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Sample records for juvenile red drum

  1. Effect of salinity on the upper lethal temperature tolerance of early-juvenile red drum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Dusty; Bumguardner, Britt; Cason, Paul

    2015-10-01

    Previous work investigating the temperature tolerance of juvenile red drum ranging 18-50mm TL found evidence for positive size dependence (smaller fish less tolerant to higher temperatures) suggesting smaller size classes (temperatures. Here, we explored the upper lethal temperature tolerance (ULT) in smaller-sized red drum which ranged from 10 to 20mm TL across multiple salinities to further understand the thermal limitations of this propagated game fish. In order to investigate the combined effect of temperature and salinity on ULT, temperature trials were conducted under three levels of salinity which commonly occur along the coast of Texas (25, 35, and 45ppt). The rate of temperature increase (+0.25°C/h) was designed to mimic a natural temperature increase of a summer day in Texas. We determined that the lethal temperature at 50% (LT50) did not differ between the three salinities examined statistically; median lethal temperature for individuals exposed to 25ppt ranged from 36.4 to 37.7°C, 35ppt ranged from 36.4 to 37.7°C, and 45ppt ranged from 36.1 to 37.4°C. Further, LT50 data obtained here for early-juvenile red drum did not differ from data of a similar experiment examining 25mm TL sized fish. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Plasma Glucose Levels for Red Drum Sciaenops Ocellatus in a Florida Estuarine Fisheries Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourtis, Carla M.; Francis-Floyd, Ruth; Boggs, Ashley S P.; Reyier, Eric A.; Stolen, Eric D.; Yanong, Roy P.; Guillette, Louis J., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the significant value of the southeastern United States' red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) fishery, there is a lack of clinical blood chemistry data. This was the first study to assess plasma glucose values as an indicator of stress response to evaluate variation and the effect of reproductive activity for wild adult red drum in Florida. Red drum (n=126) were collected from NASA's Kennedy Space Center waters during three reproductive periods in 2011. Samples were obtained from the branchial vessels of the gill arch. Plasma glucose levels were significantly different among reproductive periods, with the highest mean values recorded during the spawning period, September- October (38.23 mg / dL +/- 10.0). The glucose range was 17 - 69 mg / dL. Glucose values were lower during all three periods than previous values recorded for cultured or captive red drum studies. This may indicate that fish from this population were under less stress than other populations previously sampled.

  3. Vegetative propagation of mature and juvenile northern red oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    James J. Zaczek; K. C. Steiner; C. W., Jr. Heuser

    1993-01-01

    Rooting trials were established to evaluate rooting success of cuttings from mature and juvenile, grafted and ungrafted northern red oak (NRO). Buds from 4 mature NRO ortets and juvenile seedlings were grafted onto juvenile and mature rootstock. Cuttings were collected from the grafts and from juvenile and mature shoots developed in situ and...

  4. Optimised selenium enrichment of Artemia sp. feed to improve red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) larvae rearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhász, Péter; Lengyel, Szvetlana; Udvari, Zsolt; Sándor, Alex Nagy; Stündl, László

    2017-09-01

    Selenium is an essential microelement for the normal functioning of life processes. Moreover, it is a component of enzymes with antioxidant effects. However, it has the smallest window of any micronutrient between requirement and toxicity. Selenium is a regularly used element in fish feeds; moreover, enriching zooplankton with selenium to rear larvae is also a well-known technology. It is accepted that the most common starter foods of fish larvae, natural rotifers contain the smallest dosage of selenium, but providing selenium enriched Artemia sp. instead could increase survival and growth rate of fish. However, no such references are available for the red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) larvae. Therefore, in this study, Artemia sp. was enriched with nano-selenium of verified low toxicity and easy availability in 5 treatments (1, 5, 10, 50, 100 mg/l Se), and then, fish larvae were fed with four of these enriched Artemia stocks (1, 5, 10, 50 mg/l Se) and a control group. At the end of the 9-day-long experiment, survival rate (S) and growth parameters (SL, W, K-factor, SGR) of fish larvae were calculated as well as their selenium retention and glutathione peroxidase enzyme activity were analysed. It was revealed that a moderate level of selenium enrichment (~4 mg/kg dry matter) of Artemia sp. positively influences the rearing efficiency (i.e. survival and growth) of fish larvae, but higher dosages of selenium could cause adverse effects.

  5. Larval Red Drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) Sublethal Exposure to Weathered Deepwater Horizon Crude Oil: Developmental and Transcriptomic Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Elvis Genbo; Khursigara, Alex J; Magnuson, Jason; Hazard, E Starr; Hardiman, Gary; Esbaugh, Andrew J; Roberts, Aaron P; Schlenk, Daniel

    2017-09-05

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) incident resulted in extensive oiling of the pelagic zone and shoreline habitats of many commercially important fish species. Exposure to the water-accommodated fraction (WAF) of oil from the spill causes developmental toxicity through cardiac defects in pelagic fish species. However, few studies have evaluated the effects of the oil on near-shore estuarine fish species such as red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus). Following exposure to a certified weathered slick oil (4.74 μg/L ∑PAH 50 ) from the DWH event, significant sublethal impacts were observed ranging from impaired nervous system development [average 17 and 22% reductions in brain and eye area at 48 h postfertilization (hpf), respectively] to abnormal cardiac morphology (100% incidence at 24, 48, and 72 hpf) in red drum larvae. Consistent with the phenotypic responses, significantly differentially expressed transcripts, enriched gene ontology, and altered functions and canonical pathways predicted adverse outcomes in nervous and cardiovascular systems, with more pronounced changes at later larval stages. Our study demonstrated that the WAF of weathered slick oil of DWH caused morphological abnormalities predicted by a suite of advanced bioinformatic tools in early developing red drum and also provided the basis for a better understanding of molecular mechanisms of crude oil toxicity in fish.

  6. Effect of the partial replacement of fish meal and oil by vegetable products on performance and quality traits of juvenile shi drum (Umbrina cirrosa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igino Andrighetto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A four-month growth trial was carried out in order to evaluate performance and quality traits of juvenile shi drum fedwith two isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets having different amounts of vegetable products (Vegetable diet vs. Controldiet. Compared to the Control diet, the Vegetable diet was formulated by increasing the replacement of fish meal (14%with soybean and cereal products, and fish oil (12% with a mixture of vegetable oil. On June, 4 groups of 225 fish (2replicates per dietary treatment were sorted according to live weight and reared in fibreglass tanks over a four- monthlong experimental period. Fish were hand fed to apparent satiety. Offered feed, growth parameters and feed efficiencywere recorded as productive performance. At the end of the trial (October biometric, chemical and reological traits wereexamined to assess fish quality. The dietary treatments showed similar productive performance. The relatively high inclusionof vegetable sources led to a significant modification of body shape, mesenteric fat and viscera weight. Among qualitytraits, Vegetable diet-fed fish demonstrated a significantly lower whole body and fillet crude protein content.Yellowness value of the cooked fillet was significantly lower in the Control diet-fed fish, whereas fillet texture was similar.The results of this research showed that shi drum is a suitable candidate for Mediterranean marine aquaculture andits dietary formulation might include at least the amount of vegetable sources used in this trial.

  7. Long-wavelength (red) light produces hyperopia in juvenile and adolescent tree shrews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawne, Timothy J; Ward, Alexander H; Norton, Thomas T

    2017-11-01

    In infant tree shrews, exposure to narrow-band long-wavelength (red) light, that stimulates long-wavelength sensitive cones almost exclusively, slows axial elongation and produces hyperopia. We asked if red light produces hyperopia in juvenile and adolescent animals, ages when plus lenses are ineffective. Animals were raised in fluorescent colony lighting (100-300 lux) until they began 13days of red-light treatment at 11 (n=5, "infant"), 35 (n=5, "juvenile") or 95 (n=5, "adolescent") days of visual experience (DVE). LEDs provided 527-749 lux on the cage floor. To control for the higher red illuminance, a fluorescent control group (n=5) of juvenile (35 DVE) animals was exposed to ∼975 lux. Refractions were measured daily; ocular component dimensions at the start and end of treatment and end of recovery in colony lighting. These groups were compared with normals (n=7). In red light, the refractive state of both juvenile and adolescent animals became significantly (Prefractions (0.6±0.3D) were normal. In red-treated juveniles the vitreous chamber was significantly smaller than normal (Plight-induced slowed growth and hyperopia in juvenile and adolescent tree shrews demonstrates that the emmetropization mechanism is still capable of restraining eye growth at these ages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of vacuum and modified atmosphere packaging on the microbiological, chemical and sensory properties of tropical red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) fillets stored at 4°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbande, Adèle; Adenet, Sandra; Chopin, Christine; Cornet, Josiane; Smith-Ravin, Juliette; Rochefort, Katia; Leroi, Françoise

    2018-02-02

    The effect of vacuum (VP - 4°C) and CO 2 /N 2 -atmosphere (MAP - 4°C) packaging on the quality of red drum fillets compared with whole gutted iced fish was investigated. A metagenomic approach, bacterial enumeration and isolation, biochemical and sensory analyses were carried out. The organoleptic rejection of whole fish was observed at day 15 whereas VP and MAP fillets appeared unacceptable only after 29days. At these dates, total mesophilic counts reached 10 7 -10 8 CFU g -1 . According to Illumina MiSeq sequencing, Arthrobacter, Chryseobacterium, Brevibacterium, Staphylococcus and Kocuria were the main genera of the fresh red drum fillets. At the sensory rejection time, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), particularly Carnobacterium sp., dominated the microbiota of both types of packaging. The pH value of fresh samples was between 5.96 and 6.37 and did not vary greatly in all trials. Total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN) and trimethylamine (TMA) concentrations were low and not represent reliable indicators of the spoilage, contrary to some biogenic amines (cadaverine, putrescine and tyramine). Chilled packed fillets of red drum have an extended shelf-life compared to whole gutted iced fish. Overall, few differences in sensory and microbial quality were observed between the VP and MAP samples. Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) provided data on the microbiota of a tropical fish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Movement patterns of juvenile whale sharks tagged at an aggregation site in the Red Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L Berumen

    Full Text Available Conservation efforts aimed at the whale shark, Rhincodon typus, remain limited by a lack of basic information on most aspects of its ecology, including global population structure, population sizes and movement patterns. Here we report on the movements of 47 Red Sea whale sharks fitted with three types of satellite transmitting tags from 2009-2011. Most of these sharks were tagged at a single aggregation site near Al-Lith, on the central coast of the Saudi Arabian Red Sea. Individuals encountered at this site were all juveniles based on size estimates ranging from 2.5-7 m total length with a sex ratio of approximately 1∶1. All other known aggregation sites for juvenile whale sharks are dominated by males. Results from tagging efforts showed that most individuals remained in the southern Red Sea and that some sharks returned to the same location in subsequent years. Diving data were recorded by 37 tags, revealing frequent deep dives to at least 500 m and as deep as 1360 m. The unique temperature-depth profiles of the Red Sea confirmed that several whale sharks moved out of the Red Sea while tagged. The wide-ranging horizontal movements of these individuals highlight the need for multinational, cooperative efforts to conserve R. typus populations in the Red Sea and Indian Ocean.

  10. Movement patterns of juvenile whale sharks tagged at an aggregation site in the Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berumen, Michael L; Braun, Camrin D; Cochran, Jesse E M; Skomal, Gregory B; Thorrold, Simon R

    2014-01-01

    Conservation efforts aimed at the whale shark, Rhincodon typus, remain limited by a lack of basic information on most aspects of its ecology, including global population structure, population sizes and movement patterns. Here we report on the movements of 47 Red Sea whale sharks fitted with three types of satellite transmitting tags from 2009-2011. Most of these sharks were tagged at a single aggregation site near Al-Lith, on the central coast of the Saudi Arabian Red Sea. Individuals encountered at this site were all juveniles based on size estimates ranging from 2.5-7 m total length with a sex ratio of approximately 1∶1. All other known aggregation sites for juvenile whale sharks are dominated by males. Results from tagging efforts showed that most individuals remained in the southern Red Sea and that some sharks returned to the same location in subsequent years. Diving data were recorded by 37 tags, revealing frequent deep dives to at least 500 m and as deep as 1360 m. The unique temperature-depth profiles of the Red Sea confirmed that several whale sharks moved out of the Red Sea while tagged. The wide-ranging horizontal movements of these individuals highlight the need for multinational, cooperative efforts to conserve R. typus populations in the Red Sea and Indian Ocean.

  11. Movement patterns of juvenile whale sharks tagged at an aggregation site in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Berumen, Michael L.

    2014-07-30

    Conservation efforts aimed at the whale shark, Rhincodon typus, remain limited by a lack of basic information on most aspects of its ecology, including global population structure, population sizes and movement patterns. Here we report on the movements of 47 Red Sea whale sharks fitted with three types of satellite transmitting tags from 2009-2011. Most of these sharks were tagged at a single aggregation site near Al-Lith, on the central coast of the Saudi Arabian Red Sea. Individuals encountered at this site were all juveniles based on size estimates ranging from 2.5-7 m total length with a sex ratio of approximately 1:1. All other known aggregation sites for juvenile whale sharks are dominated by males. Results from tagging efforts showed that most individuals remained in the southern Red Sea and that some sharks returned to the same location in subsequent years. Diving data were recorded by 37 tags, revealing frequent deep dives to at least 500 m and as deep as 1360 m. The unique temperature-depth profiles of the Red Sea confirmed that several whale sharks moved out of the Red Sea while tagged. The wide-ranging horizontal movements of these individuals highlight the need for multinational, cooperative efforts to conserve R. typus populations in the Red Sea and Indian Ocean. © 2014 Berumen et al.

  12. Steam drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowder, R.

    1978-01-01

    Steam drums are described that are suitable for use in steam generating heavy water reactor power stations. They receive a steam/water mixture via riser headers from the reactor core and provide by means of separators and driers steam with typically 0.5% moisture content for driving turbines. The drums are constructed as prestressed concrete pressure vessels in which the failure of one or a few of the prestressing elements does not significantly affect the overall strength of the structure. The concrete also acts as a radiation shield. (U.K.)

  13. Thyroidectomy and the termination of juvenile refractoriness in the red-legged partridge (Alectoris graeca chukar)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creighton, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    The role of thyroid hormones in the maintenance of juvenile refractoriness was studied in the red-legged partridge hybrid, Alectoris graeca chukar. Juvenile partridges, maintained on long (20L:4D) daylengths from hatch, were radiothyroidectomized at 6 1/2 weeks of age, and after 2 weeks were either held on long days or transferred to short (8L:16D) daylengths. Short-day thyroidectomized birds showed no evidence of gonadal growth 18 weeks after thyroidectomy, and neither did euthyroid controls on either short or long daylengths. Thyroidectomized birds held on long daylengths did show significant gonadal growth at this point. Further treatment with low levels of thyroxine (10 micrograms/bird) led to even greater testicular development in long-day thyroidectomized birds, but had no effect on the gonads of short-day thyroidectomized or euthyroid birds

  14. Type B Drum packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, W.S.

    1995-11-01

    The Type B Drum package is a container in which a single drum containing Type B quantities of radioactive material will be packaged for shipment. The Type B Drum containers are being developed to fill a void in the packaging and transportation capabilities of the US Department of Energy (DOE), as no double containment packaging for single drums of Type B radioactive material is currently available. Several multiple-drum containers and shielded casks presently exist. However, the size and weight of these containers present multiple operational challenges for single-drum shipments. The Type B Drum containers will offer one unshielded version and, if needed, two shielded versions, and will provide for the option of either single or double containment. The primary users of the Type B Drum container will be any organization with a need to ship single drums of Type B radioactive material. Those users include laboratories, waste retrieval facilities, emergency response teams, and small facilities

  15. Colony size-frequency distribution of pocilloporid juvenile corals along a natural environmental gradient in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Lozano-Cortes, Diego

    2015-10-29

    Coral colony size-frequency distributions can be used to assess population responses to local environmental conditions and disturbances. In this study, we surveyed juvenile pocilloporids, herbivorous fish densities, and algal cover in the central and southern Saudi Arabian Red Sea. We sampled nine reefs with different disturbance histories along a north–south natural gradient of physicochemical conditions (higher salinity and wider temperature fluctuations in the north, and higher turbidity and productivity in the south). Since coral populations with negatively skewed size-frequency distributions have been associated with unfavorable environmental conditions, we expected to find more negative distributions in the southern Red Sea, where corals are potentially experiencing suboptimal conditions. Although juvenile coral and parrotfish densities differed significantly between the two regions, mean colony size and size-frequency distributions did not. Results suggest that pocilloporid colony size-frequency distribution may not be an accurate indicator of differences in biological or oceanographic conditions in the Red Sea.

  16. AFSC/RACE/SAP/Long: Data from: Effects of Ocean Acidification on Juvenile Red King Crab (Paralithodes camtschaticus) and Tanner Crab (Chionoecetes bairdi) Growth, Condition, Calcification, and Survival

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is the results of a laboratory experiment. Juvenile red king crab and Tanner crab were reared in individual containers for nearly 200 days in flowing...

  17. Rotary drum for centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Mitsuo; Ichinoto, Seiichi.

    1972-01-01

    An outwardly concaved metallic end plate is fitted into each end of a metallic rotary drum for a centrifuge until each end face of the drum is brought to bear upon a section of the end plate radially projected in a direction perpendicular to the axis of rotation of the drum, said section being provided at the marginal edge of the end plate. Following completion of the fitting operation, the end plate is welded to the rotary drum. During high speed rotation, the drum contracts axially and expands radially, while the concave end plate, radially tensioned due to the radial expansion of the drum, undergoes a reduction in its degree of concavity resulting in outwardly directed axial displacement of the end plate proper its marginal edge remaining unaffected relative to the drum. Such displacement conpensates for axial contraction of the drum. Since displacement of the end plate and contraction of the drum depend upon the speed of rotation, substantial axial distortion of the drum can be avoided relative to the end plates at both low and high speeds to permit a high degree of balance for the rotary drum. (Ohno, Y.)

  18. Identification, Characterization, and Mapping of a Novel SNP Associated with Body Color Transparency in Juvenile Red Sea Bream (Pagrus major).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawayama, Eitaro; Noguchi, Daiki; Nakayama, Kei; Takagi, Motohiro

    2018-03-23

    We previously reported a body color deformity in juvenile red sea bream, which shows transparency in the juvenile stage because of delayed chromatophore development compared with normal individuals, and this finding suggested a genetic cause based on parentage assessments. To conduct marker-assisted selection to eliminate broodstock inheriting the causative gene, developing DNA markers associated with the phenotype was needed. We first conducted SNP mining based on AFLP analysis using bulked-DNA from normal and transparent individuals. One SNP was identified from a transparent-specific AFLP fragment, which significantly associated with transparent individuals. Two alleles (A/G) were observed in this locus, and the genotype G/G was dominantly observed in the transparent groups (97.1%) collected from several production lots produced from different broodstock populations. A few normal individuals inherited the G/G genotype (5.0%), but the A/A and A/G genotypes were dominantly observed in the normal groups. The homologs region of the SNP was searched using a medaka genome database, and intron 12 of the Nell2a gene (located on chromosome 6 of the medaka genome) was highly matched. We also mapped the red sea bream Nell2a gene on the previously developed linkage maps, and this gene was mapped on a male linkage group, LG4-M. The newly found SNP was useful in eliminating broodstock possessing the causative gene of the body color transparency observed in juvenile stage of red sea bream.

  19. Unvented Drum Handling Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MCDONALD, K.M.

    2000-01-01

    This drum-handling plan proposes a method to deal with unvented transuranic drums encountered during retrieval of drums. Finding unvented drums during retrieval activities was expected, as identified in the Transuranic (TRU) Phase I Retrieval Plan (HNF-4781). However, significant numbers of unvented drums were not expected until excavation of buried drums began. This plan represents accelerated planning for management of unvented drums. A plan is proposed that manages unvented drums differently based on three categories. The first category of drums is any that visually appear to be pressurized. These will be vented immediately, using either the Hanford Fire Department Hazardous Materials (Haz. Mat.) team, if such are encountered before the facilities' capabilities are established, or using internal capabilities, once established. To date, no drums have been retrieved that showed signs of pressurization. The second category consists of drums that contain a minimal amount of Pu isotopes. This minimal amount is typically less than 1 gram of Pu, but may be waste-stream dependent. Drums in this category are assayed to determine if they are low-level waste (LLW). LLW drums are typically disposed of without venting. Any unvented drums that assay as TRU will be staged for a future venting campaign, using appropriate safety precautions in their handling. The third category of drums is those for which records show larger amounts of Pu isotopes (typically greater than or equal to 1 gram of Pu). These are assumed to be TRU and are not assayed at this point, but are staged for a future venting campaign. Any of these drums that do not have a visible venting device will be staged awaiting venting, and will be managed under appropriate controls, including covering the drums to protect from direct solar exposure, minimizing of container movement, and placement of a barrier to restrict vehicle access. There are a number of equipment options available to perform the venting. The

  20. Waste drum refurbishment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitmill, L.J.

    1996-01-01

    Low-carbon steel, radioactive waste containers (55-gallon drums) are experiencing degradation due to moisture and temperature fluctuations. With thousands of these containers currently in use; drum refurbishment becomes a significant issue for the taxpayer and stockholders. This drum refurbishment is a non-intrusive, portable process costing between 1/2 and 1/25 the cost of repackaging, depending on the severity of degradation. At the INEL alone, there are an estimated 9,000 drums earmarked for repackaging. Refurbishing drums rather than repackaging can save up to $45,000,000 at the INEL. Based on current but ever changing WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC), this drum refurbishment process will restore drums to a WIPP acceptable condition plus; drums with up to 40% thinning o the wall can be refurbished to meet performance test requirements for DOT 7A Type A packaging. A refurbished drum provides a tough, corrosion resistant, waterproof container with longer storage life and an additional containment barrier. Drums are coated with a high-pressure spray copolymer material approximately .045 inches thick. Increase in internal drum temperature can be held to less than 15 F. Application can be performed hands-on or the equipment is readily adaptable and controllable for remote operations. The material dries to touch in seconds, is fully cured in 48 hours and has a service temperature of -60 to 500 F. Drums can be coated with little or no surface preparation. This research was performed on drums however research results indicate the coating is very versatile and compatible with most any material and geometry. It could be used to provide abrasion resistance, corrosion protection and waterproofing to almost anything

  1. Colony size-frequency distribution of pocilloporid juvenile corals along a natural environmental gradient in the Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Cortés, Diego F; Berumen, Michael L

    2016-04-30

    Coral colony size-frequency distributions can be used to assess population responses to local environmental conditions and disturbances. In this study, we surveyed juvenile pocilloporids, herbivorous fish densities, and algal cover in the central and southern Saudi Arabian Red Sea. We sampled nine reefs with different disturbance histories along a north-south natural gradient of physicochemical conditions (higher salinity and wider temperature fluctuations in the north, and higher turbidity and productivity in the south). Since coral populations with negatively skewed size-frequency distributions have been associated with unfavorable environmental conditions, we expected to find more negative distributions in the southern Red Sea, where corals are potentially experiencing suboptimal conditions. Although juvenile coral and parrotfish densities differed significantly between the two regions, mean colony size and size-frequency distributions did not. Results suggest that pocilloporid colony size-frequency distribution may not be an accurate indicator of differences in biological or oceanographic conditions in the Red Sea. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Type B drum packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, J.C.

    1994-08-01

    The Type B drum packages (TBD) are conceptualized as a family of containers in which a single 208 L or 114 L (55 gal or 30 gal) drum containing Type B quantities of radioactive material (RAM) can be packaged for shipment. The TBD containers are being developed to fill a void in the packaging and transportation capabilities of the U.S. Department of Energy as no container packaging single drums of Type B RAM exists offering double containment. Several multiple-drum containers currently exist, as well as a number of shielded casks, but the size and weight of these containers present many operational challenges for single-drum shipments. As an alternative, the TBD containers will offer up to three shielded versions (light, medium, and heavy) and one unshielded version, each offering single or optional double containment for a single drum. To reduce operational complexity, all versions will share similar design and operational features where possible. The primary users of the TBD containers are envisioned to be any organization desiring to ship single drums of Type B RAM, such as laboratories, waste retrieval activities, emergency response teams, etc. Currently, the TBD conceptual design is being developed with the final design and analysis to be completed in 1995 to 1996. Testing and certification of the unshielded version are planned to be completed in 1996 to 1997 with production to begin in 1997 to 1998

  3. AFSC/RACE/SAP/Long: Effects of ocean acidification on respiration, feeding, and growth of juvenile red and blue king crabs (Paralithodes camtschaticus and P. platypus)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Juvenile red and blue king crabs (Paralithodes camtschaticus and P. platypus) were exposed to three pH levels: ambient (pH 8.1), pH 7.8, and pH 7.5 for three weeks....

  4. Dispersal and survival rates of adult and juvenile Red-tailed tropicbirds (Phaethon rubricauda exposed to potential contaminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schreiber, E. A.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Annual survival and dispersal rates of adult and juvenile red-tailed tropicbirds were examined in connection with exposure to heavy metals. From 1990-2000 the incineration of a U.S. stockpile of chemical weapons stored at Johnston Atoll exposed nesting tropicbirds to increased levels of human disturbance, smoke stack emissions and potential leaks. Using a multi-state mark-recapture modeling approach, birds nesting in this site (downwind of the plant were compared to those nesting in a reference site (upwind of the plant with less human disturbance, no exposure to smoke stack emissions or other potential incineration emissions. We did not find any difference in survival of adults or juveniles when comparing the two sites. Adult breeding dispersal rates did not differ between the sites but we did find differences in the age-specific natal dispersal rates. Birds fledged from downwind areas were less likely to return to their natal area to nest and more likely to immigrate to the upwind area than vice-versa. This asymmetry in emigration rates is believed to be due to differing vegetation densities and has implications for vegetation management in relation to tropicbird nest success and population size.

  5. The method study for nuclide analysis of waste drum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan Guanglin; Huang Xianguo; Xing Shixiong

    2001-01-01

    The principle of waste drum nuclide analysis system and the principle of the detector chosen are introduced. The linear attenuation coefficient and mass attenuation coefficient of five environmental medium (water, soil, red brick, concrete and sands) have been measured with γ transmission method simulative equipment. The absorption coefficient and nuclide activity of three measuring conditions (collimation-columnar source, un-collimation-columnar source, and un-collimation-rotation-drum source) have been calculated

  6. The effects of intermittent exposure to low-pH and low-oxygen conditions on survival and growth of juvenile red abalone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T. W.; Barry, J. P.; Micheli, F.

    2013-11-01

    Exposure of nearshore animals to hypoxic, low-pH waters upwelled from below the continental shelf and advected near the coast may be stressful to marine organisms and lead to impaired physiological performance. We mimicked upwelling conditions in the laboratory and tested the effect of fluctuating exposure to water with low-pH and/or low-oxygen levels on the mortality and growth of juvenile red abalone (Haliotis rufescens, shell length 5-10 mm). Mortality rates of juvenile abalone exposed to low-pH (7.5, total scale) and low-O2 (40% saturation, mg L-1) conditions for periods of 3 to 6 h every 3-5 days over 2 weeks did not differ from those exposed to control conditions (O2: 100% saturation, 12 mg L-1; pH 8.0). However, when exposure was extended to 24 h, twice over a 15-day period, juveniles experienced 5-20% higher mortality in the low-oxygen treatments compared to control conditions. Growth rates were reduced significantly when juveniles were exposed to low-oxygen and low-pH treatments. Furthermore, individual variation of growth rate increased when juveniles were exposed simultaneously to low-pH and low-O2 conditions. These results indicate that prolonged exposure to low-oxygen levels is detrimental for the survival of red abalone, whereas pH is a crucial factor for their growth. However, the high individual variation in growth rate under low levels of both pH and oxygen suggests that cryptic phenotypic plasticity may promote resistance to prolonged upwelling conditions by a portion of the population.

  7. Evaluation of marking efficiency of different alizarin red S concentrations on body fish structures in Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes: Cichlidae juveniles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L. Ibáñez

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of alizarin red S (ARS marked tilapias could provide valuable fisheries management information to evaluate fish stocking events and may facilitate aquaculture management practices. As a new technique in fishes, the aim of this study was to compare and evaluate the chemical marks produced in tilapia juveniles by ARS through two treatments: 1 12 hours of immersion and 2 immersion after osmotic induction. This was analyzed at three concentrations: 50, 75 and 100mg/l, and in three structures: otoliths, fish scales and caudal fin rays of Oreochromis niloticus juveniles. After three culture months 80% of specimens were analyzed and significant differences (pEl uso de alizarina roja S (ARS para marcar tilapias podría proporcionar información valiosa para el manejo de su pesquería. Para evaluar pesquerías acuaculturales manejadas con siembras o repoblamientos de peces se comparó y evaluó la marca producida por la alizarina roja S, empleando dos tratamientos: 1 Inmersión en ARS durante 12h; e 2 Inmersión en ARS después de un choque osmótico. El análisis se realizó a tres concentraciones: 50, 75 y 100mg/l y en tres estructuras: otolitos, escamas y radios de la aleta caudal de Oreochromis niloticus. Ochenta por ciento de los ejemplares fueron cultivados durante tres meses y analizados posteriormente. Los resultados mostraron diferencias entre las concentraciones de la marca para el tratamiento de 12h de inmersión mientras que no hubo diferencias entre las concentraciones para el tratamiento con inducción osmótica. Se encontraron diferencias en la intensidad de la marca entre los tratamientos para otolitos y radios de las aletas pero para las escamas no hubo diferencias significativas. Todas las concentraciones produjeron marcas (desde débiles a intensas, sin embargo la concentración de 100mg/l no produjo marcas débiles. El tratamiento por inducción osmótica presentó mayores niveles de mortalidad. Después de ocho meses de

  8. High speed rotary drum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagara, H

    1970-03-25

    A high speed rotary drum is disclosed in which the rotor vessel is a double-wall structure comprising an inner wave-shaped pipe inserted coaxially within an outer straight pipe, the object being to provide a strengthened composite light-weight structure. Since force induced axial deformation of the straight pipe and radial deformation of the corrugated pipe are small, the composite effectively resists external forces and, if the waves of the inner pipe are given a sufficient amplitude, the thickness of both pipes may be reduced to lower the overall weight. Thus high angular velocities can be obtained to separate U/sup 235/ from gaseous UF/sub 6/.

  9. OBSERVATION ON SKELETAL DEFORMITY IN HATCHERY-REARED RED SPOTTED GROUPER, Epinephelus akaara (Temmick et Schlegel FROM LARVAL TO JUVENILE STAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eri Setiadi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal deformity is a significant problem in fish culture. The skeletal deformities in red spotted grouper from yolk-sac to juvenile stages were examined through clearing and staining of the cartilage and bone using Alcian Blue and Alizarin Red S. The overall results showed that the pattern of incidence of deformities showed an increase from preflexion to juvenile stages. The rate of deformities based on ten elements of bone from preflexion to juvenile stages were as follows: vertebral (42.6%—9.0%, dorsal proximal radials (4.8%—25.2%, neural spine (0%—8.4%, haemal spine (0%—6.8%, hypural (1.3%—5.4%, anal proximal radials (0%—5.4%, epural (1.3%—4.9%, arypural (2.0%—4.5%, lower jaw (1.3%—2.5%, and upper jaw (0%. Vertebral and dorsal proximal radials were recognized as the most susceptible parts to deformation. The main types of bone deformity were lordosis, scoliosis, fusion, shortening, branching, supernumerary elements, and saddleback syndrome. Development of saddleback syndrome was detected initially in preflexion stage, which was accompanied by deformity of the neural spines, dorsal proximal radials, and disposition of the distal radials and dorsal spines in later life stages. The skeletal deformity encountered during the larval rearing period could be caused by water surface tension.

  10. Shearer drums - the cutting edge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neill, M.; Wright, C.

    2004-09-15

    The paper discusses continuous miner and shearer cutters. It claims cutting drum require the same level of engineering know-how and technical expertise as do the machines driving them, and that the cutting drum, whether on a longwall shearer or continuous miner, comprises, the steel, pedestals, bit holders and the bits.

  11. Compound drum for a centrifugal separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-01-01

    This invention concerns a method for centrifugal separation of UF 6 . The invention provides a composite drum capable of rapid rotation for use in a centrifugal separating arrangement for gaseous materials. The drum is provided with a first drum section comprised of a metal and a second drum section comprised of a fiber-reinforced synthetic material. The second drum section is applied on the outside peripheral surface of the first drum section, where the second drum section is provided with a number of annular components, each of which is shorter than the first drum section

  12. The effects of intermittent exposure to low pH and oxygen conditions on survival and growth of juvenile red abalone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T. W.; Barry, J. P.; Micheli, F.

    2013-02-01

    Exposure of nearshore animals to hypoxic, low pH waters upwelled from below the continental shelf and advected near the coast may be stressful to marine organisms and lead to impaired physiological performance. We mimicked upwelling conditions in the laboratory and tested the effect of fluctuating exposure to water with low pH and/or low oxygen levels on the mortality and growth of juvenile red abalone (Haliotis rufescens, shell length 5-10 mm). Mortality rates of juvenile abalone exposed to low pH (7.5, total scale) and low O2 (40% saturation, 5 mg L-1) conditions for periods of 3 to 6 h every 3-5 days over 2 weeks did not differ from those exposed to control conditions (O2: 100% saturation, 12 mg L-1; pH 8.0). However, when exposure was extended to 24 h repeated twice over a 15 day period, juveniles experienced higher mortality in the low oxygen treatments compared to control conditions, regardless of pH levels (pH 7.5 vs. 8.0). Growth rates were reduced significantly when juveniles were exposed to low pH or low oxygen treatments and the growth was lowest when low pH exposure was combined with low O2. Furthermore, individual variation of growth rate increased when they were exposed to low pH and low O2 conditions. These results indicate that prolonged exposure to low oxygen levels is detrimental for the survival of red abalone, whereas both pH and oxygen is a crucial factor for their growth. However, given the higher individual variation in growth rate, they may have an ability to adapt to extended exposure to upwelling conditions.

  13. Colony size-frequency distribution of pocilloporid juvenile corals along a natural environmental gradient in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Lozano-Corté s, Diego; Berumen, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    Coral colony size-frequency distributions can be used to assess population responses to local environmental conditions and disturbances. In this study, we surveyed juvenile pocilloporids, herbivorous fish densities, and algal cover in the central

  14. Effects of ocean acidification on juvenile red king crab (Paralithodes camtschaticus and Tanner crab (Chionoecetes bairdi growth, condition, calcification, and survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Christopher Long

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification, a decrease in the pH in marine waters associated with rising atmospheric CO2 levels, is a serious threat to marine ecosystems. In this paper, we determine the effects of long-term exposure to near-future levels of ocean acidification on the growth, condition, calcification, and survival of juvenile red king crabs, Paralithodes camtschaticus, and Tanner crabs, Chionoecetes bairdi. Juveniles were reared in individual containers for nearly 200 days in flowing control (pH 8.0, pH 7.8, and pH 7.5 seawater at ambient temperatures (range 4.4-11.9 °C. In both species, survival decreased with pH, with 100% mortality of red king crabs occurring after 95 days in pH 7.5 water. Though the morphology of neither species was affected by acidification, both species grew slower in acidified water. At the end of the experiment, calcium concentration was measured in each crab and the dry mass and condition index of each crab were determined. Ocean acidification did not affect the calcium content of red king crab but did decrease the condition index, while it had the opposite effect on Tanner crabs, decreasing calcium content but leaving the condition index unchanged. This suggests that red king crab may be able to maintain calcification rates, but at a high energetic cost. The decrease in survival and growth of each species is likely to have a serious negative effect on their populations in the absence of evolutionary adaptation or acclimatization over the coming decades.

  15. Drum inspection robots: Application development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazen, F.B.; Warner, R.D.

    1996-01-01

    Throughout the Department of Energy (DOE), drums containing mixed and low level stored waste are inspected, as mandated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and other regulations. The inspections are intended to prevent leaks by finding corrosion long before the drums are breached. The DOE Office of Science and Technology (OST) has sponsored efforts towards the development of robotic drum inspectors. This emerging application for mobile and remote sensing has broad applicability for DOE and commercial waste storage areas. Three full scale robot prototypes have been under development, and another project has prototyped a novel technique to analyze robotically collected drum images. In general, the robots consist of a mobile, self-navigating base vehicle, outfitted with sensor packages so that rust and other corrosion cues can be automatically identified. They promise the potential to lower radiation dose and operator effort required, while improving diligence, consistency, and documentation

  16. Radwaste disposal drum centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, L.S.; Deltete, C.P.; Crook, M.R.

    1988-01-01

    The drum or processing bowl of the DDC becomes the disposal container when the filling operation is completed. Rehandling of the processed resin is eliminated. By allowing the centrifugally compacted resin to remain in the processing container, extremely efficient waste packaging can be achieved. The dewatering results and volume reductions reported during 1986 were based upon laboratory scale testing sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the Department of Energy (DOE). Since the publication of these preliminary results, additional testing using a full-scale prototype DDC has been completed, again under the auspices of the DOE. Full-scale testing has substantiated the results of earlier testing and has formed the basis for preliminary discussions with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regarding DDC licensing for radioactive applications. A comprehensive Topical Report and Process Control Program is currently being prepared for submittal to the NRC for review under a utility licensing action. Detailed cost-benefit analyses for actual plant operations have been prepared to substantiate the attractiveness of the DDC. Several methods to physically integrate a DDC into a nuclear power plant have also been developed

  17. Solid waste drum array fire performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louie, R.L.; Haecker, C.F.; Beitel, J.J.; Gottuck, D.T.; Rhodes, B.T.; Bayier, C.L.

    1995-09-01

    Fire hazards associated with drum storage of radioactively contaminated waste are a major concern in DOE waste storage facilities. This report is the second of two reports on fire testing designed to provide data relative to the propagation of a fire among storage drum arrays. The first report covers testing of individual drums subjected to an initiating fire and the development of the analytical methodology to predict fire propagation among storage drum arrays. This report is the second report, which documents the results of drum array fire tests. The purpose of the array tests was to confirm the analytical methodology developed by Phase I fire testing. These tests provide conclusive evidence that fire will not propagate from drum to drum unless an continuous fuel source other than drum contents is provided

  18. Rotary drum for distilling bituminous material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1921-11-02

    A rotary drum with insert tubes for distilling bituminous materials, like mineral coal, brown coal, wood, peat, and oil-shale, is characterized in that the insert tube is heated also by superheated steam introduced into the drum.

  19. Vapor generator steam drum spray heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fasnacht, F.A. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A typical embodiment of the invention provides a combination feedwater and cooldown water spray head that is centrally disposed in the lower portion of a nuclear power plant steam drum. This structure not only discharges the feedwater in the hottest part of the steam drum, but also increases the time required for the feedwater to reach the steam drum shell, thereby further increasing the feedwater temperature before it contacts the shell surface, thus reducing thermal shock to the steam drum structure

  20. 21 CFR 886.1200 - Optokinetic drum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Optokinetic drum. 886.1200 Section 886.1200 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... optokinetic drum is a drum-like device covered with alternating white and dark stripes or pictures that can be...

  1. Dietary effects of adenosine monophosphate to enhance growth, digestibility, innate immune responses and stress resistance of juvenile red sea bream, Pagrus major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Sakhawat; Koshio, Shunsuke; Ishikawa, Manabu; Yokoyama, Saichiro; Sony, Nadia Mahjabin

    2016-09-01

    Our study explored the dietary effects of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) to enhance growth, digestibility, innate immune responses and stress resistance of juvenile red sea bream. A semi-purified basal diet supplemented with 0% (Control), 0.1% (AMP-0.1), 0.2% (AMP-0.2), 0.4% (AMP-0.4) and 0.8% (AMP-0.8) purified AMP to formulate five experimental diets. Each diet was randomly allocated to triplicate groups of fish (mean initial weight 3.4 g) for 56 days. The results indicated that dietary AMP supplements tended to improve growth performances. One of the best ones was found in diet group AMP-0.2, followed by diet groups AMP-0.1, AMP-0.4 and AMP-0.8. The Apparent digestibility coefficients (dry matter, protein and lipid) also improved by AMP supplementation and the significantly highest dry matter digestibility was observed in diet group AMP-0.2. Fish fed diet groups AMP-0.2 and AMP-0.4 had significantly higher peroxidase and bactericidal activities than fish fed the control diet. Nitro-blue-tetrazolium (NBT) activity was found to be significantly (P  0.05) by dietary supplementation. In contrast, catalase activity decreased with AMP supplementation. Moreover, the fish fed AMP supplemented diets had better improvement (P red sea bream. The regression analysis revealed that a dietary AMP supplementation between 0.2 and 0.4% supported weight gain and lysozyme activity as a marker of immune functions for red sea bream, which is also inline with the most of the growth and health performance parameters of fish under present experimental conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of dietary administration of guanosine monophosphate on the growth, digestibility, innate immune responses and stress resistance of juvenile red sea bream, Pagrus major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Sakhawat; Koshio, Shunsuke; Ishikawa, Manabu; Yokoyama, Saichiro; Sony, Nadia Mahjabin

    2016-10-01

    The present study explored the dietary administration effects of guanosine monophosphate (GMP) on growth, digestibility, innate immune responses and stress resistance of juvenile red sea bream, Pagrus major. A semi-purified basal diet supplemented with 0% (Control), 0.1% (GMP-0.1), 0.2% (GMP-0.2), 0.4% (GMP-0.4) and 0.8% (GMP-0.8) purified GMP to formulate five experimental diets. Each diet was randomly allocated to triplicate groups of fish (mean initial weight 3.4 g) for 56 days. The obtained results clearly indicated that, growth performance of red sea bream enhanced by dietary GMP supplementation compared to control and significantly higher final weight was found in fish fed diet group GMP-0.4. Specific growth rate (SGR) and percent weight gain (%WG) also significantly higher in diet group GMP-0.4 in compared to control and it was not differed (P > 0.05) with diet group GMP-0.8. Feed intake significantly increased with the supplementation of GMP. Feed conversion efficiency (FCE) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) also improved (P  0.05) by GMP supplementation. In contrast, catalase activity decreased with GMP supplementation. In terms of oxidative stress GMP-0.2 showed best condition with low oxidative stress and high antioxidant level. Moreover, the fish fed GMP supplemented diets had better improvement (P red sea bream, which is also in line with the most of the growth performance and health parameters of the fish. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Morphological and mechanical changes in juvenile red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans) shells during ontogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Jennifer F; Stayton, Charles T

    2014-04-01

    Turtles experience numerous modifications in the morphological, physiological, and mechanical characteristics of their shells through ontogeny. Although a general picture is available of the nature of these modifications, few quantitative studies have been conducted on changes in turtle shell shape through ontogeny, and none on changes in strength or rigidity. This study investigates the morphological and mechanical changes that juvenile Trachemys scripta elegans undergo as they increase in size. Morphology and shell rigidity were quantified in a sample of 36 alcohol-preserved juvenile Trachemys scripta elegans. Morphometric information was used to create finite element models of all specimens. These models were used to assess the mechanical behavior of the shells under various loading conditions. Overall, we find that turtles experience complementary changes in size, shape, deformability, and relative strength as they grow. As turtles age their shells become larger, more elongate, relatively flatter, and more rigid. These changes are associated with decreases in relative (size independent) strength, even though the shells of larger turtles are stronger in an absolute sense. Decreased deformability is primarily due to changes in the size of the animals. Residual variation in deformability cannot be explained by changes in shell shape. This variation is more likely due to changes in the degree of connectedness of the skeletal elements in the turtle's shells, along with changes in the thickness and degree of mineralization of shell bone. We suggest that the mechanical implications of shell size, shape, and deformability may have a large impact on survivorship and development in members of this species as they mature. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Juvenile angiofibroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasal tumor; Angiofibroma - juvenile; Benign nasal tumor; Juvenile nasal angiofibroma; JNA ... Juvenile angiofibroma is not very common. It is most often found in adolescent boys. The tumor contains many blood ...

  5. The eigenspectra of Indian musical drums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathej, G; Adhikari, R

    2009-02-01

    In a family of drums used in the Indian subcontinent, the circular drum head is made of material of nonuniform density. Remarkably, and in contrast to a circular membrane of uniform density, the low eigenmodes of the nonuniform membrane are harmonic. In this work the drum head is modeled as a nonuniform membrane whose density varies smoothly between two prescribed values. The eigenmodes and eigenvalues of the drum head are obtained using a high-resolution numerical method. The mathematical model and the numerical method are able to handle both concentric and eccentric nonuniformities, which correspond, respectively, to the dayan and the bayan drums. For a suitable choice of parameters, which are found by optimizing the harmonicity of the drum, the eigenspectra obtained from the model are in excellent agreement with experiment. The model and the numerical method should find application in numerical sound synthesis.

  6. Storage drums for radio-active waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knights, H.C.

    1982-01-01

    The lid of a storage drum for radioactive waste is secured by a series of clamps each of which has a hook for engaging the rim of the drum. Each clamp has an indicating means whereby a remote operator can check that the lid is secured to the drum. In a second embodiment, the position of an arm acts as a visual indication as to whether or not the clamp is in engagement with the container rim. (author)

  7. Mannitol can mitigate negative effects of simulated acid mist and fluoranthene in juvenile Japanese red pine (P. densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguntimehin, Ilemobayo; Bandai, Sayuri; Sakugawa, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    The negative health effects of simulated acid mists and fluoranthene on juvenile Japanese red pine were investigated, and the methods of protection from these pollutants were examined. The needle gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, chemical contents and visual damage to needles caused by acid mist applied alone or its conjunction with fluoranthene were investigated over 60 d and 20 d, respectively. Acid mist at pH 2 and 3 caused physiological and visual damage, which was enhanced by the addition of fluoranthene to the mist. However, fluoranthene and acid mist at pH 4 and 5 showed only minor effects. These findings indicate that acid mist may be more harmful to pine trees if it occurs in conjunction with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Moreover, suppression of the singular and additive effects of these compounds was achieved using mannitol, which may be widely applicable to suppression of reactive oxygen species-mediated plant damage. -- Highlights: ► We evaluate acid mist alone and acid mist plus fluoranthene effects on pine needles. ► Acid mist more damages pine needles if fluoranthene was additionally sprayed. ► The suppression of the mixture of pollutants effects are achieved with mannitol. ► Mannitol could be useful for protecting pine trees from air pollutants. -- Mannitol could be useful for protecting pine trees and other plants from air pollutants

  8. The coke drum thermal kinetic effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldescu, Maria M.; Romero, Sim; Larson, Mel [KBC Advanced Technologies plc, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    The coke drum thermal kinetic dynamics fundamentally affect the coker unit yields as well as the coke product properties and unit reliability. In the drum the thermal cracking and polymerization or condensation reactions take place in a semi-batch environment. Understanding the fundamentals of the foaming kinetics that occur in the coke drums is key to avoiding a foam-over that could result in a unit shutdown for several months. Although the most dynamic changes with time occur during drum filling, other dynamics of the coker process will be discussed as well. KBC has contributed towards uncovering and modelling the complexities of heavy oil thermal dynamics. (author)

  9. CT examination of radwaste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duwe, R.; Jansen, P.

    1988-01-01

    In order to garantee safe operation of the waste disposal site it is inevitable for the operator to know the radioactive inventory as well as the physical and chemical properties of the conditioned waste. The declarations of the waste producers describing the type, amount and conditioning of the wastes are taken as a basis for specifications of waste forms. The aim of the work till now was to install simple measuring desk for emission computed tomography in order to count γ-activity levels in drums, and to detect density distributions by transmission computed tomography. (orig.) [de

  10. Neutron absorber inserts for 55-gal drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.E.; Kim, Y.S.; Toffer, H.

    2000-01-01

    Transport and temporary storage of more than 200 g of fissile material in 55-gal drums at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) have received significant attention during the cleanup mission. This paper discusses successful applications and results of extensive computer studies. Interim storage and movement of fissile material in excess of standard drum limits (200 g) in a safe configuration have been accomplished using special drum inserts. Such inserts have constrained the contents of a drum to two 4-ell bottles. The content of the bottles was limited to 600 g Pu or U in solution or a total of 1200 g for the entire drum. The inserts were a simple design constructed of stainless steel, forming a vertical cylindrical pipe into which two bottles, one on top of the other, could be centered in the drum. The remaining drum volume was configured to preclude any additional bottle placement external to the vertical cylinder. Such inserts in drums were successfully used in moving high-concentration solution from one building to another for chemical processing. Concern about the knowledge of fissile material concentration in bottles prompted another study for drum inserts. The past practice had been to load up to fourteen 4-ell bottles into 55-gal drums, provided the fissile material concentration was < 6 g fissile/ell, and the total drum contents of 200 g fissile was not exceeded. Only one determination of the solution concentration was needed. An extensive safety analysis concluded that a single measurement of bottle content could not ensure compliance with double-contingency-criterion requirements. A second determination of the bottle contents was required before bottles could be placed in a 55-gal drum. Al alternative to a dual-measurement protocol, which is for bolstering administrative control, was to develop an engineered safety feature that would eliminate expensive tests and administrative decisions. A drum insert design was evaluated that would

  11. Los Alamos waste drum shufflers users manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinard, P.M.; Adams, E.L.; Painter, J.

    1993-01-01

    This user manual describes the Los Alamos waste drum shufflers. The primary purpose of the instruments is to assay the mass of 235 U (or other fissile materials) in drums of assorted waste. It can perform passive assays for isotopes that spontaneously emit neutrons or active assays using the shuffler technique as described on this manual

  12. Listening to the Shape of a Drum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 9. Listening to the Shape of a Drum - The Mathematics of Vibrating Drums. S Kesavan. General Article Volume 3 Issue 9 September 1998 pp 26-34. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  13. Listening to the Shape of a Drum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 10. Listening to the Shape of a Drum - You Cannot Hear the Shape of a Drum! S Kesavan. General Article Volume 3 Issue 10 October 1998 pp 49-58. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  14. Development of SGS for various waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki-Hong; Ryu, Young-Gerl; Kwak, Kyung-Kil; Ji, Yong-Young

    2006-01-01

    Radioactive waste assay system was manufactured to measure the individual nuclides' activity in homogeneous and non-homogeneous waste drums and to exclude worker's exposure. After measuring the activities of all individual γ-emitters, our system was programmed to calculate the activities of α, Β emitters, automatically and then calculated total activities of drum by utilizing scaling factor (relationship between α, Β emitters and Co-60, Cs-137). In general, SGS (Segmented gamma Scanning system) divided a waste drum into 8 segments vertically, and also 8 sectors in one segment to minimize the error. And SGS can be determined the density of drum by using the several matrix correction methods such as transmission ratio, differential peak absorption and mean density correction, individually or by combination. However, from the NPPs and other nuclear facilities, various drum (100∼350L) could be generated. To analyze the activities of γ-emitters from various drums, we modified the collimator (horizontal and vertical) and added detector mover to the existing SGS system. As a results, the measurement error was <12% in a short distance (10 segments, Co-60; 47.87μCi and Cs-137; 101.16μCi) and was <25% in a long distance (8 segments, same sources). This system can be applied to the drum which TGS system does not analyze drum (for example, high density, high activities and large volume). (author)

  15. Sound analysis of a cup drum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kun ho

    2012-01-01

    The International Young Physicists’ Tournament (IYPT) is a worldwide tournament that evaluates a high-school student's ability to solve various physics conundrums that have not been fully resolved in the past. The research presented here is my solution to the cup drum problem. The physics behind a cup drum has never been explored or modelled. A cup drum is a musical instrument that can generate different frequencies and amplitudes depending on the location of a cup held upside-down over, on or under a water surface. The tapping sound of a cup drum can be divided into two components: standing waves and plate vibration. By individually researching the nature of these two sounds, I arrived at conclusions that could accurately predict the frequencies in most cases. When the drum is very close to the surface, qualitative explanations are given. In addition, I examined the trend of the tapping sound amplitude at various distances and qualitatively explained the experimental results. (paper)

  16. Development of nuclear waste concrete drum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Yinghui

    1995-06-01

    The raw materials selection and the properties for nuclear waste concrete drum, the formula and properties of the concrete, the specification and technical quality requirement of the drum were described. The manufacture essentials and technology, the experiments and checks as well as the effective quality control and quality assurance carried out in the course of production were presented. The developed nuclear waste drum has a simple structure, easily available raw materials and rational formula for concrete. The compressive strength of the drum is more than 70 MPa, the tensile strength is more than 5 MPa, the nitrogen permeability is (2.16∼3.6) x 10 -18 m 2 . The error of the drum in dimensions is +-2 mm. The external surface of the drum is smooth. The drum accords with China standards in the sandy surface, void and crack. The results shows China has the ability to develop and manufacture nuclear waste concrete container and lays the foundation for standardization and series of the nuclear waste container for packing and transporting nuclear wastes in China. (5 figs., 10 tabs.)

  17. FIFTY-FIVE GALLON DRUM STANDARD STUDY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puigh, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    Fifty-five gallon drums are routinely used within the U.S. for the storage and eventual disposal of fissionable materials as Transuranic or low-level waste. To support these operations, criticality safety evaluations are required. A questionnaire was developed and sent to selected Endusers at Hanford, Idaho National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Oak Ridge and the Savannah River Site to solicit current practices. This questionnaire was used to gather information on the kinds of fissionable materials packaged into drums, the models used in performing criticality safety evaluations in support of operations involving these drums, and the limits and controls established for the handling and storage of these drums. The completed questionnaires were reviewed and clarifications solicited through individual communications with each Enduser to obtain more complete and consistent responses. All five sites have similar drum operations involving thousands to tens of thousands of fissionable material waste drums. The primary sources for these drums are legacy (prior operations) and decontamination and decommissioning wastes at all sites except Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The results from this survey and our review are discussed in this paper

  18. Seismic behavior analysis of piled drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, H.; Kosaka, T.; Mizushina, T.; Shimizu, M.; Uji, S.; Tsuchiya, H.

    1987-01-01

    In general, low level radioactive waste is packed in drums and stored in a warehouse being piled vertically, or laid horizontally. To observe the behavior of piled drums during an earthquake, an experimental study was reported. The experimental study is limited by the vibrating platform capacity. To carry out these tests up to the supporting limit is not recommended, in view of the vibrating platform curing as well as the operators' security. It is very useful to develop the analytical method for simulating the behavior of the drums. In this report, a computer program of piled drum's dynamic motion is shown, and the analytical result is referred to the experimental result. From the result of experiment on piled drums, the sliding effect has been found to be very important for the stability of drum, and the rocking motion observed, showing a little acceleration is less than the static estimated value. Behavior of piled drums is a complex phenomena comprising of sliding, rocking and jumping

  19. Modeling VOC transport in simulated waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liekhus, K.J.; Gresham, G.L.; Peterson, E.S.; Rae, C.; Hotz, N.J.; Connolly, M.J.

    1993-06-01

    A volatile organic compound (VOC) transport model has been developed to describe unsteady-state VOC permeation and diffusion within a waste drum. Model equations account for three primary mechanisms for VOC transport from a void volume within the drum. These mechanisms are VOC permeation across a polymer boundary, VOC diffusion across an opening in a volume boundary, and VOC solubilization in a polymer boundary. A series of lab-scale experiments was performed in which the VOC concentration was measured in simulated waste drums under different conditions. A lab-scale simulated waste drum consisted of a sized-down 55-gal metal drum containing a modified rigid polyethylene drum liner. Four polyethylene bags were sealed inside a large polyethylene bag, supported by a wire cage, and placed inside the drum liner. The small bags were filled with VOC-air gas mixture and the VOC concentration was measured throughout the drum over a period of time. Test variables included the type of VOC-air gas mixtures introduced into the small bags, the small bag closure type, and the presence or absence of a variable external heat source. Model results were calculated for those trials where the VOC permeability had been measured. Permeabilities for five VOCs [methylene chloride, 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane (Freon-113), 1,1,1-trichloroethane, carbon tetrachloride, and trichloroethylene] were measured across a polyethylene bag. Comparison of model and experimental results of VOC concentration as a function of time indicate that model accurately accounts for significant VOC transport mechanisms in a lab-scale waste drum

  20. TRU drum corrosion task team report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kooda, K.E.; Lavery, C.A.; Zeek, D.P.

