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Sample records for juvenile olive flounder

  1. Effects of extruded pellet and moist pellet on growth performance, body composition, and hematology of juvenile olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

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    Seunghan Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of two different sizes of extruded pellets (EP (EP1 - 3 mm or EP2 - 5 mm and a moist pellet (MP in olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, reared in semi-recirculation system. A total of 450 fish with an average initial weight of 5.0 ± 0.2 g (mean ± SD were fed one of the three experimental diets in triplicate groups. At the end of a 6-week feeding trial, weight gain, specific growth rate, and feed efficiency of fish fed EP diets were significantly higher than those of fish fed MP (P < 0.05. Water quality parameters like turbidity, total ammonia nitrogen, and total phosphorous from tanks of fish fed EP1 and EP2 were significantly lower than those from tanks of fish fed MP. Blood plasma glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and glucose concentration were significantly higher in fish fed MP diet compared to fish fed EP diets (P < 0.05. Whole body crude protein contents in fish fed EP diets were higher than those from the fish fed MP diet. Whole body amino acid content like threonine, aspartic acid, serine, tyrosine, and cystine were found to be significantly higher in fish fed EP diets than those in fish fed MP diet. In considering overall performance of olive flounder, EP2 diet could be recommended for the successful aquaculture of this important fish species.

  2. Effects of dietary supplementation of citrus by-products fermented with a probiotic microbe on growth performance, innate immunity and disease resistance against Edwardsiella tarda in juvenile olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus (Temminck & Schlegel).

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    Lee, B-J; Kim, S-S; Song, J-W; Oh, D-H; Cha, J-H; Jeong, J-B; Heo, M-S; Kim, K-W; Lee, K-J

    2013-07-01

    Two consecutive studies were conducted to evaluate the dietary supplementation of citrus by-products (CB) fermented with probiotic bacteria on growth performance, feed utilization, innate immune responses and disease resistance of juvenile olive flounder. In Experiment I, five diets were formulated to contain 0% (control) or 3% four different CB fermented with Bacillus subtilis (BS), Enterococcus faecium (EF), Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LR) and L. plantarum (LP) (designated as CON, CBF-BS, CBF-EF, CBF-LR and CBF-LP, respectively). During 10 weeks of a feeding trial, growth performance and feed efficiency were not significantly different among all the fish groups. However, fish fed CBF containing diets had significantly higher survivals than the CON group. Disease resistance of fish against Edwardsiella tarda was increased by the fermentation of CB. In Experiment II, we chose the BS as a promising probiotic and formulated five diets to contain 0%, 2%, 4%, 6% and 8% CBF-BS. Growth performance was not significantly affected by the CBF-BS supplementation during 6 weeks of a feeding trial. Innate immunity of fish was significantly enhanced by CBF-BS supplementation. Myeloperoxidase and lysozyme activities were increased in a dose-dependent manner by dietary CBF-BS inclusions. In a consecutive challenge test against E. tarda, an increased disease resistance was found by CBF-BS supplementation. These studies indicate that the fermentation process of CB with probiotic has beneficial effects on innate immunity and thereby increases disease resistance of olive flounder against E. tarda. Bacillus subtilis can be used as a promising probiotic microbe for by-product fermentation in fish feeds.

  3. Hybrids between olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus and stone flounder Kareius bicoloratus: karyotype, allozyme and RAPD analyses

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    You, Feng; Wang, Wei; Xu, Dongdong; Zhu, Xiangping; Ni, Jing; Wu, Zhihao; Xu, Yongli; Wang, Xincheng; Zhang, Peijun

    2009-05-01

    The hybrid between olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus and stone flounder Kareius bicoloratus was produced by artificial insemination of olive flounder eggs with stone flounder sperm. Sinistral and dextral are two types of hybrid progeny after metamorphosis. Karyotypes of both hybrid flounders are the same as those of the two parental species. Of the 22 loci examined from 12 allozymes, 12 confirmed hybridization of the paternal and maternal loci in hybrids and no difference was found in allozyme patterns of sinistral and dextral hybrid fishes. RAPD patterns of these specimens were also studied with 38 primers selected from 104 tested. Among them, the PCR products of 30 primers showed hybridization of the paternal and maternal bands. Genetic variation between hybrids and their parental stocks was analyzed by RAPD using 10 of the above 38 primers. The average heterozygosity and genetic distance were calculated. The results suggested that the filial generation could inherit a little more genetic materials from paternal fish than that from maternal fish.

  4. Hybrids between olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus and stone flounder Kareius bicoloratus: karyotype, allozyme and RAPD analyses

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    YOU Feng; WANG Wei; XU Dongdong; ZHU Xiangping; NI Jing; WU Zhihao; XU Yongli; WANG Xincheng; ZHANG Peijun

    2009-01-01

    The hybrid between olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus and stone flounder Kareius bicoloratus was produced by artificial insemination of olive flounder eggs with stone flounder Sperm. Sinistral and dextral are two types of hybrid progeny after metamorphosis. Karyotypes of both hybrid flounders are the same as those of the two parental species. Of the 22 loci examined from 12 allozymes,12 confirmed hybridization of the paternal and matemal loci in hybrids and no difference was found in allozyme patterns of sinistral and dextral hybrid fishes. RAPD patterns of these specimens were also studied with 38 primers selected from 104 tested. Among them, the PCR products of 30 primers showed hybridization of the paternal and maternal bands. Genetic variation between hybrids and their parental stocks was analyzed by RAPD using 10 of the above 38 primers. The average heterozygosity and genetic distance were calculated. The results suggested that the filial generation could inherit a little more genetic materials from paternal fish than that from maternal fish.

  5. Transcriptional responses of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus to low temperature.

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    Jinwei Hu

    Full Text Available The olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus is an economically important flatfish in marine aquaculture with a broad thermal tolerance ranging from 14 to 23°C. Cold-tolerant flounder that can survive during the winter season at a temperature of less than 14°C might facilitate the understanding of the mechanisms underlying the response to cold stress. In this study, the transcriptional response of flounder to cold stress (0.7±0.05°C was characterized using RNA sequencing. Transcriptome sequencing was performed using the Illumina MiSeq platform for the cold-tolerant (CT group, which survived under the cold stress; the cold-sensitive (CS group, which could barely survive at the low temperature; and control group, which was not subjected to cold treatment. In all, 29,021 unigenes were generated. Compared with the unigene expression profile of the control group, 410 unigenes were up-regulated and 255 unigenes were down-regulated in the CT group, whereas 593 unigenes were up-regulated and 289 unigenes were down-regulated in the CS group. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analyses revealed that signal transduction, lipid metabolism, digestive system, and signaling molecules and interaction were the most highly enriched pathways for the genes that were differentially expressed under cold stress. All these pathways could be assigned to the following four biological functions for flounder that can survive under cold stress: signal response to cold stress, cell repair/regeneration, energy production, and cell membrane construction and fluidity.

  6. Effect of dietary carbohydrate sources on apparent nutrient digestibility of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus feed

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    Md Mostafizur Rahman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs of dry matter, crude protein, crude lipid, nitrogen-free extract, and energy in selected carbohydrate sources including wheat flour (WF, α-potato starch (PS, α-corn starch (CS, Na alginate (AL, dextrin (DEX, and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC were determined for olive flounder. The olive flounder averaging 150 ± 8.0 g were held in 300-L tanks at a density of 30 fish per tank. Chromic oxide was used as the inert marker. Feces were collected from the flounder by a fecal collector attached to a fish rearing tank. Apparent dry matter and energy digestibilities of flounder fed WF, PS, CS, and DEX diets were significantly higher than those of fish fed AL and CMC diets. Apparent crude protein digestibility coefficients of flounder fed PS and CS diets were significantly higher than those of fish fed AL, DEX, and CMC diets. Apparent crude lipid and nitrogen-free extract digestibility coefficients of flounder fed PS and DEX diets were significantly higher than those of fish fed WF, CS, AL, and CMC diets. The present findings indicate that PS and DEX could be effectively used as dietary carbohydrate energy compared to WF, CS, AL, and CMC for olive flounder.

  7. Characterization, tissue distribution, and expression of neuropeptide Y in olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus

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    Wang, Qian; Tan, Xungang; Du, Shaojun; Sun, Wei; You, Feng; Zhang, Peijun

    2015-05-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a 36-amino acid peptide of the neuropeptide Y family that plays key roles in the regulation of food intake. In this study, we focused on NPY mRNA expression changes around feeding time and during food deprivation in olive flounder. The olive flounder NPY mRNA levels were analyzed in different tissues and a high level of expression was detected in the brain. We also demonstrated a correlation between NPY expression levels in the brain and feeding schedule. NPY expression levels in olive flounder maintained on a daily scheduled feeding regimen increased shortly before feeding and decreased after the scheduled feeding time. Compared with the -1 h group before feeding, NPY expression in the 3 h group after feeding decreased significantly ( PNPY mRNA levels in the 24 h fasted group ( PNPY expression is associated with food intake in olive flounder. This result reveals the function of NPY in regulating food intake and its potential importance in olive flounder aquaculture.

  8. Gonadal Transcriptome Analysis of Male and Female Olive Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus

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    Zhaofei Fan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus is an important commercially cultured marine flatfish in China, Korea, and Japan, of which female grows faster than male. In order to explore the molecular mechanism of flounder sex determination and development, we used RNA-seq technology to investigate transcriptomes of flounder gonads. This produced 22,253,217 and 19,777,841 qualified reads from ovary and testes, which were jointly assembled into 97,233 contigs. Among them, 23,223 contigs were mapped to known genes, of which 2,193 were predicted to be differentially expressed in ovary and 887 in testes. According to annotation information, several sex-related biological pathways including ovarian steroidogenesis and estrogen signaling pathways were firstly found in flounder. The dimorphic expression of overall sex-related genes provides further insights into sex determination and gonadal development. Our study also provides an archive for further studies of molecular mechanism of fish sex determination.

  9. Philasterides dicentrarchi, a histophagous ciliate causing scuticociliatosis in olive flounder, Philasterides dicentrarchi--histopathology investigations.

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    Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Jin, Chang-Nam; Kim, Ju-Sang; Balasundaram, Chellam; Heo, Moon-Soo

    2012-03-01

    Philasterides dicentrarchi is a histophagous scuticociliate infecting Korean olive flounder farms in Jeju Island, South Korea, where it causes significant economic losses. However, the route of entry of these parasites in olive flounder is currently unknown. In the present study, we attempted experimental infection with different doses (concentrations) of P. dicentrarchi by intraperitoneal (IP) injection; maximum cumulative mortality of 95% was recorded on the administration of 2.1×10(8) ciliates/ml. In small size group (3 cm length, 24±2 gwt) the ciliates were found in connective tissues of muscle, fins, and nervous tissue while in large size group (5 cm length, 47±3 gwt), the ciliates were predominantly occurred with associated symptoms of liquefaction in the central nervous system. The major clinico-pathological manifestations were loss of scales, appearance of bleached spots that coalesced to form brownish patches, hemorrhagic, and severe dermal necrotic lesion. In addition there was degeneration of muscle fibers, necrosis of the hepatic parenchyma, and severe edema of the intestinal walls, extensive fouling, necrotic degeneration and hyperplasia in the gill bronchial epithelium. In this study, many ciliates were found in the blood vessel, brain, dorsal fins, muscle, kidney, and vertebra of infected flounder. The histopathological investigations are of significant importance in view of possible routes of entry into the host and doses of ciliates that trigger fast infection for potential utility of drugs as a strategy for the control of P. dicentrarchi in farmed olive flounder.

  10. Immunization of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) with an auxotrophic Edwardsiella tarda mutant harboring the VHSV DNA vaccine.

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    Choi, Seung Hyuk; Kim, Min Sun; Kim, Ki Hong

    2012-09-01

    The aims of the present study were to find more powerful promoter for DNA vaccines in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and to evaluate the availability of the auxotrophic Edwardsiella tarda mutant (Δalr Δasd E. tarda) as a delivery vehicle for DNA vaccine against VHSV in olive flounder. The marine medaka (Oryzias dancena) β-actin promoter was clearly stronger than cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter when the vectors were transfected to Epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) cells or injected into the muscle of olive flounder, suggesting that marine medaka β-actin promoter would be more appropriate promoter for DNA vaccines in olive flounder than CMV promoter. Olive flounder immunized with the Δalr Δasd E. tarda harboring viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) DNA vaccine vector driven by the marine medaka β-actin promoter showed significantly higher serum neutralization titer and higher survival rates against challenge with VHSV than fish immunized with the bacteria carrying VHSV DNA vaccine vector driven by CMV promoter. These results indicate that auxotrophic E. tarda mutant harboring marine medaka β-actin promoter-driven DNA vaccine vectors would be a potential system for prophylactics of infectious diseases in olive flounder.

  11. The dnd RNA Identifies Germ Cell Origin and Migration in Olive Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus

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    Xueying Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study obtained a germ cell-specific marker dead end (dnd in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus named Podnd. The tissue-specific expressions of Podnd transcripts were present in testis and ovary but were not detectable in other somatic tissues detected. SISH showed that Podnd expressed only in germ cells at different developmental stages but not in surrounding somatic cells. The expression of Podnd during embryonic development at 16 different stages revealed that the relative expression of Podnd transcript fluctuated at a high level in the cleavage stages, gradually decreased through subsequent development, and reached the lowest at late gastrula stage till it was nearly undetectable. The Podnd transcripts localization and migration were similar to zebrafish. Further research on the specification migration mechanism of PGCs and the role of germ cell during gonadal development in olive flounder would improve our understanding of germline development.

  12. Analysis of IL-2-like factor in lymphocyte culture supernatant of olive flounder, Paralichthys oliveaceus

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    WU Riqin; ZHANG Peijun; LI Jun; XU Yongli

    2005-01-01

    To study immune mechanism of fish lymphocyte we performed a proliferation assay and ELISA using monoclonal antibody against human IL-2. The result showed that an interleukin-2 (IL-2)-like factor was detected in the supernatant of plant haemoglutinin (PHA)-stimulated lymphocyte culture from peripheral blood,spleen and head kidney of olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. The quantities of IL-2-1ike factor in the supematant from different lymphoid tissues were quite different. The IL-2 like factor in the supernatant from cultured head kidney lymphocytes was much higher than those of peripheral blood lymphocytes and spleen lymphocytes (P<0.01). The IL-2 activity was found in either mouse thymocyte proliferation assay or flounder head kidney lymphocyte proliferation assay and shown to have obvious enhancing effect on proliferation of the above two types of cell. The recombinant human IL-2 (rhIL-2) was able to stimulate flounder thymocyte proliferation and used to detect the IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) on the surface of flounder lymphocyte. The cross-reaction between the lymphocytes of flounder peripheral blood and CD25(IL-2R) was detected with flow cytometry and shown that the percentage of CD25-positive cell in peripheral blood was 7.74± 0.67%.

  13. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of the STAT1 gene from olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

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    Chung Jongkyeong

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1 is a critical component of interferon (IFN-alpha/beta and IFN-gamma signaling. Although seven isoforms of STAT proteins have been reported from mammals, limited information is available for the STAT genes in fish. We isolated complementary DNA with high similarity to mammalian STAT1 from the olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. Results A DNA fragment containing the conserved SH2 domain was amplified by RT-PCR using degenerate primers designed based on the highly conserved sequences in the SH2 domains of the zebrafish and mammalian STAT1. The complete cDNA sequence was obtained by 5' and 3' RACE. The flounder STAT1 transcript consisted of 2,909 bp that encoded a polypeptide of 749 amino acids. The overall similarity between flounder STAT1 and other STATs was very high, with the highest amino acid sequence identity to snakehead (89%. Phylogenetic analyses reveal that flounder STAT1 is in the same monophyletic group with snakehead STAT1. Quantitative real time RT-PCR and in situ hybridization revealed that STAT1 was expressed in almost all examined organs and tissues, with high expression in gill, spleen, kidney, and heart. The accumulation of STAT1 mRNA in different developmental stages, as determined by real time RT-PCR, increased with development. Conclusion Recent cloning of various cytokine genes and the STAT1 gene of olive flounder here suggest that fish also use the highly specialized JAK-STAT pathway for cytokine signaling. Identification of other STAT genes will elucidate in detail the signal transduction system in this fish.

  14. Antioxidative responses and bioaccumulation in Japanese flounder larvae and juveniles under chronic mercury exposure.

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    Huang, Wei; Cao, Liang; Ye, Zhenjiang; Yin, Xuebo; Dou, Shuozeng

    2010-06-01

    This study investigated the sub-lethal effects of waterborne mercury on growth, bioaccumulation and antioxidative responses of larvae and juveniles of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). Fish were exposed to 0-10 microg Hg(2)(+)L(-1) solutions from embryonic to the juvenile stages for 80 days. Antioxidative responses to mercury exposure were studied in metamorphosing larvae (18 days post hatching, dph), settling larvae (33 dph) and juveniles (78 dph). Results showed that increasing mercury concentration led to increased mercury bioaccumulation and reduced flounder growth. Of the antioxidants investigated, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities at the three developmental stages were sensitive to mercury exposure and increased with increasing mercury concentration. Glutathione (GSH) content was elevated in metamorphosing larvae, but decreased in juveniles as mercury concentration increased. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity did not significantly vary with mercury concentration in either larvae or juveniles. Mercury exposure did not affect malondialdehyde (MDA) content of larvae, but significantly increased MDA content of juveniles. Results suggest that flounder larvae and juveniles have the potential to manipulate the levels of antioxidants such as SOD, CAT and GSH, which protect flounder from oxidative stress induced by mercury exposure. These antioxidants could serve as biomarkers of mercury contamination in the aquatic environment.

  15. Microarray analysis of gene expression in olive flounder liver infected with viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV).

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    Cho, Hyun Kook; Kim, Julan; Moon, Ji Young; Nam, Bo-Hye; Kim, Young-Ok; Kim, Woo-Jin; Park, Jung Youn; An, Cheul Min; Cheong, Jaehun; Kong, Hee Jeong

    2016-02-01

    The most fatal viral pathogen in olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus, is viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus, which afflicts over 48 species of freshwater and marine fish. Here, we performed gene expression profiling on transcripts isolated from VHSV-infected olive flounder livers using a 13 K cDNA microarray chip. A total of 1832 and 1647 genes were upregulated and down-regulated over two-fold, respectively, after infection. A variety of immune-related genes showing significant changes in gene expression were identified in upregulated genes through gene ontology annotation. These genes were grouped into categories such as antibacterial peptide, antigen-recognition and adhesion molecules, apoptosis, cytokine-related pathway, immune system, stress response, and transcription factor and regulatory factors. To verify the cDNA microarray data, we performed quantitative real-time PCR, and the results were similar to the microarray data. In conclusion, these results may be useful for the identification of specific genes or for the diagnosis of VHSV infection in flounder.

  16. Changes in Hematological, Biochemical and Non-specific Immune Parameters of Olive Flounder, , Following Starvation

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    Jong-Hyun Kim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Triplicate groups of fed and starved olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus (body weight: 119.8±17.46 g, were examined over 42 days for physiological changes using hematological, biochemical, and non-specific immune parameters. No significant differences in concentrations of blood hemoglobin and hematocrit and plasma levels of total cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, glucose, and cortisol were detected between fed and starved groups at any sampling time throughout the experiment. In contrast, plasma total protein concentrations were significantly lower in starved fish than in fed fish from day 7 onwards. Moreover, plasma lysozyme concentrations were significantly higher in starved flounder from day 21 onwards. This result confirms that the response of olive flounder to short-term (less than about 1.5 months starvation consists of a readjustment of metabolism rather than the activation of an alarm-stress response. The present results indicate that starvation does not significantly compromise the health status of fish despite food limitation.

  17. Genetically similar VHSV isolates are differentially virulent in olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus.

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    Cho, Mi Young; Lee, Unn Hwa; Moon, Chang Hoon; Bang, Jong Deuk; Jee, Bo Young; Cha, Seung Ju; Kim, Jin Woo; Park, Myoung Ae; Do, Jeong Wan; Park, Jeong Woo

    2012-11-08

    Two viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) isolates, VHSV-KR-CJA and VHSV-KR-YGH, were isolated from viral hemorrhagic septicemia disease outbreaks in flounder farms in South Korea. The VHSV-KR-CJA isolate was isolated from a flounder farm with high mortality (80%), while the VHSV-KR-YGH isolate was isolated from a flounder farm with low mortality (15%), suggesting that these isolates differ in virulence. The virulence of these isolates was evaluated in juvenile flounder via intraperitoneal injection. Consistent with their virulence in the field, mortality data revealed that the VHSV-KR-CJA isolate was highly pathogenic (cumulative mortality of 80%), while the VHSV-KR-YGH isolate was less pathogenic in flounder (cumulative mortality of 20%). To characterize the genotypes of these viruses, the full open reading frames (ORFs) encoding nucleoprotein N, phosphoprotein P, matrix protein M, glycoprotein G, nonstructural viral protein NV, and polymerase L of these viruses were sequenced and analyzed. Sequence analysis revealed that both isolates are genetically very similar (identical amino acid sequences for P, M, NV, and L and >99.7 and 99.8% amino acid sequence identity for N and G, respectively). Phylogenetic analysis indicated that both of these viruses belong to the Genotype IVa group, suggesting that they originated from a common ancestral virus. The low pathogenicity VHSV strain may potentially evolve to become a more pathogenic strain through only a few nucleotide substitutions. Further functional analyses of mutations in VHSV genes are necessary to identify factors that determine VHSV pathogenicity in flounder.

  18. Effects of ocean acidification on the larval growth of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)

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    Kim, K.-S.; Shim, J. H.; Kim, S.

    2013-04-01

    Little is known about how marine fishes respond to the reduced pH condition caused by the increased CO2 in the atmosphere. We investigated the effects of CO2 concentration on the growth of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) larvae. Newly hatched larvae were reared in three different concentrations of CO2 (574, 988 and 1297 μatm CO2) in temperature-controlled water tanks until metamorphosis (4 weeks). Body lengths, weights, and the concentration of some chemical elements in larval tissue were measured at the completion of each experiment, and experiment was repeated three times in May, June, and July 2011. Results indicated that body length and weight of flounder larvae were significantly increased with increasing CO2 concentration (P statistical significance cannot be tested due to the single measurement. It suggests that there are enrichment processes of these cations in larval tissue in the low pH condition.

  19. Molecular cloning and sexually dimorphic expression of wnt4 in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

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    Weng, Shenda; You, Feng; Fan, Zhaofei; Wang, Lijuan; Wu, Zhihao; Zou, Yuxia

    2016-08-01

    WNT4 (wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 4) is regarded as a key regulator of gonad differentiation in mammalians. However, the potential role of wnt4 in teleosts during gonad differentiation and development is still unclear. The full-length cDNA sequence of wnt4 in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) was obtained using RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) technique. The wnt4 ORF contains 1059 nucleotides, encoding a protein with a signal peptide domain and a wnt family domain. Expression in tissues of adult flounders was analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. The results showed that wnt4 was widely expressed in multiple tissues of flounders, and the expression level was significantly higher in ovary than in testis. Then wnt4 expression pattern was investigated during gonadal differentiation period and at gonadal development stages (I-V). The results showed the expression levels were significantly higher in testis than in ovary during gonadal differentiation. Notably, wnt4 expression had a very significant increase before testis differentiation. At gonad different developmental stages, there was no expression signal at stage I or stage II, and the expression of wnt4 was much stronger in ovary than in testis at stage III and stage IV, followed by a faint expression in stage V in both sexes. Our results imply that cloned wnt4 could be wnt4a. It is a sex-related gene and its expression pattern in gonadal differentiation period of flounder is different from that in mammalians or other teleosts. Flounder wnt4 might play more important role in testis than in ovary during gonadal differentiation.

  20. Development of a multiplex PCR assay to detect Edwardsiella tarda, Streptococcus parauberis, and Streptococcus iniae in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

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    Park, Seong Bin; Kwon, Kyoung; Cha, In Seok; Jang, Ho Bin; Nho, Seong Won; Fagutao, Fernand F; Kim, Young Kyu; Yu, Jong Earn; Jung, Tae Sung

    2014-01-01

    A multiplex PCR protocol was established to simultaneously detect major bacterial pathogens in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) including Edwardsiella (E.) tarda, Streptococcus (S.) parauberis, and S. iniae. The PCR assay was able to detect 0.01 ng of E. tarda, 0.1 ng of S. parauberis, and 1 ng of S. iniae genomic DNA. Furthermore, this technique was found to have high specificity when tested with related bacterial species. This method represents a cheaper, faster, and reliable alternative for identifying major bacterial pathogens in olive flounder, the most important farmed fish in Korea.

  1. Juvenile winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) and summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) utilization of Southern New England nurseries: Comparisons among estuarine, tidal river, and coastal lagoon shallow-water habitats.

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    Taylor, David L; McNamee, Jason; Lake, John; Gervasi, Carissa L; Palance, Danial G

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluated the relative importance of the N arragansett Bay estuary (RI and MA, USA), and associated tidal rivers and coastal lagoons, as nurseries for juvenile winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus, and summer flounder, Paralichthys dentatus. Winter flounder (WF) and summer flounder (SF) abundance and growth were measured from May to October (2009-2013) and served as indicators for the use and quality of shallow-water habitats (water depth waters, but also their respective avoidance of hypoxic conditions (water temperatures (> 25 °C). Flounder habitat usage was also positively related to sediment organic content, which may be due to these substrates having sufficiently high prey densities. WF growth rates (mean = 0.25 ± 0.14 mm/d) were negatively correlated with the abundance of conspecifics, whereas SF growth (mean = 1.39 ± 0.46 mm/d) was positively related to temperature and salinity. Also, contrary to expectations, flounder occupied habitats that offered no ostensible advantage in intra-specific growth rates. WF and SF exposed to low salinities in certain rivers likely experienced increased osmoregulatory costs, thereby reducing energy for somatic growth. Low-salinity habitats, however, may benefit flounder by providing refugia from predation or reduced competition with other estuarine fishes and macro-invertebrates. Examining WF and SF abundance and growth across each species' broader geographic distribution revealed that southern New England habitats may constitute functionally significant nurseries. These results also indicated that juvenile SF have a geographic range extending further north than previously recognized.

  2. Possible Involvement of Photoperiodic Regulation in Reproductive Endocrine System of Female Olive Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus.

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    Kim, Hyun Chul; Lee, Chi Hoon; Hur, Sung Pyu; Kim, Byeong Hoon; Park, Jun Young; Lee, Young Don

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated possible involvement of photoperiodic regulation in reproductive endocrine system of female olive flounder. To investigate the influence on brain-pituitary axis in endocrine system by regulating photoperiod, compared expression level of Kisspeptin and sbGnRH mRNA in brain and FSH-β, LH-β and GH mRNA in pituitary before and after spawning. Photoperiod was treated natural photoperiod and long photoperiod (15L:9D) conditions from Aug. 2013 to Jun. 2014. Continuous long photoperiod treatment from Aug. (post-spawning phase) was inhibited gonadal development of female olive flounder. In natural photoperiod group, the Kiss2 expression level a significant declined in Mar. (spawning period). And also, FSH-β, LH-β and GH mRNA expression levels were increasing at this period. However, in long photoperiod group, hypothalamic Kiss2, FSH-β, LH-β and GH mRNA expression levels did not show any significant fluctuation. These results suggest that expression of hypothalamic Kiss2, GtH and GH in the pituitary would change in response to photoperiod and their possible involvement of photoperiodic regulation in reproductive endocrine system of the BPG axis.

  3. Temperature affects insulin-like growth factor I and growth of juvenile southern flounder, Paralichthys lethostigma.

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    Luckenbach, J Adam; Murashige, Ryan; Daniels, Harry V; Godwin, John; Borski, Russell J

    2007-01-01

    Temperature profoundly influences growth of heterothermic vertebrates. However, few studies have investigated the effects of temperature on growth and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in fishes. The aim of this study was to examine effects of temperature on growth and establish whether IGF-I may mediate growth at different temperatures in southern flounder, Paralichthys lethostigma. In two experiments, juvenile flounder were reared at 23 and 28 degrees C and growth was monitored for either 117 or 197 days. Growth was similar across treatments in both experiments until fish reached approximately 100 mm total length. Body size then diverged with fish at 23 degrees C ultimately growing 65-83% larger than those at 28 degrees C. Muscle IGF-I mRNA, plasma IGF-I, and hepatosomatic index (HSI) were significantly higher in flounder at 23 degrees C, whereas hepatic IGF-I mRNA abundance did not differ with treatment. Muscle IGF-I mRNA was correlated with HSI, while plasma IGF-I was correlated with body size, hepatic IGF-I mRNA, and HSI. These results demonstrate a strong effect of temperature on flounder growth and show that temperature-induced variation in growth is associated with differences in systemic IGF-I and local (i.e., muscle) IGF-I mRNA levels. The results also support the use of plasma IGF-I and HSI as indicators of flounder growth status.

  4. Development of a quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of Kudoa septempunctata in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Tetsuya; Kawai, Takao; Sato, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Kumeda, Yuko

    2012-05-15

    Kudoa septempunctata is a newly identified myxosporean parasite that infects the trunk muscles of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and a causative agent of the increasing number of foodborne gastroenteritis outbreaks with unknown etiology which have occurred in Japan over the last few years. Here, we developed a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) assay for the detection of K. septempunctata 18S rDNA in olive flounder muscle tissue samples. Additionally, we compared the relative efficacy of four DNA extraction methods, including two commercial kits, and assessed intrafish variability in the distribution of K. septempunctata spores in flounder using this QPCR method in order to establish a more accurate quantitative measurement. Our QPCR assay displayed high sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility, and had good correlation with a microscopic detection method. Our data also indicated that the DNeasy® Blood & Tissue Kit was more efficient method for the extraction of K. septempunctata DNA than the three other methods (heating, alkaline lysis, and FastDNA® SPIN Kit method). We believe that our method would be useful for investigating foodborne outbreaks caused by K. septempunctata and for the monitoring and quantification of this parasite in retail or aquacultured olive flounders to prevent such outbreaks. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Immigration, settlement and mortality of flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) larvae and juveniles in a nursery ground, Shijiki bay, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, M.; Goto, T.; Tomiyama, M.; Sudo, H.

    The occurrence, distribution and abundance of larvae and juveniles of a Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, were investigated in Shijiki Bay, south-western Japan, from 1982 through 1987, with special reference to immigration, settlement and mortality in this nursery ground. Sampling for pelagic larvae and settling and settled juveniles revealed that immigration and settlement occur during the late phase of metamorphosis, when flounders immigrate from coastal waters and settle in the near-shore sandy nursery area. Immigration of metamorphosing larvae begins in early April and continues until early June. The recruitment of flounders into the nursery ground was found to occur in several distinct phases, coinciding with spring tides. The semi-lunar periodicity found in the immigration of flounders may be due to the combination of landward tidal currents during spring tides and the tide-related vertical movements of metamorphosing flounders. Population size appeared to decrease rapidly during the first week after settlement, when lengths ranged from 11 to 14 mm. Field evidence demonstrated that heavy mortality may occur during the early phases of settlement, the extent depending on annual flounder densities and food abundance. Cannibalism of early-settled larger flounders on late-settled smaller flounders seemed to occur frequently in the nursery ground, and was more likely to occur under conditions of food deficiency and higher population densities. Thus, predation related t starvation could be one of the most important future research targets in determining recruitment dynamics in nursery areas.

  6. Protective efficiency of an inactivated vaccine against Streptococcus iniae in olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

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    Jeong Yong-Uk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus iniae is a causative agent of hemorrhagic septicemia in olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, in Korea, resulting in serious economic losses. As a preventive measure, M VAC INIAE (Mastuken, Japan was prepared from the S. iniae F2K strain and tested against the SI-36 strain prevalent on flounder fish farms on Jeju Island, Korea. F2K had a serotype of 38 (− and SI-36 38 (+. The vaccine recognized both serotypes. It showed a very high effective immune response against S. iniae; the challenge test using the S. iniae SI-36 strain resulted in a relative percent survival (RPS of 85.7-87.0% 2 weeks after vaccination and 71.0-80.0% 6 months after vaccination. Field vaccination and clinical challenge tests were performed at local Jeju aquafarms with S. iniae SI-36. These showed significantly reduced cumulative mortality when compared to the control group with RPS rates that ranged between 71-80%. Hence, the present study suggests that this vaccine showed a significant immune response against S. iniae and could be applied in commercial aquafarms as a therapeutic agent against β-hemolytic streptococcosis in cultured P. olivaceus.

  7. Characterization of a specific monoclonal antibody against immunoglobulin light kappa/L1 chain in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Young Kyu; Lee, Jung Seok; Jung, Jae Wook

    2017-01-01

    abundant in spleen and trunk-kidney than in peripheral blood, indicating a distribution different from that of IgM+ B cells. Our work reveals interesting aspects of B cell distribution and differentiation, and may aid in the production of suitable and effective cell markers for olive flounder.......Immunoglobulins (Ig) are heterodimeric proteins that play critical roles in the adaptive immune system of vertebrates. Because of their plasticity, teleostean Igs are more diverse, and thus do not conform to mammalian classifications. Because of this, mammalian-based Ig cell markers cannot be used...... successfully to study immune responses in fish. There is therefore a need to produce Ig-specific cell markers for fish. Here, we attempted to identify the specific isotype detected by an Ig light chain-specific monoclonal antibody (anti-olive flounder IgL-mAb: M7C3-4) that we had previously produced [11...

  8. The stimulatory effect of neuropeptide Y on growth hormone expression, food intake, and growth in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meijie; Tan, Xungang; Sui, Yulei; Jiao, Shuang; Wu, Zhihao; Wang, Lijuan; You, Feng

    2017-02-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a 36-amino acid peptide known to be a strong orexigenic (appetite-stimulating) factor in many species. In this study, we investigated the effect of NPY on food intake and growth in the olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). Recombinant full-length NPY was injected intraperitoneally into olive flounder at the dose of 1 μg/g body weight; phosphate buffered saline was used as the negative control. In a long-term experiment, NPY and control groups were injected every fifth day over a period of 30 days. In a short-term experiment, NPY and control groups were given intraperitoneal injections and maintained for 24 h. Food intake and growth rates were significantly higher in fish injected with recombinant NPY than in the control fish (P growth hormone (GH) and NPY mRNA transcript levels were observed in both experiments, indicating a stimulatory effect of NPY on GH release. These findings demonstrate that NPY is an effective appetite-stimulating factor in olive flounder with the potential to improve the growth of domestic fish species and enhance efficiency in aquaculture.

