap, and easily available form of therapy. It is occasionally associated with serious side effects but requires prolonged follow up.

  9. Juvenile prison in parallel legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutovac Mitar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for punishment of juveniles occurred from the time when there was no clear line separating them from the adult criminal population. At the same time, the evolution of the juvenile punishment is not in itself involve substantial changes to their criminal status. On the contrary, the status of minors in society did not show serious differences regarding the status of young adults, as well as the adult elderly. On the other hand, on the ground of their punishment is recorded deviations that go in the direction of application of mild corporal punishment. Closing the minor was performed in a physically separate parts of the general penal institutions with the use of a lower degree of restrictions while serving juvenile prison. Due to the different treatment of minors during the evolution of their criminal status leads to their different treatment in comparative law. That is why we are witnessing the existence of numerous differences in the juvenile punishment in some countries in the world. On the European continent there is a wide range of different legal solutions when it comes to punishing juveniles. There are considerable differences in the procedure pronouncing juvenile prison and in particular penal treatment of juveniles in penitentiary institutions. For these reasons, the author has decided to show the basic statutory provisions in the part that relates to the issue of punishment of minors in the legislation of individual countries.

  10. Unfair offers, unfair offenders? Fairness considerations in incarcerated individuals with and without psychopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radke, S.; Brazil, I.A.; Scheper, I.; Bulten, B.H.; Bruijn, E.R.A. de

    2013-01-01

    Offenders with psychopathy have often committed crimes violating social norms, which may suggest a biased moral reasoning in psychopathy. Yet, as findings on utilitarian decisions remain conflicting, the current study investigated different aspects of fairness considerations in offenders with

  11. IsTeen Court effective for repeat offenders? A test of the restorative justice approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgays, Deborah Kirby; DeMilio, Lisa

    2005-02-01

    Teen Courts are an effective judicial alternative for many youth offenders. The majority of youth courts deal solely with first-time offenders. However, repeat offenders are at a greater risk for future crime. Is Teen Court effective with more experienced offenders? In this study, the authors examine the outcomes of 26 Whatcom County Teen Court offenders with at least one prior conviction. The sentence completion rate was higher and the recidivism was lower for the Teen Court offenders when compared with a sample of first-time Court Diversion offenders. This objective evidence of program success is augmented by an offender's perspective on his or her court experience. These perspectives as well as the continued voluntary involvement with Teen Court are discussed in relation to empowerment theory.

  12. Uveitis and Juvenile Psoriatic Arthritis or Psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salek, Sherveen S; Pradeep, Archana; Guly, Catherine; Ramanan, Athimalaipet V; Rosenbaum, James T

    2018-01-01

    To describe the phenotype of the uveitis that accompanies juvenile psoriatic arthritis or psoriasis. Observational case series. Setting: Two university-based referral clinics: 1 in England, 1 in the United States. Five children with uveitis and psoriatic arthritis and 1 with uveitis and psoriasis Observational Procedure: Retrospective chart review. Demographics of subjects such as age and sex; description of ocular and joint disease; surgical and other complications; medical treatment. Five of the 6 children in this series had the onset of disease at or before age 6 (P = .0008 compared to expected age of onset for psoriatic arthritis in childhood). All children in this series had an inadequate response to topical corticosteroids. Most of the children were treated with systemic corticosteroids for many months, yet all of them went on to require methotrexate. Therapy with systemic methotrexate did not suffice, as all the patients also required some form of biologic therapy. Five of 6 had surgeries such as vitrectomy, cataract extraction, or a procedure for glaucoma control. The observations suggest that the uveitis that accompanies juvenile psoriatic arthritis might be a distinct disease that is particularly severe when its onset affects children aged 6 years or younger. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The effect of excluding juveniles on apparent adult olive baboons (Papio anubis) social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedurek, Piotr; Lehmann, Julia

