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Sample records for juvenile process chapter

  1. Thick-joint welding process. Chapter 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, D.; Terry, P.; Dickinson, F.S.

    1980-01-01

    This chapter reviews the techniques currently employed in the welding of pressure vessels, ranging from traditional manual metal arc and submerged arc processes to the more recently introduced narrow-gap and high-energy processes, e.g. electron beam and laser. The effect on the properties of the base materials being joined and the relative economics of the various processes is examined, from which guidance on the balance between joint properties and economy can be gained. (author)

  2. Chapter 14. Radionuclides in vegetal production and food processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toelgyessy, J.; Harangozo, M.

    2000-01-01

    This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with problems connected with using of radionuclides in vegetal production and food processing. Chapter consist of next parts: (1) Influence of radiation on foods; (2) Radiation sterilisation in health service

  3. A process industry perspective. Chapter 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kettunen, J. [Metsae-Serla Oyj (Finland)

    2000-07-01

    Process industries, whether they are base metals, chemicals, plastics or wood-processing, have certain common features that influence their potential to adapt to changing requirements: - The products are primarily business-to-business commodities. - The proportion of invested capital to turnover is high. - The operating life of equipment is long, 15-40 years, and the basic technology is selected when the equipment is designed. - In free competition an individual operator cannot acquire a dominating market share. Thus, competitiveness is determined by cost-effectiveness. - The preference for the mass production paradigm has increased the plant size so that every new investment project leads to an over-capacity situation at least for the continent in question. The above outlines the starting point for this article, which explores the common future of the process industry and energy. The article mainly focuses on Finland and Europe, with the time span of 5 to 15 years. It is sensible to study the future of the process industry primarily on the basis of various scenarios. However, we have not tried to create new scenario sets but have utilised the excellent material accumulated in recent years in this field. The applied sustainable development scenarios Jazz and Geo are in true conflict in almost all issues related to ecological studies. The process industry on the whole, not to mention individual companies, has relatively little influence on the decision of a specific economic region regarding the scheme it selects. The global trend appears to be leaning more towards the Jazz scenario even though the existing structures are strongly attracted to the Geo scenario. With the exception of some local operators, it appears that customers are not likely to present challenges regarding carbon dioxide to the process industry. As both equipment and phenomena have longterm influences, the importance of a sustainable energy strategy is emphasised at the level of both companies

  4. Cascade probabilistic function and the Markov's processes. Chapter 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    In the Chapter 1 the physical and mathematical descriptions of radiation processes are carried out. The relation of the cascade probabilistic functions (CPF) for electrons, protons, alpha-particles and ions with Markov's chain is shown. The algorithms for CPF calculation with accounting energy losses are given

  5. Future Prospects: Ionization Radiation Processing Technology. Chapter 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rida Tajau

    2017-01-01

    This final chapter concluded that the ionizing radiation processing technology was potentially used to develop new and advanced products. The new advanced products which been discussed was HBPUA, printing ink, PSA, hydrogel, bioplastic, SWA, CNT, RVNRL and others. With this new innovative technology, it will develop the country's economy and increase the productivity of manufacturing industry, medical, science and technology and also strenghten the social science field.

  6. The cascade probabilistic functions and the Markov's processes. Chapter 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In the Chapter 1 the physical and mathematical descriptions of radiation processes are carried out. The relation of the cascade probabilistic functions (CPF) with Markov's chain is shown. The CPF calculation for electrons with the energy losses taking into account are given. The calculation of the CPF on the computer was carried out. The estimation of energy losses contribution in the CPFs and radiation defects concentration are made. Besides calculation of the primarily knock-on atoms and radiation defects at electron irradiation with use of the CPF with taking into account energy losses are conducted

  7. Social Support, Motivation, and the Process of Juvenile Reentry: An Exploratory Analysis of Desistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panuccio, Elizabeth A.; Christian, Johnna; Martinez, Damian J.; Sullivan, Mercer L.

    2012-01-01

    Many scholarly works and studies have explored the experience of reentry and desistance for adult offenders, but fewer studies have focused on these processes among juvenile offenders. Using qualitative case studies of juveniles released from secure confinement, this study explores the desistance process during juvenile reentry by examining how…

  8. Image Post-Processing and Analysis. Chapter 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yushkevich, P. A. [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States)

    2014-09-15

    For decades, scientists have used computers to enhance and analyse medical images. At first, they developed simple computer algorithms to enhance the appearance of interesting features in images, helping humans read and interpret them better. Later, they created more advanced algorithms, where the computer would not only enhance images but also participate in facilitating understanding of their content. Segmentation algorithms were developed to detect and extract specific anatomical objects in images, such as malignant lesions in mammograms. Registration algorithms were developed to align images of different modalities and to find corresponding anatomical locations in images from different subjects. These algorithms have made computer aided detection and diagnosis, computer guided surgery and other highly complex medical technologies possible. Nowadays, the field of image processing and analysis is a complex branch of science that lies at the intersection of applied mathematics, computer science, physics, statistics and biomedical sciences. This chapter will give a general overview of the most common problems in this field and the algorithms that address them.

  9. Power, Process, and Protection: Juveniles as Defendants in the Justice System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolard, Jennifer L; Henning, Kristin; Fountain, Erika

    The juvenile court was created in 1899 in part to remedy the unfairness of trying youth in the adult criminal justice system, but its success at rectifying those problems is unclear. One concern is that the vast majority of youth who are adjudicated delinquent are adjudicated after waiving their right to trial and entering a guilty plea. Fairness and equity in the plea bargaining process are premised on the assumption that youth have the capacity to understand and elect between available options and will be given a meaningful opportunity to choose without coercion and deception. In legal terms, the Constitution will only sanction a plea when the defendant makes a knowing, voluntary, and intelligent waiver of her right to trial. In this chapter, we briefly describe the juvenile court process and explain the circumstances of a plea bargain, which constitutes both a waiver of Constitutional rights and an agreement to certain conditions. Then we evaluate the research and practice knowledge regarding the legal components of a valid waiver-that it must be knowing and voluntary. We consider how information, capacity, and circumstance contribute to a knowing waiver. Then we examine how procedural justice, paternalism, and coercion may affect a voluntary waiver. Throughout, we consider whether the people, policies, and practices meant to assess and safeguard that waiver decision fulfill their intended purpose. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Service-oriented processes : an introduction to BPEL (Chapter 8)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouyang, C.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Dumas, M.; Hofstede, ter A.H.M.; La Rosa, M.; Cardoso, J.

    2007-01-01

    The Business Process Execution Language for Web Services (BPEL) is an emerging standard for specifying the behaviour of Web services at different levels of details using business process modeling constructs. It represents a convergence between Web services and business process technology. This

  11. Who decides? The decision-making process of juvenile judges concerning minors with mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappon, Leen

    2016-01-01

    Previous research on juvenile judges' decision-making process has neglected the role of the different actors involved in judicial procedures. The decision can be considered as a result of information exchange between the different actors involved. The process of making a decision is equally important as the decision itself, especially when the decision considers minors with mental disorders. The presence and the type of interaction determine the information available to the juvenile judges to make their final decision. The overall aim of this study is to gain insight into the role of all actors, including the juvenile judge, in the juvenile judge's decision-making process in cases relating to minors with mental disorders. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with professional actors (n=32), minors (n=31) and parents (n=17). The findings indicated that the judge's decision is overall the result of an interaction between the juvenile judge, the social services investigator and the youth psychiatrist. The other professional actors, the minors and the parents had only a limited role in the decision-making process. The research concludes that the judge's decision-making process should be based on dialogue, and requires enhanced collaboration between the juvenile court and youth psychiatrists from mental health services. Future decision-making research should pay more attention to the interactions of the actors that guide a juvenile judge's decision. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Applications of Biopolymers Modified by Radiation Processing. Chapter 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamada, M. [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Takasaki (Japan)

    2014-07-15

    Radiation processing using quantum beam such as electron beam and gamma rays is a clean process. Using this process, biopolymers with low environmental burden were modified for agricultural and environmental applications. High performance materials such as soil conditioner for arid area, spray coating Washi (Japanese paper), biodegradable dummy lens, chemically-induced biodegradable plastic, biodiesel catalyst, and plant growth promoter were developed by radiationinduced crosslinking, graft polymerization, and degradation. (author)

  13. Concepts of radiation processes selection for industrial realization. Chapter 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    For selection of radiation processes in industry the processes usually are analyzing by technological and social effects, power-insensitivity, common efficiency. Technological effect is generally conditioned with uniqueness of radiation technologies which allow to obtain new material or certain one but with new properties. Social effect first of all concerns with influence of radiation technologies on consumer's psychology. Implementation of equipment for radiation technological process for both the new material production and natural materials radiation treatment is related with decision of three tasks: 1) Choice of radiation source; 2). Creation of special equipment for radiation and untraditional stages of the process; 3) Selection of radiation and other conditions ensuring of achievement of optimal technological and economical indexes

  14. Basic physics of the fission process. Chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaudon, A.

    1981-01-01

    A general description of the fission process is given with special emphasis on those aspects which are necessary for the understanding of the measurements and calculations of neutron-induced fission cross-sections. Having considered the various phases of the process, some typical properties of the low-energy fission of actinide nuclei are presented and the more specific features of neutron induced fission are examined. (U.K.)

  15. Gasification of coal using nuclear process heat. Chapter D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, H.-D.; Bonn, B.; Krauss, U.

    1979-01-01

    In the light of the high price of coal and the enormous advances made recently in nuclear engineering, the possibility of using heat from high-temperature nuclear reactors for gasification processes was discussed as early as the 1960s. The advantages of this technology are summarized. A joint programme of development work is described, in which the Nuclear Research Centre at Juelich is aiming to develop a high-temperature reactor which will supply process heat at as high a temperature as possible, while other organizations are working on the hydrogasification of lignites and hard coals, and steam gasification. Experiments are at present being carried out on a semi-technical scale, and no operational data for large-scale plants are available as yet. (author)

  16. Chapter 15. Measurement of the main calcium metabolism processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milhaud, G.

    1975-01-01

    A method of measuring the chief calcium metabolism processes in man is described and is based on the following techniques and theory: intraveinous injection of 45 Ca; determination of the specific radioactivity of serum calcium, total radioactivity of urine and stools, ingested and excreted calcium; mathematical analysis of the specific radioactivity decay curve for serum calcium. The following data were obtained in this way: intestinal absorption fraction of calcium in the chemical state in which it is found in foods; quantity of calcium excreted by the intestin, as distinct from the non-absorbed fraction; physiological turnover rates in the skeleton by osteolysis and osteoblastosis; mass of rapidly exchangeable calcium in the organism, i.e. the calcium pool; rates of exchange with serum calcium of calcium from the different pool components, mass of bone calcium subjected to recrystallisation. Some applications of the method in man and the verification of the theory in rats are reported [fr

  17. Radiation Processing of Starch Based Plastic Blends. Chapter 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khandal, D.; Mikus, P.; Dole, P.; Baumberger, S.; Coqueret, X.

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in renewable and environmentally friendly polymers from biomass for substituting synthetic polymers in various sectors and for various applications, as well as in finding new applications. Basic and applied research aims particularly to develop bio-sourced polymers for materials (for example, materials for packaging, soil mulching and for manufacturing automobile interiors), specialty products (for example, adhesives, absorbents, humectants and surfactants) and high value added products (for example, cosmetics and pharmaceutical applications). Despite the promising growth and inherent potential of bio-based plastics, they still account for only 1% of the total polymer market. The total technical substitution potential of the bio-based market is considered to be almost 270 Mt, but market projections are always only a few Mt, simply because the major barriers hindering potential growth are the high production costs and technical challenges involved in scaling up the process from the laboratory to an industrial production scale.

  18. Why unbiased computational processes can lead to discriminative decision procedures (Chapter 3)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calders, T.G.K.; Zliobaite, I.; Custers, B.H.M.; Calders, T.G.K.; Schermer, B.W.; Zarsky, T.Z.

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, more and more decision procedures are supported or even guided by automated processes. An important technique in this automation is data mining. In this chapter we study how such automatically generated decision support models may exhibit discriminatory behavior towards certain groups

  19. Degenerative processes in bioprosthetic mitral valves in juvenile pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedersen Torben B

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glutaraldehyde-treated bioprosthetic heart valves are commonly used for replacement of diseased heart valves. However, calcification and wear limit their durability, and the development of new and improved bioprosthetic valve designs is needed and must be evaluated in a reliable animal model. We studied glutaraldehyde-treated valves 6 months after implantation to evaluate bioprosthetic valve complications in the mitral position in juvenile pigs. Materials The study material comprised eight, 5-month old, 60-kg pigs. All pigs received a size 27, glutaraldehyde-treated, stented, Carpentier-Edwards S.A.V. mitral valve prosthesis. After six months, echocardiography was performed, and the valves explanted for gross examination, high resolution X-ray, and histological evaluation. Results Five pigs survived the follow-up period. Preexplant echocardiography revealed a median peak and mean velocity of 1.61 m/s (range: 1.17-2.00 and 1.20 (SD = ±0.25, respectively, and a median peak and mean pressure difference of 10.42 mmHg (range: 5.83-16.55 and 6.51 mmHg (SD = ±2.57, respectively. Gross examination showed minor thrombotic depositions at two commissures in two valves and at all three commissures in three valves. High resolution X-ray imaging revealed different degrees of calcification in all explanted valves, primarily in the commissural and belly areas. In all valves, histological evaluation demonstrated various degrees of fibrous sheath formation, limited immunological infiltration, and no overgrowth of host endothelium. Conclusions Bioprosthetic glutaraldehyde-treated mitral valves can be implanted into the mitral position in pigs and function after 6 months. Echocardiographic data, calcification, and histological examinations were comparable to results obtained in sheep models and human demonstrating the suitability of the porcine model.

  20. Manufacturing of Proteins and Antibodies: Chapter Downstream Processing Technologies : Harvest Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Richard; Joseph, Adrian; Titchener-Hooker, Nigel; Bender, Jean

    2017-08-04

    Cell harvesting is the separation or retention of cells and cellular debris from the supernatant containing the target molecule Selection of harvest method strongly depends on the type of cells, mode of bioreactor operation, process scale, and characteristics of the product and cell culture fluid. Most traditional harvesting methods use some form of filtration, centrifugation, or a combination of both for cell separation and/or retention. Filtration methods include normal flow depth filtration and tangential flow microfiltration. The ability to scale down predictably the selected harvest method helps to ensure successful production and is critical for conducting small-scale characterization studies for confirming parameter targets and ranges. In this chapter we describe centrifugation and depth filtration harvesting methods, share strategies for harvest optimization, present recent developments in centrifugation scale-down models, and review alternative harvesting technologies.

  1. Spatial distribution of juvenile and adult female Tanner crabs (Chionoecetes bairdi) in a glacial fjord ecosystem: Implications for recruitment processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, J.K.; Taggart, S. James; Shirley, Thomas C.; Mondragon, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    A systematic pot survey in Glacier Bay, Alaska, was conducted to characterize the spatial distribution of juvenile and adult female Tanner crabs, and their association with depth and temperature. The information was used to infer important recruitment processes for Tanner crabs in glaciated ecosystems. High-catch areas for juvenile and adult female Tanner crabs were identified using local autocorrelation statistics. Spatial segregation by size class corresponded to features in the glacial landscape: high-catch areas for juveniles were located at the distal ends of two narrow glacial fjords, and high-catch areas for adults were located in the open waters of the central Bay. Juvenile female Tanner crabs were found at nearly all sampled depths (15–439 m) and temperatures (4–8°C), but the biggest catches were at depths <150 m where adults were scarce. Because adults may prey on or compete with juveniles, the distribution of juveniles could be influenced by the distribution of adults. Areas where adults or predators are scarce, such as glacially influenced fjords, could serve as refuges for juvenile Tanner crabs.

  2. Radioactive Waste Conditioning, Immobilisation, And Encapsulation Processes And Technologies: Overview And Advances (Chapter 7)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, Carol M. [Savannah River National Lab., Aiken SC (United States); Lee, William E. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials; Ojovan, Michael I. [Univ. of Sheffield (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2012-10-19

    The main immobilization technologies that are available commercially and have been demonstrated to be viable are cementation, bituminization, and vitrification. Vitrification is currently the most widely used technology for the treatment of high level radioactive wastes (HLW) throughout the world. Most of the nations that have generated HLW are immobilizing in either alkali borosilicate glass or alkali aluminophosphate glass. The exact compositions of nuclear waste glasses are tailored for easy preparation and melting, avoidance of glass-in-glass phase separation, avoidance of uncontrolled crystallization, and acceptable chemical durability, e.g., leach resistance. Glass has also been used to stabilize a variety of low level wastes (LLW) and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) low level wastes (MLLW) from other sources such as fuel rod cladding/decladding processes, chemical separations, radioactive sources, radioactive mill tailings, contaminated soils, medical research applications, and other commercial processes. The sources of radioactive waste generation are captured in other chapters in this book regarding the individual practices in various countries (legacy wastes, currently generated wastes, and future waste generation). Future waste generation is primarily driven by interest in sources of clean energy and this has led to an increased interest in advanced nuclear power production. The development of advanced wasteforms is a necessary component of the new nuclear power plant (NPP) flowsheets. Therefore, advanced nuclear wasteforms are being designed for robust disposal strategies. A brief summary is given of existing and advanced wasteforms: glass, glass-ceramics, glass composite materials (GCM’s), and crystalline ceramic (mineral) wasteforms that chemically incorporate radionuclides and hazardous species atomically in their structure. Cementitious, geopolymer, bitumen, and other encapsulant wasteforms and composites that atomically bond and encapsulate

  3. Juvenile Court Statistics, 1974.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Jacqueline; Vereb, Thomas S.

    This report presents information on juvenile court processing of youth in the U.S. during 1974. It is based on data gathered under the National Juvenile Court Statistical Reporting System. Findings can be summarized as follows: (1) 1,252,700 juvenile delinquency cases, excluding traffic offenses, were handled by courts in the U.S. in 1974; (2) the…

  4. Chapter 10: Management recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch; Janie Agyagos; Tracy McCarthey; Robert M. Marshall; Scott H. Stoleson; Mary J. Whitfield

    2000-01-01

    This chapter was developed over a series of meetings using a group-consensus process. Our recommendations are based on published results, on information compiled in the previous chapters, on expert opinion, and on unpublished data of conservation team members. This chapter is available as temporary guidance until the Recovery Plan for the southwestern willow flycatcher...

  5. Production, radiochemical processing and quality evaluation of 68Ge. Chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesch, F.; Filosofov, D.V.

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter, the optimum chemical forms of the target material for the most relevant 68 Ge production routes are discussed. The principal methods for separation of 68 Ge (ion exchange, extraction, volatilization, precipitation, etc.) allowing high chemical separation yields of the parent radionuclide are also discussed

  6. Juvenile angiofibroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasal tumor; Angiofibroma - juvenile; Benign nasal tumor; Juvenile nasal angiofibroma; JNA ... Juvenile angiofibroma is not very common. It is most often found in adolescent boys. The tumor contains many blood ...

  7. Juvenile Delinquency in Romania: The Indirect Result of the Transition Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Fabian

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The general purpose of the research is to present the evolution of juvenile delinquency in Romania after 1989, with some of its social and psychological aspects. We use a comparative perspective: the general, Romanian framework will be compared with local situation occurred in Cluj county.The presentation is based on an extensive study of 420 delinquent juveniles, whose data on family situation, education, age, etc were analyzed and the youngsters were also tested with psychological tests. Looking at the data of the psychological tests (Nowicki & Strickland's Internal-External Control Scale for Children, McGuire & Priestley's Testing Your Reaction, Zuckerman-Kuhlman's Personality Questionnaire and Tucker's Inmate Dilemma Test and the descriptors of the social situation of juvenile delinquents, it looks like personality factors are associated with low school performance and school drop-out, as important determinants of delinquency. An integrative model was tested, to analyze the social and cognitive determinants of delinquency.

  8. ASFMRA Chapter Strategic Planning: Iowa Chapter Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Trede, Larry

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarizes the strategic planning process used by the Iowa Chapter of the American Society of Farm Managers and Rural Appraisers to develop a new vision, mission statement, and chapter objectives. Procedures included the use of a focus group and a quantitative survey. The results indicated a strong need for chapter member continuing education, a chapter member services program, and a strong outreach/public relations program. As a result of the strategic planning process, a new chap...

  9. Processes of constitution of the uruguayan juvenile criminal system. ¿hybrids paradigms?

    OpenAIRE

    López Gallego, Laura

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the analysis focuses on adolescence as a particularized space of social criminal control   through devices that have historically constituted the Uruguayan juvenile criminal system. Social criminal control practices make up a heterogeneous field composed of a multiplicity of vectors which show the ways in which people are tried and/or treated according to their departures from the prevailing criminal law in a particularly socio-historical context . They set concrete social prac...

  10. PROCESSES OF CONSTITUTION OF THE URUGUAYAN JUVENILE CRIMINAL SYSTEM. ¿HYBRIDS PARADIGMS?

    OpenAIRE

    López Gallego, Laura

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the analysis focuses on adolescence as a particularized space of social criminal control   through devices that have historically constituted the Uruguayan juvenile criminal system. Social criminal control practices make up a heterogeneous field composed of a multiplicity of vectors which show the ways in which people are tried and/or treated according to their departures from the prevailing criminal law in a particularly socio-historical context . They set concrete social prac...

  11. Overview of the Activities on Radiation Processing of Polymeric Materials in Bangladesh. Chapter 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haque, M.; Dafader, N. C.; Sultana, S.; Mollah, M. Z.I. [Nuclear and Radiation Chemistry Division, Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Savar, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Mandal, M. M.A. [Crop Physiology Division, Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture, BAU Campus, Mymensingh (Bangladesh)

    2014-07-15

    Natural polymers processed through radiation are used in agriculture, health care, and environmental protection. The process of chitosan extraction from prawn/shrimp shells has been established. The method used in determining the molecular weight of chitosan had previously been standardized during the harmonization program of protocol for molecular weight determination organized by IAEA in cooperation with Poland and UK during which Bangladesh was a participant. Increased yield of several crops over the control was achieved using chitosan as plant growth promoter: up to 13% for rice when chitosan with 50 ppm concentration was applied two times, up to 56% for summer tomato when chitosan with a concentration of 75 ppm was sprayed one time, up to 30% for mungbean when 50 ppm chitosan was applied two times, and up to 24% for maize when 100 ppm chitosan was applied three times. Field tests covering three seasons to confirm any increase in the yield of tomato and maize are still being conducted. Funding from the CRP helped carry out these activities to a great extent. Through the IAEA TC project, radiation processing laboratories were enhanced with new equipment, chemicals/monomers/polymers, and the capability of staff members was improved through additional training, expert assistance and scientific visits. One PhD student and several MSc students were able to complete their theses and had them published. Super Water Absorbent (SWA) hydrogel was prepared using 5%Acrylamide blended with 3% carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and irradiating at 25 kGy. It was applied on tomato plants as soil conditioner and positive results were obtained. Government funding aided in the establishment of a pilot plant that eventually became a full-fledged institute for radiation processing. (author)

  12. Extraterrestrial processing and manufacturing of large space systems, volume 1, chapters 1-6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. H.; Smith, D. B. S.

    1979-01-01

    Space program scenarios for production of large space structures from lunar materials are defined. The concept of the space manufacturing facility (SMF) is presented. The manufacturing processes and equipment for the SMF are defined and the conceptual layouts are described for the production of solar cells and arrays, structures and joints, conduits, waveguides, RF equipment radiators, wire cables, and converters. A 'reference' SMF was designed and its operation requirements are described.

  13. Radiation Processing of Marine Algal Polysaccharides as Plant Growth Promoters. Chapter 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolko, E.; Cerchietti, L. [National Atomic Energy Commission, Ezeiza Atomic Centre, Ezeiza (Argentina); Clozza, M.; Giardina, E. B.; Villela, F.; Divo, M. D. [Faculty of Agronomy, Buenos Aires University (Argentina)

    2014-07-15

    After having participated in the IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on the “Development of radiation-processed products of natural polymers for application in agriculture, health care, industry and environment” with a project entitled “Assay oligosaccharides as plant growth promoters”, Argentina started mobilizing technical experts from diverse fields to introduce the technology in the country. Agronomers, radiation research scientists, and resource persons from seaweed industries were invited to participate in the project. The project team members consisted of Dr. Mario Clozza and his group from the Faculty of Agronomy of the Buenos Aires University, members of the radiation processing division of the National Atomic Energy Commission of Ezeiza Atomic Centre, and resource persons from the Soriano S.A., a seaweed industry. Under the scope of the CRP, degraded alginic acid from Macrocystis perifera and other algae from the coastal areas were used for the study. Despite the fact that Argentina has huge brown algae farms in the Patagonia region, these are not commercially available due to the lack of specialized vessels for harvesting. Soriano S.A. produces good quality carrageenan from red algae, sourced from the northern part of the extended national maritime littoral of more than 2000 km long. The project involved the utilization of radiation-processed polysaccharides such as carrageenan, alginic acid, and chitosan of commercial origins on tomato, lettuce, spinach, and cabbage plants. (author)

  14. FLOCKING-BASED DOCUMENT CLUSTERING ON THE GRAPHICS PROCESSING UNIT [Book Chapter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles, J S; Patton, R M; Potok, T E; Cui, X

    2008-01-01

    Analyzing and grouping documents by content is a complex problem. One explored method of solving this problem borrows from nature, imitating the fl ocking behavior of birds. Each bird represents a single document and fl ies toward other documents that are similar to it. One limitation of this method of document clustering is its complexity O(n2). As the number of documents grows, it becomes increasingly diffi cult to receive results in a reasonable amount of time. However, fl ocking behavior, along with most naturally inspired algorithms such as ant colony optimization and particle swarm optimization, are highly parallel and have experienced improved performance on expensive cluster computers. In the last few years, the graphics processing unit (GPU) has received attention for its ability to solve highly-parallel and semi-parallel problems much faster than the traditional sequential processor. Some applications see a huge increase in performance on this new platform. The cost of these high-performance devices is also marginal when compared with the price of cluster machines. In this paper, we have conducted research to exploit this architecture and apply its strengths to the document flocking problem. Our results highlight the potential benefi t the GPU brings to all naturally inspired algorithms. Using the CUDA platform from NVIDIA®, we developed a document fl ocking implementation to be run on the NVIDIA® GEFORCE 8800. Additionally, we developed a similar but sequential implementation of the same algorithm to be run on a desktop CPU. We tested the performance of each on groups of news articles ranging in size from 200 to 3,000 documents. The results of these tests were very signifi cant. Performance gains ranged from three to nearly fi ve times improvement of the GPU over the CPU implementation. This dramatic improvement in runtime makes the GPU a potentially revolutionary platform for document clustering algorithms.

  15. Integration of coral reef ecosystem process studies and remote sensing: Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, John; Yates, Kimberly; Halley, Robert

    2006-01-01

    anthropogenic causes (Brown, 1988). Models of coral reef ecosystems, parameterized by process measurements and scaled in time-space using remote sensing, have the potential to address pressing research questions that are central to devising valid management strategies (Grigg el al., 1984; Hatcher, 1997b). To attain this goal, ecosystem-level models that integrate studies of physical and chemical forcing with observed biological and geological responses are required. This interdisciplinary approach to understanding reef biogeochemical dynamics can allow investigations that integrate the scales of time and space (Hatcher, 1997a), thereby enabling prediction of coral reef change (Andréfouët and Payri, 2001). In turn, prediction of holistic ecosystem function within various environmental focusing scenarios has substantial promise in mitigating future disturbance. Indeed, management of coral reefs at the ecosystem level has been suggested as the only meaningful approach to preserving coral reefs (Bohnsack and Ault, 1996; Christensen et al., 1996).

  16. Evaluation of Radiation Processed Polymers as Materials for Agricultural Purposes. Chapter 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Rehim, H. Abd [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    2014-07-15

    had a high inhibitory activity against Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV). The highest inhibition degree was noticed when the Mw of irradiated alginate was around 5 × 10{sup 4}. The degree of inhibition increased with alginate concentration. On the other hand, it was noticed that degraded chitosan could control the growth of gray mold fungus that infected tomato fruits. High concentrations of degraded chitosan with an Mw range of 2–6 × 10{sup 4} controlled the increase of gray mold infections and enhanced fungal decay in tomato fruit. Cross-linked fast swelling super porous hydrogels were prepared by irradiating acrylamide-based copolymers in solid and solution states using electron beam irradiation. As the Polyacrylamide/potassium polyacrylate (PAAm/PAAcK) water swellability increased, the PAAm in the copolymer and/or irradiation dose required for the cross-linking process decreased. A field evaluation of PAAm/PAAcK as super water absorbent materials for Zea maze plants revealed that PAAm/PAAcK does not cause salt buildup in the soil, possesses a high ability to absorb water, improves germination of seeds planted in sandy soil, prevents plant losses due to drought and water stress in non-irrigated areas, and increases the Zea maze plant growth and performance. Thus, such a hydrogel could be used for soil amendment to improve the growth of plants and increase their production yield. Field evaluation using polyacrylamide/Na-alginate, copolymer was performed in a range of garden plants using Faba bean and Zea maize. The growth of bean plant cultivated in a polyacrylamide/Na-alginate treated soil was higher than that of polyacrylamide treated soil or in a gel-free soil (control). (author)

  17. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Chapter 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, M. O. [The Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-15

    In Chapter 14, the principles of nuclear magnetic resonance were presented, along with an introduction to image forming processes. In this chapter, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) will be reviewed, beginning with the hardware needed and its impact on image quality. The acquisition processes and image reconstruction will be discussed, as well as the artefacts that are possible, with discussion of the important area of safety and bioeffects completing the chapter.

  18. Juvenile Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile arthritis (JA) is arthritis that happens in children. It causes joint swelling, pain, stiffness, and loss of motion. It can affect any joint, but ... of JA that children get is juvenile idiopathic arthritis. There are several other forms of arthritis affecting ...

  19. Methotrexate for the treatment of juvenile idiopathic arthritis: process to approval for JIA indication in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Masaaki; Naruto, Takuya; Imagawa, Tomoyuki; Murata, Takuji; Takei, Syuji; Tomiita, Minako; Itoh, Yasuhiko; Fujikawa, Satoshi; Yokota, Shumpei

    2009-01-01

    Methotrexate (MTX), the primary treatment for the articular-type juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), is effective and brings about radiological improvement. Patient compliance is good, and it is recognized that its known side effects, namely, disruption of liver function and induction of pulmonary lesions, are unlikely to be severe at the low MTX doses that are administered. In Japan, MTX was granted approval in 1999 by the then Ministry of Health and Welfare specifically for treating rheumatoid arthritis in adult patients, allowing it be generally used in medical institutions for patients having National Health Insurance. However, in the pediatric field, its use outside the indications has so far been unavoidable, and has been left to the discretion of the physician. Finally, at the present conference, expansion of the indications of MTX for JIA was approved in Japan. It is noteworthy that this expansion of indications was achieved without requiring clinical trials on children sponsored by the pharmaceutical company: it was achieved rather by collecting necessary information through ongoing efforts (including collection and analysis of information about approval status in foreign countries, adequate evidence from the literature, implementation of a clinical use survey in Japan, etc.). It also merits attention that the maximum dose (10 mg/m2) was set on the basis of pharmacokinetic data from children, rather than relying on the dosing method and dose for adults.

  20. Reculer Pour Mieux Sauter: A Review of Attachment and Other Developmental Processes Inherent in Identified Risk Factors for Juvenile Delinquency and Juvenile Offending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianna T. Kenny

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The task of this paper is to identify the causes of juvenile delinquency and juvenile offending. The French proverb chosen for its title (Step back in order to jump better reflects the inherent challenge in this task; that is, how far back must we step in order to gain a complete understanding of these causes? Do we commence with adolescence, childhood, birth, pregnancy, conception, or the young person’s parents and their life experiences? How wide a net do we cast? Should we focus primarily on intra-individual factors, or the social ecologies in which young delinquents are found? Every story must have a beginning. In this story about young people who fall off the prosocial developmental trajectory, all sign posts point to attachment and the quality of the child’s first attachment experiences. This review will examine, from attachment and other developmental perspectives, how many of the more proximal causes of delinquency and youth offending have their origins in the emotional deficits suffered in early life. We will argue that delinquent and offending behavior represent attempts to redress these deficits. Consequently, interventions that attempt to prevent offending and reduce recidivism that do not address attachment ruptures and other early deficits cannot expect satisfactory outcomes.

  1. Juvenile Firesetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Brittany; Freeman, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile firesetting is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Male gender, substance use, history of maltreatment, interest in fire, and psychiatric illness are commonly reported risk factors. Interventions that have been shown to be effective in juveniles who set fires include cognitive behavior therapy and educational interventions, whereas satiation has not been shown to be an effective intervention. Forensic assessments can assist the legal community in adjudicating youth with effective interventions. Future studies should focus on consistent assessment and outcome measures to create more evidence for directing evaluation and treatment of juvenile firesetters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Juvenile Justice in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Frías Armenta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The first tribunal in Mexico was established in the central state of San Luis Potosi in 1926. The Law Regarding Social Prevention and Juvenile Delinquency for the Federal District and Mexican territories was promulgated in 1928. In 2005, Article 18 of the Mexican Constitution was modified to establish a comprehensive system (“Sistema Integral de justicia” in Spanish of justice for juveniles between 12 and 18 years old who had committed a crime punishable under criminal law. Its objective was to guarantee juveniles all the due process rights established for adults, in addition to the special ones recognized for minors. The constitutional reform also provides a framework that includes special tribunals as well as alternative justice options for juveniles. With these reforms, institutionalization of minors was to be considered an extreme measure applicable only to felonies and to juveniles older than 14. In 2006, all states within the Mexican federation enacted the “Law of justice for adolescents”. This system, at both the federal and state levels, formalizes a new global paradigm with regard to the triangular relationship between children, the State and the Law. It recognizes that children are also bearers of the inherent human rights recognized for all individuals, instead of simply objects in need of protection. However, despite formally aligning Mexican juvenile justice law with the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC, issues of actual substantive rights remained and new ones have appeared. For example, juveniles younger than 14 who have not committed a felony are released from institutions without any rehabilitation or treatment options, and alternative forms of justice were included without evaluating their possibilities of application or their conditions for success. In addition, the economic status of most juvenile detainees continues to be one of the most important determining factors in the administration of justice

  3. Juvenile Prostitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csapo, Marg

    1986-01-01

    Recent research and Canadian government committee reports concerning juvenile prostitution are reviewed. Proposals are made in the realms of law and social policy; and existing programs are described. (DB)

  4. Coastal processes of the Elwha River delta: Chapter 5 in Coastal habitats of the Elwha River, Washington--biological and physical patterns and processes prior to dam removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrick, Jonathan A.; Stevens, Andrew W.; Miller, Ian M.; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Duda, Jeffrey J.; Warrick, Jonathan A.; Magirl, Christopher S.

    2011-01-01

    To understand the effects of increased sediment supply from dam removal on marine habitats around the Elwha River delta, a basic understanding of the region’s coastal processes is necessary. This chapter provides a summary of the physical setting of the coast near the Elwha River delta, for the purpose of synthesizing the processes that move and disperse sediment discharged by the river. One fundamental property of this coastal setting is the difference between currents in the surfzone with those in the coastal waters offshore of the surfzone. Surfzone currents are largely dictated by the direction and size of waves, and the waves that attack the Elwha River delta predominantly come from Pacific Ocean swell from the west. This establishes surfzone currents and littoral sediment transport that are eastward along much of the delta. Offshore of the surfzone the currents are largely influenced by tidal circulation and the physical constraint to flow provided by the delta’s headland. During both ebbing and flooding tides, the flow separates from the coast at the tip of the delta’s headland, and this produces eddies on the downstream side of the headland. Immediately offshore of the Elwha River mouth, this creates a situation in which the coastal currents are directed toward the east much more frequently than toward the west. This suggests that Elwha River sediment will be more likely to move toward the east in the coastal system.

  5. CHAPTER 7

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    James Sales

    ISSN 0375-1589 (print), ISSN 222-4062 (online) ... 2 University of Stellenbosch, Department of Food Science, Private Bag X1, Matieland ... Ostrich fat depots are used in the meat processing trade as a fat source in processed products or sold ... Australia). Gas flow rates were hydrogen, 25 mL/min; and hydrogen carrier gas 2 ...

  6. CHAPTER 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    infarction and pancreatitis (Olorunnisola et al., 2012;. Harikumar et al. ... liver cholestasis, alcohol, nephrotic syndrome, chronic renal failure .... Acute Toxicity Studies of Camel Milk. Determination of ..... many metabolic processes. The presence ...

  7. Juvenile angiofibromer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Anne Daugaard; Jakobsen, John; Nepper-Rasmussen, Jørgen

    2005-01-01

    Juvenile angiofibroma is a rare, benign, rich vascular tumor, and approximately one new case is diagnosed in Denmark each year. It sits in the foramen sphenopalatinum and occurs in boys from 14 to 25 years of age. The most frequent initial symptoms are nasal obstruction and epistaxis. Through...... the years, the treatment of juvenile angiofibroma has included many methods, including surgical excision, electrocoagulation, interstitial or external radiation therapy, cryosurgery, hormone administration and chemotherapy. Radiation, chemotherapy and surgery have proven to be the most effective treatments...

  8. Chapter One

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Learning theorists and language teachers want to know the answers to certain questions. ... defines it as an emerging linguistic system that has been developed by a learner of a second ... Selinker identifies the following as the learning strategies through which a learner's ... From the learner's processing of these materials.

  9. CHAPTER 4

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aurelie Bechoff

    Processing methods that are harsher on the food matrix (i.e. drying, frying, roasting) result in higher losses of provitamin A carotenoids. Degradation also occurs during the storage of dried products (e.g. from sweet potato, maize, cassava) at ambient temperature, and a short shelf life is a constraint that should be considered.

  10. CHAPTER 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    dental formula is the numerical representation of the different types of teeth in the oral cavity (Zengingul et al., 2007). Alterations in the dentition may have widespread influences, including the feeding habit of the animal. Tooth wear is an all- embracing term used to describe the combined processes of erosion, attrition and ...

  11. Studies on physical performance and functional ability in juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takken, T.

    2003-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the physical training possibilities of children with juvenile arthritis. In the first Chapter a brief introduction on physical fitness and physical training is given including an overview of the existing studies in juvenile arthritis patients. In Chapter 2, we

  12. Chapter 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    For the Aarhus School of Architecture contribution to this book on creativity, we have decided to focus on the role of the workplace. It has been striking after attending several of the Practice Research Symposia organised by ADAPT-r how often creative practice researchers examine the spatial...... organisation of their offices or workshops to form a better understanding of their practice. This has led us to investigate and discuss how the spatial context of creative practices shapes – and is shaped by – design processes. We have asked ourselves about what role the broader spatial and cultural context...

  13. The Impact of Gender on the Processing of Probation Violations and Contempt: A Study of One Juvenile Court

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dyan McGuire

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There is substantial evidence to suggest that in at least some contexts juvenile court judges are circumventing the proscription contained in the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act (“JJDPA”, which prohibits the secure confinement of status offenders, by securely detaining status offenders for contempt.  Some evidence also indicates that gender may influence whether a juvenile is detained as a result of violating a valid court order.  This study seeks to expand existing research by examining what happens to court order violators beyond detention and by explicitly comparing the treatment of court order violators with the treatment of probation violators in terms of detention, adjudication and confinement to shed light on how gender influences these decision points.  While high rates of detention and commitment were uncovered, these results do not suggest that females were more likely to experience these consequences than males.

  14. Adaptation illustrations: Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria Janowiak; Patricia Butler; Chris Swanston; Matt St. Pierre; Linda. Parker

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, we demonstrate how the Adaptation Workbook (Chapter 3) can be used with the Adaptation Strategies and Approaches (Chapter 2) to develop adaptation tactics for two real-world management issues. The two illustrations in this chapter are intended to provide helpful tips to managers completing the Adaptation Workbook, as well as to show how the anticipated...

  15. Recruitment of juvenile fishes into a small temperate choked lagoon (Argentina and the influence of environmental factors during the process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel O. Bruno

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile fishes were sampled every 15 days from September 2009 to April 2010 along the marine-estuarine gradient (surf zone, estuary and a freshwater stream of the Mar Chiquita lagoon, Argentina. The temporal variations of juvenile assemblages in spring-summer and the environmental variables related to the spatial and temporal patterns were analysed. Four groups of sampling stations were defined, indicating differences in fish composition among zones during the spring–early summer period (Groups I to III, while the composition of juvenile fishes was homogeneous along the marine-estuarine gradient during the late summer–early autumn period (Group IV. Platanichthys platana and Ramnogaster arcuata (Group A and Odontesthes argentinensis and Brevoortia aureaz (Group B contributed most to the temporal differences observed. The three first species reached this estuarine system in spring, although with lower abundances than in early summer, while B. aurea was dominant in late summer–early autumn, showing different periods of recruitment of these species into the lagoon. After factoring out variation due to shared spatial-temporal-environmental factors (4.43%, canonical correspondence analysis (CCA showed that temporal factors had an almost five times greater contribution (15.15% than spatial factors (2.85% and almost twice as great as the pure environmental factors (8.11% to explaining the variation in abundance of the juvenile fishes. From the significant environmental variables incorporated in the CCA, wind direction contributed more than water temperature, salinity or transparency in explaining data variability. Indeed, most species were related to “onshore winds” and therefore the importance of wind in the successful recruitment of juveniles into this shallow and micro-tidal estuary is discussed.

  16. What Is Juvenile Arthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Initiative Breadcrumb Home Health Topics English Español Juvenile Arthritis Basics In-Depth Download Download EPUB Download PDF What is it? Points To Remember About Juvenile Arthritis Juvenile arthritis is the term used to describe ...

  17. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... joints. This form of JIA may turn into rheumatoid arthritis. It may involve 5 or more large and ... no known prevention for JIA. Alternative Names Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA); Juvenile chronic polyarthritis; Still disease; Juvenile spondyloarthritis ...

  18. Tourette Association Chapters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... com Arizona Email: info@tsa-az.org Website: http://tsa-az.org/ Arkansas Support Group of Northwest ... California/Hawaii Chapter Email: cbrackett2004@yahoo.com Website: http://www.tsanorcal-hawaii.org Southern California Chapter Phone: ...

  19. Juvenile morphology in baleen whale phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Hsiu; Fordyce, R Ewan

    2014-09-01

    Phylogenetic reconstructions are sensitive to the influence of ontogeny on morphology. Here, we use foetal/neonatal specimens of known species of living baleen whales (Cetacea: Mysticeti) to show how juvenile morphology of extant species affects phylogenetic placement of the species. In one clade (sei whale, Balaenopteridae), the juvenile is distant from the usual phylogenetic position of adults, but in the other clade (pygmy right whale, Cetotheriidae), the juvenile is close to the adult. Different heterochronic processes at work in the studied species have different influences on juvenile morphology and on phylogenetic placement. This study helps to understand the relationship between evolutionary processes and phylogenetic patterns in baleen whale evolution and, more in general, between phylogeny and ontogeny; likewise, this study provides a proxy how to interpret the phylogeny when fossils that are immature individuals are included. Juvenile individuals in the peramorphic acceleration clades would produce misleading phylogenies, whereas juvenile individuals in the paedomorphic neoteny clades should still provide reliable phylogenetic signals.

  20. Chapter 6: Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Leslie A.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Hauer, F. Richard; F. Richard Hauer,; Lamberti, G.A.

    2017-01-01

    Stream temperature has direct and indirect effects on stream ecology and is critical in determining both abiotic and biotic system responses across a hierarchy of spatial and temporal scales. Temperature variation is primarily driven by solar radiation, while landscape topography, geology, and stream reach scale ecosystem processes contribute to local variability. Spatiotemporal heterogeneity in freshwater ecosystems influences habitat distributions, physiological functions, and phenology of all aquatic organisms. In this chapter we provide an overview of methods for monitoring stream temperature, characterization of thermal profiles, and modeling approaches to stream temperature prediction. Recent advances in temperature monitoring allow for more comprehensive studies of the underlying processes influencing annual variation of temperatures and how thermal variability may impact aquatic organisms at individual, population, and community based scales. Likewise, the development of spatially explicit predictive models provide a framework for simulating natural and anthropogenic effects on thermal regimes which is integral for sustainable management of freshwater systems.

  1. Status of R&D on Radiation Processing of Natural Polymers at the Nuclear Research Centre of Algiers. Chapter 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahlous, M. [Commissariat à l' Energie Atomique (COMENA) (Algeria); Centre de Recherche Nucléaire d’Alger (CRNA), Algiers (Algeria)

    2014-07-15

    In recent years, considerable success in the modification of natural polymers by irradiation with the purpose of producing properties for specific applications has been recorded. Research groups in many countries have developed new products based on radiation-processed polysaccharides. Some developed products have already been commercialized. These include plant growth promoters and protectors for application in agriculture, wound dressing hydrogels containing radiation processed polysaccharides for the health sector, and adsorbents of metal ions and organic pollutants for the protection of the environment. In Algeria, although the commercialization stage of radiation-processed polysaccharides has not yet been reached, special attention is being given to research in this area. Several studies related to the effects of ionizing radiation on polysaccharides such as chitosan and sodium alginate have been conducted. Work activities aimed at the development of materials based on natural polymers for medical, environmental and agricultural applications have either been completed or are currently being done. The results of some of these studies are presented below. (author)

  2. Quality Management. Chapter 19

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiles, P. A. [Glan Clwyd Hospital, Bodelwyddan (United Kingdom); McLean, I. D. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Christofides, S. [New Nicosia General Hospital, Nicosia (Cyprus)

    2014-09-15

    This chapter introduces the principles and definitions of quality management systems (QMSs) for radiology facilities, to give a framework to assist in the setting up of such systems and to emphasize the role of the medical physicist in this context. While there is a diversity of terms currently in use to describe quality processes both generally and specifically within radiology, there is broad agreement that the effective management of radiation medicine services demands a quality culture that includes a systematic approach to the elements that govern the delivery of that service. Therefore, the concept of quality assurance (QA) within the radiological facility covers, in its widest sense, all those factors that affect the intended outcome, that is, a clinical diagnosis. The medical physicist has an important role in the overall QMS, especially, but not exclusively, with respect to the equipment performance. A worked example of a quality control (QC) programme is included at the end of the chapter, to demonstrate the depth of detail and involvement of the medical physicist.

