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Sample records for juvenile pacific herring

  1. Distribution of juvenile Pacific herring relative to environmental and geospatial factors in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandoski, Sean; Bishop, Mary Anne

    2018-01-01

    Documenting distribution patterns of juvenile Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) can clarify habitat preferences and provide insight into ecological factors influencing early life survival. However, few analyses relating juvenile Pacific herring density to habitat characteristics have been conducted. We sampled age-0 Pacific herring in nine bays and fjords distributed throughout Alaska's Prince William Sound during November over a 3-year period (2013-2015) and investigated associations between catch rate and habitat covariates using generalized linear mixed models. Our results indicated that the night-time distribution of age-0 Pacific herring in the pelagic environment was influenced by proximity to eelgrass (Zostera marina) beds, salinity, and water depth. Age-0 Pacific herring catch rate was negatively associated with tow depth, with herring favoring shallower water across the range of depths sampled (7.2-35.4 m). In addition, Pacific herring distribution was positively associated with fresher water within the sampled salinity gradient (24.1-32.3 psu) and proximity to eelgrass beds. Seasonal changes in juvenile Pacific herring distribution were investigated by sampling one bay over a seven month period (October-April). Age-0 Pacific herring tended to remain in the inner bay region throughout the seven months, while age-1 Pacific herring had shifted from the inner to the outer bay by spring (March-April). Additionally, catch rate of age-0 Pacific herring in areas where ice breakup had just occurred was higher than in open water, suggesting that age-0 herring preferentially select ice-covered habitats when available. Based on our results we recommend that habitat preferences of age-0 Pacific herring should be considered in the development of Pacific herring year-class strength indices from catch data.

  2. Energetic Cost of Ichthyophonus Infection in Juvenile Pacific Herring (Clupea pallasii)

    OpenAIRE

    Johanna J. Vollenweider; Jake L. Gregg; Ron A. Heintz; Paul K. Hershberger

    2011-01-01

    The energetic costs of fasting and Ichthyophonus infection were measured in juvenile Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) in a lab setting at three temperatures. Infected herring incurred significant energetic costs, the magnitude of which depended on fish condition at the time of infection (fat versus lean). Herring that were fed continually and were in relatively good condition at the time of infection (fat) never stored lipid despite ad libitum feeding. In feeding herrin...

  3. Energetic Cost of Ichthyophonus Infection in Juvenile Pacific Herring (Clupea pallasii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna J. Vollenweider

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The energetic costs of fasting and Ichthyophonus infection were measured in juvenile Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii in a lab setting at three temperatures. Infected herring incurred significant energetic costs, the magnitude of which depended on fish condition at the time of infection (fat versus lean. Herring that were fed continually and were in relatively good condition at the time of infection (fat never stored lipid despite ad libitum feeding. In feeding herring, the energetic cost of infection was a 30% reduction in total energy content relative to controls 52 days post infection. Following food deprivation (lean condition, infection caused an initial delay in the compensatory response of herring. Thirty-one days after re-feeding, the energetic cost of infection in previously-fasted fish was a 32% reduction in total energy content relative to controls. Body composition of infected herring subsequently recovered to some degree, though infected herring never attained the same energy content as their continuously fed counterparts. Fifty-two days after re-feeding, the energetic cost of infection in previously-fasted fish was a 6% reduction in total energy content relative to controls. The greatest impacts of infection occurred in colder temperatures, suggesting Ichthyophonus-induced reductions in body condition may have greater consequences in the northern extent of herring's range, where juveniles use most of their energy reserves to survive their first winter.

  4. Energetic Cost of Ichthyophonus Infection in Juvenile Pacific Herring (Clupea pallasii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollenweider, Johanna J; Gregg, Jake L; Heintz, Ron A; Hershberger, Paul K

    2011-01-01

    The energetic costs of fasting and Ichthyophonus infection were measured in juvenile Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) in a lab setting at three temperatures. Infected herring incurred significant energetic costs, the magnitude of which depended on fish condition at the time of infection (fat versus lean). Herring that were fed continually and were in relatively good condition at the time of infection (fat) never stored lipid despite ad libitum feeding. In feeding herring, the energetic cost of infection was a 30% reduction in total energy content relative to controls 52 days post infection. Following food deprivation (lean condition), infection caused an initial delay in the compensatory response of herring. Thirty-one days after re-feeding, the energetic cost of infection in previously-fasted fish was a 32% reduction in total energy content relative to controls. Body composition of infected herring subsequently recovered to some degree, though infected herring never attained the same energy content as their continuously fed counterparts. Fifty-two days after re-feeding, the energetic cost of infection in previously-fasted fish was a 6% reduction in total energy content relative to controls. The greatest impacts of infection occurred in colder temperatures, suggesting Ichthyophonus-induced reductions in body condition may have greater consequences in the northern extent of herring's range, where juveniles use most of their energy reserves to survive their first winter.

  5. Viral tropism and pathology associated with viral hemorrhagic septicemia in larval and juvenile Pacific herring

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    Lovy, Jan; Lewis, N.L.; Hershberger, P.K.; Bennett, W.; Meyers, T.R.; Garver, K.A.

    2012-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) genotype IVa causes mass mortality in wild Pacific herring, a species of economic value, in the Northeast Pacific Ocean. Young of the year herring are particularly susceptible and can be carriers of the virus. To understand its pathogenesis, tissue and cellular tropisms of VHSV in larval and juvenile Pacific herring were investigated with immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy, and viral tissue titer. In larval herring, early viral tropism for epithelial tissues (6d post-exposure) was indicated by foci of epidermal thickening that contained heavy concentrations of virus. This was followed by a cellular tropism for fibroblasts within the fin bases and the dermis, but expanded to cells of the kidney, liver, pancreas, gastrointestinal tract and meninges in the brain. Among wild juvenile herring that underwent a VHS epizootic in the laboratory, the disease was characterized by acute and chronic phases of death. Fish that died during the acute phase had systemic infections in tissues including the submucosa of the gastrointestinal tract, spleen, kidney, liver, and meninges. The disease then transitioned into a chronic phase that was characterized by the appearance of neurological signs including erratic and corkscrew swimming and darkening of the dorsal skin. During the chronic phase viral persistence occurred in nervous tissues including meninges and brain parenchymal cells and in one case in peripheral nerves, while virus was mostly cleared from the other tissues. The results demonstrate the varying VHSV tropisms dependent on the timing of infection and the importance of neural tissues for the persistence and perpetuation of chronic infections in Pacific herring.

  6. Larval and juvenile Pacific herring Clupea pallasii are not susceptible to infectious hematopoietic necrosis under laboratory conditions

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    Hart, L.M.; Traxler, G.S.; Garver, K.A.; Richard, J.; Gregg, J.L.; Grady, C.A.; Kurath, G.; Hershberger, P.K.

    2011-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) leads to periodic epidemics among certain wild and farmed fish species of the Northeast (NE) Pacific. The source of the IHN virus (IHNV) that initiates these outbreaks remains unknown; however, a leading hypothesis involves viral persistence in marine host species such as Pacific herring Clupea pallasii. Under laboratory conditions we exposed specific pathogen-free (SPF) larval and juvenile Pacific herring to 103 to 104 plaque-forming units (pfu) of IHNV ml–1 by waterborne immersion. Cumulative mortalities among exposed groups were not significantly different from those of negative control groups. After waterborne exposure, IHNV was transiently recovered from the tissues of larvae but absent in tissues of juveniles. Additionally, no evidence of viral shedding was detected in the tank water containing exposed juveniles. After intraperitoneal (IP) injection of IHNV in juvenile herring with 103 pfu, IHNV was recovered from the tissues of sub-sampled individuals for only the first 5 d post-exposure. The lack of susceptibility to overt disease and transient levels of IHNV in the tissues of exposed fish indicate that Pacific herring do not likely serve a major epizootiological role in perpetuation of IHNV among free-ranging sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka and farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in the NE Pacific.

  7. Spatial and temporal variation in winter condition of juvenile Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) in Prince William Sound, Alaska: Oceanographic exchange with the Gulf of Alaska

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    Gorman, Kristen B.; Kline, Thomas C.; Roberts, Megan E.; Sewall, Fletcher F.; Heintz, Ron A.; Pegau, W. Scott

    2018-01-01

    Spatial variability in early and late winter measures of whole body energy density of juvenile (age-0) Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) of Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska was examined over nine years of study. Pacific herring in this region remain considered as an injured resource over the 25 years following the Exxon Valdez oil spill, however factors responsible for the lack of recovery by herring in PWS are a source of ongoing debate. Given the species' key ecological role in energy transfer to higher predators, and its economic role in a historical commercial fishery within the region, significant research effort has focused on understanding environmental factors that shape nutritional processes and the quality of these young forage fish. During November (early winter), factors such as juvenile herring body size, hydrological region of PWS, year, and the interaction between carbon (δ13C‧) or nitrogen (δ15N) stable isotope signature and hydrological region were all important predictors of juvenile herring energy density. In particular, analyses indicated that in the northern and western regions of PWS, juvenile herring with more depleted δ13C‧ values (which reflect a Gulf of Alaska carbon source) were more energy dense. Results suggest that intrusion of water derived from the Gulf of Alaska enhances the condition of age-0 herring possibly through alterations in zooplankton community structure and abundance, particularly in the northern and western regions of PWS in the fall, which is consistent with regional circulation. During March (late winter), factors such as juvenile herring body size, year, and the interaction between δ13C‧ or δ15N isotope signature and year were all important predictors of juvenile herring energy density. Results differed for early and late winter regarding the interaction between stable isotope signatures and region or year, suggesting important seasonal aspects of circulation contribute to variation in PWS juvenile

  8. Is disease an important mortality factor for Pacific herring?

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    Hershberger, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Marine pelagic forage fishes, including sardines, anchovies, and herring, undergo large oscillations in population abundance. Although over-fishing can have a dramatic impact in reducing population size, this anthropogenic perturbation cannot fully account for all population declines because natural oscillations in marine pelagic fish biomasses occurred prior to the onset of commercial fishing. Among the herring metapopulation in Puget Sound / Straight of Georgia, the mean estimated annual mortality, exclusive of commercial fishing, increased from 20% in the late 1970’s and early 1980’s to 64-87% during 1996-1999. This natural mortality affects primarily the older age cohorts and resulted in recent decreased median ages of adult herring from age 4-6 cohorts to age 2-3 cohorts that die prior to iteroparous spawning. Surveys of wild herring from the region indicate that the protozoan parasite Ichthyophonus sp., is currently ubiquitous among Pacific herring populations in Washington and British Columbia, and prevalence of infection increase directly with herring age, from 12% among juveniles to 58% among the underrepresented age 6+ cohorts. Ichthyophonus can be highly pathogenic to immunologically naïve Pacific herring, causing 80% mortality 2 mo. after exposure in the laboratory. Current laboratory-based studies are underway to determine whether natural Ichthyophonus infections are terminal for the host, and whether these infections account for the decreasing median age of wild Pacific herring populations in recent years.

  9. The parasite Ichthyophonus sp. in Pacific herring from the coastal NE Pacific

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    Hershberger, Paul K.; Gregg, Jacob L.; Hart, Lucas M.; Moffitt, Steve; Brenner, Richard L.; Stick, K.; Coonradt, Eric; Otis, E. O.; Vollenweider, Johanna J.; Garver, Kyle A.; Lovy, Jan; Meyers, T.R.

    2016-01-01

    The protistan parasite Ichthyophonus occurred in populations of Pacific herring Clupea pallasii Valenciennes throughout coastal areas of the NE Pacific, ranging from Puget Sound, WA north to the Gulf of Alaska, AK. Infection prevalence in local Pacific herring stocks varied seasonally and annually, and a general pattern of increasing prevalence with host size and/or age persisted throughout the NE Pacific. An exception to this zoographic pattern occurred among a group of juvenile, age 1+ year Pacific herring from Cordova Harbor, AK in June 2010, which demonstrated an unusually high infection prevalence of 35%. Reasons for this anomaly were hypothesized to involve anthropogenic influences that resulted in locally elevated infection pressures. Interannual declines in infection prevalence from some populations (e.g. Lower Cook Inlet, AK; from 20–32% in 2007 to 0–3% during 2009–13) or from the largest size cohorts of other populations (e.g. Sitka Sound, AK; from 62.5% in 2007 to 19.6% in 2013) were likely a reflection of selective mortality among the infected cohorts. All available information for Ichthyophonus in the NE Pacific, including broad geographic range, low host specificity and presence in archived Pacific herring tissue samples dating to the 1980s, indicate a long-standing host–pathogen relationship.

  10. The parasite Ichthyophonus sp. in Pacific herring from the coastal NE Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, P K; Gregg, J L; Hart, L M; Moffitt, S; Brenner, R; Stick, K; Coonradt, E; Otis, E O; Vollenweider, J J; Garver, K A; Lovy, J; Meyers, T R

    2016-04-01

    The protistan parasite Ichthyophonus occurred in populations of Pacific herring Clupea pallasii Valenciennes throughout coastal areas of the NE Pacific, ranging from Puget Sound, WA north to the Gulf of Alaska, AK. Infection prevalence in local Pacific herring stocks varied seasonally and annually, and a general pattern of increasing prevalence with host size and/or age persisted throughout the NE Pacific. An exception to this zoographic pattern occurred among a group of juvenile, age 1+ year Pacific herring from Cordova Harbor, AK in June 2010, which demonstrated an unusually high infection prevalence of 35%. Reasons for this anomaly were hypothesized to involve anthropogenic influences that resulted in locally elevated infection pressures. Interannual declines in infection prevalence from some populations (e.g. Lower Cook Inlet, AK; from 20-32% in 2007 to 0-3% during 2009-13) or from the largest size cohorts of other populations (e.g. Sitka Sound, AK; from 62.5% in 2007 to 19.6% in 2013) were likely a reflection of selective mortality among the infected cohorts. All available information for Ichthyophonus in the NE Pacific, including broad geographic range, low host specificity and presence in archived Pacific herring tissue samples dating to the 1980s, indicate a long-standing host-pathogen relationship. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Infecting Pacific Herring with Ichthyophonus sp. in the laboratory

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    Hershberger, Paul; Hart, Lucas; Mackenzie, Ashley; Yanney, M.L.; Conway, Carla M.; Elliott, Diane G.

    2015-01-01

    The protistan parasite Ichthyophonus sp. occurs in coastal populations of Pacific Herring Clupea pallasii throughout the northeast Pacific region, but the route(s) by which these planktivorous fish become infected is unknown. Several methods for establishing Ichthyophonus infections in laboratory challenges were examined. Infections were most effectively established after intraperitoneal (IP) injections with suspended parasite isolates from culture or after repeated feedings with infected fish tissues. Among groups that were offered the infected tissues, infection prevalence was greater after multiple feedings (65%) than after a single feeding (5%). Additionally, among groups that were exposed to parasite suspensions prepared from culture isolates, infection prevalence was greater after exposure by IP injection (74%) than after exposure via gastric intubation (12%); the flushing of parasite suspensions over the gills did not lead to infections in any of the experimental fish. Although the consumption of infected fish tissues is unlikely to be the primary route of Ichthyophonus sp. transmission in wild populations of Pacific Herring, this route may contribute to abnormally high infection prevalence in areas where juveniles have access to infected offal.

  12. Infecting Pacific Herring with Ichthyophonus sp. in the Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, P K; Hart, L M; MacKenzie, A H; Yanney, M L; Conway, C M; Elliott, D G

    2015-12-01

    The protistan parasite Ichthyophonus sp. occurs in coastal populations of Pacific Herring Clupea pallasii throughout the northeast Pacific region, but the route(s) by which these planktivorous fish become infected is unknown. Several methods for establishing Ichthyophonus infections in laboratory challenges were examined. Infections were most effectively established after intraperitoneal (IP) injections with suspended parasite isolates from culture or after repeated feedings with infected fish tissues. Among groups that were offered the infected tissues, infection prevalence was greater after multiple feedings (65%) than after a single feeding (5%). Additionally, among groups that were exposed to parasite suspensions prepared from culture isolates, infection prevalence was greater after exposure by IP injection (74%) than after exposure via gastric intubation (12%); the flushing of parasite suspensions over the gills did not lead to infections in any of the experimental fish. Although the consumption of infected fish tissues is unlikely to be the primary route of Ichthyophonus sp. transmission in wild populations of Pacific Herring, this route may contribute to abnormally high infection prevalence in areas where juveniles have access to infected offal.

  13. Incidence of Ichthyophonus hoferi in Puget Sound fishes and its increase with age of Pacific herring

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    Hershberger, P.K.; Stick, K.; Bui, B.; Carroll, C.; Fall, B.; Mork, C.; Perry, J.A.; Sweeney, E.; Wittouck, J.; Winton, J.; Kocan, R.

    2002-01-01

    A recent decrease in the mean age of adult Pacific herring Clupea pallasi in Puget Sound was associated with a high prevalence of Ichthyophonus hoferi, a protistan parasite that can be highly pathogenic to Pacific herring. In Puget Sound, high intensities of I. hoferiinfection may be maintained in older cohorts of Pacific herring because the prevalence ofI. hoferi increased with age from 12% among juveniles to 58% among the oldest, age-6 and older cohorts. Low intensities of I. hoferi infection in the region may be maintained in alternative fish hosts, such as surf smelt Hypomesus pretiosus, Puget Sound rockfishSebastes emphaeus, Pacific tomcod Microgadus proximus, and speckled sanddabCithanichthys stigmaeus.

  14. Empirically based models of oceanographic and biological influences on Pacific Herring recruitment in Prince William Sound

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    Sewall, Fletcher; Norcross, Brenda; Mueter, Franz; Heintz, Ron

    2018-01-01

    Abundances of small pelagic fish can change dramatically over time and are difficult to forecast, partially due to variable numbers of fish that annually mature and recruit to the spawning population. Recruitment strength of age-3 Pacific Herring (Clupea pallasii) in Prince William Sound, Alaska, is estimated in an age-structured model framework as a function of spawning stock biomass via a Ricker stock-recruitment model, and forecasted using the 10-year median recruitment estimates. However, stock size has little influence on subsequent numbers of recruits. This study evaluated the usefulness of herring recruitment models that incorporate oceanographic and biological variables. Results indicated herring recruitment estimates were significantly improved by modifying the standard Ricker model to include an index of young-of-the-year (YOY) Walleye Pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus) abundance. The positive relationship between herring recruits-per-spawner and YOY pollock abundance has persisted through three decades, including the herring stock crash of the early 1990s. Including sea surface temperature, primary productivity, and additional predator or competitor abundances singly or in combination did not improve model performance. We suggest that synchrony of juvenile herring and pollock survival may be caused by increased abundance of their zooplankton prey, or high juvenile pollock abundance may promote prey switching and satiation of predators. Regardless of the mechanism, the relationship has practical application to herring recruitment forecasting, and serves as an example of incorporating ecosystem components into a stock assessment model.

  15. Are life histories of Norwegian fjord herring populations of Pacific ancestry similar to those of Atlantic or Pacific herring?

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    Mikkelsen, Nina; Pedersen, Torstein; dos Santos Schmidt, Thassya Christina; Falk-Petersen, Inger-Britt; Slotte, Aril

    2018-04-01

    Herring from two unexploited fjord populations, Lake Rossfjord (LRH, n = 100) and Balsfjord (BFH, n = 420) in northern Norway, were sampled in 2014 and 2015. Life history characteristics were analysed and compared to the oceanic Norwegian spring-spawning herring (NSSH), and other Atlantic and Pacific herring stocks. Genetic studies have shown that LRH and BFH are ancestors evolved from Pacific herring that hybridized with Atlantic herring. This study shows that both LRH and BFH mature at a relatively early age, at 2-3 years and ca. 4 years respectively, compared to ca. 5 years for NSSH. The spawning stocks of LRH and BFH consist of small fish and contain relatively few age classes. Both fjord populations have slow growth after sexual maturity; LRH has a very low asymptotic length (L∞ = 19.8 cm), while that of BFH is higher (L∞ of 28.5 cm); both these values being lower than that of NSSH (L∞ of ca. 37 cm). The somatic relative fecundity of LRH is 176.6 oocytes g- 1, while the somatic relative fecundity of recruit and repeat BFH spawners is 152.4 and 183.1 oocytes g- 1, respectively. These estimates are lower than those for NSSH and other Atlantic herring fjord populations, but comparable with other Pacific herring. Due to the smaller body sizes of the spawners in the LRH and BFH populations, absolute fecundity is much lower than in NSSH. The gonadosomatic indices of prespawning fish are similar in LRH and BFH, being slightly higher compared to the NSSH, but lower than values reported for Pacific herring. The natural mortality rates of LRH and BFH (M = 0.64 year- 1 and M = 0.76 year- 1, respectively) are much higher than in NSSH (M = 0.15 year- 1) and most other Atlantic herring populations, except the Lusterfjord herring. However, these high mortality rates are similar to those of several Pacific herring populations. It is concluded that LRH and BFH show low somatic growth and high natural mortality rate. These life history characteristics differ from those of

  16. Population diversity in Pacific herring of the Puget Sound, USA.

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    Siple, Margaret C; Francis, Tessa B

    2016-01-01

    Demographic, functional, or habitat diversity can confer stability on populations via portfolio effects (PEs) that integrate across multiple ecological responses and buffer against environmental impacts. The prevalence of these PEs in aquatic organisms is as yet unknown, and can be difficult to quantify; however, understanding mechanisms that stabilize populations in the face of environmental change is a key concern in ecology. Here, we examine PEs in Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) in Puget Sound (USA) using a 40-year time series of biomass data for 19 distinct spawning population units collected using two survey types. Multivariate auto-regressive state-space models show independent dynamics among spawning subpopulations, suggesting that variation in herring production is partially driven by local effects at spawning grounds or during the earliest life history stages. This independence at the subpopulation level confers a stabilizing effect on the overall Puget Sound spawning stock, with herring being as much as three times more stable in the face of environmental perturbation than a single population unit of the same size. Herring populations within Puget Sound are highly asynchronous but share a common negative growth rate and may be influenced by the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. The biocomplexity in the herring stock shown here demonstrates that preserving spatial and demographic diversity can increase the stability of this herring population and its availability as a resource for consumers.

  17. Pacific and Atlantic herring produce burst pulse sounds.

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    Wilson, Ben; Batty, Robert S; Dill, Lawrence M

    2004-02-07

    The commercial importance of Pacific and Atlantic herring (Clupea pallasii and Clupea harengus) has ensured that much of their biology has received attention. However, their sound production remains poorly studied. We describe the sounds made by captive wild-caught herring. Pacific herring produce distinctive bursts of pulses, termed Fast Repetitive Tick (FRT) sounds. These trains of broadband pulses (1.7-22 kHz) lasted between 0.6 s and 7.6 s. Most were produced at night; feeding regime did not affect their frequency, and fish produced FRT sounds without direct access to the air. Digestive gas or gulped air transfer to the swim bladder, therefore, do not appear to be responsible for FRT sound generation. Atlantic herring also produce FRT sounds, and video analysis showed an association with bubble expulsion from the anal duct region (i.e. from the gut or swim bladder). To the best of the authors' knowledge, sound production by such means has not previously been described. The function(s) of these sounds are unknown, but as the per capita rates of sound production by fish at higher densities were greater, social mediation appears likely. These sounds may have consequences for our understanding of herring behaviour and the effects of noise pollution.

  18. Technology of puddings made of Pacific herring milt

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    Dement'eva N. V.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The technology of culinary products (puddings of finely ground Pacific herring milt has been experimentally proved. The standard physics and chemical, organoleptic, microbiological methods for food analysis have been used. The main raw material is frozen milt of Pacific herring. Fresh eggs, drinking cream, berries (cranberries, raspberries, strawberries, etc. frozen and fresh, sugar, and soda have been used as additional materials. The ratio of main components in production of puddings from Pacific herring milt is: milt 35–40 %, cream 20–25 %, eggs 15–22 %. The recipes of sweet puddings of milt with the addition of berries have been developed. The effect of duration of whipping protein mass on puddings' organoleptic parameters has been found experimentally. The recommended duration of whipping is from 3 to 5 minutes, this increases the amount of pudding mass lifting after the whipping of not less than 40 % of the original and provides the necessary structure in the finished product after heat treatment. The rational heat treatment of puddings' baking has been substantiated – at the temperature of 150 °C, with the duration of heat treatment for 20 minutes, which provides high organoleptic characteristics and safety of the finished product. The recommended shelf life of the finished product of not more than 72 hours at the temperature of 2–6 °C has been determined. On the basis of the research the technology of new kinds of culinary fish products – puddings of Pacific herring milt allowing obtain culinary products with high organoleptic characteristics – has been developed. The unique chemical composition combined (milk, eggs, cream and berries provides a basis for classification of new products as functional food. Additional involvement in food production little used milt of herring species of fish enables to expand the range of fish culinary products and increase the rate of food use of water origin raw material.

  19. Passive immunization of Pacific herring against viral hemorrhagic septicemia.

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    Hershberger, P.K.; Gregg, J.L.; Grady, C.A.; LaPatra, S.E.; Winton, J.R.

    2011-01-01

    The plasma of Pacific herring Clupea pallasii that survived laboratory-induced viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) epizootics contained humoral substances that, when injected into naive animals, conferred passive immunity against the disease. Among groups exposed to viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), injection of donor plasma from VHS survivors resulted in significantly greater survival (50%) and significantly lower tissue titers (1.5 x 10(5) plaque-forming units [PFU]/g) than the injection of plasma from VHSV-naive donors (6% survival; 3.7 x 10(6) PFU/g). Additionally, the magnitude of the protective immune response increased during the postexposure period; plasma that was collected from survivors at 123 d postexposure (931 degree-days) provided greater protection than plasma collected from survivors at 60 d postexposure (409 degree-days). These results provide proof of concept that the VHSV exposure history of Pacific herring populations can be determined post hoc; furthermore, the results can be used as the foundation for developing additional high-throughput diagnostic techniques that may be effective at quantifying herd immunity and forecasting the potential for future VHS epizootics in populations of wild Pacific herring.

  20. Migration patterns of post-spawning Pacific herring in a subarctic sound

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    Bishop, Mary Anne; Eiler, John H.

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the distribution of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) can be challenging because spawning, feeding and overwintering may take place in different areas separated by 1000s of kilometers. Along the northern Gulf of Alaska, Pacific herring movements after spring spawning are largely unknown. During the fall and spring, herring have been seen moving from the Gulf of Alaska into Prince William Sound, a large embayment, suggesting that fish spawning in the Sound migrate out into the Gulf of Alaska. We acoustic-tagged 69 adult herring on spawning grounds in Prince William Sound during April 2013 to determine seasonal migratory patterns. We monitored departures from the spawning grounds as well as herring arrivals and movements between the major entrances connecting Prince William Sound and the Gulf of Alaska. Departures of herring from the spawning grounds coincided with cessation of major spawning events in the immediate area. After spawning, 43 of 69 tagged herring (62%) moved to the entrances of Prince William Sound over a span of 104 d, although most fish arrived within 10 d of their departure from the spawning grounds. A large proportion remained in these areas until mid-June, most likely foraging on the seasonal bloom of large, Neocalanus copepods. Pulses of tagged herring detected during September and October at Montague Strait suggest that some herring returned from the Gulf of Alaska. Intermittent detections at Montague Strait and the Port Bainbridge passages from September through early January (when the transmitters expired) indicate that herring schools are highly mobile and are overwintering in this area. The pattern of detections at the entrances to Prince William Sound suggest that some herring remain in the Gulf of Alaska until late winter. The results of this study confirm the connectivity between local herring stocks in Prince William Sound and the Gulf of Alaska.

  1. Evaluating signals of oil spill impacts, climate, and species interactions in Pacific herring and Pacific salmon populations in Prince William Sound and Copper River, Alaska.

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    Eric J Ward

    Full Text Available The Exxon Valdez oil spill occurred in March 1989 in Prince William Sound, Alaska, and was one of the worst environmental disasters on record in the United States. Despite long-term data collection over the nearly three decades since the spill, tremendous uncertainty remains as to how significantly the spill affected fishery resources. Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii and some wild Pacific salmon populations (Oncorhynchus spp. in Prince William Sound declined in the early 1990s, and have not returned to the population sizes observed in the 1980s. Discerning if, or how much of, this decline resulted from the oil spill has been difficult because a number of other physical and ecological drivers are confounded temporally with the spill; some of these drivers include environmental variability or changing climate regimes, increased production of hatchery salmon in the region, and increases in populations of potential predators. Using data pre- and post-spill, we applied time-series methods to evaluate support for whether and how herring and salmon productivity has been affected by each of five drivers: (1 density dependence, (2 the EVOS event, (3 changing environmental conditions, (4 interspecific competition on juvenile fish, and (5 predation and competition from adult fish or, in the case of herring, humpback whales. Our results showed support for intraspecific density-dependent effects in herring, sockeye, and Chinook salmon, with little overall support for an oil spill effect. Of the salmon species, the largest driver was the negative impact of adult pink salmon returns on sockeye salmon productivity. Herring productivity was most strongly affected by changing environmental conditions; specifically, freshwater discharge into the Gulf of Alaska was linked to a series of recruitment failures-before, during, and after EVOS. These results highlight the need to better understand long terms impacts of pink salmon on food webs, as well as the

  2. Novel species interactions: American black bears respond to Pacific herring spawn.

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    Fox, Caroline Hazel; Paquet, Paul Charles; Reimchen, Thomas Edward

    2015-05-26

    In addition to the decline and extinction of the world's species, the decline and eventual loss of species interactions is one of the major consequences of the biodiversity crisis. On the Pacific coast of North America, diminished runs of salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) drive numerous marine-terrestrial interactions, many of which have been intensively studied, but marine-terrestrial interactions driven by other species remain relatively unknown. Bears (Ursus spp.) are major vectors of salmon into terrestrial ecosystems, but their participation in other cross-ecosystem interactions is similarly poorly described. Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii), a migratory forage fish in coastal marine ecosystems of the North Pacific Ocean and the dominant forage fish in British Columbia (BC), spawn in nearshore subtidal and intertidal zones. Spawn resources (eggs, milt, and spawning adults) at these events are available to coastal predators and scavengers, including terrestrial species. In this study, we investigated the interaction between American black bears (Ursus americanus) and Pacific herring at spawn events in Quatsino Sound, BC, Canada. Using remote cameras to monitor bear activity (1,467 camera days, 29 sites, years 2010-2012) in supratidal and intertidal zones and a machine learning approach, we determined that the quantity of Pacific herring eggs in supratidal and intertidal zones was a leading predictor of black bear activity, with bears positively responding to increasing herring egg masses. Other important predictors included day of the year and Talitrid amphipod (Traskorchestia spp.) mass. A complementary analysis of black bear scats indicated that Pacific herring egg mass was the highest ranked predictor of egg consumption by bears. Pacific herring eggs constituted a substantial yet variable component of the early springtime diet of black bears in Quatsino Sound (frequency of occurrence 0-34%; estimated dietary content 0-63%). Other major dietary items included

  3. Histopathology of adult Pacific herring in Prince William Sound, Alaska, after the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marty, G. S.; Okihiro, M. S.; Hinton, D. E.; Brown, E. D.; Hanes, D.

    1999-01-01

    The histopathology of Pacific herring sampled from oiled sites in Prince William Sound, Alaska, three weeks after the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, is discussed. All samples showed multifocal hepatic necrosis and significantly increased tissue concentrations of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). In contrast, Pacific herring from reference sites in 1989 and from all sites in 1990 and 1991 did not have hepatic necrosis or increase PAH concentrations. Naphthalenes were the predominant PAH in all tissue samples. The development of hepatic necrosis and the predominance of naphthalenes in samples from 1989 is considered consistent with results obtained from recent laboratory studies indicating that crude oil exposure resulted in dose-dependent expression of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV). It was concluded that adult Pacific herring in Prince William Sound were likely exposed to Exxon Valdez oil in April 1989. Because Pacific herring near spawning condition in early spring are in a state of physiological stress, the added stress of oil exposure in 1989 could reasonably have led to expression of VHSV in these fish. The findings suggest that the immediate response to future large toxic spills should include consideration of the potential interaction of multiple stressors in exposed individuals. 29 refs., 7 tabs., 1 fig

  4. Pathogenecity of Ichthyophonus hoferi for laboratory-reared Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi) and its early appearance in wild Puget Sound herring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocan, R.; Hershberger, P.; Mehl, T.; Elder, N.; Bradley, M.; Wildermuth, D.; Stick, K.

    1999-01-01

    Laboratory-reared pathogen-free Pacific herring were exposed to pure cultures of Ichthyophonus hoferi, and reproduced the disease seen in naturally infected fish--thus fulfilling Koch's Postulates. Pathogen-free herring used in this study were reared from artificially spawned eggs incubated in filtered, UV-sterilized seawater, eliminating the variables associated with multiple infections, which are common in wild herring. Wild free-ranging herring were captured monthly from June through October by dip net from 'herring balls' located in the northern Puget Sound. I. hoferi infections were identified in these fish soon after metamorphoses, about 4 mo post-hatch. The prevalence increased from 5 to 6% in 0-yr fish to 24% in 1-yr-old fish to 50 to 70% in fish over 2 yr old, with no associated increase in mortality. The route of natural transmission to wild herring was not determined, but carnivorous fish became infected and died when they were experimentally fed tissues infected with the organism. In vitro culture of tissues was the most sensitive method for identifying both clinical and subclinical infections.

  5. Pathogenicity of Ichthyophonus hoferi for laboratory-reared Pacific herring Clupea pallasi and its early appearance in wild Puget Sound herring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocan, R M; Hershberger, P; Mehl, T; Elder, N; Bradley, M; Wildermuth, D; Stick, K

    1999-01-07

    Laboratory-reared pathogen-free Pacific herring were exposed to pure cultures of Ichthyophonus hoferi, and reproduced the disease seen in naturally infected fish--thus fulfilling Koch's Postulates. Pathogen-free herring used in this study were reared from artificially spawned eggs incubated in filtered, UV-sterilized seawater, eliminating the variables associated with multiple infections, which are common in wild herring. Wild free-ranging herring were captured monthly from June through October by dip net from 'herring balls' located in the northern Puget Sound. I. hoferi infections were identified in these fish soon after metamorphoses, about 4 mo post-hatch. The prevalence increased from 5 to 6% in 0-yr fish to 24% in 1-yr-old fish to 50 to 70% in fish over 2 yr old, with no associated increase in mortality. The route of natural transmission to wild herring was not determined, but carnivorous fish became infected and died when they were experimentally fed tissues infected with the organism. In vitro culture of tissues was the most sensitive method for identifying both clinical and subclinical infections.

  6. Pathogenicity of Ichthyophonus hoferi for laboratory-reared Pacific herring Clupea pallasi and its early appearance in wild Puget Sound herring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocan, R.M.; Hershberger, P.; Mehl, T.; Elder, N.; Bradley, M.; Wildermuth, D.; Stick, K.

    1999-01-01

    Laboratory-reared pathogen-free Pacific herring were exposed to pure cultures of Ichthyophonus hoferi, and reproduced the disease seen in naturally infected fish - thus fulfilling Koch's Postulates. Pathogen-free herring used in this study were reared from artificially spawned eggs incubated in filtered, UV-sterilized seawater, eliminating the variables associated with multiple infections, which are common in wild herring. Wild free-ranging herring were captured monthly from June through October by dip net from 'herring balls' located in the northern Puget Sound. I. hoferi infections were identified in these fish soon after metamorphoses, about 4 mo post-hatch. The prevalence increased from 5 to 6% in 0-yr fish to 24% in 1-yr-old fish to 50 to 70% in fish over 2 yr old, with no associated increase in mortality. The route of natural transmission to wild herring was not determined, but carnivorous fish became infected and died when they were experimentally fed tissues infected with the organism. In vitro culture of tissues was the most sensitive method for identifying both clinical and subclinical infections.

  7. Molecular identification of erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV) from the blood of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmenegger, Eveline J.; Glenn, Jolene A.; Winton, James R.; Batts, William N.; Gregg, Jacob L.; Hershberger, Paul K.

    2014-01-01

    Viral erythrocytic necrosis (VEN) is a condition affecting the red blood cells of more than 20 species of marine and anadromous fishes in the North Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans. Among populations of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) on the west coast of North America the disease causes anemia and elevated mortality in periodic epizootics. Presently, VEN is diagnosed by observation of typical cytoplasmic inclusion bodies in stained blood smears from infected fish. The causative agent, erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV), is unculturable and a presumed iridovirus by electron microscopy. In vivo amplification of the virus in pathogen-free laboratory stocks of Pacific herring with subsequent virus concentration, purification, DNA extraction, and high-throughput sequencing were used to obtain genomic ENV sequences. Fragments with the highest sequence identity to the family Iridoviridae were used to design four sets of ENV-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers. Testing of blood and tissue samples from experimentally and wild infected Pacific herring as well as DNA extracted from other amphibian and piscine iridoviruses verified the assays were specific to ENV with a limit of detection of 0.0003 ng. Preliminary phylogenetic analyses of a 1448 bp fragment of the putative DNA polymerase gene supported inclusion of ENV in a proposed sixth genus of the family Iridoviridae that contains other erythrocytic viruses from ectothermic hosts. This study provides the first molecular evidence of ENV's inclusion within the Iridoviridae family and offers conventional PCR assays as a means of rapidly surveying the ENV-status of wild and propagated Pacific herring stocks.

  8. Regional variation in the intensity of humpback whale predation on Pacific herring in the Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, J. R.; Heintz, R. A.; Straley, J. M.; Vollenweider, J. J.

    2018-01-01

    We modeled the biomass of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) consumed by humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) to determine if whales are preventing the recovery of some herring populations in the Gulf of Alaska. We estimated consumption, by whales, of two depressed (Lynn Canal, Prince William Sound) and one robust (Sitka Sound) herring populations during fall/winter of 2007-2008 and 2008-2009. Consumption estimates relied on observations of whale abundance, prey selection, and herring energy content along with published data on whale size and metabolic rate. Herring biomass removed by whales was compared with independent estimates of herring abundance to assess the impact of predation on each population. Whales removed a greater proportion of the total biomass of herring available in Lynn Canal and Prince William Sound than in Sitka Sound. Biomass removals were greatest in Prince William Sound where we observed the largest number of whales foraging on herring. The biomass of herring consumed in Prince William Sound approximated the biomass lost to natural mortality over winter as projected by age-structured stock assessments. Though whales also focused their foraging on herring during the fall in Lynn Canal, whales were less abundant resulting in lower estimated consumption rates. Whales were more abundant in Sitka Sound than in Lynn Canal but foraged predominately on euphausiids. Herring abundance was greater in Sitka Sound, further reducing the overall impact on the herring population. These data indicate that the focused predation in Prince William Sound can exert top-down controlling pressure, but whale populations are not a ubiquitous constraint on forage fish productivity in the Gulf of Alaska at this time.

  9. Viability and infectivity of Ichthyophonus sp. in post-mortem Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocan, Richard; Hart, Lucas; Lewandowski, Naomi; Hershberger, Paul

    2014-12-01

    Ichthyophonus-infected Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii , were allowed to decompose in ambient seawater then serially sampled for 29 days to evaluate parasite viability and infectivity for Pacific staghorn sculpin, Leptocottus armatus . Ichthyophonus sp. was viable in decomposing herring tissues for at least 29 days post-mortem and could be transmitted via ingestion to sculpin for up to 5 days. The parasite underwent morphologic changes during the first 48 hr following death of the host that were similar to those previously reported, but as host tissue decomposition progressed, several previously un-described forms of the parasite were observed. The significance of long-term survival and continued morphologic transformation in the post-mortem host is unknown, but it could represent a saprozoic phase of the parasite life cycle that has survival value for Ichthyophonus sp.

  10. Principles underlying the epizootiology of viral hemorrhagic septicemia in Pacific herring and other fishes throughout the North Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, Paul K.; Garver, Kyle A.; Winton, James R.

    2016-01-01

    Although viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) typically occurs at low prevalence and intensity in natural populations of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) and other marine fishes in the Northeast Pacific Ocean, epizootics of the resulting disease (VHS) periodically occur, often in association with observed fish kills. Here we identify a list of principles, based on a combination of field studies, controlled laboratory experiments, and previously unpublished observations, that govern the epizootiology of VHS in Pacific herring. A thorough understanding of these principles provides the basis for identifying risk factors that predispose certain marine fish populations to VHS epizootics, including the lack of population resistance, presence of chronic viral carriers in a population, copious viral shedding by infected individuals, cool water temperatures, limited water circulation patterns, and gregarious host behavioral patterns. Further, these principles are used to define the epizootiological stages of the disease in Pacific herring, including the susceptible (where susceptible individuals predominate a school or subpopulation), enzootic (where infection prevalence and intensity are often below the limits of reasonable laboratory detection), disease amplification (where infection prevalence and intensity increase rapidly), outbreak (often accompanied by host mortalities with high virus loads and active shedding), recovery (in which the mortality rate and virus load decline owing to an active host immune response), and refractory stages (characterized by little or no susceptibility and where viral clearance occurs in most VHS survivors). In addition to providing a foundation for quantitatively assessing the potential risks of future VHS epizootics in Pacific herring, these principles provide insights into the epizootiology of VHS in other fish communities where susceptible species exist.

  11. Bayesian stock assessment of Pacific herring in Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muradian, Melissa L; Branch, Trevor A; Moffitt, Steven D; Hulson, Peter-John F

    2017-01-01

    The Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) population in Prince William Sound, Alaska crashed in 1993 and has yet to recover, affecting food web dynamics in the Sound and impacting Alaskan communities. To help researchers design and implement the most effective monitoring, management, and recovery programs, a Bayesian assessment of Prince William Sound herring was developed by reformulating the current model used by the Alaska Department of Fish and Game. The Bayesian model estimated pre-fishery spawning biomass of herring age-3 and older in 2013 to be a median of 19,410 mt (95% credibility interval 12,150-31,740 mt), with a 54% probability that biomass in 2013 was below the management limit used to regulate fisheries in Prince William Sound. The main advantages of the Bayesian model are that it can more objectively weight different datasets and provide estimates of uncertainty for model parameters and outputs, unlike the weighted sum-of-squares used in the original model. In addition, the revised model could be used to manage herring stocks with a decision rule that considers both stock status and the uncertainty in stock status.

  12. Bayesian stock assessment of Pacific herring in Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa L Muradian

    Full Text Available The Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii population in Prince William Sound, Alaska crashed in 1993 and has yet to recover, affecting food web dynamics in the Sound and impacting Alaskan communities. To help researchers design and implement the most effective monitoring, management, and recovery programs, a Bayesian assessment of Prince William Sound herring was developed by reformulating the current model used by the Alaska Department of Fish and Game. The Bayesian model estimated pre-fishery spawning biomass of herring age-3 and older in 2013 to be a median of 19,410 mt (95% credibility interval 12,150-31,740 mt, with a 54% probability that biomass in 2013 was below the management limit used to regulate fisheries in Prince William Sound. The main advantages of the Bayesian model are that it can more objectively weight different datasets and provide estimates of uncertainty for model parameters and outputs, unlike the weighted sum-of-squares used in the original model. In addition, the revised model could be used to manage herring stocks with a decision rule that considers both stock status and the uncertainty in stock status.

  13. Kinetics of viral shedding provide insights into the epidemiology of viral hemorrhagic septicemia in Pacific herring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, Paul K.; Gregg, Jacob L.; Winton, James R.; Grady, Courtney; Collins, Rachael

    2010-01-01

    Losses from infectious diseases are an important component of natural mortality among marine fish species, but factors controlling the ecology of these diseases and their potential responses to anthropogenic changes are poorly understood. We used viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) and a laboratory stock of Pacific herring Clupea pallasii to investigate the kinetics of viral shedding and its effect on disease transmission and host mortality. Outbreaks of acute disease, accompanied by mortality and viral shedding, were initiated after waterborne exposure of herring to concentrations of VHSV as low as 101 plaque-forming units (pfu) ml–1. Shed virus in flow-through tanks was first detected 4 to 5 d post-exposure, peaked after 6 to 10 d, and was no longer detected after 16 d. Shedding rates, calculated from density, flow and waterborne virus titer reached 1.8 to 5.0 × 108 pfu fish–1 d–1. Onset of viral shedding was dose-dependent and preceded initial mortality by 2 d. At 21 d, cumulative mortality in treatment groups ranged from 81 to 100% and was dependent not on challenge dose, but on the kinetics and level of viral shedding by infected fish in the tank. Possible consequences of the viral shedding and disease kinetics are discussed in the context of epizootic initiation and perpetuation among populations of wild Pacific herring.

  14. Persistence of external signs in Pacific herring Clupea pallasii Valenciennes with ichthyophoniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Lucas M.; Conway, Carla M.; Elliott, Diane G.; Hershberger, Paul K.

    2016-01-01

    The progression of external signs of Ichthyophonus infection in Pacific herring Clupea pallasii Valenciennes was highly variable and asynchronous after intraperitoneal injection with pure parasite preparations; however, external signs generally persisted through the end of the study (429 days post-exposure). Observed signs included papules, erosions and ulcers. The prevalence of external signs plateaued 35 days post-exposure and persisted in 73–79% of exposed individuals through the end of the first experiment (147 days post-exposure). Among a second group of infected herring, external signs completely resolved in only 10% of the fish after 429 days. The onset of mortality preceded the appearance of external signs. Histological examination of infected skin and skeletal muscle tissues indicated an apparent affinity of the parasite for host red muscle. Host responses consisted primarily of granulomatous inflammation, fibrosis and necrosis in the skeletal muscle and other tissues. The persistence and asynchrony of external signs and host response indicated that they were neither a precursor to host mortality nor did they provide reliable metrics for hindcasting on the date of exposure. However, the long-term persistence of clinical signs in Pacific herring may be useful in ascertaining the population-level impacts of ichthyophoniasis in regularly observed populations.

  15. Methods for conducting bioassays using embryos and larvae of Pacific herring, Clupea pallasi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinnel, Paul A; Middaugh, Douglas P; Schwarck, Nathan T; Farren, Heather M; Haley, Richard K; Hoover, Richard A; Elphick, James; Tobiason, Karen; Marshall, Randall R

    2011-02-01

    The rapid decrease of several stocks of Pacific herring, Clupea pallasi, in Puget Sound, Washington, has led to concerns about the effects of industrial and nonpoint source contamination on the embryo and larval stages of this and related forage fish species. To address these concerns, the state of Washington and several industries have funded efforts to develop embryo and larval bioassay protocols that can be used by commercial laboratories for routine effluent testing. This article presents the results of research to develop herring embryo and larval bioassay protocols. Factors evaluated during protocol development included temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen (DO), light intensity, photoperiod, larval feeding regimes, use of brine and artificial sea salts, gonad sources, collection methods, and egg quality.

  16. Seasonal presence and potential influence of humpback whales on wintering Pacific herring populations in the Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straley, Janice M.; Moran, John R.; Boswell, Kevin M.; Vollenweider, Johanna J.; Heintz, Ron A.; Quinn, Terrance J., II; Witteveen, Briana H.; Rice, Stanley D.

    2018-01-01

    This study addressed the lack of recovery of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) in Prince William Sound, Alaska, in relation to humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) predation. As humpback whales rebound from commercial whaling, their ability to influence their prey through top-down forcing increases. We compared the potential influence of foraging humpback whales on three herring populations in the coastal Gulf of Alaska: Prince William Sound, Lynn Canal, and Sitka Sound (133-147°W; 57-61°N) from 2007 to 2009. Information on whale distribution, abundance, diet and the availability of herring as potential prey were used to correlate populations of overwintering herring and humpback whales. In Prince William Sound, the presence of whales coincided with the peak of herring abundance, allowing whales to maximize the consumption of overwintering herring prior to their southern migration. In Lynn Canal and Sitka Sound peak attendance of whales occurred earlier, in the fall, before the herring had completely moved into the areas, hence, there was less opportunity for predation to influence herring populations. North Pacific humpback whales in the Gulf of Alaska may be experiencing nutritional stress from reaching or exceeding carrying capacity, or oceanic conditions may have changed sufficiently to alter the prey base. Intraspecific competition for food may make it harder for humpback whales to meet their annual energetic needs. To meet their energetic demands whales may need to lengthen their time feeding in the northern latitudes or by skipping the annual migration altogether. If humpback whales extended their time feeding in Alaskan waters during the winter months, the result would likely be an increase in herring predation.

  17. Effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on survival of Pacific herring eggs and viability of their larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGurk, M.D.; Warburton, H.D.; Parker, T.B.; Litke, M.; Marliave, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    The Exxon Valdez spill in March 1989 coincided with the spawning period of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi) in the spill area. Adult herring were first observed near their spawning ground about a week after the spill. Spawners were concentrated in four major areas of Prince William Sound. The northeast and north areas were untouched by the spill, but the Naked Island archipelago and the northern tip of Montague Island were in the spill path. Previous research has shown that growth and mortality of free-swimming herring larvae were not significantly different between non-oiled and oiled areas of the Sound, suggesting that any effect of the oil spill on herring may have been restricted to the egg stage. This hypothesis was tested by measuring survival, hatching schedule, and viability of herring eggs collected from oiled and non-oiled areas of the Sound and incubated in laboratory aquaria. Variance analysis showed that egg survival and mean age of hatch varied with oil treatment, depth, and the interaction of treatment and depth. Six larval abnormalities were identified, all of which would render larvae effectively dead in a natural environment. Dry egg weight and yolk volume varied only with depth. Despite these findings, the population dynamics of both oiled and non-oiled herring eggs from the Sound in 1989 resembled the dynamics of natural, uncontaminated herring eggs. A possible reason for this similarity is that most eggs in the oil treatments may have been exposed to relatively low concentrations of hydrocarbons. 2 refs

  18. Viral replication in excised fin tissues (VREFT) corresponds with prior exposure of Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii (Valenciennes), to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, C.A.; Gregg, J.L.; Wade, R.M.; Winton, J.R.; Hershberger, P.K.

    2011-01-01

    Procedures for a viral replication in excised fin tissue (VREFT) assay were adapted to Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii, and optimized both to reduce processing time and to provide the greatest resolution between na??ve herring and those previously exposed to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV), Genogroup IVa. The optimized procedures included removal of the left pectoral fin from a euthanized fish, inoculation of the fin with >105 plaque-forming units (PFU) mL-1 VHSV for 1 h, rinsing the fin in fresh medium six times to remove unadsorbed virions, incubation of the fin in fresh medium for 4 days and enumeration of the viral titre in a sample of the incubation medium by plaque assay. The optimized VREFT assay was effective at identifying the prior exposure history of laboratory-reared Pacific herring to VHSV. The geometric mean VREFT value was significantly greater (P < 0.01) among na??ve herring (1.2 ?? 103 PFU mL-1) than among groups that survived exposure to VHSV (1.0-2.9 ?? 102 PFU mL-1); additionally, the proportion of cultures with no detectable virus was significantly greater (P = 0.0002) among fish that survived exposure to VHSV (39-47%) than among na??ve fish (3.3%). The optimized VREFT assay demonstrates promise for identifying VHSV exposure history and forecasting disease potential in populations of wild Pacific herring. ?? 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Egg-larval mortality of Pacific herring in Prince William Sound, Alaska, after the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGurk, M. D.; Brown, E. D.

    1996-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to test the hypothesis that instantaneous daily rates of egg-larval mortality of Pacific herring were higher at two oil-exposed sites than at two other sites not so exposed. Results showed that egg-larval mortality was twice as great in the oil-exposed areas as in the two non-oiled areas. Larval growth rates were also severely affected; they were about half of those measured in populations from other areas of the north Pacific Ocean. A cautionary note was introduced to the effect that the differences in the egg-larval mortality between oiled and control sites may have been influenced by differences in egg dessication, predation, and wave scouring, hence these results should not be construed as conclusive evidence of oil spill damage. 40 refs., 6 figs

  20. Histopathology and cytogenetic evaluation of Pacific herring larvae exposed to petroleum hydrocarbons in the laboratory or in Prince William Sound, Alaska, after the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marty, G.D.; Hinton, D.E.; Brown, E.D.

    1997-01-01

    Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, Pacific herring larvae samples from oiled sites showed ascites, pericardial edema, and genotoxic damage. Laboratory study confirmed that these lesions were consistent with oil exposure. In a laboratory experiment, Pacific herring eggs were exposed to an oil-water dispersion of Prudhoe Bay crude oil and sampled for histopathology less than 24 h after hatching. Effects were significant at the 0.48 mg/L dose. Lesions included ascites, heptocellular vacuolar change and degeneration or necrosis of skeletal myocytes, retinal cells, and developing brain cells. Lesions in field-sampled larvae were consistent with higher mortality rates documented in larvae from oiled sites. In both field and laboratory experiments, ascites was the most significant lesion related to oil exposure. Decreased growth in larvae from oiled sites was also consistent with findings in three other laboratory studies with Pacific herring. This study concluded that if a large proportion of a population is exposed to contamination during early life stages, impacts on subsequent recruitment may be significant. However, estimates of the proportion of Pacific herring year-class affected by the Exxon Valdez oil spill vary from 4 per cent to 50 per cent. Since recruitment of the 1989 year-class was also poor in Sitka Sound (the control site), it was suggested that oceanic variables might have been more significant in limiting recruitment of the 1989 year-class in Prince William Sound than was the oil spill. 40 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs

  1. Length correction for early-juvenile Brazilian herring Sardinella janeiro (Eigenmann, 1894 after preservation in formalin, ethanol and freezing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim N. S. Santos

    Full Text Available This work aims to quantify the variation in total length and body mass for the early-juvenile Brazilian herring Sardinella janeiro and to determine total length and body mass correction equation to allow fresh measures to be calculated from preserved ones. Fishes were randomly assigned to one of five preservation methods (freezing at - 20º C, 2.5% and 5% formalin, 70% and 95% ethanol, and measured for total length (TL and body mass (W before preservation, and on days 5, 15, 30, and 60 after storage. Significant reductions in total length and body mass occurred during the first 5 days after preservation and continued to contract significantly at a lesser rate through 30 days in most methods. Exceptions were shown for body mass in freezing and 5% formalin, where the greatest losses occurred after 30 days of preservation. The degree of shrinkage for total length and body mass was very much dependent on fish size, with smaller specimens shrinking more than larger ones. The fresh total length and body mass can be back-calculated using equations that describe the relationship between fresh and preserved individuals after 60 days storage for all methods except for body mass in freezing.

  2. Juvenile Pacific Salmon in Puget Sound

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fresh, Kurt L

    2006-01-01

    Puget sound salmon (genus Oncorhynchus) spawn in freshwater and feed, grow and mature in marine waters, During their transition from freshwater to saltwater, juvenile salmon occupy nearshore ecosystems in Puget Sound...

  3. Kinetics of viral load and erythrocytic inclusion body formation in pacific herring artificially infected with erythrocytic necrosis virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Jolene A.; Emmenegger, Eveline J.; Grady, Courtney A.; Roon, Sean R.; Gregg, Jacob L.; Conway, Carla M.; Winton, James R.; Hershberger, Paul K.