  9. Cloning and characterization of hypusine-containing protein eIF5A from the olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Hee Jeong; Hong, Gyeong-Eun; Kim, Woo-Jin; Kim, Young-Ok; Nam, Bo-Hye; Lee, Chang Hoon; Do, Jeong Wan; Lee, Jeong-Ho; Lee, Sang-Jun; Kim, Kyung-Kil

    2009-07-01

    Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) is the only protein in eukaryotic cells that contains the unusual amino acid hypusine (N(epsilon)-(4-amino-2(R)-hydroxybutyl)-lysine). We isolated a 1385-bp eIF5A cDNA containing an open reading frame (ORF) of 468 bp, which encodes a protein of 155 amino acids with a conserved hypusine modification site, from the olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. Pairwise alignments revealed that flounder eIF5A had a high sequence identity with those of other known species including mammals. Real-time RT-PCR analysis showed the expression of eIF5A mRNA was constitutively detected in various tissues of healthy flounder. In HINAE cells or flounder kidney infected with the viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), the expression of eIF5A mRNA was slightly increased before cells showed cytopathic effects and then decreased when cells showed cytopathic effects. Treatment of N-guanyl-1,7-diaminoheptane (GC-7), a potent inhibitor of eIF5A hypusination, inhibited the expression of VHSV G protein in a dose-dependent manner suggesting a potential role for eIF5A and its hypusination in viral protein expression.

  10. Lectin histochemistry of Kudoa septempunctata genotype ST3-infected muscle of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus

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    Kang Jaeyoun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The localization of carbohydrate terminals in Kudoa septempunctata ST3-infected muscle of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus was investigated using lectin histochemistry to determine the types of carbohydrate sugar residues expressed in Kudoa spores. Twenty-one lectins were examined, i.e., N-acetylglucosamine (s-WGA, WGA, DSL-II, DSL, LEL, STL, mannose (Con A, LCA, PSA, galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine (RCA12, BSL-I, VVA, DBA, SBA, SJA, Jacalin, PNA, ECL, complex type N-glycans (PHA-E and PHA-L, and fucose (UEA-I. Spores encased by a plasmodial membrane were labeled for the majority of these lectins, with the exception of LCA, PSA, PNA, and PHA-L. Four lectins (RCA 120, BSL-I, DBA, and SJA belonging to the galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine group, only labeled spores, but not the plasmodial membrane. This is the first confirmation that various sugar residues are present in spores and plasmodial membranes of K. septempunctata ST3.

  11. Establishment and characterization of a testicular Sertoli cell line from olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Limin; Zheng, Yuan; You, Feng; Wu, Zhihao; Zou, Yuxia; Zhang, Peijun

    2016-09-01

    The culture of Sertoli cells has become an indispensable resource in studying spermatogenesis. A new Sertoli cell line (POSC) that consisted predominantly of fibroblast-like cells was derived from the testis of the olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus and sub-cultured for 48 passages. Analysis of the mtDNA COI gene partial sequence confirmed that the cell line was from P. olivaceus. Cells were optimally maintained at 25°C in DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with fetal bovine serum, basic fibroblast growth factor, and epidermal growth factor. The growth curve of POSC showed a typical "S" shape. Chromosome analysis revealed that the cell line possessed the normal P. olivaceus diploid karyotype of 2n=48t. POSC expressed dmrt1 but not vasa, which was detected using RT-PCR and sequencing. Immunocytochemistry revealed that the cells exhibited the testicular Sertoli cell marker FasL. Therefore, POSC appeared to consist of testicular Sertoli cells. Bright fluorescent signals were observed after the cells were transfected with pEGFP-N3 plasmid, with the transfection efficiency reaching 10%. This research not only offers an ideal model for further gene expression and regulation studies on P. olivaceus, but also serves as valuable material in studying fish spermatogenesis, Sertoli cell-germ cell interactions, and the mechanism of growth and development of testis.

  12. Oral immunization of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) with recombinant live viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) induces protection against VHSV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Sun; Kim, Dong Soo; Kim, Ki Hong

    2011-08-01

    A recombinant viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (rVHSV-ΔNV-EGFP) that has enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene instead of NV gene was previously generated using reverse genetics technology. In this study, potential of the rVHSV-ΔNV-EGFP to be used as a live oral vaccine candidate was assessed. The presence of the recombinant virus in internal organs of orally administered olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) was analyzed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Although the recombinant VHSV-specific band was detected only when the number of PCR cycle was increased to 35, the band was detected from internal organs, such as kidney, spleen, and liver of fish that were reared at either 15 °C or 20 °C till even 20 days, suggesting that a few orally administered rVHSV-ΔNV-EGFP might be transported to internal organs, and might keep weak replication ability in the organs. VHSV-neutralizing activity was induced by oral immunization of olive flounder with the NV gene knock-out recombinant VHSV not only in skin and intestinal mucus but also in serum, suggesting that mucosal and systemic adaptive immune responses were elicited by oral immunization. In challenge experiment, groups of fish immunized with 10⁴, 10⁵, and 2 × 10⁵ PFU of rVHSV-ΔNV-EGFP/fish showed 25%, 50%, and 70% of relative percent survival (RPS), respectively. The RPSs were elevated to 60%, 75%, and 90% by a boost immunization in fish boost immunized with 10⁴, 10⁵, and 2 × 10⁵ PFU of rVHSV-ΔNV-EGFP, respectively. The cumulative mortality of fish in the control groups was 100%. Conclusionly, the present results demonstrate that the NV gene knock-out recombinant VHSV administered orally to olive flounder can induce dose- and boosting-dependent VHSV-neutralizing antibody in mucus and serum, and can provide a high protection in olive flounder against a virulent VHSV challenge.

  13. Comparison of antigenic proteins from Lactococcus garvieae KG- and KG+ strains that are recognized by olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Gee-Wook; Nho, Seong-Won; Park, Seong-Bin; Jang, Ho-Bin; Cha, In-Seok; Ha, Mi-Ae; Kim, Young-Rim; Dalvi, Rishikesh S; Joh, Seong-Joon; Jung, Tae-Sung

    2009-10-20

    Lactococcus garvieae is an important etiological agent of lactococcosis in various fish species including olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). In this study, proteomic and immunoproteomic analyses were employed to compare the antigenic profiles of strains KG9408, MS93003, and NSS9310 strains of L. garvieae. Proteomic analysis using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) revealed differences in five protein spots among the different L. garvieae strains. In immunoproteomic analysis, there was a significant difference in the 2-DE immunoblot profiles of the L. garvieae strains using sera collected from fish surviving infection with either L. garvieae strains KG9408 or NSS9310. These sera reacted with 8 and 7 unique antigenic protein spots, respectively. Heat shock protein (HSP) 70 and DNA-directed RNA polymerase were among the specific antigens recognized by the anti-NSS9310 serum. In addition, the anti-NSS9310 and anti-KG9408 olive flounder sera reacted with 25 common antigenic protein spots of all the L. garvieae strains, which included elongation factor (EF)-Tu, arginine deiminase (AD), inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPD), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), phosphomannomutase (PMM), L-lactate dehydrogenase (L-LDH), 6-phosphofructokinase and UDP-galactose 4-epimerase (UDP-galactose). Based on the present results, the 8 antigens recognized by the anti-KG9408 serum and the 25 common antigens recognized by both sera may serve as potential markers for developing an effective vaccine against this bacterium.

  14. Population ecology and habitat preferences of juvenile flounder Platichthys flesus (Actinopterygii: Pleuronectidae) in a temperate estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Allan T.; Dias, Ester; Nogueira, Ana; Campos, Joana; Marques, João C.; Martins, Irene

    2013-05-01

    The European flounder Platichthys flesus is a widely distributed epibenthic species and an important component of demersal fish assemblages in the European Atlantic coastal waters. In Portuguese estuaries, this species reaches high densities, especially in Minho estuary (NW Iberian Peninsula, Europe), potentially playing an important role in the system's ecology. In this context, the population structure, production and the habitat use of juvenile P. flesus were investigated. Sampling took place monthly, from February 2009 until July 2010 along the entire estuarine gradient (5 sampling stations distributed in the first 29 km from the river mouth, with S1 located near the river mouth, S2 inside a salt marsh, S3 in a salinity transition zone, while S4 and S5 were located in the upper estuary). Flounder's density varied significantly among sampling stations and seasons (two-way PERMANOVA: p Fish length also differed among sampling stations and seasons (two-way PERMANOVA: p fishes being found in S1 during the autumn (168.50 ± 59.50 mm) and the smallest in S4 during the spring (33.80 ± 3.12 mm). Size classes associated differently with environmental variables, with larger juveniles being more abundant in the downstream areas of the estuary, whereas smaller juveniles were related to higher water temperatures, suggesting a habitat segregation of P. flesus of different sizes. The fish condition of P. flesus in Minho estuary was higher than in other systems, probably due to the dominance of juveniles on the population. Also, the densities found in this estuary were up to 32 times higher than in other locations, suggesting that Minho estuary is an important nursery area for the species. The estimated secondary production of P. flesus was lower than previous studies acknowledged in the system (0.037 g.WWm- 2.year- 1), indicating that the production estimates of this species in estuaries can vary considerably depending on of several factors such as the sampling year and

  15. Antimicrobial Activity of Peptides Derived from Olive Flounder Lipopolysaccharide Binding Protein/Bactericidal Permeability-Increasing Protein (LBP/BPI

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    Bo-Hye Nam

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe the antimicrobial function of peptides derived from the C-terminus of the olive flounder LBP BPI precursor protein. The investigated peptides, namely, ofLBP1N, ofLBP2A, ofLBP4N, ofLBP5A, and ofLBP6A, formed α-helical structures, showing significant antimicrobial activity against several Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, and the yeast Candida albicans, but very limited hemolytic activities. The biological activities of these five analogs were evaluated against biomembranes or artificial membranes for the development of candidate therapeutic agents. Gel retardation studies revealed that peptides bound to DNA and inhibited migration on an agarose gel. In addition, we demonstrated that ofLBP6A inhibited polymerase chain reaction. These results suggested that the ofLBP-derived peptide bactericidal mechanism may be related to the interaction with intracellular components such as DNA or polymerase.

  16. Antimicrobial activity of peptides derived from olive flounder lipopolysaccharide binding protein/bactericidal permeability-increasing protein (LBP/BPI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Bo-Hye; Moon, Ji-Young; Park, Eun-Hee; Kim, Young-Ok; Kim, Dong-Gyun; Kong, Hee Jeong; Kim, Woo-Jin; Jee, Young Ju; An, Cheul Min; Park, Nam Gyu; Seo, Jung-Kil

    2014-10-17

    We describe the antimicrobial function of peptides derived from the C-terminus of the olive flounder LBP BPI precursor protein. The investigated peptides, namely, ofLBP1N, ofLBP2A, ofLBP4N, ofLBP5A, and ofLBP6A, formed α-helical structures, showing significant antimicrobial activity against several Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, and the yeast Candida albicans, but very limited hemolytic activities. The biological activities of these five analogs were evaluated against biomembranes or artificial membranes for the development of candidate therapeutic agents. Gel retardation studies revealed that peptides bound to DNA and inhibited migration on an agarose gel. In addition, we demonstrated that ofLBP6A inhibited polymerase chain reaction. These results suggested that the ofLBP-derived peptide bactericidal mechanism may be related to the interaction with intracellular components such as DNA or polymerase.

  17. Changes of cytochrome P4501A mRNA expression and physiology responses in the olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, exposed to benzo(a)pyrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, C.Y.; An, K.W.; Shin, H.S.; An, M.I.; Jo, P.G. [Korean Maritime University, Pusan (Republic of Korea). Division of Marine Environmental and Bioscience

    2008-07-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is generated by the incomplete combustion of organic substances such as oil and coal, and is a widespread organic environmental contaminant in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. To determine the effects of BaP on organisms, we investigated its time- and dose-related effects on the levels of cytochrome P4501A (P4501A) mRNA in the liver and gills of the olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) and measured the plasma glucose, cortisol, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. The full-length olive flounder P4501A cDNA consists of 1566 nucleotides and encodes a 521-amino-acid protein. In the liver and gills, the expression of P4501A mRNA was highest 6 h after exposure to both 10 and 30 gl{sup -1} BaP, and then decreased. In addition, the plasma parameters increased with exposure. These results suggest that P4501A plays an important role in the detoxification of BaP, which stressed the olive flounder. Therefore, these physiological parameters may be indicators of BaP-induced stress responses.

  18. Multi-decadal variation in size of juvenile Summer Flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) in Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nys, Lauren N.; Fabrizio, Mary C.; Tuckey, Troy D.

    2016-01-01

    During the last quarter-century, management of Summer Flounder Paralichthys dentatus along the Atlantic coast resulted in significant increases in abundance such that rebuilding targets were recently achieved. Although spawning stock biomass is high, recruitment of young-of-the-year (YOY) Summer Flounder remains variable. Chesapeake Bay is one of the principal nursery areas for this species, but processes such as growth and survival that affect production of YOY Summer Flounder in this estuary have not been explored. Here, we investigated the relationship between abundance and size of Summer Flounder recruits from the 1988 to 2012 year classes in Chesapeake Bay. We also considered the effects of environmental factors on fish size because conditions in the bay vary spatially during the time that fish occupy nursery areas. To describe variations in Summer Flounder size, we used monthly length observations from 13,018 YOY fish captured by bottom trawl from the lower Chesapeake Bay and the James, York, and Rappahannock river subestuaries where Summer Flounder are commonly observed. We applied a generalized additive model to describe spatial, temporal, and environmental effects on observed fish size; we also considered the density of Summer Flounder and an index of productivity as factors in the model. Summer Flounder in Chesapeake Bay exhibited density-dependent and spatially related variations in mean length: larger fish were found mostly in the Bay and smaller fish in the subestuaries. Additionally, low ( 26 °C) temperatures and low salinities (fish size, indicating that individuals found in these environments were typically smaller than conspecifics inhabiting areas of moderate temperatures and higher salinities. Variable nursery habitat conditions in temperate estuaries affect fish size and, subsequently, may influence production of Summer Flounder year classes through effects on maturation and survival. As water temperatures in the mid-Atlantic region continue to

  19. Disruption of the thyroid system by the thyroid-disrupting compound Aroclor 1254 in juvenile Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus.

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    Yifei Dong

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are a group of persistent organochlorine compounds that have the potential to disrupt the homeostasis of thyroid hormones (THs in fish, particularly juveniles. In this study, thyroid histology, plasma TH levels, and iodothyronine deiodinase (IDs, including ID1, ID2, and ID3 gene expression patterns were examined in juvenile Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus following 25- and 50-day waterborne exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of a commercial PCB mixture, Aroclor 1254 (10, 100, and 1000 ng/L with two-thirds of the test solutions renewed daily. The results showed that exposure to Aroclor 1254 for 50 d increased follicular cell height, colloid depletion, and hyperplasia. In particular, hypothyroidism, which was induced by the administration of 1000 ng/L Aroclor 1254, significantly decreased plasma TT4, TT3, and FT3 levels. Profiles of the changes in mRNA expression levels of IDs were observed in the liver and kidney after 25 and 50 d PCB exposure, which might be associated with a reduction in plasma THs levels. The expression level of ID2 mRNA in the liver exhibited a dose-dependent increase, indicating that this ID isotype might serve as sensitive and stable indicator for thyroid-disrupting chemical (TDC exposure. Overall, our study confirmed that environmentally relevant concentrations of Aroclor 1254 cause significant thyroid disruption, with juvenile Japanese flounder being suitable candidates for use in TDC studies.

  20. Long-term assessment of settlement and growth of juvenile winter flounder ( Pseudopleuronectes americanus) in New Jersey estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogard, Susan M.; Able, Kenneth W.; Hagan, Stacy M.

    2001-06-01

    We examined patterns of metamorphosis, settlement, and growth for young-of-the-year winter flounder over a ten year period (1990-1999) in four estuaries spanning the coast of New Jersey, USA, with the objective to determine the spatial and temporal coherence in these processes. We hypothesised that these processes could be influenced by large-scale climatic factors such as temperature and small-scale, local factors such as predator and prey abundances and differences associated with the localised population structure of winter flounder. Newly settled juveniles were collected in late May/early June each year. Increment counts on sagittal otoliths were used to determine the date of metamorphosis, and increment widths were used to estimate growth rates at two times, just after settlement and just prior to capture. A high level of consistency in spatial patterns among four individual estuaries was evident, and was largely driven by the northernmost site, Sandy Hook, which had higher fish densities and later metamorphosis than the three other sites, and faster growth rates than the two mid-coast sites (Barnegat Bay and Great Bay). In contrast to spatial patterns, consistent temporal patterns were evident only in the timing of metamorphosis, which was delayed in colder years at all sites. Weekly plankton sampling over the same ten year period at one site (Great Bay) yielded winter flounder larvae during a relatively narrow period in spring, with a later peak of abundance in colder years, in agreement with back-calculated dates of metamorphosis for settled juveniles. These patterns suggest that the timing of settlement is driven by large-scale climatic factors that influence the timing of spawning and/or larval development. Interannual variability in densities and growth rates, however, appeared to be independent at each site, indicating control by local environmental factors or genetic differences among local populations. The spatial consistency of growth rates suggests

  1. Tissue-specific bioaccumulation and oxidative stress responses in juvenile Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) exposed to mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Cao, Liang; Ye, Zhenjiang; Lin, Longshan; Chen, Quanzhen; Dou, Shuozeng

    2012-07-01

    To understand mercury (Hg) toxicity in marine fish, we measured Hg accumulation in juvenile Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) and assessed the effects on growth and antioxidant responses. After Hg exposure (control, 5, 40, and 160 μg/L Hg) for 28 d, fish growth was significantly reduced. The accumulation of Hg in fish was dose-dependent and tissue-specific, with the maximum accumulation in kidney and liver, followed by gills, bone, and muscle. Different antioxidants responded differently to Hg exposure to cope with the induction of lipid peroxidation (LPO), which was also tissue-specific and dosedependent. As Hg concentration increased, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities increased significantly, whereas glutathione S -transferase (GST) activity and glutathione (GSH) levels decreased significantly in the gills. SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities and the GSH level increased significantly in the liver. SOD activity and GSH levels increased significantly, but CAT activity decreased significantly with an increase in Hg concentration in the kidney. LPO was induced significantly by elevated Hg in the gills and kidney but was least affected in the liver. Therefore, oxidative stress biomarkers in gills were more sensitive than those in the liver and kidney to Hg exposure. Thus, the gills have potential as bioindicators for evaluating Hg toxicity in juvenile flounder.

  2. Tissue-specific bioaccumulation and oxidative stress responses in juvenile Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) exposed to mercury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Wei; CAO Liang; YE Zhenjiang; LIN Longshan; CHEN Quanzhen; DOU Shuozeng

    2012-01-01

    To understand mercury (Hg) toxicity in marine fish,we measured Hg accumulation in juvenile Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and assessed the effects on growth and antioxidant responses.After Hg exposure (control,5,40,and 160 μg/L Hg) for 28 d,fish growth was significantly reduced.The accumulation of Hg in fish was dose-dependent and tissue-specific,with the maximum accumulation in kidney and liver,followed by gills,bone,and muscle.Different antioxidants responded differently to Hg exposure to cope with the induction of lipid peroxidation (LPO),which was also tissue-specific and dosedependent.As Hg concentration increased,superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities increased significantly,whereas glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and glutathione (GSH) levels decreased significantly in the gills.SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities and the GSH level increased significantly in the liver.SOD activity and GSH levels increased significantly,but CAT activity decreased significantly with an increase in Hg concentration in the kidney.LPO was induced significantly by elevated Hg in the gills and kidney but was least affected in the liver.Therefore,oxidative stress biomarkers in gills were more sensitive than those in the liver and kidney to Hg exposure.Thus,the gills have potential as bioindicators for evaluating Hg toxicity in juvenile flounder.

  3. Food and feeding habits of juvenile flounder Platichthys flesus (L.), abd turbot Scophthalmus maximus L. in the åland archipelago, northern Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarnio, Katri; Bonsdorff, Erik; Rosenback, Nina

    1996-12-01

    The food choice of juvenile flounder ( Platichthys flesus) and turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus) was studied in the northern Baltic Sea during the years 1988, 1989, 1994 and 1995. The diet included organisms from 30 species/taxa in flounder (n = 306) and 10 species/taxa in turbot (n = 41). Flounder ⩽ 45 mm mainly consumed meiofauna (dominating taxon: Harpacticoida, Copepoda) and larger fish (46-101 mm) consumed macrofauna (dominating taxa: Oligochaeta, Amphipoda and Chironomidae). In terms of biomass, macrofauna dominated for all sizes of flounders, and meiofauna was important only for the smallest fish. A strong seasonal variation could be detected in the diet. In spring, macrofauna dominated for all size classes of fish (only fish > 30 mm were caught in spring), while in summer and autumn meiofauna dominated the diets for fish ⩽ 45 mm in size. Juvenile turbot (22-88 mm) consumed macrofauna and small fish. Turbot ⩽ 30 mm consumed mainly amphipods, while > 30 mm turbot consumed mysid shrimps, amphipods and fish. The ontogenetic shift from meio- to macrofauna-sized prey in flounders occurs at a larger fish size in the northern Baltic Sea than reported in other areas, possibly depending on the increased relative importance of meiofauna in the northern Baltic. The seasonal variation in the diet could be due to seasonally changing abundances in the zoobenthos, or for the small fish (1-group, spring), to switching from meio- to macrofauna in order to optimize their energy gain. The 0-group flounders consumed meiofauna for a long period, possibly due to a learning-process or simply due to easy availability of meiofauna. Turbot has a much larger mouth gap than flounders, thus allowing them to consume macrofauna from the beginning of their benthic life.

  4. Effects of NV gene knock-out recombinant viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) on Mx gene expression in Epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) cells and olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Sun; Kim, Ki Hong

    2012-03-01

    To determine whether the NV gene of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is related to the type I interferon response of hosts, expression of Mx gene in Epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) cells and in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) in response to infection with either wild-type VHSV or recombinant VHSVs (rVHSV-ΔNV-EGFP and rVHSV-wild) was investigated. A reporter vector was constructed for measuring Mx gene expression using olive flounder Mx promoter, in which the reporter Metridia luciferase was designed to be excreted to culture medium to facilitate measurement. The highest increase of luciferase activity was detected from supernatant of cells infected with rVHSV-ΔNV-EGFP. In contrast cells infected with wild-type VHSV showed a slight increase of the luciferase activity. Interestingly, cells infected with rVHSV-wild that has artificially changed nucleotides just before and after the NV gene ORF, also showed highly increased luciferase activity, but the increased amplitude was lower than that by rVHSV-ΔNV-EGFP. These results strongly suggest that the NV protein of VHSV plays an important role in suppressing interferon response in host cells, which provides a condition for the viruses to efficiently proliferate in host cells. In an in vivo experiment, the Mx gene expression in olive flounder challenged with the rVHSV-ΔNV-EGFP was clearly higher than fish challenged with rVHSV-wild or wild-type VHSV, suggesting that lacking of the NV gene in the genome of rVHSV-ΔNV-EGFP brought to strong interferon response that subsequently inhibit viral replication in fish.

  5. Diet, consumption, and growth of juvenile fringed flounder ( Etropus crossotus); a test of the 'maximum growth/optimum food hypothesis' in a subtropical nursery area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Marcel J. M.

    2003-11-01

    Recent somatic growth of juvenile fringed flounder ( Etropus crossotus) collected in North Inlet (South Carolina, USA) was determined based on the width of the 24 most recently deposited daily increments in sagittal otoliths. Growth rates were estimated using previously published data on the experimentally validated relationship between the daily increment width and the somatic growth. A comparison of the realised growth with experimental data indicated that growth rates in the field were near optimum values determined under ad libitum food conditions. Gut contents analysis of field collected fringed flounder indicated that food consisted predominantly of zooplankton and motile epibenthic prey with calanoid copepods, in particular Pseudodiaptomus coronatus, as the most important food items. There was no clear ontogenetic shift in prey with increasing fish size. Copepods and their eggs remained a significant prey item in even the largest fish examined (>9 cm SL), while larger prey items like polychaete worms, cumaceans, bivalves, and mysids were found in the stomachs of smaller fish. The prey organisms were abundantly available during the period of highest settlement (May through September). Growth rates, biomass, consumption estimates, and prey availability in North Inlet indicated that growth of juvenile fringed flounder is not limited by food, but predominantly determined by water temperature. During the summer months temperature and food supply in North Inlet are near optimal for juvenile fringed flounder. This allows this short-lived species to grow rapidly to attain a mature size and migrate to near-shore waters to reproduce within one growing season.

  6. Toll-like receptors and interferon associated immune factors in viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus-infected olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avunje, Satheesha; Kim, Wi-Sik; Park, Chang-Su; Oh, Myung-Joo; Jung, Sung-Ju

    2011-09-01

    Pattern recognition receptor (PRR) toll-like receptors (TLRs), antiviral agent interferon (IFN) and the effector IFN stimulated genes (ISGs) play pivotal role in antiviral innate immunity of a host. The present in-vivo experiment was conducted to investigate the role of these innate immune factors in early phase as well as during recovery of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) infection by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. A less lethal VHSV infection was generated in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and was sampled at 3, 6, and 12h post infection (hpi), and 1, 2, 4, and 7 days post infection (dpi). At 3 hpi, the VHSV N gene was detected in three out of five fish and all five fish showed a relative fold increase of TLR 2, TLR 7, interleukin 8 (IL 8), IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF 3), IRF 7, and ISG 15. Viral copies rapidly increased at 12 hpi then remained high until 2 dpi. When viral copy numbers were high, a higher expression of immune genes IL 1β, IRF 3, IRF 7, Type I IFN, ISG 15 and Mx was observed. Viral copies were drastically reduced in 4 and 7 dpi fish, and also the immune response was considerably reduced but remained elevated, except for ISG 15 which found equal to control in 7 dpi fish. A high degree of correlation was observed between immune genes and viral copy number in each of the sampled fish at 12 hpi. A fish with ascites sampled at 7 dpi displayed high viral copy but under-expressed immune genes except for Mx. When viral copies were high at 1 and 2 dpi, both TLR 2 and TLR 7 were down-regulated, perhaps indicating immune suppression by the virus. The quick and prolonged elevated expression of the immune genes indicates their crucial role in survival of host against VHSV.

  7. Effects of dietary soy isoflavones on feed intake, growth performance and digestibility in juvenile Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Yanjiao; Chen, Wei; Xu, Wei; Ai, Qinghui; Zhang, Wenbing

    2012-12-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary soy isoflavones on feeding intake, growth performance, and digestion of juvenile Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus). Four isonitrogenous (49% crude protein) and isoenergetic (20.1 MJ kg-1) diets were formulated to contain four graded levels of soy isoflavones, namely, 0, 1, 4 and 8 g soy isoflavones in 1 kg of diet. Each diet was randomly fed to triplicate tanks of fish (Initial average weight: 2.58 g ± 0.01 g), and each tank was stocked with 35 fish. No significant difference was observed among diets with levels of 0, 1 and 4 g kg-1 soy isoflavones in feed intake, weight gain, feed efficiency ratio (FER), proximate composition of fish whole body and apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of nutrients and energy ( P>0.05). However, high dietary soy isoflavones level (8 g kg-1) significantly depressed weight gain, FER, whole-body crude lipid content of fish and ADC of nutrients ( PJapanese flounder. However, as the content of soy isoflavones in soybean meal is around 1 to 3 g kg-1, the adverse effects might be neglected when soybean products are used as a fish feed ingredient.

  8. Winter winds and river discharge determine juvenile southern flounder ( Paralichthys lethostigma) recruitment and distribution in North Carolina estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J. Christopher; Miller, John M.; Pietrafesa, Leonard J.; Dickey, David A.; Ross, Steve W.

    2010-07-01

    Retrospective analyses of a 23 year data set on abundance of Age 0 southern flounder in 105 estuarine nursery areas in the coastal region of North Carolina showed that discernible temporal and spatial patterns exist among clusters of stations. Furthermore, these patterns could be quantitatively related to certain meteorological and hydrological variables, namely winds from the east-southeast (E-SE) and from the north-northeast (N-NE) sectors and river runoff, which explained up to 83% of the interannual variability in numbers. We developed a regression model using recent catch data (1987-2002) and used the model to hindcast an earlier segment of the time series (1979-1986). The model was found to be quite robust, and could predict year class strength within 1 to 80% in the test set of data. We interpret these results to mean that hydrodynamic factors are principally responsible for the observed interannual recruitment variability in southern flounder in NC, since the interannual pattern in abundance of Age 0 fish persists for 2 more years of adult life. Finally, we discuss the implications of the variable spatial distribution patterns for estimates of year class strength from juvenile abundance data. It is possible that estimates of year class strength with a useful level of confidence could be obtained from meteorological data during the larval migration period.

  9. Effects of Dietary Soy Isoflavones on Feed Intake, Growth Performance and Digestibility in Juvenile Japanese Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAI Kangsen; ZHANG Yanjiao; CHEN Wei; XU Wei; AI Qinghui; ZHANG Wenbing

    2012-01-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary soy isoflavones on feeding intake,growth performance,and digestion of juvenile Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).Four isonitrogenous (49% crude protein) and isoenergetic (20.1 MJkg-1) diets were formulated to contain four graded levels of soy isoflavones,namely,0,1,4 and 8 g soy isoflavones in 1 kg of diet.Each diet was randomly fed to triplicate tanks of fish (Initial average weight:2.58g±0.01 g),and each tank was stocked with 35 fish.No significant difference was observed among diets with levels of 0,1 and 4gkg-1 soy isoflavones in feed intake,weight gain,feed efficiency ratio (FER),proximate composition of fish whole body and apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of nutrients and energy (P>0.05).However,high dietary soy isoflavones level (8 gkg-1) significantly depressed weight gain,FER,whole-body crude lipid content of fish and ADC of nutrients (P<0.05).These results indicate that high level of dietary soy isoflavones (above 4 g kg-1) significantly depresses growth responses and FER of Japanese flounder.However,as the content of soy isoflavones in soybean meal is around 1 to 3 gkg-1,the adverse effects might be neglected when soybean products are used as a fish feed ingredient.

  10. Changes in microRNAs expression profile of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) in response to viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najib, Abdellaoui; Kim, Min Sun; Choi, Seung Hyuk; Kang, Yue Jai; Kim, Ki Hong

    2016-04-01

    To know the effect of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) infection on the cellular microRNA expression profile in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), fish were infected with VHSV, and cellular microRNAs expression was analyzed at 0 (control), 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h post-infection (h.p.i.) by the high-throughput sequencing. A total of 372 mature miRNAs were identified, and, among them, 63 miRNAs were differentially expressed during VHSV infection. The differentially expressed microRNAs number was greatly increased from 24 h.p.i. compared to the number at 6 and 12 h.p.i., suggesting that the alteration of microRNAs expression by VHSV infection may be related to the progression of VHSV disease. The target prediction analysis, the GO enrichment analysis, and the KEGG pathway analysis of the predicted target genes showed that various biological pathways could be affected by VHSV infection through the down-regulation or up-regulation of host miRNAs. The present results provide a basic information on the microRNAs related to VHSV infection in olive flounder. Considering broad effects of microRNAs on various biological pathways, data in this study can be used to interpret the mechanism of VHSV pathogenesis, which, vice versa, can be used to develop control measures against VHSV.

  11. Effects of Calanoid Copepod Schmackeria poplesia as a Live Food on the Growth, Survival and Fatty Acid Composition of Larvae and Juveniles of Japanese Flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Guangxing; XU Donghui

    2009-01-01

    Zooplankton constitutes a major part of the diet for fish larvae in the marine food web, and it is generally believed that copepods can meet the nutritional requirements of fish larvae. In this study, calanoid copepod Schmackeria poplesia, rotifer Brachionus plicatilis and anostraca crustacean Artemia sp. were analyzed for fatty acid contents, and were used as live food for culturing larval Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. The total content of three types of HUFAs (DHA, EPA and ARA) in S. poplesia was significantly higher than that in the other two live foods (P<0.01). Three live organisms were used for raising larvae and juveniles ofParalichthys olivaceus respectively for 15 and 10 d. Then the growth, survival and fatty acid composition of the larvae and juveniles were investigated. The results showed that the larvae and juveniles fed with copepods (S. poplesia) had significantly higher growth rate than thosc fed with the other two organisms (P<0.01). The survival of the flounder larvae fed with copepods was significantly higher than that of the others (P<0.01), and the survival of the juvenile fish fed with copepods was higher than that fed with Artemia (P<0.05). The contents of three types of HUFAs (DHA, EPA and ARA) and the ratio of DHA/EPA in larval and juvenile flounder P. olivaceus were analyzed. The results showed that the contents of DHA, EPA and ARA in the larvae and juveniles fed with S. poplesia were higher than those fed with a mixed diet or Artemia only, and the ratio of EPA/ARA in larvae and juveniles of P. olivaceus fed with S. poplesia was lower than that in the case of feeding with a mixed diet or Artemia only. The present data showed that copepod is the best choice for feeding the larvae and juveniles of fish considering its effects on the survival, growth and nutrition composition of the fish.

  12. Detection of Kudoa septempunctata 18S ribosomal DNA in patient fecal samples from novel food-borne outbreaks caused by consumption of raw olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Tetsuya; Kawai, Takao; Jinnai, Michio; Ohnishi, Takahiro; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko; Kumeda, Yuko

    2012-09-01

    Kudoa septempunctata is a newly identified myxosporean parasite of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and a suspected causative agent of several food-borne gastroenteritis outbreaks in Japan. Here, we report the detection of K. septempunctata 18S ribosomal DNA in fecal samples of outbreak patients using an efficient method based on real-time PCR. We first performed a spiking experiment to assess whether our previously developed real-time PCR assay was applicable to detect K. septempunctata in feces. Simultaneously, we compared the relative extraction efficacy of K. septempunctata DNA using three commercial kits. Finally, our detection method was validated by testing 45 clinical samples obtained from 13 food-borne outbreaks associated with the consumption of raw flounder and 41 fecal samples from diarrhea patients epidemiologically unrelated to the ingestion of raw fish. We found that the FastDNA Spin Kit for Soil (MP Biomedicals) was the most efficient method for extracting K. septempunctata DNA from fecal samples. Using this kit, the detection limit of our real-time PCR assay was 1.6 × 10(1) spores per g of feces, and positive results were obtained for 21 fecal and 2 vomitus samples obtained from the food-borne outbreaks. To our knowledge, this is the first report to describe the detection of K. septempunctata DNA in patient fecal samples. We anticipate that our detection method will be useful for confirming food-borne diseases caused by K. septempunctata in laboratory investigations.