  3. Roadmap Towards Registration and Technology Transfer of Radiation Processed Plant Growth Promoters/Elicitors: The Philippine Experience. Chapter 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abad, L. V.; Aranilla, C. T. [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Commonwealth Ave., Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines); Magsino, G. L. [National Crop Protection Center, UP Los Baños College, Laguna (Philippines); Asis, C. A. [Philippine Rice Research Institute, Science City of Muñoz, Nueva Ecija (Philippines)

    2014-07-15

    Pot experiments to test the effectivity of radiation-processed oligocarrageenans as a plant growth promoter/elicitor have been done on rice, soybean, tomatoes, and corn. Though many data from IAEA RCA and CRP participating countries have proven the efficacy of radiation modified oligomers as bio-stimulants and elicitor, certain R & D gaps need to be addressed in order that these products can reach the commercialization stage. A more integrated and systematic study of each crop with the following components need to be conducted: a) timing of application (plant growth stages such as seedling, active, vegetative, and reproductive stages); b) dosage (concentration of oligomers and volume of spray); c) effect in different seasons of the year (dry or wet); d) efficacy in photosynthetic activities (greening of leaves); and e) induction of resistance to pests and diseases (sturdiness, color of leaves, plant height, enzyme systems etc.). Some R & D work on the effect of radiation processed oligocarrageenans as plant growth promoter/elicitor are discussed. It also discusses R & D gaps that need to be addressed to make these oligomers reach the market. The Fertilizer and Pesticide Authority of the Philippines categorizes plant growth promoters and elicitors as fertilizers, requiring very stringent regulations for its registration. The paper proposes a roadmap towards the commercialization of plant growth promoter/elicitors. (author)

  4. Bioavailability and bioaccumulation of metal-based engineered nanomaterials in aquatic environments: concepts and processes: chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoma, Samuel N.; Khan, Farhan R.; Croteau, Marie-Noële

    2014-01-01

    Bioavailability of Me-ENMs to aquatic organisms links their release into the environment to ecological implications. Close examination shows some important differences in the conceptual models that define bioavailability for metals and Me-ENMs. Metals are delivered to aquatic animals from Me-ENMs via water, ingestion, and incidental surface exposure. Both metal released from the Me-ENM and uptake of the nanoparticle itself contribute to bioaccumulation. Some mechanisms of toxicity and some of the metrics describing exposure may differ from metals alone. Bioavailability is driven by complex interaction of particle attributes, environmental transformations, and biological traits. Characterization of Me-ENMs is an essential part of understanding bioavailability and requires novel methodologies. The relative importance of the array of processes that could affect Me-ENM bioavailability remains poorly known, but new approaches and models are developing rapidly. Enough is known, however, to conclude that traditional approaches to exposure assessment for metals would not be adequate to assess risks from Me-ENMs.

  5. Observation of Hydrological Processes Using Remote Sensing. Chapter 2.14; Volume 2: The Science of Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Peter (Editor); Su, Z.; Robeling, R. A.; Schulz, J.; Holleman, I.; Levizzani, V.; Timmermans, W. J.; Rott, H.; Mognard-Campbell, N.; de Jeu, R.; hide

    2011-01-01

    requested by the European Union s Water Framework Directive (WFD), as well as national policies). Geo-information science and EO are vital in achieving a better understanding of the water cycle and better monitoring, analysis, prediction, and management of the world s water resources. The major components of the water cycle of the Earth system and their possible observations are presented. Such observations are essential to understand the global water cycle and its variability, both spatially and temporally, and can only be achieved consistently by means of EOs. Additionally, such observations are essential to advance our understanding of coupling between the terrestrial, atmospheric, and oceanic branches of the water cycle, and how this coupling may influence climate variability and predictability. Water resources management directly interferes with the natural water cycle in the forms of building dams, reservoirs, water transfer systems, and irrigation systems that divert and redistribute part of the water storages and fluxes on land. The water cycle is mainly driven and coupled to the energy cycle in terms of phase changes of water (changes among liquid, water vapor, and solid phases) and transport of water by winds in addition to gravity and diffusion processes. The water-cycle components can be observed with in situ sensors as well as airborne and satellite sensors in terms of radiative quantities. Processing and conversion of these radiative signals are necessary to retrieve the water-cycle components.

  6. CHAPTER 1. Introduction

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Lianbin; Wang, Peng

    2016-01-01

    With the development of modern industry and modern economies, environmental problems, especially water pollution and water scarcity, have become the most serious global challenges. In dealing with these challenges, various kinds of functionalized materials and devices are purposefully developed, fabricated, and utilized. It is clear that smart materials have not only provided effective strategies for solving environmental problems, but have also exhibited unprecedented advantages over traditional materials by integrating multifunctions and/or processes into one advanced device/material. In this book, we will present a broad collection of bioinspired smart materials and systems that are used in environmental problem solving. The topics of these chapters span from bioinspired fog collection, self-healing materials, responsive particle-stabilized emulsions, smart draw solutions in forward osmosis, slippery coating, insightful analysis of problems and opportunities for hydrophobic surfaces applied in real conditions, to superwetting materials for oil-water separation.

  7. Melt inclusions: Chapter 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; Lowenstern, J. B.

    2014-01-01

    Melt inclusions are small droplets of silicate melt that are trapped in minerals during their growth in a magma. Once formed, they commonly retain much of their initial composition (with some exceptions) unless they are re-opened at some later stage. Melt inclusions thus offer several key advantages over whole rock samples: (i) they record pristine concentrations of volatiles and metals that are usually lost during magma solidification and degassing, (ii) they are snapshots in time whereas whole rocks are the time-integrated end products, thus allowing a more detailed, time-resolved view into magmatic processes (iii) they are largely unaffected by subsolidus alteration. Due to these characteristics, melt inclusions are an ideal tool to study the evolution of mineralized magma systems. This chapter first discusses general aspects of melt inclusions formation and methods for their investigation, before reviewing studies performed on mineralized magma systems.

  8. CHAPTER 1. Introduction

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Lianbin

    2016-02-23

    With the development of modern industry and modern economies, environmental problems, especially water pollution and water scarcity, have become the most serious global challenges. In dealing with these challenges, various kinds of functionalized materials and devices are purposefully developed, fabricated, and utilized. It is clear that smart materials have not only provided effective strategies for solving environmental problems, but have also exhibited unprecedented advantages over traditional materials by integrating multifunctions and/or processes into one advanced device/material. In this book, we will present a broad collection of bioinspired smart materials and systems that are used in environmental problem solving. The topics of these chapters span from bioinspired fog collection, self-healing materials, responsive particle-stabilized emulsions, smart draw solutions in forward osmosis, slippery coating, insightful analysis of problems and opportunities for hydrophobic surfaces applied in real conditions, to superwetting materials for oil-water separation.

  9. Chapter 3: Traceability and uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEwen, Malcolm

    2014-01-01

    Chapter 3 presents: an introduction; Traceability (measurement standard, role of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, Secondary Standards Laboratories, documentary standards and traceability as process review); Uncertainty (Example 1 - Measurement, M raw (SSD), Example 2 - Calibration data, N D.w 60 Co, kQ, Example 3 - Correction factor, P TP ) and Conclusion

  10. Gas bubble disease monitoring and research of juvenile salmonids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maule, A.G.; Beeman, J.; Hans, K.M.; Mesa, M.G.; Haner, P.; Warren, J.J.

    1997-10-01

    This document describes the project activities 1996--1997 contract year. This report is composed of three chapters which contain data and analyses of the three main elements of the project: field research to determine the vertical distribution of migrating juvenile salmonids, monitoring of juvenile migrants at dams on the Snake and Columbia rivers, and laboratory experiments to describe the progression of gas bubble disease signs leading to mortality. The major findings described in this report are: A miniature pressure-sensitive radio transmitter was found to be accurate and precise and, after compensation for water temperature, can be used to determine the depth of tagged-fish to within 0.32 m of the true depth (Chapter 1). Preliminary data from very few fish suggest that depth protects migrating juvenile steelhead from total dissolved gas supersaturation (Chapter 1). As in 1995, few fish had any signs of gas bubble disease, but it appeared that prevalence and severity increased as fish migrated downstream and in response to changing gas supersaturation (Chapter 2). It appeared to gas bubble disease was not a threat to migrating juvenile salmonids when total dissolved gas supersaturation was < 120% (Chapter 2). Laboratory studies suggest that external examinations are appropriate for determining the severity of gas bubble disease in juvenile salmonids (Chapter 3). The authors developed a new method for examining gill arches for intravascular bubbles by clamping the ventral aorta to reduce bleeding when arches were removed (Chapter 3). Despite an outbreak of bacterial kidney disease in the experimental fish, the data indicate that gas bubble disease is a progressive trauma that can be monitored (Chapter 3)

  11. Chapter 27. Superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavra, O.

    2007-01-01

    In this chapter author deals with superconductors and superconductivity. Different chemical materials used as high-temperature superconductors are presented. Some applications of superconductivity are presented.

  12. Environmental Radioactivity. Chapter 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhamat Omar; Ismail Sulaiman; Zalina Laili

    2015-01-01

    This chapter explains several things which consist radioactivity measurements, regular and high background radioactivity, radioactive contaminated soil and radioactivity in fertilizers, rocks, building materials, food, water, environments, sediments, flora and fauna. Besides, the natural radioactive gas concentration of radon and toron in the environment also been discussed specifically in this chapter.

  13. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, M.

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted.

  14. Chapter 11. Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, Kevin D.; Culver, Gene

    1998-01-01

    Most geothermal fluids, because of their elevated temperature, contain a variety of dissolved chemicals. These chemicals are frequently corrosive toward standard materials of construction. As a result, it is advisable in most cases to isolate the geothermal fluid from the process to which heat is being transferred. The task of heat transfer from the geothermal fluid to a closed process loop is most often handled by a plate heat exchanger. The two most common types used in geothermal applications are: bolted and brazed. For smaller systems, in geothermal resource areas of a specific character, downhole heat exchangers (DHEs) provide a unique means of heat extraction. These devices eliminate the requirement for physical removal of fluid from the well. For this reason, DHE-based systems avoid entirely the environmental and practical problems associated with fluid disposal. Shell and tube heat exchangers play only a minor role in low-temperature, direct-use systems. These units have been in common use in industrial applications for many years and, as a result, are well understood. For these reasons, shell and tube heat exchangers will not be covered in this chapter.

  15. Juvenile Court Statistics - 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Youth Development (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    This report is a statistical study of juvenile court cases in 1972. The data demonstrates how the court is frequently utilized in dealing with juvenile delinquency by the police as well as by other community agencies and parents. Excluded from this report are the ordinary traffic cases handled by juvenile court. The data indicate that: (1) in…

  16. Evolution of Juvenile Ankylosing Spondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye.V. Prohorov

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Evolution of juvenile ankylosing spondylitis tend to follow a more frequent involvement in the pathological process of elbow and ankle joints, development of enthesiopathies, changes of intraarticular meniscal horns, forming of Baker’s cysts, cartilage flaps and systemic osteoporosis, and total value of all these signs 13 times exceeds thereof in patients with with the debut of disease in adulthood, but for juvenile ankylosing spondylitis vertebral lesion is less common. Age dimorphism of the use of certain groups of drugs and physiotherapy facilities is observed.

  17. Chapter 9: Electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grupen, Claus; Shwartz, Boris A.

    2006-01-01

    Sophisticated front-end electronics are a key part of practically all modern radiation detector systems. This chapter introduces the basic principles and their implementation. Topics include signal acquisition, electronic noise, pulse shaping (analog and digital), and data readout techniques

  18. Basic Principles - Chapter 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This chapter described at a very high level some of the considerations that need to be made when designing algorithms for a vehicle health management application....

  19. Image Reconstruction. Chapter 13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuyts, J. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging Research Center, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Matej, S. [Medical Image Processing Group, Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2014-12-15

    This chapter discusses how 2‑D or 3‑D images of tracer distribution can be reconstructed from a series of so-called projection images acquired with a gamma camera or a positron emission tomography (PET) system [13.1]. This is often called an ‘inverse problem’. The reconstruction is the inverse of the acquisition. The reconstruction is called an inverse problem because making software to compute the true tracer distribution from the acquired data turns out to be more difficult than the ‘forward’ direction, i.e. making software to simulate the acquisition. There are basically two approaches to image reconstruction: analytical reconstruction and iterative reconstruction. The analytical approach is based on mathematical inversion, yielding efficient, non-iterative reconstruction algorithms. In the iterative approach, the reconstruction problem is reduced to computing a finite number of image values from a finite number of measurements. That simplification enables the use of iterative instead of mathematical inversion. Iterative inversion tends to require more computer power, but it can cope with more complex (and hopefully more accurate) models of the acquisition process.

  20. Silicate glasses. Chapter 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutze, W.

    1988-01-01

    This chapter is a survey of world-wide research and development efforts in nuclear waste glasses and its production technology. The principal glasses considered are silicate glasses which contain boron, i.e. borosilicate glass. A historical overview of waste form development programs in nine countries is followed by a summary of the design criteria for borosilicate glass compositions glass compositions. In the sections on glass properties the waste form is characterized in terms of potential alterations under the influence of heat, thermal gradients, radiation, aqueous solutions and combinations thereof. The topics are phase transformations, mechanical properties, radiation effects and chemical durability. The results from studies of volcanic glasses, as natural analogues for borosilicate nuclear waste glasses in order to verify predictions obtained from short-term tests in the laboratory, have been compiled in a special section on natural analogues. A special section on advanced vitrification techniques summarizes the various actual and potential processing schemes and describes the facilities. The literature has been considered until 1985. (author). 430 refs.; 68 figs.; 29 tabs

  1. Towards the next chapter

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    In the late 1970s, while the CERN community was busy preparing the SPS to operate as a collider and planning for LEP, people also had their eyes on the next chapter in the unfolding story of CERN.   That the LEP tunnel should be built with a future hadron collider in mind was a given by the end of the decade. But there had also been proposals to build large proton storage rings, or re-equip the ISR with superconducting magnets. Some people had suggested building an electron-proton collider at CERN, and there were ambitious plans looking far into the future at a possible Very Big Accelerator to be built somewhere in the world, which went by its acronym VBA. For the field of particle physics, with its very long lead times, this is part of the normal cycle, and while most of those options never came to fruition, this process did pave the way for the LHC. Today, with the LHC programme underway, the time has come for CERN to start seriously considering the options for its post-LHC future. Perhaps ...

  2. Juvenile dispersal in Calomys venustus (Muridae: Sigmodontinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priotto, José; Steinmann, Andrea; Provensal, Cecilia; Polop, Jaime

    2004-05-01

    Both spacing behaviour and dispersal movement are viewed as hierarchical processes in which the effects may be expressed at spatial scale. This research was carried out to examine the hypothesis that the presence of parents promotes the dispersal of juveniles from their natal nest and their father or mother home-range, in Calomys venustus.The study was carried out in four 0.25 ha fences (two controls and two experimentals), in a natural pasture. This study had two periods: Father Removal (FR) (August and December 1997; year one) and Mother Removal (MR) (August 1998 and January 1999; year two). For the FR treatment fathers were removed after juveniles were born, but in the MR treatment mothers were removed after the juveniles were weaned. The effect of parents on the dispersal distance of juveniles was analysed with respect to their natal nest and their mother and father home-range. Dispersal distance from the nest of C. venustus was independent of either male or female parent. Juveniles were more dispersing in relation to the centre of activity of their mothers than to that of their fathers, and females were more dispersing than males. Female juveniles overlap their home-range with their parents less than male juveniles do. The differences observed between female and male juveniles would be related to their different sexual maturation times, as well as to the female territoriality.

  3. Hypermetabolic Conversion of Plant Oil into Water: Endothermic Biochemical Process Stimulated by Juvenile Hormone in the European Firebug, L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Sláma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The physiological and biochemical mechanisms that enable insects to feed on dry food to secure enough water for larval growth were investigated. The study was carried out with a plethora of physiological methods, ranging from the simple volumetric determination of O 2 consumption and water intake to more advanced methods such as scanning microrespirography and thermovision imaging of insect's body temperature. The experiments were done on the European firebug, Pyrrhocoris apterus , which feeds exclusively on dry linden seeds. In order to survive, it needs to drink water or suck a sap from plants occasionally. It was found that the young larval instars compensate the occasional water deficiency by the increased production of metabolic water. The juvenile hormone (JH-dependent production of metabolic water, which was previously found in other species consuming dry food, was achieved in P. apterus by total metabolic combustion of the dietary lipid (neutral seed oil. The water-producing, hypermetabolic larvae were heated from inside by endothermic energy released from the uncoupling of oxidation from oxidative phosphorylation. The “warm”, hypermetabolic larvae burning the dietary oil into CO 2 and water showed the increased rates of respiratory metabolism. Microrespirographic recording of these larvae revealed the ratio of the respiratory quotient (RQ, CO 2 /O 2 of 0.7, which indicated the breakdown of a pure triglyceride. The warm hypermetabolic larvae could be easily spotted and distinguished from the “cold” larvae on the screen of a thermovision camera. The last instar larvae lacking the JH were always only cold. They metabolized a carbohydrate substrate exclusively (RQ = 1.0, while the dietary lipid was stored in the fat body. In comparison with the hypermetabolic larvae of some other species fed on dry food, which exhibited the highest rates of O 2 consumption ever recorded in a living organism (10–20 mL O 2 /g per hour, the metabolic

  4. Dielectric properties of agricultural products – fundamental principles, influencing factors, and measurement technirques. Chapter 4. Electrotechnologies for Food Processing: Book Series. Volume 3. Radio-Frequency Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this chapter, definitions of dielectric properties, or permittivity, of materials and a brief discussion of the fundamental principles governing their behavior with respect to influencing factors are presented. The basic physics of the influence of frequency of the electric fields and temperatur...

  5. Nursery management [Chapter 16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim M. Wilkinson

    2009-01-01

    This handbook provides an overview of the factors that go into starting and operating a native plant nursery. Management includes all aspects of working with plants in all their phases of growth as described in Chapter 3, Crop Planning and Developing Propagation Protocols. Management also includes working with the community; organizing materials and infrastructure;...

  6. Chapter 8. Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman L. McDonald; Christina D. Vojta; Kevin S. McKelvey

    2013-01-01

    Perhaps the greatest barrier between monitoring and management is data analysis. Data languish in drawers and spreadsheets because those who collect or maintain monitoring data lack training in how to effectively summarize and analyze their findings. This chapter serves as a first step to surmounting that barrier by empowering any monitoring team with the basic...

  7. Forestry [Chapter 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Gyde Lund; William A. Befort; James E. Brickell; William M. Ciesla; Elizabeth C. Collins; Raymond L. Czaplewski; Attilio Antonio Disperati; Robert W. Douglass; Charles W. Dull; Jerry D. Greer; Rachel Riemann Hershey; Vernon J. LaBau; Henry Lachowski; Peter A. Murtha; David J. Nowak; Marc A. Roberts; Pierre Schram; Mahadev D. Shedha; Ashbindu Singh; Kenneth C. Winterberger

    1997-01-01

    Foresters and other resource managers have used aerial photographs to help manage resources since the late 1920s. As discussed in chapter 1, however, it was not until the mid-1940s that their use became common. Obtaining photographic coverage was always a problem. For many areas of the world, reasonably complete coverage did not exist until after World War II. In...

  8. Radiation biology. Chapter 20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wondergem, J. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-09-15

    Radiation biology (radiobiology) is the study of the action of ionizing radiations on living matter. This chapter gives an overview of the biological effects of ionizing radiation and discusses the physical, chemical and biological variables that affect dose response at the cellular, tissue and whole body levels at doses and dose rates relevant to diagnostic radiology.

  9. Water resources (Chapter 12)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas C. Brown; Romano Foti; Jorge Ramirez

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, we focus on the vulnerability of U.S. freshwater supplies considering all lands, not just forest and rangelands. We do not assess the condition of those lands or report on how much of our water supply originates on lands of different land covers or ownerships, because earlier Resources Planning Act (RPA) Assessment work addressed these topics....

  10. Chapter 5: Training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2018-04-01

    The chapter 5 presents the 1) initial training; 2) periodic training, which includes: a) periodic training for employees at lower levels of the hierarchy than that of the operator; b) period training for operators; 3) operator training; 4) record of training; 5) safety culture.

  11. Chapter 0: Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This chapter deals with the background (Gabcikovo hydro power scheme was input in October 1992), project objective, project framework, equipment, establishment of the integrated modelling system, model setup, calibration and validation, definitions of scenarios for model application and with the results of model applications

  12. Chapter 6: Accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2018-04-01

    Th chapter 6 presents the accidents of: 1) Stimos (Italy - May, 1975); 2) San Salvador (El Salvador - February 5, 1989); 3) Soreq (Israel - June 21, 1990); 4) Nesvizh (Belarus - October 26, 1991); 5) Illinois (USA - February, 1965); 6)Maryland (EUA - December 11, 1991); 7)Hanoi (Vietnam -November 17, 1992); 8)Fleurus (Belgium - March 11, 2006) and final remarks on accidents.

  13. Promoting the APS Chapter Program by sharing its history, best practices, and how-to guide for establishing new chapters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Mari K

    2017-03-01

    Early establishment of physiological societies in Oklahoma and Ohio demonstrated the benefits of networking physiologists and paved the way for establishing the APS Chapter Program. Designed to promote the general objectives of the APS, the Chapter Program was officially launched in 1995, with Ohio being the first recognized chapter. There are 13 active chapters regularly engaged in numerous activities designed to advance physiology education and research. In the hopes that others will recognize the important offerings of state chapters and consider organizing one, the aims for this paper are to 1) share a brief history, 2) provide rationale for chapter initiation, and 3) describe the process involved in establishing a chapter. In light of current changes in American Medical Association and Liaison Committee on Medical Education guidelines, the present time may be critical in promoting chapters, as they play a vital role in sustaining recognition and support for the discipline. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Juvenile Confinement in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendel, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    For more than a century, the predominant strategy for the treatment and punishment of serious and sometimes not-so-serious juvenile offenders in the United States has been placement into large juvenile corrections institutions, alternatively known as training schools, reformatories, or youth corrections centers. America's heavy reliance on…

  15. Juvenile giant fibroadenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipul Yagnik

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Fibroadenomas are benign solid tumor associated with aberration of normal lobular development. Juvenile giant fibroadenoma is usually single and >5 cm in size /or >500 gms in weight. Important differential diagnoses are: phyllodes tumor and juvenile gigantomastia. Simple excision is the treatment of choice.

  16. X ray Production. Chapter 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowotny, R. [Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-09-15

    The differential absorption of X rays in tissues and organs, owing to their atomic composition, is the basis for the various imaging methods used in diagnostic radiology. The principles in the production of X rays have remained the same since their discovery. However, much refinement has gone into the design of X ray tubes to achieve the performance required for today’s radiological examinations. In this chapter, an outline of the principles of X ray production and a characterization of the radiation output of X ray tubes will be given. The basic processes producing X rays are dealt with in Section 1.4.

  17. Radiation Protection. Chapter 24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, D. [Ninewells Hospital, Dundee (United Kingdom); Collins, L. T. [Westmead Hospital, Sydney (Australia); Le Heron, J. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-09-15

    Chapter 21, in describing basic radiation biology and radiation effects, demonstrates the need to have a system of radiation protection that allows the many beneficial uses of radiation to be realized while ensuring detrimental radiation effects are either prevented or minimized. This can be achieved with the twin objectives of preventing the occurrence of deterministic effects and of limiting the probability of stochastic effects to a level that is considered acceptable. In a radiology facility, consideration needs to be given to the patient, the staff involved in performing the radiological procedures, members of the public and other staff that may be in the radiology facility, carers and comforters of patients undergoing procedures, and persons who may be undergoing a radiological procedure as part of a biomedical research project. This chapter discusses how the objectives given above are fulfilled through a system of radiation protection and how such a system should be applied practically in a radiology facility.

  18. How to write a medical book chapter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendirci, Muammer

    2013-01-01

    Invited medical book chapters are usually requested by editors from experienced authors who have made significant contributions to the literature in certain fields requested by an editor from an experienced. Before the start of the writing process a consensus should be established between the editor and the author with regard to the title, deadline, specific instructions and content of the manuscript. Certain issues concerning a chapter can be negotiated by the parties beforehand, but some issues cannot. As writing a medical book chapter is seen as an honor in its own right, the assignment needs to be treated with sincerity by elucidating the topic in detail, and maximal effort should be made to keep in mind that the chapter will reach a large target audience. The purpose of this review article is to provide guidance to residents and junior specialists in the field of urology to improve their writing skills. PMID:26328134

  19. Juvenile mammary papillomatosis; Papilomatosis juvenil mamaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, M.; Jimenez, A. V. [Hospital Reina Sofia. Cordoba (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    Juvenile mammary papillomatosis is a benign proliferative disease of young patients, generally under 30 years of age. The most frequent clinical presentation is the existence of an elastic and mobile lymph node of the breast. Anatomopathologically, it is characterized because it presents ductal epithelial hyperplasia, sometimes with marked atypia, and there are numerous cysts having different sizes among the findings. It has been associated with an increase in the incidence of breast cancer, both in the patient herself as well as her family. We review the literature on the subject and present the mammographic and ultrasonographic findings of a 22 year old woman diagnosed of juvenile mammary papillomatosis. (Author) 12 refs.

  20. Chapter 5: Monitoring results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poel, Bart; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    2003-01-01

    The monitoring results from the IEA Task 13 project "Advanced solar low energy houses" are described in this chapter. The underlying information was collected in the form of questionnaires. The questionnaires were formulated in such a way that participants are provided with a uniform lay......-out to fill in their particular results. Thus it is possible to compare the performances measured, calculated or predicted for the different houses....

  1. Chapter 14. Greenhouses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, Kevin D.

    1998-01-01

    Greenhouse heating is one of the most common uses of geothermal resources. Because of the significant heating requirements of greenhouses and their ability to use very low- temperature fluids, they are a natural application. The evaluation of a particular greenhouse project involves consideration of the structure heating requirements, and the system to meet those requirements. This chapter is intended to provide information on each of these areas.

  2. Water resources (Chapter 5)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hobbs, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available and relationships that inform the association between geology, shale gas and groundwater that is discussed in this Chapter. The mudstones and sandstones of the Adelaide Subgroup at the base of the Beaufort Group succession of sedimentary strata represent... migration to surface. The sedimentary rocks of the Ecca Group cover a further ~6% of the study area. In agreement with Rosewarne et al. (2013), who recognise a western, a central and an eastern subarea; this study recognises an additional southern subarea...

  3. Chemical Tracer Methods: Chapter 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Richard W.

    2017-01-01

    Tracers have a wide variety of uses in hydrologic studies: providing quantitative or qualitative estimates of recharge, identifying sources of recharge, providing information on velocities and travel times of water movement, assessing the importance of preferential flow paths, providing information on hydrodynamic dispersion, and providing data for calibration of water flow and solute-transport models (Walker, 1998; Cook and Herczeg, 2000; Scanlon et al., 2002b). Tracers generally are ions, isotopes, or gases that move with water and that can be detected in the atmosphere, in surface waters, and in the subsurface. Heat also is transported by water; therefore, temperatures can be used to trace water movement. This chapter focuses on the use of chemical and isotopic tracers in the subsurface to estimate recharge. Tracer use in surface-water studies to determine groundwater discharge to streams is addressed in Chapter 4; the use of temperature as a tracer is described in Chapter 8.Following the nomenclature of Scanlon et al. (2002b), tracers are grouped into three categories: natural environmental tracers, historical tracers, and applied tracers. Natural environmental tracers are those that are transported to or created within the atmosphere under natural processes; these tracers are carried to the Earth’s surface as wet or dry atmospheric deposition. The most commonly used natural environmental tracer is chloride (Cl) (Allison and Hughes, 1978). Ocean water, through the process of evaporation, is the primary source of atmospheric Cl. Other tracers in this category include chlorine-36 (36Cl) and tritium (3H); these two isotopes are produced naturally in the Earth’s atmosphere; however, there are additional anthropogenic sources of them.

  4. Chapter 6: Conclusions and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This chapter provides a brief summary of conclusions with respect to project implementation issues. Furthermore, the chapter contains recommendations on future applications of the modelling system and on water resources management in the project area

  5. Summary and conclusions [Chapter 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel G. Neary; John N. Rinne; Alvin L.. Medina

    2012-01-01

    Summaries and conclusions of each chapter are compiled here to provide a “Quick Reference” guide of major results and recommendations for the UVR. More detail can be obtained from individual chapters.

  6. Chapter 13. Radionuclides in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toelgyessy, J.; Harangozo, M.

    2000-01-01

    This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with problems connected with using of radionuclides in medicine. Methods of treatment with using of radionuclides are reviewed. Chapter consists of next parts: (1) Remotion of thyroid gland; (2) Treatment of cerebrally tumour in nuclear reactor; (3) Artificial heart

  7. Chapter 2: Irradiators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2018-04-01

    The chapter 2 presents the subjects: 1) gamma irradiators which includes: Category-I gamma irradiators (self-contained); Category-II gamma irradiators (panoramic and dry storage); Category-III gamma irradiators (self-contained in water); Category-IV gamma irradiators (panoramic and wet storage); source rack for Category-IV gamma irradiators; product transport system for Category-IV gamma irradiators; radiation shield for gamma irradiators; 2) accelerators which includes: Category-I Accelerators (shielded irradiator); Category-II Accelerators (irradiator inside a shielded room); Irradiation application examples.

  8. Juvenil idiopatisk arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlin, Troels

    2002-01-01

    The new classification of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is described in this review. Clinical characteristics divide JIA in to subtypes: systemic, oligoarticular (persistent and extended type), RF-positive and--negative polyarticular, enthesitis-related arthritis and psoriatic arthritis...

  9. Juvenile Rockfish Recruitment Cruise

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 1983, the groundfish analysis project began a series of yearly cruises designed to assess the annual abundance of juvenile rockfish along the central California...

  10. Juvenile polyposis syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Hsiao, Yi-Han; Wei, Chin-Hung; Chang, Szu-Wen; Chang, Lung; Fu, Yu-Wei; Lee, Hung-Chang; Liu, Hsuan-Liang; Yeung, Chun-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Juvenile polyposis syndrome, a rare disorder in children, is characterized with multiple hamartomatous polyps in alimentary tract. A variety of manifestations include bleeding, intussusception, or polyp prolapse. In this study, we present an 8-month-old male infant of juvenile polyposis syndrome initially presenting with chronic anemia. To the best of our knowledge, this is the youngest case reported in the literature. Methods: We report a rare case of an 8-month-old male...

  11. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    OpenAIRE

    Hoeve, M.

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted. The first study addressed a meta-analysis on parenting characteristics and styles in relation to delinquency. In this meta-analysis, previous manuscripts were systematically analyzed, computing mean ...

  12. Palaeoclimate. Chapter 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, E.; Overpeck, J.; Briffa, K.R.; Duplessy, J.C.; Joos, F.; Masson-Delmotte, V.; Olago, D.; Otto-Bliesner, B.; Peltier, W.R.; Rahmstorf, S.; Ramesh, R.; Raynaud, D.; Rind, D.; Solomina, O.; Villalba, R.; Zhang, D.

    2007-09-15

    This chapter assesses palaeoclimatic data and knowledge of how the climate system changes over interannual to millennial time scales, and how well these variations can be simulated with climate models. Additional palaeoclimatic perspectives are included in other chapters. Palaeoclimate science has made significant advances since the 1970s, when a primary focus was on the origin of the ice ages, the possibility of an imminent future ice age, and the first explorations of the so-called Little Ice Age and Medieval Warm Period. Even in the first IPCC assessment, many climatic variations prior to the instrumental record were not that well known or understood. Fifteen years later, understanding is much improved, more quantitative and better integrated with respect to observations and modelling. After a brief overview of palaeoclimatic methods, including their strengths and weaknesses, this chapter examines the palaeoclimatic record in chronological order, from oldest to youngest. This approach was selected because the climate system varies and changes over all time scales, and it is instructive to understand the contributions that lower-frequency patterns of climate change might make in influencing higher-frequency patterns of variability and change. In addition, an examination of how the climate system has responded to large changes in climate forcing in the past is useful in assessing how the same climate system might respond to the large anticipated forcing changes in the future. Cutting across this chronologically based presentation are assessments of climate forcing and response, and of the ability of state-of-the-art climate models to simulate the responses. Perspectives from palaeoclimatic observations, theory and modelling are integrated wherever possible to reduce uncertainty in the assessment. Several sections also assess the latest developments in the rapidly advancing area of abrupt climate change, that is, forced or unforced climatic change that involves

  13. Palaeoclimate. Chapter 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, E.; Overpeck, J.; Briffa, K.R.; Duplessy, J.C.; Joos, F.; Masson-Delmotte, V.; Olago, D.; Otto-Bliesner, B.; Peltier, W.R.; Rahmstorf, S.; Ramesh, R.; Raynaud, D.; Rind, D.; Solomina, O.; Villalba, R.; Zhang, D.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter assesses palaeoclimatic data and knowledge of how the climate system changes over interannual to millennial time scales, and how well these variations can be simulated with climate models. Additional palaeoclimatic perspectives are included in other chapters. Palaeoclimate science has made significant advances since the 1970s, when a primary focus was on the origin of the ice ages, the possibility of an imminent future ice age, and the first explorations of the so-called Little Ice Age and Medieval Warm Period. Even in the first IPCC assessment, many climatic variations prior to the instrumental record were not that well known or understood. Fifteen years later, understanding is much improved, more quantitative and better integrated with respect to observations and modelling. After a brief overview of palaeoclimatic methods, including their strengths and weaknesses, this chapter examines the palaeoclimatic record in chronological order, from oldest to youngest. This approach was selected because the climate system varies and changes over all time scales, and it is instructive to understand the contributions that lower-frequency patterns of climate change might make in influencing higher-frequency patterns of variability and change. In addition, an examination of how the climate system has responded to large changes in climate forcing in the past is useful in assessing how the same climate system might respond to the large anticipated forcing changes in the future. Cutting across this chronologically based presentation are assessments of climate forcing and response, and of the ability of state-of-the-art climate models to simulate the responses. Perspectives from palaeoclimatic observations, theory and modelling are integrated wherever possible to reduce uncertainty in the assessment. Several sections also assess the latest developments in the rapidly advancing area of abrupt climate change, that is, forced or unforced climatic change that involves

  14. JUVENILE RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I N Sartika

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA is the most common rheumatic condition in children. JRA is defined as persistent arthritis in 1 or more joints for at least 6 weeks, with the onset before age 16 years. The etiology of JRA is unknown. Antigen activated CD4+ T cell stimulate monocytes, macrophages, and synovial fibroblasts to produce the cytokines Interleukin-1 (IL-1, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-? and to secrete matrix metalloproteinases, which lead to chronic inflammation due to infiltration of inflammatory cell, angiogenesis, destruction of cartilage and bone with pannus formation. The 3 major subtypes of JRA are based on the symptoms at disease onset and are designated systemic onset, pauciarticular onset, and polyarticular onset. For all patients, the goals of therapy are to decrease chronic joint pain and suppress the inflammatory process. Poor prognostic have been observed in patients with polyarticular onset, rheumatoid factor, persistent morning stiffness, tenosynovitis, involvement of the small joints, rapid appearance of erosions, active late onset childhood, subcutaneous nodules, or antinuclear antibody.

  15. Chapter 8: Youth Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stald, Gitte Bang

    2016-01-01

    Gitte Stald has been researching mobile technologies since their early days of adoption by younger audiences. In her talk, she focuses on adolescents and their mobile media use. Stald shares her findings from the longitudinal and cross-cultural studies she has been conducting over the years....... The chapter builds on findings from a Danish and a European context, but they can be expanded to think about mobile youth culture in general. Gitte Stald discusses the concepts of digital natives and digital immigrants, sharing, immediacy, and the feeling of presence (or absent presence), social coordination...... their phones as indispensable to managing their social lives. Stald observes that while being connected all the time gives youth a sense of freedom, control and autonomy, their increasing access to mobile phones is a cause anytime, anywhere access to one another is now possible with mobile phones, time...

  16. Chapter 15. Attachments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    In this chapter used abbreviations and radiation safety of NPPs in Slovak Republic are presented. Results of monitoring of NPP Bohunice V-1 and V-2 as well as NPP Mochovce are presented. A brief account of activities carried out by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic in 2000 is presented. The collective dose is one of the fundamental indicators to assess the level of nuclear safety and safety culture. This is the total dose of both external and internal exposure of the whole of the body measured with a personal dosimeter and a calculated internal exposure over a certain period of time. Measured doses to the utility personnel, the staff of supplier organisations and official working visits are included

  17. Effects of Juvenile Court Exposure on Crime in Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitclerc, Amelie; Gatti, Uberto; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The juvenile justice system's interventions are expected to help reduce recidivism. However, previous studies suggest that official processing in juvenile court fails to reduce adolescents' criminal behavior in the following year. Longer term effects have not yet been investigated with a rigorous method. This study used propensity…

  18. Delinquency Cases in Juvenile Court, 2002. OJJDP Fact Sheet #02

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Anne L.

    2006-01-01

    This fact sheet presents statistics on delinquency cases processed by juvenile courts in 2002. The number of delinquency cases handled by juvenile courts decreased 11 percent between 1997 and 2002. During this time, the number of person offense cases decreased 2 percent, property offense cases decreased 27 percent, drug law violation cases…

  19. A Structural Equation Modeling Analysis of Influences on Juvenile Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, David E.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Zhang, Dalun; Zhang, Dake

    2014-01-01

    This study examined influences on delinquency and recidivism using structural equation modeling. The sample comprised 199,204 individuals: 99,602 youth whose cases had been processed by the South Carolina Department of Juvenile Justice and a matched control group of 99,602 youth without juvenile records. Structural equation modeling for the…

  20. Chapter 12. Space Heating Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, Kevin D.

    1998-01-01

    The performance evaluation of space heating equipment for a geothermal application is generally considered from either of two perspectives: (a) selecting equipment for installation in new construction, or (b) evaluating the performance and retrofit requirements of an existing system. With regard to new construction, the procedure is relatively straightforward. Once the heating requirements are determined, the process need only involve the selection of appropriately sized hot water heating equipment based on the available water temperature. It is important to remember that space heating equipment for geothermal applications is the same equipment used in non-geothermal applications. What makes geothermal applications unique is that the equipment is generally applied at temperatures and flow rates that depart significantly from traditional heating system design. This chapter presents general considerations for the performance of heating equipment at non-standard temperature and flow conditions, retrofit of existing systems, and aspects of domestic hot water heating.

  1. Atherosclerosis in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Jednacz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the arteries. Clinical consequences of the atherosclerotic process occur in the adult population, however atherosclerotic process begins in childhood. The classic risk factors for atherosclerosis include obesity, dyslipidaemia, age, gender or family history. In recent years, attention has been drawn to the similarity between atherosclerotic inflammatory processes and inflammatory changes in the course of systemic connective tissue disease, in particular systemic lupus etythematosus (SLE or rheumatoid arthritis (RA. There is also observed the similarity of the pathogenetic background of development of atherosclerosis and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA. Elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines are observed in the course of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Also homocysteine concentrations, which may play a significant role in the development of atherosclerotic lesions, are observed higher in patients with JIA. Some studies revealed higher carotid intima-media thickness (IMT index values in children with JIA. In view of the fact that atherosclerotic process begins as early as in childhood, the introduction of appropriate preventive measures in children is a matter of utmost importance.

  2. Career development through local chapter involvement: perspectives from chapter members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Melissa; Inniss-Richter, Zipporah; Mata, Holly; Cottrell, Randall R

    2013-07-01

    The importance of career development in professional organizations has been noted in the literature. Personal and professional benefits of membership regardless of discipline can be found across the career spectrum from student to executive. The benefits of professional membership with respect to career development in local chapter organizations have seldom been studied. Local chapter participation may offer significant career development opportunities for the practitioner, faculty member, and student. The purpose of this study was to explore the importance of local chapter involvement to the career development of health education practitioners. An 18-item questionnaire was disseminated to the membership of three local SOPHE (Society for Public Health Education) chapters that explored the level of local chapter involvement and the impact of how specific professional development activities impacted career development. The results of the survey highlighted the importance of continuing education programs, networking, and leadership experience in developing one's career that are offered by local SOPHE chapter involvement. Making a positive impact in the community and earning the respect of one's peers were most often reported as indicators of career success. These factors can directly impact local chapter participation. Career development can certainly be enhanced by active participation in the local chapter of a professional association.

  3. Synthesis: Chapter 19

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, L.H.; Geiser, L.H.; Fenn, M.E.; Driscoll, C.T.; Goodale, C.L.; Allen, E.B.; Baron, Jill S.; Bobbink, R.; Bowman, W.D.; Clark, C.M.; Emmett, B.; Gilliam, F.S.; Greaver, T.; Hall, S.J.; Lilleskov, E.A.; Liu, L.; Lynch, J.A.; Nadelhoffer, K.; Perakis, S.S.; Robin-Abbott, M. J.; Stoddard, J.L.; Weathers, K. C.

    2011-01-01

    Human activity in the last century has led to a substantial increase in nitrogen (N) emissions and deposition (Galloway et al. 2003). Because of past, and, in some regions, continuing increases in emissions (Lehmann et al. 2005, Nilles and Conley 2001), this N deposition has reached a level that has caused or is likely to cause alterations and damage in many ecosystems across the United States. In some ecoregions, the impact of N deposition has been severe and has changed the biotic community structure and composition of ecosystems. In the Mediterranean California ecoregion, for example (see Chapter 13), replacement of native by exotic invasive vegetation is accelerated because exotic species are often more productive under elevated N deposition than native species in some California grasslands, coastal sage scrub, and desert scrub (Fenn et al. 2010, Rao and Allen 2010, Rao et al. 2010, Weiss 1999, Yoshida and Allen 2004). Such shifts in plant community composition and species richness can have consequences beyond changes in ecosystem structure: shifts may lead to overall losses in biodiversity and further impair particular threatened or endangered species (Stevens et al. 2004). Th e extirpation of the endangered checkerspot butterfl y (Euphydryas editha bayensis), because the host plant for the larval stage disappears in N-enriched ecosystems (Fenn et al. 2010, Weiss 1999), is just one example of the detrimental impacts of elevated N deposition.

  4. Extending juvenility in grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaeppler, Shawn; de Leon Gatti, Natalia; Foerster, Jillian

    2017-04-11

    The present invention relates to compositions and methods for modulating the juvenile to adult developmental growth transition in plants, such as grasses (e.g. maize). In particular, the invention provides methods for enhancing agronomic properties in plants by modulating expression of GRMZM2G362718, GRMZM2G096016, or homologs thereof. Modulation of expression of one or more additional genes which affect juvenile to adult developmental growth transition such as Glossy15 or Cg1, in conjunction with such modulation of expression is also contemplated. Nucleic acid constructs for down-regulation of GRMZM2G362718 and/or GRMZM2G096016 are also contemplated, as are transgenic plants and products produced there from, that demonstrate altered, such as extended juvenile growth, and display associated phenotypes such as enhanced yield, improved digestibility, and increased disease resistance. Plants described herein may be used, for example, as improved forage or feed crops or in biofuel production.

  5. Miastenia gravis juvenil Juvenile myasthenia gravis

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar Papazian; Israel Alfonso; Nayle Araguez

    2009-01-01

    La miastenia gravis juvenil (MGJ) es un trastorno crónico auto inmune en el cual existen anticuerpos séricos que al unirse a los receptores de acetilcolin nicotínicos de la membrana muscular de la placa motora alteran la transmisión neuromuscular. El resultado es fatiga muscular precoz con progresión a la parálisis durante estados de contracción muscular iterativos (movimientos) o sostenidos (posturas) y más raramente parálisis permanente durante el reposo. Los músculos inervados por los nerv...

  6. The Students’ misconceptions profile on chapter gas kinetic theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauhariyah, M. N. R.; Suprapto, N.; Suliyanah; Admoko, S.; Setyarsih, W.; Harizah, Z.; Zulfa, I.

    2018-03-01

    Students have conception and misconceptions in the learning process. Misconceptions are caused by the teacher, students, and learning source. In the previous study, the researcher developed a misconception diagnosis instrument using three-tier on chapter gas kinetic theory. There are 14 items including 5 sub-chapters on gas kinetic theory. The profile of students’ misconceptions shows that students have misconceptions in each sub-chapter. The cause of misconceptions came from preconceptions, associative thinking, reasoning, intuition, and false negative. The highest cause of misconception in this chapter is student’s humanistic thinking.

  7. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Barut

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is the most common chronic rheumatic disease of unknown aetiology in childhood and predominantly presents with peripheral arthritis. The disease is divided into several subgroups, according to demographic characteristics, clinical features, treatment modalities and disease prognosis. Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis, which is one of the most frequent disease subtypes, is characterized by recurrent fever and rash. Oligoarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis, common among young female patients, is usually accompanied by anti-nuclear antibodie positivity and anterior uveitis. Seropositive polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis, an analogue of adult rheumatoid arthritis, is seen in less than 10% of paediatric patients. Seronegative polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis, an entity more specific for childhood, appears with widespread large- and small-joint involvement. Enthesitis-related arthritis is a separate disease subtype, characterized by enthesitis and asymmetric lower-extremity arthritis. This disease subtype represents the childhood form of adult spondyloarthropathies, with human leukocyte antigen-B27 positivity and uveitis but commonly without axial skeleton involvement. Juvenile psoriatic arthritis is characterized by a psoriatic rash, accompanied by arthritis, nail pitting and dactylitis. Disease complications can vary from growth retardation and osteoporosis secondary to treatment and disease activity, to life-threatening macrophage activation syndrome with multi-organ insufficiency. With the advent of new therapeutics over the past 15 years, there has been a marked improvement in juvenile idiopathic arthritis treatment and long-term outcome, without any sequelae. The treatment of juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients involves teamwork, including an experienced paediatric rheumatologist, an ophthalmologist, an orthopaedist, a paediatric psychiatrist and a physiotherapist. The primary goals

  8. DERMATOMIOSITIS JUVENIL Y EMBARAZO

    OpenAIRE

    Evans M,Gregorio; Poulsen R,Ronald; Blanco R,Romiely; Luna V,Viviana

    2002-01-01

    La dermatomiositis juvenil es un desorden inflamatorio crónico multisistémico del tejido conectivo. Tiene una incidencia de 2-3/100.000/año. Con la disminución en la mortalidad experimentada en los últimos decenios, la atención está cifrada en la morbilidad a largo plazo y en las alteraciones funcionales. Con un tratamiento agresivo los niños con dermatomiositis juvenil generalmente tienen un futuro promisorio, sin incapacidad o con incapacidad mínima. La mortalidad actualmente se estima cerc...