    2012-01-01

    Viral erythrocytic necrosis (VEN) is a condition that affects marine and anadromous fish species, including herrings and salmonids, in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Infection is frequently associated with severe anemia and causes episodic mortality among wild and hatchery fish when accompanied by additional stressors; VEN can be presumptively diagnosed by (1) light microscopic identification of a single characteristic—a round, magenta-colored, 0.8-μm-diameter inclusion body (IB) within the cytoplasm of erythrocytes and their precursors on Giemsa-stained blood films; or (2) observation (via transmission electron microscopy [TEM]) of the causative iridovirus, erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV), within erythrocytes or their precursors. To better understand the kinetics of VEN, specific-pathogen-free Pacific herring Clupea pallasii were infected with ENV by intraperitoneal injection. At 1, 4, 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28 d postexposure, samples of blood, spleen, and kidney were collected and assessed (1) via light microscopy for the number of intracytoplasmic IBs in blood smears and (2) via TEM for the number of virions within erythrocytes. The mean prevalence of intracytoplasmic IBs in the blood cells increased from 0% at 0–4 d postexposure to 94% at 28 d postexposure. Viral load within circulating red blood cells peaked at 7 d postexposure, fell slightly, and then reached a plateau. However, blood cells observed within the kidney and spleen tissues demonstrated high levels of ENV between 14 and 28 d postexposure. The results indicate that the viral load within erythrocytes does not correlate well with IB prevalence and that the virus can persist in infected fish for more than 28 d.

  4. Inability to demonstrate fish-to-fish transmission of Ichthyophonus from laboratory infected Pacific herring Clupea pallasii to naïve conspecifics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, J L; Grady, C A; Friedman, C S; Hershberger, P K

    2012-06-13

    The parasite Ichthyophonus is enzootic in many marine fish populations of the northern Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Forage fishes are a likely source of infection for higher trophic level predators; however, the processes that maintain Ichthyophonus in forage fish populations (primarily clupeids) are not well understood. Lack of an identified intermediate host has led to the convenient hypothesis that the parasite can be maintained within populations of schooling fishes by waterborne fish-to-fish transmission. To test this hypothesis we established Ichthyophonus infections in Age-1 and young-of-the-year (YOY) Pacific herring Clupea pallasii (Valenciennes) via intraperitoneal (IP) injection and cohabitated these donors with naïve conspecifics (sentinels) in the laboratory. IP injections established infection in 75 to 84% of donor herring, and this exposure led to clinical disease and mortality in the YOY cohort. However, after cohabitation for 113 d no infections were detected in naïve sentinels. These data do not preclude the possibility of fish-to-fish transmission, but they do suggest that other transmission processes are necessary to maintain Ichthyophonus in wild Pacific herring populations.

  5. Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus, Ichthyophonus hoferi, and other causes of morbidity in Pacific herring Clupea pallasi spawning in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, G D; Freiberg, E F; Meyers, T R; Wilcock, J; Farver, T B; Hinton, D E

    1998-02-26

    Pacific herring Clupea pallasi populations in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA, declined from an estimated 9.8 x 10(7) kg in 1992 to 1.5 x 10(7) kg in 1994. To determine the role of disease in population decline, 233 Pacific herring from Prince William Sound were subjected to complete necropsy during April 1994. The North American strain of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) was isolated from 11 of 233 fish (4.7%). VHSV was significantly related to myocardial mineralization, hepatocellular necrosis, submucosal gastritis, and meningoencephalitis. Ichthyophonus hoferi infected 62 of 212 (29%) fish. I. hoferi infections were associated with severe, disseminated, granulomatous inflammation and with increased levels of plasma creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). I. hoferi prevalence in 1994 was more than double that of most previous years (1989 to 1993). Plasma chemistry values significantly greater (p < 0.01) in males than females included albumin, total protein, cholesterol, chloride, glucose, and potassium; only alkaline phosphatase was significantly greater in females. Hypoalbuminemia was relatively common in postspawning females; other risk factors included VHSV and moderate or severe focal skin reddening. Pacific herring had more than 10 species of parasites, but they were not associated with significant lesions. Two of the parasites have not previously been described: a renal intraductal myxosporean (11% prevalence) and an intestinal coccidian (91% prevalence). Transmission electron microscopy of a solitary mesenteric lesion revealed viral particles consistent with lymphocystis virus. No fish had viral erythrocytic necrosis (VEN). Prevalence of external gross lesions and major parasites was not related to fish age, and fish that were year-lings at the time of the 1989 'Exxon Valdez' oil spill (1988 year class) had no evidence of increased disease prevalence.

  6. Effects of pressure reductions in a proposed siphon water lift system at St. Stephen Dam, South Carolina, on mortality rates of juvenile American shad and blueback herring. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nestler, J.M.; Schilt, C.R.; Jones, D.P.

    1998-09-01

    This report presents results of studies to predict the mortality rate of juvenile blueback herring (Alosa aestivalis) and American shad (A. sapidissima) associated with reduced pressure as they pass downstream through a proposed siphon water lift system at St. Stephen Dam, South Carolina. The primary function of the siphon is to increase attracting flow to better guide upstream migrating adult herring of both species into the existing fish lift for upstream passage. The US Army Engineer District, Charleston, wishes to consider the siphon as an alternative bypass route through the dam for downstream migrating juvenile and adult herring. A pressure-reduction testing system that emulates some of the pressure characteristics of the siphon was used to determine the approximate percentage of juvenile fishes that could be reasonably expected to be killed passing through the reduced pressures anticipated for the siphon water lift system. The testing system could duplicate the range of pressure change anticipated for the siphon lift system but could not obtain pressures lower than 4.1 psi, whereas pressures for some design alternatives may approach the theoretical minimum pressure of 0.0 psi. Study results indicate that the mortality rate is probably about 20 percent. Power analysis indicates that mortality rate above 30 percent is unlikely. Conducting additional mortality studies is recommended to refine predicted mortality rates. Measures should be taken to prevent juvenile fish from entering the siphon lift system if excessive mortality rates are observed

  7. Anesthesia of juvenile Pacific Lampreys with MS-222, BENZOAK, AQUI-S 20E, and Aquacalm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Helena E.; Gee, Lisa P.; Mesa, Matthew G.

    2013-01-01

    Effective anesthetics are a critical component of safe and humane fish handling procedures. We tested three concentrations each of four anesthetics—Finquel (tricaine methanesulfonate, herein referred to as MS-222), BENZOAK (20% benzocaine), AQUI-S 20E (10% eugenol), and Aquacalm (metomidate hydrochloride)—for efficacy and safety in metamorphosed, outmigrating juvenile Pacific Lampreys Entosphenus tridentatus. The anesthetics MS-222 (100 mg/L) and BENZOAK (60 mg/L) were the most effective for anesthetizing juvenile Pacific Lampreys to a handleable state with minimal irritation to the fish. Fish anesthetized with BENZOAK also had lower rates of fungal infection than those exposed to MS-222, AQUI-S 20E, or no anesthetic. Exposure to AQUI-S 20E irritated juvenile Pacific Lampreys, causing them to leap or climb out of the anesthetic solution, and Aquacalm anesthetized fish to a handleable state too slowly and incompletely for effective use with routine handling procedures. Our results indicate that MS-222 and BENZOAK are effective anesthetics for juvenile Pacific Lampreys, but field studies are needed to determine whether exposure to MS-222 increases risk of fungal infection in juvenile Pacific Lampreys released to the wild.

  8. A model for simulating the active dispersal of juvenile sea turtles with a case study on western Pacific leatherback turtles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalire, Maxime

    2017-01-01

    Oceanic currents are known to broadly shape the dispersal of juvenile sea turtles during their pelagic stage. Accordingly, simple passive drift models are widely used to investigate the distribution at sea of various juvenile sea turtle populations. However, evidence is growing that juveniles do not drift purely passively but also display some swimming activity likely directed towards favorable habitats. We therefore present here a novel Sea Turtle Active Movement Model (STAMM) in which juvenile sea turtles actively disperse under the combined effects of oceanic currents and habitat-driven movements. This model applies to all sea turtle species but is calibrated here for leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea). It is first tested in a simulation of the active dispersal of juveniles originating from Jamursba-Medi, a main nesting beach of the western Pacific leatherback population. Dispersal into the North Pacific Ocean is specifically investigated. Simulation results demonstrate that, while oceanic currents broadly shape the dispersal area, modeled habitat-driven movements strongly structure the spatial and temporal distribution of juveniles within this area. In particular, these movements lead juveniles to gather in the North Pacific Transition Zone (NPTZ) and to undertake seasonal north-south migrations. More surprisingly, juveniles in the NPTZ are simulated to swim mostly towards west which considerably slows down their progression towards the American west coast. This increases their residence time, and hence the risk of interactions with fisheries, in the central and eastern part of the North Pacific basin. Simulated habitat-driven movements also strongly reduce the risk of cold-induced mortality. This risk appears to be larger among the juveniles that rapidly circulate into the Kuroshio than among those that first drift into the North Equatorial Counter Current (NECC). This mechanism might induce marked interannual variability in juvenile survival as the

  9. A model for simulating the active dispersal of juvenile sea turtles with a case study on western Pacific leatherback turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Philippe; Lalire, Maxime

    2017-01-01

    Oceanic currents are known to broadly shape the dispersal of juvenile sea turtles during their pelagic stage. Accordingly, simple passive drift models are widely used to investigate the distribution at sea of various juvenile sea turtle populations. However, evidence is growing that juveniles do not drift purely passively but also display some swimming activity likely directed towards favorable habitats. We therefore present here a novel Sea Turtle Active Movement Model (STAMM) in which juvenile sea turtles actively disperse under the combined effects of oceanic currents and habitat-driven movements. This model applies to all sea turtle species but is calibrated here for leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea). It is first tested in a simulation of the active dispersal of juveniles originating from Jamursba-Medi, a main nesting beach of the western Pacific leatherback population. Dispersal into the North Pacific Ocean is specifically investigated. Simulation results demonstrate that, while oceanic currents broadly shape the dispersal area, modeled habitat-driven movements strongly structure the spatial and temporal distribution of juveniles within this area. In particular, these movements lead juveniles to gather in the North Pacific Transition Zone (NPTZ) and to undertake seasonal north-south migrations. More surprisingly, juveniles in the NPTZ are simulated to swim mostly towards west which considerably slows down their progression towards the American west coast. This increases their residence time, and hence the risk of interactions with fisheries, in the central and eastern part of the North Pacific basin. Simulated habitat-driven movements also strongly reduce the risk of cold-induced mortality. This risk appears to be larger among the juveniles that rapidly circulate into the Kuroshio than among those that first drift into the North Equatorial Counter Current (NECC). This mechanism might induce marked interannual variability in juvenile survival as the

  10. "Everything revolves around the herring": the Heiltsuk-herring relationship through time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisha M. Gauvreau

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii is foundational to many social-ecological systems of the North American coast. The indigenous people of Heiltsuk First Nation on the central coast of British Columbia, Canada have depended on this forage fish for food, social, ceremonial, and economic purposes for millennia. Our research documents social, ecological, and cultural aspects of Heiltsuk First Nation's relationship with Pacific herring and how this relationship has changed over time. We describe and discuss (1 how Heiltsuk social institutions, local and traditional ecological knowledge, and worldview have informed herring management strategies from pre-contact times until present, and (2 how post-contact changes in state-led herring management and other social and institutional developments in British Columbia have affected the role and transmission of Heiltsuk local knowledge and management of herring. By working in close partnership with Heiltsuk decision-makers, and by conducting interviews with Heiltsuk knowledge holders, we ensured that the data gathered would be relevant, applicable, and valuable to the Heiltsuk community. Our research therefore serves as an example of how state fisheries agencies could improve relationships with indigenous communities by engaging in more collaborative data collection, and our results suggest the potential for joint learning and improvement in fisheries management through collaboration during the design of management and harvesting plans. Our research has relevance at the global level because we identify some of the steps that may be taken to help overcome institutionalized inertia and attain more equitable power relationships for sustainable fisheries management.

  11. Release of infectious cells from epidermal ulcers in Ichthyophonus sp.-infected Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii): evidence for multiple mechanisms of transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocan, Richard M; Gregg, Jacob L; Hershberger, Paul K

    2010-04-01

    A common clinical sign of ichthyophoniasis in herring and trout is "sandpaper" skin, a roughening of the epidermis characterized by the appearance of small papules, followed by ulceration and sloughing of the epithelium; early investigators hypothesized that these ulcers might be a means of transmitting the parasite, Ichthyophonus sp., without the necessity of ingesting an infected host. We examined the cells associated with the epidermal lesions and confirmed that they were viable Ichthyophonus sp. cells that were readily released from the skin into the mucous layer and ultimately into the aquatic environment. The released cells were infectious when injected into the body cavity of specific-pathogen-free herring. Our hypothesis is that different mechanisms of transmission occur in carnivorous and planktivorous hosts: Planktonic feeders become infected by ingestion of ulcer-derived cells, while carnivores become infected by ingestion of whole infected fish.

  12. Release of infectious cells from epidermal ulcers in Ichthyophonus sp.–infected Pacific Herring (Clupea pallasii): Evidence for multiple mechanisms of transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, Paul K.; Gregg, Jacob L.; Kocan, R.M.

    2010-01-01

    A common clinical sign of ichthyophoniasis in herring and trout is “sandpaper” skin, a roughening of the epidermis characterized by the appearance of small papules, followed by ulceration and sloughing of the epithelium; early investigators hypothesized that these ulcers might be a means of transmitting the parasite, Ichthyophonus sp., without the necessity of ingesting an infected host. We examined the cells associated with the epidermal lesions and confirmed that they were viable Ichthyophonus sp. cells that were readily released from the skin into the mucous layer and ultimately into the aquatic environment. The released cells were infectious when injected into the body cavity of specific-pathogen-free herring. Our hypothesis is that different mechanisms of transmission occur in carnivorous and planktivorous hosts: Planktonic feeders become infected by ingestion of ulcer-derived cells, while carnivores become infected by ingestion of whole infected fish.

  13. A field and laboratory assessment of oil spill effects on survival and reproduction of Pacific herring following the Exxon Valdez spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, W.H.; Moksness, E.

    1995-01-01

    Field and laboratory investigations in 1989 and 1990 were designed to assess potential injury to Prince William Sound herring by testing for differences between oiled regions and unoiled reference areas and by relating biological response variables to the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in eggs-on-kelp samples. Hydrocarbon analyses and laboratory incubation were conducted on eggs-on-kelp samples from Prince William Sound and Sitka Sound. The eggs and hatching larvae were examined to evaluate several response variables: egg development, hatch, larval survival, abnormal development of larvae, larval length, and larval yolk-sac volume. Analysis of 1989 shoreline surveys indicate that about 96% of the total spawn length (158 km) in Prince William Sound occurred along shorelines with no oiling, and less than 1% of the 1989 total spawn length occurred along shorelines with moderate to heavy oiling. Analysis of shoreline oiling in both 1989 and 1990 from all surveys indicates that about 90 to 91% of the total 1989 spawn length occurred along unoiled shorelines. Effects on herring eggs were minor in 1989 even in oiled areas. No significant relationship was found between 1989 PAH burdens in eggs-on-kelp samples and 9 out of 10 biological response variables. In 1989, significantly lower proportions of developed eggs were observed for Cabin Bay samples visibly contaminated with tarry deposits. The location where these effects were seen represented less than 2% of total 1989 spawn length. No effects of the spill on herring were evident in 1990. No significant relationship was found between 1990 PAH burdens and the seven biological response variables studied. 33 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs

  14. Avoidance response of juvenile Pacific treefrogs to chemical cues of introduced predatory bullfrogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivers, D P; Wildy, E L; Kiesecker, J M; Blaustein, A R

    2001-08-01

    Bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana), native to eastern North America, were introduced into Oregon in the 1930's. Bullfrogs are highly efficient predators that are known to eat a variety of prey including other amphibians. In laboratory experiments, we investigated whether juvenile Pacific treefrogs (Hyla regilla) recognize adult bullfrogs as a predatory threat. The ability of prey animals to acquire recognition of an introduced predator has important implications for survival of the prey. We found that treefrogs from a population that co-occurred with bullfrogs showed a strong avoidance of chemical cues of bullfrogs. In contrast, treefrogs from a population that did not co-occur with bullfrogs, did not respond to the bullfrog cues. Additional experiments showed that both populations of treefrogs use chemical cues to mediate predation risk. Treefrogs from both populations avoided chemical alarm cues from injured conspecifics.

  15. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration project final report: Prince William Sound Herring disease program (HDP), restoration project 070819

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, Paul; Elliott, Diane G.; Emmenegger, Eveline J.; Hansen, John D.; Kurath, Gael; Winton, James R.; Kocan, Richard; LaPatra, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Surveys of pathogens in Pacific herring from 2007 – 2010 indicated that Ichthyophonus, viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus, and erythrocytic necrosis virus are endemic in Prince William Sound and throughout the NE Pacific. Laboratory studies with VHSV indicated that multiple herring stocks are equally susceptible to the resulting disease, Pacific herring shed copious levels of VHSV (as high at 5x108 plaque-forming units/day) shortly after exposure, chronic and persistent infections can occur in Pacific herring, susceptibility of Pacific herring to VHS extends to the larval life stages but not the embryonic stages, and the prior exposure history of Pacific herring to VHSV can be determined post hoc. Laboratory studies involving Ichthyophonus indicated that schizonts can be inactivated with chlorine and iodine solutions, the parasite can survive for extended periods in saltwater but not freshwater, a low potential exists for cross contamination between in vitro explant cultures, infectious schizonts are released from the skin surface of infected herring, schizonts are not uniformly distributed throughout the skeletal muscle of infected Pacific herring, multiple types of Ichthyophonus exist with different genotypes and phenotypic traits, and temperature is an important factor influencing the infectivity of Ichthyophonus. Additional field and laboratory studies indicated that Ichthyophonus negatively influences the swimming performance of infected hosts and the negative impacts effects are exacerbated by increasing temperatures, American shad are an important reservoir of Ichthyophonus in the NE Pacific, Pacific herring are not susceptible to infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN), and Pacific herring will accept surgically implanted acoustic tags with negligible impacts on survival.

  16. Large wood and in-stream habitat for juvenile coho salmon and larval lampreys in a Pacific Northwest stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Rosalinda; Dunham, Jason B.; Lightcap, Scott W.; McEnroe, Jeffery R.

    2017-01-01

    The influences of large wood on Pacific salmon are well-studied, but studies of nonsalmonid species such as lampreys are uncommon. To address this need, we evaluated the potential effects of large wood on larval lampreys (Pacific Lamprey, Entosphenus tridentatus; and potentially Western Brook Lamprey Lampetra richardsoni), as well as juvenile Coho Salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch, in a small coastal Oregon stream. Our objectives were to 1) identify in-stream habitat characteristics associated with the presence of larval lampreys and abundance of juvenile Coho Salmon; and 2) evaluate how these characteristics were associated with in-stream wood. To address habitat use, we quantified presence of larval lampreys in 92 pools and abundance of juvenile Coho Salmon in 44 pools during summer low flows. We focused on a study reach where large wood was introduced into the stream between 2008 and 2009. Results indicated that presence of larval lampreys was significantly associated with availability of fine sediment and deeper substrate. The abundance of juvenile Coho Salmon (fish/pool) was strongly associated with pool surface area and to a weaker extent with the proportion of cobble and boulder substrates in pools. Pools with wood, regardless of whether they were formed by wood, had significantly greater coverage of fine sediment, deeper substrate, and greater pool surface area. Taken together, these results suggest that in-stream wood can provide habitat associated with presence of larval lampreys and greater abundance of juvenile Coho Salmon.

  17. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Coral Demography (Adult and Juvenile Corals) across the Pacific Remote Island Areas since 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic coral demographic surveys for two life stages (juveniles, adults) across the Pacific Remote Island Areas since 2014....

  18. Impact of multiple stressors on juvenile fish in estuaries of the northeast Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toft, Jason D; Munsch, Stuart H; Cordell, Jeffery R; Siitari, Kiira; Hare, Van C; Holycross, Brett M; DeBruyckere, Lisa A; Greene, Correigh M; Hughes, Brent B

    2018-05-01

    A key step in identifying global change impacts on species and ecosystems is to quantify effects of multiple stressors. To date, the science of global change has been dominated by regional field studies, experimental manipulation, meta-analyses, conceptual models, reviews, and studies focusing on a single stressor or species over broad spatial and temporal scales. Here, we provide one of the first studies for coastal systems examining multiple stressor effects across broad scales, focused on the nursery function of 20 estuaries spanning 1,600 km of coastline, 25 years of monitoring, and seven fish and invertebrate species along the northeast Pacific coast. We hypothesized those species most estuarine dependent and negatively impacted by human activities would have lower presence and abundances in estuaries with greater anthropogenic land cover, pollution, and water flow stress. We found significant negative relationships between juveniles of two of seven species (Chinook salmon and English sole) and estuarine stressors. Chinook salmon were less likely to occur and were less abundant in estuaries with greater pollution stress. They were also less abundant in estuaries with greater flow stress, although this relationship was marginally insignificant. English sole were less abundant in estuaries with greater land cover stress. Together, we provide new empirical evidence that effects of stressors on two fish species culminate in detectable trends along the northeast Pacific coast, elevating the need for protection from pollution, land cover, and flow stressors to their habitats. Lack of response among the other five species could be related to differing resistance to specific stressors, type and precision of the stressor metrics, and limitations in catch data across estuaries and habitats. Acquiring improved measurements of impacts to species will guide future management actions, and help predict how estuarine nursery functions can be optimized given anthropogenic

  19. Larval growth and drift pattern and the separation of herring spawning groups in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Peter; Christensen, Villy

    1990-01-01

    Data from two internationally co-ordinated survey programmes are used in an attempt to display the events in the early life that took place during the 'recovery period' of the North Sea herring stock, 1979-1986. During the period, an increasing importance of the spawning grounds off Buchan and off...... Yorkshire is evident from distributions of newly hatched herring larvae. The dramatic changes in relative importance of spawning grounds are traced in the data on both late larvae (6 months old) and juveniles (18 months old). The onset of extended spawning off Buchan and off Yorkshire was followed...... in the relative contributions from spawning grounds apparently influence the overall spatial distribution as well as size composition of larval and juvenile North Sea herring. The findings indicate that groups of larvae retain, to a large extent, separate distributions until metamorphosis, and point to larval...

  20. Effects of temperature and salinity on survival, growth and DNA methylation of juvenile Pacific abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Ning; Liu, Xiao; Li, Junyuan; Mu, Wendan; Lian, Jianwu; Xue, Yanjie; Li, Qi

    2017-09-01

    Temperature and salinity are two of the most potent abiotic factors influencing marine mollusks. In this study, we investigated the individual and combined effects of temperature and salinity on the survival and growth of juvenile Pacific abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino, and also examined the DNA methylation alteration that may underpin the phenotypic variation of abalone exposed to different rearing conditions. The single-factor data showed that the suitable ranges of temperature and salinity were 16-28°C at a constant salinity of 32, and 24-40 at a constant temperature of 20°C, respectively. The two-factor data indicated that both survival and growth were significantly affected by temperature, salinity and their interaction. The optimal temperature-salinity combination for juveniles was 23-25°C and 30-36. To explore environment-induced DNA methylation alteration, the methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) technique was used to analyze the genomic methylation profiles of abalone reared in optimal and adverse conditions. Neither temperature nor salinity induced evident changes in the global methylation level, but 67 and 63 differentially methylated loci were identified in temperature and salinity treatments, respectively. The between-group eigen analysis also showed that both temperature and salinity could induce epigenetic differentiation in H. discus hannai Ino. The results of our study provide optimal rearing conditions for juvenile H. discus hannai Ino, and represent the first step toward revealing the epigenetic regulatory mechanism of abalone in response to thermal and salt stresses.

  1. Realized habitats of early-stage North Sea herring: looking for signals of environmental change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Röckmann, C.; Dickey-Collas, M.; Payne, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Realized habitats of North Sea herring for two larval and two juvenile stages were estimated over the past 30 years, using abundances from surveys tied to modelled estimates of temperature and salinity. Newly hatched larvae (NHL) were found mainly in water masses of 9–11°C, pre-metamorphosis larvae...

  2. Precision and relative effectiveness of a purse seine for sampling age-0 river herring in lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Matthew T.; Roy, Allison; Whiteley, Andrew R.; Gahagan, Benjamin I.; Armstrong, Michael P.; Jordaan, Adrian

    2018-01-01

    Stock assessments for anadromous river herring, collectively Alewife Alosa pseudoharengus and Blueback Herring A. aestivalis, lack adequate demographic information, particularly with respect to early life stages. Although sampling adult river herring is increasingly common throughout their range, currently no standardized, field‐based, analytical methods exist for estimating juvenile abundance in freshwater lakes. The objective of this research was to evaluate the relative effectiveness and sampling precision of a purse seine for estimating densities of age‐0 river herring in freshwater lakes. We used a purse seine to sample age‐0 river herring in June–September 2015 and June–July 2016 in 16 coastal freshwater lakes in the northeastern USA. Sampling effort varied from two seine hauls to more than 50 seine hauls per lake. Catch rates were highest in June and July, and sampling precision was maximized in July. Sampling at night (versus day) in open water (versus littoral areas) was most effective for capturing newly hatched larvae and juveniles up to ca. 100 mm TL. Bootstrap simulation results indicated that sampling precision of CPUE estimates increased with sampling effort, and there was a clear threshold beyond which increased effort resulted in negligible increases in precision. The effort required to produce precise CPUE estimates, as determined by the CV, was dependent on lake size; river herring densities could be estimated with up to 10 purse‐seine hauls (one‐two nights) in a small lake (50 ha). Fish collection techniques using a purse seine as described in this paper are likely to be effective for estimating recruit abundance of river herring in freshwater lakes across their range.

  3. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Coral Demography (Adult and Juvenile Corals) across the Pacific Remote Island Areas from 2015-0126 to 2015-04-28 (NCEI Accession 0159161)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic coral demographic surveys for two life stages (juveniles, adults) across the Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2015....

  4. First feeding of larval herring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Munk, Peter; Støttrup, Josianne

    1985-01-01

    The transition period from endogenous to exogenous feeding by larval herring was investigated in the laboratory for four herring stocks in order to evaluate the chances of survival at the time of fiest feeding. Observations on larval activity, feeding and growth were related to amount of yolk......, visual experience with potential prey organisms prior to first feeding and prey density. Herring larvae did not initiate exogenous feeding until around the time of yolk resorption. The timing of first feeding was not influenced by prior exposure to potential prey organisms during the yolk sac stage....... In the light of these observations, the ecological significance of the yolk sac stage is discussed. Initiation of exogenous feeding was delayed by 1-4 days at a low (7.5 nauplii .cntdot. l-1) compared to a high (120 nauplii .cntdot. l-1) prey density, but even at prey densities corresponding to the lower end...

  5. Salted herring brine as a coating or additive for herring (Clupea harengus) products — A source of natural antioxidants?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertos, Irene; Gringer, Nina; Rico, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterise herring brine and assess its use as natural antioxidant in herring preservation. Herring brines from different marinated products (brine from fillet-ripened spice-cured herring SC, traditional barrel-salted spice-cured herring TSp and brine from...

  6. The effect of rapid and sustained decompression on barotrauma in juvenile brook lamprey and Pacific lamprey: implications for passage at hydroelectric facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colotelo, Alison HA; Pflugrath, Brett D.; Brown, Richard S.; Brauner, Colin J.; Mueller, Robert P.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Deng, Zhiqun; Ahmann, Martin L.; Trumbo, Bradly A.

    2012-10-01

    Fish passing downstream through hydroelectric facilities may pass through hydroturbines where they experience a rapid decrease in barometric pressure as they pass by turbine blades, which can lead to barotraumas including swim bladder rupture, exopthalmia, emboli, and hemorrhaging. In juvenile Chinook salmon, the main mechanism for injury is thought to be expansion of existing gases (particularly those present in the swim bladder) and the rupture of the swim bladder ultimately leading to exopthalmia, emboli and hemorrhaging. In fish that lack a swim bladder, such as lamprey, the rate and severity of barotraumas due to rapid decompression may be reduced however; this has yet to be extensively studied. Another mechanism for barotrauma can be gases coming out of solution and the rate of this occurrence may vary among species. In this study, juvenile brook and Pacific lamprey acclimated to 146.2 kPa (equivalent to a depth of 4.6 m) were subjected to rapid (<1 sec; brook lamprey only) or sustained decompression (17 minutes) to a very low pressure (13.8 kPa) using a protocol previously applied to juvenile Chinook salmon. No mortality or evidence of barotraumas, as indicated by the presence of hemorrhages, emboli or exopthalmia, were observed during rapid or sustained decompression, nor following recovery for up to 120 h following sustained decompression. In contrast, mortality or injury would be expected for 97.5% of juvenile Chinook salmon exposed to a similar rapid decompression to these very low pressures. Additionally, juvenile Chinook salmon experiencing sustained decompression died within 7 minutes, accompanied by emboli in the fins and gills and hemorrhaging in the tissues. Thus, juvenile lamprey may not be susceptible to barotraumas associated with hydroturbine passage to the same degree as juvenile salmonids, and management of these species should be tailored to their specific morphological and physiological characteristics.

  7. Characterization of herring populations west of the British Isles: an investigation of mixing based on otolith microchemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geffen, A.J.; Nash, R.D.M.; Dickey-Collas, M.

    2011-01-01

    Herring along the west coast of the British Isles are managed and assessed as a series of discrete stocks. The relationship between the spawning components, mixed (feeding) aggregations, and juveniles in nursery areas for these stocks was modelled by discriminant analysis and integrated stock

  8. Latitudinal Gradient in Otolith Shape among Local Populations of Atlantic Herring (Clupea harengus L.) in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libungan, Lísa Anne; Slotte, Aril; Husebø, Åse; Godiksen, Jane A; Pálsson, Snæbjörn

    2015-01-01

    Otolith shape analysis of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) in Norwegian waters shows significant differentiation among fjords and a latitudinal gradient along the coast where neighbouring populations are more similar to each other than to those sampled at larger distances. The otolith shape was obtained using quantitative shape analysis, the outlines were transformed with Wavelet and analysed with multivariate methods. The observed morphological differences are likely to reflect environmental differences but indicate low dispersal among the local herring populations. Otolith shape variation suggests also limited exchange between the local populations and their oceanic counterparts, which could be due to differences in spawning behaviour. Herring from the most northerly location (69°N) in Balsfjord, which is genetically more similar to Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii), differed in otolith shape from all the other populations. Our results suggest that the semi-enclosed systems, where the local populations live and breed, are efficient barriers for dispersal. Otolith shape can thus serve as a marker to identify the origin of herring along the coast of Norway.

  9. Herring parasite and tissue alterations following the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moles, A.D.; Rice, S.D.; Okihiro, M.S.

    1993-01-01

    The authors examined the intensity and prevalence of larval nematodes (Anisakis simplex) and alterations in selected tissues of spawning Pacific herring (Clupea harengus pallasi) exposed to crude oil, in the laboratory under controlled conditions and in Prince William Sound 14 days after the Exxon Valdez oil spill. In the laboratory, intensity and prevalence of nematodes in the body cavities of herring exposed to the water-soluble fraction of oil declined when exposed to doses above 1.2 mg/L total aromatics. In Prince William Sound, nematodes were rare in spawning herring from oiled sites and abundant among herring from areas outside the spill. Oil exposure apparently induced the nematodes to migrate from the body cavity to the body wall with the lower intensity reflecting a change in parasite location. A coccidian, Eimeria clupearum, was found in greater numbers in oil-exposed herring. To verify exposure effects and to link parasite and tissue alteration with oil exposure, histological examination was used. Liver coagulative necrosis indicated hepatotoxic exposure. Necrosis was followed by macrophage aggregation in the resolution phase. The laboratory exposures allowed confirmation of oil exposure in Prince William Sound and permitted analysis of effects on two internal parasites

  10. Latitudinal Gradient in Otolith Shape among Local Populations of Atlantic Herring (Clupea harengus L.) in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libungan, Lísa Anne; Slotte, Aril; Husebø, Åse; Godiksen, Jane A.; Pálsson, Snæbjörn

    2015-01-01

    Otolith shape analysis of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) in Norwegian waters shows significant differentiation among fjords and a latitudinal gradient along the coast where neighbouring populations are more similar to each other than to those sampled at larger distances. The otolith shape was obtained using quantitative shape analysis, the outlines were transformed with Wavelet and analysed with multivariate methods. The observed morphological differences are likely to reflect environmental differences but indicate low dispersal among the local herring populations. Otolith shape variation suggests also limited exchange between the local populations and their oceanic counterparts, which could be due to differences in spawning behaviour. Herring from the most northerly location (69°N) in Balsfjord, which is genetically more similar to Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii), differed in otolith shape from all the other populations. Our results suggest that the semi-enclosed systems, where the local populations live and breed, are efficient barriers for dispersal. Otolith shape can thus serve as a marker to identify the origin of herring along the coast of Norway. PMID:26101885

  11. Use of herring bait to farm lobsters in the Gulf of Maine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Jonathan H; Clesceri, Erika J; Baukus, Adam J; Gaudette, Julien; Weber, Matthew; Yund, Philip O

    2010-04-15

    Ecologists, fisheries scientists, and coastal managers have all called for an ecosystem approach to fisheries management, yet many species such as the American lobster (Homarus americanus) are still largely managed individually. One hypothesis that has yet to be tested suggests that human augmentation of lobster diets via the use of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) as bait may contribute to recent increases in lobster landings. Currently 70% of Atlantic herring landings in the Gulf of Maine are used as bait to catch lobsters in traps throughout coastal New England. We examined the effects of this herring bait on the diet composition and growth rate of lobsters at heavily baited vs. seasonally closed (i.e., bait free) sites in coastal Maine. Our results suggest that human use of herring bait may be subsidizing juvenile lobster diets, thereby enhancing lobster growth and the overall economic value and yield of one of the most valuable fisheries in the U.S. Our study illustrates that shifting to an ecosystem approach to fisheries management should require consideration of cross-fishery interactions.

  12. Use of herring bait to farm lobsters in the Gulf of Maine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan H Grabowski

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Ecologists, fisheries scientists, and coastal managers have all called for an ecosystem approach to fisheries management, yet many species such as the American lobster (Homarus americanus are still largely managed individually. One hypothesis that has yet to be tested suggests that human augmentation of lobster diets via the use of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus as bait may contribute to recent increases in lobster landings. Currently 70% of Atlantic herring landings in the Gulf of Maine are used as bait to catch lobsters in traps throughout coastal New England.We examined the effects of this herring bait on the diet composition and growth rate of lobsters at heavily baited vs. seasonally closed (i.e., bait free sites in coastal Maine. Our results suggest that human use of herring bait may be subsidizing juvenile lobster diets, thereby enhancing lobster growth and the overall economic value and yield of one of the most valuable fisheries in the U.S.Our study illustrates that shifting to an ecosystem approach to fisheries management should require consideration of cross-fishery interactions.

  13. Recruitment in a changing environment: the 2000s North Sea herring recruitment failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Payne, Mark; Hatfield, E.M.C.; Dickey-Collas, M.

    2009-01-01

    Environmentally induced change appears to be impacting the recruitment of North Sea herring (Clupea harengus). Despite simultaneously having a large adult population, historically low exploitation, and Marine Stewardship Council accreditation (implying sustainability), there have been an unpreced......Environmentally induced change appears to be impacting the recruitment of North Sea herring (Clupea harengus). Despite simultaneously having a large adult population, historically low exploitation, and Marine Stewardship Council accreditation (implying sustainability), there have been...... an unprecedented 6 sequential years of poor juvenile production (recruitment). Analysis suggests that the poor recruitment arises during the larval overwintering phase, with recent survival rates greatly reduced. Contemporary warming of the North Sea has caused significant changes in the plankton community...

  14. Temporal patterns of migration and spawning of river herring in coastal Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosset, Julianne; Roy, Allison; Gahagan, Benjamin I.; Whiteley, Andrew R.; Armstrong, Michael P.; Sheppard, John J.; Jordaan, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Migrations of springtime Alewife Alosa pseudoharengus and Blueback Herring A. aestivalis, collectively referred to as river herring, are monitored in many rivers along the Atlantic coast to estimate population sizes. While these estimates give an indication of annual differences in the number of returning adults, links to the subsequent timing and duration of spawning and freshwater juvenile productivity remain equivocal. In this study, we captured juvenile river herring at night in 20 coastal Massachusetts lakes using a purse seine and extracted otoliths to derive daily fish ages and back-calculate spawn dates. Estimates of spawning dates were compared with fishway counts of migrating adults to assess differences in migration timing and the timing and duration of spawning. We observed a distinct delay between the beginning of the adult migration run and the start of spawning, ranging from 7 to 28 d across the 20 lakes. Spawning continued 13–48 d after adults stopped migrating into freshwater, further demonstrating a pronounced delay in spawning following migration. Across the study sites the duration of spawning (43–76 d) was longer but not related to the duration of migration (29–66 d). The extended spawning period is consistent with recent studies suggesting that Alewives are indeterminate spawners. The long duration in freshwater provides the opportunity for top-down (i.e., predation on zooplankton) and bottom-up (i.e., food for avian, fish, and other predators) effects, with implications for freshwater food webs and nutrient cycling. General patterns of spawn timing and duration can be incorporated into population models and used to estimate temporal changes in productivity associated with variable timing and density of spawning river herring in lakes.

  15. Predicting synergistic effects of resources and predators on foraging decisions by juvenile Steller sea lions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frid, Alejandro; Burns, Jennifer; Baker, Gregory G; Thorne, Richard E

    2009-01-01

    Many theoretical and experimental studies suggest that synergistic interactions between resources and predators influence foraging decisions and their fitness consequences. This framework, however, has been ignored almost completely by hypotheses on causes of the population decline of Steller sea lions (SSLs) (Eumetopias jubatus) in western Alaska. By comparing predictions from a dynamic state variable model to empirical data on the behaviour of individuals instrumented with satellite-linked time-at-depth recorders, we develop and find preliminary support for the hypothesis that, during winter in Prince William Sound, juvenile SSLs (a) underutilise walleye pollock, a predictable resource in deep strata, due to predation risk from Pacific sleeper sharks, and (b) underutilise the potential energy bonanza of inshore aggregations of Pacific herring due to risk from either killer whales, larger conspecifics, or both. Further, under conditions of resource scarcity-induced by overfishing, long-term oceanographic cycles, or their combination-trade-offs between mortality risk and energy gain may influence demographic parameters. Accordingly, computer simulations illustrated the theoretical plausibility that a decline of Pacific herring in shallow strata would greatly increase the number of deep foraging dives, thereby increasing exposure to sleeper sharks and mortality rates. These results suggest that hypotheses on the decline of SSLs should consider synergistic effects of predators and resources on behaviour and mortality rates. Empirical support for our model, however, is limited and we outline tasks for empirical research that emerge from these limitations. More generally, in the context of today's conservation crises, our work illustrates that the greater the dearth of system-specific data, the greater the need to apply principles of behavioural ecology toward the understanding and management of large-scale marine systems.

  16. Unraveling biocomplexity of Northeast Atlantic herring stocks using SNP markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekkevold, Dorte; Limborg, Morten; Helyar, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) exhibit biocomplexity, with widespread, geographically explicit populations that perform long‐range migration to common feeding and wintering areas, where they are exploited by fisheries. This means that exploited stocks do not describe discrete units, thereby c...... and spatial dynamics applicable to stock assessment methods, as well as presenting a traceability tool for certification of herring and herring products...

  17. Synthetic biology as red herring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Beth

    2013-12-01

    It has become commonplace to say that with the advent of technologies like synthetic biology the line between artifacts and living organisms, policed by metaphysicians since antiquity, is beginning to blur. But that line began to blur 10,000 years ago when plants and animals were first domesticated; and has been thoroughly blurred at least since agriculture became the dominant human subsistence pattern many millennia ago. Synthetic biology is ultimately only a late and unexceptional offshoot of this prehistoric development. From this perspective, then, synthetic biology is a red herring, distracting us from more thorough philosophical consideration of the most truly revolutionary human practice-agriculture. In the first section of this paper I will make this case with regard to ontology, arguing that synthetic biology crosses no ontological lines that were not crossed already in the Neolithic. In the second section I will construct a parallel case with regard to cognition, arguing that synthetic biology as biological engineering represents no cognitive advance over what was required for domestication and the new agricultural subsistence pattern it grounds. In the final section I will make the case with regard to human existence, arguing that synthetic biology, even if wildly successful, is not in a position to cause significant existential change in what it is to be human over and above the massive existential change caused by the transition to agriculture. I conclude that a longer historical perspective casts new light on some important issues in philosophy of technology and environmental philosophy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Evidence from the past: exploitation as cause of commercial extinction of autumn-spawning herring in the Gulf of Riga, Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian R; Ojaveer, Henn

    2018-01-01

    Historical marine ecology has shown that many exploited animal populations declined before their abundance was quantified by scientists. This situation applies for autumn-spawning herring (Clupea harengus) in the Baltic Sea. This stock used to be the dominant spawning group of herring in the early...... and biological data and conduct population development simulations to evaluate the hypothesis that exploitation may have been sufficient to lead the stock towards commercial extinction. We found that the estimated exploitation pattern, including exploitation of juveniles, was unsustainable and led to stock...

  19. The role of 'conservatism' in herring migrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corten, A.

    2002-01-01

    Herring (Clupea harengus) migrations tend to remain constant over periods of several years or even decades, despite environmental variation. When a migration pattern is changed, apparently in response to an environmental stimulus, the change in migratory behavior sometimes lasts longer than the

  20. Ichthyophonus hoferi disease in the herring in Norwegian waters

    OpenAIRE

    Hjeltnes, Brit K.; Skagen, Dankert W.

    1992-01-01

    After the discovery of I. hoferi disease in Norwegian spring spawning herring in summer 1991, a program for systematic surveillance of the disease in the herring in Norwegian waters was developed. The programme, which aims primarily at monitoring the prevalence of the disease, is described. Macroscopic lesions in the heart emerged as the standard diagnostic criterium. The results so far indicate that the situation for Norwegian spring spawning herring is not alarming, ...

  1. Frozen herring as raw material for spice-salting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stefansson, G.; Nielsen, H.H.; Skara, T.; Schubring, R.; Oehlenschlager, J.; Luten, J.

    2000-01-01

    One batch of herring (Clupea harengus) was spice-salted fresh and as thawed after 32 days of frozen storage at -24 °C. After salting, samples of both groups were sent to participating laboratories in Iceland, Denmark, Norway, Germany and England. The herring was kept at 5 ± 1 °C and sampled three

  2. Juvenile angiofibroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasal tumor; Angiofibroma - juvenile; Benign nasal tumor; Juvenile nasal angiofibroma; JNA ... Juvenile angiofibroma is not very common. It is most often found in adolescent boys. The tumor contains many blood ...

  3. Environmental Factors and Natural Resource Stock: Atlantic Herring case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, J.H. [Korea Maritime Institute, Seoul (Korea); John, M. Gate [University of Rhode Island, Kingston (United States)

    2001-12-01

    Atlantic herrings have held the important position as fish-baits in the marine ecosystem such as major baits in fishing lobsters. The Atlantic herring is sensitively influenced by the environmental factors of the marine ecosystem, such as the temperature of seawater, the amount of planktons, and the submarine deposit of the habitat. In the immature phase of herrings, especially, they are very sensitive of the low temperature of seawater. This study analyzes the correlation between two-year-old imported herring resources and the temperature of seawater, measured by a satellite. The area of measuring temperature is limited to the spawning ground of Atlantic herrings. As results of the analysis, the coefficient is 0.69, which means that the environmental factors should be very seriously considered in explaining the change of fishing resources. 12 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Exploring the multidimensional nature of stock structure: a case study on herring dynamics in a transition area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worsøe Clausen, Lotte

    occupy areas without much environmental structuring and extensive mixing between populations occur. Many species of marine fishes have the capacity of dispersing over vast geographical areas, either passively by drifting eggs and larvae following ocean currents, or actively by migration of juveniles...... will aid a sustainable aggregated management of a fishery on a mixed herring stock. It will facilitate protecting the weaker populations from over harvesting in a mixed fishery and thus maintain the diversity and in turn the resilience of the stock to a fishery...

  5. Improving smoked herring quality by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahran, D.A.; Abd El-Wahab, S.A.; Hendy, B.A.

    2009-01-01

    Smoked herring which is a highly purchasable product in Egypt, was exposed to different gamma irradiation doses (1.5,3.0 and 5.0 kGy) and stored at environmental temperature (12± 2 deg C) until spoilage of the control. Microbiological, chemical and sensory analyses were performed throughout storage to monitor the quality attributes. It is worthy to mention that irradiation reduced the population of bacteria and the effect was more pronounced at the highest dose used (5.0 kGy). At the same time 1.5 kGy completely eliminated staphylococcus aureus (coagulase + ve) and coliforms. By chemical analysis, there was significant decrease in average moisture content by different gamma irradiation doses and storage. Although the average thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) increased slightly by γ-irradiation, this increase was highly significant by storage . At the same time there was a significant (p< 0.05)decrease in the average trimethylamine (TMA) value of all irradiated samples compared with unirradiated control, this value increased significantly by storage. interestingly, the average histamine value decreased significantly in all irradiated samples. The sensory analysis revealed a highly significant difference in the average acceptability scores between different irradiation doses used and also by storage. Therefore it could be concluded that the quality of smoked herring during storage at environmental temperature (12 ± 2 deg C) could be improved by using 5.0 kGy γ -irradiation

  6. Real-time ichthyoplankton drift in Northeast Arctic cod and Norwegian spring-spawning herring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikebø, Frode B; Ådlandsvik, Bjørn; Albretsen, Jon; Sundby, Svein; Stenevik, Erling Kåre; Huse, Geir; Svendsen, Einar; Kristiansen, Trond; Eriksen, Elena

    2011-01-01

    Individual-based biophysical larval models, initialized and parameterized by observations, enable numerical investigations of various factors regulating survival of young fish until they recruit into the adult population. Exponentially decreasing numbers in Northeast Arctic cod and Norwegian Spring Spawning herring early changes emphasizes the importance of early life history, when ichthyoplankton exhibit pelagic free drift. However, while most studies are concerned with past recruitment variability it is also important to establish real-time predictions of ichthyoplankton distributions due to the increasing human activity in fish habitats and the need for distribution predictions that could potentially improve field coverage of ichthyoplankton. A system has been developed for operational simulation of ichthyoplankton distributions. We have coupled a two-day ocean forecasts from the Norwegian Meteorological Institute with an individual-based ichthyoplankton model for Northeast Arctic cod and Norwegian Spring Spawning herring producing daily updated maps of ichthyoplankton distributions. Recent years observed spawning distribution and intensity have been used as input to the model system. The system has been running in an operational mode since 2008. Surveys are expensive and distributions of early stages are therefore only covered once or twice a year. Comparison between model and observations are therefore limited in time. However, the observed and simulated distributions of juvenile fish tend to agree well during early fall. Area-overlap between modeled and observed juveniles September 1(st) range from 61 to 73%, and 61 to 71% when weighted by concentrations. The model system may be used to evaluate the design of ongoing surveys, to quantify the overlap with harmful substances in the ocean after accidental spills, as well as management planning of particular risky operations at sea. The modeled distributions are already utilized during research surveys to

  7. Real-time ichthyoplankton drift in Northeast Arctic cod and Norwegian spring-spawning herring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frode B Vikebø

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Individual-based biophysical larval models, initialized and parameterized by observations, enable numerical investigations of various factors regulating survival of young fish until they recruit into the adult population. Exponentially decreasing numbers in Northeast Arctic cod and Norwegian Spring Spawning herring early changes emphasizes the importance of early life history, when ichthyoplankton exhibit pelagic free drift. However, while most studies are concerned with past recruitment variability it is also important to establish real-time predictions of ichthyoplankton distributions due to the increasing human activity in fish habitats and the need for distribution predictions that could potentially improve field coverage of ichthyoplankton. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A system has been developed for operational simulation of ichthyoplankton distributions. We have coupled a two-day ocean forecasts from the Norwegian Meteorological Institute with an individual-based ichthyoplankton model for Northeast Arctic cod and Norwegian Spring Spawning herring producing daily updated maps of ichthyoplankton distributions. Recent years observed spawning distribution and intensity have been used as input to the model system. The system has been running in an operational mode since 2008. Surveys are expensive and distributions of early stages are therefore only covered once or twice a year. Comparison between model and observations are therefore limited in time. However, the observed and simulated distributions of juvenile fish tend to agree well during early fall. Area-overlap between modeled and observed juveniles September 1(st range from 61 to 73%, and 61 to 71% when weighted by concentrations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The model system may be used to evaluate the design of ongoing surveys, to quantify the overlap with harmful substances in the ocean after accidental spills, as well as management planning of particular risky operations

  8. Kittiwake diets and chick production signal a 2008 regime shift in the Northeast Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    I examined ~2700 food samples collected from adult and nestling black-legged kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla from 1978 through 2011 on Middleton Island in the Gulf of Alaska. The kittiwake diet was composed chiefly of fish, but invertebrates were taken in appreciable quantities in April and May. Upon spring arrival at the colony, adult kittiwakes foraged regularly at night on vertically migrating mesopelagic prey—lanternfishes (Myctophidae), squids, crustaceans, and polychaetes—a behavior they largely discontinued by egg-laying. During incubation and chick-rearing, food samples contained mostly (~85% by weight) Pacific sand lance Ammodytes hexapterus, capelin Mallotus villosus, Pacific herring Clupea pallasii, sablefish Anopoploma fimbria, krill (Euphausiidae), and juvenile salmon Onchorynchus gorboscha and O. keta. A salient finding over the longitudinal study was the emergence, twice, of capelin as a dominant forage species—once in 2000 to 2003, and again in 2008 through 2011. Kittiwakes responded to capelin availability by producing markedly higher numbers of fledged young. The 2000 to 2003 event corresponded to a previously documented shift to cooler conditions in the NE Pacific, which apparently was relatively limited in magnitude or duration. The more recent transition appears stronger and may be more lasting. I submit that 2008 was an important turning point, marking a substantive reversal of warm conditions that began with the well-documented regime shift of 1977. That interpretation is consistent with the existence of a ~60 yr cycle in ocean and atmospheric conditions in the North Pacific. All else being equal, it predicts the next 20 to 30 yr will be favorable for species such as kittiwakes and Steller sea lions, which seemed to respond negatively to the 1977 to 2007 warm phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation.

  9. Sensory Properties of Frozen Herring (Clupea harengus) from Different Catch Seasons and Locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldig, Grethe; Jørgensen, Bo Munk; Undeland, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    Freezing of herring (Clupea harengus) for human consumption is increasing in the Nordic herring industry, either onboard the fishing vessels or right after landing. The quality of frozen herring as a raw material does not only depend on the frozen storage conditions applied, but also...... on compositional features, something which in turn can vary with season and catching ground. To unravel the link between biological variations, basic muscle composition, and sensory properties of frozen herring, a unique herring raw material was caught by commercial fishing vessels at three locations: around...... the utilization of herring for frozen storage for human consumption....

  10. In situ exposure of herring embryos in Prince William Sound two years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocan, R.; Brown, E.; Baker, T.

    1995-01-01

    In order to evaluate long-term residual toxicity, artificially spawned Pacific herring (Clupea pallasl) embryos were deployed at 5 oiled and 5 unoiled sites in Prince William Sound two years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Embryos were exposed at 1.5 m and 4.5 m below mean low water for 8--10 d post fertilization. The embryos were then retrieved and transported to the laboratory for hatching and evaluation under controlled conditions, Endpoints were (1) embryo survival, (2) live hatch, (3) deformed larvae and (4) larval dry weight. The oiled sites produced significantly (P < 0.01) more deformed larvae (63.3%) than did the unoiled sites (51.3%), but there was a lower hatching success at the unoiled sites which resulted in no overall difference in normal live larvae produced between oiled and unoiled sites. The mean dry weight of newly hatched larvae from the oiled sites (78 microg/larva) was significantly lower than those from the unoiled sites (97 microg/larva) at all depths (P < 0.01). Increased larval deformities and reduced hatching weight is consistent with what has been reported by several investigators for herring larvae experimentally and naturally exposed to petroleum hydrocarbons. Based on the data, there appeared to be differences between the previously oiled and unoiled sites relative to herring development, but it is not clear whether this was due to residual oil effects or parental effects

  11. Round herring (genus Etrumeus) contain distinct evolutionary lineages coincident with a biogeographic barrier along Australia’s southern temperate coastline

    KAUST Repository

    DiBattista, Joseph; Randall, John E.; Newman, Stephen J.; Bowen, Brian W.

    2014-01-01

    Molecular genetic surveys of marine fishes have revealed that some widely distributed species are actually a composite of multiple evolutionary lineages. This is apparent in the round herrings (genus Etrumeus), wherein a globally distributed taxon (Etrumeus sadina Mitchill 1814) has proven to contain at least seven valid taxa, with more likely awaiting discovery. Here, we survey evolutionary lineages of the nominal E. sadina (formerly E. teres, a junior synonym) across the southern temperate zone of Australia, a marine region divided into three biogeographic provinces based primarily on the distribution of intertidal faunas. Results from morphological and mitochondrial DNA data reveal two evolutionary lineages corresponding to eastern and southwestern provinces (d = 0.007 for cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and d = 0.017 for cytochrome b), possibly initiated by the Bassian Isthmus between Australia and Tasmania during low sea-level stands. The Australian round herring is also genetically distinct from the nearest congeneric forms in the Indian and Pacific Oceans, with a corresponding modal difference in gill-raker counts in most cases. Based on these data, we resurrect the title Etrumeus jacksoniensis for the Australian round herring. While the Bassian Isthmus may have initiated the partition of evolutionary lineages within Australia, additional oceanographic and ecological factors must reinforce this separation in order to maintain diagnostic genetic differences along a continuous temperate coastline. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  12. Round herring (genus Etrumeus) contain distinct evolutionary lineages coincident with a biogeographic barrier along Australia’s southern temperate coastline

    KAUST Repository

    DiBattista, Joseph

    2014-08-28

    Molecular genetic surveys of marine fishes have revealed that some widely distributed species are actually a composite of multiple evolutionary lineages. This is apparent in the round herrings (genus Etrumeus), wherein a globally distributed taxon (Etrumeus sadina Mitchill 1814) has proven to contain at least seven valid taxa, with more likely awaiting discovery. Here, we survey evolutionary lineages of the nominal E. sadina (formerly E. teres, a junior synonym) across the southern temperate zone of Australia, a marine region divided into three biogeographic provinces based primarily on the distribution of intertidal faunas. Results from morphological and mitochondrial DNA data reveal two evolutionary lineages corresponding to eastern and southwestern provinces (d = 0.007 for cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and d = 0.017 for cytochrome b), possibly initiated by the Bassian Isthmus between Australia and Tasmania during low sea-level stands. The Australian round herring is also genetically distinct from the nearest congeneric forms in the Indian and Pacific Oceans, with a corresponding modal difference in gill-raker counts in most cases. Based on these data, we resurrect the title Etrumeus jacksoniensis for the Australian round herring. While the Bassian Isthmus may have initiated the partition of evolutionary lineages within Australia, additional oceanographic and ecological factors must reinforce this separation in order to maintain diagnostic genetic differences along a continuous temperate coastline. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  13. AFSC/RACE/FBEP/Copeman: Effect of temperature and tissue type on fatty acid signatures of two species of North Pacific juvenile gadids: A laboratory feeding study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is from a laboratory study that investigated the effect of temperature and tissue type on fatty acid signatures of Pacific cod and walleye pollock.