  13. A multiple endpoint analysis of the effects of chronic exposure to sediment contaminated with Deepwater Horizon oil on juvenile Southern flounder and their associated microbiomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown-Peterson, Nancy J., E-mail: nancy.brown-peterson@usm.edu [Department of Coastal Sciences, The University of Southern Mississippi, 703 East Beach Dr., Ocean Springs, MS 39564 (United States); Krasnec, Michelle, E-mail: MKrasnec@stratusconsulting.com [Abt Associates, 1881 Ninth Street, Suite 201, Boulder, Colorado 80302 (United States); Takeshita, Ryan, E-mail: RTakeshita@stratusconsulting.com [Abt Associates, 1881 Ninth Street, Suite 201, Boulder, Colorado 80302 (United States); Ryan, Caitlin N., E-mail: Caitlin.ryan@ttu.edu [The Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Griffitt, Kimberly J., E-mail: kim.griffitt@gmail.com [Department of Coastal Sciences, The University of Southern Mississippi, 703 East Beach Dr., Ocean Springs, MS 39564 (United States); Lay, Claire, E-mail: claymsc@stratusconsulting.com [Abt Associates, 1881 Ninth Street, Suite 201, Boulder, Colorado 80302 (United States); Mayer, Gregory D., E-mail: greg.mayer@ttu.edu [The Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Bayha, Keith M., E-mail: kmbayha@gmail.com [Department of Coastal Sciences, The University of Southern Mississippi, 703 East Beach Dr., Ocean Springs, MS 39564 (United States); Hawkins, William E., E-mail: william.hawkins@usm.edu [Department of Coastal Sciences, The University of Southern Mississippi, 703 East Beach Dr., Ocean Springs, MS 39564 (United States); Lipton, Ian, E-mail: ianlipton@stratusconsulting.com [Abt Associates, 1881 Ninth Street, Suite 201, Boulder, Colorado 80302 (United States); Morris, Jeffrey, E-mail: JMorrisMSCanyon252@stratusconsulting.com [Abt Associates, 1881 Ninth Street, Suite 201, Boulder, Colorado 80302 (United States); and others

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Juvenile southern flounder were exposed to sediment mixed with different amount of oil from the Deepwater Horizon spill. • The exposure was performed for 32 days, with growth and survival assessed throughout. • After the termination of the experiment, the survivors were examined at multiple endpoints, including histopathology and microbiome analysis. • The results indicated that the flounder were adversely affected at each endpoint examined. • Growth and survival were significantly reduced. • Histopathology found effects on gills and livers of exposed fish. • The microbiomes of the exposed fish were significantly altered by the exposure to sediment-associated oil in both gills and intestines. - Abstract: Exposure to oiled sediments can negatively impact the health of fish species. Here, we examine the effects of chronic exposure of juvenile southern flounder, Paralichthys lethostigma, to a sediment-oil mixture. Oil:sediment mixtures are persistent over time and can become bioavailable following sediment perturbation or resuspension. Juvenile flounder were exposed for 32 days under controlled laboratory conditions to five concentrations of naturally weathered Macondo MC252 oil mixed into uncontaminated, field-collected sediments. The percent composition of individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of the weathered oil did not change after mixing with the sediment. Spiked exposure sediments contained 0.04–395 mg/kg tPAH50 (sum of 50 individual PAH concentration measurements). Mortality increased with both exposure duration and concentration of sediment-associated PAHs, and flounder exposed to concentrations above 8 mg/kg tPAH50 showed significantly reduced growth over the course of the experiment. Evident histopathologic changes were observed in liver and gill tissues of fish exposed to more than 8 mg/kg tPAH50. All fish at these concentrations showed hepatic intravascular congestion, macrovesicular hepatic vacoulation

  14. Temperature-dependent viral replication and antiviral apoptotic response in viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV)-infected olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avunje, Satheesha; Kim, Wi-Sik; Oh, Myung-Joo; Choi, Ilsu; Jung, Sung-Ju

    2012-06-01

    The olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) shows a high rate of mortality to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) in the winter and spring but has zero mortality over 20 °C. In this experiment, we studied the effect of rearing temperature on viral replication, viral transcription and antiviral apoptotic immune response in VHSV-infected olive flounder by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Olive flounder were given intra-peritoneal injections of VHSV (10(7.8) TCID(50)/ml) and were reared at 15 °C or 20 °C. Five fish were randomly sampled for head kidney at 3, 6 and 12 h post-infection (hpi) and 1, 2, 4 and 7 days post-infection (dpi). Total RNA extracted from the tissue was reverse transcribed and used as template for real-time PCR. In the 15 °C group, the number of viral gRNA copies peaked after 2 dpi and remained high through 7 dpi, while in the 20 °C group, the copy number was at the highest at 1 dpi but drastically declined at later stages. Viral mRNA levels in the 15 °C group gradually increased starting at 3 hpi to reach their maximum value at 12 hpi and remained high until 2 dpi, whereas the other group showed much lower copy numbers that were undetectably low at 4 and 7 dpi. Type II IFN expression increased as the viral copies increased and the 20 °C group showed quicker and stronger expression than the 15 °C group. The MHC class I and CD8 expression was high in both the groups at early stage of infection (3-6 hpi) but at later stages (2-7 dpi) in 15 °C group expression reduced below control levels, while they expressed higher to control in 20 °C group. The expression of granzyme in 15 °C fish showed a single peak at 2 dpi, but was consistently expressing in 20 °C fish. Individuals expressed very high levels of perforin expressed very high levels of caspase 3. In 15 °C fish, TNFα, FasL and p53 expressed significantly higher than 20 °C only at initial stages of infection (3-6 hpi). Caspase 3 expression found to be low in 15 °C fish

  15. From the juvenile to the adult vegetative phase in olive seedlings: the transition along the stem axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Casanova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Sexual reproduction in olive is carried out for purposes such as breeding. The seedlings evolve from the juvenile to the adult stage, and until now, only the discrete developmental phases have been investigated in detail. However, the transition process has been poorly studied in fruit trees, especially in olive. In this paper, juvenile to adult transition has been explored in 30 olive seedlings coming from the Table Olive Breeding Program of the University of Sevilla, Spain. Despite of the great variability found in the olive leaf morphological parameters, mean values increased linearly from the bottom (juvenile to the top (adult tissue of the seedling. An upward lineal decrease in the rooting ability was also observed for the set of seedlings evaluated. No significant differences were found for the maximum net photosynthesis (PNmax or maximum stomatal conductance (gsmax, although the lowest values were measured at <0.5 m. For all of the analysed parameters, the transitional tissue showed intermediate values. These results show for the first time in olive that the transition along the seedling stem axis follows a clear lineal tendency with a stepwise loss of juvenile characters being the shift from juvenile to adult phase in olive not an abrupt change but a gradual process. The usefulness of a fibre optic probe with a reduced sampling surface coupled to near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS was evaluated. NIR analysis has been confirmed to be a useful tool to discriminate the juvenile and adult leaves, but not the transition ones.

  16. Enteromyxum leei (Myxosporea: Bivalvulida) as the cause of myxosporean emaciation disease of farmed olive flounders (Paralichthys olivaceus) and a turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) on Jeju Island, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiya, Mariko; Setsuda, Aogu; Sato, Hiroshi; Song, Kicheon; Han, Jung-Kyun; Kim, Gyeong-Ju; Yeo, In Kyu

    2016-11-01

    A life-threatening emaciation disease of unknown cause(s) is affecting the farming of olive flounders (Paralichthys olivaceus) and turbots (Scophthalmus maximus) on Jeju Island, Korea. As this is one of the major industries in the region, it is of great concern to local farmers trying to develop successful and sustainable aquaculture. We examined 16 olive flounders and one turbot cultured at three farms located in the southern part of Jeju Island, which manifested moderate to severe emaciation such as thinning of the body with notable appearance of bony ridges of the skull on heads. Fresh mucosal scrapings of the intestinal mucosa contained many myxosporean vegetative stages at various developments but not fully grown spores. Histological examination of gastrointestinal and other visceral organs revealed striking changes in the intestinal mucosa such as detachment and loss of the epithelium due to intensive parasitism of the myxosporean vegetative stages, accompanied by considerable leukocyte infiltration in the lamina propria, and at the final stage villus atrophy with no epithelial lining. Specific polymerase chain reaction using a pair of primers targeting a fragment of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) of Enteromyxum leei, a known pathogen causing myxosporean emaciation disease in a variety of cultured fish in Mediterranean countries and Japan, amplified 433-bp products in almost all diseased fish samples, particularly the gastrointestinal tract. Nearly the whole length of the 18S rDNA, 1672-bp long excluding primer-aligning sequences, of the present Korean isolate was comparable to those of E. leei isolates from Japan and Europe, particularly those from the former region. Taking the heavy load of various developmental stages of E. leei in the gastrointestinal mucosa into account, we ascribe the emaciation disease of the fish examined in the present study to this well-known myxosporean species and not to another unknown pathogen(s).

  17. Effects of different light wavelengths from LEDs on oxidative stress and apoptosis in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) at high water temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bong-Seok; Jung, Seo Jin; Choi, Young Jae; Kim, Na Na; Choi, Cheol Young; Kim, Jae-Woo

    2016-08-01

    We investigated how different light spectra affect thermal stress in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), using light emitting diodes (LEDs; blue, 450 nm; green, 530 nm; red, 630 nm) at two intensities (0.3 and 0.5 W/m(2)) at relatively high water temperatures (25 and 30 °C, compared to a control condition of 20 °C). We measured the expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and the levels of plasma hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and lipid peroxidation (LPO). Furthermore, the levels and mRNA expression of caspase-3 were measured, and terminal transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays of liver and comet assays were performed. The expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes, as well as plasma H2O2 and LPO levels were significantly higher after exposure to high temperatures, and significantly lower after exposure to green and blue light. Caspase-3 levels and mRNA expression showed a similar pattern. The TUNEL assay showed that apoptosis markedly increased at higher water temperatures, compared with the 20 °C control. In contrast, green light irradiation decreased apoptosis rate. Furthermore, the comet assays showed that nuclear DNA damage was caused by thermal stress, and that green light irradiation played a role in partially preventing this damage. Overall, these results suggest that light with green and blue wavelengths can reduce both high temperature-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis, and that particularly green light is efficient for this. Therefore, green light can play a role in protecting in olive flounder from thermal stress damage.

  18. From the juvenile to the adult vegetative phase in olive seedlings: the transition along the stem axis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Casanova, Laura; Suárez, M. Paz; Fernández-Cabanás, Victor M; Morales-Sillero, Ana M; Jiménez, M. Rocío; Rallo, Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Sexual reproduction in olive is carried out for purposes such as breeding. The seedlings evolve from the juvenile to the adult stage, and until now, only the discrete developmental phases have been investigated in detail...

  19. Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Barodon, an Anionic Alkali Mineral Complex, on Growth Performance, Feed Utilization, Innate Immunity, Goblet Cell and Digestibility in Olive Flounder (

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Hoon Shin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A 15-wk feeding trial was conducted to examine the supplemental effects of Barodon on growth performance, gastrointestinal histology, feed digestibility and innate immunity in olive founder. A basal commercial diet was used as a control and two other diets were prepared by spraying 0.1% or 0.2% of Barodon. Triplicate groups of fish (BW, 145 g were fed one of the test diets to apparent satiation twice daily. At the end of the feeding trial, fish growth performance was not significantly affected by dietary treatments; however, feed utilization was significantly improved (linear and quadratic, p<0.05 by Barodon supplementation. Significantly higher (p<0.05 survival rates were obtained in fish fed Barodon containing diets. Hepatosomatic index increased significantly in Barodon treated groups. Also, the use of Barodon resulted in significant increase (linear and quadratic, p<0.05 of intestine length and number of goblet cells. Significantly higher (Quadratic, p<0.05 apparent digestibility coefficient of DM was obtained by supplementation of Barodon. Lysozyme and myeloperoxidase activities increased quadratically and linearly, respectively, in Barodon treated fish. Also, significantly higher (linear and quadratic, p<0.05 superoxide dismutase activity was found in Barodon fed fish. The findings in this study show that inclusion of Barodon in diets for olive flounder improves feed utilization and digestibility, and positively affects digestive tract histology and innate immunity.

  20. Compensatory growth of juvenile brown flounder Paralichthys olivaceus following low temperature treatment for different periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yinhui; Liu, Xiujia; Huang, Guoqiang; Wei, Liuzhi; Zhang, Xiumei

    2017-04-01

    We investigated the effects of low temperature (8.5°C) on the growth and feeding rates and feed conversion efficiency of juvenile P. olivaceus with an average initial weight of 3.87 ± 0.06 g (mean ± SE). Fish were exposed to 8.5°C for 0 (control), 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks, and then to 20°C for 10, 9, 8, 7 and 6 weeks, respectively. Low temperature clearly led to growth depression. The weight of fish exposed to low temperature for 1 week was restored to that of control, while that of fish exposed to low temperature longer was significantly decreased ( P 0.05). Feeding rate and feed conversion efficiency were reduced at low temperature in juvenile P. olivaceus. The compensatory growth of juvenile P. olivaceus may therefore be attributed to the improvement of feeding rate. Our results suggested that growth depression occurs when juvenile P. olivaceus are exposed to low temperature for more than one week.

  1. Effects of calanoid copepod Schmackeria poplesia as a live food on the growth, survival and fatty acid composition of larvae and juveniles of Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guangxing; Xu, Donghui

    2009-12-01

    Zooplankton constitutes a major part of the diet for fish larvae in the marine food web, and it is generally believed that copepods can meet the nutritional requirements of fish larvae. In this study, calanoid copepod Schmackeria poplesia, rotifer Brachionus plicatilis and anostraca crustacean Artemia sp. were analyzed for fatty acid contents, and were used as live food for culturing larval Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. The total content of three types of HUFAs (DHA, EPA and ARA) in S. poplesia was significantly higher than that in the other two live foods ( Pdiet or Artemia only, and the ratio of EPA/ARA in larvae and juveniles of P. olivaceus fed with S. poplesia was lower than that in the case of feeding with a mixed diet or Artemia only. The present data showed that copepod is the best choice for feeding the larvae and juveniles of fish considering its effects on the survival, growth and nutrition composition of the fish.

  2. The effect of excluding juveniles on apparent adult olive baboons (Papio anubis) social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedurek, Piotr; Lehmann, Julia

    2017-01-01

    In recent years there has been much interest in investigating the social structure of group living animals using social network analysis. Many studies so far have focused on the social networks of adults, often excluding younger, immature group members. This potentially may lead to a biased view of group social structure as multiple recent studies have shown that younger group members can significantly contribute to group structure. As proof of the concept, we address this issue by investigating social network structure with and without juveniles in wild olive baboons (Papio anubis) at Gashaka Gumti National Park, Nigeria. Two social networks including all independently moving individuals (i.e., excluding dependent juveniles) were created based on aggressive and grooming behaviour. We used knockout simulations based on the random removal of individuals from the network in order to investigate to what extent the exclusion of juveniles affects the resulting network structure and our interpretation of age-sex specific social roles. We found that juvenile social patterns differed from those of adults and that the exclusion of juveniles from the network significantly altered the resulting overall network structure. Moreover, the removal of juveniles from the network affected individuals in specific age-sex classes differently: for example, including juveniles in the grooming network increased network centrality of adult females while decreasing centrality of adult males. These results suggest that excluding juveniles from the analysis may not only result in a distorted picture of the overall social structure but also may mask some of the social roles of individuals belonging to different age-sex classes. PMID:28323851

  3. Generation of G gene-deleted viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) and evaluation of its vaccine potential in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Sun; Park, Ji Sun; Kim, Ki Hong

    2015-08-01

    Generation of recombinant viruses lacking an essential gene for the production of infective viral particles would be a way to produce safety-enhanced live viral vaccines. The rhabdoviral envelope-spiked glycoprotein (G) plays critical roles in the attachment of viruses on the cell surface receptor and in the transfer of endocytosed viruses to the cytoplasm by fusion to the endosomal membrane. In the present study, we produced a G gene-lacking recombinant viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (rVHSV-ΔG) that has no ability to form plaques in the cells without a trans-supply of the G protein, which suggests that rVHSV-ΔG is a single cycle virus and progenies of rVHSV-ΔG are not infectious. One of the major advantages of attenuated vaccines is the maintenance of replication ability in the host, which enforces the adaptive immune responses. However, in spite of lacking an ability to produce infective viral particles, immunization with the present rVHSV-ΔG induced significantly higher serum neutralization titers and survival rates against virulent VHSV challenge in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) fingerlings, indicating that the present rVHSV-ΔG has a high potential as a prophylactic vaccine.

  4. Stability and efficacy of the 3'-UTR A4G-G5A variant of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) as a live attenuated immersion VHSV vaccine in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Hyun; Kim, Meesun; Choi, Go-Eun; Lee, Jeong Ho; Kang, Jung-Ha; Evensen, Øystein; Lee, Woo-Jai

    2016-02-17

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is the causative agent of viral hemorrhagic septicemia in fish, a disease that affects a number of teleost fish species including olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). In this study, we assessed the safety and efficacy of two recombinant attenuated VHSV strains, termed A4G-G5A and ΔNV, with the purpose to select the most suitable vaccine strain. The virus strains were passaged in two commercially available cell lines, EPC and RTG-2, and the strains were also tested for residual virulence in zebrafish (Danio rerio). The A4G-G5A strain showed an attenuated growth profile in both the EPC and RTG-2 cell lines compared to wild-type (WT) VHSV (JF-09, genotype IVa), whereas the growth profile of ΔNV was comparable to the WT strains in RTG-2 cells in contrast to EPC cells. Moreover, ΔNV had higher residual virulence compared to A4G-G5A and was highly pathogenic to zebrafish. The A4G-G5A strain was chosen as vaccine candidate and tested for efficacy in in vivo fish studies in the target species, olive flounder, using an immersion vaccine scheme. Groups of fish were immunized with 10(2.5), 10(3.5), 10(4.5), and 10(5.5) TCID50/ml of A4G-G5A giving 5-13.3 cumulative percent mortality (CPM) post immunization. Immunization was followed by a challenge experiment using VHSV-WT. The relative percent survival (RPS) in immunized groups ranged from 81.6% to 100%, correlating with vaccination dose. This study demonstrates that while strain A4G-G5A has retained some residual virulence it confers high level of protection in immunized olive flounder.

  5. Comparison of the efficacy of Poly(I:C) immunization with live vaccine and formalin-killed vaccine against viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoung Jun; Park, Jeong Su; Choi, Min Chul; Kwon, Se Ryun

    2016-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) in olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, causes significant economic loss for the flounder aquaculture industry in Korea. In this study, the immunogenicity of Poly(I:C) immunization with a live vaccine against the VHS virus (VHSV) was compared with that of a formalin-treated vaccine in the olive flounder. In vaccine trial I, fish pre-injected with Poly(I:C) were highly protected from VHSV infection 2 d later (survival rate: 96%) and the surviving fish (Poly(I:C)-VHSV group) showed a 100% survival rate against VHSV re-challenge. Mortality in fish pre-injected with diethylpyrocarbonate-treated water followed by injection with formalin-treated VHSV was only 2% (1 of 50 fish), whereas survivors (DEPC-FT VHSV group) showed an 80% survival rate. In vaccine trial II, 100% survival was observed in all Poly(I:C) vaccination groups-Poly(I:C)-VHSV 6, Poly(I:C)-VHSV 5, and Poly(I:C)-VHSV 4. In contrast, the survival rates of the groups administered the formalin-treated VHSV at a dose of 10(6), 10(5), and 10(4) TCID50 100 μL(-1) fish(-1) (DEPC-FT VHSV 6, DEPC-FT VHSV 5, and DEPC-FT VHSV 4) were only 8%, 12%, and 12%, respectively. The differences in the survival rates of the formalin-treated vaccine groups in trial I and trial II were attributed to the difference in the formalin-treatment period: the formalin-treated VHSV administered in trial I was not completely inactivated and worked as a live vaccine, which explains the 80% survival rate against VHSV challenge. Specific antibodies against VHSV were detected in sera from all vaccinated survivors, except the DEPC-VHSV 4 group. Furthermore, the specific antibody titers of fish vaccinated with the live and dead VHSV vaccines were similar, but the protective effects of the live and dead vaccines varied considerably. Our findings show that Poly(I:C) immunization with the live vaccine offers better protection than the formalin-treated vaccine against VHS in olive flounder and revealed that

  6. Olive

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... In manufacturing, olive oil is used to make soaps, commercial plasters and liniments; and to delay setting ... Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on ... Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, Ineffective, and Insufficient ...

  7. Effects of Dietary Fish Oil Replacement by Microalgae in Microdiets on Growth Performance, Survival and Fatty Acid Profile of Japanese Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) Juveniles%微粒饲料中以微藻粉替代鱼油对牙鲆(Paralichthys olivaceus)稚鱼生长存活和脂肪酸组成的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔洪金; 王际英; 张利民; 孙春晓; 李宝山; 丛超; 宋志东; 柳旭东

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if algal products rich in DHA or EPA are able to completely replace fish oil in microdiets for marine fish juveniles, Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. To address the problem, an 11-d feeding experiment was carried out on 18-day old juveniles. The experimental subjects were fed with five groups of isolipidic and isoenergetic microdiets that were control group with fish oil (FO), 50% replacement group by mixed Schizochytrium sp., Nannochloropsis sp. and olive oil (M50), 100% replacement group (M100), 100% replacement group by Schizochytrium sp. and olive oil (S100), and 100% replacement group by Nannochloropsis sp. and olive oil (N100). The results showed that there were no significant effects of fish oil replacement with microalgae on growth. The groups containing Schizochytrium sp. (M50, M100 and S100) had higher survival rates than FO and N100 groups. No changes in the major fatty acid compositions of juveniles were observed with the replacement of fish oil by microalgae. In addition, Pearson correlation analysis showed that the percentage content of C14:0, C16:1n-7, C18:2n-6, C20:0, C18:3n-3, C22:0, C20:4n-3, EPA, C22:5n-6 and DHA in juveniles were significantly and positively correlative to those in diets (P<0.05). The same correlations were also observed for total saturated, monounsaturated and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and DHA/EPA ratio. In conclusion, fish oil replacement with microalgae as lipid sources can fully satisfy the growth and development in juvenile flounder, and fatty acids in microalgae can be effectively digested and absorbed. Furthermore, the addition of microalgae in diets enhanced the DHA content and DHA/EPA ratio in juveniles, and hence improved the survival. Therefore, the fish oil replacement with microalgae in the culture of Japanese flounder juveniles is feasible. This study will be helpful and suggestive for screening new lipid sources to replace strained fish oil resource.%以18

  8. Effect of G gene-deleted recombinant viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (rVHSV-ΔG) on the replication of wild type VHSV in a fish cell line and in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Sun; Choi, Seung Hyuk; Kim, Ki Hong

    2016-07-01

    In an earlier study, we generated a replicon viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) particle that was lacking the G gene in the genome (rVHSV-ΔG), and proved the potential of it as a protective vaccine through the immunization of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) fingerlings. Safety is the most important preconsideration for the development of recombinant live vaccines, and a major concern of propagation-incompetent viral particles would be the possible harmful effect to hosts through the interaction with wild-type viruses. Thus, in the present study, we analyzed the replication of rVHSV-ΔG in the presence of wild-type VHSV and the effect of rVHSV-ΔG on the replication of wild-type VHSV in Epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) cells and in olive flounder fingerlings. The replication of wild-type VHSV in EPC cells was severely suppressed when the MOI of rVHSV-ΔG was 0.1 or 0.01, on the other hand, the titers of rVHSV-ΔG were not increased and stayed in a relatively constant according to time lapse. Furthermore, the replication of other novirhabdoviruses, IHNV and HIRRV, was also inhibited by co-infection with high titers of rVHSV-ΔG. There were no big differences in mortalities between groups infected with wild-type VHSV plus rVHSV-ΔG and groups infected with wild-type VHSV alone, when the challenged wild-type VHSV was more than 10(2) PFU/fish. However, a group of fish infected with 10 PFU/fish of wild-type VHSV plus rVHSV-ΔG showed significantly lower and slowly progressing cumulative mortality than a group of fish infected with 10 PFU/fish of wild-type VHSV alone. This result suggests that rVHSV-ΔG has an ability to attenuate the disease progression caused by wild-type VHSV when co-infected with relatively low titers of wild-type VHSV. These results indicate that the propagation-incompetent rVHSV-ΔG would not worsen but attenuate the progression of a disease caused by wild-type VHSV infection. Therefore, rVHSV-ΔG-based vaccines can provide a

  9. Taxonomy of the early life stages of arrowtooth flounder (Atheresthes stomias) and Kamchatka flounder (A. evermanni) in the eastern Bering Sea, with notes on distribution and condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Forest, Lisa; Duffy-Anderson, J. T.; Heintz, R. A.; Matarese, A. C.; Siddon, E. C.; Smart, T. I.; Spies, I. B.

    2014-11-01

    Arrowtooth flounder (Atheresthes stomias) and Kamchatka flounder (A. evermanni) are closely related flatfish species that co-occur in the eastern Bering Sea. As adults, arrowtooth flounder can be distinguished from Kamchatka flounder; however, larvae and early juveniles can only be indentified to the genus level due to morphological similarities. This has precluded studies of ecology for the early life stages of both species in the eastern Bering Sea. In this study, we developed a genetic technique to identify the larvae and early juveniles of the two species using mtDNA cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI). Genetically identified specimens were then examined to determine a visual identification method based on pigment patterns and morphology. Specimens 6.0-12.0 mm SL and≥18.0 mm SL can be identified to the species level, but species identification of individuals 12.1-17.9 mm SL by visual means alone remains elusive. The distribution of larvae (larvae and juveniles of each species by analyzing lipid content (%) and energy density (kJ/g dry mass). Kamchatka flounder larvae on average had higher lipid content than arrowtooth flounder larvae, but were also larger on average than arrowtooth flounder larvae in the summer. When corrected for length, both species had similar lipid content in the larval and juvenile stages.

  10. Histological Studies on the Development of Digestive System In Larval and Juvenile Starry Flounder%星斑川鲽仔稚鱼消化系统发育的组织学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方华华; 王波

    2011-01-01

    A histological examination was made on the development of digestive system in larval and juvenile starry flounder Platichtbys stellatus Pallas from 1 day to 35 days.In 3 days, the digestive tract in the larvae was formed but no food was intaken when the starry flounder was in endogenous nutrition.In 3-5 days , the mixotrophic stage which was the transition from endogenous nutrition to exogenous nutrition, the yolk was absorbed fairly well and disappeared, while the digestive tract was differentiated into six portions:buccopharynnx, oesophagus , stomach, anterior- middle intestine, posterior intestine and anus.The larval digestive system was morphologically ready to be absorbed to food at this time.Then, these digestive tract and associated glands became mature gradually with the development.Gastric glands were observed in 16 days ,which indicated it was a kind of fish with faster development.%使用石蜡切片技术对1~35日龄星斑川鲽的仔稚鱼消化系统进行组织学观察和研究.结果表明,星斑川鲽消化系统的发育主要分成3个阶段:从初孵到3日龄是卵黄阶段,其消化道为一细长的管道;从3日龄到5日龄是后卵黄阶段(混合营养阶段),卵黄被逐渐吸收,是卵黄阶段转向外源性营养阶段的过渡,消化道明显分化成口咽腔、食道、胃、前中肠、后肠和肛门,仔鱼消化系统具备了摄食和消化外源性食物的能力.此后,随着鱼体的生长,粘膜层的褶皱增加,消化道上皮细胞进一步分化,消化系统从功能和结构上逐步完善.16日龄,胃腺出现,标志着稚鱼期的开始,也表明星斑川鲽是一种发育较快的鱼类.

  11. The influence of environmental factors on early life history patterns of flounders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, John Selden; Ueno, Masahiro; Tanaka, Yousuke; Walsh, Harvey; Maeda, Tsuneo; Kinoshita, Izumi; Seikai, Tadahisa; Hoss, Donald E.; Tanaka, Masaru

    1998-09-01

    The near-shore migration and settlement phases of Japanese and American flounders of the genus Paralichthys are compared and discussed relative to differences in coastal environments. Field sampling was conducted in Wakasa Bay, Kyoto Prefecture, Japan, where the shelf is narrow, estuarine habitat limited and tidal range slight, and in Onslow Bay, North Carolina, USA, where the shelf is broad, estuarine habitat extensive and tide relatively strong. Distribution of larvae and juveniles suggests Japanese flounder spawn in close proximity to nursery grounds relative to flounder in Onslow Bay. Sampling of planktonic and benthic flounder just seaward of nursery grounds resulted in capture of a wide range of developmental stages in Wakasa Bay (early planktonic to juvenile), but was limited to metamorphosing larvae in Onslow Bay. Vertical distribution of larvae during the night also differed between the Bays. At night most larvae in Wakasa Bay remained near the bottom regardless of tidal stage. In contrast, larvae in Onslow Bay exhibited selective tidal stream transport. Laboratory experiments conducted to examine the behaviour of recently captured wild and laboratory-reared larvae indicated that wild flounder from Onslow Bay had an endogenous rhythm of activity that corresponded to the tide at the time of capture. In contrast, wild flounder from Wakasa Bay and laboratory-reared larvae showed no distinct activity pattern. These results suggest that physical characteristics of the environment influence the early life history patterns of flounders by modifying behaviour of migrating larvae.

  12. Habitat selection of stone and starry flounders in an estuary in relation to feeding and survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiyama, Takeshi; Omori, Michio

    2008-09-01

    Juveniles of both stone flounder Platichthys bicoloratus and starry flounder Platichthys stellatus utilize estuaries as nursery grounds. To understand their habitat selection and the functions of habitats such as food supply, we defined the seasonal distribution of recently settled fish of these species in shallow nursery areas and investigated their feeding habits in the Natori River estuary, Japan. Distribution of stone flounder was limited to the lower estuary (preferred prey and predator avoidance, respectively, and that non-overlap of these species' habitats results in avoidance of inter-specific competition for food between these two species.

  13. NPY and sbGnRH gene expression in juvenile and adult male Brazilian flounder Paralichthys orbignyanus Expressão gênica do NPY e do sbGnRH em machos juvenis e adultos de linguado Paralichthys orbignyanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Farias Campos

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate neuropeptide Y (NPY and sea bream gonadotropin-release hormone (sbGnRH gene expression in juvenile and adult males of Brazilian flounder. Hypothalamuses from fish were sampled for total RNA extraction. After cDNA synthesis, real-time PCR was used to measure gene expression. NPY showed approximately 2-fold increases in their mRNA levels while sbGnRH showed 3-fold increases in adult fish. These results suggest that these peptides could be involved on hypothalamic regulation of Brazilian flounder sexual maturation.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a expressão gênica do neuropeptídeo Y (NPY e da variante sea bream do hormônio liberador de gonadotrofinas (sbGnRH em linguados machos juvenis e adultos. O hipotálamo foi isolado para a extração de RNA total. Após a síntese de cDNA, a PCR em tempo real foi usada para avaliar a expressão gênica. Foi observado um aumento de aproximadamente duas vezes nos níveis de NPY e de aproximadamente três vezes nos níveis de sbGnRH nos peixes adultos. Esses resultados demonstram que estes peptídeos podem estar envolvidos na regulação, via hipotálamo, da maturação sexual no linguado.

  14. Genetic variants of Kudoa septempunctata (Myxozoa: Multivalvulida), a flounder parasite causing foodborne disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, F; Ogasawara, Y; Kato, K; Sekizuka, T; Nozaki, T; Sugita-Konishi, Y; Ohnishi, T; Kuroda, M

    2016-06-01

    Foodborne disease outbreaks caused by raw olive flounders (Paralichthys olivaceus) parasitized with Kudoa septempunctata have been reported in Japan. Origins of olive flounders consumed in Japan vary, being either domestic or imported, and aquaculture-raised or natural. Although it is unknown whether different sources are associated with different outcomes, it is desirable to identify whether this is the case by determining whether unique K. septempunctata strains occur and if so, whether some are associated with foodborne illness. We here developed an intraspecific genotyping method, using the sequence variation of mitochondrial genes. We collected olive flounder samples from foodborne disease outbreaks, domestic fish farms or quarantine offices and investigated whether K. septempunctata genotype is associated with pathogenicity or geographic origin. The 104 samples were classified into three genotypes, ST1, ST2 and ST3. Frequency of symptomatic cases differed by genotypes, but the association was not statistically significant. Whereas K. septempunctata detected from aquaculture-raised and natural fish from Japan were either ST1 or ST2, those from fish inspected at quarantine from Korea to Japan were ST3. Our method can be applied to phylogeographic analysis of K. septempunctata and contribute to containing the foodborne disease. The genotype database is hosted in the PubMLST website (http://pubmlst.org/kseptempunctata/).

  15. A new PCR-based method shows that blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus (Rathbun consume winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus (Walbaum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackie L Collier

    Full Text Available Winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus once supported robust commercial and recreational fisheries in the New York (USA region, but since the 1990s populations have been in decline. Available data show that settlement of young-of-the-year winter flounder has not declined as sharply as adult abundance, suggesting that juveniles are experiencing higher mortality following settlement. The recent increase of blue crab (Callinectes sapidus abundance in the New York region raises the possibility that new sources of predation may be contributing to juvenile winter flounder mortality. To investigate this possibility we developed and validated a method to specifically detect winter flounder mitochondrial control region DNA sequences in the gut contents of blue crabs. A survey of 55 crabs collected from Shinnecock Bay (along the south shore of Long Island, New York in July, August, and September of 2011 showed that 12 of 42 blue crabs (28.6% from which PCR-amplifiable DNA was recovered had consumed winter flounder in the wild, empirically supporting the trophic link between these species that has been widely speculated to exist. This technique overcomes difficulties with visual identification of the often unrecognizable gut contents of decapod crustaceans, and modifications of this approach offer valuable tools to more broadly address their feeding habits on a wide variety of species.

  16. A new PCR-based method shows that blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus (Rathbun)) consume winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus (Walbaum)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Jackie L; Fitzgerald, Sean P; Hice, Lyndie A; Frisk, Michael G; McElroy, Anne E

    2014-01-01

    Winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) once supported robust commercial and recreational fisheries in the New York (USA) region, but since the 1990s populations have been in decline. Available data show that settlement of young-of-the-year winter flounder has not declined as sharply as adult abundance, suggesting that juveniles are experiencing higher mortality following settlement. The recent increase of blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) abundance in the New York region raises the possibility that new sources of predation may be contributing to juvenile winter flounder mortality. To investigate this possibility we developed and validated a method to specifically detect winter flounder mitochondrial control region DNA sequences in the gut contents of blue crabs. A survey of 55 crabs collected from Shinnecock Bay (along the south shore of Long Island, New York) in July, August, and September of 2011 showed that 12 of 42 blue crabs (28.6%) from which PCR-amplifiable DNA was recovered had consumed winter flounder in the wild, empirically supporting the trophic link between these species that has been widely speculated to exist. This technique overcomes difficulties with visual identification of the often unrecognizable gut contents of decapod crustaceans, and modifications of this approach offer valuable tools to more broadly address their feeding habits on a wide variety of species.