  9. Gaia DR2 documentation Chapter 3: Astrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, D.; Lindegren, L.; Bastian, U.; Klioner, S.; Butkevich, A.; Stephenson, C.; Hernandez, J.; Lammers, U.; Bombrun, A.; Mignard, F.; Altmann, M.; Davidson, M.; de Bruijne, J. H. J.; Fernández-Hernández, J.; Siddiqui, H.; Utrilla Molina, E.

    2018-04-01

    This chapter of the Gaia DR2 documentation describes the models and processing steps used for the astrometric core solution, namely, the Astrometric Global Iterative Solution (AGIS). The inputs to this solution rely heavily on the basic observables (or astrometric elementaries) which have been pre-processed and discussed in Chapter 2, the results of which were published in Fabricius et al. (2016). The models consist of reference systems and time scales; assumed linear stellar motion and relativistic light deflection; in addition to fundamental constants and the transformation of coordinate systems. Higher level inputs such as: planetary and solar system ephemeris; Gaia tracking and orbit information; initial quasar catalogues and BAM data are all needed for the processing described here. The astrometric calibration models are outlined followed by the details processing steps which give AGIS its name. We also present a basic quality assessment and validation of the scientific results (for details, see Lindegren et al. 2018).

  10. Collective Intelligence. Chapter 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, David H.

    2003-01-01

    Many systems of self-interested agents have an associated performance criterion that rates the dynamic behavior of the overall system. This chapter presents an introduction to the science of such systems. Formally, collectives are defined as any system having the following two characteristics: First, the system must contain one or more agents each of which we view as trying to maximize an associated private utility; second, the system must have an associated world utility function that rates the possible behaviors of that overall system. In practice, collectives are often very large, distributed, and support little, if any, centralized communication and control, although those characteristics are not part of their formal definition. A naturally occurring example of a collective is a human economy. One can identify the agents and their private utilities as the human individuals in the economy and the associated personal rewards they are each trying to maximize. One could then identify the world utility as the time average of the gross domestic product. ("World utility" per se is not a construction internal to a human economy, but rather something defined from the outside.) To achieve high world utility it is necessary to avoid having the agents work at cross-purposes lest phenomena like liquidity traps or the Tragedy of the Commons (TOC) occur, in which agents' individually pursuing their private utilities lowers world utility. The obvious way to avoid such phenomena is by modifying the agents utility functions to be "aligned" with the world utility. This can be done via punitive legislation. A real-world example of an attempt to do this was the creation of antitrust regulations designed to prevent monopolistic practices.

  11. Chapter 2: Optical Properties of the Water Column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, D. A.; Collins, D. J.

    1994-01-01

    In this chapter, and in chapter 29, the basic inter-relationship between the flux of radiant energy through the water column and the fixation of carbon by the phytoplankton in the ocean through processes of photosynthesis or primary production will be discussed.

  12. Factors Involved in Juveniles' Decisions about Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimler, Edward; Beach, Lee Roy

    1981-01-01

    Investigated whether delinquency is the result of a rational decision. The Subjective Expected Utility (SEU) model from decision theory was used with male juvenile offenders (N=45) as the model of the decision process. Results showed that the SEU model predicted 62.7 percent of the subjects' decisions. (Author/RC)

  13. Chapter 4: A policy process and tools for international non-governmental organizations in the health sector using ISPRM as a case in point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Jan D; von Groote, Per M; DeLisa, Joel A; Melvin, John L; Bickenbach, Jerome E; Stucki, Gerold

    2009-09-01

    The politics of international non-governmental organizations (NGOs) such as the International Society of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (ISPRM) serve the function of selecting and attaining particular socially valued goals. The selection and attainment of goals as the primary function of political action can be structured along a policy process or cycle comprising the stages of strategic goal setting and planning of strategic pathways, agenda setting, resource mobilization, implementation, evaluation and innovation. At the various stages of this policy process different policy tools or instruments, which can be used to influence citizen and organizational behaviour in the light of defined goals, can be applied. The objective of this paper is to introduce and describe policy tools of potential relevance to ISPRM with regard to different policy functions and stages of the policy process.

  14. Family transitions and juvenile delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Ryan D; Osgood, Aurea K; Oghia, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    There is a large body of research that shows children from non-intact homes show higher rates of juvenile delinquency than children from intact homes, partially due to weaker parental control and supervision in non-intact homes. What has not been adequately addressed in the research is the influence of changes in family structure among individual adolescents over time on delinquent offending. Using the first and third waves of the National Youth Study, we assess the effect of family structure changes on changes in delinquent offending between waves through the intermediate process of changes in family time and parental attachment. Although prior research has documented adolescents in broken homes are more delinquent than youth in intact homes, the process of family dissolution is not associated with concurrent increases in offending. In contrast, family formation through marriage or cohabitation is associated with simultaneous increases in offending. Changes in family time and parental attachment account for a portion of the family formation effect on delinquency, and prior parental attachment and juvenile offending significantly condition the effect of family formation on offending.

  15. Juvenile polyposis syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Yi-Han; Wei, Chin-Hung; Chang, Szu-Wen; Chang, Lung; Fu, Yu-Wei; Lee, Hung-Chang; Liu, Hsuan-Liang; Yeung, Chun-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Juvenile polyposis syndrome, a rare disorder in children, is characterized with multiple hamartomatous polyps in alimentary tract. A variety of manifestations include bleeding, intussusception, or polyp prolapse. In this study, we present an 8-month-old male infant of juvenile polyposis syndrome initially presenting with chronic anemia. To the best of our knowledge, this is the youngest case reported in the literature. Methods: We report a rare case of an 8-month-old male infant who presented with chronic anemia and gastrointestinal bleeding initially. Panendoscopy and abdominal computed tomography showed multiple polyposis throughout the entire alimentary tract leading to intussusception. Technetium-99m-labeled red blood cell (RBC) bleeding scan revealed the possibility of gastrointestinal tract bleeding in the jejunum. Histopathological examination on biopsy samples showed Peutz-Jeghers syndrome was excluded, whereas the diagnosis of juvenile polyposis syndrome was established. Results: Enteroscopic polypectomy is the mainstay of the treatment. However, polyps recurred and occupied the majority of the gastrointestinal tract in 6 months. Supportive management was given. The patient expired for severe sepsis at the age of 18 months. Conclusion: Juvenile polyposis syndrome is an inherited disease, so it is not possible to prevent it. Concerning of its poor outcome and high mortality rate, it is important that we should increase awareness and education of the parents at its earliest stages. PMID:27631205

  16. [ABOUT JUVENILE NASOPHARYNGEAL ANGIOFIBROMA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbain, V; Meunier, P; Otto, B

    2015-09-01

    We report the case of a young man with a juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma. In this paper, we will first remind the clinical signs of this pathology and its radiological appearance (localisation and extensions). Then we will explain how radioembolisation techniques were used to facilitate the surgical intervention. Finally we will discuss the histology of this tumor.

  17. Naevoxanthoendothelioma (Synonym: Juvenile Xanthogranuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Handa

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of naevoxanthoendothelioma juvenile xanthogranuloma is reported with rare features like late onset of the disease, involvement of liver and diffuse cutaneous lesions including cafe au lait spots and pigmented naevus. Final diagnosis could be achieved only on histopathology report.

  18. Conclusion. Chapter 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Beginning 1992, January 1 Semipalatinsk test site was transforming into large research scientific center. The National Nuclear Center (NNC) was formed on the base of site's research enterprises. The principal problems of NNC are as follows: liquidation of nuclear tests consequences; liquidation of technological infrastructure for preparation and conducting of nuclear tests, creation of technology for radioactive wastes store; implementation of atomic energy development conception in Kazakhstan, etc. Program of site conversion constantly is expanding. In this chapter measures by rehabilitation of injured population are revealed. Taking into account radioecological situation, dose loadings, demographic indexes, sick rate and mortality of population on territories exposed to site's influence Government of Kazakhstan adopted Decree on declaration of these lands of zone of ecological catastrophe. Measures on improvement of radioecological situation are reduce to following ones: determination of irradiation doses received by population during testing period; study of existing radiation contamination; study of all possible sources for dose increasing and taking into account other ones; information of population about radioecological situation and about all consequences of nuclear tests. In 1992 Supreme Soviet of Republic of Kazakhstan worked out and adopted law On social defence of citizens suffered from consequences of nuclear tests on Semipalatinsk test site. It was distinguished four zones of radiation risk. The first zone is zone of extreme risk. It is part of territory subjected to radiation contamination with dose of influence on population above 100 rem during of total period of tests conducting. To this zone belong following inhabited settlements: Budene, Dolon', Cheremushki, Mostik, Sarzhal, Isa, Sarpan, Karakoryk, Zagotskot-2. Second zone is zone of maximal radiation risk. To this zone belong inhabited settlements of following districts: Abaj, Abraly, Beskargaj

  19. Advanced Concepts. Chapter 21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Les; Mulqueen, Jack

    2013-01-01

    Before there is a funded space mission, there must be a present need for the mission. Space science and exploration are expensive, and without a well-defined and justifiable need, no one is going to commit significant funding for any space endeavor. However, as discussed in Chapter 1, applications of space technology and many and broad, hence there are many ways to determine and establish a mission need. Robotic science missions are justified by their science return. To be selected for flight, questions like these must be addressed: What is the science question that needs answering, and will the proposed mission be the most cost-effective way to answer it? Why does answering the question require an expensive space flight, instead of some ground-based alternative? If the question can only be answered by flying in space, then why is this approach better than other potential approaches? How much will it cost? And is the technology required to answer the question in hand and ready to use? If not, then how much will it cost and how long will it take to mature the technology to a usable level? There are also many ways to justify human exploration missions, including science return, technology advancement, as well as intangible reasons, such as national pride. Nonetheless, many of the questions that need answering, are similar to those for robotic science missions: Where are the people going, why, and will the proposed mission be the most cost-effective way to get there? What is the safest method to achieve the goal? How much will it cost? And is the technology required to get there and keep the crew alive in hand and ready to use? If not, then how much will it cost and how long will it take to mature the technology to a usable level? Another reason for some groups sending spacecraft into space is for profit. Telecommunications, geospatial imaging, and tourism are examples of proven, market-driven space missions and applications. For this specific set of users, the

  20. Essential habitat for sardine juveniles in Iberian waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Rodríguez-Climent

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In a period when the Iberian sardine stock abundance is at its historical minimum, knowledge of the sardine juvenile’s distribution is crucial for the development of fishery management strategies. Generalized additive models were used to relate juvenile sardine presence with geographical variables and spawning grounds (egg abundance and to model juvenile abundance with the concurrent environmental conditions. Three core areas of juvenile distribution were identified: the Northern Portuguese shelf (centred off Aveiro, the coastal region in the vicinity of the Tagus estuary, and the eastern Gulf of Cadiz. Spatial differences in the relationship between juvenile presence and egg abundances suggest that essential juvenile habitat might partially differ from the prevailing spawning grounds. Models also depicted significant relationships between juvenile abundance, temperature and geographical variables in combination with salinity in the west and with zooplankton in the south. Results indicate that the sardine juvenile distribution along the Iberian Peninsula waters are an outcome of a combination of dynamic processes occurring early in life, such as egg and larva retention, reduced mortality and favourable feeding grounds for both larvae and juveniles.

  1. Introduction (Chapter 1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Adams, M.; Hofstede, ter A.H.M.; Russell, N.C.; Hofstede, ter A.H.M.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Adams, M.; Russell, N.

    2010-01-01

    The area of Business Process Management (BPM) has received considerable attention in recent years due to its potential for significantly increasing productivity and saving cost. In BPM, the concept of a process is fundamental and serves as a starting point for understanding how a business operates

  2. Epilogue (Chapter 23)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Adams, M.; Hofstede, ter A.H.M.; Russell, N.C.; Hofstede, ter A.H.M.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Adams, M.; Russell, N.

    2010-01-01

    This book presents both the YAWL language and the supporting toolset. YAWL fits well in the transition from workflow management systems focusing on automation of structured processes to Business Process Management (BPM) systems aiming at a more comprehensive support of a wider variety of business

  3. Products Based on Bio-Resourced Materials for Agriculture. Radiation Processed Biodegradable Polymers, Plant Growth Promoters and Superabsorbent Polymers. Chapter 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubey, K. A.; Bhardwaj, Y. K.; Chaudhari, C. V.; Varshney, L. [Radiation Technology Development Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (India)

    2014-07-15

    Radiation-processed natural polymers and their derivatives, namely starch, alginate, chitosan and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) were explored for different agricultural applications such as biodegradable mulch films, super adsorbent polymers (SAPs), and plant growth promoters (PGPs). It was observed that gamma radiation-processed starch can lead to a better processability of starch/synthetic polymer alloys, and can offer tuneable biodegradability (as low as one month) with acceptable physico-mechanical properties. Acrylic acid/CMC-based SAP was prepared using {sup 60}Co gamma radiation, for soil conditioning. The equilibrium degree of swelling (EDS) of the acrylic acid/CMC SAP was found to be 460 g/g. The field trial of the SAP was conducted on sorghum. It was found that, with the use of 20 kg/ha of SAP, the crop yield can be increased by almost 18.5% whereas the increase in plant height was 8.5%. A new super adsorbent polymer with a much higher water uptake capacity was also developed by adding a small fraction of carrageenan to neutralized acrylic acid (AA). This SAP had EDS of 800 g/g, with the addition of only 1% carrageenan. Experiments to check the soil conditioning efficacy of AA/carrageenan SAP are in progress. Oligomers of chitosan and alginates were prepared by gamma irradiation and were tried as plant growth promoters in wheat (Triticum aestivum), mung bean (Vigna radiata), linseed (Linum usitatissimum), mentha (Mentha arvensis), and lemon grass. The results suggest that these oligomers have a significant impact on the grain and oil yield. Large scale field trials on Mentha arvensis in collaboration with an industry are in progress, and efforts are going on to formulate a policy framework for the use of oligosaccharides as plant growth promoters. (author)

  4. Hydrology and climate of four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico: Chapter C in Water quality and landscape processes of four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Sheila F.; Stallard, Robert F.; Murphy, Sheila F.; Stallard, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    Puerto Rico lies directly in the path of the easterly trade winds, which deliver steady rainfall to the mountains and steer tropical wave systems toward the island. Hurricanes and tropical storms derived from these tropical waves differ in frequency and intensity, contributing to substantial interannual variation in precipitation and stream discharge. Puerto Rico's steep topography and small water-storage capacity leave the island's water supply and developed flood plains vulnerable to extreme weather events, such as hurricanes, floods, and droughts. This vulnerability may increase in the future owing to ongoing change, both local (such as land-cover shifts, water-supply projects, and construction of roads and other infrastructure) and regional (climate variability and change). Climate change, which could lead to more intense and prolonged droughts as well as an increase in the magnitude and frequency of destructive storms in the Caribbean, may alter temperature and affect the availability of water for human and ecosystem needs. Accurate assessment of hydrologic regimes and water budgets is therefore crucial for effective management of water resources. As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Budgets program, hydrologic and geomorphologic processes and stream chemistry of four small watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico, which differ in geology and land cover, have been studied since 1991. Spatial and temporal characteristics of precipitation and stream discharge, along with water budgets, were determined for the watersheds for the period 1991 to 2005. The locations of the watersheds relative to the Luquillo Mountains and the range's associated rain shadow dominate hydrological processes, dwarfing influences of land cover. The influence of geology is reflected in recession characteristics of the rivers (recession is faster in soils overlying volcaniclastic bedrock) and in hillslope geomorphic processes (sediment is delivered at higher

  5. Setting a minimum age for juvenile justice jurisdiction in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S Barnert, Elizabeth; S Abrams, Laura; Maxson, Cheryl; Gase, Lauren; Soung, Patricia; Carroll, Paul; Bath, Eraka

    2017-03-13

    Purpose Despite the existence of minimum age laws for juvenile justice jurisdiction in 18 US states, California has no explicit law that protects children (i.e. youth less than 12 years old) from being processed in the juvenile justice system. In the absence of a minimum age law, California lags behind other states and international practice and standards. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach In this policy brief, academics across the University of California campuses examine current evidence, theory, and policy related to the minimum age of juvenile justice jurisdiction. Findings Existing evidence suggests that children lack the cognitive maturity to comprehend or benefit from formal juvenile justice processing, and diverting children from the system altogether is likely to be more beneficial for the child and for public safety. Research limitations/implications Based on current evidence and theory, the authors argue that minimum age legislation that protects children from contact with the juvenile justice system and treats them as children in need of services and support, rather than as delinquents or criminals, is an important policy goal for California and for other national and international jurisdictions lacking a minimum age law. Originality/value California has no law specifying a minimum age for juvenile justice jurisdiction, meaning that young children of any age can be processed in the juvenile justice system. This policy brief provides a rationale for a minimum age law in California and other states and jurisdictions without one.

  6. Setting a minimum age for juvenile justice jurisdiction in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnert, Elizabeth S.; Abrams, Laura S.; Maxson, Cheryl; Gase, Lauren; Soung, Patricia; Carroll, Paul; Bath, Eraka

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Despite the existence of minimum age laws for juvenile justice jurisdiction in 18 US states, California has no explicit law that protects children (i.e. youth less than 12 years old) from being processed in the juvenile justice system. In the absence of a minimum age law, California lags behind other states and international practice and standards. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach In this policy brief, academics across the University of California campuses examine current evidence, theory, and policy related to the minimum age of juvenile justice jurisdiction. Findings Existing evidence suggests that children lack the cognitive maturity to comprehend or benefit from formal juvenile justice processing, and diverting children from the system altogether is likely to be more beneficial for the child and for public safety. Research limitations/implications Based on current evidence and theory, the authors argue that minimum age legislation that protects children from contact with the juvenile justice system and treats them as children in need of services and support, rather than as delinquents or criminals, is an important policy goal for California and for other national and international jurisdictions lacking a minimum age law. Originality/value California has no law specifying a minimum age for juvenile justice jurisdiction, meaning that young children of any age can be processed in the juvenile justice system. This policy brief provides a rationale for a minimum age law in California and other states and jurisdictions without one. Paper type Conceptual paper PMID:28299968

  7. American Red Cross Chapter Regions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Regions are part of the national field level structure to support chapters. The Regions role is admistrative as well as provides oversight and program technical...

  8. Landslides and sediment budgets in four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico: Chapter F in Water quality and landscape processes of four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Matthew C.; Murphy, Sheila F.; Stallard, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    The low-latitude regions of the Earth are undergoing profound, rapid landscape change as forests are converted to agriculture to support growing population. Understanding the effects of these land-use changes requires analysis of watershed-scale geomorphic processes to better inform and manage this usually disorganized process. The investigation of hillslope erosion and the development of sediment budgets provides essential information for resource managers. Four small, montane, humid-tropical watersheds in the Luquillo Experimental Forest and nearby Río Grande de Loíza watershed, Puerto Rico (18° 20' N., 65° 45' W.), were selected to compare and contrast the geomorphic effects of land use and bedrock geology. Two of the watersheds are underlain largely by resistant Cretaceous volcaniclastic rocks but differ in land use and mean annual runoff: the Mameyes watershed, with predominantly primary forest cover and runoff of 2,750 millimeters per year, and the Canóvanas watershed, with mixed secondary forest and pasture and runoff of 970 millimeters per year. The additional two watersheds are underlain by relatively erodible granitic bedrock: the forested Icacos watershed, with runoff of 3,760 millimeters per year and the agriculturally developed Cayaguás watershed, with a mean annual runoff of 1,620 millimeters per year. Annual sediment budgets were estimated for each watershed using landslide, slopewash, soil creep, treethrow, suspended sediment, and streamflow data. The budgets also included estimates of sediment storage in channel beds, bars, floodplains, and in colluvial deposits. In the two watersheds underlain by volcaniclastic rocks, the forested Mameyes and the developed Canóvanas watersheds, landslide frequency (0.21 and 0.04 landslides per square kilometer per year, respectively), slopewash (5 and 30 metric tons per square kilometer per year), and suspended sediment yield (325 and 424 metric tons per square kilometer per year), were lower than in the

  9. Chapter IV: ultrafast biochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chergui, M. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Lausanne (Switzerland); Kjelstrup, S. [Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim (Norway); Meuwly, M. [Universitaet Basel, Basel (Switzerland); Schuler, B. [University of Zuerich (ETH), Zurich (Switzerland); Thor, J. van [Imperial College London (IC), London (United Kingdom)

    2009-09-15

    The whole report issued by the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland takes a look at the scientific opportunities offered by the institute's SwissFEL X-ray Laser facility. In this sixth part, initial events and fluctuations in biochemical processes at the atomic scale are discussed. Sub-nanosecond processes are fundamental to biochemistry and will be accessible to the ultra-short pulses of the SwissFEL. Time and length scales of biochemical reactions are discussed, as is the photo-initiation of biochemical processes. Time-resolved measurement techniques are looked at. Fluorescence resonant energy transfer is discussed. As an example, the photo cycle of bacteriorhodopsin is examined. The dynamics of protein folding and catalytic action are also looked at. Mesoscopic non-equilibrium thermodynamics is discussed

  10. Preventing Juvenile Delinquency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina dos Reis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to problematize discourses about protection and care that have surrounded compulsory hospitalization by evidencing its use as a control and punishment mechanism that increases the social vulnerability of young drug users. For such, we analyze lawsuits involving juveniles who were consigned to psychiatric institutions for drug addiction treatment as a protection measure in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, in Brazil. The analysis of the materials has evidenced discourses that have circumscribed young drug users and constructed this population as potentially dangerous subjects as well as a population category at risk. In this sense, we point out how compulsory hospitalization has emerged out of the lawsuits as a tool for prevention of juvenile delinquency.

  11. Chapter 5 - Tree Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark J. Ambrose

    2014-01-01

    Tree mortality is a natural process in all forest ecosystems. Extremely high mortality, however, can also be an indicator of forest health issues. On a regional scale, high mortality levels may indicate widespread insect or disease problems. High mortality may also occur if a large proportion of the forest in a particular region is made up of older, senescent stands....

  12. Meteorological measurements. Chapter 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Y. Hollinger

    2008-01-01

    Environmental measurements are useful for detecting climatic trends, understanding how the environment influences biological processes, and as input to ecosystem models. Landscape-scale monitoring requires a suite of environmental measures for all of these purposes, including air and soil temperature, humidity, wind speed, precipitation and soil moisture, and different...

  13. Declarative workflow (Chapter 6)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pesic, M.; Schonenberg, H.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Hofstede, ter A.H.M.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Adams, M.; Russell, N.

    2010-01-01

    During the design of any information system, it is important to balance between flexibility and support. This is of particular importance when designing process-aware information systems. On the one hand, userswant to have support from the system to conduct their daily activities in a more efficient

  14. Chapter 8:Surface Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandla A. Tshabalala; Joseph Jakes; Mark R. VanLandingham; Shaoxia Wang; Jouko. Peltonen

    2013-01-01

    Surface properties of wood play an important role when wood is used or processed into different commodities such as siding, joinery, textiles, paper, sorption media, or wood composites. Thus, for example, the quality and durability of a wood coating are determined by the surface properties of the wood and the coating. The same is true for wood composites where the...

  15. Activation analysis. Chapter 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The principle, sample and calibration standard preparation, activation by neutrons, charged particles and gamma radiation, sample transport after activation, activity measurement, and chemical sample processing are described for activation analysis. Possible applications are shown of nondestructive activation analysis. (J.P.)

  16. Late Onset Juvenile Xanthogranuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punithwavathy K

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A 19 year old female was seen with multiple skin coloured and hyperpigmented macules, discrete as well as grouped papules and nodules of varying sizes distributed over the face, neck, extensor and flexor aspects of both upper and lower extremities including joints. The trunk was spared. Some of the lesions showed features of spontaneous regression. Investigations confirmed the diagnosis of juvenile xanthogranuloma. Lesions regressed satisfactorily with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy.

  17. Collecting, processing, and storing seeds [Chapter 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tara Luna; Kim M. Wilkinson

    2009-01-01

    Nurseries that work to strengthen and expand the presence of native species are concerned about fostering diverse populations that are strong and well adapted. For many native plants, however, the natural diversity of wild populations has been depleted. Habitat loss has reduced the range and sheer number of plants. For plants with commercial value, unsustainable...

  18. Juvenile fibromyalgia syndrome. Interdisciplinary treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Siuchnińska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia syndrome (FM belongs to soft tissue pain syndromes of unknown cause, also referred to as “soft tissue rheumatism”. It is characterized by chronic widespread pain as well as additional symptoms such as fatigue, sleep and mood disturbance and cognitive problems. There is more and more data showing that this condition may start at a young age or even in childhood, adversely affecting development processes and resulting in dysfunctional social and family relationships. Because of the multifaceted character of fibromyalgia the efficient treatment of this disorder can be difficult and requires comprehensive care. This work reviews most recommended procedures used in integrated treatment programmes for juvenile fibromyalgia syndrome (JFM.

  19. Fundamentals of Dosimetry. Chapter 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimura, E. M. [Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-09-15

    Determination of the energy imparted to matter by radiation is the subject of dosimetry. The energy deposited as radiation interacts with atoms of the material, as seen in the previous chapter. The imparted energy is responsible for the effects that radiation causes in matter, for instance, a rise in temperature, or chemical or physical changes in the material properties. Several of the changes produced in matter by radiation are proportional to the absorbed dose, giving rise to the possibility of using the material as the sensitive part of a dosimeter. Also, the biological effects of radiation depend on the absorbed dose. A set of quantities related to the radiation field is also defined within the scope of dosimetry. It will be shown in this chapter that, under special conditions, there are simple relations between dosimetric and field description quantities. Thus, the framework of dosimetry is the set of physical and operational quantities that are studied in this chapter.

  20. Chapter 12. Kidneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floyrac, R.; Sulman, C.

    1975-01-01

    The isotopic kidney check-up consists of the isotopic nephrogram with simultaneous clearance measurement. For clinicians it supplies a set of data which no other method can provide so quickly. This check-up offers many advantages. The examination is simple: after intraveinous injection of hippuran 131 I the radioactivity is followed for 20 minutes in the kidney, heart and bladder by external counting. A blood sample is taken between the 10th and 20th minutes and the urine collected at the 20th minute. The glomerular clearance may be calculated by injecting 125 I hypaque at the same time. The examination is fast: the process lasts half an hour altogether. The only preparation is an adequate hydration of the patient before the test. The examination is absolutely harmless: internal irradiation of the patient is negligible. Numerous data are obtained: pathological changes in the nephrogram: reduced affinity of a kidney for hippuran, heterogeneity of the nephrons, slowing down of transit times, intraparenchyme stases; blood concentration of hippuran and hypaque at the 10th or 20th minute, elimination in the urine at the 20th minute; total blood purification and glomerular and tubular excretion clearances, clearance of each kidney separately. No other method as simple, fast and harmless can yield such a complete set of data. Very often the nephrograms are obtained from gamma-camera recording on the dynamic mode, which allows a morphological study to be carried out at the same time [fr

  1. Ultrasound Imaging. Chapter 13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacefield, J. C. [University of Western Ontario, London (Canada)

    2014-09-15

    In the conventional method of ultrasonography, images are acquired in reflection, or pulse echo, mode. An array of small piezoelectric elements transmits a focused pulse along a specified line of sight known as a scan line. Echoes returning from the tissue are received by the same array, focused via the delay-and-sum beam forming process reviewed in Section 13.2, and demodulated to obtain the magnitude, or envelope, of the echo signal. The scanner measures the arrival time of the echoes relative to the time the pulse was transmitted and maps the arrival time to the distance from the array, using an assumed speed of sound. The earliest ultrasound systems would display the result of a single pulse acquisition in 1-D A-mode (amplitude mode) format by plotting echo magnitude as a function of distance. A 2-D or 3-D B-mode (brightness mode) image is acquired by performing a large number of pulse echo acquisitions, incrementally increasing the scan line direction between each pulse echo operation, to sweep out a 2-D or 3-D field of view (FOV). The term B-mode imaging reflects the fact that the echo magnitude from each point in the FOV is mapped to the grey level, or brightness, of the corresponding pixel in the image.

  2. Chapter 7. Heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernejoul, P. de; Fauchet, M.; Barritault, L.

    1975-01-01

    Owing to the great technological progress of the last few years, combined with the possibility of using short-lived radioisotopes, nuclear medicine has made new strides in cardiology from both the morphological and kinetic viewpoints. Kinetic studies are described first: cardiac output measurements, radiocardiography, coronary output measurements. This is followed by a study of morphological tests: static using scintigraphic methods, then dynamic with stationary detectors. It is shown that the addition of a data processing unit to the stationary detectors allows the development of analytical methods similar to conventional kinetic tests and opens up vast possibilities for the future. For the analysis of these methods the techniques considered are as far as possible based on the external detection of radiation emitted by a radioactive tracer after simple intraveinous injection, without catheterization. In this field the use of radioisotopes in cardiology offers the means of performing simple investigations which, being harmless for the patient, incur no loss of blood and can be repeated easily and often [fr

  3. Role-Playing (Psychodrama in the Social Rehabilitation of Juveniles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Grzyb

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the term of psychodrama in the aspect of the social rehabilitation process of juveniles. An important area of considerations is noting the most effective form of work in the modification of socially desirable behavior. Moreover, the identification and wider discussion of the aspect of psychodrama interaction indicates the emotional, therapeutic, and above all correctional dimension, so desired in the social rehabilitation of juveniles.

  4. Chapter 12. Public information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In 1999 there were 83 contributions on both national and foreign activities of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD) send to the Press agencies of Slovakia, dailies and electronic media. UJD, together with State Office for Nuclear Safety of the Czech Republic, is a publisher of a professional journal 'Safety of Nuclear Energy', which publishes principal articles about main activities of UJD. The double issue 3/4 (1999) was dedicated to the process of start up of Unit 1 of Mochovce. In 'Public administration' there were 2 principal articles published in 1999 on legislative activities of UJD. Contributions about the regulatory activities and the international co-operation of UJD are regularly published in the 'SE Newsletter', and in company journals of 'Mochovce' and 'Bohunice'. National and foreign activities of UJD were published in 3 issues of 'Bulletin of the Slovak Nuclear Society (SNUS)'. This year also the report on safety of nuclear installations of SR was published in the journal of 'European Nuclear Society - Nuclear Europe Worldscan'. For the world information agency, NucNet, there were 4 contributions prepared focusing on both national and foreign activity of UJD. Information material on INES was was prepared and published for the public. In 1999 there were 4 press conferences held at UJD with a follow up presentation of the management of UJD on television and in the radio broadcasting. Officials of UJD had 7 presentations on television and gave 6 interviews for Slovak Radio Broadcasting and for magazines and daily 5 significant interviews. In 1999 a vide-clip was produced for public purposes on the SWISSSLOVAK project. In Bern, Switzerland a very successful press conference was held with the participation of the UJD chairman. The UJD 3 Bulletins prepared and published on national and foreign activities of UJD

  5. Chapter 7. Radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The inspection and assessment activities of Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD) focused on minimization of activity and the quantity of produced radioactive waste (RAW), and on increasing safety of waste management. The general scheme of rad-waste management in the Slovak Republic is presented. The radioactive wastes produced during the operation of NPP V-1, NPP V-2 and NPP Mochovce in 1999 are listed.Liquid RAW was treated and conditioned into a solid form at the nuclear facility Technology for treatment and conditioning of RAW. In 1999 combustible solid waste was treated at the nuclear facility Incinerator of VUJE Trnava. Produced liquid and solid RAW are stored at designed equipment at individual nuclear installations (in case of NPP V-1, NPP V-2 Bohunice and NPP Mochovce in compliance with the Regulation No. 67/1987 Coll. law).The status of free capacity of these storages as of 31.121999 is presented. Storage solidified product built the SE-VYZ was fully filled at the end of 1999. In 1999 there was a significant improvement in the process of radioactive waste management by: (A) issuing approval for commissioning the National Repository for RAW, (B) issuing approval for commissioning the Treatment and Conditioning Center for RAW, (C) having the application for approval to transport conditioned RAW to the National repository Mochovce in the final stage of evaluation. At the beginning of 2000 it is realistic to expect that RAW conditioned in the Conditioning center of RAW will start to be disposed at the National repository of RAW in Mochovce

  6. Miastenia gravis juvenil Juvenile myasthenia gravis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Papazian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La miastenia gravis juvenil (MGJ es un trastorno crónico auto inmune en el cual existen anticuerpos séricos que al unirse a los receptores de acetilcolin nicotínicos de la membrana muscular de la placa motora alteran la transmisión neuromuscular. El resultado es fatiga muscular precoz con progresión a la parálisis durante estados de contracción muscular iterativos (movimientos o sostenidos (posturas y más raramente parálisis permanente durante el reposo. Los músculos inervados por los nervios craneales, especialmente los extraoculares y elevadores de los párpados, tienen más tendencia a la debilidad muscular persistente que los inervados por otros pares craneales y las extremidades. Las formas clínicas de presentación son generalizadas, oculares y respiratorias. El diagnóstico se sospecha mediante la anamnesia, la fatiga anormal se comprueba mediante el examen físico y la estimulación eléctrica iterativa del nervio que inerva al músculo afectado pero no paralizado. Se corrobora mediante la administración de inhibidores de la acetilcolin esterasa (IACE que al aumentar la cantidad de acetilcolin en la hendidura sináptica, corrigen la fatiga o la debilidad muscular transitoriamente. Se hace el diagnóstico de certeza mediante la demostración sérica de anticuerpos contra los receptores de acetilcolin (ACRA. El tratamiento es a largo plazo sintomático con IACE y etiopatogénico con inmunosupresores, plasmaféresis, gamma globulina endovenosa y timectomía. El curso es crónico. La remisión espontánea o después de tratamiento sintomático o etiopatogénico ocurre entre 1-10 años respectivamente. La mortalidad es prácticamente nula aun durantes las crisis miastenias gracias a la educación de padres, pacientes y público en general sobre el tema, al desarrollo del sistema de respuesta rápida de auxilio domiciliario y las unidades de cuidados intensivos y el empleo de la ventilación asistida profiláctica, plasmaféresis y

  7. Methane Hydrates: Chapter 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, Ray; Yamamoto, Koji; Lee, Sung-Rock; Collett, Timothy S.; Kumar, Pushpendra; Dallimore, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Gas hydrate is a solid, naturally occurring substance consisting predominantly of methane gas and water. Recent scientific drilling programs in Japan, Canada, the United States, Korea and India have demonstrated that gas hydrate occurs broadly and in a variety of forms in shallow sediments of the outer continental shelves and in Arctic regions. Field, laboratory and numerical modelling studies conducted to date indicate that gas can be extracted from gas hydrates with existing production technologies, particularly for those deposits in which the gas hydrate exists as pore-filling grains at high saturation in sand-rich reservoirs. A series of regional resource assessments indicate that substantial volumes of gas hydrate likely exist in sand-rich deposits. Recent field programs in Japan, Canada and in the United States have demonstrated the technical viability of methane extraction from gas-hydrate-bearing sand reservoirs and have investigated a range of potential production scenarios. At present, basic reservoir depressurisation shows the greatest promise and can be conducted using primarily standard industry equipment and procedures. Depressurisation is expected to be the foundation of future production systems; additional processes, such as thermal stimulation, mechanical stimulation and chemical injection, will likely also be integrated as dictated by local geological and other conditions. An innovative carbon dioxide and methane swapping technology is also being studied as a method to produce gas from select gas hydrate deposits. In addition, substantial additional volumes of gas hydrate have been found in dense arrays of grain-displacing veins and nodules in fine-grained, clay-dominated sediments; however, to date, no field tests, and very limited numerical modelling, have been conducted with regard to the production potential of such accumulations. Work remains to further refine: (1) the marine resource volumes within potential accumulations that can be

  8. Summary and evaluation of nuclear waste forms. Chapter 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutze, W.; Ewing, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    In this chapter data are compiled from the foregoing contributed chapters into tables. In a few cases additional more recent data not found in the chapters have been included in the tables. The following waste form data are summarized: physical properties, chemical durability, radiation effects and the status of processing techniques. In addition important aspects of the comparison of waste forms and the response of waste forms (glass and ceramic) to corrosion and radiation effects are discussed. (author). 119 refs.; 6 figs.; 5 tabs

  9. Juvenile psittacine environmental enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone-Freilicher, Elisabeth; Rupley, Agnes E

    2015-05-01

    Environmental enrichment is of great import to the emotional, intellectual, and physical development of the juvenile psittacine and their success in the human home environment. Five major types of enrichment include social, occupational, physical, sensory, and nutritional. Occupational enrichment includes exercise and psychological enrichment. Physical enrichment includes the cage and accessories and the external home environment. Sensory enrichment may be visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory, or taste oriented. Nutritional enrichment includes variations in appearance, type, and frequency of diet, and treats, novelty, and foraging. Two phases of the preadult period deserve special enrichment considerations: the development of autonomy and puberty. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Juvenile Dermatomyositis in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Emeka Madu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile dermatomyositis has variable clinical presentations both in and outside of pregnancy. A literature review indicated that optimal maternal and fetal outcomes can be anticipated when the pregnancy is undertaken while the disease is in remission. Poorer outcomes are associated with flare-up of the disease in early pregnancy compared with exacerbation in the second or third trimester, when fetal prognosis is usually good. We present a case of JDM in pregnancy with disease exacerbation late in pregnancy and review of the relevant literature.

  11. JUVENILE DELINQUENCY: TRENDS (REGIONAL ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Selezneva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available he article analyzes the nature and internal structure of various types of crimes in which involved minors. Describes the main social factors contributing to this anomaly in the period of development of society. Investigated the motivation, the system and the types of crimes of minors in the Volgograd region, are the main trends of development of this phenomenon. The study also discusses the theoretical basis of the problem of the influence of economic stability on the species structure of juvenile delinquency. In this study the analysis of various types of deviance minors in different areas of the city of Volgograd. In the process of rapid modernization of communication processes most of today’s youth have not been able to quickly rebuild their behavior. Currently, the value-perception of the adolescents focused on the material benefits in terms of expanded economic interactions. In these conditions, social processes become increasingly removed from humane and spiritual orientations. The effective functioning of society in its interaction based on cooperation and understanding is of great importance to stimulate the positive trends in social sphere in modern Russia. The modern period of development, coupled with a drastic breaking of the foundations of life, the formation of new social relations and institutions and the destruction of the old, inevitably contributes to social tension, the reassessment of social and moral values and development of deviant behavior of minors. The advantages of this study are the involvement of local archives regional committees on Affairs of minors, was first introduced to active scientific revolution, as well as logical structuring and grouping of the main issues related to the dynamics and changes in the species structure of juvenile crime, which allowed us to perform a fairly extensive archive of statistical material. Based on this analysis, the authors made a

  12. Chapter 12. Public information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Director General (May 2000). Toward the end of the year, an increased attention was paid to the preparation for the implementation of Act on Information Free Access No. 211/1998 Coll., which came into force on January 1, 2001. As a result, UJD also drew up a particular directive to apply the act under its conditions. Last year UJD Information Centre provided subject materials and consultancy, and also secured round the year daily information exchanges, faxes, e-mails and materials between the Bratislava and Trnava locations. Furthermore, topic information and news from the Agency STORIN and NucNet news via a PC network to all of UJD executives were processed on a daily basis. Three Bulletins on UJD domestic and foreign activities were prepared and published. The press was monitored and reports and information for notice boards for the two Trnava and Bratislava locations were prepared on a daily basis. In 2000, six photographic sets (notice boards and albums) on major UJD events and high-profile domestic and foreign visits to UJD were prepared and contributions were made to the UJD web page. During the year two UJD staff meetings were organised and regular contributions made to the UJD's Internet page. A new UJD web page in connection with the Act on Free Access to Information.was also prepared

  13. Basic Radiation Detectors. Chapter 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Eijk, C. W.E. [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)

    2014-12-15

    Radiation detectors are of paramount importance in nuclear medicine. The detectors provide a wide range of information including the radiation dose of a laboratory worker and the positron emission tomography (PET) image of a patient. Consequently, detectors with strongly differing specifications are used. In this chapter, general aspects of detectors are discussed.

  14. Quantitative Nuclear Medicine. Chapter 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouyang, J.; El Fakhri, G. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Planar imaging is still used in clinical practice although tomographic imaging (single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET)) is becoming more established. In this chapter, quantitative methods for both imaging techniques are presented. Planar imaging is limited to single photon. For both SPECT and PET, the focus is on the quantitative methods that can be applied to reconstructed images.

  15. Behavioral service substitution (Chapter 9)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stahl, C.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Bouguettaya, A.; Sheng, Q.Z.; Daniel, F.

    2014-01-01

    Service-oriented design supports system evolution and encourages reuse and modularization. A key ingredient of service orientation is the ability to substitute one service by another without reconfiguring the overall system. This chapter aims to give an overview of the state of the art and open

  16. Energy and wastes. Chapter 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    In the Chapter 1 'Energy and wastes' it is shown the wastes generation inevitability at power production, because there are no absolutely wasteless technologies. After energy production technologies analysis the data that nuclear energy is most ecologically acceptable at maintenance related radiation safety measures

  17. Combination of Juvenile Papillomatosis, Juvenile Fibroadenoma and Intraductal Carcinoma of the Breast in a 15-Year-old Girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedloev, Theophil; Bassarova, Assia; Angelov, Kostadin; Vasileva, Mariela; Asenov, Yavor

    2015-09-01

    The association of juvenile papillomatosis with carcinoma is proven, but very rare, as there exist several reported cases. A 15-year-old girl with no family history of breast cancer presented with two masses in the left breast. The excisional biopsy on both lumps revealed juvenile fibroadenoma and juvenile papillomatosis epithelial proliferation multiple cystic expanded channels. In some of these channels, cytological features of intraductal carcinoma were observed. We performed a full immunohistochemical examination of the juvenile papillomatosis. The patient refused any further surgical or adjuvant treatment. There are no signs of recurrence in the 15 year follow-up. This case is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge, taking into account the patient's age and the controversial treatment recommendations. Good collaboration between surgeons and pathologists is essential for an accurate diagnostic process and aims to avoid under- or overtreatment. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  18. Hypermetabolic Conversion of Plant Oil into Water: Endothermic Biochemical Process Stimulated by Juvenile Hormone in the European Firebug, Pyrrhocoris apterus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sláma, Karel; Lukáš, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The physiological and biochemical mechanisms that enable insects to feed on dry food to secure enough water for larval growth were investigated. The study was carried out with a plethora of physiological methods, ranging from the simple volumetric determination of O 2 consumption and water intake to more advanced methods such as scanning microrespirography and thermovision imaging of insect's body temperature. The experiments were done on the European firebug, Pyrrhocoris apterus , which feeds exclusively on dry linden seeds. In order to survive, it needs to drink water or suck a sap from plants occasionally. It was found that the young larval instars compensate the occasional water deficiency by the increased production of metabolic water. The juvenile hormone (JH)-dependent production of metabolic water, which was previously found in other species consuming dry food, was achieved in P. apterus by total metabolic combustion of the dietary lipid (neutral seed oil). The water-producing, hypermetabolic larvae were heated from inside by endothermic energy released from the uncoupling of oxidation from oxidative phosphorylation. The "warm", hypermetabolic larvae burning the dietary oil into CO 2 and water showed the increased rates of respiratory metabolism. Microrespirographic recording of these larvae revealed the ratio of the respiratory quotient (RQ, CO 2 /O 2 ) of 0.7, which indicated the breakdown of a pure triglyceride. The warm hypermetabolic larvae could be easily spotted and distinguished from the "cold" larvae on the screen of a thermovision camera. The last instar larvae lacking the JH were always only cold. They metabolized a carbohydrate substrate exclusively (RQ = 1.0), while the dietary lipid was stored in the fat body. In comparison with the hypermetabolic larvae of some other species fed on dry food, which exhibited the highest rates of O 2 consumption ever recorded in a living organism (10-20 mL O 2 /g per hour), the metabolic difference between the

  19. Juvenile hyperthyroidism: an experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadada, S; Bhansali, A; Velayutham, P; Masoodi, S R

    2006-04-01

    To analyze the clinical profile of juvenile hyperthyroidism at presentation, their treatment outcome; predictors of remission and relapse. Retrospective analysis of medical records of 56 patients with juvenile hyperthyroidism seen over a period of 16 years. A cohort of 38 females and 18 males with mean (+/-SD) age of 14.9 +/- 3.4 years (range 3 to 18 years) was analyzed. Majority of patients was in the age group of 12-16 years. Common symptoms observed at presentation were weight loss (82.1%), excessive sweating (78.6%), heat intolerance (76.8%), increased appetite (73.2%) and diarrhea in 48.2%. In addition, accelerated linear growth was observed in 7.1% of patients. Goiter was present in 98.2% of children; 94.5% of which was diffuse and 4.8% was multinodular. The mean ((+/-SD) T3 was 4.8 +/- 3.4 ng/mL (N, 0.6-1.6), T4 was 218 +/- 98 ng/mL (N, 60-155) and TSH was 0.44 +/- 0.36 (N, 0.5-5.5 microIU/mL). TMA positivity seen in 36.9% of patients. All patients were treated with carbimazole; subsequently 4 patients required thyroidectomy and one required radioactive iodine ablation. Mean (+/-SD) duration of follow-up in our patients was 4.9 +/- 3 years, ranging between 1.6 to 16 years and mean (+/-SD) duration of treatment was 34.4 +/- 22.6 months (range 12 to 120 months). Mean (+/-SD) duration to achieve euthyroidism was 5.2 +/- 4.7 months, ranging between 1-33 months. On intention to treat analysis, remission with carbimazole was achieved in 47.6%, remaining patients failed to achieve remission with drug treatment. Graves disease is the commonest cause of juvenile hyperthyroidism. Carbimazole is safe, effective, cheap, and easily available form of therapy. It is occasionally associated with serious side effects but requires prolonged follow up.