    2017-01-01

    In recent years there has been much interest in investigating the social structure of group living animals using social network analysis. Many studies so far have focused on the social networks of adults, often excluding younger, immature group members. This potentially may lead to a biased view of group social structure as multiple recent studies have shown that younger group members can significantly contribute to group structure. As proof of the concept, we address this issue by investigating social network structure with and without juveniles in wild olive baboons (Papio anubis) at Gashaka Gumti National Park, Nigeria. Two social networks including all independently moving individuals (i.e., excluding dependent juveniles) were created based on aggressive and grooming behaviour. We used knockout simulations based on the random removal of individuals from the network in order to investigate to what extent the exclusion of juveniles affects the resulting network structure and our interpretation of age-sex specific social roles. We found that juvenile social patterns differed from those of adults and that the exclusion of juveniles from the network significantly altered the resulting overall network structure. Moreover, the removal of juveniles from the network affected individuals in specific age-sex classes differently: for example, including juveniles in the grooming network increased network centrality of adult females while decreasing centrality of adult males. These results suggest that excluding juveniles from the analysis may not only result in a distorted picture of the overall social structure but also may mask some of the social roles of individuals belonging to different age-sex classes. PMID:28323851

  14. Recurrent giant juvenile fibroadenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn S. King

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Breast masses in children, though rare, present a difficult clinical challenge as they can represent a wide variety of entities from benign fibroadenomas to phyllodes tumors. Rapidly growing or recurrent masses can be particularly concerning to patients, families and physicians alike. Clinical examination and conventional imaging modalities are not efficacious in distinguishing between different tumor types and surgical excision is often recommended for both final diagnosis and for treatment of large or rapidly growing masses. While surgical excision can result in significant long-term deformity of the breast there are some surgical techniques that can be used to limit deformity and/or aid in future reconstruction. Here we present a case of recurrent giant juvenile fibroadenoma with a review of the clinical presentation, diagnostic tools and treatment options.

  15. Fetal and juvenile radiotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    A number of studies conducted under this project have demonstrated that many of the biological parameters used to calculate permissible levels of exposure of adults to radioactive materials are inappropriate for the rapidly growing infant or child or for the pregnant female. These include age-related differences in radionuclide deposition, distribution, and retention and associated differences in microdosimetry, as well as the greater intrinsic radiosensitivity of the immature organism. These findings emphasize the need for more detailed information on the metabolism and toxicity of radionuclides in the prenatal and juvenile mammal. The continuing objective of this project is to obtain such information, which is needed to establish appropriate exposure limits for radionuclides of greatest potential hazard to these age groups

  16. The perceived employability of ex-prisoners and offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graffam, Joseph; Shinkfield, Alison J; Hardcastle, Lesley

    2008-12-01

    A large-scale study was conducted to examine the perceived employability of ex-prisoners and offenders. Four participant groups comprising 596 (50.4%) employers, 234 (19.8%) employment service workers, 176 (14.9%) corrections workers, and 175 (14.8%) prisoners and offenders completed a questionnaire assessing the likelihood of a hypothetical job seeker's both obtaining and maintaining employment; the importance of specific skills and characteristics to employability; and the likelihood that ex-prisoners, offenders, and the general workforce exhibit these skills and characteristics. Apart from people with an intellectual or psychiatric disability, those with a criminal background were rated as being less likely than other disadvantaged groups to obtain and maintain employment. In addition, ex-prisoners were rated as being less likely than offenders and the general workforce to exhibit the skills and characteristics relevant to employability. Implications for the preparation and support of ex-prisoners and offenders into employment are discussed, together with broader community-wide initiatives to promote reintegration.

  17. PSYCHO-SOCIOLOGICAL PERSONALITY TRAITS OF SEXUAL OFFENDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SlobodankaTodoroska-Gjurchevska