  17. PREDATION OF JUVENILE JELLYFISH RHOPILEMA ESCULENTUM ON FLOUNDER PARALICHTHYS OLIVACEUS EGGS AND NEWLY-HATCHED LARVAE%海蜇(Rhopilema esculentum)浮游幼体对褐牙鲆(Paralichthysolivaceus)卵和初孵仔鱼捕食的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹亮; 刘金虎; 于鑫; 南鸥; 窦硕增

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the predation of different-sized juvenile jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum [(2.5±0.1), (4.1±0.2), (11.7±0.5), and (21.1±-0.6)mm in umbrella diameter] on flounder Paralich thys olivaceus eggs [ (0.92±0.01)mm in diameter] and newly-hatched larvae [(3.01±0.08)mm in total length] at different prey densities (10, 30, 50, 80ind/L). In addition, the predation rates of juvenile jellyfish [(21.1±0.6)mm in umbrella diameter] on newly-hatched larvae at different predation duration (0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5h) were examined. In all size-groups, the predation rates on eggs were significantly lower than that on newly-hatched larvae at all prey densities. Neither egg density nor jellyfish size had significant effect on the predation rates. Predation rates on larvae increased significantly with the increase of jellyfish size and larval density. Predation rates on larvae by the juvenile jellyfish (21.1mm in diameter) reached a maximum of 17.3ind/(predator.h) at lh, and then dropped gradually as the predation duration was prolonged. It is assumed that predation on eggs and larvae by juvenile jellyfish could influence the embryonic and larval survival of the flounder if the predators and prey were spatially and temporally matched in nature, which could subsequently affect the recruitment or the population dynamics of the flounder populations.%利用实验生态学方法研究不同个体大小的海蜇浮游幼体[平均伞径(2.5±0.1),(4.1±0.2),(11.7±0.5),(21.1±0.6)mm]对不同密度(10,30,50,80ind/L)的褐牙鲆卵[卵径(0.92±0.01)mm]和初孵仔鱼f全长(3.01±0.08)mm]的捕食率,解析海蜇浮游幼体对初孵仔鱼的捕食率随捕食时间(0.5,1,2,3,4,5h)的变化特征。结果表明,各个体组海蜇浮游幼体对卵的捕食率均显著低于对仔鱼的捕食率;它们对卵的捕食率与卵密度和海蜇

  18. Efforts to understand stock structure of summer flounder ( Paralichthys dentatus) in North Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, J. S.; Monaghan, J. P.; Yokoyama, S.

    2000-10-01

    Understanding the stock structure of the summer flounder is critical to attempts to manage this species. Currently such research is particularly urgent due to increased interest in commercial culture and stock enhancement of summer flounder as this creates pressure to transplant fish among geographic areas. Studies of summer flounder in the coastal waters of North Carolina are of particular relevance to the stock structure due to the existence of a zoogeographic boundary at Cape Hatteras, NC. The importance of this boundary is being investigated through mark-recapture studies of adults, field sampling of larvae and laboratory experiments on larvae and juveniles originating from different brood stocks. Twenty-three thousand summer flounder were marked in coastal waters and movement of recaptured animals relative to season and the zoogeographic boundary analysed. Seasonal occurrence of larvae relative to this boundary was compared and animals were characterised in terms of fin ray numbers and size and developmental stage at arrival at the coast. In the laboratory we reared larvae from two brood stocks; one originating from the northern portion of the summer flounders range, and the other from North Carolina. These animals were used to determine the importance of temperature to fin ray formation and to compare growth of the two groups of larvae relative to temperature. Additional laboratory experiments include comparisons of salinity tolerance of larvae during the settlement period. Our results support the existence of different groups relative to this zoogeographic barrier and suggest that extensive movement of summer flounder from one region to another for stock enhancement or culture should be prohibited.

  19. Distributions of pefloxacin in flounder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, P.S.; Jang, W.C. [Dankook University, Chonan (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-01

    This study showed the distribution of pefloxacin as a kind of quinolones after oral administrations of 100 mg/kg pefloxacin for 2 days in flounder. After administrations of pefloxacin, blood, muscle, and 8 organs including liver of flounder were analyzed by HPLC. In results, we knew that pefloxacin had absorbed from intestine and accumulated into gall bladder. In blood, maximum plasma concentration was showed 4.70 {mu}g/ml at 45 min, and detected 0.31{+-}0.01 {mu}g/ml at the eleventh day after administration. The concentration of pefloxacin was remained 0.29{+-}0.02 {mu}g/g tissue in muscle at the tenth day. 17 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Effect of dairy-yeast prebiotic on growth performance and antioxidant capability of juvenile starry flounder Platichthys stellatus%乳制品-酵母益生元对星斑川鲽幼鱼生长性能和抗氧化能力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张德瑞; 张利民; 王际英; 马晶晶; 李宝山; 姜柯君

    2013-01-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to study the effect of dairy-yeast prebiotic (Grobiotic-A) on the survival rate,growth performance and antioxidant capacity of juvenile starry flounder Platichtahys stellatus.A total of 540 fish at body weight of 15.05±0.04 g were randomly allocated into six groups with three replicates and each replicate contained 30 fish.The fish were fed diets supplemented with 0,0.4%,0.8%,1.2%,1.6% and 2.0% dairyyeast prebiotic,respectively.The results are shown as follows:1) weight gain rate (WGR),specific growth rate (SGR),feed intake (FI),protein efficiency rate (PER) and condition factor (CF) increased whereas feed conversion ratio (FCR) decreased significantly (P<0.05) with the supplementation of dairy-yeast prebiotic in diets.However,there were no statistical differences in viscerosomatic index (VSI),hepatosomatic index (HSI) (P>0.05) ; 2) compared with the control,the activity of catalase (CAT) and total anti-oxidation capability (T-AOC) in serum and liver,and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and anti-superoxide anion activities (T-AOC) in serum were significantly increased (P<0.05),while the malondialdehyde (MDA) content in serum and liver of fish fed diets supplemented with dairy-yeast prebiotic was significantly decreased (P<0.05).These results indicated that dairy-yeast prebiotic positively influenced the growth performance and anti-oxidation of juvenile starry flounder in this experiment.Quadratic regression of SGR indicated that the optimal supplementation level of dairy-yeast prebiotic in juvenile starry flounder diet was 1.32 %.%选取平均初始体重为15.05±0.04g的星斑川鲽幼鱼540尾,随机分成6组,每组3个重复,分别饲喂添加0、0.4%、0.8%、1.2%、1.6%和2.0%乳制品-酵母益生元的试验饲料,实验期56d.结果表明:1)饲料中添加乳制品-酵母益生元可显著提高星斑川鲽幼鱼的增重率(WGR)、特定生长率(SGR)、摄食率(DFI)、蛋白

  1. Oliver Twist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickens, Charles

    2005-01-01

    Oliver Twist is one of Dickens's most popular novels, with many famous film, television and musical adaptations. It is a classic story of good against evil, packed with humour and pathos, drama and suspense, in which the orphaned Oliver is brought up in a harsh workhouse, and then taken in and

  2. Oliver Twist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickens, Charles

    2005-01-01

    Oliver Twist is one of Dickens's most popular novels, with many famous film, television and musical adaptations. It is a classic story of good against evil, packed with humour and pathos, drama and suspense, in which the orphaned Oliver is brought up in a harsh workhouse, and then taken in and explo

  3. Early growth and development of reciprocal hybrids of the starry flounder Platichthys stellatus and stone flounder Kareius bicoloratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Y T; Aritaki, M; Kurita, Y; Tanaka, M

    2014-05-01

    Larval growth and development of hybrid flounder were observed and compared with those of their parent species. The reciprocal hybrids of female starry flounder Platichthys stellatus and male stone flounder Kareius bicoloratus (hybrid Sb) and of female K. bicoloratus and male P. stellatus (hybrid Bs) both survived and grew to juveniles. Development was divided into nine stages (A-I). Many of the hybrids' traits were identical and intermediate to those of their parents. The position of the eye, however, was primarily sinistral in both hybrids (80% in Sb and 76% in Bs), a trait possessed by P. stellatus (80%) in the western Pacific Ocean. The daily growth rates of the larvae were similar. In the parent species, development was more rapid in P. stellatus than in K. bicoloratus whereas rate of development was intermediate in both Sb and Bs hybrids. The size at settlement [standard length (LS ) at stage H (mean ± s.d.)] was 9·82 ± 1·47 mm for the hybrid Sb and 9·99 ± 0·90 mm for the hybrid Bs, while the minimum age at metamorphosis (initial age at stage H) was 29 days after hatching (DAH) in both hybrids. In comparison, LS at settlement in parent species was 6·43 ± 0·25 mm for P. stellatus and 12·87 ± 1·29 mm for K. bicoloratus. Minimum age at metamorphosis for the parents was 23 DAH at stage G in P. stellatus and 34 DAH at stage H in K. bicoloratus. Thus, the timing of settlement of hybrids was different from that of their parent species. These traits may occur with high frequency in a natural habitat. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  4. Growth of winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) and smooth flounder (Liopsetta putnami) in heated and unheated water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoornbeek, F.K. (Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham); Sawyer, P.J.; Sawyer, E.S.

    1982-07-01

    O-group and I-group winter (Pseudopleuronetes americanus) and smooth (Liopsetta putnami) flounder were reared at the Jackson Estuarine Laboratory, Durham, NH, U.S.A., between November 1975 and June 1976. Both species gained weight approximately three times more rapidly in heated than in unheated water. In unheated water the smallest winter flounder gained, on average, 116% of their body weight per month. Larger O-group winter flounder increased body weight by 55% per month, while comparably sized female and male smooth flounder gained 52% and 28% per month, respectively. I-group female smooth flounder gained 9.5% and male smooth flounder 8.5% per month in heated water. In unheated water increases were 13%, 22%, and 14% per month for O-group winter, female smooth and male smooth flounder, respectively. I-group winter flounder in unheated water gained weight twice as rapidly (9.5%) per month) as I-group female and male smooth flounder (4.0% and 4.5% per month, respectively). Fish were fed a moist diet at a level of 10% of their body weight per day. Conversions (dry weight of food/wet weight of fish) ranged from 1:1 for O-group winter flounder in heated water to 27:1 for I-group smooth flounder in unheated water. Disease was a major cause of mortality. Vibrio anguillarum was confirmed as a pathogen; myxobacteria, and the protozoan parasites Kudoa sp. and Nosema sp. were associated with losses.

  5. 温度、光照及仔鱼个体大小对稚海蜇(Rhopilema esculentum)捕食褐牙鲆(Paralichthysolivaceus)仔鱼的影响%EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE, LIGHT AND LARVAL SIZE ON PREDATION OF FLOUNDER PARALICHTHYS OLIVACEUS LARVAE BY JUVENILE JELLYFISH RHOPILEMA ESCULENTUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹亮; 于鑫; 刘金虎; 南鸥; 窦硕增

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This paper dealt with the predation of juvenile jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum [(21.1±0.4)mm in umbrella diameter] on flounder Paralichthys olivaceus larvae under laboratory conditions. The effects of temperature (15, 19, and 23 ℃), light regime (light and dark), and larval size [newly hatched larvae of (3.01±0.08)mm in total length and 5 days post-hatching larvae of (3.79±0.13)mm in total length] on the predation rate were examined at different larval densities. The juvenile jellyfishes were more active and preyed significantly more newly-hatched larvae at higher temperatures (19 and 23℃) than at 15℃. At all larval densities (10, 30, 50, 80ind/L), the changes of light condition did not affect the predation rates of the juvenile jellyfish on the newly-hatched larvae. Light could not improve the ability of the newly-hatched larvae to avoid predation. The predation rate of the juvenile jellyfish on the 5 days post-hatching larvae was significantly lower than that of the newly-hatched larvae at the higher larval densities (50 and 80ind/L), but showed no significant difference at the lower larval densities (10 and 30ind/L). At the lower larval densities, the predation rates of the juvenile jellyfish on larvae were low, which could mask the effect significance that larval size had on the predation rates. The ability of the larvae to avoid predation by juvenile jellyfish was improved as they developed and grew. The larval size effect on the predation rate of the juvenile jellyfish was dependent on larval density.%利用实验生态学方法,研究温度(15、19和23℃)、光照(明和暗)、仔鱼大小[全长(3.01±0.08)mm初孵仔鱼和(3.79±0.13)mm孵化后5天仔鱼]对稚海蜇[伞径(21.1±0.4)mm]捕食褐牙鲆仔鱼的影响。结果表明,稚海蜇对初孵仔鱼的捕食率随着水温升高而显著升高。光照条件在各仔鱼密度(10,30,50和80ind/L)

  6. 牙鲆NPY的体外表达及体内检测%Expression of recombinant flounder NPY protein in vitro and detection of endogenous NPY in flounder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王倩; 谭训刚; 孙威; 尤锋; 张培军

    2014-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) plays a key role in regulation of food intake in fish, which is essential for aqua-culture. In order to investigate the effects of NPY on olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), two types of flounder NPY gene, full length NPY (f-NPY) with signal peptide and mature peptide NPY (m-NPY) without the signal, were cloned into expression vector pPROEXTM HTa and expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) respectively. The recombinant NPY proteins were induced by IPTG. The optimal concentration of IPTG was 0.8 mmol/L and the optimal induction time was 3 h. In addition, the NPY polyclonal antibody was prepared according to its amino acid sequence. Western blot analysis confirmed that both the recombinant NPY and the flounder endogenous NPY protein could be detected by the polyclonal antibody. In summary, our study will provide basis for further study on the application of recom-binant olive flounder NPY in aquaculture.%神经肽Y (Neuropeptide Y, NPY)被普遍认为是一种重要的促食因子,在调节鱼类的摄食行为方面起着至关重要的作用。为进一步研究牙鲆 NPY 蛋白的生物学功能,作者克隆了牙鲆 NPY 成熟肽序列(m-NPY)及含有信号肽的全长序列(f-NPY),利用原核表达系统分别进行体外重组表达,筛选出诱导剂IPTG最佳诱导浓度为0.8 mmol/L及最佳诱导时间3 h;此外,根据牙鲆NPY第49-64位氨基酸序列制备了多克隆抗体并通过Western blot验证该多抗能够有效检验重组 NPY及牙鲆体内NPY的表达。研究结果为研究重组牙鲆NPY蛋白在牙鲆水产养殖产业中的应用及检测提供了依据。

  7. Species Profiles. Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (South Florida). Southern, Gulf, and Summer Flounders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    juvenile summer flounder occur to 290C (84.40F) in July and August. in eelgrass (Zostera marina ) beds during daylight hours, ei-ter to take Stokes (1977...Structure components of 1978. Development of fishes of eelgrass (Zostera marina ) meadows the mid-Atlantic Bight. Vol. VI. in the lower Chesapeake...on the River, North Carolina. U.S. Natl. growth of Paralichthys lethostga Mar. Fish. Serv. Fish. Bull. 78(2): postlarvae reared under aquaculture 419

  8. Ontogeny of anti-viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) immunity in developing Japanese flounder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, Tomomasa; Nakayasu, Chihaya; Fujiwara, Atsushi; Kurita, Jun; Takano, Tomokazu; Ito, Takafumi; Sano, Motohiko

    2012-07-01

    We examined the ability of developing Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) to acquire protective immunity after exposure to viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV). Juveniles measuring 9.8 cm average body length were not susceptible to infection with VHSV at 20 °C, while the smaller fish were susceptible. Mortality was not observed after secondary infection at 15 °C in the 9.8 cm cohort that had previously been exposed to the virus at 20 °C, while the smaller fish were susceptible to secondary infection. The expression of interferon (IFN)-related genes was shown to be better developed in larger fish upon virus infection and basal expression levels of the virus recognition proteins were higher in larger fish. Virus-specific antibody was detected in the larger fish, but not in smaller fish. These data indicate that the largest juvenile (9.8 cm) acquired immunity against VHSV infection at the first virus challenge, but smaller fish did not. The anti-viral immune system in the Japanese flounder matures when juveniles reach approximately 10 cm.

  9. Flounder growth and production as indicators of the nursery value of marsh habitats in a Mediterranean lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Anita; Fiorin, Riccardo; Zucchetta, Matteo; Torricelli, Patrizia; Franzoi, Piero

    2010-11-01

    Estuarine marshes are known as suitable nursery areas for many marine migrant fishes, such as flounder. The potential nursery value of such habitats was investigated in the Venice lagoon, by using growth and production of 0-group flounder as indicators. Size-frequency distribution analysis was performed on fish samples collected fortnightly, from March 2004 to June 2005, in two marsh sites, Dese and Tessera, differing in their origin and environmental conditions. Samples were mostly composed of juvenile individuals, belonging to 0- and 1-group cohorts (the latter being present in Tessera only). A higher total production, either annual or monthly, and faster growth of 0-group flounder was observed in Dese, associated to a higher ecological performance of 0-group individuals in this site, as indicated by the higher P:B ratio values. Dese is a site located in a marsh complex characterized by the relevant influence of a nearby river, and the observed higher potential nursery value of this marsh area with respect to the other is discussed in the light of the higher trophic status and other environmental conditions in this site. The production results were also compared to those from other estuarine environments commonly acknowledged as important nurseries for European flounder.

  10. 紫花苜蓿浓缩叶蛋白替代鱼粉对星斑川鲽幼鱼生长、体组成及血液生化指标的影响%Effects of replacement of fishmeal by alfalfa protein concentrate on growth performance, body composition, and blood biochemistry in juvenile starry flounder, Platichthys stellatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晶晶; 张利民; 王际英

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of fishmeal substitution with alfalfa protein concentrate on growth, body composition, and blood biochemistry in juvenile starry flounder. We formulated six isonitrogenous and isoener-getic diets, in which fishmeal protein was replaced by alfalfa protein concentrate in the following proportions: 0% (SO), 10% (S10), 20% (S20), 30% (S30), 40% (S40), 50% (S50). Specific growth rate (SGR), daily feed intake (DFI), feed efficiency (FE) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) were unchanged in fish fed SO, S10 or S20, but were significantly lower in fish fed S30, S40, or S50 (PO.05). The condition factor (CF) was lower and the digestive tract index (DTI) was higher in fish supplemented with alfalfa protein concentrate (P0.05). Liver moisture increased significantly in fish fed diets SO, S10, and S20, and then leveled off in fish fed diets S30, S40, and S50. The reverse was true for liver lipid content. Crude protein was significantly higher in the liver of fish fed diets S30 and S50 than in fish fed SO. Liver crude ash content was not affected by fishmeal replacement. The whole fish moisture content was increased whereas crude lipid content was decreased by dietary fishmeal substitution with alfalfa protein concentrate (P0.05). Triglycerides were significantly reduced by replacement of >20% fishmeal. Cholesterol content and lysozyme (LSZ) activity were both linearly decreased by alfalfa protein concentrate supplementation (P20% and >40%, respectively. There was no difference in malondialdehyde (MDA) content in fish fed diets S10 to S50, which were lower than fish fed diet SO (P<0.05). There was no relationship between superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and the fishmeal replacement ratio. In summary, our results suggest that alfalfa protein concentrate can replace up to 19.0% fishmeal protein in the diets of juvenile starry flounder.%研究了紫花苜蓿浓缩叶蛋白替代0%(S0)、10% (S10)、20%(S20)、30%(S30)、40%(S40)、50%(S50)

  11. Dynamics of summer flounder, Paralichthys dentatus, seasonal migrations based on ultrasonic telemetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sackett, Dana K.; Able, Kenneth W.; Grothues, Thomas M.

    2007-08-01

    Migrations of summer flounder, Paralichthys dentatus, to and from estuaries to the continental shelf in the Mid-Atlantic Bight (MAB) occur seasonally but their dynamics are poorly understood. Ultrasonic telemetry, both passive and active, was used during 2003-2005 to determine timing and rate of juvenile and adult summer flounder (268-535 mm TL) migrating to and from the Mullica River-Great Bay estuary in southern New Jersey. Additionally, 7 years of inner continental shelf surveys off New Jersey were used to assess complementary seasonal movements. Most tagged fish emigrated from the estuary between July and September, though emigration lasted into December and appeared to be influenced by a number of factors. In July 2004, more tagged fish emigrated, at increased rates of movement, at low barometric pressure during a storm event. Trawl collections on the inner shelf demonstrated the same approximate immigration times as seen with telemetry. Later in the fall, increased numbers of tagged summer flounder emigrated from the estuary when dissolved oxygen was decreasing. Fall trawl surveys showed increased numbers of fish on the inner shelf when dissolved oxygen was decreasing in the Mullica River-Great Bay estuary, supporting the telemetry results. Fish emigrated from the estuary during the day and night but nighttime movements were in deeper water at slightly slower rates of movement. Exit and re-entry also occurred during the fall emigration. Ultrasonically tagged individuals demonstrated homing by returning to the same estuary, in March through June, in the second and third year of the study (39-6%, respectively). In summary, immigration may result from homing for a large proportion of summer flounder. Emigration may be associated with storms on an episodic scale, and dissolved oxygen and temperature on a seasonal scale.

  12. Juvenile angiofibroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasal tumor; Angiofibroma - juvenile; Benign nasal tumor; Juvenile nasal angiofibroma; JNA ... Juvenile angiofibroma is not very common. It is most often found in adolescent boys. The tumor contains ...

  13. Dermatomyositis (Juvenile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Am A Patient / Caregiver Diseases & Conditions Dermatomyositis (Juvenile) Dermatomyositis (Juvenile) Fast Facts Patients with JDM have varying ... What are common signs and symptoms of juvenile dermatomyositis? The most common signs and symptoms of JDM ...

  14. Retinoschisis (Juvenile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... here Home › Eye Conditions Listen Retinoschisis What is Juvenile Retinoschisis? Juvenile retinoschisis is an inherited disease diagnosed in childhood ... degeneration of the retina. What are the symptoms? Juvenile retinoschisis, also known as X-linked retinoschisis, occurs ...

  15. Oliver Sacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Walsh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Renowned neurologist and author Dr Oliver Sacks is a visiting professor at the University of Warwick as part of the Institute of Advanced Study. Dr Sacks was born in London. He earned his medical degree at the University of Oxford (Queen’s College and the Middlesex Hospital (now UCL, followed by residencies and fellowships at Mt. Zion Hospital in San Francisco and at University of California Los Angeles (UCLA. As well as authoring best-selling books such as Awakenings and The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat, he is clinical professor of neurology at NYU Langone Medical Center in New York. Warwick is part of a consortium led by New York University which is building an applied science research institute, the Center for Urban Science and Progress (CUSP. Dr Sacks recently completed a five-year residency at Columbia University in New York, where he was professor of neurology and psychiatry. He also held the title of Columbia University Artist, in recognition of his contributions to the arts as well as to medicine. He is a fellow of the Royal College of Physicians and the Association of British Neurologists, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the American Academy of Arts and Letters, and has been a fellow of the New York Institute for the Humanities at NYU for more than 25 years. In 2008, he was appointed CBE.

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF RETINAL STRUCTURE AND VISUAL ACUITY IN JAPANESE FLOUNDER (PARALICHTHYS OLIVACEUS)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The retinal structure and visual acuity in Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus at different stages of development were examined by light microscopy. The resolving power of the retina, the visual axis and the best visual field were estimated based on the distribution of cone cells in the retina. The visual system of the larvae appears poorly developed at hatching. The larvae with total length (TL) of less than 10 mm, have single cones only and the eyes were well pigmented. At 10-11 mm TL, most single cones fused to form double cones, with the single and double cones forming a mosaic pattern. From larvae to early juvenile the retina stretches, the cones increase in diameter and rods increase in number. Based on the highest density of the cones in the ventro-temporal region, the visual axis was orientated up-forward. The resolving power of the retina in 40-530 mm TL Japanese flounder was found to range from 25.1 to 11.5 min. The results indicated continual improvements in the visual system of the growing fish towards higher resolving power, visual acuity and sensitivity.

  17. Spawning, pelagic and metamorphosis stage duration in European flounder (Platichthys flesus: a latitudinal approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Martinho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The spawning, pelagic and metamorphosis stage duration were evaluated in European flounder (Platichthys flesus along a latitudinal gradient in the European Atlantic coast. The main objective was to determine latitudinal trends in the estuarine nursery habitat colonization processes, considering a wide geographical range: from the southernmost population in the Mondego estuary (Portugal, the French coasts (Vilaine and Slack estuaries, the Wadden Sea (Netherlands to the northern populations in the Sørfjord (Norway. Flounder 0-group juveniles were captured in June/July 2010. Otolith microstructure was used to account for the duration of each stage by analysing daily growth increments. The spawning period took place between mid-January and early-July over the species’ distribution range, with a gap of nearly two months between the Mondego estuary and the Sørfjord populations, as a consequence of warmer water temperature earlier in the season in the southern areas. Both pelagic and metamorphosis stages were longer at the middle of the distribution range, and lasted in total up to two months after hatching. Results also suggested the existence of a counter-gradient growth compensation mechanism in the northernmost populations. Apart from temperature (proxy for the latitudinal gradient, which regulates species’ basal metabolic rates, differences between sites were also related with local features, such as the extension of the continental platform and adaptations to transport and retention mechanisms.

  18. Oliver Jeffers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    故事作者、插画家,和先锋艺术家代表作品:《This Moose Belongs to Me》、《How to Catch a Star》、《Lost and found》、《Up and Down》、《The Way Back Home》、《The Great Paper Caper》、《The Heart and the Bottle》、Oliver Jeffers生于1977年,是一位故事作者、插画家,和先锋艺术家。他生于爱尔兰,现在在美国纽约的布鲁克林生活。他的创作领域从具象绘画、插图、独立书籍制作到装置艺术,涉猎很广。他的作品被纽约布鲁克林博物馆收入。另外在都柏林、柏林、伦敦、悉尼、华盛顿和贝尔法斯特都有他的艺术品展出。他是家喻户晓的儿童书籍作者。哈伯柯林斯和企鹅出版社都出版过他的书。2004年的《How to Catch a Star》是他第一本儿童书,大受好评。之后他

  19. Olive orchard amended with olive mill wastewater: effects on olive fruit and olive oil quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechri, B; Issaoui, M; Echbili, A; Chehab, H; Mariem, F B; Braham, M; Hammami, M

    2009-12-30

    The aim of this work was to study the effects of agronomic application of olive mill wastewater (OMW) in a field of olive trees on olive fruit and olive oil quality. Agronomic application of OMW increased significantly the fungal:bacteria ratio, whereas the root colonisation and the photosynthetic rates decreased significantly. Consequently, the oil content expressed as a percentage of dry weight, decreased significantly after agronomic application of OMW. Land spreading of OMW altered the relative proportion of individual olive fruit sugar and decreased significantly the nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) of the fruit. A significant increase was observed in total phenol content of oil after agronomic application of OMW. alpha-Tocopherol content, on the contrary, decreased with OMW application. The fatty acid composition of the oil was not affected by the treatments. To our knowledge, this is the first report of change in the olive fruit and olive oil quality following agronomic application of OMW.

  20. Adaptive differences in gene expression in European flounder ( Platichthys flesus )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Peter Foged; Eg Nielsen, Einar; Williams, T.D.

    2007-01-01

    differences remains unknown. Therefore, in order to elucidate the relationship between genetic markers and adaptive divergence among populations of marine fishes, we combined cDNA microarray and microsatellite analysis in European flounders (Platichthys flesus). We demonstrate that despite extremely low...... linked to fitness traits. These findings demonstrate that flounders, despite little neutral genetic divergence between populations, are differently adapted to local environmental conditions and imply that adaptation in gene expression could be common in other marine organisms with similar low levels...

  1. Use of a Marine Vertebrate, the Flounder, in the Physiology Teaching Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, David S.; Linden, Donald G.

    1973-01-01

    Describes two experiments in physiology using a readily available marine vertebrate, the flounder. Representative results are presented from experiments which measure the effect of excess potassium on the flounder EKG, and the effect of temperature on heart rate of the starry flounder. (JR)

  2. Juvenile Scleroderma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile Scleroderma INTRODUCTION Every parent will experience a moment of panic when told their child has scleroderma. ... in all their family members as well. CONCLUSION Juvenile scleroderma can be unsettling for the child and ...

  3. Overregularity in Oliver Twist

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔祥曼

    2015-01-01

    Oliver Twist is one of the earliest works of Charles Dickens. In this novel, the author uses many writing skills which impress the readers a lot. This paper gives a brief description of overregularity in Oliver Twist at the phonological and syntactical levels.

  4. Development of practical diet for aquaculture of Japanese flounder; Gyofun wo sakutenshita hirameyo shiryo no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, K.; Furuta, T.

    2000-07-01

    Feeding experiments were conducted to examine the potential use of defatted soybean meal (SBM) in combinations with blood meal (BM), corn gluten meal (CGM) and freeze dried meat of blue mussel (BMM) as a partial replacement of fish meal (FM) in the diet of Japanese flounder. Availability of CGM in combinations with BM and/or BMM was also examined. Juvenile fish of about 4 g in initial body weight were fed diets to satiation twice daily, 6 days per week for 8 weeks at 20 degree C in both feeding experiments. Weight gain of fish fed diet replacing 45% FM protein with SBM was not different from that of fish fed the control diet containing FM as a protein source, however, feed efficiency (FE) in fish fed the SBM diet was significantly lower. Growth and feed performance of fish fed diet replacing 45% FM protein with SBM and BM were comparable to those of fish the control diet. Inclusion of 5% BMM for equal amount of SBM in the SBM-BM diet improved the growth and FE of the flounder remarkably and both values were significantly higher than those in the control. Replacing 55% of FM protein with SBM and CGM or SBM and BM resulted in poor growth performance. There were not marked differences in hematological characteristics together with proximate composition of the whole body of cultured fish fed the dietary treatments. Weight gain and FE of fish fed diet replacing 40% FM protein with CGM were inferior to those of fish fed the control diet containing FM as a protein source. Replacement of 40% FM protein with CGM and BM made those parameters worse. Inclusion of BMM in CGM-BM diet did not improve the growth of fish. Adverse effects of replacing FM protein with CGM and/or CGM and BM were stronger with increasing replacement level. These results indicate that SBM is highly available as alternative protein source for fish meal in the diet of Japanese flounder. SBM in combination with BM successfully replace about 45% of FM protein in the diet without supplemental amino acids

  5. Histological Study on the Skin of Japanese Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Jie; ZHANG Xiumei; GAO Tianxiang

    2005-01-01

    Histological development of Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus larval skin and ultrastructural difference of skin between reared normal and malpigmented Japanese flounder were studied with light microscopy (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results show that the skin develops slowly before the metamorphosis, while at the onset of metamorphosis, the skin develops quickly and becomes complete in structure till about 50 d after being hatched. Ultrastructural observation on the normal and malpigmented skins shows that the iridophore and melanophore are adjacent to each other. Profile and structure of the two kinds of pigment cells are more complete in the skin of normal ocular side than in the skin of pigmented blind side. The ultrastructure of typical chloride cell was observed in the skin of Japanese flounder larvae for the first time.

  6. Juvenile Judge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    SHANG Xiuyun was among the first sitting judges when the juvenile court was set up in Beijing 10 years ago. With enriched experience she has altered the way judges ask questions in court. She began the practice of inviting juvenile offenders, their parents, relatives, friends and teachers to the juvenile court to work hand in hand in dealing with cases: Facing their relatives and friends and hearing their heartfelt words, juvenile offenders would often be touched, thus bringing forth a positive attitude toward life.

  7. Embryonic and larval development in barfin flounder Verasper moseri (Jordan and Gilbert)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Rongbin; Wang, Yongqiang; Jiang, Haibin; Liu, Liming; Wang, Maojian; Li, Tianbao; Zhang, Shubao

    2010-01-01

    side on day 50, when the average body length attained 2.5±0.18 cm, and juveniles accomplished metamorphosis to young. The embryonic and larval characters of several flounder species are compared.

  8. Juvenile Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile arthritis (JA) is arthritis that happens in children. It causes joint swelling, pain, stiffness, and loss of motion. It can affect any joint, but ... of JA that children get is juvenile idiopathic arthritis. There are several other forms of arthritis affecting ...

  9. [Juvenile scleroderma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mâcedo, Patrícia Andrade; Shinjo, Samuel Katsuyuki; Goldenstein-Schainberg, Cláudia

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile scleroderma is a rare childhood condition characterized by fibrosis of the skin and internal organs. Clinical manifestations of childhood scleroderma are different from adult disease and early recognition, correct classification and treatment can improve long-term outcome. This review explores the most recent actualizations on clinical manifestations, classification criteria, treatment options and prognosis of juvenile scleroderma. There are two main forms of the disease: localized scleroderma and systemic sclerosis. Localized scleroderma is the most common form in children and mostly restricted to the skin. Juvenile diffuse systemic sclerosis is related to visceral involvement and cardiac disease which is the main cause of death in these patients. The outcome of juvenile systemic sclerosis is better compared with the adult form. Treatment remains a medical challenge and the EULAR task force proposed an approach to juvenile scleroderma treatment based on expert's opinion and guidelines used for the treatment of adults. Larger studies on childhood scleroderma are warranted.

  10. mRNA/microRNA Profile at the Metamorphic Stage of Olive Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caixia Xie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Flatfish is famous for the asymmetric transformation during metamorphosis. The molecular mechanism behind the asymmetric development has been speculated over a century and is still not well understood. To date, none of the metamorphosis-related genes has been identified in flatfish. As the first step to screen metamorphosis-related gene, we constructed a whole-body cDNA library and a whole-body miRNA library in this study and identified 1051 unique ESTs, 23 unique miRNAs, and 4 snoRNAs in premetamorphosing and prometamorphosing Paralichthys olivaceus. 1005 of the ESTs were novel, suggesting that there was a special gene expression profile at metamorphic stage. Four miRNAs (pol-miR-20c, pol-miR-23c, pol-miR-130d, and pol-miR-181e were novel to P. olivaceus; they were characterized as highly preserved homologies of published miRNAs but with at least one nucleotide differed. Representative 24 mRNAs and 23 miRNAs were quantified during metamorphosis of P. olivaceus by using quantitative RT PCR or stem-loop qRT PCR. Our results showed that 20 of mRNAs might be associated with early metamorphic events, 10 of mRNAs might be related with later metamorphic events, and 16 of miRNAs might be involved in the regulation of metamorphosis. The data provided in this study would be helpful for further identifying metamorphosis-related gene in P. olivaceus.