  20. Juvenile prison in parallel legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutovac Mitar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for punishment of juveniles occurred from the time when there was no clear line separating them from the adult criminal population. At the same time, the evolution of the juvenile punishment is not in itself involve substantial changes to their criminal status. On the contrary, the status of minors in society did not show serious differences regarding the status of young adults, as well as the adult elderly. On the other hand, on the ground of their punishment is recorded deviations that go in the direction of application of mild corporal punishment. Closing the minor was performed in a physically separate parts of the general penal institutions with the use of a lower degree of restrictions while serving juvenile prison. Due to the different treatment of minors during the evolution of their criminal status leads to their different treatment in comparative law. That is why we are witnessing the existence of numerous differences in the juvenile punishment in some countries in the world. On the European continent there is a wide range of different legal solutions when it comes to punishing juveniles. There are considerable differences in the procedure pronouncing juvenile prison and in particular penal treatment of juveniles in penitentiary institutions. For these reasons, the author has decided to show the basic statutory provisions in the part that relates to the issue of punishment of minors in the legislation of individual countries.

  1. Gaia DR2 documentation Chapter 7: Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyer, L.; Guy, L.; Distefano, E.; Clementini, G.; Mowlavi, N.; Rimoldini, L.; Roelens, M.; Audard, M.; Holl, B.; Lanzafame, A.; Lebzelter, T.; Lecoeur-Taïbi, I.; Molnár, L.; Ripepi, V.; Sarro, L.; Jevardat de Fombelle, G.; Nienartowicz, K.; De Ridder, J.; Juhász, Á.; Molinaro, R.; Plachy, E.; Regibo, S.

    2018-04-01

    This chapter of the Gaia DR2 documentation describes the models and methods used on the 22 months of data to produce the Gaia variable star results for Gaia DR2. The variability processing and analysis was based mostly on the calibrated G and integrated BP and RP photometry. The variability analysis approach to the Gaia data has been described in Eyer et al. (2017), and the Gaia DR2 results are presented in Holl et al. (2018). Detailed methods on specific topics will be published in a number of separate articles. Variability behaviour in the colour magnitude diagram is presented in Gaia Collaboration et al. (2018c).

  2. Recurrent giant juvenile fibroadenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn S. King

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Breast masses in children, though rare, present a difficult clinical challenge as they can represent a wide variety of entities from benign fibroadenomas to phyllodes tumors. Rapidly growing or recurrent masses can be particularly concerning to patients, families and physicians alike. Clinical examination and conventional imaging modalities are not efficacious in distinguishing between different tumor types and surgical excision is often recommended for both final diagnosis and for treatment of large or rapidly growing masses. While surgical excision can result in significant long-term deformity of the breast there are some surgical techniques that can be used to limit deformity and/or aid in future reconstruction. Here we present a case of recurrent giant juvenile fibroadenoma with a review of the clinical presentation, diagnostic tools and treatment options.

  3. Fetal and juvenile radiotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    A number of studies conducted under this project have demonstrated that many of the biological parameters used to calculate permissible levels of exposure of adults to radioactive materials are inappropriate for the rapidly growing infant or child or for the pregnant female. These include age-related differences in radionuclide deposition, distribution, and retention and associated differences in microdosimetry, as well as the greater intrinsic radiosensitivity of the immature organism. These findings emphasize the need for more detailed information on the metabolism and toxicity of radionuclides in the prenatal and juvenile mammal. The continuing objective of this project is to obtain such information, which is needed to establish appropriate exposure limits for radionuclides of greatest potential hazard to these age groups

  4. Vegetation and acidification, Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. DeWalle; James N. Kochenderfer; Mary Beth Adams; Gary W. Miller

    2006-01-01

    In this chapter, the impact of watershed acidification treatments on WS3 at the Fernow Experimental Forest (FEF) and at WS9 on vegetation is presented and summarized in a comprehensive way for the first time. WS7 is used as a vegetative reference basin for WS3, while untreated plots within WS9 are used as a vegetative reference for WS9. Bioindicators of acidification...

  5. Chapter 1. Traditional marketing revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Lambin, Jean-Jacques

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this chapter is to review the traditional marketing concept and to analyse its main ambiguities as presented in popular textbooks. The traditional marketing management model placing heavy emphasis of the marketing mix is in fact a supply-driven approach of the market, using the understanding of consumers’ needs to mould demand to the requirements of supply, instead of adapting supply to the expectations of demand. To clarify the true role of marketing, a distinction is made b...

  6. Instrumentation for Dosimetry. Chapter 21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hourdakis, J. C. [Greek Atomic Energy Commission, Athens (Greece); Nowotny, R. [Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-09-15

    Measurements of absorbed dose (or air kerma) are required in varying situations in diagnostic radiology. The radiation fields vary from plain, slit and even point projection geometry, and may be stationary or moving, including rotational. Owing to the use of low photon energies for these fields, it is important that dosimeters have a satisfactory energy response. In general, the requirements for dosimeter accuracy are less stringent than those in radiation therapy; however, the dose and dose rate measurements cover a large range. Patient dosimetry (see Chapter 22) is a primary responsibility of the medical physicist specializing in diagnostic radiology and is required by legislation in many countries. Dose data are also required in the optimization of examinations for image quality and dose. Radiation measurement is also critical for occupational and public exposure control (see Chapter 24). Dose measurements are essential in acceptance testing and quality control (see Chapter 19). Several types of dosimeter can be used, provided that they have a suitable energy response, but typically, ionization chambers of a few cubic centimetres in volume, or solid state detectors specifically designed for such measurements, are used. If dosimeters are used to make measurements during an examination, they must not interfere with the examination. These devices are also used for determination of the half value layer (HVL). Special types of ionization chamber are employed for computed tomography (CT), mammography and interventional radiology dosimetry.

  7. Juvenile delinquency and correctional treatment in Britain

    OpenAIRE

    堀尾, 良弘; ホリオ, ヨシヒロ; Yoshihiro, Horio

    2006-01-01

    Japanese modernistic culture is influenced not a little from Britain. In looking at the Juvenile Law and the history of correctional treatment in Britain, understanding of today's juvenile delinquency and treatment deepen. Moreover, the background and issue of juvenile delinquency in Britain are also discussed. As a feature of the juvenile delinquency in Britain, the common field with Japan and the field peculiar to Britain became clear in each. It is common to the world that the juvenile del...

  8. Group Work with Juvenile Delinquents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimpfer, David G.

    1992-01-01

    Reviews group work literature on juvenile delinquents. Presents overview of interventions, including positive peer culture, cognitive-behavioral treatment, psychoeducational treatment, treatment of learned behavior, action-oriented treatment, milieu therapy, parental involvement, assertiveness training, and music therapy. Discusses outcome…

  9. Juvenile Angiofibroma: Evolution of Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolai, Piero; Schreiber, Alberto; Bolzoni Villaret, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Juvenile angiofibroma is a rare benign lesion originating from the pterygopalatine fossa with distinctive epidemiologic features and growth patterns. The typical patient is an adolescent male with a clinical history of recurrent epistaxis and nasal obstruction. Although the use of nonsurgical therapies is described in the literature, surgery is currently considered the ideal treatment for juvenile angiofibroma. Refinement in preoperative embolization has provided significant reduction of complications and intraoperative bleeding with minimal risk of residual disease. During the last decade, an endoscopic technique has been extensively adopted as a valid alternative to external approaches in the management of small-intermediate size juvenile angiofibromas. Herein, we review the evolution in the management of juvenile angiofibroma with particular reference to recent advances in diagnosis and treatment. PMID:22164185

  10. Juvenile Angiofibroma: Evolution of Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Nicolai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile angiofibroma is a rare benign lesion originating from the pterygopalatine fossa with distinctive epidemiologic features and growth patterns. The typical patient is an adolescent male with a clinical history of recurrent epistaxis and nasal obstruction. Although the use of nonsurgical therapies is described in the literature, surgery is currently considered the ideal treatment for juvenile angiofibroma. Refinement in preoperative embolization has provided significant reduction of complications and intraoperative bleeding with minimal risk of residual disease. During the last decade, an endoscopic technique has been extensively adopted as a valid alternative to external approaches in the management of small-intermediate size juvenile angiofibromas. Herein, we review the evolution in the management of juvenile angiofibroma with particular reference to recent advances in diagnosis and treatment.

  11. Bilateral, independent juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkenborg, Marie-Louise; Frendø, M; Stavngaard, T

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a benign, vascular tumour that primarily occurs in adolescent males. Despite its benign nature, aggressive growth patterns can cause potential life-threatening complications. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is normally unilateral, originating...... from the sphenopalatine artery, but bilateral symptoms can occur if a large tumour extends to the contralateral side of the nasopharynx. This paper presents the first reported case of true bilateral extensive juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma involving clinically challenging pre-surgical planning...... embolisation. Radical removal performed as one-step, computer-assisted functional endoscopic sinus surgery was performed. The follow-up period was uncomplicated. CONCLUSION: This case illustrates the importance of suspecting bilateral juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma in patients presenting with bilateral...

  12. Special Topics in Radiography. Chapter 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mclean, I. D. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Shepherd, J. A. [University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, United States of America (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Up to this point, this handbook has described the use of X rays to form 2-D medical images of the 3-D patient. This process of reducing patient information by one dimension results in an image of superimposed tissues where important information might be obscured. Chapter 11 begins a section of the book involving the creation of cross-sectional medical images through computed tomography (CT), ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This Chapter describes a number of special X ray imaging modalities and their associated techniques, and forms a transition between projection and cross-sectional imaging. The first of these special topics is dental radiography, which is characterized by a diversity of technology and innovation. The common intraoral radiograph of a single tooth has seen little fundamental change since the time of Roentgen and is, today, along with the simple chest radiograph, the most commonly performed radiographic examination. By contrast, the challenge to create an image of all the teeth simultaneously has placed dentistry at the cutting edge of technology, through the development of panographic techniques and, most recently, with the application of cone beam CT (CBCT). Moreover, the small size of the tooth and the consequent reduced need for X ray generation power promotes equipment mobility. The effect of the need for equipment mobility also forms a special topic that is examined in this chapter. Quantification of the composition of the body is another special X ray imaging technique. Dual energy X ray absorptiometry (DXA) is primarily used to derive the mass of one material in the presence of another, through knowledge of their unique X ray attenuation at different energies. DXA’s primary commercial application has been to measure body mineral density as an assessment of fracture risk and to diagnose osteoporosis; thus, the X ray energies used are optimized for bone density assessment. Currently, there are estimated to be over 50 000

  13. A Giant Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüce, Salim; Uysal, İsmail Önder; Doğan, Mansur; Polat, Kerem; Şalk, İsmail; Müderris, Suphi

    2012-01-01

    Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) are locally growing highly vascular tumours. They are treated primarily by surgical excision ranging from open approach to endoscopic approach. We presented a 20-year-old male with a giant nasopharyngeal juvenile angiofibroma obliterating the pterygopalatine fossa bilaterally, invasing the sphenoid bone and extending to the left nasal passage. His complaints were epistaxis and nasal obstruction. After embolization, the patient was treated surgically with endoscopic approach and discharged as cured without any complication. PMID:23714961

  14. Chapter 2. Radionuclides in the biosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toelgyessy, J.; Harangozo, M.

    2000-01-01

    This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with role of radionuclides in the biosphere. Chapter consists of next parts: (1) Natural radionuclides in biosphere; (2) Man-made radionuclides in the biosphere; (3) Ecologically important radionuclides; (4) Natural background; (5) Radiotoxicity and (6) Paths of transfer of radionuclides from the source to human

  15. Chapter 4: Agriculture and trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, P.S.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter describes the responses of governments to the fallout, particularly with respect to the contamination of food and the effect of governmental decisions on agriculture and trade. To put the subsequent description of events in perspective, it is prefaced with a brief explanation of how permitted levels of radiation in food can be derived from radiation dose recommendations. Although much of this work was done after Chernobyl, it is one of several possible systematic calculation methods, a knowledge of which allows a better understanding of the limits adopted under the pressure of events. (orig.)

  16. Chapter 9. The landscape sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larivaille, Pierrette

    1980-01-01

    The object of this work is to examine the interactions between the activities of the electric industry (generating, transmission and distribution) and the environment, whilst showing to what extent the facilities are likely to affect it adversely and describing the measures taken to lessen the detrimental effects. The chapter devoted to the 'landscape' includes a section covering the electricity generating facilities, and among these, the nuclear power stations. The studies carried out on the main units of insertion into the site are presented, particularly the landscaping involved in setting up a power station [fr

  17. Fourier Transform Methods. Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Simon G.; Quijada, Manuel A.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the use of Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS) for accurate spectrophotometry over a wide spectral range. After a brief exposition of the basic concepts of FTS operation, we discuss instrument designs and their advantages and disadvantages relative to dispersive spectrometers. We then examine how common sources of error in spectrophotometry manifest themselves when using an FTS and ways to reduce the magnitude of these errors. Examples are given of applications to both basic and derived spectrophotometric quantities. Finally, we give recommendations for choosing the right instrument for a specific application, and how to ensure the accuracy of the measurement results..

  18. Before the Doors Are Locked: Effective Alternatives to Incarceration for Non-Violent Juvenile Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voices for Illinois Children, Chicago.

    Juvenile crime threatens the immediate safety and well-being of its victims. The cost of processing and punishing the offender takes money from more productive purposes. If the juvenile offender either continues a life of crime or otherwise drops out of the lawful economy, the cost to the community is a long-term burden. In the early 1970s, many…

  19. Fetal and juvenile radiotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikov, M.R.

    1985-01-01

    This project is directed at obtaining detailed comparative information on the deposition, distribution, retention, and toxicity of radionuclides in the prenatal and juvenile mammal. Because quantitative data cannot necessarily be extrapolated to man, emphasis is also directed toward establishing patterns, phenomenologic interactions, and relationships which will be useful in determining appropriate exposure levels for rapidly growing infants or children and for pregnant women. Further dosimetry for an experiment to evaluate the effects of foster-rearing of newborn rats on the lifetime effects of 239 Pu exposure has demonstrated that most of the lifetime burden is derived from prenatal exposure and that milk contributes little in addition. Other measurements have confirmed a tentative observation that the lifetime burden in offspring is greater with near-term exposure than with exposure earlier in gestation. Additional results from a comparison of the embryotoxicity of 239 Pu and 241 Am have confirmed that, on the basis of dose administered to the dam, the former has a greater effect on the conceptus. Pilot studies indicate that 233 U is teratogenic, acting as a chemical rather than as a radiological teratogen. Studies with 239 Pu-exposed pregnant rabbits have shown that maternal distribution differs from that in rodents; concentration patterns in the placenta and membranes also differed. 4 figures, 1 table

  20. [Localized eruptive juvenile xanthogranuloma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanotti, S; Chiaverini, C; Rostain, G; Cardot-Leccia, N; Lacour, J-P

    2014-03-01

    Juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG) is a non-Langerhans histiocytosis of young children characterized by solitary or multiple yellowish cutaneous nodules. Atypical skin lesions such as lichenoid eruptions, and pedunculated, maculopapular, plaque-like or linear lesions have been described. We report a case of eruptive XGJ en plaque in the left leg in an infant. A 13-month-old child presented asymptomatic eruptive, yellowish papules of the leg measuring 5 to 10mm since the age of 2months. There was no cutaneous infiltration between the lesions. Darier's sign was negative. Histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of JXG. The course of the disease comprised a gradual decrease in the number of active lesions with slight residual pigmentation. Our case was suggestive of JXG en plaque. Only 7 cases have been reported in the literature, all appearing before the age of 5months. The lesions corresponded mostly to an asymptomatic erythematous plaque studded with small yellowish/red nodules of variable localisation. Spontaneous involvement was noted in all cases. No systemic involvement was found. Herein we present a unique case of localised multiple JXG without evident clinical infiltrating plaque progressing with self-resolving flares. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Fetal and juvenile radiotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikov, M.R.

    1982-01-01

    This project is directed at obtaining detailed comparative information on the deposition, distribution, retention, and toxicity of radionuclides in the prenatal and juvenile mammal. Because quantitative data cannot necessarily be extrapolated to man, our emphasis is directed toward establishing patterns, phenomenologic interactions, and relationships which will be useful in determining appropriate exposure levels for the rapidly growing infant or child, and for pregnant women. Recent results demonstrated that injection of pregnant rats with 23 Pu had the greatest effect on longevity and bone-tumor incidence of the offspring when exposure occurred at 19 days of gestation (dg); less effect at 15 dg and the least effect at 9 dg. Ongoing distribution studies are providing data which confirm our tentative explanation that marked variations in the anatomic distributions of bone tumors, with age at the time of injection, were attributable to age-related differences in 239 Pu microdosimetry and concentrations among skeletal components. Other studies, using a placental perfusion technique, have demonstrated that intravenous injection of 239 Pu in pregnant guinea pigs leads to a marked decrease in maternal blood flow to the placenta

  2. Fetal and juvenile radiotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikov, M.R.

    1983-01-01

    Comparative information on the deposition, distribution, retention, and toxicity of radionuclides in the prenatal and juvenile mammal is reported. Emphasis is toward establishing patterns, phenomenologic interactions, and relationships which will be useful in determining appropriate exposure levels for the rapidly growing infant or child and for pregnant women. Recent results have shown that injection of pregnant rats with 239 Pu increases the incidence and severity of adenomatous hyperplasia of the liver in the offspring; the magnitude of these effects is relatd to dose and prenatal age at exposure. Analysis of combined data from several experiments leads to the conclusion that perinatal rats are more sensitive to bone tumor induction by 239 Pu alpha-particle irradiation than are adults. Further histopathologic evaluations of material from earlier experiments have demonstrated that most of the increased incidence of thyroid tumors following 131 I exposure is attributable to follicular tumors. An analysis of the literature led to the conclusion that prenatal irradiation can lead to an increased or decreased incidence of tumors, depending on the specific details of the experimental design and system

  3. Fetal and juvenile radiotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikov, M.R.

    1984-01-01

    This project is directed at obtaining detailed comparative information on the deposition, distribution, retention, and toxicity of radionuclides in the prenatal and juvenile mammal. Because quantitative data cannot necessarily be extrapolated to man, emphasis is also directed toward establishing patterns, phenomenologic interactions, and relationships which will be useful in determining appropriate exposure levels for the rapidly growing infant or child and for pregnant women. An experiment to evaluate the effects of foster-rearing of newborn rats on the lifetime effects of 239 Pu exposure has demonstrated that, while longevity is primarily dependent on radiation history, growth rate and adult body weight are related to the exposure and fitness of the foster dam. Results from an ongoing comparison of the dosimetry and embryotoxicity of 239 Pu and 241 Am confirm that the former has a greater effect on the conceptus, on the basis of dose administered to the dam. Studies in the guinea-pig perfusion system have confirmed that maternal blood flow to the placenta is decreased by intravenous doses of 30 nCi/g 239 Pu and suggest that the threshold lies at approximately 5 nCi/g body weight. A dose of 30 nCi/g of 241 Am does not affect blood flow. Clearance of the two actinides is similar when blood flow effects are not considered. 3 figures, 3 tables

  4. PSYCHOSOCIAL PROFILE OF JUVENILE DIABETES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dass, Jyoti; Dhavale, H.S.; Rathi, Anup

    1999-01-01

    A study of the complex relationships between the patient characteristics, family and environmental influences, physician's behaviour and the demands of the disease with its management in Juvenile Diabetics was taken up at a general hospital. 90 subjects were selected for the study and grouped into three. Group A consisted of 30 Juvenile Diabetics, Group B of 30 Adult Diabetics and Group C of 30 Normal healthy adolescents. The impact of the illness was measured on the Diabetes Impact Measurement Scale (DIMS), the behavioural deviations and the parental attitudes towards child rearing on the Fallstrom's Questionnaire (FQ) and the family environment on the Family Climate Scale (FCS). Psychiatric morbidity was assessed using DSM-IV criteria. Group A & B were compared on the DIMS and Group A & C on FQ & FCS. Adult diabetics had a greater impact of diabetes. Juvenile diabetics had significantly higher frequency of behavioural deviations as compared to controls. Also there was a higher number of responses on questions indicating an overprotecting attitude amongst parents of juvenile diabetics. There was an increased incidence of psychiatric morbidity in juvenile diabetics as compared to normal adolescents irrespective of the family environment. The results are discussed in relation to current literature. PMID:21430802

  5. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naz, S.; Mushtaq, A.; Bari, A.; Maqsud, A.; Khan, M. Z.; Ahmad, T. M.; Saira Rehman

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the spectrum of clinical presentation, laboratory parameters and drug therapy in patients with Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (JRA). Study Design: Case series. Place and Duration of Study: The Children's Hospital and The Institute of Child Health, Lahore, from October 2008 to October 2011. Methodology: All patients who fulfilled the American College of Rheumatology criteria for JRA were enrolled. Their clinical features, investigations done and treatment received for JRA were noted. Statistical analysis of data was done on SPSS version 16.0 for obtaining descriptive statistics. Results: Out of 185 patients, 50.3% (n = 93) were females; 54% (n = 100) were between 10 - 15 years of age. Polyarthritis was found in 71.9% (n = 133) followed by oligoarthritis (22.7%, n = 42) and systemic onset disease (5.4%, n = 10). Morning stiffness (78%) and fever (68%) were the most common clinical presentations. All patients with systemic onset disease had fever (n = 10) followed by skin rash, hepatosplenomegaly and lymphadenopathy. Uveitis was found in 2 patients, and both belonged to the oligoarticular group. Rheumatoid factor was found in 10.27% (n = 19) of all patients. All patients were given non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Disease modifying agents (methotrexate) were given to 43.8% (n = 81). Steroids were used in 61% (n = 113) of patients either with NSAIDs alone or NSAIDs plus methotrexate. Conclusion: Disease profile of JRA at the study centre showed that polyarthritis is the commonest type. Recognition of subtypes will help in planning the management of these patients. (author)

  6. Why Radiotherapy Works. Chapter 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashiro, S.; Nishibuchi, I.; Wondergem, J.

    2017-01-01

    The history of radiotherapy began in 1895, when Röntgen discovered X rays, and in the following year, radiation was used for medical treatment. In the early days, the development of radiotherapy was based extensively on empiricism. Radiotherapists worked closely with radiation biologists in attempting to describe and understand the phenomena produced by ionizing radiation in the clinic and in biological systems. During the ensuing 120 years, radiotherapy has been improved significantly and, in addition to radiation biology, medical physics has played an important role in the design and development of equipment, quality assurance and dosimetry. Over recent decades, advances have been made in the field of molecular biology. Currently available techniques enable us to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of cellular response to ionizing irradiation, and it is anticipated that the role and contributions of radiation biology in radiotherapy will remain relevant. This chapter describes the clinically important biological points, including knowledge from current molecular biology.

  7. Chapter 8. The radioactivity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conti, Robert; Debetencourt, Michel; Cregut, Andre; Grauby, Andre; Sousselier, Yves

    1980-01-01

    The object of this work is to examine the interactions between the activities of the nuclear industry (generating, transmission and distribution) and the environment, whilst showing to what extent the facilities are likely to affect it adversely and describing the measures taken to lessen the detrimental effects. The chapter dealing with radioactivity among the 'nuisance sectors' includes the following headings: natural radioactivity and the biological effects of radiation, the operation of a power station (principle, generating steam from nuclear energy, different types of reactors, safety barriers), radioactive effluents and wastes, nuclear controls and the environment, measures taken in the event of an accident occurring in a nuclear power station, the dismantling and decommissioning of power stations [fr

  8. REFORMATIONS IN ZIMBABWE'S JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mugumbate

    1996-05-23

    May 23, 1996 ... The article is based on a desk review of existing literature on juvenile crime in the country. ... that Zimbabwe's juvenile justice system is transforming from being ... recommendations include expanding the Pre-trial Diversion ...

  9. Tamarix, hydrology and fluvial geomorphology: Chapter 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Daniel A.; Merritt, David M.; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Sher, Anna A; Quigley, Martin F.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter explores the impact of hydrology and fluvial geomorphology on the distribution and abundance of Tamarix as well as the reciprocal effects of Tamarix on hydrologic and geomorphic conditions. It examines whether flow-regime alteration favors Tamarix establishment over native species, and how Tamarix stands modify processes involved in the narrowing of river channels and the formation of floodplains. It begins with an overview of the basic geomorphic and hydrologic character of rivers in the western United States before analyzing how this setting has contributed to the regional success of Tamarix. It then considers the influence of Tamarix on the hydrogeomorphic form and function of rivers and concludes by discussing how a changing climate, vegetation management, and continued water-resource development affect the future role of Tamarix in these ecosystems.

  10. Environment-effect reporting. Chapter 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermens, P.A.H.

    1989-01-01

    Environment-effect reporting is a tool in the resolution of one or more government bodies about activities which may have important disadvantageous impacts upon the environment. This chapter gives a treatment of environment-effect reporting as a process consisting of the preparation, draw-up, judgement and use of an environment-effect report (MER), followed by an evaluation. The contentsof an environment-effect report are indicated. The role of environment-effect reporting in relation with other procedures is discussed. Some experience with the application of environment-effect reporting is presented and a number of experiences in the application are discussed. (H.W.). 5 refs.; 3 figs.; 3 tabs

  11. Parental Low Self-Control, Family Environments, and Juvenile Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldrum, Ryan C; Connolly, George M; Flexon, Jamie; Guerette, Rob T

    2016-10-01

    Research consistently finds that low self-control is significantly correlated with delinquency. Only recently, however, have researchers started to examine associations between parental low self-control, family environments, and child antisocial behavior. Adding to this emerging area of research, the current study examines associations between parental low self-control, aspects of the family environment, and officially recoded juvenile delinquency among a sample (N = 101) of juveniles processed through a juvenile justice assessment facility located in the Southeastern United States. Furthermore, it considers whether aspects of family environments, particularly family cohesion, family conflict, and parental efficacy, mediate the influence of parental low self-control on delinquency. The results of a series of analyses indicate that parental low self-control is correlated with various aspects of family environments and juvenile delinquency, and that the association between parental low self-control and juvenile delinquency is mediated by family environments. Supplementary analyses also suggest that the association between parental low self-control and the family environment may be reciprocal. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Juvenile technologies in foreign publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shpagina E.M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article provides the review of foreign publications, concerning the juvenile technologies used in France, Canada, Germany and Switzerland. The paper presents legal, social and psychotherapeutic aspects of juvenile judiciary in foreign countries. The authors paid special attention to the complexity of approaches to young children and teenagers who found themselves in complicated life circumstances or got into trouble with the law. The article gives examples of using the following techniques: cognitive-behavioral intervention, mediation, family therapy (including family background and family history, relations theory, narrative practices, utilization of «emotional intelligence» resources.

  13. Chapter 4: Establishment of the integrated modelling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This chapter summarizes how the Integrated Modelling System has been established. The Danubian Lowland Information System (DLIS) has been developed, providing a central database and Geographical Information System (GIS) with facilities for data storage, maintenance, processing and presentation. In addition, data can be imported and exported in the file formats readable for the applied modelling system

  14. Fire history, effects and management in southern Nevada [Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew L. Brooks; Jeanne C. Chambers; Randy A. McKinley

    2013-01-01

    Fire can be both an ecosystem stressor (Chapter 2) and a critical ecosystem process, depending on when, where, and under what conditions it occurs on the southern Nevada landscape. Fire can also pose hazards to human life and property, particularly in the wildland/urban interface (WUI). The challenge faced by land managers is to prevent fires from occurring where they...

  15. Landscape ecology: Past, present, and future [Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel A. Cushman; Jeffrey S. Evans; Kevin McGarigal

    2010-01-01

    In the preceding chapters we discussed the central role that spatial and temporal variability play in ecological systems, the importance of addressing these explicitly within ecological analyses and the resulting need to carefully consider spatial and temporal scale and scaling. Landscape ecology is the science of linking patterns and processes across scale in both...

  16. PERSONALITY AND CLINICAL TESTS IN SPANISH FOR ASSESSING JUVENILE OFFENDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Wenger

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The psychological assessment of offenders throughout the different stages in the juvenile justice system is essential. It ensures the adequacy of the legal and educational measures to be applied in the process. This paper reviews the main tests of psychological assessment available in Spanish, suitable for use by psychology professionals who work with young offenders in the juvenile justice services in Spanish-speaking countries. We classify these tools into three groups: a personological, i.e. generic tools, suitable for any professional context in psychology, b clinical, i.e. tools whose initial use has been limited to working with adolescents with mental health needs, and c forensic, tools that have been specially developed for use in the juvenile justice population. This last group is described in the second part of this article (which appears in this same issue. The most important instruments of proven utility are presented and reviewed for each group.

  17. Paramyxoviruses of fish: Chapter 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Theodore R.; Batts, William N.; Kibenge, Frederick S. B.; Godoy, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    The first fish paramyxovirus was isolated from normal adult Chinook salmon returning to a coastal hatchery in Oregon in the fall of 1982. Subsequently, the virus was isolated from other stocks of adult Chinook salmon and one stock of adult coho salmon in California, Oregon, Washington and Alaska, leading to its designation as the Pacific salmon paramyxovirus (PSPV). The slow-growing virus can be isolated from tissues and ovarian fluids of healthy adult fish returning to spawn and apparently causes no clinical signs of disease or mortality. In 1995, a different and widely disseminated paramyxovirus was isolated from farmed Atlantic salmon in Norway and was designated as Atlantic salmon paramyxovirus (ASPV). Although this virus caused no disease or mortality when injected into juvenile Atlantic salmon, ASPV has been associated with proliferative gill inflammation in sea-reared yearling fish; however, additional infectious agents may be involved in the etiology of the condition. Sequence analysis of PSPV and ASPV isolates using the polymerase gene established their placement in the family Paramyxoviridaeand has shown the two viruses to be closely related but sufficiently different from each other and from other known paramyxoviruses to possibly represent new genera within the family. The viruses can be diagnosed by isolation in cell culture with final confirmation by molecular methods. Other paramyxovirus-like agents have been observed or isolated from rainbow trout in Germany, from seabream in Japan associated with epithelial necrosis, from turbot in Spain associated with erythrocytic inclusion bodies and buccal/opercular hemorrhaging and from koi and common carp associated with gill necrosis in the European Union.

  18. Meat Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legacy, Jim; And Others

    This publication provides an introduction to meat processing for adult students in vocational and technical education programs. Organized in four chapters, the booklet provides a brief overview of the meat processing industry and the techniques of meat processing and butchering. The first chapter introduces the meat processing industry and…

  19. Restorative Justice: New Horizons in Juvenile Offender Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryals, John S. Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Treatment strategies of the juvenile justice system focus singularly on rehabilitation of offenders, and victims and communities are excluded from the rehabilitative process. Restorative justice views victims and communities as essential components in rehabilitative efforts. In this article, the principles and practices of restorative justice,…

  20. Legal Bibliography for Juvenile and Family Courts. Supplement 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, William H.; Freer, Alice B.

    This bibliography provides a listing of journal articles on such topics as: the abused child, adoptions, case decisions, confessions, constitutional law, counsel, court administration and organization, courts, criminal law and procedure, custody, delinquency, domestic relations, due process for juveniles, evidence, family court and family law,…

  1. Lagos and the invention of juvenile delinquency in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Fourchard , Laurent

    2006-01-01

    International audience; in the 1920s Nigerian newspapers began to report pickpocketing and prostitution by young people. Until the appointment, in 1941, of the first Social Welfare Officer, this was largely ignored by the administration. Then two processes were implemented : ‘juvenile delinquency' as a social problem; and criminalization of a large portion of urban youth.

  2. Chapter 08: Comments on, and additional information for, wood identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex C. Wiedenhoeft

    2011-01-01

    This manual has described the theory of identification (Chapter 1), the botanical basis of wood structure (Chapter 2), the use of a hand lens (Chapter 3), how to use cutting tools to prepare wood for observation with a lens (Chapter 4), and the characters used in hand lens wood identification (Chapter 5) before leading you through an identification key (Chapter 6) and...

  3. Gaia DR1 documentation Chapter 6: Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyer, L.; Rimoldini, L.; Guy, L.; Holl, B.; Clementini, G.; Cuypers, J.; Mowlavi, N.; Lecoeur-Taïbi, I.; De Ridder, J.; Charnas, J.; Nienartowicz, K.

    2017-12-01

    This chapter describes the photometric variability processing of the Gaia DR1 data. Coordination Unit 7 is responsible for the variability analysis of over a billion celestial sources. In particular the definition, design, development, validation and provision of a software package for the data processing of photometrically variable objects. Data Processing Centre Geneva (DPCG) responsibilities cover all issues related to the computational part of the CU7 analysis. These span: hardware provisioning, including selection, deployment and optimisation of suitable hardware, choosing and developing software architecture, defining data and scientific workflows as well as operational activities such as configuration management, data import, time series reconstruction, storage and processing handling, visualisation and data export. CU7/DPCG is also responsible for interaction with other DPCs and CUs, software and programming training for the CU7 members, scientific software quality control and management of software and data lifecycle. Details about the specific data treatment steps of the Gaia DR1 data products are found in Eyer et al. (2017) and are not repeated here. The variability content of the Gaia DR1 focusses on a subsample of Cepheids and RR Lyrae stars around the South ecliptic pole, showcasing the performance of the Gaia photometry with respect to variable objects.

  4. Juvenile-specific cathepsin proteases in Fasciola spp.: their characteristics and vaccine efficacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meemon, Krai; Sobhon, Prasert

    2015-08-01

    Fasciolosis, caused by Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica, is one of the most neglected tropical zoonotic diseases. One sustainable control strategy against these infections is the employment of vaccines that target proteins essential for parasites' invasion and nutrition acquiring processes. Cathepsin proteases are the most abundantly expressed proteins in Fasciola spp. that have been tested successfully as vaccines against fasciolosis in experimental as well as large animals because of their important roles in digestion of nutrients, invasion, and migration. Specifically, juvenile-specific cathepsin proteases are the more effective vaccines because they could block the invasion and migration of juvenile parasites whose immune evasion mechanism has not yet been fully developed. Moreover, because of high sequence similarity and identity of cathepsins from juveniles with those of adults, the vaccines can attack both the juvenile and adult stages. In this article, the characteristics and vaccine potentials of juvenile-specific cathepsins, i.e., cathepsins L and B, of Fasciola spp. were reviewed.

  5. Generic Performance Measures. Chapter 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daube-Witherspoon, M. E. [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The generic nuclear medicine imager, whether a gamma camera, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system or positron emission tomography (PET) scanner, comprises several main components: a detection system, a form of collimation to select γ rays at specific angles, electronics and a computing system to create the map of the radiotracer distribution. This section discusses these components in more detail. The first stage of a generic nuclear medicine imager is the detection of the γ rays emitted by the radionuclide. In the case of PET, the radiation of interest are the 511 keV annihilation photons that result from the interaction of the positron emitted by the radionuclide with an electron in the tissue. For general nuclear medicine and SPECT, there is one or sometimes more than one γ ray of interest, with energies in the range of <100 to >400 keV. The γ rays are detected when they interact and deposit energy in the crystal(s) of the imaging system. There are two main types of detector: crystals that give off light that can be converted to an electrical signal when the γ ray interacts (‘scintillators’) and semiconductors, crystals that generate an electrical signal directly when the γ ray deposits energy in the crystal. Scintillation detectors include NaI(Tl), bismuth germanate (BGO) and lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO); semiconductor detectors used in nuclear medicine imagers include cadmium zinc telluride (CZT). Radiation detectors are described in more detail in Chapter 6.

  6. Chapter 2. The production units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    In the second chapter of this CD ROM the production units of the Slovak Electric, Plc. (Slovenske elektrarne, a.s.), are presented. It consist of next paragraphs: (1) Nuclear power plants (A-1 Nuclear Power Plant (History, Technological scheme, basic data are presented); V-1, V-2 Bohunice Nuclear Power Plant (History 1972-1985, technological scheme; nuclear safety, radiation protection, heat supply, international co-operation and basic data are presented); Mochovce Nuclear Power Plant (History 1980-1998, technological scheme, construction completion, milestones of commissioning, safety and environmental protection as well as basic data are included). (2) Conventional sources of energy (Vojany fossil power plant (History 1959-1992, Technological units of power plant, Impact of operation on the environment, Plant of Vojany FPP Renewal and Reconstruction, Basic data are listed), Novaky fossil power plant (History 1949-1998, Technological scheme, current investment construction, basic data, Handlova heating plant). Kosice Combined Heat Power Plant (History 1960-1995, technological scheme, State metrology centre, acredited chemical laboratory, basic data). (3) Hydroelectric power plants (Trencin HPPs: Cierny Vah pumped storage HPP, Liptovska Mara HPP, Orava HPP, Sucany HPP, Miksova HPP, Nosice HPP, Velke Kozmalovce HPP, Gabcikovo HPP, Dubnica HPP, Nove Mesto n/V HPP, Madunice HPP, Kralova HPP) and Dobsina HPPs: (Dobsina HPP, Ruzin HPP, Domasa HPP, small HPPs) are presented

  7. Juvenile Courts. Creation and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat GONZÁLEZ FERNÁNDEZ

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the creation of Juvenile or Children's Courts in Spain, analysing their reasons and aims, as well as the ethical and political connotations present on their way of acting. Their history and the one of the institutions that complement them is built from the legislation, writings and ideas of their promoters.

  8. Juvenile Justice: A Bibliographic Essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondak, Ann

    1979-01-01

    Provides information on the background and legal framework of the juvenile justice system, the issues that confront it, and the pressures for change, as well as noting some sources of information on the system. Available from American Association of Law Libraries, 53 West Jackson Blvd., Suite 1201, Chicago, Illinois 60604; sc $4.00. (Author/IRT)

  9. [Sex-linked juvenile retinoschisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, P; Turut, P; Soltysik, C; Hache, J C

    1976-02-01

    About 13 observations of sexe linked juvenile retinoschisis, the authors describe the ophthalmoscopic, fluorographic and functional aspects of the disease whose caracteristics are:--its sexe linked recessive heredity; --its clinical characterestics associating: a microcystic macular degeneration, peripheral retinal lesions, vitreous body alterations, --an electroretinogram of the negative type.

  10. Juvenile European anchovy otolith microstructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Cermeño

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus has a complex incremental growth pattern that was studied using scanning electron microscope (SEM and optical microscope observations. Daily increments were identified and related to rhythmic growth patterns while double-band structures were identified as one increment. The causes of these growth patterns are discussed.

  11. CT appearance of juvenile angiofibroma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, Jun; Hara, Kazuo (Sumitomo Hospital, Osaka (Japan)); Fukuzumi, Akio; Uchida, Hideo

    1983-06-01

    Three verified cases of juvenile angiofibroma were presented. All of them were young and adolescent male CT proved to be an ideal tool in evaluating the extension of this tumor. The appearance on plain CT was multilobulated with displacement of the adjacent bony structures. On enhancement, there was intense staining of the tumor.

  12. What is Justice for Juveniles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, Jennifer Truran

    1997-01-01

    Provides background information and related learning activities for three areas of inquiry involving youth and violence: (1) "Evolution of the Juvenile Justice System"; (2) "The Literature of Crime and Poverty"; (3) "Youth Crime and Public Policy." Includes a list of six recommended Web sites. (MJP)

  13. A mutation in the receptor Methoprene-tolerant alters juvenile hormone response in insects and crustaceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakawa, Hitoshi; Toyota, Kenji; Hirakawa, Ikumi; Ogino, Yukiko; Miyagawa, Shinichi; Oda, Shigeto; Tatarazako, Norihisa; Miura, Toru; Colbourne, John K; Iguchi, Taisen

    2013-01-01

    Juvenile hormone is an essential regulator of major developmental and life history events in arthropods. Most of the insects use juvenile hormone III as the innate juvenile hormone ligand. By contrast, crustaceans use methyl farnesoate. Despite this difference that is tied to their deep evolutionary divergence, the process of this ligand transition is unknown. Here we show that a single amino-acid substitution in the receptor Methoprene-tolerant has an important role during evolution of the arthropod juvenile hormone pathway. Microcrustacea Daphnia pulex and D. magna share a juvenile hormone signal transduction pathway with insects, involving Methoprene-tolerant and steroid receptor coactivator proteins that form a heterodimer in response to various juvenoids. Juvenile hormone-binding pockets of the orthologous genes differ by only two amino acids, yet a single substitution within Daphnia Met enhances the receptor's responsiveness to juvenile hormone III. These results indicate that this mutation within an ancestral insect lineage contributed to the evolution of a juvenile hormone III receptor system.

  14. 48 CFR 1201.301-70 - Amendment of (TAR) 48 CFR chapter 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) 48 CFR chapter 12 is maintained by the SPE through the TAR/TAM change process. This process consists... (C) To issue guidance which may be effective for a period of 1 year or less. (ii) Each TN will expire...

  15. The Chapter 1 Challenge: Colorado's Contribution 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petro, Janice Rose; And Others

    An overview is provided of Colorado's participation in Chapter 1, the largest federally funded program designed to provide services to elementary and secondary students. Chapter 1 provides financial assistance to state and local education agencies to meet the special needs of educationally deprived children who reside in areas with high…

  16. 31 CFR Appendixes to Chapter V - Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Freight forwarders and shippers may not charter, book cargo on, or otherwise deal with blocked vessels. 7. References to regulatory parts in chapter V or other authorities: [BALKANS]: Western Balkans Stabilization... the economic sanctions programs in chapter V. (Please call OFAC Compliance Programs Division for...

  17. Chapter 6: Selenium Toxicity to Aquatic Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter addresses the characteristics and nature of organic selenium (Se) toxicity to aquatic organisms, based on the most current state of scientific knowledge. As such, the information contained in this chapter relates to the 'toxicity assessment' phase of aquatic ecologi...

  18. 106-17 Telemetry Standards Chapter 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Telemetry Standards, RCC Standard 106-17 Chapter 1, July 2017 1-1 CHAPTER 1 Introduction The Telemetry Standards address the here-to-date...for Federal Radio Frequency Management . Copies of that manual may be obtained from: Executive Secretary, Interdepartmental Radio Advisory Committee

  19. Various chapter styles for the memoir class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Document showcasing various chapter title page designs either included in the LaTeX memoir class or is easily manually coded.......Document showcasing various chapter title page designs either included in the LaTeX memoir class or is easily manually coded....

  20. Loss and modification of habitat: Chapter 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemckert, Francis; Hecnar, Stephen; Pilliod, David S.

    2012-01-01

    Amphibians live in a wide variety of habitats around the world, many of which have been modified or destroyed by human activities. Most species have unique life history characteristics adapted to specific climates, habitats (e.g., lentic, lotic, terrestrial, arboreal, fossorial, amphibious), and local conditions that provide suitable areas for reproduction, development and growth, shelter from environmental extremes, and predation, as well as connectivity to other populations or habitats. Although some species are entirely aquatic or terrestrial, most amphibians, as their name implies, lead a dual life and require a mosaic of habitats in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. With over 6 billion people on Earth, most species are now persisting in habitats that have been directly or indirectly influenced by human activities. Some species have disappeared where their habitats have been completely destroyed, reduced, or rendered unsuitable. Habitat loss and degradation are widely considered by most researchers as the most important causes of amphibian population decline globally (Barinaga 1990; Wake and Morowitz 1991; Alford and Richards 1999). In this chapter, a background on the diverse habitat requirements of amphibians is provided, followed by a discussion of the effects of urbanization, agriculture, livestock grazing, timber production and harvesting, fire and hazardous fuel management, and roads on amphibians and their habitats. Also briefly discussed is the influence on amphibian habitats of natural disturbances, such as extreme weather events and climate change, given the potential for human activities to impact climate in the longer term. For amphibians in general, microhabitats are of greater importance than for other vertebrates. As ectotherms with a skin that is permeable to water and with naked gelatinous eggs, amphibians are physiologically constrained to be active during environmental conditions that provide appropriate body temperatures and adequate

  1. Examples of storm impacts on barrier islands: Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Nathaniel G.; Doran, Kara; Stockdon, Hilary F.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the morphologic variability of barrier islands and on the differences in storm response. It describes different types of barrier island response to individual storms, as well as the integrated response of barrier islands to many storms. The chapter considers case study on the Chandeleur Island chain, where a decadal time series of island elevation measurements have documented a wide range of barrier island responses to storms and long-term processes that are representative of barrier island behaviour at many other locations. These islands are low elevation, extremely vulnerable to storms and exhibit a diversity of storm responses. Additionally, this location experiences a moderately high rate of relative sea-level rise, increasing its vulnerability to the combined impacts of storms and long-term erosional processes. Understanding how natural processes, including storm impacts and intervening recovery periods interact with man-made restoration processes is also broadly relevant to understand the natural and human response to future storms.

  2. Numerical Prediction of Dust. Chapter 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Angela; Baldasano, J. M.; Basart, S.; Benincasa, F.; Boucher, O.; Brooks, M.; Chen, J. P.; Colarco, P. R.; Gong, S.; Huneeus, N.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Covers the whole breadth of mineral dust research, from a scientific perspective Presents interdisciplinary work including results from field campaigns, satellite observations, laboratory studies, computer modelling and theoretical studies Explores the role of dust as a player and recorder of environmental change This volume presents state-of-the-art research about mineral dust, including results from field campaigns, satellite observations, laboratory studies, computer modelling and theoretical studies. Dust research is a new, dynamic and fast-growing area of science and due to its multiple roles in the Earth system, dust has become a fascinating topic for many scientific disciplines. Aspects of dust research covered in this book reach from timescales of minutes (as with dust devils, cloud processes, and radiation) to millennia (as with loess formation and oceanic sediments), making dust both a player and recorder of environmental change. The book is structured in four main parts that explore characteristics of dust, the global dust cycle, impacts of dust on the Earth system, and dust as a climate indicator. The chapters in these parts provide a comprehensive, detailed overview of this highly interdisciplinary subject. The contributions presented here cover dust from source to sink and describe all the processes dust particles undergo while travelling through the atmosphere. Chapters explore how dust is lifted and transported, how it affects radiation, clouds, regional circulations, precipitation and chemical processes in the atmosphere, and how it deteriorates air quality. The book explores how dust is removed from the atmosphere by gravitational settling, turbulence or precipitation, how iron contained in dust fertilizes terrestrial and marine ecosystems, and about the role that dust plays in human health. We learn how dust is observed, simulated using computer models and forecast. The book also details the role of dust deposits for climate reconstructions

  3. A Practical Approach to Juvenile Dermatomyositis and Juvenile Scleroderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Liza J; Pain, Clare E

    2016-02-01

    Juvenile dermatomyositis and juvenile scleroderma are rare multisystem autoimmune disorders. Although they share some pathognomonic hallmarks with adult onset myositis or scleroderma, there are significant differences in presentation, characteristics and associated features when the diseases present in childhood. In view of this, and the rarity of the conditions, it is important for care to be led by teams with expertise in pediatric rheumatology conditions. Prognosis has improved significantly in the West; likely due to early diagnosis and aggressive treatment with immunosuppressive medications. However, this trend is not replicated in the developing world. Early recognition of these diseases is crucial to achieve rapid and sustained remission and prevent disease or medication associated complications. This article aims to provide a practical overview for recognition, diagnosis and treatment of these conditions.