  14. 76 FR 79610 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Adjustment to 2012 Annual...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ... account for catch overages in 2010 and to prevent overfishing. DATES: Public comments must be received no... FR 48874). Although herring is not overfished and is not experiencing overfishing, the herring annual...

  15. NEFSC 1998 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE9810, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  16. NEFSC 2011 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE1108, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  17. NEFSC 2002 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0208, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  18. NEFSC 2006 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0615, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  19. NEFSC 1999 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE9909, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  20. NEFSC 2008 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0809, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  1. NEFSC 2003 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0308, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  2. NEFSC 2004 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0413, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  3. NEFSC 2010 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE1010, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  4. NEFSC 2000 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0008, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  5. NEFSC 2001 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0109, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  6. NEFSC 2005 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0512, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  7. NEFSC 2007 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0710, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  8. NEFSC 2012 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (PC1206, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  9. NEFSC 1998 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE9809, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  10. NEFSC 2009 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0910, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  11. Exposure to parvalbumin allergen and aerosols among herring processing workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlman-Höglund, Anna; Renström, Anne; Acevedo, Fernando; Andersson, Eva

    2013-10-01

    There are increasing reports of allergies and respiratory symptoms among workers in the fish processing industry, coinciding with an increasing use of high-pressure water in the processing plants. However, few studies have measured exposure in these work environments. The aim of this study was to characterize the occupational exposure of workers to herring antigen and to screen environmental factors at a herring (Clupea harengus) plant in which new and more encapsulated filleting machines had been installed. To assist in this, a method to assess airborne exposure to herring allergen was needed. Exposure to airborne herring antigen, mould spores, and endotoxin were measured during work. Antigen exposure was assessed using a newly developed sensitive (detection limit, 0.1 ng ml(-1)) rabbit polyclonal sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay against the major herring muscle protein allergen, parvalbumin. Aerosols were measured by mass concentration (DataRAM) and number of particles (Climet I-500). Personal geometric mean herring allergen exposure was 986 ng m(-3) at the old filleting workstations and 725 ng m(-3) at the new workstations (difference not significant). Outside the production room, the level was ~130 ng m(-3). Number of particles and mass concentration were both significantly lower around the new machines than around the old machines (P < 0.001 and P < 0.0001, respectively). The highest particle count was seen for the 0.3-0.5 μm fraction, with more than 400,000 particles per cubic metre air. Endotoxin concentration in the air varied between 3 and 92 EU m(-3), with the highest levels when the catch mainly contained herring that had eaten krill or seaweed. We developed a sensitive method to detect herring antigen. High exposure to herring antigen was measured during filleting work. The particles in the air around the fillet machines were mainly <0.5 μm and the newer encapsulated machines generated fewer particles. It is important to reduce occupational

  12. 50 CFR 648.207 - Herring Research Set-Aside (RSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Herring Research Set-Aside (RSA). 648.207... Measures for the Atlantic Herring Fishery § 648.207 Herring Research Set-Aside (RSA). (a) NMFS shall... authorized to utilize RSA, based on the selection criteria described in the RFP. (d) NMFS shall consider each...

  13. Antioxidant activities and functional properties of protein and peptide fractions isolated from salted herring brine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taheri, Ali; Farvin, Sabeena; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    In the present study proteins isolated from herring brine, which is a by-product of marinated herring production were evaluated for their functional properties and antioxidant activity. Herring brine was collected from the local herring industry and proteins were precipitated by adjusting the p...... to delay iron catalyzed lipid oxidation in 5% fish oil in water emulsions and the 10–50kDa fraction was the best. These results show the potential of proteins and peptide fractions recovered from waste water from the herring industry as source of natural antioxidants for use in food products....

  14. Sublethal effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on herring embryos and larvae: morphological, cytogenetic; and histopathological assessments, 1989-1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hose, J. E.; Marty, G. D.; Hinton, D. E.

    1996-01-01

    Extensive sublethal damage assessments were carried out on Pacific herring larvae following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Egg masses were collected from oiled and non-oiled areas during 1989 to 1991, and incubated to hatch. The hatched larvae were evaluated for morphological deformities, cytogenetic abnormalities, and histopathological lesions. In 1989, herring larvae from the oiled areas showed high incidence of morphological deformities and cytogenetic abnormalities compared to larvae from non-oiled areas. There was no evidence of histopathological lesions. Identical assessments in 1990 and 1991 revealed no detectable oil-related developmental and genetic effects. In contrast, there was a marked decrease in survival, suggesting that that genetic damage at heavily oiled stations combined with severe morphological malformations mitigated against survival through the stressful larval period. 40 refs., 1 tab.,8 figs

  15. Juvenile Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile arthritis (JA) is arthritis that happens in children. It causes joint swelling, pain, stiffness, and loss of motion. It can affect any joint, but ... of JA that children get is juvenile idiopathic arthritis. There are several other forms of arthritis affecting ...

  16. Comparative analysis of diet composition and its relation to morphological characteristics in juvenile fish of three lutjanid species in a Mexican Pacific coastal lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo M. Aguilar-Betancourt

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The main goal of this research was to investigate the differences in diet composition among three species of the genus Lutjanus inhabiting a coastal lagoon as juveniles. The working hypothesis was that these species feed on a common base of food resources and therefore, some niche overlap is present in terms of general diet composition. However, changes in the trophic niche with size and differences in some morphological traits among species explain observed differences in diet. Fish were collected during 42 sampling trips conducted regularly from February 2011 to January 2012 using several types of fishing gear. Total number of analyzed stomachs was 288 for Lutjanus argentiventris from 2.3 to 19.9 cm total length (TL; 178 for Lutjanus colorado ranging from 2.4 to 30.1 cm TL; and 183 for Lutjanus novemfasciatus with 1.2 to 20.0 cm TL. Results indicate that juveniles of all three lutjanid species share a general diet based on decapods and fishes. However, L. novemfasciatus has a more piscivorous habit, which can be explained by a more slender body shape and larger teeth, characteristics, which increase fish catching performance. Larger fish of all three species eat larger prey, which is consistent with the optimum foraging theory.

  17. Review of Ruegen herring larvae survey project 2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickey-Collas, M.; Nash, R.D.M.

    2011-01-01

    At the request of the Johann Heinrich von Thünen Institut (vTI), IOR Rostock, a return review of the German Rügen herring larval survey (RHLS) project took place on the 24th to 26th January 2011, following on from a similar review in November 2006. Mark Dickey-Collas (Wageningen IMARES) and Richard

  18. Juvenile Firesetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Brittany; Freeman, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile firesetting is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Male gender, substance use, history of maltreatment, interest in fire, and psychiatric illness are commonly reported risk factors. Interventions that have been shown to be effective in juveniles who set fires include cognitive behavior therapy and educational interventions, whereas satiation has not been shown to be an effective intervention. Forensic assessments can assist the legal community in adjudicating youth with effective interventions. Future studies should focus on consistent assessment and outcome measures to create more evidence for directing evaluation and treatment of juvenile firesetters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Juvenile Prostitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csapo, Marg

    1986-01-01

    Recent research and Canadian government committee reports concerning juvenile prostitution are reviewed. Proposals are made in the realms of law and social policy; and existing programs are described. (DB)

  20. Does predation by grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) affect Bothnian Sea herring stock estimates?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gårdmark, Anna; Östman, Örjan; Nielsen, Anders

    2012-01-01

    when accounting for seal predation, this did not change the conclusions about drivers of herring dynamics. Accounting for grey seal predation is important for abundance estimates of old herring, but currently not for SSB estimates, given the great uncertainties in the standard assessment. The grey seal...... fivefold since 1985. Its main prey, herring (Clupea harrengus), is a key species for fisheries in the region. Yet, current stock assessments assume constant natural mortality, leading to a risk of biased stock estimates with increasing predation and misleading analyses of herring population dynamics. We...... estimated grey seal predation from diet data and reanalysed herring spawning stock biomass (SSB) during 1973–2009. Accounting for predation increased the herring SSB 16% (maximum 19%), but this was within the confidence intervals when ignoring predation. Although mortality in older individuals was inflated...

  1. Textural and biochemical changes during ripening of old-fashioned salted herrings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette; Andersen, Eva; Christensen, Line

    2011-01-01

    the ripening period could be explained by free-radical-induced cross-linking of myosin and the formation of aggregates. In addition, degradation of these aggregates correlated with the decrease in hardness observed at 371 days. CONCLUSIONS: Texture changes during ripening of salted herrings can be explained...... of salted herrings. The aim of this study was to measure the texture changes during ripening using two differentmethods and to correlate the texture changeswith brine composition andwith biochemical modifications at themolecular level. RESULTS: During ripening (up to 151 days), hardness was higher in salted...... herrings compared to raw herrings, irrespective of the brine composition. However, the increase in hardness of herring prepared with extra brine occurred later. After prolonged storage (371 days), hardness was found for both batches to decrease to the level of raw herring. The increase in hardness during...

  2. Life history of lake herring of Green Bay, Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stanford H.

    1956-01-01

    Although the lake herring has been an important contributor to the commercial fish production of Green Bay, little has been known about it. This study is based on field observations and data from about 6,500 lake herring collected over the period 1948 to 1952. Relatively nonselective commercial pound nets were a primary source of material for the study of age and growth. Commercial and experimental gill nets were used to obtain data on gear selectivity and vertical distribution. Scales were employed to investigate age and growth. Age group IV normally dominated commercial catches during the first half of the calendar year and age group III the last half. At these ages the fish averaged about 10.5 inches in length. The season's growth started in May, was most rapid in July, and terminated near the end of October. The sexes grew at the same rate. Selectivity of fishing gear was found to influence the estimation of growth. Geographical and annual differences in growth are shown. Factors that might contribute to discrepancies in calculated growth are evaluated. Possible real and apparent causes of growth compensation are given. The relation between length and weight is shown to vary with sex, season, year, and method of capture. Females were relatively more plentiful in commercial catches in February than in May through December. The percentage of females decreased with increase in age in pound-net catches but increased with age in gill-net samples. Within a year class the percentage of females decreased with increase in age. Most Green Bay lake herring mature during their second or third year of life. They are pelagic spawners with most intensive spawning over shallow areas. Spawning takes place between mid-November and mid-December, and eggs hatch in April and May. Lake herring ovaries contained from 3,500 to 11,200 eggs (averaged 6,375). Progress of spawning by age, sex, and length is given. Lake herring were distributed at all depths in Green Bay in early May, were

  3. Ichthyophonus-infected walleye pollock Theragra chalcogramma (Pallas) in the eastern Bering Sea: a potential reservoir of infections in the North Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, V C; Morado, J F; Friedman, C S

    2014-07-01

    In 2003, the Alaska walleye pollock industry reported product quality issues attributed to an unspecified parasite in fish muscle. Using molecular and histological methods, we identified the parasite in Bering Sea pollock as Ichthyophonus. Infected pollock were identified throughout the study area, and prevalence was greater in adults than in juveniles. This study not only provides the first documented report of Ichthyophonus in any fish species captured in the Bering Sea, but also reveals that the parasite has been present in this region for nearly 20 years and is not a recent introduction. Sequence analysis of 18S rDNA from Ichthyophonus in pollock revealed that consensus sequences were identical to published parasite sequences from Pacific herring and Yukon River Chinook salmon. Results from this study suggest potential for Ichthyophonus exposures from infected pollock via two trophic pathways; feeding on whole fish as prey and scavenging on industry-discharged offal. Considering the notable Ichthyophonus levels in pollock, the low host specificity of the parasite and the role of this host as a central prey item in the Bering Sea, pollock likely serve as a key Ichthyophonus reservoir for other susceptible hosts in the North Pacific. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  4. Juvenile Swordfish (Xiphias gladius) Specimens Collected from 1991-2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Juvenile swordfish caught throughout the Pacific Ocean collected by Hawaii longline observers, aboard the Thomas Cromwell research vessel, and donated by various...

  5. Sensory properties of marinated herring (Clupea harengus) processed from raw material from commercial landings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Durita; Hyldig, Grethe; Nielsen, Jette

    2005-01-01

    Sensory properties of marinated herring processed from raw material from Danish commercial catches were described and related to fishing season and biological, chemical and functional properties. Herring was caught on five cruises and stored on board in tanks or ice. The sensory profile of marina......Sensory properties of marinated herring processed from raw material from Danish commercial catches were described and related to fishing season and biological, chemical and functional properties. Herring was caught on five cruises and stored on board in tanks or ice. The sensory profile...

  6. Baltic herring fisheries management: stakeholder views to frame the problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haapasaari, Päivi Elisabet; Mäntyniemi, Samu; Kuikka, Sakari

    2012-01-01

    Comprehensive problem framing that includes different perspectives is essential for holistic understanding of complex problems and as the first step in building models. We involved five stakeholders to frame the management problem of the Central Baltic herring fishery. By using the Bayesian belief...... nongovernmental organization included markets and fishing industry influences. Management measures were considered to have a relatively small impact on the development of the herring stock; their impact on socioeconomic objectives was greater. Overall, the framings by these stakeholders propose a focus...... networks (BBNs) approach, the views of the stakeholders were built into graphical influence diagrams representing variables and their dependencies. The views of the scientists involved concentrated on biological concerns, whereas the fisher, the manager, and the representative of an environmental...

  7. Interacting trophic forcing and the population dynamics of herring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegren, Martin; Ostman, Orjan; Gardmark, Anna

    2011-01-01

    -up nor top-down, but rather through multiple external and internal drivers. While in many studies single drivers have been identified, potential synergies of multiple factors, as well as their relative importance in regulating population dynamics of small pelagic fish, is a largely unresolved issue....... Using a statistical, age-structured modeling approach, we demonstrate the relative importance and influence of bottom-up (e.g., climate, zooplankton availability) and top-down (i.e., fishing and predation) factors on the population dynamics of Bothnian Sea herring (Clupea harengus) throughout its life...... cycle. Our results indicate significant bottom-up effects of zooplankton and interspecific competition from sprat (Sprattus sprattus), particularly on younger age classes of herring. Although top-down forcing through fishing and predation by grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua...

  8. The high diversity of arsenolipids in herring fillet (Clupea harengus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lischka, S; Arroyo-Abad, U; Mattusch, J; Kühn, A; Piechotta, Ch

    2013-06-15

    Arsenolipids represent a relevant step in the biosynthesis of organoarsenicals from inorganic arsenic compounds. Their fate after human consumption is still uncertain. By means of a HPLC-ICP-MS/ESI-Q-TOF-MS method, 16 lipid soluble arsenic compounds, including seven formerly unknown organoarsenicals, have been identified in commercial herring fillet. The structural assignment was done by exact mass and high resolution MS/MS data. This is the first identification of arsenolipids in herring (Clupea harengus). They contribute with (3.6±0.2) mg kg(-1) arsenic to 62.3% of the total arsenic content of (5.7±0.3) mg of arsenic per kg dry mass. Current studies indicate that a metabolization by humans to cancerous dimethylarsinic acid is very likely. The presented results are highly relevant as herring is a very popular food fish species in Europe. Moreover, the screening of different fish species revealed that arsenolipids are more widespread than previously assumed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Food web changes under ocean acidification promote herring larvae survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sswat, Michael; Stiasny, Martina H; Taucher, Jan; Algueró-Muñiz, Maria; Bach, Lennart T; Jutfelt, Fredrik; Riebesell, Ulf; Clemmesen, Catriona

    2018-05-01

    Ocean acidification-the decrease in seawater pH due to rising CO 2 concentrations-has been shown to lower survival in early life stages of fish and, as a consequence, the recruitment of populations including commercially important species. To date, ocean-acidification studies with fish larvae have focused on the direct physiological impacts of elevated CO 2 , but largely ignored the potential effects of ocean acidification on food web interactions. In an in situ mesocosm study on Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) larvae as top predators in a pelagic food web, we account for indirect CO 2 effects on larval survival mediated by changes in food availability. The community was exposed to projected end-of-the-century CO 2 conditions (~760 µatm pCO 2 ) over a period of 113 days. In contrast with laboratory studies that reported a decrease in fish survival, the survival of the herring larvae in situ was significantly enhanced by 19 ± 2%. Analysis of the plankton community dynamics suggested that the herring larvae benefitted from a CO 2 -stimulated increase in primary production. Such indirect effects may counteract the possible direct negative effects of ocean acidification on the survival of fish early life stages. These findings emphasize the need to assess the food web effects of ocean acidification on fish larvae before we can predict even the sign of change in fish recruitment in a high-CO 2 ocean.

  10. NODC Standard Format Herring Survey Population Density and Distribution (F057) Data (1976-1977) (NODC Accession 0014189)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data type contains data from aircraft surveys of herring schools. These data were collected to provide information on herring population density and...

  11. Juvenile angiofibromer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Anne Daugaard; Jakobsen, John; Nepper-Rasmussen, Jørgen

    2005-01-01

    Juvenile angiofibroma is a rare, benign, rich vascular tumor, and approximately one new case is diagnosed in Denmark each year. It sits in the foramen sphenopalatinum and occurs in boys from 14 to 25 years of age. The most frequent initial symptoms are nasal obstruction and epistaxis. Through...... the years, the treatment of juvenile angiofibroma has included many methods, including surgical excision, electrocoagulation, interstitial or external radiation therapy, cryosurgery, hormone administration and chemotherapy. Radiation, chemotherapy and surgery have proven to be the most effective treatments...

  12. High‐resolution acoustic indices of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) paving the way for inclusion of migration patterns in management considerations of herring in ICES Divisions IIIa and SD 22‐24

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stæhr, Karl-Johan; Worsøe Clausen, Lotte

    2012-01-01

    Herring catches in the Western Baltic, Kattegat and Skagerrak consist of a mixture of stocks; the two predominant stocks are the spring‐spawning Western Baltic herring stock and the North Sea autumn‐spawning herring (NSAS), and the mixing follows an age‐ and season‐dependent pattern with high var...

  13. 77 FR 10978 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Adjustment to 2012 Annual...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... to prevent overfishing. DATES: Effective February 24, 2012, through December 31, 2012. ADDRESSES...). Although herring is not overfished and is not experiencing overfishing, the herring annual acceptable... level that prevents overfishing. The sub-ACLs overages in 2010 did not result in overfishing, therefore...

  14. 75 FR 20550 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ... time. Additionally, the SSC recommended that a new herring benchmark stock assessment is needed to... MSY . A new benchmark stock assessment is needed to address the inconsistency between long-term... herring stock complex is a transboundary stock and is found in both U.S and Canadian waters. As such, the...

  15. 75 FR 48874 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ... until a new benchmark stock assessment can be conducted. They cited concern about the high level of... additional data to assess the resource as it prepares for the next benchmark stock assessment in 2012. They... role of herring as a forage species, past declines in the New England herring stock, and concern that...

  16. Outlier loci detect intraspecific biodiversity amongst spring and autumn spawning herring across local scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekkevold, Dorte; Gross, Riho; Arula, Timo

    2016-01-01

    Herring, Clupea harengus, is one of the ecologically and commercially most important species in European northern seas, where two distinct ecotypes have been described based on spawning time; spring and autumn. To date, it is unknown if these spring and autumn spawning herring constitute genetica...... of these co-occurring ecotypes to meet requirements for sustainable exploitation and ensure optimal livelihood for coastal communities....

  17. Recovery of biomolecules from marinated herring (Clupea harengus) brine using ultrafiltration through ceramic membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gringer, Nina; Hosseini, Seyed Vali; Svendsen, Tore

    2015-01-01

    Marinated herring processing brines, which are usually discarded, are rich in salt, protein, non-protein nitrogen, iron, fatty acids, antioxidant and even possess enzymatic activity. This study investigated the performance of ceramic ultrafiltration of two herring spice brines with a major focus...

  18. Prey selection by North Sea herring (Clupea harengus) with special reference to fish eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segers, F.H.I.D.; Dickey-Collas, M.; Rijnsdorp, A.D.

    2007-01-01

    The herring stock in the North Sea in recent years has recovered to a relatively high biomass, and here we investigate prey selection of individual North Sea herring when population numbers are high. The diet composition, and specifically pelagic fish eggs, was investigated in February 2004. Samples

  19. In situ activity of chymotrypsin in sugar-salted herring during cold storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvang, K.L.; Nielsen, Henrik Hauch

    2000-01-01

    In sifts activity of intestinal chymotrypsin in sugar-salted whole herring during cold storage was evaluated by analysing changes in the low-molecular-weight nitrogen fraction when a specific inhibitor was added. Addition of chymostatin (0.01 mM) to sugar-salted herring gave 100% inhibition...

  20. Structure of the New England herring gull population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadlec, J.A.; Drury, W.H.

    1968-01-01

    Measurements of the rates of population increase, reproduction, and mortality together with an observed age ratio, were used to analyze the population of the Herring Gull in New England. Data from sporadic censuses prior to this study, aerial censuses by the authors, and National Audubon Society Christmas Bird Count indicated that the New England breeding population has been doubling every 12 to 15 years since the early 1900's. This increase has involved founding new colonies and expanding the breeding range There is evidence that 15 to 30% of the adults do not breed in any given year. Sixty-one productivity measurements on 43 islands from 1963 through 1966, involving almost 13,000 nests, showed that from 0.8 to 1.4 young/breeding pair/year is the usual range of rate of production. The age distribution in the population was determined by classifying Herring Gulls by plumage category on an aerial census of the coast from Tampico, Mexico, to Cape Sable, Nova Scotia. Of the 622,000 gulls observed, 68% were adults, 17% were second- and third-year birds, and 15% were first-year birds. Mortality rates derived from band recovery data were too high to be consistent with the observed rate of population growth, productivity, and age structure. Loss of bands increasing to the rate of about 20%/year 5 years after banding eliminates most of the discrepancy. The age structure and rate of population increase indicate a mortality rate of 4 to 9% for gulls 2 years old or older, compared with the 25 to 30% indicated by band recoveries. The population structure we have developed fits everything we have observed about Herring Gull population dynamics, except mortality based on band recoveries.

  1. What Is Juvenile Arthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Initiative Breadcrumb Home Health Topics English Español Juvenile Arthritis Basics In-Depth Download Download EPUB Download PDF What is it? Points To Remember About Juvenile Arthritis Juvenile arthritis is the term used to describe ...

  2. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... joints. This form of JIA may turn into rheumatoid arthritis. It may involve 5 or more large and ... no known prevention for JIA. Alternative Names Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA); Juvenile chronic polyarthritis; Still disease; Juvenile spondyloarthritis ...

  3. Baltic Herring Fisheries Management: Stakeholder Views to Frame the Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Päivi Haapasaari

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive problem framing that includes different perspectives is essential for holistic understanding of complex problems and as the first step in building models. We involved five stakeholders to frame the management problem of the Central Baltic herring fishery. By using the Bayesian belief networks (BBNs approach, the views of the stakeholders were built into graphical influence diagrams representing variables and their dependencies. The views of the scientists involved concentrated on biological concerns, whereas the fisher, the manager, and the representative of an environmental nongovernmental organization included markets and fishing industry influences. Management measures were considered to have a relatively small impact on the development of the herring stock; their impact on socioeconomic objectives was greater. Overall, the framings by these stakeholders propose a focus on socioeconomic issues in research and management and explicitly define management objectives, not only in biological but also in social and economic terms. We find the approach an illustrative tool to structure complex issues systematically. Such a tool can be used as a forum for discussion and for decision support that explicitly includes the views of different stakeholder groups. It enables the examination of social and biological factors in one framework and facilitates bridging the gap between social and natural sciences. A benefit of the BBN approach is that the graphical model structures can be transformed into a quantitative form by inserting probabilistic information.

  4. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Coral Demography (Adult and Juvenile Corals) across the Pacific Remote Island Areas from 2017-04-02 to 2017-04-23 (NCEI Accession 0163743)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic coral demographic surveys for two life stages (juveniles, adults) across Wake, Baker, Howland and Jarvis in 2017....

  5. The Gordian knot: managing herring (Clupea harengus) bridging across populations, fishery units, management areas, and politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worsøe Clausen, Lotte; Mosegaard, Henrik; Berg, Casper Willestofte

    2012-01-01

    –24) and the North Sea (Division IIIa) by various EU—and in the latter case also non‐EU—fishing fleets. For the two separate management areas, TACs are set at different times in the yearly TACsetting process by the EU and negotiating counties, which often result in conflicts over quota allocations among different......The management of western Baltic spring spawning (WBSS) herring is challenged by the highly complex stock structure with a temporal and geographical distribution leading to conflicting interests among different stakeholder groups. The stock is exploited in the Baltic Sea (Subdivisions 22...... management units. The WBSS herring stock spawns in the western Baltic Sea and migrates into the Kattegat and Skagerrak areas, where it mixes with North Sea autumn spawning (NSAS) herring. Recent development of otolith shape analysis has enabled a high‐resolution separation of herring stocks in these waters...

  6. Recurrent mass mortalities of the blueback herring, Alosa aestivalis, in the lower Connecticut River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, S.A.; Leggett, W.C.; Boyd, W.A.

    1976-01-01

    The authors studied 5 mass mortalities of blueback herring, Alosa aestivalis between 1965 and 1971. The reach of the Connecticut River in which the mortalities were observed includes the region thermally influenced by cooling water effluents from the Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Plant. This warm water effluent has not been related to catastrophic blueback herring mortalities to the present time. The mortalities observed in 1965, 1966, and 1967 occurred before the plant became operational. The years of no abnormal mortalities, 1968, 1969, and 1970 coincided with periods of near-maximum generating output by this power plant. Only in June, 1971, did power plant operation coincide with a mass mortality of herring. Nevertheless, the occurrence of herring mortalities in four years out of seven observed suggests that further deterioration of water quality in the Connecticut River may threaten the continued spawning success of this fish. 9 references, 4 figures, 4 tables

  7. AFSC/ABL: Southeast and Prince William Sound, Alaska Herring Microsatellite data, 2007-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Herring is one of the most energy-rich fish in the Alaskan ecosystem, and when populations struggle over time, such as the Lynn Canal population, there is management...

  8. Chasing red herrings: Memory of distractors causes fixation in creative problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beda, Zsolt; Smith, Steven M

    2018-03-07

    Two experiments tested the red herring retrieval hypothesis, which states that fixation in creative problem solving is worse when memory for red herrings (i.e., inappropriate or incorrect solutions) is strengthened. In Experiment 1, when associations between Remote Associates Test (RAT) problem words (e.g., COTTAGE, SWISS, CAKE) and related red herring words (e.g., hut, chocolate, icing) were strengthened via repetition, an encoding variable, fixation was found to increase. In Experiment 2, when associations were formed between RAT problem contexts and red herrings, then subsequent reinstatement of problem contexts during RAT problem solving trials (as compared with showing new contexts) also worsened fixation effects. Our results add to the increasing body of research that connects memory with creative problem solving, and they suggest possible ways for overcoming fixation effects.

  9. Addressing socio-cultural values in the use and management of Baltic herring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ignatius, Suvi; Haapasaari, Päivi Elisabet

    2016-01-01

    , and is mainly used for animal feed and fishmeal and oil. Harmful dioxins in Baltic herring have been offered as an explanation for its reduced human consumption. We argue that dioxins are only part of the explanation while sociocultural values also influence the use and management of the fish resource....... By applying the justification theory of Boltanski and Thévenot to expert workshop discussions and a literature review, we investigate (1) what values people in Sweden, Finland, Denmark and Estonia associate with Baltic herring; and (2) which values determine the way the fish resource is used. Our study...... indicates that management decisions related to Baltic herring are predominantly guided by economic values and industrial efficiency. Profit optimisation in the fishery together with the image problem that Baltic herring suffers from, seem to have contributed to the devaluation of this fish species as food...

  10. Properties of protein powders from arrowtooth flounder (Atheresthes stomias) and herring (Clupea harengus) byproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathivel, Subramaniam; Bechtel, Peter J; Babbitt, Jerry; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon; Negulescu, Ioan I; Reppond, Kermit D

    2004-08-11

    Functional, nutritional, and thermal properties of freeze-dried protein powders (FPP) from whole herring (WHP), herring body (HBP), herring head (HHP), herring gonad (HGP), and arrowtooth flounder fillets (AFP) were evaluated. The FPP samples have desirable nutritional and functional properties and contained 63-81.4% protein. All FPP samples had desirable essential amino acid profiles and mineral contents. The emulsifying and fat adsorption capacities of all FPP samples were higher than those of soy protein concentrate. The emulsifying stability of WHP was lower than that of egg albumin but greater than that of soy protein concentrate. Thermal stability of the FPP samples is in the following order: HGP > HBP > WHP > HHP > AFP.

  11. LANDSAT menhaden and thread herring resources investigation. [Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmerer, A. J. (Principal Investigator); Brucks, J. T.; Butler, J. A.; Faller, K. H.; Holley, H. J.; Leming, T. D.; Savastano, K. J.; Vanselous, T. M.

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The relationship between the distribution of menhaden and selected oceanographic parameters (water color, turbidity, and possibly chlorophyll concentrations) was established. Similar relationships for thread herring were not established nor were relationships relating to the abundance of either species. Use of aircraft and LANDSAT remote sensing instruments to measure or infer a set of basic oceanographic parameters was evaluated. Parameters which could be accurately inferred included surface water temperature, salinity, and color. Water turbidity (Secchi disk) was evaluated as marginally inferrable from the LANDSAT MSS data and chlorophyll-a concentrations as less than marginal. These evaluations considered the parameters only as experienced in the two test areas using available sensors and statistical techniques.

  12. Incorporating stakeholders' knowledge to stock assessment: Central Baltic herring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mäntyniemi, Samu; Haapasaari, Päivi Elisabet; Kuikka, Sakari

    2013-01-01

    We present a method by which the knowledge of stakeholders can be taken into account in stock assessment. The approach consists of a structured interview process followed by quantitative modelling of the answers. The outcome is a set of probability models, each describing the views of different...... stakeholders. Individual models are then merged to a large model by applying the techniques of Bayesian model averaging, and this model is conditioned on stock assessment data. As a result, the viewsofinterviewedstakeholdershavebeentakenintoaccountandweighedbasedonhowwelltheirviewsaresupportedbythe observed...... data. We applied this method to the Baltic Sea herring (Clupea harengus) stock assessment by interviewing six stakeholders and conditioning the resulting models on stock assessment data provided by the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea....

  13. Organohalogen pollutants in herring from the northern Baltic Sea: Concentrations, congener profiles and explanatory factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koistinen, Jaana; Kiviranta, Hannu; Ruokojaervi, Paeivi; Parmanne, Raimo; Verta, Matti; Hallikainen, Anja; Vartiainen, Terttu

    2008-01-01

    Organohalogen contaminants were investigated in Baltic herring caught from three catchment areas in the Baltic Sea, off the coasts of Finland. Pools of both small and large herring were analysed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, naphthalenes, camphenes (toxaphene), polybrominated diphenyl ethers and the pesticide DDT and its metabolites. PCB concentrations per fresh weight in small herring were at the same level in all catchment areas, i.e. the Bothnian Bay, the Bothnian Sea and the Gulf of Finland, revealing no hot spots and reflecting most likely long term emissions and atmospheric deposition. Differences in the levels and/or congener profiles of other contaminants between catchment areas may be explained by point sources. Similar concentrations in small and large herring in the Gulf of Finland were possibly due to their common nutrition. In the other areas, differences between small and large herring most likely reflected their different food sources. - Sources of pollutants are reflected in levels and congener profiles of pollutants in Baltic herring

  14. The Adopt-a-Herring program as a fisheries conservation tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Holly J.; Mather, Martha E.; Muth, Robert M.; Pautzke, Sarah M.; Smith, Joseph M.; Finn, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Successful conservation depends on a scientifically literate public. We developed the adopt-a-Herring program to educate nonscientists about fisheries and watershed restoration. this interactive educational and outreach project encouraged coastal residents to be involved in local watershed restoration. In the northeastern United States, river herring (Alosa spp.) are an important component of many coastal watersheds and often are the object of conservation efforts. In order to understand river herring spawning behavior and to improve the effectiveness of restoration efforts, our research tracked these fish via radiotelemetry in the Ipswich River, Massachusetts. In our adopt-a-Herring Program, participating stakeholder organizations adopted and named individual tagged river herring and followed their movements online. We also made information available to our adopters on our larger research goals, the mission and activities of other research and management agencies, examples of human actions that adversely affect watersheds, and opportunities for proactive conservation. Research results were communicated to adopters through our project web page and end-of-the-season summary presentations. Both tools cultivated a personal interest in river herring, stimulated discussion about fisheries and watershed restoration, educated participants about the goals and methods of scientists in general, and initiated critical thinking about human activities that advance or impede sustainability.

  15. Seasonal variation in the levels of organohalogen compounds in herring (Clupea harengus) from the Norwegian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantzen, Sylvia; Måge, Amund; Iversen, Svein Arnholt; Julshamn, Kåre

    2011-09-01

    The Norwegian spring spawning (NSS) herring is an ecologically important fish stock in the Norwegian Sea, and with a catch volume exceeding one million tons a year it is also economically important and a valuable food source. In order to provide a baseline of the levels of contaminants in this fish stock, the levels of organohalogen compounds were determined in 800 individual herring sampled at 29 positions in the Norwegian Sea and off the coast of Norway. Due to seasonal migration, the herring were sampled where they were located during the different seasons. Concentrations of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs, non-dioxin-like PCBs (PCB(7)) and PBDEs were determined in fillet samples of individual herring, and found to be relatively low, with means (min-max) of 0.77 (0.24-3.5) ng TEQ kg(-1) wet weight (ww), 5.0 (1.4-24) μg kg(-1) ww and 0.47 (0.091-3.1) μg kg(-1) ww, respectively. The concentrations varied throughout the year due to the feeding- and spawning cycle: Starved, pre-spawning herring caught off the Norwegian coast in January-February had the highest levels and those caught in the Norwegian Sea in April-June, after further starvation and spawning, had the lowest levels. These results show that the concentrations of organohalogen compounds in NSS herring are relatively low and closely tied to their physiological condition, and that in the future regular monitoring of NSS herring should be made in the spawning areas off the Norwegian coast in late winter. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, M.

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted.

  17. CBOS damage assessment on Pacific herring - Toxicity of petroleum hydrocarbons (PAHs) to fish early life stages

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ecotox Program is at the forefront, nationally and internationally, of targeted research to characterize the impacts of petroleum hydrocarbons on NOAA trust...

  18. Juvenile Court Statistics - 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Youth Development (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    This report is a statistical study of juvenile court cases in 1972. The data demonstrates how the court is frequently utilized in dealing with juvenile delinquency by the police as well as by other community agencies and parents. Excluded from this report are the ordinary traffic cases handled by juvenile court. The data indicate that: (1) in…

  19. Juvenile Court Statistics, 1974.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Jacqueline; Vereb, Thomas S.

    This report presents information on juvenile court processing of youth in the U.S. during 1974. It is based on data gathered under the National Juvenile Court Statistical Reporting System. Findings can be summarized as follows: (1) 1,252,700 juvenile delinquency cases, excluding traffic offenses, were handled by courts in the U.S. in 1974; (2) the…

  20. Outlier Loci Detect Intraspecific Biodiversity amongst Spring and Autumn Spawning Herring across Local Scales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorte Bekkevold

    Full Text Available Herring, Clupea harengus, is one of the ecologically and commercially most important species in European northern seas, where two distinct ecotypes have been described based on spawning time; spring and autumn. To date, it is unknown if these spring and autumn spawning herring constitute genetically distinct units. We assessed levels of genetic divergence between spring and autumn spawning herring in the Baltic Sea using two types of DNA markers, microsatellites and Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms, and compared the results with data for autumn spawning North Sea herring. Temporally replicated analyses reveal clear genetic differences between ecotypes and hence support reproductive isolation. Loci showing non-neutral behaviour, so-called outlier loci, show convergence between autumn spawning herring from demographically disjoint populations, potentially reflecting selective processes associated with autumn spawning ecotypes. The abundance and exploitation of the two ecotypes have varied strongly over space and time in the Baltic Sea, where autumn spawners have faced strong depression for decades. The results therefore have practical implications by highlighting the need for specific management of these co-occurring ecotypes to meet requirements for sustainable exploitation and ensure optimal livelihood for coastal communities.

  1. Predation on larval Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) in inshore waters of the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotterba, Paul; Moll, Dorothee; von Nordheim, Lena; Peck, Myron A.; Oesterwind, Daniel; Polte, Patrick

    2017-11-01

    In fishery science, early life-stage survival and development are regarded as major factors driving the population dynamics of marine fishes. During the last century, the main research focus has been on the spatio-temporal match of larval fish and appropriate food (bottom-up processes). However, these field studies are often criticised for their limited capability to disentangle their results from mortality caused by predation since these top-down mechanisms are rarely studied. We examined the predation on herring (Clupea harengus) larvae in a Baltic inshore lagoon by investigating the spatio-temporal overlap of larval herring and their potential predators such as the dominant threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) in distinct habitats (sublittoral and littoral areas) using a set of different gears and sampling techniques. Despite significant spatial and temporal predator-prey overlap, stomach analyses suggested that very few larvae were consumed by sticklebacks, even if projected to the entire study area and season. Other well-known predators of clupeid larvae such as gelatinous plankton occur later in the year after young herring have migrated out of the system. The observed predation on herring larvae was much less than expected and appears being a minor factor in determining herring reproduction success in our study area, particularly if compared to other causes of mortality such as egg predation. Providing a relatively good shelter from predation might be a key element making transitional waters valuable nursery grounds for the offspring of migrating marine fish species.

  2. Feasibility of Acoustic Remote Sensing of Large Herring Shoals and Seafloor by Baleen Whales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hoon Yi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has found a high spatial and temporal correlation between certain baleen whale vocalizations and peak herring spawning processes in the Gulf of Maine. These vocalizations are apparently related to feeding activities with suggested functions that include communication, prey manipulation, and echolocation. Here, the feasibility of the echolocation function is investigated. Physical limitations on the ability to detect large herring shoals and the seafloor by acoustic remote sensing are determined with ocean acoustic propagation, scattering, and statistical theories given baleen whale auditory parameters. Detection is found to be highly dependent on ambient noise conditions, herring shoal distributions, baleen whale time-frequency vocalization spectra, and geophysical parameters of the ocean waveguide. Detections of large herring shoals are found to be physically feasible in common Gulf of Maine herring spawning scenarios at up to 10 ± 6 km in range for humpback parameters and 1 ± 1 km for minke parameters but not for blue and fin parameters even at zero horizontal range. Detections of the seafloor are found to be feasible up to 2 ± 1 km for blue and humpback parameters and roughly 1 km for fin and minke parameters, suggesting that the whales share a common acoustic sensation of rudimentary features of the geophysical environment.

  3. Otolith shape: a population marker for Atlantic herring Clupea harengus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libungan, L A; Óskarsson, G J; Slotte, A; Jacobsen, J A; Pálsson, S

    2015-04-01

    Otolith shape variation of seven Atlantic herring Clupea harengus populations from Canada, the Faroe Islands, Iceland, Ireland, Norway and Scotland, U.K., covering a large area of the species' distribution, was studied in order to see if otolith shape can be used to discriminate between populations. The otolith shape was obtained using quantitative shape analysis, transformed with Wavelet and analysed with multivariate methods. Significant differences were detected among the seven populations, which could be traced to three morphological structures in the otoliths. The differentiation in otolith shape between populations was not only correlated with their spawning time, indicating a strong environmental effect, but could also be due to differing life-history strategies. A model based on the shape differences discriminates with 94% accuracy between Icelandic summer spawners and Norwegian spring spawners, which are known to mix at feeding grounds. This study shows that otolith shape could become an accurate marker for C. harengus population discrimination. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  4. Spatially explicit estimates of stock sizes, structure and biomass of herring and blue whiting, and catch data of bluefin tuna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huse, G.; MacKenzie, B. R.; Trenkel, V.

    2015-01-01

    The North Atlantic is a productive marine region which has supported important commercial fisheries for centuries. Many of these fisheries have exploited the pelagic species, including herring, blue whiting and tuna. Here we present data on the distribution of herring and blue whiting based on th...

  5. Stock structure of Atlantic herring Clupea harengus in the Norwegian Sea and adjacent waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pampoulie, Christophe; Slotte, Aril; Oskarsson, Guomundur J.

    2015-01-01

    The genetic structure of Atlantic herring Clupea harengus L. was investigated in its north-easterly distribution in the Norwegian Sea and adjacent waters, using 23 neutral and one non-neutral (Cpa111) microsatellite loci. Fish from the suspected 2 main populations-the Norwegian spring......-spawning herring (NSSH) and the Icelandic summer-spawning herring (ISSH)-were collected at spawning locations in their respective spawning seasons from 2009 to 2012. Samples were also collected from Norwegian autumn spawning locations, from different local Norwegian fjords such as the inner part...... of Trondheimsfjorden, Lindas pollene, Landvikvannet and Lusterfjorden, as well as from suspected Faroese spawning components. The observed level of genetic differentiation was significant but low (F-ST = 0.007) and mostly attributable to the differentiation of the local Norwegian fjord populations. The locus Cpa111...

  6. Framing the problem with stakeholders: five views to herring fishery management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haapasaari, Päivi Elisabet; Mäntyniemi, Samu; Kuikka, Sakari

    Fisheries management is often subject to disputes due to high uncertainty and high values at stake. Such disputes call for improving the communication between parties, the understanding of policy processes, and transparency. We hypothesize that a transparent basis for a dialogue could be built...... should be taken into account in herring management, 2) Which variables are of primary interest, 3) What should be the objectives for herring management, and 4) What kind of management measures could or should be used to reach these objectives. The views of the stakeholders were built into causal maps...

  7. Chemical Characterization, Antioxidant and Enzymatic Activity of Brines from Scandinavian Marinated Herring Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gringer, Nina; Osman, Ali; Nielsen, Henrik Hauch

    2014-01-01

    Brines generated during the last marination step in the production of marinated herring (Clupea harengus) were chemically characterized and analyzed for antioxidant and enzyme activities. The end-products were vinegar cured, spice cured and traditional barrel-salted herring with either salt...... or spices. The chemical characterization encompassed pH, dry matter, ash, salt, fatty acids, protein, polypeptide pattern, iron and nitrogen. The antioxidant activity was tested with three assays measuring: iron chelation, reducing power and radical scavenging activity. The enzymatic activity for peroxidase...

  8. "Going with the flow" or not: evidence of positive rheotaxis in oceanic juvenile loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta in the South Pacific Ocean Using Satellite Tags and Ocean Circulation Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald R Kobayashi

    Full Text Available The movement of juvenile loggerhead turtles (n = 42 out-fitted with satellite tags and released in oceanic waters off New Caledonia was examined and compared with ocean circulation data. Merging of the daily turtle movement data with drifter buoy movements, OSCAR (Ocean Surface Current Analyses--Real time circulation data, and three different vertical strata (0-5 m, 0-40 m, 0-100 m of HYCOM (HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model circulation data indicated the turtles were swimming against the prevailing current in a statistically significant pattern. This was not an artifact of prevailing directions of current and swimming, nor was it an artifact of frictional slippage. Generalized additive modeling was used to decompose the pattern of swimming into spatial and temporal components. The findings are indicative of a positive rheotaxis whereby an organism is able to detect the current flow and orient itself to swim into the current flow direction or otherwise slow down its movement. Potential mechanisms for the means and adaptive significance of rheotaxis in oceanic juvenile loggerhead turtles are discussed.

  9. 78 FR 33020 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Amendment 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ...' consistency with the MSA and other applicable law. Following public comment, NMFS will determine if these... E permits, and vessels declaring herring carrier trips via VMS must notify NMFS Office of Law... accurately report the weight of fish, which is obtained by scale weights and/or volumetric estimates. Because...

  10. Spatial variation in growth, condition and maturation reaction norms of the Baltic herring Clupea harengus membras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vainikka, A.; Mollet, F.M.; Casini, M.; Gardmark, A.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding of spatial patterns in life-history traits can help fisheries management focus on biologically and functionally relevant stock units. In the present study, we examined life-history variation in growth, condition and maturation of the Baltic herring Clupea harengus membras among

  11. 75 FR 63791 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Amendment 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ... submit Confidential Business Information or otherwise sensitive or protected information. NMFS will..., uncertainty related to expected catch of herring in the New Brunswick weir fishery and discard [[Page 63793... vessels issued Limited Access Incidental Catch Permits, and 2,272 vessels issued Open Access Permits...

  12. Climate influence on Baltic cod, sprat, and herring stock–recruitment relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margonski, Piotr; Hansson, Sture; Tomczak, Maciej

    2010-01-01

    is significantly related to spawning stock biomass, climatic forcing, and feeding conditions and (ii) by acknowledging these drivers, management decisions can be improved. Climate impact expressed by climatic indices or changes in water temperature was included in all the final models. Recruitment of the herring...

  13. Feeding and growth of larval herring,Clupea harengus, in relation to density of copepod nauplii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Munk, Peter

    1986-01-01

    Feeding and growth rates of 1–3 wk old herring larvae from four different stocks were compared in laboratory experiments (8°C). For most of the larval groups, feeding rate was saturated at nauplii (Acartia tonsa, nauplii stages 3–5) densities over 301−1 (5 μg d.w. 1−1). Specific growth rate incre...

  14. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in herring from the southern Baltic, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falandysz, J

    1986-02-01

    Hexachlorobenzene (HCB), alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-benzenehexachloride (BHC, HCH), p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDD, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDT (sigma DDT) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) levels have been determined in muscle tissue of 187 herring (Clupea harengus) netted during 1983 in a different regions in the southern part of the Baltic Sea. The mean levels found for herring muscle tissue related to wet weight (microgram/kg) were: 14 HCB, 18 alpha-BHC, 23 beta-BHC, 14 gamma-BHC, delta-BHC remained undetected, 56 sigma BHC, 115 p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDD and o,p'-DDT remained undetected, 84 p,p'-DDD, 51 p,p'-DDT, 250 sigma DDT and 530 PCB. The levels of organochlorine pesticides determined in wet muscles or extractable lipids of herring are nearly 2-3 times as high as those noted in fish sampled in the same area in two years before, while for PCBs the wet weight levels were comparable, and when based on a lipid weight are somewhat higher. The results are compared with levels found in herring collected in different regions of the Baltic Sea during 1965-1983, and reported previously by other authors.

  15. Lumpers or splitters? Evaluating recovering and management plans for metapopulations of herring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kell, L.T.; Dickey-Collas, M.; Hintzen, N.T.; Nash, R.D.M.; Pilling, G.M.

    2009-01-01

    The long-term management of a stock representing a metapopulation has been simulated in a case study loosely based upon herring to the west of the British isles, where stocks are currently assessed and managed by management area, although there is evidence of mixing between stocks (in terms of

  16. Influence of ionizing radiation on the fatty acid composition of herring fillets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, S.; Paul, G.; Ehlermann, D.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of γ-irradiation (absorbed dose: 50 kGy, dose-rate: 2.9 kGy/h) on the distribution of fatty acid components in herring fillets has been examined using high-resolution gas chromatographic methods. Radiolytic treatment at 0 0 C and exclusion of atmospheric oxygen caused no significant decrease in the relative amounts of the constituent saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acid components. Specifically, eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6), which are of particular physiological interest were not affected by γ-rays, even after additional storage of the irradiated material at 0 0 C for 4 weeks. Irradiation of oil extracted from herring fillets or of herring oil/water emulsions under aerobic conditions, however, destroyed eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid significantly. The loss of radio-resistance - as compared to the radiation-induced processes in the fillets - is explained by the absence of proteins, which effectively protect the lipid components from radiolytic decomposition. It is concluded that the commercial radiation processing of herring at the recommended dose levels (1 to 2 kGy) should not reduce the content of unsaturated fatty acid components. (author)

  17. Quality of crude fish oil extracted from herring byproducts of varying states of freshness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aidos, I.M.; Padt, van der A.; Boom, R.M.; Luten, J.B.

    2003-01-01

    Herring byproducts were stored at 2 and 15degreesC for up to 72 h. Over time, significant increases of total volatile bases (TVB), histamine, putrescine, cadaverine, and tyramine were detected. However, only tyramine and TVB levels were temperature-dependent. The level of total polyunsaturated

  18. Juvenile Confinement in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendel, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    For more than a century, the predominant strategy for the treatment and punishment of serious and sometimes not-so-serious juvenile offenders in the United States has been placement into large juvenile corrections institutions, alternatively known as training schools, reformatories, or youth corrections centers. America's heavy reliance on…

  19. Juvenile giant fibroadenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipul Yagnik

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Fibroadenomas are benign solid tumor associated with aberration of normal lobular development. Juvenile giant fibroadenoma is usually single and >5 cm in size /or >500 gms in weight. Important differential diagnoses are: phyllodes tumor and juvenile gigantomastia. Simple excision is the treatment of choice.

  20. Juvenile mammary papillomatosis; Papilomatosis juvenil mamaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, M.; Jimenez, A. V. [Hospital Reina Sofia. Cordoba (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    Juvenile mammary papillomatosis is a benign proliferative disease of young patients, generally under 30 years of age. The most frequent clinical presentation is the existence of an elastic and mobile lymph node of the breast. Anatomopathologically, it is characterized because it presents ductal epithelial hyperplasia, sometimes with marked atypia, and there are numerous cysts having different sizes among the findings. It has been associated with an increase in the incidence of breast cancer, both in the patient herself as well as her family. We review the literature on the subject and present the mammographic and ultrasonographic findings of a 22 year old woman diagnosed of juvenile mammary papillomatosis. (Author) 12 refs.

  1. An analysis of the potential for oil spill effects on the herring population of Prince William Sound, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, W.H.; Elston, R.A.; Bienert, R.W.; Drum, A.S.; Antrim, L.D.

    1996-01-01

    The impact of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on the herring population in Prince William Sound, was studied. Following the incident in 1989, there was no commercial harvest of herring. However, 1990 through 1992 proved to have above average, record harvests. This was followed by a dramatic decline in 1993 which was generally attributed to the oil spill. An examination of the scientific data was conducted. The main hypotheses for the decline were tested. These hypotheses attributed the decline to: (1) the oil spill itself, (2) a combination of increasing herring biomass and decreasing food supply, (3) disease, and (4) other natural stochastic processes. Based on the review of the data and the analysis of the four alternative hypotheses, it was concluded that the population decline of 1993 was the result of a combination of increasing herring biomass and decreasing food supply. No connection to the Exxon Valdez incident was evident. 22 refs., 6 figs

  2. Economic gains from introducing international ITQs - the case of the mackerel and herring fisheries in the Northeast Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Thomas Talund; Eigaard, Ole Ritzau; Fitzpatrick, M.

    2015-01-01

    Achieving a balance between fishing capacity and fishing opportunities is one of the major challenges in European fisheries. One way to achieve this is to introduce individual tradable quotas or similar management measures. In several mackerel and herring fisheries in the Northeast Atlantic...... that the gross cash flow can be improved by 21% by allowing the mackerel and herring quotas to be traded internationally in the Northeast Atlantic. This rent gain arises mainly from increased productivity by allowing tradability between areas and fleets. The analysis also shows that the Danish pelagic fleet...... will gain from increasing its share of mackerel and herring quotas, whereas the Irish fleets are incentivised to sell quota, if individual quotas are allowed to be traded among countries. This result is in line with the qualitative analyses that show that Irish fishermen targeting herring in the Celtic Sea...

  3. Forage fish quality: seasonal lipid dynamics of herring (Clupea harengus L.) and sprat (Sprattus sprattus L.) in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røjbek, Maria; Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    seasonally with high levelstowards the end of the annual zooplankton production cycle, succeeded by a decline. Lipid content and fatty acid composition differed significantly between sprat and herring. Sprat lipid content was higher than herring, increasing with fish size and characterized by large......This study investigates lipid content and fatty acid composition of two important forage fish, sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and herring (Clupea harengus) in the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Seasonal variation in lipids was studied during three periods following the annual reproductive cycle considering...... potential differences relating to fish size, sex, and reproductive status. The isopod Saduria entomon, being at times an important prey for predatory fish, was included for comparison. In both sprat and herring, lipid content and absolute contents of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) varied...

  4. Quantification of biomolecules in herring (Clupea harengus) industry processing waters and their recovery using electroflocculation and ultrafiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osman, Ali; Gringer, Nina; Svendsen, Tore

    2015-01-01

    Four types of herring industry processing waters; refrigerated sea water (RSW), storage water (SW), processing water from cutting (PW) and pre-salting brines (SB) were subjected to chemical characterization and biomolecule recovery using electroflocculation (EF) and ultrafiltration (UF). The high......Four types of herring industry processing waters; refrigerated sea water (RSW), storage water (SW), processing water from cutting (PW) and pre-salting brines (SB) were subjected to chemical characterization and biomolecule recovery using electroflocculation (EF) and ultrafiltration (UF...

  5. Gene-associated markers can assign origin in a weakly structured fish, Atlantic herring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekkevold, Dorte; Helyar, Sarah J.; Limborg, Morten T.

    2015-01-01

    , there are relatively few examples in marine fish displaying accurate origin assignment. We synthesize data for 156 single-nucleotide polymorphisms typed in 1039 herring, Clupea harengus L., spanning the Northeast Atlantic to develop a tool that allows assignment of individual herring to their regional origin. We show......Regulations on the exploitation of populations of commercially important fish species and the ensuing consumer interest in sustainable products have increased the need to accurately identify the population of origin of fish and fish products. Although genomics-based tools have proven highly useful...... the method's suitability to address specific biological questions, as well as management applications. We analyse temporally replicated collections from two areas, the Skagerrak (n = 81, 84, 66) and the western Baltic (n = 52, 52). Both areas harbour heavily fished mixed-origin stocks, complicating...

  6. Foraging behaviour and prey size spectra of larval herring Clupea harengus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Peter

    1992-01-01

    size groups of larval herring Clupea harengus L. were studied when preying on 6 size groups of copepods. Larval swimming and attack behaviour changed with prey size and were related to the ratio between prey length and larval length. The effective search rate showed a maximum when prey length was about......, that the available biomass of food as a proportion of the predator biomass will not increase. In order to assess the uniformity of relative prey size spectra of herring larvae and their background in larval foraging behaviour, a set of experimental and field investigations has been carried out. In the experiments, 4...... in the biomass spectra of the environment is important to larval growth and survival....