  11. Three Essays on Price Analysis of Summer Flounder and China's Soybean Imports

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Wei

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation contains three papers from two projects. The first two papers (Chapter Two and Chapter Three) are from a project entitled â Managing Flounder Openings for Maximum Revenue.â The objective of this project is to (1) estimate the monthly dockside price of summer flounder and identify seasonality in this price; and (2) set up a mathematical programming model to maximize the landing revenue by allocating the federal government quota on summer flounder across twelve months. ...

  12. Juvenile Prostitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csapo, Marg

    1986-01-01

    Recent research and Canadian government committee reports concerning juvenile prostitution are reviewed. Proposals are made in the realms of law and social policy; and existing programs are described. (DB)

  13. Juvenile Prostitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csapo, Marg

    1986-01-01

    Recent research and Canadian government committee reports concerning juvenile prostitution are reviewed. Proposals are made in the realms of law and social policy; and existing programs are described. (DB)

  14. Juvenile myasthenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević-Pogančev Marija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Juvenile myasthenia is a chronic autoimmune neuromuscular disease characterized by varying degrees of fluctuating, painless muscle weakness and rapid fatigue of any muscles under voluntary control. Juvenile myasthenia is a form of myasthenia appearing in adolescent age, representing 10% to 15% of all cases of myasthenia gravis. Juvenile myasthenia is presented by a defect in the transmission of nerve impulses to muscles, resulting from a breakdown in the normal communication between nerves and muscles. In myasthenia, antibodies produced by the body’s own immune system block, alter, or destroy the receptors for acetylcholine. Juvenile myasthenia is neither directly inherited nor is it contagious. Signs and Symptoms. The first noticeable symptoms may be eye muscle weakness, difficulty in swallowing, or slurred speech. Juvenile myasthenia usually affects muscles innervated by the cranial nerves (face, lips, tongue, neck and throat, but it can affect any muscle group. Symptoms vary in type and severity with typical periods of exacerbation interspersed with periods of remission. When the muscles necessary for breathing are affected, a patient is said to be in a myasthenic crisis, which is a life-threatening situation. Disease Outcome and Treatment. Juvenile myasthenia produces sporadic but progressive weakness and abnormal fatigability of striated (skeletal muscles, exacerbated by exercise and repeated movement, but improved by rest and anticholinesterase drugs. Juvenile myasthenia follows an unpredictable course of recurring exacerbations and periodic remissions. With current therapies, however, most cases of juvenile myasthenia are not as serious as the name implies. Although there is no known cure, drug treatment has improved prognosis and allows patients to lead relatively normal lives, except during exacerbations.

  15. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA); Juvenile chronic polyarthritis; Still disease; Juvenile spondyloarthritis ... The cause of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is not known. It ... illness . This means the body attacks and destroys healthy body ...

  16. Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types of Cancer > Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome Request Permissions Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 12/2015 What is juvenile polyposis syndrome? Juvenile polyposis syndrome (JPS) is a ...

  17. Ontogeny of the Lymphoid Organs of Japanese Flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yun; JIANG Guoliang; ZHANG Shicui

    2004-01-01

    Histological study on the ontogeny of the lymphoid organs, kidney, thymus and spleen of Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, from hatching to 40 d was carried out. The pronephric kidney duct appeared early in hatching although the primordial haemopoietic stem cells were observed within a week after hatching. The spleen was first seen after 8 d of hatching. The thymus appeared after 15 d, situated near the pronephric kidney. Small lymphoid cells appeared during the later phase of the post-larval stage in the sequence of thymus, kidney and spleen. During the 40 d of observations, there were no distinct inner or outer zones in thymus and no red or white pulp in spleen. These results suggest that the nonspecific defense immune system plays a very important role in the early larval stage of Japanese flounder.

  18. Feeding habits of juvenile flatfish in relation to habitat characteristics in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florin, Ann-Britt; Lavados, Gaston

    2010-03-01

    To investigate feeding habits of juvenile flounder ( Platichthys flesus) and turbot ( Psetta maxima) in relation to habitat characteristics a field survey with push net sampling was conducted in nursery areas with different ecological characteristics in the northern Baltic proper. Sampling sites were stratified to cover several different habitat types defined by substrate and wave exposure. Apart from flatfishes and epifauna, samples of macrofauna, meiofauna and hyperbenthic planktons were collected from each site together with data on vegetation, depth, salinity, temperature and turbidity. The diet differed between species where flounder diet was dominated by chironomids, copepods and oligochaetes while turbot apart from chironomids had a high incidence of amphipods, gobies and mysids. In both species there was a shift in diet with size, although this shift was influenced by the habitat. Among the environmental variables investigated, wave exposure was found to significantly influence flounder diet. Food preference in the most exposed areas was dominated by oligochaetes and copepods instead of chironomids, which dominated in sheltered areas. This study shows that habitat characteristics can have a major influence on feeding habits of juvenile flatfish.

  19. PROPERTIES OF PROTEOLYTIC TOXIN OF VIBRIO ANGUILLARUM FROM DISEASED FLOUNDER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫照兰; 陈师勇; 张培军

    2002-01-01

    Extracellular products (ECP) produced by Vibrio anguillarum strain M3 originally isolated from diseased flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) were prepared. ECP of M3 showed g elatinase, casinase, amylase and haemolytic activity on agarose plates. High protease activity against azocasin w as detected. Bacterium M3 showed highest growth and protease activity at 25℃. The protease present in ECP showed maximal activity at pH 8 and 55℃; was completely inactivated by application of 80℃ heat for 30 min; was com pletely inhibited by EDTA and HgCl2, and was partially inhibited by PMSF, SDS, MnCl2 and iodoacetic acid; but not inhibited by CaCl2 and MgCl2. The ECP was toxic to flounder fish at LD50 values of 3.1 μg prot ein /g body weight. The addition of HgCl2 and application of heat at 50℃ decreased the lethal toxicity of ECP. When heate d at 100℃, ECP lethality to flounder was completely inhibited. After intramuscular injection of ECP into flo under, it showed evident histopathological changes including necrosis of muscle, extensive deposition of haemosiderin in the spleen, dilated blood vessels congested with numerous lymphocytes in the liver. These re sults showed that ECP protease was a lethal factor produced by the bacterium V. anguillarum M3.

  20. Olive oil and pomace olive oil processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siragakis, George

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil processing is introduced in food industry at the end of the nineteenth century and a lot of improvements have been initialized since. The steps for refining are, settling, neutralizing, bleaching and deodorizing. Monitoring of effective refining and the use of processes that remove less minor components of olive oil, like polyphenols and tocopherols are some issues for the process. The stringent environmental requirements and the target of industry for continuous improvements and cost savings, forcing equipment manufacturers to innovations and new products. The complete removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during pomace oil process and the utilization of distillates are also important areas for research and development.El procesado del aceite de oliva se introdujo en la industria alimentaria a finales del siglo diecinueve y desde entonces se han realizado considerables mejoras. Los pasos de refinación son: decantado, neutralización, decoloración, y desodorización. La monitorización de una refinación efectiva así como el uso de procesos que eliminen una menor proporción de componentes menores del aceite de oliva, tales como polifenoles y tocoferoles, son algunos de los objetivos del proceso. La rigurosa normativa medioambiental y el interés de la industria por introducir mejoras y ahorro de costes han forzado a los fabricantes de equipos a innovar y desarrollar nuevos productos. La eliminación completa de los hidrocarburos aromáticos policíclicos durante el refinado del aceite de orujo y la utilización de los destilados son también áreas importantes de investigación y desarrollo.

  1. Identification and differential expression of microRNAs during metamorphosis of the Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanshuai Fu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of endogenous small non-coding RNAs of 20-25 nucleotides that play a key role in diverse biological processes. Japanese flounder undergo dramatic metamorphosis in their early development. The metamorphosis is characterized by morphological transformation from a bilaterally symmetrical to an asymmetrical body shape concomitant with extensive morphological and physiological remodeling of organs. So far, only a few miRNAs have been identified in fish and there are very few reports about the Japanese flounder miRNA. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Solexa sequencing technology was used to perform high throughput sequencing of the small RNA library from the metamorphic period of Japanese flounder. Subsequently, aligning these sequencing data with metazoan known miRNAs, we characterized 140 conserved miRNAs and 57 miRNA: miRNA* pairs from the small RNA library. Among these 57 miRNA: miRNA* pairs, twenty flounder miRNA precursors were amplified from genomic DNA. We also demonstrated evolutionary conservation of Japanese flounder miRNAs and miRNA* in the animal evolution process. Using miRNA microarrays, we identified 66 differentially expressed miRNAs at two metamorphic stages (17 and 29 days post hatching of Japanese flounder. The results show that miRNAs might play a key role in regulating gene expression during Japanese flounder metamorphosis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We identified a large number of miRNAs during flounder metamorphosis, some of which are differentially expressed at two different metamorphic stages. The study provides an opportunity for further understanding of miRNA function in the regulation of flounder metamorphosis and gives us clues for further studies of the mechanisms of metamorphosis in Japanese flounder.

  2. Do early growth dynamics explain recruitment success in Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus off the Pacific coast of northern Japan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Masakane; Robert, Dominique; Kurita, Yutaka; Yoneda, Michio; Tominaga, Osamu; Tomiyama, Takeshi; Yamashita, Yoh; Uehara, Shinji

    2010-07-01

    We examined the relative importance of growth-related processes operating during the larval and early juvenile stage in explaining variability in year class success of Japanese flounder off the Pacific coast of northern Japan. Early growth trajectory of larvae and juveniles sampled in 2005 (strong year class) and in 2006 (weak year class) was estimated from the analysis of the lapillar otolith. The larval pelagic stage was characterized by lower growth and developmental rates, as well as high selection for fast growth in the metamorphosis/settlement period, during the strong recruitment event of 2005 relative to 2006. Growth appeared higher in 2005 only after settlement despite high density in the nursery, which likely reflected superior productivity during that year combined with an increased probability of cannibalism from early settlers on late settlers. This implies that larval growth dynamics did not play an important role in determining recruitment strength in the two years considered. The decreasing distance from the nursery areas of pelagic larvae through ontogeny in 2005, combined with low age at settlement, suggest that larvae benefited from positive transport conditions during the dominant year class. To the contrary, unfavorable hydrographic conditions likely prevailed in 2006 as distance from the nurseries increased with ontogeny and settlement occurred later than in 2005 despite faster growth potential and developmental rate. We conclude that transport conditions to the nursery grounds, rather than larval growth potential, represented the most important determinant of year class success in the two years considered.

  3. Juvenile Spondyloarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmuca, Sabrina; Weiss, Pamela F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review To provide a comprehensive update of the pathogenesis, diagnostic imaging, treatments, and disease activity measurements of juvenile spondyloarthritis (JSpA). Recent findings Genetic and microbiome studies have provided new information regarding possible pathogenesis of JSpA. Recent work suggests that children with JSpA have decreased thresholds for pain in comparison to healthy children. Additionally, pain on physical examination and abnormalities on ultrasound of the entheses are not well correlated. Treatment guidelines for juvenile arthritis, including JSpA, were published by the American College of Rheumatology and are based on active joint count and presence of sacroiliitis. Recent studies have established the efficacy of tumor necrosis factor inhibitors in the symptomatic treatment of axial disease, though their efficacy for halting progression of structural damage is less clear. Newly developed disease activity measures for JSpA include the Juvenile Arthritis Disease Activity Score and the JSpA Disease Activity index. In comparison to other categories of juvenile arthritis, children with JSpA are less likely to attain and sustain inactive disease. Summary Further microbiome and genetic research may help elucidate JSpA pathogenesis. More randomized therapeutic trials are needed and the advent of new composite disease activity measurement tools will hopefully allow for the design of these greatly needed trials. PMID:26002028

  4. 75 FR 22363 - United States Standards for Grades of Olive Oil and Olive-Pomace Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service United States Standards for Grades of Olive Oil and Olive-Pomace Oil AGENCY... Department of Agriculture (USDA) is revising the United States Standards for Grades of Olive Oil. This... the grades of olive oil and olive-pomace oil commonly accepted in the United States and abroad....

  5. Juvenile Justice in Milwaukee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gary L.; Greer, Lanetta

    2010-01-01

    Historically, there have been several attempts made to address issues surrounding juvenile delinquency. The Wisconsin Legislature outlines the objectives of the juvenile justice system in the Juvenile Justice Code in s. 939.01, ?to promote a juvenile justice system capable of dealing with the problem of juvenile delinquency, a system which will…

  6. Are olive oil diets antithrombotic?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L.F.; Jespersen, J; Marckmann, P.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The incidence of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in Crete was lower than expected on the basis of blood lipid concentrations of participants in the Seven Countries Study. A favorable effect of a high intake of olive oil on thrombogenesis may have contributed to this finding. OBJECTIVE: We...... compared the effects of virgin olive oil with those of rapeseed and sunflower oils on blood coagulation factor VII (FVII), a key factor in thrombogenesis. DESIGN: In a randomized and strictly controlled crossover study, 18 healthy young men consumed diets enriched with 5 g/MJ (19% of total energy) olive...... FVII (FVIIa) were 11.3 +/- 5.1 U/L lower after olive oil than after sunflower oil, an 18% reduction (P Olive oil also tended to cause lower FVIIa peak concentrations than did rapeseed oil (mean difference: 8.6 U/L, a 15% reduction; P = 0.09). There were no significant differences between diets...

  7. Juvenile xanthogranuloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R; Ghazali, W

    1992-05-01

    Juvenile xanthogranuloma is a benign cutaneous growth presenting as papules or nodules. It is characterized by an intradermal collection of lipid-laden macrophages and varying degrees of fibroblastic proliferation. We have recently observed two patients with xanthogranulomas: one was found to have a papular type and the second patient had multiple nodular growths. We present these cases, which should be considered in the differential diagnosis of skin nodules.

  8. Olive oil and haemostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams, Christine M.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil is a key component of the traditional Mediterranean diet; a diet that may explain the low rate of cardiovascular disease (CVD in Southern European. (Extra virgin Olive oil is a good source of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and phenolic compounds, both of which have been investigated for their effects on plasma lipids and lipoproteins, measures of oxidation and factors related to thrombosis. This issue aims to summarise the current understanding of the effects of such dietary components on the haemostatic system and subsequent risk of CVD. To date, evidence suggests that diets rich in MUFA and thus in olive oil attenuate the thrombotic response via a reduction in platelet aggregation and in postprandial FVII levels. Thrombosis is a key event in causing heart attacks and strokes, which if modulated by diet could pose a cost-effective way of reducing CVD incidence in populations that adhere to MUFA/olive oil-rich diets long-term.El aceite de oliva es un componente esencial de la dieta Mediterránea que puede explicar el bajo índice de enfermedad cardiovascular (CVD en los países del sur de Europa. El aceite de oliva (extra virgen es una fuente de ácidos grasos monoinsaturados (MUFA y de compuestos fenólicos, de gran interés por sus efectos, entre otros, sobre las lipoproteínas y los lípidos plasmáticos, su capacidad antioxidante y su papel en la expresión de factores relacionados con la trombosis. En este capítulo se presenta un resumen del conocimiento actual sobre la influencia derivada del consumo de aceite de oliva (extra virgen en el sistema hemostático y el riesgo de CVD. Por ahora se sabe que dietas ricas en MUFA (aceite de oliva pueden atenuar la respuesta trombótica mediante la reducción de la agregación plaquetaria y de las concentraciones postprandiales del factor VII de coagulación (FVII. La trombosis es un evento relevante en los ataques al corazón y el ictus, de manera que su modulación con la dieta puede

  9. Characterizing and predicting the distribution of Baltic Sea flounder (Platichthys flesus) during the spawning season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orio, Alessandro; Bergström, Ulf; Casini, Michele; Erlandsson, Mårten; Eschbaum, Redik; Hüssy, Karin; Lehmann, Andreas; Ložys, Linas; Ustups, Didzis; Florin, Ann-Britt

    2017-08-01

    Identification of essential fish habitats (EFH), such as spawning habitats, is important for nature conservation, sustainable fisheries management and marine spatial planning. Two sympatric flounder (Platichthys flesus) ecotypes are present in the Baltic Sea, pelagic and demersal spawning flounder, both displaying ecological and physiological adaptations to the low-salinity environment of this young inland sea. In this study we have addressed three main research questions: 1) What environmental conditions characterize the spatial distribution and abundance of adult flounder during the spawning season? 2) What are the main factors defining the habitats of the two flounder ecotypes during the spawning season? 3) Where are the potential spawning areas of flounder? We modelled catch per unit of effort (CPUE) of flounder from gillnet surveys conducted over the southern and central Baltic Sea in the spring of 2014 and 2015 using generalized additive models. A general model included all the stations fished during the survey while two other models, one for the demersal and one for the pelagic spawning flounder, included only the stations where each flounder ecotype should dominate. The general model captured distinct ecotype-specific signals as it identified dual salinity and water depth responses. The model for the demersal spawning flounder revealed a negative relation with the abundance of round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) and a positive relation with Secchi depth and cod abundance. Vegetation and substrate did not play an important role in the choice of habitat for the demersal ecotype. The model for the pelagic spawning flounder showed a negative relation with temperature and bottom current and a positive relation with salinity. Spatial predictions of potential spawning areas of flounder showed a decrease in habitat availability for the pelagic spawning flounder over the last 20 years in the central part of the Baltic Sea, which may explain part of the observed

  10. Juvenile groundfish habitat in Kachemak Bay, Alaska, during late summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abookire, Alisa A.; Piatt, J.F.; Norcross, Brenda L.

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the habitat of juvenile groundfishes in relation to depth, water temperature, and salinity in Kachemak Bay, Alaska. Stations ranging in depth from 10 to 70 m and with sand or mud-sand substrates were sampled with a small-meshed beam trawl in August-September of 1994 to 1999. A total of 8,201 fishes were captured, comprising at least 52 species. Most fishes (91%) had a total length 5% of the total catch) were flathead sole Hippoglossoides elassodon, slim sculpin Radulinus asprellus, Pacific halibut Hippoglossus stenolepis, and arrowtooth flounder Atheresthes stomias. Depth accounted for most of the spatial variability in juvenile groundfish abundance, and neither temperature nor salinity was correlated with fish abundance. Juvenile groundfishes concentrated in either shallow (less than or equal to 20 m) or deep (50-70 m) water, with co-occurrence of some species between 30-40 m. Shallow fishes were the rock soles, Pacific halibut, and great sculpin Myoxocephalus polyacanthocephalus. Deep species were flathead sole, slim sculpin, spinycheek starsnout Bathyagonus infraspinatus, rex sole Glyptocephalus zachirus, tadpole sculpin Psychrolutes paradoxus, and whitebarred prickleback Poroclinus rothrocki. This 6-year study provides baseline data on relative abundance and distribution of juvenile groundfishes in Kachemak Bay and may provide a useful tool for predicting the presence of species in similar habitats in other areas of Alaska.

  11. Chlorophylls in olive and in olive oil: chemistry and occurrences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Angela; Cerretani, Lorenzo; Cichelli, Angelo

    2011-08-01

    The chlorophylls are responsible for the characteristic green color of the olive fruits and their products. Virgin olive oil (VOO) is obtained from processing olives only by mechanical and physical means under conditions ensuring that the natural characteristics of the fruit composition are maintained as far as possible. In terms of the total chlorophyll content of oil, the extraction process entails a loss of chlorophyll of up to 80%. Many factors, both agronomical and technological, can affect the presence of green pigments in VOO. The analysis of green pigments in olives and/or oil requires an initial phase of extraction of these compounds from the solid and fluid matrix, followed by the selective separation and subsequent identification of the different components of the chlorophyll fraction. The aim of this review article is to summarize and critically analyze the available information about chlorophylls in VOO.

  12. Dermatomiositis juvenil

    OpenAIRE

    Goldaracena, Pablo; Pérez, Federico

    2008-01-01

    La dermatomiositis juvenil (DMJ) es una enfermedad multi sistémica de etiología desconocida, caracterizada por una vasculitis que ocasiona una inflamación no supurativa del músculo estriado y lesiones cutáneas distintivas. La cobertura de los criterios de Bohan y Peter establece el diagnóstico: exantema patognomónico junto a debilidad muscular proximal simétrica, elevación sérica de enzimas musculares, s...

  13. Characterizing and predicting the distribution of Baltic Sea flounder (Platichthys flesus) during the spawning season

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orio, Alessandro; Bergström, Ulf; Casini, Michele

    2017-01-01

    a decrease in habitat availability for the pelagic spawning flounder over the last 20 years in the central part of the Baltic Sea, which may explain part of the observed changes in populations' biomass. We conclude that spatiotemporal modelling of habitat availability can improve our understanding of fish......Identification of essential fish habitats (EFH), such as spawning habitats, is important for nature conservation, sustainable fisheries management and marine spatial planning. Two sympatric flounder (Platichthys flesus) ecotypes are present in the Baltic Sea, pelagic and demersal spawning flounder......, both displaying ecological and physiological adaptations to the low-salinity environment of this young inland sea. In this study we have addressed three main research questions: 1) What environmental conditions characterize the spatial distribution and abundance of adult flounder during the spawning...

  14. Mercury accumulation and the mercury-PCB-sex interaction in summer flounder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Jensen, Olaf P.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; DeWild, John F.; Ogorek, Jacob M.; Vastano, Anthony R.

    2016-01-01

    Patterns in the relative differences in contaminant concentrations between the sexes of mature fish may reveal important behavioral and physiological differences between the sexes. We determined whole-fish total mercury (Hg) concentrations in 23 female summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) and 27 male summer flounder from New Jersey coastal waters. To estimate the change in Hg concentration due to release of eggs at spawning, Hg concentration in the somatic tissue and ovaries of 5 of the 23 female summer flounder were also determined. To ascertain whether most of the Hg in the summer flounder was methylmercury (MeHg), whole-fish MeHg concentrations were determined in all 50 summer flounder. Whole-fish Hg concentrations averaged 113 ng/g for females and 111 ng/g for males. Thus, females were 2% higher in Hg concentration than males, on average, but the difference was not statistically significant. Based on Hg determinations in the somatic tissue and ovaries, we predicted that Hg concentration of females would increase by 3.6%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. On average, 92% of the Hg in the summer flounder was MeHg. To determine whether the effect of sex on Hg concentration was significantly different from the effect of sex on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentration, we paired our Hg determinations with PCB determinations from a previous study, and applied regression analysis. Sex significantly interacted with contaminant type (Hg or PCBs), as males were 43% higher in PCB concentration than females, whereas females were 2% higher in Hg concentration than males. Males eliminating Hg from their bodies at a faster rate than females was a likely explanation for this discrepancy between the two contaminant types. Overall, the Hg and PCB concentrations in the summer flounder were relatively low, and therefore our findings also had implications for continued operation of the summer flounder fishery.

  15. Olive oil for tuna canning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cucurachi, A

    1967-01-01

    The paper presents studies on the phenomenon of contamination of the preserving oil by contact with the tunnyfish, and attempts to discover a method for guaranteeing the genuineness of the olive oil...

  16. Decline of flounder (Platichthys flesus (L.)) at the margin of the species' distribution range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokinen, Henri; Wennhage, Håkan; Lappalainen, Antti; Ådjers, Kaj; Rask, Martti; Norkko, Alf

    2015-11-01

    The Baltic Sea is undergoing large-scale environmental change due to eutrophication, climate change, over-exploitation and habitat destruction, with subsequent degradation of living conditions for many fish species. Signs of this unfavorable development are seen as population declines in species affected. We provide the first synthesis and characterization of the recent population decline in European flounder (Platichthys flesus (L.)) in the northern Baltic Sea, using available fishery-independent data from the Finnish coast, which is at the margin of the distribution range of this species. The objective was to document recent changes in the flounder population, identify the onset and quantify the magnitude of the change. The results showed substantial decreases in flounder numbers and biomass across the whole study area during recent decades. Based on the time series data available, flounder abundances declined by 46-97% from the 1990s to the 2000s, with top values in the mid-1990s and current low levels reached in the early 2000s. Additionally, signs of decreasing flounder size and condition were also observed. We discuss potential reasons for the development in terms of environmental change and fishing, and identify potential bottlenecks for population maintenance and mechanisms behind population change, thereby contributing to our general understanding of marginal flounder populations.

  17. Semantic Deviation in Oliver Twist

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康艺凡

    2016-01-01

    Dickens, with his adeptness with language, applies semantic deviation skillfully in his realistic novel Oliver Twist. However, most studies and comments home and abroad on it mainly focus on such aspects as humanity, society, and characters. Therefore, this thesis will take a stylistic approach to Oliver Twist from the perspective of semantic deviation, which is achieved by the use of irony, hyperbole, and pun and analyze how the application of the technique makes the novel attractive.

  18. Trace metals in flounder, Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus, 1758), and sediments from the Baltic Sea and the Portuguese Atlantic coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak-Juszczak, Lucyna

    2013-10-01

    Trace metals were examined in the muscle tissue of flatfish species of flounder, Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus, 1758), sediments from two southern Baltic Sea sites (Gdańsk Bay and Ustecko-Łebskie as a reference) and in two areas of the Portuguese Atlantic coast (Douro River estuary and Atlantic fishing ground as a reference) to evaluate spatial differences in trace metals. Additionally, the accumulation of trace metals in flounder of different length classes was assessed. Flounder from the Gdańsk Bay area contained twofold more cupper (Cu), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) than did flounder from the Douro River estuary, but zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) were at similar concentrations. The sediments from Gdańsk Bay contained significantly more Zn and threefold more Cd, while concentrations of Cu and Pb were twofold lower. The concentrations of metals in the sediments did not correlate with those in the flounder. Spatial differences were noted in metal concentrations in flounder from the southern Baltic Sea and the Portuguese Atlantic coast as well as within these regions, with higher concentrations in the flounder from the Baltic Sea Gdańsk Bay. The flounder in length class 25-30 cm from Gdańsk Bay contained metal concentrations comparable to those of class 40-45 cm specimens from the Atlantic coast. The accumulation of metals in flounder length classes differed in the two regions.

  19. Fine Flounder (Paralichthys adspersus) Microbiome Showed Important Differences between Wild and Reared Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Carolina; Romero, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota is involved in a wide range of biological processes that benefit the host, including providing nutrition and modulating the immune system. Fine flounder (Paralichthys adspersus) is a flatfish of commercial interest that is native to the Chilean coast. The high value of this flatfish has prompted the development of stock enhancement and aquaculture activities. Knowledge of microbiota may help to improve the cultivation of this species; however, few comparative studies have evaluated the intestinal microbiota composition in farmed versus wild fishes. Intestinal contents from wild and aquaculture fish were collected, and DNA was extracted. Subsequently, the V3-region of 16S rRNA was PCR amplified and sequenced using the Ion Torrent platform. The comparison between wild and aquaculture specimens revealed important differences in the composition of the microbiota. The most abundant phylum in wild flounder was Proteobacteria, with an average relative abundance of 68.1 ± 15.4%; in contrast, in aquaculture flounder, this phylum had an average relative abundance of 30.8 ± 24.1%. Reciprocally, the most abundant phylum in flounder aquaculture was Firmicutes, averaging 61.2 ± 28.4%; in contrast, this phylum showed low abundance in wild flounder, in which it averaged 4.7 ± 4%. The phylum Actinobacteria showed greater abundance in wild flounder, ranging from 21.7 ± 18.8%, whereas, it averaged only 2.7 ± 3.8% in aquaculture fish. Specific taxa that were differentially distributed between wild and aquaculture flounder were identified using a statistical approach. At the genus level, a total of four genera were differentially represented between the two conditions. Bacillus and Pseudomonas were more highly represented in aquaculture flounder, whereas Arthrobacter and Psychrobacter were observed in wild flounder. Furthermore, in both cases, predicted functions (metabolic pathways) indicated that those microbiota might provide beneficial effects for

  20. Olive oil and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriana, Francisco J.G.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, numerous studies have examined the association of dietary fat and cancer. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA from n -6 family display a strong promoting effect, this may be partially due to the especially prone to lipid peroxidation of PUFA that leads to formation of aldehydes, which react with DNA bases, forming genotoxic exocyclic etheno(epsilon-adducts. On the contrary, there are growing evidences that monounsaturated oils, like olive oil, may be associated with a decreased risk of some cancers. However, the epidemiological data do not fully agree with the experimental ones previously published. Minor compounds from (extra virgin olive oil, mainly phenolics like hydroxytyrosol and tocopherol, are antioxidants and radical scavenging. They can minimize the amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS generated by fatty acid peroxidation and in the case of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA the DNA damage can be reduced by a lower lipid peroxidation.Numerosos estudios en los últimos años han determinado la existencia de una asociación entre las grasas procedentes de la dieta y el cáncer. Los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados (PUFA de la familia n -6 pueden tener efectos proliferativos y angiogénicos, lo cual se debe en parte a que son especialmente sensibles a la peroxidación lipídica, formándose aldehídos que reaccionan con las bases del ADN y por lo tanto aductos exocíclicos con propiedades genotóxicas. Por el contrario, el consumo de dietas ricas en ácidos grasos monoinsaturados (MUFA está relacionado con un menor riesgo de distintos tipos de cáncer. Si bien, los datos epidemiológicos no siempre concuerdan con los datos experimentales. Los componentes menores del aceite de oliva (extra virgen, fundamentalmente el hidroxitirosol y tocoferol, son antioxidantes y secuestradores de radicales libres. Pueden minimizar la cantidad de especies reactivas de oxígeno que se generan por la peroxidación lipídica y además los

  1. Olive ingredient good for the eyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Although olives were used for medical purposes as early as more than 150 years ago, modem studies of various olive extracts have revealed them to be powerful antioxidants that can treat a range of health problems.

  2. CONSUMER PREFERENCES FOR TABLE OLIVES IN TIRANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvina Merkaj

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Table olive production sector is undergoing rapid changes, as the government is undertaking an ambitious program supporting the expansion of olive grove plantations. Despite the increase in domestic production, import of table olive is still high, due to constraints in quantity and quality of domestically supplied olives. In the context of import substitution strategy, embraced by producers and policy-makers, it is important to analyze the consumer preferences for table olives. The objective of this paper is to segment the table olive market according to preferences for table olives attributes applying Conjoint Choice Experiment (CCE and Latent Class Analysis to collect and analyze the data. The research results show a strong consumer preference for domestic table olives whereas preferences for other attributes vary between consumer groups.

  3. Clay Improvement with Burned Olive Waste Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utkan Mutman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil is concentrated in the Mediterranean basin countries. Since the olive oil industries are incriminated for a high quantity of pollution, it has become imperative to solve this problem by developing optimized systems for the treatment of olive oil wastes. This study proposes a solution to the problem. Burned olive waste ash is evaluated for using it as clay stabilizer. In a laboratory, bentonite clay is used to improve olive waste ash. Before the laboratory, the olive waste is burned at 550°C in the high temperature oven. The burned olive waste ash was added to bentonite clay with increasing 1% by weight from 1% to 10%. The study consisted of the following tests on samples treated with burned olive waste ash: Atterberg Limits, Standard Proctor Density, and Unconfined Compressive Strength Tests. The test results show promise for this material to be used as stabilizer and to solve many of the problems associated with its accumulation.

  4. Physical and chemical properties of olive oil extracted from olive cultivars grown in Shiraz and Kazeroon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Homapour, M.; Hamedi, M.; Moslehishad, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective: The composition of olive oil is significantly affected by the cultivar and climatic conditions. The present study determined the chemical characteristics of olive oil extracted from two major Iranian varieties of olive (yellow and local oil-grade) in Shiraz and Kazeroon......, two major olive-producing areas in Fars province. Materials and methods: The composition of olive oil is significantly affected by the cultivar and climatic conditions. The present study determined the chemical characteristics of olive oil extracted from two major Iranian varieties of olive (yellow....... These results indicate that the quality of the olive oil depends both on the olive cultivar and geographical region. Keywords: Olive oil, Yellow cultivar, Oil-grade cultivar, Shiraz, Kazeroon...

  5. Assessment of resource selection models to predict occurrence of five juvenile flatfish species (Pleuronectidae) over the continental shelf in the western Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Matthew T.; Mier, Kathryn L.; Cooper, Dan W.

    2016-05-01

    According to the nursery size hypothesis, flatfish recruitment is constrained by nursery area. Thus, if resource selection models can be shown to accurately predict the location and geographic extent of flatfish nursery areas, they will become important tools in the management and study of flatfish population dynamics. We demonstrate that some resource selection models derived previously to predict the presence and absence of juvenile flatfishes near shore were applicable to the broader continental shelf. For other age-species groups, derivation of new models for the continental shelf was necessary. Our study was conducted in the western Gulf of Alaska (GoA) during October 2011 on four groups of age-0 juvenile flatfishes: Pacific halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis), arrowtooth flounder (Atheresthes stomias), northern rock sole (Lepidopsetta polyxystra), and flathead sole (Hippoglossoides elassodon); and three groups of age-1 juvenile flatfishes: northern rock sole, flathead sole, and yellowfin sole (Limanda aspera). Sampling occurred at 33 sites across the continental shelf. Fish were collected using a 3-m beam trawl, and a midwater trawl. Environmental data were collected on sediment composition and water temperature and depth. Many of the age-species groups co-occurred in the Shumagin and Barnabus sea valleys; however, age-0 arrowtooth flounder occurred at more locations than other juveniles, perhaps due to a relatively broad tolerance of environmental conditions and to the utilization of midwater habitat. Thus, the large nursery area of arrowtooth flounder may be one reason why they are currently the most abundant GoA flatfish. In fact, among all species, mean recruitment at age 3 increased with the percent occurrence of age-0 juveniles at the 33 sites, a proxy for relative nursery area, in accordance with the nursery size hypothesis, suggesting that mean recruitment among GoA flatfishes is structured by nursery size.

  6. 76 FR 82189 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ... three species are not overfished or subject to overfishing in 2012. Notice of exempted fishing permit... result in overfishing of summer flounder and scup, and that summer flounder could be subject to overfishing during 2011 if the catch approaches the established allowance for this year. The updated...

  7. Are olive oil diets antithrombotic?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L.F.; Jespersen, J; Marckmann, P.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The incidence of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in Crete was lower than expected on the basis of blood lipid concentrations of participants in the Seven Countries Study. A favorable effect of a high intake of olive oil on thrombogenesis may have contributed to this finding. OBJECTIVE: We...... compared the effects of virgin olive oil with those of rapeseed and sunflower oils on blood coagulation factor VII (FVII), a key factor in thrombogenesis. DESIGN: In a randomized and strictly controlled crossover study, 18 healthy young men consumed diets enriched with 5 g/MJ (19% of total energy) olive...... oil, sunflower oil, or rapeseed oil for periods of 3 wk. On the final day of each period, participants consumed standardized high-fat meals (42% of energy as fat). Fasting and nonfasting blood samples were collected after each period. RESULTS: Mean (+/-SEM) nonfasting peak concentrations of activated...