    1996-05-01

    During routine inspections in March 1996, transuranic (TRU) waste drums stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) were found with pinholes and leaking fluid. These drums were overpacked, and further inspection discovered over 200 drums with similar corrosion. A task team was assigned to investigate the problem with four specific objectives: to identify any other drums in RWMC TRU storage with pinhole corrosion; to evaluate the adequacy of the RWMC inspection process; to determine the precise mechanism(s) generating the pinhole drum corrosion; and to assess the implications of this event for WIPP certifiability of waste drums. The task team investigations analyzed the source of the pinholes to be Hcl-induced localized pitting corrosion. Hcl formation is directly related to the polychlorinated hydrocarbon volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the waste. Most of the drums showing pinhole corrosion are from Content Code-003 (CC-003) because they contain the highest amounts of polychlorinated VOCs as determined by headspace gas analysis. CC-001 drums represent the only other content code with a significant number of pinhole corrosion drums because their headspace gas VOC content, although significantly less than CC-003, is far greater than that of the other content codes. The exact mechanisms of Hcl formation could not be determined, but radiolytic and reductive dechlorination and direct reduction of halocarbons were analyzed as the likely operable reactions. The team considered the entire range of feasible options, ranked and prioritized the alternatives, and recommended the optimal solution that maximizes protection of worker and public safety while minimizing impacts on RWMC and TRU program operations.

  1. TRU drum corrosion task team report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kooda, K.E.; Lavery, C.A.; Zeek, D.P.

    1996-05-01

    During routine inspections in March 1996, transuranic (TRU) waste drums stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) were found with pinholes and leaking fluid. These drums were overpacked, and further inspection discovered over 200 drums with similar corrosion. A task team was assigned to investigate the problem with four specific objectives: to identify any other drums in RWMC TRU storage with pinhole corrosion; to evaluate the adequacy of the RWMC inspection process; to determine the precise mechanism(s) generating the pinhole drum corrosion; and to assess the implications of this event for WIPP certifiability of waste drums. The task team investigations analyzed the source of the pinholes to be Hcl-induced localized pitting corrosion. Hcl formation is directly related to the polychlorinated hydrocarbon volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the waste. Most of the drums showing pinhole corrosion are from Content Code-003 (CC-003) because they contain the highest amounts of polychlorinated VOCs as determined by headspace gas analysis. CC-001 drums represent the only other content code with a significant number of pinhole corrosion drums because their headspace gas VOC content, although significantly less than CC-003, is far greater than that of the other content codes. The exact mechanisms of Hcl formation could not be determined, but radiolytic and reductive dechlorination and direct reduction of halocarbons were analyzed as the likely operable reactions. The team considered the entire range of feasible options, ranked and prioritized the alternatives, and recommended the optimal solution that maximizes protection of worker and public safety while minimizing impacts on RWMC and TRU program operations

  2. Energy Expenditure in Rock/Pop Drumming

    OpenAIRE

    De La Rue, S; Draper, Stephen B; Potter, Christopher R; Smith, M.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the vigorous nature of rock/pop drumming, there are no precise data on the energy expenditure of this activity. The aim of this study was to quantify the energy cost of rock/pop drumming. Fourteen male drummers (mean +/- SD; age 27 +/- 8 yrs.) completed an incremental drumming test to establish the relationship between energy expenditure and heart rate for this activity and a ramped cycle ergometer test to exhaustion as a criterion measure for peak values (oxygen uptake and heart rate...

  3. 29 CFR 1915.173 - Drums and containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drums and containers. 1915.173 Section 1915.173 Labor... Vessels, Drums and Containers, Other Than Ship's Equipment § 1915.173 Drums and containers. (a) Shipping drums and containers shall not be pressurized to remove their contents. (b) A temporarily assembled...

  4. 49 CFR 178.505 - Standards for aluminum drums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for aluminum drums. 178.505 Section 178... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.505 Standards for aluminum drums. (a) The following are the identification codes for aluminum drums: (1) 1B1 for a non-removable head aluminum drum...

  5. Rotary drum for a centrifugal separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukai, Tamotsu.

    1970-01-01

    Herein provided is a rotary drum designed to prevent strength reduction and eccentric weight redistribution at the joints between the drum body and the end cups therefore when materials having divergent specific gravities, strengths and Young's Modulus are employed as the construction materials for the drum body and end cups. The drum body is fabricated by combining glass, carbon boron or similar high strength fibers with a thermosetting hardenable resin. This composite material is then molded into the finished cylindrical product the ends of which are bent slightly inward to receive a rigid, high-strength, ring-shaped end fitting to be integrally joined thereto during the molding operation. Each ring is further adapted to retain an end cap by a procedure which entails lowering the temperature of the end cap and applying heat to the ring, thus joining both members tightly together by employing the differences in thermal expansion of each. (Owens, K. J.)

  6. Buoy-Rope-Drum Wave Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linsen Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A buoy-rope-drum wave power system is a new type of floating oscillating buoy wave power device, which absorbs energy from waves by buoy-rope-drum device. Based on the linear deep water wave theory and pure resistive load, with cylinder buoy as an example, the research sets up the theoretical model of direct-drive buoy-rope-drum wave power efficiency and analyzes the influence of the mass and load of the system on its generating efficiency. It points out the two main categories of the efficient buoy-rope-drum wave power system: light thin type and resonance type, and optimal designs of their major parameters are carried out on the basis of the above theoretical model of generating efficiency.

  7. Dietary exposure of BDE-47 and BDE-99 and effects on behavior, bioenergetics, and thyroid function in juvenile red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans) and common snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenreich, Karen M; Rowe, Christopher L

    2014-12-01

    Juvenile red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans) and snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) were fed food dosed with brominated diphenyl ether-47 (BDE-47) or BDE-99 for 6 mo beginning approximately 9 mo posthatch. During the exposure period, measurements of growth, bioenergetics, and behavior were made; thyroid function and accumulation were quantified postexposure. Whole-body concentrations of both congeners were lower in red-eared sliders compared with snapping turtles after 6 mo of exposure. Snapping turtles receiving BDE-47 had significantly elevated standard metabolic rates after 3 mo and 4 mo of exposure (p = 0.014 and p = 0.019, respectively). When exposed to BDE-99, red-eared sliders were slower to right themselves after having been inverted (p < 0.0001). Total glandular thyroxine concentrations were significantly reduced in red-eared sliders exposed to BDE-47 (mean control, 8080 ng/g; mean BDE-47, 5126 ng/g; p = 0.034). These results demonstrate that dietary exposure to BDE-47 and BDE-99 can elicit a suite of responses in 2 species of turtles, but that the red-eared slider appears to be a more sensitive species to the measured end points. © 2014 SETAC.

  8. DRUM DRYER FOR DRYING THE PARTICULATE PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Iurova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. For raise effectiveness drying process drum-type installation in which drum the mechanism of creation of various zones providing a necessary temperature and hydrodynamic regime of process of drying in process of product passage on a drum and changes in it of a relationship of various forms of communication of a moisture, and also a process intensification at last stage of drying by creation разряжения in a continuous technological stream of drying is provided is offered. The drum provides formation of a zone of separation of heat-transfer agent by means of the dissector, zones of intensive drying by disposing lobate nozzles in chessboard order with a dividing ring, zones of separation of the completed heat-transfer agent from жома as a result of separator installation in which the elliptic disk having cuts on a straight line from edge to the centre places, with formation of the triangular slot for passage dried pulp and heat-transfer agent, and also zones the final drying by performance of a section of a drum matching to a zone perforated on which length are had spring-loaded lobate nozzles representing the blades connected bow-shaped rod with metal plates, had with outer side of a drum and under the form repeating its contour, thus the bow-shaped rod from the interior of a drum which ends are supplied by springs rest against overhead and bottom persistent screw nuts, and blades and metal plates are installed with possibility of twirl concerning a fastening place on a drum and supplied by reinforcing ribs.

  9. Rotary drum dryers for coal slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baunack, F

    1983-04-01

    The suitability, sizing and internal equipment of rotary drum dryers for high-ash coal slurries are discussed. Rotary dryers will handle also difficult slurries; by suitable drum sizes, lifter blades and chains not only high specific evaporation capacities can be achieved but also very high throughputs of up to 400 tons/h of finished product and high evaporation capacities of 60 tons/h.

  10. Evaluation of overturning capacity of low level radioactive waste drum during earthquake. Part 2. Investigation of drum weight distribution effect and drum columns interaction by numerical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tochigi, Hitoshi

    2011-01-01

    Numerical analysis case study is carried out for three layered and four layered low level radioactive waste drums by numerical models based on the results of shaking table test. First of all, numerical analysis results about drums displacement due to uplift and sliding on pallets during earthquake are compared with the experimental results and it is shown good agreement in both results. By this analytical model effects of drum weight distribution along height direction and drum columns interaction followed by each other drum's collisions on overturning capacity during earthquake are researched. From numerical analysis results the limit acceleration which is minimum value of input acceleration at storage building floor when three layered or four layered waste drums overturn is researched. It is shown that overturning capacity during earthquake decline when height of gravity center of three layered and four layered drums get large. So it is available to get down height of gravity center by controlling drum weight distribution along height direction. And as effect of drum columns interaction it is indicated that overturning capacity of single column arrangement drums is larger than that of many columns arrangement drums because phase deference between drum columns occur and decrease vibration amplitude by each other collisions. (author)

  11. Metabolic Demands of Heavy Metal Drumming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Romero

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The drum set involves dynamic movement of all four limbs. Motor control studies have been done on drum set playing, yet not much is known about the physiological responses to this activity. Even less is known about heavy metal drumming. Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine metabolic responses and demands of heavy metal drumming. Methods: Five semi-professional male drummers (mean ± SD age = 27.4 ± 2.6 y, height = 177.2 ± 3.8 cm, body mass = 85.1 ± 17.8 kg performed four prescribed and four self-selected heavy metal songs. Oxygen consumption (VO2, minute ventilation (VE and respiratory exchange ratio (RER were measured using a metabolic cart.  Heart rate (HR was measured using a heart rate monitor. VO2max was determined using a graded cycle ergometer test. Results: The results indicated a metabolic cost of 6.3 ± 1.4 METs and heart rate of 145.1 ± 15.7 beats·min-1 (75.4 ± 8.3% of age-predicted HRmax. VO2 peak values reached approximately 90% of the drummer’s VO2max when performing at the fastest speeds. According to these results, heavy metal drumming may be considered vigorous intensity activity (≥ 6.0 METs. The relative VO2max of 40.2 ± 9.5 mL·kg·min-1 leads to an aerobic fitness classification of “average” for adult males. Conclusions: The metabolic demands required during heavy metal drumming meet the American College of Sports Medicine guidelines for the development of health related fitness.  Keywords: Drum set, Exercise physiology, VO2, Music

  12. Gas formation in drum waste packages of Paks NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molnar, M.; Palcsu, L.; Svingor, E.; Szanto, Z.; Futo, I.; Ormai, P.

    2000-01-01

    Gas composition measurements have been carried out by mass spectrometry analysis of samples taken from the headspace of ten drum waste packages generated and temporarily stored at Paks NPP. Four drums contained compacted solid waste, three drums were filled with grouted (solidified) sludge and three drums contained solid waste without compaction. The drums have been equipped with a special gas outlet system to make repeated sampling possible. Based on the first measurements significant differences in the gas composition and the rate of gas generation among the drums were found. (author)

  13. HANFORD Pu-238 DRUM INTEGRITY ASSESSMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CANNELL, G.R.

    2004-01-01

    Hanford is presently retrieving contact-handled, transuranic (CH-TRU) waste drums from the site's Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) for processing and disposition. A subgroup of these drums (12 total), referred to as Pu-238 drums, has some unique characteristics that may impact the current drum handling and processing activities. These characteristics include content, shielding, thermal, pressurization and criticality issues. An effort to evaluate these characteristics, for the purpose of developing a specific plan for safe retrieval of the Pu-238 drums, is underway. In addition to the above evaluation, the following integrity assessment of the inner container material and/or confinement properties, with primary emphasis on the Source Capsule (primary confinement barrier) and Shipping Container has been performed. Assessment included review of the inner container materials and the potential impact the service history may have had on material and/or confinement properties. Several environmental degradation mechanisms were considered with the objective of answering the following question: Is it likely the container material and/or confinement properties have been significantly altered as a result of service history?

  14. Complementary Therapy for Addiction: “Drumming Out Drugs”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelman, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Objectives. This article examines drumming activities as complementary addiction treatments and discusses their reported effects. Methods. I observed drumming circles for substance abuse (as a participant), interviewed counselors and Internet mailing list participants, initiated a pilot program, and reviewed literature on the effects of drumming. Results. Research reviews indicate that drumming enhances recovery through inducing relaxation and enhancing theta-wave production and brain-wave synchronization. Drumming produces pleasurable experiences, enhanced awareness of preconscious dynamics, release of emotional trauma, and reintegration of self. Drumming alleviates self-centeredness, isolation, and alienation, creating a sense of connectedness with self and others. Drumming provides a secular approach to accessing a higher power and applying spiritual perspectives. Conclusions. Drumming circles have applications as complementary addiction therapy, particularly for repeated relapse and when other counseling modalities have failed. PMID:12660212

  15. Sealing of rotary drums for operation under pressurized conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirvani, M.; Khanof, M. H.; Yousefi, M. R.; Sadighi, S.

    2006-01-01

    In practice, rotary drums are always designed for operation under vacuum conditions. In this paper, a novel technique is proposed for sealing the rotary drums under pressurized conditions. The proposed system is based on applying a secondary pressurized volume around the leaking gap of the drum. By controlling the pressure of this volume above the pressure of the drum, it will be possible to prevent from any leakage of gases to the ambient. The objective of a controller in this system is that the pressure of secondary volume be kept above the pressure of the drum in spite of the disturbances which may be exerted on the system by the wind outside the drum. The control system is also required to trace the variations in the drum pressure with the least fluctuations in the pressure difference among the drum and the volume

  16. Juvenile Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile arthritis (JA) is arthritis that happens in children. It causes joint swelling, pain, stiffness, and loss of motion. It can affect any joint, but ... of JA that children get is juvenile idiopathic arthritis. There are several other forms of arthritis affecting ...

  17. 21 CFR 886.4230 - Ophthalmic knife test drum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic knife test drum. 886.4230 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4230 Ophthalmic knife test drum. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic knife test drum is a device intended to test the keenness of ophthalmic surgical...

  18. Press to compress contaminated wastes drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prevost, J.

    1993-01-01

    This patent describes a press for contaminated wastes drums pressing. The press is made of a structure comprising a base and an upper stringer bind to the base by vertical bearers, a compression system comprising a main cylinder and a ram, connected to the upper stringer

  19. Beat my bass, pluck my drum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengeveld, B.J.; Funk, M.; Doing, V.

    2014-01-01

    Beating a bass, plucking a drum -- new systems of instruments make it possible. In this paper we describe recent research into networked musical instruments for group improvisation; instruments that reciprocally influence each other's behaviour, making, contrary to what we are used to, the

  20. Juvenile Firesetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Brittany; Freeman, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile firesetting is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Male gender, substance use, history of maltreatment, interest in fire, and psychiatric illness are commonly reported risk factors. Interventions that have been shown to be effective in juveniles who set fires include cognitive behavior therapy and educational interventions, whereas satiation has not been shown to be an effective intervention. Forensic assessments can assist the legal community in adjudicating youth with effective interventions. Future studies should focus on consistent assessment and outcome measures to create more evidence for directing evaluation and treatment of juvenile firesetters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Juvenile polyposis syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Yi-Han; Wei, Chin-Hung; Chang, Szu-Wen; Chang, Lung; Fu, Yu-Wei; Lee, Hung-Chang; Liu, Hsuan-Liang; Yeung, Chun-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Juvenile polyposis syndrome, a rare disorder in children, is characterized with multiple hamartomatous polyps in alimentary tract. A variety of manifestations include bleeding, intussusception, or polyp prolapse. In this study, we present an 8-month-old male infant of juvenile polyposis syndrome initially presenting with chronic anemia. To the best of our knowledge, this is the youngest case reported in the literature. Methods: We report a rare case of an 8-month-old male infant who presented with chronic anemia and gastrointestinal bleeding initially. Panendoscopy and abdominal computed tomography showed multiple polyposis throughout the entire alimentary tract leading to intussusception. Technetium-99m-labeled red blood cell (RBC) bleeding scan revealed the possibility of gastrointestinal tract bleeding in the jejunum. Histopathological examination on biopsy samples showed Peutz-Jeghers syndrome was excluded, whereas the diagnosis of juvenile polyposis syndrome was established. Results: Enteroscopic polypectomy is the mainstay of the treatment. However, polyps recurred and occupied the majority of the gastrointestinal tract in 6 months. Supportive management was given. The patient expired for severe sepsis at the age of 18 months. Conclusion: Juvenile polyposis syndrome is an inherited disease, so it is not possible to prevent it. Concerning of its poor outcome and high mortality rate, it is important that we should increase awareness and education of the parents at its earliest stages. PMID:27631205

  2. Infrared thermography applied to monitoring of radioactive waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelmer, P.; Camarano, D.M.; Calado, F.; Phillip, B.; Viana, C.; Andrade, R.M.

    2013-01-01

    The use of thermography in the inspection of drums containing radioactive waste is being stimulated by the absence of physical contact. In Brazil the majority of radioactive wastes are compacted solids packed in metal drums stored temporarily for decades and requires special attention. These drums have only one qualitative indication of the radionuclides present. However, its structural condition is not followed systematically. The aim of this work is presents a methodology by applying thermography for monitoring the structural condition of drums containing radioactive waste in order to detect degraded regions of the drums. (author)

  3. AFSC/RACE/SAP/Daly: Juvenile red and blue king crab prey preference experiment conducted in the Kodiak Lab in 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is part of a laboratory experiment, which evaluated how varying ratios of prey species (year-0 blue and red king crabs) and habitat type (shell and...

  4. AFSC/RACE/SAP/Long: Data from: Habitat, predation, growth, and coexistence: Could interactions between juvenile red and blue king crabs limit blue king crab productivity?

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is from a series of laboratory experiments examining the interactions between red and blue king crabs and habitat. We examined how density and predator...

  5. Juvenile Prostitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csapo, Marg

    1986-01-01

    Recent research and Canadian government committee reports concerning juvenile prostitution are reviewed. Proposals are made in the realms of law and social policy; and existing programs are described. (DB)

  6. Characterization of In-Drum Drying Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroselj, V.; Jankovic, M.; Skanata, D.; Medakovic, S.; Harapin, D.; Hertl, B.

    2006-01-01

    A few years ago Krsko NPP decided to introduce In-Drum Drying technology for treatment and conditioning of evaporator concentrates and spent ion resins. The main reason to employ this technology was the need for waste volume reduction and experience with vermiculite-cement solidification that proved inadequate for Krsko NPP. Use of In-Drum Drying technology was encouraged by good experience in the field at some German and Spanish NPP's. In the paper, solidification techniques in vermiculite-cement matrix and In-Drum Drying System are described briefly. The resulting waste forms (so called solidification and dryer products) and containers that are used for interim storage of these wastes are described as well. A comparison of the drying versus solidification technology is performed and advantages as well as disadvantages are underlined. Experience gained during seven years of system operation has shown that crying technology resulted in volume reduction by factor of 20 for evaporator concentrates, and by factor of 5 for spent ion resin. Special consideration is paid to the characterization of dryer products. For evaporator concentrates the resulting waste form is a solid salt block with up to 5% bound water. It is packaged in stainless steel drums (net volume of 200 l) with bolted lids and lifting rings. The fluidized spent ion resins (primary and blow-down) are sluiced into the spent resin drying tank. The resin is dewatered and dried by electrical jacket heaters. The resulting waste (i.e. fine granulates) is directly discharged into a shielded stainless steel drum with bolted lid and lifting rings. Characterization of both waste forms has been performed in accordance with recommendations given in Characterization of Radioactive Waste Forms and Packages issued by International Atomic Energy Agency, 1997. This means that radiological, chemical, physical, mechanical, biological and thermal properties of the waste form has been taken into consideration. In the paper

  7. Simulating Lahars Using A Rotating Drum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neather, Adam; Lube, Gert; Jones, Jim; Cronin, Shane

    2014-05-01

    A large (0.5 m in diameter, 0.15 m wide) rotating drum is used to investigate the erosion and deposition mechanics of lahars. To systematically simulate the conditions occurring in natural mass flows our experimental setup differs from the common rotating drum employed in industrial/engineering studies. Natural materials with their typical friction properties are used, as opposed to the frequently employed spherical glass beads; the drum is completely water-proof, so solid/air and solid/liquid mixtures can be investigated; the drum velocity and acceleration can be precisely controlled using a software interface to a micro-controller, allowing for the study of steady, unsteady and intermediate flow regimes. The drum has a toughened glass door, allowing high-resolution, high-speed video recording of the material inside. Vector maps of the velocities involved in the flows are obtained using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The changes in velocity direction and/or magnitude are used to locate the primary internal boundaries between layers of opposite flow direction, as well as secondary interfaces between shear layers. A range of variables can be measured: thickness and number of layers; the curvature of the free surface; frequency of avalanching; position of the centre of mass of the material; and the velocity profiles of the flowing material. Experiments to date have focussed on dry materials, and have had a fill factor of approximately 0.3. Combining these measured variables allows us to derive additional data of interest, such as mass and momentum flux. It is these fluxes that we propose will allow insight into the erosion/deposition mechanics of a lahar. A number of conclusions can be drawn to date. A primary interface separates flowing and passive region (this interface has been identified in previous studies). As well as the primary interface, the flowing layer separates into individual shear layers, with individual erosion/deposition and flow histories. This

  8. DEGRADATION EVALUATION OF HEAVY WATER DRUMS AND TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickalonis, J.; Vormelker, P.

    2009-07-31

    Heavy water with varying chemistries is currently being stored in over 6700 drums in L- and K-areas and in seven tanks in L-, K-, and C-areas. A detailed evaluation of the potential degradation of the drums and tanks, specific to their design and service conditions, has been performed to support the demonstration of their integrity throughout the desired storage period. The 55-gallon drums are of several designs with Type 304 stainless steel as the material of construction. The tanks have capacities ranging from 8000 to 45600 gallons and are made of Type 304 stainless steel. The drums and tanks were designed and fabricated to national regulations, codes and standards per procurement specifications for the Savannah River Site. The drums have had approximately 25 leakage failures over their 50+ years of use with the last drum failure occurring in 2003. The tanks have experienced no leaks to date. The failures in the drums have occurred principally near the bottom weld, which attaches the bottom to the drum sidewall. Failures have occurred by pitting, crevice and stress corrosion cracking and are attributable, in part, to the presence of chloride ions in the heavy water. Probable degradation mechanisms for the continued storage of heavy water were evaluated that could lead to future failures in the drum or tanks. This evaluation will be used to support establishment of an inspection plan which will include susceptible locations, methods, and frequencies for the drums and tanks to avoid future leakage failures.

  9. Chipping machines: disc and drum energy requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Facello

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution and fossil fuel reserves exhaustion are increasing the importance of the biomass-derived products, in particular wood, as source of clean and renewable energy for the production of electricity or steam. In order to improve the global efficiency and the entire production chain, we have to evaluate the energetic aspects linked to the process of transformation, handling and transport of these materials. This paper reports results on a comparison between two chippers of similar size using different cutting technology: disc and drum tool respectively. During trials, fuel consumption, PTO torque and speed, processing time and weight of processed material were recorded. Power demand, fuel consumption, specific energy and productivity were computed. The machine was fed with four different feedstock types (chestnut logs, poplar logs, poplar branches, poplar sawmill residues. 15 repetitions for each combination of feedstock-tool were carried out. The results of this study show that the disc tool requires, depending on the processed material, from 12 to 18% less fuel per unit of material processed than the drum tool, and consequently, from 12 to 16% less specific energy. In particular, the highest difference between tools was found in branches processing whereas the smallest was in poplar logs. Furthermore the results of the investigation indicate, that, in testing conditions, the productivity of drum tool is higher (8% than disc tool.

  10. Active Drumming Experience Increases Infants' Sensitivity to Audiovisual Synchrony during Observed Drumming Actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, Sarah A; Schiavio, Andrea; Timmers, Renee; Hunnius, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, we examined the role of active experience on sensitivity to multisensory synchrony in six-month-old infants in a musical context. In the first of two experiments, we trained infants to produce a novel multimodal effect (i.e., a drum beat) and assessed the effects of this training, relative to no training, on their later perception of the synchrony between audio and visual presentation of the drumming action. In a second experiment, we then contrasted this active experience with the observation of drumming in order to test whether observation of the audiovisual effect was as effective for sensitivity to multimodal synchrony as active experience. Our results indicated that active experience provided a unique benefit above and beyond observational experience, providing insights on the embodied roots of (early) music perception and cognition.

  11. Active Drumming Experience Increases Infants' Sensitivity to Audiovisual Synchrony during Observed Drumming Actions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A Gerson

    Full Text Available In the current study, we examined the role of active experience on sensitivity to multisensory synchrony in six-month-old infants in a musical context. In the first of two experiments, we trained infants to produce a novel multimodal effect (i.e., a drum beat and assessed the effects of this training, relative to no training, on their later perception of the synchrony between audio and visual presentation of the drumming action. In a second experiment, we then contrasted this active experience with the observation of drumming in order to test whether observation of the audiovisual effect was as effective for sensitivity to multimodal synchrony as active experience. Our results indicated that active experience provided a unique benefit above and beyond observational experience, providing insights on the embodied roots of (early music perception and cognition.

  12. Active Drumming Experience Increases Infants’ Sensitivity to Audiovisual Synchrony during Observed Drumming Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmers, Renee; Hunnius, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, we examined the role of active experience on sensitivity to multisensory synchrony in six-month-old infants in a musical context. In the first of two experiments, we trained infants to produce a novel multimodal effect (i.e., a drum beat) and assessed the effects of this training, relative to no training, on their later perception of the synchrony between audio and visual presentation of the drumming action. In a second experiment, we then contrasted this active experience with the observation of drumming in order to test whether observation of the audiovisual effect was as effective for sensitivity to multimodal synchrony as active experience. Our results indicated that active experience provided a unique benefit above and beyond observational experience, providing insights on the embodied roots of (early) music perception and cognition. PMID:26111226

  13. Drum-mate: interaction dynamics and gestures in human-humanoid drumming experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kose-Bagci, Hatice; Dautenhahn, Kerstin; Syrdal, Dag S.; Nehaniv, Chrystopher L.

    2010-06-01

    This article investigates the role of interaction kinesics in human-robot interaction (HRI). We adopted a bottom-up, synthetic approach towards interactive competencies in robots using simple, minimal computational models underlying the robot's interaction dynamics. We present two empirical, exploratory studies investigating a drumming experience with a humanoid robot (KASPAR) and a human. In the first experiment, the turn-taking behaviour of the humanoid is deterministic and the non-verbal gestures of the robot accompany its drumming to assess the impact of non-verbal gestures on the interaction. The second experiment studies a computational framework that facilitates emergent turn-taking dynamics, whereby the particular dynamics of turn-taking emerge from the social interaction between the human and the humanoid. The results from the HRI experiments are presented and analysed qualitatively (in terms of the participants' subjective experiences) and quantitatively (concerning the drumming performance of the human-robot pair). The results point out a trade-off between the subjective evaluation of the drumming experience from the perspective of the participants and the objective evaluation of the drumming performance. A certain number of gestures was preferred as a motivational factor in the interaction. The participants preferred the models underlying the robot's turn-taking which enable the robot and human to interact more and provide turn-taking closer to 'natural' human-human conversations, despite differences in objective measures of drumming behaviour. The results are consistent with the temporal behaviour matching hypothesis previously proposed in the literature which concerns the effect that the participants adapt their own interaction dynamics to the robot's.

  14. The Saami shaman drums: some reflexions from an archaelogical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inger Zachrisson

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available The Saami shaman drums from northern Scandinavia can be discussed from many different points of view. For an archaeologist there are other questions of interest than those which generally occupy the historian of religions. One important question is how old the known Saami drums are. The known drums are as a rule assumed to be from the seventeenth or the eighteenth centuries, when most of them were collected. It has also been thought that, because of the materials they are made of, drums could not have been preserved any longer. Another perhaps more interesting question is how old the known types of Saami drums might be. When did they acquire their 'classical' form? What did the Viking Age Saami drums look like?

  15. Juvenile angiofibromer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Anne Daugaard; Jakobsen, John; Nepper-Rasmussen, Jørgen

    2005-01-01

    Juvenile angiofibroma is a rare, benign, rich vascular tumor, and approximately one new case is diagnosed in Denmark each year. It sits in the foramen sphenopalatinum and occurs in boys from 14 to 25 years of age. The most frequent initial symptoms are nasal obstruction and epistaxis. Through...... the years, the treatment of juvenile angiofibroma has included many methods, including surgical excision, electrocoagulation, interstitial or external radiation therapy, cryosurgery, hormone administration and chemotherapy. Radiation, chemotherapy and surgery have proven to be the most effective treatments...

  16. Remote radioactive waste drum inspection with an autonomous mobile robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckendorn, F.M.; Ward, C.R.; Wagner, D.G.

    1992-01-01

    An autonomous mobile robot is being developed to perform remote surveillance and inspection task on large numbers of stored radioactive waste drums. The robot will be self guided through narrow storage aisles and record the visual image of each viewable drum for subsequent off line analysis and archiving. The system will remove the personnel from potential exposure to radiation, perform the require inspections, and improve the ability to assess the long term trends in drum conditions

  17. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) steel drum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormick, W.A.

    1998-01-01

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) provides the analyses and evaluations necessary to demonstrate that the steel drum packaging system meets the transportation safety requirements of HNF-PRO-154, Responsibilities and Procedures for all Hazardous Material Shipments, for an onsite packaging containing Type B quantities of solid and liquid radioactive materials. The basic component of the steel drum packaging system is the 208 L (55-gal) steel drum

  18. Modeling unsteady-state VOC transport in simulated waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liekhus, K.J.; Gresham, G.L.; Peterson, E.S.; Rae, C.; Hotz, N.J.; Connolly, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    This report is a revision of an EG ampersand G Idaho informal report originally titled Modeling VOC Transport in Simulated Waste Drums. A volatile organic compound (VOC) transport model has been developed to describe unsteady-state VOC permeation and diffusion within a waste drum. Model equations account for three primary mechanisms for VOC transport from a void volume within the drum. These mechanisms are VOC permeation across a polymer boundary, VOC diffusion across an opening in a volume boundary, and VOC solubilization in a polymer boundary. A series of lab-scale experiments was performed in which the VOC concentration was measured in simulated waste drums under different conditions. A lab-scale simulated waste drum consisted of a sized-down 55-gal metal drum containing a modified rigid polyethylene drum liner. Four polyethylene bags were sealed inside a large polyethylene bag, supported by a wire cage, and placed inside the drum liner. The small bags were filled with VOC-air gas mixture and the VOC concentration was measured throughout the drum over a period of time. Test variables included the type of VOC-air gas mixtures introduced into the small bags, the small bag closure type, and the presence or absence of a variable external heat source. Model results were calculated for those trials where the permeability had been measured

  19. Examination of representative drum from 618-9 Burial Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, D.R.; Bunnell, L.R.

    1992-10-01

    The work described in this report was conducted in pursuance of Task E of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Solid Waste Technology Support Program for Westinghouse Hanford Company. Task E calls for a determination of the corrosion rate of low-carbon steels under typical Hanford Site conditions. To meet this objective, Pacific Northwest Laboratory examined one intact drum that was judged to be representative of the largely intact drums excavated at the 618-9 Burial Ground located west of the 300 Area at the Hanford Site. Six samples were examined to characterize the drum, its composition, and its corrosion and corrosion products. The drum, which was found empty, was constructed of low-carbon steel. Its surface appeared relatively sound. The drum metal varied in thickness, but the minimum thickness in the samples was near 0.020 in. The corrosion corresponds to approximately 25 to 35 mils of metal loss, roughly a 1 mil/yr corrosion rate. Corrosion products were goethite and maghymite, expected products of iron buried in soil. Apparently, the drum leaked some time ago, but the cause of the leakage is unknown because records of the drums and their burial are limited. The drum was empty when found, and it is possible that it could have failed by pitting rather than by general corrosion. A pitting rate of about 3.5 mils/yr would have caused loss of drum integrity in the time since burial

  20. Fire propagation through arrays of solid-waste storage drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, S.T.; Hinkle, A.W.

    1995-01-01

    The extent of propagation of a fire through drums of solid waste has been an unresolved issue that affects all solid-waste projects and existing solid-waste storage and handling facilities at the Hanford site. The issue involves the question of how many drums of solid waste within a given fire area will be consumed in a design-basis fire for given parameters such as drum loading, storage arrays, initiating events, and facility design. If the assumption that all drums of waste within a given fire area are consumed proves valid, then the construction costs of solid waste facilities may be significantly increased

  1. An improved segmented gamma scanning for radioactive waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Cheng; Wang Dezhong; Bai Yunfei; Qian Nan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the equivalent radius of radioactive sources in each segment is determined by analyzing the different responses of the two identical detectors, and an improved segmented gamma scanning is used to assay waste drums containing mainly organic materials, and proved by an established simulation model. The simulated radioactivity distributions in homogenous waste drum and an experimental heterogeneous waste drum were compared with those of traditional segmented gamma scanning. The results show that our method is good in performance and can be used for analyzing the waste drums. (authors)

  2. Special closures for steel drum shipping containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonzon, L.L.; Otts, J.V.

    1976-01-01

    The objective of this program was to develop special lid closures for typical, steel drum, radioactive material shipping containers. Previous experience and testing had shown that the existing container was adequate to withstand the required environmental tests for certification, but that the lid and closure were just marginally effective. Specifically, the lid closure failed to consistently maintain a tight seal between the container and the lid after drop tests, thus causing the package contents to be vulnerable in the subsequent fire test. Recognizing the deficiency, the United States Energy Research and Development Administration requested the development of new closure(s) which would: (1) be as strong and resistant to a drop as the bottom of the container; (2) have minimal economic impact on the overall container cost; (3) maximize the use of existing container designs; (4) consider crush loads; and (5) result in less dependence on personnel and loading procedures. Several techniques were evaluated and found to be more effective than the standard closure mechanism. Of these, three new closure techniques were designed, fabricated, and proven to be structurally adequate to provide containment when a 454-kg drum was drop tested from 9.14-m onto an unyielding surface. The three designs were: (1) a 152-mm long lid extension or skirt welded to the standard drum lid, (2) a separate inner lid, with 152-mm long skirt and (3) C-clamps used at the container-lid interface. Based upon structural integrity, economic impact, and minimal design change, the lid extension is the recommended special closure

  3. Chimpanzee drumming : a spontaneous performance with characteristics of human musical drumming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dufour, Valerie; Poulin, Nicolas; Cure, Charlotte; Sterck, Elisabeth H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the quintessential role that music plays in human societies by enabling us to release and share emotions with others, traces of its evolutionary origins in other species remain scarce. Drumming like humans whilst producing music is practically unheard of in our most closely related species,

  4. Active drumming experience increases infants' sensitivity to audiovisual synchrony during observed drumming actions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerson, S.A.; Schiavio, A.A.R.; Timmers, R.; Hunnius, S.

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, we examined the role of active experience on sensitivity to multisensory synchrony in six-month-old infants in a musical context. In the first of two experiments, we trained infants to produce a novel multimodal effect (i.e., a drum beat) and assessed the effects of this

  5. Multiloop control of a drum boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Kozáková

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Equivalent Subsystems Method (ESM (Kozáková et al., 2011 is methodology of decentralized controller design in the frequency domain which allows designing local controllers using any SISO frequency domain method. The paper deals with the digital ESM version where digital local PID controllers guaranteeing required performance for the full system are designed for individual equivalent subsystems using the practice-oriented Sine-wave method (Bucz et al., 2012. The proposed decentralized controller design procedure was verified on the nonlinear benchmark drum boiler simulation model (Morilla, 2012.

  6. Mechanical Modeling of a WIPP Drum Under Pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Jeffrey A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-11-25

    Mechanical modeling was undertaken to support the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) technical assessment team (TAT) investigating the February 14th 2014 event where there was a radiological release at the WIPP. The initial goal of the modeling was to examine if a mechanical model could inform the team about the event. The intention was to have a model that could test scenarios with respect to the rate of pressurization. It was expected that the deformation and failure (inability of the drum to contain any pressure) would vary according to the pressurization rate. As the work progressed there was also interest in using the mechanical analysis of the drum to investigate what would happen if a drum pressurized when it was located under a standard waste package. Specifically, would the deformation be detectable from camera views within the room. A finite element model of a WIPP 55-gallon drum was developed that used all hex elements. Analyses were conducted using the explicit transient dynamics module of Sierra/SM to explore potential pressurization scenarios of the drum. Theses analysis show similar deformation patterns to documented pressurization tests of drums in the literature. The calculated failure pressures from previous tests documented in the literature vary from as little as 16 psi to 320 psi. In addition, previous testing documented in the literature shows drums bulging but not failing at pressures ranging from 69 to 138 psi. The analyses performed for this study found the drums failing at pressures ranging from 35 psi to 75 psi. When the drums are pressurized quickly (in 0.01 seconds) there is significant deformation to the lid. At lower pressurization rates the deformation of the lid is considerably less, yet the lids will still open from the pressure. The analyses demonstrate the influence of pressurization rate on deformation and opening pressure of the drums. Analyses conducted with a substantial mass on top of the closed drum demonstrate that the

  7. Cookoff Modeling of a WIPP waste drum (68660)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, Michael L. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-11-24

    A waste drum located 2150 feet underground may have been the root cause of a radiation leak on February 14, 2014. Information provided to the WIPP Technical Assessment Team (TAT) was used to describe the approximate content of the drum, which included an organic cat litter (Swheat Scoop®, or Swheat) composed of 100% wheat products. The drum also contained various nitrate salts, oxalic acid, and a nitric acid solution that was neutralized with triethanolamine (TEA). CTH-TIGER was used with the approximate drum contents to specify the products for an exothermic reaction for the drum. If an inorganic adsorbent such as zeolite had been used in lieu of the kitty litter, the overall reaction would have been endothermic. Dilution with a zeolite adsorbent might be a useful method to remediate drums containing organic kitty litter. SIERRA THERMAL was used to calculate the pressurization and ignition of the drum. A baseline simulation of drum 68660 was performed by assuming a background heat source of 0.5-10 W of unknown origin. The 0.5 W source could be representative of heat generated by radioactive decay. The drum ignited after about 70 days. Gas generation at ignition was predicted to be 300-500 psig with a sealed drum (no vent). At ignition, the wall temperature increases modestly by about 1°C, demonstrating that heating would not be apparent prior to ignition. The ignition location was predicted to be about 0.43 meters above the bottom center portion of the drum. At ignition only 3-5 kg (out of 71.6 kg total) has been converted into gas, indicating that most of the material remained available for post-ignition reaction.

  8. LOS DIARIOS ROJOS DE CARLOTA Y FLANAGAN. DOS APROXIMACIONES A LA EDUCACIÓN SEXUAL DESDE LA LITERATURA JUVENIL / CARLOTAS’S RED DIARIES AND FLANAGAN. TWO APPROACHES TO SEXUAL EDUCATION FROM YOUNG LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Ibáñez Quintana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumen En el presente trabajo analizaremos El Diario Rojo de Carlota y El Diario Rojo de Flanagan, dos libros que desde el ámbito de la Literatura Juvenil constituyen dos verdaderos y excelentes manuales de Educación Sexual para nuestros adolescentes. Ambas obras abordarán aspectos tan relevantes como la pubertad, la iniciación al sexo, la menstruación, los métodos anticonceptivos, las enfermedades de transmisión sexual, la respuesta sexual, los estereotipos masculinos y femeninos, la homosexualidad o la violencia de género, entre otros. Y lo harán con un enfoque didáctico, moderno y valiente, siempre próximo a la perspectiva, realidad y necesidades de los jóvenes. Abstract This study analyses Carlotas’s Red Diaries and Flanagan, two books that from the literature perspective, constitute two excellent sex education manuals for our teenagers. Both pieces deal with aspects so relevant as puberty, sex initiation, sex drive, contraceptives, sexually transmitted diseases, menstruation, feminine and masculine stereotypes, homosexuality and gender violence, among others. The books take a modern and didactic approach always from the youth’s perspective, reality and needs.

  9. Waste streams that preferentially corrode 55-gallon steel storage drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zirker, L.R.; Beitel, G.A.; Reece, C.M.

    1995-06-01

    When 55-gal steel drum waste containers fail in service, i.e., leak, corrode or breach, the standard fix has been to overpack the drum. When a drum fails and is overpacked into an 83-gal overpack drum, there are several negative consequences. Identifying waste streams that preferentially corrode steel drums is essential to the pollution prevention philosophy that ''an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure.'' It is essential that facilities perform pollution prevention measures at the front end of processes to reduce pollution on the back end. If these waste streams can be identified before they are packaged, the initial drum packaging system could be fortified or increased to eliminate future drum failures, breaches, clean-ups, and the plethora of other consequences. Therefore, a survey was conducted throughout the US Department of Energy complex for information concerning waste streams that have demonstrated preferential corrosion of 55-gal steel drums. From 21 site contacts, 21 waste streams were so identified. The major components of these waste streams include acids, salts, and solvent liquids, sludges, and still bottoms. The solvent-based waste streams typically had the shortest time to failure, 0.5 to 2 years. This report provides the results of this survey and research

  10. 7 CFR 1434.8 - Containers and drums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Containers and drums. 1434.8 Section 1434.8... REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.8 Containers and drums. (a)(1) To be eligible for assistance under this part, honey must be packed in: (i) CCC-approved, 5-gallon plastic containers; (ii) 5-gallon metal containers...

  11. Solar thermal drum drying performance of prune and tomato pomaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit and vegetable pomaces are co-products of the food processing industry; they are underutilized in part because their high water activity (aw) renders them unstable. Drum drying is one method that can dry/stabilize pomaces, but current drum drying methods utilize conventional, high-environmental...

  12. Device to measure level in a steam drum of NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinogradov, Yu.A.

    1988-01-01

    Gravitation-hydrostatic device for measuring coolant level in a steam drum of NPP is described. The device enables to improve the accuracy and sensitivity of measuring coolant level above and below the submerged perforated sheet of the steam drum and decrease the amount of levelling vessels in the unit by 50%. 1 fig

  13. ANALYSIS OF DESIGN PECULIARITIES PERTAINING TO DRUMS OF CONTINUOUS MACHINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Yu. Prushak

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers design peculiarities of belt conveyor drums in respect of their operational reliability; their advantages and disadvantages have been analyzed. There are some proposals presenting technical solutions to modernization of belt conveyor drum designs which presuppose reduction of their material consumption while preserving their strength and general rigidity. 

  14. Packaging design criteria for the Type B Drum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, W.S.; Smith, R.J.; Wells, A.H.

    1995-09-01

    The Type B Drum package is a transportation cask capable of shipping a single 55-gal (208 L) drum of transuranic (TRU) waste. The Type B Drum is smaller than existing certified packages, such as the TRUPACT-II cask, but will allow payloads with higher thermal and gas generation rates, thus providing greater operational flexibility. The Type B Drum package has double containment so that plutonium contents and other radioactive material may be transported in Type B quantities. Conceptual designs of unshielded and shielded versions of the Type B Drum were completed in Report on the Conceptual Design of the Unshielded Type B Drum Packaging and Report on the Conceptual Design of the Shielded type B Drum Packaging (WEC 1994a, WEC 1994b), which demonstrated the Type B Drum to be a viable packaging system. A Type B package containment system must withstand the normal conditions of transport and the hypothetical accident conditions, which include a 9-m (30-ft) drop onto an unyielding surface and a 1-m (3-ft) drop onto a 15-cm (6-in.) diameter pin, and a fire and immersion scenarios

  15. A59 Drum Activity database (DRUMAC): system documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keel, Alan.

    1993-01-01

    This paper sets out the requirements, database design, software module designs and test plans for DRUMAC (the Active handling Building Drum Activity Database) - a computer-based system to record the radiological inventory for LLW/ILW drums dispatched from the Active Handling Building. (author)

  16. What Is Juvenile Arthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Initiative Breadcrumb Home Health Topics English Español Juvenile Arthritis Basics In-Depth Download Download EPUB Download PDF What is it? Points To Remember About Juvenile Arthritis Juvenile arthritis is the term used to describe ...

  17. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... joints. This form of JIA may turn into rheumatoid arthritis. It may involve 5 or more large and ... no known prevention for JIA. Alternative Names Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA); Juvenile chronic polyarthritis; Still disease; Juvenile spondyloarthritis ...

  18. Heat load limits for TRU drums on pads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steimke, J.L.; McKinley, M.S.

    1993-08-01

    Some of the Trans-Uranic (TRU) waste generated at SRS is packaged in 55 gallon, galvanized steel drums and stored on concrete pads that are exposed to the weather. It was necessary to compute how much heat can be generated by the waste in these drums without exceeding the temperature limits of the contents of the drum. This report documents the calculation of heat load limits for the drum, which depend on the temperature limits of the contents of the drum. The applicable temperature limits for the contents of the drum are the melting temperature of the polyethylene liner, 284 ± 8 F, the combustion temperature of paper, 450 F and the decomposition temperature of anionic resin, 190 F. One part of the analysis leading to the heat load limits was the collection of weather records on solar flux, wind speed and air temperature. Another part of the task was an experimental measurement of two important properties of the drum lid, the emittance and the absorptance. As used here, emittance is the rate at which an object emits infrared thermal radiation divided by the rate at which a perfect black body at the same temperature emits thermal radiation. Absorptance is the rate at which an object absorbs solar radiation divided by the rate at which a perfect black body absorbs radiation. For nine locations on each of eight typical weathered drum lids the measured emittance ranged from 0.73 ± 0.05 to 1.00 ± 0.07 (95% confidence level) and the average emittance for the eight lids was 0.85. For the eight drum lids the measured absorptance ranged from 0.64 ± 0.07 to 0.79 ± 0.07 with an average absorptance for the eight lids of 0.739

  19. The aesthetic interpretation on Wooden Drum Dancing of Wa people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youfeng Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Wa nationality, a typical ethnic group in Yunnan province, is an ancient one lives across Yunnan. The main residences of it are border area beside northern Yunnan and the Wa States in Burma. Among all the Wa dances, Wooden Drum Dancing leads a vital position, and it is also a symbolic dancing in the culture of Wa people. The feature of Wooden Drum Dancing is that every action expending by the beats of wooden drum, namely, first the wooden drum, then the Wooden Drum Dancing. Dancing is an important content in the life of Wa people, and the aesthetics of life comes from dancing, so they present their value on worship by the form of dancing. This article is going to interpret the aesthetic standard on Wa people’s Wooden Drum Dancing by the view of aesthetics, and come into a conclude that the inspiration of such dancing came from practice and their worship to nature and ancestor. The Wooden Drum Dancing displays totally the tough air and solidarity of Wa people, which also presents the fair society of them. The Wooden Drum Dancing is an enriched art that Wa People took from particle life, so dancing of Wa is often classified into the aesthetic area of plain. The information of people’s living situation displayed by Wa dancing also conveys their rich emotions. The sense of beauty within Wooden Drum Dancing will give others a solemn feeling. The formal beauty is displayed by the rhythm of upper part of body, and the power beauty is displayed by the rhythm of the lower part of body.

  20. Automation of a measurement systems of waste drum alpha activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labarre, S.; Bardy, N.

    1985-10-01

    The alpha radiator activity in the two-hundred liter waste drums is found by an IN96, computerized analyzer of the society Intertechnique, from data delivered by a gamma detector (GeHP) and by neutron detection blocks (He counter). This computerized analyzer manages not only the drum rotation and position in front of the detector, but also the experimental data monitoring and their processing from specific programs (background noise, calibration, drum measurements). Thanks to this automation, the measurement number and their reliability are optimized [fr

  1. A-Ha. Drum'n'bassi supernimi FABIO

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    7.sept. annab norra menukaim popansambel A-Ha Tallinnas Lauluväljakul kontserdi, kus presenteerib ka oma viimast albumit "Lifelines". 14. sept.tuleb drum'n'bassi spetsialist Fabio Tallinna üritusele Circulation

  2. Source imaging of drums in the APNEA system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hensley, D.

    1995-01-01

    The APNea System is a neutron assay device utilizing both a passive mode and a differential-dieaway active mode. The total detection efficiency is not spatially uniform, even for an empty chamber, and a drum matrix in the chamber can severely distort this response. In order to achieve a response which is independent of the way the source material is distributed in a drum, an imaging procedure has been developed which treats the drum as a number of virtual (sub)volumes. Since each virtual volume of source material is weighted with the appropriate instrument parameters (detection efficiency and thermal flux), the final assay result is essentially independent of the actual distribution of the source material throughout the drum and its matrix

  3. Direct measurement of γ-emitting radionuclides in waste drum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Ruwei; Mao Yong; Zhang Xiuzhen; Xia Xiaobin; Guo Caiping; Han Yueqin

    1993-01-01

    The low-level rad waste produced from nuclear power plant, nuclear facilities, and in the process of their decommissioning is stored in waste depository. For the safety of transport and storage of these wastes, some test must be done. One of them is to analyse the kinds and activities of radionuclides in each waste drum. Segmented scanning gamma spectrum analysis can be used for direct measurement of gamma-emitting radionuclides in drum. Gamma emitters such as Co-60, Cs-137, Ra-226 can be measured directly from outside of drum. A method and system for direct measuring gamma emitters in waste drum are described, and measuring apparatus and measurement results as well

  4. Hydrogen explosion testing with a simulated transuranic drum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dykes, K.L.; Meyer, M.L.

    1990-01-01

    Transuranic (TRU) waste generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently stored onsite for future retrieval and permanent disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Some of the TRU waste is stored in vented 210-liter (55-gallon) drums and consists of gloves, wipes, plastic valves, tools, etc. Gas generation caused by radiolysis and biodegradation of these organic waste materials may produce a flammable hydrogen-air mixture (>4% v/v) in the multi-layer plastic waste bags. Using a worst case scenario, a drum explosion test program was carried out to determine the hydrogen concentration necessary to cause removal of the drum lid. Test results indicate an explosive mixture up to 15% v/v of hydrogen can be contained in an SRS TRU drum without total integrity failure via lid removal

  5. Expected precision of neutron multiplicity measurements of waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensslin, N.; Krick, M.S.; Menlove, H.O.

    1995-01-01

    DOE facilities are beginning to apply passive neutron multiplicity counting techniques to the assay of plutonium scrap and residues. There is also considerable interest in applying this new measurement technique to 208-liter waste drums. The additional information available from multiplicity counting could flag the presence of shielding materials or improve assay accuracy by correcting for matrix effects such as (α,n) induced fission or detector efficiency variations. The potential for multiplicity analysis of waste drums, and the importance of better detector design, can be estimated by calculating the expected assay precision using a Figure of Merit code for assay variance. This paper reports results obtained as a function of waste drum content and detector characteristics. We find that multiplicity analysis of waste drums is feasible if a high-efficiency neutron counter is used. However, results are significantly poorer if the multiplicity analysis must be used to solve for detection efficiency

  6. Europa Drum Sampler (EDuS), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The main objective of the proposed work is to develop a robust and effective sample acquisition system for the Europa lander called the Europa Drum Sampler (EDuS)....

  7. Possibilities of rotating drums in ultra-high-speed cinematography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andre, Michel

    A theoretical study shows that it is possible to produce a drum rotating at a peripheral speed of 500m/s. A prototype has actually reached this speed and confirmed the feasibility of the system. It is driven by an electric motor and is made of titanium covered with boron fibres. The main performances to be expected of cameras (whole-image, slit or spectrographic) using such a drum is described [fr

  8. Drum of storing fuel assemblies of nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artemiev, L.N.; Batjukov, V.I.; Fadeev, A.I.

    1979-01-01

    The proposed drum for storing fuel assemblies of a nuclear reactor comprises a holder rotatable around its axis and provided with tubular sockets arranged in concentric rows along the circumference of the holder so that the axis of at least one socket of each row intersects the trajectory described by the grip of the recharging mechanism in the course of its movement. The proposed drum design makes it possible to facilitate and speed up the process of recharging fuel asemblies

  9. Coke degradation by surface breakage in a modified tumble drum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litster, J D

    1987-01-01

    The surface breakage rate constant for three Australian battery cokes was measured in a specially modified tumble drum using a previously developed technique. The effect of experimental test parameters - coke size, sample mass, drum speed, lifter height and lifter number - on the surface breakage rate constant was examined. The motion of coke particles within a tumble drum was filmed in a simulation experiment with a 0.31 m diameter drum. Particles were raised on the lifters, fell and collided with the bottom of the drum. These collisions were the main source of fines (minus 1 mm) production rather than true abrasion as depicted by a rubbing, rolling action. Hence the term 'surface breakage' is more appropriate than 'abrasion' to describe the breakage process. By measuring the volume of coke carried by each lifter and the height of fall of the coke, the effect of drum speed, sample mass, lifter height and number on the rate of surface breakage was successfully explained. The surface breakage rate constant was found to be proportional to particle size to the power 0.33 for the three cokes studied. A normalized surface breakage rate constant was derived which allowed comparison of cokes with different size distributions. This parameter characterises the coke surface breakage resistance.

  10. Nonlinear vibrations analysis of rotating drum-disk coupling structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaofeng, Li; Boqing, Miao; Qiansheng, Tang; Chenyang, Xi; Bangchun, Wen

    2018-04-01

    A dynamic model of a coupled rotating drum-disk system with elastic support is developed in this paper. By considering the effects of centrifugal and Coriolis forces as well as rotation-induced hoop stress, the governing differential equation of the drum-disk is derived by Donnell's shell theory. The nonlinear amplitude-frequency characteristics of coupled structure are studied. The results indicate that the natural characteristics of the coupling structure are sensitive to the supporting stiffness of the disk, and the sensitive range is affected by rotating speeds. The circumferential wave numbers can affect the characteristics of the drum-disk structure. If the circumferential wave number n = 1 , the vibration response of the drum keeps a stable value under an unbalanced load of the disk, there is no coupling effect if n ≠ 1 . Under the excitation, the nonlinear hardening characteristics of the forward traveling wave are more evident than that of the backward traveling wave. Moreover, because of the coupling effect of the drum and the disk, the supporting stiffness of the disk has certain effect on the nonlinear characteristics of the forward and backward traveling waves. In addition, small length-radius and thickness-radius ratios have a significant effect on the nonlinear characteristics of the coupled structure, which means nonlinear shell theory should be adopted to design rotating drum's parameter for its specific structural parameters.

  11. Verification calculation of drum and pulley overhead travelling crane on gamma irradiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syamsurrijal Ramdja; Ari Satmoko; Sutomo Budihardjo

    2010-01-01

    Having verified the calculation of dam drum pulleys found on cranes to facilitate the gamma irradiator. Drum is a device for rolling steel ropes while the pulley is a circular pieces called disks, which are made from metal or non-metal to transmit motion and force. Having verified calculation of forces acting style on drums, drum diameter and length and style of press that occurred on drums. Likewise, the pulley, pulley diameter verified calculations, measures of disc and shaft power pulleys. From the verification results will be obtained whether the data drums and pulley device is safe or not safe to use. (author)

  12. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of plutonium in solid waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anno, Jacques; Escarieux, Emile

    1977-01-01

    An assessment of the results given by a study carried out for the development of qualitative and quantitative analysis, by γ spectrometry, of plutonium in solid waste drums is presented. After having reminded the standards and their incidence on the quantities of plutonium to be measured (application at industrial Pu: 20% of Pu 240 ) the equipment used is described. Measurement station provided with a mechanical system consisting of: a rail and a pulley block to bring the drums; a pit and a hydraulic jack with a rotating platform. The detection instrumentation consisting of: a high volume coaxial Ge(Li) detector with a γ ray resolution of 2 keV; an associated electronic; a processing of data by a 'Plurimat 20' minicomputer. Principles of the identification and measurements are specified and supported by experimental results. They are the following: determination of the quality of Pu by measuring the ratio between the γ ray intensities of the 239 Pu 129 keV and of the 241 Pu 148 keV; measurement of the 239 Pu mass by estimating the γ ray counting rate of the 375 keV from the calibrating curves given by plutonium samples varying from 32 mg to 80 g; correction of the results versus the source position into the drum and versus the filling in plastic materials into this drum. The experimental results obtained over 40 solid waste drums are presented along with the error estimates [fr

  13. The Saami shaman's drum and the star horizons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Sommarström

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this contribution is to examine the possible influences of stellar constellations on the positioning of the drum figures on the drums used by the Saami people during the 17th and 18th centuries. Certain of the drum figures seem to have a similar position to corresponding figures on traditional star maps, both with respect to single star constellations and to some members of the Zodiac circle. The most general correspondences between star maps and the painted designs on drums depend on the existence of a cross for determining the four cardinal points in both cases. The star constellations compared here with the drum-figures are in fact peripheral Saami skies. It is hard to believe that they can have played any vital role in their capacity as star symbols within the frame of the Saamis' own astral cosmology. It is more probable that the earthly meanings of most of the figures were more important to the drummer.