  4. Function of site. Chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    In Semipalatinsk test site's history there are two stages for nuclear tests. In first stage (1949-1962) when the nuclear tests have being conducted in atmosphere, and second one (1963-1989) when underground nuclear explosions have being carried out. There were 456 nuclear tests, from which 117 were both the surface and the atmospheric explosions and other underground ones. In the chapter general characteristics of atmospheric nuclear tests, conducted on Semipalatinsk test site in 1949-1962 (chronology of conducting, release energy and kinds of nuclear explosions) are presented in tabular form. Most powerful of explosion was test of hydro- nuclear (hydrogen) bomb - prototype of thermonuclear charge in 1955 with capacity 1.6 Mt. In 1990-1992 the target-oriented radioecological investigation of territory around Semipalatinsk test site was carried out. Specialists dividing all atmospheric explosions by rate local traces, forming out of test site into 4 groups: with very strong contamination, with strong contamination, with weak contamination, and with very weak contamination. To nuclear explosions with very strong contamination were attributed the four explosions carrying out in 29.08.1949, 24.09.1951, 12.08.1953, 24.08.1956. Estimations of radiological situation including external doses of radiation and environment contamination and content of radioactive substances in human body was given by 10 European experts in collaboration with Kazakstan scientists. Results of investigation show that during past period surface contamination, called by nuclear weapons' fissile products was subjected to considerable decay. External doses completely coincidence with natural background. Remains of long living radionuclides are insignificant as well, and in 1995 its approximately were equal to annual exposition doses. One of most damaged settlements is Chagan. On it territory 530 radioactive sources with doses capacity from 100 up to 400 μR/h. Scientists of Semipalatinsk defined

  5. Chapter 2: The Financial Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Hans-Werner Sinn; John Hassler; Gilles Saint-Paul; Giancarlo Corsetti; Michael P. Devereux; Tim Jenkinson; Jan-Egbert Sturm; Xavier Vives

    2009-01-01

    The financial turmoil that originated in 2007 and developed into an unprecedented crisis battering financial and real markets is the latest manifestation, on a grand scale and with new attributes, of a welldefined pathology in the process of market liberalization and integration in the post-Bretton Woods era. At the root of the crisis lies a fundamental inconsistency between financial globalisation – the process of liberalization and deregulation driving the impressive growth of world finan...

  6. An unusual presentation of juvenile lupus nephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malleshwar Bottu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of juvenile lupus varies widely ranging between 4 and 250 per 100,000 population. Most common organ involvement in juvenile lupus is kidney. Neurological, cutaneous and hematological involvements are also involved. Skeletal muscle involvement in the form of myositis is rare. Myositis as presenting manifestation in juvenile lupus is also unusual. Herein, we report one such case wherein myositis preceded the onset of lupus nephritis

  7. The Innovation in Libraries Awesome Foundation Chapter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Finnell

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In Brief: This article discusses the creation, philosophy, and future directions of the Innovation in Libraries Awesome Foundation Chapter, a grassroots crowdfunding initiative incubated within Library Pipeline.

  8. The reinvigorated South African GRSS Chapter

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schwegmann, Colin P

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Looking ahead, the South African GRSS Chapter is investigating the possibility of organizing a meeting with local GRSS members, universities, and other remote-sensing organizations with the purpose of engaging undergraduate and early postgraduate...

  9. Chapter 8: Final thought on safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2018-04-01

    The chapter presents the objective of implementing and maintaining a good safety system: to prevent the occurrence of accidents and incidents (the abnormalities must be the exception) and if they occur their consequences should be mitigated. And make other considerations.

  10. Chapter 1. Economic aspects of aluminium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanko, E.A.; Kabirov, Sh.O.; Safiev, Kh.; Azizov, B.S.; Mirpochaev, Kh.A.

    2011-01-01

    This article is devoted to economic aspects of aluminium production. Therefore, the perspectives of development of aluminium production, the base components of aluminium cost and economic security of enterprise are considered in this chapter.

  11. Moving forward with imperfect information: chapter 19

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averyt, Kristen; Brekke, Levi D.; Kaatz, Laurna; Welling, Leigh; Hartge, Eric H.; Iseman, Tom

    2013-01-01

    This chapter summarized the scope of what is known and not known about climate in the Southwestern United States. There is now more evidence and more agreement among climate scientists about the physical climate and related impacts in the Southwest compared with that represented in the 2009 National Climate Assessment (Karl, Melillo, and Peterson 2009). However, there remain uncertainties about the climate system, the complexities within climate models, the related impacts to the biophysical environment, and the use of climate information on decision making. Uncertainty is introduced in each step of the climate planning-an-response process--in the scenarios used to drive the climate models, the information used to construct the models, and the interpretation and use of the model' data for planning and decision making (Figure 19.1). There are server key challenge, drawn from recommendations of the authors of this report, that contribute to these uncertainties in the Southwest: - There is a dearth of climate observations at high elevations and on the lands of Native nations.

  12. Chapter 5: Summary of model application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This chapter provides a brief summary of the model applications described in Volume III of the Final Report. This chapter dealt with the selected water management regimes; ground water flow regimes; agriculture; ground water quality; hydrodynamics, sediment transport and water quality in the Danube; hydrodynamics, sediment transport and water quality in the river branch system; hydrodynamics, sediment transport and water quality in the Hrusov reservoir and with ecology in this Danube area

  13. Juvenile offenders: competence to stand trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulier, Matthew

    2012-12-01

    This article details the legal background and assists the reader in the preparation and practical conduct of evaluations regarding juvenile adjudicative competency. The material is presented to be useful as a guide to direct questions of competency and covers aspects of evaluation that include: legal standard for competency to stand trial, developmental immaturity, current practice in juvenile competency to stand trial, forensic evaluation of juvenile competency to stand trial, organizing the evaluation, collateral sources of information, psychiatric evaluation of juvenile adjudicative competency, assessment of mental disorder and intellectual disability, assessment of developmental status, assessment of functional abilities for adjudicative competence, and reaching the forensic opinion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. IMPACTUL PRESEI ASUPRA DELICVENŢEI JUVENILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe CIOBANU

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Lucrarea în cauză e un rezultat al unui studiu asupra schimbărilor comportamentale ale adolescenţilor, influenţate de unele materiale publicistice. Departe de intenţia de a reveni la cenzura de altădată, autorul pledează pentru o auto-cenzură, pentru o autoexigenţă în procesul de creaţie, pentru o responsabilitate sporită pentru cuvântul scris sau rostit.THE IMPACT OF MEDIA ON THE JUVENILE DELINQUENCYThis writing is a result of a study of teenager’s behavior changes influenced by journalistic work. The author is not militating for the past censorship, but he pleads for an autocensorship, for an auto exigency during the creation process, for a high responsibility for written word or for the spoken one.

  15. Geomorphology of the Elwha River and its Delta: Chapter 3 in Coastal habitats of the Elwha River, Washington--biological and physical patterns and processes prior to dam removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrick, Jonathan A.; Draut, Amy E.; McHenry, Michael L.; Miller, Ian M.; Magirl, Christopher S.; Beirne, Matthew M.; Stevens, Andrew Stevens; Logan, Joshua B.; Duda, Jeffrey J.; Warrick, Jonathan A.; Magirl, Christopher S.

    2011-01-01

    The removal of two dams on the Elwha River will introduce massive volumes of sediment to the river, and this increase in sediment supply in the river will likely modify the shapes and forms of the river and coastal landscape downstream of the dams. This chapter provides the geologic and geomorphologic background of the Olympic Peninsula and the Elwha River with emphasis on the present river and shoreline. The Elwha River watershed was formed through the uplift of the Olympic Mountains, erosion and movement of sediment throughout the watershed from glaciers, and downslope movement of sediment from gravitational and hydrologic forces. Recent alterations to the river morphology and sediment movement through the river include the two large dams slated to be removed in 2011, but also include repeated bulldozing of channel boundaries, construction and maintenance of flood plain levees, a weir and diversion channel for water supply purposes, and engineered log jams to help enhance river habitat for salmon. The shoreline of the Elwha River delta has changed in location by several kilometers during the past 14,000 years, in response to variations in the local sea-level of approximately 150 meters. Erosion of the shoreline has accelerated during the past 80 years, resulting in landward movement of the beach by more than 200 meters near the river mouth, net reduction in the area of coastal wetlands, and the development of an armored low-tide terrace of the beach consisting primarily of cobble. Changes to the river and coastal morphology during and following dam removal may be substantial, and consistent, long-term monitoring of these systems will be needed to characterize the effects of the dam removal project.

  16. Chapter 4. Radioactivity of waters and factors influencing its value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toelgyessy, J.; Harangozo, M.

    2000-01-01

    This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with radioactivity of waters and factors influencing its value. Chapter consists of next parts: (1) Natural radioactivity of hydrosphere; (2) Radioactive contamination of hydrosphere

  17. Holistic pest management [Chapter 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas D. Landis; Tara Luna; R. Kasten Dumroese

    2009-01-01

    As any experienced grower knows only too well, nursery management is a continuous process of solving problems. Murphy's Law of "anything that can go wrong, will go wrong" sounds as if it were meant for native plant production. One recurring problem is pests. Nursery managers have traditionally talked about "controlling" a pest. This approach...

  18. Fluoroscopic Imaging Systems. Chapter 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, A. K. [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Fluoroscopy refers to the use of an X ray beam and a suitable image receptor for viewing images of processes or instruments in the body in real time. Fluoroscopic imaging trades the high signal to noise ratio (SNR) of radiography for high temporal resolution, as factors that maintain patient dose at an acceptable level must be used.

  19. Woody biomass logistics [Chapter 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Keefe; Nathaniel Anderson; John Hogland; Ken Muhlenfeld

    2014-01-01

    The economics of using woody biomass as a fuel or feedstock for bioenergy applications is often driven by logistical considerations. Depending on the source of the woody biomass, the acquisition cost of the material is often quite low, sometimes near zero. However, the cost of harvesting, collection, processing, storage, and transportation from the harvest site to end...

  20. Green manufacturing processes and systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davim, J. Paulo (ed.) [Aveiro Univ. (Portugal). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Campus Universitario de Santiago

    2013-02-01

    This book provides the recent advances on green manufacturing processes and systems for modern industry. Chapter 1 provides information on sustainable manufacturing through environmentally-friendly machining. Chapter 2 is dedicated to environmentally-friendly machining: vegetable based cutting fluids. Chapter 3 describes environmental-friendly joining of tubes. Chapter 4 contains information on concepts, methods and strategies for zero-waste in manufacturing. Finally, chapter 5 is dedicated to the application of hybrid MCDM approach for selecting the best tyre recycling process.

  1. A Critical Appraisal of the Juvenile Justice System under Cameroon's 2005 Criminal Procedure Code: Emerging Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Tabe

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to examine the changes introduced by the 2005 Cameroonian Criminal Procedure Code on matters of juvenile justice, considering that before this Code, juvenile justice in Cameroon was governed by extra-national laws. In undertaking this analysis, the article highlights the evolution of the administration of juvenile justice 50 years after independence of Cameroon. It also points out the various difficulties and shortcomings in the treatment of juvenile offenders in Cameroon since the enactment of the new Criminal Procedure Code. The article reveals that the 2005 Code is an amalgamation of all hitherto existing laws in the country that pertained to juvenile justice, and that despite the considerable amount of criticism it has received, the Code is clearly an improvement of the system of juvenile justice in Cameroon, since it represents a balance of the due process rights of young people, the protection of society and the special needs of young offenders. This is so because the drafters of the Code took a broad view of the old laws on juvenile justice. Also a wide range of groups were consulted, including criminal justice professionals, children’s service organisations, victims, parents, young offenders, educators, advocacy groups and social-policy analysts. However, to address the challenges that beset the juvenile justice system of Cameroon, the strategy of the government should be focussed on three areas: the prevention of youth crime, the provision of meaningful consequences for the actions of young people, and the rehabilitation and reintegration of young offenders. Cameroonian law should seek educative solutions rather than to impose prison sentences or other repressive measures on young offenders. Special courts to deal with young offenders should be established outside the regular penal system and should be provided with resources that are adequate for and appropriate to fostering their understanding of

  2. Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis. Radiological diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuentes, R.; Sar, V.; Cabrera, J.J.; Diaz, L.; Hernandez, B.; Valeron, P.; Baez, O.; Rodriguez, M.

    1993-01-01

    Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis (JHF) is a rare disorder of unknown etiology, very few cases of which have been reported in the literature. It presents similarities to other fibromatosys, but has its particular radiological features which differentiate it from them. The clinical findings consist of several, slow growing, subcutaneous nodules, flexion contractures of the joints which can lead to disability, gingival hypertrophy and muscular atrophy. The suspected radiological diagnosis is confirmed by electron microscopy study of the nodules, although light microscopy can also reveal suggestive images. Author (9 refs.)

  3. Juvenile eye growth, when completed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fledelius, Hans C; Christensen, Anders S; Fledelius, Christian

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To test Sorsby's classical statement of axial eye growth as completed at the age of 13 years, with a view also to differentiating between basic eye growth and juvenile elongation associated with eventual refractive change towards myopia. METHODS: (i) A total of 160 healthy eyes close...... about age 13 as general limit found support from the cross-sectional data, which suggested stable emmetropic eye size from about 11-12 years, with an average apparently outgrown male emmetropic value of 23.5 mm versus females' 22.9 mm. The longitudinal data, however, showed emmetropic growth also beyond...

  4. Juvenile ossifying fibroma: Psammamatoid variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivani Aggarwal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile ossifying fibroma is a rare fibro-osseous lesion containing variable amount of calcified masses, which resembles bone or cementum within a fibrocellular connective tissue stroma. It has variable clinical behavior, highly aggressive in nature including invasion and destruction of adjacent anatomic structures with a strong tendency to recur. We reported a 28-year-old female patient with a growth in the upper left vestibule region extending from canine to molar region with clinical, histopathological, and radiological features are presented. Surgical management was done, and regular follow-up was advised.

  5. THE STUDY OF FEATURES OF GUILT OF JUVENILE OFFENDERS IN THE CONTEXT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalija Vladimirovna Galkina

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the results of empirical studies of the experiences of guilt of juvenile offenders in the context of juvenile justice where a minor appears as the subject of legal relations. Restorative approach of juvenile justice is based on an admission of guilt to the victim. In connection with it, the research of features of the guilt of minors who have committed an offence and the conditions for the development of the subjectivity will enhance understanding of the possibilities of restorative juvenile justice system in the prevention of juvenile delinquency.Thus, the results of empirical research presented in the article are important for determining of the psychological bases of realization of rehabilitation programs in the context of juvenile justice. In particular, the results are important for the organization and conduct of psychological work to overcome the psychological barriers in the behavior of juveniles having inherently maladaptive guilt and destructive psychological defense mechanisms.

  6. Juveniles' Motivations for Remaining in Prostitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Shu-Ling; Bedford, Olwen

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were collected in 1990-1991, 1992, and 2000 with 49 prostituted juveniles remanded to two rehabilitation centers in Taiwan. These data are analyzed to explore Taiwanese prostituted juveniles' feelings about themselves and their work, their motivations for remaining in prostitution, and their difficulties…

  7. Moral development of solo juvenile sex offenders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vugt, E.; Stams, G.J.; Dekovic, M.; Brugman, D.; Rutten, E.; Hendriks, J.

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the moral development of solo juvenile male sex offenders (n = 20) and juvenile male non-offenders (n = 76), aged 13-19 years, from lower socioeconomic and educational backgrounds. The Moral Orientation Measure (MOM) was used to assess punishment- and victim-based moral

  8. Juvenile Obesity, Physical Activity, and Lifestyle Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Or, Oded

    2000-01-01

    Because many obese children become obese adults, the recent rapid increase in juvenile obesity poses a major public health challenge. Enhanced physical activity is a cornerstone in a multidisciplinary approach to preventing and treating juvenile obesity. Giving exercise recommendations focused for obese youth is critical. Cutting down on sedentary…

  9. Using the Juvenile Justice Poster. Teaching Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Update on Law-Related Education, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Presents a lesson that can help students review and summarize what they have learned about the juvenile justice system. Explains that the students discuss how the juvenile justice system can be improved and conduct a survey on how it might be changed in the future. Provides a copy of the survey and directions. (CMK)

  10. Intelligence Score Profiles of Female Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Shelby Spare; Hart, Kathleen J.; Ficke, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have found that male juvenile offenders typically obtain low scores on measures of intelligence, often with a pattern of higher scores on measures of nonverbal relative to verbal tasks. The research on the intelligence performance of female juvenile offenders is limited. This study explored the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for…

  11. Reformations in Zimbabwe's juvenile justice system | Ruparanganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Children in conflict with the law are often stigmatized and shunned by society as they are perceived as a threat to society. Historically, Zimbabwe's juvenile justice system has been retributive and focused on punishing the juvenile offender. As a result, it has been criticised from a number of viewpoints, including the need to ...

  12. May 2013 Council of Chapter Representatives Notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. The Council of Chapter Representatives met in conjunction with the ATS meeting in Philadelphia on May 18, 2012.Roll Call. The meeting was called to order at 11 AM. Representatives from Arizona, California, DC Metro, Louisiana, Michigan, New Mexico, New York, Oregon, and Rhode Island were in attendance, and by telephone from Washington.Chapter Updates. Information on chapter activities and a chapter brochure. There are currently 19 active chapters. Most are having annual meetings. Advocacy. Gary Ewart from ATS Government Relations gave a presentation on Washington activities. Highlights included activities on the SGR, a number of air pollution regulations and a letter campaign advocating regulation of cigars. ATS President 2013-14-vision for the coming year. Patrician Finn gave a summary of what she hopes to accomplish over the next year. The theme of her presidency will be health equality. ATS Executive Director-update. Steve Crane gave a positive presentation on the …

  13. Tried as an adult, housed as a juvenile: a tale of youth from two courts incarcerated together.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtold, Jordan; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2014-04-01

    Research has questioned the wisdom of housing juveniles who are convicted in criminal court in facilities with adult offenders. It is argued that minors transferred to criminal court should not be incarcerated with adults, due to a greater likelihood of developing criminal skills, being victimized, and attempting suicide. Alternatively, it has been suggested that the other option, housing these youth with minors who have committed less serious crimes and who are therefore adjudicated in juvenile courts, might have unintended consequences for juvenile court youth. The present study utilizes a sample of youth incarcerated in one secure juvenile facility, with some offenders processed in juvenile court (n = 261) and others processed in adult court (n = 103). We investigate whether youth transferred to adult court engage in more institutional offending (in particular, violence) and experience less victimization than their juvenile court counterparts. Results indicate that although adult court youth had a greater likelihood of being convicted of violent commitment offenses than juvenile court youth, the former engaged in less offending during incarceration than the latter. In addition, no significant differences in victimization were observed. These findings suggest that the concern about the need for separate housing for adult court youth is unfounded; when incarcerated together, those tried in adult court do not engage in more institutional violence than juvenile court youth. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Volcano warning systems: Chapter 67

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Chris E.; Houghton, Bruce F.; Ewert, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Messages conveying volcano alert level such as Watches and Warnings are designed to provide people with risk information before, during, and after eruptions. Information is communicated to people from volcano observatories and emergency management agencies and from informal sources and social and environmental cues. Any individual or agency can be both a message sender and a recipient and multiple messages received from multiple sources is the norm in a volcanic crisis. Significant challenges to developing effective warning systems for volcanic hazards stem from the great diversity in unrest, eruption, and post-eruption processes and the rapidly advancing digital technologies that people use to seek real-time risk information. Challenges also involve the need to invest resources before unrest to help people develop shared mental models of important risk factors. Two populations of people are the target of volcano notifications–ground- and aviation-based populations, and volcano warning systems must address both distinctly different populations.

  15. Chapter 22. Cell population kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubiana, M.

    1975-01-01

    The main contribution of radioisotopes to the development of a new discipline, cell population kinetics, was shown. The aim of this science is to establish, for each tissue of the organism, the life span of its component cells and the mechanisms governing its growth, its differentiation and its homeostasis with respect to outside attacks. Labelling techniques have been used to follow the cells during these various processes. The case of non-dividing cells was considered first, taking as example, the red blood cells of which the lifetime was studied, after which the case of proliferating cells was examined using 14 C- or tritium-labelled thymidine. The methods used to measure the cell cycle parameters were described: labelled-mitosis curve method, double-labelling and continuous labelling methods, proliferation coefficient measurement. Cell kinetics were shown to allow an interpretation of radiobiological data. Finally the practical value of cell kinetics research was shown [fr

  16. Chapter 1: A Brief Introduction to Lignin Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katahira, Rui [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beckham, Gregg T [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Elder, Thomas J. [USDA-Forest Service

    2018-04-03

    Lignin is an alkyl-aromatic polymer found in the cell walls of terrestrial plants. Lignin provides structure and rigidity to plants, is a natural, highly effective barrier against microbial attack, and enables water and nutrient transport through plant tissues. Depending on the plant species, the constituents of lignin can vary considerably, leading to substantial diversity in lignin chemistry and structure. Despite nearly a century of research and development attempting to convert lignin into valuable products, lignin in most current and planned biorefinery contexts remains underutilized, most often being burned to generate heat and power. However, the drive towards effective lignin valorization processes has witnessed a significant resurgence in the past decade, catalyzed by advances in improved understanding of lignin chemistry, structure, and plasticity in parallel with new catalytic and biological approaches to valorize this important, prevalent biopolymer. As a preface to the subsequent chapters in this book, this chapter briefly highlights the known aspects of lignin structure.

  17. Do juveniles bully more than young offenders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Jane L

    2002-04-01

    This study compares bullying behaviour among juvenile and young offenders and incorporates two different methods to measure bullying. Ninety-five male juvenile and 196 male young offenders completed two questionnaires, one that measured bullying directly and one that measured behaviours indicative of "being bullied" or of "bullying others". Juveniles perceived a higher extent of bullying than young offenders. Juveniles reported significantly more physical, psychological or verbal and overall direct forms of bullying behaviour than young offenders. A number of differences were found between juveniles and young offenders with regard to the types of prisoners likely to become victims, who they would advise a victim to speak to and how bullying could be prevented. The results are discussed in relation to developmental theories of aggression and how bullying behaviour can be defined and measured among prisoners. Copyright 2002 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Juvenile Gaucher disease simulating osteomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.H.; Ortega, J.A.; Heisel, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    A case in which several imaging procedures suggested juvenile Gaucher disease in a child who presented with symptomatology of osteomyelitis is discussed. The 20-month girl was given a Technetium-99m radionuclide skeletal examination which revealed intense uptake of tracer agents along the shaft of the right femur. It was also found that the liver and spleen were dramatically Ga-67 avid. The bone pain symptomatology suggested an osteomyelitis of the femur, but skeletal scintigraphy with Tc-99m-labeled bone tracer demonstrated photopenic areas involving the femur, suggesting that the bone pain may have been due to marrow packed with Gaucher cells. This overexpansion of the marrow may lead to microfractures with remodeling seen radiographically as periosteal new bone and scintigraphically as increased periosteal deposition of tracer agent. The radiogallium study was useful to exclude an underlying osteomyelitis in the involved femurs. Although juvenile Gaucher disease is unusual, it should be considered in any child who presents with the constellation of hepatosplenomegaly and bone pain simulating osteomyelitis

  19. Juvenile Gaucher disease simulating osteomyelitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.H.; Ortega, J.A.; Heisel, M.A.

    1981-10-01

    A case in which several imaging procedures suggested juvenile Gaucher disease in a child who presented with symptomatology of osteomyelitis is discussed. The 20-month girl was given a Technetium-99m radionuclide skeletal examination which revealed intense uptake of tracer agents along the shaft of the right femur. It was also found that the liver and spleen were dramatically Ga-67 avid. The bone pain symptomatology suggested an osteomyelitis of the femur, but skeletal scintigraphy with Tc-99m-labeled bone tracer demonstrated photopenic areas involving the femur, suggesting that the bone pain may have been due to marrow packed with Gaucher cells. This overexpansion of the marrow may lead to microfractures with remodeling seen radiographically as periosteal new bone and scintigraphically as increased periosteal deposition of tracer agent. The radiogallium study was useful to exclude an underlying osteomyelitis in the involved femurs. Although juvenile Gaucher disease is unusual, it should be considered in any child who presents with the constellation of hepatosplenomegaly and bone pain simulating osteomyelitis.

  20. Secondary School Mathematics, Chapter 13, Perpendiculars and Parallels (I), Chapter 14, Similarity. Student's Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford Univ., CA. School Mathematics Study Group.

    The first chapter of the seventh unit in this SMSG series discusses perpendiculars and parallels; topics covered include the relationship between parallelism and perpendicularity, rectangles, transversals, parallelograms, general triangles, and measurement of the circumference of the earth. The second chapter, on similarity, discusses scale…

  1. Gas bubble trauma monitoring and research of juvenile salmonids. 1995 Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maule, A.G.; Mesa, M.G.; Hans, K.M.

    1997-07-01

    This report describes laboratory and field monitoring studies of gas bubble trauma (GBT) in migrating juvenile salmonids in the Snake and Columbia rivers. The first chapter describes laboratory studies of the progression of GBT signs leading to mortality and the use of the signs for GBT assessment. The progression and severity of GBT signs in juvenile salmonids exposed to different levels of total dissolved gas (TDG) and temperatures was assessed and quantified. Next, the prevalence, severity, and individual variation of GBT signs was evaluated to attempt to relate them to mortality. Finally, methods for gill examination in fish exposed to high TDG were developed and evaluated. Primary findings were: (1) no single sign of GBT was clearly correlated with mortality, but many GBT signs progressively worsened; (2) both prevalence and severity of GBT signs in several tissues is necessary; (3) bubbles in the lateral line were the earliest sign of GBT, showed progressive worsening, and had low individual variation but may develop poorly during chronic exposures; (4) fin bubbles had high prevalence, progressively worsened, and may be a persistent sign of GBT; and (5) gill bubbles appear to be the proximate cause of death but may only be relevant at high TDG levels and are difficult to examine. Chapter Two describes monitoring results of juvenile salmonids for signs of GBT. Emigrating fish were collected and examined for bubbles in fins and lateral lines. Preliminary findings were: (1) few fish had signs of GBT, but prevalence and severity appeared to increase as fish migrated downstream; (2) there was no apparent correlation between GBT signs in the fins, lateral line, or gills; (3) prevalence and severity of GBT was suggestive of long-term, non-lethal exposure to relatively low level gas supersaturated water; and (4) it appeared that GBT was not a threat to migrating juvenile salmonids. 24 refs., 26 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Physics of Ultrasound. Chapter 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacefield, J. C. [University of Western Ontario, London (Canada)

    2014-09-15

    Ultrasound is the most commonly used diagnostic imaging modality, accounting for approximately 25% of all imaging examinations performed worldwide at the beginning of the 21st century. The success of ultrasound may be attributed to a number of attractive characteristics, including the relatively low cost and portability of an ultrasound scanner, the non-ionizing nature of ultrasound waves, the ability to produce real time images of blood flow and moving structures such as the beating heart, and the intrinsic contrast among soft tissue structures that is achieved without the need for an injected contrast agent. The latter characteristic enables ultrasound to be used for a wide range of medical applications, which historically have primarily included cardiac and vascular imaging, imaging of the abdominal organs and, most famously, in utero imaging of the developing fetus. Ongoing technological improvements continue to expand the use of ultrasound for many applications, including cancer imaging, musculoskeletal imaging, ophthalmology and others. The term ultrasound refers specifically to acoustic waves at frequencies greater than the maximum frequency audible to humans, which is nominally 20 kHz. Diagnostic imaging is generally performed using ultrasound in the frequency range of 2–15 MHz. The choice of frequency is dictated by a trade off between spatial resolution and penetration depth, since higher frequency waves can be focused more tightly but are attenuated more rapidly by tissue. The information contained in an ultrasonic image is influenced by the physical processes underlying propagation, reflection and attenuation of ultrasound waves in tissue.

  3. Paediatric Radiation Oncology. Chapter 21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anacak, Y.; Zaghloul, M.; Laskar, S.

    2017-01-01

    Although cancer is a typical disease of ageing adults, it can be seen at any age and cancer diagnosis in a child is not a rare situation. Every day around the world, many teenagers, young children and even infants are diagnosed with cancer. Cancer in children is an important health care problem, not only for the individual patient and medical staff, but also for families, teachers, friends and society as a whole. In every culture, children are considered innocent human beings and the diagnosis of such an ‘evil’ disease in a young child always induces feelings of unfairness and anguish. Most childhood cancers are curable; using the best treatment options, more than 80% of children with cancer may survive to adulthood. However, cure alone is not the ultimate goal for paediatric cancer treatment; late effects of treatment impact the quality of life of patients. Cure from cancer in a child means adding at least 50–60 years to his or her life, which is long enough to develop serious late effects of the treatment and the induction of secondary cancers. Thus, treatment should be tailored to minimize the exposure of healthy tissues to chemotherapy drugs and radiation. Cancer treatment can be a painful process, often involving surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and requiring very long treatment periods, which impair the motor and mental development of the child, and his or her educational activities and relations with society. Childhood cancer survivors sometimes have modest to severe sequelae of the disease itself and the treatment used, which may disrupt their development to a healthy adulthood. These cancer survivors should be fully integrated into society and be allowed to live productive lives even when lifelong rehabilitation is required to keep them active.

  4. Chapter 12. Nullification of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toelgyessy, J.; Harangozo, M.

    2000-01-01

    This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with problems connected with nullification of nuclear reactors. There are tree basic methods of nullification of nuclear reactors: (1) conservation, (2) safe close (wall up, embed in concrete), (3) direct dismantlement and remotion and two combined ways: (1) combination of mothball with subsequent dismantlement and remotion and (2) combination of safe close with subsequent dismantlement and remotion. Activity levels as well as volumes of radioactive wastes connected with decommissioning of nuclear reactors are reviewed

  5. Costing in Radiotherapy. Chapter 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubizarreta, E.; Lievens, Y.; Levin, V.C.; Van Der Merwe, D.

    2017-01-01

    The available literature on the cost of radiotherapy yields a large variation in data related to the specifics of the methodology used (the viewpoint of the analysis, time frame, health care system, etc.) and to the cost components and radiotherapy activities included. To overcome this difficulty, the reimbursement paid by medical insurance is commonly used as a proxy for the actual radiotherapy costs. Costs, however, generally bear little or no resemblance to charges, as the latter also include allowances for non-capacity use and profit margins. Accurate resource cost data are therefore more valid and should ideally be used in the context of economic evaluations and public health provisions. In addition to the theoretical problems related to obtaining accurate costs, it is difficult to interpret cost data across country borders because of differences in economics. If this is already the case for high income countries, using these cost data for low and middle income countries (LMICs) is even more problematic. Thus, there clearly is a need for calculations performed from the viewpoint of LMICs to prevent misapprehensions based on conclusions derived from data from their high income counterparts. The IAEA endeavours to assist Member States in accumulating appropriate and sufficient cost data for the initiation or expansion of radiation oncology services. Although relatively simple and easy to understand, the IAEA has found that in many countries where it has been involved in the establishment of new radiotherapy departments, the basic principles of cost calculation for radiotherapy facilities were not followed by the local planners. Radiotherapy needs careful planning, organization and a strong quality assurance (QA) programme in order to deliver safe treatments, due to the complexity of the planning and treatment process and the possibility of systematic errors. Administrators should be aware that the cost of building a radiotherapy facility and buying machines

  6. Conservation of Paintings. Chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panczyk, E.

    2011-01-01

    traced in the tested objects. This enables the source of the object to be identified by observing similarities in the chemical composition, based on the assumption that the same types of materials which come from different sources should differ in terms of the content of microelements. The so-called fingerprint of the elements in a given object depends not only on the location where the material was collected but also on the technological process used in its production. Two main methods are used for this purpose: neutron activation analysis (NAA) and X ray fluorescence analysis. Another method for assessment of the source of origin of the materials is an analysis of the isotopic ratio of stable isotopes. (iii) The third category includes techniques which use ionizing radiation directly in conservation work: radiation disinfection and radiation consolidation.

  7. Angiofibroma juvenil nasofaríngeo Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Gualberto Lescaille Torres

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de un angiofibroma juvenil nasofaríngeo, en un paciente del consultorio médico No. 9, que pertenece al Policlínico Integral Docente "Carlos Manuel Portuondo" de Marianao. Se reconoce la importancia de realizar una historia clínica detallada, así como un minucioso examen físico, por el médico de familia y el otorrinolaringólogo del área de salud, que incluyó la rinoscopia posterior, para poder llegar al diagnóstico de esa patología, y realizar la extirpación precoz del angiofibroma, mediante el proceder quirúrgico. Se concluyó que el diagnóstico clínico se correspondió con el histopatológico, y que la conducta quirúrgica temprana es resolutiva en la afección.It is presented a case of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma in a patient with this pathology, from the clicial practice No. 9, in Comprehensive Teaching Polyclinic "Carlos Manuel Portuondo" in Marianao. It recognizes the importance of a thorough clinical history and careful physical examination by the family physician and the otolaryngologist in this health area, including a posterior rhinoscopy, to diagnose this disease and to achieve early removal of the angiofibroma, by a surgical procedure. It was concluded that the clinical diagnosis corresponded to the histopathological diagnosis, and that early surgical treatment is resolute in this condition.

  8. FORENSIC TESTS IN SPANISH FOR ASSESSING JUVENILE OFFENDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Wenger

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectively and rigorously understanding the individual psychological characteristics of adolescent offenders, such as intelligence, personality traits and others of a clinical and criminological nature, is essential when developing appropriate processes for intervention in educational and judicial measures in the context of juvenile justice. However, the clinical and personological tools described in the previous article (Wenger & Andrés-Pueyo, 2016 are not enough to address the criminogenic needs of the adolescents and other, more specific, tools are needed. In this article, a number of complementary instruments developed specifically for the forensic area are reviewed. These tools enable us to carry out very specific assessments in this context, such as the evaluation of the risk of violence or the assessment of psychopathy. A review is also presented of the forensic psychological tests available in Spanish for professionals in the field of juvenile justice.

  9. Chapter No.11. Public information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    by presentations of UJD leaders on TV and radio. UJD leaders came up 4 times to TV with their contributions and gave the Slovak Radio 4 interviews and journals and daily newspapers 5 important interviews. Last year, UJD Information Centre was providing the thematic documents and consulting activities and securing the everyday exchange of information, fax, e-mail communication and documents between Bratislava and Trnava. Up-to-date information from STORIN Agency and NucNet and WANO were processed daily via PC network and forwarded to UJD leaders. Three UJD Bulletins on domestic and foreign UJD activities were elaborated and issued. Press was monitored daily and the information presented on boards in Trnava and Bratislava were also updated daily. Four photographic files (boards and albums) from the important UJD events and important domestic and foreign visits of UJD were prepared and presented in 2001. Two meetings of UJD employees were organised over the year. The participants were informed on the fulfilment of tasks concerning the respective workstations over the forgone period and on the amendments to legislation, changes of safety at work, amendments to Civil Code etc

  10. Vegetative propagation of mature and juvenile northern red oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    James J. Zaczek; K. C. Steiner; C. W., Jr. Heuser

    1993-01-01

    Rooting trials were established to evaluate rooting success of cuttings from mature and juvenile, grafted and ungrafted northern red oak (NRO). Buds from 4 mature NRO ortets and juvenile seedlings were grafted onto juvenile and mature rootstock. Cuttings were collected from the grafts and from juvenile and mature shoots developed in situ and...

  11. Chapter 3. Current management situation: Flammulated owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jon Verner

    1994-01-01

    The flammulated owl (Otus flammeolus) is a western mountain species associated mainly with ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa) and Jeffrey pine (Pinus jefferyi) forests in the United States and Canada (see Chapter 4). As a neotropical migrant, this small forest owl occurs on national forests in the United States during...

  12. Chapter 8. Current management situation: Boreal owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jon Verner

    1994-01-01

    The range of boreal owls (Aegolius funereus) in the United States includes Alaska, the mountains of the western United States, and the northern tier states from the Atlantic to Pacific (see Chapter 9). Based on the species' documented distribution (see National Geographic Society 1987, Hayward et al. 1987, Johnsgard 1988, and others) the owl may...

  13. The Chapter I Challenge: Colorado's Contribution 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petro, Janice Rose

    Chapter I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) is the largest federally-funded program designed to provide services to elementary and secondary students to meet the special needs of educationally deprived students who reside in areas with high concentrations of low-income families. The 1994-95 school year is the last year of…

  14. Denmark - Chapter in Handbook of Global Bioethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Linda; Faber, Berit A.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter about bioethics in Denmark focuses on specific Danish characteristics. These are the early start of a bioethics debate, legislation and bioethics councils; the independence of the councils and the parliamentarians voting on ethical issues; the introduction and extraordinary importance...... of laymen as a part of the bioethical debate and decisions; and the strong focus on debate and educational tools....

  15. Transfer of property inter vivos : chapter 7

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, Lars

    2017-01-01

    This chapter will give an overview of the various transfer systems for movable property and immovable property. It will focus on voluntary transfers based on a legal act between the transferor and transferee. First the difference between the unitary approach and the functional approach to passing of

  16. Chapter Five: Language Learning and Discursive Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Richard F.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter is framed by the three questions related to learning in Practice Theory posed by Johannes Wagner (2008): (1) What is learned?; (2) Who is learning?; and (3) Who is participating in the learning? These questions are addressed in two learning theories: Language Socialization and Situated Learning theory. In Language Socialization, the…

  17. Adaptation strategies and approaches: Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia Butler; Chris Swanston; Maria Janowiak; Linda Parker; Matt St. Pierre; Leslie. Brandt

    2012-01-01

    A wealth of information is available on climate change adaptation, but much of it is very broad and of limited use at the finer spatial scales most relevant to land managers. This chapter contains a "menu" of adaptation actions and provides land managers in northern Wisconsin with a range of options to help forest ecosystems adapt to climate change impacts....

  18. Explanatory chapter: introducing exogenous DNA into cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Laura

    2013-01-01

    The ability to efficiently introduce DNA into cells is essential for many experiments in biology. This is an explanatory chapter providing an overview of the various methods for introducing DNA into bacteria, yeast, and mammalian cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Invasive species in southern Nevada [Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew L. Brooks; Steven M. Ostoja; Jeanne C. Chambers

    2013-01-01

    Southern Nevada contains a wide range of topographies, elevations, and climatic zones emblematic of its position at the ecotone between the Mojave Desert, Great Basin, and Colorado Plateau ecoregions. These varied environmental conditions support a high degree of biological diversity (Chapter 1), but they also provide opportunities for a wide range of invasive species...

  20. Chapter 10:Hardwoods for timber bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    James P. Wacker; Ed T. Cesa

    2005-01-01

    This chapter describes the joint efforts of the Forest Service and the FHWA to administer national programs including research, demonstration bridges, and technology transfer components. Summary information on a number of Forest Service-WIT demonstration bridges constructed with hardwoods is also provided.

  1. Forest management practices and silviculture. Chapter 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald A. Perala; Elon S. Verry

    2011-01-01

    This chapter is an overview of forest management and silviculture practices, and lessons learned, on the Marcell Experimental Forest (MEF). The forests there are a mosaic of natural regeneration and conifer plantations. Verry (1969) described forest-plant communities in detail for the study watersheds (Sl through S6) on the MEF. The remaining area is described in...

  2. Chapter 13, Policy options: North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jane Barr; James Dobrowolski; John Campbell; Philippe Le Prestre; Lori Lynch; Marc Sydnor; Robert Adler; Jose Etcheverry; Alexander Kenny; Catherine Hallmich; Jim Lazar; Russell M. Meyer; Robin Newmark; Janet Peace; Julie A. Suhr Pierce; Stephen. Yamasaki

    2012-01-01

    As previously indicated, GEO-5 shifts the GEO focus from identifying environmental problems to identifying solutions that governments can then prioritize. This chapter provides examples of a number of policy options and market mechanisms that have shown some success in improving environmental conditions in North America. They are organized by priority environmental...

  3. Chapter 3: Status and trends of vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Guldin; Frank R. Thompson; Lynda L. Richards; Kyra C. Harper

    1999-01-01

    This chapter provides information about the vegetation cover of the Assessment area. The types and areal extent of vegetation in the Highlands are of interest for many reasons. Vegetation cover largely determines the availability of habitat for terrestrial animals, plants, and other organisms. Vegetation cover strongly influences what uses {e.g., timber, forage,...

  4. Chapter 8: Youth, Technology, and Media Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefton-Green, Julian

    2006-01-01

    This chapter begins with a scenario contrasting two seemingly different images of child and media from before and after the "digital revolution." The author argues that there is much greater continuity in how this relationship has been conceptualized over the period than is commonly imagined. While not offering a comprehensive study of recent…

  5. Radioactive wastes storage and disposal. Chapter 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The Chapter 8 is essentially dedicated to radioactive waste management - storage and disposal. The management safety is being provided due to packages and facilities of waste disposal and storage. It is noted that at selection of sites for waste disposal it is necessary account rock properties and ways of the wastes delivery pathways

  6. Workplace innovation in the Netherlands: chapter 8

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pot, F.; Dhondt, S.; Korte, E. de; Oeij, P.; Vaas, F.

    2012-01-01

    Social innovation of work and employment is a prerequisite to achieve the EU2020 objectives of smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. It covers labor market innovation on societal level and workplace innovation on organizational level. This chapter focuses on the latter. Workplace innovations are

  7. Science, practice, and place [Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Williams

    2013-01-01

    Place-oriented inquiry and practice are proposed as keys to overcoming the persistent gap between science and practice. This chapter begins by describing some of the reasons science fails to simplify conservation practice, highlighting the challenges associated with the social and ecological sciences of multi-scaled complexity. Place concepts help scientists and...

  8. Other pospiviroids infecting Solanaceous plants (Book Chapter)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aside from potato spindle tuber viroid, the genus Pospiviroid contains several agents reported to naturally infect solanaceous crops (e.g. tomato, potato, pepper) or ornamental plants (e.g. Petunia hybrida, Solanum spp., Brugmansia spp.). The present chapter focuses on the following so-called solana...

  9. Chapter 9: Questions from CNEN specific exams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2018-04-01

    The following are real questions from CNEN specific exams for obtaining the certification of RSO for gamma irradiators. These are questions that require essay answers, that are interpretative ones and therefore that may accept more than one interpretation, therefore more than one answer. For this reason, suggestions of answers will be presented in the second part of this chapter.

  10. Chapter 9: Questions from CNEN specific exams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2018-01-01

    The following are real questions from CNEN specific exams for obtaining the certification of RSO for gamma irradiators. These are questions that require essay answers, that are interpretative ones and therefore that may accept more than one interpretation, therefore more than one answer. For this reason, suggestions of answers will be presented in the second part of this chapter

  11. Chapter 6: Accidents; Capitulo 6: Acidentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-06-01

    The chapter 6 talks about the accidents with radiators all over the world, specifically, the Stimos, in Italy, 1975, San Salvador, in El Salvador, 1989, Soreq, in Israel, 1990, Nesvizh, in Byelorussian, 1991, in Illinois, US, 1965, in Maryland, US, 1991, Hanoi, Vietnam, 1992, Fleurus, in Belgium, 2006. Comments on the accidents and mainly the learned lessons.

  12. Juvenile obesity enhances emotional memory and amygdala plasticity through glucocorticoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boitard, Chloé; Maroun, Mouna; Tantot, Frédéric; Cavaroc, Amandine; Sauvant, Julie; Marchand, Alain; Layé, Sophie; Capuron, Lucile; Darnaudery, Muriel; Castanon, Nathalie; Coutureau, Etienne; Vouimba, Rose-Marie; Ferreira, Guillaume

    2015-03-04

    In addition to metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, obesity is associated with adverse cognitive and emotional outcomes. Its growing prevalence during adolescence is particularly alarming since recent evidence indicates that obesity can affect hippocampal function during this developmental period. Adolescence is a decisive period for maturation of the amygdala and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress axis, both required for lifelong cognitive and emotional processing. However, little data are available on the impact of obesity during adolescence on amygdala function. Herein, we therefore evaluate in rats whether juvenile high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity alters amygdala-dependent emotional memory and whether it depends on HPA axis deregulation. Exposure to HFD from weaning to adulthood, i.e., covering adolescence, enhances long-term emotional memories as assessed by odor-malaise and tone-shock associations. Juvenile HFD also enhances emotion-induced neuronal activation of the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA), which correlates with protracted plasma corticosterone release. HFD exposure restricted to adulthood does not modify all these parameters, indicating adolescence is a vulnerable period to the effects of HFD-induced obesity. Finally, exaggerated emotional memory and BLA synaptic plasticity after juvenile HFD are alleviated by a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist. Altogether, our results demonstrate that juvenile HFD alters HPA axis reactivity leading to an enhancement of amygdala-dependent synaptic and memory processes. Adolescence represents a period of increased susceptibility to the effects of diet-induced obesity on amygdala function. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/354092-12$15.00/0.

  13. [Physiotherapy for juvenile idiopathic arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spamer, M; Georgi, M; Häfner, R; Händel, H; König, M; Haas, J-P

    2012-07-01

    Control of disease activity and recovery of function are major issues in the treatment of children and adolescents suffering from juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Functional therapies including physiotherapy are important components in the multidisciplinary teamwork and each phase of the disease requires different strategies. While in the active phase of the disease pain alleviation is the main focus, the inactive phase requires strategies for improving motility and function. During remission the aim is to regain general fitness by sports activities. These phase adapted strategies must be individually designed and usually require a combination of different measures including physiotherapy, occupational therapy, massage as well as other physical procedures and sport therapy. There are only few controlled studies investigating the effectiveness of physical therapies in JIA and many strategies are derived from long-standing experience. New results from physiology and sport sciences have contributed to the development in recent years. This report summarizes the basics and main strategies of physical therapy in JIA.