  8. The toxic mechanism of high lethality of herbicide butachlor in marine flatfish flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Huarong; Yin, Licheng; Zhang, Shicui; Feng, Wenrong

    2010-09-01

    The toxic mechanism of herbicide butachlor to induce extremely high lethality in marine flatfish flounder, Paralichthys Olivaceus, was analyzed by histopathological examination, antioxidant enzymes activities and ATP content assay. Histopathological examination of gill, liver and kidney of exposed fishes showed that gill was a target organ of butachlor. The butachlor seriously impaired the respiration of gills by a series of lesions such as edema, lifting and detachment of lamellar epithelium, breakdown of pillar cells, and blood congestion. The dysfunction of gill respiration caused suffocation to the exposed flounder with extremely high acute lethality. Antioxidant enzyme activity assay of the in vitro cultured flounder gill (FG) cells exposed to butachlor indicated that butachlor markedly inhibited the antioxidant enzyme activities of Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX). Furthermore, along with the decline of antioxidant enzyme activities, ATP content in the exposed FG cells decreased, too. This infers that the oxidative stress induced by butachlor can inhibit the production of cellular ATP. Similar decrease of ATP content was also observed in the exposed flounder gill tissues. Taken together, as in FG cells, butachlor possibly induced a short supply of ATP in pillar cells by inhibiting the antioxidant enzyme activities and then affecting the contractibility of the pillar cells, which in turn resulted in the blood congestion and suffocation of exposed flounder.

  9. What Is Juvenile Arthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Analgesics for Osteoarthritis (Report from AHRQ) Joint Replacement Surgery: Health Information Basics for You and Your Family NIH Pediatric Rheumatology Clinic Health Information Juvenile Arthritis Find a Clinical Trial Journal Articles Juvenile Arthritis PDF Version Size: 123 KB ...

  10. Juvenile Delinquency: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Carolyn A.

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile Delinquency is a term which is often inaccurately used. This article clarifies definitions, looks at prevalence, and explores the relationship between juvenile delinquency and mental health. Throughout, differences between males and females are explored. (Contains 1 table.)

  11. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, Machteld

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted.

  12. In vitro antimicrobial activity of olive leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markin, D; Duek, L; Berdicevsky, I

    2003-04-01

    We investigated the antimicrobial effect of olive leaves against bacteria and fungi. The microorganisms tested were inoculated in various concentrations of olive leaf water extract. Olive leaf 0.6% (w/v) water extract killed almost all bacteria tested, within 3 h. Dermatophytes were inhibited by 1.25% (w/v) plant extract following a 3-day exposure whereas Candida albicans was killed following a 24 h incubation in the presence of 15% (w/v) plant extract. Olive leaf extract fractions, obtained by dialysis, that showed antimicrobial activity consisted of particles smaller than 1000 molecular rate cutoffs. Scanning electron microscopic observations of C. albicans, exposed to 40% (w/v) olive leaf extract, showed invaginated and amorphous cells. Escherichia coli cells, subjected to a similar treatment but exposed to only 0.6% (w/v) olive leaf extract showed complete destruction. These findings suggest an antimicrobial potential for olive leaves.

  13. Juvenile Arrests, 2007. Juvenile Justice Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puzzanchera, Charles

    2009-01-01

    This Bulletin summarizes 2007 juvenile crime and arrest data reported by local law enforcement agencies across the country and cited in the FBI report, "Crime in the United States 2007." The Bulletin describes the extent and nature of juvenile crime that comes to the attention of the justice system. It serves as a baseline for comparison for…

  14. Juvenile polyposis syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.A.A. Brosens; D. Langeveld; W.A. van Hattem; F.M. Giardiello; G.J.A. Offerhaus

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile polyposis syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by multiple distinct juvenile polyps in the gastrointestinal tract and an increased risk of colorectal cancer. The cumulative life-time risk of colorectal cancer is 39% and the relative risk is 34. Juvenile polyps have a

  15. Olive oil in food spreads

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blanco Muñoz, Miguel A

    2004-01-01

    .... The use of olive oil to prepare fat spread opens new insights into the commercial development of healthy novel foods with a positive image in terms of consumer appeal.La hidrogenación química de los...

  16. "Oliver Twist": A Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashion, Carol; Fischer, Diana

    This teacher's guide for public television's 3-part adaptation of Charles Dickens's "Oliver Twist" provides information that will help enrich students' viewing of the series, whether or not they read the novel. The guide includes a wide range of discussion and activity ideas; there is also a series Web site and a list of Web resources.…

  17. Direct olive oil analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peña, F.

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The practical impact of “direct analysis” is undeniable as it strong contributes to enhance the so-called productive analytical features such as expeditiousness, reduction of costs and minimisation of risks for the analysts and environment. The main objective is to establish a reliable bypass to the conventional preliminary operations of the analytical process. This paper offers a systematic approach in this context and emphasises the great field of action of direct methodologies in the routine analysis of olive oil. Two main types of methodologies are considered. On the one hand, the direct determination of volatile components is systematically considered. On the other hand, simple procedures to automatically implement the preliminary operations of the oil analysis using simple devices in which the sample is directly introduced with/without a simple dilution are present and discussed.El impacto práctico del análisis directo es tan innegable como que el contribuye decisivamente a mejorar las denominadas características analíticas relacionadas con la productividad como la rapidez, la reducción de costes y la minimización de riesgos para los analistas y el ambiente. El principal objetivo es establecer un adecuado "bypass" a las operaciones convencionales preliminares del proceso analítico. Este artículo ofrece una propuesta sistemática en este contexto y resalta el gran campo de acción de las metodologías directas en los análisis de rutina del aceite de oliva. Se analizan los dos tipos principales de metodologías. Por una lado, se analiza la determinación directa de los compuestos volátiles. Por el otro, se presentan y discuten los procedimientos simples para implementar automáticamente las operaciones preliminares del análisis del aceite usando sistemas simples en los que la muestra se introduce directamente con/sin un dilución simple.

  18. Juveniles on trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Kathleen M

    2002-10-01

    This article describes common forensic evaluations requested of juvenile court mental health evaluators. There has been a legal shift toward criminalization of juvenile court, with a greater emphasis on rights, abandonment of the rehabilitative model, and greater movement of adolescents into the adult criminal court. A resulting shift has been the redefinition of juvenile court forensic evaluations toward the specificity of adult forensic work. The challenge for evaluators is to refine their knowledge of the forensic standards and bring knowledge of development, assessment, and diagnosis in juveniles and interview techniques appropriate to juveniles to improve the evaluation and forensic reports.

  19. Cytogenetic characterization of olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus: DNA content, karyotype, AgNORs and location of major ribosomal genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xubo; ZHANG Quanqi; CHEN Yanjie; QI Jie; WANG Zhigang; WANG Xinglian

    2009-01-01

    A cytogenetic analysis of Paralichthys olivaceus was carried out using the flow cytometry method for DNA content, silver staining for the nucleolus organizer region (AgNORs) identification and one-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for chromosomal mapping of major ribosomal genes. Nuclear DNA content was estimated by flow cytometry method using Gallus domesticus erythrocytes as the internal reference standard. The C-value of this species was (0.737±0.024) pg, and the DNA contents of each chromosome were estimated to be 16.51 Mb to 39.50 Mb after paired according to the average relative length. The FISH probe was made by PCR amplification of a DNA fragment containing internal transcribed spacers ITS1 between 18S and 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene, and labeled by PCR incorporation of bio-16-dUTP. FISH signals and AgNORs were both located on the secondary constrictions of chromosome 1. These results will provide a better understanding of the cytogenetic information of this species and would help for further research of the karyotype evolution in the order Pleuronectiformes.

  20. Juvenile polyposis syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lodewijk AA Brosens; Danielle Langeveld; W Arnout van Hattem; Francis M Giardiello; G Johan A Offerhaus

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile polyposis syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by multiple distinct juvenile polyps in the gastrointestinal tract and an increased risk of colorectal cancer.The cumulative life-time risk of colorectal cancer is 39% and the relative risk is 34.Juvenile polyps have a distinctive histology characterized by an abundance of edematous lamina propria with inflammatory cells and cystically dilated glands lined by cuboidal to columnar epithelium with reactive changes.Clinically, juvenile polyposis syndrome is defined by the presence of 5 or more juvenile polyps in the colorectum,juvenile polyps throughout the gastrointestinal tract or any number of juvenile polyps and a positive family history of juvenile polyposis.In about 50%-60% of patients diagnosed with juvenile polyposis syndrome a germline mutation in the SMAD4 or BMPR1A gene is found.Both genes play a role in the BMP/TGF-beta signalling pathway.It has been suggested that cancer in juvenile polyposis may develop through the so-alled "landscaper mechanism" where an abnormal stromal environment leads to neoplastic transformation of the adjacent epithelium and in the end invasive carcinoma.Recognition of this rare disorder is important for patients and their families with regard to treatment,follow-up and screening of at risk individuals.Each clinician confronted with the diagnosis of a juvenile polyp should therefore consider the possibility of juvenile polyposis syndrome.In addition, juvenile polyposis syndrome provides a unique model to study colorectal cancer pathogenesis in general and gives insight in the molecular genetic basis of cancer. This review discusses clinical manifestations, genetics, pathogenesis and management of juvenile polyposis syndrome.

  1. Physical and chemical properties of olive oil extracted from olive cultivars grown in Shiraz and Kazeroon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Homapour, M.; Hamedi, M.; Moslehishad, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective: The composition of olive oil is significantly affected by the cultivar and climatic conditions. The present study determined the chemical characteristics of olive oil extracted from two major Iranian varieties of olive (yellow and local oil-grade) in Shiraz and Kazeroon......, two major olive-producing areas in Fars province. Materials and methods: The composition of olive oil is significantly affected by the cultivar and climatic conditions. The present study determined the chemical characteristics of olive oil extracted from two major Iranian varieties of olive (yellow...... and local oil-grade) in Shiraz and Kazeroon, two major olive-producing areas in Fars province. Results: The results showed that the physical and chemical properties of both cultivars are in accordance with national and international standards. There was a significant difference in acidity, iodine content...

  2. Contribution of peptides and polyphenols from olive water to acrylamide formation in sterilized table olives

    OpenAIRE

    Casado, Francisco Javier; Montaño, Alfredo; Carle, Reinhold

    2014-01-01

    To confirm the role of peptides as principal precursors of acrylamide formation in sterilized table olives, peptides from olive water were fractionated. After their partial fractionation by solid phase extraction (SPE) and ultrafiltration (

  3. The effect of different processing stages of olive fruit on the extracted olive oil polyphenol content

    OpenAIRE

    Koutsaftakis, A.; Vekiari, S. A.

    2002-01-01

    In the present study the distribution of olive fruit polyphenolic fraction through the phases of olive oil extraction by a classical and a centrifugal system has been investigated. Olives of two Cretan origin varieties were used. Consequently, samples from different stages of oil extraction with and without their polyphenols were stored for a month under 64 ºC by periodical testing their peroxide value. In olive oils extracted by the centrifugal factory a large reduction of polyphe...

  4. Some aspects of the biology and life history of Bothitrema bothi (Monogenea: Bothitrematidae) from the flounder Scophthalmus aquosus (Bothidae) from New Jersey, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, Sherman S

    2004-06-01

    Bothitrema bothi (MacCallum, 1913), a monopisthocotylean monogenean (Bothitrematidae) found on gills and occasionally on the olfactory rosette within the nares of the bothid flounder, Scophthalmus aquosus (Mitchill, 1815), is distributed along the Atlantic coast of the USA from Woods Hole, Massachusetts to Delaware Bay. This study details aspects of the morphology, microecology and biology of the oncomiracidium, juvenile and adult. Adult worms occur almost exclusively between rakers on the first and second gill arches while juveniles occupy secondary gill filaments. Analysis of variance revealed significant arch, side and position effects. Worm attachment and position is maintained largely by suction generated by a circular seal using its 54 radially arranged accessory haptoral sclerotised elements and a marginal valve. A small anterior appendix with two marginal hooks lies dorsal to a deep anteromedian cleft in the haptor, which, together with wall muscles, creates and releases the negative pressure required for attachment. Four pairs of gland openings in the ventrolateral margins of the anterior adhesive area produce secretions for attachment. Operculate eggs with four rounded protuberances and a filament are laid individually at four-minute intervals at 22 degrees C. Hatching occurs in five days at 20 degrees C. Oncomiracidia have two pairs of eyes, with the posterior pair fused, show both positive and negative phototaxis and swim at a mean rate of 5.2 mm/s at 22 degrees C. Larvae have a circle of 16 hooks and a pair of hamulus primordia. Other accessory haptoral sclerotised structures arise de novo in juveniles after attachment to the host. These data will help to resolve more clearly the relationships of the Bothitrematidae within the Monopisthocotylea.

  5. Proteins in olive fruit and oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montealegre, Cristina; Esteve, Clara; García, Maria Concepción; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Marina, Maria Luisa

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a comprehensive review grouping the information on the extraction, characterization, and quantitation of olive and olive oil proteins and providing a practical guide about these proteins. Most characterized olive proteins are located in the fruit, mainly in the seed, where different oleosins and storage proteins have been found. Unlike the seed, the olive pulp contains a lower protein content having been described a polypeptide of 4.6 kDa and a thaumain-like protein. Other important proteins studied in olive fruits have been enzymes which could play important roles in olives characteristics. Part of these proteins is transferred from the fruit to the oil during the manufacturing process of olive oil. In fact, the same polypeptide of 4.6 kDa found in the pulp has been described in the olive oil and, additionally, the presence of other proteins and enzymes have also been described. Protein profiles have recently been proposed as an interesting strategy for the varietal classification of olive fruits and oils. Nevertheless, there is still a lot of knowledge without being explored requiring new studies focused on the determination and characterization of these proteins.

  6. Molecular and biochemical studies on the Ah receptor pathway in flounder (Platichthys flesus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselink, H.

    1998-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis focused on the mechanistic aspects of the toxic and biochemical effects of PCBs in flounder (Platichthys flesus), with the aim to provide a scientific basis for the suggested involvement of PCBs in the aetiology of diseases observed

  7. INTERACTION BETWEEN DIETARY MINERAL AND PHYTASE ON BIOLOGICAL PERFORMANCES OF JAPANESE FLOUNDER, Paralichthys olivaceus. PART I. GROWTH, FEED INTAKE, AND WHOLE BODY MINERAL CONTENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asda Laining

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the effect of dietary calcium (Ca, inorganic phosphorus (IP, and phytase (P supplementation in marine fish, a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design was arranged to observe the interrelationship between dietary Ca and IP with the presence of dietary phytase. Two levels of dietary Ca at 0% and 0.2% combined with either 0% or 0.25% of dietary IP and either with 0 and 2,000 FTU phytase/kg diet, respectively to formulate eight experimental diets. SPI-based diet was used as basal diet and the sources of Ca, IP, and phytase were similar to those used in the previous experiment. Juvenile Japanese flounder with initial body weight around 0.6 g was fed the test diets. After 30 days of feeding trial, the results showed that both dietary IP and phytase, but not dietary Ca significantly enhanced the growth and feed intake. The highest growth was achieved in fish fed a diet containing the Ca, IP, and phytase supplement among groups. Fish fed diet without the three dietary supplements had the lowest SGR and did not significantly improve by supplementing dietary Ca. Feed intake (FI and was significantly influenced by dietary IP and phytase, not dietary Ca while feed conversion ratio (FCR was significantly affected by all dietary treatments. Interaction effect was detected between dietary Ca and IP, between dietary IP and P on FCR. Total phosphorus content in whole body was significantly increased by supplementing all dietary treatments which was highest in fish fed 0.25 IP/0.2 Ca/P. Significant interaction was observed between dietary IP and P on this parameter. Whole body Ca content was significantly improved by either dietary IP or Ca and not dietary P. As conclusion even without inorganic Ca supplement, dietary IP at level of 0.25% or 2,000 FTU phytase/kg diet could enhance growth and FI of fish as well as whole body phosphorus content of juvenile Japanese flounder when diet basal contained organic Ca around 1.2%.

  8. Is the World Floundering or Has She a Vision?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Natarajan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available To all appearances the world seems to be floundering without leadership, direction or even a clear formulation of goals and processes. Yet, paradoxically, amidst the apparent chaos and confusion, evolutionary patterns of advance somehow seem to emerge, universal values become ever more prevalent and powerful as deep drivers and determinates, a more than conventional wisdom seems to guide situations where conventional wisdom is stymied or blinded by dogma and superstition, and susceptible ignorant masses sooner or later choose a course that leads to the future rather than back to the past. This progressive movement is far from steady and often interspersed with retrograde steps and descends into utter folly and vicious violence, but all the same a direction seems to emerge that defies the expectations of scientific projections and doomsday prophets. Despite our adoration of rationality, irrationality prevails even in the halls of knowledge. Bursts of extraordinary creativity follow episodes of suicidal stupidity. Humanity’s predilection to self-destruction exists side by side with a serendipitous capacity for creativity and coming to our senses just in the nick of time to avert calamity. Pessimists decry the negative tendency. Optimists affirm the positive. None seem able to discern the pattern or process by which challenges become opportunities and imminent disaster is transmuted into progress. A key to deciphering this enigma lies in the invisible, yet to be realized potentials of the individual and society. This clumsy, costly, painful process is the mark of a still largely unconscious species struggling to discover its raison d’être and the secret of conscious evolution. Utopian ideals discredited by a world disillusioned by false promises exhibit a remarkable regenerative power to advance toward unseen goals. An unrealized vision founded on universal values guides us toward an inevitable destiny we have yet to conceive. Those seed

  9. De Novo Assembly and Functional Annotation of the Olive (Olea europaea) Transcriptome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Mérida, Antonio; González-Plaza, Juan José; Cañada, Andrés; Blanco, Ana María; García-López, Maria del Carmen; Rodríguez, José Manuel; Pedrola, Laia; Sicardo, M. Dolores; Hernández, M. Luisa; De la Rosa, Raúl; Belaj, Angjelina; Gil-Borja, Mayte; Luque, Francisco; Martínez-Rivas, José Manuel; Pisano, David G.; Trelles, Oswaldo; Valpuesta, Victoriano; Beuzón, Carmen R.

    2013-01-01

    Olive breeding programmes are focused on selecting for traits as short juvenile period, plant architecture suited for mechanical harvest, or oil characteristics, including fatty acid composition, phenolic, and volatile compounds to suit new markets. Understanding the molecular basis of these characteristics and improving the efficiency of such breeding programmes require the development of genomic information and tools. However, despite its economic relevance, genomic information on olive or closely related species is still scarce. We have applied Sanger and 454 pyrosequencing technologies to generate close to 2 million reads from 12 cDNA libraries obtained from the Picual, Arbequina, and Lechin de Sevilla cultivars and seedlings from a segregating progeny of a Picual × Arbequina cross. The libraries include fruit mesocarp and seeds at three relevant developmental stages, young stems and leaves, active juvenile and adult buds as well as dormant buds, and juvenile and adult roots. The reads were assembled by library or tissue and then assembled together into 81 020 unigenes with an average size of 496 bases. Here, we report their assembly and their functional annotation. PMID:23297299

  10. Saturated hydrocarbon content in olive fruits and crude olive pomace oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Coca, Raquel B; Pérez-Camino, María Del Carmen; Moreda, Wenceslao

    2016-01-01

    Olive fruits contain an n-alkane series of saturated hydrocarbons mainly in the pulp. Lower amounts of a complex mixture of paraffins, unresolved by gas chromatography (UCM--unresolved complex mixture), have been found in cuticle, stone (woody shell and seed), olive leaves, and talc used as an aid to olive oil extraction. The amounts of both kinds of hydrocarbons are related to the olive cultivar and are transferred to oils in a proportion depending on the oil-obtaining process (centrifugation or solvent extraction). In olive oil obtained by centrifugation, only n-alkanes were detected. However, in olive oil extracted by second centrifugation, small amounts of UCM paraffins were detected together with the n-alkanes. Olive pomace oils showed a very variable content of both types of hydrocarbons according to the different obtaining process, such as double centrifugation, solvent extraction or centrifugation followed by solvent extraction. 'White mineral oil' used in oil extraction machinery is the source of the high concentrations of UCM paraffins found in some olive and olive pomace oils. In the case of second centrifugation olive oil, a maximum limit of 50 mg kg(-1) of UCM is suggested, whereas in the case of crude olive pomace oil, it amounts to 250 mg kg(-1) plus an additional minimum of 1.0 for the n-alkanes/UCM ratio.

  11. Improved soil quality after 16 years of olive mill pomace application in olive oil groves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberto, García Ruiz; Ochoa, M. Victoria; Hinojosa, M. Belén

    2012-01-01

    This report shows notable improvements of soil physical, chemical, and biological properties after long-term soil application of olive mill pomace compost. About four million tons of olive mill pomace is produced annually in Andalusia, Spain. Olive mill pomace is a main by-product of the olive oil...... extraction industry. Composting is a promising strategy to manage the huge volume of this potentially environmentally harmful pomace. Converting olive mill pomace into a useful soil amendment in semiarid Mediterranean areas of olive oil farms, characterized by low organic matter content and subjected...... to progressive degradation, would be valuable. There is actually no data on the long-term effects of composted olive mill pomace application on soil physicochemical and biochemical properties. However, this information is needed to encourage the composting of this pomace. Here, a field study evaluated soil...

  12. Photopyroelectric Monitoring of Olive's Ripening Conditions and Olive Oil Quality Using Pulsed Wideband IR Thermal Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Taha, M. I.; Sarahneh, Y.; Saleh, A. M.

    The present study is based on band absorption of radiation from pulsed wideband infrared (IR) thermal source (PWBS) in conjunction with polyvinylidene fluoride film (PVDF). It is the first time to be employed to monitor the ripening state of olive fruit. Olive's characteristics vary at different stages of ripening, and hence, cultivation of olives at the right time is important in ensuring the best oil quality and maximizes the harvest yield. The photopyroelectric (PPE) signal resulting from absorption of wideband infrared (IR) radiation by fresh olive juice indicates the ripening stage of olives, i.e., allows an estimate of the suitable harvest time. The technique was found to be very useful in discriminating between olive oil samples according to geographical region, shelf life, some storage conditions, and deliberate adulteration. Our results for monitoring oil accumulation in olives during the ripening season agree well with the complicated analytical studies carried out by other researchers.

  13. From olive drupes to olive oil. An HPLC-orbitrap-based qualitative and quantitative exploration of olive key metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakis, Periklis; Termentzi, Aikaterini; Michel, Thomas; Gikas, Evagelos; Halabalaki, Maria; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the current study was the qualitative exploration and quantitative monitoring of key olive secondary metabolites in different production steps (drupes, paste, first and final oil) throughout a virgin olive oil production line. The Greek variety Koroneiki was selected as one of the most representative olives, which is rich in biological active compounds. For the first time, an HPLC-Orbitrap platform was employed for both qualitative and quantitative purposes. Fifty-two components belonging to phenyl alcohols, secoiridoids, flavonoids, triterpenes, and lactones were identified based on HRMS and HRMS/MS data. Nine biologically and chemically significant metabolites were quantitatively determined throughout the four production steps. Drupes and paste were found to be rich in several components, which are not present in the final oil. The current study discloses the chemical nature of different olive materials in a successive and integrated way and reveals new sources of high added value constituents of olives.

  14. Evidence of cross-reactivity between olive, ash, privet, and Russian olive tree pollen allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernerman, S M; McCullough, J; Green, J; Ownby, D R

    1992-12-01

    In a clinical investigation, 103 Michigan residents with symptoms suggestive of allergic rhinitis or asthma were skin tested with olive (Olea europaea) pollen extract. Nineteen had positive reactions. Since the olive tree is not native to nor grown in Michigan, this study was undertaken to determine whether the skin test reactivity was the result of cross-reactivity among tree pollen allergens. ELISAs were developed to measure olive, ash (Fraxinus americana), privet (Ligustrum vulgare), and Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia) specific IgE antibodies. Inhibition studies were performed to determine whether pollen extracts from each of these tree species could inhibit IgE antibody binding to olive extracts. Eleven of the 19 skin test-positive patients were olive-ELISA positive, eight either were ELISA-positive to ash, seven to privet and ten to Russian olive. There were significant correlations between the ELISA results to olive and each of the other three pollens. The inhibition studies demonstrated that all three of the tree pollens were capable of inhibiting the binding of IgE to olive extract in a dose-response fashion. IgE-immunoblot studies demonstrated several proteins common to olive, ash, and privet. Twelve of the olive skin test-positive patients were contacted and 75% were exposed to one or more of the studied trees in their yards. Five patients had traveled to areas where olive trees are grown. We conclude that there is a high degree of cross-reactivity among allergens from native Michigan trees and from olive trees. This cross-reactivity is the most likely reason for skin test reactivity to olive pollen extract in Michigan.

  15. 7 CFR 932.9 - Packaged olives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... including the three distinct types, ripe, green ripe, and tree-ripened; or (b) olives, packed in brine, and which have been fermented and cured, otherwise known as green olives. ...

  16. Olive oil phenols are absorbed in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, M.N.; Zock, P.L.; Roodenburg, A.J.C.; Leenen, R.; Katan, M.B.

    2002-01-01

    Animal and in vitro studies suggest that olive oil phenols are effective antioxidants. The most abundant phenols in olive oil are the nonpolar oleuropein- and ligstroside-aglycones and the polar hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol. The aim of this study was to gain more insight into the metabolism of those

  17. Olive Banks (1923-2006): An Appreciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis, June

    2008-01-01

    This Appreciation of Olive Banks (1923-2006) draws upon her memoir published in Women's History Review, Vol. 8, No. 3, 1999, pp. 401-410, and upon the author's recollections of and correspondence with her. Born into a solidly working-class family, Olive Banks overcame the disadvantages of her social class background and gender to become an…

  18. OLIVE: Speech-Based Video Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de Franciska; Gauvain, Jean-Luc; Hartog, den Jurgen; Netter, Klaus

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the Olive project which aims to support automated indexing of video material by use of human language technologies. Olive is making use of speech recognition to automatically derive transcriptions of the sound tracks, generating time-coded linguistic elements which serve as the

  19. OLIVE: Speech-Based Video Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Franciska M.G.; Gauvain, Jean-Luc; den Hartog, Jurgen; den Hartog, Jeremy; Netter, Klaus

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the Olive project which aims to support automated indexing of video material by use of human language technologies. Olive is making use of speech recognition to automatically derive transcriptions of the sound tracks, generating time-coded linguistic elements which serve as the

  20. Olive oil phenols are absorbed in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, M.N.; Zock, P.L.; Roodenburg, A.J.C.; Leenen, R.; Katan, M.B.

    2002-01-01

    Animal and in vitro studies suggest that olive oil phenols are effective antioxidants. The most abundant phenols in olive oil are the nonpolar oleuropein- and ligstroside-aglycones and the polar hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol. The aim of this study was to gain more insight into the metabolism of those p

  1. Olive and olive pomace oil packing and marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berzosa, Juan

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the industrial installations and equipments used by the olive oil sector for olive oil packing, the different types of containers used (plastic, glass, tin, and carton, and the diverse technologies applied for filling, stoppering, labelling, and packing as well as the trend and new technologies developed according to the material of the containers and the markets’ demands.Some logistic aspects such as palletization, storage, and shipment of final products are also discussed. The use of modern tools and codification systems like EAN 128 permits to follow the product distribution and assure the traceability of packed oils.The last part of the article includes the world and EU production and consumption of olive oil, paying special attention to the peculiarities of the main EU producers (Spain, Italy, Greece, and Portugal. Finally, the olive oil consumption in third countries is analysed and the consumption and its trend in merging markets like USA, Australia, and Japan commented.En este artículo se describen los equipos e instalaciones industriales que utiliza el sector del aceite de oliva para el envasado de los aceites de oliva, los tipos de envases más empleados (plástico, vidrio, metálicos y cartón y las diferentes tecnologías de llenado, taponado, etiquetado y embalado, así como las tendencias y nuevas tecnologías en función del material de los envases y la demanda de los mercados.Se contemplan también aspectos logísticos como el paletizado, el almacenamiento y la expedición del producto terminado. El uso de modernas herramientas y sistemas de codificación como el EAN 128 permite el seguimiento del producto y la trazabilidad de los aceites envasados a lo largo de la cadena de distribución.En la última parte del artículo, se indican cifras de producción y consumo de aceite de oliva en el mundo y en la Unión Europea. Se comentan especialmente las peculiaridades de los principales países productores de la

  2. Edwardsiella tarda and Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from diseased Southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma are virulent to channel catfish and Nile tilapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia W. Pridgeon

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify bacteria isolated from diseased Southern flounder and determine whether they are virulent to channel catfish and Nile tilapia. Methods: Gram-negative bacteria isolates were recovered from five tissues of diseased Southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma. The isolates were subjected to biochemical and molecular identification followed by virulence study in fish. Results: Based on biochemical analysis, the 25 isolates were found to share homologies with either Edwardsiella tarda (E. tarda or Aeromonas hydrophila (A. hydrophila. Based on sequencing results of partial 16S rRNA gene, 15 isolates shared 100% identities with the 16S rRNA sequence of previously identified E. tarda strain TX1, whereas the other 10 isolates shared 100% identities with the 16S rRNA sequence of previously identified A. hydrophila strain An4. When healthy fish were exposed to flounder isolate by intracoelomic injection, the LD50 values of flounder isolate E. tarda to channel catfish or Nile tilapia [(10±2 g] were 6.1×10 4 and 1.1×10 7 CFU/fish, respectively, whereas that of flounder isolate A. hydrophila to channel catfish and Nile tilapia were 1.4×10 7 and 5.6×10 7 CFU/fish, respectively. Conclusions: This is the first report that E. tarda and A. hydrophila isolated from diseased Southern flounder are virulent to catfish and tilapia.

  3. Edwardsiella tarda and Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from diseased Southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma) are virulent to channel catfish and Nile tilapia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Julia W Pridgeon; Phillip H Klesius; Gregory A Lewbart; Harry V Daniels; Megan Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To identify bacteria isolated from diseased Southern flounder and determine whether they are virulent to channel catfish and Nile tilapia. Methods:Gram-negative bacteria isolates were recovered from five tissues of diseased Southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma). The isolates were subjected to biochemical and molecular identification followed by virulence study in fish. Results: Based on biochemical analysis, the 25 isolates were found to share homologies with either Edwardsiella tarda (E. tarda) or Aeromonas hydrophila (A. hydrophila). Based on sequencing results of partial 16S rRNA gene, 15 isolates shared 100%identities with the 16S rRNA sequence of previously identified E. tarda strain TX1, whereas the other 10 isolates shared 100%identities with the 16S rRNA sequence of previously identified A. hydrophila strain An4. When healthy fish were exposed to flounder isolate by intracoelomic injection, the LD50 values of flounder isolate E. tarda to channel catfish or Nile tilapia [(10±2) g] were 6.1í104 and 1.1í107 CFU/fish, respectively, whereas that of flounder isolate A. hydrophila to channel catfish and Nile tilapia were 1.4í107 and 5.6í107 CFU/fish, respectively. Conclusions: This is the first report that E. tarda and A. hydrophila isolated from diseased Southern flounder are virulent to catfish and tilapia.

  4. Juvenile giant fibroadenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipul Yagnik

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Fibroadenomas are benign solid tumor associated with aberration of normal lobular development. Juvenile giant fibroadenoma is usually single and >5 cm in size /or >500 gms in weight. Important differential diagnoses are: phyllodes tumor and juvenile gigantomastia. Simple excision is the treatment of choice.

  5. Renewing Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macallair, Daniel; Males, Mike; Enty, Dinky Manek; Vinakor, Natasha

    2011-01-01

    The Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice (CJCJ) was commissioned by Sierra Health Foundation to critically examine California's juvenile justice system and consider the potential role of foundations in promoting systemic reform. The information gathered by CJCJ researchers for this report suggests that foundations can perform a key leadership…

  6. Philanthropist in Juvenile Reformatory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN NIU

    2007-01-01

    @@ On the afternoon of February 1, 2007, Chen Guangbiao, a noted philanthropist, found himself in the Jiangsu Provincial Juvenile Reformatory in Jurong City for a ceremony to donate two buses, 100 computers, and 100 desks and 100 chairs for the juvenile offenders to use in their study.

  7. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, Machteld

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted. Th

  8. Juvenile Confinement in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendel, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    For more than a century, the predominant strategy for the treatment and punishment of serious and sometimes not-so-serious juvenile offenders in the United States has been placement into large juvenile corrections institutions, alternatively known as training schools, reformatories, or youth corrections centers. America's heavy reliance on…

  9. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, Machteld

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted. Th

  10. Antioxidants in Greek Virgin Olive Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Kalogeropoulos

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Greece is ranked third after Spain and Italy in virgin olive oil production. The number of Greek olive cultivars—excluding clonal selections—is greater than 40; however, more than 90% of the acreage is cultivated with 20 cultivars, adapted to a wide range of environmental conditions. Greek virgin olive oils, produced mainly with traditional, non-intensive cultivation practices, are mostly of exceptional quality. The benefits of consuming virgin olive oil, originally attributed to its high oleic acid content, are now considered to be the combined result of several nutrient and non-nutrient phytochemicals. The present work summarizes available data regarding natural antioxidants in Greek virgin olive oils (VOO namely, polar phenolic compounds, tocopherols, squalene, and triterpenic acids. The literature survey indicated gaps in information, which should be filled in the near future so that the intrinsic properties of this major agricultural product of Greece will be substantiated on a solid scientific basis.

  11. Antioxidants in Greek Virgin Olive Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogeropoulos, Nick; Tsimidou, Maria Z

    2014-01-01

    Greece is ranked third after Spain and Italy in virgin olive oil production. The number of Greek olive cultivars-excluding clonal selections-is greater than 40; however, more than 90% of the acreage is cultivated with 20 cultivars, adapted to a wide range of environmental conditions. Greek virgin olive oils, produced mainly with traditional, non-intensive cultivation practices, are mostly of exceptional quality. The benefits of consuming virgin olive oil, originally attributed to its high oleic acid content, are now considered to be the combined result of several nutrient and non-nutrient phytochemicals. The present work summarizes available data regarding natural antioxidants in Greek virgin olive oils (VOO) namely, polar phenolic compounds, tocopherols, squalene, and triterpenic acids. The literature survey indicated gaps in information, which should be filled in the near future so that the intrinsic properties of this major agricultural product of Greece will be substantiated on a solid scientific basis.