  14. Fatigue life estimation on coke drum due to cycle optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahaan, Andrey Stephan; Ambarita, Himsar; Kawai, Hideki; Daimaruya, Masashi

    2018-04-01

    In the last decade, due to the increasing demand of petroleum product, the necessity for converting the heavy oil are increasing. Thus, demand for installing coke drum in whole world will be increase. The coke drum undergoes the cyclic high temperature and suddenly cooling but in fact is not designed to withstand that kind of cycle, thus the operational life of coke drum is much shorter in comparison to other equipment in oil refinery. Various factors determine in order to improve reliability and minimize the down time, and it is found that the cycle optimization due to cycle, temperature, and pressure have an important role. From this research it is found that the fatigue life of the short cycle is decrease by a half compare to the normal cycle. It also found that in the preheating stage, the stress peak is far exceed the yield strength of coke drum material and fall into plastic deformation. This is happened because of the temperature leap in the preheating stage that cause thermal shock in the upper part of the skirt of the coke drum.

  15. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, M.

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted.

  16. Marine Fisheries Initiative Program (MARFIN) Exploratory surveys for red snapper juveniles off Florida South Atlantic coast from 2012-07-31 to 2012-09-08 (NCEI Accession 0156976)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data set contains information on locations sampled, gears used, and whether red snapper were observed. If a red snapper was caught its total length was recorded.

  17. Juvenile Court Statistics - 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Youth Development (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    This report is a statistical study of juvenile court cases in 1972. The data demonstrates how the court is frequently utilized in dealing with juvenile delinquency by the police as well as by other community agencies and parents. Excluded from this report are the ordinary traffic cases handled by juvenile court. The data indicate that: (1) in…

  18. Juvenile Court Statistics, 1974.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Jacqueline; Vereb, Thomas S.

    This report presents information on juvenile court processing of youth in the U.S. during 1974. It is based on data gathered under the National Juvenile Court Statistical Reporting System. Findings can be summarized as follows: (1) 1,252,700 juvenile delinquency cases, excluding traffic offenses, were handled by courts in the U.S. in 1974; (2) the…

  19. Alternatives to reduce corrosion of carbon steel storage drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zirker, L.R.; Beitel, G.A.

    1995-11-01

    The major tasks of this research were (a) pollution prevention opportunity assessments on the overpacking operations for failed or corroded drums, (b) research on existing container corrosion data, (c) investigation of the storage environment of the new Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Type II storage modules, (d) identification of waste streams that demonstrate deleterious corrosion affects on drum storage life, and (e) corrosion test cell program development. Twenty-one waste streams from five US Department of Energy (DOE) sites within the DOE Complex were identified to demonstrate a deleterious effect to steel storage drums. The major components of these waste streams include acids, salts, and solvent liquids, sludges, and still bottoms. The solvent-based waste streams typically had the shortest time to failure: 0.5 to 2 years. The results of this research support the position that pollution prevention evaluations at the front end of a project or process will reduce pollution on the back end

  20. On the efficiency calibration of a drum waste assay system

    CERN Document Server

    Dinescu, L; Cazan, I L; Macrin, R; Caragheorgheopol, G; Rotarescu, G

    2002-01-01

    The efficiency calibration of a gamma spectroscopy waste assay system, constructed by IFIN-HH, was performed. The calibration technique was based on the assumption of a uniform distribution of the source activity in the drum and also a uniform sample matrix. A collimated detector (HPGe--20% relative efficiency) placed at 30 cm from the drum was used. The detection limit for sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs and sup 6 sup 0 Co is approximately 45 Bq/kg for a sample of about 400 kg and a counting time of 10 min. A total measurement uncertainty of -70% to +40% was estimated.

  1. Model air-supported drum-type homopolar generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kustom, R.L.; Fuja, R.E.; Wehrle, R.B.; Smith, R.P.; Kovarik, T.J.

    1977-01-01

    A single cylinder, drum-type homopolar generator has been designed and built for the purpose of developing a simple air support system for thin cylinder rotors operated at high surface velocities and significant radial drum growth. The model has an aluminum cylinder which is 0.32 cm thick, 25 cm in diameter, and 12.7 cm long. It is designed to operate at a peak current of 2500 A and to store a total of 40 kJ with a surface velocity of 305 m/sec

  2. Renewable Energy Opportunities at Fort Drum, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Scott A.; Orrell, Alice C.; Solana, Amy E.; Williamson, Jennifer L.; Hand, James R.; Russo, Bryan J.; Weimar, Mark R.; Rowley, Steven; Nesse, Ronald J.

    2010-10-20

    This document provides an overview of renewable resource potential at Fort Drum, based primarily upon analysis of secondary data sources supplemented with limited on-site evaluations. This effort focuses on grid-connected generation of electricity from renewable energy sources and also on ground source heat pumps for heating and cooling buildings. The effort was funded by the U.S. Army Installation Management Command (IMCOM) as follow-on to the 2005 Department of Defense (DoD) Renewables Assessment. The site visit to Fort Drum took place on May 4 and 5, 2010.

  3. Case studies of corrosion of mixed waste and transuranic waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosiewicz, S.T.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents three case studies of corrosion of waste drums at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Corrosion was not anticipated by the waste generators, but occurred because of subtle chemical or physical mechanisms. In one case, drums of a cemented transuranic (TRU) sludge experienced general and pitting corrosion. In the second instance, a chemical from a commercial paint stripper migrated from its primary containment drums to chemically attack overpack drums made of mild carbon steel. In the third case, drums of mixed low level waste (MLLW) soil corroded drum packaging even though the waste appeared to be dry when it was placed in the drums. These case studies are jointly discussed as ''lessons learned'' to enhance awareness of subtle mechanisms that can contribute to the corrosion of radioactive waste drums during interim storage

  4. RATIONALE FOR CENTERING CAPACITY OF REDISIGNED BELT CONVEYOR DRUMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Suglobov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In the study is necessary: 1 to justify aligning drums of a new design of belt conveyors; 2 to develop a method for calculating and determining the rational design parameters of drums depending on the technical parameters of the conveyor belt (the length of the conveyor, belt width, the performance of the conveyor, the diameter of the drive and tension drums, etc.; 3 to carry out pilot studies of efficiency conveyor belt in a production environment in order to determine the magnitude of dynamic loads and a comparative evaluation of the effectiveness of the centering ability of conventional and new designs of drums. Methodology. To substantiate the effectiveness of the centering ability of the drums of a new design by the authors developed a mathematical model of interaction of the tape with the drum. Mathematical simulation of tape reels with new design comes to drawing up a differential equation of the belt based on the dynamic component and restoring force. This model allowed us to estimate the movement of the tape in the transverse direction based on the calculated additional dynamic loads and forces on the investigated centering a conveyor belt with given specifications. For the first time the technique of calculating and determining the rational parameters of the drums, which allows determining the design parameters of the centering portions, depending on the mechanical properties and geometric parameters of the tape. Findings. With the help of mathematical modeling the scientifically substantiated effect of centering the ability of the new design of the drum, which ensures stable tape running along the longitudinal axis of the conveyor. The authors made the following conclusions: 1 the mathematical model of interaction with the new belt design of the drum, which allowed to describe the belt in the transverse direction in view of additional dynamic loads and renewable power was developed; 2 the method of calculation and

  5. [Localized eruptive juvenile xanthogranuloma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanotti, S; Chiaverini, C; Rostain, G; Cardot-Leccia, N; Lacour, J-P

    2014-03-01

    Juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG) is a non-Langerhans histiocytosis of young children characterized by solitary or multiple yellowish cutaneous nodules. Atypical skin lesions such as lichenoid eruptions, and pedunculated, maculopapular, plaque-like or linear lesions have been described. We report a case of eruptive XGJ en plaque in the left leg in an infant. A 13-month-old child presented asymptomatic eruptive, yellowish papules of the leg measuring 5 to 10mm since the age of 2months. There was no cutaneous infiltration between the lesions. Darier's sign was negative. Histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of JXG. The course of the disease comprised a gradual decrease in the number of active lesions with slight residual pigmentation. Our case was suggestive of JXG en plaque. Only 7 cases have been reported in the literature, all appearing before the age of 5months. The lesions corresponded mostly to an asymptomatic erythematous plaque studded with small yellowish/red nodules of variable localisation. Spontaneous involvement was noted in all cases. No systemic involvement was found. Herein we present a unique case of localised multiple JXG without evident clinical infiltrating plaque progressing with self-resolving flares. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. The Extraordinary Nature of Barney's Drumming : A Complementary Study of Ordinary Noise Making in Chimpanzees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dufour, Valérie; Pasquaretta, Cristian; Gayet, Pierre; Sterck, Elisabeth H M

    In a previous study (Dufour et al., 2015) we reported the unusual characteristics of the drumming performance of a chimpanzee named Barney. His sound production, several sequences of repeated drumming on an up-turned plastic barrel, shared features typical for human musical drumming: it was

  7. Analytical and experimental evaluation of solid waste drum fire performance volumes I and II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hecker, C.F., [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc., Kennewick, WA (United States); Rhodes, B.T.; Beitel, J.J.; Gottuk, D.T.; Beyler, C.L.; Rosenbaum, E.R., [Hughes Associates, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States)

    1995-04-28

    Fire hazards associated with drum storage of radioactively contaminated wastes are a major concern in DOE facilities design for long term storage of solid wastes in drums. These facilities include drums stored in pallet arrays and in rack storage systems. This report details testing in this area

  8. 49 CFR 178.506 - Standards for metal drums other than steel or aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... aluminum. 178.506 Section 178.506 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND... drums other than steel or aluminum. (a) The following are the identification codes for metal drums other than steel or aluminum: (1) 1N1 for a non-removable head metal drum; and (2) 1N2 for a removable head...

  9. Small-Scale Experiments.10-gallon drum experiment summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, David M.

    2015-02-05

    A series of sub-scale (10-gallon) drum experiments were conducted to characterize the reactivity, heat generation, and gas generation of mixtures of chemicals believed to be present in the drum (68660) known to have breached in association with the radiation release event at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) on February 14, 2014, at a scale expected to be large enough to replicate the environment in that drum but small enough to be practical, safe, and cost effective. These tests were not intended to replicate all the properties of drum 68660 or the event that led to its breach, or to validate a particular hypothesis of the release event. They were intended to observe, in a controlled environment and with suitable diagnostics, the behavior of simple mixtures of chemicals in order to determine if they could support reactivity that could result in ignition or if some other ingredient or event would be necessary. There is a significant amount of uncertainty into the exact composition of the barrel; a limited sub-set of known components was identified, reviewed with Technical Assessment Team (TAT) members, and used in these tests. This set of experiments was intended to provide a framework to postulate realistic, data-supported hypotheses for processes that occur in a “68660-like” configuration, not definitively prove what actually occurred in 68660.

  10. DRUMS: a human disease related unique gene mutation search engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zuofeng; Liu, Xingnan; Wen, Jingran; Xu, Ye; Zhao, Xin; Li, Xuan; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2011-10-01

    With the completion of the human genome project and the development of new methods for gene variant detection, the integration of mutation data and its phenotypic consequences has become more important than ever. Among all available resources, locus-specific databases (LSDBs) curate one or more specific genes' mutation data along with high-quality phenotypes. Although some genotype-phenotype data from LSDB have been integrated into central databases little effort has been made to integrate all these data by a search engine approach. In this work, we have developed disease related unique gene mutation search engine (DRUMS), a search engine for human disease related unique gene mutation as a convenient tool for biologists or physicians to retrieve gene variant and related phenotype information. Gene variant and phenotype information were stored in a gene-centred relational database. Moreover, the relationships between mutations and diseases were indexed by the uniform resource identifier from LSDB, or another central database. By querying DRUMS, users can access the most popular mutation databases under one interface. DRUMS could be treated as a domain specific search engine. By using web crawling, indexing, and searching technologies, it provides a competitively efficient interface for searching and retrieving mutation data and their relationships to diseases. The present system is freely accessible at http://www.scbit.org/glif/new/drums/index.html. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Convective heat transfer analysis in aggregates rotary drum reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Guen, Laurédan; Huchet, Florian; Dumoulin, Jean; Baudru, Yvan; Tamagny, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Heat transport characterisation inside rotary drum dryer has a considerable importance linked to many industrial applications. The present paper deals with the heat transfer analysis from experimental apparatus installed in a large-scale rotary drum reactor applied to the asphalt materials production. The equipment including in-situ thermal probes and external visualization by mean of infrared thermography gives rise to the longitudinal evaluation of inner and external temperatures. The assessment of the heat transfer coefficients by an inverse methodology is resolved in order to accomplish a fin analysis of the convective mechanism inside baffled (or flights) rotary drum. The results are discussed and compared with major results of the literature. -- Highlights: ► A thermal and flow experimentation is performed on a large-scale rotary drum. ► Four working points is chosen in the frame of asphalt materials production. ► Evaluation of the convective transfer mechanisms is calculated by inverse method. ► The drying stage is performed in the combustion area. ► Wall/aggregates heat exchanges have a major contribution in the heating stage

  12. Middle School Drum Ensemble: An Unlikely Experience in Classroom Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbre, James

    2013-01-01

    Though music has a long and successful history within education, it is often one of the first sacrificial lambs when school budgets tighten. Over the course of an academic year, a documentary film sought to tell the story of an American middle school drum ensemble. The context of this group provided an ideal way to examine the nature of student…

  13. Experimental study of liquid carryover in a separator drum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhudharwadkar, Deoras M.; More, Rahul Z.; Iyer, Kannan N.

    2010-01-01

    The phenomenon of carryover, i.e. entrainment of liquid along with separated steam is observed in all the steam separators. Due to the risks, such as turbine blade erosion and radioactivity leakage, associated with it, it is desired to have an estimate of the carryover value. This is all the more important when the separation is only under the influence of gravity as proposed in some of the new generation natural circulation reactors. Experiments were carried out in an air-water facility at atmospheric conditions to characterize the entrainment in drums with ratio of the drum diameter to riser diameter varying from 1 to 6. Various parameters influencing the liquid entrainment were identified. The vapour superficial velocity and the drum diameter to riser diameter ratio were found to be the most influencing parameters. A dimensionless prediction correlation was evolved for the liquid entrainment and it was found to agree with previous works in the literature for drum to riser diameter ratio equal to 1.

  14. Method of estimating maximum VOC concentration in void volume of vented waste drums using limited sampling data: Application in transuranic waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liekhus, K.J.; Connolly, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    A test program has been conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to demonstrate that the concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) within the innermost layer of confinement in a vented waste drum can be estimated using a model incorporating diffusion and permeation transport principles as well as limited waste drum sampling data. The model consists of a series of material balance equations describing steady-state VOC transport from each distinct void volume in the drum. The primary model input is the measured drum headspace VOC concentration. Model parameters are determined or estimated based on available process knowledge. The model effectiveness in estimating VOC concentration in the headspace of the innermost layer of confinement was examined for vented waste drums containing different waste types and configurations. This paper summarizes the experimental measurements and model predictions in vented transuranic waste drums containing solidified sludges and solid waste

  15. MCNP Modeling Results for Location of Buried TRU Waste Drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinman, D K; Schweitzer, J S

    2006-01-01

    In the 1960's, fifty-five gallon drums of TRU waste were buried in shallow pits on remote U.S. Government facilities such as the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (now split into the Idaho National Laboratory and the Idaho Completion Project [ICP]). Subsequently, it was decided to remove the drums and the material that was in them from the burial pits and send the material to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico. Several technologies have been tried to locate the drums non-intrusively with enough precision to minimize the chance for material to be spread into the environment. One of these technologies is the placement of steel probe holes in the pits into which wireline logging probes can be lowered to measure properties and concentrations of material surrounding the probe holes for evidence of TRU material. There is also a concern that large quantities of volatile organic compounds (VOC) are also present that would contaminate the environment during removal. In 2001, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) built two pulsed neutron wireline logging tools to measure TRU and VOC around the probe holes. The tools are the Prompt Fission Neutron (PFN) and the Pulsed Neutron Gamma (PNG), respectively. They were tested experimentally in surrogate test holes in 2003. The work reported here estimates the performance of the tools using Monte-Carlo modelling prior to field deployment. A MCNP model was constructed by INEEL personnel. It was modified by the authors to assess the ability of the tools to predict quantitatively the position and concentration of TRU and VOC materials disposed around the probe holes. The model was used to simulate the tools scanning the probe holes vertically in five centimetre increments. A drum was included in the model that could be placed near the probe hole and at other locations out to forty-five centimetres from the probe-hole in five centimetre increments. Scans were performed with no chlorine in the

  16. JUSTIFICATION FOR A LIMIT OF 15 PERCENT HYDROGEN IN A 55-GALLON DRUM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MARUSICH, R.M.

    2007-01-01

    The concentration of 15% hydrogen in air in a waste drum is used as the concentration at which the drum remains intact in the case of a deflagration. The following describes what could happen to the drum if 15% hydrogen or more in air were ignited. Table 2 of the Savannah River report WSRC-TR-90-165 ''TRU Drum Hydrogen Explosion Tests'' provides the results of tests performed in 55-gallon drums filled with hydrogen and air mixtures. The hydrogen-air mixtures were ignited by a hot-wire igniter. The results of the tests are shown in Table 1. They concluded that drums can withstand deflagration involving hydrogen concentration up to 15% hydrogen. Testing was performed at Idaho Falls and documented in a letter from RH Beers, Waste Technology Programs Division, EG and G Idaho, to CP Gertz, Radioactive Waste Technology Branch, DOE dated Sept. 29, 1983. In these tests, 55-gallon drums were filled with hydrogen-air mixtures which were ignited. The results in Table 2.2 showed that ignition for drums containing 11% and 14% hydrogen, the drum lid remained on the drum. Ignition in drum with 30% hydrogen resulted in lid loss. It is concluded from the results of these two tests that, for uncorroded drums, a 15% hydrogen in air mixture will not result in loss of drum integrity (i.e., lid remains on, walls remain intact). The drum walls however, may be thinned due to corrosion. The effect of the deflagration on thinner walls is assessed next. Assume a 15% hydrogen in air mixture exists in a drum. The pressure assuming adiabatic isochoric complete combustion (AICC) conditions is 69 psig (using the same deflagration pressure calculation method as in HNF-19492, ''Revised Hydrogen Deflagration Analysis which got 82 psig for 20% hydrogen in air)

  17. EARLY TESTS OF DRUM TYPE PACKAGINGS - THE LEWALLEN REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, A.

    2010-07-29

    The need for robust packagings for radioactive materials (RAM) was recognized from the earliest days of the nuclear industry. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Rocky Flats Plant developed a packaging for shipment of Pu in the early 1960's, which became the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) 6M specification package. The design concepts were employed in other early packagings. Extensive tests of these at Savannah River Laboratory (now Savannah River National Laboratory) were performed in 1969 and 1970. The results of these tests were reported in 'Drum and Board-Type Insulation Overpacks of Shipping Packages for Radioactive Materials', by E. E. Lewallen. The Lewallen Report was foundational to design of subsequent drum type RAM packaging. This paper summarizes this important early study of drum type packagings. The Lewallen Report demonstrated the ability packagings employing drum and insulation board overpacks and engineered containment vessels to meet the Type B package requirements. Because of the results of the Lewallen Report, package designers showed high concern for thermal protection of 'Celotex'. Subsequent packages addressed this by following strategies like those recommended by Lewallen and by internal metal shields and supplemental, encapsulated insulation disks, as in 9975. The guidance provide by the Lewallen Report was employed in design of a large number of drum size packagings over the following three decades. With the increased public concern over transportation of radioactive materials and recognition of the need for larger margins of safety, more sophisticated and complex packages have been developed and have replaced the simple packagings developed under the Lewallen Report paradigm.

  18. Calculation of calibration factors and layout criteria for gamma scanning of waste drums from nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inder Schmitten, W.; Sohnius, B.; Wehner, E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper present a procedure to calculate calibration factors for converting the measured gamma rate of waste drums into activity content and a layout and free release measurement criterion for waste drums. A computer program is developed that simulates drum scanning technique, which calculates calibration factors and eliminates laborious experimental measurements. The calculated calibration factors exhibit good agreement with experimentally determined values. By checking the calculated calibration factors for trial equipment layouts (including the waste drum and the scanning facility) using the layout and free release measurement criterion, a layout can be achieved that clearly determines whether there can be free release of a waste drum

  19. Effects of tempo, swing density, and listener's drumming experience, on swing detection thresholds for drum rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frane, Andrew V; Shams, Ladan

    2017-06-01

    Swing, a popular technique in music performance, has been said to enhance the "groove" of the rhythm. Swing works by delaying the onsets of even-numbered subdivisions of each beat (e.g., 16th-note swing delays the onsets of the second and fourth 16th-note subdivisions of each quarter-note beat). The "swing magnitude" (loosely speaking, the amount of delay) is often quite small. And there has been little investigation, using musical stimuli, into what swing magnitudes listeners can detect. To that end, this study presented continually-looped electronic drum rhythms, with 16th-note swing in the hi-hat on every other bar, to drummers and non-drummers. Swing magnitude was adjusted using a staircase procedure, to determine the magnitude where the difference between swinging and not-swinging bars was just-noticeable. Different tempi (60 to 140 quarter-notes per minute) and swing densities (how often notes occurred at even-numbered subdivisions) were used. Results showed that all subjects could detect smaller swing magnitudes when swing density was higher, thus confirming a previous speculation that the perceptual salience of swing increases with swing density. The just-noticeable magnitudes of swing for drummers differed from those of non-drummers, in terms of both overall magnitude and sensitivity to tempo, thus prompting questions for further exploration.

  20. Fatigue behaviour of coke drum materials under thermal-mechanical cyclic loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coke drums are vertical pressure vessels used in the delayed coking process in petroleum refineries. Significant temperature variation during the delayed coking process causes damage in coke drums in the form of bulging and cracking. There were some studies on the fatigue life estimation for the coke drums, but most of them were based on strain-fatigue life curves at constant temperatures, which do not consider simultaneous cyclic temperature and mechanical loading conditions. In this study, a fatigue testing system is successfully developed to allow performing thermal-mechanical fatigue (TMF test similar to the coke drum loading condition. Two commonly used base and one clad materials of coke drums are then experimentally investigated. In addition, a comparative study between isothermal and TMF lives of these materials is conducted. The experimental findings lead to better understanding of the damage mechanisms occurring in coke drums and more accurate prediction of fatigue life of coke drum materials.

  1. Design of temperature detection device for drum of belt conveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; He, Rongjun

    2018-03-01

    For difficult wiring and big measuring error existed in the traditional temperature detection method for drum of belt conveyor, a temperature detection device for drum of belt conveyor based on Radio Frequency(RF) communication is designed. In the device, detection terminal can collect temperature data through tire pressure sensor chip SP370 which integrates temperature detection and RF emission. The receiving terminal which is composed of RF receiver chip and microcontroller receives the temperature data and sends it to Controller Area Network(CAN) bus. The test results show that the device meets requirements of field application with measuring error ±3.73 ° and single button battery can provide continuous current for the detection terminal over 1.5 years.

  2. Juvenile Confinement in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendel, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    For more than a century, the predominant strategy for the treatment and punishment of serious and sometimes not-so-serious juvenile offenders in the United States has been placement into large juvenile corrections institutions, alternatively known as training schools, reformatories, or youth corrections centers. America's heavy reliance on…

  3. Juvenile giant fibroadenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipul Yagnik

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Fibroadenomas are benign solid tumor associated with aberration of normal lobular development. Juvenile giant fibroadenoma is usually single and >5 cm in size /or >500 gms in weight. Important differential diagnoses are: phyllodes tumor and juvenile gigantomastia. Simple excision is the treatment of choice.

  4. AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM OF THE DRUM BOILER SUPERHEATED STEAM TEMPERATURE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juravliov A.A.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The control system of the temperature of the superheated steam of the drum boiler is examined. Main features of the system are the PI-controller in the external control loop and introduction of the functional component of the error signal of the external control loop with the negative feedback of the error signal between the prescribed value of steam flowrate and the signal of the steam flowrate in the exit of the boiler in the internal control loop.

  5. Material Selection for a Manual Winch Rope Drum

    OpenAIRE

    Moses F. Oduori; Enoch K. Musyoka; Thomas O. Mbuya

    2016-01-01

    The selection of materials is an essential task in mechanical design processes. This paper sets out to demonstrate the application of analytical decision making during mechanical design and, particularly, in selecting a suitable material for a given application. Equations for the mechanical design of a manual winch rope drum are used to derive quantitative material performance indicators, which are then used in a multiple attribute decision making (MADM) model to rank the candidate materials....

  6. Assessment of DOD Wounded Warrior Matters -- Fort Drum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    their relation to military duties. The six factors that are evaluated are: physical capacity or stamina , upper extremities, lower extremities...Health Net Federal Services contractor. The Fort Drum MEDDAC Referral Management Office created a “Reports Cell ” which was responsible for obtaining...Care Division had created a CLR/Reports Cell group that focused specifically on obtaining CLRs, inputting them into patients’ AHLTA records and

  7. Kinematics and Path Following Control of an Articulated Drum Roller

    Science.gov (United States)

    BIAN, Yongming; YANG, Meng; FANG, Xiaojun; WANG, Xiahui

    2017-07-01

    Automatic navigation of an articulated drum roller, which is an articulated steering type vehicle widely used in the construction industry, is highly expected for operation cost reduction and improvement of work efficiency. In order to achieve the path following control, considering that its steering system is articulated steering and two frames are articulated by an active revolute joint, a kinematic model and an error dynamic state-space equation of an articulated drum roller are proposed. Besides, a state-feedback control law based on Lyapunov stability theory is also designed, which can be proved to achieve the purpose of control by the analysis of stability. What's more, to evaluate the performance of the proposed method, simulation under the MATLAB/Simulink and experiments using positioning algorithm and errors correction at the uneven construction site are performed, with initial displacement error (-1.5 m), heading error (-0.11 rad) and steering angle (-0.19 rad). Finally, simulation and experimental results show that the errors and steering angle can decrease gradually, and converge to zero with time. Meanwhile, the control input is not saturated. An articulated drum roller can lock into a desired path with the proposed method in uneven fields.

  8. Handling 78,000 drums of mixed-waste sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.B.; Gilliam, T.M.; Harrington, E.S.; Youngblood, E.L.; Baer, M.B.

    1991-01-01

    The Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (now know as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) prepared two mixed-waste surface impoundments for closure by removing the sludge and contaminated pond-bottom clay and attempting to process it into durable, nonleachable, concrete monoliths. Interim, controlled, above-ground storage of the stabilized waste was planned until final disposition. The strategy for disposal included delisting the stabilized pond sludge from hazardous to nonhazardous and disposing of the delisted monoliths as radioactive waste. Because of schedule constraints and process design and control deficiencies, ∼46,000 drums of material in various stages of solidification and ∼32,000 drums of unprocessed sludge are presently being stored. In addition, the abandoned treatment facility still contains ∼16,000 gal of raw sludge. Such conditions do not comply with the requirements set forth by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) for the storage of listed waste. Various steps are being taken to bring the storage of ∼78,000 drums of mixed waste into compliance with RCRA. This paper (1) reviews the current situation, (2) discusses the plan for remediation of regulatory noncompliances, including decanting liquid from stabilized waste and dewatering untreated waste, and (3) provides an assessment of alternative raw-waste treatment processes. 1 ref., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Equipment for capping drums, especially with radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bednarik, F.

    1987-01-01

    The equipment consists of a pneumatic cylinder, lever systems with jaws, guide bars, and of securing pins. The top cylinder lid and the bottom cylinder lid provided with openings are slidably attached to a shaft firmly connected to a piston and a support plate. Firmly attached to the bottom lid using brackets are pins holding connecting rods controlling the double-arm levers pivoted on pins, featuring jaws pivoted on forks firmly attached to the support plate and provided with a replaceable spacer insert. The guide bars are firmly attached to the support plate via braces and stiffeners. The securing pins are loaded with springs seated in the braces. The benefits of the equipment include that the lid closing levers with jaws, mechanically controlled using one pneumatic cylinder, thanks to their number and configuration, close the lid around the drum border provided with small recesses which do not reach above the circumference of the drum being closed. The equipment can also be used for carrying closed drums, this also during compressed air failures because the levers with jaws are secured in position with the pneumatic cylinder leg. (J.B.). 1 fig

  10. Monte Carlo method to characterize radioactive waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Josenilson B.; Dellamano, Jose C.; Potiens Junior, Ademar J.

    2013-01-01

    Non-destructive methods for radioactive waste drums characterization have being developed in the Waste Management Department (GRR) at Nuclear and Energy Research Institute IPEN. This study was conducted as part of the radioactive wastes characterization program in order to meet specifications and acceptance criteria for final disposal imposed by regulatory control by gamma spectrometry. One of the main difficulties in the detectors calibration process is to obtain the counting efficiencies that can be solved by the use of mathematical techniques. The aim of this work was to develop a methodology to characterize drums using gamma spectrometry and Monte Carlo method. Monte Carlo is a widely used mathematical technique, which simulates the radiation transport in the medium, thus obtaining the efficiencies calibration of the detector. The equipment used in this work is a heavily shielded Hyperpure Germanium (HPGe) detector coupled with an electronic setup composed of high voltage source, amplifier and multiport multichannel analyzer and MCNP software for Monte Carlo simulation. The developing of this methodology will allow the characterization of solid radioactive wastes packed in drums and stored at GRR. (author)

  11. Transverse mixing of ellipsoidal particles in a rotating drum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Siyuan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotating drums are widely used in industry for mixing, milling, coating and drying processes. In the past decades, mixing of granular materials in rotating drums has been extensively investigated, but most of the studies are based on spherical particles. Particle shape has an influence on the flow behaviour and thus mixing behaviour, though the shape effect has as-yet received limited study. In this work, discrete element method (DEM is employed to study the transverse mixing of ellipsoidal particles in a rotating drum. The effects of aspect ratio and rotating speed on mixing quality and mixing rate are investigated. The results show that mixing index increases exponentially with time for both spheres and ellipsoids. Particles with various aspect ratios are able to reach well-mixed states after sufficient revolutions in the rolling or cascading regime. Ellipsoids show higher mixing rate when rotational speed is set between 25 and 40 rpm. The relationship between mixing rate and aspect ratio of ellipsoids is established, demonstrating that, particles with aspect ratios of 0.5 and 2.0 achieve the highest mixing rates. Increasing rotating speed from 15 rpm to 40 rpm does not necessarily increase the mixing speed of spheres, while monotonous increase is observed for ellipsoids.

  12. Juvenile mammary papillomatosis; Papilomatosis juvenil mamaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, M.; Jimenez, A. V. [Hospital Reina Sofia. Cordoba (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    Juvenile mammary papillomatosis is a benign proliferative disease of young patients, generally under 30 years of age. The most frequent clinical presentation is the existence of an elastic and mobile lymph node of the breast. Anatomopathologically, it is characterized because it presents ductal epithelial hyperplasia, sometimes with marked atypia, and there are numerous cysts having different sizes among the findings. It has been associated with an increase in the incidence of breast cancer, both in the patient herself as well as her family. We review the literature on the subject and present the mammographic and ultrasonographic findings of a 22 year old woman diagnosed of juvenile mammary papillomatosis. (Author) 12 refs.

  13. A verification calculation of drum and pulley overhead travelling crane on gamma irradiator ISG-500

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syamsurrijal Ramdja; Ari Satmoko; Sutomo Budihardjo

    2010-01-01

    It has been verified the calculation of drum and pulleys on cranes as facility the gamma irradiator ISG-500. Drum is a device for rolling steel ropes while the pulley is a circular pieces called disks, and both of which are made from metal or non-metal to transmit motion and force. It has been verified the calculation of forces on the drum, drum diameter and length, and pressuring force occurred on the drums. Likewise to the pulley, the pulley diameter calculations verification, size of disc and shaft power pulleys. From the verification results, it will be obtained whether the data drums and pulley device are safe or not safe to be used. (author)

  14. Contamination control aspects of attaching waste drums to the WIPP Waste Characterization Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubick, L.M.; Burke, L.L.

    1998-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory West (ANL-W) is verifying the characterization and repackaging of contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) mixed waste in support of the Waste Isolation Pilot Program (WIPP) project located in Carlsbad, New Mexico. The WIPP Waste Characterization Chamber (WCC) was designed to allow opening of transuranic waste drums for this process. The WCC became operational in March of 1994 and has characterized approximately 240 drums of transuranic waste. The waste drums are internally contaminated with high levels of transuranic radionuclides. Attaching and detaching drums to the glove box posed serious contamination control problems. Prior to characterizing waste, several drum attachment techniques and materials were evaluated. An inexpensive HEPA filter molded into the bagging material helps with venting during detachment. The current techniques and procedures used to attach and detach transuranic waste drums to the WCC are described

  15. Fire testing of 55 gallon metal waste drums for dry waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, H.K.; Staggs, K.J.; Doughty, S.M.

    1993-07-01

    The primary goal of this test program was to conduct a series of fire test to provide information on the fire performance of 55 gallon metal waste drums used for solid waste disposal at Department Of Energy (DOE) facilities. This program was limited in focus to three different types of 55 gallon drums, one radiant heat source, and one specific fire size. The initial test was a single empty 55 gallon drum exposed to a standard ASTME-119 time temperature curve for over 10 minutes. The full scale tests involved metal drums exposed to a 6' diameter flammable liquid fire for a prescribed period of time. The drums contained simulated dry waste materials of primarily class A combustibles. The test results showed that a conventional 55 gallon drum with a 1in. bung would blow its lid consistently

  16. Characterization of voic volume VOC concentration in vented TRU waste drums. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liekhus, K.J.

    1994-12-01

    A test program has been conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to demonstrate that the concentration of volatile organic compounds within the innermost layer of confinement in a vented waste drum can be estimated using a model incorporating diffusion and permeation transport principles and limited waste drum sampling data. This final report summarizes the experimental measurements and model predictions for transuranic waste drums containing solidified sludges and solid waste.

  17. Design and development of a connection of a magnetic drum with two computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malriq, Jean.

    1976-01-01

    In the experiment in High Energy Physics 'Hyperons SPS' realized at the CERN 300 GeV the connection between a drum and two computers is studied. One of the two computers is a NORD-10 the other may be anyone if it has a CAMAC interface. The input/output structure of the NORD-10 has been studied, then the interface NORD-drum and the CAMAC-drum interface have been realized. The electronic commutation allowing each computer to be connected on the drum through its specific interface has been built [fr

  18. A model of gas generation and transport within TRU [transuranic] waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, F.G. III.

    1987-01-01

    Gas generation from the radiolytic decomposition of organic material contaminated with plutonium is modeled. Concentrations of gas throughout the waste drum are determined using a diffusional transport model. The model accurately reproduces experimentally measured gas concentrations. With polyethylene waste in unvented drums, the model predicts that hydrogen gas can accumulate to concentrations greater than 4 mole percent (lower flammable limit) with about 5 Ci of plutonium. Polyethylene provides a worst case for combustible waste material. If the drum liner is punctured and a carbon composite filter vent is installed in the drum lid, the plutonium loading can be increased to 240 Ci without generating flammable gas mixtures. 5 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  19. Morphological Studies Of Vomeronasal Organ In The Wild Juvenile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The vomeronasal organ (VNO) of the juvenile Red-flanked duiker (Cephalophus rufilatus) weighingbetween 0814 kg was studied by gross dissection and light mcroscopy. The organ was found to be present at the base of the nasal septum completely housed by the vomeronasal cartilage, but the various soft tissue ...

  20. Juvenil idiopatisk arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlin, Troels

    2002-01-01

    The new classification of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is described in this review. Clinical characteristics divide JIA in to subtypes: systemic, oligoarticular (persistent and extended type), RF-positive and--negative polyarticular, enthesitis-related arthritis and psoriatic arthritis...

  1. Juvenile Rockfish Recruitment Cruise

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 1983, the groundfish analysis project began a series of yearly cruises designed to assess the annual abundance of juvenile rockfish along the central California...

  2. Investigations with respect to pressure build-up in 200 l drums with supercompacted low level waste (LLW)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroth, K.; Lammertz, H.

    1988-04-01

    In the drum storage facilities of various nuclear power stations, ballooning effects have recently been observed on a limited number of 200 l drums filled with hypercompacted mixed LLW. The ballooning of the drums lid and bottom is due to internal overpressure caused by gas formation in the waste. The internal drum pressures and the composition of the drum gases were measured on a considerable number of 200 l drums. Hydrogen, formed by chemical reactions between the waste components, was identified as the pressure generating gas. The reasons for the hydrogen formation were investigated on both real and simulated wastes. (orig.) [de

  3. Juvenile Justice in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Frías Armenta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The first tribunal in Mexico was established in the central state of San Luis Potosi in 1926. The Law Regarding Social Prevention and Juvenile Delinquency for the Federal District and Mexican territories was promulgated in 1928. In 2005, Article 18 of the Mexican Constitution was modified to establish a comprehensive system (“Sistema Integral de justicia” in Spanish of justice for juveniles between 12 and 18 years old who had committed a crime punishable under criminal law. Its objective was to guarantee juveniles all the due process rights established for adults, in addition to the special ones recognized for minors. The constitutional reform also provides a framework that includes special tribunals as well as alternative justice options for juveniles. With these reforms, institutionalization of minors was to be considered an extreme measure applicable only to felonies and to juveniles older than 14. In 2006, all states within the Mexican federation enacted the “Law of justice for adolescents”. This system, at both the federal and state levels, formalizes a new global paradigm with regard to the triangular relationship between children, the State and the Law. It recognizes that children are also bearers of the inherent human rights recognized for all individuals, instead of simply objects in need of protection. However, despite formally aligning Mexican juvenile justice law with the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC, issues of actual substantive rights remained and new ones have appeared. For example, juveniles younger than 14 who have not committed a felony are released from institutions without any rehabilitation or treatment options, and alternative forms of justice were included without evaluating their possibilities of application or their conditions for success. In addition, the economic status of most juvenile detainees continues to be one of the most important determining factors in the administration of justice

  4. Juvenile polyposis syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Hsiao, Yi-Han; Wei, Chin-Hung; Chang, Szu-Wen; Chang, Lung; Fu, Yu-Wei; Lee, Hung-Chang; Liu, Hsuan-Liang; Yeung, Chun-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Juvenile polyposis syndrome, a rare disorder in children, is characterized with multiple hamartomatous polyps in alimentary tract. A variety of manifestations include bleeding, intussusception, or polyp prolapse. In this study, we present an 8-month-old male infant of juvenile polyposis syndrome initially presenting with chronic anemia. To the best of our knowledge, this is the youngest case reported in the literature. Methods: We report a rare case of an 8-month-old male...

  5. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    OpenAIRE

    Hoeve, M.

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted. The first study addressed a meta-analysis on parenting characteristics and styles in relation to delinquency. In this meta-analysis, previous manuscripts were systematically analyzed, computing mean ...

  6. Low-Level Waste Drum Assay Intercomparison Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greutzmacher, K.; Kuzminski, J.; Myers, S. C.

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear waste assay is an integral element of programs such as safeguards, waste management, and waste disposal. The majority of nuclear waste is packaged in drums and analyzed by various nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques to identify and quantify the radioactive content. Due to various regulations and the public interest in nuclear issues, the analytical results are required to be of high quality and supported by a rigorous Quality Assurance (QA) program. A valuable QA tool is an intercomparison program in which a known sample is analyzed by a number of different facilities. While transuranic waste (TRU) certified NDA teams are evaluated through the Performance Demonstration Program (PDP), low-level waste (LLW) assay specialists have not been afforded a similar opportunity. NDA specialists from throughout the DOE complex were invited to participate in this voluntary drum assay intercomparison study that was organized and facilitated by the Solid Waste Operations and the Safeguards Science and Technology groups at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and by Eberline Services. Each participating NDA team performed six replicate blind measurements of two 55-gallon drums with relatively low-density matrices (a 19.1 kg shredded paper matrix and a 54.4 kg mixed metal, rubber, paper and plastic matrix). This paper presents the results from this study, with an emphasis on discussing the lessons learned as well as desirable follow up programs for the future. The results will discuss the accuracy and precision of the replicate measurements for each NDA team as well as any issues that arose during the effort

  7. Color image digitization and analysis for drum inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, R.C.; Armstrong, G.A.; Burks, B.L.; Kress, R.L.; Heckendorn, F.M.; Ward, C.R.

    1993-01-01

    A rust inspection system that uses color analysis to find rust spots on drums has been developed. The system is composed of high-resolution color video equipment that permits the inspection of rust spots on the order of 0.25 cm (0.1-in.) in diameter. Because of the modular nature of the system design, the use of open systems software (X11, etc.), the inspection system can be easily integrated into other environmental restoration and waste management programs. The inspection system represents an excellent platform for the integration of other color inspection and color image processing algorithms

  8. An autonomous mobil robot to perform waste drum inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, K.D.; Ward, C.R.

    1994-01-01

    A mobile robot is being developed by the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) Robotics Group of Westinghouse Savannah River company (WSRC) to perform mandated inspections of waste drums stored in warehouse facilities. The system will reduce personnel exposure and create accurate, high quality documentation to ensure regulatory compliance. Development work is being coordinated among several DOE, academic and commercial entities in accordance with DOE's technology transfer initiative. The prototype system was demonstrated in November of 1993. A system is now being developed for field trails at the Fernald site

  9. A mathematical model of steam-drum dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeck, E.O.; Hinds, H.W.

    1976-12-01

    Mathematical equations describing the dynamic behaviour of pressure, water mass, etc. in a steam drum are derived from basic principles. The resultant model includes such effects as steam superheating and water subcooling as well as spontaneous flashing of liquid and condensation of vapour. Experimental data from a pressurizer are adequately predicted by the model. The pressure rise following a turbine trip can be predicted by the isentropic-compression model but not by the thermodynamic-equilibrium model. The equations are individually linearized and implemented on an analog computer in such a way that their non-linear behaviour is retained for small-perturbation studies. (author)

  10. Temporal variation in viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus antibodies in freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) indicates cyclic transmission in Lake Winnebago, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Rothering, Anna; Marcquenski, Susan; Koenigs, Ryan P.; Bruch, Ronald; Kamke, Kendall; Isermann, Daniel A.; Thurman, Andrew; Toohey-Kurth, Kathy; Goldberg, Tony

    2015-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is an emerging pathogen that causes mass mortality in multiple fish species. In 2007, the Great Lakes freshwater strain, type IVb, caused a large die-off of freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) in Lake Winnebago, Wisconsin, USA. To evaluate the persistence and transmission of VHSV, freshwater drum from Lake Winnebago were tested for antibodies to the virus using recently developed virus neutralization (VN) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) assays. Samples were also tested by real-time reverse transcription-PCR (rRT-PCR) to detect viral RNA. Of 548 serum samples tested, 44 (8.03%) were positive by VN (titers ranging from 1:16 to 1:1,024) and 45 (8.21%) were positive by ELISA, including 7 fish positive by both assays. Antibody prevalence increased with age and was higher in one northwestern area of Lake Winnebago than in other areas. Of 3,864 tissues sampled from 551 fish, 1 spleen and 1 kidney sample from a single adult female fish collected in the spring of 2012 tested positive for VHSV by rRT-PCR, and serum from the same fish tested positive by VN and ELISA. These results suggest that VHSV persists and viral transmission may be active in Lake Winnebago even in years following outbreaks and that wild fish may survive VHSV infection and maintain detectable antibody titers while harboring viral RNA. Influxes of immunologically naive juvenile fish through recruitment may reduce herd immunity, allow VHSV to persist, and drive superannual cycles of transmission that may sporadically manifest as fish kills.

  11. Control of thermoacoustic instability with a drum-like silencer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangyu; Wang, Xiaoyu; Li, Lei; Jing, Xiaodong; Sun, Xiaofeng

    2017-10-01

    Theoretical investigation is carried out by a novel method of controlling thermoacoustic instability with a drum-like silencer. It is shown that by decreasing the frequency of thermoacoustic system, the instability can be suppressed with the help of drum-like silencer. The purely reactive silencer, which is composed of a flexible membrane and a backing cavity, is usually known as a noise control device that works effectively in low frequency bandwidth without any aerodynamic loss. In present research, the silencer is exploited in a Rijke tube, as a means of decreasing the natural frequency of the system, and consequently changing the resonance period of the system. The "transfer element method" (TEM) is used to consider the interactions between the acoustic waves and the flexible membranes of the silencer. The effects of all possible properties of the silencer on the growth rate and resonance frequency of the thermoacoustic system are explored. According to the calculation results, it is found that for some properties of the silencer, the resonance frequencies are greatly decreased and then the phase difference between the unsteady heat release and the pressure fluctuation is increased. Consequently, the instability is suppressed with some dissipation that can not be able to control its onset in the original system. Therefore, when the damping is low, but not zero, it is effective to control thermoacoustic instability with this technique.

  12. Hanford contact-handled transuranic drum retrieval project planning document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DEMITER, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    The Hanford Site is one of several US Department of Energy (DOE) sites throughout the US that has generated and stored transuranic (TRU) wastes. The wastes were primarily placed in 55-gallon drums, stacked in trenches, and covered with soil. In 1970, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission ordered that TRU wastes be segregated from other radioactive wastes and placed in retrievable storage until such time that the waste could be sent to a geologic repository and permanently disposed. Retrievable storage also defined container storage life by specifying that a container must be retrievable as a contamination-free container for 20 years. Hanford stored approximately 37,400 TRU containers in 20-year retrievable storage from 1970 to 1988. The Hanford TRU wastes placed in 20-year retrievable storage are considered disposed under existing Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations since they were placed in storage prior to September 1988. The majority of containers were 55-gallon drums, but 20-year retrievable storage includes several TRU wastes covered with soil in different storage methods

  13. PRODUKSI DEKSTRIN UBIKAYU MELALUI METODE GELATINISASI SEBAGIAN MENGGUNAKAN ROTARY DRUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surfiana Surfiana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to obtain the optimum  condition and characteristics of  dextrin processed  from tapioca(cassava starch by using partial gelatinization using  drum dryer. This experiment was arranged in randomized compelete block design with three factors and three replications. The first factor was (V cassava varieties, which consisted of Cassesart/UJ-5 (V1 and Thailand/UJ-3  (V2. The second factor (K was the concentration which consisted of three levels : 30 % (K1, 35 % (K2, and 40 % (K3. The third factor (T was the temperature of the partial gelatinization which consisted of three temperature levels that were 80o C (T1, 90oC(T2, and 100oC(T3. Characterization was conducted on dextrin  processed from tapioca  included chemical and physical characteristics (water absorption, and water solubility. The results showed that the varieties of cassava, concentration, and temperature have significant effect on dextrin saccharide composition, solubility in water, and swelling power.  Thailand variety, 35 % concentration, and processing temperature of    90o C  produced dextrin with better functional characteristics , which were  24 % of dextrin composition, 77,15 % of solubility, and 6,89 %  of swelling power. Key words : Cassava, dextrin, parsial gelatinazation, rotary drum.

  14. Handling 78,000 drums of mixed-waste sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.B.; Harrington, E.S.; Mattus, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (now known as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) closed two mixed-waste surface impoundments by removing the sludge and contaminated pond-bottom clay and attempting to process it into durable, nonleachable, concrete monoliths. Interim, controlled, above-ground storage included delisting the stabilized sludge from hazardous to nonhazardous and disposing of the delisted monoliths as Class 1 radioactive waste. Because of schedule constraints and process design and control deficiencies, ∼46,000 drums of material in various stages of solidification and ∼32,000 barrels of unprocessed sludge are stored. The abandoned treatment facility still contains ∼16,000 gal of raw sludge. Such storage of mixed waste does not comply with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) guidelines. This paper describes actions that are under way to bring the storage of ∼78,000 drums of mixed waste into compliance with RCRA. Remediation of this problem by treatment to meet regulatory requirements is the focus of the discussion. 3 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  15. Rotating drum tests of particle suspensions within a fines dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Miguel Angel; Gollin, Devis; Kaitna, Roland; Wu, Wei

    2014-05-01

    Natural flows like mudflows, debris flow, and hyperconcentrated flows are commonly composed by a matrix of particles suspended in a viscous fluid. The nature of the interactions between particles immersed in a fluid is related to its size. While coarse particles (sand, gravel, and boulders) interact with each other or with the surrounding fluid, a dispersion of fine particles interacts with each other through colloidal forces or Brownian motion effects (Coussot and Piau, 1995, and Ancey and Jorrot, 2001). The predominance of one of the previous interactions defines the rheology of the flow. On this sense, experimental insight is required to validate the limits where the rheology of a dispersion of fines is valid. For this purpose, an experimental program in a rotating drum is performed over samples of sand, loess, and kaolin. The solid concentration and angular velocity of the rotating drum are varied. Height and normal loads are measured during flow. High-speed videos are performed to obtain the flow patterns of the mixtures. The experiments provide new laboratory evidence of granular mixture behaviour within an increased viscous fluid phase and its characterization. The results show an apparent threshold in terms of solid concentration, in which the mixtures started to behave as a shear-dependent material.

  16. Validation testing of radioactive waste drum filter vents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, L.D. [Pall Corp., Port Washington, NY (United States); Rahimi, R.S. [Pall Corp., Cortland, NY (United States); Edling, D. [Edling & Associates, Inc., Russel Springs, KY (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The minimum requirements for Drum Filter Vents (DFVs) can be met by demonstrating conformance with the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Trupact II Safety Assessment Report (SAR), and conformance with U.S. Federal shipping regulations 49 CFR 178.350, DOT Spec 7A, for Type A packages. These together address a number of safety related performance parameters such as hydrogen diffusivity, flow related pressure drop, filtration efficiency and, separately, mechanical stability and the ability to prevent liquid water in-leakage. In order to make all metal DFV technology (including metallic filter medium) available to DOE sites, Pall launched a product development program to validate an all metal design to meet these requirements. Numerous problems experienced by DOE sites in the past came to light during this development program. They led us to explore enhancements to DFV design and performance testing addressing these difficulties and concerns. The result is a patented all metal DFV certified to all applicable regulatory requirements, which for the first time solves operational and health safety problems reported by DOE site personnel but not addressed by previous DFV`s. The new technology facilitates operations (such as manual, automated and semi-automated drum handling/redrumming), sampling, on-site storage, and shipping. At the same time, it upgrades filtration efficiency in configurations documented to maintain filter efficiency following mechanical stress. 2 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs.

  17. CSER 00-006 Storage of Plutonium Residue Containers in 55 Gallon Drums at the PFP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOBBIN, K.D.

    2000-05-24

    This criticality safety evaluation report (CSER) provides the required limit set and controls for safe transit and storage of these drums in the 234-5Z Building at the PFP. A mass limit of 200 g of plutonium or fissile equivalent per drum is acceptable

  18. Electric-stepping-motor tests for a control-drum actuator of a nuclear reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, A. W.

    1972-01-01

    Experimental tests were conducted on two stepping motors for application as reactor control-drum actuators. Various control-drum loads with frictional resistances ranging from approximately zero to 40 N-m and inertias ranging from zero to 0.424 kg-sq m were tested.

  19. Research Based on the Acoustic Emission of Wind Power Tower Drum Dynamic Monitoring Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Penglin; Sang, Yuan; Xu, Yaxing; Zhao, Zhiqiang

    Wind power tower drum is one of the key components of the wind power equipment. Whether the wind tower drum performs safety directly affects the efficiency, life, and performance of wind power equipment. Wind power tower drum in the process of manufacture, installation, and operation may lead to injury, and the wind load and gravity load and long-term factors such as poor working environment under the action of crack initiation or distortion, which eventually result in the instability or crack of the wind power tower drum and cause huge economic losses. Thus detecting the wind power tower drum crack damage and instability is especially important. In this chapter, acoustic emission is used to monitor the whole process of wind power tower drum material Q345E steel tensile test at first, and processing and analysis tensile failure signal of the material. And then based on the acoustic emission testing technology to the dynamic monitoring of wind power tower drum, the overall detection and evaluation of the existence of active defects in the whole structure, and the acoustic emission signals collected for processing and analysis, we could preliminarily master the wind tower drum mechanism of acoustic emission source. The acoustic emission is a kind of online, efficient, and economic method, which has very broad prospects for work. The editorial committee of nondestructive testing qualification and certification of personnel teaching material of science and technology industry of national defense, "Acoustic emission testing" (China Machine Press, 2005.1).

  20. Improvement of Algorithms for Pressure Maintenance Systems in Drum-Separators of RBMK-1000 Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleksakov, A. N., E-mail: yankovskiy.k@nikiet.ru; Yankovskiy, K. I. [JSC “N. A. Dollezhal Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering (NIKIET),” (Russian Federation); Dunaev, V. I.; Kushbasov, A. N. [JSC “Diakont,” (Russian Federation)

    2015-05-15

    The main tasks and challenges for pressure regulation in the drum-separators of RBMK-1000 reactors are described. New approaches to constructing algorithms for pressure control in drum-separators by electro-hydraulic turbine control systems are discussed. Results are provided from tests of the operation of modernized pressure regulators during fast transients with reductions in reactor power.

  1. Study on mechanics of driving drum with superelastic convexity surface covering-layer structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, L.J.; Sui, X.H.; Miao, D.J. [Shandong University of Science & Technology, Qingdao (China)

    2008-09-15

    Belt conveyor is one of the main transport equipment in coal mine and the driving drum is its key part. With the method of bionic design, the mushroom morphological structure is applied to the design of covering-layer structure of driving drum surface of belt conveyor. Superelastic rubber with large deformation is adopted as the covering-layer material. Nonlinear constitutive model of rubber, which is of superelasticity and large deformation, is established. The stress states and deformation principles of driving drums including both bionic covering-layer and common covering-layer are obtained by static intensity analysis with Finite Element Analysis (FEA) software ANSYS. The values of the stress and strain on the driving drum surface are gotten and the dangerous area is determined. FEA results show that the superelastic convexity surface structure can enlarge the contact area between the driving drum and viscoelastic belt. The results also show that in comparison with common driving drum, the bionic surface driving drum can not only increase the friction coefficient between drum and belt but also prolong its service life.

  2. The media, the reconstruction of drumming, and the tradition of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Prodigal Ones by Mount Zion Films Production (and other drum music performance in films) shows the media enhancement of the performance of the ensemble serving as accompaniment during a traditional festival. The short scene allocated to a traditional festival reveals the significance of drumming and the input of ...

  3. A method to quantify tritium inside waste drums: He{sup 3} ingrowth method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godot, A.; Lepeytre, C.; Hubinois, J.C. [CEA Valduc, Dept. Traitement Materiaux Nucleaires, Service Analyses- Dechets, Lab. Chimie Analytique, 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France); Arseguel, A.; Daclin, J.P.; Douche, C. [CEA Valduc, Dept. Traitement Materiaux Nucleaires, Service Analyses- Dechets, Lab. de Gestion des Dechets Trities, 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France)

    2008-07-15

    This method enables an indirect, non intrusive and non destructive measurement of the Tritium activity in wastes drums. The amount of tritium enclosed inside a wastes drum can be determined by the measurement of the leak rate of {sup 3}He of this latter. The simulation predicts that a few months are necessary for establishing the equilibrium between the {sup 3}He production inside the drum and the {sup 3}He drum leak. In practice, after one year of storage, sampling {sup 3}He outside the drum can be realized by the mean of a confining chamber that collect the {sup 3}He outflow. The apparatus, the experimental procedure and the calculation of tritium activity from mass spectrometric {sup 3}He measurements are detailed. The industrial device based on a confinement cell and the automated process to measure the {sup 3}He amount at the initial time and after the confinement time is described. Firstly, reference drums containing a certified tritium activity (HTO) in addition to organic materials have been measured to qualify the method and to evaluate its performances. Secondly, tritium activity of organic wastes drums issued from the storage building in Valduc have been determined. Results of the qualification and optimised values of the experimental parameters are reported in order to determine the performances of this industrial device. As a conclusion, the apparatus enables the measurement of an activity as low as 1 GBq of tritium in a 200 liters drum containing organic wastes. (authors)

  4. Characterization of void volume VOC concentration in vented TRU waste drums - an interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liekhus, K.J.