  14. Law & psychiatry: punishing juveniles who kill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, Paul S

    2012-10-01

    Punishment of juvenile murderers forces policy makers to weigh the developmental immaturity of adolescents against the heinousness of their crimes. The U.S. Supreme Court has progressively limited the severity of punishments that can be imposed on juveniles, holding that their impulsivity, susceptibility to peer pressure, and more fluid character render them less culpable for their actions. Having eliminated the death penalty as a punishment, the Court recently struck down mandatory life sentences without prospect of parole. The decision is interesting for its emphasis on rehabilitation, opening the door to further restrictions on punitive sentences for juveniles-and perhaps for adults too.

  15. Chapter 29: Using an Existing Environment in the VO (IDL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. J.

    The local environment of a Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG) can provide insight into the (still not understood) formation process of the BCG itself. BCGs are the most massive galaxies in the Universe, and their formation and evolution are a popular and current research topic (Linden et al. 2006, Bernardi et al. 2006, Lauer et al. 2006). They have been studied for some time (Sandage 1972, Ostriker & Tremaine 1975, White 1976, Thuan & Romanishin 1981, Merritt 1985, Postman and Lauer 1995, among many others). Our goal in this chapter is to study how the local environment can affect the physical and measurable properties of BCGs. We will conduct an exploratory research exercise. In this chapter, we will show how the Virtual Observatory (VO) can be effectively utilized for doing modern scientific research on BCGs. We identify the scientific functionalities we need, the datasets we require, and the service locations in order to discover and access those data. This chapter utilizes IDL's VOlib, which is described in Chapter 24 of this book and is available at http://www.nvo.noao.edu. IDL provides the capability to perform the entire range of astronomical scientific analyses in one environment: from image reduction and analysis to complex catalog manipulations, statistics, and publication quality figures. At the 2005 and 2006 NVO Summer Schools, user statistics show that IDL was the most commonly used programming language by the students (nearly 3-to-1 over languages like IRAF, Perl, and Python). In this chapter we show how the integration of IDL to the VO through VOlib provides even greater capabilities and possibilities for conducting science in the era of the Virtual Observatory. The reader should familiarize themselves with the VOlib libraries before attempting the examples in this tutorial. We first build a research plan. We then discover the service URLs we will need to access the data. We then apply the necessary functions and tools to these data before we can do our

  16. The Juvenile Hafnium Isotope Signal as a Record of Supercontinent Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Nicholas J.; Kirkland, Christopher L.; van Kranendonk, Martin J.

    2016-12-01

    Hf isotope ratios measured in igneous zircon are controlled by magmatic source, which may be linked to tectonic setting. Over the 200-500 Myr periodicity of the supercontinent cycle - the principal geological phenomenon controlling prevailing global tectonic style - juvenile Hf signals, i.e. most radiogenic, are typically measured in zircon from granites formed in arc settings (crustal growth), and evolved zircon Hf signals in granites formed in continent-collision settings (crustal reworking). Interrogations of Hf datasets for excursions related to Earth events commonly use the median value, however this may be equivocal due to magma mixing. The most juvenile part of the Hf signal is less influenced by crustal in-mixing, and arguably a more sensitive archive of Earth’s geodynamic state. We analyze the global Hf dataset for this juvenile signal, statistically correlating supercontinent amalgamation intervals with evolved Hf episodes, and breakup leading to re-assembly with juvenile Hf episodes. The juvenile Hf signal is more sensitive to Pangaea and Rodinia assembly, its amplitude increasing with successive cycles to a maximum with Gondwana assembly which may reflect enhanced subduction-erosion. We demonstrate that the juvenile Hf signal carries important information on prevailing global magmatic style, and thus tectonic processes.

  17. Conceptualizing juvenile prostitution as child maltreatment: findings from the National Juvenile Prostitution Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kimberly J; Finkelhor, David; Wolak, Janis

    2010-02-01

    Two studies were conducted to identify the incidence (Study 1) and characteristics (Study 2) of juvenile prostitution cases known to law enforcement agencies in the United States. Study 1 revealed a national estimate of 1,450 arrests or detentions (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1,287-1,614) in cases involving juvenile prostitution during a 1-year period. In Study 2, exploratory data were collected from a subsample of 138 cases from police records in 2005. The cases are broadly categorized into three main types: (a) third-party exploiters, (b) solo prostitution, and (c) conventional child sexual abuse (CSA) with payment. Cases were classified into three initial categories based on police orientation toward the juvenile: (a) juveniles as victims (53%), (b) juveniles as delinquents (31%), and (c) juvenile as both victims and delinquents (16%). When examining the status of the juveniles by case type, the authors found that all the juveniles in CSA with payment cases were treated as victims, 66% in third-party exploiters cases, and 11% in solo cases. Findings indicate law enforcement responses to juvenile prostitution are influential in determining whether such youth are viewed as victims of commercial sexual exploitation or as delinquents.

  18. The semantic sphere of juvenile offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oshevsky D.S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a preliminary empirical study aimed to identify features of the semantic sphere of adolescents who have committed illegal, including aggressive acts. The study included 50 male juveniles aged of 16 - 17 years. The first group consisted of adolescents convicted of aggressive and violent crimes; the second – of property socially dangerous acts (SDA. It is shown that evaluation of such adolescents is generally categorical and polar, the semantic field is subdifferentiable, less hierarchic, and has not enough realistic structure of meanings. Developed structure of motives and meanings is the basis of voluntary regulation of socially significant behavior. Thus, assessing the semantic sphere of juvenile offenders we can highlight its characteristics as risk factors of unlawful behavior, as well as the resource side, that will contribute to addressing issues of prevention and correction of unlawful behavior. Key words: juvenile offenders, semantic field of juvenile offenders, unlawful behavior.

  19. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease to fight microbial invaders and facilitate tissue repair. Normally, the body stops the inflammatory response after healing is complete to prevent damage to its own cells and tissues. In people with juvenile idiopathic arthritis , the inflammatory ...

  20. Juvenile Salmonid Metrics - Ocean Survival of Salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  1. Juvenile Pacific Salmon in Puget Sound

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fresh, Kurt L

    2006-01-01

    Puget sound salmon (genus Oncorhynchus) spawn in freshwater and feed, grow and mature in marine waters, During their transition from freshwater to saltwater, juvenile salmon occupy nearshore ecosystems in Puget Sound...

  2. Juvenile salmon usage of the Skeena River estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr-Harris, Charmaine; Gottesfeld, Allen S; Moore, Jonathan W

    2015-01-01

    Migratory salmon transit estuary habitats on their way out to the ocean but this phase of their life cycle is more poorly understood than other phases. The estuaries of large river systems in particular may support many populations and several species of salmon that originate from throughout the upstream river. The Skeena River of British Columbia, Canada, is a large river system with high salmon population- and species-level diversity. The estuary of the Skeena River is under pressure from industrial development, with two gas liquefaction terminals and a potash loading facility in various stages of environmental review processes, providing motivation for understanding the usage of the estuary by juvenile salmon. We conducted a juvenile salmonid sampling program throughout the Skeena River estuary in 2007 and 2013 to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of different species and populations of salmon. We captured six species of juvenile anadromous salmonids throughout the estuary in both years, and found that areas proposed for development support some of the highest abundances of some species of salmon. Specifically, the highest abundances of sockeye (both years), Chinook in 2007, and coho salmon in 2013 were captured in areas proposed for development. For example, juvenile sockeye salmon were 2-8 times more abundant in the proposed development areas. Genetic stock assignment demonstrated that the Chinook salmon and most of the sockeye salmon that were captured originated from throughout the Skeena watershed, while some sockeye salmon came from the Nass, Stikine, Southeast Alaska, and coastal systems on the northern and central coasts of British Columbia. These fish support extensive commercial, recreational, and First Nations fisheries throughout the Skeena River and beyond. Our results demonstrate that estuary habitats integrate species and population diversity of salmon, and that if proposed development negatively affects the salmon populations that

  3. Predicting occurrence of juvenile shark habitat to improve conservation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Beverly Z L; Sequeira, Ana M M; Meekan, Mark G; Ruppert, Jonathan L W; Meeuwig, Jessica J

    2017-06-01

    Fishing and habitat degradation have increased the extinction risk of sharks, and conservation strategies recognize that survival of juveniles is critical for the effective management of shark populations. Despite the rapid expansion of marine protected areas (MPAs) globally, the paucity of shark-monitoring data on large scales (100s-1000s km) means that the effectiveness of MPAs in halting shark declines remains unclear. Using data collected by baited remote underwater video systems (BRUVS) in northwestern Australia, we developed generalized linear models to elucidate the ecological drivers of habitat suitability for juvenile sharks. We assessed occurrence patterns at the order and species levels. We included all juvenile sharks sampled and the 3 most abundant species sampled separately (grey reef [Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos], sandbar [Carcharhinus plumbeus], and whitetip reef sharks [Triaenodon obesus]). We predicted the occurrence of juvenile sharks across 490,515 km 2 of coastal waters and quantified the representation of highly suitable habitats within MPAs. Our species-level models had higher accuracy (ĸ ≥ 0.69) and deviance explained (≥48%) than our order-level model (ĸ = 0.36 and deviance explained of 10%). Maps of predicted occurrence revealed different species-specific patterns of highly suitable habitat. These differences likely reflect different physiological or resource requirements between individual species and validate concerns over the utility of conservation targets based on aggregate species groups as opposed to a species-focused approach. Highly suitable habitats were poorly represented in MPAs with the most restrictions on extractive activities. This spatial mismatch possibly indicates a lack of explicit conservation targets and information on species distribution during the planning process. Non-extractive BRUVS provided a useful platform for building the suitability models across large scales to assist conservation planning across

  4. The Impact of Banning Juvenile Gun Possession.

    OpenAIRE

    Marvell, Thomas B

    2001-01-01

    A 1994 federal law bans possession of handguns by persons under 18 years of age. Also in 1994, 11 states passed their own juvenile gun possession bans. Eighteen states had previously passed bans, 15 of them between 1975 and 1993. These laws were intended to reduce homicides, but arguments can be made that they have no effect on or that they even increase the homicide rate. This paper estimates the laws' impacts on various crime measures, primarily juvenile gun homicide victimizations and suic...

  5. Conceptual Chemical Process Design for Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter examines the sustainable design of chemical processes, with a focus on conceptual design, hierarchical and short-cut methods, and analyses of process sustainability for alternatives. The chapter describes a methodology for incorporating process sustainability analyse...

  6. Who gets a second chance? An investigation of Ohio's blended juvenile sentence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheesman, Fred L; Waters, Nicole L; Hurst, Hunter

    2010-01-01

    Factors differentiating blended sentencing cases (Serious Youthful Offenders or SYOs) from conventional juvenile cases and cases transferred to the adult criminal court in Ohio were investigated using a two-stage probit. Conventional juvenile cases differed from cases selected for non-conventional processing (i.e., SYO or transfer) according to offense seriousness, number of prior Ohio Department of Youth Services placements, age and gender. Controlling for probability of selection for nonconventional processing, transfers differed from SYOs according to age, gender, and race. Minorities were significantly more likely than Whites to be transfers rather than SYOs, suggesting possible bias in the decision-making process. Objective risk and needs assessments should be used to identify the most suitable candidates for blended sentences and adult transfer and enhanced services should be provided to juvenile offenders given blended sentences.

  7. Basic Physics for Nuclear Medicine. Chapter 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podgorsak, E. B. [Department of Medical Physics, McGill University, Montreal (Canada); Kesner, A. L. [Division of Human Health, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Soni, P. S. [Medical Cyclotron Facility, Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2014-12-15

    The technologies used in nuclear medicine for diagnostic imaging have evolved over the last century, starting with Röntgen’s discovery of X rays and Becquerel’s discovery of natural radioactivity. Each decade has brought innovation in the form of new equipment, techniques, radiopharmaceuticals, advances in radionuclide production and, ultimately, better patient care. All such technologies have been developed and can only be practised safely with a clear understanding of the behaviour and principles of radiation sources and radiation detection. These central concepts of basic radiation physics and nuclear physics are described in this chapter and should provide the requisite knowledge for a more in depth understanding of the modern nuclear medicine technology discussed in subsequent chapters.

  8. Chapter 13. Phonology: Stress and Vowel Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Nesset, Tore

    2015-01-01

    Where do the complex stress patterns in Modern Russian come from? And why is Москва ‘Moscow’ pronounced with an unstressed [a] in the first syllable? In this chapter, you learn about the history of two related phenomena that cause problems for learners of Russian: stress patterns and vowel reduction in unstressed syllables. Click on the links below to learn more!13.2 Akanje

  9. Interactions of Radiation with Matter. Chapter 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, J. R.; Dance, D. R. [Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-15

    This chapter deals with the physics of events that occur when photons and electrons interact with matter. These are the radiations that are important for diagnostic radiology, and only those interactions that result in their attenuation, absorption and scattering are dealt with. Other interactions, such as those with nuclei, are not considered here because they only occur for radiation that is higher in energy than that used for diagnostic radiology.

  10. Haramekhala - tantra (the first chapter on medicine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, P V

    1986-01-01

    This translation of Haramekhala - tantra of the author is based on Banaras Hindu University manuscript which seems to be a novel one. The manuscript runs into 133 stanzas in all in the form of dialogue between lord Siva and goddess Parvati. This is only the first chapter (of the great work) dealing with medicine. From stanza 109 onwards some magic spells are described and as such those have not been included in this translation.

  11. Chapter 1. The structure of the company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    In the first chapter of this CD ROM the structure of the Slovak Electric, Plc. (Slovenske elektrarne, a.s.) in 1998 is presented. It consist of next paragraphs (1) The history (The origin of the SE, Plc.; Main events of 1995; Main events of 1996; Main events of 1997); (2) The bodies of SE, Plc. (General Meeting of Shareholders; Supervisory Board; Board of Directors); (3) Organizational structure of the the Company (The Headquarters of SE, Plc.; SE, Plc, Transmission System)

  12. Nuclear Medicine Imaging Devices. Chapter 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lodge, M. A.; Frey, E. C. [Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Imaging forms an important part of nuclear medicine and a number of different imaging devices have been developed. This chapter describes the principles and technological characteristics of the main imaging devices used in nuclear medicine. The two major categories are gamma camera systems and positron emission tomography (PET) systems. The former are used to image γ rays emitted by any nuclide, while the latter exploit the directional correlation between annihilation photons emitted by positron decay. The first section of this chapter discusses the principal components of gamma cameras and how they are used to form 2-D planar images as well as 3-D tomographic images (single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)). The second section describes related instrumentation that has been optimized for PET data acquisition. A major advance in nuclear medicine was achieved with the introduction of multi-modality imaging systems including SPECT/computed tomography (CT) and PET/CT. In these systems, the CT images can be used to provide an anatomical context for the functional nuclear medicine images and allow for attenuation compensation. The third section in this chapter provides a discussion of the principles of these devices.

  13. Management of Therapy Patients. Chapter 20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauer, L. T. [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The basic principles of radiation protection and their implementation as they apply to nuclear medicine are covered in general in Chapter 3. This chapter will look at the specific case of nuclear medicine used for therapy. In addition to the standards discussed in Chapter 3, specific guidance on the release of patients after radionuclide therapy can be found in the IAEA’s Safety Reports Series No. 63 [20.1]. When the patient is kept in hospital following radionuclide therapy, the people at risk of exposure include hospital staff whose duties may or may not directly involve the use of radiation. This can be a significant problem. However, it is generally felt that it can be effectively managed with well trained staff and appropriate facilities. On the other hand, once the patient has been released, the groups at risk include members of the patient’s family, including children, and carers; they may also include neighbours, visitors to the household, co-workers, those encountered in public places, on public transport or at public events, and finally, the general public. It is generally felt that these risks can be effectively mitigated by the radiation protection officer (RPO) with patient-specific radiation safety precaution instructions.

  14. [Bacteriological study on juvenile periodontitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, N

    1991-02-01

    The predominant cultivable microflora of 23 pockets in 15 juvenile periodontitis (JP) patients was studied for the first time in China using the current anaerobic methodology. Samples were taken with sterile paper points and dispersed on a vortex mixer. Then the diluted samples were plated on the non-selective blood agar plates and selective MGB medium which favors the growth of Actinobacillus actimycetemcomitans (Aa) and incubated in anaerobic chamber for 5 days. From each sample 15 or more isolated colonies were picked in sequence without selection and subcultured. The isolates were identified mainly by Schrechenberger's 4 hour rapid methods for biochemical and fermentative tests and the chromatographic analysis of acid end products using ion-chromatography. The results were as follows: 1. The microflora of healthy sulci of 7 healthy young subjects was significantly different from that in the pocket of JP patients. The predominant species in healthy sulci were Streptococcus spp and Capnocytophaga gingivalis. 2. The species increased significantly in JP patients in prevalence and proportions was Eubacterium. Other species in high proportions were Bacteroides oris, B. melaninogenicus, B. gingivalis, Capnocytophaga sputigena, and Actinomyces meyeri, etc. 3. Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans was not detected in any of the samples.

  15. The Evolution of Juvenile Schönlein-Henoch Purpura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.E. Chernyshova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hemorrhagic vasculitis, or Schönlein-Henoch purpura (SHP, is the most common type of systemic vasculitis in childhood, and peculiarities of the further evolution of the pathological process in adult patients remain unexplored. Objective: to study the evolution of juvenile SHP, comparing the nature of lesions of the skin, joints, heart and kidneys in patients in childhood and adulthood. Material and methods. The study included 92 patients (61 men and 31 women with the average age of 27 years, and the average age of disease onset — 11 years. I degree of the activity of the pathological process is determined in 40 % of cases, II — in 35 %, III — in 25 %. Seropositivity by hyperimmunoglobulinemia A occurred in 27 % of cases, by the presence of rheumatoid factor — in 21 %. At the time of the survey, cutaneous syndrome was diagnosed in 55 % of patients, joint one — in 45 %, kidney one — in 71 %. Renal biopsy was performed in 15 cases. Results. The cutaneous, cutaneous-joint-abdominal and cutaneous-abdominal-renal forms of the disease, lesions of the skin, gastrointestinal tract, wrist, ankle and knee joints become rarer in the process of juvenile SHP evolution, but exceptionally renal variant of the pathological process, changes of skeletal muscles, liver, spleen and the heart are revealed more often, chronic kidney disease with the renal failure progression is developed in 12 % of patients (in 17 % of cases of nephropathy, sacroiliitis, spondylopathy, tendovaginitis, enthesopathies, epiphyseal osteoporosis and meniscitis of the knee joints are arisen, II, III, VI and IV morphological classes of Henoch glomerulonephritis are formed in a ratio of 8 : 4 : 2 : 1 with tubulointerstitial component in all cases, and lymphohistiocytic infiltration of the vascular wall is the unfavorable sign for the prognosis of the disease. Conclusions. In cases of transition of juvenile SHP into the chronic adult form, the disease often obtain

  16. Assessing the Multiple Benefits of Clean Energy Chapter 1: Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapter 1 of “Assessing the Multiple Benefits of Clean Energy” provides an introduction to the document. /meta name=DC.title content=Assessing the Multiple Benefits of Clean Energy Chapter 1: Introduction

  17. Life story chapters, specific memories and the reminiscence bump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Dorthe Kirkegaard; Pillemer, David B.; Ivcevic, Zorana

    2011-01-01

    Theories of autobiographical memory posit that extended time periods (here termed chapters) and memories are organised hierarchically. If chapters organise memories and guide their recall, then chapters and memories should show similar temporal distributions over the life course. Previous research...... are over-represented at the beginning of chapters. Potential connections between chapters and the cultural life script are also examined. Adult participants first divided their life story into chapters and identified their most positive and most negative chapter. They then recalled a specific memory from...... demonstrates that positive but not negative memories show a reminiscence bump and that memories cluster at the beginning of extended time periods. The current study tested the hypotheses that (1) ages marking the beginning of positive but not negative chapters produce a bump, and that (2) specific memories...

  18. Fundamentals of Physics, Volume 1, (Chapters 1 - 21)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jearl

    2004-01-01

    steam inside a railroad tank car cause the car to be crushed? 19-1 What Is Physics? 19-2 Avogadro's Number. 19-3 Ideal Gases. 19-4 Pressure, Temperature, and RMS Speed. 19-5 Translational Kinetic Energy. 19-6 Mean Free Path. 19-7 The Distribution of Molecular Speeds. 19-8 The Molar Speci.c Heats of an Ideal Gas. 19-9 Degrees of Freedom and Molar Speci.c Heats. 19-10 A Hint of Quantum Theory. 19-11 The Adiabatic Expansion of an Ideal Gas. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 20. Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics. Why is the popping of popcorn irreversible? 20-1 What Is Physics? 20-2 Irreversible Processes and Entropy. 20-3 Change in Entropy. 20-4 The Second Law of Thermodynamics. 20-5 Entropy in the Real World: Engines. 20-6 Entropy in the Real World: Refrigerators. 20-7 The Ef.ciencies of Real Engines. 20-8 A Statistical View of Entropy. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Appendices. A The International System of Units (SI). B Some Fundamental Constants of Physics. C Some Astronomical Data. D Conversion Factors. E Mathematical Formulas. F Properties of the Elements. G Periodic Table of the Elements. Answers to Checkpoints and Odd-Numbered Questions and Problems. Index.

  19. Using Kolb's Experiential Learning Cycle in Chapter Presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes-Eley, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    Student-led chapter presentations provide an excellent opportunity for instructors to evaluate a student's comprehension of the assigned chapter, as well as the student's ability to present and convey information in a public forum. Although several instructors realize the benefits of requiring students to complete chapter presentations either as…

  20. Chapter 15: Characterization and Processing of Nanocellulose Thermosetting Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald C. Sabo; Rani F. Elhajjar; Craig M. Clemons; Krishna M. Pillai

    2015-01-01

    Fiber-reinforced polymer composites have gained popularity through their advantages over conventional metallic materials. Most polymer composites are traditionally made with reinforcing fibers such as carbon or glass. However, there has been recent interest in sourcing these reinforcing fibers from renewable, natural resources. Nanocellulose-based reinforcements...

  1. Neonatal infection produces significant changes in immune function with no associated learning deficits in juvenile rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Brittany F; Caulfield, Jasmine I; Solomotis, Samantha A; Schwarz, Jaclyn M

    2017-10-01

    The current experiments examined the impact of early-life immune activation and a subsequent mild immune challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 25µg/kg) on hippocampal-dependent learning, proinflammatory cytokine expression in the brain, and peripheral immune function in juvenile male and female rats at P24, an age when hippocampal-dependent learning and memory first emerges. Our results indicate that neonatal infection did not produce learning deficits in the hippocampal-dependent context pre-exposure facilitation effect paradigm in juvenile males and females, contrary to what has been observed in adults. Neonatal infection produced an increase in baseline IL-1β expression in the hippocampus (HP) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of juvenile rats. Furthermore, neonatally infected rats showed exaggerated IL-1β expression in the HP following LPS treatment as juveniles; and juvenile females, but not males, showed exaggerated IL-1β expression in the mPFC following LPS treatment. Neonatal infection attenuated the production of IL-6 expression following LPS treatment in both the brain and the spleen, and neonatal infection decreased the numbers of circulating white blood cells in juvenile males and females, an effect that was further exacerbated by subsequent LPS treatment. Together, our data indicate that the consequences of neonatal infection are detectable even early in juvenile development, though we found no concomitant hippocampal-dependent learning deficits at this young age. These findings underscore the need to consider age and associated on-going neurodevelopmental processes as important factors contributing to the emergence of cognitive and behavioral disorders linked to early-life immune activation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 77: 1221-1236, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Space and time in ecology: Noise or fundamental driver? [chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel A. Cushman

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter I frame the central issue of the book, namely is spatial and temporal complexity in ecological systems merely noise around the predictions of non-spatial, equilibrium processes? Or, alternatively, do spatial and temporal variability in the environment and autogenic space­time processes in populations fundamentally alter system behavior such that ideal...

  3. Chapter 17. Electric schema and its changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feik, K.; Kmosena, J.

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter an electric schema and its changes of the A1 nuclear power plant in Jaslovske Bohunice (the Slovak Republic) are described. Three turbogenerators with power 50 MW were installed in the A1 NPP. Basic description of electrical equipment installed according authentic project and authentic conception of accidental cooling are presented in detail. New conception and equipment of accidental and super-accidental after-cooling of the A1 NPP as well as final solution of electrical part with new functions of accidental and super-accidental after-cooling are presented. Shortcomings of electrical equipment, which originated and were eliminated during construction and operation, are also described.

  4. Space Applications of Mass Spectrometry. Chapter 31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, John H.; Griffin, Timothy P.; Limero, Thomas; Arkin, C. Richard

    2010-01-01

    Mass spectrometers have been involved in essentially all aspects of space exploration. This chapter outlines some of these many uses. Mass spectrometers have not only helped to expand our knowledge and understanding of the world and solar system around us, they have helped to put man safely in space and expand our frontier. Mass spectrometry continues to prove to be a very reliable, robust, and flexible analytical instrument, ensuring that its use will continue to help aid our investigation of the universe and this small planet that we call home.

  5. Radiological departments. Chapter 4.3.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The book deals with the problems of health, labor and fire protection in the public health service of the GDR as a whole. A special chapter treats these items concerning the conditions in radiological departments. In this connection the main legal regulations are presented. Introducing remarks on generation and properties of ionizing radiations and on biological radiation effects are outlined. Further, the responsibilities in radiation protection, maximum permissible radiation doses and the handling of X-ray devices, sealed and unsealed radiation sources are discussed

  6. Chapter 2: uranium mines and mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connell, W.J.

    1983-03-01

    This chapter will be included in a larger ASCE Committee Report. Uranium mining production is split between underground and open pit mines. Mills are sized to produce yellowcake concentrate from hundreds to thousands of tons of ore per day. Miner's health and safety, and environmental protection are key concerns in design. Standards are set by the US Mine Safety and Health Administration, the EPA, NRC, DOT, the states, and national standards organizations. International guidance and standards are extensive and based on mining experience in many nations

  7. Investment in electricity for development. Chapter 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    In this short chapter, we discuss first the role of reliable and affordable electricity in underpinning economic development and in enabling the achievement of the MDGs in health and education. We then review some estimates of investment requirements for energy needs in sub Saharan Africa. In the next section we discuss briefly how financing sources for investment in the sector in sub-Saharan Africa are constrained. In the main and final section we list priority policies, which, if implemented, can help overcome these constraints so that increased amounts of investment begin to flow into the sector, resulting in the desired improvement in electricity services

  8. [Juvenile-onset ankylosing spondylitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menkes, C J; Job-Deslandre, C; Feldmann, J L

    1984-02-16

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) with juvenile onset (under 17 years of age) is not infrequent. Thirty-six cases were studied, amounting to 18% of patients hospitalized between 1977 and 1981. The following criteria were used for diagnosis: radiologic sacroiliitis (typical AS), presence of HLA B27 and/or pelvic or vertebral clinical manifestations (possible AS). 31 patients (85%) were boys. Mean age at onset was 12.3 +/- 2.8 years. In three cases, AS was found in a member of the family of the propositus and in one case there was cutaneous psoriasis. Usually (29 cases) onset was in the lower limbs: arthritis of the knee (14 cases), hip (9 cases), ankle (7 cases) or painful heel (4 cases). During the course (with a mean follow-up of 11.2 +/- 7 years), 35 patients exhibited peripheral joint diseases and 25 had axial involvement. Ocular involvement was present in 5 cases. 10 patients had a modification of respiratory function. Radiologic sacroiliitis was found in 31 patients but with a delay of 5.3 +/- 2.6 years. Vertebral radiologic lesions were only seen in 11 patients. Radiologic hip involvement was frequent (20 cases) with complete destruction in 6 patients. Erosion and ossification of the calcaneum were observed in 15 cases. The ESR was above 20 mm/first hour in 26 cases (72%). 81% of these patients were HLA B27 positive. Functional prognosis was good: 16 patients (51.6%) led an almost normal life, 6 were bedridden (Steinbrocker's grade IV), 3 had severe impairment (grade III) and 6 had slight impairment (grade II).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Using Goal Achievement Training in juvenile justice settings to improve substance use services for youth on community supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jacqueline Horan; Becan, Jennifer E; Harris, Philip W; Nager, Alexis; Baird-Thomas, Connie; Hogue, Aaron; Bartkowski, John P; Wiley, Tisha

    2018-04-30

    The link between substance use and involvement in the juvenile justice system has been well established. Justice-involved youth tend to have higher rates of drug use than their non-offending peers. At the same time, continued use can contribute to an elevated risk of recidivism, which leads to further, and oftentimes more serious, involvement with the juvenile justice system. Because of these high rates of use, the juvenile justice system is well positioned to help identify youth with substance use problems and connect them to treatment. However, research has found that only about 60% of juvenile probation agencies screen all youth for substance involvement, and even fewer provide comprehensive assessment or help youth enroll in substance use treatment. This paper describes an integrated training curriculum that was developed to help juvenile justice agencies improve their continuum of care for youth probationers with substance use problems. Goal Achievement Training (GAT) provides a platform for continuous quality improvement via two sessions delivered onsite to small groups of staff from juvenile justice and behavioral health agencies. In the first session, participants are taught to identify goals and goal steps for addressing identified areas of unmet need (i.e., screening, assessment, and linkage to treatment services). In the second session, participants learn principles and strategies of data-driven decision-making for achieving these goals. This paper highlights GAT as a model for the effective implementation of cost-efficient training strategies designed to increase self-directed quality improvement activities that can be applied to any performance domain within juvenile justice settings. Efforts to monitor implementation fidelity of GAT within the specific context of the juvenile justice settings are highlighted. Challenges to setting the stage for process improvement generally, as well as specific hurdles within juvenile justice settings are discussed

  10. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis – an update on its diagnosis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-12-03

    Dec 3, 2015 ... Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common form of chronic arthritis in children and the most ... A swollen knee and uveitis in a young girl, for instance, is ..... Methotrexate for treating juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

  11. 83 CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS OF THE JUVENILE JUSTICE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    Juvenile justice administration in Nigeria is weak and has been given very .... The Nigerian criminal justice system, of which the juvenile justice system is an integral part, ... as instruments of security and justice but as weapons of oppression8.

  12. AFSC/ABL: Juvenile rockfish DNA species identification

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Many pelagic juvenile rockfish (Sebastes) were collected in juvenile salmonid surveys in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA) from 1998 to 2002. Often species identification of...

  13. Chapter 3 – VPPD-Lab: The Chemical Product Simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalakul, Sawitree; Cignitti, Stefano; Zhang, L.

    2017-01-01

    for computer-aided chemical product design and evaluation, implemented in the software called VPPD-Lab, is presented. In the same way a typical process simulator works, the VPPD-Lab allows users to: (1) analyze chemical-based products by performing virtual experiments (product property and performance......Computer-aided methods and tools for current and future product–process design and development need to manage problems requiring efficient handling of models, data, and knowledge from different sources and at different times and size scales. In this chapter, a systematic model-based framework...... lotion design. Through these case studies, the use of design templates, associated workflows (methods), data flows (software integration), and solution strategies (database and tools) are highlighted....

  14. Juvenile Fibromyalgia: A Multidisciplinary Approach to Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesher, Melissa S

    2015-06-01

    A 14-year-old boy presented with months of severe widespread musculoskeletal pain. He was profoundly fatigued and unable to attend school. Laboratory evaluation, including complete blood count, comprehensive metabolic panel, inflammatory markers, and thyroid function, was unrevealing. Physical examination was also normal except for multiple tender points. The patient was diagnosed with juvenile primary fibromyalgia syndrome and referred for multidisciplinary treatment including physical therapy, exercise, and counseling, and his daily functioning gradually improves. Juvenile fibromyalgia is a complex syndrome that often severely limits patients' activities and can impede normal adolescent development. Effective treatment requires an understanding of the biologic, psychologic, and social factors contributing to the perpetuation of chronic pain. The author reviews the diagnostic criteria, pathophysiology, and treatment of juvenile fibromyalgia. Medications, particularly antidepressants and anticonvulsants, can be useful adjuncts to therapy. However, multimodal pain management including intensive physical therapy, exercise, counseling, and sleep hygiene is most effective in treating fibromyalgia. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. Effect of TBT on Ruditapes decussatus juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, M R; Langston, W J; Bebianno, M J

    2006-06-01

    The effects of sublethal concentrations of tributyltin (TBT) on growth of juvenile clams Ruditapes decussatus were determined during exposure to TBT concentrations of 50, 100 and 250 ng l(-1) (as Sn) for a period up to two years. Length and weight of clams increased continuously in all treatments throughout the experimental period, and, overall, rates were not significantly influenced by TBT exposure, although final length and weight were inversely related to increasing TBT concentration. Juvenile R. decussatus therefore appear to be less sensitive to TBT than larval stages. Some juveniles exposed to TBT developed abnormal shell growth, laterally, changing the typical flattened shape of clams into a more "rounded" form. This characteristic was more visible in the anterior margins of valves than posteriorly, and mainly observed in clams exposed to TBT at 50 ng l(-1) (as Sn).

  16. Juvenile xanthogranuloma of the corneoscleral limbus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanoff, M; Perry, H D

    1995-07-01

    Juvenile xanthogranuloma is a rare and usually benign skin disease of unknown cause that occurs in infants and young children. We studied a case of juvenile xanthogranuloma of the corneoscleral limbus in a 17-year-old black boy, who presented with a 5-month history of a lump in the right eye. The lesion extended from the superior limbus, fanning out as it proceeded posteriorly for 6 mm with a width of 9 mm and a height of 2 to 3 mm. This yellow-orange mass was vascular and firmly fixed to the underlying tissue. The lesion was diagnosed as a dermoid and observed for 7 months without documented growth before an uneventful excisional biopsy was performed. The pathologic diagnosis showed the characteristic picture of juvenile xanthogranuloma with numerous Touton giant cells. Lipid stains provided further confirmation.

  17. Corporal and capital punishment of juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, H C

    1990-01-01

    There is a previously unobserved connection between corporal punishment of public school children and capital punishment of juveniles. Both are barometers of acceptable levels of violent punishment and their elimination is a hallmark of a maturing and decent society. Within a majority of the eighteen states where school authorities most frequently strike children are housed 25 of the nation's 28 juvenile death row inmates. On average, the homicide rates of these jurisdictions are two and a half times greater than those that have abolished both state-sanctioned corporal and capital punishment or limit death sentences to those age eighteen and older at the time of their crime(s). Most of the eighteen state abolitions of corporal punishment occurred in the 1980's. The US Supreme Court has ruled both corporal and capital punishment of juveniles constitutional. Additional state legislative abolition of both is anticipated in the 1990s.

  18. Delincuencia y responsabilidad penal juvenil en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Montalvo Velásquez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl término «delincuencia juvenil» fue acuñado en Inglaterra en el año 1815, “Se entiende por delincuencia juvenil el conjunto de delitos, contravenciones o comportamientos socialmente reprochables, que cometen las personas consideradas como jóvenes por la ley”1 . Cada Estado está sujeto a su propio sistema jurídico, para algunos es delincuente juvenil el adolescente que comete acciones sancionadas por la ley sin importar su gravedad, otros Estados sólo consideran como delincuente juvenil al joven que comete un acto delictivo grave.El fenómeno de la delincuencia juvenil es algo que se inscribe en los espacios de una sociedad en la cual su estructura material, y su formación social consecuente, se halla en una profunda crisis. Que jóvenes conformen bandas de delincuencia organizada nos está indicando que son el resultado de la misma criminalidad general que se ha apoderado de la sociedad en la perspectiva de lograr sobrevivir materialmente. El capitalismo no es sólo acumulación de riqueza sino concentración de la misma en muy pocas manos; y todo el sistema institucional y legal tiende a favorecer ese fenómeno porque éste constituye la supra estructura del modo de producción capitalista. Así como los adultos se organizan para delinquir, lo hacen los niños y los jóvenes a partir de una edad en la cual pueden percibir que la sociedad no es sana y no tienen porvenir humano en ella. Abandonados y sujetos a la violencia que engendra el sistema, ellos simplemente responden en una manifestación de reflejos condicionados que sostienen la sobrevivencia en forma instintiva; “los niños no saben de normas legales sino de formas de sobrevivir a semejante situación; el instinto de sobrevivencia no tiene edades ni la normatividad puede incidir en él”.Palabras ClavesDelincuencia juvenil, Jóvenes, Criminalidad, Familia, Factores, Acto delictivo, Responsabilidad Penal.AbstractThe term “juvenile delinquency” was coined in

  19. Measures of Image Quality. Chapter 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maidment, A. D.A. [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States)

    2014-09-15

    A medical image is a pictorial representation of a measurement of an object or function of the body. This information can be acquired in one to three spatial dimensions. It can be static or dynamic, meaning that it can also be measured as a function of time. Certain fundamental properties can be associated with all of these data. Firstly, no image can exactly represent the object or function; at best, one has a measurement with an associated error equal to the difference between the true object and the measured image. Secondly, no two images will be identical, even if acquired with the same imaging system of the same anatomic region; this variability is generally referred to as noise. There are many different ways to acquire medical image data; the various mechanisms of acquisition are described in detail in the subsequent chapters. However, regardless of the method of image formation, one must be able to judge the fidelity of the image in an attempt to answer the question “How accurately does the image portray the body or the bodily function?” This judgement falls under the rubric of ‘image quality’. In this chapter, methods of quantifying image quality are described.

  20. Image Perception and Assessment. Chapter 18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiser, I. [University of Chicago, Chicago (United States)

    2014-09-15

    The main purpose of a medical image is to provide information to a human reader, such as a radiologist, so that a diagnosis can be reached — rather than to display the beauty of the human internal workings. It is important to understand how the human visual system affects the perception of contrast and spatial resolution of structures that are present in the image. If the image is not properly displayed, or the environment is not appropriate, subtle clinical signs may go unnoticed, which can potentially lead to a misdiagnosis. This chapter provides an introduction to human visual perception and task based objective assessment of an imaging system. A model for the contrast sensitivity of the human visual system is presented. This model is used to derive the greyscale standard display function for medical displays. Task based assessment measures the quality of an imaging system as the ability of an observer to perform a well defined task, based on a set of images. Metrics for observer performance are introduced, as well as experimental methodologies for the measurement of human performance. The last section of the chapter describes the estimation of task performance based on mathematical observer models.

  1. Chapter 44: history of neurology in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentivoglio, Marina; Mazzarello, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    The chapter starts from the Renaissance (although the origins of Italian neurology can be traced back to the Middle Ages), when treatises of nervous system physiopathology still followed Hippocratic and Galenic "humoral" theories. In Italy, as elsewhere in Europe, the concepts of humoral pathology were abandoned in the 18th century, when neurology was influenced by novel trends. Neurology acquired the status of clinical discipline (as "clinic of mental diseases") after national reunification (declared in 1861 but completed much later). At the end of the 19th and first decades of the 20th century, eminent Italian "neuropsychiatrists" (including, among many others, Ugo Cerletti, who introduced electroconvulsive shock therapy in 1938) stimulated novel knowledge and approaches, "centers of excellence" flourished, and "Neurological Institutes" were founded. In the first half of the 20th century, the history of Italian neurology was dominated by World Wars I and II (which stimulated studies on the wounded) and the fascist regime in-between the Wars (when the flow of information was instead very limited). Italy became a republic in 1946, and modern neurology and its distinction from psychiatry were finally promoted. The chapter also provides detailed accounts of scientific societies and journals dedicated to the neurological sciences in Italy.

  2. Environment. Chapter 5; Medio ambiente. Capitulo 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin del Castillo, Carlos [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    In this chapter it is mentioned the concern for the care of the environment in Mexico by prominent foreign and Mexican scientists who impelled the creation of a Forest Law. The ecological policies for the conservation of natural resources that cause a sustainable development in Mexico are commented; it is described what the environmental infrastructure consists of; the case of trash handling is analyzed and the Chapter concludes with the relationship of the environment, the climatic change, the infrastructure and the planning. [Spanish] En este capitulo se menciona la preocupacion por el cuidado del medio ambiente en Mexico, por prominentes cientificos extranjeros y mexicanos que impulsaron la creacion de una Ley Forestal. Se comentan las politicas ecologicas para la conservacion de recursos naturales que propicien un desarrollo sustentable en Mexico; se describe en que consiste la infraestructura ambiental; se analiza el caso del manejo de la basura y; se concluye con la relacion del medio ambiente, el cambio climatico, la infraestructura y la planeacion.

  3. WIN Chapters: Milestones and Future Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, P.; Pelegrí, M.

    2015-07-01

    In this paper the WIN Chapters: milestones and future plans are presented. WIN-IAEA has rewarded-in the three last years - to Australia-2014, South-Africa-2013 and Sweden-2012. WIN-Global -specially WiN IAEA- can collaborate a lot with the CTBTO presenting the content of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons actually increasing the signatory members in 2015. Historical decisions on NTP are already affecting WiN IAEA. The research reactors or high flux reactors are important in the field of medical applications and other future applications. In Australia women-scientist of OPAL, can become WiN. Between the OPAL applications there is a production of silicon plates to be used in laptops/mobiles. WIN-Europe activities related with the climatic change and with the academic promotion. 2015 is also a very important year due the celebration of 20th Anniversary of WIN-Spain; plans of this Chapter and Conferences of WIN-Global are presented. In addition there are women working in ITER, in some activities in the EU, China, India, Japan, South Korea, USA and Russia both in the academic (R+D) field and into the Industry. (Author)

  4. Imágenes juveniles, medios y nuevos escenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Aguilera Ruiz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo nace del análisis de los discursos radiales producidos exclusivamente para jóvenes en Santiago de Chile. Aborda además las categorías comprensivas de la vida juvenil, la vida juvenil de los años 90, el imaginario juvenil des-simbolizado, hacia una comprensión de lo juvenil, dinámica social propuesta por los medios y estrategias comunicacionales.

  5. The World of Juvenile Justice According to the Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozalski, Michael; Deignan, Marilyn; Engel, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    Intended to be an instructive, yet sobering, introduction to the complex and disturbing nature of the juvenile justice system, this article details the "numbers," including selected percentages, ratios, and dollar amounts, that are relevant to developing a better understanding of the juvenile justice system. General statistics about juvenile and…

  6. Challenges and prospects of the juvenile justice administration in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Juvenile justice administration in Nigeria is weak and has been given very little priority, despite Nigeria being signatory to the major international instruments relevant to the administration of juvenile justice. This is attributable to the history of the penal system of Nigeria, with laws guiding juvenile justice administration having ...

  7. EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF ALENDRONIC ACID IN PATIENTS WITH JUVENILE RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS AND OSTEOPOROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Lisitsin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Search for and practical application of new medications to treat of osteoporosis is one of the critical issues in pediatric rheumatology. The article reviews the efficacy and safety of alendronic acid in 64 subjects with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis and systemic osteoporosis. It is demonstrated that alendronate-based therapy in weekly 1 mg/kg doses over 12 months facilitated reliably increased bonedensity, decreased intensity of pain syndrome, and lowered C-terminal telopeptide serum concentration, which indicates improved bone metabolism processes.Key words: juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis, children, treatment, bisphosphonates, alendronic acid. (Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(1:48-54

  8. Exclusively endoscopic approach for juvenile angiofibroma in an adult – a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Gawęcki

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To demonstrate clinical, radiological, and diagnostic pitfalls of juvenile angiofibroma (JA in an adult.Study design: Retrospective analysis of a case report.Results: Juvenile angiofibroma in adults is a rare entity with only two cases reported in the literature, confirming thelow prevalence of the disease. We present a case of juvenile angiofibroma in an adult that preoperatively wassuspected to be a malignant disease. Effective treatment included surgical excision via an exclusively endoscopicapproach.Conclusions: Symptoms of JA in an adult may mimic a malignant process. However, in the case of unilateral epistaxis,rhinorrhea and nasal obstruction in an adult JA should be considered in the differential diagnosis.

  9. Diverting victims of commercial sexual exploitation from juvenile detention: development of the InterCSECt screening protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, Emily J; Dabney, Jonathan D; Russell, Kelli

    2015-04-01

    Identifying victims of commercial sexual exploitation in the juvenile justice system is a challenging complexity requiring concerted organizational commitment. Using a three-tiered, trauma-informed screening process, a 3½-month pilot intervention was implemented in Clark County Juvenile Court (Washington) to identify victims in an effort to connect them to community youth advocates and sexual assault resources. A total of 535 boys and girls ages 9 to 19 were screened during intake; 47 of these youth reported risk factors associated with commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) and were subsequently referred to community advocates. Six youth (all girls) were confirmed CSEC victims and were successfully diverted from juvenile detention. Study results suggest that despite the lack of reliable data surrounding the prevalence of CSEC, juvenile justice agencies need to become educated on the risk factors to triage victims to services. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Fundamentals of Physics, Part 2 (Chapters 12-20)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert; Walker, Jearl

    2003-12-01

    for Waves. 16-10 Interference of Waves. 16-11 Phasors. 16-12 Standing Waves. 16-13 Standing Waves and Resonance. Review & Summary Questions Problems. Chapter 17 Waves--II. How can an emperor penguin .nd its mate among thousands of huddled penguins? 17-1 What Is Physics? 17-2 Sound Waves. 17-3 The Speed of Sound. 17-4 Traveling Sound Waves. 17-5 Interference. 17-6 Intensity and Sound Level. 17-7 Sources of Musical Sound. 17-8 Beats. 17-9 The Doppler Effect. 17-10 Supersonic Speeds, Shock Waves. Review & Summary Questions Problems. Chapter 18 Temperature, Heat, and the First Law of Thermodynamics. How can a dead rattlesnake detect and strike a reaching hand? 18-1 What Is Physics?. 18-2 Temperature. 18-3 The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics. 18-4 Measuring Temperature. 18-5 The Celsius and Fahrenheit Scales. 18-6 Thermal Expansion. 18-7 Temperature and Heat. 18-8 The Absorption of Heat by Solids and Liquids. 18-9 A Closer Look at Heat and Work. 18-10 The First Law of Thermodynamics. 18-11 Some Special Cases of the First Law of Thermodynamics. 18-12 Heat Transfer Mechanisms. Review & Summary Questions Problems. Chapter 19 The Kinetic Theory of Gases. How can cooling steam inside a railroad tank car cause the car to be crushed? 19-1 What Is Physics? 19-2 Avogadro's Number. 19-3 Ideal Gases. 19-4 Pressure, Temperature, and RMS Speed. 19-5 Translational Kinetic Energy. 19-6 Mean Free Path. 19-7 The Distribution of Molecular Speeds. 19-8 The Molar Speci.c Heats of an Ideal Gas. 19-9 Degrees of Freedom and Molar Speci.c Heats. 19-10 A Hint of Quantum Theory. 19-11 The Adiabatic Expansion of an Ideal Gas. Review & Summary Questions Problems. Chapter 20 Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics. Why is the popping of popcorn irreversible? 20-1 What Is Physics? 20-2 Irreversible Processes and Entropy. 20-3 Change in Entropy. 20-4 The Second Law of Thermodynamics. 20-5 Entropy in the Real World: Engines. 20-6 Entropy in the Real World: Refrigerators. 20-7 The Ef.ciencies of Real

  11. Juvenile myopia progression, risk factors and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrowitz, Elliott H

    2012-07-01

    The development and progression of early onset myopia is actively being investigated. While myopia is often considered a benign condition it should be considered a public health problem for its visual, quality of life, and economic consequences. Nearly half of the visually impaired population in the world has uncorrected refractive errors, with myopia a high percent of that group. Uncorrected visual acuity should be screened for and treated in order to improve academic performance, career opportunities and socio-economic status. Genetic and environmental factors contribute to the onset and progression of myopia. Twin studies have supported genetic factors and research continues to identify myopia genetic loci. While multiple myopia genetic loci have been identified establishing myopia as a common complex disorder, there is not yet a genetic model explaining myopia progression in populations. Environmental factors include near work, education levels, urban compared to rural location, and time spent outdoors. In this field of study where there continues to be etiology controversies, there is recent agreement that children who spend more time outdoors are less likely to become myopic. Worldwide population studies, some completed and some in progress, with a common protocol are gathering both genetic and environmental cohort data of great value. There have been rapid population changes in prevalence rates supporting an environmental influence. Interventions to prevent juvenile myopia progression include pharmacologic agents, glasses and contact lenses. Pharmacological interventions over 1-2 year trials have shown benefits. Peripheral vision defocus has been found to affect the emmetropization process and may be affected by wearing glasses or contacts. Accommodation accuracy also has been implicated in myopia progression. Further research will aim to assess both the role and interaction of environmental influences and genetic factors.