  7. Recruitment decline in North Sea herring is accompanied by reduced larval growth rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Payne, Mark; Ross, Stine Dalmann; Worsøe Clausen, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    The stock of North Sea autumn spawning herring (Clupea harengus L.) has shown an unprecedented sequence of ten years of sharply reduced recruitment, in spite of a high spawning biomass. Recent work has identified this below-expected recruitment as being determined during the larval phase: however...... rate of 8%, concurrent with the reduced larval survival and recruitment, was identified: after correcting for the effect of other explanatory variables (e.g. temperature changes), the gross reduction was found to be 12%. This reduction is most probably due to changes in either the amount or quality...... and larvae survival, thereby narrowing the range of potential mechanisms underlying the observed reduction in the recruitment of North Sea autumn spawning herring...

  8. Protein synthesis, growth and energetics in larval herring (Clupea harengus) at different feeding regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houlihan, D F; Pedersen, B H; Steffensen, J F

    1995-01-01

    Rates of growth, protein synthesis and oxygen consumption were measured in herring larvae, Clupea harengus, in order to estimate the contribution that protein synthesis makes to oxygen consumption during rapid growth at 8°C. Protein synthesis rates were determined in larvae 9 to 17 d after hatching....... Larvae were bathed in (3)H phenylalanine for several hours and the free pool and protein-bound phenylalanine specific radioactivities were determined.Fractional rates of protein synthesis increased 5 to 11 fold with feeding after a period of fasting. Efficiencies of retention of synthesized protein were...... approximately 50% during rapid growth. Rapid growth in herring larvae thus appears to be characterized by moderate levels of protein turnover similar to those obtained for larger fish. Increases in growth rate occurred without changes in RNA concentration, i.e., the larvae increased the efficiency of RNA...

  9. Juvenil idiopatisk arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlin, Troels

    2002-01-01

    The new classification of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is described in this review. Clinical characteristics divide JIA in to subtypes: systemic, oligoarticular (persistent and extended type), RF-positive and--negative polyarticular, enthesitis-related arthritis and psoriatic arthritis...

  10. Juvenile Rockfish Recruitment Cruise

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 1983, the groundfish analysis project began a series of yearly cruises designed to assess the annual abundance of juvenile rockfish along the central California...

  11. Juvenile Justice in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Frías Armenta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The first tribunal in Mexico was established in the central state of San Luis Potosi in 1926. The Law Regarding Social Prevention and Juvenile Delinquency for the Federal District and Mexican territories was promulgated in 1928. In 2005, Article 18 of the Mexican Constitution was modified to establish a comprehensive system (“Sistema Integral de justicia” in Spanish of justice for juveniles between 12 and 18 years old who had committed a crime punishable under criminal law. Its objective was to guarantee juveniles all the due process rights established for adults, in addition to the special ones recognized for minors. The constitutional reform also provides a framework that includes special tribunals as well as alternative justice options for juveniles. With these reforms, institutionalization of minors was to be considered an extreme measure applicable only to felonies and to juveniles older than 14. In 2006, all states within the Mexican federation enacted the “Law of justice for adolescents”. This system, at both the federal and state levels, formalizes a new global paradigm with regard to the triangular relationship between children, the State and the Law. It recognizes that children are also bearers of the inherent human rights recognized for all individuals, instead of simply objects in need of protection. However, despite formally aligning Mexican juvenile justice law with the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC, issues of actual substantive rights remained and new ones have appeared. For example, juveniles younger than 14 who have not committed a felony are released from institutions without any rehabilitation or treatment options, and alternative forms of justice were included without evaluating their possibilities of application or their conditions for success. In addition, the economic status of most juvenile detainees continues to be one of the most important determining factors in the administration of justice

  12. What can we learn from the stock collapse and recovery of North Sea herring? A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickey-Collas, M.; Nash, R.D.M.; Brunel, T.

    The collapse and recovery of North Sea herring in the latter half of the twentieth century hasbeen well documented. With hindsight and the benefit of almost 40 years of extra data andstudies, we can now obtain a clear view of the impact of the collapse and the recovery onthe stock, the fishery, a...... the relevant lessons for the management of other fish stocks and other marine shelf ecosystems...

  13. The use of photon correlation spectroscopy method for determining diffusion coefficient in brine and herring flesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumanova M.V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The process fish salting has been studied by the method of photon correlation spectroscopy; the distribution of salt concentration in the solution and herring flesh with skin has been found, diffusion coefficients and salt concentrations used for creating a mathematical model of the salting technology have been worked out; the possibility of determination by this method the coefficient of dynamic viscosity of solutions and different media (minced meat etc. has been considered

  14. Juvenile polyposis syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Hsiao, Yi-Han; Wei, Chin-Hung; Chang, Szu-Wen; Chang, Lung; Fu, Yu-Wei; Lee, Hung-Chang; Liu, Hsuan-Liang; Yeung, Chun-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Juvenile polyposis syndrome, a rare disorder in children, is characterized with multiple hamartomatous polyps in alimentary tract. A variety of manifestations include bleeding, intussusception, or polyp prolapse. In this study, we present an 8-month-old male infant of juvenile polyposis syndrome initially presenting with chronic anemia. To the best of our knowledge, this is the youngest case reported in the literature. Methods: We report a rare case of an 8-month-old male...

  15. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    OpenAIRE

    Hoeve, M.

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted. The first study addressed a meta-analysis on parenting characteristics and styles in relation to delinquency. In this meta-analysis, previous manuscripts were systematically analyzed, computing mean ...

  16. Oogenesis, fecundity and condition of Baltic herring (Clupea harengus L.): A stereological study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bucholtz, R. Hagstrøm; Tomkiewicz, J.; Nyengaard, Jens Randel

    2013-01-01

    Herring (Clupea harengus) is a capital breeder that stores energy reserves in muscle tissue. Individual potential fecundity relies on the size and weight of female fish. Poor condition during the maturation process can lead to a heavy down-regulation of fecundity through atresia and, in the extre...... was a good predictor of potential fecundity within maturing stages of females. Combined with estimates of skipped spawning, this ovary weight could be used to estimate egg production thereby improving Central Baltic herring stock-recruitment models.......-regulation of fecundity. Although determined as spring spawners by otolith hatch type, 15% of the randomly sampled females were characterized by oocytes in CA stage in the prespawning period, indicating skipped spawning. The condition of these females was poor, which might have resulted in skipped spawning. Ovary weight......Herring (Clupea harengus) is a capital breeder that stores energy reserves in muscle tissue. Individual potential fecundity relies on the size and weight of female fish. Poor condition during the maturation process can lead to a heavy down-regulation of fecundity through atresia and, in the extreme...

  17. Quantitative determination of creatine kinase release from herring (Clupea harengus) spermatozoa induced by tributyltin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzyb, Katarzyna; Rychłowski, Michał; Biegniewska, Anna; Skorkowski, Edward F

    2003-02-01

    Creatine kinase (CK, ATP creatine phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.3.2) is an enzyme participating in ATP regeneration, which is the primary source of energy in living organisms. We demonstrated that CK from herring spermatozoa has high activity ( approximately 452 micromol/min/g of fresh semen) and has a different electrophoretic mobility from isoenzymes present in skeletal muscle. In our study, we investigated toxic effect of tributyltin (TBT) on herring spermatozoa using a specific sperm viability kit to observe live and dead sperm cells with a confocal microscope. Treatment of herring spermatozoa with TBT caused a time-dependent decrease of viability: 35% nonviable cells with 5 microM TBT and more than 90% nonviable cells with 10 microM TBT after 6 h exposure. We also monitored CK release from damaged spermatozoa into surrounding medium containing different concentrations of TBT. The higher concentration of TBT was used the more CK release from spermatozoa was observed. We suggest that CK could be a good biomarker of sperm cell membranes degradation in the case when lactate dehydrogenase release from permeabilized cells is not possible for rapid determination of the effect of TBT.

  18. Juvenile groundfish habitat in Kachemak Bay, Alaska, during late summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abookire, Alisa A.; Piatt, John F.; Norcross, Brenda L.

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the habitat of juvenile groundfishes in relation to depth, water temperature, and salinity in Kachemak Bay, Alaska. Stations ranging in depth from 10 to 70 m and with sand or mud-sand substrates were sampled with a small-meshed beam trawl in August-September of 1994 to 1999. A total of 8,201 fishes were captured, comprising at least 52 species. Most fishes (91%) had a total length 5% of the total catch) were flathead sole Hippoglossoides elassodon, slim sculpin Radulinus asprellus, Pacific halibut Hippoglossus stenolepis, and arrowtooth flounder Atheresthes stomias. Depth accounted for most of the spatial variability in juvenile groundfish abundance, and neither temperature nor salinity was correlated with fish abundance. Juvenile groundfishes concentrated in either shallow (less than or equal to 20 m) or deep (50-70 m) water, with co-occurrence of some species between 30-40 m. Shallow fishes were the rock soles, Pacific halibut, and great sculpin Myoxocephalus polyacanthocephalus. Deep species were flathead sole, slim sculpin, spinycheek starsnout Bathyagonus infraspinatus, rex sole Glyptocephalus zachirus, tadpole sculpin Psychrolutes paradoxus, and whitebarred prickleback Poroclinus rothrocki. This 6-year study provides baseline data on relative abundance and distribution of juvenile groundfishes in Kachemak Bay and may provide a useful tool for predicting the presence of species in similar habitats in other areas of Alaska.

  19. Marine incursion: the freshwater herring of Lake Tanganyika are the product of a marine invasion into west Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony B Wilson

    Full Text Available The spectacular marine-like diversity of the endemic fauna of Lake Tanganyika, the oldest of the African Great Lakes, led early researchers to suggest that the lake must have once been connected to the ocean. Recent geophysical reconstructions clearly indicate that Lake Tanganyika formed by rifting in the African subcontinent and was never directly linked to the sea. Although the Lake has a high proportion of specialized endemics, the absence of close relatives outside Tanganyika has complicated phylogeographic reconstructions of the timing of lake colonization and intralacustrine diversification. The freshwater herring of Lake Tanganyika are members of a large group of pellonuline herring found in western and southern Africa, offering one of the best opportunities to trace the evolutionary history of members of Tanganyika's biota. Molecular phylogenetic reconstructions indicate that herring colonized West Africa 25-50MYA, at the end of a major marine incursion in the region. Pellonuline herring subsequently experienced an evolutionary radiation in West Africa, spreading across the continent and reaching East Africa's Lake Tanganyika during its early formation. While Lake Tanganyika has never been directly connected with the sea, the endemic freshwater herring of the lake are the descendents of an ancient marine incursion, a scenario which may also explain the origin of other Tanganyikan endemics.

  20. Extending juvenility in grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaeppler, Shawn; de Leon Gatti, Natalia; Foerster, Jillian

    2017-04-11

    The present invention relates to compositions and methods for modulating the juvenile to adult developmental growth transition in plants, such as grasses (e.g. maize). In particular, the invention provides methods for enhancing agronomic properties in plants by modulating expression of GRMZM2G362718, GRMZM2G096016, or homologs thereof. Modulation of expression of one or more additional genes which affect juvenile to adult developmental growth transition such as Glossy15 or Cg1, in conjunction with such modulation of expression is also contemplated. Nucleic acid constructs for down-regulation of GRMZM2G362718 and/or GRMZM2G096016 are also contemplated, as are transgenic plants and products produced there from, that demonstrate altered, such as extended juvenile growth, and display associated phenotypes such as enhanced yield, improved digestibility, and increased disease resistance. Plants described herein may be used, for example, as improved forage or feed crops or in biofuel production.

  1. Miastenia gravis juvenil Juvenile myasthenia gravis

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar Papazian; Israel Alfonso; Nayle Araguez

    2009-01-01

    La miastenia gravis juvenil (MGJ) es un trastorno crónico auto inmune en el cual existen anticuerpos séricos que al unirse a los receptores de acetilcolin nicotínicos de la membrana muscular de la placa motora alteran la transmisión neuromuscular. El resultado es fatiga muscular precoz con progresión a la parálisis durante estados de contracción muscular iterativos (movimientos) o sostenidos (posturas) y más raramente parálisis permanente durante el reposo. Los músculos inervados por los nerv...

  2. First record of the blacktip reef shark Carcharhinus melanopterus (Carcharhiniformes: Carcharhinidae from the Tropical Eastern Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés López-Garro

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The blacktip reef shark Carcharhinus melanopterus, is one of the most common Indo-Pacific reef sharks. On April 29, 2012, a juvenile male blacktip reef shark measuring 89 cm total length (TL, was incidentally caught during a research expedition in Chatham Bay, Isla del Coco National Park, Costa Rica, located in the Tropical Eastern Pacific. This is the first record of the species from Isla del Coco National Park, Costa Rica, and from the Tropical Eastern Pacific.

  3. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Barut

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is the most common chronic rheumatic disease of unknown aetiology in childhood and predominantly presents with peripheral arthritis. The disease is divided into several subgroups, according to demographic characteristics, clinical features, treatment modalities and disease prognosis. Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis, which is one of the most frequent disease subtypes, is characterized by recurrent fever and rash. Oligoarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis, common among young female patients, is usually accompanied by anti-nuclear antibodie positivity and anterior uveitis. Seropositive polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis, an analogue of adult rheumatoid arthritis, is seen in less than 10% of paediatric patients. Seronegative polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis, an entity more specific for childhood, appears with widespread large- and small-joint involvement. Enthesitis-related arthritis is a separate disease subtype, characterized by enthesitis and asymmetric lower-extremity arthritis. This disease subtype represents the childhood form of adult spondyloarthropathies, with human leukocyte antigen-B27 positivity and uveitis but commonly without axial skeleton involvement. Juvenile psoriatic arthritis is characterized by a psoriatic rash, accompanied by arthritis, nail pitting and dactylitis. Disease complications can vary from growth retardation and osteoporosis secondary to treatment and disease activity, to life-threatening macrophage activation syndrome with multi-organ insufficiency. With the advent of new therapeutics over the past 15 years, there has been a marked improvement in juvenile idiopathic arthritis treatment and long-term outcome, without any sequelae. The treatment of juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients involves teamwork, including an experienced paediatric rheumatologist, an ophthalmologist, an orthopaedist, a paediatric psychiatrist and a physiotherapist. The primary goals

  4. DERMATOMIOSITIS JUVENIL Y EMBARAZO

    OpenAIRE

    Evans M,Gregorio; Poulsen R,Ronald; Blanco R,Romiely; Luna V,Viviana

    2002-01-01

    La dermatomiositis juvenil es un desorden inflamatorio crónico multisistémico del tejido conectivo. Tiene una incidencia de 2-3/100.000/año. Con la disminución en la mortalidad experimentada en los últimos decenios, la atención está cifrada en la morbilidad a largo plazo y en las alteraciones funcionales. Con un tratamiento agresivo los niños con dermatomiositis juvenil generalmente tienen un futuro promisorio, sin incapacidad o con incapacidad mínima. La mortalidad actualmente se estima cerc...

  5. Small scale distribution patterns and vertical migration of North Sea herring larvae (Clupea harengus, Teleostei: Clupeidea in relation to abiotic and biotic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Haslob

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of herring larvae in relation to environmental conditions and the occurrence of possible prey and predator organisms was studied during a 4-day period on a permanent station in the northern North Sea in September 1999. The vertical distribution of herring larvae was sampled in 20-m intervals by means of a multiple-closing net. To resolve the small-scale patchiness of herring larvae and planktonic prey and predator organisms, a towed in-situ video system was used, the Ichthyoplankton Recorder. A diel vertical migration of herring larvae was observed with different intensities depending on their body length. Small larvae ( 16 mm showed the highest abundances in the upper water layers during the day and were concentrated in deeper water layers during the night. The presented results appear to be relevant for individual-based modelling of the fate of larval herring populations.

  6. Seasonal Juvenile Salmonid Presence and Migratory Behavior in the Lower Columbia River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, Jessica A.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Welch, Ian D.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Bellgraph, Brian J.

    2009-04-30

    To facilitate preparing Biological Assessments of proposed channel maintenance projects, the Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers contracted the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to consolidate and synthesize available information about the use of the lower Columbia River and estuary by juvenile anadromous salmonids. The information to be synthesized included existing published documents as well as data from five years (2004-2008) of acoustic telemetry studies conducted in the Columbia River estuary using the Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System. For this synthesis, the Columbia River estuary includes the section of the Columbia River from Bonneville Dam at river kilometer (Rkm) 235 downstream to the mouth where it enters the Pacific Ocean. In this report, we summarize the seasonal salmonid presence and migration patterns in the Columbia River estuary based on information from published studies as well as relevant data from acoustic telemetry studies conducted by NOAA Fisheries and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) between 2004 and 2008. Recent acoustic telemetry studies, conducted using the Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS; developed by the Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers), provided information on the migratory behavior of juvenile steelhead (O. mykiss) and Chinook salmon in the Columbia River from Bonneville Dam to the Pacific Ocean. In this report, Section 2 provides a summary of information from published literature on the seasonal presence and migratory behavior of juvenile salmonids in the Columbia River estuary and plume. Section 3 presents a detailed synthesis of juvenile Chinook salmon and steelhead migratory behavior based on use of the JSATS between 2004 and 2008. Section 4 provides a discussion of the information summarized in the report as well as information drawn from literature reviews on potential effects of channel maintenance activities to juvenile salmonids rearing in

  7. Broad-scale climate influences on spring-spawning herring (Clupea harengus, L.) recruitment in the Western Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröger, Joachim P; Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald; Polte, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Climate forcing in complex ecosystems can have profound implications for ecosystem sustainability and may thus challenge a precautionary ecosystem management. Climatic influences documented to affect various ecological functions on a global scale, may themselves be observed on quantitative or qualitative scales including regime shifts in complex marine ecosystems. This study investigates the potential climatic impact on the reproduction success of spring-spawning herring (Clupea harengus) in the Western Baltic Sea (WBSS herring). To test for climate effects on reproduction success, the regionally determined and scientifically well-documented spawning grounds of WBSS herring represent an ideal model system. Climate effects on herring reproduction were investigated using two global indices of atmospheric variability and sea surface temperature, represented by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO), respectively, and the Baltic Sea Index (BSI) which is a regional-scale atmospheric index for the Baltic Sea. Moreover, we combined a traditional approach with modern time series analysis based on a recruitment model connecting parental population components with reproduction success. Generalized transfer functions (ARIMAX models) allowed evaluating the dynamic nature of exogenous climate processes interacting with the endogenous recruitment process. Using different model selection criteria our results reveal that in contrast to NAO and AMO, the BSI shows a significant positive but delayed signal on the annual dynamics of herring recruitment. The westward influence of the Siberian high is considered strongly suppressing the influence of the NAO in this area leading to a higher explanatory power of the BSI reflecting the atmospheric pressure regime on a North-South transect between Oslo, Norway and Szczecin, Poland. We suggest incorporating climate-induced effects into stock and risk assessments and management strategies as part

  8. Broad-scale climate influences on spring-spawning herring (Clupea harengus, L. recruitment in the Western Baltic Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim P Gröger

    Full Text Available Climate forcing in complex ecosystems can have profound implications for ecosystem sustainability and may thus challenge a precautionary ecosystem management. Climatic influences documented to affect various ecological functions on a global scale, may themselves be observed on quantitative or qualitative scales including regime shifts in complex marine ecosystems. This study investigates the potential climatic impact on the reproduction success of spring-spawning herring (Clupea harengus in the Western Baltic Sea (WBSS herring. To test for climate effects on reproduction success, the regionally determined and scientifically well-documented spawning grounds of WBSS herring represent an ideal model system. Climate effects on herring reproduction were investigated using two global indices of atmospheric variability and sea surface temperature, represented by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO and the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO, respectively, and the Baltic Sea Index (BSI which is a regional-scale atmospheric index for the Baltic Sea. Moreover, we combined a traditional approach with modern time series analysis based on a recruitment model connecting parental population components with reproduction success. Generalized transfer functions (ARIMAX models allowed evaluating the dynamic nature of exogenous climate processes interacting with the endogenous recruitment process. Using different model selection criteria our results reveal that in contrast to NAO and AMO, the BSI shows a significant positive but delayed signal on the annual dynamics of herring recruitment. The westward influence of the Siberian high is considered strongly suppressing the influence of the NAO in this area leading to a higher explanatory power of the BSI reflecting the atmospheric pressure regime on a North-South transect between Oslo, Norway and Szczecin, Poland. We suggest incorporating climate-induced effects into stock and risk assessments and management

  9. Juvenile polyposis syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Yi-Han; Wei, Chin-Hung; Chang, Szu-Wen; Chang, Lung; Fu, Yu-Wei; Lee, Hung-Chang; Liu, Hsuan-Liang; Yeung, Chun-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Juvenile polyposis syndrome, a rare disorder in children, is characterized with multiple hamartomatous polyps in alimentary tract. A variety of manifestations include bleeding, intussusception, or polyp prolapse. In this study, we present an 8-month-old male infant of juvenile polyposis syndrome initially presenting with chronic anemia. To the best of our knowledge, this is the youngest case reported in the literature. Methods: We report a rare case of an 8-month-old male infant who presented with chronic anemia and gastrointestinal bleeding initially. Panendoscopy and abdominal computed tomography showed multiple polyposis throughout the entire alimentary tract leading to intussusception. Technetium-99m-labeled red blood cell (RBC) bleeding scan revealed the possibility of gastrointestinal tract bleeding in the jejunum. Histopathological examination on biopsy samples showed Peutz-Jeghers syndrome was excluded, whereas the diagnosis of juvenile polyposis syndrome was established. Results: Enteroscopic polypectomy is the mainstay of the treatment. However, polyps recurred and occupied the majority of the gastrointestinal tract in 6 months. Supportive management was given. The patient expired for severe sepsis at the age of 18 months. Conclusion: Juvenile polyposis syndrome is an inherited disease, so it is not possible to prevent it. Concerning of its poor outcome and high mortality rate, it is important that we should increase awareness and education of the parents at its earliest stages. PMID:27631205

  10. [ABOUT JUVENILE NASOPHARYNGEAL ANGIOFIBROMA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbain, V; Meunier, P; Otto, B

    2015-09-01

    We report the case of a young man with a juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma. In this paper, we will first remind the clinical signs of this pathology and its radiological appearance (localisation and extensions). Then we will explain how radioembolisation techniques were used to facilitate the surgical intervention. Finally we will discuss the histology of this tumor.

  11. Naevoxanthoendothelioma (Synonym: Juvenile Xanthogranuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Handa

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of naevoxanthoendothelioma juvenile xanthogranuloma is reported with rare features like late onset of the disease, involvement of liver and diffuse cutaneous lesions including cafe au lait spots and pigmented naevus. Final diagnosis could be achieved only on histopathology report.

  12. Membrane fractionation of herring marinade for separation and recovery of fats, proteins, amino acids, salt, acetic acid and water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjerbæk Søtoft, Lene; Lizarazu, Juncal Martin; Razi Parjikolaei, Behnaz

    2015-01-01

    In the production of marinated herring, nearly one ton of acidic saline marinade is produced per 1.5 tons herring fillet. This spent marinade contains highly valuable compounds such as proteins and amino acids. Membranes are suited to recover these substances. In this work, six membrane stages...... containing sugars, amino acids and smaller peptides and a NF permeate containing salt and acetic acid ready for reuse. 42% of the spent marinade is recovered to substitute fresh water and chemicals. The Waste water amount is reduced 62.5%. Proteins are concentrated 30 times, while amino acids and smaller...

  13. An Ichthyophonus hoferi epizootic in herring in the North Sea, the Skagerrak, the Kattegat and the Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Mellergaard, Stig; Spanggaard, Bettina

    1997-01-01

    An epizootic caused by the internal parasite Ichthyophonus hoferi in herring Clupea harengus was recorded from 1991 to 1993 in the waters around Denmark. A surveillance programme from research vessels and commercial fishing boats was conducted in the North Sea, Skagerrak, Kattegat and Baltic Sea. A total of 15769 hearts of adult herring were examined macroscopically for evidence of infection. The prevalence of the infection in this period decreased from 10.6 to 2.0% in the North Sea, from 8.0...

  14. Hypoxia increases the behavioural activity of schooling herring: a response to physiological stress or respiratory distress?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbert, Neill A.; Steffensen, John F.

    2006-01-01

    a deviation in physiological homeostasis is associated with any change in behavioural activity, we exposed C. harengus in a school to a progressive stepwise decline in water oxygen pressure  and measured fish swimming speed and valid indicators of primary and secondary stress (i.e. blood cortisol, lactate......Atlantic herring, Clupea harengus, increase their swimming speed during low O2 (hypoxia) and it has been hypothesised that the behavioural response is modulated by the degree of "respiratory distress" (i.e. a rise in anaerobic metabolism and severe physiological stress). To test directly whether...

  15. Modelling the mixing of herring stocks between the Baltic and the North Sea from otolith data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Clara; Post, Søren Lorentzen; Worsøe Clausen, Lotte

    2012-01-01

    and Swedish commercial landings and surveys samples for the purpose of stock assessment. But the split estimates from sampling data are highly variable and noisy. Better understanding of the migration and exploitation patterns involved could therefore potentially improve the stock assessment as well...... and are consistent with existing ideas about the migration patterns of WBSS and NSAS within Division IIIa and adjacent waters. This work therefore provides the foundation for the development of a more rational management of the herring stocks in this area...

  16. Predictions of realised fecundity and spawning time in Norwegian spring-spawning herring ( Clupea harengus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Óskarsson, G. J.; Kjesbu, O. S.; Slotte, A.

    2002-08-01

    Maturing Norwegian spring-spawning (NSS) herring, Clupea harengus, were collected for reproductive analyses along the Norwegian coast prior to the spawning seasons of 1997-2000. Over this time period there was a marked change in weight (W) at length (TL) with 1998 showing extremely low values and 2000 high values in a historical perspective. Potential fecundity, amounting to about 20 000-100 000 developing (vitellogenic) oocytes per fish and positively related to fish size, increased significantly with fish condition. Relative somatic potential fecundity (RF P, number of oocytes per g ovary-free body weight) in NSS herring was found to vary by 35-55% between years. Unexpectedly, females in 2000 showed low RF P-values, possibly due to negative feedback from previous reproductive investments at low condition. A clear threshold value for Fulton's condition factor, K (K=100×W/TL 3), of 0.65-0.70 existed below which there was considerable atresia (resorption of vitellogenic oocytes). Thus, these components of the spawning stock, amounting to 1-46% in the period 1980-1999, obviously contributed relatively little to the total egg production. This was confirmed by low ovary weights and examples of delayed oocyte development in these individuals. An up-to-date atresia model is presented. The established oocyte growth curve, and to a lesser degree the assumed atretic oocytic turnover rate, was critical for the estimation of realised fecundity (number of eggs spawned). Modelled realised fecundity was significantly below observed potential fecundity. Females that had migrated the shortest distance from the over-wintering area, Vestfjorden, northern Norway, were in the poorest condition, had the least developed oocytes and the lowest potential and realised fecundities. In agreement with previously published studies on temporal and spatial changes in gonad weights, those females reaching the main spawning grounds in the south-western part of the coast (Møre) were the most

  17. Loss of vitamin B(12) in fish (round herring) meats during various cooking treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, Michiko; Kanosue, Fuki; Yabuta, Yukinori; Watanabe, Fumio

    2011-01-01

    The loss of vitamin B(12) in round herring meats during various cooking treatments was evaluated. Although amounts of vitamin B(12) were three times greater in the viscera (37.5 ± 10.6 µg/100 g fresh weight) than in the meats, about 73% of total vitamin B(12) found in the whole fish body (except for head and bones) were recovered in the meats (5.1 ± 1.0 µg of vitamin B(12)). The vitamin B(12) contents of the round herring's meats were significantly decreased up to ~62% during cooking by grilling, boiling, frying, steaming, and microwaving. There was, however, no loss of vitamin B(12) during vacuum-packed pouch cooking. Model experiment using hydroxocobalamin suggest that loss of vitamin B(12) is dependent on the degree of temperature and time used in conventional cooking, and is further affected by the concomitant ingredients of food. Retention of vitamin B(12) was not dependent on vacuum or temperature (or both) used in the vacuum-packed pouch cooking.

  18. Preventing Juvenile Delinquency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina dos Reis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to problematize discourses about protection and care that have surrounded compulsory hospitalization by evidencing its use as a control and punishment mechanism that increases the social vulnerability of young drug users. For such, we analyze lawsuits involving juveniles who were consigned to psychiatric institutions for drug addiction treatment as a protection measure in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, in Brazil. The analysis of the materials has evidenced discourses that have circumscribed young drug users and constructed this population as potentially dangerous subjects as well as a population category at risk. In this sense, we point out how compulsory hospitalization has emerged out of the lawsuits as a tool for prevention of juvenile delinquency.

  19. Investigation of spatial trends and neurochemical impacts of mercury in herring gulls across the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutkiewicz, Jennifer [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 109 S. Observatory St, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Scheuhammer, Anton; Crump, Doug; Jagla, Magdalena [Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Carleton University, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada); Basu, Niladri, E-mail: niladri@umich.ed [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 109 S. Observatory St, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    Herring gulls (Larus argentatus) bioaccumulate mercury (Hg) but it is unknown whether they are exposed at levels of neurological concern. Here we studied brain tissues from gulls at five Great Lakes colonies and one non-Great Lakes colony during spring of 2001 and 2003. Total brain Hg concentrations ranged from 0.14 to 2.0 {mu}g/g (dry weight) with a mean of 0.54 {mu}g/g. Gulls from Scotch Bonnet Island, on the easternmost edge of the Great Lakes, had significantly higher brain Hg than other colonies. No association was found between brain Hg concentration and [3H]-ligand binding to neurochemical receptors (N-methyl-D-aspartate, muscarinic cholinergic, nicotinic cholinergic) or nicotinic receptor {alpha}-7 relative mRNA expression as previously documented in other wildlife. In conclusion, spatial trends in Hg contamination exist in herring gulls across the Great Lakes basin, and herring gulls accumulate brain Hg but not at levels associated with sub-clinical neurochemical alterations. - Spatial trends in brain mercury exist in herring gulls across the Laurentian Great Lakes though levels are not associated with neurochemical biomarkers.

  20. Coupling otolith microstructure analysis and hydrographic backtracking suggests a mechanism for the 2000s North Sea herring recruitment failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, Stine Dalmann; Payne, Mark; Worsøe Clausen, Lotte

    2012-01-01

    The North Sea autumn spawning herring (Clupea harengus) has, since the 2002 year class, shown an unprecedented sequence of ten years of sharply reduced recruitment, in spite of a high spawning biomass and low fishing mortality. Recent work has identified this reduction in recruitment level (or st...

  1. Regional and seasonal differences in growth of larval North Sea herring (clupea harengus L.) estimated by otolith microstructure analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Peter; Heath, Mike; Skaarup, Bo

    1991-01-01

    The ecology processes of the larval life of autumn-spawned North Sea herring have been studied in a multidisciplinary and internationally coordinated research programme (ACE). The programme focused on larval advection and the importance of the autumn/winter circulation in determining larval distr...

  2. What is left? Macrophyte meadows and Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) spawning sites in the Greifswalder Bodden, Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanstinger, Philipp; Beher, Jutta; Grenzdörffer, Görres; Hammer, Cornelius; Huebert, Klaus B.; Stepputis, Daniel; Peck, Myron A.

    2018-02-01

    Coastal zones are productive areas of marine ecosystems which are also hotspots of anthropogenic activities causing habitat degradation. In the southwest Baltic Sea, eutrophication is thought to have caused the massive reduction in submerged macrophytes observed in recent decades. Here, we surveyed the submarine vegetation and examined locations of spawning of herring (Clupea harengus) in the Greifswalder Bodden, one of the most important reproductive habitats of the Western Baltic Spring Spawner herring stock (WBSS). This stock deposits eggs onto submerged vegetation and changes in macrophyte coverage are expected to influence the availability of reproductive habitat. Aerial, underwater video tows and SCUBA surveys conducted in spring 2009 revealed that only ∼7% of the lagoon was vegetated. Herring eggs were observed on 12 of 32 SCUBA transects, at depths between 0.2 and 5 m and were attached to a variety of spermatophyte and algae species but not to stones or mussels. A classification tree model indicated that spawning sites were strongly associated with the vegetation cover within a 100- and 500-m radius, implying that herring schools preferentially spawn on dense and large underwater meadows. Only ∼5% of the lagoon now falls into this vegetation category. Despite 20 years of efforts to reduce eutrophication, no increase in macroalgae and spermatophyte vegetation towards the historical level of 90% coverage in the area is apparent.

  3. Effects of temperature and population density on von Bertalanffy growth parameters in Atlantic herring: a macro-ecological analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunel, T.P.A.; Dickey-Collas, M.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of temperature and population density on the growth of Atlantic herring Clupea harengus was studied using a comparative approach applied to 15 North Atlantic populations. The von Bertalanffy (VB) equation was applied to describe mean growth of individuals in each population, both averaged

  4. Microbiological quality of maatjes herring stored in air and under modified atmosphere at 4 and 10 C

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyhs, U.; Lahtinen, J.; Schelvis-Smit, A.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Microbiological and sensory changes of maatjes herring stored in air (experiment I) and under modified atmosphere (MAP) (experiments II and III) were evaluated during storage at 4 and 10 °C. Microbial (total and psychrotrophic viable bacteria, lactic acid bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae) counts and

  5. Subchronic toxicity of Baltic herring oil and its fractions in the rat II: Clinical observations and toxicological parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stern, N.H.; Oberg, M.; Casabona, H.; Trossvik, C.; Manzoor, E.; Johansson, N.; Lind, M.; Orberg, J.; Feinstein, R.; Johansson, A.; Chu, I.; Poon, R.; Yagminas, A.; Brouwer, A.; Jones, B.; Hakansson, H.

    2002-01-01

    This study aimed to increase the knowledge about the toxicity of fish-derived organohalogen pollutants in mammals. The strategy chosen was to separate organohalogen pollutants derived from Baltic herring (Clupea harengus) fillet, in order to obtain fractions with differing proportions of identified

  6. An Ichthyophonus hoferi epizootic in herring in the North Sea, the Skagerrak, the Kattegat and the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellergaard, Stig; Spanggaard, Bettina

    1997-01-01

    An epizootic caused by the internal parasite Ichthyophonus hoferi in herring Clupea harengus was recorded from 1991 to 1993 in the waters around Denmark. A surveillance programme from research vessels and commercial fishing boats was conducted in the North Sea, Skagerrak, Kattegat and Baltic Sea...

  7. Investigation of spatial trends and neurochemical impacts of mercury in herring gulls across the Laurentian Great Lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutkiewicz, Jennifer; Scheuhammer, Anton; Crump, Doug; Jagla, Magdalena; Basu, Niladri

    2010-01-01

    Herring gulls (Larus argentatus) bioaccumulate mercury (Hg) but it is unknown whether they are exposed at levels of neurological concern. Here we studied brain tissues from gulls at five Great Lakes colonies and one non-Great Lakes colony during spring of 2001 and 2003. Total brain Hg concentrations ranged from 0.14 to 2.0 μg/g (dry weight) with a mean of 0.54 μg/g. Gulls from Scotch Bonnet Island, on the easternmost edge of the Great Lakes, had significantly higher brain Hg than other colonies. No association was found between brain Hg concentration and [3H]-ligand binding to neurochemical receptors (N-methyl-D-aspartate, muscarinic cholinergic, nicotinic cholinergic) or nicotinic receptor α-7 relative mRNA expression as previously documented in other wildlife. In conclusion, spatial trends in Hg contamination exist in herring gulls across the Great Lakes basin, and herring gulls accumulate brain Hg but not at levels associated with sub-clinical neurochemical alterations. - Spatial trends in brain mercury exist in herring gulls across the Laurentian Great Lakes though levels are not associated with neurochemical biomarkers.

  8. GPS tracking data of Lesser Black-backed Gulls and Herring Gulls breeding at the southern North Sea coast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stienen, E.W.M.; Desmet, P.; Aelterman, B.; Courtens, W.; Feys, S.; Vanermen, N.; Verstraete, H.; Van de Walle, M.; Deneudt, K.; Hernandez, F.; Houthoofdt, R.; Vanhoorne, B.; Bouten, W.; Buijs, R.-J.; Kavelaars, M.M.; Müller, W.; Herman, D.; Matheve, H.; Sotillo, A.; Lens, L.

    2016-01-01

    In this data paper, Bird tracking - GPS tracking of Lesser Black-backed Gulls and Herring Gulls breeding at the southern North Sea coast is described, a species occurrence dataset published by the Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO). The dataset (version 5.5) contains close to 2.5

  9. Late Onset Juvenile Xanthogranuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punithwavathy K

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A 19 year old female was seen with multiple skin coloured and hyperpigmented macules, discrete as well as grouped papules and nodules of varying sizes distributed over the face, neck, extensor and flexor aspects of both upper and lower extremities including joints. The trunk was spared. Some of the lesions showed features of spontaneous regression. Investigations confirmed the diagnosis of juvenile xanthogranuloma. Lesions regressed satisfactorily with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy.

  10. Herring and chicken/pork meals lead to differences in plasma levels of TCA intermediates and arginine metabolites in overweight and obese men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincent, Andrew; Savolainen, Otto I; Sen, Partho

    2017-01-01

    citrate, fumarate, isocitrate, glycolate, oxalate, agmatine and methyhistidine and increased asparagine, ornithine, glutamine and the hexosamine glucosamine. Modelling found that the tricarboxylic acid cycle, glyoxylate, and argininemetabolism were affected by the intervention. The effect on arginine...... metabolism was supported by an increase in blood nitric oxide in males on the herring diet. Conclusion: The results suggest that eating herring instead of chicken and lean pork leads to important metabolic effects, particularly on energy and amino acid metabolism. Our findings support the hypothesis...... that there are metabolic effects of herring intake unrelated to the long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content....

  11. Feeding Ecology of Northeast Atlantic Mackerel, Norwegian Spring-Spawning Herring and Blue Whiting in the Norwegian Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eneko Bachiller

    Full Text Available The Norwegian spring-spawning (NSS herring (Clupea harengus, blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou and Northeast Atlantic (NEA mackerel (Scomber scombrus are extremely abundant pelagic planktivores that feed in the Norwegian Sea (NS during spring and summer. This study investigated the feeding ecology and diet composition of these commercially important fish stocks on the basis of biological data, including an extensive set of stomach samples in combination with hydrographical data, zooplankton samples and acoustic abundance data from 12 stock monitoring surveys carried out in 2005-2010. Mackerel were absent during the spring, but had generally high feeding overlap with herring in the summer, with a diet mainly based on calanoid copepods, especially Calanus finmarchicus, as well as a similar diet width. Stomach fullness in herring diminished from spring to summer and feeding incidence was lower than that of mackerel in summer. However, stomach fullness did not differ between the two species, indicating that herring maintain an equally efficient pattern of feeding as mackerel in summer, but on a diet that is less dominated by copepods and is more reliant on larger prey. Blue whiting tended to have a low dietary overlap with mackerel and herring, with larger prey such as euphausiids and amphipods dominating, and stomach fullness and feeding incidence increasing with length. For all the species, feeding incidence increased with decreasing temperature, and for mackerel so did stomach fullness, indicating that feeding activity is highest in areas associated with colder water masses. Significant annual effects on diet composition and feeding-related variables suggested that the three species are able to adapt to different food and environmental conditions. These annual effects are likely to have an important impact on the predation pressure on different plankton groups and the carrying capacity of individual systems, and emphasise the importance of

  12. Feeding Ecology of Northeast Atlantic Mackerel, Norwegian Spring-Spawning Herring and Blue Whiting in the Norwegian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachiller, Eneko; Skaret, Georg; Nøttestad, Leif; Slotte, Aril

    2016-01-01

    The Norwegian spring-spawning (NSS) herring (Clupea harengus), blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) and Northeast Atlantic (NEA) mackerel (Scomber scombrus) are extremely abundant pelagic planktivores that feed in the Norwegian Sea (NS) during spring and summer. This study investigated the feeding ecology and diet composition of these commercially important fish stocks on the basis of biological data, including an extensive set of stomach samples in combination with hydrographical data, zooplankton samples and acoustic abundance data from 12 stock monitoring surveys carried out in 2005-2010. Mackerel were absent during the spring, but had generally high feeding overlap with herring in the summer, with a diet mainly based on calanoid copepods, especially Calanus finmarchicus, as well as a similar diet width. Stomach fullness in herring diminished from spring to summer and feeding incidence was lower than that of mackerel in summer. However, stomach fullness did not differ between the two species, indicating that herring maintain an equally efficient pattern of feeding as mackerel in summer, but on a diet that is less dominated by copepods and is more reliant on larger prey. Blue whiting tended to have a low dietary overlap with mackerel and herring, with larger prey such as euphausiids and amphipods dominating, and stomach fullness and feeding incidence increasing with length. For all the species, feeding incidence increased with decreasing temperature, and for mackerel so did stomach fullness, indicating that feeding activity is highest in areas associated with colder water masses. Significant annual effects on diet composition and feeding-related variables suggested that the three species are able to adapt to different food and environmental conditions. These annual effects are likely to have an important impact on the predation pressure on different plankton groups and the carrying capacity of individual systems, and emphasise the importance of regular

  13. AFSC/RACE/FBEP/Hurst: Distributional patterns of 0-group Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) in the eastern Bering Sea under variable recruitment and thermal conditions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is from a study that analyzed the late summer distribution of juvenile Pacific cod in the eastern Bering Sea for 6 cohorts (2004-2009), based on catches...

  14. Survival and Passage of Juvenile Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Passing through Bonneville Dam, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Hughes, James S.; Woodley, Christa M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Kim, Jin A.; Royer, Ida M.; Batten, George W.; Cushing, Aaron W.; Carpenter, Scott M.; Etherington, D. J.; Faber, Derrek M.; Fischer, Eric S.; Fu, Tao; Hennen, Matthew J.; Mitchell, Tyler; Monter, Tyrell J.; Skalski, John R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Zimmerman, Shon A.

    2011-12-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and subcontractors conducted an acoustic-telemetry study of juvenile salmonid fish passage and survival at Bonneville Dam in 2010. The study was conducted to assess the readiness of the monitoring system for official compliance studies under the 2008 Biological Opinion and Fish Accords and to assess performance measures including route-specific fish passage proportions, travel times, and survival based upon a single-release model. This also was the last year of evaluation of effects of a behavioral guidance device installed in the Powerhouse 2 forebay. The study relied on releases of live Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System tagged smolts in the Columbia River and used acoustic telemetry to evaluate the approach, passage, and survival of passing juvenile salmon. This study supports the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers continual effort to improve conditions for juvenile anadromous fish passing through Columbia River dams.

  15. Survival and Passage of Juvenile Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Passing Through Bonneville Dam, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Hughes, James S.; Woodley, Christa M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Kim, Jin A.; Royer, Ida M.; Batten, George W.; Cushing, Aaron W.; Carpenter, Scott M.; Etherington, D. J.; Faber, Derrek M.; Fischer, Eric S.; Fu, Tao; Hennen, Matthew J.; Mitchell, T. D.; Monter, Tyrell J.; Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Zimmerman, Shon A.

    2012-09-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and subcontractors conducted an acoustic-telemetry study of juvenile salmonid fish passage and survival at Bonneville Dam in 2010. The study was conducted to assess the readiness of the monitoring system for official compliance studies under the 2008 Biological Opinion and Fish Accords and to assess performance measures including route-specific fish passage proportions, travel times, and survival based upon a single-release model. This also was the last year of evaluation of effects of a behavioral guidance device installed in the Powerhouse 2 forebay. The study relied on releases of live Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System tagged smolts in the Columbia River and used acoustic telemetry to evaluate the approach, passage, and survival of passing juvenile salmon. This study supports the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers continual effort to improve conditions for juvenile anadromous fish passing through Columbia River dams.

  16. Survival and Passage of Juvenile Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Passing through Bonneville Dam, 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploskey, Gene R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Batten, G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cushing, Aaron W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kim, Jin A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Gary E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Skalski, J. R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Townsend, Richard L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Seaburg, Adam [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weiland, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Woodley, Christa M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hughes, James S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carlson, Thomas J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carpenter, Scott M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Deng, Zhiqun [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Etherington, D. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fischer, Eric S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fu, Tao [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Greiner, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hennen, Matthew J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Martinez, Jayson J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mitchell, T. D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rayamajhi, Bishes [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zimmerman, Shon A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-02-15

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and subcontractors conducted an acoustic-telemetry study of juvenile salmonid fish passage and survival at Bonneville Dam in 2011. The study was conducted to assess the readiness of the monitoring system for official compliance studies under the 2008 Biological Opinion and Fish Accords and to assess performance measures including route-specific fish passage proportions, travel times, and survival based upon a virtual/paired-release model. The study relied on releases of live Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System tagged smolts in the Columbia River and used acoustic telemetry to evaluate the approach, passage, and survival of passing juvenile salmon using a virtual release, paired reference release survival model. This study supports the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ continual effort to improve conditions for juvenile anadromous fish passing through Columbia River dams.

  17. Characterization of AhR agonists reveals antagonistic activity in European herring gull (Larus argentatus) eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muusse, Martine; Christensen, Guttorm; Gomes, Tânia; Kočan, Anton; Langford, Katherine; Tollefsen, Knut Erik; Vaňková, Lenka; Thomas, Kevin V

    2015-05-01

    European herring gull (Larus argentatus) eggs from two Norwegian islands, Musvær in the south east and Reiaren in Northern Norway, were screened for dioxins, furans, and dioxin-like and selected non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and subjected to non-target analysis to try to identify the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists, responsible for elevated levels measured using the dioxin responsive chemically activated luciferase expression (DR-CALUX) assay. Eggs from Musvær contained chemically calculated toxic equivalent (WHO TEQ) levels of between 109 and 483 pg TEQ/g lw, and between 82 and 337 pg TEQ/g lw was determined in eggs from Reiaren. In particular PCB126 contributed highly to the total TEQ (69-82%). In 19 of the 23 samples the calculated WHO TEQ was higher than the TEQCALUX. Using CALUX specific relative effect potencies (REPs), the levels were lower at between 77 and 292 pg/g lw in eggs from Musvær and between 55 and 223 pg/g lw in eggs from Reiaren, which was higher than the TEQCALUX in 16 of the 23 samples. However, the means of the REP values and the TEQCALUX were not significantly different. This suggests the presence of compounds that can elicit antagonist effects, with a low binding affinity to the AhR. Non-target analysis identified the presence of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) (quantified at 9.6-185 pg/g lw) but neither this compound nor high concentrations of PCB126 and non-dioxin-like PCBs could explain the differences between the calculated TEQ or REP values and the TEQCALUX. Even though, for most AhR agonists, the sensitivity of herring gulls is not known, the reported levels can be considered to represent a risk for biological effects in the developing embryo, compared to LC50 values in chicken embryos. For human consumers of herring gull eggs, these eggs contain TEQ levels up to four times higher than the maximum tolerable weekly intake. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Miastenia gravis juvenil Juvenile myasthenia gravis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Papazian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La miastenia gravis juvenil (MGJ es un trastorno crónico auto inmune en el cual existen anticuerpos séricos que al unirse a los receptores de acetilcolin nicotínicos de la membrana muscular de la placa motora alteran la transmisión neuromuscular. El resultado es fatiga muscular precoz con progresión a la parálisis durante estados de contracción muscular iterativos (movimientos o sostenidos (posturas y más raramente parálisis permanente durante el reposo. Los músculos inervados por los nervios craneales, especialmente los extraoculares y elevadores de los párpados, tienen más tendencia a la debilidad muscular persistente que los inervados por otros pares craneales y las extremidades. Las formas clínicas de presentación son generalizadas, oculares y respiratorias. El diagnóstico se sospecha mediante la anamnesia, la fatiga anormal se comprueba mediante el examen físico y la estimulación eléctrica iterativa del nervio que inerva al músculo afectado pero no paralizado. Se corrobora mediante la administración de inhibidores de la acetilcolin esterasa (IACE que al aumentar la cantidad de acetilcolin en la hendidura sináptica, corrigen la fatiga o la debilidad muscular transitoriamente. Se hace el diagnóstico de certeza mediante la demostración sérica de anticuerpos contra los receptores de acetilcolin (ACRA. El tratamiento es a largo plazo sintomático con IACE y etiopatogénico con inmunosupresores, plasmaféresis, gamma globulina endovenosa y timectomía. El curso es crónico. La remisión espontánea o después de tratamiento sintomático o etiopatogénico ocurre entre 1-10 años respectivamente. La mortalidad es prácticamente nula aun durantes las crisis miastenias gracias a la educación de padres, pacientes y público en general sobre el tema, al desarrollo del sistema de respuesta rápida de auxilio domiciliario y las unidades de cuidados intensivos y el empleo de la ventilación asistida profiláctica, plasmaféresis y

  19. Juvenile psittacine environmental enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone-Freilicher, Elisabeth; Rupley, Agnes E

    2015-05-01

    Environmental enrichment is of great import to the emotional, intellectual, and physical development of the juvenile psittacine and their success in the human home environment. Five major types of enrichment include social, occupational, physical, sensory, and nutritional. Occupational enrichment includes exercise and psychological enrichment. Physical enrichment includes the cage and accessories and the external home environment. Sensory enrichment may be visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory, or taste oriented. Nutritional enrichment includes variations in appearance, type, and frequency of diet, and treats, novelty, and foraging. Two phases of the preadult period deserve special enrichment considerations: the development of autonomy and puberty. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Juvenile Dermatomyositis in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Emeka Madu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile dermatomyositis has variable clinical presentations both in and outside of pregnancy. A literature review indicated that optimal maternal and fetal outcomes can be anticipated when the pregnancy is undertaken while the disease is in remission. Poorer outcomes are associated with flare-up of the disease in early pregnancy compared with exacerbation in the second or third trimester, when fetal prognosis is usually good. We present a case of JDM in pregnancy with disease exacerbation late in pregnancy and review of the relevant literature.

  1. Purification and characterization of cathepsin D from herring muscle ( Clupea harengus )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, L.B.; Nielsen, Henrik Hauch

    2001-01-01

    hamatus) and trout ovary (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Digestion of the P-chain of oxidized insulin resulted in preferential cleavage at Leu(15)-Tyr(16), (47%), Tyr(16)-Leu(17) (34%) and Ala(14)- Leu(15) (18%). Incubation with myofibrils from herring muscle at pH 4.23 showed that the enzyme mainly degraded......Cathepsin D was purified and concentrated 469-fold from a homogenate of Clupea harengus muscle. The purified enzyme is a monomer with a molecular weight of 38 000-39 000. It is inhibited by pepstatin and has optimal activity at pH 2.5 with hemoglobin as the substrate. The isoelectric point is at p...

  2. Forecasting fish stock dynamics under climate change: Baltic herring (Clupea harengus) as a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartolino, V.; Margonski, P.; Lindegren, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Climate change and anthropogenic disturbances may affect marine populations and ecosystems through multiple pathways. In this study we present a framework in which we integrate existing models and knowledge on basic regulatory processes to investigate the potential impact of future scenarios...... of fisheries exploitation and climate change on the temporal dynamics of the central Baltic herring stock. Alternative scenarios of increasing sea surface temperature and decreasing salinity of the Baltic Sea from a global climate model were combined with two alternative fishing scenarios, and their direct......-term fish dynamics can be an informative tool to derive expectations of the potential long-term impact of alternative future scenarios of exploitation and climate change...

  3. The North Sea autumn spawning herring (Clupea harengus L.) Spawning Component Abundance Index (SCAI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    , the sum of the fitted abundance indices across all components proves an excellent proxy for the biomass of the total stock, even though the model utilizes information at the individual-component level. The Orkney-Shetland component appears to have recovered faster from historic depletion events than......The North Sea autumn-spawning herring (Clupea harengus) stock consists of a set of different spawning components. The dynamics of the entire stock have been well characterized, but although time-series of larval abundance indices are available for the individual components, study of the dynamics...... at the component level has historically been hampered by missing observations and high sampling noise. A simple state-space statistical model is developed that is robust to these problems, gives a good fit to the data, and proves capable of both handling and predicting missing observations well. Furthermore...

  4. The effect of progressive hypoxia on school structure and dynamics in Atlantic herring Clupea harengus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domenici, Paolo; Ferrari, R Silvana; Steffensen, John F

    2002-01-01

    The effect of progressive hypoxia on the structure and dynamics of herring (Clupea harengus) schools in laboratory conditions was investigated. The length, width and depth of schools of about 20 individuals were measured from video recordings to test the hypothesis that during hypoxia fish schools...... change their shape and volume. School shape (calculated as the ratios of length/depth, width/depth and length/width) did not change significantly during hypoxia. School length, width, depth, area and volume were all significantly increased at 20% oxygen saturation. Volume, area and width were more...... to overtaking or falling back by individual fishes. School integrity and positional dynamics are the outcome of trade-offs among a number of biotic factors, such as food, predator defence, mating behaviour and various physical factors that may impose certain limits. Among these, our results indicate that oxygen...

  5. Evaluate Status of Pacific Lamprey in the Clearwater River Drainage, Idaho: Annual Report 2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochnauer, Tim; Claire, Christopher

    2002-12-01

    Recent decline of Pacific lamprey Lampetra tridentata adult migrants to the Snake River drainage has focused attention on the species. Adult Pacific lamprey counted passing Ice Harbor Dam fishway averaged 18,158 during 1962-69 and 361 during 1993-2000. Human resource manipulations in the Snake River and Clearwater River drainages have altered ecosystem habitat in the last 120 years, likely impacting the productive potential of Pacific lamprey habitat. Timber harvest, stream impoundment, road construction, grazing, mining, and community development have dominated habitat alteration in the Clearwater River system and Snake River corridor. Hydroelectric projects in the Snake River corridor impact juvenile/larval Pacific lamprey outmigrants and returning adults. Juvenile and larval lamprey outmigrants potentially pass through turbines, turbine bypass/collection systems, and over spillway structures at the four lower Snake River hydroelectric dams. Clearwater River drainage hydroelectric facilities have impacted Pacific lamprey populations to an unknown degree. The Pacific Power and Light Dam on the Clearwater River in Lewiston, Idaho, restricted chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha passage in the 1927-1940 period, altering the migration route of outmigrating Pacific lamprey juveniles/larvae and upstream adult migrants (1927-1972). Dworshak Dam, completed in 1972, eliminated Pacific lamprey spawning and rearing in the North Fork Clearwater River drainage. Construction of the Harpster hydroelectric dam on the South Fork of the Clearwater River resulted in obstructed fish passage 1949-1963. Through Bonneville Power Administration support, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game continued investigation into the status of Pacific lamprey populations in Idaho's Clearwater River drainage in 2001. Trapping, electrofishing, and spawning ground redd surveys were used to determine Pacific lamprey distribution, life history strategies, and habitat requirements in the South

  6. Seasonal dynamics of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus L.) populations spawning in the vicinity of marginal habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggers, Florian; Slotte, Aril; Libungan, Lísa Anne; Johannessen, Arne; Kvamme, Cecilie; Moland, Even; Olsen, Esben M; Nash, Richard D M

    2014-01-01

    Gillnet sampling and analyses of otolith shape, vertebral count and growth indicated the presence of three putative Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus L.) populations mixing together over the spawning season February-June inside and outside an inland brackish water lake (Landvikvannet) in southern Norway. Peak spawning of oceanic Norwegian spring spawners and coastal Skagerrak spring spawners occurred in March-April with small proportions of spawners entering the lake. In comparison, spawning of Landvik herring peaked in May-June with high proportions found inside the lake, which could be explained by local adaptations to the environmental conditions and seasonal changes of this marginal habitat. The 1.85 km(2) lake was characterized by oxygen depletion occurring between 2.5 and 5 m depth between March and June. This was followed by changes in salinity from 1-7‰ in the 0-1 m surface layer to levels of 20-25‰ deeper than 10 m. In comparison, outside the 3 km long narrow channel connecting the lake with the neighboring fjord, no anoxic conditions were found. Here salinity in the surface layer increased over the season from 10 to 25‰, whereas deeper than 5 m it was stable at around 35‰. Temperature at 0-5 m depth increased significantly over the season in both habitats, from 7 to 14 °C outside and 5 to 17 °C inside the lake. Despite differences in peak spawning and utilization of the lake habitat between the three putative populations, there was an apparent temporal and spatial overlap in spawning stages suggesting potential interbreeding in accordance with the metapopulation concept.