    1994-09-01

    A test program is underway at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to determine if the concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the drum headspace is representative of the VOC concentration in the entire drum void space and to demonstrate that the VOC concentration in the void space of each layer of confinement can be estimated using a model incorporating diffusion and permeation transport principles and limited waste drum sampling data. An experimental test plan was developed requiring gas sampling of 66 transuranic (TRU) waste drums. This interim report summarizes the experimental measurements and model predictions of VOC concentration in the innermost layer of confinement from waste drums sampled and analyzed in FY 1994

  5. Electromechanical dynamic analysis for the drum driving system of the long-wall shearer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changzhao Liu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The drum driving system is one of the weakest parts of the long-wall shearer, and some methods are also needed to monitor and control the long-wall shearer to adapt to the important trend of unmanned operation in future mining systems. Therefore, it is essential to conduct an electromechanical dynamic analysis for the drum driving system of the long-wall shearer. First, a torsional dynamic model of planetary gears is proposed which is convenient to be connected to the electric motor model for electromechanical dynamic analysis. Next, an electromechanical dynamic model for the drum driving system is constructed including the electric motor, the gear transmission system, and the drum. Then, the electromechanical dynamic characteristics are simulated when the shock loads are acted on the drum driving system. Finally, some advices are proposed for improving the reliability, monitoring the operating state, and choosing the control signals of the long-wall shearer based on the simulation.

  6. Application of artificial neural networks on the characterization of radioactive waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potiens Junior, Ademar Jose; Hiromoto, Goro

    2011-01-01

    The methodology consist of system simulation of drum-detector by Monte Carlo for obtention of counting efficiency. The obtained data were treated and a neural artificial network (RNA) were constructed for evaluation of total activity of drum. For method evaluation measurements were performed in ten position parallel to the drum axis and the results submitted to the RNA. The developed methodology showed to be effective for isotopic characterization of gamma emitter radioactive wastes distributed in a heterogeneous way in a 200 litters drum. The objective of this work as to develop a methodology of analyse for quantification and localization of radionuclides not homogeneous distributed in a 200 liters drum based on the mathematical techniques

  7. Assessment of taurine bioavailability in pelleted and extruded diets with red drum Sciaenops ocellatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taurine has been reported to be efficacious in supporting growth of carnivorous fish species, particularly when supplemented to diets primarily containing plant feedstuffs. Although taurine may become unavailable to some extent by heat and moisture, and is susceptible to the Maillard reaction with r...

  8. Complete Genome Sequence of Vibrio campbellii LMB 29 Isolated from Red Drum with Four Native Megaplasmids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxin Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio spp. are the most common pathogens for animals reared in aquaculture. Vibrio campbellii, which is often involved in shrimp, fish and mollusks diseases, is widely distributed in the marine environment worldwide, but our knowledge about its pathogenesis and antimicrobial resistance is very limited. The existence of this knowledge gap is at least partially because that V. campbellii was originally classified as Vibrio harveyi, and the detailed information of its comparative genome analysis to other Vibrio spp. is currently lacking. In this study, the complete genome of a V. campbellii predominant strain, LMB29, was determined by MiSeq in conjunction with PacBio SMRT sequencing. This genome consists of two circular DNA chromosomes and four megaplasmids. Comparative genome analysis indicates that LMB29 shares a 96.66% similarity (average nucleotide identity with the V. campbellii ATCC strain BAA-1116 based on a 75% AF (average fraction calculations, and its functional profile is very similar to V. campbellii E1 and V. campbellii CAIM115. Both type III secretion system (T3SS and type VI secretion system (T6SS, along with the tlh gene which encodes a thermolabile hemolysin, are present in LMB29 which may contribute to the bacterial pathogenesis. The virulence of this strain was experimental confirmed by performing a LDH assay on a fish cell infection model, and cell death was observed as early as within 3 h post infection. Thirty-seven antimicrobial resistance genes (>45% identity were predicted in LMB29 which includes a novel rifampicin ADP ribosyltransferase, arr-9, in plasmid pLMB157. The gene arr-9 was predicted on a genomic island with horizontal transferable potentials which may facilitate the rifampicin resistance dissemination. Future researches are needed to explore the pathogenesis of V. campbellii LMB29, but the availability of this genome sequence will certainly aid as a basis for further analysis.

  9. Extending juvenility in grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaeppler, Shawn; de Leon Gatti, Natalia; Foerster, Jillian

    2017-04-11

    The present invention relates to compositions and methods for modulating the juvenile to adult developmental growth transition in plants, such as grasses (e.g. maize). In particular, the invention provides methods for enhancing agronomic properties in plants by modulating expression of GRMZM2G362718, GRMZM2G096016, or homologs thereof. Modulation of expression of one or more additional genes which affect juvenile to adult developmental growth transition such as Glossy15 or Cg1, in conjunction with such modulation of expression is also contemplated. Nucleic acid constructs for down-regulation of GRMZM2G362718 and/or GRMZM2G096016 are also contemplated, as are transgenic plants and products produced there from, that demonstrate altered, such as extended juvenile growth, and display associated phenotypes such as enhanced yield, improved digestibility, and increased disease resistance. Plants described herein may be used, for example, as improved forage or feed crops or in biofuel production.

  10. Miastenia gravis juvenil Juvenile myasthenia gravis

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar Papazian; Israel Alfonso; Nayle Araguez

    2009-01-01

    La miastenia gravis juvenil (MGJ) es un trastorno crónico auto inmune en el cual existen anticuerpos séricos que al unirse a los receptores de acetilcolin nicotínicos de la membrana muscular de la placa motora alteran la transmisión neuromuscular. El resultado es fatiga muscular precoz con progresión a la parálisis durante estados de contracción muscular iterativos (movimientos) o sostenidos (posturas) y más raramente parálisis permanente durante el reposo. Los músculos inervados por los nerv...

  11. Interaction effects of dietary supplementation of heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum and β-glucan on growth performance, digestibility and immune response of juvenile red sea bream, Pagrus major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, Mahmoud A O; Koshio, Shunsuke; Ishikawa, Manabu; Yokoyama, Saichiro

    2015-07-01

    Both heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum (HK-LP) and β-glucan (BG) play important roles in growth performance, feed utilization and health status of fish. Therefore, a feeding trial was conducted to determine the interactive effects of dietary HK-LP and BG on growth performance, digestibility, oxidative status and immune response of red sea bream for 56 days. A significant interaction was found between HK-LP and BG on final body weight, total plasma protein, glucose, serum bactericidal activity (BA), total serum protein, serum alternative complement pathway (ACP) activity, protein and dry matter digestibility coefficients (P 0.05). Interestingly, fish fed with both HK-LP at (0.025 and 0.1%) in combination with BG at (0 and 0.1%) showed higher oxidative stress resistance. Under the experimental conditions, dietary HK-LP and BG had a significant interaction on enhancing the growth, digestibility and immune responses of red sea bream. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Barut

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is the most common chronic rheumatic disease of unknown aetiology in childhood and predominantly presents with peripheral arthritis. The disease is divided into several subgroups, according to demographic characteristics, clinical features, treatment modalities and disease prognosis. Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis, which is one of the most frequent disease subtypes, is characterized by recurrent fever and rash. Oligoarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis, common among young female patients, is usually accompanied by anti-nuclear antibodie positivity and anterior uveitis. Seropositive polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis, an analogue of adult rheumatoid arthritis, is seen in less than 10% of paediatric patients. Seronegative polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis, an entity more specific for childhood, appears with widespread large- and small-joint involvement. Enthesitis-related arthritis is a separate disease subtype, characterized by enthesitis and asymmetric lower-extremity arthritis. This disease subtype represents the childhood form of adult spondyloarthropathies, with human leukocyte antigen-B27 positivity and uveitis but commonly without axial skeleton involvement. Juvenile psoriatic arthritis is characterized by a psoriatic rash, accompanied by arthritis, nail pitting and dactylitis. Disease complications can vary from growth retardation and osteoporosis secondary to treatment and disease activity, to life-threatening macrophage activation syndrome with multi-organ insufficiency. With the advent of new therapeutics over the past 15 years, there has been a marked improvement in juvenile idiopathic arthritis treatment and long-term outcome, without any sequelae. The treatment of juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients involves teamwork, including an experienced paediatric rheumatologist, an ophthalmologist, an orthopaedist, a paediatric psychiatrist and a physiotherapist. The primary goals

  13. DERMATOMIOSITIS JUVENIL Y EMBARAZO

    OpenAIRE

    Evans M,Gregorio; Poulsen R,Ronald; Blanco R,Romiely; Luna V,Viviana

    2002-01-01

    La dermatomiositis juvenil es un desorden inflamatorio crónico multisistémico del tejido conectivo. Tiene una incidencia de 2-3/100.000/año. Con la disminución en la mortalidad experimentada en los últimos decenios, la atención está cifrada en la morbilidad a largo plazo y en las alteraciones funcionales. Con un tratamiento agresivo los niños con dermatomiositis juvenil generalmente tienen un futuro promisorio, sin incapacidad o con incapacidad mínima. La mortalidad actualmente se estima cerc...

  14. Granular flow in a rotating drum: Experiments and theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, C. Y.; Stark, C. P.; Capart, H.; Li, L.; Smith, B.; Grinspun, E.

    2015-12-01

    Erosion at the base of a debris flow fundamentally controls how large the flow will become and how far it will travel. Experimental observations of this important phenomenon are rather limited, and this lack has led theoretical treatments to making ad hoc assumptions about the basal process. In light of this, we carried out a combination of laboratory experiments and theoretical analysis of granular flow in a rotating drum, a canonical example of steady grain motion in which entrainment rates can be precisely controlled. Our main result is that basal sediment is entrained as the velocity profile adjusts to imbalance in the flow of kinetic energy.Our experimental apparatus consisted of a 40cm-diameter drum, 4cm-deep, half-filled with 2.3mm grains. Rotation rates varied from 1-70 rpm. We varied the effective scale by varying effective gravity from 1g to 70g on a geotechnical centrifuge. The field of grain motion was recorded using high-speed video and mapped using particle tracking velocimetry. In tandem we developed a depth-averaged theory using balance equations for mass, momentum and kinetic energy. We assumed a linearized GDR Midi granular rheology [da Cruz, 2005] and a Coulomb friction law along the sidewalls [Jop et al., 2005]. A scaling analysis of our equations yields a dimensionless "entrainment number" En, which neatly parametrizes the flow geometry in the drum for a wide range of variables, e.g., rotation rate and effective gravity. At low En, the flow profile is planar and kinetic energy is balanced locally in the flow layer. At high En, the flow profile is sigmoidal (yin-yang shaped) and the kinetic energy is dominated by longitudinal, streamwise transfer. We observe different scaling behavior under each of these flow regimes, e.g., between En and kinetic energy, surface slope and flow depth. Our theory correctly predicts their scaling exponents and the value of En at which the regime transition takes place. We are also able to make corrections for

  15. Evaluation of X-ray System for Nondestructive Testing on Radioactive Waste Drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong Kil; Maeng, Seong Jun; Lee, Yeon Ee; Hwang, Tae Won

    2008-01-01

    The physical and chemical properties of radioactive waste drums, which have been temporarily stored on site, should be characterized before their shipment to a disposal facility in order to prove that the properties meet the acceptance guideline. The investigation of NDT(Nondestructive Test) method was figured out that the contents in drum, the quantitative analysis of free standing water and void fraction can be examined with X-ray NDT techniques. This paper describes the characteristics of X-ray NDT such as its principles, the considerations for selection of X-ray system, etc. And then, the waste drum characteristics such as drum type and dimension, contents in drum, etc. were examined, which are necessary to estimate the optimal X-ray energy for NDT of a drum. The estimation results were that: the proper X-ray energy is under 3 MeV to test the drums of 320 β and less; both X-ray systems of 450 keV and/or 3 MeV might be needed considering the economical efficiency and the realization. The number of drums that can be tested with 450 keV and 3 MeV X-ray system was figured out as 42,327 and 18,105 drums (based on storage of 2006. 12), respectively. Four testing scenarios were derived considering equipment procurement method, outsourcing or not, etc. The economical and feasibility assessment for the scenarios was resulted in that an optimal scenario is dependent on the acceptance guide line, the waste generator's policy on the waste treatment and the delivery to a disposal facility, etc. For example, it might be desirable that a waste generator purchases two 450 keV mobile system to examine the drums containing low density waste, and that outsourcing examination for the high density drums, if all NDT items such as quantitative analysis for 'free standing water' and 'void fraction', and confirmation of contents in drum have to be characterized. However, one 450 keV mobile system seems to be required to test only the contents in 13,000 drums per year.

  16. PSLn(q) as operator group of isospectral drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thas, Koen

    2006-01-01

    In a paper by M Kac (1966 Am. Math. Mon. 73 1-23), Kac asked his famous question 'Can one hear the shape of a drum?', which was answered negatively in Gordon et al (1992 Invent. Math. 110 1-22) by construction of planar isospectral pairs. In Buser et al (1994 Int. Math. Res. Not. 9), it is observed that all operator groups associated with the known counter examples are isomorphic to one of PSL 3 (2), PSL 3 (3), PSL 4 (2) and PSL 3 (4). We show that if (D 1 , D 2 ) is a pair of non-congruent planar isospectral domains constructed from unfolding a polygonal base-tile and with associated operator group PSL n (q), then (n, q) belongs to this very restricted list. (letter to the editor)

  17. Dynamic simulation of flash drums using rigorous physical property calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. M. Gonçalves

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of flash drums is simulated using a formulation adequate for phase modeling with equations of state (EOS. The energy and mass balances are written as differential equations for the internal energy and the number of moles of each species. The algebraic equations of the model, solved at each time step, are those of a flash with specified internal energy, volume and mole numbers (UVN flash. A new aspect of our dynamic simulations is the use of direct iterations in phase volumes (instead of pressure for solving the algebraic equations. It was also found that an iterative procedure previously suggested in the literature for UVN flashes becomes unreliable close to phase boundaries and a new alternative is proposed. Another unusual aspect of this work is that the model expressions, including the physical properties and their analytical derivatives, were quickly implemented using computer algebra.

  18. Analysis of natural gas supply strategies at Fort Drum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stucky, D.J.; Shankle, S.A.; Anderson, D.M.

    1992-07-01

    This analysis investigates strategies for Fort Drum to acquire a reliable natural gas supply while reducing its gas supply costs. The purpose of this study is to recommend an optimal supply mix based on the life-cycle costs of each strategy analyzed. In particular, this study is intended to provide initial guidance as to whether or not the building and operating of a propane-air mixing station is a feasible alternative to the current gas acquisition strategy. The analysis proceeded by defining the components of supply (gas purchase, gas transport, supplemental fuel supply); identifying alternative options for each supply component; constructing gas supply strategies from different combinations of the options available for each supply component and calculating the life-cycle costs of each supply strategy under a set of different scenarios reflecting the uncertainty of future events

  19. Passive neutron design study for 200-L waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menlove, H.O.; Beddingfield, D.B.; Pickrell, M.M.

    1997-09-01

    We have developed a passive neutron counter for the measurement of plutonium in 200-L drums of scrap and waste. The counter incorporates high efficiency for the multiplicity counting in addition to the traditional coincidence counting. The 252 Cf add-a-source feature is used to provide an accurate assay over a wide range of waste matrix materials. The room background neutron rate is reduced by using 30 cm of external polyethylene shielding and the cosmic-ray background is reduced by statistical filtering techniques. Monte Carlo Code calculations were used to determine the optimum detector design, including the gas pressure, size, number, and placement of the 3 He tubes in the moderator. Various moderators, including polyethylene, plastics, teflon, and graphite, were evaluated to obtain the maximum efficiency and minimum detectable mass of plutonium

  20. The unbalanced signal measuring of automotive brake drum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Dong; Ye, Sheng-Hua; Zhang, Bang-Cheng

    2005-04-01

    For the purpose of the research and development of automatic balancing system by mass removing, the dissertation deals with the measuring method of the unbalance signal, the design the automatic balance equipment and the software. This paper emphases the testing system of the balancer of automotive brake drum. The paper designs the band-pass filter product with favorable automatic follow of electronic product, and with favorable automatic follow capability, filtration effect and stability. The system of automatic balancing system by mass removing based on virtual instrument is designed in this paper. A lab system has been constructed. The results of contrast experiments indicate the notable effect of 1-plane automatic balance and the high precision of dynamic balance, and demonstrate the application value of the system.

  1. Nondestructive testing methods for 55-gallon, waste storage drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferris, R.H.; Hildebrand, B.P.; Hockey, R.L.; Riechers, D.M.; Spanner, J.C.; Duncan, D.R.

    1993-06-01

    The Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) authorized Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to conduct a feasibility study to identify promising nondestructive testing (NDT) methods for detecting general and localized (both pitting and pinhole) corrosion in the 55-gal drums that are used to store solid waste materials at the Hanford Site. This document presents results obtained during a literature survey, identifies the relevant reference materials that were reviewed, provides a technical description of the methods that were evaluated, describes the laboratory tests that were conducted and their results, identifies the most promising candidate methods along with the rationale for these selections, and includes a work plan for recommended follow-on activities. This report contains a brief overview and technical description for each of the following NDT methods: magnetic testing techniques; eddy current testing; shearography; ultrasonic testing; radiographic computed tomography; thermography; and leak testing with acoustic detection

  2. Application of the Monte Carlo method to estimate doses in a radioactive waste drum environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodenas, J.; Garcia, T.; Burgos, M.C.; Felipe, A.; Sanchez-Mayoral, M.L.

    2002-01-01

    During refuelling operation in a Nuclear Power Plant, filtration is used to remove non-soluble radionuclides contained in the water from reactor pool. Filter cartridges accumulate a high radioactivity, so that they are usually placed into a drum. When the operation ends up, the drum is filled with concrete and stored along with other drums containing radioactive wastes. Operators working in the refuelling plant near these radwaste drums can receive high dose rates. Therefore, it is convenient to estimate those doses to prevent risks in order to apply ALARA criterion for dose reduction to workers. The Monte Carlo method has been applied, using MCNP 4B code, to simulate the drum containing contaminated filters and estimate doses produced in the drum environment. In the paper, an analysis of the results obtained with the MCNP code has been performed. Thus, the influence on the evaluated doses of distance from drum and interposed shielding barriers has been studied. The source term has also been analysed to check the importance of the isotope composition. Two different geometric models have been considered in order to simplify calculations. Results have been compared with dose measurements in plant in order to validate the calculation procedure. This work has been developed at the Nuclear Engineering Department of the Polytechnic University of Valencia in collaboration with IBERINCO in the frame of an RD project sponsored by IBERINCO

  3. Experimental investigation of rotating-drum separators for liquid-metal MHD applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenzo, C.S.; Dauzvardis, P.V.; Hantman, R.G.

    1978-01-01

    For the past several years, Argonne National Laboratory has been active in the development of closed-cycle two-phase-flow MHD power systems. One of the key components in such systems is an effective and efficient gas-liquid separator-diffuser. On the basis of an assessment of present technology, it was decided to study the characteristics of a rotating drum type of separator, and a multitask research and development program was initiated within the overall liquid-metal MHD research program. The first task, now completed, centered on the investigation of single-phase flow (liquid) deposited by a flow nozzle on the inner surface of freely-rotating cylinders or drums of 423 mm and 282 mm diam. The tests were designed to study the recovery of energy in the liquid layer deposited on the drum; the torque transmitted to the drum by the liquid as the result of shear stress between the liquid and the drum surface; the characteristics of the liquid layer; and the effects of drum size, nozzle shape and orientation, and nozzle velocity. The test results showed that a stable liquid film was formed on the drum and that the kinetic energy of the liquid layer was high enough to be potentially useful in two-phase-flow MHD power systems

  4. Infrared thermography applied to monitoring of radioactive waste drums; Termografia infravermelha aplicada ao monitoramento de tambores de rejeitos radioativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelmer, P.; Camarano, D.M. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Calado, F.; Phillip, B.; Viana, C.; Andrade, R.M., E-mail: paulafuziki@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: flavio.arcalado@gmail.com, E-mail: bruno.phil@gmail.com, E-mail: criisviana@hotmail.com, E-mail: rma@ufmg.br, E-mail: dmc@cdtn.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Eletrica

    2013-07-01

    The use of thermography in the inspection of drums containing radioactive waste is being stimulated by the absence of physical contact. In Brazil the majority of radioactive wastes are compacted solids packed in metal drums stored temporarily for decades and requires special attention. These drums have only one qualitative indication of the radionuclides present. However, its structural condition is not followed systematically. The aim of this work is presents a methodology by applying thermography for monitoring the structural condition of drums containing radioactive waste in order to detect degraded regions of the drums. (author)

  5. [ABOUT JUVENILE NASOPHARYNGEAL ANGIOFIBROMA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbain, V; Meunier, P; Otto, B

    2015-09-01

    We report the case of a young man with a juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma. In this paper, we will first remind the clinical signs of this pathology and its radiological appearance (localisation and extensions). Then we will explain how radioembolisation techniques were used to facilitate the surgical intervention. Finally we will discuss the histology of this tumor.

  6. Naevoxanthoendothelioma (Synonym: Juvenile Xanthogranuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Handa

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of naevoxanthoendothelioma juvenile xanthogranuloma is reported with rare features like late onset of the disease, involvement of liver and diffuse cutaneous lesions including cafe au lait spots and pigmented naevus. Final diagnosis could be achieved only on histopathology report.

  7. A thermal analysis for the use of cooled rotating drums in electron processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, P.M.; Williams, K.E.

    1988-01-01

    The thermal response of rotating drums under an electron beam has been analyzed using a finite difference thermal analysis computer code. Rotating drums are used to convey thin webs or films under the electron beams while controlling their temperature and, in some cases, in dissipating the exotherm involved in curing coatings applied to them. Each portion of the drum surface receives one heat pulse per rotation as it passes under the beam. The drum's thermal behavior shows both an immediate response to each heat pulse and a more gradual response to the average heat acquired over many pulses. After many rotations a steady state is reached where there is only an immediate response to each heat pulse but the gradual heating has tapered off. Nevertheless the steady state temperatures are strongly dependent on the gradual heating that led to them. Slow and fast speeds of rotation are compared showing the effects of both gradual and immediate heating components. The thermal analysis is extended to include the coolant fluid inside the drum shell and the web on the drum surface. The coolant's incoming temperature, volumetric flow rate, flow speed through the coolant channels and film coefficient between the outer shell and fluid are all included in the analysis. The small air gap between the web and drum, the convective cooling of the web to the ambient air, and the exothermic reaction of any chemical reactions on the web are included. The stresses produced in the drum shell (i.e. between the outer surface and the temperature-controlling fluid within the drum) are analyzed in order to define safe e-beam powers and rotating speeds. The analysis provides the basis for many design decisions and can give an end-user a full temperature history for his product for any set of conditions. (author)

  8. A Markov chain analysis of the effectiveness of drum-buffer-rope material flow management in job shop environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Rabbani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The theory of constraints is an approach for production planning and control, which emphasizes on the constraints in the system to increase throughput. The theory of constraints is often referred to as Drum-Buffer-Rope developed originally by Goldratt. Drum-Buffer-Rope uses the drum or constraint to create a schedule based on the finite capacity of the first bottleneck. Because of complexity of the job shop environment, Drum-Buffer-Rope material flow management has very little attention to job shop environment. The objective of this paper is to apply the Drum-Buffer-Rope technique in the job shop environment using a Markov chain analysis to compare traditional method with Drum-Buffer-Rope. Four measurement parameters were considered and the result showed the advantage of Drum-Buffer-Rope approach compared with traditional one.

  9. Re-evaluation of the 1995 Hanford Large Scale Drum Fire Test Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, J M

    2007-01-01

    A large-scale drum performance test was conducted at the Hanford Site in June 1995, in which over one hundred (100) 55-gal drums in each of two storage configurations were subjected to severe fuel pool fires. The two storage configurations in the test were pallet storage and rack storage. The description and results of the large-scale drum test at the Hanford Site were reported in WHC-SD-WM-TRP-246, ''Solid Waste Drum Array Fire Performance,'' Rev. 0, 1995. This was one of the main references used to develop the analytical methodology to predict drum failures in WHC-SD-SQA-ANAL-501, 'Fire Protection Guide for Waste Drum Storage Array,'' September 1996. Three drum failure modes were observed from the test reported in WHC-SD-WM-TRP-246. They consisted of seal failure, lid warping, and catastrophic lid ejection. There was no discernible failure criterion that distinguished one failure mode from another. Hence, all three failure modes were treated equally for the purpose of determining the number of failed drums. General observations from the results of the test are as follows: (lg b ullet) Trash expulsion was negligible. (lg b ullet) Flame impingement was identified as the main cause for failure. (lg b ullet) The range of drum temperatures at failure was 600 C to 800 C. This is above the yield strength temperature for steel, approximately 540 C (1,000 F). (lg b ullet) The critical heat flux required for failure is above 45 kW/m 2 . (lg b ullet) Fire propagation from one drum to the next was not observed. The statistical evaluation of the test results using, for example, the student's t-distribution, will demonstrate that the failure criteria for TRU waste drums currently employed at nuclear facilities are very conservative relative to the large-scale test results. Hence, the safety analysis utilizing the general criteria described in the five bullets above will lead to a technically robust and defensible product that bounds the potential consequences from postulated

  10. Composition and activity variations in bulk gas of drum waste packages of Paks NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molnar, M.; Palcsu, L.; Svingor, E.; Szanto, Zs.; Futo, I.; Ormai, P.

    2001-01-01

    To obtain reliable estimates of the quantities and rates of the gas production a series of measurements was carried out in drum waste packages generated and temporarily stored at the site of Paks Nuclear Power Plant (Paks NPP). Ten drum waste packages were equipped with sampling valves for repeated sampling. Nine times between 04/02/2000 and 19/07/2001 qualitative gas component analyses of bulk gases of drums were executed. Gas samples were delivered to the laboratory of the ATOMKI for tritium and radiocarbon content measurements.(author)

  11. Thermal hydraulic aspects of steam drum level control philosophy for the natural circulation based heavy water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.K.; Gaikwad, A.J.; Kumar, Rajesh

    2004-01-01

    From safety considerations advanced nuclear reactors rely more and more on passive systems such as natural circulation for primary heat removal. A natural circulation based water reactor is relatively larger in size so as to reduce flow losses and channel type for proper flow distribution. From the size of steam drum considerations it has to be multi loop but has a common inlet header. Normally the turbine follows the reactor. This paper addresses the thermal hydraulic aspects of the steam drum pressure and level control philosophy for a four drum, natural circulation based, channel type boiling water advanced reactor. Three philosophies may be followed for drum control viz. individual drum control, one control drum approach and an average of all the four drums. For drum pressure control, the steam flow to the turbine is be regulated. A single point pressure control is better than individual drum pressure control. This is discussed in the paper. But the control point has to be at a place down steam the point where all steam line from individual drum meet. This may lead to different pressure in all the four drums depending on the power produced in the respective loops. The difference in pressure cannot be removed even if the four drums are directly connected through pipes. Also the pressure control scheme with/without interconnection is discussed. For level, the control of individual drum may not be normally possible because of common inlet header. As the frictional pressure drops in the large diameter downcomers are small as compared to elevation pressure drops, the level in all the steam drum tend to equalize. Consequently a single representative drum level may be chosen as a control variable for controlling level in all the four drums. But in case, where all the four loops are producing different powers and single point pressure control is effective, the scheme may not work satisfactorily. the level in a drum may depend on the power produced in the loop

  12. Larval, pre-juvenile and juvenile development of Diapterus peruvianus (Perciformes: Gerreidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Patricia Adelheid Jiménez Rosenberg

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of Diapterus peruvianus (Sauvage 1879 is based on 60 larvae collected in superficial tows made in Bahía Concepción, and on 16 prejuvenile and juvenile organisms collected in Bahía de La Paz, B. C. S., México, using a standard plankton net and a rectangular epibenthonic net, respectively. Larvae of D. peruvianus show three large blotches on the dorsum of the gut that can fuse together and give the appearance of one large continuous blotch. There are two to three pre-anal pigments and 16 post-anal pigments in the ventral midline; cephalic pigments are present from the postflexion stage, as well as a serrated preoperculum. The prejuvenile and juvenile organisms are distinguished by their body depth, the analfin formula, the serrated preoperculum and the base pigments in the dorsal and anal fins.El desarrollo de Diapterus peruvianus se analizó con base en 60 larvas recolectadas en Bahía Concepción y 16 pre-juveniles y juveniles recolectados en la Ensenada de La Paz, B. C. S. México, usando respectivamente, una red estándar de plancton en arrastres superficiales y una red epibentónica para arrastres de plancton. Las larvas presentan desde la pre-flexión tres manchas alargadas sobre la superficie dorsal de la masa visceral, que pueden unirse y dar apariencia de pigmentación continua, observándose hasta 16 pigmentos post-anales en la línea media ventral y de dos a tres pigmentos pre-anales; la pigmentación cefálica así como la forma aserrada del pre-opérculo característica del género, aparecen a partir de la post-flexión. Los organismos pre-juveniles y juveniles se distinguen por la profundidad del cuerpo, la fórmula de la aleta anal, la fina forma aserrada del pre-opérculo y la pigmentación en la base de las aletas dorsal y anal.

  13. Identification of the fast and thermal neutron characteristics of transuranic waste drums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storm, B.H. Jr.; Bramblett, R.L. [Lockheed Martin Specialty Components, Largo, FL (United States); Hensley, C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-11-01

    Fissile and spontaneously fissioning material in transuranic waste drums can be most sensitively assayed using an active and passive neutron assay system such as the Active Passive Neutron Examination and Assay. Both the active and the passive assays are distorted by the presence of the waste matrix and containerization. For accurate assaying, this distortion must be characterized and accounted for. An External Matrix Probe technique has been developed that accomplishes this task. Correlations between in-drum neutron flux measurements and monitors in the Active Passive Neutron Examination and Assay chamber with various matrix materials provide a non-invasive means of predicting the thermal neutron flux in waste drums. Similarly, measures of the transmission of fast neutrons emitted from sources in the drum. Results obtained using the Lockheed Martin Specialty Components Active Passive Neutron Examination and Assay system are discussed. 12 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Specialist bees collect Asteraceae pollen by distinctive abdominal drumming (Osmia) or tapping (Melissodes, Svastra)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four species of western US Osmia (Cephalosmia) bees that are Asteraceae specialists (oligoleges) were observed to employ a heretofore unappreciated, stereotypical means of collecting pollen, abdominal drumming, to gather pollen from 19 flowering species representing nine tribes of Asteraceae. Abdom...

  15. Improvements in and relating to drums for storing fuel assemblies of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artemiev, L.N.; Batjukov, V.I.; Fadeev, A.I.

    1977-01-01

    A specification is given for an improved design of drums used for storing nuclear reactor fuel assemblies. It is claimed that this new design reduces wear, increases reliability and enables the recharging operation to be speeded up. (UK)

  16. Analytical and empirical evaluation of low-level waste drum response to accident environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, R.A.; Romesberg, L.E.; Yoshimura, H.R.; Baker, W.E.; Hokanson, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    Based on results of tests to date, it was found that the structural response of low-level waste drums to impact environments can be generally predicted, both analytically and with subscale models. As currently represented, only the 1/4 scale models would adequately represent full scale drum deformation; however, additional work has shown that with proper heat treating the strength of the material used in the 1/8 scale containers can be reduced to the correct value. Both analytical models give results that are expected to be within the range of behavior of the full scale drums. Failure of the drum closure can be adequately inferred from the radial deformation results of both subscale tests and computer analyses. 6 figures

  17. Techniques for improving shuffler assay results for 55-gallon waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinard, P.M.; Prettyman, T.H.; Stuenkel, D.

    1994-01-01

    Accurate assays of the fissile contents in waste drums are needed to ensure the most proper and economical handling and disposal of the waste. An improvement of accuracy will mean fewer drums disposed as transuranic waste when they really contain low-level waste, saving both money and burial sites. Shufflers are used for assaying waste drums and are very accurate with nonmoderating matrices (such as iron). In the active mode they count delayed neutrons released after fissions are induced by irradiation neutrons from a 252 Cf source. However, as the hydrogen density from matrices such as paper or gloves increases, the accuracy can suffer without proper attention. The neutron transport and fission probabilities change with the hydrogen density, causing the neutron count rate to vary with the position of the fissile material within the drum. The magnitude of this variation grows with the hydrogen density

  18. Tribological Aspects of the Process of Winding the Steel Rope Around the Winch Drum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Matejić, , , ,

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Proper winding of the steel rope around the winch drum is great importance, mostly for: prolonging the service life of the rope, reduction of deformations of the body and the sides of the drum if the winding of the rope is multilayered, increasing of the safety factors, easier unwinding of the rope while lowering the load, even running of the drive unit, etc. The focus of this paper is on the analysis of the friction which occurs in the process of winding and unwinding the rope around the winch drum. Friction force is in its highest intensity when the rope passes from one layer to another, if the winding of the rope is multilayered. As the result of the research, certain mechanisms of winding of the rope from the aspects of the friction force were obtained, and the effects of the forces on the sides of the drum were analyzed.

  19. Preventing Juvenile Delinquency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina dos Reis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to problematize discourses about protection and care that have surrounded compulsory hospitalization by evidencing its use as a control and punishment mechanism that increases the social vulnerability of young drug users. For such, we analyze lawsuits involving juveniles who were consigned to psychiatric institutions for drug addiction treatment as a protection measure in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, in Brazil. The analysis of the materials has evidenced discourses that have circumscribed young drug users and constructed this population as potentially dangerous subjects as well as a population category at risk. In this sense, we point out how compulsory hospitalization has emerged out of the lawsuits as a tool for prevention of juvenile delinquency.

  20. Artificial neural networks in the evaluation of the radioactive waste drums activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potiens, J.R.A.J.; Hiromoto, G.

    2006-01-01

    The mathematical techniques are becoming more important to solve geometry and standard identification problems. The gamma spectrometry of radioactive waste drums would be a complex solution problem. The main difficulty is the detectors calibration for this geometry; the waste is not homogeneously distributed inside the drums, therefore there are many possible combinations between the activity and the position of these radionuclides inside the drums, making the preparation of calibration standards impracticable. This work describes the development of a methodology to estimate the activity of a 200 L radioactive waste drum, as well as a mapping of the waste distribution, using Artificial Neural Network. The neural network data set entry obtaining was based on the possible detection efficiency combination with 10 sources activities varying from 0 to 74 x 10 3 Bq. The set up consists of a 200 L drum divided in 5 layers. Ten detectors were positioned all the way through a parallel line to the drum axis, from 15 cm of its surface. The Cesium -137 radionuclide source was used. The 50 efficiency obtained values (10 detectors and 5 layers), combined with the 10 source intensities resulted in a 100,000 lines for 15 columns matrix, with all the possible combinations of source intensity and the Cs-137 position in the 5 layers of the drum. This archive was divided in 2 parts to compose the set of training: input and target files. The MatLab 7.0 module of neural networks was used for training. The net architecture has 10 neurons in the input layer, 18 in the hidden layer and 5 in the output layer. The training algorithm was the 'traincgb' and after 300 'epoch s' the medium square error was 0.00108172. This methodology allows knowing the detection positions answers in a heterogeneous distribution of radionuclides inside a 200 L waste drum; in consequence it is possible to estimate the total activity of the drum in the training neural network limits. The results accuracy depends

  1. Late Onset Juvenile Xanthogranuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punithwavathy K

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A 19 year old female was seen with multiple skin coloured and hyperpigmented macules, discrete as well as grouped papules and nodules of varying sizes distributed over the face, neck, extensor and flexor aspects of both upper and lower extremities including joints. The trunk was spared. Some of the lesions showed features of spontaneous regression. Investigations confirmed the diagnosis of juvenile xanthogranuloma. Lesions regressed satisfactorily with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy.

  2. Predictions and implications of a poisson process model to describe corrosion of transuranic waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, B.F.; Holmes, J.A.; Wilbert, K.A.

    1995-01-01

    A risk assessment methodology is described in this paper to compare risks associated with immediate or near-term retrieval of transuranic (TRU) waste drums from bermed storage versus delayed retrieval. Assuming a Poisson process adequately describes corrosion, significant breaching of drums is expected to begin at - 15 and 24 yr for pitting and general corrosion, respectively. Because of this breaching, more risk will be incurred by delayed than by immediate retrieval

  3. Comprehensive investigation of the metal in drums of boilers at thermal power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozhigov, L. S.; Mitrofanov, A. S.; Tolstolutskaya, G. D.; Vasilenko, R. L.; Rudenko, A. G.; Ruzhytskyi, V. V.; Ribalchenko, N. D.; Shramchenko, S. V.

    2017-05-01

    A comparative investigation of the metal of drums of two TP-100 boilers at the Starobeshevskaya and the Lugansk thermal power stations (TPS) was performed. Their operation time was approximately 300000 hours; the shell of one drum was ruptured during a hydraulic test, and the other drum is in operation. According to the results of the technical diagnostics and a strength analysis, both drums comply with the applicable regulatory requirements. The objects of the investigation were fragments of the ruptured drum and a "plug" cut out of the shell during a scheduled inspection. The investigation was carried out by microscopic metallography methods and the scanning electron microscopy technique. Mechanical tests of metal specimens were performed, and the hydrogen content in these specimens was measured. Prior to the material research, the metal was examined using a magnetic memory method. The investigation yielded specifics of the metal microstructure, mechanical properties, and fracture patterns of the metal specimens at various temperatures. An investigation performed by the method of thermal-desorption mass spectrometry revealed no considerable difference in the hydrogen content in the metal of both drums, thereby excluding the effect of hydrogenation in analyzing the rupture causes. It was established that the drum at the Starobeshevskaya TPS had been damaged due to its low impact strength at room temperature and high brittle-ductile transition point. Comparison of the metallographic study data with the results obtained using the magnetic memory method suggests that the fracture was caused by local formation of the Widmannstatten pattern at points where accessories are welded to the shell. The prospects are demonstrated of the comprehensive approach to nondestructive examination (NDE) of TPS drums using the magnetic memory technique and metallographic methods.

  4. Evaluation of juvenile salmonid bypass facilities and passage at water diversions on the lower Umatilla River. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, W.A.; Knapp, S.M.; Carmichael, R.W.

    1997-07-01

    Outdated juvenile and adult fish passage facilities were recently reconstructed at the five major irrigation dams on the lower Umatilla River, Oregon to meet National marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) design standards. Changes in design at juvenile fish bypass facilities included reduced mesh size on the rotating drum screens, larger screening area, a more oblique orientation of the drum screens to canal flow, improved screen seals, replacement of bypass portals with vertical slot bypass channels, and increased bypass pipe diameters. Weir-and-pool adult fish ladders and jump pools were replaced with vertical-slot ladders. From 1991--1995, they investigated injury and travel rate of juvenile fish moving through the facilities, and efficiency of screens in preventing fish entry into the canals. Water velocities in front of canal screens, at bypass channel entrances, and at ladder diffusers were measured to assess adherence to NMFS criteria and identify hydraulic patterns. Biological evaluations were conducted by releasing and recapturing marked yearling summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), yearling spring chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha), and subyearling fall chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) in varying locations within the fish passage facilities

  5. Predation of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) by freshwater drum in western Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, John R. P.; Bur, Michael T.; Nalepa, Thomas F.; Schloesser, Donald W.

    1992-01-01

    Environmental and economic problems associated with the colonization of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) in western Lake Erie created a need to investigate control mechanisms. Predation by fishes is one potential means of control, but predation on zebra mussels by native fishes in Lake Erie is unknown. The freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) is the most likely fish predator since it is the only fish with pharyngeal teeth capable of crushing mollusk shells. In 1990, freshwater drum were collected in western Lake Erie from 9 sites near rocky reefs and 13 sites with silt or sand bottoms, and gut contents were examined. Predation on zebra mussels increased as drum size increased. Small drum (200-249 mm in length) fed mainly on dipterans, amphipods, and small fish; small zebra mussels (375 mm in length) fed almost exclusively on zebra mussels (seasons and locations combined). The smallest drum capable of crushing zebra mussel shells was 265 mm. Since freshwater drum over 375 mm feed heavily on zebra mussels, they may become a possible biological control mechanism for mussels in portions of North America.

  6. The design, construction, and operation of the Integrated Radwaste Treatment System (IRTS) Drum Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landau, B.; Russillo, A.; Frank, D.; Garland, D.

    1989-12-01

    This report describes the design, construction, and the operation of the Integrated Radwaste Treatment Systems (IRTS) Drum Cell at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The IRTS Drum Cell was designed to provide a shielded, secure storage area for the remote handling and placement of low-level Class C radioactive waste produced in the IRTS. The Drum Cell was designed to contain up to approximately 8,804 drums from decontaminated supernatant processing. This waste is to be poured into 0.27m 3 in a temperature controlled environment to ensure the cement will not be subjected to freezing and thawing cycles. A Temporary Weather Structure (TWS), a pre-engineered building, now encloses the Drum Cell and associated equipment so that remote waste-handling and placement operations can continue without regard to weather conditions. The Drum Cell was designed so that this TWS could be removed and the low-level waste entombed in place. Final disposition of this low-level waste is currently being evaluated in an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). 10 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

  7. Study on the dynamic performance of concrete mixer's mixing drum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Yang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available When working, the geometric distribution shape of concrete in concrete mixing truck's rotary drum changes continuously, which cause a great difficulty for studying the dynamic performance of the mixing drum. In this paper, the mixing system of a certain type of concrete mixing truck is studied. A mathematical formulation has been derived through the force analysis to calculate the supporting force. The calculation method of the concrete distribution shape in the rotary drum is developed. A new transfer matrix is built with considering the concrete geometric distribution shape. The effects of rotating speed, inclination angle and concrete liquid level on the vibration performance of the mixing drum are studied with a specific example. Results show that with the increase of rotating speed, the vibration amplitude of the mixing drum decreases. The peak amplitude gradually moves to the right with the inclination angle increasing. The amplitude value of the peak's left side decreases when tilt angle increases, while the right side increases. The maximum unbalanced response amplitude of the drum increases with the decrease of concrete liquid level height, and the vibration peak moves to the left.

  8. Corrosion of steel drums containing simulated radioactive waste of low and intermediate level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farina, S.B.; Schulz Rodríguez, F.; Duffó, G.S.

    2013-01-01

    Ion-exchange resins are frequently used during the operation of nuclear power plants and constitute radioactive waste of low and intermediate level. For the final disposal inside the repository the resins are immobilized by cementation and placed inside steel drums. The eventful contamination of the resins with aggressive species may cause corrosion problems to the drums. In order to assess the incidence of this phenomenon and to estimate the lifespan of the steel drums, in the present work, the corrosion susceptibility of steel drums in contact with cemented ion-exchange resins contaminated with different aggressive species was studied. The aggressive species studied were chloride ions (main ionic species of concern) and sulphate ions (produced during radiolysis of the cationic exchange-resins after cementation). The corrosion rate of the steel was monitored over a time period of 900 days and a chemical and morphological analysis of the corrosion products formed on the steel in each condition was performed. When applying the results obtained in the present work to estimate the corrosion depth of the drums containing the cemented radioactive waste after a period of 300 years (foreseen durability of the Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste facility in Argentina), it was found that in the most unfavourable case (high chloride contamination), the corrosion penetration will be considerably lower than the thickness of the wall of the steel drums. (author)

  9. The Welding Effect on Mechanical Strength of Low Level Radioactive Waste Drum Container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aisyah; Herlan Martono

    2007-01-01

    The treatment of compactable low level solid waste was started by compaction of 100 liter drum containing the waste using 600 kN hydraulic press in 200 liters drum. The 200 liter drum of waste container containing of compacted waste then immobilized with cement and stored in interm storage. The 200 liter drum of waste container made of carbon steel material to comply with a good mechanical strength request in order to be able to retain the waste content for long period. Welding is a one step in a waste drum container fabrication process that has an opportunity in decreasing these mechanical strength. The research is carried out by welding the waste drum container material sample by electric arc welding. Mechanical strength test carried out by measuring the tensile strength by using the tensile strength machine, hardness test by using Vickers hardness test and microstructure observation by using the optic microscope. The result shows that the welding cause the microstructure changes, its meaning of forming ferro oxide phase on welding area that leads to the brittle material, so that the mechanical strength has a decreasing slightly. Nevertheless the decreasing of mechanical strength is still in the range of safety limit. (author)

  10. The Saami drums and the religious encounter in the 17th and 18th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håkan Rydving

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available From the end of the 17th to the middle of the 18th century much of the confrontation between indigenous Saami religion and Christianity was focused on the drums. The Saamis of both Denmark—Norway and Sweden—Finland had been christianized for decade. The main problem for the Church authorities turned out to be that of making the Saamis abandon their indigenous religious customs. From the end of the 17th century, an intense period of propaganda and coercion began to make the Saamis abandon these non Christian elements in their religion. For the Saamis, the drums represented their threatened culture, the resistance against the Christian claim to exclusiveness, and a striving to preserve traditional values. The drums had a twofold role to play in the religious encounter. They were both foci of the confrontation and sources documenting and structuring it. The fight between old and new beliefs is to some extent possible to follow in the records from the district and county courts. These records give us access to Saami arguments and views of the importance of the drums in Saami society. The function of the drums as instruments for a Saami description of the encounter is, however, difficult to make out. The drum figures are difficult to interpret and there are a number of alternative ways of understanding their meaning.

  11. Analysis of force variance for a continuous miner drum using the Design of Experiments method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Somanchi; V.J. Kecojevic; C.J. Bise [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States)

    2006-06-15

    Continuous miners (CMs) are excavating machines designed to extract a variety of minerals by underground mining. The variance in force experienced by the cutting drum is a very important aspect that must be considered during drum design. A uniform variance essentially means that an equal load is applied on the individual cutting bits and this, in turn, enables better cutting action, greater efficiency, and longer bit and machine life. There are certain input parameters used in the drum design whose exact relationships with force variance are not clearly understood. This paper determines (1) the factors that have a significant effect on the force variance of the drum and (2) the values that can be assigned to these factors to minimize the force variance. A computer program, Continuous Miner Drum (CMD), was developed in collaboration with Kennametal, Inc. to facilitate the mechanical design of CM drums. CMD also facilitated data collection for determining significant factors affecting force variance. Six input parameters, including centre pitch, outer pitch, balance angle, shift angle, set angle and relative angle were tested at two levels. Trials were configured using the Design of Experiments (DoE) method where 2{sup 6} full-factorial experimental design was selected to investigate the effect of these factors on force variance. Results from the analysis show that all parameters except balance angle, as well as their interactions, significantly affect the force variance.

  12. Burning test on a storage drum filled with a mixture of sodiumnitrate and bitumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knotik, K.; Leichter, P.; Spalek, K.

    1979-01-01

    A burning test on a common storage drum filled with a mixture of sodiumnitrate and bitumen was carried out to show the incinerability of said mixture. A 50 l mild steel drum was filled with 80,7 kg sodiumnitrate/bitumen-mixture. The drum was packed in a 200 l mild steel drum, the remaining space was filled with enough sand to cover the top of the inner drum with 15 cm of sand. The sand packing was then soaked with 70 l of light distillate fuel and ignited. The fuel burned until self-extinguishing occurred. 30 % (22,2 l) of the fuel was burned. 0,7 % of the energy potential was absorbed in the sand layer. The highest measured temperature was 34 0 C at the top of the test drum. It can be concluded, that even under severe external actions the ignition temperature of 400 0 C for bitumen/waste mixtures cannot be reached, providing correct technical storage conditions, which means that the void space in the cavities is filled with unburnable absorbing material like sand or salt. (author)

  13. Triploidy in the hematology of jundia juveniles (Siluriformes: Heptapteridae)

    OpenAIRE

    Fukushima, H; Bailone, RL; Weiss, LA; Martins, ML; Zaniboni-Filho, E

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the hematological characteristics of diploid and triploid of jundia, Rhamdia quelen juveniles, an important freshwater fish cultured in south Brazil. Hematological morphometry of erythrocytes were determined in blood smears under a light microscope. The blood was used to measure the number of red blood cells (RBC) with a hemocytometer Neubauer chamber, and the numbers of white blood cells (WBC) and thrombocytes that were obtained using an indirect method. The results showe...

  14. Intelligent coil drum with electromagnetic force cancellation for MRI equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Jinhao; Tani, Junji; Ohtomo, Kikuo

    1995-01-01

    High-level noise induced in MRI equipment has been a main obstacle for their wide application in medical diagnosis. The noise is caused by the vibration of the cylindrical shell used to support the gradient magnetic field coils in MRI. In this study, a reduced-size model of the coil drum is constructed using polymer films and piezoelectric films. The piezoelectric films are divided into several patches and two patches of them are used as integrated bending actuators in the control of the shell vibration so that no external actuators are needed. The disturbance cancellation method is used since the shell is excited by predetermined forces. The relationships between the size, position and output magnitude of the actuators and control effect are also discussed. Experiment and simulation were carried out for the cases where the shell was excited at resonance frequencies of three main modes. The results show that the disturbance cancellation method in combination with the piezoelectric film actuators can successfully suppress the forced vibration of the shell and that the minimum amplitude of controlled vibration varies with the resonance mode. (author)

  15. Thermal considerations for overpack designs in drum packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hensel, S.; Gromada, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    The design of the overpacks in drum packages, both in terms of thickness and materials of construction, greatly impact the ability of the package to accommodate heat source contents. The optimum overpack thermal protection needed is that which results in the lowest containment vessel temperature during both Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC) and Normal Conditions of Transport (NCT). For heat source packages, the use of very good or high efficiency insulating materials such as fiberboard and polyurethane results in high containment vessel temperatures during both NCT and HAC. Using a more modest or low efficiency insulating material would reduce the NCT and HAC material such as oak (low efficiency) would maintain a containment vessel with a content of 100 watts at a fraction of the temperature reported for very good or high efficiency insulating materials. Four inches of oak can prevent the containment vessel from exceeding 500 degrees F during both NCT and HAC with 100 watts of contents, whereas using a high efficiency material the vessel would exceed 1000 degrees F. 8 figs., 1 tab

  16. Computed tomography of human joints and radioactive waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martz, Harry E.; Roberson, G. Patrick; Hollerbach, Karin; Logan, Clinton M.; Ashby, Elaine; Bernardi, Richard

    1999-01-01

    X- and gamma-ray imaging techniques in nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and assay (NDA) have seen increasing use in an array of industrial, environmental, military, and medical applications. Much of this growth in recent years is attributed to the rapid development of computed tomography (CT) and the use of NDE throughout the life-cycle of a product. Two diverse examples of CT are discussed, 1.) Our computational approach to normal joint kinematics and prosthetic joint analysis offers an opportunity to evaluate and improve prosthetic human joint replacements before they are manufactured or surgically implanted. Computed tomography data from scanned joints are segmented, resulting in the identification of bone and other tissues of interest, with emphasis on the articular surfaces. 2.) We are developing NDE and NDA techniques to analyze closed waste drums accurately and quantitatively. Active and passive computed tomography (A and PCT) is a comprehensive and accurate gamma-ray NDA method that can identify all detectable radioisotopes present in a container and measure their radioactivity

  17. The effects of drumming on working memory in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degé, Franziska; Kerkovius, Katharina

    2018-05-04

    Our study investigated the effect of a music training program on working memory (verbal memory, visual memory, and as a part of central executive processing working memory) in older adults. The experimental group was musically trained (drumming and singing), whereas one control group received a literature training program and a second control group was untrained. We randomly assigned 24 participants (all females; M = 77 years and 3 months) to the music group, the literature group, and the untrained group. The training groups were trained for 15 weeks. The three groups did not differ significantly in age, socioeconomic status, music education, musical aptitude, cognitive abilities, or depressive symptoms. We did not find differences in the music group in central executive function. However, we found a potential effect of music training on verbal memory and an impact of music training on visual memory. Musically trained participants remembered more words from a word list than both control groups, and they were able to remember more symbol sequences correctly than the control groups. Our findings show a possible effect of music training on verbal and visual memory in older people. © 2018 New York Academy of Sciences.

  18. Experimental and numerical studies of rotating drum grate furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basista Grzegorz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste material from the meat industry can be taken into account as a biofuel. Studies confirm, that calorific value is higher and ash content is lower comparing to some conventional fuels. EU directives regulate details of thermal disposal of the waste material from the meat industry - especially in range of the process temperature and time of the particle presence in area of the combustion zone. The paper describes design of the rotating drum grate stove, dedicated to thermal disposal of the meat wastes as well as solid biomass (pellet, small bricket, wood chips combustion. Device has been developed in frames of cooperation between AGH University of Science and Technology (Krakow, Poland and producer focused on technologies of energy utilization of biomass in distributed generation. Results of measurements of selected operational parameters performed during startup of the furnace have been presented and discussed. Furthermore, numerical model of the combustion process has been developed to complement experimental results in range of the temperature and oxygen distribution in the area of the combustion chamber. ANSYS CFX solver has been applied to perform simulations including rotational domain related with specifics of operation of the device. Results of numerical modelling and experimental studies have been summarized and compared.

  19. Interference from adults forces young red knots to forage for longer and in dangerous places

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hout, P.J.; van Gils, J.A.; Robin, F.; van der Geest, M.; Dekinga, A.; Piersma, T.

    2014-01-01

    In birds and mammals, juvenile and adult foragers are often found apart from each other. In this study, we found this is also true for red knots, Calidris canutus canutus, wintering on the intertidal flats of Banc d'Arguin, Mauritania. Not only did juveniles feed separately from adults, they also

  20. Analysis, scale modeling, and full-scale tests of low-level nuclear-waste-drum response to accident environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huerta, M.; Lamoreaux, G.H.; Romesberg, L.E.; Yoshimura, H.R.; Joseph, B.J.; May, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    This report describes extensive full-scale and scale-model testing of 55-gallon drums used for shipping low-level radioactive waste materials. The tests conducted include static crush, single-can impact tests, and side impact tests of eight stacked drums. Static crush forces were measured and crush energies calculated. The tests were performed in full-, quarter-, and eighth-scale with different types of waste materials. The full-scale drums were modeled with standard food product cans. The response of the containers is reported in terms of drum deformations and lid behavior. The results of the scale model tests are correlated to the results of the full-scale drums. Two computer techniques for calculating the response of drum stacks are presented. 83 figures, 9 tables

  1. Miastenia gravis juvenil Juvenile myasthenia gravis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Papazian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La miastenia gravis juvenil (MGJ es un trastorno crónico auto inmune en el cual existen anticuerpos séricos que al unirse a los receptores de acetilcolin nicotínicos de la membrana muscular de la placa motora alteran la transmisión neuromuscular. El resultado es fatiga muscular precoz con progresión a la parálisis durante estados de contracción muscular iterativos (movimientos o sostenidos (posturas y más raramente parálisis permanente durante el reposo. Los músculos inervados por los nervios craneales, especialmente los extraoculares y elevadores de los párpados, tienen más tendencia a la debilidad muscular persistente que los inervados por otros pares craneales y las extremidades. Las formas clínicas de presentación son generalizadas, oculares y respiratorias. El diagnóstico se sospecha mediante la anamnesia, la fatiga anormal se comprueba mediante el examen físico y la estimulación eléctrica iterativa del nervio que inerva al músculo afectado pero no paralizado. Se corrobora mediante la administración de inhibidores de la acetilcolin esterasa (IACE que al aumentar la cantidad de acetilcolin en la hendidura sináptica, corrigen la fatiga o la debilidad muscular transitoriamente. Se hace el diagnóstico de certeza mediante la demostración sérica de anticuerpos contra los receptores de acetilcolin (ACRA. El tratamiento es a largo plazo sintomático con IACE y etiopatogénico con inmunosupresores, plasmaféresis, gamma globulina endovenosa y timectomía. El curso es crónico. La remisión espontánea o después de tratamiento sintomático o etiopatogénico ocurre entre 1-10 años respectivamente. La mortalidad es prácticamente nula aun durantes las crisis miastenias gracias a la educación de padres, pacientes y público en general sobre el tema, al desarrollo del sistema de respuesta rápida de auxilio domiciliario y las unidades de cuidados intensivos y el empleo de la ventilación asistida profiláctica, plasmaféresis y

  2. Source Test Report for the 205 Delayed Coking Unit Drum 205-1201 and Drum 205-1202 Depressurization Vents (Marathon Petroleum Company LLC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 2010 Source Test was performed during the atmospheric depressurization step of the delayed coking process prior to the removal of petroleum coke from the coke drum. The 205 DCU was operated under a variety of conditions during the 2010 Source Test.

  3. Juvenile psittacine environmental enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone-Freilicher, Elisabeth; Rupley, Agnes E

    2015-05-01

    Environmental enrichment is of great import to the emotional, intellectual, and physical development of the juvenile psittacine and their success in the human home environment. Five major types of enrichment include social, occupational, physical, sensory, and nutritional. Occupational enrichment includes exercise and psychological enrichment. Physical enrichment includes the cage and accessories and the external home environment. Sensory enrichment may be visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory, or taste oriented. Nutritional enrichment includes variations in appearance, type, and frequency of diet, and treats, novelty, and foraging. Two phases of the preadult period deserve special enrichment considerations: the development of autonomy and puberty. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Juvenile Dermatomyositis in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Emeka Madu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile dermatomyositis has variable clinical presentations both in and outside of pregnancy. A literature review indicated that optimal maternal and fetal outcomes can be anticipated when the pregnancy is undertaken while the disease is in remission. Poorer outcomes are associated with flare-up of the disease in early pregnancy compared with exacerbation in the second or third trimester, when fetal prognosis is usually good. We present a case of JDM in pregnancy with disease exacerbation late in pregnancy and review of the relevant literature.