  12. Olive oil in clinical nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Luna, Pedro Pablo

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The different beneficial effects of olive oil have a rational and scientific basis due to advances in the knowledge of lipid metabolism. The evidence that for a similar plasma cholesterol concentration, the rate of cardiovascular deaths is lower in the Mediterranean countries than in other ones, suggests that the beneficial effects of olive oil may not be only related to the known quantitative changes in plasma lipoproteins, but also to other, as yet unknown or little known, anti-atherogenic factors. The peculiarities of olive oil in terms of certain biochemical, biological and nutritional characteristics, open up a field of application in normal clinical practice. The benefits of olive oil in clinical nutrition correlate with its action on lipid metabolism and the cardiovascular system. Even a moderate increase in the ingestion of monounsaturated fats and a reduction in the ingestion of carbohydrates could be more advantageous in those patients with diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia and/or in those where loss of weight is not a priority. Different studies have also demonstrated the benefits of olive oil in different inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis. The chemical composition of extra virgin olive oil contributes to daily requirements of essential fatty acids and active antioxidant nutrients in vitamin E deficiency. This particular and well-balanced situation [oleic acid (18:1 n -9 and minor components in an ideal ratio] undoubtedly has a significant relevance in human clinical nutrition.Los avances en el conocimiento del metabolismo lipídico están permitiendo establecer las bases científicas de los efectos saludables del aceite de oliva. En los países del área Mediterránea, la mortalidad cardiovascular es menor que en otros, aunque la concentración de colesterol en sangre es similar. Es muy probable que la capacidad cardio-protectora del aceite de oliva se relacione con otros factores de riesgo, algunos

  13. Treatment of Olive Oil Mill Wastewater With Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    YEŞİLADA, Özer

    1999-01-01

    : Olive oil mills produce a liquid waste called olive black water in the olive oil production process. In this study, olive oil mill wastewater (OOMW) was analysed and then treated aerobically with fungi. Consequently, high chemical oxygen demand (COD), phenol and color reduction were obtained. High biomass yields and laccase enzyme activities were also determined.

  14. Juvenile mammary papillomatosis; Papilomatosis juvenil mamaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, M.; Jimenez, A. V. [Hospital Reina Sofia. Cordoba (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    Juvenile mammary papillomatosis is a benign proliferative disease of young patients, generally under 30 years of age. The most frequent clinical presentation is the existence of an elastic and mobile lymph node of the breast. Anatomopathologically, it is characterized because it presents ductal epithelial hyperplasia, sometimes with marked atypia, and there are numerous cysts having different sizes among the findings. It has been associated with an increase in the incidence of breast cancer, both in the patient herself as well as her family. We review the literature on the subject and present the mammographic and ultrasonographic findings of a 22 year old woman diagnosed of juvenile mammary papillomatosis. (Author) 12 refs.

  15. The postharvest of mill olives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousfi, Khaled

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The greatest deterioration of olive oil is due to poor handling of the olives during the time between harvesting and processing. Storage of olive fruits is carried out by simple heaping in fruit piles, waiting their processing. These fruits develop all kinds of degenerative processes in a short period of time. Oils obtained from them show characteristics hydrolytic and oxidative deteriorations confirmed by their high acidity values, peroxide value or ultraviolet absorbance at 232 and 270 nm. To avoid this situation, the industry is currently reducing the interval between harvesting and processing, through an increase in milling capacity. However, the equipment necessary for preventing the accumulation of fruit in January would be unnecessary for the rest of the season. In this chapter, refrigeration of the olive fruits, or the use of physical treatments, to allow the processing of unripe fruits, are analysed as possible alternatives.El mayor deterioro del aceite de oliva es debido a la inadecuada manipulación de las aceitunas durante el tiempo que media entre su cosecha y su procesado. El almacenamiento de las aceitunas se lleva acabo mediante el simple amontonamiento del fruto, esperando su procesamiento. Estos frutos desarrollan toda clase de procesos degenerativos en un corto periodo de tiempo. Los aceites obtenidos a partir de estos frutos exhiben deterioros hidrolíticos y oxidativos característicos, confirmados por sus valores altos de acidez, de índice de peróxidos o de absorbancia en la región ultravioleta a 232 y 270 nm. Para evitar esta situación, la industria intenta reducir al máximo el intervalo entre la cosecha y el procesado del fruto, mediante un aumento de la capacidad de molturación. Sin embargo, el equipo necesario para prevenir la acumulación de fruto en Enero no se precisa para el resto de la campaña. En este capítulo, la refrigeración de las aceitunas o el uso de tratamientos físicos, que permiten el procesado

  16. OLIVE GENETIC DIVERSITY AND MOLECULAR INTERACTION WITH BACTROCERA OLEAE

    OpenAIRE

    Grasso, Filomena

    2015-01-01

    The worldwide interest in olive (Olea europaea L.) growing is due to the extraordinary nutritional and sensory quality of its main product: olive oil. From a nutritional point of view, extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is the main lipid source of the so-called "Mediterranean diet", stated by the nutritionist Ancel Keys (Keys, 1970). Around 98% of the global table olives and olive oil is produced in the Mediterranean basin.Italy is the world's second largest exporter after Spain (European Commissi...

  17. [Oliver Sacks and literary neurology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardiola, Elena; Banos, Josep E

    2014-03-16

    Introduccion. La literatura medica de divulgacion intenta poner al alcance del publico general temas medicos en un lenguaje desprovisto, en lo posible, de jerga medica para hacerlo mas inteligible. En el ambito de la neurologia, su complejidad hace dificil que los relatos de esta especialidad sean faciles de comprender para el publico sin formacion medica. Objetivo. El presente articulo revisa la obra de Oliver Sacks en el ambito de la neurologia dirigida al publico general; se presentan las principales caracteristicas y las situaciones clinicas que describe. Desarrollo. Se incluyen unas notas biograficas sobre Oliver Sacks y se analizan los 11 libros publicados a lo largo de los ultimos 40 años. Para cada uno de ellos, se realiza una contextualizacion historica y se comentan los aspectos mas destacados que justifican el interes de su lectura. En la mayoria de los casos, se explica la genesis de la obra, asi como sus caracteristicas mas relevantes. Conclusiones. La obra de Sacks contiene un amplio abanico de situaciones clinicas de gran interes que se explican, generalmente, con un lenguaje accesible para el publico general. A los neurologos les permite, ademas, una vision holistica de diversas situaciones clinicas con una discusion de sus componentes biograficos, historicos y evolutivos.

  18. The historical development and nutritional importance of olive and olive oil constituted an important part of the Mediterranean diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uylaşer, Vildan; Yildiz, Gökçen

    2014-01-01

    The olive tree (Olea europaea) is widely cultivated for the production of both oil and table olives and very significant because of its economic value. Olive and olive oil, a traditional food product with thousands of years of history, are the essential components of the Mediterranean diet and are largely consumed in the world. Beside of their economical contribution to national economy, these are an important food in terms of their nutritional value. Olive and olive oil may have a role in the prevention of coronary heart disease and certain cancers because of their high levels of monosaturated fatty acids and phenolic compounds. In addition, olives (Olea europaea L.) and olive oils provide a rich source of natural antioxidants. These make them both fairly stable against auto-oxidation and suitable for human health. The aim of this paper is to define the historical development and nutritional importance of olive and olive oil constituted an important part of the Mediterranean diet.

  19. Application of compost of two-phase olive mill waste on olive grove: effects on soil, olive fruit and olive oil quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Hernández, Antonia; Roig, Asunción; Serramiá, Nuria; Civantos, Concepción García-Ortiz; Sánchez-Monedero, Miguel A

    2014-07-01

    Composting is a method for preparing organic fertilizers that represents a suitable management option for the recycling of two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW) in agriculture. Four different composts were prepared by mixing TPOMW with different agro-industrial by-products (olive pruning, sheep manure and horse manure), which were used either as bulking agents or as N sources. The mature composts were added during six consecutive years to a typical "Picual" olive tree grove in the Jaén province (Spain). The effects of compost addition on soil characteristics, crop yield and nutritional status and also the quality of the olive oil were evaluated at the end of the experiment and compared to a control treated only with mineral fertilization. The most important effects on soil characteristics included a significant increase in the availability of N, P, K and an increase of soil organic matter content. The application of TPOMW compost produced a significant increase in olive oil content in the fruit. The compost amended plots had a 15% higher olive oil content than those treatment with inorganic fertilization. These organics amendments maintained the composition and quality of the olive oil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Olives and Bone: A Green Osteoporosis Prevention Option

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Kok-Yong; Ima-Nirwana, Soelaiman

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal degeneration due to aging, also known as osteoporosis, is a major health problem worldwide. Certain dietary components confer protection to our skeletal system against osteoporosis. Consumption of olives, olive oil and olive polyphenols has been shown to improve bone health. This review aims to summarize the current evidence from cellular, animal and human studies on the skeletal protective effects of olives, olive oil and olive polyphenols. Animal studies showed that supplementation of olives, olive oil or olive polyphenols could improve skeletal health assessed via bone mineral density, bone biomechanical strength and bone turnover markers in ovariectomized rats, especially those with inflammation. The beneficial effects of olive oil and olive polyphenols could be attributed to their ability to reduce oxidative stress and inflammation. However, variations in the bone protective, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects between studies were noted. Cellular studies demonstrated that olive polyphenols enhanced proliferation of pre-osteoblasts, differentiation of osteoblasts and decreased the formation of osteoclast-like cells. However, the exact molecular pathways for its bone health promoting effects are yet to be clearly elucidated. Human studies revealed that daily consumption of olive oil could prevent the decline in bone mineral density and improve bone turnover markers. As a conclusion, olives, olive oil and its polyphenols are potential dietary interventions to prevent osteoporosis among the elderly. PMID:27472350

  1. Olives and Bone: A Green Osteoporosis Prevention Option

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok-Yong Chin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal degeneration due to aging, also known as osteoporosis, is a major health problem worldwide. Certain dietary components confer protection to our skeletal system against osteoporosis. Consumption of olives, olive oil and olive polyphenols has been shown to improve bone health. This review aims to summarize the current evidence from cellular, animal and human studies on the skeletal protective effects of olives, olive oil and olive polyphenols. Animal studies showed that supplementation of olives, olive oil or olive polyphenols could improve skeletal health assessed via bone mineral density, bone biomechanical strength and bone turnover markers in ovariectomized rats, especially those with inflammation. The beneficial effects of olive oil and olive polyphenols could be attributed to their ability to reduce oxidative stress and inflammation. However, variations in the bone protective, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects between studies were noted. Cellular studies demonstrated that olive polyphenols enhanced proliferation of pre-osteoblasts, differentiation of osteoblasts and decreased the formation of osteoclast-like cells. However, the exact molecular pathways for its bone health promoting effects are yet to be clearly elucidated. Human studies revealed that daily consumption of olive oil could prevent the decline in bone mineral density and improve bone turnover markers. As a conclusion, olives, olive oil and its polyphenols are potential dietary interventions to prevent osteoporosis among the elderly.

  2. Oleuropein in olive and its pharmacological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Syed Haris

    2010-01-01

    Olive from Olea europaea is native to the Mediterranean region and, both the oil and the fruit are some of the main components of the Mediterranean diet. The main active constituents of olive oil include oleic acid, phenolic constituents, and squalene. The main phenolic compounds, hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein, give extra-virgin olive oil its bitter, pungent taste. The present review focuses on recent works that have analyzed the relationship between the major phenolic compound oleuropein and its pharmacological activities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic, anti-cancer activities, antimicrobial activity, antiviral activity, hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic effect.

  3. Biological properties of olive oil phytochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visioli, Francesco; Galli, Claudio

    2002-01-01

    Olive oil is the principal source of fat in the Mediterranean diet, which has been associated with a lower incidence of coronary heart disease and certain cancers. Extra-virgin olive oil contains a considerable amount of phenolic compounds, for example, hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein, that are responsible for its peculiar taste and for its high stability. Evidence is accumulating to demonstrate that olive oil phenolics are powerful antioxidants, both in vitro and in vivo; also, they exert other potent biological activities that could partially account for the observed healthful effects of the Mediterranean diet.

  4. Cloning and expression of prion protein encoding gene of flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiwen; Sun, Xiuqin; Zhang, Jinxing; Zan, Jindong

    2008-02-01

    The prion protein (PrP) encoding gene of flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) was cloned. It was not interrupted by an intron. This gene has two promoters in its 5' upstream, indicating that its transcription may be intensive, and should have an important function. It was expressed in all 14 tissues tested, demonstrating that it is a house-keeping gene. Its expression in digestion and reproduction systems implies that the possible prions of fish may transfer horizontally.

  5. Ontogenetic changes in digestive enzyme activities and the amino acid profile of starry flounder Platichthys stellatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhidong; Wang, Jiying; Qiao, Hongjin; Li, Peiyu; Zhang, Limin; Xia, Bin

    2016-09-01

    Ontogenetic changes in digestive enzyme activities and the amino acid (AA) profile of starry flounder, Platichthys stellatus, were investigated and limiting amino acids were estimated compared with the essential AA profile between larvae and live food to clarify starry flounder larval nutritional requirements. Larvae were collected at the egg stage and 0, 2, 4, 7, 12, 17, 24 days after hatching (DAH) for analysis. Larvae grew from 1.91 mm at hatching to 12.13 mm at 24 DAH. Trypsin and chymotrypsin activities changed slightly by 4 DAH and then increased significantly 4 DAH. Pepsin activity increased sharply beginning 17 DAH. Lipase activity increased significantly 4 DAH and increased progressively with larval growth. Amylase activity was also detected in newly hatched larvae and increased 7 DAH followed by a gradual decrease. High free amino acid (FAA) content was detected in starry flounder eggs (110.72 mg/g dry weight). Total FAA content dropped to 43.29 mg/g in 4-DAH larvae and then decreased gradually to 13.74 mg/g in 24-DAH larvae. Most FAAs (except lysine and methionine) decreased >50% in 4-DAH larvae compared with those in eggs and then decreased to the lowest values in 24-DAH larvae. Changes in the protein amino acid (PAA) profile were much milder than those observed for FAAs. Most PAAs increased gradually during larval development, except lysine and phenylalanine. The percentages of free threonine, valine, isoleucine, and leucine decreased until the end of the trial, whereas the protein forms of these four AAs followed the opposite trend. A comparison of the essential AA composition of live food (rotifers, Artemia nauplii, and Artemia metanauplii) and larvae suggested that methionine was potentially the first limiting AA. These results may help develop starry flounder larviculture methods by solving the AA imbalance in live food. Moreover, the increased digestive enzyme activities indicate the possibility of introducing artificial compound feed.

  6. Evaluating the Hypoxia Response of Ruffe and Flounder Gills by a Combined Proteome and Transcriptome Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Tiedke

    Full Text Available Hypoxia has gained ecological importance during the last decades, and it is the most dramatically increasing environmental factor in coastal areas and estuaries. The gills of fish are the prime target of hypoxia and other stresses. Here we have studied the impact of the exposure to hypoxia (1.5 mg O2/l for 48 h on the protein expression of the gills of two estuarine fish species, the ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernua and the European flounder (Platichthys flesus. First, we obtained the transcriptomes of mixed tissues (gills, heart and brain from both species by Illumina next-generation sequencing. Then, the gill proteomes were investigated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Quantification of the normalized proteome maps resulted in a total of 148 spots in the ruffe, of which 28 (18.8% were significantly regulated (> 1.5-fold. In the flounder, 121 spots were found, of which 27 (22.3% proteins were significantly regulated. The transcriptomes were used for the identification of these proteins, which was successful for 15 proteins of the ruffe and 14 of the flounder. The ruffe transcriptome dataset comprised 87,169,850 reads, resulting in an assembly of 72,108 contigs (N50 = 1,828 bp. 20,860 contigs (26.93% had blastx hits with E < 1e-5 in the human sequences in the RefSeq database, representing 14,771 unique accession numbers. The flounder transcriptome with 78,943,030 reads assembled into 49,241 contigs (N50 = 2,106 bp. 20,127 contigs (40.87% had a hit with human proteins, corresponding to 14,455 unique accession numbers. The regulation of selected genes was confirmed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Most of the regulated proteins that were identified by this approach function in the energy metabolism, while others are involved in the immune response, cell signalling and the cytoskeleton.

  7. How 'ground-picked' olive fruits affect virgin olive oil ethanol content, ethyl esters and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran, Gabriel; Sánchez, Raquel; Sánchez-Ortiz, Araceli; Aguilera, Maria P; Bejaoui, Mohamed A; Jimenez, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    Olives dropped on the ground naturally sometimes are not separated from those fresh and healthy collected from the tree for harvest and processing. In this work we compared the quality, ethanol content and bioactive components of virgin olive oils from ground-picked olives, tree-picked fruits and their mixture. Ground-picked olives produced 'Lampante' virgin olive oils; these are of a lower quality category, because of important alterations in chemical and sensory characteristics. Ethyl esters showed the highest values, although under the regulated limit. The mixture of ground and tree-picked olives gave oils classified as 'virgin' because of sensory defects, although the quality parameters did not exceed the limits for the 'extra' category. Ethanol content showed a significant increase in the oils from ground- picked olives and their mixture with respect to those from tree-picked fruits. Furthermore, bioactive compounds showed a significant decrease as fruit quality was poorer. Ground-picked olives must be harvested and processed separately since they produce low-quality virgin olive oils with sensory defects and lower concentrations of bioactive compounds. The higher acidity and ethanol concentration observed in oils from ground-picked fruits or their mixture may help ethyl ester synthesis during storage. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Single nucleotide polymorphism of FSHβ gene associated with reproductive traits in Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Feng; Wen, Haishen; Yu, Dahui; Li, Jifang; Shi, Bao; Chen, Caifang; Zhang, Jiaren; Jin, Guoxiong; Chen, Xiaoyan; Shi, Dan; Yang, Yanping

    2010-12-01

    Follicle stimulating hormone β (FSHβ) of Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) plays a key role in the regulation of gonadal development. This study aimed to investigate molecular genetic characteristics of the FSHβ gene and elucidate the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of FSHβ on reproductive traits in Japanese flounder. We used polymerase chain reaction single-strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and sequencing of the FSHβ gene in 60 individuals. We identified only an SNP (T/C) in the coding region of exon3 of FSHβ. The SNP (T/C) did not lead to amino acid changes at the position 340 bp of FSHβ gene. Statistical analysis showed that the SNP was significantly associated with testosterone (T) level and gonadosomatic index (GSI) ( P < 0.05). Individuals with genotype TC of the SNP had significantly higher serum T levels and GSI ( P < 0.05) than that of genotype CC. Therefore, FSHβ gene could be a useful molecular marker in selection for prominent reproductive trait in Japanese Flounder.

  9. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism of FSHβ Gene Associated with Reproductive Traits in Japanese Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Feng; Shi Dan; Yang Yanping; WEN Haishen; YU Dahui; LI Jifang; SHI Bao; CHEN Caifang; ZHANG Jiaren; JIN Guoxiong; CHEN Xiaoyan

    2010-01-01

    Follicle stimulating hormone β(FSHβ)of Japanese flounder(Paralichthys olivaceus)plays a key role in the regulation of gonadal development.This study aimed to investigate molecular genetic characteristics of the FSHβ gene and elucidate the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms(SNPs)of FSHβ on reproductive traits in Japanese flounder.We used polymerase chain reaction single-strand conformation polymorphism(PCR-SSCP)and sequencing of the FSHβ gene in 60 individuals.We identified only an SNP(T/C)in the coding region of exon3 of FSHβ.The SNP(T/C)did not lead to amino acid changes at the position 340 bp of FSHβgene.Statistical analysis showed that the SNP was significantly associated with testosterone(T)level and gonadosomatic index(GSI)(P< 0.05).Individuals with genotype TC of the SNP had significantly higher serum T levels and GSI(P<0.05)than that of genotype CC.Therefore,FSHβ gene could be a useful molecular marker in selection for prominent reproductive trait in Japanese Flounder.

  10. Assessing genetic diversity of wild populations of Japanese flounder using AFLP markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xiaofei; ZHANG Quanqi; WANG Zhigang; QI Jie; ZHANG Zhifeng; BAO Zhenmin; Heisuke Nakagawa

    2006-01-01

    Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis was used to evaluate the genetic diversity of four wild geographical populations of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). A total of 775 loci (58.32% of which was polymorphic) in the range between 100 and 1 300 base pairs were detected from 110 individuals using seven primer combinations. The percentage of polymorphic loci detected by single primer combination for each population was calculated, ranging from 19.59% to 53.33%. Genetic similarities within and among the populations were calculated from the binary matrices of presence - absence. Phylogenetic tree of four populations was constructed by using the UPGMA method using PHYLIP Version 3.5. According to intrapopulation genetic similarities, CW population displayed the highest genetic diversity value and KY population had the lowest genetic diversity value.The distance between CW and CF populations was the farthest, which was possibly resulted from the farthest distance of Weihai of Shandong and Fujian of China compared with the geographical distance between other locations of populations. The subpopulation differentiation value ( Gst ) is 0.356 5, showing a certain extent of differentiation among the four geographical populations. AFLP technology was confirmed to be an effective tool to assess within- and among-population genetic diversity of Japanese flounder. The present survey provided significant insights for research in the Japanese flounder breeding program.

  11. Recombination-activating gene 1 and 2 (RAG1 and RAG2) in flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xianlei Wang; Xungang Tan; Pei-Jun Zhang; Yuqing Zhang; Peng Xu

    2014-12-01

    During the development of B and T lymphocytes, Ig and TCR variable region genes are assembled from germline V, D, and J gene segments by a site-specific recombination reaction known as V(D)J recombination. The process of somatic V(D)J recombination, mediated by the recombination-activating gene (RAG) products, is the most significant characteristic of adaptive immunity in jawed vertebrates. Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) RAG1 and RAG2 were isolated by Genome Walker and RT-PCR, and their expression patterns were analysed by RT-PCR and in situ hybridization on sections. RAG1 spans over 7.0 kb, containing 4 exons and 3 introns, and the full-length ORF is 3207 bp, encoding a peptide of 1068 amino acids. The first exon lies in the 5′-UTR, which is an alternative exon. RAG2 full-length ORF is 1062 bp, encodes a peptide of 533 amino acids, and lacks introns in the coding region. In 6-month-old flounders, the expression of RAG1 and RAG2 was essentially restricted to the pronephros (head kidney) and mesonephros (truck kidney). Additionally, both of them were mainly expressed in the thymus. These results revealed that the thymus and kidney most likely serve as the primary lymphoid tissues in the flounder.

  12. Polymorphysims of Gene in the Exons Were Associated with the Reproductive Endocrine of Japanese Flounder (

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Q. Ma

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The cytochrome P450c17-I (CYP17-I is one of the enzymes critical to gonadal development and the synthesis of androgens. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were detected within the coding region of the CYP17-I gene in a population of 75 male Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus. They were SNP1 (c.C445T located in exon2 and SNP2 (c.T980C (p.Phe307Leu located in exon5. Four physiological indices, which were serum testosterone (T, serum 17β-estradiol (E2, Hepatosomatic index (HSI, and Gonadosomatic index (GSI, were studied to examine the effect of the two SNPs on the reproductive endocrines of Japanese flounder. Multiple comparisons revealed that CT genotype of SNP1 had a much lower T level than CC genotype (p<0.05 and the GSI of individuals with CC genotype of SNP2 was higher than those with TT genotype (p<0.05. Four diplotypes were constructed based on the two SNPs and the diplotype D3 had a significantly lower T level and GSI. In conclusion, the two SNPs were significantly associated with reproductive traits of Japanese flounder.

  13. Cryopyrin-Associated Autoinflammatory Syndromes (CAPS) - Juvenile

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cryopyrin-Associated Autoinflammatory Syndrome (CAPS) (Juvenile) Dermatomyositis (Juvenile) Familial Mediterranean Fever (Juvenile) Fibromyalgia Giant Cell Arteritis Glucocorticoid-induced Osteoperosis ...

  14. Juvenil idiopatisk arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlin, Troels

    2002-01-01

    The new classification of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is described in this review. Clinical characteristics divide JIA in to subtypes: systemic, oligoarticular (persistent and extended type), RF-positive and--negative polyarticular, enthesitis-related arthritis and psoriatic arthritis...

  15. Juvenile Rockfish Recruitment Cruise

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 1983, the groundfish analysis project began a series of yearly cruises designed to assess the annual abundance of juvenile rockfish along the central California...

  16. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physical Therapy Regular Exercise en español Artritis idiopática juvenil It may begin with a swollen knuckle, a ... may suddenly appear and disappear, developing in one area and then another. High fevers that tend to ...

  17. Juvenile Sex Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Eileen P; Otonichar, Joseph M

    2016-07-01

    Sexual offending by juveniles accounts for a sizable percentage of sexual offenses, especially against young children. In this article, recent research on female juvenile sex offenders (JSOs), risk factors for offending in juveniles, treatment, and the ways in which these youth may differ from general delinquents will be reviewed. Most JSOs do not go on to develop paraphilic disorders or to commit sex offenses during adulthood, and as a group, they are more similar to nonsexual offending juvenile delinquents than to adult sex offenders. Recent research has elucidated some differences between youth who commit sex offenses and general delinquents in the areas of atypical sexual interests, the use of pornography, and early sexual victimization during childhood.

  18. Juvenile Spondyloarthritis Treatment Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Tse, Shirley; Burgos-Vargas, Ruben; Colbert, Robert A

    2012-01-01

    No specific recommendations for the treatment of juvenile spondyloarthritis have been established. Important differences exist in how spondyloarthritis begins and progresses in children and adults, supporting the need for pediatric-specific recommendations. Recently published recommendations for the treatment of juvenile arthritis consider children with sacroiliitis in a separate group, and allow for more accelerated institution of a TNF inhibitor depending on disease activity and prognostic ...

  19. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    OpenAIRE

    Hoeve, Machteld

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted. The first study addressed a meta-analysis on parenting characteristics and styles in relation to delinquency. In this meta-analysis, previous manuscripts were systematically analyzed, computing mean ...

  20. Columbia - Russian Olive and Phragmites Control

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The proposed project is to eradicate phragmites (Phragmites australis) and Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia) from patches in 100 acres within Marsh Unit 3 at...

  1. Cryopreservation of olive embryogenic cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Romero, C; Swennen, R; Panis, B

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was to optimize a protocol for the cryopreservation of embryogenic cultures of olive (Olea europaea L.). Exposure time to loading solution and PVS2 significantly influenced the regrowth rate of both organized and non-organized tissues. Organized tissues were more sensitive to prolonged treatments with vitrification solutions compared to non-organized tissues. Three cryopreservation protocols were compared using non-organized tissues: the "classical" vitrification protocol, an ultra-fast freezing method using droplet vitrification on aluminium foil strips and a "classical" slow freezing method (1 degree C per min). The best results were obtained using the droplet vitrification method after a 60 min dehydration period with PVS2. Under these conditions, all cryopreserved cultures showed renewed embryogenesis six weeks after thawing. A long-term (7-8 weeks) sucrose preculture had a significant effect on the initial response of the cultures, allowing particularly to protect cells against the toxic effects of the vitrification solution.

  2. Digestion and absorption of olive oil

    OpenAIRE

    Bermúdez, Beatriz; Pacheco, Yolanda M.; López, Sergio; Abia, Rocío; Muriana, Francisco J.G.

    2004-01-01

    Olive oil is a monounsaturated (oleic acid)-rich fat, mainly constituted by triglycerides (>98%) and minor compounds. As other macronutrients, dietary triglyceride digestion and absorption are a complex processes involving enzyme activities and physicochemical changes. In humans, hydrolysis of olive oil triglycerides begins in the stomach where it is catalyzed by an acid-stable gastric lipase. Triglyceride hydrolysis continues in the duodenum, by the synergetic actions of gastric and...

  3. Digestion and absorption of olive oil

    OpenAIRE

    Muriana, Francisco J.G.; Abia, Rocío; López, Sergio; Pacheco, Yolanda M.; Bermúdez, Beatriz

    2004-01-01

    Olive oil is a monounsaturated (oleic acid)-rich fat, mainly constituted by triglycerides (>98 %) and minor compounds. As other macronutrients, dietary triglyceride digestion and absorption are a complex processes involving enzyme activities and physicochemical changes. In humans, hydrolysis of olive oil triglycerides begins in the stomach where it is catalyzed by an acid-stable gastric lipase. Triglyceride hydrolysis continues in the duodenum, by the synergetic actions of gastric and colipas...

  4. Olive oil biophenols and women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fistonić, Ivan; Situm, Mirna; Bulat, Vedrana; Harapin, Mario; Fistonić, Nikola; Verbanac, Donatella

    2012-02-01

    Olea europea, the olive tree, is an ancient tree that originates from the Mediterranean environment of Asia Minor. The edible olive fruit is also used for its oil, gained by the process of pressing, a nutrient with proven beneficial effects. Virgin olive oil is the natural juice of the olive fruit, which plays a major role in the healthy Mediterranean diet. The source of its health effects are the biophenols and squalenes (oleocanthal, tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein) it contains. They provide an exceptional antioxidative activity, removing harmful compounds from the body. Oxidants are essential in the genesis of many diseases and conditions, such as cardiovascular disorders, cancer, osteoporosis, Alzheimer disease, and premenstrual syndrome. Oleic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid, has demonstrated a significant effect in the prevention of malignant diseases such as colon cancer and breast cancer. Biophenols from olive oil successfully suppress the synthesis of LDL, a protein that is crucial in the development of cardiovascular disease, by reducing blood pressure and the development of atherosclerotic plaques. In addition, there is strong evidence of the antimicrobic effect of the biphenols from olive oil that successfully destroy colonies of microorganisms which may cause respiratory tract, intestinal, and genital tract infections.

  5. Main antimicrobial compounds in table olives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Eduardo; Brenes, Manuel; Romero, Concepción; García, Aranzazu; de Castro, Antonio

    2007-11-28

    The inhibitors involved in the lactic acid fermentation of table olives were investigated in aseptic olive brines of the Manzanilla and Gordal varieties. Phenolic and oleosidic compounds in these brines were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry detection, and several substances were also characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance. Among these compounds, the dialdehydic form of decarboxymethyl elenolic acid linked to hydroxytyrosol showed the strongest antilactic acid bacteria activity, and its presence in brines could explain the growth inhibition of these microorganisms during olive fermentation. However, it was found that the dialdehydic form of decarboxymethyl elenolic acid, identified for the first time in table olives, and an isomer of oleoside 11-methyl ester were also effective against Lactobacillus pentosus and can, therefore, contribute to the antimicrobial activity of olive brines. It must also be stressed that the three new inhibitors discovered in table olive brines exerted a more potent antibacterial activity than the well-studied oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol.

  6. The microbiology of olive mill wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntougias, Spyridon; Bourtzis, Kostas; Tsiamis, George

    2013-01-01

    Olive mill wastes (OMWs) are high-strength organic effluents, which upon disposal can degrade soil and water quality, negatively affecting aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The main purpose of this review paper is to provide an up-to-date knowledge concerning the microbial communities identified over the past 20 years in olive mill wastes using both culture-dependent and independent approaches. A database survey of 16S rRNA gene sequences (585 records in total) obtained from olive mill waste environments revealed the dominance of members of Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. Independent studies confirmed that OMW microbial communities' structure is cultivar dependent. On the other hand, the detection of fecal bacteria and other potential human pathogens in OMWs is of major concern and deserves further examination. Despite the fact that the degradation and detoxification of the olive mill wastes have been mostly investigated through the application of known bacterial and fungal species originated from other environmental sources, the biotechnological potential of indigenous microbiota should be further exploited in respect to olive mill waste bioremediation and inactivation of plant and human pathogens. The implementation of omic and metagenomic approaches will further elucidate disposal issues of olive mill wastes.

  7. Vocational Teachers' Role in Serving Juvenile Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meers, Gary D.

    1983-01-01

    Educators need to understand the juvenile justice system to understand what juvenile offenders go through while completing their sentences. This article reviews cases and juvenile charge classifications, and presents a model for alternative sentencing options for juveniles. (JOW)

  8. Trunk asymmetry in juveniles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triantafyllopoulos Georgios

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trunk asymmetry (TA is a common phenomenon in children, but its incidence in juveniles is not known. The present cross sectional study reports TA in normal juveniles and provides data which describe the evolution of TA from early childhood to adolescence. Materials and methods The scoliometer readings in both standing and sitting forward bending position (FBP of 3301 children, (1645 boys, and 1656 girls aged from 3 to 9 years old were studied. TA was quantified by measuring angle of trunk rotation (ATR and children were categorized as symmetric (ATR = 0°, mild asymmetric (ATR 1° – 6° and severely asymmetric (ATR ≥ 7°. The difference of TA between standing and sitting FBP as well as differences between boys and girls in frequency of TA were also calculated. The scoliometer readings were analyzed by age to reveal at which age the juvenile pattern of TA changes into the adolescent one. Results 74.2% of boys and 77% of girls were symmetric (ATR = 0° in the thoracic region in standing FBP, while 82.7% of boys and 84.1% of girls were symmetric in the thoracic region in sitting FBP. Juvenile girls are more symmetric than boys but severe TA was found almost the same between the two genders. A significant reduction in the frequency of mild TA from standing into sitting FBP, in all the examined regions in both boys and girls was found, but in severe TA this reduction is very small. Analysing scoliometer readings by age it appears that significant TA changes take place between 8–9 years of age for boys and between 6–7 and 8–9 years for girls. TA in boys is changing into the adolescent pattern at a later age than in girls. Conclusion Juveniles were found more symmetric than adolescents, who were studied previously in a different study. Furthermore, juvenile girls were found more symmetric than boys. Juvenile TA pattern seems to be in accordance with the higher incidence of juvenile idiopathic scoliosis in boys. Furthermore

  9. Colonization and nursery habitat use patterns of larval and juvenile flatfish species in a small temperate estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primo, Ana Lígia; Azeiteiro, Ulisses M.; Marques, Sónia C.; Martinho, Filipe; Baptista, Joana; Pardal, Miguel A.

    2013-02-01

    Migrations between coastal and estuarine nursery areas are essential for successful completion of the life cycle of several marine fish. The present study evaluates the use of a small temperate estuary, the Mondego, Portugal, as a nursery habitat for several flatfishes during their early life stages. Data from seasonal and diel larval sampling at the mouth of the estuary and both larvae and juvenile monthly spatial distribution in the estuary (2005-2009) were gathered in order to investigate the life cycle of Platichthys flesus, Solea solea and Solea senegalensis. Larvae entrance in the estuary occurred mainly during summer and autumn with no evidence for diel or tidal vertical stratification. S. senegalensis larvae were present in all seasons at downstream areas presenting low successful settlement and juveniles' densities inside the estuary. Conversely, P. flesus and S. solea were mainly present as juveniles with upstream areas being preferred by flounder. Both species larvae seemed to settle in nearby coastal areas. The importance of the Mondego estuary for flatfishes differed according to the species, playing an important role mainly during the first year for all species. The present study highlights the importance of integrating larval and juvenile stages of fish to assess the very important role of estuaries as nursery areas.