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Criminality is an extremely heterogeneous social phenomenon that includes various kinds of deviant behavior. It also includes sexual criminality (crimes against sexual freedom and moral, which has highly negative impact on society and endangers the most intimate parts of a person’s life. The aim of this survey is to outline a structure of psychological features of sexual offenders, to determine the degree of their development and the way in which they are connected, as well as to describe certain social and sociological phenomena that are typical of sexual offenders. The results that have been achieved during this survey will successfully be implemented into the practical work of penal institutions in the Republic of Macedonia in order to ensure successful resocialisation and reintegration of sexual offenders in the society. Our experience and knowledge are compatible with world-wide trends saying that sexual offenders are mentally healthy people and that they cannot be included in any diagnostic category. The main results of this survey can be summed up into several points: in general, sexual offenders are male, aged between 26 and 33, with minimal education and without profession or employment. Usually, they do not behave in pathological manner and they are mentally healthy people. It is believed that resocialisation as well as a complex treatment will be necessary for people convicted of sexual offenses: not only will it represent prevention from committing new crimes, it will also be a breeding ground for their active participation in life out of the penal institutions

  18. PSYCHO-SOCIOLOGICAL PERSONALITY TRAITS OF SEXUAL OFFENDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SlobodankaTodoroska-Gjurchevska

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Criminality is an extremely heterogeneous social phenomenon that includes various kinds of deviant behavior. It also includes sexual criminality (crimes against sexual freedom and moral, which has highly negative impact on society and endangers the most intimate parts of a person’s life. The aim of this survey is to outline a structure of psychological features of sexual offenders, to determine the degree of their development and the way in which they are connected, as well as to describe certain social and sociological phenomena that are typical of sexual offenders. The results that have been achieved during this survey will successfully be implemented into the practical work of penal institutions in the Republic of Macedonia in order to ensure successful resocialisation and reintegration of sexual offenders in the society. Our experience and knowledge are compatible with world-wide trends saying that sexual offenders are mentally healthy people and that they cannot be included in any diagnostic category. The main results of this survey can be summed up into several points: in general, sexual offenders are male, aged between 26 and 33, with minimal education and without profession or employment. Usually, they do not behave in pathological manner and they are mentally healthy people. It is believed that resocialisation as well asa complex treatment will be necessary for people convicted of sexual offences: not only will it represent prevention from committing new crimes, it will also be a breeding ground for their active participation in life out of the penal institutions

  19. Deliberate self-harm behavior among young violent offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporte, Natalie; Ozolins, Andrejs; Westling, Sofie; Westrin, Åsa; Billstedt, Eva; Hofvander, Björn; Wallinius, Märta

    2017-01-01

    Deliberate self-harm behavior (DSH) can have profound effects on a person's quality of life, and challenges the health care system. Even though DSH has been associated with aggressive interpersonal behaviors, the knowledge on DSH in persons exhibiting such behaviors is scarce. This study aims to (1) specify the prevalence and character of DSH, (2) identify clinical, neurocognitive, psychosocial, and criminological characteristics associated with DSH, and (3) determine predictors of DSH among young violent offenders. Data were collected from a nationally representative cohort of 270 male violent offenders, 18-25 years old, imprisoned in Sweden. Participants were interviewed and investigated neuropsychologically, and their files were reviewed for psychosocial background, criminal history, mental disorders, lifetime aggressive antisocial behaviors, and DSH. A total of 62 offenders (23%) had engaged in DSH at some point during their lifetime, many on repeated occasions, yet without suicidal intent. DSH was significantly associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, various substance use disorders, being bullied at school, and repeated exposure to violence at home during childhood. Mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and being bullied at school remained significant predictors of DSH in a total regression model. Violent offenders direct aggressive behaviors not only toward other people, but also toward themselves. Thus, DSH must be assessed and prevented in correctional institutions as early as possible, and more knowledge is needed of the function of DSH among offenders.

  20. Juvenile delinquency and correctional treatment in Britain

    OpenAIRE

    堀尾, 良弘; ホリオ, ヨシヒロ; Yoshihiro, Horio

    2006-01-01

    Japanese modernistic culture is influenced not a little from Britain. In looking at the Juvenile Law and the history of correctional treatment in Britain, understanding of today's juvenile delinquency and treatment deepen. Moreover, the background and issue of juvenile delinquency in Britain are also discussed. As a feature of the juvenile delinquency in Britain, the common field with Japan and the field peculiar to Britain became clear in each. It is common to the world that the juvenile del...