  5. Real-time radiography, digital radiography, and computed tomography for nonintrusive waste drum characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martz, H.E.; Schneberk, D.J.; Roberson, G.P.

    1994-07-01

    We are investigating and developing the application of x-ray nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and gamma-ray nondestructive assay (NDA) methods to nonintrusively characterize 208-liter (55-gallon) mixed waste drums. Mixed wastes contain both hazardous and radioactive materials. We are investigating the use of x-ray NDE methods to verify the content of documented waste drums and determine if they can be used to identify hazardous and nonconforming materials. These NDE methods are also being used to help waste certification and hazardous waste management personnel at LLNL to verify/confirm and/or determine the contents of waste. The gamma-ray NDA method is used to identify the intrinsic radioactive source(s) and to accurately quantify its strength. The NDA method may also be able to identify some hazardous materials such as heavy metals. Also, we are exploring techniques to combine both NDE and NDA data sets to yield the maximum information from these nonintrusive, waste-drum characterization methods. In this paper, we report an our x-ray NDE R ampersand D activities, while our gamma-ray NDA activities are reported elsewhere in the proceedings. We have developed a data, acquisition scanner for x-ray NDE real-time radiography (RTR), as well as digital radiography transmission computed tomography (TCT) along with associated computational techniques for image reconstruction, analysis, and display. We are using this scanner and real-waste drums at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). In this paper, we discuss some issues associated with x-ray imaging, describe the design construction of an inexpensive NDE drum scanner, provide representative DR and TCT results of both mock- and real-waste drums, and end with a summary of our efforts and future directions. The results of these scans reveal that RTR, DR, and CT imaging techniques can be used in concert to provide valuable information about the interior of low-level-, transuranic-, and mock-waste drums without

  6. Considerations for an active and passive scanner to assay nuclear waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martz, H.E.; Azevedo, S.G.; Roberson, G.P.; Schneberk, D.J.; Koenig, Z.M.; Camp, D.C.

    1990-01-01

    Radioactive wastes are generated at many DOE laboratories, military facilities, fuel fabrication and enrichment plants, reactors, hospitals, and university research facilities. At all of these sites, wastes must be separated, packaged, categorized, and packed into some sort of container--usually 208-L (55-gal) drums--for shipment to waste-storage sites. Prior to shipment, the containers must be labeled, assayed, and certified; the assay value determines the ultimate disposition of the waste containers. An accurate nondestructive assay (NDA) method would identify all the radioisotopes present and provide a quantitative measurement of their activity in the drum. In this way, waste containers could be routed in the most cost-effective manner and without having to reopen them. Currently, the most common gamma-ray method used to assay nuclear waste drums is segmented gamma-ray scanning (SGS) spectrometer that crudely measures only the amount of 235 U or 239 Pu present in the drum. This method uses a spatially-averaged, integrated, emitted gamma-ray-intensity value. The emitted intensity value is corrected by an assumed constant-attenuation value determined by a spatially-averaged, transmission (or active) measurement. Unfortunately, this typically results in an inaccurate determination of the radioactive activities within a waste drum because this measurement technique is valid only for homogeneous-attenuation or known drum matrices. However, since homogeneous-attenuation matrices are not common and may be unknown, other NDA techniques based on active and Passive CT (A ampersand PCT) are under development. The active measurement (ACT) yields a better attenuation matrix for the drum, while the passive measurement (PCT) more accurately determines the identity of the radioisotopes present and their activities. 9 refs., 2 figs

  7. Influence of cladogenesis on feeding structures in drums (Teleostei: Sciaenidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deary, Alison L; Hilton, Eric J

    2017-02-01

    Drums (family Sciaenidae) are common in tropical to temperate coastal and estuarine habitats worldwide and present a broad spectrum of morphological diversity. The anatomical variation in this family is particularly evident in their feeding apparatus, which may reflect the partitioning of adult foraging habitats. Adult and early life history stage sciaenids may display ecomorphological patterns in oral and pharyngeal jaw elements but because sciaenids are hierarchically related, the morphological variation of the feeding apparatus cannot be analyzed as independent data. Morphological patterns have been identified in three sciaenid genera from the Chesapeake Bay but it is not known if these patterns are present in other genera of the family and if such patterns are constrained by phylogenetic history. In this study, phylogenetic comparative methods were applied to two sets of oral jaw data obtained from growth series of 11 species of cleared and double-stained Chesapeake Bay sciaenids and alcohol-preserved museum specimens representing 65 of the 66 recognized genera to determine the magnitude of phylogenetic dependence present in the structure of the oral jaws using a recent molecular phylogeny of the family. Pagel's lambda, a measure of phylogenetic signal, was low for pelagic sciaenids in premaxilla, lower jaw, and ascending process lengths, indicating influence of selective forces on the condition of these traits. Conversely, for benthic sciaenids, phylogenetic signal was high for lower jaw and ascending process lengths, indicating significant phylogenetic constraint for their condition in these taxa. Pagel's lambda was intermediate for premaxilla length in benthic sciaenids, suggesting that the length of the premaxilla is influenced by a mix of selective forces and phylogenetic constraint. Although the ecomorphological patterns identified in the oral jaws of scaienids are not entirely free of phylogenetic dependence, selective forces related to foraging are

  8. Indonesian commercial bus drum brake system temperature model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wibowo, D. B.; Haryanto, I.; Laksono, N. P.

    2016-01-01

    Brake system is the most significant aspect of an automobile safety. It must be able to slow the vehicle, quickly intervening and reliable under varying conditions. Commercial bus in Indonesia, which often stops suddenly and has a high initial velocity, will raise the temperature of braking significantly. From the thermal analysis it is observed that for the bus with the vehicle laden mass of 15 tons and initial velocity of 80 km/h the temperature is increasing with time and reaches the highest temperature of 270.1 °C when stops on a flat road and reaches 311.2 °C on a declination road angle, ø, 20°. These temperatures exceeded evaporation temperature of brake oil DOT 3 and DOT 4. Besides that, the magnitude of the braking temperature also potentially lowers the friction coefficient of more than 30%. The brakes are pressed repeatedly and high-g decelerations also causes brake lining wear out quickly and must be replaced every 1 month as well as the emergence of a large thermal stress which can lead to thermal cracking or thermal fatigue crack. Brake fade phenomenon that could be the cause of many buses accident in Indonesia because of the failure of the braking function. The chances of accidents will be even greater when the brake is worn and not immediately replaced which could cause hot spots as rivets attached to the brake drum and brake oil is not changed for more than 2 years that could potentially lower the evaporation temperature because of the effect hygroscopic.

  9. Indonesian commercial bus drum brake system temperature model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, D. B.; Haryanto, I.; Laksono, N. P.

    2016-03-01

    Brake system is the most significant aspect of an automobile safety. It must be able to slow the vehicle, quickly intervening and reliable under varying conditions. Commercial bus in Indonesia, which often stops suddenly and has a high initial velocity, will raise the temperature of braking significantly. From the thermal analysis it is observed that for the bus with the vehicle laden mass of 15 tons and initial velocity of 80 km/h the temperature is increasing with time and reaches the highest temperature of 270.1 °C when stops on a flat road and reaches 311.2 °C on a declination road angle, ø, 20°. These temperatures exceeded evaporation temperature of brake oil DOT 3 and DOT 4. Besides that, the magnitude of the braking temperature also potentially lowers the friction coefficient of more than 30%. The brakes are pressed repeatedly and high-g decelerations also causes brake lining wear out quickly and must be replaced every 1 month as well as the emergence of a large thermal stress which can lead to thermal cracking or thermal fatigue crack. Brake fade phenomenon that could be the cause of many buses accident in Indonesia because of the failure of the braking function. The chances of accidents will be even greater when the brake is worn and not immediately replaced which could cause hot spots as rivets attached to the brake drum and brake oil is not changed for more than 2 years that could potentially lower the evaporation temperature because of the effect hygroscopic.

  10. Indonesian commercial bus drum brake system temperature model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wibowo, D. B., E-mail: rmt.bowo@gmail.com; Haryanto, I., E-mail: ismoyo2001@yahoo.de; Laksono, N. P., E-mail: priyolaksono89@gmail.com [Mechanical Engineering Dept., Faculty of Engineering, Diponegoro University (Indonesia)

    2016-03-29

    Brake system is the most significant aspect of an automobile safety. It must be able to slow the vehicle, quickly intervening and reliable under varying conditions. Commercial bus in Indonesia, which often stops suddenly and has a high initial velocity, will raise the temperature of braking significantly. From the thermal analysis it is observed that for the bus with the vehicle laden mass of 15 tons and initial velocity of 80 km/h the temperature is increasing with time and reaches the highest temperature of 270.1 °C when stops on a flat road and reaches 311.2 °C on a declination road angle, ø, 20°. These temperatures exceeded evaporation temperature of brake oil DOT 3 and DOT 4. Besides that, the magnitude of the braking temperature also potentially lowers the friction coefficient of more than 30%. The brakes are pressed repeatedly and high-g decelerations also causes brake lining wear out quickly and must be replaced every 1 month as well as the emergence of a large thermal stress which can lead to thermal cracking or thermal fatigue crack. Brake fade phenomenon that could be the cause of many buses accident in Indonesia because of the failure of the braking function. The chances of accidents will be even greater when the brake is worn and not immediately replaced which could cause hot spots as rivets attached to the brake drum and brake oil is not changed for more than 2 years that could potentially lower the evaporation temperature because of the effect hygroscopic.

  11. Product (RED)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponte, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    ) and the consumers who buy iconic brand products to help ‘distant others’. While in many other forms of causumerism, labels or certification systems ‘prove’ that a product is just, in RED, aid celebrities provide the proof. From the consumer point of view both labels and celebrities provide a similar simplification...... of complex social, economic, and environmental processes. At the same time, we argue that there are important distinctions as well—labels and certifications are ultimately about improving the conditions of production, whereas RED is about accepting existing production and trade systems and donating......(PRODUCT)RED™ (hereafter RED) is a cobranding initiative launched in 2006 by the aid celebrity Bono to raise money from product sales to support The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. In this paper we argue that RED is shifting the boundaries of ‘causumerism’ (shopping...

  12. Nuclear waste calorimeter for very large drums with 385 litres sample volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jossens, G.; Mathonat, C. [SETARAM Instrumentation, Caluire (France); Bachelet, F. [CEA Valduc, Is sur Tille (France)

    2015-03-15

    Calorimetry is a very precise and well adapted tool for the classification of drums containing nuclear waste material depending on their level of activities (low, medium, high). A new calorimeter has been developed by SETARAM Instrumentation and the CEA Valduc in France. This new calorimeter is designed for drums having a volume bigger than 100 liters. It guarantees high operator safety by optimizing drum handling and air circulation for cooling, and optimized software for direct measurement of the quantity of nuclear material. The LVC1380 calorimeter makes it possible to work over the range 10 to 3000 mW, which corresponds to approximately 0.03 to 10 g of tritium or 3 to 955 g of {sup 241}Pu in a volume up to 385 liters. This calorimeter is based on the heat flow measurement using Peltier elements which surround the drum in the 3 dimensions and therefore measure all the heat coming from the radioactive stuff whatever its position inside the drum. Calorimeter's insulating layers constitute a thermal barrier designed to filter disturbances until they represent less than 0.001 Celsius degrees and to eliminate long term disturbances associated, for example, with laboratory temperature variations between day and night. A calibration device based on Joule effect has also been designed. Measurement time has been optimized but remains long compared with other methods of measurement such as gamma spectrometry but its main asset is to have a good accuracy for low level activities.

  13. Measurement of dose rate and estimation of beta activity in zircaloy hull drum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, J.P.N.; Kumar, Pankaj; Shinde, A.M.; Purohit, R.G.; Sarkar, P.K.

    2012-01-01

    Fuel Reprocessing Plant is designed for the processing of spent fuel from reactor for the recovery of plutonium and uranium as PuO 2 and U 3 O 8 respectively. Zircaloy is used as cladding material of natural uranium fuel pins used in the reactors. In reprocessing plants chop and leach method is used to remove the zircaloy clad from the fuel matrix during Head End Treatment. Initially spent fuel bundles are chopped into pieces and collected in perforated baskets kept in dissolvers. All chopped pieces are dissolved in HNO 3 in the dissolvers followed by heating and boiling. Dissolved solutions are transferred to Filtrate Tank (FT) leaving behind un-dissolved zircoloy hull pieces in the dissolver baskets. Un-dissolved and almost dry hull pieces are transferred in hull drum from the dissolver baskets using the Hull Tilting Facility. Hull drums are made of stainless steel having 500 litre capacity and two third of its volume is filled with zircoloy pieces. Hull drums filled with hull pieces are loaded in Hull Removal Cask (HRC) and transported to SWMF (Solid Waste Management Facility) site for interim storage/disposal in tile holes. Hull pieces are high active solid wastes which contain significant amount of fission products. Radiation levels on hull drums are in the range of few hundreds of mGy/h which has high potential of external hazards if not handled properly. Therefore hull drums are handled remotely in specially designed lead shielded cask

  14. Reducing language to rhythm: Amazonian Bora drummed language exploits speech rhythm for long-distance communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifart, Frank; Meyer, Julien; Grawunder, Sven; Dentel, Laure

    2018-04-01

    Many drum communication systems around the world transmit information by emulating tonal and rhythmic patterns of spoken languages in sequences of drumbeats. Their rhythmic characteristics, in particular, have not been systematically studied so far, although understanding them represents a rare occasion for providing an original insight into the basic units of speech rhythm as selected by natural speech practices directly based on beats. Here, we analyse a corpus of Bora drum communication from the northwest Amazon, which is nowadays endangered with extinction. We show that four rhythmic units are encoded in the length of pauses between beats. We argue that these units correspond to vowel-to-vowel intervals with different numbers of consonants and vowel lengths. By contrast, aligning beats with syllables, mora or only vowel length yields inconsistent results. Moreover, we also show that Bora drummed messages conventionally select rhythmically distinct markers to further distinguish words. The two phonological tones represented in drummed speech encode only few lexical contrasts. Rhythm thus appears to crucially contribute to the intelligibility of drummed Bora. Our study provides novel evidence for the role of rhythmic structures composed of vowel-to-vowel intervals in the complex puzzle concerning the redundancy and distinctiveness of acoustic features embedded in speech.

  15. Coke drums inspection and evaluation using stress and strain analysis techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haraguchi, Marcio Issamu [Tricom Tecnologia e Servicos de Manutencao Industrial Ltda., Piquete, SP (Brazil); Samman, Mahmod [Houston Engineering Solutions, Houston, TX (United States); Tinoco, Ediberto Bastos; Marangone, Fabio de Castro; Silva, Hezio Rosa da; Barcelos, Gustavo de Carvalho [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Coke drums deform due to a complex combination of mechanical and thermal cyclic stresses. Bulges have progressive behavior and represent the main maintenance problem related to these drums. Bulge failure typically result in through-wall cracks, leaks, and sometimes fires. Such failures generally do not represent a great risk to personnel. Repairs needed to maintain reliability of these vessels might require extensive interruption to operation which in turn considerably impacts the profitability of the unit. Therefore the condition, progression and severity of these bulges should be closely monitored. Coke drums can be inspected during turnaround with 3D Laser Scanning and Remote Visual Inspection (RVI) tools, resulting in a detailed dimensional and visual evaluation of the internal surface. A typical project has some goals: inspect the equipment to generate maintenance or inspection recommendations, comparison with previous results and baseline data. Until recently, coke drum structural analysis has been traditionally performed analyzing Stress Concentration Factors (SCF) thought Finite Element Analysis methods; however this technique has some serious technical and practical limitations. To avoid these shortcomings, the new strain analysis technique PSI (Plastic Strain Index) was developed. This method which is based on API 579/ ASME FFS standard failure limit represents the state of the art of coke drum bulging severity assessment has an excellent correlation with failure history. (author)

  16. Estimated Uncertainty in Segmented Gamma Scanner Assay Results due to the Variation in Drum Tare Weights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosko, A.; Croft, St.; Gulbransen, E.

    2009-01-01

    General purpose gamma scanners are often used to assay unknown drums that differ from those used to create the default calibration. This introduces a potential source of bias into the matrix correction when the correction is based on the estimation of the mean density of the drum contents from a weigh scale measurement. In this paper we evaluate the magnitude of this bias that may be introduced by performing assay measurements with a system whose matrix correction algorithm was calibrated with a set of standard drums but applied to a population of drums whose tare weight may be different. The matrix correction factors are perturbed in such cases because the unknown difference in tare weight gets reflected as a bias in the derived matrix density. This would be the only impact if the difference in tare weight was due solely to the weight of the lid or base, say. But in reality the reason for the difference may be because the steel wall of the drum is of a different thickness. Thus, there is an opposing interplay at work which tends to compensate. The purpose of this work is to evaluate and bound the magnitude of the resulting assay uncertainty introduced by tare weight variation. We compare the results obtained using simple analytical models and the 3-D ray tracing with ISOCS software to illustrate and quantify the problem. The numerical results allow a contribution to the Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU) to be propagated into the final assay result. (authors)

  17. Detection of free liquid in cement-solidified radioactive waste drums using computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steude, J.S.; Tonner, P.D.

    1991-01-01

    Acceptance criteria for disposal of radioactive waste drums require that the cement-solidified material in the drum contain minimal free liquid after the cement has hardened. Free liquid is to be avoided because it may corrode the drum, escape and cause environmental contamination. The DOE has requested that a nondestructive evaluation method be developed to detect free liquid in quantities in excess of 0.5% by volume. This corresponds to about 1 liter in a standard 208 liter (55 gallon) drum. In this study, the detection of volumes of free liquid in a 57 cm (2 ft.) diameter cement-solidified drum is demonstrated using high-energy X-ray computed tomography (CT0. In this paper it is shown that liquid concentrations of simulated radioactive waste inside glass tubes imbedded in cement can easily be detected, even for tubes with inner diameters less than 2 mm (0.08 in.). Furthermore, it is demonstrated that tubes containing water and liquid concentrations of simulated radioactive waste can be distinguished from tubes of the same size containing air. The CT images were obtained at a rate of about 6 minutes per slice on a commercially available CT system using a 9 MeV linear accelerator source

  18. Space-DRUMS trade mark sign experimental development using parabolic reduced gravity flights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guigne, J.Y.; Millan, D.; Davidson, R.

    2000-01-01

    Space-DRUMS trade mark sign is a microgravity containerless-processing facility that uses acoustic beams to position large diameter liquid or solid samples within a gas-filled chamber. Its capacity to control the position of large diameter (6 cm) low density solid materials was successfully demonstrated on NASA's DC-9 parabolic aircraft in July 1996; two subsequent flights occurred in 1998 using the KC-135 and A-300 aircraft to further refine the technology used in the system. The working environment for the Space-DRUMS trade mark sign facility is the Space Shuttle/Space Station where long duration microgravity experimentation can take place. Since the reduced gravity environment of an A-300 or a KC-135 parabolic flight is much harsher than that of the Space Shuttle in terms of residual acceleration magnitudes experienced by the samples to be held in position; this more extreme environment allows for most Space-DRUMS trade mark sign technical payload functionality tests to be conducted. In addition to flight hardware shakedowns, parabolic flights continue to be extensively used to study and evaluate the behavior of candidate-advanced materials proposed for ISS Space-DRUMS trade mark sign campaigns. The first samples to be processed in 2001 involve combustion synthesis (also known as SHS - Self-propagating High Temperature Synthesis) of large glass-ceramic and of porous ceramic spheres. Upmassing Space-DRUMS trade mark sign for the International Space Station is scheduled for early 2001

  19. Estimation of build up of dose rate on U3O8 product drum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, J.P.N.; Shinde, A.M.; Deshpande, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    In fuel reprocessing plant, plutonium oxide and uranium oxide (U 3 O 8 ) are products. Approximately 180 kg U 3 O 8 is filled in SS drum and sealed firmly before storage. In PHWR natural uranium (UO 2 ) is used as fuel. In natural uranium, thorium-232 is present as an impurity at few tens of ppm level. During irradiation in power reactors, due to nuclear reaction formation of 232 U from 232 Th takes place. Natural decay of 232 U leads to the formation of 208 Tl. As time passes, there is buildup of 208 Tl and hence increase in dose rate on the drum containing U 3 O 8 . It is essential to estimate the buildup of dose rate considering the external radiological hazards involved during U 3 O 8 drum handling, transportation and fuel fabrication. This paper describes the calculation of dose rate on drum in future years using MCNP code. For dose rate calculation decay of fission product activity which remains as contamination in product and build up of '2 08 Tl from 232 U is considered. Some measured values of dose rate on U 3 O 8 drum are given for the comparisons with estimated dose rate based on MCNP code. (author)

  20. Energy Cost of Active and Sedentary Music Video Games: Drum and Handheld Gaming vs. Walking and Sitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Edwin; Overstreet, Brittany S; Fountain, William A; Gutierrez, Vincent; Kolankowski, Michael; Overstreet, Matthew L; Sapp, Ryan M; Wolff, Christopher A; Mazzetti, Scott A

    2017-01-01

    To compare energy expenditure during and after active and handheld video game drumming compared to walking and sitting. Ten experienced, college-aged men performed four protocols (one per week): no-exercise seated control (CTRL), virtual drumming on a handheld gaming device (HANDHELD), active drumming on drum pads (DRUM), and walking on a treadmill at ~30% of VO 2max (WALK). Protocols were performed after an overnight fast, and expired air was collected continuously during (30min) and after (30min) exercise. DRUM and HANDHELD song lists, day of the week, and time of day were identical for each participant. Significant differences (p DRUM > HANDHELD. No significant differences in the rates of energy expenditure among groups during recovery were observed. Total energy expenditure was significantly greater (p < 0.05) during WALK (149.5 ± 30.6 kcal) compared to DRUM (118.7 ± 18.8 kcal) and HANDHELD (44.9±11.6 kcal), and greater during DRUM compared to HANDHELD. Total energy expenditure was not significantly different between HANDHELD (44.9 ± 11.6 kcal) and CTRL (38.2 ± 6.0 kcal). Active video game drumming at expert-level significantly increased energy expenditure compared to handheld, but it hardly met moderate-intensity activity standards, and energy expenditure was greatest during walking. Energy expenditure with handheld video game drumming was not different from no-exercise control. Thus, traditional aerobic exercise remains at the forefront for achieving the minimum amount and intensity of physical activity for health, individuals desiring to use video games for achieving weekly physical activity recommendations should choose games that require significant involvement of lower-body musculature, and time spent playing sedentary games should be a limited part of an active lifestyle.

  1. Non-intrusive measurement of tritium activity in waste drums by modelling a 3He leak quantified by mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demange, D.

    2002-01-01

    This study deals with a new method that makes it possible to measure very low tritium quantities inside radioactive waste drums. This indirect method is based on measuring the decaying product, 3 He, and requires a study of its behaviour inside the drum. Our model considers 3 He as totally free and its leak through the polymeric joint of the drum as two distinct phenomena: permeation and laminar flow. The numerical simulations show that a pseudo-stationary state takes place. Thus, the 3 He leak corresponds to the tritium activity inside the drum but it appears, however, that the leak peaks when the atmospheric pressure variations induce an overpressure in the drum. Nevertheless, the confinement of a drum in a tight chamber makes it possible to quantify the 3 He leak. This is a non-intrusive measurement of its activity, which was experimentally checked by using reduced models, representing the drum and its confinement chamber. The drum's confinement was optimised to obtain a reproducible 3 He leak measurement. The gaseous samples taken from the chamber were purified using selective adsorption onto activated charcoals at 77 K to remove the tritium and pre-concentrate the 3 He. The samples were measured using a leak detector mass spectrometer. The adaptation of the signal acquisition and the optimisation of the analysis parameters made it possible to reach the stability of the external calibrations using standard gases with a 3 He detection limit of 0.05 ppb. Repeated confinement of the reference drums demonstrated the accuracy of this method. The uncertainty of this non-intrusive measurement of the tritium activity in 200-liter drums is 15% and the detection limit is about 1 GBq after a 24 h confinement. These results led to the definition of an automated tool able to systematically measure the tritium activity of all storage waste drums. (authors)

  2. Juvenile hyperthyroidism: an experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadada, S; Bhansali, A; Velayutham, P; Masoodi, S R

    2006-04-01

    To analyze the clinical profile of juvenile hyperthyroidism at presentation, their treatment outcome; predictors of remission and relapse. Retrospective analysis of medical records of 56 patients with juvenile hyperthyroidism seen over a period of 16 years. A cohort of 38 females and 18 males with mean (+/-SD) age of 14.9 +/- 3.4 years (range 3 to 18 years) was analyzed. Majority of patients was in the age group of 12-16 years. Common symptoms observed at presentation were weight loss (82.1%), excessive sweating (78.6%), heat intolerance (76.8%), increased appetite (73.2%) and diarrhea in 48.2%. In addition, accelerated linear growth was observed in 7.1% of patients. Goiter was present in 98.2% of children; 94.5% of which was diffuse and 4.8% was multinodular. The mean ((+/-SD) T3 was 4.8 +/- 3.4 ng/mL (N, 0.6-1.6), T4 was 218 +/- 98 ng/mL (N, 60-155) and TSH was 0.44 +/- 0.36 (N, 0.5-5.5 microIU/mL). TMA positivity seen in 36.9% of patients. All patients were treated with carbimazole; subsequently 4 patients required thyroidectomy and one required radioactive iodine ablation. Mean (+/-SD) duration of follow-up in our patients was 4.9 +/- 3 years, ranging between 1.6 to 16 years and mean (+/-SD) duration of treatment was 34.4 +/- 22.6 months (range 12 to 120 months). Mean (+/-SD) duration to achieve euthyroidism was 5.2 +/- 4.7 months, ranging between 1-33 months. On intention to treat analysis, remission with carbimazole was achieved in 47.6%, remaining patients failed to achieve remission with drug treatment. Graves disease is the commonest cause of juvenile hyperthyroidism. Carbimazole is safe, effective, cheap, and easily available form of therapy. It is occasionally associated with serious side effects but requires prolonged follow up.

  3. Juvenile prison in parallel legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutovac Mitar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for punishment of juveniles occurred from the time when there was no clear line separating them from the adult criminal population. At the same time, the evolution of the juvenile punishment is not in itself involve substantial changes to their criminal status. On the contrary, the status of minors in society did not show serious differences regarding the status of young adults, as well as the adult elderly. On the other hand, on the ground of their punishment is recorded deviations that go in the direction of application of mild corporal punishment. Closing the minor was performed in a physically separate parts of the general penal institutions with the use of a lower degree of restrictions while serving juvenile prison. Due to the different treatment of minors during the evolution of their criminal status leads to their different treatment in comparative law. That is why we are witnessing the existence of numerous differences in the juvenile punishment in some countries in the world. On the European continent there is a wide range of different legal solutions when it comes to punishing juveniles. There are considerable differences in the procedure pronouncing juvenile prison and in particular penal treatment of juveniles in penitentiary institutions. For these reasons, the author has decided to show the basic statutory provisions in the part that relates to the issue of punishment of minors in the legislation of individual countries.

  4. Measurement of VOC permeability of polymer bags and VOC solubility in polyethylene drum liner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liekhus, K.J.; Peterson, E.S.

    1995-03-01

    A test program conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) investigated the use of a transport model to estimate the volatile organic compound (VOC) concentration in the void volume of a waste drum. Unsteady-state VOC transport model equations account for VOC permeation of polymer bags, VOC diffusion across openings in layers of confinement, and VOC solubility in a polyethylene drum liner. In support of this program, the VOC permeability of polymer bags and VOC equilibrium concentration in a polyethylene drum liner were measured for nine VOCs. The VOCs used in experiments were dichloromethane, carbon tetrachloride, cyclohexane, toluene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, methanol, 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane (Freon-113), trichloroethylene, and p-xylene. The experimental results of these measurements as well as a method of estimating both parameters in the absence of experimental data are described in this report

  5. A prototype of radioactive waste drum monitor by non-destructive assays using gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thanh, Tran Thien; Trang, Hoang Thi Kieu; Chuong, Huynh Dinh; Nguyen, Vo Hoang; Tran, Le Bao; Tam, Hoang Duc; Tao, Chau Van

    2016-01-01

    In this work, segmented gamma scanning and the gamma emission tomography were used to locate unknown sources in a radioactive waste drum. The simulated detector response function and full energy peak efficiency are compared to corresponding experimental data and show about 5.3% difference for an energy ranging from 81 keV to 1332.5 keV for point sources. Computation of the corresponding activity is in good agreement with the true values. - Highlights: • Segmented gamma scanning and gamma emission tomography are used to locate point source in waste drums. • The PENELOPE software is used to compute the detection efficiency of the localized point source in the waste drum. • The activity of "1"3"7Cs and "6"0Co point source could be determined with an accuracy better than 10% for air and sand matrices.

  6. Recurrent giant juvenile fibroadenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn S. King

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Breast masses in children, though rare, present a difficult clinical challenge as they can represent a wide variety of entities from benign fibroadenomas to phyllodes tumors. Rapidly growing or recurrent masses can be particularly concerning to patients, families and physicians alike. Clinical examination and conventional imaging modalities are not efficacious in distinguishing between different tumor types and surgical excision is often recommended for both final diagnosis and for treatment of large or rapidly growing masses. While surgical excision can result in significant long-term deformity of the breast there are some surgical techniques that can be used to limit deformity and/or aid in future reconstruction. Here we present a case of recurrent giant juvenile fibroadenoma with a review of the clinical presentation, diagnostic tools and treatment options.

  7. Fetal and juvenile radiotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    A number of studies conducted under this project have demonstrated that many of the biological parameters used to calculate permissible levels of exposure of adults to radioactive materials are inappropriate for the rapidly growing infant or child or for the pregnant female. These include age-related differences in radionuclide deposition, distribution, and retention and associated differences in microdosimetry, as well as the greater intrinsic radiosensitivity of the immature organism. These findings emphasize the need for more detailed information on the metabolism and toxicity of radionuclides in the prenatal and juvenile mammal. The continuing objective of this project is to obtain such information, which is needed to establish appropriate exposure limits for radionuclides of greatest potential hazard to these age groups

  8. Corrosion of steel drums containing cemented ion-exchange resins as intermediate level nuclear waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffó, G. S.; Farina, S. B.; Schulz, F. M.

    2013-07-01

    Exhausted ion-exchange resins used in nuclear reactors are immobilized by cementation before being stored. They are contained in steel drums that may undergo internal corrosion depending on the presence of certain contaminants. The objective of this work is to evaluate the corrosion susceptibility of steel drums in contact with cemented ion-exchange resins with different aggressive species. The corrosion potential and the corrosion rate of the steel, and the electrical resistivity of the matrix were monitored for 900 days. Results show that the cementation of ion-exchange resins seems not to pose special risks regarding the corrosion of the steel drums. The corrosion rate of the steel in contact with cemented ion-exchange resins in the absence of contaminants or in the presence of 2.3 wt.% sulphate content remains low (less than 0.1 μm/year) during the whole period of the study (900 days). The presence of chloride ions increases the corrosion rate of the steel at the beginning of the exposure but, after 1 year, the corrosion rate drops abruptly reaching a value close to 0.1 μm/year. This is probably due to the lack of water to sustain the corrosion process. When applying the results obtained in the present work to estimate the corrosion depth of the steel drums containing the cemented radioactive waste after a period of 300 years, it is found that in the most unfavourable case (high chloride contamination), the corrosion penetration will be considerably lower than the thickness of the wall of the steel drums. Cementation of ion-exchange resins does not seem to pose special risks regarding the corrosion of the steel drums that contained them; even in the case the matrix is highly contaminated with chloride ions.

  9. Results of the gamma-neutron mapper performance test on 55-gallon drums at the RWMC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehrke, R.J.; Lawrence, R.S.; Roybal, L.G.; Svoboda, J.M.; Harker, D.J.; Thompson, D.N.; Carpenter, M.V.; Josten, N.E.

    1995-07-01

    The primary purpose of the gamma-neutron mapper (G at sign) is to provide accurate and quantitative spatial information of the gamma-ray and neutron radiation fields as a function of position about the excavation of a radioactive waste site. The GNM is designed to operate remotely and can be delivered to any point on an excavation by the robotic gantry crane developed by the dig-face project at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). It can also be easily adapted to other delivery systems. The GNM can be deployed over a waste site at a predetermined scan rate and has sufficient accuracy to identify and quantify radioactive contaminants of importance. The results reported herein are from a performance test conducted at the Transuranic Storage Area, Building 628, of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex located at the INEL. This building is an active interim-storage area for 55-gal drums of transuranic waste from the Department of Energy's Rocky Flats Plant. The performance test consisted of scanning a stack of drums five high by five wide. Prior to the test, radiation fields were measured by a health physicist at the center of the drums and ranged from 0.5 mR/h to 35 mR/h. Scans of the drums using the GNM were taken at standoff distances from the vertical drum stack of 15 cm, 30 cm, 45 cm, and 90 cm. Data were acquired at scan speeds of 7.5 cm/s and 15 cm/s. The results of these scans and a comparison of these results with the manifests of these drums are compared and discussed

  10. Reconstruction of the isotope activity content of heterogeneous nuclear waste drums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krings, Thomas; Mauerhofer, Eric

    2012-07-01

    Radioactive waste must be characterized in order to verify its conformance with national regulations for intermediate storage or its disposal. Segmented gamma scanning (SGS) is a most widely applied non-destructive analytical technique for the characterization of radioactive waste drums. The isotope specific activity content is generally calculated assuming a homogeneous matrix and activity distribution for each measured drum segment. However, real radioactive waste drums exhibit non-uniform isotope and density distributions most affecting the reliability and accuracy of activities reconstruction in SGS. The presence of internal shielding structures in the waste drum contributes generally to a strong underestimation of the activity and this in particular for radioactive sources emitting low energy gamma-rays independently of their spatial distribution. In this work we present an improved method to quantify the activity of spatially concentrated gamma-emitting isotopes (point sources or hot spots) in heterogeneous waste drums with internal shielding structures. The isotope activity is reconstructed by numerical simulations and fits of the angular dependent count rate distribution recorded during the drum rotation in SGS using an analytical expression derived from a geometric model. First results of the improved method and enhancements of this method are shown and are compared to each other as well as to the conventional method which assumes a homogeneous matrix and activity distribution. It is shown that the new model improves the accuracy and the reliability of the activity reconstruction in SGS and that the presented algorithm is suitable with respect to the framework requirement of industrial application. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Juvenile delinquency and correctional treatment in Britain

    OpenAIRE

    堀尾, 良弘; ホリオ, ヨシヒロ; Yoshihiro, Horio

    2006-01-01

    Japanese modernistic culture is influenced not a little from Britain. In looking at the Juvenile Law and the history of correctional treatment in Britain, understanding of today's juvenile delinquency and treatment deepen. Moreover, the background and issue of juvenile delinquency in Britain are also discussed. As a feature of the juvenile delinquency in Britain, the common field with Japan and the field peculiar to Britain became clear in each. It is common to the world that the juvenile del...

  12. A maximum power point tracking algorithm for buoy-rope-drum wave energy converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. Q.; Zhang, X. C.; Zhou, Y.; Cui, Z. C.; Zhu, L. S.

    2016-08-01

    The maximum power point tracking control is the key link to improve the energy conversion efficiency of wave energy converters (WEC). This paper presents a novel variable step size Perturb and Observe maximum power point tracking algorithm with a power classification standard for control of a buoy-rope-drum WEC. The algorithm and simulation model of the buoy-rope-drum WEC are presented in details, as well as simulation experiment results. The results show that the algorithm tracks the maximum power point of the WEC fast and accurately.

  13. Batteryless wireless transmission system for electronic drum uses piezoelectric generator for play signal and power source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, H; Yoshimi, A; Takemura, K; Tanaka, A; Douseki, T

    2015-01-01

    A batteryless self-powered wireless transmission system has been developed that sends a signal from a drum pad to a synthesizer. The power generated by a piezoelectric generator functions both as the “Play” signal for the synthesizer and as the power source for the transmitter. An FM transmitter, which theoretically operates with zero latency, and a receiver with quick-response squelch of the received signal were developed for wireless transmission with a minimum system delay. Experimental results for an electronic drum without any connecting wires fully demonstrated the feasibility of self-powered wireless transmission with a latency of 900 μs. (paper)

  14. Production of spheroidal graphite cast iron (S. G. Iron) for an automobile brake drum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, M.T.Z.; Aziz, S.

    2005-01-01

    The role of automobile industry for any country has a great importance. Break drum is one of the essential parts of automobile car and its local casting is required in order to achieve the target for automobile industry because it has special significance. Break drum being the important constituent of the system of an automobile requires a great degree of accuracy and reliability. S. G. Iron is preferred because of its mechanical properties i.e., higher strength modulus, impact resistance and ductility along with excellent machinability and manufacturing ease. (author)

  15. Estimation of possibility of brittle fracture in high pressure boiler drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grin', E.A.

    2005-01-01

    Paper presents the results of analysis of the problem to ensure brittle strength of high pressure boiler drums made with application of the present-day methods of linear and nonlinear fracture mechanics. The charts of the temperature boundaries of brittle fracture and of the critical factors of stress intensity plotted depending on the actual properties of the material and on dimensions of flaws are presented for standard size drums made of 22K and 16GNM steels. In the paper there are some examples of the practical application of the given charts [ru

  16. Radiological analyses of intermediate and low level supercompacted waste drums by VQAD code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bace, M.; Trontl, K.; Gergeta, K.

    2004-01-01

    In order to increase the possibilities of the QAD-CGGP code, as well as to make the code more user friendly, modifications of the code have been performed. A general multisource option has been introduced into the code and a user friendly environment has been created through a Graphical User Interface. The improved version of the code has been used to calculate gamma dose rates of a single supercompacted waste drum and a pair of supercompacted waste drums. The results of the calculation were compared with the standard QAD-CGGP results. (author)

  17. Feeling the beat where it counts: fostering multi-limb rhythm skills with the haptic drum kit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holland, S.; Bouwer, A.J.; Dalgleish, M.; Hurtig, T.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a tool known as the Haptic Drum Kit, which employs four computer-controlled vibrotactile devices, one attached to each wrist and ankle. In the applications discussed here, haptic pulses are used to guide the playing, on a drum kit, of rhythmic patterns that require multi-limb

  18. 40 CFR 264.316 - Disposal of small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Landfills § 264.316 Disposal of small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). Small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked... hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). 264.316 Section 264.316 Protection of Environment...

  19. 40 CFR 265.316 - Disposal of small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Landfills § 265.316 Disposal of small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). Small containers of hazardous waste... hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). 265.316 Section 265.316 Protection of Environment...

  20. An ABC of Drumming: Children's Narratives about Beat, Rhythm and Groove in a Primary Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackinlay, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I use a bricolage of arts-based research and writing practices to explore narratives by Grade 4 children about their experiences in a drumming circle called "Bam Bam" as represented in a text they created with me called An ABC of drumming. The term "narrative" is used here in a contemporary sense to…

  1. Red Sirius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martynov, D Ya

    1976-01-01

    A hypothesis is proposed explaining the assumption that Sirius changed its colour from red in the second century to pale blue in the tenth century A.D. The hypothesis is based on the possibility of transformation of a Sirius satellite (Sirius B) from a red giant in the past to a white dwarf in the present. Such a transformation would have been accompanied by an explosion of Sirius B, which is clearly visible from the Earth. The fact that the increase in Sirius brightness by 4-5 units is not reflected in historical chronicles is attributed to the degradation of sciences in Europe in 4-10 centuries.

  2. Group Work with Juvenile Delinquents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimpfer, David G.

    1992-01-01

    Reviews group work literature on juvenile delinquents. Presents overview of interventions, including positive peer culture, cognitive-behavioral treatment, psychoeducational treatment, treatment of learned behavior, action-oriented treatment, milieu therapy, parental involvement, assertiveness training, and music therapy. Discusses outcome…

  3. Juvenile Angiofibroma: Evolution of Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolai, Piero; Schreiber, Alberto; Bolzoni Villaret, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Juvenile angiofibroma is a rare benign lesion originating from the pterygopalatine fossa with distinctive epidemiologic features and growth patterns. The typical patient is an adolescent male with a clinical history of recurrent epistaxis and nasal obstruction. Although the use of nonsurgical therapies is described in the literature, surgery is currently considered the ideal treatment for juvenile angiofibroma. Refinement in preoperative embolization has provided significant reduction of complications and intraoperative bleeding with minimal risk of residual disease. During the last decade, an endoscopic technique has been extensively adopted as a valid alternative to external approaches in the management of small-intermediate size juvenile angiofibromas. Herein, we review the evolution in the management of juvenile angiofibroma with particular reference to recent advances in diagnosis and treatment. PMID:22164185

  4. Juvenile Angiofibroma: Evolution of Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Nicolai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile angiofibroma is a rare benign lesion originating from the pterygopalatine fossa with distinctive epidemiologic features and growth patterns. The typical patient is an adolescent male with a clinical history of recurrent epistaxis and nasal obstruction. Although the use of nonsurgical therapies is described in the literature, surgery is currently considered the ideal treatment for juvenile angiofibroma. Refinement in preoperative embolization has provided significant reduction of complications and intraoperative bleeding with minimal risk of residual disease. During the last decade, an endoscopic technique has been extensively adopted as a valid alternative to external approaches in the management of small-intermediate size juvenile angiofibromas. Herein, we review the evolution in the management of juvenile angiofibroma with particular reference to recent advances in diagnosis and treatment.

  5. Bilateral, independent juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkenborg, Marie-Louise; Frendø, M; Stavngaard, T

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a benign, vascular tumour that primarily occurs in adolescent males. Despite its benign nature, aggressive growth patterns can cause potential life-threatening complications. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is normally unilateral, originating...... from the sphenopalatine artery, but bilateral symptoms can occur if a large tumour extends to the contralateral side of the nasopharynx. This paper presents the first reported case of true bilateral extensive juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma involving clinically challenging pre-surgical planning...... embolisation. Radical removal performed as one-step, computer-assisted functional endoscopic sinus surgery was performed. The follow-up period was uncomplicated. CONCLUSION: This case illustrates the importance of suspecting bilateral juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma in patients presenting with bilateral...

  6. A Giant Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüce, Salim; Uysal, İsmail Önder; Doğan, Mansur; Polat, Kerem; Şalk, İsmail; Müderris, Suphi

    2012-01-01

    Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) are locally growing highly vascular tumours. They are treated primarily by surgical excision ranging from open approach to endoscopic approach. We presented a 20-year-old male with a giant nasopharyngeal juvenile angiofibroma obliterating the pterygopalatine fossa bilaterally, invasing the sphenoid bone and extending to the left nasal passage. His complaints were epistaxis and nasal obstruction. After embolization, the patient was treated surgically with endoscopic approach and discharged as cured without any complication. PMID:23714961

  7. Swing Once More: Relating Timing and Tempo in Expert Jazz Drumming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honing, H.; de Haas, W.B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304841250

    2008-01-01

    Swing refers to a characteristic long-short subdivision of the beat that is generally considered a crucial aspect that contributes to the quality of a jazz or pop performance. The current study measures this pattern (referred to as the ‘swing ratio’) at different tempi in jazz drumming. The

  8. Swing once more: Relating timing and tempo in expert jazz drumming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honing, H.; de Haas, W.B.

    2008-01-01

    Swing refers to a characteristic long-short subdivision of the beat that is generally considered a crucial aspect that contributes to the quality of a jazz or pop performance. The current study measures this pattern (referred to as the 'swing ratio') at different tempi in jazz drumming. The

  9. Field test results for radioactive waste drum characterization with Waste Inspection Tomography (WIT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardi, R.T. [Bio-Imaging Research, Inc., Lincolnshire, IL (United States)

    1997-11-01

    This paper summarizes the design, fabrication, factory testing, evaluation and demonstration of waste inspection tomography (WIT). WIT consists of a self-sufficient, mobile semi-trailer for Non-Destructive Evaluation and Non-Destructive Assay (NDE/NDA) characterization of nuclear waste drums using X-ray and gamma-ray tomographic techniques. The 23-month WIT Phase I initial test results include 2 MeV Digital Radiography (DR), Computed Tomography (CT), Anger camera imaging, Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT), Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy, Collimated Gamma Scanning (CGS), and Active and Passive Computed Tomography (A&PCT) using a 1.4 mCi source of {sup 166}Ho. These techniques were initially demonstrated on a 55-gallon phantom drum with three simulated waste matrices of combustibles, heterogeneous metals, and cement using check sources of gamma active isotopes. Waste matrix identification, isotopic identification, and attenuation-corrected gamma activity determination were all demonstrated nondestructively and noninvasively. Preliminary field tests results with nuclear waste drums are summarized. WIT has inspected drums with 0 to 20 grams plutonium 239. The minimum measured was 0.131 gram plutonium 239 in cement. 8 figs.

  10. Development of simulation code for FBR spent fuel dissolution with rotary drum type continuous dissolver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, Yuichi; Katsurai, Kiyomichi; Washiya, Tadahiro; Koizumi, Tsutomu; Matsumoto, Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been studying rotary drum type continuous dissolver for FBR spent fuel dissolution. For estimating the fuel dissolution behavior under several operational conditions in this dissolver, we have been developing the simulation code, PLUM, which mainly consists of 3 modules for calculating chemical reaction, mass transfer and thermal balance in the rotary drum type continuous dissolver. Under the various conditions where dissolution experiments were carried out with the batch-wise dissolver for FBR spent fuel and with the rotary drum type continuous dissolver for UO 2 fuel, it was confirmed that the fuel dissolution behaviors calculated by the PLUM code showed good agreement with the experimental ones. Based on this result, the condition for obtaining the dissolver solution with high HM (heavy metal : U and Pu) concentration (∼500g/L), which is required for the next step, i.e. crystallization process, was also analyzed by this code and appropriate operational conditions with the rotary drum type continuous dissolver, such as feedrate, concentration and temperature of nitric acid, could be clarified. (author)

  11. Corrosion susceptibility of steel drums to be used as containers for intermediate level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farina, S.; Schulz Rodriguez, F.; Duffo, G.

    2013-01-01

    The present work is a study of the corrosion susceptibility of steel drums in contact with cemented ion-exchange resins contaminated with different types and concentrations of aggressive species. A special type of specimen was manufactured to simulate the cemented ion-exchange resins in the drum. The evolution of the corrosion potential and the corrosion rate of the steel, as well as the electrical resistivity of the matrix were monitored over a time period of 900 days. The aggressive species studied were chloride ions (the main ionic species of concern) and sulphate ions (produced during radiolysis of the cationic exchange-resins after cementation). The work was complemented with an analysis of the corrosion products formed on the steel in each condition, as well as the morphology of the corrosion products. When applying the results obtained in the present work to estimate the corrosion depth of the steel drums containing the cemented radioactive waste after a period of 300 years (foreseen durability of the Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste facility in Argentina), it is found that in the most unfavourable case (high chloride contamination), the corrosion penetration will be considerably lower than the thickness of the wall of the steel drums. (authors)

  12. Development and engineering application of rotating drum acid-curing equipment in uranium mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wenhua

    2006-01-01

    The development and engineering application of rotating drum acid-curing equipment for 'strong acid-curing and ferri-trickle leaching' process are introduced, including the design of main structure, problems appeared in the development and engineering application, and methods solved. (authors)

  13. 76 FR 51314 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Maryland; Adoption of Drum and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... publicly available only in hard copy form. Publicly available docket materials are available either electronically in http://www.regulations.gov or in hard copy during normal business hours at the Air Protection... sources, including drum and pail coatings. In developing these CTGs, EPA, among other things, evaluated...

  14. 49 CFR 178.509 - Standards for plastic drums and jerricans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... than production residues or regrind from the same manufacturing process may be used unless approved by... those used in the manufacture of the design type, retesting may be omitted if the carbon black content... or heads of drums and jerricans must be so designed and applied that they remain secure and leakproof...

  15. Heat and water transfer in a rotating drum containing solid substrate particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutyser, M.A.I.; Weber, F.J.; Briels, W.J.; Rinzema, A.; Boom, R.M.

    2003-01-01

    In previous work we reported on the simulation of mixing behavior of a slowly rotating drum for solid-state fermentation (SSF) using a discrete particle model. In this investigation the discrete particle model is extended with heat and moisture transfer. Heat transfer is implemented in the model via

  16. 49 CFR 393.47 - Brake actuators, slack adjusters, linings/pads and drums/rotors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brake actuators, slack adjusters, linings/pads and..., slack adjusters, linings/pads and drums/rotors. (a) General requirements. Brake components must be... same size. (c) Slack adjusters. The effective length of the slack adjuster on each end of an axle must...

  17. Fetal and juvenile radiotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikov, M.R.

    1985-01-01

    This project is directed at obtaining detailed comparative information on the deposition, distribution, retention, and toxicity of radionuclides in the prenatal and juvenile mammal. Because quantitative data cannot necessarily be extrapolated to man, emphasis is also directed toward establishing patterns, phenomenologic interactions, and relationships which will be useful in determining appropriate exposure levels for rapidly growing infants or children and for pregnant women. Further dosimetry for an experiment to evaluate the effects of foster-rearing of newborn rats on the lifetime effects of 239 Pu exposure has demonstrated that most of the lifetime burden is derived from prenatal exposure and that milk contributes little in addition. Other measurements have confirmed a tentative observation that the lifetime burden in offspring is greater with near-term exposure than with exposure earlier in gestation. Additional results from a comparison of the embryotoxicity of 239 Pu and 241 Am have confirmed that, on the basis of dose administered to the dam, the former has a greater effect on the conceptus. Pilot studies indicate that 233 U is teratogenic, acting as a chemical rather than as a radiological teratogen. Studies with 239 Pu-exposed pregnant rabbits have shown that maternal distribution differs from that in rodents; concentration patterns in the placenta and membranes also differed. 4 figures, 1 table

  18. Fetal and juvenile radiotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikov, M.R.

    1982-01-01

    This project is directed at obtaining detailed comparative information on the deposition, distribution, retention, and toxicity of radionuclides in the prenatal and juvenile mammal. Because quantitative data cannot necessarily be extrapolated to man, our emphasis is directed toward establishing patterns, phenomenologic interactions, and relationships which will be useful in determining appropriate exposure levels for the rapidly growing infant or child, and for pregnant women. Recent results demonstrated that injection of pregnant rats with 23 Pu had the greatest effect on longevity and bone-tumor incidence of the offspring when exposure occurred at 19 days of gestation (dg); less effect at 15 dg and the least effect at 9 dg. Ongoing distribution studies are providing data which confirm our tentative explanation that marked variations in the anatomic distributions of bone tumors, with age at the time of injection, were attributable to age-related differences in 239 Pu microdosimetry and concentrations among skeletal components. Other studies, using a placental perfusion technique, have demonstrated that intravenous injection of 239 Pu in pregnant guinea pigs leads to a marked decrease in maternal blood flow to the placenta

  19. JUVENILE RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I N Sartika

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA is the most common rheumatic condition in children. JRA is defined as persistent arthritis in 1 or more joints for at least 6 weeks, with the onset before age 16 years. The etiology of JRA is unknown. Antigen activated CD4+ T cell stimulate monocytes, macrophages, and synovial fibroblasts to produce the cytokines Interleukin-1 (IL-1, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-? and to secrete matrix metalloproteinases, which lead to chronic inflammation due to infiltration of inflammatory cell, angiogenesis, destruction of cartilage and bone with pannus formation. The 3 major subtypes of JRA are based on the symptoms at disease onset and are designated systemic onset, pauciarticular onset, and polyarticular onset. For all patients, the goals of therapy are to decrease chronic joint pain and suppress the inflammatory process. Poor prognostic have been observed in patients with polyarticular onset, rheumatoid factor, persistent morning stiffness, tenosynovitis, involvement of the small joints, rapid appearance of erosions, active late onset childhood, subcutaneous nodules, or antinuclear antibody.

  20. Fetal and juvenile radiotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikov, M.R.

    1983-01-01

    Comparative information on the deposition, distribution, retention, and toxicity of radionuclides in the prenatal and juvenile mammal is reported. Emphasis is toward establishing patterns, phenomenologic interactions, and relationships which will be useful in determining appropriate exposure levels for the rapidly growing infant or child and for pregnant women. Recent results have shown that injection of pregnant rats with 239 Pu increases the incidence and severity of adenomatous hyperplasia of the liver in the offspring; the magnitude of these effects is relatd to dose and prenatal age at exposure. Analysis of combined data from several experiments leads to the conclusion that perinatal rats are more sensitive to bone tumor induction by 239 Pu alpha-particle irradiation than are adults. Further histopathologic evaluations of material from earlier experiments have demonstrated that most of the increased incidence of thyroid tumors following 131 I exposure is attributable to follicular tumors. An analysis of the literature led to the conclusion that prenatal irradiation can lead to an increased or decreased incidence of tumors, depending on the specific details of the experimental design and system

  1. Fetal and juvenile radiotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikov, M.R.

    1984-01-01

    This project is directed at obtaining detailed comparative information on the deposition, distribution, retention, and toxicity of radionuclides in the prenatal and juvenile mammal. Because quantitative data cannot necessarily be extrapolated to man, emphasis is also directed toward establishing patterns, phenomenologic interactions, and relationships which will be useful in determining appropriate exposure levels for the rapidly growing infant or child and for pregnant women. An experiment to evaluate the effects of foster-rearing of newborn rats on the lifetime effects of 239 Pu exposure has demonstrated that, while longevity is primarily dependent on radiation history, growth rate and adult body weight are related to the exposure and fitness of the foster dam. Results from an ongoing comparison of the dosimetry and embryotoxicity of 239 Pu and 241 Am confirm that the former has a greater effect on the conceptus, on the basis of dose administered to the dam. Studies in the guinea-pig perfusion system have confirmed that maternal blood flow to the placenta is decreased by intravenous doses of 30 nCi/g 239 Pu and suggest that the threshold lies at approximately 5 nCi/g body weight. A dose of 30 nCi/g of 241 Am does not affect blood flow. Clearance of the two actinides is similar when blood flow effects are not considered. 3 figures, 3 tables

  2. Criticality safety study of Pu contaminated carbon waste stored in 100 L steel drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anno, J.; Simonneau, M.