  12. The Language of “Juvenile Weltschmerz”. On the Results and Corrections of the “Gnostic Experience of Existence”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Stankowska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is about the ro numerous researchers, and the direct stimulus for the present author was an extensive and well-informed study by Zbigniew Kaźmierczyk, Dzieło demiurga [Demiurge’s Work], where the critic interprets one of Miłosz’s juvenile collection Trzy zimy [Three Winters] as a record of gnostic experience of existence. Kaźmierczyk, who is a convinced proponent, and competent practitioner of the gnostic key to interpreta­tion of Miłosz’s poetry, presents a highly coherent of Miłosz’s second book of poetry, read through complicated gnostic metaphors, which prevents the critic from a definite description of Miłosz as a gnosticist. The poet is rather describes as only (or so much as a consciously selec­tive user of imagery typical for gnosticism. Incisive analyses of topics in Trzy zimy, which fill chapter after chapter of Dzieło demiurga, convinc­ingly argue that Miłosz’s juvenile foray into the world of dualistic images was not ephemeric or accidental, but rather had lasting and important consequences. Simultaneously, because of their purity and specific inwardness, they provoke a discussion of the role of this imagery, and the related convictions, in Miłosz’s post-war work, when he wrote Rescue; this issue is presented extensively in the article. The absorbing and fascinating description, fascinating in itself, of Miłosz’s juvenile imagination, presented by the author of Dzieło demiurga, is presented as a perfect background for discussion of further Manichean themes in Miłosz’s poetry. In a wider context, the article presents also the basic anthropological problems in Miłosz’s work, problems that arise from his juvenile experience of Weltschmerz, and which he radically overcame in his later years.

  13. Chapter 2: Stand-alone Applications - TOPCAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. J.

    Tool for OPerations on Catalogues And Tables or TOPCAT is a graphical viewer for table data. It offers a variety of ways to work with data tables, including a browser for the cell data, viewers for information about table and column metadata, dataset visualization, and even analysis. We discuss a small subset of TOPCAT's functionalities in this chapter. TOPCAT was originally developed as part of the Starlink program in the United Kingdom. It is now maintained by AstroGrid. The program is written in pure Java and available under the GNU General Public License. It is available for download and a version is included in the software distribution accompanying this book. TOPCAT is a GUI interface on top of the STIL library. A command line interface to this library, STILTS, described in Chapter 21 provides scriptable access to many of the capabilities described here. The purpose of this tutorial is to provide an overview of TOPCAT to the novice user. The best place to look for and learn about TOPCAT is the web page maintained by Mark B. Taylor. There, TOPCAT documentation is provided in HTML, PDF, via screen shots, etc. In this chapter we take the user through a few examples that give the general idea of how TOPCAT works. The majority of the functionality of TOPCAT is not included in this short tutorial. Our goal in this tutorial is to lead the reader through an exercise that would result in a publication quality figure (e.g. for a journal article). Specifically, we will use TOPCAT to show how the color-magnitude relation of a galaxy cluster compares to that of all galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (York et al. 2000). This diagnostic is used not only in cluster finding, but its linear fit can provide insight into the age and/or metallicity of the oldest galaxies in galaxy clusters (which are some of the oldest galaxies in the Universe). The data we need for this exercise are: 1) the entire spectroscopic galaxy catalog from the SDSS, with galaxy positions, galaxy

  14. Juvenile Delinquency Probation Caseload, 1985-2002. OJJDP Fact Sheet #04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livsey, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    This fact sheet presents statistics on delinquency cases resulting in probation, 2002. Probation was the disposition in 38 percent of all delinquency cases processed by the juvenile courts in 2002. The number of cases placed on probation increased 44 percent between 1985 and 2002. Property offense cases made up the greatest proportion of the…

  15. Procedural Reform and the Reduction of Discretion: The Case of the Juvenile Court.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosin, Michael

    The issue of controlling discretion in large public institutions is a crucial one in modern society, and procedural legal reforms are often viewed as one tactic of control. Using due process guarantees in juvenile courts as the substantive issue, this paper tests the utility of procedural reform in reducing discretion. Results indicate that…

  16. Lowering the minimum age of criminal responsibility: Consequences for juvenile crime and education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil; Larsen, Britt Østergaard; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    This paper exploits a Danish policy reform combined with population-wide administrative registers to investigate whether being above the minimum age of criminal responsibility deters juveniles from crime. We study young individuals’ tendency to commit crime as well as their likelihood of recidivi....... The latter results are consistent with labeling effects of processing in the criminal justice system....

  17. Surface water quality in streams and rivers: introduction, scaling, and climate change: Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loperfido, John

    2013-01-01

    A variety of competing and complementary needs such as ecological health, human consumption, transportation, recreation, and economic value make management and protection of water resources in riverine environments essential. Thus, an understanding of the complex and interacting factors that dictate riverine water quality is essential in empowering stake-holders to make informed management decisions (see Chapter 1.15 for additional information on water resource management). Driven by natural and anthropogenic forcing factors, a variety of chemical, physical, and biological processes dictate riverine water quality, resulting in temporal and spatial patterns and cycling (see Chapter 1.2 for information describing how global change interacts with water resources). Furthermore, changes in climatic forcing factors may lead to long-term deviations in water quality outside the envelope of historical data. The goal of this chapter is to present fundamental concepts dictating the conditions of basic water quality parameters in rivers and streams (herein generally referred to as rivers unless discussing a specific system) in the context of temporal (diel (24 h) to decadal) longitudinal scaling. Understanding water quality scaling in rivers is imperative as water is continually reused and recycled (see also Chapters 3.1 and 3.15); upstream discharges from anthropogenic sources are incorporated into bulk riverine water quality that is used by downstream consumers. Water quality parameters reviewed here include temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), and suspended sediment and were selected given the abundance of data available for these parameters due to recent advances in water quality sensor technology (see Chapter 4.13 for use of hydrologic data in watershed management). General equations describing reactions affecting water temperature, pH, DO, and suspended sediment are included to convey the complexity of how simultaneously occurring reactions can affect water quality

  18. Criminal Profiles of Violent Juvenile Sex and Violent Juvenile Non-Sex Offenders: An Explorative Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Anton Ph.; Mali, Bas R. F.; Bullens, Ruud A. R.; Vermeiren, Robert R.

    2007-01-01

    Few studies have longitudinally investigated the criminal profiles of violent juvenile sex and violent juvenile non-sex offenders. To make up for this lack, this study used police records of juveniles to determine the nature of the criminal profiles of violent sex offenders (n = 226) and violent non-sex offenders (n = 4,130). All offenders…

  19. Juvenile Residential Facility Census, 2010: Selected Findings. Juvenile Offenders and Victims: National Report Series. Bulletin NCJ 241134

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockenberry, Sarah; Sickmund, Melissa; Sladky, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    This bulletin is part of the "Juvenile Offenders and Victims National Report Series." The "National Report" offers a comprehensive statistical overview of the problems of juvenile crime, violence, and victimization and the response of the juvenile justice system. During each interim year, the bulletins in the "National…

  20. Chapter 13 - Active Rectifiers and Their Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davari, Pooya; Zare, Firuz; Abdelhakim, Ahmed

    2018-01-01

    This chapter investigates the control design of active rectifiers and their applications in power electronics-based power system. The harmonic emission and measures are firstly addressed as a basis of evaluating the active rectifier's effectiveness. Furthermore, the importance of new coming...... standards is highlighted. Application-oriented design of active rectifiers as a main reason behind evolvement of different topologies is discussed. Then, the main principle in designing different control schemes in single-phase and three-phase rectifiers is investigated, analyzed, and experimentally...... verified. The influence of nonideal operating conditions with possible solutions is addressed. Finally, future prospective of active rectifiers as a one of the key enabler of carbon-free power system is summarized....

  1. Mercury and halogens in coal: Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolker, Allan; Quick, Jeffrey C.; Granite, Evan J.; Pennline, Henry W.; Senior, Constance L.

    2014-01-01

    Apart from mercury itself, coal rank and halogen content are among the most important factors inherent in coal that determine the proportion of mercury captured by conventional controls during coal combustion. This chapter reviews how mercury in coal occurs, gives available concentration data for mercury in U.S. and international commercial coals, and provides an overview of the natural variation in halogens that influence mercury capture. Three databases, the U.S. Geological Survey coal quality (USGS COALQUAL) database for in-ground coals, and the 1999 and 2010 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Information Collection Request (ICR) databases for coals delivered to power stations, provide extensive results for mercury and other parameters that are compared in this chapter. In addition to the United States, detailed characterization of mercury is available on a nationwide basis for China, whose mean values in recent compilations are very similar to the United States in-ground mean of 0.17 ppm mercury. Available data for the next five largest producers (India, Australia, South Africa, the Russian Federation, and Indonesia) are more limited and with the possible exceptions of Australia and the Russian Federation, do not allow nationwide means for mercury in coal to be calculated. Chlorine in coal varies as a function of rank and correspondingly, depth of burial. As discussed elsewhere in this volume, on a proportional basis, bromine is more effective than chlorine in promoting mercury oxidation in flue gas and capture by conventional controls. The ratio of bromine to chlorine in coal is indicative of the proportion of halogens present in formation waters within a coal basin. This ratio is relatively constant except in coals that have interacted with deep-basin brines that have reached halite saturation, enriching residual fluids in bromine. Results presented here help optimize mercury capture by conventional controls and provide a starting point for

  2. Exercise therapy in juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takken, T.; van Brussel, M.; Engelbert, R. H. H.; van der Net, J.; Kuis, W.; Helders, P. J. M.

    2008-01-01

    Exercise therapy is considered an important component of the treatment of arthritis. The efficacy of exercise therapy has been reviewed in adults with rheumatoid arthritis but not in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). To assess the effects of exercise therapy on functional ability,

  3. Program Performance Inventory: Six Juvenile Offender Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomalla, Terri Groff; Dougherty, Victoria J.

    This report describes the performance of 6 Connecticut juvenile justice alternative sanction programs in 14 qualitative areas: community reintegration; outcomes and evaluation; assessment methods; risk factors; escalation of criminal activity; family involvement; community involvement; work ethic and vocational training; education and life skills;…

  4. Radium rentention and dosimetry in juvenile beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, R.D.; Jones, C.W.; Bruenger, F.W.; Atherton, D.R.; Mays, C.W.

    1983-01-01

    Retention of administered 226 Ra was substantially greater in beagles injected as 3-month-old juveniles than as 1.4-year-old adults, but the measured 222 Rn/ 226 Ra ratio in bone was significantly less in juveniles for about the first 600 days after injection. An equation that describes the total-body biological retention R in beagles injected with 226 Ra at 3 months of age at any time t (in days) after injection during the first 6.6 years is R = 0.331e/sup -0.206t/ + 0.245e/sup -0.00374t/ + 0.424e/sup -0.000114t/. The rate constant of the final term in the equation for juveniles is similar to that for young adults, suggesting that this component reflects the net turnover rate in the slowly remodeling component of adult bone. Compared to young adult beagles, animals injected as juveniles had a greater fraction of their retained 226 Ra in parts of the skeleton containing much cortical bone, such as paws, and a smaller fraction in those parts containing much trabecular bone

  5. Alteracioness cognitivas en familias con Parkinson juvenil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Lopera Restrepo

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available El Grupo de Neurociencias de la Universidad de Antioquia reportó por primera vez en Colombia cuatro familias afecatas por la Enfermedad de Parkinson Familiar Juvenil portadoras de la mutación G736A en el gen Parkin.

  6. Biological agents in polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amarilyo, Gil; Tarp, Simon; Foeldvari, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Although various biological agents are in use for polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (pJIA), head-to-head trials comparing the efficacy and safety among them are lacking. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of biological agents in pJIA using all currently...

  7. Antibodies in juvenile-onset myositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansley, Sarah L

    2016-11-01

    Juvenile-onset myositis is a highly heterogeneous disease. Myositis-specific and associated autoantibodies provide a potential means of subdividing patients into clinically homogenous subgroups. Given the increasing availability of autoantibody testing, this review explores the phenotypes associated with different autoantibodies in juvenile-onset myositis and the potential clinical utility of autoantibody testing. Autoantibodies can be identified in 60-70% of children with myositis and the recent discovery of novel myositis-associated autoantibodies in adult patients suggests this may increase in the near future. Detailed phenotype descriptions are now known for several autoantibodies commonly identified in juvenile-onset disease. Whilst there is insufficient evidence to recommend a differential treatment approach based on autoantibody status, it is becoming increasingly clear that some autoantibody subgroups are often treatment resistant and may benefit from a more aggressive approach. The validation of nonspecialised methods for myositis-specific autoantibody detection should lead to more widely available testing. In juvenile-onset disease, this will provide detailed prognostic information and in the future may also influence approach.

  8. Do burn centers provide juvenile firesetter intervention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrns-Klas, Karla S; Wahl, Wendy L; Hemmila, Mark R; Wang, Stewart C

    2012-01-01

    Juvenile firesetting activity accounts for a significant number of annual injuries and property damage, yet there is sparse information on intervention in the burn literature. To quantify juvenile firesetting intervention (JFSI) in burn centers, a 23-question survey was sent to all directors listed in the American Burn Association Burn Care Facilities Directory.Sixty-four out of 112 (57%) surveys were returned. This represents responses from 79% of currently verified burn centers. When queried on interventions provided to a juvenile firesetter admitted to their unit, 38% report having their own JFSI program and 38% refer the child to fire services. Two thirds of units without a JFSI program treat pediatric patients. Units that previously had a JFSI program report lack of staffing and funding as most common reasons for program discontinuation. Almost all (95%) stated that a visual tool demonstrating legal, financial, social, future, and career ramifications associated with juvenile firesetting would be beneficial to their unit. Many burn units that treat pediatric patients do not have JFSI and rely on external programs operated by fire services. Existing JFSI programs vary greatly in structure and method of delivery. Burn centers should be involved in JFSI, and most units would benefit from a new video toolkit to assist in providing appropriate JFSI. Study results highlight a need for burn centers to collaborate on evaluating effectiveness of JFSI programs and providing consistent intervention materials based on outcomes research.

  9. Retrocalcaneal bursitis in juvenile chronic arthritis.

    OpenAIRE

    Goldenstein-Schainberg, C; Homsi, C; Rodrigues Pereira, R M; Cossermelli, W

    1992-01-01

    Retrocalcaneal bursitis has been described in various adult rheumatic diseases and septic bursitis unrelated to previous bursal disease has been reported in children. The case is reported here of a girl with juvenile chronic arthritis who developed non-septic retrocalcaneal bursitis; the diagnosis was suggested by a combination of clinical and radiographic studies and was confirmed by ultrasonography.

  10. Retrocalcaneal bursitis in juvenile chronic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenstein-Schainberg, C; Homsi, C; Rodrigues Pereira, R M; Cossermelli, W

    1992-01-01

    Retrocalcaneal bursitis has been described in various adult rheumatic diseases and septic bursitis unrelated to previous bursal disease has been reported in children. The case is reported here of a girl with juvenile chronic arthritis who developed non-septic retrocalcaneal bursitis; the diagnosis was suggested by a combination of clinical and radiographic studies and was confirmed by ultrasonography. Images PMID:1444631

  11. Bilateral, independent juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mørkenborg, M-L; Frendø, M; Stavngaard, T; Von Buchwald, C

    2015-10-01

    Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a benign, vascular tumour that primarily occurs in adolescent males. Despite its benign nature, aggressive growth patterns can cause potential life-threatening complications. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is normally unilateral, originating from the sphenopalatine artery, but bilateral symptoms can occur if a large tumour extends to the contralateral side of the nasopharynx. This paper presents the first reported case of true bilateral extensive juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma involving clinically challenging pre-surgical planning and surgical strategy. A 21-year-old male presented with increasing bilateral nasal obstruction and discharge. Examination revealed tumours bilaterally and imaging demonstrated non-contiguous tumours. Pre-operative angiography showed strictly ipsilateral vascular supplies requiring bilateral embolisation. Radical removal performed as one-step, computer-assisted functional endoscopic sinus surgery was performed. The follow-up period was uncomplicated. This case illustrates the importance of suspecting bilateral juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma in patients presenting with bilateral symptoms. Our management, including successful pre-operative planning, enabled one-step total removal of both tumours and rapid patient recovery.

  12. Perceived Competence of Juvenile Delinquents and Nondelinquents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Peter G.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Thirty male juvenile delinquents and 90 male high achievers, low achievers, and students with behavior problems were compared using an adapted version of Harter's Perceived Competence Scale for Children. The Australian students (aged 12-15) were compared on 4 different domains of perceived competence--cognitive competence, social competence,…

  13. Juvenile Court Commitment Rates: The National Picture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosin, Michael

    There is less geographic variation in the commitment rate of juvenile offenders than is commonly assumed. Apparently, judges across the country develop a similar standard of what percentage of youths they face should be committed. This standard may be similar across the country because it represents broadly shared ideals. However, there is much…

  14. Smerte og smertemestring ved juvenil idiopatisk artritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlin, Troels; Thastum, Mikael

    2008-01-01

    Pain is one of the primary symptoms of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). JIA patients have reduced pain tolerance and pain threshold compared to healthy controls. In children with JIA the greater use of coping strategies such as problem-solving, positive self-statements and distraction consist...

  15. Biologisk terapi ved juvenil idiopatisk artritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlin, Troels

    2008-01-01

    In recent years the treatment of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) has undergone marked changes. There is substantial evidence that inhibitors of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) like etanercept, infliximab and adalimumab show significant efficacy when standard therapy fails, and long-ter...

  16. Nasopharyngeal juvenile angiofibroma: updating of radiotherapy results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alert Silva, Jose; Caballero Aguirrechu, Iraida; Reno Cespedes, Jesus; Perez Penna, Lourdes

    2010-01-01

    The nasopharyngeal juvenile angiofibroma is a uncommon benign tumor composed of fibrous connective tissue and many vascular spaces covered by endothelium. It is almost exclusive of male sex and of adolescents. Choice treatment is the exeresis without obviate other possibilities as the radiotherapy. The aim of present study was to show the results of this latter as therapeutical option

  17. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia presenting as Juvenile Idiopathic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia in children commonly presents with osteo articular manifestations that may mimic Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis. This may create considerable diagnostic difficulty and lead to delay in commencing appropriate treatment. Case: An eight year old boy who presented with multiple ...

  18. Molecular basis of juvenile hormone signaling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jindra, Marek; Bellés, X.; Shinoda, T.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 11, Oct 09 (2015), s. 39-46 ISSN 2214-5745 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-23681S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : juvenile hormone * JH receptor * Drosophila melanogaster Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.719, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2214574515001297

  19. Metamorphosis: How Missouri Rehabilitates Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubin, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Juveniles convicted of serious offenses usually end up in large correctional facilities that focus on punishment--not rehabilitation. The state of Missouri, however, has found a better way to help end the cycle of crime: by creating a network of small facilities that provide therapy and educational opportunities, it has dramatically reduced…

  20. Shortening the juvenile phase for flowering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Higazy, M.K.M.T.

    1962-01-01

    Higazy tried to determine whether the duration of the juvenile phase for flowering was a fixed character or whether it could be influenced by external growth factors.

    Lunaria biennis was chosen as a cold-requiring biennial, Silene armeria as a long-day plant and Salvia

  1. The Diversity of Juvenile Sarcoidosis Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Vougiouka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of juvenile sarcoidosis, emphasizing the variety of clinical manifestations. The child had uveitis, which is among the most common manifestations of the disease. However, fever of unknown origin, glomerulonephritis and lymphadenopathy were also noticed, underscoring the diversity of the clinical spectrum of the disease.

  2. Aspergillus nidulans Synthesize Insect Juvenile Hormones upon Expression of a Heterologous Regulatory Protein and in Response to Grazing by Drosophila melanogaster Larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Thrane; Klejnstrup, Marie Louise; Rohlfs, Marko

    2013-01-01

    , indicating that fungal secondary metabolites remain an underexplored resource of bioactive molecules. In this study, we combine heterologous expression of regulatory proteins in Aspergillus nidulans with systematic variation of growth conditions and observe induced synthesis of insect juvenile hormone......-III and methyl farnesoate. Both compounds are sesquiterpenes belonging to the juvenile hormone class. Juvenile hormones regulate developmental and metabolic processes in insects and crustaceans, but have not previously been reported as fungal metabolites. We found that feeding by Drosophila melanogaster larvae...

  3. Positron annihilation spectroscopy for chemical analysis (PASCA). Chapter 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, K.L.; Jean, Y.C.

    1988-01-01

    This chapter gives an up to date overview of positron annihilation spectroscopy for chemical analysis (PASCA). As an in situ technique PASCA is especially suitable for studying processes occurring at surfaces. The in situ characteristics of PASCA are treated. The principes of positron annihilation life time spectroscopy (PAL) are discussed and some important analytical applications such as, in determining of total surface areas and cavity volumes in chemical reactions, in the study of chemisorption and catalytic reactions on porous surfaces, in the analysis of bulk materials, in determining molecular association constants in biological systems, in proton and neutron activation analysis, in thin layer chromatography and in tracer technology. 28 refs.; 15 figs.; 8 tabs

  4. Chapter 16: Lignin Visualization: Advanced Microscopy Techniques for Lignin Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Yining [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Donohoe, Bryon S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-04-03

    Visualization of lignin in plant cell walls, with both spatial and chemical resolution, is emerging as an important tool to understand lignin's role in the plant cell wall's nanoscale architecture and to understand and design processes intended to modify the lignin. As such, this chapter reviews recent advances in advanced imaging methods with respect to lignin in plant cell walls. This review focuses on the importance of lignin detection and localization for studies in both plant biology and biotechnology. Challenges going forward to identify and delineate lignin from other plant cell wall components and to quantitatively analyze lignin in whole cell walls from native plant tissue and treated biomass are also discussed.

  5. Chapter 9: The rock coast of the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapke, Cheryl J.; Adams, Peter N.; Allan, Jonathan; Ashton, Andrew; Griggs, Gary B.; Hampton, Monty A.; Kelly, Joseph; Young, Adam P.

    2014-01-01

    The coastline of the USA is vast and comprises a variety of landform types including barrier islands, mainland beaches, soft bluffed coastlines and hard rocky coasts. The majority of the bluffed and rocky coasts are found in the northeastern part of the country (New England) and along the Pacific coast. Rocky and bluffed landform types are commonly interspersed along the coastline and occur as a result of relative lowering of sea level from tectonic or isostatic forcing, which can occur on timescales ranging from instantaneous to millenia. Recent research on sea cliffs in the contiguous USA has focused on a broad range of topics from documenting erosion rates to identifying processes and controls on morphology to prediction modelling. This chapter provides a detailed synthesis of recent and seminal research on rocky coast geomorphology along open-ocean coasts of the continental United States (USA).

  6. Experiences gained by establishing the IAMG Student Chapter Freiberg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Sebastian M.; Liesenberg, Veraldo; Shahzad, Faisal

    2013-04-01

    mentioned in regular lectures. To date, the major highlights of our activity are two international workshops: MatGeoS 2008 & 2009. During our second workshop, over thirty scientists representing government agencies, academia and non-profit research organizations worldwide participated. A number of interdisciplinary topics were intensively discussed. After the workshop, the decision was made to create a book based on the presented scientific work, which should be edited by the us, the students of the student chapter. Eventually, we called for papers, organized a full-scale peer-review and edited the book. It is scheduled to be published in the first quarter of 2013 and is entitled "Mathematical Geosciences: Theory, Methods and Applications". The whole organizing process proved to be another excellent lesson to us, as it interfered with our overwhelming studying and research activities. It was necessary to learn how to organize and handle the mandatory communication and editing, while pursuing our regular duties. We consider the activities of the IAMG Student Chapter Freiberg as an example of what a group of enthusiastic and dedicated young professionals can achieve. Therefore, we encourage every similar group of students or "scientists in training" to just try to do something beyond the requirements and learn, while doing it. We proved that this is possible.

  7. Lower Snake River Juvenile Salmon Migration Feasibility Report/Environmental Impact Statement. Part II: Chapters 5-13

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2003-01-01

    ... (collectively called the Lower Snake River Project) and their effects on four lower Snake River salmon and steelhead stocks listed for protection under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). The U.S...

  8. Valley plugs, land use, and phytogeomorphic response: Chapter 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Aaron R.; King, Sammy L.; Shroder, John F.

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic alteration of fluvial systems can disrupt functional processes that provide valuable ecosystem services. Channelization alters fluvial parameters and the connectivity of river channels to their floodplains which is critical for productivity, nutrient cycling, flood control, and biodiversity. The effects of channelization can be exacerbated by local geology and land-use activities, resulting in dramatic geomorphic readjustments including the formation of valley plugs. Considerable variation in the response of abiotic processes, including surface hydrology, subsurface hydrology, and sedimentation dynamics, to channelization and the formation of valley plugs. Altered abiotic processes associated with these geomorphic features and readjustments influence biotic processes including species composition, abundance, and successional processes. Considerable interest exists for restoring altered fluvial systems and their floodplains because of their social and ecological importance. Understanding abiotic and biotic responses of channelization and valley-plug formation within the context of the watershed is essential to successful restoration. This chapter focuses on the primary causes of valley-plug formation, resulting fluvial-geomorphic responses, vegetation responses, and restoration and research needs for these systems.

  9. Musculoskeletal MRI findings of juvenile localized scleroderma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eutsler, Eric P. [Nemours Children' s Health System/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Wilmington, DE (United States); Washington University School of Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis, MO (United States); Horton, Daniel B. [Nemours Children' s Health System/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Division of Rheumatology, Department of Pediatrics, Wilmington, DE (United States); Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Department of Pediatrics, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Epelman, Monica [Nemours Children' s Health System/Nemours Children' s Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Orlando, FL (United States); Finkel, Terri [Nemours Children' s Health System/Nemours Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Orlando, FL (United States); Averill, Lauren W. [Nemours Children' s Health System/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Wilmington, DE (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Juvenile localized scleroderma comprises a group of autoimmune conditions often characterized clinically by an area of skin hardening. In addition to superficial changes in the skin and subcutaneous tissues, juvenile localized scleroderma may involve the deep soft tissues, bones and joints, possibly resulting in functional impairment and pain in addition to cosmetic changes. There is literature documenting the spectrum of findings for deep involvement of localized scleroderma (fascia, muscles, tendons, bones and joints) in adults, but there is limited literature for the condition in children. We aimed to document the spectrum of musculoskeletal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of both superficial and deep juvenile localized scleroderma involvement in children and to evaluate the utility of various MRI sequences for detecting those findings. Two radiologists retrospectively evaluated 20 MRI studies of the extremities in 14 children with juvenile localized scleroderma. Each imaging sequence was also given a subjective score of 0 (not useful), 1 (somewhat useful) or 2 (most useful for detecting the findings). Deep tissue involvement was detected in 65% of the imaged extremities. Fascial thickening and enhancement were seen in 50% of imaged extremities. Axial T1, axial T1 fat-suppressed (FS) contrast-enhanced and axial fluid-sensitive sequences were rated most useful. Fascial thickening and enhancement were the most commonly encountered deep tissue findings in extremity MRIs of children with juvenile localized scleroderma. Because abnormalities of the skin, subcutaneous tissues and fascia tend to run longitudinally in an affected limb, axial T1, axial fluid-sensitive and axial T1-FS contrast-enhanced sequences should be included in the imaging protocol. (orig.)

  10. Musculoskeletal MRI findings of juvenile localized scleroderma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eutsler, Eric P.; Horton, Daniel B.; Epelman, Monica; Finkel, Terri; Averill, Lauren W.

    2017-01-01

    Juvenile localized scleroderma comprises a group of autoimmune conditions often characterized clinically by an area of skin hardening. In addition to superficial changes in the skin and subcutaneous tissues, juvenile localized scleroderma may involve the deep soft tissues, bones and joints, possibly resulting in functional impairment and pain in addition to cosmetic changes. There is literature documenting the spectrum of findings for deep involvement of localized scleroderma (fascia, muscles, tendons, bones and joints) in adults, but there is limited literature for the condition in children. We aimed to document the spectrum of musculoskeletal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of both superficial and deep juvenile localized scleroderma involvement in children and to evaluate the utility of various MRI sequences for detecting those findings. Two radiologists retrospectively evaluated 20 MRI studies of the extremities in 14 children with juvenile localized scleroderma. Each imaging sequence was also given a subjective score of 0 (not useful), 1 (somewhat useful) or 2 (most useful for detecting the findings). Deep tissue involvement was detected in 65% of the imaged extremities. Fascial thickening and enhancement were seen in 50% of imaged extremities. Axial T1, axial T1 fat-suppressed (FS) contrast-enhanced and axial fluid-sensitive sequences were rated most useful. Fascial thickening and enhancement were the most commonly encountered deep tissue findings in extremity MRIs of children with juvenile localized scleroderma. Because abnormalities of the skin, subcutaneous tissues and fascia tend to run longitudinally in an affected limb, axial T1, axial fluid-sensitive and axial T1-FS contrast-enhanced sequences should be included in the imaging protocol. (orig.)

  11. Musculoskeletal MRI findings of juvenile localized scleroderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eutsler, Eric P; Horton, Daniel B; Epelman, Monica; Finkel, Terri; Averill, Lauren W

    2017-04-01

    Juvenile localized scleroderma comprises a group of autoimmune conditions often characterized clinically by an area of skin hardening. In addition to superficial changes in the skin and subcutaneous tissues, juvenile localized scleroderma may involve the deep soft tissues, bones and joints, possibly resulting in functional impairment and pain in addition to cosmetic changes. There is literature documenting the spectrum of findings for deep involvement of localized scleroderma (fascia, muscles, tendons, bones and joints) in adults, but there is limited literature for the condition in children. We aimed to document the spectrum of musculoskeletal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of both superficial and deep juvenile localized scleroderma involvement in children and to evaluate the utility of various MRI sequences for detecting those findings. Two radiologists retrospectively evaluated 20 MRI studies of the extremities in 14 children with juvenile localized scleroderma. Each imaging sequence was also given a subjective score of 0 (not useful), 1 (somewhat useful) or 2 (most useful for detecting the findings). Deep tissue involvement was detected in 65% of the imaged extremities. Fascial thickening and enhancement were seen in 50% of imaged extremities. Axial T1, axial T1 fat-suppressed (FS) contrast-enhanced and axial fluid-sensitive sequences were rated most useful. Fascial thickening and enhancement were the most commonly encountered deep tissue findings in extremity MRIs of children with juvenile localized scleroderma. Because abnormalities of the skin, subcutaneous tissues and fascia tend to run longitudinally in an affected limb, axial T1, axial fluid-sensitive and axial T1-FS contrast-enhanced sequences should be included in the imaging protocol.

  12. Animal movement data: GPS telemetry, autocorrelation and the need for path-level analysis [chapter 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel A. Cushman

    2010-01-01

    In the previous chapter we presented the idea of a multi-layer, multi-scale, spatially referenced data-cube as the foundation for monitoring and for implementing flexible modeling of ecological pattern-process relationships in particulate, in context and to integrate these across large spatial extents at the grain of the strongest linkage between response and driving...

  13. Chapter 6: Above Ground Deterioration of Wood and Wood-Based Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant Kirker; Jerrold Winandy

    2014-01-01

    Wood as a material has unique properties that make it ideal for above ground exposure in a wide range of structural and non-strucutral applications. However, no material is without limitations. Wood is a bio-polymer which is subject to degradative processes, both abiotic and biotic. This chapter is a general summary of the abiotic and biotic factors that impact service...

  14. Current status, future opportunities, and remaining challenges in landscape genetics [Chapter 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niko Balkenhol; Samuel A. Cushman; Lisette P. Waits; Andrew Storfer

    2016-01-01

    Landscape genetics has advanced the field of evolutionary ecology by providing a direct focus on relationships between landscape patterns and population processes, such as gene flow, selection, and genetic drift. This chapter discusses the current and emerging challenges and opportunities, which focus and facilitate future progress in the field. It presents ten...

  15. Stochastic processes

    CERN Document Server

    Parzen, Emanuel

    1962-01-01

    Well-written and accessible, this classic introduction to stochastic processes and related mathematics is appropriate for advanced undergraduate students of mathematics with a knowledge of calculus and continuous probability theory. The treatment offers examples of the wide variety of empirical phenomena for which stochastic processes provide mathematical models, and it develops the methods of probability model-building.Chapter 1 presents precise definitions of the notions of a random variable and a stochastic process and introduces the Wiener and Poisson processes. Subsequent chapters examine

  16. Preliminary definition of improvement in juvenile arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannini, E H; Ruperto, N; Ravelli, A; Lovell, D J; Felson, D T; Martini, A

    1997-07-01

    To identify a core set of outcome variables for the assessment of children with juvenile arthritis (JA), to use the core set to develop a definition of improvement to determine whether individual patients demonstrate clinically important improvement, and to promote this definition as a single efficacy measure in JA clinical trials. A core set of outcome variables was established using a combination of statistical and consensus formation techniques. Variables in the core set consisted of 1) physician global assessment of disease activity; 2) parent/patient assessment of overall well-being; 3) functional ability; 4) number of joints with active arthritis; 5) number of joints with limited range of motion; and 6) erythrocyte sedimentation rate. To establish a definition of improvement using this core set, 21 pediatric rheumatologists from 14 countries met, and, using consensus formation techniques, scored each of 72 patient profiles as improved or not improved. Using the physicians' consensus as the gold standard, the chi-square, sensitivity, and specificity were calculated for each of 240 possible definitions of improvement. Definitions with sensitivity or specificity of definitions to discriminate between the effects of active agent and those of placebo, using actual trial data, was then observed. Each definition was also ranked for face validity, and the sum of the ranks was then multiplied by the kappa statistic. The definition of improvement with the highest final score was as follows: at least 30% improvement from baseline in 3 of any 6 variables in the core set, with no more than 1 of the remaining variables worsening by >30%. The second highest scoring definition was closely related to the first; the third highest was similar to the Paulus criteria used in adult rheumatoid arthritis trials, except with different variables. This indicates convergent validity of the process used. We propose a definition of improvement for JA. Use of a uniform definition will help

  17. Effects of individual pre-fledging traits and environmental conditions on return patterns in juvenile king penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraux, Claire; Viblanc, Vincent A; Hanuise, Nicolas; Le Maho, Yvon; Le Bohec, Céline

    2011-01-01

    Despite the importance of early life stages in individuals' life history and population dynamics, very few studies have focused on the constraints to which these juvenile traits are subjected. Based on 10 years of automatic monitoring of over 2500 individuals, we present the first study on the effects of environmental conditions and individual pre-fledging traits on the post-fledging return of non-banded king penguins to their natal colony. Juvenile king penguins returned exclusively within one of the three austral summers following their departure. A key finding is that return rates (range 68-87%) were much higher than previously assumed for this species, importantly meaning that juvenile survival is very close to that of adults. Such high figures suggest little juvenile dispersal, and selection occurring mostly prior to fledging in king penguins. Pre-fledging conditions had a strong quadratic impact on juvenile return rates. As expected, cohorts reared under very unfavourable years (as inferred by the breeding success of the colony) exhibited low return rates but surprisingly, so did those fledged under very favourable conditions. Juvenile sojourns away from the colony were shorter under warm conditions and subsequent return rates higher, suggesting a positive effect of climate warming. The longer the post-fledging trip (1, 2 or 3 years), the earlier in the summer birds returned to their natal colony and the longer they stayed before leaving for the winter journey. The presence of juveniles in the colony was more than twice the duration required for moulting purposes, yet none attempted breeding in the year of their first return. Juvenile presence in the colony may be important for acquiring knowledge on the social and physical colonial environment and may play an important part in the learning process of mating behaviour. Further studies are required to investigate its potential implications on other life-history traits such as recruitment age.

  18. Growing up with adversity: From juvenile justice involvement to criminal persistence and psychosocial problems in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basto-Pereira, Miguel; Miranda, Ana; Ribeiro, Sofia; Maia, Ângela

    2016-12-01

    Several studies have been carried out to investigate the effect of child maltreatment on juvenile justice involvement and future criminal life. However, little is known about the impact of other forms of adversity, beyond abuse and neglect, on juvenile delinquency and criminal persistence. The effect of early adversity on psychosocial problems is underexplored, particularly in juvenile delinquents. This study, using the Childhood Adverse Experiences (ACE) questionnaire, a tool accessing the exposure to different types of abuse, neglect and serious household dysfunction, explored the role of each adverse experience on juvenile justice involvement, persistence in crime and psychosocial problems during young adulthood. A Portuguese sample of 75 young adults with official records of juvenile delinquency in 2010/2011, and 240 young adults from a community sample completed ACE questionnaire and measures of psychosocial adjustment. Seven out of ten adverse experiences were significantly more prevalent in young adults with juvenile justice involvement than in the community sample, after matching the main demographic variables. The strongest predictor of juvenile justice involvement and criminal persistence during early adulthood was sexual abuse. Dimensions of child/adolescent emotional maltreatment and a mental illness in the household predicted a set of psychosocial problems in young adulthood. This study indicates that early adversity is significantly related to juvenile justice involvement, criminal persistence and psychosocial problems. This study also suggests that each experience has a different role in this process. There is an urgent need to screen, prevent and stop serious adversity. Future scientific directions and recommendations for policies are provided. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Orofacial pain, jaw function, and temporomandibular disorders in adult women with a history of juvenile chronic arthritis or persistent juvenile chronic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakke, M.; Zak, M.; Jensen, B.L.

    2001-01-01

    Orofacial pain, jaw function, temporomandibular disorders, adult women persistent juvenil chronic arthritis......Orofacial pain, jaw function, temporomandibular disorders, adult women persistent juvenil chronic arthritis...

  20. Social learning in juvenile lemon sharks, Negaprion brevirostris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttridge, Tristan L; van Dijk, Sander; Stamhuis, Eize J; Krause, Jens; Gruber, Samuel H; Brown, Culum

    2013-01-01

    Social learning is taxonomically widespread and can provide distinct behavioural advantages, such as in finding food or avoiding predators more efficiently. Although extensively studied in bony fishes, no such empirical evidence exists for cartilaginous fishes. Our aim in this study was to experimentally investigate the social learning capabilities of juvenile lemon sharks, Negaprion brevirostris. We designed a novel food task, where sharks were required to enter a start zone and subsequently make physical contact with a target in order to receive a food reward. Naive sharks were then able to interact with and observe (a) pre-trained sharks, that is, 'demonstrators', or (b) sharks with no previous experience, that is, 'sham demonstrators'. On completion, observer sharks were then isolated and tested individually in a similar task. During the exposure phase observers paired with 'demonstrator' sharks performed a greater number of task-related behaviours and made significantly more transitions from the start zone to the target, than observers paired with 'sham demonstrators'. When tested in isolation, observers previously paired with 'demonstrator' sharks completed a greater number of trials and made contact with the target significantly more often than observers previously paired with 'sham demonstrators'. Such experience also tended to result in faster overall task performance. These results indicate that juvenile lemon sharks, like numerous other animals, are capable of using socially derived information to learn about novel features in their environment. The results likely have important implications for behavioural processes, ecotourism and fisheries.

  1. Police interviewing and interrogation of juvenile suspects: a descriptive examination of actual cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Hayley M D

    2014-06-01

    Although empirical attention to police interrogation has gained traction in recent years, comparatively few studies have examined interrogation of juvenile suspects, and virtually none have examined actual interrogations. Despite a growing literature on youths' interrogation-related capacities, we still know very little about what actually transpires when police question youth. The present study examines electronically recorded police interviews with juveniles to describe the characteristics, processes, and outcomes that occur in actual juvenile interrogations, including interview duration, individuals present, and confessions. Fifty-seven electronic recordings from 17 police departments were analyzed using observational research software. The median juvenile interrogation lasted 46 min, though the range was extensive (6 min to nearly 5 hr). Youth frequently submitted to questioning without a parent or advocate present, and disruptions to the interview process were common. Interrogation outcomes varied and included full confessions, partially incriminating admissions, and denials of guilt. Results from this study provide context for interrogation research using other methods and suggest that youth may frequently consent to interrogation in the absence of important legal protections.

  2. Energy. Chapter 4; Energia. Capitulo 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin del Castillo, Carlos [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    This chapter stands out that the infrastructure for the electric energy generation, as well as the one departing from fossil fuels has been the responsibility of two institutions with great solvency in the scope of engineering: the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) and Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX). It is presented here the energy future in a sustainable context; a prospective study to year 2050; a strategic proposal of Petroleos Mexicanos; the forecast of the oil industry in Mexico and a technological prospective of the energy. [Spanish] En este capitulo se destaca que la infraestructura para la generacion de energia, tanto electrica como a partir de combustibles fisiles ha corrido a cargo de dos instituciones con gran solvencia en el ambito de la ingenieria: la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) y Petroleos Mexicanos (Pemex). Se presenta el futuro de la energia en un contexto sustentable; un estudio prospectivo al ano 2050; una propuesta estrategica de Petroleos Mexicanos; la prospectiva de la industria petrolera en Mexico y; una prospectiva tecnologica de la energia.

  3. Microscopic functional anatomy: Integumentary system: Chapter 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Diane G.; Ostrander, Gary K.

    2000-01-01

    Many of the features of the fish integument can only be observed microscopically. Because there are over 20,000 living fishes, mostly higher bony fishes (teleosts), a great diversity exists in the microscopic anatomy of the integument. This chapter presents several examples from varied taxonomic groups to illustrate the variation in morphological features. As in all vertebrate epidermis, the fundamental structural unit is the epithelial cell. This is the only constant feature, as a great diversity of cell types exists in the various fish taxa. Some of these include apocrine mucous cells and a variety of other secretory cells, ionocytes, sensory cells, and wandering cells such as leukocytes. The dermis consists essentially of two sets of collagen fibers arranged in opposing geodesic spirals around the body. The dermis of most fishes is divided into two major layers. The upper (outer) layer, the stratum spongiosum or stratum laxum, is a loose network of connective tissue, whereas the lower layer, the stratum compactum, is a dense layer consisting primarily of orthogonal collagen bands. There are also specialized dermal elements such as chromatophores scales, and fin rays.

  4. Chapter 15--chew before you swallow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, James P

    2011-01-01

    The main text of this chapter, written by James P. Lund, summarizes most of the work related to the neural control of mastication that he conducted with his collaborators throughout the years. From his early PhD work showing that mastication is centrally patterned to his latest work related to the interaction between pain and movement, Lund will have addressed many essential questions regarding the organization and functioning of the masticatory central pattern generator (CPG). His earliest studies examined how the CPG modulates reflexes and the excitability of primary afferents, interneurons, and motoneurons forming their circuitry. He then tackled the question of how the CPG itself was modulated by different types of sensory and cortical inputs. Another series of studies focused on the organization of the subpopulations of neurons forming the CPG, their intrinsic and network properties. Shortly before his untimely passing, he had turned his attention to the potential contribution of muscle spindle afferents to the patterning of mastication as well as to the development of chronic muscle pain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Acupuntura em adolescentes com fibromialgia juvenil Acupuntura en adolescentes con fibromialgia juvenil Acupuncture in adolescents with juvenile fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marialda Höfling P. Dias

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a utilização da acupuntura em adolescentes com fibromialgia juvenil. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo realizado em pacientes com fibromialgia juvenil (critérios do Colégio Americano de Reumatologia submetidos a, pelo menos, 11 sessões semanais de acupuntura. As avaliações antes e após acupuntura incluíram dados demográficos, características da dor musculoesquelética, número de pontos dolorosos (NPD, escala visual analógica (EVA de dor, algiometria e índice miálgico (IM. Durante o estudo, os pacientes puderam usar analgésicos, amitriptilina e foram orientados a praticar atividade física aeróbica. Os resultados antes e após acupuntura foram comparados pelo teste não paramétrico de Wilcoxon. RESULTADOS: Dos 38 pacientes com fibromialgia juvenil acompanhados em oito anos consecutivos, 13 tinham todas as informações nos prontuários e nas fichas de acupuntura e foram avaliados. Destes 13, sete obtiveram melhora nos três parâmetros analisados (número de pontos dolorosos, EVA de dor e IM. As medianas do número de pontos dolorosos e da EVA de dor foram significativamente maiores antes do tratamento quando comparados ao final do tratamento com as sessões de acupuntura [14 (11-18 versus 10 (0-15, p=0,005; 6 (2-10 versus 3 (0-10, p=0,045; respectivamente]. Em contraste, a mediana do IM foi significativamente menor antes do tratamento [3,4 (2,49-4,39 versus 4,2 (2,71-5,99, p=0,02]. Nenhum dos pacientes com fibromialgia juvenil apresentou eventos adversos associados à acupuntura. CONCLUSÕES: Acupuntura é uma modalidade de Medicina Tradicional Chinesa que pode ser utilizada nos pacientes pediátricos com fibromialgia. Futuros estudos controlados serão necessários.OBJETIVO: Describir el uso de acupuntura en adolescentes con fibromialgia juvenil. MÉTODOS: Estudio retrospectivo realizado en pacientes con fibromialgia juvenil (criterios del Colegio Americano de Reumatología sometidos a al menos 11 sesiones

  6. Electronics Related to Nuclear Medicine Imaging Devices. Chapter 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, R. J. [Joint Department of Physics, Royal Marsden Hospital and Institute of Cancer Research, Surrey (United Kingdom); Stephenson, R. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-15

    Nuclear medicine imaging is generally based on the detection of X rays and γ rays emitted by radionuclides injected into a patient. In the previous chapter, the methods used to detect these photons were described, based most commonly on a scintillation counter although there are imaging devices that use either gas filled ionization detectors or semiconductors. Whatever device is used, nuclear medicine images are produced from a very limited number of photons, due mainly to the level of radioactivity that can be safely injected into a patient. Hence, nuclear medicine images are usually made from many orders of magnitude fewer photons than X ray computed tomography (CT) images, for example. However, as the information produced is essentially functional in nature compared to the anatomical detail of CT, the apparently poorer image quality is overcome by the nature of the information produced. The low levels of photons detected in nuclear medicine means that photon counting can be performed. Here each photon is detected and analysed individually, which is especially valuable, for example, in enabling scattered photons to be rejected. This is in contrast to X ray imaging where images are produced by integrating the flux entering the detectors. Photon counting, however, places a heavy burden on the electronics used for nuclear medicine imaging in terms of electronic noise and stability. This chapter will discuss how the signals produced in the primary photon detection process can be converted into pulses providing spatial, energy and timing information, and how this information is used to produce both qualitative and quantitative images.