  7. Seasonal dynamics of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus L. populations spawning in the vicinity of marginal habitats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Eggers

    Full Text Available Gillnet sampling and analyses of otolith shape, vertebral count and growth indicated the presence of three putative Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus L. populations mixing together over the spawning season February-June inside and outside an inland brackish water lake (Landvikvannet in southern Norway. Peak spawning of oceanic Norwegian spring spawners and coastal Skagerrak spring spawners occurred in March-April with small proportions of spawners entering the lake. In comparison, spawning of Landvik herring peaked in May-June with high proportions found inside the lake, which could be explained by local adaptations to the environmental conditions and seasonal changes of this marginal habitat. The 1.85 km(2 lake was characterized by oxygen depletion occurring between 2.5 and 5 m depth between March and June. This was followed by changes in salinity from 1-7‰ in the 0-1 m surface layer to levels of 20-25‰ deeper than 10 m. In comparison, outside the 3 km long narrow channel connecting the lake with the neighboring fjord, no anoxic conditions were found. Here salinity in the surface layer increased over the season from 10 to 25‰, whereas deeper than 5 m it was stable at around 35‰. Temperature at 0-5 m depth increased significantly over the season in both habitats, from 7 to 14 °C outside and 5 to 17 °C inside the lake. Despite differences in peak spawning and utilization of the lake habitat between the three putative populations, there was an apparent temporal and spatial overlap in spawning stages suggesting potential interbreeding in accordance with the metapopulation concept.

  8. REDD herring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamelarczyk, Kewin Bach Friis; Smith-Hall, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    To enhance understanding of environmental science–policy interactions, this study analyses how environmental knowledge is produced, circulated, and applied in the Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD +) programme in Zambia. Data are drawn from interviews with key actors...... in the REDD + process and an extensive critical review of policy documents and deforestation estimates. We find that research over the past 50 years has not resulted in accurate estimates of forest cover and deforestation rates, nor have major deforestation drivers been convincingly documented. Estimates...... are difficult to compare due to inconsistent use of key terms, methodological pluralism and differences in social framing. We argue that an epistemic community is able to influence production, circulation, and application of deforestation related knowledge. Furthermore, in a situation of weak and contradictory...

  9. Synthesis of juvenile lamprey migration and passage research and monitoring at Columbia and Snake River Dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, Matthew G.; Weiland, Lisa K.; Christiansen, Helena E.

    2016-01-01

    We compiled and summarized previous sources of data and research results related to the presence, numbers, and migration timing characteristics of juvenile (eyed macropthalmia) and larval (ammocoetes) Pacific lamprey Entosphenus tridentatus, in the Columbia River basin (CRB). Included were data from various screw trap collections, data from historic fyke net studies, catch records of lampreys at JBS facilities, turbine cooling water strainer collections, and information on the occurrence of lampreys in the diets of avian and piscine predators. We identified key data gaps and uncertainties that should be addressed in a juvenile lamprey passage research program. The goal of this work was to summarize information from disparate sources so that managers can use it to prioritize and guide future research and monitoring efforts related to the downstream migration of juvenile Pacific lamprey within the CRB. A common finding in all datasets was the high level of variation observed for CRB lamprey in numbers present, timing and spatial distribution. This will make developing monitoring programs to accurately characterize lamprey migrations and passage more challenging. Primary data gaps centered around our uncertainty on the numbers of juvenile and larval present in the system which affects the ability to assign risk to passage conditions and prioritize management actions. Recommendations include developing standardized monitoring methods, such as at juvenile bypass systems (JBS’s), to better document numbers and timing of lamprey migrations at dams, and use biotelemetry tracking techniques to estimate survival potentials for different migration histories.

  10. Juvenile hyperthyroidism: an experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadada, S; Bhansali, A; Velayutham, P; Masoodi, S R

    2006-04-01

    To analyze the clinical profile of juvenile hyperthyroidism at presentation, their treatment outcome; predictors of remission and relapse. Retrospective analysis of medical records of 56 patients with juvenile hyperthyroidism seen over a period of 16 years. A cohort of 38 females and 18 males with mean (+/-SD) age of 14.9 +/- 3.4 years (range 3 to 18 years) was analyzed. Majority of patients was in the age group of 12-16 years. Common symptoms observed at presentation were weight loss (82.1%), excessive sweating (78.6%), heat intolerance (76.8%), increased appetite (73.2%) and diarrhea in 48.2%. In addition, accelerated linear growth was observed in 7.1% of patients. Goiter was present in 98.2% of children; 94.5% of which was diffuse and 4.8% was multinodular. The mean ((+/-SD) T3 was 4.8 +/- 3.4 ng/mL (N, 0.6-1.6), T4 was 218 +/- 98 ng/mL (N, 60-155) and TSH was 0.44 +/- 0.36 (N, 0.5-5.5 microIU/mL). TMA positivity seen in 36.9% of patients. All patients were treated with carbimazole; subsequently 4 patients required thyroidectomy and one required radioactive iodine ablation. Mean (+/-SD) duration of follow-up in our patients was 4.9 +/- 3 years, ranging between 1.6 to 16 years and mean (+/-SD) duration of treatment was 34.4 +/- 22.6 months (range 12 to 120 months). Mean (+/-SD) duration to achieve euthyroidism was 5.2 +/- 4.7 months, ranging between 1-33 months. On intention to treat analysis, remission with carbimazole was achieved in 47.6%, remaining patients failed to achieve remission with drug treatment. Graves disease is the commonest cause of juvenile hyperthyroidism. Carbimazole is safe, effective, cheap, and easily available form of therapy. It is occasionally associated with serious side effects but requires prolonged follow up.

  11. Juvenile prison in parallel legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutovac Mitar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for punishment of juveniles occurred from the time when there was no clear line separating them from the adult criminal population. At the same time, the evolution of the juvenile punishment is not in itself involve substantial changes to their criminal status. On the contrary, the status of minors in society did not show serious differences regarding the status of young adults, as well as the adult elderly. On the other hand, on the ground of their punishment is recorded deviations that go in the direction of application of mild corporal punishment. Closing the minor was performed in a physically separate parts of the general penal institutions with the use of a lower degree of restrictions while serving juvenile prison. Due to the different treatment of minors during the evolution of their criminal status leads to their different treatment in comparative law. That is why we are witnessing the existence of numerous differences in the juvenile punishment in some countries in the world. On the European continent there is a wide range of different legal solutions when it comes to punishing juveniles. There are considerable differences in the procedure pronouncing juvenile prison and in particular penal treatment of juveniles in penitentiary institutions. For these reasons, the author has decided to show the basic statutory provisions in the part that relates to the issue of punishment of minors in the legislation of individual countries.

  12. THE GOAL AND THE GOLD MINE: Constraints Management and the Dutch Herring Fishing Industry, 1400-1700

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Scott Martin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In many ways, the Netherlands set the pace for European economic growth in the fifteenth through the eighteenth centuries. The Dutch herring fishing industry was critical to this modern economic progress. A comparative study of this enterprise to the lean manufacturing tool of constraints management provides insight into how the Dutch dominated this lucrative industry. Improvements by Dutch fishing interests in technology, practice, procedures and quality control were consistent with the constraints management model. English and Scottish competitors failed to identify these constraints and thus, failed to challenge Dutch operators. The Dutch fishing industry practiced and understood constraints management and used it to monopolize the export herring market for three centuries.

  13. Survival of Juvenile Chinook Salmon Passing the Bonneville Dam Spillway in 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Hughes, James S.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Durham, Robin E.; Fischer, Eric S.; Kim, Jina; Townsend, R. L.; Skalski, J. R.; Buchanan, Rebecca A.; McComas, Roy L.

    2008-12-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Portland District (CENWP) funds numerous evaluations of fish passage and survival on the Columbia River. In 2007, the CENWP asked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to conduct an acoustic telemetry study to estimate the survival of juvenile Chinook salmon passing the spillway at Bonneville Dam. This report documents the study results which are intended to be used to improve the conditions juvenile anadromous fish experience when passing through the dams that the Corps operates on the river.

  14. Mercury levels in herring gulls and fish: 42 years of spatio-temporal trends in the Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blukacz-Richards, E Agnes; Visha, Ariola; Graham, Matthew L; McGoldrick, Daryl L; de Solla, Shane R; Moore, David J; Arhonditsis, George B

    2017-04-01

    Total mercury levels in aquatic birds and fish communities have been monitored across the Canadian Great Lakes by Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC) for the past 42 years (1974-2015). These data (22 sites) were used to examine spatio-temporal variability of mercury levels in herring gull (Larus argentatus) eggs, lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), walleye (Sander vitreus), and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax). Trends were quantified with dynamic linear models, which provided time-variant rates of change of mercury concentrations. Lipid content (in both fish and eggs) and length in fish were used as covariates in all models. For the first three decades, mercury levels in gull eggs and fish declined at all stations. In the 2000s, trends for herring gull eggs reversed at two sites in Lake Erie and two sites in Lake Ontario. Similar trend reversals in the 2000s were observed for lake trout in Lake Superior and at a single station in Lake Ontario. Mercury levels in lake trout continued to slowly decline at all of the remaining stations, except for Lake Huron, where the levels remained stable. A post-hoc Bayesian regression analysis suggests strong trophic interactions between herring gulls and rainbow smelt in Lake Superior and Lake Ontario, but also pinpoints the likelihood of a trophic decoupling in Lake Huron and Lake Erie. Continued monitoring of mercury levels in herring gulls and fish is required to consolidate these trophic shifts and further evaluate their broader implications. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Recurrent giant juvenile fibroadenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn S. King

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Breast masses in children, though rare, present a difficult clinical challenge as they can represent a wide variety of entities from benign fibroadenomas to phyllodes tumors. Rapidly growing or recurrent masses can be particularly concerning to patients, families and physicians alike. Clinical examination and conventional imaging modalities are not efficacious in distinguishing between different tumor types and surgical excision is often recommended for both final diagnosis and for treatment of large or rapidly growing masses. While surgical excision can result in significant long-term deformity of the breast there are some surgical techniques that can be used to limit deformity and/or aid in future reconstruction. Here we present a case of recurrent giant juvenile fibroadenoma with a review of the clinical presentation, diagnostic tools and treatment options.

  16. Fetal and juvenile radiotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    A number of studies conducted under this project have demonstrated that many of the biological parameters used to calculate permissible levels of exposure of adults to radioactive materials are inappropriate for the rapidly growing infant or child or for the pregnant female. These include age-related differences in radionuclide deposition, distribution, and retention and associated differences in microdosimetry, as well as the greater intrinsic radiosensitivity of the immature organism. These findings emphasize the need for more detailed information on the metabolism and toxicity of radionuclides in the prenatal and juvenile mammal. The continuing objective of this project is to obtain such information, which is needed to establish appropriate exposure limits for radionuclides of greatest potential hazard to these age groups

  17. Muscle Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substance of the Atlantic Herring (Clupea harengus in Marinades Collected in the Market Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Halamíčková

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish fat belongs to highly specific nutritious elements especially due to its high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The aim of the present study was to determine the content of 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in over-the-counter cold and warm marinades in which the base fish material consists of the Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus. Fifty six marinated fish products stored at refrigeration temperatures were analyzed before their expiration date. Their fat content was determined by means of the Soxhlet method and the TBARS validated fluorimetric micromethod. Lowest TBARS values were characteristic of warm baked marinades (1.17 ± 0.40 mg MDA/ kg muscle and in case of cold marinades for the rolled herring fillets with pepper (5.03 ± 0.54 mg MDA/kg muscle whereas the highest TBARS values were observed in warm cooked marinades (16.48 ± 4.22 mg MDA/kg muscle and in roll mops sold over the counter (7.61 ± 3.87 mg MDA/kg muscle. The results showed that fat content is not always critical for herring TBARS determination in marinades. For the consumer safety it is essential to pay attention to cold marinades in brine sold over the counter and baked marinades in aspic before their expiration date.

  18. Characteristics of the Norwegian Coastal Current during Years with High Recruitment of Norwegian Spring Spawning Herring (Clupea harengus L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øystein Skagseth

    Full Text Available Norwegian Spring Spawning herring (NSSH Clupea harengus L. spawn on coastal banks along the west coast of Norway. The larvae are generally transported northward in the Norwegian Coastal Current (NCC with many individuals utilizing nursery grounds in the Barents Sea. The recruitment to this stock is highly variable with a few years having exceptionally good recruitment. The principal causes of recruitment variability of this herring population have been elusive. Here we undertake an event analysis using data between 1948 and 2010 to gain insight into the physical conditions in the NCC that coincide with years of high recruitment. In contrast to a typical year when northerly upwelling winds are prominent during spring, the years with high recruitment coincide with predominantly southwesterly winds and weak upwelling in spring and summer, which lead to an enhanced northward coastal current during the larval drift period. Also in most peak recruitment years, low-salinity anomalies are observed to propagate northward during the spring and summer. It is suggested that consistent southwesterly (downwelling winds and propagating low-salinity anomalies, both leading to an enhanced northward transport of larvae, are important factors for elevated recruitment. At the same time, these conditions stabilize the coastal waters, possibly leading to enhanced production and improved feeding potential along the drift route to Barents Sea. Further studies on the drivers of early life history mortality can now be undertaken with a better understanding of the physical conditions that prevail during years when elevated recruitment occurs in this herring stock.

  19. Juvenile delinquency and correctional treatment in Britain

    OpenAIRE

    堀尾, 良弘; ホリオ, ヨシヒロ; Yoshihiro, Horio

    2006-01-01

    Japanese modernistic culture is influenced not a little from Britain. In looking at the Juvenile Law and the history of correctional treatment in Britain, understanding of today's juvenile delinquency and treatment deepen. Moreover, the background and issue of juvenile delinquency in Britain are also discussed. As a feature of the juvenile delinquency in Britain, the common field with Japan and the field peculiar to Britain became clear in each. It is common to the world that the juvenile del...

  20. Group Work with Juvenile Delinquents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimpfer, David G.

    1992-01-01

    Reviews group work literature on juvenile delinquents. Presents overview of interventions, including positive peer culture, cognitive-behavioral treatment, psychoeducational treatment, treatment of learned behavior, action-oriented treatment, milieu therapy, parental involvement, assertiveness training, and music therapy. Discusses outcome…

  1. Juvenile Angiofibroma: Evolution of Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolai, Piero; Schreiber, Alberto; Bolzoni Villaret, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Juvenile angiofibroma is a rare benign lesion originating from the pterygopalatine fossa with distinctive epidemiologic features and growth patterns. The typical patient is an adolescent male with a clinical history of recurrent epistaxis and nasal obstruction. Although the use of nonsurgical therapies is described in the literature, surgery is currently considered the ideal treatment for juvenile angiofibroma. Refinement in preoperative embolization has provided significant reduction of complications and intraoperative bleeding with minimal risk of residual disease. During the last decade, an endoscopic technique has been extensively adopted as a valid alternative to external approaches in the management of small-intermediate size juvenile angiofibromas. Herein, we review the evolution in the management of juvenile angiofibroma with particular reference to recent advances in diagnosis and treatment. PMID:22164185

  2. Juvenile Angiofibroma: Evolution of Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Nicolai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile angiofibroma is a rare benign lesion originating from the pterygopalatine fossa with distinctive epidemiologic features and growth patterns. The typical patient is an adolescent male with a clinical history of recurrent epistaxis and nasal obstruction. Although the use of nonsurgical therapies is described in the literature, surgery is currently considered the ideal treatment for juvenile angiofibroma. Refinement in preoperative embolization has provided significant reduction of complications and intraoperative bleeding with minimal risk of residual disease. During the last decade, an endoscopic technique has been extensively adopted as a valid alternative to external approaches in the management of small-intermediate size juvenile angiofibromas. Herein, we review the evolution in the management of juvenile angiofibroma with particular reference to recent advances in diagnosis and treatment.

  3. Bilateral, independent juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkenborg, Marie-Louise; Frendø, M; Stavngaard, T

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a benign, vascular tumour that primarily occurs in adolescent males. Despite its benign nature, aggressive growth patterns can cause potential life-threatening complications. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is normally unilateral, originating...... from the sphenopalatine artery, but bilateral symptoms can occur if a large tumour extends to the contralateral side of the nasopharynx. This paper presents the first reported case of true bilateral extensive juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma involving clinically challenging pre-surgical planning...... embolisation. Radical removal performed as one-step, computer-assisted functional endoscopic sinus surgery was performed. The follow-up period was uncomplicated. CONCLUSION: This case illustrates the importance of suspecting bilateral juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma in patients presenting with bilateral...

  4. A Giant Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüce, Salim; Uysal, İsmail Önder; Doğan, Mansur; Polat, Kerem; Şalk, İsmail; Müderris, Suphi

    2012-01-01

    Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) are locally growing highly vascular tumours. They are treated primarily by surgical excision ranging from open approach to endoscopic approach. We presented a 20-year-old male with a giant nasopharyngeal juvenile angiofibroma obliterating the pterygopalatine fossa bilaterally, invasing the sphenoid bone and extending to the left nasal passage. His complaints were epistaxis and nasal obstruction. After embolization, the patient was treated surgically with endoscopic approach and discharged as cured without any complication. PMID:23714961

  5. Fetal and juvenile radiotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikov, M.R.

    1985-01-01

    This project is directed at obtaining detailed comparative information on the deposition, distribution, retention, and toxicity of radionuclides in the prenatal and juvenile mammal. Because quantitative data cannot necessarily be extrapolated to man, emphasis is also directed toward establishing patterns, phenomenologic interactions, and relationships which will be useful in determining appropriate exposure levels for rapidly growing infants or children and for pregnant women. Further dosimetry for an experiment to evaluate the effects of foster-rearing of newborn rats on the lifetime effects of 239 Pu exposure has demonstrated that most of the lifetime burden is derived from prenatal exposure and that milk contributes little in addition. Other measurements have confirmed a tentative observation that the lifetime burden in offspring is greater with near-term exposure than with exposure earlier in gestation. Additional results from a comparison of the embryotoxicity of 239 Pu and 241 Am have confirmed that, on the basis of dose administered to the dam, the former has a greater effect on the conceptus. Pilot studies indicate that 233 U is teratogenic, acting as a chemical rather than as a radiological teratogen. Studies with 239 Pu-exposed pregnant rabbits have shown that maternal distribution differs from that in rodents; concentration patterns in the placenta and membranes also differed. 4 figures, 1 table

  6. [Localized eruptive juvenile xanthogranuloma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanotti, S; Chiaverini, C; Rostain, G; Cardot-Leccia, N; Lacour, J-P

    2014-03-01

    Juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG) is a non-Langerhans histiocytosis of young children characterized by solitary or multiple yellowish cutaneous nodules. Atypical skin lesions such as lichenoid eruptions, and pedunculated, maculopapular, plaque-like or linear lesions have been described. We report a case of eruptive XGJ en plaque in the left leg in an infant. A 13-month-old child presented asymptomatic eruptive, yellowish papules of the leg measuring 5 to 10mm since the age of 2months. There was no cutaneous infiltration between the lesions. Darier's sign was negative. Histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of JXG. The course of the disease comprised a gradual decrease in the number of active lesions with slight residual pigmentation. Our case was suggestive of JXG en plaque. Only 7 cases have been reported in the literature, all appearing before the age of 5months. The lesions corresponded mostly to an asymptomatic erythematous plaque studded with small yellowish/red nodules of variable localisation. Spontaneous involvement was noted in all cases. No systemic involvement was found. Herein we present a unique case of localised multiple JXG without evident clinical infiltrating plaque progressing with self-resolving flares. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Fetal and juvenile radiotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikov, M.R.

    1982-01-01

    This project is directed at obtaining detailed comparative information on the deposition, distribution, retention, and toxicity of radionuclides in the prenatal and juvenile mammal. Because quantitative data cannot necessarily be extrapolated to man, our emphasis is directed toward establishing patterns, phenomenologic interactions, and relationships which will be useful in determining appropriate exposure levels for the rapidly growing infant or child, and for pregnant women. Recent results demonstrated that injection of pregnant rats with 23 Pu had the greatest effect on longevity and bone-tumor incidence of the offspring when exposure occurred at 19 days of gestation (dg); less effect at 15 dg and the least effect at 9 dg. Ongoing distribution studies are providing data which confirm our tentative explanation that marked variations in the anatomic distributions of bone tumors, with age at the time of injection, were attributable to age-related differences in 239 Pu microdosimetry and concentrations among skeletal components. Other studies, using a placental perfusion technique, have demonstrated that intravenous injection of 239 Pu in pregnant guinea pigs leads to a marked decrease in maternal blood flow to the placenta

  8. JUVENILE RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I N Sartika

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA is the most common rheumatic condition in children. JRA is defined as persistent arthritis in 1 or more joints for at least 6 weeks, with the onset before age 16 years. The etiology of JRA is unknown. Antigen activated CD4+ T cell stimulate monocytes, macrophages, and synovial fibroblasts to produce the cytokines Interleukin-1 (IL-1, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-? and to secrete matrix metalloproteinases, which lead to chronic inflammation due to infiltration of inflammatory cell, angiogenesis, destruction of cartilage and bone with pannus formation. The 3 major subtypes of JRA are based on the symptoms at disease onset and are designated systemic onset, pauciarticular onset, and polyarticular onset. For all patients, the goals of therapy are to decrease chronic joint pain and suppress the inflammatory process. Poor prognostic have been observed in patients with polyarticular onset, rheumatoid factor, persistent morning stiffness, tenosynovitis, involvement of the small joints, rapid appearance of erosions, active late onset childhood, subcutaneous nodules, or antinuclear antibody.

  9. Fetal and juvenile radiotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikov, M.R.

    1983-01-01

    Comparative information on the deposition, distribution, retention, and toxicity of radionuclides in the prenatal and juvenile mammal is reported. Emphasis is toward establishing patterns, phenomenologic interactions, and relationships which will be useful in determining appropriate exposure levels for the rapidly growing infant or child and for pregnant women. Recent results have shown that injection of pregnant rats with 239 Pu increases the incidence and severity of adenomatous hyperplasia of the liver in the offspring; the magnitude of these effects is relatd to dose and prenatal age at exposure. Analysis of combined data from several experiments leads to the conclusion that perinatal rats are more sensitive to bone tumor induction by 239 Pu alpha-particle irradiation than are adults. Further histopathologic evaluations of material from earlier experiments have demonstrated that most of the increased incidence of thyroid tumors following 131 I exposure is attributable to follicular tumors. An analysis of the literature led to the conclusion that prenatal irradiation can lead to an increased or decreased incidence of tumors, depending on the specific details of the experimental design and system

  10. Fetal and juvenile radiotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikov, M.R.

    1984-01-01

    This project is directed at obtaining detailed comparative information on the deposition, distribution, retention, and toxicity of radionuclides in the prenatal and juvenile mammal. Because quantitative data cannot necessarily be extrapolated to man, emphasis is also directed toward establishing patterns, phenomenologic interactions, and relationships which will be useful in determining appropriate exposure levels for the rapidly growing infant or child and for pregnant women. An experiment to evaluate the effects of foster-rearing of newborn rats on the lifetime effects of 239 Pu exposure has demonstrated that, while longevity is primarily dependent on radiation history, growth rate and adult body weight are related to the exposure and fitness of the foster dam. Results from an ongoing comparison of the dosimetry and embryotoxicity of 239 Pu and 241 Am confirm that the former has a greater effect on the conceptus, on the basis of dose administered to the dam. Studies in the guinea-pig perfusion system have confirmed that maternal blood flow to the placenta is decreased by intravenous doses of 30 nCi/g 239 Pu and suggest that the threshold lies at approximately 5 nCi/g body weight. A dose of 30 nCi/g of 241 Am does not affect blood flow. Clearance of the two actinides is similar when blood flow effects are not considered. 3 figures, 3 tables

  11. Effects of invasive European fire ants (Myrmica rubra on herring gull (Larus argentatus reproduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke E DeFisher

    Full Text Available Various invasive ant species have negatively affected reproductive success in birds by disrupting nest site selection, incubation patterns, food supply, and by direct predation on nestlings. Impacts can be particularly severe when non-native ants colonize seabird nesting islands where thousands of birds may nest in high densities on the ground or in burrows or crevices. Here we report on the first documented effects of Myrmica rubra, the European fire ant, on the reproduction of birds in its non-native range. We documented herring gulls (Larus argentatus on Appledore Island, Maine, engaging in more erratic incubation behaviors at nests infested by the ants. Newly-hatched chicks in some nests were swarmed by ants, leading to rapid chick death. Due to high overall rates of chick mortality, survival probabilities did not vary between nests with and without ant activity, however chick growth rates were slower at nests with ants than at ant-free nests. Ant infestation likely leads to longer-term fitness consequences because slower growth rates early in life may ultimately lead to lower post-fledging survival probabilities.

  12. Direct Effects of Microalgae and Protists on Herring (Clupea harengus Yolk Sac Larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Illing

    Full Text Available This study investigated effects of microalgae (Rhodomonas baltica and heterotrophic protists (Oxyrrhis marina on the daily growth, activity, condition and feeding success of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus larvae from hatch, through the end of the endogenous (yolk sac period. Yolk sac larvae were reared in the presence and absence of microplankton and, each day, groups of larvae were provided access to copepods. Larvae reared with microalgae and protists exhibited precocious (2 days earlier and ≥ 60% increased feeding incidence on copepods compared to larvae reared in only seawater (SW. In the absence and presence of microalgae and protists, life span and growth trajectories of yolk sac larvae were similar and digestive enzyme activity (trypsin and nutritional condition (RNA-DNA ratio markedly declined in all larvae directly after yolk sac depletion. Thus, microplankton promoted early feeding but was not sufficient to alter life span and growth during the yolk sac phase. Given the importance of early feeding, field programs should place greater emphasis on the protozooplankton-ichthyoplankton link to better understand match-mismatch dynamics and bottom-up drivers of year class success in marine fish.

  13. Minors' capacity to refuse treatment: a reply to Gilmore and Herring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cave, Emma; Wallbank, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Re R and Re W allow a parent to consent to treatment a competent minor refuses, but the cases have not been tested post-Human Rights Act 1998. Gilmore and Herring offer a means by which they might be distinguished or sidelined. They interpret Gillick to say that in order to consent a minor need only have a full understanding of the particular treatment. They argue that the minors in Re R and Re W were refusing all treatment which requires a separate assessment of capacity-an assessment which was not made. We fear that this distinction would not be workable in clinical practice and argue that their interpretation of Gillick is flawed. From a clinician's point of view, competence cannot always be judged in relation to a specific treatment, but instead must relate to the decision. We show that a decision can incorporate more than one treatment, and more than one decision might be made about one treatment. A minor's understanding of a specific treatment is not always sufficient to demonstrate competence to make a decision. The result is that whilst there might be situations when a parent and a minor both have the power to consent to a particular treatment, they will not share concurrent powers in relation to the same decision. Consequently, a challenge to Re R and Re W, if forthcoming, would need to take a different form. We emphasise the necessity to minimise the dichotomy between legal consent and how consent works in medical practice.

  14. Direct Effects of Microalgae and Protists on Herring (Clupea harengus) Yolk Sac Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illing, Björn; Moyano, Marta; Niemax, Jan; Peck, Myron A

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated effects of microalgae (Rhodomonas baltica) and heterotrophic protists (Oxyrrhis marina) on the daily growth, activity, condition and feeding success of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) larvae from hatch, through the end of the endogenous (yolk sac) period. Yolk sac larvae were reared in the presence and absence of microplankton and, each day, groups of larvae were provided access to copepods. Larvae reared with microalgae and protists exhibited precocious (2 days earlier) and ≥ 60% increased feeding incidence on copepods compared to larvae reared in only seawater (SW). In the absence and presence of microalgae and protists, life span and growth trajectories of yolk sac larvae were similar and digestive enzyme activity (trypsin) and nutritional condition (RNA-DNA ratio) markedly declined in all larvae directly after yolk sac depletion. Thus, microplankton promoted early feeding but was not sufficient to alter life span and growth during the yolk sac phase. Given the importance of early feeding, field programs should place greater emphasis on the protozooplankton-ichthyoplankton link to better understand match-mismatch dynamics and bottom-up drivers of year class success in marine fish.

  15. Age and growth of redeye round herring Etrumeus whiteheadi off the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Replicate age estimates obtained from sagittal otoliths were collected with slight bias and relatively high precision. A von Bertalanffy model describing growth of the combined sexes, including juveniles, was Lt = 20.41(1 − e−0.41(t − 1.92)). Kimura's likelihood ratio test revealed no statistically significant differences between ...

  16. Can Cooperative Management of Tuna Fisheries in the Western Pacific Solve the Growth Overfishing Problem?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bailey, M.L.; Rashid Sumaila, U.; Martell, S.J.D.

    2013-01-01

    Tuna fisheries in the western and central Pacific Ocean are important globally for both food and economic security. Yellowfin and bigeye tuna stocks in this region are declining, in part due to the juvenile bycatch of these species by the purse seine fishery using floating objects and fish

  17. PSYCHOSOCIAL PROFILE OF JUVENILE DIABETES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dass, Jyoti; Dhavale, H.S.; Rathi, Anup

    1999-01-01

    A study of the complex relationships between the patient characteristics, family and environmental influences, physician's behaviour and the demands of the disease with its management in Juvenile Diabetics was taken up at a general hospital. 90 subjects were selected for the study and grouped into three. Group A consisted of 30 Juvenile Diabetics, Group B of 30 Adult Diabetics and Group C of 30 Normal healthy adolescents. The impact of the illness was measured on the Diabetes Impact Measurement Scale (DIMS), the behavioural deviations and the parental attitudes towards child rearing on the Fallstrom's Questionnaire (FQ) and the family environment on the Family Climate Scale (FCS). Psychiatric morbidity was assessed using DSM-IV criteria. Group A & B were compared on the DIMS and Group A & C on FQ & FCS. Adult diabetics had a greater impact of diabetes. Juvenile diabetics had significantly higher frequency of behavioural deviations as compared to controls. Also there was a higher number of responses on questions indicating an overprotecting attitude amongst parents of juvenile diabetics. There was an increased incidence of psychiatric morbidity in juvenile diabetics as compared to normal adolescents irrespective of the family environment. The results are discussed in relation to current literature. PMID:21430802

  18. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naz, S.; Mushtaq, A.; Bari, A.; Maqsud, A.; Khan, M. Z.; Ahmad, T. M.; Saira Rehman

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the spectrum of clinical presentation, laboratory parameters and drug therapy in patients with Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (JRA). Study Design: Case series. Place and Duration of Study: The Children's Hospital and The Institute of Child Health, Lahore, from October 2008 to October 2011. Methodology: All patients who fulfilled the American College of Rheumatology criteria for JRA were enrolled. Their clinical features, investigations done and treatment received for JRA were noted. Statistical analysis of data was done on SPSS version 16.0 for obtaining descriptive statistics. Results: Out of 185 patients, 50.3% (n = 93) were females; 54% (n = 100) were between 10 - 15 years of age. Polyarthritis was found in 71.9% (n = 133) followed by oligoarthritis (22.7%, n = 42) and systemic onset disease (5.4%, n = 10). Morning stiffness (78%) and fever (68%) were the most common clinical presentations. All patients with systemic onset disease had fever (n = 10) followed by skin rash, hepatosplenomegaly and lymphadenopathy. Uveitis was found in 2 patients, and both belonged to the oligoarticular group. Rheumatoid factor was found in 10.27% (n = 19) of all patients. All patients were given non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Disease modifying agents (methotrexate) were given to 43.8% (n = 81). Steroids were used in 61% (n = 113) of patients either with NSAIDs alone or NSAIDs plus methotrexate. Conclusion: Disease profile of JRA at the study centre showed that polyarthritis is the commonest type. Recognition of subtypes will help in planning the management of these patients. (author)

  19. REFORMATIONS IN ZIMBABWE'S JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mugumbate

    1996-05-23

    May 23, 1996 ... The article is based on a desk review of existing literature on juvenile crime in the country. ... that Zimbabwe's juvenile justice system is transforming from being ... recommendations include expanding the Pre-trial Diversion ...

  20. Genetic factors have a major effect on growth, number of vertebrae and otolith shape in Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Florian; Almeland, Oda W; Skadal, Julie; Slotte, Aril; Andersson, Leif; Folkvord, Arild

    2018-01-01

    Atlantic herring, Clupea harengus, have complex population structures. Mixing of populations is known, but the extent of connectivity is still unclear. Phenotypic plasticity results in divergent phenotypes in response to environmental factors. A marked salinity gradient occurs from Atlantic Ocean (salinity 35) into the Baltic Sea (salinity range 2-12). Herring from both habitats display phenotypic and genetic variability. To explore how genetic factors and salinity influence phenotypic traits like growth, number of vertebrae and otolith shape an experimental population consisting of Atlantic purebreds and Atlantic/Baltic F1 hybrids were incubated and co-reared at two different salinities, 16 and 35, for three years. The F1-generation was repeatedly sampled to evaluate temporal variation. A von Bertalanffy growth model indicated that reared Atlantic purebreds had a higher maximum length (26.2 cm) than Atlantic/Baltic hybrids (24.8 cm) at salinity 35, but not at salinity 16 (25.0 and 24.8 cm, respectively). In contrast, Atlantic/Baltic hybrids achieved larger size-at-age than the wild caught Baltic parental group. Mean vertebral counts and otolith aspect ratios were higher for reared Atlantic purebreds than Atlantic/Baltic hybrids, consistent with the differences between parental groups. There were no significant differences in vertebral counts and otolith aspect ratios between herring with the same genotype but raised in different salinities. A Canonical Analysis of Principal Coordinates was applied to analyze the variation in wavelet coefficients that described otolith shape. The first discriminating axis identified the differences between Atlantic purebreds and Atlantic/Baltic hybrids, while the second axis represented salinity differences. Assigning otoliths based on genetic groups (Atlantic purebreds vs. Atlantic/Baltic hybrids) yielded higher classification success (~90%) than based on salinities (16 vs. 35; ~60%). Our results demonstrate that otolith shape and

  1. Genetic factors have a major effect on growth, number of vertebrae and otolith shape in Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Berg

    Full Text Available Atlantic herring, Clupea harengus, have complex population structures. Mixing of populations is known, but the extent of connectivity is still unclear. Phenotypic plasticity results in divergent phenotypes in response to environmental factors. A marked salinity gradient occurs from Atlantic Ocean (salinity 35 into the Baltic Sea (salinity range 2-12. Herring from both habitats display phenotypic and genetic variability. To explore how genetic factors and salinity influence phenotypic traits like growth, number of vertebrae and otolith shape an experimental population consisting of Atlantic purebreds and Atlantic/Baltic F1 hybrids were incubated and co-reared at two different salinities, 16 and 35, for three years. The F1-generation was repeatedly sampled to evaluate temporal variation. A von Bertalanffy growth model indicated that reared Atlantic purebreds had a higher maximum length (26.2 cm than Atlantic/Baltic hybrids (24.8 cm at salinity 35, but not at salinity 16 (25.0 and 24.8 cm, respectively. In contrast, Atlantic/Baltic hybrids achieved larger size-at-age than the wild caught Baltic parental group. Mean vertebral counts and otolith aspect ratios were higher for reared Atlantic purebreds than Atlantic/Baltic hybrids, consistent with the differences between parental groups. There were no significant differences in vertebral counts and otolith aspect ratios between herring with the same genotype but raised in different salinities. A Canonical Analysis of Principal Coordinates was applied to analyze the variation in wavelet coefficients that described otolith shape. The first discriminating axis identified the differences between Atlantic purebreds and Atlantic/Baltic hybrids, while the second axis represented salinity differences. Assigning otoliths based on genetic groups (Atlantic purebreds vs. Atlantic/Baltic hybrids yielded higher classification success (~90% than based on salinities (16 vs. 35; ~60%. Our results demonstrate that

  2. Evolution of Juvenile Ankylosing Spondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye.V. Prohorov

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Evolution of juvenile ankylosing spondylitis tend to follow a more frequent involvement in the pathological process of elbow and ankle joints, development of enthesiopathies, changes of intraarticular meniscal horns, forming of Baker’s cysts, cartilage flaps and systemic osteoporosis, and total value of all these signs 13 times exceeds thereof in patients with with the debut of disease in adulthood, but for juvenile ankylosing spondylitis vertebral lesion is less common. Age dimorphism of the use of certain groups of drugs and physiotherapy facilities is observed.

  3. Juvenile technologies in foreign publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shpagina E.M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article provides the review of foreign publications, concerning the juvenile technologies used in France, Canada, Germany and Switzerland. The paper presents legal, social and psychotherapeutic aspects of juvenile judiciary in foreign countries. The authors paid special attention to the complexity of approaches to young children and teenagers who found themselves in complicated life circumstances or got into trouble with the law. The article gives examples of using the following techniques: cognitive-behavioral intervention, mediation, family therapy (including family background and family history, relations theory, narrative practices, utilization of «emotional intelligence» resources.

  4. A phenomenological study of ripening of salted herring. Assessing homogeneity of data from different countries and laboratories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro, R.; Nielsen, Henrik Hauch; Stefánsson, G.

    2002-01-01

    of treatments and analyzed in different laboratories. The question considered here is whether these data can be assumed to be one homogeneous set of data pertaining to ripening of salted herring or whether data from different labs, stocks, etc. must be considered independently. This is of importance for further...... easily be envisioned, it was exactly the need for a more intuitive and visual test that prompted this work, developing different exploration tools that visually make it clear how well the data can be assumed to derive from the same population. Subsequently analyzing the data as one homogeneous group...

  5. Identification and Characterization of Main Allergic Proteins in Cooked Wolf Herring Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamadi, Mohsen; Falak, Reza; Mokhtarian, Kobra; Khoramizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Sadroddiny, Esmaeil; Kardar, Gholam Ali

    2016-10-01

    Our aim in this study was to identify and characterize allergic proteins in cooked wolf herring fish. We heated the crude extract alternatively at 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, and 100°C for one hour and results were compared by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Also, proteins were immunoblotted with fish-sensitive patients' sera. The major allergenic proteins were identified via mass spectrometry. These allergenic proteins were then purified by anion exchange chromatography and the IgE-immunoreactivity of the fractions was compared with the crude extracts via disk enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). SDS-PAGE of the crude extract showed more than 15 distinct protein bands. Five of these proteins, with apparent molecular weights of 12, 18, 24, 38, and 51 kDa, were only observed in the 100°C heated extract. Immunoblotting of the heated extract revealed that the 12 and 51 kDa proteins were IgE-immunoreactive with 88 percent of fish-sensitive patient sera while the 24 and 38 kDa proteins reacted with 33.3 and 55.5 percent of fish-sensitive patient sera, respectively. Mass spectrometry of the 12, 38, and 51 kDa proteins revealed that all three were parvalbumin oligomers. Disk ELISA results showed that 20 of 25 and 14 of 25 fish-allergic patients' sera were IgE-reactive with purified oligomeric parvalbumin-coated and crude extract-coated disks, respectively. Parvalbumin and its oligomers are the main allergenic molecules in cooked fish. Therefore, an enriched or purified fraction containing this protein could be a useful source of allergen for applications in ELISA-based immunoassays and could discriminate fish-allergic patients who can tolerate cooked fish from those who cannot.

  6. Pacific Equatorial Transect

    OpenAIRE

    Pälike, Heiko; Nishi, Hiroshi; Lyle, Mitch; Raffi, Isabella; Klaus, Adam; Gamage, Kusali

    2009-01-01

    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 320/321, "Pacific Equatorial Age Transect" (Sites U1331–U1338), was designed to recover a continuous Cenozoic record of the paleoequatorial Pacific by coring above the paleoposition of the Equator at successive crustal ages on the Pacific plate. These sediments record the evolution of the paleoequatorial climate system throughout the Cenozoic. As we gained more information about the past movement of plates and when in Earth's history "critical" cli...

  7. Juvenile Courts. Creation and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat GONZÁLEZ FERNÁNDEZ

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the creation of Juvenile or Children's Courts in Spain, analysing their reasons and aims, as well as the ethical and political connotations present on their way of acting. Their history and the one of the institutions that complement them is built from the legislation, writings and ideas of their promoters.

  8. Juvenile Justice: A Bibliographic Essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondak, Ann

    1979-01-01

    Provides information on the background and legal framework of the juvenile justice system, the issues that confront it, and the pressures for change, as well as noting some sources of information on the system. Available from American Association of Law Libraries, 53 West Jackson Blvd., Suite 1201, Chicago, Illinois 60604; sc $4.00. (Author/IRT)

  9. [Sex-linked juvenile retinoschisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, P; Turut, P; Soltysik, C; Hache, J C

    1976-02-01

    About 13 observations of sexe linked juvenile retinoschisis, the authors describe the ophthalmoscopic, fluorographic and functional aspects of the disease whose caracteristics are:--its sexe linked recessive heredity; --its clinical characterestics associating: a microcystic macular degeneration, peripheral retinal lesions, vitreous body alterations, --an electroretinogram of the negative type.

  10. Juvenile European anchovy otolith microstructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Cermeño

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus has a complex incremental growth pattern that was studied using scanning electron microscope (SEM and optical microscope observations. Daily increments were identified and related to rhythmic growth patterns while double-band structures were identified as one increment. The causes of these growth patterns are discussed.

  11. CT appearance of juvenile angiofibroma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, Jun; Hara, Kazuo (Sumitomo Hospital, Osaka (Japan)); Fukuzumi, Akio; Uchida, Hideo

    1983-06-01

    Three verified cases of juvenile angiofibroma were presented. All of them were young and adolescent male CT proved to be an ideal tool in evaluating the extension of this tumor. The appearance on plain CT was multilobulated with displacement of the adjacent bony structures. On enhancement, there was intense staining of the tumor.

  12. What is Justice for Juveniles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, Jennifer Truran

    1997-01-01

    Provides background information and related learning activities for three areas of inquiry involving youth and violence: (1) "Evolution of the Juvenile Justice System"; (2) "The Literature of Crime and Poverty"; (3) "Youth Crime and Public Policy." Includes a list of six recommended Web sites. (MJP)

  13. The community structure of over-wintering larval and small juvenile fish in a large estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munk, Peter; Cardinale, Massimiliano; Casini, Michele; Rudolphi, Ann-Christin

    2014-02-01

    The Skagerrak and Kattegat are estuarine straits of high hydrographical and ecological diversity, situated between the saline waters of the North Sea and the brackish waters of the Baltic Sea. These sustain important nursery grounds of many fish species, of which several overwinter during the larval and early juvenile stages. In order to give more insight into the communities of the overwintering ichthyoplankton in estuarine areas, we examine an annual series of observations from a standard survey carried out 1992-2010. Species differences and annual variability in distributions and abundances are described, and linkages between ichthyoplankton abundances and corresponding hydrographical information are analysed by GAM methods. Communities were dominated by herring, gobies, butterfish, sprat, pipefishes, lemon sole and European eel (i.e. glass eel), and all the sampled species showed large annual fluctuations in abundances. The species showed quite specific patterns of distribution although species assemblages with common distributional characteristics were identified. Within these assemblages, the ichthyoplankton abundances showed linkage to environmental characteristics described by bottom-depth and surface temperature and salinity. Hence the study points to a significant structuring of overwintering ichthyoplankton communities in large estuaries, based on the species habitat choice and its response to physical gradients.

  14. Identifying molecular effects of diet through systems biology: influence of herring diet on sterol metabolism and protein turnover in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intawat Nookaew

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Changes in lifestyle have resulted in an epidemic development of obesity-related diseases that challenge the healthcare systems worldwide. To develop strategies to tackle this problem the focus is on diet to prevent the development of obesity-associated diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD. This will require methods for linking nutrient intake with specific metabolic processes in different tissues. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (Ldlr -/- mice were fed a high fat/high sugar diet to mimic a westernized diet, being a major reason for development of obesity and atherosclerosis. The diets were supplemented with either beef or herring, and matched in macronutrient contents. Body composition, plasma lipids and aortic lesion areas were measured. Transcriptomes of metabolically important tissues, e.g. liver, muscle and adipose tissue were analyzed by an integrated approach with metabolic networks to directly map the metabolic effects of diet in these different tissues. Our analysis revealed a reduction in sterol metabolism and protein turnover at the transcriptional level in herring-fed mice. CONCLUSION: This study shows that an integrated analysis of transcriptome data using metabolic networks resulted in the identification of signature pathways. This could not have been achieved using standard clustering methods. In particular, this systems biology analysis could enrich the information content of biomedical or nutritional data where subtle changes in several tissues together affects body metabolism or disease progression. This could be applied to improve diets for subjects exposed to health risks associated with obesity.

  15. GPS tracking data of Lesser Black-backed Gulls and Herring Gulls breeding at the southern North Sea coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stienen, Eric W M; Desmet, Peter; Aelterman, Bart; Courtens, Wouter; Feys, Simon; Vanermen, Nicolas; Verstraete, Hilbran; de Walle, Marc Van; Deneudt, Klaas; Hernandez, Francisco; Houthoofdt, Robin; Vanhoorne, Bart; Bouten, Willem; Buijs, Roland-Jan; Kavelaars, Marwa M; Müller, Wendt; Herman, David; Matheve, Hans; Sotillo, Alejandro; Lens, Luc

    2016-01-01

    In this data paper, Bird tracking - GPS tracking of Lesser Black-backed Gulls and Herring Gulls breeding at the southern North Sea coast is described, a species occurrence dataset published by the Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO). The dataset (version 5.5) contains close to 2.5 million occurrences, recorded by 101 GPS trackers mounted on 75 Lesser Black-backed Gulls and 26 Herring Gulls breeding at the Belgian and Dutch coast. The trackers were developed by the University of Amsterdam Bird Tracking System (UvA-BiTS, http://www.uva-bits.nl). These automatically record and transmit bird movements, which allows us and others to study their habitat use and migration behaviour in great detail. Our bird tracking network is operational since 2013. It is funded for LifeWatch by the Hercules Foundation and maintained in collaboration with UvA-BiTS and the Flanders Marine Institute (VLIZ). The recorded data are periodically released in bulk as open data (http://dataset.inbo.be/bird-tracking-gull-occurrences), and are also accessible through CartoDB and the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF).

  16. Comparative biology and population mixing among local, coastal and offshore Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) in the North Sea, Skagerrak, Kattegat and western Baltic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotte, Aril; Johannessen, Arne; Kvamme, Cecilie; Clausen, Lotte Worsøe; Nash, Richard D. M.

    2017-01-01

    The population structure of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) from 13 local, coastal and offshore areas of the North Sea, Skagerrak, Kattegat and western Baltic (northeast Atlantic) was studied using biological and environmental data from 1970–2015. The objective was to identify distinct populations by comparing variability in the temporal and spatial phenotypic characteristics and evaluate the potential for mixing of populations in time and space. The populations varied in biological characteristics such as mean vertebral counts (VS), growth and maturity ogives. Generalized additive models indicated temporally stable VS in the North Sea and western Baltic, whereas intra-annual temporal variation of VS occurred in other areas. High variability of VS within a population was not affected by environmental factors such as temperature and salinity. Consequently, seasonal VS variability can be explained by the presence or absence of herring populations as they migrate between areas. The three main populations identified in this paper correspond to the three managed stocks in this area: Norwegian spring spawners (NSS), western Baltic spring spawners (WBSS) and North Sea autumn spawners (NSAS). In addition, several local populations were identified in fjords or lakes along the coast, but our analyses could not detect direct mixing of local populations with the three main populations. Our results highlight the importance of recognizing herring dynamics and understanding the mixing of populations as a challenge for management of herring. PMID:29084258

  17. A Practical Approach to Juvenile Dermatomyositis and Juvenile Scleroderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Liza J; Pain, Clare E

    2016-02-01

    Juvenile dermatomyositis and juvenile scleroderma are rare multisystem autoimmune disorders. Although they share some pathognomonic hallmarks with adult onset myositis or scleroderma, there are significant differences in presentation, characteristics and associated features when the diseases present in childhood. In view of this, and the rarity of the conditions, it is important for care to be led by teams with expertise in pediatric rheumatology conditions. Prognosis has improved significantly in the West; likely due to early diagnosis and aggressive treatment with immunosuppressive medications. However, this trend is not replicated in the developing world. Early recognition of these diseases is crucial to achieve rapid and sustained remission and prevent disease or medication associated complications. This article aims to provide a practical overview for recognition, diagnosis and treatment of these conditions.

  18. Asia Pacific energy derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fusaro, P.C.

    1997-09-01

    Asia Pacific Energy Derivatives, from FT Energy, is the first report of its kind to examine the growth of energy derivatives within Asia Pacific and their increasing importance within this region. It provides a comprehensive overview of the subject, including analysis of: deregulation as a market driver; the impact of privatisation; the future for energy risk management tools; the unique characteristics of the Asia Pacific energy market; the role of futures exchanges in Asia; existing indexes and their performance; the differences between the Asia Pacific markets and their more mature counterparts in London and New York; non-oil derivatives, project finance and cross commodity arbitrage; the thriving Pacific Rim Over the Counter (OTC) markets. (author)

  19. Selection by higher-order effects of salinity and bacteria on early life-stages of Western Baltic spring-spawning herring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Maude; Listmann, Luisa; Roth, Olivia

    2017-07-01

    Habitat stratification by abiotic and biotic factors initiates divergence of populations and leads to ecological speciation. In contrast to fully marine waters, the Baltic Sea is stratified by a salinity gradient that strongly affects fish physiology, distribution, diversity and virulence of important marine pathogens. Animals thus face the challenge to simultaneously adapt to the concurrent salinity and cope with the selection imposed by the changing pathogenic virulence. Western Baltic spring-spawning herring ( Clupea harengus ) migrate to spawning grounds characterized by different salinities to which herring are supposedly adapted. We hypothesized that herring populations do not only have to cope with different salinity levels but that they are simultaneously exposed to higher-order effects that accompany the shifts in salinity, that is induced pathogenicity of Vibrio bacteria in lower saline waters. To experimentally evaluate this, adults of two populations were caught in their spawning grounds and fully reciprocally crossed within and between populations. Larvae were reared at three salinity levels, representing the spawning ground salinity of each of the two populations, or Atlantic salinity conditions resembling the phylogenetic origin of Clupea harengus . In addition, larvae were exposed to a Vibrio spp . infection. Life-history traits and gene expression analysis served as response variables. Herring seem adapted to Baltic Sea conditions and cope better with low saline waters. However, upon a bacterial infection, herring larvae suffer more when kept at lower salinities implying reduced resistance against Vibrio or higher Vibrio virulence. In the context of recent climate change with less saline marine waters in the Baltic Sea, such interactions may constitute key future stressors.

  20. Contaminant levels in Herring (Larus argentatus) and Great Black-backed Gull (Larus marinus) eggs from colonies in the New York harbor complex between 2012 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Elbin, Susan

    2015-03-01

    Birds living in coastal areas are exposed to severe storms and tidal flooding during the nesting season, but also to contaminants that move up the food chain from the water column and sediment to their prey items. We examine metals in Herring Gull (Larus argentatus) and Great Black-backed Gull (Larus marinus) eggs collected from the New York/New Jersey harbor estuary in 2012 and in 2013 to determine if there were significant yearly differences in metal levels. We test the null hypothesis that there were no significant yearly differences in metal levels. We investigate whether there were consistent differences in metals from 2012 to 2013 that might suggest a storm-related effect because Superstorm Sandy landed in New Jersey in October 2012 with high winds and extensive flooding, and view this research as exploratory. Except for arsenic, there were significant inter-year variations in the mean levels for all colonies combined for Herring Gull, and for lead, mercury and selenium for Great Black-backed Gulls. All metal levels in 2013 were less than in 2012, except for lead. These differences were present for individual colonies as well. Metal levels varied significantly among islands for Herring Gulls in both years (except for cadmium in 2013). No one colony had the highest levels of all metals for Herring Gulls. A long term data set on mercury levels in Herring Gulls indicated that the differences between 2012 and 2013 were greater than usual. Several different factors could account for these differences, and these are discussed.

  1. Temporal trends in dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in Baltic herring (Clupea harengus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Aroha; Hedman, Jenny E; Nyberg, Elisabeth; Haglund, Peter; Cousins, Ian T; Wiberg, Karin; Bignert, Anders

    2013-08-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (dl-PCBs) concentrations in Baltic herring (Clupea harengus) have been relatively stable since the mid to late 1990s. It is unclear why concentrations in Baltic herring are not following the observed decreases in other environmental matrices. Here, changes in long-term temporal trends in Baltic herring were examined. A number of biological variables were examined alongside the temporal trends to investigate whether fish biology e.g., growth (length, weight, age), lipid content, reproductive phase or fishing date may provide an explanation for the temporal trends observed. Significant (p<0.05) decreasing trends were observed for PCDD/F toxic equivalents (TEQPCDD/F) at three of the four sites (lipid weight (lw) and wet weight (ww), Swedish west coast lw only); however, other TEQ values e.g., TEQPCDD, TEQPCDF, TEQdl-PCB, TEQPCDD/F+dl-PCB were inconsistent, decreasing at some sites but not others. In the most recent 10 years of data, fewer significant decreases were seen overall. Over the examined time period, significant decreases (Bothnian Bay, p<0.01, southern Baltic Proper, p<0.02) and increases (Swedish west coast, p<0.02) in lipid content, growth dilution or lack thereof, and significant changes in age were observed. However herring were not randomly selected which biases this result. Continual efforts to decrease PCDD/F and dl-PCB emissions and to locate/reduce hotspots are necessary, while bearing in mind that herring biology may be impeding faster decreases of these chemicals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of the herbicide imazapyr on juvenile Oregon spotted frogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahnke, Amy E.; Grue, Christian E.; Hayes, Marc P.; Troiano, Alexandra T.