    1995-01-01

    The notion of the minimum critical areal density (D minca ) used to ensure the Criticality-Safety of poor solid waste is recalled with its deficiencies. D minca is assumed constant, independent of the fissile material concentration. This assumption is only true for unreflected mediums. Corrective factors are established. Furthermore, the usual norm of the Pu-H 2 O, which is 0.20 g/cm 2 , (concrete reflected) is greater than that for other mediums, such as Pu contaminated graphite waste (Pu-C), which is 0.036 g/cm 2 . D minca calculated on infinite slabs is confirmed by calculations on infinite planar multilayers arrays of 100 l cubical waste drums. Moreover, d minca increases linearly with the steel thickness of the drums' walls and goes up to 0.17 g/cm 2 for 0.105 cm of steel. The safety analysis on a real storage case takes into account the limited amount of Pu (100 g) and C (100 kg), the minimum thickness of 0.07 cm of drums' steel, their geometrical arrangement, the heterogeneity and size of contamination and the occurrence of neutronic poison (N and Cl) in the waste. Because of these parameters, the Keff are very less than 0.95 and the taken norm of 0.1 g/cm 2 for the Pu-C waste is fulfilled. Finally, it is demonstrated that the mixing of Pu-C waste drums and Pu-H 2 O wastes drums is allowed. (authors). 14 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs

  3. Intelligent mobile sensor system for drum inspection and monitoring: Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    The objective of this project was to develop an operational system for monitoring and inspection activities for waste storage facility operations at several DOE sites. Specifically, the product of this effort is a robotic device with enhanced intelligence and maneuverability capable of conducting routine inspection of stored waste drums. The device is capable of operating in narrow aisles and interpolating the free aisle space between rows of stacked drums. The system has an integrated sensor suite for leak detection, and is interfaced with a site database both for inspection planning and for data correlation, updating, and report generation. The system is capable of departing on an assigned mission, collecting required data, recording which positions of its mission had to be aborted or modified due to environmental constraints, and reporting back when the mission is complete. Successful identification of more than 90% of all drum defects has been demonstrated in a high fidelity waste storage facility mockup. Identified anomalies included rust spots, rust streaks, areas of corrosion, dents, and tilted drums. All drums were positively identified and correlated with the site database. This development effort is separated into three phases of which phase one is now complete. The first phase has demonstrated an integrated system for monitoring and inspection activities for waste storage facility operations. This demonstration system was quickly fielded and evaluated by leveraging technologies developed from previous NASA and DARPA contracts and internal research. The second phase will demonstrate a prototype system appropriate for operational use in an actual storage facility. The prototype provides an integrated design that considers operational requirements, hardware costs, maintenance, safety, and robustness. The final phase will demonstrate commercial viability using the prototype vehicle in a pilot waste operations and inspection project

  4. PSYCHOSOCIAL PROFILE OF JUVENILE DIABETES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dass, Jyoti; Dhavale, H.S.; Rathi, Anup

    1999-01-01

    A study of the complex relationships between the patient characteristics, family and environmental influences, physician's behaviour and the demands of the disease with its management in Juvenile Diabetics was taken up at a general hospital. 90 subjects were selected for the study and grouped into three. Group A consisted of 30 Juvenile Diabetics, Group B of 30 Adult Diabetics and Group C of 30 Normal healthy adolescents. The impact of the illness was measured on the Diabetes Impact Measurement Scale (DIMS), the behavioural deviations and the parental attitudes towards child rearing on the Fallstrom's Questionnaire (FQ) and the family environment on the Family Climate Scale (FCS). Psychiatric morbidity was assessed using DSM-IV criteria. Group A & B were compared on the DIMS and Group A & C on FQ & FCS. Adult diabetics had a greater impact of diabetes. Juvenile diabetics had significantly higher frequency of behavioural deviations as compared to controls. Also there was a higher number of responses on questions indicating an overprotecting attitude amongst parents of juvenile diabetics. There was an increased incidence of psychiatric morbidity in juvenile diabetics as compared to normal adolescents irrespective of the family environment. The results are discussed in relation to current literature. PMID:21430802

  5. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naz, S.; Mushtaq, A.; Bari, A.; Maqsud, A.; Khan, M. Z.; Ahmad, T. M.; Saira Rehman

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the spectrum of clinical presentation, laboratory parameters and drug therapy in patients with Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (JRA). Study Design: Case series. Place and Duration of Study: The Children's Hospital and The Institute of Child Health, Lahore, from October 2008 to October 2011. Methodology: All patients who fulfilled the American College of Rheumatology criteria for JRA were enrolled. Their clinical features, investigations done and treatment received for JRA were noted. Statistical analysis of data was done on SPSS version 16.0 for obtaining descriptive statistics. Results: Out of 185 patients, 50.3% (n = 93) were females; 54% (n = 100) were between 10 - 15 years of age. Polyarthritis was found in 71.9% (n = 133) followed by oligoarthritis (22.7%, n = 42) and systemic onset disease (5.4%, n = 10). Morning stiffness (78%) and fever (68%) were the most common clinical presentations. All patients with systemic onset disease had fever (n = 10) followed by skin rash, hepatosplenomegaly and lymphadenopathy. Uveitis was found in 2 patients, and both belonged to the oligoarticular group. Rheumatoid factor was found in 10.27% (n = 19) of all patients. All patients were given non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Disease modifying agents (methotrexate) were given to 43.8% (n = 81). Steroids were used in 61% (n = 113) of patients either with NSAIDs alone or NSAIDs plus methotrexate. Conclusion: Disease profile of JRA at the study centre showed that polyarthritis is the commonest type. Recognition of subtypes will help in planning the management of these patients. (author)

  6. REFORMATIONS IN ZIMBABWE'S JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mugumbate

    1996-05-23

    May 23, 1996 ... The article is based on a desk review of existing literature on juvenile crime in the country. ... that Zimbabwe's juvenile justice system is transforming from being ... recommendations include expanding the Pre-trial Diversion ...

  7. Otolith morphology and body size relationships for juvenile Sciaenidae in the Río de la Plata estuary (35-36°S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. Waessle

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Seven species of the family Sciaenidae have been reported inhabiting bottom waters of the Río de la Plata estuary. Of these juvenile stripped weakfish (Cynoscion guatucupa, king weakfish (Macrodon ancylodon, whitemouth croaker (Micropogonias furnieri and banded ground drum (Paralonchurus brasiliensis are by far the most abundant. These species are also important prey of several top-predator species among large fishes, seabirds and mammals. In this study we provide new information regarding otolith morphology and body size relationships of juvenile sciaenid fish. The sagittae morphology of juvenile sciaenids showed strong changes in the course of their development (e.g. in overall shape and development of concrescences on the outer surface. Analysing the morphometric relationships, we concluded that otolith length and otolith mass are good indicators of fish standard length and fish weight in all species. If otolith length or mass is used to estimate fish length, the regression explained more than 97% of the variation in all species. All equations relating fish standard length and fish weight for juvenile stages of the species studied explained a very large proportion of the variance in the data. These data will help researchers studying food habits of top predators to determine size and weight of usually juvenile fish-prey from length, broad and/or weight of recovered otoliths.

  8. Evolution of Juvenile Ankylosing Spondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye.V. Prohorov

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Evolution of juvenile ankylosing spondylitis tend to follow a more frequent involvement in the pathological process of elbow and ankle joints, development of enthesiopathies, changes of intraarticular meniscal horns, forming of Baker’s cysts, cartilage flaps and systemic osteoporosis, and total value of all these signs 13 times exceeds thereof in patients with with the debut of disease in adulthood, but for juvenile ankylosing spondylitis vertebral lesion is less common. Age dimorphism of the use of certain groups of drugs and physiotherapy facilities is observed.

  9. Juvenile technologies in foreign publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shpagina E.M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article provides the review of foreign publications, concerning the juvenile technologies used in France, Canada, Germany and Switzerland. The paper presents legal, social and psychotherapeutic aspects of juvenile judiciary in foreign countries. The authors paid special attention to the complexity of approaches to young children and teenagers who found themselves in complicated life circumstances or got into trouble with the law. The article gives examples of using the following techniques: cognitive-behavioral intervention, mediation, family therapy (including family background and family history, relations theory, narrative practices, utilization of «emotional intelligence» resources.

  10. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay of Drummed Wastes for the TRU Waste Characterization Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for Nondestructive Assay (NDA) is a test program designed to yield data on measurement system capability to characterize drummed transuranic (TRU) waste generated throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The tests are conducted periodically and provide a mechanism for the independent and objective assessment of NDA system performance and capability relative to the radiological characterization objectives and criteria of the Office of Characterization and Transportation (OCT). The primary documents requiring an NDA PDP are the Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WAC), which requires annual characterization facility participation in the PDP, and the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD). This NDA PDP implements the general requirements of the QAPD and applicable requirements of the WAC. Measurement facilities must demonstrate acceptable radiological characterization performance through measurement of test samples comprised of pre-specified PDP matrix drum/radioactive source configurations. Measurement facilities are required to analyze the NDA PDP drum samples using the same procedures approved and implemented for routine operational waste characterization activities. The test samples provide an independent means to assess NDA measurement system performance and compliance per criteria delineated in the NDA PDP Plan. General inter-comparison of NDA measurement system performance among DOE measurement facilities and commercial NDA services can also be evaluated using measurement results on similar NDA PDP test samples. A PDP test sample consists of a 55-gallon matrix drum containing a waste matrix type representative of a particular category of the DOE waste inventory and nuclear material standards of known radionuclide and isotopic composition typical of DOE radioactive material. The PDP sample components are made available to participating measurement facilities as designated by the

  11. Metrological tests of a 200 L calibration source for HPGE detector systems for assay of radioactive waste drums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshkova, T; Mitev, K

    2016-03-01

    In this work we present test procedures, approval criteria and results from two metrological inspections of a certified large volume (152)Eu source (drum about 200L) intended for calibration of HPGe gamma assay systems used for activity measurement of radioactive waste drums. The aim of the inspections was to prove the stability of the calibration source during its working life. The large volume source was designed and produced in 2007. It consists of 448 identical sealed radioactive sources (modules) apportioned in 32 transparent plastic tubes which were placed in a wooden matrix which filled the drum. During the inspections the modules were subjected to tests for verification of their certified characteristics. The results show a perfect compliance with the NIST basic guidelines for the properties of a radioactive certified reference material (CRM) and demonstrate the stability of the large volume CRM-drum after 7 years of operation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Demonstration test on manufacturing 200 l drum inner shielding material for recycling of reactor operating metal scrap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umemura, A.; Kimura, K.; Ueno, H.

    1993-01-01

    Low-level reactor wastes should be safely recycled considering those resource values, the reduction of waste disposal volume and environmental effects. The reasonable recycling system of reactor operating metal scrap has been studied and it was concluded that the 200 liter drum inner shielding material is a very promising product for recycling within the nuclear industry. The drum inner shielding material does not require high quality and so it is expected to be easily manufactured by melting and casting from roughly sorted scrap metals. This means that the economical scrap metal recycling system can be achieved by introducing it. Furthermore its use will ensure safety because of being contained in a drum. In order to realize this recycling system with the drum inner shielding material, the demonstration test program is being conducted. The construction of the test facility, which consists of a melting and refining furnace, a casting apparatus, a machining apparatus etc., was finishing in September, 1992

  13. The design of a mechanical referencing system for the rear drum of the Longwall Shearer Coal Miner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, E. W.; Yang, T. C. H.

    1981-01-01

    The design of two systems which reference the position of a longwall shearer coal miner to the mine roof of the present cut and of the last cut are presented. This system is part of an automation system that will guide the rear cutting drum in such a manner that the total depth of cut remains constant even though the front drum may be following an undulating roof profile. The rear drum referencing mechanism continually monitors the distance from the mine roof to the floor for the present cut. This system provides a signal to control a constant depth of cut. The last cut follower mechanism continually monitors the distance from the mine roof of the prior cut to the cutting drum. This latter system provides a signal to minimize the step height in the roof between cuts. The dynamic response of this hydraulic-pneumatic and mechanical system is analyzed to determine accumulator size and precharge pressure.

  14. Annotated Administrative Record Site-Specific Document Index, American Drum & Pallet Co. Removal Site, Memphis, Shelby County, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contains annotated index of site specific documents for the American Drum & Pallet Co. Removal Site in Memphis, Shelby County, Tennessee, January 9, 2008 Region ID: 04 DocID: 10517016, DocDate: 01-09-2008

  15. Air water loop - an experimental facility to study thermal hydraulics of AHWR steam drum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagul, R.K.; Pilkhwal, D.S.; Jain, V.; Vijayan, P.K.

    2014-05-01

    In the proposed Indian Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) the coolant recirculation in the primary system is achieved by two-phase natural circulation. The two-phase steam-water mixture from the reactor core is separated in steam drum by gravity. Gravity separation of phases may lead to undesirable phenomena - carryover and carryunder. Carryover is the entrainment of liquid droplets in the vapor phase.Carryover needs to be minimized to avoid erosion corrosion of turbine blades. Carryunder is the entrainment of vapor bubbles with liquid flowing back to reactor core. Significant carryunder may in turn lead to reduced flow resulting in reduced CHF margin and stability in the coolant channel. An Air-Water Loop (AWL) has been designed to carry out the experiments relevant to AHWR steam drum. The design features and scaling philosophy is described in this report. (author)

  16. Test plan for a live drum survey using the gamma-neutron sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehrke, R.J.; Roybal, L.G.; Thompson, D.N.

    1995-07-01

    This plan describes performance tests to be made with the Gamma/Neutron Sensor (GNS), which that was designed and built for infield assay at an excavation site. The performance tests will be performed in Building WMF-628 in the Transuranic Storage Area of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory on stored 55-gal drums of transuranic waste from the Rocky Flats Plant. The GNS is mounted on a wooden pallet that will allow horizontal and vertical scans of the stacked drums. Scanning speed and GNS sensitivity for gamma and neutron radiation fields will be estimated. Effects of temperature, electronic, and acoustic noise will be evaluated. Two- and three-dimensional plots of radiation field as a function of position will be developed from the data

  17. Characterizing and improving passive-active shufflers for assays of 208-Liter waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinard, P.M.; Adams, E.L.; Menlove, H.O.; Sprinkle, J.K. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    A passive and active neutron shuffler for 208-L waste drums has been used to perform over 1500 active and 500 passive measurements on uranium and plutonium samples in 28 different matrices. The shuffler is now better characterized and improvements have been implemented or suggested. An improved correction for the effects of the matrix material was devised from flux-monitor responses. The most important cause of inaccuracies in assays is a localized instead of a uniform distribution of fissile material in a drum; a technique for deducing the distribution from the assay data and then applying a correction is suggested and will be developed further. A technique is given to detect excessive amounts of moderator that could make hundreds of grams of 235 U assay as zero grams. Sensitivities (minimum detectable masses) for 235 U with active assays and for 240 Pu eff with passive assays are presented and the effects of moderators and absorbers on sensitivities noted

  18. The crane handling system for 500 litre drums of cemented radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staples, A.T.

    1991-01-01

    As part of the AEA Technology strategy for dealing with radioactive wastes new waste treatment facilities are being built at the Winfrith Technology Centre (WTC), Dorset. One of the facilities at WTC is the Treated Radwaste Store (TRS) which is designed to store sealed 500 litre capacity drums of treated waste for an interim period until the national disposal facility is operational. Within the TRS two cranes have been incorporated, one spanning the entire width and travelling the length of the Store. The second operates within the area designated for drum handling during inspection work. The development of the design of these cranes and their associated control systems, to meet the complex requirements of operations whilst also satisfying the reliability and safety criteria, is discussed within the paper. (author)

  19. Steam drying compared to drum drying markedly increases early phase rumen fermentability of sugar beet pulp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Olaf; Larsen, Kasper; Jensen, Arne Sloth

    2017-01-01

    Freshly pressed and dried sugar beet pulp was sampled from 2 different factories located within a distance of 30 km and on 4 different dates. One factory was equipped with a steam dryer and the other with a drum dryer. A recognized in vitro technique was used to establish, how the drying process...... affected rumen fermentability of the pulp, since fibrous feeds (such as sugar beet pulp) rely on microbial fermentation in the rumen to be digestible to the cow. Steam dried pulp had a remarkable >60% higher fermentability compared to drum dried pulp during the first 12(-15) hours of fermentation...... (such as pectin) and small particles as low as 6.7-13.3 hours. Future feeding trials are needed to establish exactly how much the feeding value is increased in steam dried sugar beet pulp....

  20. Juvenile Courts. Creation and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat GONZÁLEZ FERNÁNDEZ

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the creation of Juvenile or Children's Courts in Spain, analysing their reasons and aims, as well as the ethical and political connotations present on their way of acting. Their history and the one of the institutions that complement them is built from the legislation, writings and ideas of their promoters.

  1. Juvenile Justice: A Bibliographic Essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondak, Ann

    1979-01-01

    Provides information on the background and legal framework of the juvenile justice system, the issues that confront it, and the pressures for change, as well as noting some sources of information on the system. Available from American Association of Law Libraries, 53 West Jackson Blvd., Suite 1201, Chicago, Illinois 60604; sc $4.00. (Author/IRT)

  2. [Sex-linked juvenile retinoschisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, P; Turut, P; Soltysik, C; Hache, J C

    1976-02-01

    About 13 observations of sexe linked juvenile retinoschisis, the authors describe the ophthalmoscopic, fluorographic and functional aspects of the disease whose caracteristics are:--its sexe linked recessive heredity; --its clinical characterestics associating: a microcystic macular degeneration, peripheral retinal lesions, vitreous body alterations, --an electroretinogram of the negative type.

  3. Juvenile European anchovy otolith microstructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Cermeño

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus has a complex incremental growth pattern that was studied using scanning electron microscope (SEM and optical microscope observations. Daily increments were identified and related to rhythmic growth patterns while double-band structures were identified as one increment. The causes of these growth patterns are discussed.

  4. CT appearance of juvenile angiofibroma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, Jun; Hara, Kazuo (Sumitomo Hospital, Osaka (Japan)); Fukuzumi, Akio; Uchida, Hideo

    1983-06-01

    Three verified cases of juvenile angiofibroma were presented. All of them were young and adolescent male CT proved to be an ideal tool in evaluating the extension of this tumor. The appearance on plain CT was multilobulated with displacement of the adjacent bony structures. On enhancement, there was intense staining of the tumor.

  5. What is Justice for Juveniles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, Jennifer Truran

    1997-01-01

    Provides background information and related learning activities for three areas of inquiry involving youth and violence: (1) "Evolution of the Juvenile Justice System"; (2) "The Literature of Crime and Poverty"; (3) "Youth Crime and Public Policy." Includes a list of six recommended Web sites. (MJP)

  6. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) for the concrete-shielded RH TRU drum for the 327 Postirradiation Testing Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    This safety evaluation for packaging authorizes onsite transport of Type B quantities of radioactive material in the Concrete Shielded Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste (RH TRU) Drum per HNF-PRO-154, Responsibilities and Procedures for all Hazardous Material Shipments. The drum will be used for transport of 327 Building legacy waste from the 300 Area to a solid waste storage facility on the Hanford Site

  7. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) for concrete-shielded RHTRU waste drum for the 327 postirradiation testing laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adkins, H.E.

    1996-10-29

    This safety evaluation for packaging authorizes onsite transport of Type B quantities of radioactive material in the Concrete- Shielded Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste (RH TRU) Drum per WHC-CM-2-14, Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping. The drum will be used for transport of 327 Building legacy waste from the 300 Area to the Transuranic Waste Storage and Assay Facility in the 200 West Area and on to a Solid Waste Storage Facility, also in the 200 Area.

  8. Steam drum level dynamics in a multiple loop natural circulation system of a pressure-tube type boiling water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Vikas; Kulkarni, P.P.; Nayak, A.K.; Vijayan, P.K.; Saha, D.; Sinha, R.K.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We have highlighted the problem of drum level dynamics in a multiple loop type NC system using RELAP5 code. → The need of interconnections in steam and liquid spaces close to drum is established. → The steam space interconnections equalize pressure and liquid space interconnections equalize level. → With this scheme, the system can withstand anomalous conditions. → However, the controller is found to be inevitable for inventory balance. - Abstract: Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) is a pressure tube type boiling water reactor employing natural circulation as the mode of heat removal under all the operating conditions. Main heat transport system (MHTS) of AHWR is essentially a multi-loop natural circulation system with all the loops connected to each other. Each loop of MHTS has a steam drum that provides for gravity based steam-water separation. Steam drum level is a very critical parameter especially in multi-loop natural circulation systems as large departures from the set point may lead to ineffective separation of steam-water or may affect the driving head. However, such a system is susceptible to steam drum level anomalies under postulated asymmetrical operating conditions among the different quadrants of the core like feedwater flow distribution anomaly among the steam drums or power anomaly among the core quadrants. Analyses were carried out to probe such scenarios and unravel the underlying dynamics of steam drum level using system code RELAP5/Mod3.2. In addition, a scheme to obviate such problem in a passive manner without dependence on level controller was examined. It was concluded that steam drums need to be connected in the liquid as well as steam space to make the system tolerant to asymmetrical operating conditions.

  9. Effect of probiotic microorganisms isolated from Hypostomus plecostomus in Oreochromis sp juveniles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Vela-Gutiérrez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to assess the behavior of red tilapia juveniles (Oreochromis sp. in presence of the possible probiotic microorganisms isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of panche fish (Hypostomus plecostomus. Materials and methods. During the phase of assessment of probiotics, 120 red tilapia (Oreochromis sp juveniles were selected, with average weight of 1.28±0.22 g and average length of 2.99±0.27 cm. Three experimental treatments were formulated taking into account the nourishment needs of red tilapia (Oreochromis sp.. The statistical method employed was a completely random design. Results. The three strains of Lactobacillus genus (Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus isolated from the digestive tract of H. plecostomus, yielded diverse results in the biometrical variables considered, as well as in the SGR, PER, AE, AC. Conclusions. The best rapports regarding the gain in length were for the treatment with native probiotics, and it is deduced that they were easily settled in the intestines of the fish (Oreochromis sp.. It is also determined that there are significant differences in the results or gain in length for the Control Concentrate feed (CC against Concentrate feed plus Native Probiotic (CNP for red tilapia (Oreochromis sp. in the juvenile stag for a 30 day time span.

  10. Theoretical validation for changing magnetic fields of systems of permanent magnets of drum separators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozovaya, S. Y.; Lozovoy, N. M.; Okunev, A. N.

    2018-03-01

    This article is devoted to the theoretical validation of the change in magnetic fields created by the permanent magnet systems of the drum separators. In the article, using the example of a magnetic separator for enrichment of highly magnetic ores, the method of analytical calculation of the magnetic fields of systems of permanent magnets based on the Biot-Savart-Laplace law, the equivalent solenoid method, and the superposition principle of fields is considered.

  11. Use of drum driers for processing various industrial wastes into high-grade animal feeding stuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritze, H

    1976-01-01

    Strict anti-pollution legislation governing admissible effluent concentrations and high charges are forcing certain industries (potato starch and dried potato flake factories, sugar factories and dairies) to install facilities for recovering valuable substances, which are used mainly as fodder. In this way the effluent charges can be reduced and a return is obtained on the investment and operating costs. Processes are described whereby such substances can be extracted efficiently when using Escher Wyss drum driers.

  12. Simultaneous correction of attenuation and geometric response in emission tomography applied to nuclear waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thierry, Raphael

    1999-01-01

    Multi-photonic emission tomography is a non destructive technique applied to the control of radioactive waste drums. The emitted gamma rays are detected on the range [50 keV, 2 MeV] by a hyper pure germanium, of high resolution in energy, which enables to set up a detailed list of radionuclides contained within the drum. From different points of measurement located in a transaxial plane of the drum, the activity distribution is computed by a reconstruction algorithm. An algebraic modelling of the physical process has been developed in order to correct the different degrading phenomenon, in particular the attenuation and the detector geometric response. Attenuation through the materials constituting the barrel is the preponderant phenomena. Its ignorance prevents from accurate activity quantification. Its correction has been realised from an attenuation map obtained by a transmission tomograph. The detector geometric response, introducing a blurring within the detection, is compensated by an analytic model. An adequate modelling of those phenomenon is primordial: it highly contributes on a large scale the image quality and the quantification. The image reconstruction, requiring the resolution of sparse linear system, is realised by iterative algorithms. Due to the 'ill-posed' nature of tomographic reconstruction, it is necessary to use regularisation: by introducing an a priori information on the solution, the stabilisation of the methods is carried out. We chose to minimise the Maximum A Posteriori criterion. Its resolution is considered with a half-quadratic regularisation: it permits the preservation of natural discontinuities, and avoids global-over smoothing of the image. It is evaluated on real phantoms and waste drums. Efficient sampling of the data is considered. (author) [fr

  13. Artificial companions as personal coach for children: The Interactive Drums Teacher

    OpenAIRE

    Courgeon , Matthieu; Duhaut , Dominique

    2015-01-01

    International audience; The MOCA Project that aims at designing and studying the interaction and relationship between artificial companions and children in everyday life at home activities. Artificial companions are digital embodied entities that can be either robotic or virtual. In this paper, we focus on a single activity, subpart of the whole project: a coaching application that uses two artificial companions to teach the basics of drums to children. One device is a Nao robot, the other is...

  14. Validation of radioactive isotope activity measurement in homogeneous waste drum using Monte Carlo codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanh, Tran Thien; Tran, Le Bao; Ton, Thai Van; Chuong, Huynh Dinh; Tao, Chau Van [VNUHCM-Univ. of Science, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam). Dept. of Nuclear Physics; VNUHCM-Univ. of Science, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam). Nuclear Technique Lab.; Tam, Hoang Duc [Ho Chi Minh City Univ. of Pedagogy (Viet Nam). Faculty of Physics; Quang, Ma Thuy [VNUHCM-Univ. of Science, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam). Dept. of Nuclear Physics

    2017-07-15

    In this work, the angular dependent efficiency recorded by collimated NaI(Tl) detector is determined a quantification of the activity of mono- and multi-energy gamma emitting isotopes positioning in a waste drum. The simulated efficiencies using both MCNP5 and Geant4 are in good agreement with experimental results. Referring to these simulated efficiencies, we recalculated the source activity with the highest deviation of 13%.

  15. Simultaneous Thermal Analysis of WIPP and LANL Waste Drum Samples: A Preliminary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne, David M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-19

    On Friday, February 14, 2014, an incident in P7R7 of the WIPP underground repository released radioactive material into the environment. The direct cause of the event was a breached transuranic (TRU) waste container, subsequently identified as Drum 68660. Photographic and other evidence indicates that the breach of 68660 was caused by an exothermic event. Subsequent investigations (Britt, 2015; Clark and Funk, 2015; Wilson et al., 2015; Clark, 2015) indicate that the combination of nitrate salts, pH neutralizing chemicals, and organic-based adsorbent represented a potentially energetic mixture. The materials inside the breached steel drum consisted of remediated, 30- to 40-year old, Pu processing wastes from LANL. The contents were processed and repackaged in 2014. Processing activities at LANL included: 1) neutralization of acidic liquid contents, 2) sorption of the neutralized liquid, and 3) mixing of acidic nitrate salts with an absorber to meet waste acceptance criteria. The contents of 68660 and its sibling, 68685, were derived from the same parent drum, S855793. Drum S855793 originally contained ten plastic bags of acidic nitrate salts, and four bags of mixed nitrate and oxalate salts generated in 1985 by Pu recovery operations. These salts were predominantly oxalic acid, hydrated nitrate salts of Mg, Ca, and Fe, anhydrous Na(NO3), and minor amounts of anhydrous and hydrous nitrate salts of Pb, Al, K, Cr, and Ni. Other major components include sorbed water, nitric acid, dissolved nitrates, an absorbent (Swheat Scoop®) and a neutralizer (KolorSafe®). The contents of 68660 are described in greater detail in Appendix E of Wilson et al. (2015)

  16. Validation of radioactive isotope activity measurement in homogeneous waste drum using Monte Carlo codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thanh, Tran Thien; Tran, Le Bao; Ton, Thai Van; Chuong, Huynh Dinh; Tao, Chau Van; VNUHCM-Univ. of Science, Ho Chi Minh City; Tam, Hoang Duc; Quang, Ma Thuy

    2017-01-01

    In this work, the angular dependent efficiency recorded by collimated NaI(Tl) detector is determined a quantification of the activity of mono- and multi-energy gamma emitting isotopes positioning in a waste drum. The simulated efficiencies using both MCNP5 and Geant4 are in good agreement with experimental results. Referring to these simulated efficiencies, we recalculated the source activity with the highest deviation of 13%.

  17. Characterization of uranium in bituminized radioactive waste drums by self-induced X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pin, Patrick; Perot, Bertrand

    2013-06-01

    This paper reports the experimental qualification of an original uranium characterization method based on fluorescence X rays induced by the spontaneous gamma emission of bituminized radioactive waste drums. The main 661.7 keV gamma ray following the 137 Cs decay produces by Compton scattering in the bituminized matrix an intense photon continuum around 100 keV, i.e. in the uranium X-ray fluorescence region. 'Self-induced' X-rays produced without using an external source allow a quantitative assessment of uranium as 137 Cs and uranium are homogeneously mixed and distributed in the bituminized matrix. The paper presents the experimental qualification of the method with real waste drums, showing a detection limit well below 1 kg of uranium in 20 min acquisitions while the usual gamma rays of 235 U (185 keV) or 238 U (1001 keV of 234m Pa in the radioactive decay chain) are not detected. The relative uncertainty on the uranium mass assessed by self-induced X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) is about 50%, with a 95% confidence level, taking into account the correction of photon attenuation in the waste matrix. This last indeed contains high atomic numbers elements like uranium, but also barium, in quantities which are not known for each drum. Attenuation is estimated thanks to the peak-to-Compton ratio to limit the corresponding uncertainty. The SXRF uranium masses measured in the real drums are in good agreement with long gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements (1001 keV peak) or with radiochemical analyses. (authors)

  18. Simultaneous Thermal Analysis of WIPP and LANL Waste Drum Samples: A Preliminary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wayne, David M.

    2015-01-01

    On Friday, February 14, 2014, an incident in P7R7 of the WIPP underground repository released radioactive material into the environment. The direct cause of the event was a breached transuranic (TRU) waste container, subsequently identified as Drum 68660. Photographic and other evidence indicates that the breach of 68660 was caused by an exothermic event. Subsequent investigations (Britt, 2015; Clark and Funk, 2015; Wilson et al., 2015; Clark, 2015) indicate that the combination of nitrate salts, pH neutralizing chemicals, and organic-based adsorbent represented a potentially energetic mixture. The materials inside the breached steel drum consisted of remediated, 30- to 40-year old, Pu processing wastes from LANL. The contents were processed and repackaged in 2014. Processing activities at LANL included: 1) neutralization of acidic liquid contents, 2) sorption of the neutralized liquid, and 3) mixing of acidic nitrate salts with an absorber to meet waste acceptance criteria. The contents of 68660 and its sibling, 68685, were derived from the same parent drum, S855793. Drum S855793 originally contained ten plastic bags of acidic nitrate salts, and four bags of mixed nitrate and oxalate salts generated in 1985 by Pu recovery operations. These salts were predominantly oxalic acid, hydrated nitrate salts of Mg, Ca, and Fe, anhydrous Na(NO 3 ), and minor amounts of anhydrous and hydrous nitrate salts of Pb, Al, K, Cr, and Ni. Other major components include sorbed water, nitric acid, dissolved nitrates, an absorbent (Swheat Scoop®) and a neutralizer (KolorSafe®). The contents of 68660 are described in greater detail in Appendix E of Wilson et al. (2015)

  19. Normal Condition on Transport Thermal Analysis and Testing of a Type B Drum Package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerrell, J.W.; van Alstine, M.N.; Gromada, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    Increasing the content limits of radioactive material packagings can save money and increase transportation safety by decreasing the total number of shipments required to transport large quantities of material. The contents of drum packages can be limited by unacceptable containment vessel pressures and temperatures due to the thermal properties of the insulation. The purpose of this work is to understand and predict the effects of insulation properties on containment system performance

  20. Corrosion susceptibility of steel drums containing cemented intermediate level nuclear wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffó, Gustavo S.; Farina, Silvia B.; Schulz, Fátima M.; Marotta, Francesca

    2010-10-01

    Cementation processes are used as immobilization techniques for low or intermediate level radioactive waste for economical and safety reasons and for being a simple operation. In particular, ion-exchange resins commonly used for purification of radioactive liquid waste from nuclear reactors are immobilized before being stored to improve the leach resistance of the waste matrix and to maintain mechanical stability. Combustible solid radioactive waste can be incinerated and the resulting ashes can also be immobilized before storage. The immobilized resins and ashes are then contained in steel drums that may undergo corrosion depending on the presence of certain contaminants. The work described in this paper was aimed at evaluating the corrosion susceptibility of steel drums in contact with cemented ion-exchange resins and incineration ashes containing different concentrations of aggressive species (mostly chloride and sulphate ions). A special type of specimen was designed to simulate the cemented waste in the drum. The evolution of the corrosion potential and the corrosion current density of the steel, as well as the electrical resistivity of the matrix were monitored over a time period of 1 year. The results show the deleterious effect of chloride on the expected lifespan of the waste containers.

  1. Corrosion susceptibility of steel drums to be used as containers for intermediate level nuclear waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, S.; Schulz Rodriguez, F.; Duffó, G.

    2013-07-01

    The present work is a study of the corrosion susceptibility of steel drums in contact with cemented ion-exchange resins contaminated with different types and concentrations of aggressive species. A special type of specimen was manufactured to simulate the cemented ion-exchange resins in the drum. The evolution of the corrosion potential and the corrosion rate of the steel, as well as the electrical resistivity of the matrix were monitored over a time period of 900 days. The aggressive species studied were chloride ions (the main ionic species of concern) and sulphate ions (produced during radiolysis of the cationic exchange-resins after cementation). The work was complemented with an analysis of the corrosion products formed on the steel in each condition, as well as the morphology of the corrosion products. When applying the results obtained in the present work to estimate the corrosion depth of the steel drumscontaining the cemented radioactive waste after a period of 300 years (foreseen durability of the Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste facility in Argentina) , it is found that in the most unfavourable case (high chloride contamination), the corrosion penetration will be considerably lower than the thickness of the wall of the steel drums.

  2. DEM simulation of particle mixing for optimizing the overcoating drum in HTR fuel fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Malin; Lu, Zhengming; Liu, Bing; Shao, Youlin

    2013-06-01

    The rotating drum was used for overcoating coated fuel particles in HTR fuel fabrication process. All the coated particles should be adhered to equal amount of graphite powder, which means that the particle should be mixed quickly in both radial and axial directions. This paper investigated the particle flow dynamics and mixing behavior in different regimes using the discrete element method (DEM). By varying the rotation speed, different flow regimes such as slumping, rolling, cascading, cataracting, centrifuging were produced. The mixing entropy based on radial and axial grid was introduced to describe the radial and axial mixing behaviors. From simulation results, it was found that the radial mixing can be achieved in the cascading regime more quickly than the slumping, rolling and centrifuging regimes, but the traditional rotating drum without internal components can not achieve the requirements of axial mixing and should be improved. Three different structures of internal components are proposed and simulated. The new V-shaped deflectors were found to achieve a quick axial mixing behavior and uniform axial distribution in the rotating drum based on simulation results. At last, the superiority was validated by experimental results, and the new V-shaped deflectors were used in the industrial production of the overcoating coated fuel particles in HTR fuel fabrication process.

  3. Corrosion susceptibility of steel drums containing cemented intermediate level nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffo, Gustavo S.; Farina, Silvia B.; Schulz, Fatima M.; Marotta, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    Cementation processes are used as immobilization techniques for low or intermediate level radioactive waste for economical and safety reasons and for being a simple operation. In particular, ion-exchange resins commonly used for purification of radioactive liquid waste from nuclear reactors are immobilized before being stored to improve the leach resistance of the waste matrix and to maintain mechanical stability. Combustible solid radioactive waste can be incinerated and the resulting ashes can also be immobilized before storage. The immobilized resins and ashes are then contained in steel drums that may undergo corrosion depending on the presence of certain contaminants. The work described in this paper was aimed at evaluating the corrosion susceptibility of steel drums in contact with cemented ion-exchange resins and incineration ashes containing different concentrations of aggressive species (mostly chloride and sulphate ions). A special type of specimen was designed to simulate the cemented waste in the drum. The evolution of the corrosion potential and the corrosion current density of the steel, as well as the electrical resistivity of the matrix were monitored over a time period of 1 year. The results show the deleterious effect of chloride on the expected lifespan of the waste containers.

  4. Microbial degradation of lignocellulosic fractions during drum composting of mixed organic waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vempalli Sudharsan Varma

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to characterize the microbial population involved in lignocellulose degradation during drum composting of mixed organic waste i.e. vegetable waste, cattle manure, saw dust and dry leaves in a 550 L rotary drum composter. Lignocellulose degradation by different microbial populations was correlated by comparing results from four trials, i.e., Trial 1 (5:4, Trial 2 (6:3, Trial 3 (7:2 and Trial 4 (8:1 of varying waste combinations during 20 days of composting period. Due to proper combination of waste materials and agitation in drum composter, a maximum of 66.5 and 61.4 °C was achieved in Trial 1 and 2 by observing a temperature level of 55 °C for 4–6 d. The study revealed that combinations of waste materials had a major effect on the microbial degradation of waste material and quality of final compost due to its physical properties. However, Trial 1 was observed to have longer thermophilic phase leading to higher degradation of lignocellulosic fractions. Furthermore, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer and fluorescent spectroscopy confirmed the decrease in aliphatic to aromatic ratio and increase in polyphenolic compounds of the compost. Heterotrophic bacteria were observed predominantly due to the readily available organic matter during the initial period of composting. However, fungi and actinomycetes were active in the degradation of lignocellulosic fractions.

  5. Growth, reproduction, mortality, distribution, and biomass of freshwater drum in Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bur, Michael T.

    1984-01-01

    Predominant age-groups in the Lake Erie freshwater drum Aplodinotus grunnienspopulation were 3, 4, and 5 as determined from gill net, trap net, bottom trawl, and midwater trawl samples. Age and growth calculations indicated that females grew faster than males. However, the length-weight relation did not differ between sexes and was described by the equation: log W = −5.4383 + 3.1987 log L. Some males became sexually mature at age 2 and all were mature by age 6. Females matured 1 year later than males. Three sizes of eggs were present in ovaries; the average total number was 127,000 per female for 20 females over a length range of 270 to 478 mm. Seasonal analysis of the ovary-body weight ratio indicated that spawning extended from June to August. A total annual mortality rate of 49% for drum aged 4 through 11 was derived from catch-curve analysis. Freshwater drum were widely distributed throughout Lake Erie in 1977–1979, the greatest concentration being in the western basin. They moved into warm, shallow water (less than 10 m deep) during summer, and returned to deeper water in late fall. Summer biomass estimates for the western basin, based on systematic surveys with bottom trawls, were 9,545 t in 1977 and 2,333 t in 1978.

  6. Calculation of a thermostressed state for drum-separator vessels in transient regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Il'in, Yu.V.; Kazakova, T.Yu.; Parafilo, L.M.; Shcherbakov, S.I.

    1979-01-01

    The temperature regime and stressed state of the drum-separator vessel in the transient regime with alternating pressure and water level are investigated using calculations. The temperature fields are calculated by the alternating directions method. Stresses and deformations are calculated by the method of finite elements. The stressed state of the vessel is determined for a series of fixed time moments tausub(i), when the T(tausub(i), r, phi) temperature distribution and P(tausub(i)) internal pressure are known. The methods described are used while developing the calculation program for the temperatures and stressed state (FORTRAN, EC-1050). Given are the calculation results obtained using these programs for the processes following the safety system response at the first block of the Bilibinsk NPP and the processes of power regulation in the ''Sever-2'' facility. The comparison of the obtained calculated curves with the experimental data confirms fitness of the proposed calculated scheme for description of the real processes taking place in the drum-separator vessels in the transient regimes. It is emphasized that the given scheme of solution of the equations describing a thermostressed state of the drum-separator vessels can be used while estimating their operation capacity

  7. Experimental Method for Analyzing Friction Phenomenon Related to Drum Brake Squeal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. GLIŠOVIĆ

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Automobile brakes have been intensively developed during past few decades, but the maximum motor’s power, that should amortized in vehicle brakes, has been significantly increased also. Most of the kinetic energy of the moving vehicles is transforming into heat through friction. But the small part of kinetic energy transforms into sound pressure and makes noise. Low frequency squeal of drum brakes is very intense and can lead to customers’ complain. The interaction between the brake system and the vehicle framework and suspension is often very substantial during occurrence of brake noise. Unfortunately, to solve this type of squeal problem is also difficult because of the large number of components involved. The other cause is attributed to self-excited vibration that is induced when the friction material has a negative slope in relation to the relative velocity. This paper illustrates an approach to experimental studies of drum brakes in road conditions in order to monitor changes in the coefficient of friction that can generate drum brake squeal at low frequencies.

  8. Salt Composition Derived from Veazey Composition by Thermodynamic Modeling and Predicted Composition of Drum Contents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisbrod, Kirk Ryan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Veirs, Douglas Kirk [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Funk, David John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Clark, David Lewis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-11

    This report describes the derivation of the salt composition from the Veazey salt stream analysis. It also provides an estimate of the proportions of the kitty litter, nitrate salt and neutralizer that was contained in drum 68660. While the actinide content of waste streams was judiciously followed in the 1980s in TA-55, no record of the salt composition could be found. Consequently, a salt waste stream produced from 1992 to 1994 and reported by Gerry Veazey provided the basis for this study. While chemical analysis of the waste stream was highly variable, an average analysis provided input to the Stream Analyzer software to calculate a composition for a concentrated solid nitrate salt and liquid waste stream. The calculation predicted the gas / condensed phase compositions as well as solid salt / saturated liquid compositions. The derived composition provides an estimate of the nitrate feedstream to WIPP for which kinetic measurements can be made. The ratio of salt to Swheat in drum 68660 contents was estimated through an overall mass balance on the parent and sibling drums. The RTR video provided independent confirmation concerning the volume of the mixture. The solid salt layer contains the majority of the salt at a ratio with Swheat that potentially could become exothermic.

  9. Salt Composition Derived from Veazey Composition by Thermodynamic Modeling and Predicted Composition of Drum Contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisbrod, Kirk Ryan; Veirs, Douglas Kirk; Funk, David John; Clark, David Lewis

    2016-01-01

    This report describes the derivation of the salt composition from the Veazey salt stream analysis. It also provides an estimate of the proportions of the kitty litter, nitrate salt and neutralizer that was contained in drum 68660. While the actinide content of waste streams was judiciously followed in the 1980s in TA-55, no record of the salt composition could be found. Consequently, a salt waste stream produced from 1992 to 1994 and reported by Gerry Veazey provided the basis for this study. While chemical analysis of the waste stream was highly variable, an average analysis provided input to the Stream Analyzer software to calculate a composition for a concentrated solid nitrate salt and liquid waste stream. The calculation predicted the gas / condensed phase compositions as well as solid salt / saturated liquid compositions. The derived composition provides an estimate of the nitrate feedstream to WIPP for which kinetic measurements can be made. The ratio of salt to Swheat in drum 68660 contents was estimated through an overall mass balance on the parent and sibling drums. The RTR video provided independent confirmation concerning the volume of the mixture. The solid salt layer contains the majority of the salt at a ratio with Swheat that potentially could become exothermic.

  10. Artificial neural network application in isotopic characterization of radioactive waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potiens Junior, Ademar Jose

    2005-01-01

    One of the most important aspects to the development of the nuclear technology is the safe management of the radioactive waste arising from several stages of the nuclear fuel cycles, as well as from production and use of radioisotope in the medicine, industry and research centers. The accurate characterization of this waste is not a simple task, given to its diversity in isotopic composition and non homogeneity in the space distribution and mass density. In this work it was developed a methodology for quantification and localization of radionuclides not non homogeneously distributed in a 200 liters drum based in the Monte Carlo Method and Artificial Neural Network (RNA), for application in the isotopic characterization of the stored radioactive waste at IPEN. Theoretical arrangements had been constructed involving the division of the radioactive waste drum in some units or cells and some possible configurations of source intensities. Beyond the determination of the detection positions, the respective detection efficiencies for each position in function of each cell of the drum had been obtained. After the construction and the training of the RNA's for each developed theoretical arrangement, the validation of the method were carried out for the two arrangements that had presented the best performance. The results obtained show that the methodology developed in this study could be an effective tool for isotopic characterization of radioactive wastes contained in many kind of packages. (author)

  11. Final report of the 2. committee of investigation of the 11. legislative period. Drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    On the subject of 'drums', the questions concerning treatment, transport, and storage and disposal, the content of the drums as well as procedures for persons and environment were in the fore. The Committee dealt with the customary conditioning methods and with the occurrences at Studsvik Energiteknik AB and CEN/SCK in Mol/Belgium, the facilities charged by Transnuklear GmbH with the conditioning. The all in all 1534 drums with waste conditioned in CEN/SCK, which are in German intermediate waste stores, contain to a considerable extent elements from conditioned waste of Belgian origin, despite of having been declared to be waste of German origin. The reasons for this were partly of an operational nature, partly intentionally, in order to fulfil the contracts and to receive the full price. - European and national law were violated. - The Federal Government's main counter- measures consisted in restructuring the nculear energy industry, de-concentration of responsibility sectors, liquidation of Transnuklear GmbH in May 1988, and the guideline on safeguards of radioactive wastes of January 16, 1989. (HSCH) [de

  12. Mecury in Fin Clips and Scales as Assessment Methods for Predicting Muscle Tissue Mercury Concentrations in Red Drum and Snook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-lethal techniques for assessing total mercury concentrations in fish are desired because they minimize impacts on fish populations and allow trends in Hg accumulation to be assessed through repeated sampling of individual fish. This study developed relationships of Hg concent...

  13. A Practical Approach to Juvenile Dermatomyositis and Juvenile Scleroderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Liza J; Pain, Clare E

    2016-02-01

    Juvenile dermatomyositis and juvenile scleroderma are rare multisystem autoimmune disorders. Although they share some pathognomonic hallmarks with adult onset myositis or scleroderma, there are significant differences in presentation, characteristics and associated features when the diseases present in childhood. In view of this, and the rarity of the conditions, it is important for care to be led by teams with expertise in pediatric rheumatology conditions. Prognosis has improved significantly in the West; likely due to early diagnosis and aggressive treatment with immunosuppressive medications. However, this trend is not replicated in the developing world. Early recognition of these diseases is crucial to achieve rapid and sustained remission and prevent disease or medication associated complications. This article aims to provide a practical overview for recognition, diagnosis and treatment of these conditions.

  14. Analysis of heat conduction in a drum brake system of the wheeled armored personnel carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puncioiu, A. M.; Truta, M.; Vedinas, I.; Marinescu, M.; Vinturis, V.

    2015-11-01

    This paper is an integrated study performed over the Braking System of the Wheeled Armored Personnel Carriers. It mainly aims to analyze the heat transfer process which is present in almost any industrial and natural process. The vehicle drum brake systems can generate extremely high temperatures under high but short duration braking loads or under relatively light but continuous braking. For the proper conduct of the special vehicles mission in rough terrain, we are talking about, on one hand, the importance of the possibility of immobilization and retaining position and, on the other hand, during the braking process, the importance movement stability and reversibility or reversibility, to an encounter with an obstacle. Heat transfer processes influence the performance of the braking system. In the braking phase, kinetic energy transforms into thermal energy resulting in intense heating and high temperature states of analyzed vehicle wheels. In the present work a finite element model for the temperature distribution in a brake drum is developed, by employing commercial finite element software, ANSYS. These structural and thermal FEA models will simulate entire braking event. The heat generated during braking causes distortion which modifies thermoelastic contact pressure distribution drum-shoe interface. In order to capture the effect of heat, a transient thermal analysis is performed in order to predict the temperature distribution transitional brake components. Drum brakes are checked both mechanical and thermal. These tests aim to establish their sustainability in terms of wear and the variation coefficient of friction between the friction surfaces with increasing temperature. Modeling using simulation programs led eventually to the establishment of actual thermal load of the mechanism of brake components. It was drawn the efficiency characteristic by plotting the coefficient of effectiveness relative to the coefficient of friction shoe-drum. Thus induced

  15. Determination of the germanium detector efficiency for measurements of the radionuclide activity contained in a radioactive waste drum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodenas, J.; Gallardo, S.; Ballester, S.; Hoyler, F.

    2006-01-01

    One of the features in the characterization of a drum containing radioactive wastes is to verify the activity of radionuclides contained in the drum. An H.P. Ge detector can be used for this measurement. However, it is necessary to perform an efficiency calibration for all geometries involved. In the framework of a joint project between the Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear (Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Spain) and the Fachbereich Angewandte Naturwissenschaften und Technik (Fachhochschule Aachen, Abteilung Julich, Germany), different configurations for a drum containing radioactive sources have been implemented in the laboratory. A cylindrical drum of 850 mm height, a diameter equal to 560 mm and 3 mm of steel thickness has been used in the experimental measurements. The drum contains a clay ceramic matrix whose chemical composition is 55% SiO 2 , 40% of Al 2 O 3 and 5% of TiO 2 . Several vertical PVC tubes having a diameter of 30 mm are inserted in the drum at different distances from the central axis. In the experiment, a pack of point sources with 133 Ba, 60 Co and 137 Cs is introduced into each one of the tubes. A ring-shape distributed source is generated by rotating the drum around its axis during the measurement. The detector efficiency is determined experimentally for these configurations. On the other hand, a Monte Carlo model, using the M.C.N.P. code, has been developed to simulate the drum, the clay matrix and the PVC tubes. The effect of the drum spinning has been reproduced simulating a ring source with different diameters. The model also includes detailed detector geometry. Using this Monte Carlo model, the detector efficiency is calculated for each configuration implemented in the laboratory. Comparison of results from Monte Carlo simulation and experimental measurements should permit the validation of the M.C.N.P. model. Consequently it will be possible to obtain efficiency curves without experimental measurements. Therefore, these

  16. Presumptive red maple (Acer rubrum) toxicosis in Grevy's zebra (Equus grevyi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, M; Miller, R E

    1997-03-01

    Two female Grevy's zebras (Equus grevyi), one juvenile and one adult, were treated for hemolytic anemia. The juvenile survived, but the adult animal, which also had methemoglobinemia, was euthanized after it failed to recover from anesthesia. Significant pathologic findings in the adult zebra included generalized icterus, hemoglobinuric nephrosis, and paracentral hepatic necrosis. Serum titers for known infectious causes of anemia were negative. Examination of the zebra holding areas revealed two hybrid red maple (Acer sp.) trees. There was no known exposure to other hemolytic agents. This is the first report of probable red maple-induced hemolysis in zebra.

  17. US Department of Transportation (DOT) Spec 7A Type A evaluation document: Spec 17C 55-gal steel drum with RWMC/SWEPP drum venting system carbon filter assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edling, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    As part of MRC-Mound's responsibility to coordinate DOE Spec 7A Type A Packaging testing, evaluation, and utilization, this document evaluates per 49CFR 173.415(a) the SWEPP packaging system: DOT Spec 17C steel drums - 30, 55 and 83-gal; High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) liners; and SWEPP DVS Filter Assemblies (two configurations) as a US DOT Spec 7A Type A packaging. A variety of Type A performance testing was done on: DOT Spec 17C 55-gal steel drums; DOT Spec 17C 55-gal steel drums with HDPE liners; and DOT Spec 17C 55-gal steel drums with ''Nucfil'' filters as part of MRC-Mound's Type A Packaging Evaluation Program funded by DOE/HQ, DP-4, Security Evaluations. The subject SWEPP packaging incorporates modifications to the ''Nucfil'' filter and installation assembly previously tested in conjunction with the Spec 17C 55-gal drums. Thus, additional testing was required on the new filter installation in order to evaluate the entire packaging system. This document presents the test data to demonstrate the SWEPP packaging system's performance against the DOT 7A Type A requirements

  18. Juvenile morphology in baleen whale phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Hsiu; Fordyce, R Ewan

    2014-09-01

    Phylogenetic reconstructions are sensitive to the influence of ontogeny on morphology. Here, we use foetal/neonatal specimens of known species of living baleen whales (Cetacea: Mysticeti) to show how juvenile morphology of extant species affects phylogenetic placement of the species. In one clade (sei whale, Balaenopteridae), the juvenile is distant from the usual phylogenetic position of adults, but in the other clade (pygmy right whale, Cetotheriidae), the juvenile is close to the adult. Different heterochronic processes at work in the studied species have different influences on juvenile morphology and on phylogenetic placement. This study helps to understand the relationship between evolutionary processes and phylogenetic patterns in baleen whale evolution and, more in general, between phylogeny and ontogeny; likewise, this study provides a proxy how to interpret the phylogeny when fossils that are immature individuals are included. Juvenile individuals in the peramorphic acceleration clades would produce misleading phylogenies, whereas juvenile individuals in the paedomorphic neoteny clades should still provide reliable phylogenetic signals.

  19. An unusual presentation of juvenile lupus nephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malleshwar Bottu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of juvenile lupus varies widely ranging between 4 and 250 per 100,000 population. Most common organ involvement in juvenile lupus is kidney. Neurological, cutaneous and hematological involvements are also involved. Skeletal muscle involvement in the form of myositis is rare. Myositis as presenting manifestation in juvenile lupus is also unusual. Herein, we report one such case wherein myositis preceded the onset of lupus nephritis

  20. Lower Red River Meadow Stream Restoration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    As part of a continuing effort to restore anadromous fish populations in the South Fork Clearwater River basin of Idaho, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund the Lower Red River Meadow Restoration Project (Project). The Project is a cooperative effort with the Idaho Soil and Water Conservation District, Nez Perce National Forest, Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), and the Nez Perce Tribe of Idaho. The proposed action would allow the sponsors to perform stream bank stabilization, aquatic and riparian habitat improvement activities on IDFG's Red River Management Area and to secure long-term conservation contracts or agreements for conducting streambank and habitat improvement activities with participating private landowners located in the Idaho County, Idaho, study area. This preliminary Environmental Assessment (EA) examines the potential environmental effects of stabilizing the stream channel, restoring juvenile fish rearing habitat and reestablishing a riparian shrub community along the stream

  1. Juvenile offenders: competence to stand trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulier, Matthew

    2012-12-01

    This article details the legal background and assists the reader in the preparation and practical conduct of evaluations regarding juvenile adjudicative competency. The material is presented to be useful as a guide to direct questions of competency and covers aspects of evaluation that include: legal standard for competency to stand trial, developmental immaturity, current practice in juvenile competency to stand trial, forensic evaluation of juvenile competency to stand trial, organizing the evaluation, collateral sources of information, psychiatric evaluation of juvenile adjudicative competency, assessment of mental disorder and intellectual disability, assessment of developmental status, assessment of functional abilities for adjudicative competence, and reaching the forensic opinion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Metrological tests of a 200 L calibration source for HPGE detector systems for assay of radioactive waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boshkova, T.; Mitev, K.

    2016-01-01

    In this work we present test procedures, approval criteria and results from two metrological inspections of a certified large volume "1"5"2Eu source (drum about 200 L) intended for calibration of HPGe gamma assay systems used for activity measurement of radioactive waste drums. The aim of the inspections was to prove the stability of the calibration source during its working life. The large volume source was designed and produced in 2007. It consists of 448 identical sealed radioactive sources (modules) apportioned in 32 transparent plastic tubes which were placed in a wooden matrix which filled the drum. During the inspections the modules were subjected to tests for verification of their certified characteristics. The results show a perfect compliance with the NIST basic guidelines for the properties of a radioactive certified reference material (CRM) and demonstrate the stability of the large volume CRM-drum after 7 years of operation. - Highlights: • Large (200 L) volume drum source designed, produced and certified as CRM in 2007. • Source contains 448 identical sealed radioactive "1"5"2Eu sources (modules). • Two metrological inspections in 2011 and 2014. • No statistically significant changes of the certified characteristics over time. • Stable calibration source for HPGe-gamma radioactive waste assay systems.

  3. Preliminary minimum detectable limit measurements in 208-L drums for selected actinide isotopes in mock-waste matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camp, D.C.; Wang, Tzu-Fang; Martz, H.E.

    1992-01-01

    Preliminary minimum detectable levels (MDLS) of selected actinide isotopes have been determined in full-scale, 55-gallon drums filled with a range of mock-waste materials from combustibles (0.14 g/CM 3 ) to sand (1.7 g/CM 3 ). Measurements were recorded from 100 to 10,000 seconds with selected actinide sources located in these drums at an edge position, on the center axis of a drum and midway between these two positions. Measurements were also made with a 166 Ho source to evaluate the attenuation of these mock-matrix materials as a function of energy. By knowing where the source activity is located within a drum, our preliminary results show that a simply collimated 90% HPGE detector can differentiate between TRU (>100 nCi/g) and LLW amounts of 239 Pu in only 100s of measurement time and with sufficient accuracy in both low and medium density, low Z materials. Other actinides measured so far include 235 U, 241 Am, and 244 Cm. These measurements begin to establish the probable MDLs achievable in the nondestructive assays of real waste drums when using active and passive CT. How future measurements may differ from these preliminary measurements is also discussed

  4. Design and analysis of drum lathe for manufacturing large-scale optical microstructured surface and load characteristics of aerostatic spindle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dongxu; Qiao, Zheng; Wang, Bo; Wang, Huiming; Li, Guo

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, a four-axis ultra-precision lathe for machining large-scale drum mould with microstructured surface is presented. Firstly, because of the large dimension and weight of drum workpiece, as well as high requirement of machining accuracy, the design guidelines and component parts of this drum lathe is introduced in detail, including control system, moving and driving components, position feedback system and so on. Additionally, the weight of drum workpiece would result in the structural deformation of this lathe, therefore, this paper analyses the effect of structural deformation on machining accuracy by means of ANSYS. The position change is approximately 16.9nm in the X-direction(sensitive direction) which could be negligible. Finally, in order to study the impact of bearing parameters on the load characteristics of aerostatic journal bearing, one of the famous computational fluid dynamics(CFD) software, FLUENT, is adopted, and a series of simulations are carried out. The result shows that the aerostatic spindle has superior performance of carrying capacity and stiffness, it is possible for this lathe to bear the weight of drum workpiece up to 1000kg since there are two aerostatic spindles in the headstock and tailstock.