  7. Impact of juvenile idiopathic arthritis on schooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouaddi Ilham

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA is the most common arthropathy of childhood. Different diseases affect school attendance to varying degrees. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA on Moroccan children’s schooling. Methods Thirty-three children with JIA were included in this study, having been previously diagnosed according to the classification criteria of the International League of Associations for Rheumatology (ILAR. Seventy-four healthy children were recruited to serve as controls. Data was obtained for all children on their school level, educational performance, and attendance. The rate of absenteeism due to health complications was noted. Results All healthy children were able to attend school (p Conclusions Our study suggested that the schooling of children with JIA was negatively impacted due to the disorder. More studies, with a larger sample of children, are needed to confirm our findings.

  8. Bacteriological study of juvenile periodontitis in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, N M; Xiao, X R; Zhang, L S; Ri, X Q; Zhang, J Z; Tong, Y H; Yang, M R; Xiao, Z R

    1991-09-01

    The predominant cultivable bacteria associated with juvenile periodontitis (JP) in China were studied for the first time. Subgingival plaque samples were taken on paper points from 23 diseased sites in 15 JP patients and from 7 healthy sites in 7 control subjects. Serially diluted plaque samples were plated on nonselective blood agar and on MGB agar, a selective medium for the isolation of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. Fifteen or more isolated colonies from each sample (in sequence without selection) were purified for identification. The results indicated that the microflora in healthy sulci of the 7 control subjects was significantly different from that in diseased sites of JP patients. The predominant species in healthy sulci were Streptococcus spp. and Capnocytophaga gingivalis. In JP patients, Eubacterium sp. was found in significantly higher frequency and proportion. Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans was not detected in any samples. It appears that this species is not associated with juvenile periodontitis in China.

  9. Chapter 7: Transport and load of radioactive material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2018-04-01

    Related to the topic, the chapter 7 presents: 1) import License; 2) transport; 3) loading the irradiator. The information presented in this chapter is based on the Brazilian legislation, but said legislation is based on international guidelines; therefore there will be several common and different points from country to country.

  10. Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy: clinical and EEG features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S B; Petersen, K A

    1998-01-01

    We aimed to characterize the clinical profile and EEG features of 43 patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. In a retrospective design we studied the records of, and re-interviewed, 43 patients diagnosed with JME from the epilepsy clinic data base. Furthermore, available EEGs were re...... were sleep deprivation (84%), stress (70%), and alcohol consumption (51%). EEG findings included rapid spike-wave and polyspike-wave....

  11. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis-associated uveitis

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, Sarah; Sen, Ethan; Ramanan, Athimalaipet

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common rheumatic disease of childhood, with JIA-associated uveitis its most common extra-articular manifestation. JIA-associated uveitis is a potentially sight-threatening condition and thus carries a considerable risk of morbidity. The aetiology of the condition is autoimmune in nature with the predominant involvement of CD4(+) T cells. However, the underlying pathogenic mechanisms remain unclear, particularly regarding interplay between geneti...

  12. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma: Timisoara ENT Department's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovanescu, Gheorghe; Ruja, Steluta; Cotulbea, Stan

    2013-07-01

    Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a histologically benign, but very aggressive and destructive tumor found exclusively in young males. The management of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma has changed in recent years, but it still continues to be a challenge for the multidisciplinary head and neck surgical team. The purpose of this study was to review a series of 30 patients describing the treatment approach used and studying the outcome of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma in the ENT Department Timisoara, Romania for a period of 30 years. The patients were diagnosed and treated during the years 1981-2011. All patients were male. Tumors were classified using Radkowski's staging system. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging allowed for accurate diagnosis and staging of the tumors. Biopsies were not performed. Surgery represented the gold standard for treatment of juvenine nasopharyngeal angiofibroma. All patients had the tumor removed by an external approach, endoscopic surgical approach not being employed in this series of patients. All patients were treated surgically. Surgical techniques performed were: Denker-Rouge technique in 13 cases (43.33%), paralateronasal technique in 7 cases (23.33%), retropalatine technique in 5 cases (16.66%) and transpalatine technique in 5 cases (16.66%). No preoperative tumor embolization was performed. The recurrence rate was 16.66%. The follow-up period ranged from 1 year to 12 years. Management of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma remains a surgical challenge. Clinical evaluation and surgical experience are very important in selecting the proper approach. A multidisciplinary team, with an experienced surgeon and good collaboration with the anesthesiologist are needed for successful surgical treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Solitary ulcerated congenital giant juvenile xanthogranuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Yuen Ng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 3-month-old female patient with a giant ulcerated nodule over the back since birth was diagnosed as congenital giant juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG based on clinical and histopathological examination. Congenital giant JXG with ulceration at birth is a rare presentation of JXG and commonly misdiagnosed. This case emphasizes the importance of being aware of the myriad presentations of JXG in order to make a correct diagnosis and avoid unnecessary investigations or treatment.

  14. BILATERAL CHOROIDAL EXCAVATION IN JUVENILE LOCALIZED SCLERODERMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Mackenzie L; Day, Shelley

    2018-01-01

    To describe a case of bilateral choroidal excavation in a patient with juvenile localized scleroderma. Case report. An asymptomatic 12-year-old boy with localized scleroderma presented for examination and was found to have bilateral areas of choroidal excavation temporal to the fovea. Previous reports of ocular complications of localized scleroderma have primarily described adnexal and anterior segment changes. This is the second report of choroidal changes in a patient with localized scleroderma, and the first in a pediatric patient.

  15. Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy: clinical and EEG features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S B; Petersen, K A

    1998-01-01

    We aimed to characterize the clinical profile and EEG features of 43 patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. In a retrospective design we studied the records of, and re-interviewed, 43 patients diagnosed with JME from the epilepsy clinic data base. Furthermore, available EEGs were re-evaluated...... were sleep deprivation (84%), stress (70%), and alcohol consumption (51%). EEG findings included rapid spike-wave and polyspike-wave....

  16. [Social and cultural determinants of juvenile deliquency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roché, Sébastian

    2004-01-01

    Our knowledge of juvenile delinquency has progressed considerably since the early 1980s, thanks to self-reported delinquency surveys. They teach us that the determinants of delinquent behaviors among teenagers are dependent on the facility with which the offense is committed, the internal motivation (frustration in the family and school, observational learning of the use of violence in the media) and the weakness of social reactions.

  17. Education and Training of Radiotherapists. Chapter 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffey, M.

    2017-01-01

    The radiotherapist (RTT) is a member of the multidisciplinary team responsible for the preparation and delivery of a course of radiotherapy to cancer patients. The roles and responsibilities of the RTT vary significantly among countries and, in some instances, within countries. They are a reflection of both the local or broader national factors and the available resources, but must always incorporate accurate and safe practice. Irrespective of the scope of practice, roles and responsibilities, any educational programme developed for this professional group must not only prepare the RTTs for current practice, but enable them to adapt to future developments and challenges. Quality and equality of care for all patients receiving radiotherapy are the ultimate goals. To achieve these goals, educational programmes must include the subjects underpinning accurate and safe practice and must integrate academic and clinical components. Health care is undergoing reform in many countries, with a much stronger emphasis on patient centred care. However, reform of the delivery and quality of health care cannot be achieved without the parallel reform in health professional education. This need for reform is emphasized in the report on health professions education issued by the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies, wherein it is stated that “all health professionals should be educated to deliver patient-centered care as members of an interdisciplinary team, emphasizing evidence-based practice, quality improvement approaches, and informatics” [17.1]. This chapter deals with health care education in the United States of America, but the sentiment is equally applicable to the delivery of high quality health care for cancer patients throughout the world.

  18. Radioangiography in diagnosis of juvenile angiofibroma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalantarov, K.D.; Anyutin, R.G.; Ashikhmina, I.G.

    1979-01-01

    To study the blood supply of juvenile angiofibroma of the nasopharynx 10 patients were examined (2 of them were examined twice). Four patients with the deseases of the nose and the nasopharynx of a nonvascular nature were in the control group. The authors used sup(99m)Tc for radioangiography. The investigations were made on the gamma-chamber ''Nuclear-Chicago'' connected to the computer ''Cina-200''. Ten patients with juvenile angiofibroma of the nasopharynx showed rapid accumulation of the radioactive substance at the site of the tumour exceeding its concentration in the carotic arteries by 4-10 times. In unilateral localization of angiofibroma, its blood supply was provided mainly through the external carotic artery at the affection site or evenly through the both external carotic arteries. The data on dynamic distribution of the radioactive substance, scintiphotograms and clinical observations allow a distinct differentiation between juvenile angiofibroma of the nasopharynx the adenoid tissue or any other tumour to determine the angiofibroma size as well as to follow the results of surgical and radiation treatment

  19. Computed tomography of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Cheong Hee; Yoo, Shi Joon; Lee, Yul; Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Man Chung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-02-15

    It is well known that computed tomography (CT) is useful in detecting accurately the location, extent, erosion and relationship of angiofibroma to surrounding structures such as pterygopalation fossa. It is well known that computed tomography (CT) is useful in detecting accurately the location, sphenoid sinus, and etc. CT of 20 patients with juvenile angiofibroma, which were examined for 5 yeas from February, 1979 to May, 1984 at Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, were retrospectively analyzed. The results were as follows: 1. All 20 patients of juvenile angiofibroma had tumors in nasopharynx and posterior nasal cavity showing homogeneously dense-enhancing soft tissue mass on CT. There was extension of the tumor from nasopharynx and posterior nasal cavity into paranasal sinus (60%, 12/20), pterygopalatine fossa (55%, 11/20), infratemporal fossa (30%, 6/20), posterior orbit (10%, 2/20) and cranial cavity (15%, 3/20). 2. Angiogrpahy usually adds little diagnostic information, but is still needed to identify the precise source of blood supply to the tumor, and to perform the pre-operative embolization. The use of CT has deferred angiography until just before surgery, permitting embolization at optimal time. 3. CT is almost always necessary to reveal accurately the full extent of the tumor, especially intracranial space in the axial and coronal planes with contrast enhancement. CT is useful both in diagnosis as a guide to angiography and in planning the adequate therapy of juvenile angiofibroma.

  20. Clinical presentation of juvenile Huntington disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruocco Heloísa H.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical presentation a group of patients with juvenile onset of Huntington disease. METHOD: All patients were interviewed following a structured clinical questioner. Patients were genotyped for the trinucleotide cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG repeat in the Huntington Disease gene. High resolution brain MRI was performed in all patients. RESULTS: We identified 4 patients with juvenile onset of disease among 50 patients with Huntington disease followed prospectively in our Neurogenetics clinic. Age at onset varied from 3 to 13 years, there were 2 boys, and 3 patients had a paternal inheritance of the disease. Expanded Huntington disease allele sizes varied from 41 to 69 trinucleotide repeats. The early onset patients presented with rigidity, bradykinesia, dystonia, dysarthria, seizures and ataxia. MRI showed severe volume loss of caudate and putamen nuclei (p=0.001 and reduced cerebral and cerebellum volumes (p=0.01. CONCLUSION: 8% of Huntington disease patients seen in our clinic had juvenile onset of the disease. They did not present with typical chorea as seen in adult onset Huntington disease. There was a predominance of rigidity and bradykinesia. Two other important clinical features were seizures and ataxia, which related with the imaging findings of early cortical atrophy and cerebellum volume loss.

  1. Sonographic diagnosis of juvenile polyps in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yao; Li, Shi-Xing; Xie, Li-Mei; Shi, Bo; Ju, Hao; Bai, Yu-Zuo; Zhang, Shu-Cheng

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of ultrasonography for juvenile polyps in children and their sonographic characteristics. A retrospective analysis was performed of the ultrasound findings in 27 children who were diagnosed preoperatively with juvenile polyp within the intestinal tract by ultrasonography and then confirmed by colonoscopy, laparotomy and histopathology. The ultrasonic finding common to all polyps was an isolated intraluminal nodular or massive protrusion, associated with multiple mesh-like fluid areas of different sizes. In 25 children, surrounding pedicle-like low echoes of varying lengths were seen connecting with the polyps to form "mushroom" sign. The color Doppler showed abundant blood flow signals within all polyps and pedicles in a shape of a branch or an umbrella. For seven children with an intussusception, the polyp shadow was detected in the cervical part or interior of the intussusception. Ultrasonography is, thus, considered to be a feasible method for diagnosing intestinal juvenile polyp. Copyright © 2012 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Chapter 5: Application of state-and-transition models to evaluate wildlife habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anita T. Morzillo; Pamela Comeleo; Blair Csuti; Stephanie Lee

    2014-01-01

    Wildlife habitat analysis often is a central focus of natural resources management and policy. State-and-transition models (STMs) allow for simulation of landscape level ecological processes, and for managers to test “what if” scenarios of how those processes may affect wildlife habitat. This chapter describes the methods used to link STM output to wildlife habitat to...

  3. Getting the Most from Pi Sigma Alpha Chapters: Exploring the Chapter Activity Grant Program and Its Multiplier Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    The political science honor society, Pi Sigma Alpha, has chapters in nearly 700 institutions across the United States. The organization sponsors many programs that can contribute a great deal to students of political science; however, many students are unaware of these opportunities. This article encourages chapter advisors to make use of these…

  4. Change in Family Structure and Rates of Violent Juvenile Delinquency

    OpenAIRE

    Fry, Jeannie A

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the question: Have the changes in family structure in the U.S. become a catalyst for juvenile delinquency? For this research, I use existing statistics for my three independent variables: divorce rates, rate of working mothers with children under age 18, percent female-headed households. My dependent variable, juvenile violent crime rates, is measured using data from the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. My control variables consist of the followin...

  5. Giant Bilateral Juvenile Fibroadenoma of the Breast in Prepubescent Girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Salma; Khan, Momna; Rafique, Sadia

    2015-10-01

    Juvenile fibroadenoma accounts for 4% of the total fibroadenomas. Giant juvenile fibroadenoma is found in only 0.5% of all fibroadenomas. The authors report a 10-year girl presenting with progressive enlargement of both breasts for one year. Based on clinical findings and Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC), a diagnosis of bilateral giant juvenile fibroadenomas of breast was made. She underwent bilateral lumpectomy with breast conservation and made uneventful postoperative recovery.

  6. TREATMENT APPROACH FOR JUVENILE IDIOPATHIC ARTHRITIS-RELATED UVEITIS: 2012 UPDATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Zulian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic anterior uveitis is the most common extra-articular complication of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. It is more frequent in the early onset forms with a higher prevalence in the oligoarticular (40% than in other juvenile idiopathic arthritis subtypes (5–14%. The risk for severe visual impairment is still high due to the development of sight-threatening complications (synechiae, band keratopathy, cataract, glaucoma, cystoid macular oedema. Treatment is not standardized and requires a complex decision-making process, involving a close collaboration between paediatric ophthalmologist and rheumatologist. Topical therapy alone is often inadequate to control ocular inflammation and bulbar injections are too invasive to perform in children therefore immunosuppressive treatment is often advocated. Low dose methotrexate is the second-line agent mostly used although no controlled studies comparing effects of early to late methotrexate treatment have been reported. Mycophenolate mofetil is effective in controlling inflammation in methotrexate -refractory patients. Its efficacy, however, seems to be more relevant in intermediate or posterior uveitis, than in juvenile idiopathic arthritis uveitis and scleritis. Anti-TNFα agents, namely infliximab and adalimimab showed effectiveness in open-label studies but no wide controlled trials have been reported so far. Adalimimab is as effective as infliximab but has an easier way of administration and a better drug tolerance. Abatacept should be used in anti-TNF refractory patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis uveitis.

  7. Welding process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab. Razak Hamzah; Abd. Aziz Mohamed; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail

    2008-01-01

    For the final chapter of this book, there is basic introduction on welding process. The good radiography must know somehow on welding process so that they can know what kind of welding that must rejected or not. All of the exposure technique that mention in earlier chapter almost applicable in this field because welding process is critical problem if there is no inspection will be done. So, for this chapter, all the discontinuity that usually appeared will be discussed and there is another discontinuity maybe not to important and do not give big impact if found it, do not described here. On top of that, the decision to accept or reject based on code, standard and specification that agreed by both to make sure that decision that agreed is corrected and more meaningful.

  8. Neurofibromatosis Type 1 Diagnosed in a Child Based on Multiple Juvenile Xanthogranulomas and Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jans, Sune R R; Schomerus, Eckhard; Bygum, Anette

    2015-01-01

    An association between juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG), neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), and juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) has been described in the literature but has only been documented in approximately 20 cases. We diagnosed a patient with NF1 at 25 months of age, before any cutaneous...... with chemotherapy and allogenic bone marrow transplantation. With increased awareness, patients with JXG and NF1 who develop symptoms possibly related to JMML, such as paleness, skin bleeding, cough, unexplained fever, and hepatosplenomegaly, should be further evaluated. We also emphasize that multiple JXG lesions...

  9. Penalty responsibility of juveniles in the Republic of Srpska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grbić-Pavlović Nikolina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The youngest members of organized society, more intensive than ever enter the circle of those whose behavior is deviant. Juvenile delinquency is a social problem, which recently experienced an expansion in all modern countries, including Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Republic of Srpska. Considering the fact that juvenile delinquency includes lighter criminal conducts, such as, for example misdemeanors, in this paper a position of juveniles when they are a perpetrators of misdemeanors will be analyzed. Also, the paper will statistically show the number of misdemeanors in the field of public peace and order that juveniles conducted in the Republic of Srpska in the period 2004-2009.

  10. Seville City Hall Chapter Room ceiling decoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robador, M. D.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The present article describes a chemical and physical study of the colour, chemical composition and mineral phases of the decorative materials in the Seville City Hall Chapter House ceiling. The findings showed that the inner most layer of material, calcite, was covered with white lead, in turn concealed under a layer of gilded bole. The ceiling underwent re-gilding, also over bole, due in all likelihood to wear on the original gold leaf. In the nineteenth century, the entire ceiling with the exception of the inscriptions was whitewashed with calcite and white lead. Silver was employed on King John I’s sword (coffer 27. Gold leaf was used to adorn the royal attributes: crowns, belts, sceptres, swords and rosary beads. The high reliefs were likewise gilded. The pigments identified on the ceiling adornments included azurite, malachite, vermilion and gas black. A lime and ground dolomite mortar was used throughout.

    El objetivo de este trabajo es el estudio de diferentes aspectos, como el color, la composición química y las fases mineralógicas presentes en los diferentes materiales que forman la ornamentación del techo de la Sala Capitular del Ayuntamiento de Sevilla, mediante métodos físicos y químicos. Nuestros resultados muestran que el dorado fue realizado sobre una capa de bol previamente depositada sobre una lámina de blanco de plomo que cubría un estrato de calcita. Posteriormente, y probablemente debido a alteraciones en el dorado original, el techo fue de nuevo dorado usando una técnica similar. En el siglo XIX, casi todo el techo, excepto las zonas con inscripciones, fue blanqueado usando una mezcla de calcita y blanco de plomo. Se empleó plata para cubrir la espada del rey Juan I (casetón 27. Finísimas láminas de oro se usaron para decorar los atributos reales: coronas, cinturones, cetros, espadas y rosarios. En diferentes partes de la decoración fueron detectados pigmentos como azurita, malaquita, bermellón y

  11. The effectiveness of reintegrative shaming and restorative justice conferences: focusing on juvenile offenders' perceptions in Australian reintegrative shaming experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Joo; Gerber, Jurg

    2012-10-01

    This article examines the effectiveness of diversionary restorative justice (RJ) conferences through the eyes of juvenile offenders. In Australia, Reintegrative Shaming Experiments (RISE) are based on Braithwaite's theory of reintegrative shaming. Previous studies, although showing that RISE reported high levels of victim satisfaction and positive changes in the attitudes of offenders, also demonstrated that it has different outcomes for juvenile offenders depending on the type of offense with which they were charged. However, the effectiveness of RISE in terms of the offenders' perceptions has not been addressed, and the impact of the offenders' perceptions about RISE still remains under investigation. Using Australian data from RISE between 1995 and 1999, this article examines juvenile offenders' perceptions on preventing reoffending, repaying the victim and society, and the degree of repentance. The data were taken from interviews with juvenile offenders to measure their perceptions after the court or RISE processing. A comparison of standard court processing effects and RISE on juvenile offending, including property crime, shoplifting, and violent offenses, was undertaken. The results from this study were somewhat inconsistent with previous research. In this study, there was no significant relationship between RJ conference and the offenders' own perceptions on the prevention of future offending. However, it was found that there were treatment effects on repaying the victim, repaying society, and the degree of feeling repentance, and that younger offenders wanted to repay the victim/society and feel repentance.

  12. Growth of juvenile shrimp Metapenaeus monoceros fed with squid and mussel

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Achuthankutty, C.T.; Nair, S.R.S.; Krishnakumari, L.

    Small juveniles of both sexes and females of large juveniles of Metapenaeus monoceros attained faster growth with squid diet. Males of large juveniles registered better growth with mussel diet. No significant difference was observed in moult weights...

  13. 78 FR 17184 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... COORDINATING COUNCIL ON JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION [OJP (OJJDP) Docket No. 1620] Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention AGENCY: Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The...

  14. 75 FR 53958 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-02

    ... COORDINATING COUNCIL ON JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION [OJP (OJJDP) Docket No. 1529] Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention AGENCY: Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The...

  15. 78 FR 58288 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... COORDINATING COUNCIL ON JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION [OJP (OJJDP) Docket No. 1634] Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention AGENCY: Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The...

  16. 78 FR 65297 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... COORDINATING COUNCIL ON JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION [OJP (OJJDP) Docket No. 1637] Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention AGENCY: Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The...

  17. 78 FR 38014 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... COORDINATING COUNCIL ON JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION [OJP (OJJDP) Docket No. 1625] Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention AGENCY: Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The...

  18. 75 FR 70216 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... COORDINATING COUNCIL ON JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION [OJP (OJJDP) Docket No. 1533] Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention AGENCY: Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The...

  19. 77 FR 24687 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... COORDINATING COUNCIL ON JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION [OJP (OJJDP) Docket No. 1587] Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention AGENCY: Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The...

  20. 77 FR 3453 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... COORDINATING COUNCIL ON JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION [OJP (OJJDP) Docket No. 1581] Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention AGENCY: Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The...

  1. 77 FR 70994 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ... COORDINATING COUNCIL ON JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION [OJP (OJJDP) Docket No. 1510] Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention AGENCY: Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The...

  2. 76 FR 26280 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... COORDINATING COUNCIL ON JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION [OJP (OJJDP) Docket No. 1549] Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention AGENCY: Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The...

  3. 76 FR 61672 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... COORDINATING COUNCIL ON JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION [OJP (OJJDP) Docket No. 1570] Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention AGENCY: Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The...

  4. 76 FR 39075 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ... COORDINATING COUNCIL ON JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION [OJP (OJJDP) Docket No. 1562] Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention AGENCY: Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The...

  5. 75 FR 16177 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention [OJP (OJJDP) Docket No. 1514] Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention AGENCY: Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. ACTION: Notice of...

  6. 77 FR 50486 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... COORDINATING COUNCIL ON JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION [OJP (OJJDP) Docket No. 1601] Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention AGENCY: Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The...

  7. Laser material processing

    CERN Document Server

    Steen, William

    2010-01-01

    This text moves from the basics of laser physics to detailed treatments of all major materials processing techniques for which lasers are now essential. New chapters cover laser physics, drilling, micro- and nanomanufacturing and biomedical laser processing.

  8. Juvenile Dermatomyostitis: colouring the grey area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bellutti Enders, F.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis describes results of translation research (bedside to bench and back) in JDM. It focuses both on the state of literature and the research of biomarkers in JDM with the view to improving the care and outcome of patients. Chapter 2, through the SHARE initiative, gives an overview of the

  9. Chapter 6: Prehydrolysis Pulping with Fermentation Coproducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.H. Wegner; C.J. Houtman; A.W. Rudie; B.L. Illman; P.J. Ince; E.M. Bilek; T.W. Jeffries

    2013-01-01

    Although the term “integrateed biorefinery” is new, the concept has long been familiar to the pulp and paper industry, where processes include biomass boilers providing combined heat and power, and byproducts of pulping include turpentine, fatty acids and resin acids. In the dominant kraft (or sulfate) pulping process, dissolved lignin and chemicals from the pulp...

  10. Adolescent neglect, juvenile delinquency and the risk of recidivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joseph P; Williams, Abigail B; Courtney, Mark E

    2013-03-01

    Victims of child abuse and neglect are at an increased risk of involvement with the juvenile justice and adult correctional systems. Yet, little is known about the continuation and trajectories of offending beyond initial contact with law enforcement. Neglect likely plays a critical role in continued offending as parental monitoring, parental rejection and family relationships are instrumental in explaining juvenile conduct problems. This study sought to determine whether neglect is associated with recidivism for moderate and high risk juvenile offenders in Washington State. Statewide risk assessments and administrative records for child welfare, juvenile justice, and adult corrections were analyzed. The sample was diverse (24 % female, 13 % African American, 8 % Hispanic, 5 % Native American) and included all moderate and high risk juvenile offenders screened by juvenile probation between 2004 and 2007 (n = 19,833). Official records from child protection were used to identify juvenile offenders with a history of child neglect and to identify juvenile offenders with an ongoing case of neglect. Event history models were developed to estimate the risk of subsequent offending. Adolescents with an ongoing case neglect were significantly more likely to continue offending as compared with youth with no official history of neglect. These findings remain even after controlling for a wide range of family, peer, academic, mental health, and substance abuse covariates. Interrupting trajectories of offending is a primary focus of juvenile justice. The findings of the current study indicate that ongoing dependency issues play a critical role in explaining the outcomes achieved for adolescents in juvenile justice settings. The implications for improved collaboration between child welfare and juvenile justice are discussed.

  11. Assessment of juveniles testimonies’ validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dozortseva E.G.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a review of the English language publications concerning the history and the current state of differential psychological assessment of validity of testimonies produced by child and adolescent victims of crimes. The topicality of the problem in Russia is high due to the tendency of Russian specialists to use methodical means and instruments developed abroad in this sphere for forensic assessments of witness testimony veracity. A system of Statement Validity Analysis (SVA by means of Criteria-Based Content Analysis (CBCA and Validity Checklist is described. The results of laboratory and field studies of validity of CBCA criteria on the basis of child and adult witnesses are discussed. The data display a good differentiating capacity of the method, however, a high level of error probability. The researchers recommend implementation of SVA in the criminal investigation process, but not in the forensic assessment. New perspective developments in the field of methods for differentiation of witness statements based on the real experience and fictional are noted. The conclusion is drawn that empirical studies and a special work for adaptation and development of new approaches should precede their implementation into Russian criminal investigation and forensic assessment practice

  12. Chapter 8: Plasma operation and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ITER Physics Expert Group on Disruptions, Control, Plasma, and MHD; ITER Physics Expert Group on Energetic Particles, Heating, Current and Drive; ITER Physics Expert Group on Diagnostics; ITER Physics Basis Editors

    1999-12-01

    well as in plasma periphery and divertor. The planned diagnostics (Chapter 7) serve as sensors for kinetic control, while gas and pellet fuelling, auxiliary power and angular momentum input, impurity injection, and non-inductive current drive constitute the control actuators. For example, in an ignited plasma, core density controls fusion power output. Kinetic control algorithms vary according to the plasma state, e.g. H- or L-mode. Generally, present facilities have demonstrated the kinetic control methods required for a reactor scale device. Plasma initiation - breakdown, burnthrough and initial current ramp - in reactor scale tokamaks will not involve physics differing from that found in present day devices. For ITER, the induced electric field in the chamber will be ~0.3V· m-1 - comparable to that required by breakdown theory but somewhat smaller than in present devices. Thus, a start-up 3MW electron cyclotron heating system will be employed to assure burnthrough. Simulations show that plasma current ramp up and termination in a reactor scale device can follow procedures developed to avoid disruption in present devices. In particular, simulations remain in the stable area of the li-q plane. For design purposes, the resistive V·s consumed during initiation is found, by experiments, to follow the Ejima expression, 0.45μ0 RIp. Advanced tokamak control has two distinct goals. First, control of density, auxiliary power, and inductive current ramping to attain reverse shear q profiles and internal transport barriers, which persist until dissipated by magnetic flux diffusion. Such internal transport barriers can lead to transient ignition. Second, combined use poloidal field shape control with non-inductive current drive and NBI angular momentum injection to create and control steady state, high bootstrap fraction, reverse shear discharges. Active n = 1 magnetic feedback and/or driven rotation will be required to suppress resistive wall modes for steady state plasmas

  13. Chapter 14. Systems of identical particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    For the systems of identical particles it is necessary to introduce the postulate of symmetrization to describe quantum systems. Physical implications of this postulate are presented: bosons, fermions and Pauli exclusion principle; quantum statistics; interferences between direct process and exchange process. Permutation operators are also exposed. In complement are studied: approximation of central field, electron configurations, energy levels of helium atom (configurations, terms, multiplets), physical properties of electron gas (application to solids) [fr

  14. Chapter 2. Theoretical aspects of aluminium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanko, E.A.; Kabirov, Sh.O.; Safiev, Kh.; Azizov, B.S.; Mirpochaev, Kh.A.

    2011-01-01

    This article is devoted to theoretical aspects of aluminium production. Thus, the electrochemistry of electrolysis process, calculation of base industrial indicators of aluminium electrolytic cell, and processes occurring on anode and cathode were considered. Factors, which increase the current output and electrolytic cell productivity were studied. The side effects, including anode effect, sodium extraction on cathode, aluminium dissolution in the electrolyte, aluminium carbide formation, and influence of admixtures in the electrolyte were studied as well.

  15. Seleucid, Demotic and Mediterranean mathematics versus Chapters VIII and IX of the Nine Chapters: accidental or significant similarities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup, Jens

    Similarities of geometrical diagrams and arithmetical structures of problems have often been taken as evidence of transmission of mathematical knowledge or techniques between China and “the West”. Confronting on one hand some problems from Chapter VIII of the Nine Chapters with comparable problems...... known from Ancient Greek sources, on the other a Seleucid collection of problems about rectangles with a subset of the triangle problems from Chapter IX, it is concluded, (1) that transmission of some arithmetical riddles without method – not “from Greece” but from a transnational community of traders...

  16. Dislipidemia em pacientes com dermatomiosite juvenil

    OpenAIRE

    Katia Tomie Kozu

    2012-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Avaliar a presença de dislipidemia em pacientes com dermatomiosite juvenil (DMJ) e seus possíveis fatores de risco. MÉTODO: 25 pacientes com DMJ foram comparados a 25 controles de acordo com dados demográficos, composição corporal, perfil lipídico, glicêmico, autoanticorpos e enzimas musculares. Foram avaliados os instrumentos de atividade da DMJ: Disease Activity Score (DAS), Childhood Myositis Assessment Scale (CMAS), Manual Muscle Testing (MMT), Myositis Disease Activity Assessme...

  17. CYCLOSPORIN A IN THERAPY FOR JUVENILE ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E S Fedorov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes approaches to using cyclosporin A (CsA in juvenile arthritis (JA. It shows the benefits of combination basic therapy with CsA and methotrexate included into a treatment regimen mainly for systemic JA and JA involving the eye (uveitis versus monotherapy with the above drugs. Attention is drawn to that the oral dose of glucocorticoids may be decreased when CsA is incorporated into the treatment regimen. CsA is shown to be of value as the drug of choice for the therapy of such a menacing complication of systemic JA as the macrophage activation syndrome

  18. Causas e importancia del desempleo juvenil

    OpenAIRE

    Vila Gómez, Juan Francisco

    1985-01-01

    A la hora de estudiar el problema del desempleo juvenil no hay que tener en cuenta solamente las causas de este problema; su conocimiento y análisis es importante para los encargados de las tomas de decisiones, planificadores y educadores. En el caso de España -y de la Comunidad Valenciana-, este problema se explica por la crisis económica de 1975, el Baby-Boom de los sesenta, la falta de relación entre los programas de enseñanza y demanda laboral, el proceso de innovación tecnológica y sus r...

  19. Europe Chapter of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Meeting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    de

    2002-01-01

    The Final Proceedings for Europe Chapter of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Meeting, 7 November 2001 - 9 November 2001 This is an interdisciplinary conference in human factors and ergonomics...

  20. Methodic of payment determination for environment pollution. Chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In the chapter 2 the methodic for determination of payments for environmental impacts from coal thermal power plant including the specifications of enterprises payments for harmful gases discharges into atmosphere and payments for solid wastes disposition is presented

  1. Part I. Chapter IV. Coldness is coming from Wienna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaha, M.

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter author reviewed a political pressure of Austrian government and Austrian legislative assembly on Slovakia before fuel assembly insertion and commissioning of the Unit-1 of the Mochovce NPP. Mission of Walkdown II is described.

  2. Chapter 3: Assessing the Electric System Benefits of Clean Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapter 3 of Assessing the Multiple Benefits of Clean Energy presents detailed information about the energy system, specifically electricity benefits of clean energy, to help policy makers understand how to identify and assess these benefits based upon t

  3. Japanese contributions to IAEA INTOR workshop, phase two A, part 2, chapter XI: concept evolution, chapter XII: design concept, and chapter XIII: operation and test programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomabechi, Ken; Fujisawa, Noboru; Iida, Hiromasa

    1985-07-01

    This report corresponds to Chapters XI, XII, and XIII of Japanese contribution report to IAEA INTOR Workship, Phase Two A, Part 2. In the phase Two A, Part 2 workshop, we have studied critical technical issues and have also assessed scientific and technical data bases. Based on those results, the INTOR design have been modified to upgrade the design concept. The major modification items are related to plasma beta value, plasma operation scenario, reactor size reduction, neutron fluence, tritium producing blanket, and implementation of active control coils. In those chapters, the concept evolution for the design modification and main results are described. (author)

  4. Asymptotic theory of weakly dependent random processes

    CERN Document Server

    Rio, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    Presenting tools to aid understanding of asymptotic theory and weakly dependent processes, this book is devoted to inequalities and limit theorems for sequences of random variables that are strongly mixing in the sense of Rosenblatt, or absolutely regular. The first chapter introduces covariance inequalities under strong mixing or absolute regularity. These covariance inequalities are applied in Chapters 2, 3 and 4 to moment inequalities, rates of convergence in the strong law, and central limit theorems. Chapter 5 concerns coupling. In Chapter 6 new deviation inequalities and new moment inequalities for partial sums via the coupling lemmas of Chapter 5 are derived and applied to the bounded law of the iterated logarithm. Chapters 7 and 8 deal with the theory of empirical processes under weak dependence. Lastly, Chapter 9 describes links between ergodicity, return times and rates of mixing in the case of irreducible Markov chains. Each chapter ends with a set of exercises. The book is an updated and extended ...

  5. Implications of climate and land use change: Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jefferson S.; Murgueitio, Enrique; Calle, Zoraida; Raudsepp-Hearne, Ciara; Stallard, Robert F.; Balvanera, Patricia; Hall, Jefferson S.; Kirn, Vanessa; Yanguas-Fernandez, Estrella

    2015-01-01

    This chapter relates ecosystem services to climate change and land use. The bulk of the chapter focuses on ecosystem services and steepland land use in the humid Neotropics – what is lost with land-cover changed, and what is gained with various types of restoration that are sustainable given private ownership. Many case studies are presented later in the white paper. The USGS contribution relates to climate change and the role of extreme weather events in land-use planning.

  6. Catch rate of juveniles Ethamatosa fimbriata , Sardinella maderensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We collected data on the quantity of juvenile fish and the daily duration of fishing trips in four landing sites over a two-week period Bernoulli random variables and properties of uniform distribution were used to analyze the data. Catch rates of juveniles Ethamatosa fimbriata, Sardinella maderensis, and Brachydeuterus ...

  7. Spatial dynamics of juvenile anchovy in the Bay of Biscay

    KAUST Repository

    Boyra, Guillermo; Peñ a, Marian; Cotano, Unai; Irigoien, Xabier; Rubio, Anna; Nogueira, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    In autumn 2009, the implementation of two successive acoustic surveys targeting juvenile anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) in the Bay of Biscay allowed us to monitor the changes in the spatial distribution and aggregation patterns of juveniles of this species during 45 days under fairly stable meteorological conditions. Juvenile anchovy changed its biological condition and behavior in a different manner in two distinct areas. In the Spanish sector, the juveniles migrated 20 nautical miles (n.mi.) towards the coast, but they remained on the shelf and near the surface during the whole surveyed period. As the advance towards the shelf break progressed, their area of distribution decreased, their density increased and the juveniles spread in fewer but heavier shoals. In the French sector, the juveniles also migrated from slope waters towards the coast at a similar velocity, but they crossed the shelf break into the continental shelf, where they increased their mean depth significantly until gradually adopting the typical nyctemeral migrations of adult anchovy. The mean length of the juveniles that adopted the nyctemeral migrations was significantly higher than that of the juveniles remaining at the surface, suggesting that body size is relevant to accomplish this change. Besides, the stronger temperature gradients between the shelf and oceanic waters in the Spanish sector, favored by a narrow shelf, may have acted as a barrier influencing the distinct observed spatial patterns in the two areas. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd

  8. Psychotic Symptomatology in a Juvenile Court Clinic Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Dorothy Otnow; And Others

    1973-01-01

    This report indicating an unexpectedly high incidence of psychotic symptomatology in a population of cases referred to the Juvenile Court Psychiatric Clinic of the Second District of Connecticut, manifests the necessity for juvenile court systems to be made aware of the possibility of psychosis in our delinquent populations. (CS)

  9. Spatial dynamics of juvenile anchovy in the Bay of Biscay

    KAUST Repository

    Boyra, Guillermo

    2016-07-08

    In autumn 2009, the implementation of two successive acoustic surveys targeting juvenile anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) in the Bay of Biscay allowed us to monitor the changes in the spatial distribution and aggregation patterns of juveniles of this species during 45 days under fairly stable meteorological conditions. Juvenile anchovy changed its biological condition and behavior in a different manner in two distinct areas. In the Spanish sector, the juveniles migrated 20 nautical miles (n.mi.) towards the coast, but they remained on the shelf and near the surface during the whole surveyed period. As the advance towards the shelf break progressed, their area of distribution decreased, their density increased and the juveniles spread in fewer but heavier shoals. In the French sector, the juveniles also migrated from slope waters towards the coast at a similar velocity, but they crossed the shelf break into the continental shelf, where they increased their mean depth significantly until gradually adopting the typical nyctemeral migrations of adult anchovy. The mean length of the juveniles that adopted the nyctemeral migrations was significantly higher than that of the juveniles remaining at the surface, suggesting that body size is relevant to accomplish this change. Besides, the stronger temperature gradients between the shelf and oceanic waters in the Spanish sector, favored by a narrow shelf, may have acted as a barrier influencing the distinct observed spatial patterns in the two areas. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd

  10. Social skills training for juvenile delinquents : post-treatment changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Stouwe, Trudy; Asscher, Jessica J.; Hoeve, Machteld; van der Laan, Peter H.; Stams, Geert Jan J M

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the post-treatment effectiveness of an outpatient, individual social skills training for juvenile delinquents in the Netherlands and to conduct moderator tests for age, gender, ethnicity, and risk of reoffending. Methods: The sample consisted of juveniles who received Tools4U,

  11. Social Skills Training for Juvenile Delinquents: Post-Treatment Changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Stouwe, Trudy; Asscher, J.J.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Hoeve, M.; van der Laan, Peter H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the post-treatment effectiveness of an outpatient, individual social skills training for juvenile delinquents in the Netherlands and to conduct moderator tests for age, gender, ethnicity, and risk of reoffending. Methods: The sample consisted of juveniles who received Tools4U,

  12. Social skills training for juvenile delinquents : Post-treatment changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Stouwe, T.; Asscher, J.J.; Hoeve, M.; van der Laan, P.H.; Stams, G.J.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the post-treatment effectiveness of an outpatient, individual social skills training for juvenile delinquents in the Netherlands and to conduct moderator tests for age, gender, ethnicity, and risk of reoffending. Methods The sample consisted of juveniles who received Tools4U, a

  13. Juvenile Dermatomyositis in a Nigerian Girl: a Case Report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Juvenile Dermatomyositis in a Nigerian Girl: a Case Report. MG Mustapha, MG Ashir, AA Mayun, Y Machoco, AB Ibrahim. Abstract. A case of Juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) in a 10 year old Nigerian girl is herein reported to discuss some of the features of the disease and challenges in management of such a rare but ...

  14. The Content Validity of Juvenile Psychopathy: An Empirical Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynam, Donald R.; Derefinko, Karen J.; Caspi, Avshalom; Loeber, Rolf; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the content validity of a juvenile psychopathy measure, the Childhood Psychopathy Scale (CPS; D. R. Lynam, 1997), based on a downward translation of an adult instrument, the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; R. D. Hare, 1991). The CPS was compared with two other indices of juvenile psychopathy: (a) an index derived…

  15. Demographic Prediction of Juvenile Delinquency across and within Delinquency Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Michael D.; Truckenmiller, James L.

    Demographic prediction of juvenile delinquency has been hampered by the heterogeniety of youth samples. In an attempt to correct for sampling bias in predicting juvenile delinquency, 1,689 male and female youths(aged 12 to 19, drawn from a 6 percent systematic, census tract, random sample of Pennsylvania school youths) completed the Youth Needs…

  16. Differential heritability of adult and juvenile antisocial traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, M J; True, W R; Eisen, S A; Goldberg, J; Meyer, J M; Faraone, S V; Eaves, L J; Tsuang, M T

    1995-11-01

    Studies of adult antisocial behavior or criminality usually find genetic factors to be more important than the family environment, whereas studies of delinquency find the family environment to be more important. We compared DSM-III-R antisocial personality disorder symptoms before vs after the age of 15 years within a sample of twins, rather than comparing across studies. We administered the Diagnostic Interview Schedule Version III-revised by telephone to 3226 pairs of male twins from the Vietnam Era Twin Registry. Biometrical modeling was applied to each symptom of antisocial personality disorder and summary measures of juvenile and adult symptoms. Five juvenile symptoms were significantly heritable, and five were significantly influenced by the shared environment. Eight adult symptoms were significantly heritable, and one was significantly influenced by the shared environment. The shared environment explained about six times more variance in juvenile anti-social traits than in adult traits. Shared environmental influences on adult antisocial traits overlapped entirely with those on juvenile traits. Additive genetic factors explained about six times more variance in adult vs juvenile traits. The juvenile genetic determinants overlapped completely with genetic influences on adult traits. The unique environment (plus measurement error) explained the largest proportion of variance in both juvenile and adult antisocial traits. Characteristics of the shared or family environment that promote antisocial behavior during childhood and early adolescence also promote later antisocial behavior, but to a much lesser extent. Genetic causal factors are much more prominent for adult than for juvenile antisocial traits.

  17. Extinguishing All Hope: Life-without-Parole for Juveniles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Sentencing juveniles to life-without-parole (JLWOP) is a practice fraught with ethical dilemmas. Through in-depth interviews with 11 men living sentences of JLWOP, their narratives of their backgrounds and experiences as juveniles were studied. Common themes were identified, and 3 general categories of cases emerged from the narratives. Ethical…

  18. The Juvenile Addiction Risk Rating: Development and Initial Psychometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Michael; Newgent, Rebecca A.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the development and psychometrics of the Juvenile Addiction Risk Rating. The Juvenile Addiction Risk Rating is a brief screening of addiction potential based on 10 risk factors predictive of youth alcohol and drug-related problems that assists examiners in more accurate treatment planning when self-report information is…

  19. Prevention and Firesetting: Juvenile Justice and Intervention Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavkin, Michael L.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the literature on preventing firesetting behavior in preadolescents and adolescents, suggesting the need for policies and programs designed to help juveniles by providing community support and stability. Alternatives to juvenile justice interventions include making changes in the home environment, acquiring a greater sense of self, and…

  20. Dating Violence and Girls in the Juvenile Justice System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Patricia J.; Cheng, An-Lin; Peralez-Dieckmann, Esther; Martinez, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the prevalence and associated behaviors of dating violence among a population of girls in the juvenile justice system. A sample of 590 girls from an urban juvenile justice system completed a questionnaire assessing attitudes and self-efficacy about and occurrence of dating violence. The analysis developed a…