    2013-01-01

    Conflict between native amphibians and aquatic weed management in the Pacific Northwest is rarely recognized because most native stillwater-breeding amphibian species move upland during summer, when herbicide application to control weeds in aquatic habitats typically occurs. However, aquatic weed management may pose a risk for aquatic species present in wetlands through the summer, such as the Oregon spotted frog (OSF, Rana pretiosa), a state endangered species in Washington. Acute toxicity of herbicides used to control aquatic weeds tends to be low, but the direct effects of herbicide tank mixes on OSFs have remained unexamined. We exposed juvenile OSFs to tank mixes of the herbicide imazapyr, a surfactant, and a marker dye in a 96-h static-renewal test. The tank mix was chosen because of its low toxicity to fish and its effectiveness in aquatic weed control. Concentrations were those associated with low-volume (3.5 L/ha) and high-volume (7.0 L/ha) applications of imazapyr and a clean-water control. Following exposure, frogs were reared for two months in clean water to identify potential latent effects on growth. Endpoints evaluated included feeding behavior, growth, and body and liver condition indices. We recorded no mortalities and found no significant differences for any end point between the herbicide-exposed and clean-water control frogs. The results suggest that imazapyr use in wetland restoration poses a low risk of direct toxic effects on juvenile OSFs.

  3. Juvenile morphology in baleen whale phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Hsiu; Fordyce, R Ewan

    2014-09-01

    Phylogenetic reconstructions are sensitive to the influence of ontogeny on morphology. Here, we use foetal/neonatal specimens of known species of living baleen whales (Cetacea: Mysticeti) to show how juvenile morphology of extant species affects phylogenetic placement of the species. In one clade (sei whale, Balaenopteridae), the juvenile is distant from the usual phylogenetic position of adults, but in the other clade (pygmy right whale, Cetotheriidae), the juvenile is close to the adult. Different heterochronic processes at work in the studied species have different influences on juvenile morphology and on phylogenetic placement. This study helps to understand the relationship between evolutionary processes and phylogenetic patterns in baleen whale evolution and, more in general, between phylogeny and ontogeny; likewise, this study provides a proxy how to interpret the phylogeny when fossils that are immature individuals are included. Juvenile individuals in the peramorphic acceleration clades would produce misleading phylogenies, whereas juvenile individuals in the paedomorphic neoteny clades should still provide reliable phylogenetic signals.

  4. An unusual presentation of juvenile lupus nephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malleshwar Bottu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of juvenile lupus varies widely ranging between 4 and 250 per 100,000 population. Most common organ involvement in juvenile lupus is kidney. Neurological, cutaneous and hematological involvements are also involved. Skeletal muscle involvement in the form of myositis is rare. Myositis as presenting manifestation in juvenile lupus is also unusual. Herein, we report one such case wherein myositis preceded the onset of lupus nephritis

  5. Juvenile offenders: competence to stand trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulier, Matthew

    2012-12-01

    This article details the legal background and assists the reader in the preparation and practical conduct of evaluations regarding juvenile adjudicative competency. The material is presented to be useful as a guide to direct questions of competency and covers aspects of evaluation that include: legal standard for competency to stand trial, developmental immaturity, current practice in juvenile competency to stand trial, forensic evaluation of juvenile competency to stand trial, organizing the evaluation, collateral sources of information, psychiatric evaluation of juvenile adjudicative competency, assessment of mental disorder and intellectual disability, assessment of developmental status, assessment of functional abilities for adjudicative competence, and reaching the forensic opinion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The mangrove nursery paradigm revisited: otolith stable isotopes support nursery-to-reef movements by Indo-Pacific fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimirei, Ismael A; Nagelkerken, Ivan; Mgaya, Yunus D; Huijbers, Chantal M

    2013-01-01

    Mangroves and seagrass beds have long been perceived as important nurseries for many fish species. While there is growing evidence from the Western Atlantic that mangrove habitats are intricately connected to coral reefs through ontogenetic fish migrations, there is an ongoing debate of the value of these coastal ecosystems in the Indo-Pacific. The present study used natural tags, viz. otolith stable carbon and oxygen isotopes, to investigate for the first time the degree to which multiple tropical juvenile habitats subsidize coral reef fish populations in the Indo Pacific (Tanzania). Otoliths of three reef fish species (Lethrinus harak, L. lentjan and Lutjanus fulviflamma) were collected in mangrove, seagrass and coral reef habitats and analyzed for stable isotope ratios in the juvenile and adult otolith zones. δ(13)C signatures were significantly depleted in the juvenile compared to the adult zones, indicative of different habitat use through ontogeny. Maximum likelihood analysis identified that 82% of adult reef L. harak had resided in either mangrove (29%) or seagrass (53%) or reef (18%) habitats as juveniles. Of adult L. fulviflamma caught from offshore reefs, 99% had passed through mangroves habitats as juveniles. In contrast, L. lentjan adults originated predominantly from coral reefs (65-72%) as opposed to inshore vegetated habitats (28-35%). This study presents conclusive evidence for a nursery role of Indo-Pacific mangrove habitats for reef fish populations. It shows that intertidal habitats that are only temporarily available can form an important juvenile habitat for some species, and that reef fish populations are often replenished by multiple coastal habitats. Maintaining connectivity between inshore vegetated habitats and coral reefs, and conserving habitat mosaics rather than single nursery habitats, is a major priority for the sustainability of various Indo Pacific fish populations.

  7. The mangrove nursery paradigm revisited: otolith stable isotopes support nursery-to-reef movements by Indo-Pacific fishes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael A Kimirei

    Full Text Available Mangroves and seagrass beds have long been perceived as important nurseries for many fish species. While there is growing evidence from the Western Atlantic that mangrove habitats are intricately connected to coral reefs through ontogenetic fish migrations, there is an ongoing debate of the value of these coastal ecosystems in the Indo-Pacific. The present study used natural tags, viz. otolith stable carbon and oxygen isotopes, to investigate for the first time the degree to which multiple tropical juvenile habitats subsidize coral reef fish populations in the Indo Pacific (Tanzania. Otoliths of three reef fish species (Lethrinus harak, L. lentjan and Lutjanus fulviflamma were collected in mangrove, seagrass and coral reef habitats and analyzed for stable isotope ratios in the juvenile and adult otolith zones. δ(13C signatures were significantly depleted in the juvenile compared to the adult zones, indicative of different habitat use through ontogeny. Maximum likelihood analysis identified that 82% of adult reef L. harak had resided in either mangrove (29% or seagrass (53% or reef (18% habitats as juveniles. Of adult L. fulviflamma caught from offshore reefs, 99% had passed through mangroves habitats as juveniles. In contrast, L. lentjan adults originated predominantly from coral reefs (65-72% as opposed to inshore vegetated habitats (28-35%. This study presents conclusive evidence for a nursery role of Indo-Pacific mangrove habitats for reef fish populations. It shows that intertidal habitats that are only temporarily available can form an important juvenile habitat for some species, and that reef fish populations are often replenished by multiple coastal habitats. Maintaining connectivity between inshore vegetated habitats and coral reefs, and conserving habitat mosaics rather than single nursery habitats, is a major priority for the sustainability of various Indo Pacific fish populations.

  8. Push from the Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaccard, Samuel L.; Galbraith, Eric D.

    2018-05-01

    Enhanced upwelling and CO2 degassing from the subpolar North Pacific during a warm event 14,000 years ago may have helped keep atmospheric CO2 levels high enough to propel the Earth out of the last ice age.

  9. Genetic and environmental correlates of morphological variation in a marine fish: the case of Baltic Sea herring ( Clupea harengus )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, H.B.H.; Pertoldi, C.; Hansen, Michael Møller

    2008-01-01

    Baltic Sea herring (Clupea harengus) have been shown to exhibit morphological differences across the marked salinity and temperature gradients in the region. Here we analyse genetic (nine microsatellite loci), morpho metric (skull shape), and meristic (pectoral fin rays and number of vertebrae...... and plastic responses. Skull shape, including and excluding size variation, differed significantly among samples, both temporally and spatially. Genetic and morphometric distances were correlated, especially when size variation was excluded from the analysis. When size variation was included, skull shape...... variation was more closely correlated with environmental distances among spawning locations. Vertebrate number differed among samples and was correlated with environmental distances, whereas the number of fin rays was not. Genetic and geographic distances among samples were not correlated....

  10. The amount of food ingested in a single meal by rainbow trout offered chopped herring, dry and wet diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruohonen; Grove; McIlroy

    1997-07-01

    Two-year-old 1·5-kg rainbow trout were held in cages and conditioned by feeding either on low-fat chopped herring (H trout) or dry pellets (P trout) for 15 weeks. Their satiation amounts were then determined under standard conditions. On a wet weight basis H trout ate 2·5-3·5 times more food than P trout; this was sufficient to compensate for the high water content of herring and thereby maintain the dry matter intake. When P trout were offered herring (PH trout) they consumed more food than when offered dry pellets but not as much as H trout. Stomach capacity restricted the intake and their dry matter intake was reduced by c. 40%. When H trout were offered dry pellets (HP trout) they adjusted their intake immediately close to the level of P trout although their larger stomachs could have accommodated more than twice this volume of dry food. The return of appetite after a satiation meal was almost linear with time. Appetite increased at c. 556 mg g-1 body weight h-1 for H trout and at 142 mg g-1 bw h-1 for P trout. The return of appetite in PH trout was significantly slower (c. 370 mg g-1 bw h-1) than in H trout; the previous dietary history of the PH trout limited their capacity to process larger volumes of wet food in a single meal. Fish offered dry diet (P and HP trout) had similar rates of appetite return despite their previous feeding history suggesting that the property of the dry feed itself might limit meal size. The total gastric emptying time of diets of similar dry matter content (with and without large amounts of water) was similar, but the delay time before gastric emptying starts tended to be longer for dry diets. Dry pellets appear to impose a demand for water that prolongs the gastric delay. This water demand is met partly by drinking since the trout fed on dry pellets drank significantly more (436±189 mg kg-1 h-1) than unfed and herring-fed trout which drank little or not at all (65±113 and 70±66 mg kg-1 h-1 respectively). Dietary water

  11. Effect of spatial differences in growth on distribution of seasonally co-occurring herring Clupea harengus stocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worsøe Clausen, Lotte; Stæhr, Karl-Johan; Rindorf, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms most likely to determine the distribution of the two major herring Clupea harengus stocks in their common early summer feeding ground in the eastern North Sea, Skagerrak and Kattegat were investigated through analysis of acoustic survey data from six consecutive years. No change...... was detected in biomass of North Sea autumn spawning C. harengus (NSAS) over time, whereas the biomass of western Baltic spring spawning C. harengus (WBSS) declined severely. Analyses of centre of abundance by stock showed no change in NSAS distribution, whereas the WBSS changed to a more western distribution...... Kattegat. The westward movement of spring spawners over time suggests that growth rate and possibly density of conspecifics influence the migration pattern and distribution of C. harengus in the area. In contrast, there was no evidence to suggest that distribution was constant over time within stocks...

  12. Impaired immune function in seals and laboratory rats exposed to dioxin-like compounds from Baltic herring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, P.S. [Seal Rehabilitation and Research Centre, Pieterburen (Netherlands)]|[National Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Swart, R.L. de [Seal Rehabilitation and Research Centre, Pieterburen (Netherlands)]|[Erasmus Univ., Rotterdam (Netherlands); Timmerman, H.H.; Loveren, H. van [National Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Osterhaus, A.D.M.E. [Seal Rehabilitation and Research Centre, Pieterburen (Netherlands)]|[National Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven (Netherlands)]|[Erasmus Univ., Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    Complex mixtures of lipophilic contaminants have been shown to affect certain top predators in the aquatic food chain, including seals. A recent demonstration that harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) fed Baltic Sea herring displayed impaired natural killer cell activity and T-lymphocyte function represented the first demonstration of immunotoxicity induced by ambient levels of contaminants in the environment. While these animals had a lower ability to respond to immunizations with inactivated vaccines, specific antibody responses, and in vitro antigen-specific lymphoproliferative responses, obvious constraints limited the ability to extend these results with host resistance tests or an evaluation of thymus and other lymphoid organs. The authors therefore set up a parallel study by exposing pregnant laboratory rats to the same Baltic herring contaminant mixture as received the seals. They then examined immune function parameters and host resistance to virus infection. As in the seals, rat pups of the Baltic group had impaired T-lymphocyte function. In addition, thymus cells and/or their precursors appeared to be targeted, as their numbers and function were reduced in the rats. Following challenge with rat cytomegalovirus in a host resistance study, rat pups in the Baltic group had impaired natural killer cell responses to the virus infection, and lower specific CD8 + (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte) responses following in vitro stimulation. By extrapolation, these results suggest that the impaired immune responses observed in the Baltic group of seals may lead to a less effective defense against virus infections in marine mammals inhabiting polluted coastal waters. Toxicological profiles and results of both the captive seal and laboratory rat experiments tend to implicate the 2,3,7,8-TCDD-like PCB, dioxin and furan congeners in the immunosuppression, and point to a major role for the PCBs.

  13. Performance Assessment of Suture Type in Juvenile Chinook Salmon Surgically Implanted with Acoustic Transmitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deters, Katherine A.; Brown, Richard S.; Carter, Kathleen M.; Boyd, James W.

    2009-02-27

    The objective of this study was to determine the best overall suture material to close incisions from the surgical implantation of Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) acoustic microtransmitters in subyearling Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. The effects of seven suture materials, four surgeons, and two water temperatures on suture retention, incision openness, tag retention, tissue inflammation, and tissue ulceration were quantified. The laboratory study, conducted by researchers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, supports a larger effort under way for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, aimed at determining the suitability of acoustic telemetry for estimating short- and longer-term (30-60 days) juvenile-salmonid survival at Columbia and Snake River dams and through the lower Columbia River.

  14. Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis. Radiological diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuentes, R.; Sar, V.; Cabrera, J.J.; Diaz, L.; Hernandez, B.; Valeron, P.; Baez, O.; Rodriguez, M.

    1993-01-01

    Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis (JHF) is a rare disorder of unknown etiology, very few cases of which have been reported in the literature. It presents similarities to other fibromatosys, but has its particular radiological features which differentiate it from them. The clinical findings consist of several, slow growing, subcutaneous nodules, flexion contractures of the joints which can lead to disability, gingival hypertrophy and muscular atrophy. The suspected radiological diagnosis is confirmed by electron microscopy study of the nodules, although light microscopy can also reveal suggestive images. Author (9 refs.)

  15. Juvenile eye growth, when completed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fledelius, Hans C; Christensen, Anders S; Fledelius, Christian

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To test Sorsby's classical statement of axial eye growth as completed at the age of 13 years, with a view also to differentiating between basic eye growth and juvenile elongation associated with eventual refractive change towards myopia. METHODS: (i) A total of 160 healthy eyes close...... about age 13 as general limit found support from the cross-sectional data, which suggested stable emmetropic eye size from about 11-12 years, with an average apparently outgrown male emmetropic value of 23.5 mm versus females' 22.9 mm. The longitudinal data, however, showed emmetropic growth also beyond...

  16. Juvenile ossifying fibroma: Psammamatoid variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivani Aggarwal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile ossifying fibroma is a rare fibro-osseous lesion containing variable amount of calcified masses, which resembles bone or cementum within a fibrocellular connective tissue stroma. It has variable clinical behavior, highly aggressive in nature including invasion and destruction of adjacent anatomic structures with a strong tendency to recur. We reported a 28-year-old female patient with a growth in the upper left vestibule region extending from canine to molar region with clinical, histopathological, and radiological features are presented. Surgical management was done, and regular follow-up was advised.

  17. THE STUDY OF FEATURES OF GUILT OF JUVENILE OFFENDERS IN THE CONTEXT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalija Vladimirovna Galkina

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the results of empirical studies of the experiences of guilt of juvenile offenders in the context of juvenile justice where a minor appears as the subject of legal relations. Restorative approach of juvenile justice is based on an admission of guilt to the victim. In connection with it, the research of features of the guilt of minors who have committed an offence and the conditions for the development of the subjectivity will enhance understanding of the possibilities of restorative juvenile justice system in the prevention of juvenile delinquency.Thus, the results of empirical research presented in the article are important for determining of the psychological bases of realization of rehabilitation programs in the context of juvenile justice. In particular, the results are important for the organization and conduct of psychological work to overcome the psychological barriers in the behavior of juveniles having inherently maladaptive guilt and destructive psychological defense mechanisms.

  18. Juveniles' Motivations for Remaining in Prostitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Shu-Ling; Bedford, Olwen

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were collected in 1990-1991, 1992, and 2000 with 49 prostituted juveniles remanded to two rehabilitation centers in Taiwan. These data are analyzed to explore Taiwanese prostituted juveniles' feelings about themselves and their work, their motivations for remaining in prostitution, and their difficulties…

  19. Moral development of solo juvenile sex offenders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vugt, E.; Stams, G.J.; Dekovic, M.; Brugman, D.; Rutten, E.; Hendriks, J.

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the moral development of solo juvenile male sex offenders (n = 20) and juvenile male non-offenders (n = 76), aged 13-19 years, from lower socioeconomic and educational backgrounds. The Moral Orientation Measure (MOM) was used to assess punishment- and victim-based moral

  20. Juvenile Obesity, Physical Activity, and Lifestyle Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Or, Oded

    2000-01-01

    Because many obese children become obese adults, the recent rapid increase in juvenile obesity poses a major public health challenge. Enhanced physical activity is a cornerstone in a multidisciplinary approach to preventing and treating juvenile obesity. Giving exercise recommendations focused for obese youth is critical. Cutting down on sedentary…

  1. Juvenile dispersal in Calomys venustus (Muridae: Sigmodontinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priotto, José; Steinmann, Andrea; Provensal, Cecilia; Polop, Jaime

    2004-05-01

    Both spacing behaviour and dispersal movement are viewed as hierarchical processes in which the effects may be expressed at spatial scale. This research was carried out to examine the hypothesis that the presence of parents promotes the dispersal of juveniles from their natal nest and their father or mother home-range, in Calomys venustus.The study was carried out in four 0.25 ha fences (two controls and two experimentals), in a natural pasture. This study had two periods: Father Removal (FR) (August and December 1997; year one) and Mother Removal (MR) (August 1998 and January 1999; year two). For the FR treatment fathers were removed after juveniles were born, but in the MR treatment mothers were removed after the juveniles were weaned. The effect of parents on the dispersal distance of juveniles was analysed with respect to their natal nest and their mother and father home-range. Dispersal distance from the nest of C. venustus was independent of either male or female parent. Juveniles were more dispersing in relation to the centre of activity of their mothers than to that of their fathers, and females were more dispersing than males. Female juveniles overlap their home-range with their parents less than male juveniles do. The differences observed between female and male juveniles would be related to their different sexual maturation times, as well as to the female territoriality.

  2. Using the Juvenile Justice Poster. Teaching Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Update on Law-Related Education, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Presents a lesson that can help students review and summarize what they have learned about the juvenile justice system. Explains that the students discuss how the juvenile justice system can be improved and conduct a survey on how it might be changed in the future. Provides a copy of the survey and directions. (CMK)

  3. Intelligence Score Profiles of Female Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Shelby Spare; Hart, Kathleen J.; Ficke, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have found that male juvenile offenders typically obtain low scores on measures of intelligence, often with a pattern of higher scores on measures of nonverbal relative to verbal tasks. The research on the intelligence performance of female juvenile offenders is limited. This study explored the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for…

  4. Reformations in Zimbabwe's juvenile justice system | Ruparanganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Children in conflict with the law are often stigmatized and shunned by society as they are perceived as a threat to society. Historically, Zimbabwe's juvenile justice system has been retributive and focused on punishing the juvenile offender. As a result, it has been criticised from a number of viewpoints, including the need to ...

  5. Carbon isotopes in otolith amino acids identify residency of juvenile snapper (Family: Lutjanidae) in coastal nurseries

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, Kelton

    2011-08-26

    This study explored the potential for otolith geochemistry in snapper (Family: Lutjanidae) to identify residency in juvenile nursery habitats with distinctive carbon isotope values. Conventional bulk otolith and muscle stable isotope analyses (SIA) and essential amino acid (AA) SIA were conducted on snapper collected from seagrass beds, mangroves, and coral reefs in the Red Sea, Caribbean Sea, and Pacific coast of Panama. While bulk stable isotope values in otoliths showed regional differences, they failed to distinguish nursery residence on local scales. Essential AA δ13C values in otoliths, on the other hand, varied as a function of habitat type and provided a better tracer of residence in different juvenile nursery habitats than conventional bulk otolith SIA alone. A strong linear relationship was found between paired otolith and muscle essential AA δ13C values regardless of species, geographic region, or habitat type, indicating that otolith AAs recorded the same dietary information as muscle AAs. Juvenile snapper in the Red Sea sheltered in mangroves but fed in seagrass beds, while snapper from the Caribbean Sea and Pacific coast of Panama showed greater reliance on mangrove-derived carbon. Furthermore, compound-specific SIA revealed that microbially recycled detrital carbon, not water-column-based new phytoplankton carbon, was the primary carbon source supporting snapper production on coastal reefs of the Red Sea. This study presented robust tracers of juvenile nursery residence that will be crucial for reconstructing ontogenetic migration patterns of fishes among coastal wetlands and coral reefs. This information is key to determining the importance of nursery habitats to coral reef fish populations and will provide valuable scientific support for the design of networked marine-protected areas. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  6. Carbon isotopes in otolith amino acids identify residency of juvenile snapper (Family: Lutjanidae) in coastal nurseries

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, Kelton; Berumen, Michael L.; Mateo, Ivan; Elsdon, Travis S.; Thorrold, Simon R.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the potential for otolith geochemistry in snapper (Family: Lutjanidae) to identify residency in juvenile nursery habitats with distinctive carbon isotope values. Conventional bulk otolith and muscle stable isotope analyses (SIA) and essential amino acid (AA) SIA were conducted on snapper collected from seagrass beds, mangroves, and coral reefs in the Red Sea, Caribbean Sea, and Pacific coast of Panama. While bulk stable isotope values in otoliths showed regional differences, they failed to distinguish nursery residence on local scales. Essential AA δ13C values in otoliths, on the other hand, varied as a function of habitat type and provided a better tracer of residence in different juvenile nursery habitats than conventional bulk otolith SIA alone. A strong linear relationship was found between paired otolith and muscle essential AA δ13C values regardless of species, geographic region, or habitat type, indicating that otolith AAs recorded the same dietary information as muscle AAs. Juvenile snapper in the Red Sea sheltered in mangroves but fed in seagrass beds, while snapper from the Caribbean Sea and Pacific coast of Panama showed greater reliance on mangrove-derived carbon. Furthermore, compound-specific SIA revealed that microbially recycled detrital carbon, not water-column-based new phytoplankton carbon, was the primary carbon source supporting snapper production on coastal reefs of the Red Sea. This study presented robust tracers of juvenile nursery residence that will be crucial for reconstructing ontogenetic migration patterns of fishes among coastal wetlands and coral reefs. This information is key to determining the importance of nursery habitats to coral reef fish populations and will provide valuable scientific support for the design of networked marine-protected areas. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  7. Do juveniles bully more than young offenders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Jane L

    2002-04-01

    This study compares bullying behaviour among juvenile and young offenders and incorporates two different methods to measure bullying. Ninety-five male juvenile and 196 male young offenders completed two questionnaires, one that measured bullying directly and one that measured behaviours indicative of "being bullied" or of "bullying others". Juveniles perceived a higher extent of bullying than young offenders. Juveniles reported significantly more physical, psychological or verbal and overall direct forms of bullying behaviour than young offenders. A number of differences were found between juveniles and young offenders with regard to the types of prisoners likely to become victims, who they would advise a victim to speak to and how bullying could be prevented. The results are discussed in relation to developmental theories of aggression and how bullying behaviour can be defined and measured among prisoners. Copyright 2002 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Spatial and temporal variability in the trans-Pacific migration of Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) revealed by archival tags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujioka, Ko; Fukuda, Hiromu; Tei, Yaoki; Okamoto, Suguru; Kiyofuji, Hidetada; Furukawa, Seishiro; Takagi, Junichi; Estess, Ethan; Farwell, Charles J.; Fuller, Daniel W.; Suzuki, Nobuaki; Ohshimo, Seiji; Kitagawa, Takashi

    2018-03-01

    Archival electronic tags were internally implanted in 713 age-0 Pacific bluefin tuna (PBF) caught in their nursery waters off the southern coast of Japan and in the East China Sea over an extended study period (1995-2015) to clarify the spatial and temporal variability of their trans-Pacific migration. Two hundred twenty-five of these tagged tuna were recaptured by fisheries (31.6%), and we successfully retrieved tag data from 14 of 21 individuals recovered in the Eastern pacific. Furthermore, one archival tag recovered in the Western Pacific revealed that the individual had performed a trans-Pacific migration, so in total 21 tagged PBF were shown to have migrated to the Eastern Pacific (2.9% of the total tags released). We successfully downloaded data from 15 of these 21 archival tags, which revealed that some age-1 PBF migrate rapidly (123.9 ± 82.8 km day-1) and directly from waters offshore of Japan to the eastern Pacific (160.0°E to 130.0°W), a journey that takes an average of 2.5 months (ranging from 1.2 to 5.5 months) through relatively cool waters (14.7 ± 2.0 °C). All juvenile PBF began their trans-Pacific migration shortly after exposure to cooler water temperatures (physiological challenge for this age class. Three patterns were identified in the timing of the departure of juvenile PBF from the western Pacific: departing 12-14 months post-hatch (N = 7) in early summer (May-July), departing 17-19 months post-hatch (N = 7) in late autumn (October-December), and departing 21 months post-hatch (N = 1) in late winter (February). The PBF tagged along the southern coast of Japan (SCJ) arrived in the eastern Pacific earlier than those tagged in the East China Sea (ECS), most likely due to the shorter travel distance. Additionally, the PBF that began their trans-Pacific migration in the earlier period remained in an offshore foraging zone (the Kuroshio-Oyashio transition region) for shorter periods (2.8 months on average) and at lower latitudes (35.0

  9. Family transitions and juvenile delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Ryan D; Osgood, Aurea K; Oghia, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    There is a large body of research that shows children from non-intact homes show higher rates of juvenile delinquency than children from intact homes, partially due to weaker parental control and supervision in non-intact homes. What has not been adequately addressed in the research is the influence of changes in family structure among individual adolescents over time on delinquent offending. Using the first and third waves of the National Youth Study, we assess the effect of family structure changes on changes in delinquent offending between waves through the intermediate process of changes in family time and parental attachment. Although prior research has documented adolescents in broken homes are more delinquent than youth in intact homes, the process of family dissolution is not associated with concurrent increases in offending. In contrast, family formation through marriage or cohabitation is associated with simultaneous increases in offending. Changes in family time and parental attachment account for a portion of the family formation effect on delinquency, and prior parental attachment and juvenile offending significantly condition the effect of family formation on offending.

  10. Juvenile Gaucher disease simulating osteomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.H.; Ortega, J.A.; Heisel, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    A case in which several imaging procedures suggested juvenile Gaucher disease in a child who presented with symptomatology of osteomyelitis is discussed. The 20-month girl was given a Technetium-99m radionuclide skeletal examination which revealed intense uptake of tracer agents along the shaft of the right femur. It was also found that the liver and spleen were dramatically Ga-67 avid. The bone pain symptomatology suggested an osteomyelitis of the femur, but skeletal scintigraphy with Tc-99m-labeled bone tracer demonstrated photopenic areas involving the femur, suggesting that the bone pain may have been due to marrow packed with Gaucher cells. This overexpansion of the marrow may lead to microfractures with remodeling seen radiographically as periosteal new bone and scintigraphically as increased periosteal deposition of tracer agent. The radiogallium study was useful to exclude an underlying osteomyelitis in the involved femurs. Although juvenile Gaucher disease is unusual, it should be considered in any child who presents with the constellation of hepatosplenomegaly and bone pain simulating osteomyelitis

  11. Juvenile Gaucher disease simulating osteomyelitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.H.; Ortega, J.A.; Heisel, M.A.

    1981-10-01

    A case in which several imaging procedures suggested juvenile Gaucher disease in a child who presented with symptomatology of osteomyelitis is discussed. The 20-month girl was given a Technetium-99m radionuclide skeletal examination which revealed intense uptake of tracer agents along the shaft of the right femur. It was also found that the liver and spleen were dramatically Ga-67 avid. The bone pain symptomatology suggested an osteomyelitis of the femur, but skeletal scintigraphy with Tc-99m-labeled bone tracer demonstrated photopenic areas involving the femur, suggesting that the bone pain may have been due to marrow packed with Gaucher cells. This overexpansion of the marrow may lead to microfractures with remodeling seen radiographically as periosteal new bone and scintigraphically as increased periosteal deposition of tracer agent. The radiogallium study was useful to exclude an underlying osteomyelitis in the involved femurs. Although juvenile Gaucher disease is unusual, it should be considered in any child who presents with the constellation of hepatosplenomegaly and bone pain simulating osteomyelitis.

  12. Atherosclerosis in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Jednacz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the arteries. Clinical consequences of the atherosclerotic process occur in the adult population, however atherosclerotic process begins in childhood. The classic risk factors for atherosclerosis include obesity, dyslipidaemia, age, gender or family history. In recent years, attention has been drawn to the similarity between atherosclerotic inflammatory processes and inflammatory changes in the course of systemic connective tissue disease, in particular systemic lupus etythematosus (SLE or rheumatoid arthritis (RA. There is also observed the similarity of the pathogenetic background of development of atherosclerosis and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA. Elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines are observed in the course of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Also homocysteine concentrations, which may play a significant role in the development of atherosclerotic lesions, are observed higher in patients with JIA. Some studies revealed higher carotid intima-media thickness (IMT index values in children with JIA. In view of the fact that atherosclerotic process begins as early as in childhood, the introduction of appropriate preventive measures in children is a matter of utmost importance.

  13. A review of the razorfishes (Perciformes: Labridae) of the eastern Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, B C; Wellington, G M; Caldow, C

    2001-07-01

    Several new species of the razorfish genus Xyrichtys have been discovered recently in the tropical eastern Pacific region. The taxonomy of this group of fishes is not clear, since juveniles, females, and males often have different color patterns and morphologies, and some species descriptions are incomplete. We review the members of this genus in this region based on our recent collections and describe the juvenile, initial, and terminal phase color patterns of the Cape razorfish, Xyrichtys mundiceps. We question the validity of Xyrichtys perlas, which appears to represent the initial phase of X. mundiceps. We conclude that six species of Xyrichtys are present in the tropical eastern Pacific, including one undescribed species we have collected from the Galapagos Islands and one uncollected new species from the Revillagigedos Islands. Xyrichtys mundiceps is found in Baja California and in Panama Xyrichtys pavo is a large species found throughout the Indo-Pacific and eastern Pacific. Xyrichtys victori is a colorful species native to the Galapagos and Cocos Islands, and Xyrichtys wellingtoni is apparently endemic to Clipperton Atoll. The undescribed species is known only from the Galapagos Islands and has a dark-colored juvenile with extended first dorsal fin rays that are not separated from the remainder of the fin. The terminal phase of this species is unknown. We present keys to the known juvenile and initial phase stages of five species. In addition, we document the allometric growth of the head of razorfishes and show that the head shape of small individuals of Xyrichtys razorfishes is no different from that of the razorfish genus Novaculichthys, and therefore we suggest caution in using this character to distinguish these genera.

  14. Survival Rates of Juvenile Salmonids Passing Through the Bonneville Dam and Spillway in 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Faber, Derrek M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Johnson, Gary E.; Hughes, James S.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Monter, Tyrell J.; Cushing, Aaron W.; Wilberding, Matthew C.; Durham, Robin E.; Townsend, R. L.; Skalski, J. R.; Buchanan, Rebecca A.; Kim, Jina; Fischer, Eric S.; Meyer, Matthew M.; McComas, Roy L.; Everett, Jason

    2009-12-28

    This report describes a 2008 acoustic telemetry survival study conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The study estimated the survival of juvenile Chinook salmon and steelhead passing Bonneville Dam (BON) and its spillway. Of particular interest was the relative survival of smolts detected passing through end spill bays 1-3 and 16-18, which had deep flow deflectors immediately downstream of spill gates, versus survival of smolts passing middle spill bays 4-15, which had shallow flow deflectors.

  15. Distribution, density and abundance of the western Baltic herring ( Clupea harengus ) in the Sound (ICES Subdivision 23) in relation to hydrographical features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J. Rasmus; Lundgren, Bo; Jensen, T. F.

    2001-01-01

    Biomass and duration of the over-wintering period of the Rugen spring spawning herring stock (RHS) in the Sound (ICES Subdivison 23) were investigated as well as possible hydrographical factors affecting relative distribution and triggering southwards migration towards the spawning grounds. Monit....... Monitoring was performed during 27 surveys over a 6-year period (1993-1998). Abundance of 45-165 000 t in August-February, 560 000 t in March-May, and...

  16. Developing Baltic cod recruitment models I : Resolving spatial and temporal dynamics of spawning stock and recruitment for cod, herring, and sprat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köster, Fritz; Möllmann, C.; Neuenfeldt, Stefan

    2001-01-01

    The Baltic Sea comprises a heterogeneous oceanographic environment influencing the spatial and temporal potential for reproductive success of cod (Gadus morhua) and sprat (Sprattus sprattus) in the different spawning basins. Hence, to quantify stock and recruitment dynamics, it is necessary......-disaggregated multispecies virtual population analyses (MSVPA) were performed for interacting species cod, herring (Clupea harengus), and sprat in the different subdivisions of the Central Baltic. The MSVPA runs revealed distinct spatial trends in population abundance, spawning biomass, recruitment, and predation...

  17. Angiofibroma juvenil nasofaríngeo Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Gualberto Lescaille Torres

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de un angiofibroma juvenil nasofaríngeo, en un paciente del consultorio médico No. 9, que pertenece al Policlínico Integral Docente "Carlos Manuel Portuondo" de Marianao. Se reconoce la importancia de realizar una historia clínica detallada, así como un minucioso examen físico, por el médico de familia y el otorrinolaringólogo del área de salud, que incluyó la rinoscopia posterior, para poder llegar al diagnóstico de esa patología, y realizar la extirpación precoz del angiofibroma, mediante el proceder quirúrgico. Se concluyó que el diagnóstico clínico se correspondió con el histopatológico, y que la conducta quirúrgica temprana es resolutiva en la afección.It is presented a case of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma in a patient with this pathology, from the clicial practice No. 9, in Comprehensive Teaching Polyclinic "Carlos Manuel Portuondo" in Marianao. It recognizes the importance of a thorough clinical history and careful physical examination by the family physician and the otolaryngologist in this health area, including a posterior rhinoscopy, to diagnose this disease and to achieve early removal of the angiofibroma, by a surgical procedure. It was concluded that the clinical diagnosis corresponded to the histopathological diagnosis, and that early surgical treatment is resolute in this condition.

  18. Pacific Coastal Salmon Recovery Fund

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Congress established the Pacific Coastal Salmon Recovery Fund (PCSRF) to monitor the restoration and conservation of Pacific salmon and steelhead populations and...

  19. Researching Pacific island livelihoods:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelund Christensen, Andreas; Mertz, Ole

    2010-01-01

    on contemporary theories of nissology and conceptual analytical frameworks for island research. Through a review of selected case-study-based island literature on changing livelihoods coming out of the South Pacific, we wish to illustrate and discuss advantages of finding common grounds for small island studies....... The focus is on two dimensions of island livelihood, migration and natural resource management, both of which are significant contributors in making island livelihoods and shaping Pacific seascapes. We argue that there is still a substantial lack of studies targeting small island dynamics that are empirical...

  20. Vegetative propagation of mature and juvenile northern red oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    James J. Zaczek; K. C. Steiner; C. W., Jr. Heuser

    1993-01-01

    Rooting trials were established to evaluate rooting success of cuttings from mature and juvenile, grafted and ungrafted northern red oak (NRO). Buds from 4 mature NRO ortets and juvenile seedlings were grafted onto juvenile and mature rootstock. Cuttings were collected from the grafts and from juvenile and mature shoots developed in situ and...

  1. Fiji in the South Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Rosalind; Semaan, Leslie

    This text introduces Fiji and other island nations located in the Pacific, the world's largest ocean. Cut off from the world by vast expanses of water, these people developed a unique culture. Contents include: Teacher Overview, Geography of the South Pacific Islands, History of the South Pacific, Fiji, Traditional Village Life, Yaquna Ceremony,…

  2. Juvenile fibromyalgia syndrome. Interdisciplinary treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Siuchnińska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia syndrome (FM belongs to soft tissue pain syndromes of unknown cause, also referred to as “soft tissue rheumatism”. It is characterized by chronic widespread pain as well as additional symptoms such as fatigue, sleep and mood disturbance and cognitive problems. There is more and more data showing that this condition may start at a young age or even in childhood, adversely affecting development processes and resulting in dysfunctional social and family relationships. Because of the multifaceted character of fibromyalgia the efficient treatment of this disorder can be difficult and requires comprehensive care. This work reviews most recommended procedures used in integrated treatment programmes for juvenile fibromyalgia syndrome (JFM.

  3. [Physiotherapy for juvenile idiopathic arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spamer, M; Georgi, M; Häfner, R; Händel, H; König, M; Haas, J-P

    2012-07-01

    Control of disease activity and recovery of function are major issues in the treatment of children and adolescents suffering from juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Functional therapies including physiotherapy are important components in the multidisciplinary teamwork and each phase of the disease requires different strategies. While in the active phase of the disease pain alleviation is the main focus, the inactive phase requires strategies for improving motility and function. During remission the aim is to regain general fitness by sports activities. These phase adapted strategies must be individually designed and usually require a combination of different measures including physiotherapy, occupational therapy, massage as well as other physical procedures and sport therapy. There are only few controlled studies investigating the effectiveness of physical therapies in JIA and many strategies are derived from long-standing experience. New results from physiology and sport sciences have contributed to the development in recent years. This report summarizes the basics and main strategies of physical therapy in JIA.

  4. Law & psychiatry: punishing juveniles who kill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, Paul S

    2012-10-01

    Punishment of juvenile murderers forces policy makers to weigh the developmental immaturity of adolescents against the heinousness of their crimes. The U.S. Supreme Court has progressively limited the severity of punishments that can be imposed on juveniles, holding that their impulsivity, susceptibility to peer pressure, and more fluid character render them less culpable for their actions. Having eliminated the death penalty as a punishment, the Court recently struck down mandatory life sentences without prospect of parole. The decision is interesting for its emphasis on rehabilitation, opening the door to further restrictions on punitive sentences for juveniles-and perhaps for adults too.

  5. Indo-Pacific echinoids in the tropical eastern Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessios, H. A.; Kessing, B. D.; Wellington, G. M.; Graybeal, A.

    1996-06-01

    The existing literature reports that only one species of Indo-Pacific echinoid ( Echinometra oblonga), occurs in the eastern Pacific. In this study we confirm the presence of this species at Islas Revillagigedo and also report the presence of two species of Echinothrix (a genus hitherto unknown outside the Indo-Pacific) at Isla del Coco and at Clipperton Island. We also present evidence from isozymes and from mitochondrial DNA sequences indicating that at least one individual of Diadema at Clipperton may belong to a maternal lineage characteristic of the west Pacific species D. savignyi. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that the observed populations of Indo-Pacific echinoid species are recent arrivals to the eastern Pacific, as opposed to the view that they are relicts of Tethyan pan-tropical distributions. Echinothrix diadema, in particular, may have arrived at Isla del Coco during the 1982-1983 El Nifio. In addition to Indo-Pacific species, Clipperton, Isla del Coco and the Revillagigedos contain a complement of eastern Pacific echinoids. The echinoid faunas of these islands should, therefore, be regarded as mixtures of two biogeographic provinces. Though none of the Indo-Pacific species are known to have reached the coast of the American mainland, their presence at the offshore islands of the eastern Pacific suggests that, for some echinoids, the East Pacific Barrier is not as formidable an obstacle to migration as was previously thought.

  6. Pacific Island Pharmacovigilance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McEwen, John; Vestergaard, Lasse S.; Sanburg, Amanda L C

    2016-01-01

    Many Pacific Island countries (PICs) are recipients of funding support from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund). However, most of these countries cannot be expected to meet Global Fund and World Health Organization (WHO) minimum requirements for a functioning...

  7. Accumulation, Biotransformation, Histopathology and Paralysis in the Pacific Calico Scallop Argopecten ventricosus by the Paralyzing Toxins of the Dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum

    OpenAIRE

    Escobedo-Lozano, Amada Y.; Estrada, Norma; Ascencio, Felipe; Contreras, Gerardo; Alonso-Rodriguez, Rosalba

    2012-01-01

    The dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum produces paralyzing shellfish poisons that are consumed and accumulated by bivalves. We performed short-term feeding experiments to examine ingestion, accumulation, biotransformation, histopathology, and paralysis in the juvenile Pacific calico scallop Argopecten ventricosus that consume this dinoflagellate. Depletion of algal cells was measured in closed systems. Histopathological preparations were microscopic...

  8. Conceptualizing juvenile prostitution as child maltreatment: findings from the National Juvenile Prostitution Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kimberly J; Finkelhor, David; Wolak, Janis

    2010-02-01

    Two studies were conducted to identify the incidence (Study 1) and characteristics (Study 2) of juvenile prostitution cases known to law enforcement agencies in the United States. Study 1 revealed a national estimate of 1,450 arrests or detentions (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1,287-1,614) in cases involving juvenile prostitution during a 1-year period. In Study 2, exploratory data were collected from a subsample of 138 cases from police records in 2005. The cases are broadly categorized into three main types: (a) third-party exploiters, (b) solo prostitution, and (c) conventional child sexual abuse (CSA) with payment. Cases were classified into three initial categories based on police orientation toward the juvenile: (a) juveniles as victims (53%), (b) juveniles as delinquents (31%), and (c) juvenile as both victims and delinquents (16%). When examining the status of the juveniles by case type, the authors found that all the juveniles in CSA with payment cases were treated as victims, 66% in third-party exploiters cases, and 11% in solo cases. Findings indicate law enforcement responses to juvenile prostitution are influential in determining whether such youth are viewed as victims of commercial sexual exploitation or as delinquents.

  9. The semantic sphere of juvenile offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oshevsky D.S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a preliminary empirical study aimed to identify features of the semantic sphere of adolescents who have committed illegal, including aggressive acts. The study included 50 male juveniles aged of 16 - 17 years. The first group consisted of adolescents convicted of aggressive and violent crimes; the second – of property socially dangerous acts (SDA. It is shown that evaluation of such adolescents is generally categorical and polar, the semantic field is subdifferentiable, less hierarchic, and has not enough realistic structure of meanings. Developed structure of motives and meanings is the basis of voluntary regulation of socially significant behavior. Thus, assessing the semantic sphere of juvenile offenders we can highlight its characteristics as risk factors of unlawful behavior, as well as the resource side, that will contribute to addressing issues of prevention and correction of unlawful behavior. Key words: juvenile offenders, semantic field of juvenile offenders, unlawful behavior.

  10. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease to fight microbial invaders and facilitate tissue repair. Normally, the body stops the inflammatory response after healing is complete to prevent damage to its own cells and tissues. In people with juvenile idiopathic arthritis , the inflammatory ...

  11. Juvenile Salmonid Metrics - Ocean Survival of Salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  12. The Impact of Banning Juvenile Gun Possession.

    OpenAIRE

    Marvell, Thomas B

    2001-01-01

    A 1994 federal law bans possession of handguns by persons under 18 years of age. Also in 1994, 11 states passed their own juvenile gun possession bans. Eighteen states had previously passed bans, 15 of them between 1975 and 1993. These laws were intended to reduce homicides, but arguments can be made that they have no effect on or that they even increase the homicide rate. This paper estimates the laws' impacts on various crime measures, primarily juvenile gun homicide victimizations and suic...

  13. Aurelia labiata jellyfish in Roscoe Bay on the West Coast of Canada: Seasonal changes in adult bell diameter and mingling of juvenile and adult populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, David J.; Walsh, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    The bell diameter of adult Aurelia labiata in Roscoe Bay increased from spring (April) to early summer (May/June) and decreased over the rest of the year (2009/2010). The increase in bell diameter in the spring would have been supported by the increase in zooplankton that occurs in the northeast Pacific at this time. Over the summer, bell diameter may have decreased because the food available/medusa would have been decreased by the arrival of a large number of juveniles and may have decreased further over the fall and winter when zooplankton levels are known to be low. Adults and juveniles were intermingled during 2010, 2011, and 2012. Correlations between the number of adults and number of juveniles obtained in individual net lifts across the entire bay and in different parts of the bay were all positive and most were statistically significant. In 2012, salinity in the entire water column of the west side of the bay dropped below 20 ppt in July and most medusae migrated to higher salinity in the east side of the bay, a distance of about 0.5 km. The mingling of adults and juveniles supports other evidence that adult Aurelia sp. medusae do not prey upon juveniles. The ability to withstand months with insufficient food and to inhibit preying on juveniles would contribute greatly to the survival of Aurelia sp. jellyfish.

  14. Interaction Mode between Inclusion Complex of Vitamin K3 with γ- Cyclodextrin and Herring-Sperm DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yan; Cai, Li; Xue, Kang; Wang, Chunling; Xiong, Xiaoli

    2016-05-03

    Methods including spectroscopy, electronic chemistry and thermodynamics were used to study the inclusion effect between γ-cyclodextrin (CD) and vitamin K3(K3), as well as the interaction mode between herring-sperm DNA (hsDNA) and γ-CD-K3 inclusion complex. The results from ultraviolet spectroscopic method indicated that VK3 and γ-CD formed 1:1 inclusion complex, with the inclusion constant Kf = 1.02 × 10(4) L/mol, which is based on Benesi-Hildebrand's viewpoint. The outcomes from the probe method and Scatchard methods suggested that the interaction mode between γ-CD-K3 and DNA was a mixture mode, which included intercalation and electrostatic binding effects. The binding constants were K (θ)25°C = 2.16 × 10(4) L/mol, and K(θ)37°C = 1.06 × 10(4) L/mol. The thermodynamic functions of the interaction between γ-CD-K3 and DNA were ΔrHm(θ) = -2.74 × 10(4) J/mol, ΔrSm(θ) = 174.74 J·mol(-1)K(-1), therefore, both ΔrHm(θ) (enthalpy) and ΔrSm(θ) (entropy) worked as driven forces in this action.

  15. Amino acid specific stable nitrogen isotope values in avian tissues: Insights from captive American kestrels and wild herring gulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Craig E.; Popp, B.N.; Fernie, K.J.; Ka'apu-Lyons, C.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Wallsgrove, N.

    2016-01-01

    Through laboratory and field studies, the utility of amino acid compound-specific nitrogen isotope analysis (AA-CSIA) in avian studies is investigated. Captive American kestrels (Falco sparverius) were fed an isotopically characterized diet and patterns in δ15N values of amino acids (AAs) were compared to those in their tissues (muscle and red blood cells) and food. Based upon nitrogen isotope discrimination between diet and kestrel tissues, AAs could mostly be categorized as source AAs (retaining baseline δ15N values) and trophic AAs (showing 15N enrichment). Trophic discrimination factors based upon the source (phenylalanine, Phe) and trophic (glutamic acid, Glu) AAs were 4.1 (muscle) and 5.4 (red blood cells), lower than those reported for metazoan invertebrates. In a field study involving omnivorous herring gulls (Larus argentatus smithsonianus), egg AA isotopic patterns largely retained those observed in the laying female’s tissues (muscle, red blood cells, and liver). Realistic estimates of gull trophic position were obtained using bird Glu and Phe δ15N values combined with β values (difference in Glu and Phe δ15N in primary producers) for aquatic and terrestrial food webs. Egg fatty acids were used to weight β values for proportions of aquatic and terrestrial food in gull diets. This novel approach can be applied to generalist species that feed across ecosystem boundaries.

  16. JUVENILE DELINQUENCY: TRENDS (REGIONAL ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Selezneva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available he article analyzes the nature and internal structure of various types of crimes in which involved minors. Describes the main social factors contributing to this anomaly in the period of development of society. Investigated the motivation, the system and the types of crimes of minors in the Volgograd region, are the main trends of development of this phenomenon. The study also discusses the theoretical basis of the problem of the influence of economic stability on the species structure of juvenile delinquency. In this study the analysis of various types of deviance minors in different areas of the city of Volgograd. In the process of rapid modernization of communication processes most of today’s youth have not been able to quickly rebuild their behavior. Currently, the value-perception of the adolescents focused on the material benefits in terms of expanded economic interactions. In these conditions, social processes become increasingly removed from humane and spiritual orientations. The effective functioning of society in its interaction based on cooperation and understanding is of great importance to stimulate the positive trends in social sphere in modern Russia. The modern period of development, coupled with a drastic breaking of the foundations of life, the formation of new social relations and institutions and the destruction of the old, inevitably contributes to social tension, the reassessment of social and moral values and development of deviant behavior of minors. The advantages of this study are the involvement of local archives regional committees on Affairs of minors, was first introduced to active scientific revolution, as well as logical structuring and grouping of the main issues related to the dynamics and changes in the species structure of juvenile crime, which allowed us to perform a fairly extensive archive of statistical material. Based on this analysis, the authors made a

  17. Evaluation of Behavioral Guidance Structure on Juvenile Salmonid Passage and Survival at Bonneville Dam in 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, Derrek M.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Deng, Zhiqun; Hughes, James S.; Kim, Jin A.; Fu, Tao; Fischer, Eric S.; Monter, Tyrell J.; Skalski, J. R.

    2011-03-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted an acoustic-telemetry study at Bonneville Dam in 2009 to evaluate the effects of a behavioral guidance structure (BGS) in the Bonneville Dam second powerhouse forebay on fish passage and survival through the second powerhouse (B2), the dam as a whole, and through the first powerhouse and spillway combined. The BGS was deployed to increase the survival of fish passing through B2 by increasing the percentage of outmigrating smolts entering the B2 Corner Collector (B2CC)—a surface flow outlet known to be a relatively benign route for downstream passage at this dam. The study relied on releases of live Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System tagged smolts in the Columbia River and used acoustic telemetry to evaluate the approach, passage, and survival of passing juvenile salmon. Study results indicated that having turbine 11 in service is important for providing flow conditions that are comparable to those observed in pre-BGS years (2004 and 2005) and in 2008. This study supports the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers continual effort to improve conditions for juvenile anadromous fish passing through Columbia River dams.

  18. Prey preferences and prey acceptance in juvenile Brown Treesnakes (Boiga irregularis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardner, Bjorn; Savidge, Julie A.; Rodda, Gordon H.; Reed, Robert N.

    2009-01-01

    On the Pacific island of Guam, control of the invasive Brown Treesnake (Boiga irregularis) relies largely on methods that use mice as bait. Juvenile B. irregularis feed primarily on lizards and their eggs, but little is known about their prey preference. We conducted an experiment to investigate preferences for, and acceptance of, dead geckos, skinks, and neonatal mice, in juvenile B. irregularis ranging from 290 mm to ca. 700 mm snout-vent length (SVL). Snakes of all sizes showed a preference for geckos over skinks and neonatal mice. Geckos were the first prey chosen in 87% of 224 initial trials (56 snakes subjected to four trials each; 33% would be expected from a random choice). The smallest snakes had the most pronounced preference. Although many of the snakes accepted neonatal mice and/or skinks, some snakes of all sizes were reluctant to feed on anything but geckos, especially when well fed. We also addressed the hypothesis that repeated encounters with a particular prey type increase a snake's preference for that prey. Our study does not support this hypothesis. Our results suggest that control methods relying solely on rodent bait may be inefficient for targeting snakes < 700 mm SVL and that individual heterogeneity in prey preference may cause a significant part of this juvenile cohort to be completely refractory to capture with rodent bait, even if the bait is dead and small enough to be readily swallowed.

  19. [Bacteriological study on juvenile periodontitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, N

    1991-02-01

    The predominant cultivable microflora of 23 pockets in 15 juvenile periodontitis (JP) patients was studied for the first time in China using the current anaerobic methodology. Samples were taken with sterile paper points and dispersed on a vortex mixer. Then the diluted samples were plated on the non-selective blood agar plates and selective MGB medium which favors the growth of Actinobacillus actimycetemcomitans (Aa) and incubated in anaerobic chamber for 5 days. From each sample 15 or more isolated colonies were picked in sequence without selection and subcultured. The isolates were identified mainly by Schrechenberger's 4 hour rapid methods for biochemical and fermentative tests and the chromatographic analysis of acid end products using ion-chromatography. The results were as follows: 1. The microflora of healthy sulci of 7 healthy young subjects was significantly different from that in the pocket of JP patients. The predominant species in healthy sulci were Streptococcus spp and Capnocytophaga gingivalis. 2. The species increased significantly in JP patients in prevalence and proportions was Eubacterium. Other species in high proportions were Bacteroides oris, B. melaninogenicus, B. gingivalis, Capnocytophaga sputigena, and Actinomyces meyeri, etc. 3. Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans was not detected in any of the samples.

  20. Influência da temperatura na reprodução e longevidade do predador Orius thyestes Herring (Hemiptera, Anthocoridae Influence of the temperature on reproduction and longevity of the predator Orius thyestes Herring (Hemiptera, Anthocoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Mendes Carvalho

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento e a fecundidade das espécies de Orius são bastante influenciados por uma série de fatores, como as condições ambientais, e em particular, pela temperatura. Esse trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a reprodução e a longevidade de Orius thyestes Herring 1966 em diferentes temperaturas, tendo como alimento, ovos de Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879. O experimento foi conduzido em câmaras climatizadas com temperaturas de 16, 19, 22, 25, 28, 31 ± 1ºC, UR de 70±10% e fotofase de 12horas. Efeito deletério da temperatura em O. thyestes foi obtido a 16ºC, na qual apenas 40% das ninfas atingiram a fase adulta, e destes apenas 19% não apresentaram deformações morfológicas. O maior período de pré-oviposição foi observado a 19ºC (17,8 dias. Os maiores valores para a fecundidade média total foram registrados a 25 e 28ºC, com 109,2 e 128,2 ovos/fêmea, respectivamente, e o menor a 19ºC, com 22,8 ovos/fêmea. A 22 e 31ºC as fêmeas viveram mais que os machos, sendo que a 19ºC a longevidade foi maior, independente do sexo. As baixas temperaturas influenciaram a reprodução e longevidade de O. thyestes sugerindo que esta espécie poderá ter melhor performance reprodutiva em temperaturas mais elevadas, como aquelas de regiões tropicais e ou subtropicais.The development time and the fecundity of Orius species are strongly influenced by a wide range of factors, like environmental conditions and in particular temperature. This work aimed to evaluate the reproduction and adult longevity of Orius thyestes Herring, 1966 in different temperatures. Eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879 was provide as food supply. The experiment was carried out in climatic chambers at temperatures 16, 19, 22, 25, 28 and 31 ± 1°C, RH 70 ±10% and photophase 12h. A deleterious effect of the temperature on O. thyestes was found at 16°C, in which only 40% of the nymphs reached adulthood, of which only 19% presented normal morphological

  1. The Pacific RANET Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postawko, S.; Ah Poe, A.; Morrissey, M.

    2004-12-01

    There are few places in the world more vulnerable to the effects of climate variability and change than the island nations of the tropical Pacific Ocean. The region also faces great challenges in communicating the issues related to climate to the general population. Lack of communications infrastructure, multiple languages, and knowledgeable personnel to deliver information, are all challenges for these countries. However, a recently developed international consortium is taking the first steps to addressing these challenges. The RANET (RAdio and interNET communications) project was originally developed for the countries of Africa, with initial funding from NOAA, to make weather, climate, and other environmental information more accessible to remote and resource-poor communities. The program is now expanding into Asia and the Pacific. RANET works to build telecommunication bridges between scientific-based products and remote communities that could benefit from such information.?The RANET project in the Pacific is a consortium of partners from the Pacific Island nations, the U.S., New Zealand, Australia, and others. Coordination of the project is loosely overseen by a Steering Committee, made up of representatives from the various interested partners. For regions where the appropriate technology exists (which includes the capital cities of nearly all of the island states of the Pacific), information is downloaded via a digital satellite receiver. This can then be broadcast within a country by many means, including Community FM Radio stations. The information distributed includes technical information needed by meteorological and related services to improve their own products and services, as well as a second level of information designed to serve communities, including weather forecasts, bulletins, warnings, etc. The primary challenge at this time is developing content that is both relevant and understandable to these remote communities. While some information will

  2. Results of the radiological verification survey at the former Herring-Hall-Marvin Safe Company, 1550 Grand Boulevard, Hamilton Ohio (HO001V)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, M.E.; allred, J.F.; Johnson, C.A.