  5. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Experience Using 30-Gallon Drum Neutron Multiplicity Counter for Measuring Plutonium-Bearing Salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearborn, D M; Keeton, S C

    2004-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been performing accountability measurements of plutonium (Pu) -bearing items with the 30-gallon drum neutron multiplicity counter (NMC) since August 1998. A previous paper focused on the LLNL experience with Pu-bearing oxide and metal items. This paper expands on the LLNL experience with Pu-bearing salts containing low masses of Pu. All Pu-bearing salts used in this study were measured using calorimetry and gamma isotopic analyses (Cal/Iso) as well as the 30-gallon drum NMC. The Cal/Iso values were treated as being the true measure of Pu content because of the inherent high accuracy of the Cal/Iso technique, even at low masses of Pu, when measured over a sufficient period of time. Unfortunately, the long time period required to achieve high accuracy from Cal/Iso can impact other required accountability measurements. The 30-gallon drum NMC is a much quicker system for making accountability measurements of a Pu-bearing salt and might be a desirable tradeoff. The accuracy of 30-gallon drum NMC measurements of Pu-bearing salts, relative to that of Cal/Iso, is presented in relation to the mass range and alpha associated with each item. Conclusions drawn from the use of the 30-gallon drum NMC for accountability measurements of salts are also included

  6. The Impact of Group Drumming on Social-Emotional Behavior in Low-Income Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Ho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-income youth experience social-emotional problems linked to chronic stress that are exacerbated by lack of access to care. Drumming is a non-verbal, universal activity that builds upon a collectivistic aspect of diverse cultures and does not bear the stigma of therapy. A pretest-post-test non-equivalent control group design was used to assess the effects of 12 weeks of school counselor-led drumming on social-emotional behavior in two fifth-grade intervention classrooms versus two standard education control classrooms. The weekly intervention integrated rhythmic and group counseling activities to build skills, such as emotion management, focus and listening. The Teacher’s Report Form was used to assess each of 101 participants (n = 54 experimental, n = 47 control, 90% Latino, 53.5% female, mean age 10.5 years, range 10–12 years. There was 100% retention. ANOVA testing showed that intervention classrooms improved significantly compared to the control group in broad-band scales (total problems (P < .01, internalizing problems (P < .02, narrow-band syndrome scales (withdrawn/depression (P < .02, attention problems (P < .01, inattention subscale (P < .001, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-oriented scales (anxiety problems (P < .01, attention deficit/hyperactivity problems (P < .01, inattention subscale (P < .001, oppositional defiant problems (P < .03, and other scales (post-traumatic stress problems (P < .01, sluggish cognitive tempo (P < .001. Participation in group drumming led to significant improvements in multiple domains of social-emotional behavior. This sustainable intervention can foster positive youth development and increase student-counselor interaction. These findings underscore the potential value of the arts as a therapeutic tool.

  7. Corrosion of steel drums containing immobilized ion exchange-resins and incineration ashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marotta, F.; Schulz Rodriguez, F.M.; Farina, Silvia B.; Duffo, Gustavo S.

    2009-01-01

    The Argentine Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) is responsible for developing the management nuclear waste disposal programme. This programme contemplates the design and construction of a facility for the final disposal of intermediate-level radioactive wastes. The proposed model is a near-surface monolithic repository similar to those in operation in El Cabril, Spain. The design of this type of repository is based on the use of multiple, independent and redundant barriers. The intermediate radioactive waste consists mostly in spent ionic exchange resins and filters from the nuclear power plants, research reactors and radioisotopes production facilities. The spent resins, as well as the incineration ashes, have to be immobilized before being stored to improve leach resistance of waste matrix and to maintain mechanical stability for safety requirements. Generally, cementation processes have been used as immobilization techniques for economical reasons as well as for being a simple operation. The immobilized resins and incineration ashes are thus contained in steel drums that, in turn, can undergo corrosion depending on the ionic content of the matrix. This work is a part of a systematic study of the corrosion susceptibility of steel drums in contact with immobilized cemented exchange-resins with different types and contents of aggressive species and incineration ashes. To this purpose, a special type of specimen was manufactured to simulate the cemented waste in the drum. The evolution of the corrosion potential and the corrosion current density of the steel, as well as the electrical resistivity of the matrix are being monitored along time. The aggressive species studied were chloride ions (the main ionic species present in nature) and sulphate ions (produced during the radiolysis process of the cationic exchange-resins after cementation). Preliminary results show the strong effect of chloride on the corrosion susceptibility of the steel. Monitoring will continue for

  8. End plates made of a composite material for the revolving drum of a centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, T.; Onishi, H.; Fujiwara, M.

    1980-01-01

    The present invention relates to improvement of the end plates of centrifuges, especially those for centrifugal gas separators. End plates made of a composite material for the revolving drum of a centrifuge consists of a carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic layer. This layer consists of carbon fibers either wound helically at an angle greater than 75 0 and less than 90 0 to the center line of revolution, or wound in a hoop, and a matrix of a thermosetting resin in which the carbon fibers are buried, which [matrix] is laminated with metal layers

  9. Disturbed moving patterns when drumming - influence of extreme tempi on percussionists with and without focal dystonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Sofia; Altenmüller, Eckart

    be a revealing sign of motor control problems, such as focal dystonia (Jabusch, Vauth & Altenmüller, 2004). The "breakdown" in motor control can therefore be expected to result in more pronounced changes in movement pattern of the affected arm for these patients. Because drumming movements tend to be symmetrical....... 3. METHOD: The arm, hand, and stick movements of four professional percussionists were recorded using a motion capture system. Two of the players are focal dystonia patients with their left arm affected. For each player and arm 25 s of single strokes at different tempi (50, 120, 300 bpm) and dynamic...

  10. Modelling of Conveyor Belt Passage by Driving Drum Using Finite Element Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikoleta Mikušová

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The finite element methods are used in many disciplines by the development of products, typically in mechanical engineering (for example in automotive industry, biomechanics, etc.. Some modern programs of the finite element's methods have specific tools (electromagnetic, fluid and structural simulations. The finite elements methods allow detailed presentation of structures by bending or torsion, complete design, testing and optimization before the prototype production. The aims of this paper were to the model of conveyor belt passage by driving drum. The model was created by the program Abaqus CAE. The created model presented data about forces, pressures, and deformation of the belt conveyor.

  11. A 2 MJ drum-type homopolar motor-generator: developments and tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolognani, S.; Gnesotto, F.; Monelli, C.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents the design work and the first results of a research program on kinetic energy storage and transfer in homopolar machines. A 2 MJ prototype with conventional excitation, two concentric counter-rotating aluminium alloy drum rotors, pneumostatic air bearings and solid brushes is under construction. The performances of several brush-ring materials under various operating conditions have been investigated with a suitable test apparatus and the main results are reported. A thyristor converter has been realized and tested for studying the power smoothing by the homopolar machine of a three-phase grid subject to repeated large power pulses. (author)

  12. DRUMS: Disk Repository with Update Management and Select option for high throughput sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettling, Martin; Thieme, Nils; Both, Andreas; Grosse, Ivo

    2014-02-04

    New technologies for analyzing biological samples, like next generation sequencing, are producing a growing amount of data together with quality scores. Moreover, software tools (e.g., for mapping sequence reads), calculating transcription factor binding probabilities, estimating epigenetic modification enriched regions or determining single nucleotide polymorphism increase this amount of position-specific DNA-related data even further. Hence, requesting data becomes challenging and expensive and is often implemented using specialised hardware. In addition, picking specific data as fast as possible becomes increasingly important in many fields of science. The general problem of handling big data sets was addressed by developing specialized databases like HBase, HyperTable or Cassandra. However, these database solutions require also specialized or distributed hardware leading to expensive investments. To the best of our knowledge, there is no database capable of (i) storing billions of position-specific DNA-related records, (ii) performing fast and resource saving requests, and (iii) running on a single standard computer hardware. Here, we present DRUMS (Disk Repository with Update Management and Select option), satisfying demands (i)-(iii). It tackles the weaknesses of traditional databases while handling position-specific DNA-related data in an efficient manner. DRUMS is capable of storing up to billions of records. Moreover, it focuses on optimizing relating single lookups as range request, which are needed permanently for computations in bioinformatics. To validate the power of DRUMS, we compare it to the widely used MySQL database. The test setting considers two biological data sets. We use standard desktop hardware as test environment. DRUMS outperforms MySQL in writing and reading records by a factor of two up to a factor of 10000. Furthermore, it can work with significantly larger data sets. Our work focuses on mid-sized data sets up to several billion

  13. The Effect of Wetting on The Course of The Drum Granulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błaszczyk Michał

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of experimental drum granulation of silica flour with the use of wetting liquids with different values of surface tension. Additionally, different liquid jet breakup and different residual moisture of the bed were applied in the tests. The process was conducted periodically in two stages: wetting and proper granulation, during which no liquid was supplied to the bed. The condition of the granulated material after the period of wetting (particle size distribution and moisture of separate fractions and a change in the particle size distribution during the further conduct of the process (granulation kinetics were determined.

  14. Simulation Modeling of Non-Homogeneous Mixture in the Horizontal Drum Mixer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Vladimirovich Ostroukh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a simulation model of the diffusion mixing of solids, based on the theory of probability and stochastic diffusion model of imperfect processes of solid particles. It is assumed that the particles have different sizes and density. Model of the program implemented in the AnyLogic SoftWare. Developed a simulation model to evaluate the differences between the intense mixing processes in time and assess their impact on the course of other processes in a horizontal drum mixer.

  15. Evaluation of hydrogen production from CO2 corrosion of steel drums in SFR, Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dugstad, A.; Videm, K.

    1987-06-01

    An experimental program has been carried out for the investigation of the hydrogen formation due to corrosion of steel by water containing CO 2 produced by microbiologic decomposition of paper in waste drums. The hydrogen production will be limited by a limited rate of CO 2 production, as CO 2 is consumed by corrosive reactions producing carbonate containing corrosion products. Experiments indicated that also iron oxide and hydroxides were formed together with FeCO 3 at low CO 2 partial pressures but at a rate which leads to a rather slow increase in hydrogen production. Hydrogen evaluation has been overestimated in previous reports on this subject. (authors)

  16. Seawater corrosion tests for low-level radioactive waste drum containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Sho; Wadachi, Yoshiki

    1985-11-01

    This report is a part of corrosion tests of drums under various environmental conditions (seawater, river water, coastal sand, inland soil and indoor and outdoor atmosphere) done at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute sponsored by the Science and Technology Agency. The corrosion tests were started in November, 1977 and complated at March, 1984. This report describes the results of the seawater corrosion tests which are part of the final report, ''Corrosion Safety Demonstration Test'' (Japanese), and it is expected to contribute the safety assessment of sea dumping of low-level radioactive waste packages. (author)

  17. The potential use of transmission tomographic techniques for the quality checking of cemented waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huddleston, J.; Hutchinson, I.G.

    1986-01-01

    In support of the programme for the quality checking of encapsulated intermediate level waste, the possibilities of using transmission tomographic techniques for the determination of the physical properties of the drum are being considered. A literature survey has been undertaken and the possibilities of extracting data from video recordings of real time radiographs are considered. This work was carried out with financial support from British Nuclear Fuels plc and the UK Department of the Environment. In the DoE context, the results will be used in the formulation of Government Policy, but at this stage they do not necessarily represent Government Policy. (author)

  18. Sampling and analysis plan for the characterization of eight drums at the 200-BP-5 pump-and-treat systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laws, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    Samples will be collected and analyzed to provide sufficient information for characterization of mercury and aluminum contamination in drums from the final rinse of the tanks in the two pump-and-treat systems supporting the 200-BP-5 Operable Unit. The data will be used to determine the type of contamination in the drums to properly designate the waste for disposal or treatment. This sampling plan does not substitute the sampling requirements but is a separate sampling event to manage eight drums containing waste generated during an unanticipated contamination of the process water with mercury and aluminum nitrate nonahydrate (ANN). The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) will be used for extraction, and standard US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methods will be used for analysis

  19. Research of plating aluminum and aluminum foil on internal surface of carbon fiber composite material centrifuge rotor drum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xiuqi; Dong Jinping; Dai Xingjian

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve the corrosion resistance, thermal conductivity and sealability of the internal surface of carbon fiber/epoxy composite material centrifuge rotor drum, magnetron sputtering aluminum and pasting an aluminum foil on the inner wall of the drum are adopted to realize the aim. By means of XRD, SEM/EDS and OM, the surface topography of aluminum coated (thickness of 5 μm and 12 μm) and aluminum foil (12 μm) are observed and analyzed; the cohesion of between aluminum coated (or aluminum foil) and substrate material (CFRP) is measured by scratching experiment, direct drawing experiment, and shear test. Besides, the ultra-high-speed rotation experiment of CFRP ring is carried out to analyze stress and strain of coated aluminum (or aluminum foil) which is adhered on the ring. The results showed aluminum foil pasted on inner surface do better performance than magnetron sputtering aluminum on CFRP centrifuge rotor drum. (authors)

  20. Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis. Radiological diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuentes, R.; Sar, V.; Cabrera, J.J.; Diaz, L.; Hernandez, B.; Valeron, P.; Baez, O.; Rodriguez, M.

    1993-01-01

    Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis (JHF) is a rare disorder of unknown etiology, very few cases of which have been reported in the literature. It presents similarities to other fibromatosys, but has its particular radiological features which differentiate it from them. The clinical findings consist of several, slow growing, subcutaneous nodules, flexion contractures of the joints which can lead to disability, gingival hypertrophy and muscular atrophy. The suspected radiological diagnosis is confirmed by electron microscopy study of the nodules, although light microscopy can also reveal suggestive images. Author (9 refs.)

  1. Juvenile eye growth, when completed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fledelius, Hans C; Christensen, Anders S; Fledelius, Christian

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To test Sorsby's classical statement of axial eye growth as completed at the age of 13 years, with a view also to differentiating between basic eye growth and juvenile elongation associated with eventual refractive change towards myopia. METHODS: (i) A total of 160 healthy eyes close...... about age 13 as general limit found support from the cross-sectional data, which suggested stable emmetropic eye size from about 11-12 years, with an average apparently outgrown male emmetropic value of 23.5 mm versus females' 22.9 mm. The longitudinal data, however, showed emmetropic growth also beyond...

  2. Juvenile ossifying fibroma: Psammamatoid variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivani Aggarwal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile ossifying fibroma is a rare fibro-osseous lesion containing variable amount of calcified masses, which resembles bone or cementum within a fibrocellular connective tissue stroma. It has variable clinical behavior, highly aggressive in nature including invasion and destruction of adjacent anatomic structures with a strong tendency to recur. We reported a 28-year-old female patient with a growth in the upper left vestibule region extending from canine to molar region with clinical, histopathological, and radiological features are presented. Surgical management was done, and regular follow-up was advised.

  3. THE STUDY OF FEATURES OF GUILT OF JUVENILE OFFENDERS IN THE CONTEXT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalija Vladimirovna Galkina

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the results of empirical studies of the experiences of guilt of juvenile offenders in the context of juvenile justice where a minor appears as the subject of legal relations. Restorative approach of juvenile justice is based on an admission of guilt to the victim. In connection with it, the research of features of the guilt of minors who have committed an offence and the conditions for the development of the subjectivity will enhance understanding of the possibilities of restorative juvenile justice system in the prevention of juvenile delinquency.Thus, the results of empirical research presented in the article are important for determining of the psychological bases of realization of rehabilitation programs in the context of juvenile justice. In particular, the results are important for the organization and conduct of psychological work to overcome the psychological barriers in the behavior of juveniles having inherently maladaptive guilt and destructive psychological defense mechanisms.

  4. Design of benign matrix drums for the non-destructive assay performance demonstration program for the National TRU Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, G.K.

    1996-09-01

    Regulatory compliance programs associated with the Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization Program (the Program) require the collection of waste characterization data of known quality to support repository performance assessment, permitting, and associated activities. Blind audit samples, referred to as PDP (performance demonstration program) samples, are devices used in the NDA PDP program to acquire waste NDA system performance data per defined measurement routines. As defined under the current NDA PDP Program Plan, a PDP sample consists of a DOT 17C 55-gallon PDP matrix drum configured with insertable radioactive standards, working reference materials (WRMs). The particular manner in which the matrix drum and PDP standard(s) are combined is a function of the waste NDA system performance test objectives of a given cycle. The scope of this document is confined to the design of the PDP drum radioactive standard internal support structure, the matrix type and the as installed configuration. The term benign is used to designate a matrix possessing properties which are nominally non-interfering to waste NDA measurement techniques. Measurement interference sources are technique specific but include attributes such as: high matrix density, heterogeneous matrix distributions, matrix compositions containing high moderator/high Z element concentrations, etc. To the extent practicable the matrix drum design should not unduly bias one NDA modality over another due to the manner in which the matrix drum configuration manifests itself to the measurement system. To this end the PDP matrix drum configuration and composition detailed below is driven primarily by the intent to minimize the incorporation of matrix attributes known to interfere with fundamental waste NDA modalities, i.e. neutron and gamma based techniques

  5. Intelligent Mobile Sensor System for drum inspection and monitoring - Volume 1. Final report, October 1, 1993 - April 22, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The objective of the Intelligent Mobile Sensor System (IMSS) project is to develop an operational system for monitoring and inspection activities for waste storage facility operations at several DOE sites. Specifically, the product of this effort is a robotic device with enhanced intelligence and maneuverability capable of conducting routine inspection of stored waste drums. The device is capable of operating in the narrow free aisle space between rows of stacked drums. The system has an integrated sensor suite for problem-drum detection, and is linked to a site database both for inspection planning and for data correlation, updating, and report generation. The system is capable of departing on an assigned mission, collecting required data, recording which portions of its mission had to be aborted or modified due to environmental constraints, and reporting back when the mission is complete. Successful identification of more than 96% of drum defects has been demonstrated in a high fidelity waste storage facility mockup. Identified anomalies included rust spots, rust streaks, areas of corrosion, dents, and tilted drums. All drums were positively identified and correlated with the site database. This development effort is separated into three phases of which phase two is now complete. The first phase demonstrated an integrated system (maturity level IVa) for monitoring and inspection activities for waste storage facility operations. The second phase demonstrated a prototype system appropriate for operational use in an actual storage facility. The prototype provides an integrated design that considers operational requirements, hardware costs, maintenance, safety, and robustness. The final phase will demonstrate commercial viability using the prototype vehicle in a pilot waste operations and inspection project. This report summarizes the design and evaluation of the new IMSS Phase 2 system and vehicle

  6. Juveniles' Motivations for Remaining in Prostitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Shu-Ling; Bedford, Olwen

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were collected in 1990-1991, 1992, and 2000 with 49 prostituted juveniles remanded to two rehabilitation centers in Taiwan. These data are analyzed to explore Taiwanese prostituted juveniles' feelings about themselves and their work, their motivations for remaining in prostitution, and their difficulties…

  7. Moral development of solo juvenile sex offenders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vugt, E.; Stams, G.J.; Dekovic, M.; Brugman, D.; Rutten, E.; Hendriks, J.

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the moral development of solo juvenile male sex offenders (n = 20) and juvenile male non-offenders (n = 76), aged 13-19 years, from lower socioeconomic and educational backgrounds. The Moral Orientation Measure (MOM) was used to assess punishment- and victim-based moral

  8. Juvenile Obesity, Physical Activity, and Lifestyle Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Or, Oded

    2000-01-01

    Because many obese children become obese adults, the recent rapid increase in juvenile obesity poses a major public health challenge. Enhanced physical activity is a cornerstone in a multidisciplinary approach to preventing and treating juvenile obesity. Giving exercise recommendations focused for obese youth is critical. Cutting down on sedentary…

  9. Juvenile dispersal in Calomys venustus (Muridae: Sigmodontinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priotto, José; Steinmann, Andrea; Provensal, Cecilia; Polop, Jaime

    2004-05-01

    Both spacing behaviour and dispersal movement are viewed as hierarchical processes in which the effects may be expressed at spatial scale. This research was carried out to examine the hypothesis that the presence of parents promotes the dispersal of juveniles from their natal nest and their father or mother home-range, in Calomys venustus.The study was carried out in four 0.25 ha fences (two controls and two experimentals), in a natural pasture. This study had two periods: Father Removal (FR) (August and December 1997; year one) and Mother Removal (MR) (August 1998 and January 1999; year two). For the FR treatment fathers were removed after juveniles were born, but in the MR treatment mothers were removed after the juveniles were weaned. The effect of parents on the dispersal distance of juveniles was analysed with respect to their natal nest and their mother and father home-range. Dispersal distance from the nest of C. venustus was independent of either male or female parent. Juveniles were more dispersing in relation to the centre of activity of their mothers than to that of their fathers, and females were more dispersing than males. Female juveniles overlap their home-range with their parents less than male juveniles do. The differences observed between female and male juveniles would be related to their different sexual maturation times, as well as to the female territoriality.

  10. Using the Juvenile Justice Poster. Teaching Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Update on Law-Related Education, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Presents a lesson that can help students review and summarize what they have learned about the juvenile justice system. Explains that the students discuss how the juvenile justice system can be improved and conduct a survey on how it might be changed in the future. Provides a copy of the survey and directions. (CMK)

  11. Intelligence Score Profiles of Female Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Shelby Spare; Hart, Kathleen J.; Ficke, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have found that male juvenile offenders typically obtain low scores on measures of intelligence, often with a pattern of higher scores on measures of nonverbal relative to verbal tasks. The research on the intelligence performance of female juvenile offenders is limited. This study explored the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for…

  12. Reformations in Zimbabwe's juvenile justice system | Ruparanganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Children in conflict with the law are often stigmatized and shunned by society as they are perceived as a threat to society. Historically, Zimbabwe's juvenile justice system has been retributive and focused on punishing the juvenile offender. As a result, it has been criticised from a number of viewpoints, including the need to ...

  13. Automated box/drum waste assay (252Cf shuffler) through the material access and accountability boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horley, E.C.; Bjork, C.W.; Bourret, S.C.; Polk, P.J.; Schneider, C.J.; Studley, R.V.

    1992-01-01

    For the first time, a shuffler waste-assay system has been made a part of material access and accountability boundary (MAAB). A 252 Cf Pass-Thru shuffler integrated with a conveyor handling system, will process box or drum waste across the MAAB. This automated system will significantly reduce personnel operating costs because security forces will not be required at the MAAB during waste transfer. Further, the system eliminates the chance of a mix-up between measured and nonmeasured waste. This Pass-Thru shuffler is to be installed in the Westinghouse Savannah River Company 321M facility to screen waste boxes and drums for 235 U. An automated conveyor will load waste containers into the shuffler, and upon verification, will transfer the containers across the MAAB. Verification will consist of a weight measurement followed by active neutron interrogation. Containers that pass low-level waste criteria will be conveyed to an accumulator section outside the MAAB. If a container fails to meet the waste criteria, it will be rejected and sent back to the load station for manual inspection and repackaging

  14. Portrayals of men and women in Drum magazine (South Africa advertisements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mlenga Jere

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The subject of gender portrayals in advertising continues to generate academicdiscussions in part because of its socialisation effects. Research purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine how print advertisements inDrum magazine portray women and men based on a number of categories including traitdescriptors, physical characteristics, role behaviours and occupational status. Motivation for the study: It is important to understand gender portrayals in advertisingbecause perceptions of social reality are influenced by what people are exposed to insocialisation agents such as advertisements. Research approach, design and method: A quantitative content analysis was run on a sampleof 415 advertisements drawn from Drum magazine. Partial least squares analysis was used toassess the relationships between the variables.Main findings: The findings show that gender has a statistically significant effect on profiles(roles and sexual appeal but not on gender equity. Advertisers therefore treat modelsdifferently with regard to the roles assigned and the use of sexual appeal. Practical/managerial implications: Previous research evidence and theory indicate that thecontent of advertisements does influence readers’ self-perception and also their perceptionof others. Within the bounds of advertising creativity, it is important that advertisers payparticular attention to gender portrayals in advertising to avoid the creation or perpetuationof gender stereotypes. Contribution/value-add: Though the model’s gender influences portrayals in advertising,other contextual factors are also important determinants of portrayals.

  15. Fault Diagnosis of Demountable Disk-Drum Aero-Engine Rotor Using Customized Multiwavelet Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinglong Chen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The demountable disk-drum aero-engine rotor is an important piece of equipment that greatly impacts the safe operation of aircraft. However, assembly looseness or crack fault has led to several unscheduled breakdowns and serious accidents. Thus, condition monitoring and fault diagnosis technique are required for identifying abnormal conditions. Customized ensemble multiwavelet method for aero-engine rotor condition identification, using measured vibration data, is developed in this paper. First, customized multiwavelet basis function with strong adaptivity is constructed via symmetric multiwavelet lifting scheme. Then vibration signal is processed by customized ensemble multiwavelet transform. Next, normalized information entropy of multiwavelet decomposition coefficients is computed to directly reflect and evaluate the condition. The proposed approach is first applied to fault detection of an experimental aero-engine rotor. Finally, the proposed approach is used in an engineering application, where it successfully identified the crack fault of a demountable disk-drum aero-engine rotor. The results show that the proposed method possesses excellent performance in fault detection of aero-engine rotor. Moreover, the robustness of the multiwavelet method against noise is also tested and verified by simulation and field experiments.

  16. Fast discharging homopolar drum-type generator with gas bearing and flexible copper-fiber brushes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kibardin, A.S.; Komin, A.V.; Sojkin, V.F.; Frolkin, V.I.

    1984-01-01

    The description and results of testing schock-excited homopolar generator (SEHG) with a drum-type rotor, a gas bearing and flexible copper-fiber brushes are presented. SEHG has a magnetic core with two excitation coils with the designed field of 1.8-2 T in the gap. The drum-type titanium rotor has 80 kg, is 0.5 m in diameter, 0.25 m length and 0.05 m thick. SEHG power is 3.6 MJ, overall dimensions are 0.8x1 m. Single- and double-row bearings, representing an aluminium shell of 15 mm thick, established inside an external backward current lead and isolated from it, are used to control serviceability of a radial gas-static bearing, which is a support for an SEHG rotor. The bearing surface was covered with the colloidal graphite and had one or two rows by 24 openings for swelling. Brush units represent a bronze brush ring, containing 44 copper-fiber brushes. Tests results confirm serviceability of copper-fiber brushes with quite large dimensions and permit to count on producing the 2.4 MA electric discharge and 12 ms pulse rise time

  17. Online Monitoring of Temperature Using Wireless Module in a Rotating Drum-Applicable to Leather Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Narayani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to ensure safe and efficient operation of unit processes, foremost requirement is accurate measurement of process variables, with which quality can be monitored and controlled. Understanding the necessity of online monitoring of process temperature in tanning/dyeing process, the article is focused on wireless measurement of physical parameters involved in wet processing of hides/ skins and monitoring through digital computer for further analysis. It’s a challenging task to measure and communicate the process information from a closed rotating drum. Wireless communication is proposed because of its enhanced security, superfast operating speed, and increased mobility. The physical parameters which are predominant in tanning process are temperature, pH, conductivity etc. of the process fluid. It is necessary to carryout dyeing at 65 0C for producing raw to wet blue process. As a first attempt, wireless module for temperature measurement has been developed. The module includes signal transmitter and receiver section. In the transmitter section, the temperature which is measured by an integrated sensor is converted into frequency signal and imposed on a radio frequency signal (career signal and get transmitted in air. On the other side, receiver section receives the radio frequency signal and converts that into electrical signals to interface with the digital computer for online monitoring. The module is able to receive and control temperature of tanning drum within a distance of 100 meters. Real time experiments on the fabricated model show interesting results for commercialization.

  18. Case studies of heat conduction in rotary drums with L-shaped lifters via DEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Xie

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Rotary drums are widely used in numerous processes in industry to handle granular materials. In present work, heat transfer processes in drums with L-shaped lifters have been investigated by coupling the discrete element method (DEM with heat transfer model. Effects of both operational and structural parameters have been analyzed. It is found that increasing rotational speed could improve heat transfer to a certain extent, however, just in relatively low speed stage. When lifter number increases, the heat transfer speed slightly decreases. An increasing lifter height could promote heat transfer first and then reduces it, but the amplitude of variation keeps small. The heat transfer rate descends with increasing lifter width. The heat transfer mechanisms have also been discussed by comparing mixing rates, total contact areas for thermal conduction, time constants (TC indicating apparent heat transfer rate and effective heat transfer coefficients(HTC. It is concluded that dynamic conduction due to particle flow is dominated in all cases. The L-shaped lifers are turned out not a good choice when heat conduction between particles is prominent.

  19. Magnetic anomalies of steel drums: a review of the literature and research results of the INGV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Marchetti

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The detection and evaluation of the status of disposal sites that contain hazardous waste materials is becoming an increasingly important element in environmental investigations. Close cooperation between the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV; National Institute of Volcanology and Geophysics in Rome and the Italian environmental police has resulted in numerous underground investigations of different buried materials. Among the geophysical investigation tools, magnetometry is the most effective, rapid and precise of all of the geophysical methods for localizing buried steel drums. Analysis of magnetic map anomalies can provide a variety of information about buried materials, including extension, distribution and depth, with processing of the acquired magnetic data. This information is also very useful in case of excavations that are aimed at the recovery of hazardous waste. This study determines the most relevant analyses reported in the literature, with modeling of magnetometric methods for environmental applications both theoretically and experimentally. Some studies and research results achieved by the INGV in relation to magnetic anomalies produced by buried steel drums are also reported, as found in field operations and as achieved from test sites.

  20. Investigation of drum pressurization incident in the 331 Building, Room 175 on January 10, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollari, R.A.

    1995-02-01

    On January 10, 1995, a pressurized drum incident occurred at the 331 Building, Room 175. On January 12, 1995, the Manager of the Life Sciences Center appointed members to an Investigation Board to investigate the incident (see Exhibit A). This incident was initially categorized as an Off-Normal Occurrence, but was later elevated to an Unusual Occurrence by the Occurrence Classifier. The scope of this investigation was to employ a formal method of root cause analysis, identify the methodology, and report the results of the analysis, fully explaining the technical elements of the causal sequence along with a description of the barriers that should have or could have prevented the occurrence. During the course of the investigation, the scene of the event was not accessible. Therefore, the investigation relied primarily on testimony from staff members directly involved and their management. In addition, other outside professionals were also consulted. The Investigation Board visited the previous location of the drum, 331A Building, Room 9; Room 173, which fronts room 175, was also visited. The Investigation Board reviewed selected documents, which are also listed

  1. Final environmental assessment: TRU waste drum staging building, Technical Area 55, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Much of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) research on plutonium metallurgy and plutonium processing is performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), in Los Alamos, New Mexico. LANL's main facility for plutonium research is the Plutonium Facility, also referred to as Technical Area 55 (TA-55). The main laboratory building for plutonium work within the Plutonium Facility (TA-55) is the Plutonium Facility Building 4, or PF-4. This Environmental Assessment (EA) analyzes the potential environmental effects that would be expected to occur if DOE were to stage sealed containers of transuranic (TRU) and TRU mixed waste in a support building at the Plutonium Facility (TA-55) that is adjacent to PF-4. At present, the waste containers are staged in the basement of PF-4. The proposed project is to convert an existing support structure (Building 185), a prefabricated metal building on a concrete foundation, and operate it as a temporary staging facility for sealed containers of solid TRU and TRU mixed waste. The TRU and TRU mixed wastes would be contained in sealed 55-gallon drums and standard waste boxes as they await approval to be transported to TA-54. The containers would then be transported to a longer term TRU waste storage area at TA-54. The TRU wastes are generated from plutonium operations carried out in PF-4. The drum staging building would also be used to store and prepare for use new, empty TRU waste containers

  2. Normal conditions of transport thermal analysis and testing of a Type B drum package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerrell, J.W.; Alstine, M.N. van; Gromada, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    Increasing the content limits of radioactive material packagings can save money and increase transportation safety by decreasing the total number of shipments required to transport large quantities of material. The contents of drum packages can be limited by unacceptable containment vessel pressures and temperatures due to the thermal properties of the insulation. The purpose of this work is to understand and predict the effects of insulation properties on containment system performance. The type B shipping container used in the study is a double containment fiberboard drum package. The package is primarily used to transport uranium and plutonium metals and oxides. A normal condition of transport (NCT) thermal test was performed to benchmark an NCT analysis of the package. A 21 W heater was placed in an instrumented package to simulate the maximum source decay heat. The package reached thermal equilibrium 120 hours after the heater was turned on. Testing took place indoors to minimize ambient temperature fluctuations. The thermal analysis of the package used fiberboard properties reported in the literature and resulted in temperature significantly greater than those measured during the test. Details of the NCT test will be described and transient temperatures at key thermocouple locations within the package will be presented. Analytical results using nominal fiberboard properties will be presented. Explanations of the results and the attempt to benchmark the analysis will be presented. The discovery that fiberboard has an anisotropic thermal conductivity and its effect on thermal performance will also be discussed

  3. Investigation and analytical results of bituminized products in drums at filing room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Atsuhiro; Kato, Yoshiyuki; Sano, Yuichi; Kitajima, Takafumi; Fujita, Hideto

    1999-09-01

    This report describes the results of investigation of the bituminized products in drums, liquid waste in the receiving tank V21 and the bituminized mixture in the extruder. The investigation of the products in drums showed most of the unburned products filled after 28B had abnormality, such as hardened surfaces, caves and porous brittle products. The particle sizes of the salt fixed in bituminized products depended neither on batch number nor on feed rate. It indicates the fining of the salt particle caused by the decreased feed rate did not occur. The measured concentrations of metals and anions in the bituminized products showed no abnormality. The catalytic content was not recognized in the products. The infrared absorption spectra obtained with the bituminized products show the oxidation at the incident occurred without oxygen. There was no organic phase on the surface of liquid waste in V21. Chemical analysis and thermal analysis on the precipitate in V21 showed no abnormality. Concentration of sodium nitrate/nitrite in the mixture collected from the extruder was lower than normal products. These results show no chemical activation of the bituminized products. It can be concluded that the chemical characteristics of the products had little abnormality even around the incident. (author)

  4. Study on Parameter Optimization Design of Drum Brake Based on Hybrid Cellular Multiobjective Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In consideration of the significant role the brake plays in ensuring the fast and safe running of vehicles, and since the present parameter optimization design models of brake are far from the practical application, this paper proposes a multiobjective optimization model of drum brake, aiming at maximizing the braking efficiency and minimizing the volume and temperature rise of drum brake. As the commonly used optimization algorithms are of some deficiency, we present a differential evolution cellular multiobjective genetic algorithm (DECell by introducing differential evolution strategy into the canonical cellular genetic algorithm for tackling this problem. For DECell, the gained Pareto front could be as close as possible to the exact Pareto front, and also the diversity of nondominated individuals could be better maintained. The experiments on the test functions reveal that DECell is of good performance in solving high-dimension nonlinear multiobjective problems. And the results of optimizing the new brake model indicate that DECell obviously outperforms the compared popular algorithm NSGA-II concerning the number of obtained brake design parameter sets, the speed, and stability for finding them.

  5. Analytical Chemistry and Materials Characterization Results for Debris Recovered from Nitrate Salt Waste Drum S855793

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Patrick Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chamberlin, Rebecca M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Schwartz, Daniel S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Worley, Christopher Gordon [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Garduno, Katherine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lujan, Elmer J. W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Borrego, Andres Patricio [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Castro, Alonso [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Colletti, Lisa Michelle [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Fulwyler, James Brent [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Holland, Charlotte S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Keller, Russell C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Klundt, Dylan James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Martinez, Alexander [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Martin, Frances Louise [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Montoya, Dennis Patrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Myers, Steven Charles [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Porterfield, Donivan R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Schake, Ann Rene [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Schappert, Michael Francis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Soderberg, Constance B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Spencer, Khalil J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stanley, Floyd E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Thomas, Mariam R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Townsend, Lisa Ellen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Xu, Ning [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-09-16

    Solid debris was recovered from the previously-emptied nitrate salt waste drum S855793. The bulk sample was nondestructively assayed for radionuclides in its as-received condition. Three monoliths were selected for further characterization. Two of the monoliths, designated Specimen 1 and 3, consisted primarily of sodium nitrate and lead nitrate, with smaller amounts of lead nitrate oxalate and lead oxide by powder x-ray diffraction. The third monolith, Specimen 2, had a complex composition; lead carbonate was identified as the predominant component, and smaller amounts of nitrate, nitrite and carbonate salts of lead, magnesium and sodium were also identified. Microfocused x-ray fluorescence (MXRF) mapping showed that lead was ubiquitous throughout the cross-sections of Specimens 1 and 2, while heteroelements such as potassium, calcium, chromium, iron, and nickel were found in localized deposits. MXRF examination and destructive analysis of fragments of Specimen 3 showed elevated concentrations of iron, which were broadly distributed through the sample. With the exception of its high iron content and low carbon content, the chemical composition of Specimen 3 was within the ranges of values previously observed in four other nitrate salt samples recovered from emptied waste drums.

  6. A numerical study of the segregation phenomenon of lognormal particle size distributions in the rotating drum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shiliang; Sun, Yuhao; Zhao, Ya; Chew, Jia Wei

    2018-05-01

    Granular materials are mostly polydisperse, which gives rise to phenomena such as segregation that has no monodisperse counterpart. The discrete element method is applied to simulate lognormal particle size distributions (PSDs) with the same arithmetic mean particle diameter but different PSD widths in a three-dimensional rotating drum operating in the rolling regime. Despite having the same mean particle diameter, as the PSD width of the lognormal PSDs increases, (i) the steady-state mixing index, the total kinetic energy, the ratio of the active region depth to the total bed depth, the mass fraction in the active region, the steady-state active-passive mass-based exchanging rate, and the mean solid residence time (SRT) of the particles in the active region increase, while (ii) the steady-state gyration radius, the streamwise velocity, and the SRT in the passive region decrease. Collectively, these highlight the need for more understanding of the effect of PSD width on the granular flow behavior in the rotating drum operating in the rolling flow regime.

  7. Design and construction of a 208-L drum containing representative LLNL transuranic and low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camp, D.C.; Pickering, J.; Martz, H.E.

    1994-01-01

    At the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), we are developing the nondestructive analysis (NDA) technique of active (A) computed tomography (CT) to measure waste matrix attenuation as a function of gamma-ray energy (ACT); and passive. (P) Cr to locate and identify all gamma-ray emitting isotopes within a waste container. Coupling the ACT and PCT results will quantify each isotope identified, thereby categorize the amount of radioactivity within waste drums having volumes up to 416-liters (L), i.e., 110-gallon drums

  8. The differential dieaway technique applied to the measurement of the fissile content of drums of cement encapsulated waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinhoe, M.T.

    1986-01-01

    This report describes calculations of the differential dieaway technique as applied to cement encapsulated waste. The main difference from previous applications of the technique are that only one detector position is used (diametrically opposite the neutron source) and the chamber walls are made of concrete. The results show that by rotating the drum the response to fissile material across the central plane of the drum can be made relatively uniform. The absolute size of the response is about 0.4. counts per minute per gram fissile for a neutron source of 10 8 neutrons per second. Problems of neutron and gamma background and water content are considered. (author)

  9. X-Ray, Digital Imaging with Volumetric Density Measurement and Profiling, Applied to the Characterization of Waste Drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huhtiniemi, I.; Gupta, N.; Halliwell, S.

    2006-01-01

    The European Commission's Joint Research Centre Ispra Site (JRC-Ispra) has initiated a decommissioning and waste management program that will span about two decades. The program includes a requirement to characterize the contents of about 6,500 radioactive, 220 litre waste drums whose documented history is incomplete. To render the characterization process more efficient, the drums will be initially divided into homogeneous groups, an activity that will be based on existing documentation and non-destructive examination (NDE) by X-ray digital imaging. This paper describes the X-ray imaging techniques chosen, and the planned performance validation of the equipment. (authors)

  10. Low-level waste drum staging building at Weapons Engineering Tritium Facility, TA-16, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico. Environmental Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The proposed action is to place a 3 meter (m) by 4.5 m (10 ft x 15 ft) prefabricated storage building (transportainer) adjacent to the existing Weapons Engineering Tritium Facility (WETF) at Technical Area (TA-) 16, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and to use the building as a staging site for sealed 55 galllon drums of noncompactible waste contaminated with low levels of tritium (LLW). Up to eight drums of waste would be accumulated before the waste is moved by LANL Waste Management personnel to the existing on-site LLW disposal area at TA-54. The drum staging building would be placed on a bermed asphalt pad, near other existing accumulation structures for office trash and compactible LLW. The no-action alternative is to continue storing drums of LLW in the WETF laboratories where they occupy valuable work space, hamper movement of personnel and equipment, and require waste management personnel to enter those laboratories in order to remove filled drums. No new waste would be generated by implementing the proposed action; no changes or increases in WETF operations or waste production rate are anticipated as a result of staging drums of LLW outside the main laboratory building. The site for the LLW drum staging building would not impact any sensitive areas. Tritium emissions from the drums of LLW were included within the source term for normal operations at the WETF; the cumulative impacts would not be increased

  11. Do juveniles bully more than young offenders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Jane L

    2002-04-01

    This study compares bullying behaviour among juvenile and young offenders and incorporates two different methods to measure bullying. Ninety-five male juvenile and 196 male young offenders completed two questionnaires, one that measured bullying directly and one that measured behaviours indicative of "being bullied" or of "bullying others". Juveniles perceived a higher extent of bullying than young offenders. Juveniles reported significantly more physical, psychological or verbal and overall direct forms of bullying behaviour than young offenders. A number of differences were found between juveniles and young offenders with regard to the types of prisoners likely to become victims, who they would advise a victim to speak to and how bullying could be prevented. The results are discussed in relation to developmental theories of aggression and how bullying behaviour can be defined and measured among prisoners. Copyright 2002 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Study of gas generation in drum L/ILW packages using hermetic containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molnar, M.; Palcsu, L.; Svingor, E.; Futo, I.; Major, Z.; Veres, M.

    2005-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. During the storage of low and intermediate level radioactive waste (L/ILW) significant quantities of gas may be produced. It is likely that a small proportion of the generated gas will be radioactive as a result of the incorporation of the isotopes 3 H and 14 C that are present within the waste. To obtain reliable estimates of the quantities and rates of the gas production in L/ILWa series of measurements was carried out of waste packages produced and temporarily stored at the site of Paks Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). Ten drums filled with selected original L/ILW were placed into hermetic containers equipped with sampling valves for repeated sampling. These hermetic containers were stored at the same site where the L/ILW is stored primarily in the Paks NPP. The pressure and the temperature of the headspace gas in the containers were monitored continuously. Qualitative gas component analyses of headspace gases of drums and their containers were executed by quadrupole mass spectrometer. The gas generation rate in the stored L/ILW was calculated by the measured state parameters and the composition variation of the gas in the closed containers. Stable isotope measurements were executed from the CO 2 , CH 4 and N 2 fractions by stable isotope ratio mass spectrometer. Helium measurements were done by noble gas mass spectrometer. The tritium content of the vapour, H 2 and CH 4 fractions was measured by a low background liquid scintillation counter. 14 C content of the CO 2 and CH 4 fractions was measured by a low background gas proportional counter system (ATOMKI). Our results showed that the main generated gases in L/ILW are carbon dioxide, methane, hydrogen and nitrogen. The typical rates were 0.05-0.2 normal litre gas/day for CO 2 and CH 4 generation, and less than 0.02 normal litre gas/day for H 2 . Because of the typical vanishing of the O 2 from the headspace gases no explosive gas mixture was indicated in the L/ILW drums during

  13. Family transitions and juvenile delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Ryan D; Osgood, Aurea K; Oghia, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    There is a large body of research that shows children from non-intact homes show higher rates of juvenile delinquency than children from intact homes, partially due to weaker parental control and supervision in non-intact homes. What has not been adequately addressed in the research is the influence of changes in family structure among individual adolescents over time on delinquent offending. Using the first and third waves of the National Youth Study, we assess the effect of family structure changes on changes in delinquent offending between waves through the intermediate process of changes in family time and parental attachment. Although prior research has documented adolescents in broken homes are more delinquent than youth in intact homes, the process of family dissolution is not associated with concurrent increases in offending. In contrast, family formation through marriage or cohabitation is associated with simultaneous increases in offending. Changes in family time and parental attachment account for a portion of the family formation effect on delinquency, and prior parental attachment and juvenile offending significantly condition the effect of family formation on offending.

  14. Juvenile Gaucher disease simulating osteomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.H.; Ortega, J.A.; Heisel, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    A case in which several imaging procedures suggested juvenile Gaucher disease in a child who presented with symptomatology of osteomyelitis is discussed. The 20-month girl was given a Technetium-99m radionuclide skeletal examination which revealed intense uptake of tracer agents along the shaft of the right femur. It was also found that the liver and spleen were dramatically Ga-67 avid. The bone pain symptomatology suggested an osteomyelitis of the femur, but skeletal scintigraphy with Tc-99m-labeled bone tracer demonstrated photopenic areas involving the femur, suggesting that the bone pain may have been due to marrow packed with Gaucher cells. This overexpansion of the marrow may lead to microfractures with remodeling seen radiographically as periosteal new bone and scintigraphically as increased periosteal deposition of tracer agent. The radiogallium study was useful to exclude an underlying osteomyelitis in the involved femurs. Although juvenile Gaucher disease is unusual, it should be considered in any child who presents with the constellation of hepatosplenomegaly and bone pain simulating osteomyelitis

  15. Juvenile Gaucher disease simulating osteomyelitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.H.; Ortega, J.A.; Heisel, M.A.

    1981-10-01

    A case in which several imaging procedures suggested juvenile Gaucher disease in a child who presented with symptomatology of osteomyelitis is discussed. The 20-month girl was given a Technetium-99m radionuclide skeletal examination which revealed intense uptake of tracer agents along the shaft of the right femur. It was also found that the liver and spleen were dramatically Ga-67 avid. The bone pain symptomatology suggested an osteomyelitis of the femur, but skeletal scintigraphy with Tc-99m-labeled bone tracer demonstrated photopenic areas involving the femur, suggesting that the bone pain may have been due to marrow packed with Gaucher cells. This overexpansion of the marrow may lead to microfractures with remodeling seen radiographically as periosteal new bone and scintigraphically as increased periosteal deposition of tracer agent. The radiogallium study was useful to exclude an underlying osteomyelitis in the involved femurs. Although juvenile Gaucher disease is unusual, it should be considered in any child who presents with the constellation of hepatosplenomegaly and bone pain simulating osteomyelitis.

  16. Atherosclerosis in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Jednacz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the arteries. Clinical consequences of the atherosclerotic process occur in the adult population, however atherosclerotic process begins in childhood. The classic risk factors for atherosclerosis include obesity, dyslipidaemia, age, gender or family history. In recent years, attention has been drawn to the similarity between atherosclerotic inflammatory processes and inflammatory changes in the course of systemic connective tissue disease, in particular systemic lupus etythematosus (SLE or rheumatoid arthritis (RA. There is also observed the similarity of the pathogenetic background of development of atherosclerosis and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA. Elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines are observed in the course of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Also homocysteine concentrations, which may play a significant role in the development of atherosclerotic lesions, are observed higher in patients with JIA. Some studies revealed higher carotid intima-media thickness (IMT index values in children with JIA. In view of the fact that atherosclerotic process begins as early as in childhood, the introduction of appropriate preventive measures in children is a matter of utmost importance.

  17. Application of artificial neural networks on the characterization of radioactive waste drums; Aplicacao de redes neurais artificiais na caracterizacao de tambores de rejeito radioativo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potiens Junior, Ademar Jose; Hiromoto, Goro, E-mail: apotiens@ipen.b, E-mail: hiromoto@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    The methodology consist of system simulation of drum-detector by Monte Carlo for obtention of counting efficiency. The obtained data were treated and a neural artificial network (RNA) were constructed for evaluation of total activity of drum. For method evaluation measurements were performed in ten position parallel to the drum axis and the results submitted to the RNA. The developed methodology showed to be effective for isotopic characterization of gamma emitter radioactive wastes distributed in a heterogeneous way in a 200 litters drum. The objective of this work as to develop a methodology of analyse for quantification and localization of radionuclides not homogeneous distributed in a 200 liters drum based on the mathematical techniques

  18. Carbon isotopes in otolith amino acids identify residency of juvenile snapper (Family: Lutjanidae) in coastal nurseries

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, Kelton

    2011-08-26

    This study explored the potential for otolith geochemistry in snapper (Family: Lutjanidae) to identify residency in juvenile nursery habitats with distinctive carbon isotope values. Conventional bulk otolith and muscle stable isotope analyses (SIA) and essential amino acid (AA) SIA were conducted on snapper collected from seagrass beds, mangroves, and coral reefs in the Red Sea, Caribbean Sea, and Pacific coast of Panama. While bulk stable isotope values in otoliths showed regional differences, they failed to distinguish nursery residence on local scales. Essential AA δ13C values in otoliths, on the other hand, varied as a function of habitat type and provided a better tracer of residence in different juvenile nursery habitats than conventional bulk otolith SIA alone. A strong linear relationship was found between paired otolith and muscle essential AA δ13C values regardless of species, geographic region, or habitat type, indicating that otolith AAs recorded the same dietary information as muscle AAs. Juvenile snapper in the Red Sea sheltered in mangroves but fed in seagrass beds, while snapper from the Caribbean Sea and Pacific coast of Panama showed greater reliance on mangrove-derived carbon. Furthermore, compound-specific SIA revealed that microbially recycled detrital carbon, not water-column-based new phytoplankton carbon, was the primary carbon source supporting snapper production on coastal reefs of the Red Sea. This study presented robust tracers of juvenile nursery residence that will be crucial for reconstructing ontogenetic migration patterns of fishes among coastal wetlands and coral reefs. This information is key to determining the importance of nursery habitats to coral reef fish populations and will provide valuable scientific support for the design of networked marine-protected areas. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  19. Carbon isotopes in otolith amino acids identify residency of juvenile snapper (Family: Lutjanidae) in coastal nurseries

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, Kelton; Berumen, Michael L.; Mateo, Ivan; Elsdon, Travis S.; Thorrold, Simon R.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the potential for otolith geochemistry in snapper (Family: Lutjanidae) to identify residency in juvenile nursery habitats with distinctive carbon isotope values. Conventional bulk otolith and muscle stable isotope analyses (SIA) and essential amino acid (AA) SIA were conducted on snapper collected from seagrass beds, mangroves, and coral reefs in the Red Sea, Caribbean Sea, and Pacific coast of Panama. While bulk stable isotope values in otoliths showed regional differences, they failed to distinguish nursery residence on local scales. Essential AA δ13C values in otoliths, on the other hand, varied as a function of habitat type and provided a better tracer of residence in different juvenile nursery habitats than conventional bulk otolith SIA alone. A strong linear relationship was found between paired otolith and muscle essential AA δ13C values regardless of species, geographic region, or habitat type, indicating that otolith AAs recorded the same dietary information as muscle AAs. Juvenile snapper in the Red Sea sheltered in mangroves but fed in seagrass beds, while snapper from the Caribbean Sea and Pacific coast of Panama showed greater reliance on mangrove-derived carbon. Furthermore, compound-specific SIA revealed that microbially recycled detrital carbon, not water-column-based new phytoplankton carbon, was the primary carbon source supporting snapper production on coastal reefs of the Red Sea. This study presented robust tracers of juvenile nursery residence that will be crucial for reconstructing ontogenetic migration patterns of fishes among coastal wetlands and coral reefs. This information is key to determining the importance of nursery habitats to coral reef fish populations and will provide valuable scientific support for the design of networked marine-protected areas. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  20. Angiofibroma juvenil nasofaríngeo Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Gualberto Lescaille Torres

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de un angiofibroma juvenil nasofaríngeo, en un paciente del consultorio médico No. 9, que pertenece al Policlínico Integral Docente "Carlos Manuel Portuondo" de Marianao. Se reconoce la importancia de realizar una historia clínica detallada, así como un minucioso examen físico, por el médico de familia y el otorrinolaringólogo del área de salud, que incluyó la rinoscopia posterior, para poder llegar al diagnóstico de esa patología, y realizar la extirpación precoz del angiofibroma, mediante el proceder quirúrgico. Se concluyó que el diagnóstico clínico se correspondió con el histopatológico, y que la conducta quirúrgica temprana es resolutiva en la afección.It is presented a case of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma in a patient with this pathology, from the clicial practice No. 9, in Comprehensive Teaching Polyclinic "Carlos Manuel Portuondo" in Marianao. It recognizes the importance of a thorough clinical history and careful physical examination by the family physician and the otolaryngologist in this health area, including a posterior rhinoscopy, to diagnose this disease and to achieve early removal of the angiofibroma, by a surgical procedure. It was concluded that the clinical diagnosis corresponded to the histopathological diagnosis, and that early surgical treatment is resolute in this condition.

  1. The Effect of Different Phases of Synchrony on Pain Threshold in a Drumming Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Sullivan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral synchrony has been linked to endorphin activity (Cohen et al., 2010; Sullivan and Rickers, 2013; Sullivan et al., 2014; Tarr et al., 2015, 2016; Weinstein et al., 2016. This has been called the synchrony effect. Synchrony has two dominant phases of movement; in-phase and anti-phase. The majority of research investigating synchrony’s effect on endorphin activity has focused on in-phase synchrony following vigorous activities. The only research to investigate the effects of anti-phase synchrony on endorphin activity found that anti-phase synchronized rowing did not produce the synchrony effect (Sullivan et al., 2014. Anti-phase synchrony, however, is counter-intuitive to the sport of rowing and may have interfered with the synchrony effect. This study investigated the effect of anti-phase synchrony on endorphin activity in a different task (i.e., drumming. University students (n = 30 were asked to drum solo and in in-phase and anti-phase pairs for 3 min. Pain threshold was assessed as an indirect indicator of endorphin activity prior to and following the task. Although the in-phase synchrony effect was not found, a repeated measures ANOVA found that there was a significant difference in pain threshold change among the three conditions [F(2,24 = 4.10, = 0.255, p < 0.05. Post hoc t-tests showed that the anti-phase condition had a significantly greater pain threshold change than both the solo and in-phase conditions at p < 0.05. This is the first time that anti-phase synchrony has been shown to produce the synchrony effect. Because anti-phase drumming may have required more attention between partners than in-phase synchrony, it may have affected self-other merging (Tarr et al., 2014. These results support Tarr et al.’s (2014 model that multiple mechanisms account for the effect of synchrony on pain threshold, and suggest that different characteristics of the activity may influence the synchrony effect.

  2. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay of Drummed Wastes for the TRU Waste Characterization Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DOE Carlsbad Field Office

    2001-01-01

    The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for nondestructive assay (NDA) consists of a series of tests to evaluate the capability for NDA of transuranic (TRU) waste throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Each test is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements obtained from NDA systems used to characterize the radiological constituents of TRU waste. The primary documents governing the conduct of the PDP are the Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WAC; DOE 1999a) and the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD; DOE 1999b). The WAC requires participation in the PDP; the PDP must comply with the QAPD and the WAC. The WAC contains technical and quality requirements for acceptable NDA. This plan implements the general requirements of the QAPD and applicable requirements of the WAC for the NDA PDP. Measurement facilities demonstrate acceptable performance by the successful testing of simulated waste containers according to the criteria set by this PDP Plan. Comparison among DOE measurement groups and commercial assay services is achieved by comparing the results of measurements on similar simulated waste containers reported by the different measurement facilities. These tests are used as an independent means to assess the performance of measurement groups regarding compliance with established quality assurance objectives (QAO's). Measurement facilities must analyze the simulated waste containers using the same procedures used for normal waste characterization activities. For the drummed waste PDP, a simulated waste container consists of a 55-gallon matrix drum emplaced with radioactive standards and fabricated matrix inserts. These PDP sample components are distributed to the participating measurement facilities that have been designated and authorized by the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO). The NDA Drum PDP materials are stored at these sites under secure conditions to

  3. Application of the dose conversion factor for a NaI(Tl) detector to the radwaste drum assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Young-Yong; Hong, Dae-Seok; Kim, Tae-Kuk; Kwak, Kyung-Kil; Ryu, Woo-Seog

    2011-01-01

    The dose-to-curie (DTC) conversion method has been known that there could be extremely high uncertainty associated with establishing the radioactivity of gamma emitters in a drum. However, the DTC conversion method is still an effective assay method to calculate the radioisotope inventory because of the simple and easy procedures to be applied. In order to make the DTC conversion method practical, numerous assumptions and limitations placed on its use. These assumptions and limitations are related to the dose rate measurement and the relative abundance of gamma emitters in a drum. However, these two variables were generally obtained from the different detection mechanisms even using the different radwaste each other. Unfortunately, that expanded the limitation of using the DTC conversion method. In order to obtain two variables in a drum to be assayed at once, the dose conversion factor for a NaI(Tl) detector was first calculated from the MCNP code. The pulse height spectrum from a simulated drum inserted into a standard source was measured by a NaI(Tl) detector, and then, two variables were calculated from the dose conversion factor and the net count rate of detected gamma emitters in the pulse height spectrum.