    1995-11-01

    During the period between the 1940s and early 1950s, the Herring-Hall-Marvin Safe Company, 1550 Grand Boulevard, Hamilton, Ohio, was one company under subcontract to the Manhattan Engineer District (MED), and the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), the lead agencies in the development of nuclear energy for defense-related projects. The US Department of Energy (DOE) conducted radiological surveys of these sites to evaluate current radiological conditions as part of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). In 1988, a radiological survey of the Herring-Hall-Marvin Safe Company facility was conducted, and after small fragments of uranium metal were removed, no beta or gamma radiation above background was detected and the building was dismissed from any additional DOE restrictions. In 1993, it was discovered that a portion of the actual machining work was conducted on the third floor of the facility, located in the southeastern comer of the building. At the request of DOE, this part of the facility was radiologically surveyed by an ORNL survey team to determine whether fixed surface contamination could be found that might exceed the DOE guidelines. Results of this radiological survey indicated 238 U contamination in excess of the DOE criteria for surface contamination, and the site was recommended for remediation. In February and March of 1995, a verification survey of the third floor of the former Herring-Hall-Marvin Safe Company facility by an ORNL survey team was performed in conjunction with decontamination operations conducted under the supervision of Bechtel National Incorporated. The verification survey included gamma scans at the surface and at one meter, alpha and beta-gamma scans for fixed contamination, and smears for transferable contamination

  3. Between-year variability in the mixing of North Sea herring spawning components leads to pronounced variation in the composition of the catch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bierman, Stijn M.; Dickey-Collas, Mark; van Damme, Cindy J.G.

    2010-01-01

    North Sea herring (Clupea harengus) are managed as a single stock, but maintaining a diversity of spawning components is considered important. However, the total catch from each of these components cannot be estimated easily because the components mix during the summer feeding season. The spawning......-at-age between spawning components, in particular of the 2000 year class, may have caused the observed between-year changes in mixing of components. Our results indicate that estimates of compositions change when assumptions of perfect spatial mixing and perfect classification are relaxed, and can be uncertain...

  4. Disentangling the effects of evolutionary, demographic, and environmental factors influencing genetic structure of natural populations: Atlantic herring as a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaggiotti, Oscar E.; Bekkevold, Dorte; Jørgensen, Hanne B.H.

    2009-01-01

    , on the other hand, seems to have been largely eroded, which is not surprising given the large reproductive potential and presumed enormous local effective population sizes of pelagic fish that constrain the effect of stochastic processes. The approach we used can in principle be applied to any abundant...... carried out separate analyses of neutral and selected genetic variation, which allowed us to establish that the two most important factors affecting population structure were selection due to salinity at spawning sites and feeding migrations. The genetic signal left by the demographic history of herring...

  5. Quantification of trypsin with a radioimmunoassay in herring larvae (Clupea harengus L.) compared with a highly sensitive fluorescence technique to determine tryptic enzyme activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueberschaer, B.; Pedersen, B.H.; Hjelmeland, K.

    1993-01-01

    Enzymatic activity and quantity of the protease trypsin were measured in individual herring larvae (Clupea harengus L.). The enzymatic activity assay was done by a fluorescence technique, and a radioimmunoassay was used for quantification of trypsin. The results are compared and the differences between the techniques discussed. Both methods have similar results, as high or low values in trypsin quantity were reflected in high or low values of tryptic activity. Quantity and activity were linearly and positively correlated, but small differences between methods were found at the lowest detection limits. Both techniques reflect the high variability between individual larvae. (orig.)

  6. [Juvenile-onset ankylosing spondylitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menkes, C J; Job-Deslandre, C; Feldmann, J L

    1984-02-16

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) with juvenile onset (under 17 years of age) is not infrequent. Thirty-six cases were studied, amounting to 18% of patients hospitalized between 1977 and 1981. The following criteria were used for diagnosis: radiologic sacroiliitis (typical AS), presence of HLA B27 and/or pelvic or vertebral clinical manifestations (possible AS). 31 patients (85%) were boys. Mean age at onset was 12.3 +/- 2.8 years. In three cases, AS was found in a member of the family of the propositus and in one case there was cutaneous psoriasis. Usually (29 cases) onset was in the lower limbs: arthritis of the knee (14 cases), hip (9 cases), ankle (7 cases) or painful heel (4 cases). During the course (with a mean follow-up of 11.2 +/- 7 years), 35 patients exhibited peripheral joint diseases and 25 had axial involvement. Ocular involvement was present in 5 cases. 10 patients had a modification of respiratory function. Radiologic sacroiliitis was found in 31 patients but with a delay of 5.3 +/- 2.6 years. Vertebral radiologic lesions were only seen in 11 patients. Radiologic hip involvement was frequent (20 cases) with complete destruction in 6 patients. Erosion and ossification of the calcaneum were observed in 15 cases. The ESR was above 20 mm/first hour in 26 cases (72%). 81% of these patients were HLA B27 positive. Functional prognosis was good: 16 patients (51.6%) led an almost normal life, 6 were bedridden (Steinbrocker's grade IV), 3 had severe impairment (grade III) and 6 had slight impairment (grade II).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. The role of emergent wetlands as potential rearing habitats for juvenile salmonids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Julie A.; Gresswell, Robert E.; Flemming, Ian A.

    2006-01-01

    A recent trend of enhancing freshwater emergent wetlands for waterfowl and other wildlife has raised concern about the effects of such measures on juvenile salmonids. We undertook this study to quantify the degree and extent of juvenile Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. utilization of enhanced and unenhanced emergent wetlands within the floodplain of the lower Chehalis River, Washington, and to determine the fate of the salmon using them. Enhanced emergent wetlands contained water control structures that provided an outlet for fish emigration and a longer hydroperiod for rearing than unenhanced wetlands. Age-0 and age-1 coho salmon O. kisutch were the most common salmonid at all sites, enhanced wetlands having significantly higher age-1 abundance than unenhanced wetlands that were a similar distance from the main-stem river. Yearling coho salmon benefited from rearing in two enhanced wetland habitats, where their specific growth rate and minimum estimates of survival (1.43%/d by weight and 30%; 1.37%/d and 57%) were comparable to those in other side-channel rearing studies. Dissolved oxygen concentrations decreased in emergent wetlands throughout the season and approached the limits lethal to juvenile salmon by May or June each year. Emigration patterns suggested that age-0 and age-1 coho salmon emigrated as habitat conditions declined. This observation was further supported by the results of an experimental release of coho salmon. Survival of fish utilizing emergent wetlands was dependent on movement to the river before water quality decreased or stranding occurred from wetland desiccation. Thus, our results suggest that enhancing freshwater wetlands via water control structures can benefit juvenile salmonids, at least in the short term, by providing conditions for greater growth, survival, and emigration.

  8. Juvenile salmonid use of freshwater emergent wetlands in the floodplain and its implications for conservation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Julie A.; Gresswell, Robert E.; Fleming, Ian A.

    2006-01-01

    A recent trend of enhancing freshwater emergent wetlands for waterfowl and other wildlife has raised concern about the effects of such measures on juvenile salmonids. We undertook this study to quantify the degree and extent of juvenile Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. utilization of enhanced and unenhanced emergent wetlands within the floodplain of the lower Chehalis River, Washington, and to determine the fate of the salmon using them. Enhanced emergent wetlands contained water control structures that provided an outlet for fish emigration and a longer hydroperiod for rearing than unenhanced wetlands. Age-0 and age-1 coho salmon O. kisutch were the most common salmonid at all sites, enhanced wetlands having significantly higher age-1 abundance than unenhanced wetlands that were a similar distance from the main-stem river. Yearling coho salmon benefited from rearing in two enhanced wetland habitats, where their specific growth rate and minimum estimates of survival (1.43%/d by weight and 30%; 1.37%/d and 57%) were comparable to those in other side-channel rearing studies. Dissolved oxygen concentrations decreased in emergent wetlands throughout the season and approached the limits lethal to juvenile salmon by May or June each year. Emigration patterns suggested that age-0 and age-1 coho salmon emigrated as habitat conditions declined. This observation was further supported by the results of an experimental release of coho salmon. Survival of fish utilizing emergent wetlands was dependent on movement to the river before water quality decreased or stranding occurred from wetland desiccation. Thus, our results suggest that enhancing freshwater wetlands via water control structures can benefit juvenile salmonids, at least in the short term, by providing conditions for greater growth, survival, and emigration.

  9. Incorporating movement patterns to improve survival estimates for juvenile bull trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowerman, Tracy; Budy, Phaedra

    2012-01-01

    Populations of many fish species are sensitive to changes in vital rates during early life stages, but our understanding of the factors affecting growth, survival, and movement patterns is often extremely limited for juvenile fish. These critical information gaps are particularly evident for bull trout Salvelinus confluentus, a threatened Pacific Northwest char. We combined several active and passive mark–recapture and resight techniques to assess migration rates and estimate survival for juvenile bull trout (70–170 mm total length). We evaluated the relative performance of multiple survival estimation techniques by comparing results from a common Cormack–Jolly–Seber (CJS) model, the less widely used Barker model, and a simple return rate (an index of survival). Juvenile bull trout of all sizes emigrated from their natal habitat throughout the year, and thereafter migrated up to 50 km downstream. With the CJS model, high emigration rates led to an extreme underestimate of apparent survival, a combined estimate of site fidelity and survival. In contrast, the Barker model, which allows survival and emigration to be modeled as separate parameters, produced estimates of survival that were much less biased than the return rate. Estimates of age-class-specific annual survival from the Barker model based on all available data were 0.218±0.028 (estimate±SE) for age-1 bull trout and 0.231±0.065 for age-2 bull trout. This research demonstrates the importance of incorporating movement patterns into survival analyses, and we provide one of the first field-based estimates of juvenile bull trout annual survival in relatively pristine rearing conditions. These estimates can provide a baseline for comparison with future studies in more impacted systems and will help managers develop reliable stage-structured population models to evaluate future recovery strategies.

  10. Relationship of external fish condition to pathogen prevalence and out-migration survival in juvenile steelhead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostetter, N.J.; Evans, A.F.; Roby, D.D.; Collis, K.; Hawbecker, M.; Sandford, B.P.; Thompson, D.E.; Loge, F.J.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding how the external condition of juvenile salmonids is associated with internal measures of health and subsequent out-migration survival can be valuable for population monitoring programs. This study investigated the use of a rapid, nonlethal, external examination to assess the condition of run-of-the-river juvenile steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss migrating from the Snake River to the Pacific Ocean. We compared the external condition (e.g., body injuries, descaling, external signs of disease, fin damage, and ectoparasite infestations) with (1) the internal condition of a steelhead as measured by the presence of selected pathogens detected by histopathology and polymerase chain reaction analysis and (2) out-migration survival through the Snake and Columbia rivers as determined by passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag technology. The results from steelhead captured and euthanized (n = 222) at Lower Monumental Dam on the lower Snake River in 2008 indicated that external condition was significantly correlated with selected measures of internal condition. The odds of testing positive for a pathogen were 39.2, 24.3, and 5.6 times greater for steelhead with severe or moderate external signs of disease or more than 20% descaling, respectively. Capture-recapture models of 22,451 PIT-tagged steelhead released at Lower Monumental Dam in 2007-2009 indicated that external condition was significantly correlated with juvenile survival. The odds of outmigration survival for steelhead with moderate or severe external signs of disease, more than 20% descaling, or severe fin damage were 5.7, 4.9, 1.6, and 1.3 times lower, respectively, than those for steelhead without these external conditions. This study effectively demonstrated that specific measures of external condition were associated with both the internal condition and out-migration survival of juvenile steelhead. ?? American Fisheries Society 2011.

  11. Comparison of spatial and temporal trends of methoxylated PBDEs, PBDEs, and hexabromocyclododecane in herring along the Swedish coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, L.; Nylund, K. [ITM, Stockholm Univ. (Sweden); Bignert, A. [Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-09-15

    Some brominated flame retardants, for example poly brominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been identified as ubiquitous environmental contaminants. The use of the technical PentaBDE product in the European Union has been drastically reduced in the last years and is banned from 2004, while another brominated flame retardant, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), continues to be used. In addition to the commercial BFR products, methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs) have been identified in biota in the aquatic environment. The origin of the MeO-PBDEs is under discussion. To our knowledge, neither OH-PBDEs nor MeO-PBDEs are commercially produced, nor have they been reported as impurities in brominated technical products or formed as byproducts in any industrial process. However, MeO-PBDEs has been reported to be natural products formed in the marine environment. As regards MeO-PBDEs detected in Baltic fish several factors points in the direction of a natural origin. On the other hand, certain MeO-PBDEs detected in environmental samples could also be metabolites/environmental transformation products of PBDEs. Knowledge of the spatial and temporal trends of the flame retardants in biota can be very useful in identifying sources of emission to the environment and in evaluating the impacts of voluntary restrictions / bans (PBDEs) and ongoing use (HBCD) on environmental contamination. In addition, this knowledge could provide valuable help in identifying the origin of the MeO-PBDEs. To this end, the Swedish Environmental Monitoring Programme on Contaminants in Biota (SEMPC) has incorporated these 3 substance groups into its monitoring of organic contaminants in herring (Clupea harengus). In this contribution we report on the results of the first 4 years.

  12. The effects of pollutants on osmotic and ionic regulation of herring (Clupea harengus L. ) embryos and larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsay, N.C. (Aberdeen Univ. (United Kingdom))

    1991-01-01

    This thesis looks at how osmoregulatory processes function during early ontogeny of herring (Clupea harengus L.) and how these can be affected by pollutants. First, during embryo osmoregulatory ontogeny, two distinct stages occur. Until the completion of epiboly and closure of the yolk plug, the embryo must rely wholly on passive osmoregulation. From epiboly to hatching, the embryo is able to regulate its osmolality and increases its water content through a drinking mechanism similar to that of the adult fish. Increased water content is paralleled by increased levels of solutes. The protein level thereafter decreases with subsequent increased ninhydrin positive substances. Excess salts are excreted through cells thought to be classical chloride cells. During the [open quotes]active[close quotes] osmoregulatory stage, the embryo has developed true osmotic homeostasis, providing continuity until the development of gills, skin, gut, kidney of the adult. Second, exposing embryos and larvae to a number of different pollutants affected parameters important for osmotic and ionic homeostasis. The most consistent response is an increased whole body electrolyte content and decreased water content, resulting in elevated osmolality. Exposure to drilling muds containing high levels of petrogenic components causes water loss from the larvae associated with a decreased drinking rate. Subsequent exposure to individual oil constituents at sublethal levels cause changes resulting in higher whole body electrolyte concentrations. In larvae exposed in vivo to metal levels below the Environmental Quality Standard, changes occurred in epithelial permeability. Effects on electrolyte concentrations also occurred in embryos but the mechanism was unclear. The mixture of heavy metals exposed in vitro resulted in a lower concentration required to cause a 50% reduction in whole body homogenate Na[sup +]K[sup +]-ATPase activity than for any individual metal.

  13. Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Obesity Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... youthonline . [Accessed 08/18/2017] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY People who are overweight are more likely to ...

  14. Distribution and abundance of juvenile demersal fishes in relation to summer hypoxia and other environmental variables in coastal Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobocinski, Kathryn L.; Ciannelli, Lorenzo; Wakefield, W. Waldo; Yergey, Matthew E.; Johnson-Colegrove, Angela

    2018-05-01

    The juvenile demersal fish assemblage along the Pacific Northwest coast has received little attention relative to adult life history stages since pioneering work in the 1970s. Increasing severity of hypoxia along the Oregon coast in recent years has prompted investigations into the response of biota in this region. We used summer data (2008-2013) from a beam trawl survey targeting juvenile demersal fishes in soft-bottom habitats along the Oregon coast to describe patterns of distribution and abundance at fixed sampling stations (from 30 m to 100 m depth). We relate the assemblage and abundance of the common species to environmental variables and analyze condition of recently settled fish (improve our understanding of this community, especially in light of changing environmental drivers such as decreasing pH, warming water, and episodic periods of low dissolved oxygen coinciding with settlement for many species.

  15. Cornstarch as a dietary supplement in conditioning broodstock and spat at a nursery of the Pacific calico scallop, Argopecten ventricosus

    OpenAIRE

    Mazón-Suástegui, José Manuel; Lodeiros, Cesar; Avilés-Quevedo, Araceli; Rodríguez-Jaramillo, Carmen; Ortiz-Cornejo, Nadia; Abasolo-Pacheco, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Microalgae diets supplemented with cornstarch at a rate of 0.15% of live weight to the conditioning of broodstock and spat growth of Pacific calico scallop Argopecten ventricosus were tested. To determine reproductive condition at the beginning and end of the experiment, the gonads of adults were analyzed by stereological methods. For juveniles, the weekly percent increase of spat was estimated from spat biomass volume. The microalgae diet of Tisochrysis lutea and Chaetoceros calcitr...

  16. Migratory Behavior and Survival of Juvenile Salmonids in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary in 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Bellgraph, Brian J.; Carter, Jessica A.; Ham, Kenneth D.; Titzler, P. Scott; Hughes, Michael S.

    2010-08-01

    The study reported herein was funded as part of the Anadromous Fish Evaluation Program, which is managed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). The Anadromous Fish Evaluation Program study code is EST P 02 01: A Study of Salmonid Survival and Behavior through the Columbia River Estuary Using Acoustic Tags. The study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Fisheries for the USACE Portland District. Estimated survival of acoustic-tagged juvenile Chinook salmon and steelhead through the lower Columbia River and estuary in 2009 was lowest in the final 50 km of the estuary. Probability of survival was relatively high (>0.90) for yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon from the Bonneville Dam forebay (rkm 236) to Three-tree Point (rkm 49.6). Survival of juvenile Chinook salmon declined sharply through the lower 50 km of the estuary. Acoustic-tagged steelhead smolts did not survive as well as juvenile Chinook salmon between Bonneville Dam and the mouth of the Columbia River. Steelhead survival began to decline farther upstream (at rkm 86) relative to that of the Chinook salmon stocks. Subyearling Chinook salmon survival decreased markedly as the season progressed. It remains to be determined whether later migrating subyearling Chinook salmon are suffering increasing mortality as the season progresses or whether some portion of the apparent loss is due to fish extending their freshwater residence. This study provided the first glimpse into what promises to be a very informative way to learn more about how juvenile salmonid passage experiences through the FCRPS may influence their subsequent survival after passing Bonneville Dam. New information regarding the influence of migration pathway through the lower 50 km of the Columbia River estuary on probability of survival of juvenile salmonids, combined with increased understanding regarding the foraging distances and time periods of

  17. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis – an update on its diagnosis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-12-03

    Dec 3, 2015 ... Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common form of chronic arthritis in children and the most ... A swollen knee and uveitis in a young girl, for instance, is ..... Methotrexate for treating juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

  18. 83 CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS OF THE JUVENILE JUSTICE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    Juvenile justice administration in Nigeria is weak and has been given very .... The Nigerian criminal justice system, of which the juvenile justice system is an integral part, ... as instruments of security and justice but as weapons of oppression8.

  19. AFSC/ABL: Juvenile rockfish DNA species identification

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Many pelagic juvenile rockfish (Sebastes) were collected in juvenile salmonid surveys in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA) from 1998 to 2002. Often species identification of...

  20. Juvenile Fibromyalgia: A Multidisciplinary Approach to Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesher, Melissa S

    2015-06-01

    A 14-year-old boy presented with months of severe widespread musculoskeletal pain. He was profoundly fatigued and unable to attend school. Laboratory evaluation, including complete blood count, comprehensive metabolic panel, inflammatory markers, and thyroid function, was unrevealing. Physical examination was also normal except for multiple tender points. The patient was diagnosed with juvenile primary fibromyalgia syndrome and referred for multidisciplinary treatment including physical therapy, exercise, and counseling, and his daily functioning gradually improves. Juvenile fibromyalgia is a complex syndrome that often severely limits patients' activities and can impede normal adolescent development. Effective treatment requires an understanding of the biologic, psychologic, and social factors contributing to the perpetuation of chronic pain. The author reviews the diagnostic criteria, pathophysiology, and treatment of juvenile fibromyalgia. Medications, particularly antidepressants and anticonvulsants, can be useful adjuncts to therapy. However, multimodal pain management including intensive physical therapy, exercise, counseling, and sleep hygiene is most effective in treating fibromyalgia. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Effect of TBT on Ruditapes decussatus juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, M R; Langston, W J; Bebianno, M J

    2006-06-01

    The effects of sublethal concentrations of tributyltin (TBT) on growth of juvenile clams Ruditapes decussatus were determined during exposure to TBT concentrations of 50, 100 and 250 ng l(-1) (as Sn) for a period up to two years. Length and weight of clams increased continuously in all treatments throughout the experimental period, and, overall, rates were not significantly influenced by TBT exposure, although final length and weight were inversely related to increasing TBT concentration. Juvenile R. decussatus therefore appear to be less sensitive to TBT than larval stages. Some juveniles exposed to TBT developed abnormal shell growth, laterally, changing the typical flattened shape of clams into a more "rounded" form. This characteristic was more visible in the anterior margins of valves than posteriorly, and mainly observed in clams exposed to TBT at 50 ng l(-1) (as Sn).

  2. Juvenile xanthogranuloma of the corneoscleral limbus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanoff, M; Perry, H D

    1995-07-01

    Juvenile xanthogranuloma is a rare and usually benign skin disease of unknown cause that occurs in infants and young children. We studied a case of juvenile xanthogranuloma of the corneoscleral limbus in a 17-year-old black boy, who presented with a 5-month history of a lump in the right eye. The lesion extended from the superior limbus, fanning out as it proceeded posteriorly for 6 mm with a width of 9 mm and a height of 2 to 3 mm. This yellow-orange mass was vascular and firmly fixed to the underlying tissue. The lesion was diagnosed as a dermoid and observed for 7 months without documented growth before an uneventful excisional biopsy was performed. The pathologic diagnosis showed the characteristic picture of juvenile xanthogranuloma with numerous Touton giant cells. Lipid stains provided further confirmation.

  3. Corporal and capital punishment of juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, H C

    1990-01-01

    There is a previously unobserved connection between corporal punishment of public school children and capital punishment of juveniles. Both are barometers of acceptable levels of violent punishment and their elimination is a hallmark of a maturing and decent society. Within a majority of the eighteen states where school authorities most frequently strike children are housed 25 of the nation's 28 juvenile death row inmates. On average, the homicide rates of these jurisdictions are two and a half times greater than those that have abolished both state-sanctioned corporal and capital punishment or limit death sentences to those age eighteen and older at the time of their crime(s). Most of the eighteen state abolitions of corporal punishment occurred in the 1980's. The US Supreme Court has ruled both corporal and capital punishment of juveniles constitutional. Additional state legislative abolition of both is anticipated in the 1990s.

  4. Delincuencia y responsabilidad penal juvenil en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Montalvo Velásquez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl término «delincuencia juvenil» fue acuñado en Inglaterra en el año 1815, “Se entiende por delincuencia juvenil el conjunto de delitos, contravenciones o comportamientos socialmente reprochables, que cometen las personas consideradas como jóvenes por la ley”1 . Cada Estado está sujeto a su propio sistema jurídico, para algunos es delincuente juvenil el adolescente que comete acciones sancionadas por la ley sin importar su gravedad, otros Estados sólo consideran como delincuente juvenil al joven que comete un acto delictivo grave.El fenómeno de la delincuencia juvenil es algo que se inscribe en los espacios de una sociedad en la cual su estructura material, y su formación social consecuente, se halla en una profunda crisis. Que jóvenes conformen bandas de delincuencia organizada nos está indicando que son el resultado de la misma criminalidad general que se ha apoderado de la sociedad en la perspectiva de lograr sobrevivir materialmente. El capitalismo no es sólo acumulación de riqueza sino concentración de la misma en muy pocas manos; y todo el sistema institucional y legal tiende a favorecer ese fenómeno porque éste constituye la supra estructura del modo de producción capitalista. Así como los adultos se organizan para delinquir, lo hacen los niños y los jóvenes a partir de una edad en la cual pueden percibir que la sociedad no es sana y no tienen porvenir humano en ella. Abandonados y sujetos a la violencia que engendra el sistema, ellos simplemente responden en una manifestación de reflejos condicionados que sostienen la sobrevivencia en forma instintiva; “los niños no saben de normas legales sino de formas de sobrevivir a semejante situación; el instinto de sobrevivencia no tiene edades ni la normatividad puede incidir en él”.Palabras ClavesDelincuencia juvenil, Jóvenes, Criminalidad, Familia, Factores, Acto delictivo, Responsabilidad Penal.AbstractThe term “juvenile delinquency” was coined in

  5. Imágenes juveniles, medios y nuevos escenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Aguilera Ruiz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo nace del análisis de los discursos radiales producidos exclusivamente para jóvenes en Santiago de Chile. Aborda además las categorías comprensivas de la vida juvenil, la vida juvenil de los años 90, el imaginario juvenil des-simbolizado, hacia una comprensión de lo juvenil, dinámica social propuesta por los medios y estrategias comunicacionales.

  6. Power in the pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    Highlights of the fourth Pacific Basin Nuclear Conference are presented, with the emphasis on opportunities for Canadian nuclear exports to the region. Japan and Korea are pressing ahead with nuclear generating programs to reduce their dependence on imported oil. Korea aims to increase the Korean content of its nuclear industry, and to participate in international ventures. China plans several nuclear power stations. In Canada and the U.S.A., no recent domestic orders have been received. Mexico is financially constrained to delay its nuclear program for about ten years. Indonesia is starting with a research reactor

  7. Performance of a surface bypass structure to enhance juvenile steelhead passage and survival at Lower Granite Dam, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Noah S.; Plumb, John M.; Perry, Russell W.; Rondorf, Dennis W.

    2014-01-01

    An integral part of efforts to recover stocks of Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead O. mykiss in Pacific Northwest rivers is to increase passage efficacy and survival of juveniles past hydroelectric dams. As part of this effort, we evaluated the efficacy of a prototype surface bypass structure, the removable spillway weir (RSW), installed in a spillbay at Lower Granite Dam, Washington, on the Snake River during 2002, 2003, 2005, and 2006. Radio-tagged juvenile steelhead were released upstream from the dam and their route of passage through the turbines, juvenile bypass, spillway, or RSW was recorded. The RSW was operated in an on-or-off condition and passed 3–13% of the total discharge at the dam when it was on. Poisson rate models were fit to the passage counts of hatchery- and natural-origin juvenile steelhead to predict the probability of fish passing the dam. Main-effect predictor variables were RSW operation, diel period, day of the year, proportion of flow passed by the spillway, and total discharge at the dam. The combined fish passage through the RSW and spillway was 55–85% during the day and 37–61% during the night. The proportion of steelhead passing through nonturbine routes was 95% when the RSW was on during the day. The ratio of the proportion of steelhead passed to the proportion of water passing the RSW was from 6.3:1 to 10.0:1 during the day and from 2.7:1 to 5.2:1 during the night. Steelhead passing through the RSW exited the tailrace about 15 min faster than fish passing through the spillway. Mark–recapture single-release survival estimates for steelhead passing the RSW ranged from 0.95 to 1.00. The RSW appeared to be an effective bypass structure compared with other routes of fish passage at the dam.

  8. Extent of mangrove nursery habitats determines the geographic distribution of a coral reef fish in a South-Pacific archipelago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christelle Paillon

    Full Text Available Understanding the drivers of species' geographic distribution has fundamental implications for the management of biodiversity. For coral reef fishes, mangroves have long been recognized as important nursery habitats sustaining biodiversity in the Western Atlantic but there is still debate about their role in the Indo-Pacific. Here, we combined LA-ICP-MS otolith microchemistry, underwater visual censuses (UVC and mangrove cartography to estimate the importance of mangroves for the Indo-Pacific coral reef fish Lutjanus fulviflamma in the archipelago of New Caledonia. Otolith elemental compositions allowed high discrimination of mangroves and reefs with 83.8% and 98.7% correct classification, respectively. Reefs were characterized by higher concentrations of Rb and Sr and mangroves by higher concentrations of Ba, Cr, Mn and Sn. All adult L. fulviflamma collected on reefs presented a mangrove signature during their juvenile stage with 85% inhabiting mangrove for their entire juvenile life (about 1 year. The analysis of 2942 UVC revealed that the species was absent from isolated islands of the New Caledonian archipelago where mangroves were absent. Furthermore, strong positive correlations existed between the abundance of L. fulviflamma and the area of mangrove (r = 0.84 for occurrence, 0.93 for density and 0.89 for biomass. These results indicate that mangrove forest is an obligatory juvenile habitat for L. fulviflamma in New Caledonia and emphasize the potential importance of mangroves for Indo-Pacific coral reef fishes.

  9. The World of Juvenile Justice According to the Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozalski, Michael; Deignan, Marilyn; Engel, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    Intended to be an instructive, yet sobering, introduction to the complex and disturbing nature of the juvenile justice system, this article details the "numbers," including selected percentages, ratios, and dollar amounts, that are relevant to developing a better understanding of the juvenile justice system. General statistics about juvenile and…

  10. Challenges and prospects of the juvenile justice administration in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Juvenile justice administration in Nigeria is weak and has been given very little priority, despite Nigeria being signatory to the major international instruments relevant to the administration of juvenile justice. This is attributable to the history of the penal system of Nigeria, with laws guiding juvenile justice administration having ...

  11. Arbutus menziesii Pursh. Pacific madrone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip M. McDonald

    1990-01-01

    Pacific madrone (Arbutus menziesii) is one of the most widely distributed tree species native to the Pacific coast. Named for its discoverer, Archibald Menzies, a 19th century Scottish physician and naturalist, the species is called arbutus in Canada, and madrone, madroña, or madroño in the United States. The latter name is...

  12. First record of the blacktip reef shark Carcharhinus melanopterus (Carcharhiniformes: Carcharhinidae from the Tropical Eastern Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés López-Garro

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The blacktip reef shark Carcharhinus melanopterus, is one of the most common Indo-Pacific reef sharks. On April 29, 2012, a juvenile male blacktip reef shark measuring 89 cm total length (TL, was incidentally caught during a research expedition in Chatham Bay, Isla del Coco National Park, Costa Rica, located in the Tropical Eastern Pacific. This is the first record of the species from Isla del Coco National Park, Costa Rica, and from the Tropical Eastern Pacific.El tiburón punta negra de arrecife, Carcharhinus melanopterus, es uno de los tiburones de arrecife más comunes del Indo-Pacífico. Durante una expedición científica al Parque Nacional Isla del Coco, Costa Rica, Pacífico Tropical Oriental, un tiburón punta negra de arrecife fue capturado en Bahía Chatham, Parque Nacional Isla del Coco, el 29 de abril 2012. El espécimen capturado era un macho juvenil de 89 cm. Este es el primer informe de esta especie para el Parque Nacional Isla del Coco, Costa Rica y para el Pacífico Tropical Oriental.

  13. Criminal Profiles of Violent Juvenile Sex and Violent Juvenile Non-Sex Offenders: An Explorative Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Anton Ph.; Mali, Bas R. F.; Bullens, Ruud A. R.; Vermeiren, Robert R.

    2007-01-01

    Few studies have longitudinally investigated the criminal profiles of violent juvenile sex and violent juvenile non-sex offenders. To make up for this lack, this study used police records of juveniles to determine the nature of the criminal profiles of violent sex offenders (n = 226) and violent non-sex offenders (n = 4,130). All offenders…

  14. Juvenile Residential Facility Census, 2010: Selected Findings. Juvenile Offenders and Victims: National Report Series. Bulletin NCJ 241134

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockenberry, Sarah; Sickmund, Melissa; Sladky, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    This bulletin is part of the "Juvenile Offenders and Victims National Report Series." The "National Report" offers a comprehensive statistical overview of the problems of juvenile crime, violence, and victimization and the response of the juvenile justice system. During each interim year, the bulletins in the "National…

  15. Exercise therapy in juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takken, T.; van Brussel, M.; Engelbert, R. H. H.; van der Net, J.; Kuis, W.; Helders, P. J. M.

    2008-01-01

    Exercise therapy is considered an important component of the treatment of arthritis. The efficacy of exercise therapy has been reviewed in adults with rheumatoid arthritis but not in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). To assess the effects of exercise therapy on functional ability,

  16. Program Performance Inventory: Six Juvenile Offender Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomalla, Terri Groff; Dougherty, Victoria J.

    This report describes the performance of 6 Connecticut juvenile justice alternative sanction programs in 14 qualitative areas: community reintegration; outcomes and evaluation; assessment methods; risk factors; escalation of criminal activity; family involvement; community involvement; work ethic and vocational training; education and life skills;…

  17. Radium rentention and dosimetry in juvenile beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, R.D.; Jones, C.W.; Bruenger, F.W.; Atherton, D.R.; Mays, C.W.

    1983-01-01

    Retention of administered 226 Ra was substantially greater in beagles injected as 3-month-old juveniles than as 1.4-year-old adults, but the measured 222 Rn/ 226 Ra ratio in bone was significantly less in juveniles for about the first 600 days after injection. An equation that describes the total-body biological retention R in beagles injected with 226 Ra at 3 months of age at any time t (in days) after injection during the first 6.6 years is R = 0.331e/sup -0.206t/ + 0.245e/sup -0.00374t/ + 0.424e/sup -0.000114t/. The rate constant of the final term in the equation for juveniles is similar to that for young adults, suggesting that this component reflects the net turnover rate in the slowly remodeling component of adult bone. Compared to young adult beagles, animals injected as juveniles had a greater fraction of their retained 226 Ra in parts of the skeleton containing much cortical bone, such as paws, and a smaller fraction in those parts containing much trabecular bone

  18. Alteracioness cognitivas en familias con Parkinson juvenil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Lopera Restrepo

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available El Grupo de Neurociencias de la Universidad de Antioquia reportó por primera vez en Colombia cuatro familias afecatas por la Enfermedad de Parkinson Familiar Juvenil portadoras de la mutación G736A en el gen Parkin.

  19. Biological agents in polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amarilyo, Gil; Tarp, Simon; Foeldvari, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Although various biological agents are in use for polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (pJIA), head-to-head trials comparing the efficacy and safety among them are lacking. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of biological agents in pJIA using all currently...

  20. Antibodies in juvenile-onset myositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansley, Sarah L

    2016-11-01

    Juvenile-onset myositis is a highly heterogeneous disease. Myositis-specific and associated autoantibodies provide a potential means of subdividing patients into clinically homogenous subgroups. Given the increasing availability of autoantibody testing, this review explores the phenotypes associated with different autoantibodies in juvenile-onset myositis and the potential clinical utility of autoantibody testing. Autoantibodies can be identified in 60-70% of children with myositis and the recent discovery of novel myositis-associated autoantibodies in adult patients suggests this may increase in the near future. Detailed phenotype descriptions are now known for several autoantibodies commonly identified in juvenile-onset disease. Whilst there is insufficient evidence to recommend a differential treatment approach based on autoantibody status, it is becoming increasingly clear that some autoantibody subgroups are often treatment resistant and may benefit from a more aggressive approach. The validation of nonspecialised methods for myositis-specific autoantibody detection should lead to more widely available testing. In juvenile-onset disease, this will provide detailed prognostic information and in the future may also influence approach.

  1. Do burn centers provide juvenile firesetter intervention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrns-Klas, Karla S; Wahl, Wendy L; Hemmila, Mark R; Wang, Stewart C

    2012-01-01

    Juvenile firesetting activity accounts for a significant number of annual injuries and property damage, yet there is sparse information on intervention in the burn literature. To quantify juvenile firesetting intervention (JFSI) in burn centers, a 23-question survey was sent to all directors listed in the American Burn Association Burn Care Facilities Directory.Sixty-four out of 112 (57%) surveys were returned. This represents responses from 79% of currently verified burn centers. When queried on interventions provided to a juvenile firesetter admitted to their unit, 38% report having their own JFSI program and 38% refer the child to fire services. Two thirds of units without a JFSI program treat pediatric patients. Units that previously had a JFSI program report lack of staffing and funding as most common reasons for program discontinuation. Almost all (95%) stated that a visual tool demonstrating legal, financial, social, future, and career ramifications associated with juvenile firesetting would be beneficial to their unit. Many burn units that treat pediatric patients do not have JFSI and rely on external programs operated by fire services. Existing JFSI programs vary greatly in structure and method of delivery. Burn centers should be involved in JFSI, and most units would benefit from a new video toolkit to assist in providing appropriate JFSI. Study results highlight a need for burn centers to collaborate on evaluating effectiveness of JFSI programs and providing consistent intervention materials based on outcomes research.

  2. Retrocalcaneal bursitis in juvenile chronic arthritis.

    OpenAIRE

    Goldenstein-Schainberg, C; Homsi, C; Rodrigues Pereira, R M; Cossermelli, W

    1992-01-01

    Retrocalcaneal bursitis has been described in various adult rheumatic diseases and septic bursitis unrelated to previous bursal disease has been reported in children. The case is reported here of a girl with juvenile chronic arthritis who developed non-septic retrocalcaneal bursitis; the diagnosis was suggested by a combination of clinical and radiographic studies and was confirmed by ultrasonography.

  3. Retrocalcaneal bursitis in juvenile chronic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenstein-Schainberg, C; Homsi, C; Rodrigues Pereira, R M; Cossermelli, W

    1992-01-01

    Retrocalcaneal bursitis has been described in various adult rheumatic diseases and septic bursitis unrelated to previous bursal disease has been reported in children. The case is reported here of a girl with juvenile chronic arthritis who developed non-septic retrocalcaneal bursitis; the diagnosis was suggested by a combination of clinical and radiographic studies and was confirmed by ultrasonography. Images PMID:1444631

  4. Bilateral, independent juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mørkenborg, M-L; Frendø, M; Stavngaard, T; Von Buchwald, C

    2015-10-01

    Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a benign, vascular tumour that primarily occurs in adolescent males. Despite its benign nature, aggressive growth patterns can cause potential life-threatening complications. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is normally unilateral, originating from the sphenopalatine artery, but bilateral symptoms can occur if a large tumour extends to the contralateral side of the nasopharynx. This paper presents the first reported case of true bilateral extensive juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma involving clinically challenging pre-surgical planning and surgical strategy. A 21-year-old male presented with increasing bilateral nasal obstruction and discharge. Examination revealed tumours bilaterally and imaging demonstrated non-contiguous tumours. Pre-operative angiography showed strictly ipsilateral vascular supplies requiring bilateral embolisation. Radical removal performed as one-step, computer-assisted functional endoscopic sinus surgery was performed. The follow-up period was uncomplicated. This case illustrates the importance of suspecting bilateral juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma in patients presenting with bilateral symptoms. Our management, including successful pre-operative planning, enabled one-step total removal of both tumours and rapid patient recovery.

  5. Perceived Competence of Juvenile Delinquents and Nondelinquents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Peter G.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Thirty male juvenile delinquents and 90 male high achievers, low achievers, and students with behavior problems were compared using an adapted version of Harter's Perceived Competence Scale for Children. The Australian students (aged 12-15) were compared on 4 different domains of perceived competence--cognitive competence, social competence,…

  6. Factors Involved in Juveniles' Decisions about Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimler, Edward; Beach, Lee Roy

    1981-01-01

    Investigated whether delinquency is the result of a rational decision. The Subjective Expected Utility (SEU) model from decision theory was used with male juvenile offenders (N=45) as the model of the decision process. Results showed that the SEU model predicted 62.7 percent of the subjects' decisions. (Author/RC)

  7. Juvenile Court Commitment Rates: The National Picture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosin, Michael

    There is less geographic variation in the commitment rate of juvenile offenders than is commonly assumed. Apparently, judges across the country develop a similar standard of what percentage of youths they face should be committed. This standard may be similar across the country because it represents broadly shared ideals. However, there is much…

  8. Smerte og smertemestring ved juvenil idiopatisk artritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlin, Troels; Thastum, Mikael

    2008-01-01

    Pain is one of the primary symptoms of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). JIA patients have reduced pain tolerance and pain threshold compared to healthy controls. In children with JIA the greater use of coping strategies such as problem-solving, positive self-statements and distraction consist...

  9. Biologisk terapi ved juvenil idiopatisk artritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlin, Troels

    2008-01-01

    In recent years the treatment of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) has undergone marked changes. There is substantial evidence that inhibitors of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) like etanercept, infliximab and adalimumab show significant efficacy when standard therapy fails, and long-ter...

  10. Nasopharyngeal juvenile angiofibroma: updating of radiotherapy results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alert Silva, Jose; Caballero Aguirrechu, Iraida; Reno Cespedes, Jesus; Perez Penna, Lourdes

    2010-01-01

    The nasopharyngeal juvenile angiofibroma is a uncommon benign tumor composed of fibrous connective tissue and many vascular spaces covered by endothelium. It is almost exclusive of male sex and of adolescents. Choice treatment is the exeresis without obviate other possibilities as the radiotherapy. The aim of present study was to show the results of this latter as therapeutical option

  11. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia presenting as Juvenile Idiopathic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia in children commonly presents with osteo articular manifestations that may mimic Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis. This may create considerable diagnostic difficulty and lead to delay in commencing appropriate treatment. Case: An eight year old boy who presented with multiple ...

  12. Molecular basis of juvenile hormone signaling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jindra, Marek; Bellés, X.; Shinoda, T.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 11, Oct 09 (2015), s. 39-46 ISSN 2214-5745 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-23681S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : juvenile hormone * JH receptor * Drosophila melanogaster Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.719, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2214574515001297

  13. Metamorphosis: How Missouri Rehabilitates Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubin, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Juveniles convicted of serious offenses usually end up in large correctional facilities that focus on punishment--not rehabilitation. The state of Missouri, however, has found a better way to help end the cycle of crime: by creating a network of small facilities that provide therapy and educational opportunities, it has dramatically reduced…

  14. Shortening the juvenile phase for flowering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Higazy, M.K.M.T.

    1962-01-01

    Higazy tried to determine whether the duration of the juvenile phase for flowering was a fixed character or whether it could be influenced by external growth factors.

    Lunaria biennis was chosen as a cold-requiring biennial, Silene armeria as a long-day plant and Salvia

  15. The Diversity of Juvenile Sarcoidosis Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Vougiouka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of juvenile sarcoidosis, emphasizing the variety of clinical manifestations. The child had uveitis, which is among the most common manifestations of the disease. However, fever of unknown origin, glomerulonephritis and lymphadenopathy were also noticed, underscoring the diversity of the clinical spectrum of the disease.

  16. Modeling {sup 137}Cs bioaccumulation in the salmon–resident killer whale food web of the Northeastern Pacific following the Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alava, Juan José, E-mail: jalavasa@sfu.ca; Gobas, Frank A.P.C.

    2016-02-15

    To track the long term bioaccumulation of {sup 137}Cs in marine organisms off the Pacific Northwest coast of Canada, we developed a time dependent bioaccumulation model for {sup 137}Cs in a marine mammalian food web that included fish-eating resident killer whales. The model outcomes show that {sup 137}Cs can be expected to gradually bioaccumulate in the food web over time as demonstrated by the increase of the apparent trophic magnification factor of {sup 137}Cs, ranging from 0.76 after 1 month of exposure to 2.0 following 30 years of exposure. {sup 137}Cs bioaccumulation is driven by relatively rapid dietary uptake rates, moderate depuration rates in lower trophic level organisms and slow elimination rates in high trophic level organisms. Model estimates of the {sup 137}Cs activity in species of the food web, based on current measurements and forecasts of {sup 137}Cs activities in oceanic waters and sediments off the Canadian Pacific Northwest, indicate that the long term {sup 137}Cs activities in fish species including Pacific herring, wild Pacific salmon, sablefish and halibut will remain well below the current {sup 137}Cs-Canada Action Level for consumption (1000 Bq/kg) following a nuclear emergency. Killer whales and Pacific salmon are expected to exhibit the largest long term {sup 137}Cs activities and may be good sentinels for monitoring {sup 137}Cs in the region. Assessment of the long term consequences of {sup 137}Cs releases from the Fukushima aftermath should consider the extent of ecological magnification in addition to ocean dilution. - Highlights: • A food web bioaccumulation model to assess the biomagnification of {sup 137}Cs is developed. • Cesium 137 exhibits bioaccumulation over time as simulated by the model. • Predicted activities in marine biota are below {sup 137}Cs-food consumption benchmarks. • Long-term monitoring of {sup 137}Cs in the ocean will improve the model predictions.

  17. Modeling 137Cs bioaccumulation in the salmon–resident killer whale food web of the Northeastern Pacific following the Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alava, Juan José; Gobas, Frank A.P.C.

    2016-01-01

    To track the long term bioaccumulation of 137 Cs in marine organisms off the Pacific Northwest coast of Canada, we developed a time dependent bioaccumulation model for 137 Cs in a marine mammalian food web that included fish-eating resident killer whales. The model outcomes show that 137 Cs can be expected to gradually bioaccumulate in the food web over time as demonstrated by the increase of the apparent trophic magnification factor of 137 Cs, ranging from 0.76 after 1 month of exposure to 2.0 following 30 years of exposure. 137 Cs bioaccumulation is driven by relatively rapid dietary uptake rates, moderate depuration rates in lower trophic level organisms and slow elimination rates in high trophic level organisms. Model estimates of the 137 Cs activity in species of the food web, based on current measurements and forecasts of 137 Cs activities in oceanic waters and sediments off the Canadian Pacific Northwest, indicate that the long term 137 Cs activities in fish species including Pacific herring, wild Pacific salmon, sablefish and halibut will remain well below the current 137 Cs-Canada Action Level for consumption (1000 Bq/kg) following a nuclear emergency. Killer whales and Pacific salmon are expected to exhibit the largest long term 137 Cs activities and may be good sentinels for monitoring 137 Cs in the region. Assessment of the long term consequences of 137 Cs releases from the Fukushima aftermath should consider the extent of ecological magnification in addition to ocean dilution. - Highlights: • A food web bioaccumulation model to assess the biomagnification of 137 Cs is developed. • Cesium 137 exhibits bioaccumulation over time as simulated by the model. • Predicted activities in marine biota are below 137 Cs-food consumption benchmarks. • Long-term monitoring of 137 Cs in the ocean will improve the model predictions.

  18. Modeling (137)Cs bioaccumulation in the salmon-resident killer whale food web of the Northeastern Pacific following the Fukushima Nuclear Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alava, Juan José; Gobas, Frank A P C

    2016-02-15

    To track the long term bioaccumulation of (137)Cs in marine organisms off the Pacific Northwest coast of Canada, we developed a time dependent bioaccumulation model for (137)Cs in a marine mammalian food web that included fish-eating resident killer whales. The model outcomes show that (137)Cs can be expected to gradually bioaccumulate in the food web over time as demonstrated by the increase of the apparent trophic magnification factor of (137)Cs, ranging from 0.76 after 1 month of exposure to 2.0 following 30 years of exposure. (137)Cs bioaccumulation is driven by relatively rapid dietary uptake rates, moderate depuration rates in lower trophic level organisms and slow elimination rates in high trophic level organisms. Model estimates of the (137)Cs activity in species of the food web, based on current measurements and forecasts of (137)Cs activities in oceanic waters and sediments off the Canadian Pacific Northwest, indicate that the long term (137)Cs activities in fish species including Pacific herring, wild Pacific salmon, sablefish and halibut will remain well below the current (137)Cs-Canada Action Level for consumption (1000 Bq/kg) following a nuclear emergency. Killer whales and Pacific salmon are expected to exhibit the largest long term (137)Cs activities and may be good sentinels for monitoring (137)Cs in the region. Assessment of the long term consequences of (137)Cs releases from the Fukushima aftermath should consider the extent of ecological magnification in addition to ocean dilution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Verification of a ‘freshwater-type’ life history variant of juvenile American shad in the Columbia River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Lisa A.; Larsen, Kimberly A.; Parsley, Michael J.; Zimmerman, Christian E.

    2011-01-01

    American shad are native to the Atlantic coast of North America and were successfully introduced to the Pacific coast in the 1870s. They are now more abundant in the Columbia River than are its native salmon. As in their native range, Columbia River American shad are anadromous and have been assumed to solely exhibit an ‘ocean-type’ life history, characterized by a short period of juvenile rearing in freshwater, followed by seaward migration and saltwater entry before age-1, with sexually mature individuals returning to freshwater to spawn beginning at age-3. During October 2007, emigrating juvenile American shad were captured in the juvenile fish monitoring facility at Bonneville Dam (river kilometer 235) on the Columbia River. Their length frequencies revealed the presence of two modes; the lower mode averaged 77 mm fork length (FL) and the upper mode averaged 184 mm FL. A subsample of fish from each mode was aged using otoliths. Otoliths from the lower mode (n=10) had no annuli, indicating that they were all age-0, while otoliths from the upper mode (n=25) had one or two annuli, indicating that they were either age-1 or age-2, respectively. Spawning adults collected in June 2007 averaged 393 mm FL (range 305-460 mm; n=21) and were estimated to range in age from 3-6. Elemental analyses of juvenile and adult otoliths provide evidence for deviations from the typical migration pattern expected for this species, including extensive freshwater rearing of up to two years. This evidence shows that a ‘freshwater-type’ of juvenile American shad exists as year-round or transient residents in the Columbia River basin. The ecological role of this life history variant within the fish community is unknown.

  20. Musculoskeletal MRI findings of juvenile localized scleroderma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eutsler, Eric P. [Nemours Children' s Health System/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Wilmington, DE (United States); Washington University School of Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis, MO (United States); Horton, Daniel B. [Nemours Children' s Health System/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Division of Rheumatology, Department of Pediatrics, Wilmington, DE (United States); Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Department of Pediatrics, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Epelman, Monica [Nemours Children' s Health System/Nemours Children' s Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Orlando, FL (United States); Finkel, Terri [Nemours Children' s Health System/Nemours Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Orlando, FL (United States); Averill, Lauren W. [Nemours Children' s Health System/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Wilmington, DE (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Juvenile localized scleroderma comprises a group of autoimmune conditions often characterized clinically by an area of skin hardening. In addition to superficial changes in the skin and subcutaneous tissues, juvenile localized scleroderma may involve the deep soft tissues, bones and joints, possibly resulting in functional impairment and pain in addition to cosmetic changes. There is literature documenting the spectrum of findings for deep involvement of localized scleroderma (fascia, muscles, tendons, bones and joints) in adults, but there is limited literature for the condition in children. We aimed to document the spectrum of musculoskeletal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of both superficial and deep juvenile localized scleroderma involvement in children and to evaluate the utility of various MRI sequences for detecting those findings. Two radiologists retrospectively evaluated 20 MRI studies of the extremities in 14 children with juvenile localized scleroderma. Each imaging sequence was also given a subjective score of 0 (not useful), 1 (somewhat useful) or 2 (most useful for detecting the findings). Deep tissue involvement was detected in 65% of the imaged extremities. Fascial thickening and enhancement were seen in 50% of imaged extremities. Axial T1, axial T1 fat-suppressed (FS) contrast-enhanced and axial fluid-sensitive sequences were rated most useful. Fascial thickening and enhancement were the most commonly encountered deep tissue findings in extremity MRIs of children with juvenile localized scleroderma. Because abnormalities of the skin, subcutaneous tissues and fascia tend to run longitudinally in an affected limb, axial T1, axial fluid-sensitive and axial T1-FS contrast-enhanced sequences should be included in the imaging protocol. (orig.)

  1. Musculoskeletal MRI findings of juvenile localized scleroderma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eutsler, Eric P.; Horton, Daniel B.; Epelman, Monica; Finkel, Terri; Averill, Lauren W.

    2017-01-01

    Juvenile localized scleroderma comprises a group of autoimmune conditions often characterized clinically by an area of skin hardening. In addition to superficial changes in the skin and subcutaneous tissues, juvenile localized scleroderma may involve the deep soft tissues, bones and joints, possibly resulting in functional impairment and pain in addition to cosmetic changes. There is literature documenting the spectrum of findings for deep involvement of localized scleroderma (fascia, muscles, tendons, bones and joints) in adults, but there is limited literature for the condition in children. We aimed to document the spectrum of musculoskeletal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of both superficial and deep juvenile localized scleroderma involvement in children and to evaluate the utility of various MRI sequences for detecting those findings. Two radiologists retrospectively evaluated 20 MRI studies of the extremities in 14 children with juvenile localized scleroderma. Each imaging sequence was also given a subjective score of 0 (not useful), 1 (somewhat useful) or 2 (most useful for detecting the findings). Deep tissue involvement was detected in 65% of the imaged extremities. Fascial thickening and enhancement were seen in 50% of imaged extremities. Axial T1, axial T1 fat-suppressed (FS) contrast-enhanced and axial fluid-sensitive sequences were rated most useful. Fascial thickening and enhancement were the most commonly encountered deep tissue findings in extremity MRIs of children with juvenile localized scleroderma. Because abnormalities of the skin, subcutaneous tissues and fascia tend to run longitudinally in an affected limb, axial T1, axial fluid-sensitive and axial T1-FS contrast-enhanced sequences should be included in the imaging protocol. (orig.)

  2. Musculoskeletal MRI findings of juvenile localized scleroderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eutsler, Eric P; Horton, Daniel B; Epelman, Monica; Finkel, Terri; Averill, Lauren W

    2017-04-01

    Juvenile localized scleroderma comprises a group of autoimmune conditions often characterized clinically by an area of skin hardening. In addition to superficial changes in the skin and subcutaneous tissues, juvenile localized scleroderma may involve the deep soft tissues, bones and joints, possibly resulting in functional impairment and pain in addition to cosmetic changes. There is literature documenting the spectrum of findings for deep involvement of localized scleroderma (fascia, muscles, tendons, bones and joints) in adults, but there is limited literature for the condition in children. We aimed to document the spectrum of musculoskeletal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of both superficial and deep juvenile localized scleroderma involvement in children and to evaluate the utility of various MRI sequences for detecting those findings. Two radiologists retrospectively evaluated 20 MRI studies of the extremities in 14 children with juvenile localized scleroderma. Each imaging sequence was also given a subjective score of 0 (not useful), 1 (somewhat useful) or 2 (most useful for detecting the findings). Deep tissue involvement was detected in 65% of the imaged extremities. Fascial thickening and enhancement were seen in 50% of imaged extremities. Axial T1, axial T1 fat-suppressed (FS) contrast-enhanced and axial fluid-sensitive sequences were rated most useful. Fascial thickening and enhancement were the most commonly encountered deep tissue findings in extremity MRIs of children with juvenile localized scleroderma. Because abnormalities of the skin, subcutaneous tissues and fascia tend to run longitudinally in an affected limb, axial T1, axial fluid-sensitive and axial T1-FS contrast-enhanced sequences should be included in the imaging protocol.