  4. First Industrial Tests of a Matrix Monitor Correction for the Differential Die-away Technique of Historical Waste Drums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoni, Rodolphe; Passard, Christian; Perot, Bertrand [CEA Cadarache DEN/Nuclear Measurement Laboratory, 13108 Saint-Paul lez Durance (France); Batifol, Marc; Vandamme, Jean-Christophe [Nuclear Measurement Team, AREVA NC, La Hague plant F-50444 Beaumont-Hague (France); Grassi, Gabriele [AREVA NC, 1 place Jean-Millier, 92084 Paris-La-Defense cedex (France)

    2015-07-01

    The fissile mass in radioactive waste drums filled with compacted metallic residues (spent fuel hulls and nozzles) produced at AREVA NC La Hague reprocessing plant is measured by neutron interrogation with the Differential Die-away measurement Technique (DDT). In the next years, old hulls and nozzles mixed with Ion-Exchange Resins will be measured. The ion-exchange resins increase neutron moderation in the matrix, compared to the waste measured in the current process. In this context, the Nuclear Measurement Laboratory (LMN) of CEA Cadarache has studied a matrix effect correction method, based on a drum monitor, namely a 3He proportional counter located inside the measurement cavity. After feasibility studies performed with LMN's PROMETHEE 6 laboratory measurement cell and with MCNPX simulations, this paper presents first experimental tests performed on the industrial ACC (hulls and nozzles compaction facility) measurement system. A calculation vs. experiment benchmark has been carried out by performing dedicated calibration measurements with a representative drum and {sup 235}U samples. The comparison between calculation and experiment shows a satisfactory agreement for the drum monitor. The final objective of this work is to confirm the reliability of the modeling approach and the industrial feasibility of the method, which will be implemented on the industrial station for the measurement of historical wastes. (authors)

  5. Three-dimensional simulation of grain mixing in three different rotating drum designs for solid-state fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutyser, M.A.I.; Weber, F.J.; Briels, W.J.; Boom, R.M.; Rinzema, A.

    2002-01-01

    A previously published two-dimensional discrete particle simulation model for radial mixing behavior of various slowly rotating drums for solid-state fermentation (SSF) has been extended to a three-dimensional model that also predicts axial mixing. Radial and axial mixing characteristics were

  6. Modification of whole flours of navy bean, pinto bean, black bean and chickpea by steam jet cooking and drum drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole bean flours of navy bean, pinto bean, black bean and chickpea were processed by excess steam jet cooking, drum drying, and milling to a state resembling the raw flours. Analysis of the structure and size of the particles, color, solubility and pasting characteristics, dietary fiber, and protei...

  7. A compact internal drum test rig for measurements of rolling contact forces between a single tread block and a substrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lundberg, O.E.; Kari, L.; Lopez Arteaga, I.

    2017-01-01

    A novel test rig design is presented which enables detailed studies of the three force components generated in the impact and release phase of rolling contact between a tyre tread block and a substrate. The design of the compact internal drum test rig provides realistic impact and release angles for

  8. First Industrial Tests of a Matrix Monitor Correction for the Differential Die-away Technique of Historical Waste Drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoni, Rodolphe; Passard, Christian; Perot, Bertrand; Batifol, Marc; Vandamme, Jean-Christophe; Grassi, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    The fissile mass in radioactive waste drums filled with compacted metallic residues (spent fuel hulls and nozzles) produced at AREVA NC La Hague reprocessing plant is measured by neutron interrogation with the Differential Die-away measurement Technique (DDT). In the next years, old hulls and nozzles mixed with Ion-Exchange Resins will be measured. The ion-exchange resins increase neutron moderation in the matrix, compared to the waste measured in the current process. In this context, the Nuclear Measurement Laboratory (LMN) of CEA Cadarache has studied a matrix effect correction method, based on a drum monitor, namely a 3He proportional counter located inside the measurement cavity. After feasibility studies performed with LMN's PROMETHEE 6 laboratory measurement cell and with MCNPX simulations, this paper presents first experimental tests performed on the industrial ACC (hulls and nozzles compaction facility) measurement system. A calculation vs. experiment benchmark has been carried out by performing dedicated calibration measurements with a representative drum and 235 U samples. The comparison between calculation and experiment shows a satisfactory agreement for the drum monitor. The final objective of this work is to confirm the reliability of the modeling approach and the industrial feasibility of the method, which will be implemented on the industrial station for the measurement of historical wastes. (authors)

  9. Quality of water from the pool, original containers and aluminum drums used for storage of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idjakovic, Z.; Milonjic, S.; Cupic, S.

    2001-01-01

    Results of chemical analyses of water from the pool, including original containers and aluminium drums, for storage of spent nuclear fuel of the research reactor RA at the VINCA Institute and a short survey of the water properties from similar pools of other countries are presented in the paper. (author)

  10. Juvenile fibromyalgia syndrome. Interdisciplinary treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Siuchnińska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia syndrome (FM belongs to soft tissue pain syndromes of unknown cause, also referred to as “soft tissue rheumatism”. It is characterized by chronic widespread pain as well as additional symptoms such as fatigue, sleep and mood disturbance and cognitive problems. There is more and more data showing that this condition may start at a young age or even in childhood, adversely affecting development processes and resulting in dysfunctional social and family relationships. Because of the multifaceted character of fibromyalgia the efficient treatment of this disorder can be difficult and requires comprehensive care. This work reviews most recommended procedures used in integrated treatment programmes for juvenile fibromyalgia syndrome (JFM.

  11. [Physiotherapy for juvenile idiopathic arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spamer, M; Georgi, M; Häfner, R; Händel, H; König, M; Haas, J-P

    2012-07-01

    Control of disease activity and recovery of function are major issues in the treatment of children and adolescents suffering from juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Functional therapies including physiotherapy are important components in the multidisciplinary teamwork and each phase of the disease requires different strategies. While in the active phase of the disease pain alleviation is the main focus, the inactive phase requires strategies for improving motility and function. During remission the aim is to regain general fitness by sports activities. These phase adapted strategies must be individually designed and usually require a combination of different measures including physiotherapy, occupational therapy, massage as well as other physical procedures and sport therapy. There are only few controlled studies investigating the effectiveness of physical therapies in JIA and many strategies are derived from long-standing experience. New results from physiology and sport sciences have contributed to the development in recent years. This report summarizes the basics and main strategies of physical therapy in JIA.

  12. Red blood cell production

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bone marrow of bones. Stem cells in the red bone marrow called hemocytoblasts give rise to all of the formed elements in blood. If a hemocytoblast commits to becoming a cell called a proerythroblast, it will develop into a new red blood cell. The formation of a red blood ...

  13. Law & psychiatry: punishing juveniles who kill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, Paul S

    2012-10-01

    Punishment of juvenile murderers forces policy makers to weigh the developmental immaturity of adolescents against the heinousness of their crimes. The U.S. Supreme Court has progressively limited the severity of punishments that can be imposed on juveniles, holding that their impulsivity, susceptibility to peer pressure, and more fluid character render them less culpable for their actions. Having eliminated the death penalty as a punishment, the Court recently struck down mandatory life sentences without prospect of parole. The decision is interesting for its emphasis on rehabilitation, opening the door to further restrictions on punitive sentences for juveniles-and perhaps for adults too.

  14. Elastic Elements in a Wrist Prosthesis for Drumming Reduce Muscular Effort, but Increase Imprecision and Perceived Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Stillfried

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, progress has been made in the development of mechanical joints with variable intrinsic stiffness, opening up the search for application areas of such variable-stiffness joints. By varying the stiffness of its joints, the resonant frequency of a system can be tuned to perform cyclical tasks most energy-efficiently, making the variable-stiffness joint a candidate element for an advanced prosthetic device specifically designed for the cyclical task of drumming. A prerequisite for a successful variable-stiffness drumming prosthesis is the ability of human drummers to profitably employ different stiffness levels for playing different beats. In this pilot study, 29 able-bodied subjects (20 drumming novices and 9 experts wear a cuff on the forearm, to which a drumstick is connected using changeable adapters, consisting of several leaf springs with different stiffness and one maximally stiff connection element. The subjects are asked to play simple regular drum beats at different frequencies, one of which is the resonant frequency of the adapter-drumstick system. The subject's performance of each drumming task is rated in terms of accuracy and precision, and the effort is measured using questionnaires for the perceived stress as well as electromyography (EMG for the muscular activity. The experiments show that using springs instead of the stiff connection leads to lower muscular activity, indicating that humans are able to use the energy-storing capabilities of the springs, or that muscular activity is reduced due to the lower mass of the springs. However, the perceived stress is increased and the novices' performance lowered, possibly due to a higher cerebral load for controlling the elastic system. The hypothesis that “matching the resonant frequency of the spring-drumstick system to the desired frequency leads to better performance and lower effort” is not confirmed. Possible explanations are discussed. In conclusion, a series

  15. Elastic Elements in a Wrist Prosthesis for Drumming Reduce Muscular Effort, but Increase Imprecision and Perceived Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillfried, Georg; Stepper, Johannes; Neppl, Hannah; Vogel, Jörn; Höppner, Hannes

    2018-01-01

    Recently, progress has been made in the development of mechanical joints with variable intrinsic stiffness, opening up the search for application areas of such variable-stiffness joints. By varying the stiffness of its joints, the resonant frequency of a system can be tuned to perform cyclical tasks most energy-efficiently, making the variable-stiffness joint a candidate element for an advanced prosthetic device specifically designed for the cyclical task of drumming. A prerequisite for a successful variable-stiffness drumming prosthesis is the ability of human drummers to profitably employ different stiffness levels for playing different beats. In this pilot study, 29 able-bodied subjects (20 drumming novices and 9 experts) wear a cuff on the forearm, to which a drumstick is connected using changeable adapters, consisting of several leaf springs with different stiffness and one maximally stiff connection element. The subjects are asked to play simple regular drum beats at different frequencies, one of which is the resonant frequency of the adapter-drumstick system. The subject's performance of each drumming task is rated in terms of accuracy and precision, and the effort is measured using questionnaires for the perceived stress as well as electromyography (EMG) for the muscular activity. The experiments show that using springs instead of the stiff connection leads to lower muscular activity, indicating that humans are able to use the energy-storing capabilities of the springs, or that muscular activity is reduced due to the lower mass of the springs. However, the perceived stress is increased and the novices' performance lowered, possibly due to a higher cerebral load for controlling the elastic system. The hypothesis that “matching the resonant frequency of the spring-drumstick system to the desired frequency leads to better performance and lower effort” is not confirmed. Possible explanations are discussed. In conclusion, a series-elastic element appears to

  16. Juvenile polyposis syndrome: An unusual case report of anemia and gastrointestinal bleeding in young infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Yi-Han; Wei, Chin-Hung; Chang, Szu-Wen; Chang, Lung; Fu, Yu-Wei; Lee, Hung-Chang; Liu, Hsuan-Liang; Yeung, Chun-Yan

    2016-09-01

    Juvenile polyposis syndrome, a rare disorder in children, is characterized with multiple hamartomatous polyps in alimentary tract. A variety of manifestations include bleeding, intussusception, or polyp prolapse. In this study, we present an 8-month-old male infant of juvenile polyposis syndrome initially presenting with chronic anemia. To the best of our knowledge, this is the youngest case reported in the literature. We report a rare case of an 8-month-old male infant who presented with chronic anemia and gastrointestinal bleeding initially. Panendoscopy and abdominal computed tomography showed multiple polyposis throughout the entire alimentary tract leading to intussusception. Technetium-99m-labeled red blood cell (RBC) bleeding scan revealed the possibility of gastrointestinal tract bleeding in the jejunum. Histopathological examination on biopsy samples showed Peutz-Jeghers syndrome was excluded, whereas the diagnosis of juvenile polyposis syndrome was established. Enteroscopic polypectomy is the mainstay of the treatment. However, polyps recurred and occupied the majority of the gastrointestinal tract in 6 months. Supportive management was given. The patient expired for severe sepsis at the age of 18 months. Juvenile polyposis syndrome is an inherited disease, so it is not possible to prevent it. Concerning of its poor outcome and high mortality rate, it is important that we should increase awareness and education of the parents at its earliest stages.

  17. The Comparative Analysis and Evaluation of Ecological Characteristics of Drum and Disk Wheel Brakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Revin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available It is well-known that automobile transport as well as industry are the main sources of air pollution. In addition to exhaust gases, the flow of traffic releases a cloud of dust, consisting of over 60% of micro- and ultramicroscopic particles with radius of 10.0–0.25 µm, which are formed due to wheel abrasion (caused by the road grip of a tyre and the use of the brake blocks (in braking. The products formed in the process of wearing of the wheel brake pads are also the sources of the mass of fine dispersed particles over an urban highway. The authors analyse and evaluate ecological characteristics of drum and disk wheel brakes of vehicles.Article in Russian

  18. Steam drum level control studies of a natural circulation multi loop reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Contractor, A.D.; Srivastava, Abhishek; Lele, H.G. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India). Reactor Safety Div.; Vaze, K.K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India). Reactor Design and Development Group

    2013-12-15

    The proposed heavy water moderated and light water cooled pressure tube type boiling water reactor works on natural circulation at all power levels. It has parallel inter-connected loops with 452 boiling channels in the main heat transport system configuration. These multiple (four) interconnected loops influence the steam drum level control adversely through the common reactor inlet header. Alternate design studies made earlier for efficient control of SD levels have shown favorable results. This has lead to explore further the present scheme with the compartmentalization of CRIH into four compartments catering to four loops separately. The conventional 3-element level control has been found to be working satisfactorily. The interconnections between ECCS header and inlet header compartments have also increased the safety margin for various LOCA and design basis events. The paper deals with the SD level control aspects for this novel MHT configuration which has been analyzed for various PIEs (Postulated Initiating Events) and found to be satisfactory. (orig.)

  19. Analysis of a drum chopper for use on a new small angle diffractometer at IPNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, R.K.; Epperson, J.E.; Thiyagarajan, P.; Carpenter, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Light-weight drum choppers rotating at 15 Hz have been in use on the IPNS powder diffractometers for several years, where they serve to eliminate the delayed-neutron background from much of the spectral region of interest. Monte Carlo simulations indicate that a similar chopper operated at 15 Hz should do an excellent job of delayed-neutron removal in the new small-angle diffractometer being designed at IPNS. The simulations also show that when the same chopper is operated at 7.5 Hz it performs quite successfully as a frame-elimination chopper, effectively eliminating neutrons from alternate pulses and allowing extension of the useful wavelength range of the instrument to ∼28 Angstrom. Thus the incorporation of such a chopper should add considerably to the range and flexibility of the new instrument. 7 refs., 9 figs

  20. Effects of air loading on the acoustics of an Indian musical drum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Sankalp; Gupta, Anurag

    2017-04-01

    The effects of air loading on the acoustical properties of tabla, an Indian musical drum, are investigated by idealizing it as a composite membrane backed by a rigid cylindrical cavity. The coupled boundary value problem for membrane vibration and acoustic pressure, assuming acoustic radiations to be the only source of dissipation, is solved using a Green's function method. It is shown that air loading helps in only fine tuning of the harmonicity of the composite membrane in the right hand tabla, but significantly improves the harmonicity in the left hand tabla. In both cases, it increases the decay time of the musically important modes. With a suitably defined error as the objective function, optimum tabla designs are found, which yield the most harmonic frequency spectrum. The obtained results are found to be consistent with the actual design of the tabla. Modal sound synthesis of the percussion instrument has also been attempted.

  1. Cochlear implant users move in time to the beat of drum music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips-Silver, Jessica; Toiviainen, Petri; Gosselin, Nathalie; Turgeon, Christine; Lepore, Franco; Peretz, Isabelle

    2015-03-01

    Cochlear implant users show a profile of residual, yet poorly understood, musical abilities. An ability that has received little to no attention in this population is entrainment to a musical beat. We show for the first time that a heterogeneous group of cochlear implant users is able to find the beat and move their bodies in time to Latin Merengue music, especially when the music is presented in unpitched drum tones. These findings not only reveal a hidden capacity for feeling musical rhythm through the body in the deaf and hearing impaired population, but illuminate promising avenues for designing early childhood musical training that can engage implanted children in social musical activities with benefits potentially extending to non-musical domains. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Spectroscopy of annular drums and quantum rings: Perturbative and nonperturbative results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarado, Carlos; Amore, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    We obtain systematic approximations to the states (energies and wave functions) of quantum rings (annular drums) of arbitrary shape by conformally mapping the annular domain to a simply connected domain. Extending the general results of Amore [J. Math. Phys. 51, 052105 (2010)], we obtain an analytical formula for the spectrum of quantum ring of arbitrary shape: for the cases of a circular annulus and of an asymmetric annulus considered here this formula is remarkably simple and precise. We also obtain precise variational bounds for the ground state of different quantum rings. Finally, we extend the conformal collocation method of Amore [J. Math. Phys. 51, 052105 (2010); J. Phys. A 41, 265206 (2008)] to the class of problems considered here and calculate precise numerical solutions for a large number of states (≅2000).

  3. Intelligent Mobile Sensor System for drum inspection and monitoring - Volume 2. Final report, October 1, 1993 - April 22, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The objective of the Intelligent Mobile Sensor System (IMSS) project was to develop an operational system for monitoring and inspection activities for waste storage facility operations at several DOE sites. Specifically, the product of this effort was a robotic device with enhanced intelligence and maneuverability capable of conducting routine inspection of stored waste drums. The system has an integrated sensor suite for problem-drum detection, and creates and maintains a site database both for inspection planning and for data correlation, updating, and report generation. The system is capable of departing on an assigned mission, collecting required data, recording which portions of its mission had to be aborted or modified due to environmental constraints, and reporting back when the mission is complete. Successful identification of more than 96% of drum defects has been demonstrated in a high fidelity waste storage facility mockup. Identified anomalies included rust spots, rust streaks, areas of corrosion, dents, and tilted drums. All drums were positively identified and correlated with the site database. This development effort was separated into three phases of which phase three is now complete. The first phase demonstrated an integrated system (maturity level IVa) for monitoring and inspection activities for waste storage facility operations. The second phase demonstrated a prototype system appropriate for operational use in an actual storage facility. The prototype employed an integrated design that considered operational requirements, hardware costs, maintenance, safety, and robustness. The final phase has demonstrated the commercial viability of the vehicle in operating waste storage facilities at Fernald, Ohio and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). This report summarizes the system upgrades performed in phase 3 and the evaluation of the IMSS Phase 3 system and vehicle

  4. Intelligent mobile sensor system for drum inspection and monitoring: Phase 1. Topical report, October 1, 1992--June 8, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    The objective of this project was to develop an operational system for monitoring and inspection activities for waste storage facility operations at several DOE sites. Specifically, the product of this effort is a robotic device with enhanced intelligence and maneuverability capable of conducting routine inspection of stored waste drums. The device is capable of operating in narrow aisles and interpolating the free aisle space between rows of stacked drums. The system has an integrated sensor suite for leak detection, and is interfaced with a site database both for inspection planning and for data correlation, updating, and report generation. The system is capable of departing on an assigned mission, collecting required data, recording which positions of its mission had to be aborted or modified due to environmental constraints, and reporting back when the mission is complete. Successful identification of more than 90% of all drum defects has been demonstrated in a high fidelity waste storage facility mockup. Identified anomalies included rust spots, rust streaks, areas of corrosion, dents, and tilted drums. All drums were positively identified and correlated with the site database. This development effort is separated into three phases of which phase one is now complete. The first phase has demonstrated an integrated system for monitoring and inspection activities for waste storage facility operations. This demonstration system was quickly fielded and evaluated by leveraging technologies developed from previous NASA and DARPA contracts and internal research. The second phase will demonstrate a prototype system appropriate for operational use in an actual storage facility. The prototype provides an integrated design that considers operational requirements, hardware costs, maintenance, safety, and robustness. The final phase will demonstrate commercial viability using the prototype vehicle in a pilot waste operations and inspection project.

  5. Intelligent mobile sensor system for drum inspection and monitoring: Topical report, October 1, 1993--April 22, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the Intelligent Mobile Sensor System (IMSS) project is to develop an operational system for monitoring and inspection activities for waste storage facility operations at several DOE sites. Specifically, the product of this effort is a robotic device with enhanced intelligence and maneuverability capable of conducting routine inspection of stored waste drums. The system has an integrated sensor suite for problem-drum detection, and is linked to a site database both for inspection planning and for data correlation, updating, and report generation. The system is capable of departing on an assigned mission, collecting required data, recording which portions of its mission had to be aborted or modified due to environmental constraints, and reporting back when the mission is complete. Successful identification of more than 96% of drum defects has been demonstrated in a high fidelity waste storage facility mockup. Identified anomalies included rust spots, rust streaks, areas of corrosion, dents, and tilted drums. All drums were positively identified and correlated with the site database. This development effort is separated into three phases of which phase two is now complete. The second phase demonstrated a prototype system appropriate for operational use in an actual storage facility. The prototype provides an integrated design that considers operational requirements, hardware costs, maintenance, safety, and robustness. The final phase will demonstrate commercial viability using the prototype vehicle in a pilot waste operations and inspection project. This report summarizes the design and evaluation of the new IMSS Phase 2 system and vehicle. Several parts of the IMSS Phase 1 Topical (Final) Report, which describes the requirements, design guidelines, and detailed design of the Phase 1 IMSS vehicle, are incorporated here, with modifications to reflect the changes in the design and the new elements added during the Phase 2 work

  6. Simulation of rotary-drum and repose tests for frictional spheres and rigid sphere clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, O.R.; Braun, R.L.

    1993-11-01

    The effects of rotation rate and interparticle friction on the bulk flow behavior in rotating horizontal cylinders are studied via particle-dynamic simulations. Assemblies of inelastic, frictional spheres and rigid sphere clusters are utilized, and rotation rates from quasistatic to centrifuging are examined. Flow phenomena explored include size segregation, avalanching, slumping and centrifuging. Simulated drum flows with two sizes of frictional spheres showed very rapid segregation of species perpendicular to the drum axis; however, simulations of up to 10 revolutions, utilizing periodic-boundary ends, did not exhibit the experimentally observed axial segregation into stripes. Angles of repose for uniform-sized spheres in slowly rotating cylinders varied from 13 to 31 degrees as the friction coefficient varied from 0.02 to 1.0. For simulated rotation rates higher than the threshold to obtain uniform flow conditions, the apparent angle of repose increases as the rotation rats increases, consistent with experiments. Also, simulations with rigid clusters of 4 spheres in a tetrahedral shape or 8 spheres in a cubical arrangement, demonstrate that particle shape strongly influences the repose angle. Simulations of cubical 8-sphere clusters, with a surface coefficient of friction of 0.1, produced apparent angles of repose exceeding 35 degrees, compared to 23 degrees for assemblies of single spheres interacting with the same force model parameters. Centrifuging flows at very high rotation rates exist as stationary beds moving exactly as the outer rotating wall. At somewhat slower speeds the granular bed remains in contact with the wall but exhibits surface sliding down the rising inner bed surface, moving a short distance on each revolution. At still slower speeds particles rain from the surface of the upper half of the rotating bed.

  7. Characterization of radioactive-waste drum contents using real-time x-radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barna, B.A.; Bishoff, J.R.; Reinhardt, W.W.

    1982-01-01

    Low-level transuranic (TRU) waste is stored in a retrievable manner at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) operated by EG and G Idaho, Inc., for the Department of Energy. The waste, consisting of contaminated rags, paper, plastic, laboratory glassware, tools, scrap metal, wood, electrical components and parts, sludges, etc., is packed in various sized sealed containers, including 55 gallon drums. Waste which can be accurately characterized will be sent to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico for long term storage if it is certified to meet the WIPP waste acceptance criteria. EG and G Idaho, Inc. is planning to install a real-time x-ray system designed for the automated and semi-automated examination of low-level TRU waste containers including 30, 55, and 83 gallon drums, 4 x 4 x 7 foot plywood boxes, and 4 x 5 x 6 foot metal bins during 1982. This system, designed for production, is capable of examining up to 20,000 waste containers per year using automated container handling, and features real-time x-ray imaging with a 420 kV, 10 ma constant potential source, digital image processing equipment, and video taping facilities (every container examination is required to be taped, for archival documentation). Work planned for the near future involves tests using real-time neutron radiography for waste characterization as a complement to real-time x-ray radiography. Ultimately, the NDE examinations will be combined with automated nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques for complete characterization of a given waste container's contents

  8. The Stringed Drum and the 16th Century Music: New Iconographical Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ballester i Gibert, Jordi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with a stringed drum depicted in an anonymous Catalan panel from the mid 16th century. The panel, coming from the church of Barruera (Boí valley, disappeared during the Spanish Civil War and we only have a black and white photography kept in the Institut Amatller d’Art Hispànic in Barcelona. Nevertheless, the study of this depiction shows several aspects related to the instrument and its musical use. Some of these aspects allow us to deal with different hypothesis connecting the stringed drum with the performance practice: on the one hand the instrument appears in a courtly renaissance atmosphere, being played at a banquet; on the other hand the instrument appears not only accompanying the one-hand flute (as it can be seen in other depictions but also making up a consort together with a fiddle.

    El presente artículo se centra en la representación, hasta ahora desconocida, de un tambor de cuerdas pintado en una tabla anónima catalana de mediados del siglo XVI, procedente de la pequeña iglesia de Barruera (Vall de Boí. Dicha tabla desapareció durante la guerra civil española y solo la conocemos a través de una fotografía en blanco y negro que se conserva en el Instituto Amatller de Arte Hispánico (Barcelona. No obstante, el estudio de la representación clarifica algunos aspectos relativos al uso del instrumento que hasta ahora no se habían podido demostrar: por un lado nos sitúa el tambor de cuerdas en el contexto de un banquete cortesano de ambiente renacentista; por otro lado relaciona el instrumento no solo con su acompañante habitual – la flauta de una sola mano – sino también con la viola de arco.

  9. High-Energy X-Ray Imaging Applied to Nondestructive Characterization of Large Nuclear Waste Drums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estre, Nicolas; Eck, Daniel; Pettier, Jean-Luc; Payan, Emmanuel; Roure, Christophe; Simon, Eric

    2015-12-01

    As part of its R&D programs on non-destructive testing of nuclear waste drums, CEA is commissioning an irradiation cell named CINPHONIE, at Cadarache. This cell allows high-energy imaging (radiography and tomography) on large volumes (up to 5 m3) and heavy weights (up to 5 tons). A demonstrator has been finalized, based on existing components. The X-ray source is a 9 MeV LINAC which produces Bremsstrahlung X-rays (up to 23 Gy/min at 1 meter in the beam axis). The mechanical bench is digitally controlled on three axes (translation, rotation, elevation) and can handle objects up to 2 t. This bench performs trajectories necessary for acquisition of projections (sinograms) according to different geometries: Translation-Rotation, Fan-Beam and Cone-Beam. Two detection systems both developed by CEA-Leti are available. The first one is a large GADOX scintillating screen ( 800 ×600 mm2) coupled to a low-noise pixelated camera. The second one is a multi-CdTe semiconductor detector, offering measurements up to 5 decades of attenuation (equivalent to 25 cm of lead or 180 cm of standard concrete). At the end of the acquisition, a Filtered Back Projection-based algorithm is performed. Then, a density slice (fan-beam tomography) or a density volume (cone-beam tomography or helical tomography) is produced and used to examine the waste. Characterization of LINAC, associated detectors as well as the full acquisition chain, are presented. Experimental performances on phantoms and real drum are discussed and expected limits on defect detectability are evaluated by simulation. The final system, designed to handle objects up to 5 tons is then presented.

  10. Conceptualizing juvenile prostitution as child maltreatment: findings from the National Juvenile Prostitution Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kimberly J; Finkelhor, David; Wolak, Janis

    2010-02-01

    Two studies were conducted to identify the incidence (Study 1) and characteristics (Study 2) of juvenile prostitution cases known to law enforcement agencies in the United States. Study 1 revealed a national estimate of 1,450 arrests or detentions (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1,287-1,614) in cases involving juvenile prostitution during a 1-year period. In Study 2, exploratory data were collected from a subsample of 138 cases from police records in 2005. The cases are broadly categorized into three main types: (a) third-party exploiters, (b) solo prostitution, and (c) conventional child sexual abuse (CSA) with payment. Cases were classified into three initial categories based on police orientation toward the juvenile: (a) juveniles as victims (53%), (b) juveniles as delinquents (31%), and (c) juvenile as both victims and delinquents (16%). When examining the status of the juveniles by case type, the authors found that all the juveniles in CSA with payment cases were treated as victims, 66% in third-party exploiters cases, and 11% in solo cases. Findings indicate law enforcement responses to juvenile prostitution are influential in determining whether such youth are viewed as victims of commercial sexual exploitation or as delinquents.

  11. Pre-title I safety evaluation for the retrieval operations of transuranic waste drums in the Solid Waste Disposal Facility. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabin, M.S.

    1992-08-01

    Phase I of the Transuranic (TRU) Waste Facility Line Item Project includes the retrieval and safe storage of the pad drums that are stored on TRU pads 2-6 in the Solid Waste Disposal Facility (SWDF). Drums containing TRU waste were placed on these pads as early as 1974. The pads, once filled, were mounded with soil. The retrieval activities will include the excavation of the soil, retrieval of the pad drums, placing the drums in overpacks (if necessary) and venting and purging the retrieved drums. Once the drums have been vented and purged, they will be transported to other pads within the SWDF or in a designated area until they are eventually treated as necessary for ultimate shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in Carlsbad, New Mexico. This safety evaluation provides a bounding assessment of the radiological risk involved with the drum retrieval activities to the maximally exposed offsite individual and the co-located worker. The results of the analysis indicate that the risk to the maximally exposed offsite individual and the co-located worker using maximum frequencies and maximum consequences are within the acceptance criteria defined in WSRC Procedural Manual 9Q. The purpose of this evaluation is to demonstrate the incremental risk from the SWDF due to the retrieval activities for use as design input only. As design information becomes available, this evaluation can be revised to satisfy the safety analysis requirements of DOE Orders 4700 and 5480.23

  12. The semantic sphere of juvenile offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oshevsky D.S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a preliminary empirical study aimed to identify features of the semantic sphere of adolescents who have committed illegal, including aggressive acts. The study included 50 male juveniles aged of 16 - 17 years. The first group consisted of adolescents convicted of aggressive and violent crimes; the second – of property socially dangerous acts (SDA. It is shown that evaluation of such adolescents is generally categorical and polar, the semantic field is subdifferentiable, less hierarchic, and has not enough realistic structure of meanings. Developed structure of motives and meanings is the basis of voluntary regulation of socially significant behavior. Thus, assessing the semantic sphere of juvenile offenders we can highlight its characteristics as risk factors of unlawful behavior, as well as the resource side, that will contribute to addressing issues of prevention and correction of unlawful behavior. Key words: juvenile offenders, semantic field of juvenile offenders, unlawful behavior.

  13. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease to fight microbial invaders and facilitate tissue repair. Normally, the body stops the inflammatory response after healing is complete to prevent damage to its own cells and tissues. In people with juvenile idiopathic arthritis , the inflammatory ...

  14. Juvenile Salmonid Metrics - Ocean Survival of Salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  15. Juvenile Pacific Salmon in Puget Sound

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fresh, Kurt L

    2006-01-01

    Puget sound salmon (genus Oncorhynchus) spawn in freshwater and feed, grow and mature in marine waters, During their transition from freshwater to saltwater, juvenile salmon occupy nearshore ecosystems in Puget Sound...

  16. The Impact of Banning Juvenile Gun Possession.

    OpenAIRE

    Marvell, Thomas B

    2001-01-01

    A 1994 federal law bans possession of handguns by persons under 18 years of age. Also in 1994, 11 states passed their own juvenile gun possession bans. Eighteen states had previously passed bans, 15 of them between 1975 and 1993. These laws were intended to reduce homicides, but arguments can be made that they have no effect on or that they even increase the homicide rate. This paper estimates the laws' impacts on various crime measures, primarily juvenile gun homicide victimizations and suic...

  17. Colour change and camouflage in juvenile shore crabs Carcinus maenas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eStevens

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Camouflage is perhaps the most widespread anti-predator defense in nature, with many different types thought to exist. Of these, resembling the general color and pattern of the background (background matching is likely to be the most common. Background matching can be achieved by adaptation of individual appearance to different habitats or substrates, behavioral choice, and color change. Although the ability to change coloration for camouflage over a period of hours or days is likely to be widely found among animals, few studies have quantified this against different backgrounds. Here, we test whether juvenile shore crabs (Carcinus maenas are capable of color change for camouflage by placing them on either black or white (experiment 1 or red and green (experiment 2 backgrounds. We find that crabs are capable of significant changes in brightness, becoming lighter on white backgrounds and darker on black backgrounds. Using models of predator (avian vision, we show that these differences are large enough in many individuals to lead to perceptible changes in appearance. Furthermore, comparisons of crabs with the backgrounds show that changes are likely to lead to significant improvements in camouflage and potentially reduced detection probabilities. Crabs underwent some changes on the red and green backgrounds, but visual modeling indicated that these changes were very small and unlikely to be detectable. Our experiment shows that crabs are able to adjust their camouflage by changes in brightness over a period of hours, and that this could influence detection probability by predators.

  18. Gamma-ray spectrometry method used for radioactive waste drums characterization for final disposal at National Repository for Low and Intermediate Radioactive Waste--Baita, Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Done, L; Tugulan, L C; Dragolici, F; Alexandru, C

    2014-05-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management Department from IFIN-HH, Bucharest, performs the conditioning of the institutional radioactive waste in concrete matrix, in 200 l drums with concrete shield, for final disposal at DNDR - Baita, Bihor county, in an old exhausted uranium mine. This paper presents a gamma-ray spectrometry method for the characterization of the radioactive waste drums' radionuclides content, for final disposal. In order to study the accuracy of the method, a similar concrete matrix with Portland cement in a 200 l drum was used. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.

  19. Projeto Espaço Jovem como exercício do protagonismo juvenil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Alves Sobreira Carvalho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo presenta la experiencia del proyecto de extensión Espacio Joven realizado por el Instituto Federal de Paraíba- campus Sousa, en una escuela secundaria y apunta a ampliar la red de comunicación sobre los derechos de las personas con dis- capacidad en la perspectiva de construir una escuela inclusiva y una cultura de paz. La metodología privilegió la formación de 20 alumnos en talleres donde circularon informaciones sobre los derechos de las personas con discapacidad y las acciones relacionadas a convivir con las diferencias. El proyecto contribuyó a configurar de nuevo los conceptos de discapacidad y liderazgo juvenil, al tiempo en que desafió a los educadores a desarrollar la competencia técnica y la sensibilidad pedagógica capaz de considerar las contradicciones del liderazgo juvenil en la escuela.

  20. JUVENILE DELINQUENCY: TRENDS (REGIONAL ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Selezneva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available he article analyzes the nature and internal structure of various types of crimes in which involved minors. Describes the main social factors contributing to this anomaly in the period of development of society. Investigated the motivation, the system and the types of crimes of minors in the Volgograd region, are the main trends of development of this phenomenon. The study also discusses the theoretical basis of the problem of the influence of economic stability on the species structure of juvenile delinquency. In this study the analysis of various types of deviance minors in different areas of the city of Volgograd. In the process of rapid modernization of communication processes most of today’s youth have not been able to quickly rebuild their behavior. Currently, the value-perception of the adolescents focused on the material benefits in terms of expanded economic interactions. In these conditions, social processes become increasingly removed from humane and spiritual orientations. The effective functioning of society in its interaction based on cooperation and understanding is of great importance to stimulate the positive trends in social sphere in modern Russia. The modern period of development, coupled with a drastic breaking of the foundations of life, the formation of new social relations and institutions and the destruction of the old, inevitably contributes to social tension, the reassessment of social and moral values and development of deviant behavior of minors. The advantages of this study are the involvement of local archives regional committees on Affairs of minors, was first introduced to active scientific revolution, as well as logical structuring and grouping of the main issues related to the dynamics and changes in the species structure of juvenile crime, which allowed us to perform a fairly extensive archive of statistical material. Based on this analysis, the authors made a

  1. [Bacteriological study on juvenile periodontitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, N

    1991-02-01

    The predominant cultivable microflora of 23 pockets in 15 juvenile periodontitis (JP) patients was studied for the first time in China using the current anaerobic methodology. Samples were taken with sterile paper points and dispersed on a vortex mixer. Then the diluted samples were plated on the non-selective blood agar plates and selective MGB medium which favors the growth of Actinobacillus actimycetemcomitans (Aa) and incubated in anaerobic chamber for 5 days. From each sample 15 or more isolated colonies were picked in sequence without selection and subcultured. The isolates were identified mainly by Schrechenberger's 4 hour rapid methods for biochemical and fermentative tests and the chromatographic analysis of acid end products using ion-chromatography. The results were as follows: 1. The microflora of healthy sulci of 7 healthy young subjects was significantly different from that in the pocket of JP patients. The predominant species in healthy sulci were Streptococcus spp and Capnocytophaga gingivalis. 2. The species increased significantly in JP patients in prevalence and proportions was Eubacterium. Other species in high proportions were Bacteroides oris, B. melaninogenicus, B. gingivalis, Capnocytophaga sputigena, and Actinomyces meyeri, etc. 3. Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans was not detected in any of the samples.

  2. Development of a method for determining the location of heterogeneous activity present in 200 litre waste drum using USB based MCS system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Sarbjit; Mhatre, Amol; Sagar, Veena; Gupta, Nidhi

    2014-01-01

    A method was developed for determining the location of activity present in 200 litre waste drum using USB based MCS system coupled to a segmented gamma ray scanner. 137 Cs source was kept at various distances from centre of the drum along the axis of the detector. Drum was rotated and the activity profiles were determined as a function of angle of rotation. The plot of the count rate as a function of angle of rotation was found to have two peaks. The experimental and calculated data were found to match well at all angles. Present studies have shown that the ratio of height and width of the profile at angles of 0 ° and 180° can be used to determine the location of the activity in the drum. (author)

  3. Inquiring into Red/Red Inquiring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Gale

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This layered account of an inquiry into ‘red’ emerged out of a collective biography workshop. In the middle of the Wiltshire countryside, an international and interdisciplinary group of scholars gathered together to write and make other things and marks on paper that asked questions of, and into, the spaces between words, people, things and their environments. We did not set out to workshop or write into or paint ‘red’ but, rather, it was red that slipped in, uninvited, and painted and wrote us. Red arose as a blush or a stain seeping amongst us that became referenced obliquely by material objects, metaphors and fairytales. The stain spread, became noticeable through our weekend together and beyond it, creating another (bright red artery vein of connection to write with.

  4. Development of the ''measurement and sorting'' device for bituminized waste drums at Cogema Marcoule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabalier, B.; Artaud, J.L.; Perot, B.; Passard, C.; Romeyer Dherbey, J.; Raoux, A.; Misraki, J.

    2000-01-01

    This programme is included in the scope of a specific task to retrieve bituminized waste drums stored on the Marcoule site. The objective is to define a non-destructive nuclear measurement facility that makes it possible to: - sort the packages stored on the site according to the radiological acceptance criteria for the waste packages in the surface storage facility, - establish the β and α activities of the packages to be stored in the surface storage facility, - estimate the activity of the packages that will be stored in the ''Entreposage Intermediaire Polyvalent'' (multiple purpose intermediate storage) built on the Marcoule site. A measurement facility, with measurement times compatible with the industrial flow of retrieval of the waste drums was studied, developed and will be validated. It features gamma spectrometry measurements and neutron measurement devices, associated to an imaging device by photonic transmission and an expert system. Studies associated to the definition of this facility mainly concern: - the imaging station: it enables to know up to what height the packages are filled, the actual density of the matrix, and to detect lacks of homogeneity. These data are required for a correct analysis of the neutron or gamma measurements and to minimise uncertainties, - the interpretation of active neutron measurement signals: a simultaneous detection of the prompt and delayed neutrons makes it possible to differentiate the masses of U-235 and of Pu-239 present in the packages, - the reduction of the detection limits: to that end, an ''asti-Compton'' detector was defined providing a gain on the detection limits at low energies according to the type of GeHP semi-conductor detector. - the expert system which performs the interpretation and coupling of measured data with data coming from the waste production files in order to determine the activity of the β γ, pure β and α radionuclides at 300 years. The validation program that will be conducted on a

  5. Optimum method to determine gamma activity in 200 liter drums. In-toto measurement or extracting a sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronson, Frazier

    2008-01-01

    In the process of decommissioning contaminated facilities, and in the conduct of normal operations involving radioactive material, it is frequently required to measure radioactivity in large containers such as 200 liter drums. For solid material, it is quite unusual for the radioactivity to be homogeneously distributed throughout the container. One way to derive the concentration of radioactivity within the container is to extract a sample for subsequent measurement in the laboratory. Another way is to use gamma spectroscopy and assay the entire container, or in-toto measurement. This paper examines the process of determining the best way to estimate the activity within the container, and gives quantitative estimates of measurement uncertainty for various conditions of radioactivity contained within 200 liter drums. When the contents of the container are not homogeneous, the sampling uncertainty is likely to be larger than the in-toto measurement uncertainty. (author)

  6. The drug-minded protein interaction database (DrumPID) for efficient target analysis and drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Meik; Liang, Chunguang; Nilla, Santosh; Cecil, Alexander; Dandekar, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The drug-minded protein interaction database (DrumPID) has been designed to provide fast, tailored information on drugs and their protein networks including indications, protein targets and side-targets. Starting queries include compound, target and protein interactions and organism-specific protein families. Furthermore, drug name, chemical structures and their SMILES notation, affected proteins (potential drug targets), organisms as well as diseases can be queried including various combinations and refinement of searches. Drugs and protein interactions are analyzed in detail with reference to protein structures and catalytic domains, related compound structures as well as potential targets in other organisms. DrumPID considers drug functionality, compound similarity, target structure, interactome analysis and organismic range for a compound, useful for drug development, predicting drug side-effects and structure-activity relationships.Database URL:http://drumpid.bioapps.biozentrum.uni-wuerzburg.de. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  7. Impact of Different Standard Type A7A Drum Closure-Ring Practices on Gasket Contraction and Bolt Closure Distance– 15621

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketusky, Edward [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Blanton, Paul [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Bobbitt, John H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-03-11

    The Department of Energy, the Savannah River National Laboratory, several manufacturers of specification drums, and the United States Department of Transportation (DOT) are collaborating in the development of a guidance document for DOE contractors and vendors who wish to qualify containers to DOT 7A Type A requirements. Currently, the effort is focused on DOT 7A Type A 208-liter (55-gallons) drums with a standard 12-gauge bolted closure ring. The U.S. requirements, contained in Title 49, Part 178.350 “Specification 7A; general packaging, Type A specifies a competent authority review of the packaging is not required for the transport of (Class 7) radioactive material containing less than Type A quantities of radioactive material. For Type AF drums, a 4 ft. regulatory free drop must be performed, such that the drum “suffers maximum damage.” Although the actual orientation is not defined by the specification, recent studies suggest that maximum damage would result from a shallow angle top impact, where kinetic energy is transferred to the lid, ultimately causing heavy damage to the lid, or even worse, causing the lid to come off. Since each vendor develops closure recommendations/procedures for the drums they manufacture, key parameters applied to drums during closing vary based on vendor. As part of the initial phase of the collaboration, the impact of the closure variants on the ability of the drum to suffer maximum damage is investigated. Specifically, closure testing is performed varying: 1) the amount of torque applied to the closure ring bolt; and, 2) stress relief protocol, including: a) weight of hammer; and, b) orientation that the hammer hits the closure ring. After closure, the amount of drum lid gasket contraction and the distance that the closure bolt moves through the closure ring is measured.

  8. Feasibility study of {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu characterization in radioactive waste drums using neutron-induced fission delayed gamma rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicol, T. [CEA, DEN, Cadarache, Nuclear Measurement Laboratory, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); FZJ, Institute of Energy and Climate Research – Nuclear Waste Management and Reactor Safety, Wilhelm-Johnen-Straße, d-52425 Jülich (Germany); Pérot, B., E-mail: bertrand.perot@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, Cadarache, Nuclear Measurement Laboratory, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Carasco, C. [CEA, DEN, Cadarache, Nuclear Measurement Laboratory, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Brackx, E. [CEA, DEN, Marcoule, Metallography and Chemical Analysis Laboratory, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Mariani, A.; Passard, C. [CEA, DEN, Cadarache, Nuclear Measurement Laboratory, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Mauerhofer, E. [FZJ, Institute of Energy and Climate Research – Nuclear Waste Management and Reactor Safety, Wilhelm-Johnen-Straße, d-52425 Jülich (Germany); Collot, J. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Université Grenoble Alpes, CNRS/IN2P3 Grenoble (France)

    2016-10-01

    This paper reports a feasibility study of {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu characterization in 225 L bituminized waste drums or 200 L concrete waste drums, by detecting delayed fission gamma rays between the pulses of a deuterium-tritium neutron generator. The delayed gamma yields were first measured with bare samples of {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu in REGAIN, a facility dedicated to the assay of 118 L waste drums by Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) at CEA Cadarache, France. Detectability in the waste drums is then assessed using the MCNPX model of MEDINA (Multi Element Detection based on Instrumental Neutron Activation), another PGNAA cell dedicated to 200 L drums at FZJ, Germany. For the bituminized waste drum, performances are severely hampered by the high gamma background due to {sup 137}Cs, which requires the use of collimator and shield to avoid electronics saturation, these elements being very penalizing for the detection of the weak delayed gamma signal. However, for lower activity concrete drums, detection limits range from 10 to 290 g of {sup 235}U or {sup 239}Pu, depending on the delayed gamma rays of interest. These detection limits have been determined by using MCNPX to calculate the delayed gamma useful signal, and by measuring the experimental gamma background in MEDINA with a 200 L concrete drum mock-up. The performances could be significantly improved by using a higher interrogating neutron emission and an optimized experimental setup, which would allow characterizing nuclear materials in a wide range of low and medium activity waste packages.

  9. Effects of Group Drumming Interventions on Anxiety, Depression, Social Resilience and Inflammatory Immune Response among Mental Health Service Users.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisy Fancourt

    Full Text Available Growing numbers of mental health organizations are developing community music-making interventions for service users; however, to date there has been little research into their efficacy or mechanisms of effect. This study was an exploratory examination of whether 10 weeks of group drumming could improve depression, anxiety and social resilience among service users compared with a non-music control group (with participants allocated to group by geographical location. Significant improvements were found in the drumming group but not the control group: by week 6 there were decreases in depression (-2.14 SE 0.50 CI -3.16 to -1.11 and increases in social resilience (7.69 SE 2.00 CI 3.60 to 11.78, and by week 10 these had further improved (depression: -3.41 SE 0.62 CI -4.68 to -2.15; social resilience: 10.59 SE 1.78 CI 6.94 to 14.24 alongside significant improvements in anxiety (-2.21 SE 0.50 CI -3.24 to -1.19 and mental wellbeing (6.14 SE 0.92 CI 4.25 to 8.04. All significant changes were maintained at 3 months follow-up. Furthermore, it is now recognised that many mental health conditions are characterised by underlying inflammatory immune responses. Consequently, participants in the drumming group also provided saliva samples to test for cortisol and the cytokines interleukin (IL 4, IL6, IL17, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP 1. Across the 10 weeks there was a shift away from a pro-inflammatory towards an anti-inflammatory immune profile. Consequently, this study demonstrates the psychological benefits of group drumming and also suggests underlying biological effects, supporting its therapeutic potential for mental health.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01906892.

  10. Feasibility study of X-ray K-edge analysis of RCRA heavy metal contamination of sludge packaged in drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, T.

    1999-01-01

    A study has been completed to assess the capabilities of X-ray K-edge analysis in the measurement of RCRA metal contamination of sludge packaged in drums. Results were obtained for mercury and lead contamination. It was not possible to measure cadmium contamination using this technique. No false positive signals were observed. In cases where uniformity of the sludge can be assumed, this analysis can provide a quick, accurate measurement of heavy-metal contamination

  11. Radiotracer study of wash load movement in a drum-type fabric washing machine using a gamma camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balt, A.P.; Brekel, L.D.M. van den; Vandecasteele, C.; Kolar, Z.

    1987-01-01

    A study was made of the movement of the wash loads in a drum-type washing machine. For this purpose a sup(99m)Tc source was attached to one or two separate textile pieces and the subsequent source positions were determined by means of a gamma-camera. The wash load movement pattern appears to depend on the type of textile material and its amount, as well as on the volume of water present in the washing machine.

  12. Effects of Group Drumming Interventions on Anxiety, Depression, Social Resilience and Inflammatory Immune Response among Mental Health Service Users

    OpenAIRE

    Fancourt, Daisy; Perkins, Rosie; Ascenso, Sara; Carvalho, Livia A.; Steptoe, Andrew; Williamon, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Growing numbers of mental health organizations are developing community music-making interventions for service users; however, to date there has been little research into their efficacy or mechanisms of effect. This study was an exploratory examination of whether 10 weeks of group drumming could improve depression, anxiety and social resilience among service users compared with a non-music control group (with participants allocated to group by geographical location.) Significant improvements ...

  13. Radiotracer study of wash load movement in a drum-type fabric washing machine using a gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balt, A.P.; Brekel, L.D.M. van den; Vandecasteele, C.; Kolar, Z.

    1987-01-01

    A study was made of the movement of the wash loads in a drum-type washing machine. For this purpose a sup(99m)Tc source was attached to one or two separate textile pieces and the subsequent source positions were determined by means of a gamma-camera. The wash load movement pattern appears to depend on the type of textile material and its amount, as well as on the volume of water present in the washing machine. (author)

  14. [Juvenile-onset ankylosing spondylitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menkes, C J; Job-Deslandre, C; Feldmann, J L

    1984-02-16

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) with juvenile onset (under 17 years of age) is not infrequent. Thirty-six cases were studied, amounting to 18% of patients hospitalized between 1977 and 1981. The following criteria were used for diagnosis: radiologic sacroiliitis (typical AS), presence of HLA B27 and/or pelvic or vertebral clinical manifestations (possible AS). 31 patients (85%) were boys. Mean age at onset was 12.3 +/- 2.8 years. In three cases, AS was found in a member of the family of the propositus and in one case there was cutaneous psoriasis. Usually (29 cases) onset was in the lower limbs: arthritis of the knee (14 cases), hip (9 cases), ankle (7 cases) or painful heel (4 cases). During the course (with a mean follow-up of 11.2 +/- 7 years), 35 patients exhibited peripheral joint diseases and 25 had axial involvement. Ocular involvement was present in 5 cases. 10 patients had a modification of respiratory function. Radiologic sacroiliitis was found in 31 patients but with a delay of 5.3 +/- 2.6 years. Vertebral radiologic lesions were only seen in 11 patients. Radiologic hip involvement was frequent (20 cases) with complete destruction in 6 patients. Erosion and ossification of the calcaneum were observed in 15 cases. The ESR was above 20 mm/first hour in 26 cases (72%). 81% of these patients were HLA B27 positive. Functional prognosis was good: 16 patients (51.6%) led an almost normal life, 6 were bedridden (Steinbrocker's grade IV), 3 had severe impairment (grade III) and 6 had slight impairment (grade II).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. A nanogenerator as a self-powered sensor for measuring the vibration spectrum of a drum membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Aifang; Zhao, Yong; Jiang, Peng; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2013-02-01

    A nanogenerator (NG) is a device that converts vibration energy into electricity. Here, a flexible, small size and lightweight NG is successfully demonstrated as an active sensor for detecting the vibration spectrum of a drum membrane without the use of an external power source. The output current/voltage signal of the NG is a direct measure of the strain of the local vibrating drum membrane that contains rich informational content, such as, notably, the vibration frequency, vibration speed and vibration amplitude. In comparison to the laser vibrometer, which is excessively complex and expensive, this kind of small and low cost sensor based on an NG is also capable of detecting the local vibration frequency of a drum membrane accurately. A spatial arrangement of the NGs on the membrane can provide position-dependent vibration information on the surface. The measured frequency spectrum can be understood on the basis of the theoretically calculated vibration modes. This work expands the application of NGs and reveals the potential for developing sound wave detection, environmental/infrastructure monitoring and many more applications.

  16. The Underwater Recovery of Monumental Marble Column Drums from an Ancient Shipwreck at Kızılburun, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Deborah N.

    2016-08-01

    In the first century B.C., a stone carrier sank off the Aegean coast of Turkey at Kızılburun transporting all the elements of a monumental marble column, including a single Doric capital and eight drums. The 60-tonne cargo lay at a depth of 45-48 m and was excavated in its entirety by the Institute of Nautical Archaeology at Texas A&M University between 2005 and 2011. Ongoing research has shown that the Doric column pieces in the Kızılburun cargo originated in the marble quarries on Proconnesus Island in the Sea of Marmara and were very likely heading for the Temple of Apollo at Claros when the ship sank just 50 km short of its destination. The complete recovery of the ship's cargo posed a unique set of methodological challenges involving lifting the multi-tonne marble drums without disturbing the delicate waterlogged wooden hull remains preserved beneath. This report summarizes the solutions developed over five seasons in order to rig, hoist, move, and ultimately raise to the surface eight large ancient marble column drums (as well as all the other marble artifacts in the cargo) from a depth of almost 50 m under water.

  17. Application of drum compost and vermicompost to improve soil health, growth, and yield parameters for tomato and cabbage plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Linee; Nath, Anil; Sutradhar, Sweety; Bhattacharya, Satya Sundar; Kalamdhad, Ajay; Vellingiri, Kowsalya; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2017-09-15

    Utilization of different types of solid wastes through composting is important for environmental sustainability and restoring soil quality. Although drum composting is an efficient technology, the possibility of heavy metal contamination restricts its large-scale use. In this research, a field experiment was conducted to evaluate the impact of water hyacinth drum compost (DC) and traditional vermicompost (VC) on soil quality and crop growth in an agro-ecosystem cultivated intensively with tomato and cabbage as test crops. A substantial improvement in soil health was observed with respect to nutrient availability, physical stability, and microbial diversity due to the application of drum compost and traditional vermicompost. Moreover, soil organic carbon was enriched through increased humic and fulvic acid carbon. Interestingly, heavy metal contamination was less significant in vermicompost-treated soils than in those receiving the other treatments. The use of VC and DC in combination with recommended chemical fertilization effectively stimulated crop growth, yield, product quality, and storage longevity for both tomato and cabbage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Finite Element Modeling of an Aircraft Tire Rolling on a Steel Drum: Experimental Investigations and Numerical Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Rosu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the thermal evolution of an aircraft tire rolling at high velocities up to take off values. As this kind of experiment is difficult to realize on a real runway, experimental tests were realized on aircraft tires rolling on a steel drum. The rotating drum facility allows to apply variable velocities beyond the take off limits, at fixed skidding angles and loadings. The rolling conditions, vertical loading, velocity and cornering conditions were adopted to correspond to the real conditions of an aircraft tire running or skidding on a flat runway. In the experimental part, the influence of skidding angle, velocity and loading on the thermal evolution of the tire tread were investigated. The thermo-mechanical finite element analysis of a pneumatic radial tire structure was performed taking into account the hyper-viscoelastic rubber behavior, with heating mechanisms developed by the inelastic deformation and by friction. Three-dimensional finite element simulations of an aircraft tire rolling on a steel drum were carried out using Abaqus/Standard finite element solver. The comparison of the temperature distribution on the tire tread between numerical results and the experimental data shows the same overall tendencies. The good correlation between numerical and experimental data shows that numerical simulation could predict the thermal evolution of the tire in critical situations. The authors would like to mention that for confidentiality reason, certain numerical data could not be revealed.

  19. Three dimensional reconstruction of activity profiles in 220 liters radioactive waste packages containing super-compacted 100 liters drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Velzen, L.P.M.; Maes, J.

    2007-01-01

    The 3DRedact project's main objective is the development of a non-destructive assay (NDA) system that can replace emission computer tomography (ECT) and transmission computer tomography (TCT) for the routine characterization of decayed radioactive waste 220 liters drums. The existing fast NDA scan system has been extended with a transmission system that fulfils the requirements of fast scan measurements. The design parameters and engineering are described. As a consequence of this extension the analyze program HOLIS had to be updated, so that HOLIS can make full advantage of the transmission data generated by the analysis of a 220 liters waste drum, containing different super compacted drums. The achievements of the new HOLIS version are presented. As a first assessment, based on the presented tests results, the accuracy of the calculated coordinates of hotspots can be assessed for all coordinates ± 1 cm and for the activity of the hot-spot ± 5 %. These accuracies are within the predefined requirements e.g. coordinates uncertainty ± 2 cm and activity less than 10 %. Further, additional safety systems have been installed to improve a healthy and save working environment. (authors)

  20. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis – an update on its diagnosis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-12-03

    Dec 3, 2015 ... Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common form of chronic arthritis in children and the most ... A swollen knee and uveitis in a young girl, for instance, is ..... Methotrexate for treating juvenile idiopathic arthritis.