  3. Effects of herring gulls and great black-backed gulls on breeding piping plovers, South Monomoy Island, Massachusetts. Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, S.E.; Fraser, J.D.; Buckley, P.A.

    2002-01-01

    The large population of breeding herring gulls and great black-backed gulls on South Monomoy Island, Cape Cod, Massachusetts has been thought to negatively affect the breeding success of the threatened piping plover. Following the Piping Plover Recovery Plan's call for gull colonies to be removed from piping plover breeding sites, in 1996, the USFWS conducted gull removal on part of South Monomoy Island. We determined relative gull abundance on South Monomoy Island from 1998-2000 by counting gulls within 100-m radius plots located on the shoreline. We quantified piping plover behavior and habitat use by conducting instantaneous and 5-minute behavioral observations. We quantified characteristics of piping plover nesting habitat by measuring characteristics along random transects. We measured gull abundance, beach width, and prey abundance, and then used logistic regression to determine what habitat characteristics influenced piping plover nesting area selection. We monitored piping plover reproductive success and population fluctuations on South Monomoy Island. Gull abundance in the gull-removal area was lower than gull abundance in the reference area throughout the piping plover breeding season. The difference in gull abundance between the areas did not affect piping plover behavior, nest success, chick survival, or productivity. We found that gull removal did not result in an increased piping plover population on the island. In both management areas, prenesting plovers preferred to forage in moist substrate habitats. Wide backshore and open vegetation habitats characterized nesting areas. Broods spent most of their time foraging and preferred moist substrate habitats when available. Plovers were not prevented from occupying more suitable habitat by large gulls. Fewer large gulls were observed near prenesting plovers, plover nests, and plover broods than near random plots. Fewer large gulls were observed in plover nesting areas than in unused areas when the nesting

  4. Growth performance and survival of larval Atlantic herring, under the combined effects of elevated temperatures and CO2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Sswat

    Full Text Available In the coming decades, environmental change like warming and acidification will affect life in the ocean. While data on single stressor effects on fish are accumulating rapidly, we still know relatively little about interactive effects of multiple drivers. Of particular concern in this context are the early life stages of fish, for which direct effects of increased CO2 on growth and development have been observed. Whether these effects are further modified by elevated temperature was investigated here for the larvae of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus, a commercially important fish species. Over a period of 32 days, larval survival, growth in size and weight, and instantaneous growth rate were assessed in a crossed experimental design of two temperatures (10°C and 12°C with two CO2 levels (400 μatm and 900 μatm CO2 at food levels mimicking natural levels using natural prey. Elevated temperature alone led to increased swimming activity, as well as decreased survival and instantaneous growth rate (Gi. The comparatively high sensitivity to elevated temperature in this study may have been influenced by low food levels offered to the larvae. Larval size, Gi and swimming activity were not affected by CO2, indicating tolerance of this species to projected "end of the century" CO2 levels. A synergistic effect of elevated temperature and CO2 was found for larval weight, where no effect of elevated CO2 concentrations was detected in the 12°C treatment, but a negative CO2 effect was found in the 10°C treatment. Contrasting CO2 effects were found for survival between the two temperatures. Under ambient CO2 conditions survival was increased at 12°C compared to 10°C. In general, CO2 effects were minor and considered negligible compared to the effect of temperature under these mimicked natural food conditions. These findings emphasize the need to include biotic factors such as energy supply via prey availability in future studies on interactive

  5. 76 FR 33641 - Safety Zone; The Pacific Grove Feast of Lanterns, Fireworks Display, Pacific Grove, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-09

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; The Pacific Grove Feast of Lanterns, Fireworks Display, Pacific Grove, CA AGENCY... support of the Pacific Grove Feast of Lanterns Fireworks Display. This safety zone is established to... Purpose Pacific Grove Feast of Lanterns will sponsor the Pacific Grove Feast of Lanterns Fireworks Display...

  6. Ecosystem scale acoustic sensing reveals humpback whale behavior synchronous with herring spawning processes and re-evaluation finds no effect of sonar on humpback song occurrence in the Gulf of Maine in fall 2006.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Gong

    Full Text Available We show that humpback-whale vocalization behavior is synchronous with peak annual Atlantic herring spawning processes in the Gulf of Maine. With a passive, wide-aperture, densely-sampled, coherent hydrophone array towed north of Georges Bank in a Fall 2006 Ocean Acoustic Waveguide Remote Sensing (OAWRS experiment, vocalizing whales could be instantaneously detected and localized over most of the Gulf of Maine ecosystem in a roughly 400-km diameter area by introducing array gain, of 18 dB, orders of magnitude higher than previously available in acoustic whale sensing. With humpback-whale vocalizations consistently recorded at roughly 2000/day, we show that vocalizing humpbacks (i were overwhelmingly distributed along the northern flank of Georges Bank, coinciding with the peak spawning time and location of Atlantic herring, and (ii their overall vocalization behavior was strongly diurnal, synchronous with the formation of large nocturnal herring shoals, with a call rate roughly ten-times higher at night than during the day. Humpback-whale vocalizations were comprised of (1 highly diurnal non-song calls, suited to hunting and feeding behavior, and (2 songs, which had constant occurrence rate over a diurnal cycle, invariant to diurnal herring shoaling. Before and during OAWRS survey transmissions: (a no vocalizing whales were found at Stellwagen Bank, which had negligible herring populations, and (b a constant humpback-whale song occurrence rate indicates the transmissions had no effect on humpback song. These measurements contradict the conclusions of Risch et al. Our analysis indicates that (a the song occurrence variation reported in Risch et al. is consistent with natural causes other than sonar, (b the reducing change in song reported in Risch et al. occurred days before the sonar survey began, and (c the Risch et al. method lacks the statistical significance to draw the conclusions of Risch et al. because it has a 98-100% false-positive rate

  7. Pacific Northwest regional AGU meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyndman, Roy

    The 27th Annual Pacific Northwest Regional American Geophysical Union Meeting, held September 25 and 26, 1980, was hosted by the Pacific Geoscience Centre at the Institute of Ocean Sciences, near Victoria, British Columbia. A total of 79 papers was presented to the 150 registrants in six general sessions: seismology; electromagnetic induction; general geophysics; volcanology; hydrology; and oceanography, and in three special symposia: ‘The Queen Charlotte-Fairweather fault system and other active faults of the Pacific Northwest’ ‘Coastal circulation in the northeast Pacific’ and ‘Studies of the eruption of Mount St. Helens.’

  8. Orofacial pain, jaw function, and temporomandibular disorders in adult women with a history of juvenile chronic arthritis or persistent juvenile chronic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakke, M.; Zak, M.; Jensen, B.L.

    2001-01-01

    Orofacial pain, jaw function, temporomandibular disorders, adult women persistent juvenil chronic arthritis......Orofacial pain, jaw function, temporomandibular disorders, adult women persistent juvenil chronic arthritis...

  9. Effect of Multiple Turbine Passage on Juvenile Snake River Salmonid Survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, Kenneth D.; Anderson, James J.; Vucelick, Jessica A.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes a study conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to identify populations of migrating juvenile salmonids with a potential to be impacted by repeated exposure to turbine passage conditions. This study is part of a research program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Wind/Hydropower Program. The program's goal is to increase hydropower generation and capacity while enhancing environmental performance. Our study objective is to determine whether the incremental effects of turbine passage during downstream migration impact populations of salmonids. When such a potential is found to exist, a secondary objective is to determine what level of effect of passing multiple turbines is required to decrease the number of successful migrants by 10%. This information will help identify whether future laboratory or field studies are feasible and design those studies to address conditions that present the greatest potential to improve dam survival and thus benefit fish and power generation

  10. Western Pacific Typhoon Aircraft Fixes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Western Pacific typhoon aircraft reconnaissance data from the years 1946 - 1965 and 1978, excluding 1952, were transcribed from original documents, or copy of...

  11. Acupuntura em adolescentes com fibromialgia juvenil Acupuntura en adolescentes con fibromialgia juvenil Acupuncture in adolescents with juvenile fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marialda Höfling P. Dias

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a utilização da acupuntura em adolescentes com fibromialgia juvenil. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo realizado em pacientes com fibromialgia juvenil (critérios do Colégio Americano de Reumatologia submetidos a, pelo menos, 11 sessões semanais de acupuntura. As avaliações antes e após acupuntura incluíram dados demográficos, características da dor musculoesquelética, número de pontos dolorosos (NPD, escala visual analógica (EVA de dor, algiometria e índice miálgico (IM. Durante o estudo, os pacientes puderam usar analgésicos, amitriptilina e foram orientados a praticar atividade física aeróbica. Os resultados antes e após acupuntura foram comparados pelo teste não paramétrico de Wilcoxon. RESULTADOS: Dos 38 pacientes com fibromialgia juvenil acompanhados em oito anos consecutivos, 13 tinham todas as informações nos prontuários e nas fichas de acupuntura e foram avaliados. Destes 13, sete obtiveram melhora nos três parâmetros analisados (número de pontos dolorosos, EVA de dor e IM. As medianas do número de pontos dolorosos e da EVA de dor foram significativamente maiores antes do tratamento quando comparados ao final do tratamento com as sessões de acupuntura [14 (11-18 versus 10 (0-15, p=0,005; 6 (2-10 versus 3 (0-10, p=0,045; respectivamente]. Em contraste, a mediana do IM foi significativamente menor antes do tratamento [3,4 (2,49-4,39 versus 4,2 (2,71-5,99, p=0,02]. Nenhum dos pacientes com fibromialgia juvenil apresentou eventos adversos associados à acupuntura. CONCLUSÕES: Acupuntura é uma modalidade de Medicina Tradicional Chinesa que pode ser utilizada nos pacientes pediátricos com fibromialgia. Futuros estudos controlados serão necessários.OBJETIVO: Describir el uso de acupuntura en adolescentes con fibromialgia juvenil. MÉTODOS: Estudio retrospectivo realizado en pacientes con fibromialgia juvenil (criterios del Colegio Americano de Reumatología sometidos a al menos 11 sesiones

  12. Heritability of body weight and resistance to ammonia in the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjia; Lu, Xia; Luan, Sheng; Luo, Kun; Sui, Juan; Kong, Jie

    2016-09-01

    Ammonia, toxic to aquaculture organisms, represents a potential problem in aquaculture systems, and the situation is exacerbated in closed and intensive shrimp farming operations, expecially for Litopenaeus vannamei. Assessing the potential for the genetic improvement of resistance to ammonia in L. vannamei requires knowledge of the genetic parameters of this trait. The heritability of resistance to ammonia was estimated using two descriptors in the present study: the survival time (ST) and the survival status at half lethal time (SS50) for each individual under high ammonia challenge. The heritability of ST and SS50 were low (0.154 4±0.044 6 and 0.147 5±0.040 0, respectively), but they were both significantly different from zero ( P0.05), suggesting that ST and SS50 could be used as suitable indicators for resistance to ammonia. There were also positive phenotypic and genetic correlation between resistance to ammonia and body weight, which means that resistance to ammonia can be enhanced by the improvement of husbandry practices that increase the body weight. The results from the present study suggest that the selection for higher body weight does not have any negative consequences for resistance to ammonia. In addition to quantitative genetics, tools from molecular genetics can be applied to selective breeding programs to improve the efficiency of selection for traits with low heritability.

  13. Wave energy: a Pacific perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paasch, Robert; Ruehl, Kelley; Hovland, Justin; Meicke, Stephen

    2012-01-28

    This paper illustrates the status of wave energy development in Pacific rim countries by characterizing the available resource and introducing the region's current and potential future leaders in wave energy converter development. It also describes the existing licensing and permitting process as well as potential environmental concerns. Capabilities of Pacific Ocean testing facilities are described in addition to the region's vision of the future of wave energy.

  14. Reducing Maori and Pacific Inequalities

    OpenAIRE

    The Treasury

    2001-01-01

    Over the last fifty years the Maori and non-Maori populations have slowly and unevenly become more similar on a range of key demographic, social and economic outcomes. This has principally been driven by increased geographic and social proximity between the two groups. There is evidence that similar processes may be operating for migrant peoples from the Pacific. Many Maori and Pacific people do better than the population median. Conversely, on most outcomes, a much greater number of people o...

  15. 76 FR 6402 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ... Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Pacific Council) Groundfish Essential Fish Habitat Review Committee... review of Essential Fish Habitat (EFH) descriptions for Pacific Coast groundfish species. Major topics of...

  16. Impact of juvenile idiopathic arthritis on schooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouaddi Ilham

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA is the most common arthropathy of childhood. Different diseases affect school attendance to varying degrees. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA on Moroccan children’s schooling. Methods Thirty-three children with JIA were included in this study, having been previously diagnosed according to the classification criteria of the International League of Associations for Rheumatology (ILAR. Seventy-four healthy children were recruited to serve as controls. Data was obtained for all children on their school level, educational performance, and attendance. The rate of absenteeism due to health complications was noted. Results All healthy children were able to attend school (p Conclusions Our study suggested that the schooling of children with JIA was negatively impacted due to the disorder. More studies, with a larger sample of children, are needed to confirm our findings.

  17. Bacteriological study of juvenile periodontitis in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, N M; Xiao, X R; Zhang, L S; Ri, X Q; Zhang, J Z; Tong, Y H; Yang, M R; Xiao, Z R

    1991-09-01

    The predominant cultivable bacteria associated with juvenile periodontitis (JP) in China were studied for the first time. Subgingival plaque samples were taken on paper points from 23 diseased sites in 15 JP patients and from 7 healthy sites in 7 control subjects. Serially diluted plaque samples were plated on nonselective blood agar and on MGB agar, a selective medium for the isolation of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. Fifteen or more isolated colonies from each sample (in sequence without selection) were purified for identification. The results indicated that the microflora in healthy sulci of the 7 control subjects was significantly different from that in diseased sites of JP patients. The predominant species in healthy sulci were Streptococcus spp. and Capnocytophaga gingivalis. In JP patients, Eubacterium sp. was found in significantly higher frequency and proportion. Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans was not detected in any samples. It appears that this species is not associated with juvenile periodontitis in China.

  18. Juvenile coho salmon growth and health in streams across an urbanization gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanjer, Andrew R.; Moran, Patrick W.; Larsen, Kimberly; Wetzel, Lisa; Hansen, Adam G.; Beauchamp, David A.

    2018-01-01

    Expanding human population and urbanization alters freshwater systems through structural changes to habitat, temperature effects from increased runoff and reduced canopy cover, altered flows, and increased toxicants. Current stream assessments stop short of measuring health or condition of species utilizing these freshwater habitats and fail to link specific stressors mechanistically to the health of organisms in the stream. Juvenile fish growth integrates both external and internal conditions providing a useful indicator of habitat quality and ecosystem health. Thus, there is a need to account for ecological and environmental influences on fish growth accurately. Bioenergetics models can simulate changes in growth and consumption in response to environmental conditions and food availability to account for interactions between an organism's environmental experience and utilization of available resources. The bioenergetics approach accounts for how thermal regime, food supply, and food quality affect fish growth. This study used a bioenergetics modeling approach to evaluate the environmental factors influencing juvenile coho salmon growth among ten Pacific Northwest streams spanning an urban gradient. Urban streams tended to be warmer, have earlier emergence dates and stronger early season growth. However, fish in urban streams experienced increased stress through lower growth efficiencies, especially later in the summer as temperatures warmed, with as much as a 16.6% reduction when compared to fish from other streams. Bioenergetics modeling successfully characterized salmonid growth in small perennial streams as part of a more extensive monitoring program and provides a powerful assessment tool for characterizing mixed life-stage specific responses in urban streams.

  19. Costs of living for juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in an increasingly warming and invaded world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehne, Lauren M.; Olden, Julian D.; Duda, Jeffrey J.

    2012-01-01

    Rapid environmental change in freshwater ecosystems has created a need to understand the interactive effects of multiple stressors, with temperature and invasive predators identified as key threats to imperiled fish species. We tested the separate and interactive effects of water temperature and predation by non-native smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) on the lethal (mortality) and sublethal (behavior, physiology, and growth) effects for juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in seminatural stream channel experiments. Over 48 h trials, there was no difference in direct predation with warmer temperatures, but significant interactive effects on sublethal responses of juvenile salmon. Warmer temperatures resulted in significantly stronger and more variable antipredator responses (surface shoaling and swimming activity), while physiological indicators (plasma glucose, plasma cortisol) suggested suppression of physiological mechanisms in response to the combined stressors. These patterns corresponded with additive negative growth in predation, temperature, and combined treatments. Our results suggest that chronic increases in temperature may not increase direct predation over short periods, but can result in significant sublethal costs with negative implications for long-term development, disease resistance, and subsequent size-selective mortality of Pacific salmon.

  20. Resource requirements of the Pacific leatherback turtle population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Todd Jones

    Full Text Available The Pacific population of leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea has drastically declined in the last 25 years. This decline has been linked to incidental capture by fisheries, egg and meat harvesting, and recently, to climate variability and resource limitation. Here we couple growth rates with feeding experiments and food intake functions to estimate daily energy requirements of leatherbacks throughout their development. We then estimate mortality rates from available data, enabling us to raise food intake (energy requirements of the individual to the population level. We place energy requirements in context of available resources (i.e., gelatinous zooplankton abundance. Estimated consumption rates suggest that a single leatherback will eat upward of 1000 metric tonnes (t of jellyfish in its lifetime (range 924-1112 with the Pacific population consuming 2.1×10(6 t of jellyfish annually (range 1.0-3.7×10(6 equivalent to 4.2×10(8 megajoules (MJ (range 2.0-7.4×10(8. Model estimates suggest 2-7 yr-old juveniles comprise the majority of the Pacific leatherback population biomass and account for most of the jellyfish consumption (1.1×10(6 t of jellyfish or 2.2×10(8 MJ per year. Leatherbacks are large gelatinous zooplanktivores with consumption to biomass ratios of 96 (up to 192 if feeding strictly on low energy density Cnidarians; they, therefore, have a large capacity to impact gelatinous zooplankton landscapes. Understanding the leatherback's needs for gelatinous zooplankton, versus the availability of these resources, can help us better assess population trends and the influence of climate induced resource limitations to reproductive output.

  1. Estuarine environments as rearing habitats for juvenile Coho Salmon in contrasting south-central Alaska watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoem Neher, Tammy D.; Rosenberger, Amanda E.; Zimmerman, Christian E.; Walker, Coowe M.; Baird, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    For Pacific salmon, estuaries are typically considered transitional staging areas between freshwater and marine environments, but their potential as rearing habitat has only recently been recognized. The objectives of this study were two-fold: (1) to determine if Coho Salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch were rearing in estuarine habitats, and (2) to characterize and compare the body length, age, condition, and duration and timing of estuarine occupancy of juvenile Coho Salmon between the two contrasting estuaries. We examined use of estuary habitats with analysis of microchemistry and microstructure of sagittal otoliths in two watersheds of south-central Alaska. Juvenile Coho Salmon were classified as estuary residents or nonresidents (recent estuary immigrants) based on otolith Sr : Ca ratios and counts of daily growth increments on otoliths. The estuaries differed in water source (glacial versus snowmelt hydrographs) and in relative estuarine and watershed area. Juvenile Coho Salmon with evidence of estuary rearing were greater in body length and condition than individuals lacking evidence of estuarine rearing. Coho Salmon captured in the glacial estuary had greater variability in body length and condition, and younger age-classes predominated the catch compared with the nearby snowmelt-fed, smaller estuary. Estuary-rearing fish in the glacial estuary arrived later and remained longer (39 versus 24 d of summer growth) during the summer than did fish using the snowmelt estuary. Finally, we observed definitive patterns of overwintering in estuarine and near shore environments in both estuaries. Evidence of estuary rearing and overwintering with differences in fish traits among contrasting estuary types refute the notion that estuaries function as only staging or transitional habitats in the early life history of Coho Salmon.

  2. Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy: clinical and EEG features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S B; Petersen, K A

    1998-01-01

    We aimed to characterize the clinical profile and EEG features of 43 patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. In a retrospective design we studied the records of, and re-interviewed, 43 patients diagnosed with JME from the epilepsy clinic data base. Furthermore, available EEGs were re...... were sleep deprivation (84%), stress (70%), and alcohol consumption (51%). EEG findings included rapid spike-wave and polyspike-wave....

  3. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis-associated uveitis

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, Sarah; Sen, Ethan; Ramanan, Athimalaipet

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common rheumatic disease of childhood, with JIA-associated uveitis its most common extra-articular manifestation. JIA-associated uveitis is a potentially sight-threatening condition and thus carries a considerable risk of morbidity. The aetiology of the condition is autoimmune in nature with the predominant involvement of CD4(+) T cells. However, the underlying pathogenic mechanisms remain unclear, particularly regarding interplay between geneti...

  4. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma: Timisoara ENT Department's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovanescu, Gheorghe; Ruja, Steluta; Cotulbea, Stan

    2013-07-01

    Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a histologically benign, but very aggressive and destructive tumor found exclusively in young males. The management of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma has changed in recent years, but it still continues to be a challenge for the multidisciplinary head and neck surgical team. The purpose of this study was to review a series of 30 patients describing the treatment approach used and studying the outcome of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma in the ENT Department Timisoara, Romania for a period of 30 years. The patients were diagnosed and treated during the years 1981-2011. All patients were male. Tumors were classified using Radkowski's staging system. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging allowed for accurate diagnosis and staging of the tumors. Biopsies were not performed. Surgery represented the gold standard for treatment of juvenine nasopharyngeal angiofibroma. All patients had the tumor removed by an external approach, endoscopic surgical approach not being employed in this series of patients. All patients were treated surgically. Surgical techniques performed were: Denker-Rouge technique in 13 cases (43.33%), paralateronasal technique in 7 cases (23.33%), retropalatine technique in 5 cases (16.66%) and transpalatine technique in 5 cases (16.66%). No preoperative tumor embolization was performed. The recurrence rate was 16.66%. The follow-up period ranged from 1 year to 12 years. Management of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma remains a surgical challenge. Clinical evaluation and surgical experience are very important in selecting the proper approach. A multidisciplinary team, with an experienced surgeon and good collaboration with the anesthesiologist are needed for successful surgical treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Solitary ulcerated congenital giant juvenile xanthogranuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Yuen Ng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 3-month-old female patient with a giant ulcerated nodule over the back since birth was diagnosed as congenital giant juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG based on clinical and histopathological examination. Congenital giant JXG with ulceration at birth is a rare presentation of JXG and commonly misdiagnosed. This case emphasizes the importance of being aware of the myriad presentations of JXG in order to make a correct diagnosis and avoid unnecessary investigations or treatment.

  6. BILATERAL CHOROIDAL EXCAVATION IN JUVENILE LOCALIZED SCLERODERMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Mackenzie L; Day, Shelley

    2018-01-01

    To describe a case of bilateral choroidal excavation in a patient with juvenile localized scleroderma. Case report. An asymptomatic 12-year-old boy with localized scleroderma presented for examination and was found to have bilateral areas of choroidal excavation temporal to the fovea. Previous reports of ocular complications of localized scleroderma have primarily described adnexal and anterior segment changes. This is the second report of choroidal changes in a patient with localized scleroderma, and the first in a pediatric patient.

  7. Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy: clinical and EEG features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S B; Petersen, K A

    1998-01-01

    We aimed to characterize the clinical profile and EEG features of 43 patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. In a retrospective design we studied the records of, and re-interviewed, 43 patients diagnosed with JME from the epilepsy clinic data base. Furthermore, available EEGs were re-evaluated...... were sleep deprivation (84%), stress (70%), and alcohol consumption (51%). EEG findings included rapid spike-wave and polyspike-wave....

  8. [Social and cultural determinants of juvenile deliquency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roché, Sébastian

    2004-01-01

    Our knowledge of juvenile delinquency has progressed considerably since the early 1980s, thanks to self-reported delinquency surveys. They teach us that the determinants of delinquent behaviors among teenagers are dependent on the facility with which the offense is committed, the internal motivation (frustration in the family and school, observational learning of the use of violence in the media) and the weakness of social reactions.

  9. Pacific Studies: Quo Vadis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Holden Rønning

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Looking back to the past this paper discusses why Pacific studies and in particular Australasian studies became an area of interest in tertiary education in Europe. What subject areas initiated these studies, and how do past legacies shape the present? With cutbacks in higher education over the past two decades the future of interdisciplinary studies and the humanities looks bleak. At the same time due to global business and increased political communication across borders there is a vibrant interest in and need for such studies among businesses and students. For most Europeans the literature of settler countries, with their European legacy, makes access to ways of thought and culture easier than studies of countries with other mythological backgrounds. In today’s multicultural environment such studies can provide knowledge for an understanding of other cultures and increase tolerance of the ‘other’. Area studies have relevance to our situation in Europe with increased migrancy, not least as a result of Schengen and EU regulations.

  10. Radioangiography in diagnosis of juvenile angiofibroma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalantarov, K.D.; Anyutin, R.G.; Ashikhmina, I.G.

    1979-01-01

    To study the blood supply of juvenile angiofibroma of the nasopharynx 10 patients were examined (2 of them were examined twice). Four patients with the deseases of the nose and the nasopharynx of a nonvascular nature were in the control group. The authors used sup(99m)Tc for radioangiography. The investigations were made on the gamma-chamber ''Nuclear-Chicago'' connected to the computer ''Cina-200''. Ten patients with juvenile angiofibroma of the nasopharynx showed rapid accumulation of the radioactive substance at the site of the tumour exceeding its concentration in the carotic arteries by 4-10 times. In unilateral localization of angiofibroma, its blood supply was provided mainly through the external carotic artery at the affection site or evenly through the both external carotic arteries. The data on dynamic distribution of the radioactive substance, scintiphotograms and clinical observations allow a distinct differentiation between juvenile angiofibroma of the nasopharynx the adenoid tissue or any other tumour to determine the angiofibroma size as well as to follow the results of surgical and radiation treatment

  11. Computed tomography of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Cheong Hee; Yoo, Shi Joon; Lee, Yul; Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Man Chung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-02-15

    It is well known that computed tomography (CT) is useful in detecting accurately the location, extent, erosion and relationship of angiofibroma to surrounding structures such as pterygopalation fossa. It is well known that computed tomography (CT) is useful in detecting accurately the location, sphenoid sinus, and etc. CT of 20 patients with juvenile angiofibroma, which were examined for 5 yeas from February, 1979 to May, 1984 at Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, were retrospectively analyzed. The results were as follows: 1. All 20 patients of juvenile angiofibroma had tumors in nasopharynx and posterior nasal cavity showing homogeneously dense-enhancing soft tissue mass on CT. There was extension of the tumor from nasopharynx and posterior nasal cavity into paranasal sinus (60%, 12/20), pterygopalatine fossa (55%, 11/20), infratemporal fossa (30%, 6/20), posterior orbit (10%, 2/20) and cranial cavity (15%, 3/20). 2. Angiogrpahy usually adds little diagnostic information, but is still needed to identify the precise source of blood supply to the tumor, and to perform the pre-operative embolization. The use of CT has deferred angiography until just before surgery, permitting embolization at optimal time. 3. CT is almost always necessary to reveal accurately the full extent of the tumor, especially intracranial space in the axial and coronal planes with contrast enhancement. CT is useful both in diagnosis as a guide to angiography and in planning the adequate therapy of juvenile angiofibroma.

  12. Clinical presentation of juvenile Huntington disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruocco Heloísa H.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical presentation a group of patients with juvenile onset of Huntington disease. METHOD: All patients were interviewed following a structured clinical questioner. Patients were genotyped for the trinucleotide cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG repeat in the Huntington Disease gene. High resolution brain MRI was performed in all patients. RESULTS: We identified 4 patients with juvenile onset of disease among 50 patients with Huntington disease followed prospectively in our Neurogenetics clinic. Age at onset varied from 3 to 13 years, there were 2 boys, and 3 patients had a paternal inheritance of the disease. Expanded Huntington disease allele sizes varied from 41 to 69 trinucleotide repeats. The early onset patients presented with rigidity, bradykinesia, dystonia, dysarthria, seizures and ataxia. MRI showed severe volume loss of caudate and putamen nuclei (p=0.001 and reduced cerebral and cerebellum volumes (p=0.01. CONCLUSION: 8% of Huntington disease patients seen in our clinic had juvenile onset of the disease. They did not present with typical chorea as seen in adult onset Huntington disease. There was a predominance of rigidity and bradykinesia. Two other important clinical features were seizures and ataxia, which related with the imaging findings of early cortical atrophy and cerebellum volume loss.

  13. Sonographic diagnosis of juvenile polyps in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yao; Li, Shi-Xing; Xie, Li-Mei; Shi, Bo; Ju, Hao; Bai, Yu-Zuo; Zhang, Shu-Cheng

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of ultrasonography for juvenile polyps in children and their sonographic characteristics. A retrospective analysis was performed of the ultrasound findings in 27 children who were diagnosed preoperatively with juvenile polyp within the intestinal tract by ultrasonography and then confirmed by colonoscopy, laparotomy and histopathology. The ultrasonic finding common to all polyps was an isolated intraluminal nodular or massive protrusion, associated with multiple mesh-like fluid areas of different sizes. In 25 children, surrounding pedicle-like low echoes of varying lengths were seen connecting with the polyps to form "mushroom" sign. The color Doppler showed abundant blood flow signals within all polyps and pedicles in a shape of a branch or an umbrella. For seven children with an intussusception, the polyp shadow was detected in the cervical part or interior of the intussusception. Ultrasonography is, thus, considered to be a feasible method for diagnosing intestinal juvenile polyp. Copyright © 2012 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Estimating Common Growth Patterns in Juvenile Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha from Diverse Genetic Stocks and a Large Spatial Extent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale A L Goertler

    Full Text Available Life history variation in Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp. supports species resilience to natural disturbances and fishery exploitation. Within salmon species, life-history variation often manifests during freshwater and estuarine rearing, as variation in growth. To date, however, characterizing variability in growth patterns within and among individuals has been difficult via conventional sampling methods because of the inability to obtain repeated size measurements. In this study we related otolith microstructures to growth rates of individual juvenile Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha from the Columbia River estuary over a two-year period (2010-2012. We used dynamic factor analysis to determine whether there were common patterns in growth rates within juveniles based on their natal region, capture location habitat type, and whether they were wild or of hatchery origin. We identified up to five large-scale trends in juvenile growth rates depending on month and year of capture. We also found that hatchery fish had a narrower range of trend loadings for some capture groups, suggesting that hatchery fish do not express the same breadth of growth variability as wild fish. However, we were unable to resolve a relationship between specific growth patterns and habitat transitions. Our study exemplifies how a relatively new statistical analysis can be applied to dating or aging techniques to summarize individual variation, and characterize aspects of life history diversity.

  15. Change in Family Structure and Rates of Violent Juvenile Delinquency

    OpenAIRE

    Fry, Jeannie A

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the question: Have the changes in family structure in the U.S. become a catalyst for juvenile delinquency? For this research, I use existing statistics for my three independent variables: divorce rates, rate of working mothers with children under age 18, percent female-headed households. My dependent variable, juvenile violent crime rates, is measured using data from the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. My control variables consist of the followin...

  16. Giant Bilateral Juvenile Fibroadenoma of the Breast in Prepubescent Girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Salma; Khan, Momna; Rafique, Sadia

    2015-10-01

    Juvenile fibroadenoma accounts for 4% of the total fibroadenomas. Giant juvenile fibroadenoma is found in only 0.5% of all fibroadenomas. The authors report a 10-year girl presenting with progressive enlargement of both breasts for one year. Based on clinical findings and Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC), a diagnosis of bilateral giant juvenile fibroadenomas of breast was made. She underwent bilateral lumpectomy with breast conservation and made uneventful postoperative recovery.

  17. Atlantic Herring Acoustic Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Advanced Sampling Technologies Research Group conducts annual fisheries acoustic surveys using state-of-the-art acoustic, midwater trawling, and underwater...

  18. Red herring vaginal discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Hee; Pringle, Kirsty; Rajimwale, Ashok

    2013-09-18

    Labial hair tourniquet syndrome is a rare condition that can be easily misdiagnosed and ultimately lead to irreversible damage. An 11-year-old premenarche girl presented with a 5-day history of pain and swelling in the labia with associated vaginal discharge. The general practitioner treated her with clotrimazole without improvement. On examination, there was an oedematous swelling of the right labia with a proximal hair tourniquet. Local anaesthetic was applied and the hair removed with forceps. There was instant relief of pain and the discharge stopped within 24 h. The patient was sent home with a course of antibiotics.

  19. Argentina's nuclear red herring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perera, J.

    1983-01-01

    The article deals with Argentina's nuclear power programme over the last 30 years, including the country's efforts to be nuclear independent of the United States, as well as its aspirations to be a nuclear supplier to latin America. The latter policy on economic, rather than military grounds for nuclear weapons, has led to Argentina's decision to build a uranian enrichment plant. (U.K.)

  20. Neurofibromatosis Type 1 Diagnosed in a Child Based on Multiple Juvenile Xanthogranulomas and Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jans, Sune R R; Schomerus, Eckhard; Bygum, Anette

    2015-01-01

    An association between juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG), neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), and juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) has been described in the literature but has only been documented in approximately 20 cases. We diagnosed a patient with NF1 at 25 months of age, before any cutaneous...... with chemotherapy and allogenic bone marrow transplantation. With increased awareness, patients with JXG and NF1 who develop symptoms possibly related to JMML, such as paleness, skin bleeding, cough, unexplained fever, and hepatosplenomegaly, should be further evaluated. We also emphasize that multiple JXG lesions...

  1. Penalty responsibility of juveniles in the Republic of Srpska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grbić-Pavlović Nikolina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The youngest members of organized society, more intensive than ever enter the circle of those whose behavior is deviant. Juvenile delinquency is a social problem, which recently experienced an expansion in all modern countries, including Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Republic of Srpska. Considering the fact that juvenile delinquency includes lighter criminal conducts, such as, for example misdemeanors, in this paper a position of juveniles when they are a perpetrators of misdemeanors will be analyzed. Also, the paper will statistically show the number of misdemeanors in the field of public peace and order that juveniles conducted in the Republic of Srpska in the period 2004-2009.

  2. Growth of juvenile shrimp Metapenaeus monoceros fed with squid and mussel

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Achuthankutty, C.T.; Nair, S.R.S.; Krishnakumari, L.

    Small juveniles of both sexes and females of large juveniles of Metapenaeus monoceros attained faster growth with squid diet. Males of large juveniles registered better growth with mussel diet. No significant difference was observed in moult weights...

  3. 78 FR 17184 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... COORDINATING COUNCIL ON JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION [OJP (OJJDP) Docket No. 1620] Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention AGENCY: Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The...

  4. 75 FR 53958 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-02

    ... COORDINATING COUNCIL ON JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION [OJP (OJJDP) Docket No. 1529] Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention AGENCY: Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The...

  5. 78 FR 58288 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... COORDINATING COUNCIL ON JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION [OJP (OJJDP) Docket No. 1634] Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention AGENCY: Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The...

  6. 78 FR 65297 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... COORDINATING COUNCIL ON JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION [OJP (OJJDP) Docket No. 1637] Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention AGENCY: Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The...

  7. 78 FR 38014 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... COORDINATING COUNCIL ON JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION [OJP (OJJDP) Docket No. 1625] Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention AGENCY: Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The...

  8. 75 FR 70216 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... COORDINATING COUNCIL ON JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION [OJP (OJJDP) Docket No. 1533] Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention AGENCY: Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The...

  9. 77 FR 24687 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... COORDINATING COUNCIL ON JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION [OJP (OJJDP) Docket No. 1587] Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention AGENCY: Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The...

  10. 77 FR 3453 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... COORDINATING COUNCIL ON JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION [OJP (OJJDP) Docket No. 1581] Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention AGENCY: Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The...

  11. 77 FR 70994 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ... COORDINATING COUNCIL ON JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION [OJP (OJJDP) Docket No. 1510] Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention AGENCY: Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The...

  12. 76 FR 26280 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... COORDINATING COUNCIL ON JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION [OJP (OJJDP) Docket No. 1549] Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention AGENCY: Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The...

  13. 76 FR 61672 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... COORDINATING COUNCIL ON JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION [OJP (OJJDP) Docket No. 1570] Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention AGENCY: Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The...

  14. 76 FR 39075 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ... COORDINATING COUNCIL ON JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION [OJP (OJJDP) Docket No. 1562] Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention AGENCY: Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The...

  15. 75 FR 16177 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention [OJP (OJJDP) Docket No. 1514] Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention AGENCY: Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. ACTION: Notice of...

  16. 77 FR 50486 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... COORDINATING COUNCIL ON JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION [OJP (OJJDP) Docket No. 1601] Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention AGENCY: Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The...

  17. Adolescent neglect, juvenile delinquency and the risk of recidivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joseph P; Williams, Abigail B; Courtney, Mark E

    2013-03-01

    Victims of child abuse and neglect are at an increased risk of involvement with the juvenile justice and adult correctional systems. Yet, little is known about the continuation and trajectories of offending beyond initial contact with law enforcement. Neglect likely plays a critical role in continued offending as parental monitoring, parental rejection and family relationships are instrumental in explaining juvenile conduct problems. This study sought to determine whether neglect is associated with recidivism for moderate and high risk juvenile offenders in Washington State. Statewide risk assessments and administrative records for child welfare, juvenile justice, and adult corrections were analyzed. The sample was diverse (24 % female, 13 % African American, 8 % Hispanic, 5 % Native American) and included all moderate and high risk juvenile offenders screened by juvenile probation between 2004 and 2007 (n = 19,833). Official records from child protection were used to identify juvenile offenders with a history of child neglect and to identify juvenile offenders with an ongoing case of neglect. Event history models were developed to estimate the risk of subsequent offending. Adolescents with an ongoing case neglect were significantly more likely to continue offending as compared with youth with no official history of neglect. These findings remain even after controlling for a wide range of family, peer, academic, mental health, and substance abuse covariates. Interrupting trajectories of offending is a primary focus of juvenile justice. The findings of the current study indicate that ongoing dependency issues play a critical role in explaining the outcomes achieved for adolescents in juvenile justice settings. The implications for improved collaboration between child welfare and juvenile justice are discussed.

  18. Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Asthma Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders National data for ... very limited. While all of the causes of asthma remain unclear, children exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke ...

  19. Immunizations and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Immunizations Immunizations and Asians and Pacific Islanders Asian/Pacific Islander ... 35 months reached the Healthy People goal for immunizations for hepatitis B, MMR (measles-mumps-rubella), polio ...

  20. Pacific Northwest Salmon Habitat Project Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the Pacific Northwest Salmon Habitat Project Database Across the Pacific Northwest, both public and private agents are working to improve riverine habitat for a...

  1. Ontogeny of salinity tolerance and evidence for seawater-entry preparation in juvenile green sturgeon, Acipenser medirostris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Peter J; McEnroe, Maryann; Forostyan, Tetyana; Cole, Stephanie; Nicholl, Mary M; Hodge, Brian; Cech, Joseph J

    2011-12-01

    We measured the ontogeny of salinity tolerance and the preparatory hypo-osmoregulatory physiological changes for seawater entry in green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris), an anadromous species occurring along the Pacific Coast of North America. Salinity tolerance was measured every 2 weeks starting in 40-day post-hatch (dph) juveniles and was repeated until 100% survival at 34‰ was achieved. Fish were subjected to step increases in salinity (5‰ 12 h(-1)) that culminated in a 72-h exposure to a target salinity, and treatment groups (0, 15, 20, 25, 30, 34‰; and abrupt exposure to 34‰) were adjusted as fish developed. After 100% survival was achieved (134 dph), a second experiment tested two sizes of fish for 28-day seawater (33‰) tolerance, and gill and gastrointestinal tract tissues were sampled. Their salinity tolerance increased and plasma osmolality decreased with increasing size and age, and electron microscopy revealed three types of mitochondria-rich cells: one in fresh water and two in seawater. In addition, fish held on a natural photoperiod in fresh water at 19°C showed peaks in cortisol, thyroid hormones and gill and pyloric ceca Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activities at body sizes associated with seawater tolerance. Therefore, salinity tolerance in green sturgeon increases during ontogeny (e.g., as these juveniles may move down estuaries to the ocean) with increases in body size. Also, physiological and morphological changes associated with seawater readiness increased in freshwater-reared juveniles and peaked at their seawater-tolerant ages and body sizes. Their seawater-ready body size also matched that described for swimming performance decreases, presumably associated with downstream movements. Therefore, juvenile green sturgeon develop structures and physiological changes appropriate for seawater entry while growing in fresh water, indicating that hypo-osmoregulatory changes may proceed by multiple routes in sturgeons.

  2. Identification of marine-derived lipids in juvenile coho salmon and aquatic insects through fatty acid analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintz, Ron A.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Hudson, John P.

    2010-01-01

    The energetic benefits enjoyed by consumers in streams with salmon runs depend on how those benefits are accrued. Adult Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. deliver significant amounts of nutrients (i.e., nitrogen and phosphorus) and carbon to streams when they spawn and die; these nutrient additions can have demonstrable effects on primary production in streams. Consumption of carcass tissues or eggs provides for direct energy subsidies to consumers and may have significant effects on their condition. In this study, comparisons of juvenile coho salmon O. kisutch and aquatic insects exposed to terrestrial and marine energy sources demonstrated that direct consumption of marine-derived lipids had a significant effect on the lipid reserves of consumers. Direct consumption of marine-derived tissues was verified through fatty acid analysis. Selected aquatic insects and juvenile coho salmon were reared for 6 weeks in experimental streams supplied with terrestrial or marine energy sources. Chironomid midges, nemourid stoneflies, and juvenile coho salmon exposed to the marine energy source altered their fatty acid compositions by incorporating the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids that are characteristic of marine fish. The fatty acid composition of baetid mayflies was unaffected. The direct movement of specific fatty markers indicated that direct consumption of marine-derived tissues led to increased energy reserves (triacylglycerols) in consumers. Similar results were obtained for juvenile coho salmon sampled from natural streams before and after the arrival of adult salmon runs. These data indicate that marine-derived lipids from anadromous fish runs are an important source of reserve lipids for consumers that overwinter in streams.

  3. Spatial and temporal heterogeneity of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in Pacific Northwest salmonids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breyta, Rachel; Black, Allison; Kaufman, John; Kurath, Gael

    2016-01-01

    The aquatic rhaboviral pathogen infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) causes acute disease in juvenile fish of a number of populations of Pacific salmonid species. Heavily managed in both marine and freshwater environments, these fish species are cultured during the juvenile stage in freshwater conservation hatcheries, where IHNV is one of the top three infectious diseases that cause serious morbidity and mortality. Therefore, a comprehensive study of viral genetic surveillance data representing 2590 field isolates collected between 1958 and 2014 was conducted to determine the spatial and temporal patterns of IHNV in the Pacific Northwest of the contiguous United States. Prevalence of infection varied over time, fluctuating over a rough 5–7 year cycle. The genetic analysis revealed numerous subgroups of IHNV, each of which exhibited spatial heterogeneity. Within all subgroups, dominant genetic types were apparent, though the temporal patterns of emergence of these types varied among subgroups. Finally, the affinity or fidelity of subgroups to specific host species also varied, where UC subgroup viruses exhibited a more generalist profile and all other subgroups exhibited a specialist profile. These complex patterns are likely synergistically driven by numerous ecological, pathobiological, and anthropogenic factors. Since only a few anthropogenic factors are candidates for managed intervention aimed at improving the health of threatened or endangered salmonid fish populations, determining the relative impact of these factors is a high priority for future studies.

  4. Performance Assessment of Bi-Directional Knotless Tissue-Closure Devices in Juvenile Chinook Salmon Surgically Implanted with Acoustic Transmitters, 2009 - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodley, Christa M.; Wagner, Katie A.; Bryson, Amanda J.

    2012-11-09

    The purpose of this report is to assess the performance of bi-directional knotless tissue-closure devices for use in tagging juvenile salmon. This study is part of an ongoing effort at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to reduce unwanted effects of tags and tagging procedures on the survival and behavior of juvenile salmonids, by assessing and refining suturing techniques, suture materials, and tag burdens. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of the knotless (barbed) suture, using three different suture patterns (treatments: 6-point, Wide “N”, Wide “N” Knot), to the current method of suturing (MonocrylTM monofilament, discontinuous sutures with a 2×2×2×2 knot) used in monitoring and research programs with a novel antiseptic barrier on the wound (“Second Skin”).

  5. Dislipidemia em pacientes com dermatomiosite juvenil

    OpenAIRE

    Katia Tomie Kozu

    2012-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Avaliar a presença de dislipidemia em pacientes com dermatomiosite juvenil (DMJ) e seus possíveis fatores de risco. MÉTODO: 25 pacientes com DMJ foram comparados a 25 controles de acordo com dados demográficos, composição corporal, perfil lipídico, glicêmico, autoanticorpos e enzimas musculares. Foram avaliados os instrumentos de atividade da DMJ: Disease Activity Score (DAS), Childhood Myositis Assessment Scale (CMAS), Manual Muscle Testing (MMT), Myositis Disease Activity Assessme...

  6. CYCLOSPORIN A IN THERAPY FOR JUVENILE ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E S Fedorov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes approaches to using cyclosporin A (CsA in juvenile arthritis (JA. It shows the benefits of combination basic therapy with CsA and methotrexate included into a treatment regimen mainly for systemic JA and JA involving the eye (uveitis versus monotherapy with the above drugs. Attention is drawn to that the oral dose of glucocorticoids may be decreased when CsA is incorporated into the treatment regimen. CsA is shown to be of value as the drug of choice for the therapy of such a menacing complication of systemic JA as the macrophage activation syndrome

  7. Causas e importancia del desempleo juvenil

    OpenAIRE

    Vila Gómez, Juan Francisco

    1985-01-01

    A la hora de estudiar el problema del desempleo juvenil no hay que tener en cuenta solamente las causas de este problema; su conocimiento y análisis es importante para los encargados de las tomas de decisiones, planificadores y educadores. En el caso de España -y de la Comunidad Valenciana-, este problema se explica por la crisis económica de 1975, el Baby-Boom de los sesenta, la falta de relación entre los programas de enseñanza y demanda laboral, el proceso de innovación tecnológica y sus r...

  8. General herpetological collecting is size-based for five Pacific lizards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, Gordon H.; Yackel Adams, Amy A.; Campbell, Earl W.; Fritts, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate estimation of a species’ size distribution is a key component of characterizing its ecology, evolution, physiology, and demography. We compared the body size distributions of five Pacific lizards (Carlia ailanpalai, Emoia caeruleocauda, Gehyra mutilata, Hemidactylus frenatus, and Lepidodactylus lugubris) from general herpetological collecting (including visual surveys and glue boards) with those from complete censuses obtained by total removal. All species exhibited the same pattern: general herpetological collecting undersampled juveniles and oversampled mid-sized adults. The bias was greatest for the smallest juveniles and was not statistically evident for newly maturing and very large adults. All of the true size distributions of these continuously breeding species were skewed heavily toward juveniles, more so than the detections obtained from general collecting. A strongly skewed size distribution is not well characterized by the mean or maximum, though those are the statistics routinely reported for species’ sizes. We found body mass to be distributed more symmetrically than was snout–vent length, providing an additional rationale for collecting and reporting that size measure.

  9. First record of hybridization between green Chelonia mydas and hawksbill Eretmochelys imbricata sea turtles in the Southeast Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaleyla Kelez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Hybridization among sea turtle species has been widely reported in the Atlantic Ocean, but their detection in the Pacific Ocean is limited to just two individual hybrid turtles, in the northern hemisphere. Herein, we report, for the first time in the southeast Pacific, the presence of a sea turtle hybrid between the green turtle Chelonia mydas and the hawksbill turtle Eretmochelys imbricata. This juvenile sea turtle was captured in northern Peru (4°13′S; 81°10′W on the 5th of January, 2014. The individual exhibited morphological characteristics of C. mydas such as dark green coloration, single pair of pre-frontal scales, four post-orbital scales, and mandibular median ridge, while the presence of two claws in each frontal flipper, and elongated snout resembled the features of E. imbricata. In addition to morphological evidence, we confirmed the hybrid status of this animal using genetic analysis of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I, which revealed that the hybrid individual resulted from the cross between a female E. imbricata and a male C. mydas. Our report extends the geographical range of occurrence of hybrid sea turtles in the Pacific Ocean, and is a significant observation of interspecific breeding between one of the world’s most critically endangered populations of sea turtles, the east Pacific E. imbricata, and a relatively healthy population, the east Pacific C. mydas.

  10. South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-02-01

    The full text of the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty with its Annexes endorsed on 6 August 1985 by the South Pacific Forum (a body comprising the independent and self-governing countries of the South Pacific, namely Australia, the Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, New Zealand, Nive, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu and Western Samoa) is presented

  11. South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-02-01

    On 6 August 1985 the South Pacific Forum, a body comprising the independent and self-governing countries of the South Pacific (Australia, the Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, New Zealand, Niue, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu and Western Samoa), endorsed the text of the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty and opened it for signature [es

  12. South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-02-01

    On 6 August 1985 the South Pacific Forum, a body comprising the independent and self-governing countries of the South Pacific (Australia, the Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, New Zealand, Niue, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu and Western Samoa), endorsed the text of the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty and opened it for signature [ru

  13. Pacific Rim log trade: determinants and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald F. Flora; Andrea L. Anderson; Wendy J. McGinnls

    1991-01-01

    Pacific Rim trade in softwood logs amounts to about $3 billion annually, of which the U.S. share is about $2 billion. Log exporting is a significant part of the forest economy in the Pacific Northwest. The 10 major Pacific Rim log-trading client and competitor countries differ widely in their roles in trade and in their policies affecting the industry.

  14. Catch rate of juveniles Ethamatosa fimbriata , Sardinella maderensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We collected data on the quantity of juvenile fish and the daily duration of fishing trips in four landing sites over a two-week period Bernoulli random variables and properties of uniform distribution were used to analyze the data. Catch rates of juveniles Ethamatosa fimbriata, Sardinella maderensis, and Brachydeuterus ...

  15. Spatial dynamics of juvenile anchovy in the Bay of Biscay

    KAUST Repository

    Boyra, Guillermo; Peñ a, Marian; Cotano, Unai; Irigoien, Xabier; Rubio, Anna; Nogueira, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    In autumn 2009, the implementation of two successive acoustic surveys targeting juvenile anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) in the Bay of Biscay allowed us to monitor the changes in the spatial distribution and aggregation patterns of juveniles of this species during 45 days under fairly stable meteorological conditions. Juvenile anchovy changed its biological condition and behavior in a different manner in two distinct areas. In the Spanish sector, the juveniles migrated 20 nautical miles (n.mi.) towards the coast, but they remained on the shelf and near the surface during the whole surveyed period. As the advance towards the shelf break progressed, their area of distribution decreased, their density increased and the juveniles spread in fewer but heavier shoals. In the French sector, the juveniles also migrated from slope waters towards the coast at a similar velocity, but they crossed the shelf break into the continental shelf, where they increased their mean depth significantly until gradually adopting the typical nyctemeral migrations of adult anchovy. The mean length of the juveniles that adopted the nyctemeral migrations was significantly higher than that of the juveniles remaining at the surface, suggesting that body size is relevant to accomplish this change. Besides, the stronger temperature gradients between the shelf and oceanic waters in the Spanish sector, favored by a narrow shelf, may have acted as a barrier influencing the distinct observed spatial patterns in the two areas. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd

  16. Psychotic Symptomatology in a Juvenile Court Clinic Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Dorothy Otnow; And Others

    1973-01-01

    This report indicating an unexpectedly high incidence of psychotic symptomatology in a population of cases referred to the Juvenile Court Psychiatric Clinic of the Second District of Connecticut, manifests the necessity for juvenile court systems to be made aware of the possibility of psychosis in our delinquent populations. (CS)

  17. Spatial dynamics of juvenile anchovy in the Bay of Biscay

    KAUST Repository

    Boyra, Guillermo

    2016-07-08

    In autumn 2009, the implementation of two successive acoustic surveys targeting juvenile anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) in the Bay of Biscay allowed us to monitor the changes in the spatial distribution and aggregation patterns of juveniles of this species during 45 days under fairly stable meteorological conditions. Juvenile anchovy changed its biological condition and behavior in a different manner in two distinct areas. In the Spanish sector, the juveniles migrated 20 nautical miles (n.mi.) towards the coast, but they remained on the shelf and near the surface during the whole surveyed period. As the advance towards the shelf break progressed, their area of distribution decreased, their density increased and the juveniles spread in fewer but heavier shoals. In the French sector, the juveniles also migrated from slope waters towards the coast at a similar velocity, but they crossed the shelf break into the continental shelf, where they increased their mean depth significantly until gradually adopting the typical nyctemeral migrations of adult anchovy. The mean length of the juveniles that adopted the nyctemeral migrations was significantly higher than that of the juveniles remaining at the surface, suggesting that body size is relevant to accomplish this change. Besides, the stronger temperature gradients between the shelf and oceanic waters in the Spanish sector, favored by a narrow shelf, may have acted as a barrier influencing the distinct observed spatial patterns in the two areas. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd

  18. Social skills training for juvenile delinquents : post-treatment changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Stouwe, Trudy; Asscher, Jessica J.; Hoeve, Machteld; van der Laan, Peter H.; Stams, Geert Jan J M

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the post-treatment effectiveness of an outpatient, individual social skills training for juvenile delinquents in the Netherlands and to conduct moderator tests for age, gender, ethnicity, and risk of reoffending. Methods: The sample consisted of juveniles who received Tools4U,

  19. Social Skills Training for Juvenile Delinquents: Post-Treatment Changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Stouwe, Trudy; Asscher, J.J.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Hoeve, M.; van der Laan, Peter H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the post-treatment effectiveness of an outpatient, individual social skills training for juvenile delinquents in the Netherlands and to conduct moderator tests for age, gender, ethnicity, and risk of reoffending. Methods: The sample consisted of juveniles who received Tools4U,

  20. Social skills training for juvenile delinquents : Post-treatment changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Stouwe, T.; Asscher, J.J.; Hoeve, M.; van der Laan, P.H.; Stams, G.J.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the post-treatment effectiveness of an outpatient, individual social skills training for juvenile delinquents in the Netherlands and to conduct moderator tests for age, gender, ethnicity, and risk of reoffending. Methods The sample consisted of juveniles who received Tools4U, a