  10. Cytological-cytogenetic analyses of winter flounder embryos collected from the Benthos at the barge North Cape oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, J.B. [Milford Laboratory, CT (United States). Northeast Fisheries Science Center

    1999-01-01

    The oil barge North Cape ran aground on Moonstone Beach in Rhode Island on January 19, 1996, spilling 828 000 gallons (US) of a combination of diesel and home heating oils. Samples of winter flounder embryos were collected from salt ponds in the area of the spill using an epibenthic sled. An examination of the field-sampled embryos based on gross morphology, levels of moribund embryos, mitotic index, and chromosomal anomalies found that a significant number exhibited high levels of one or more of these conditions when compared with flounder embryos raised under laboratory-controlled conditions. No chorion damage was noted in embryos collected from the field nor were there any significant findings of lordosis or scoliosis. The cumulative impact on winter flounder embryos of North Cape oil exposure was an estimated 51% reduction in the number of embryos surviving to the larval stage. (author)

  11. Ultrastructural Observation of the Skin Chloride Cells of Japanese Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus and Turbot Scophthamus maximus Larvae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The ultrastructures of skin chloride cells in cultured Japanese flounder and turbot larvae in metamorphosis, which grow in the same feeding conditions, are examined with a transmission electron microscope. These developed skin chloride cells were shaped like flattened ellipsoids and similar in morphology and ultrastructure to typical chloride cells of euryhaline fish gill. They locate in the epidermis and contract with the extra and interior environment through the apical pit and narrow channels. The cytoplasm of cell is full of numerous mitochondria and a ramifying network of tubules. The degeneration of skin chloride cells is observed with development of Japanese flounder larvae. Skin chloride cells of turbot are less developmental than those of Japanese flounder in the same developmental stage.

  12. Juvenile Incarceration and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnert, Elizabeth S; Perry, Raymond; Morris, Robert E

    2016-03-01

    Addressing the health status and needs of incarcerated youth represents an issue at the nexus of juvenile justice reform and health care reform. Incarcerated youth face disproportionately higher morbidity and higher mortality compared to the general adolescent population. Dental health, reproductive health, and mental health needs are particularly high, likely as a result of lower access to care, engagement in high-risk behaviors, and underlying health disparities. Violence exposure and injury also contribute to the health disparities seen in this population. Further, juvenile incarceration itself is an important determinant of health. Juvenile incarceration likely correlates with worse health and social functioning across the life course. Correctional health care facilities allow time for providers to address the unmet physical and mental health needs seen in this population. Yet substantial challenges to care delivery in detention facilities exist and quality of care in detention facilities varies widely. Community-based pediatricians can serve a vital role in ensuring continuity of care in the postdetention period and linking youth to services that can potentially prevent juvenile offending. Pediatricians who succeed in understanding and addressing the underlying social contexts of their patients' lives can have tremendous impact in improving the life trajectories of these vulnerable youth. Opportunities exist in clinical care, research, medical education, policy, and advocacy for pediatricians to lead change and improve the health status of youth involved in the juvenile justice system.

  13. Extending juvenility in grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaeppler, Shawn; de Leon Gatti, Natalia; Foerster, Jillian

    2017-04-11

    The present invention relates to compositions and methods for modulating the juvenile to adult developmental growth transition in plants, such as grasses (e.g. maize). In particular, the invention provides methods for enhancing agronomic properties in plants by modulating expression of GRMZM2G362718, GRMZM2G096016, or homologs thereof. Modulation of expression of one or more additional genes which affect juvenile to adult developmental growth transition such as Glossy15 or Cg1, in conjunction with such modulation of expression is also contemplated. Nucleic acid constructs for down-regulation of GRMZM2G362718 and/or GRMZM2G096016 are also contemplated, as are transgenic plants and products produced there from, that demonstrate altered, such as extended juvenile growth, and display associated phenotypes such as enhanced yield, improved digestibility, and increased disease resistance. Plants described herein may be used, for example, as improved forage or feed crops or in biofuel production.

  14. Mediterranean Diet Plus Olive Oil a Boost to Heart Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_163557.html Mediterranean Diet Plus Olive Oil a Boost to Heart Health? It enhances protective ... HealthDay News) -- A Mediterranean diet high in virgin olive oil may boost the protective effects of "good" cholesterol, ...

  15. Tissue specific haemoglobin gene expression suggests adaptation to local marine conditions in North Sea flounder (Platichthys flesus L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, P.F.; Eg Nielsen, Einar; Hansen, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    of the haemoglobin alpha and beta subunit genes was studied in reciprocally transplanted European flounder Platichthys flesus from the highly saline North Sea and the brackish Baltic Sea. Clear differences in expression patterns of haemoglobin alpha and beta subunit genes were found among different types of tissue....... Finally, for kidney tissue a stress response was observed in one population, with gene up-regulation when North Sea flounders were transplanted to low salinity. This study underlines the importance of tissue specific gene expression and the significance of gene expression for evolution of local adaptation...... in high gene flow marine fishes. © 2013 The Genetics Society of Korea...

  16. A low molecular weight peptide from snow mold with epitopic homology to the winter flounder antifreeze protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsted, W J; Polvi, S; Papish, B; Kendall, E; Saleem, M; Koch, M; Hussain, A; Cutler, A J; Georges, F

    1994-01-01

    Evidence for a small size protein (ca. 3500 kDa) exhibiting epitopic homology to the Atlantic winter flounder antifreeze protein (AFP) is found in the snow molds Coprinus psychromorbidus, Myriosclerotinia borealis, and Typhula incarnata. The protein shows strong cross-reactivity with antisera specific for the flounder AFP. Preliminary studies suggest that the protein is synthesized in response to lowering the culture temperature, and that it is membrane associated and, therefore, may function in an analogous capacity to the fish AFP. Also, the protein is shown to have antifreeze properties as determined by nuclear magnetic resonance microimaging experiments.

  17. DERMATOMIOSITIS JUVENIL Y EMBARAZO

    OpenAIRE

    Evans M,Gregorio; Poulsen R,Ronald; Blanco R,Romiely; Luna V,Viviana

    2002-01-01

    La dermatomiositis juvenil es un desorden inflamatorio crónico multisistémico del tejido conectivo. Tiene una incidencia de 2-3/100.000/año. Con la disminución en la mortalidad experimentada en los últimos decenios, la atención está cifrada en la morbilidad a largo plazo y en las alteraciones funcionales. Con un tratamiento agresivo los niños con dermatomiositis juvenil generalmente tienen un futuro promisorio, sin incapacidad o con incapacidad mínima. La mortalidad actualmente se estima cerc...

  18. Juvenile idiopatiske inflammatoriske myopatier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helga Sanner

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (JIIM is a group of rare autoimmune systemic diseases in children and adolescents, characterized by chronic skeletal muscle inflammation. Unlike in adults, dermatomyositis (JDM is by far the most common of the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies in children and adolescents. The hallmark of JDM is calcinosis, lipodystrophy and vasculitis, findings that differs the juvenile form of dermatomyosits from the adult form. JDM is still diagnosed and classified by Bohan and Peter’s criteria from 1975. There are limited data on long time outcome of this disease

  19. Olive oil biophenols and women’s health

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Fistonić; Mario Harapin; Nikola Fistonić; Vedrana Bulat; Mirna Šitum; Donatella Verbanac

    2012-01-01

    Olea europea, the olive tree, is an ancient tree that originates fromthe Mediterranean environment of Asia Minor. The edible olive fruit is also used for its oil, gained by the process of pressing, a nutrient with proven beneficial effects. Virgin olive oil is the natural juice of the olive fruit, which plays a major role in the healthy Mediterranean diet. The source of its health effects are the biophenols and squalenes (oleocanthal, tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein) it contains. They pro...

  20. Evaluation of Tunisian olive oils from different cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Slim, Souihli; Rodrigues, Nuno; Dias, Luís G.; Veloso, Ana C. A.; Pereira, José A.; Oueslati, Souheib; António M. Peres

    2016-01-01

    [Excerpt] Olive oil is a highly appreciated food product due to sensory and healthy attributes, being quite prone to frauds. So, physicochemical evaluation of olive oils is legally required. In this study, 43 olive oil samples produced in Tunisia from different olive cultivars (groups: Sahli cv – 11 samples; Chetoui cv- 26 samples; and, Other cvs – 4 samples including Leguim cv and Arbequina cv) were physicochemically evaluated taking into account: (i) free acidity (FA), K232 and K270 extinct...

  1. Ozonated Olive Oils and Troubles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulent Uysal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the commonly used methods for ozone therapy is ozonated oils. Most prominent type of used oils is extra virgin olive oil. But still, each type of unsaturated oils may be used for ozonation. There are a lot of wrong knowledge on the internet about ozonated oils and its use as well. Just like other ozone therapy studies, also the studies about ozone oils are inadequate to avoid incorrect knowledge. Current data about ozone oil and its benefits are produced by supplier who oversees financial interests and make misinformation. Despite the rapidly increasing ozone oil sales through the internet, its quality and efficacy is still controversial. Dozens of companies and web sites may be easily found to buy ozonated oil. But, very few of these products are reliable, and contain sufficiently ozonated oil. This article aimed to introduce the troubles about ozonated oils and so to inform ozonated oil users. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(2.000: 49-50

  2. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (South Florida): Southern, gulf, and summer flounders. [Paralichthys lethostigma; Paralichthys albigutta; Paralichthys dentatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, C.R.

    1986-07-01

    The southern, gulf, and summer flounders live most of their lives in or near estuaries. Adults migrate into offshore waters during fall and winter, where spawning occurs from September to April. Eggs and newly-hatched larvae are carried inshore into estuaries, where further growth takes place. Age at sexual maturity for the three species has been estimated from 2 to 4 years, and maximum longevity from 3 to 10 years. Females apparently live slightly longer than males. Southern and summer flounders are estimated to live slightly longer than the smaller gulf flounder. Postlarvae eat mostly zooplankton, and larger individuals feed on fish and crustaceans. The summer and gulf flounders prefer a hard and/or sandy substrate, whereas the southern flounder is more common in a soft bottom of rich organic mud, clay, or silt. The southern flounder, unlike the other two species, is highly euryhaline, and frequently occurs in fresh water. Commercial catch statistics lump the three species together under the name ''flounder.'' Peak commercial catch in the Gulf of Mexico (in 1977) was 1.5 million lb, for a value of $561,000; peak catch in the south Atlantic region (also in 1977) was 11.4 million lb, for a value of $5,100,000.

  3. Olive Oil and the Hallmarks of Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández del Río, Lucía; Gutiérrez-Casado, Elena; Varela-López, Alfonso; Villalba, José M

    2016-01-29

    Aging is a multifactorial and tissue-specific process involving diverse alterations regarded as the "hallmarks of aging", which include genomic instability, telomere attrition, epigenetic alterations, loss of proteostasis, deregulated nutrient sensing, mitochondrial dysfunction, cellular senescence, stem cell exhaustion and altered intracellular communication. Virtually all these hallmarks are targeted by dietary olive oil, particularly by virgin olive oil, since many of its beneficial effects can be accounted not only for the monounsaturated nature of its predominant fatty acid (oleic acid), but also for the bioactivity of its minor compounds, which can act on cells though both direct and indirect mechanisms due to their ability to modulate gene expression. Among the minor constituents of virgin olive oil, secoiridoids stand out for their capacity to modulate many pathways that are relevant for the aging process. Attenuation of aging-related alterations by olive oil or its minor compounds has been observed in cellular, animal and human models. How olive oil targets the hallmarks of aging could explain the improvement of health, reduced risk of aging-associated diseases, and increased longevity which have been associated with consumption of a typical Mediterranean diet containing this edible oil as the predominant fat source.

  4. Olive Oil and the Hallmarks of Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Fernández del Río

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging is a multifactorial and tissue-specific process involving diverse alterations regarded as the “hallmarks of aging”, which include genomic instability, telomere attrition, epigenetic alterations, loss of proteostasis, deregulated nutrient sensing, mitochondrial dysfunction, cellular senescence, stem cell exhaustion and altered intracellular communication. Virtually all these hallmarks are targeted by dietary olive oil, particularly by virgin olive oil, since many of its beneficial effects can be accounted not only for the monounsaturated nature of its predominant fatty acid (oleic acid, but also for the bioactivity of its minor compounds, which can act on cells though both direct and indirect mechanisms due to their ability to modulate gene expression. Among the minor constituents of virgin olive oil, secoiridoids stand out for their capacity to modulate many pathways that are relevant for the aging process. Attenuation of aging-related alterations by olive oil or its minor compounds has been observed in cellular, animal and human models. How olive oil targets the hallmarks of aging could explain the improvement of health, reduced risk of aging-associated diseases, and increased longevity which have been associated with consumption of a typical Mediterranean diet containing this edible oil as the predominant fat source.

  5. Microbiological activity in stored olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciafardini, G; Zullo, B A

    2002-05-05

    The disappearance of the bitter taste of newly produced olive oil during storage is due to the enzymatic hydrolysis of the bitter-tasting secoiridoid compound known as oleuropein. Current knowledge attributes the enzymatic hydrolysis of the oleuropein to the beta-glucosidase present in the olives. The present study, however, has demonstrated for the first time that oleuropein present in olive oil can be hydrolysed by beta-glucosidase from the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida wickerhamii. The enzymatic analyses carried out directly on the untreated olive oil and on sterilized olive oil inoculated with the above-mentioned yeasts proved the beta-glucosidase activity through the hydrolysis of both the synthetic substrate p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (PNPG) and the oleuropein. The absence of lipases in the isolated S. cerevisiae and C. wickerhamii examined lead us to believe that the yeasts contribute in a positive way towards the improvement of the organological quality of the oil without altering the composition of the triglycerides.

  6. [Olive oil, immune system and infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puertollano, M A; Puertollano, E; Alvarez de Cienfuegos, G; de Pablo Martínez, Manuel Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids contribute to the suppression of immune system functions. For this reason, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been applied in the resolution of inflammatory disorders. Although the inhibition of several immune functions promotes beneficial effects on the human health, this state may lead to a significant reduction of immune protection against infectious microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites). Nevertheless, less attention has been paid to the action of olive oil in immunonutrition. Olive oil, a main constituent of the Mediterranean diet, is capable of modulating several immune functions, but it does not reduce host immune resistance to infectious microorganisms. Based on these criteria, we corroborate that olive oil administration may exert beneficial effects on the human health and especially on immune system, because it contributes to the reduction of typical inflammatory activity observed in patients suffering from autoimmune disorders, but without exacerbating the susceptibility to pathogen agents. The administration of olive oil in lipid emulsions may exert beneficial effects on the health and particularly on the immune system of immunocompromised patients. Therefore, this fact acquires a crucial importance in clinical nutrition. This review contributes to clarify the interaction between the administration of diets containing olive oil and immune system, as well as to determine the effect promoted by this essential component of Mediterranean diet in the immunomodulation against an infectious agent.

  7. Effects of olive oil and olive oil-pomegranate juice sauces on chemical, oxidative and sensorial quality of marinated anchovy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topuz, Osman Kadir; Yerlikaya, Pinar; Ucak, Ilknur; Gumus, Bahar; Büyükbenli, Hanife Aydan

    2014-07-01

    This study describes the potential use of olive oil and olive oil-pomegranate juice sauces as antioxidant, preservative and flavoring agent in fish marinades. The olive oil and sauces, produced from emulsifying of olive oil and pomegranate juice with gums, were blended with marinated anchovy (Engraulis encrasicholus) fillets. The aim of the present study was to produce a new polyphenol-rich marinade sauces by emulsifying pomegranate juice with olive oil in different proportions (25%, 35% and 50%v:v). In order to evaluate the effects of olive oil and olive oil-pomegranate juice sauces on quality of anchovy marinades, the chemical (TVB-N and TMA), oxidative (peroxides value, K230, thiobarbituric acid and K270) and sensory analyses were carried out during storage at 4°C. The present study showed that saucing of anchovy marinades with olive oil-pomegranate sauce can retard the undesirable quality changes, prolong the lipid oxidation and improve the sensory properties.

  8. Bioactive properties of the main triterpenes found in olives, virgin olive oil, and leaves of Olea europaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Quesada, Cristina; López-Biedma, Alicia; Warleta, Fernando; Campos, María; Beltrán, Gabriel; Gaforio, José J

    2013-12-18

    Oleanolic acid, maslinic acid, uvaol, and erythrodiol are the main triterpenes present in olives, olive tree leaves, and virgin olive oil. Their concentration in virgin olive oil depends on the quality of the olive oil and the variety of the olive tree. These triterpenes are described to present different properties, such as antitumoral activity, cardioprotective activity, anti-inflammatory activity, and antioxidant protection. Olive oil triterpenes are a natural source of antioxidants that could be useful compounds for the prevention of multiple diseases related to cell oxidative damage. However, special attention has to be paid to the concentrations used, because higher concentration may lead to cytotoxic or biphasic effects. This work explores all of the bioactive properties so far described for the main triterpenes present in virgin olive oil.

  9. Current knowledge and attitudes: Russian olive biology, ecology and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharlene E. Sing; Kevin J. Delaney

    2016-01-01

    The primary goals of a two-day Russian olive symposium held in February 2014 were to disseminate current knowledge and identify data gaps regarding Russian olive biology and ecology, distributions, integrated management, and to ascertain the feasibility and acceptance of a proposed program for classical biological control of Russian olive. The symposium was...

  10. Differences in Energy Expenditures and Growth Dilution Explain Higher PCB Concentrations in Male Summer Flounder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles P Madenjian

    Full Text Available Comparison of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB concentrations between the sexes of mature fish may reveal important behavioral and physiological differences between the sexes. We determined whole-fish PCB concentrations in 23 female summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus and 27 male summer flounder from New Jersey coastal waters. To investigate the potential for differences in diet or habitat utilization between the sexes, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were also determined. In 5 of the 23 female summer flounder, PCB concentrations in the somatic tissue and ovaries were determined. In addition, we used bioenergetics modeling to assess the contribution of the growth dilution effect to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Whole-fish PCB concentrations for females and males averaged 87 and 124 ng/g, respectively; thus males were 43% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios did not significantly differ between the sexes, suggesting that diet composition and habitat utilization did not vary between the sexes. Based on PCB determinations in the somatic tissue and ovaries, we predicted that PCB concentration of females would increase by 0.6%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Thus, the change in PCB concentration due to release of eggs did not explain the higher PCB concentrations observed in males. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could account for males being 19% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Thus, the bulk of the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes was not explained by growth dilution. We concluded that a higher rate of energy expenditure in males, stemming from greater activity and a greater resting metabolic rate, was most likely the primary driver for the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes.

  11. Differences in Energy Expenditures and Growth Dilution Explain Higher PCB Concentrations in Male Summer Flounder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P; Jensen, Olaf P; Rediske, Richard R; O'Keefe, James P; Vastano, Anthony R; Pothoven, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    Comparison of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations between the sexes of mature fish may reveal important behavioral and physiological differences between the sexes. We determined whole-fish PCB concentrations in 23 female summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus and 27 male summer flounder from New Jersey coastal waters. To investigate the potential for differences in diet or habitat utilization between the sexes, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were also determined. In 5 of the 23 female summer flounder, PCB concentrations in the somatic tissue and ovaries were determined. In addition, we used bioenergetics modeling to assess the contribution of the growth dilution effect to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Whole-fish PCB concentrations for females and males averaged 87 and 124 ng/g, respectively; thus males were 43% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios did not significantly differ between the sexes, suggesting that diet composition and habitat utilization did not vary between the sexes. Based on PCB determinations in the somatic tissue and ovaries, we predicted that PCB concentration of females would increase by 0.6%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Thus, the change in PCB concentration due to release of eggs did not explain the higher PCB concentrations observed in males. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could account for males being 19% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Thus, the bulk of the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes was not explained by growth dilution. We concluded that a higher rate of energy expenditure in males, stemming from greater activity and a greater resting metabolic rate, was most likely the primary driver for the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes.

  12. Differences in energy expenditures and growth dilution explain higher PCB concentrations in male summer flounder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Jensen, Olaf P.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.; Vastano, Anthony R.; Pothoven, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    Comparison of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations between the sexes of mature fish may reveal important behavioral and physiological differences between the sexes. We determined whole-fish PCB concentrations in 23 female summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus and 27 male summer flounder from New Jersey coastal waters. To investigate the potential for differences in diet or habitat utilization between the sexes, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were also determined. In 5 of the 23 female summer flounder, PCB concentrations in the somatic tissue and ovaries were determined. In addition, we used bioenergetics modeling to assess the contribution of the growth dilution effect to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Whole-fish PCB concentrations for females and males averaged 87 and 124 ng/g, respectively; thus males were 43% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios did not significantly differ between the sexes, suggesting that diet composition and habitat utilization did not vary between the sexes. Based on PCB determinations in the somatic tissue and ovaries, we predicted that PCB concentration of females would increase by 0.6%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Thus, the change in PCB concentration due to release of eggs did not explain the higher PCB concentrations observed in males. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could account for males being 19% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Thus, the bulk of the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes was not explained by growth dilution. We concluded that a higher rate of energy expenditure in males, stemming from greater activity and a greater resting metabolic rate, was most likely the primary driver for the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes.

  13. Obituary: John P. Oliver (1939-2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Howard

    2011-12-01

    John P. Oliver, an emeritus professor of astronomy at the University of Florida in Gainesville, passed away Thursday, February 10, 2011, after a courageous and long battle with renal cancer. He left behind memories of a life and career to envy. During his forty years of service to his profession and department, this unique astronomer distinguished himself as a research scientist and instrumentalist, creative software designer, gifted teacher and speaker, a vocal advocate of public outreach, and friend to all who knew him. Oliver was born in New Rochelle, New York, during late fall 1939 on November 24. His father, James P. Oliver, was a naval officer and his mother was the former Dorothy Armstrong Cambell. Oliver's early days were spent in various cities due to his father's military life but he eventually received a high school diploma from Princess Ann High School in Virginia. Oliver subsequently graduated with a bachelor of science degree in physics in 1963 from the prestigious Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy. Lick Observatory awarded him a graduate assistantship so he moved west to California where he met and, on November 2, 1963, married Barbara Kay McKenna, who became his lifelong love and partner. In California Oliver had the good fortune to work with several eminent astronomers. This included Albert E. Whifford, director of Lick Observatory and known for his work on interstellar reddening, and Merle F. Walker, an expert in photometry, who also helped establish Pluto's rotation period. His close relation with Lawrence H. Aller, one of the 20th century's memorable astronomers, known for his ability to combine observation, theory and education, and for his care and kindness, helped bind Oliver and astronomy together for life. Oliver would also join the technical staff of the Aerospace Corporation, become an acting director of the Pine Mountain Observatory (University of Oregon), and a research assistant at the University of California in Los Angeles

  14. Cloning and expression of prion protein encoding gene of flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhiwen; SUN Xiuqin; ZHANG Jinxing; ZAN Jindong

    2008-01-01

    The prion protein (PrP) encoding gene of flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) was cloned.It was not interrupted by an intron.This gene has two promoters in its 5' upstream,indicating that its transcription may be intensive,and should have an important function.It was expressed in all 14 tissues tested,demonstrating that it is a house-keeping gene.Its expression in digestion and reproduction systems implies that the possible prions of fish may transfer horizontally.

  15. Estrogenic effects in flounder Platichthys flesus orally exposed to 4-tert-octylphenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Louise L; Korsgaard, Bodil; Bjerregaard, Poul

    2003-09-10

    The estrogenic effect of dietary 4-tert-octylphenol in the flounder Platichthys flesus was investigated in the laboratory. In the first experiment male flounders were fed doses of 10, 50 and 100 mg 4-tert-octylphenol kg(-1) BW or 0.05 mg 17beta-estradiol kg(-1) BW every second day for 10 days. Increases in the plasma content of vitellogenin were observed on day 6 by the first sampling in all treated groups. An effect of octylphenol on the size of the liver and testis was only seen in one of the exposed group (50 mg 4-tert-octylphenol kg(-1) BW). An increase in the concentration of 4-tert-octylphenol was found in both liver and muscle tissues of all 4-tert-octylphenol treated fish. The concentration of 4-tert-octylphenol (ng g(-1) WW) in liver tissue was four to five times greater than the concentration in muscle tissue. Only about 8% of the 4-tert-octylphenol administered to the group receiving 50 mg 4-tert-octylphenol kg(-1) BW was retained in the liver and the muscles at the end of the experiment. In the second experiment male flounders were exposed to a low dose range of 4-tert-octylphenol (1 to 25 mg 4-tert-octylphenol kg(-1) BW) in order to establish the dose-response relationship of 4-tert-octylphenol when applied by feeding to flounder. Vitellogenin induction (LOED) occurred at 10 and 5 mg 4-tert-octylphenol kg(-1) BW after, respectively, 6 and 11 days of exposure. Based on a logistic regression analysis the effect dose (ED(50)) could be determined as 8.2 and 5.6 mg 4-tert-octylphenol kg(-1) BW on day 6 and 11, respectively. 4-tert-octylphenol accumulated in liver, muscle and testis tissue, and a significant accumulation in liver was found at 2.5 mg 4-tert-octylphenol kg(-1) BW and in muscle and testis at 5 mg 4-tert-octylphenol kg(-1) BW. Finally, a positive correlation between the plasma vitellogenin concentration and the liver tissue concentration of 4-tert-octylphenol was established as well as a positive correlation between the content of 4-tert

  16. In vitro Acute Cytotoxicity of Abamectin to the Gill Cell Line of Flounder Paralichthy olivaceus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The cytotoxicity of abamectin to the Gill Cell Line of Flounder (FG cell line) was examined in this study. It was found that the exposure of FG cells to abamectin caused the decreases of both cell growth rate and antioxidant enzyme activities, and the increase of intracellular O2- content. It was proposed that the reduction of antioxidant enzyme activities in FG cells caused the accumulation of O2- content in FG cells, leading to the change of cell morphology and even the death of cells. The results showed that FG cell line is suitable for the evaluation of the acute toxicity of abamectin.

  17. Juvenile Battens Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayton, Romayne

    1987-01-01

    Ten children diagnosed with juvenile Battens disease were tested over a three-year period in general intelligence, memory, listening and speech, motor skills, and general learning. Results showed that the patients followed a predetermined pattern but that the time span for development of memory, communication, and behavior problems varied greatly.…

  18. Juvenile Victimization and Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbensen, Finn-Aage; Huizinga, David

    1991-01-01

    Demographic characteristics of juvenile victims of crime and a potential relationship between victimization and self-reported delinquency are examined for 877 adolescents from a large midwestern city. Lifetime victimization rates (LVRs) are higher for those involved in delinquency, and LVRs rise with age and higher levels of delinquent behavior.…

  19. Juvenile Battens Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayton, Romayne

    1987-01-01

    Ten children diagnosed with juvenile Battens disease were tested over a three-year period in general intelligence, memory, listening and speech, motor skills, and general learning. Results showed that the patients followed a predetermined pattern but that the time span for development of memory, communication, and behavior problems varied greatly.…

  20. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prakken, Berent; Albani, Salvatore; Martini, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is a heterogeneous group of diseases characterised by arthritis of unknown origin with onset before age of 16 years. Pivotal studies in the past 5 years have led to substantial progress in various areas, ranging from disease classification to new treatments. Gene expres

  1. Antioxidant and other biological activities of phenols from olives and olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visioli, Francesco; Poli, Andrea; Gall, Claudio

    2002-01-01

    Olive oil is the principal source of fats in the Mediterranean diet, which has been associated with a lower incidence of coronary heart disease and certain cancers. Phenolic compounds, e.g., hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein, in extra-virgin olive oil are responsible for its peculiar pungent taste and for its high stability. Recent findings demonstrate that olive oil phenolics are powerful antioxidants, both in vitro and in vivo, and possess other potent biological activities that could partially account for the observed healthful effects of the Mediterranean diet.

  2. Problems and agricultural solutions in olive groves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-García, Beatriz; Parras-Alcántara, Luis

    2017-04-01

    The most important and extensive crops in the Mediterranean area are olive groves. Within the last 50 years, the surface occupied by olive groves has progressively increased in Spain including more complex topographies, poorer soils and worse climatic conditions. This situation has caused serious problems based on the losses of soil, nutrients and soil quality among others (Lozano-García and Parras-Alcántara, 2014). Therefore, alternative practices that avoid soil erosion and soil degradation must be considered. As a consequence, farmers together with scientist are innovating by the development of different practices in olive groves in order to avoid these problems and to improve soil conditions. There is a huge range of new practices. Some of them are: i. alternative management techniques such as organic farming, no tillage and minimum tillage. These techniques have a positive impact in soils (Parras-Alcántara and Lozano-García, 2014; Fernández-Romero et al., 2016). ii. the addition of different substances on the soil. For example, oil mill by-products that are thus potentially useful as soil amendments since they are effective sources of organic matter and nitrogen, improve soil quality and alleviate the environmental and agronomic limitations of Mediterranean agricultural soils, even those under using conventional tillage (Lozano-García et al., 2011; Lozano-García and Parras-Alcántara, 2013). iii. the use of covers as secondary crops inside the olive grove. These offer secondary benefits derived from alternative crops and soil protection due to fact that in olive groves the main problem is the high quantity of bare surface. With this contribution we want to show the current situation in olive groves and how better results could be obtained when both trustworthy information is available and farmers and scientist work together. REFERENCES Fernández-Romero, M.L., Parras-Alcántara, L., Lozano-García, B., Clark, J.M., Collins, C.D. 2016. Soil quality

  3. Effect of consumption of phenols from olives and extra virgin olive oil on LDL oxidizability in healthy humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, M.N.; Zock, P.L.; Leenen, R.; Roodenburg, A.J.C.; Putte, van K.P.A.M.; Katan, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    A high intake of olive oil has been proposed as an explanation for the low incidence of coronary heart disease in Mediterranean countries, but it is unclear whether olive oil offers specific benefits beyond a low content of saturated fat. Some types of extra virgin olive oil are rich in non-polar

  4. Effect of consumption of phenols from olives and extra virgin olive oil on LDL oxidizability in healthy humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, M.N.; Zock, P.L.; Leenen, R.; Roodenburg, A.J.C.; Putte, van K.P.A.M.; Katan, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    A high intake of olive oil has been proposed as an explanation for the low incidence of coronary heart disease in Mediterranean countries, but it is unclear whether olive oil offers specific benefits beyond a low content of saturated fat. Some types of extra virgin olive oil are rich in non-polar ph

  5. Combustion Analysis of Different Olive Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Ruiz

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA techniques and concretely the study of the burning profile provide information that can be used to estimate the behaviour of the combustion of carbonous materials. Commonly, these techniques have been used for the study of carbons, but are also interesting for the analysis of biomass wastes, due to the different species present on the wastes affect directly to its thermal properties. In this work, techniques of thermal analysis have been applied to compare the behaviour of different wastes coming from olive oil mills. From these results, it is remarkable that the Concentrated Olive Mill Waste Water (COMWW presents more unfavourable conditions for its combustion.

  6. Hot Air Drying of Green Table Olives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayit Sargin

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of hot air-drying of green table olives (Domat variety by using a tray dryer were studied. Air temperature varied from 40 to 70 °C with an air velocity of 1 m/s. Drying rate curves were determined and quality of dried green olives was evaluated by instrumental analysis (bulk density, particle density, porosity, shrinkage, moisture content, water activity, colour value, protein content, oil content, peroxide value and acidity. Consumers’ acceptance test and microbiological analysis were also applied.

  7. Biological pretreatment and ethanol production from olive cake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurado, Esperanza; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Baroi, George Nabin

    2010-01-01

    Olive oil is one of the major Mediterranean products, whose nutritional and economic importance is well-known. However the extraction of olive oil yields a highly contaminating residue that causes serious environmental concerns in the olive oil producing countries. The olive cake (OC) coming out...... of the three-phase olive oil production process could be used as low price feedstock for lignocellulosic ethanol production due to its high concentration in carbohydrates. However, the binding of the carbohydrates with lignin may significantly hinder the necessary enzymatic hydrolysis of the polymeric sugars...

  8. Olive oil in food spreads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanco Muñoz, Miguel A.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids is a commonly applied reaction to food industries. The process may imply the movement of double bonds in their positions on the fatty acid carbon chain, producing positional and geometrical isomers ( trans fatty acids. Through hydrogenation, unsaturated oils are converted to margarines and vegetable shortenings. The presence of trans fatty acids in foods is undesirable, as trans fatty acids raise the plasma levels of total and low-density lipoproteins (LDL, while decrease the plasma level of high-density lipoproteins (HDL, among other effects. The use of olive oil to prepare fat spread opens new insights into the commercial development of healthy novel foods with a positive image in terms of consumer appeal.La hidrogenación química de los ácidos grasos insaturados es una reacción que se utiliza con frecuencia en la industria alimentaria. El proceso implica el movimiento de los dobles enlaces en la cadena hidrocarbonada de los ácidos grasos, y la aparición de isómeros posicionales y geométricos (ácidos grasos trans . La ingesta inadecuada de alimentos que pueden contener cantidades significativas de ácidos grasos trans se asocia con el aumento en sangre de colesterol total y LDL, y la disminución de HDL, entre otros efectos. Por lo tanto, el uso de aceite de oliva en la preparación de grasas para untar constituye un importante avance en el desarrollo comercial de nuevos alimentos saludables con una imagen positiva para el consumidor.

  9. Characterization of flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) FoxD5 and its function in regulating myogenic regulatory factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xungang; Zhang, Yuqing; Sun, Wei; Zhang, Peijun; Xu, Yongli

    2012-03-01

    As one member of winged helix domain transcription factors, FoxD5 was reported to be a trunk organizer. Recent study showed that zebrafish foxd5 is expressed in the somites. To further understand the function of FoxD5 in fish muscle development, the FoxD5 gene was isolated from flounder. Its expression pattern was analyzed by in situ hybridization, while its function in regulating myogenic regulatory factor, MyoD, was analyzed by ectopic expression. It showed that flounder FoxD5 was firstly expressed in the tailbud, adaxial cells, and neural plate of the head. In flounder embryo, FoxD5 is expressed not only in forebrain but also in somite cells that will form muscle in the future. When flounder FoxD5 was over-expressed in zebrafish by microinjection, the expression of zebrafish MyoD in the somites was reduced, suggesting that FoxD5 is involved in myogenesis by regulating the expression of MyoD.

  10. Identification, tissue distribution and evaluation of brain neuropeptide Y gene expression in the Brazilian flounder Paralichthys orbignyanus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vinicius F Campos; Tiago Collares; João C Deschamps; Fabiana K Seixas; Odir A Dellagostin; Carlos Frederico C Lanes; Juliana Sandrini; Luis Fernando Marins; Marcelo Okamoto; Luís A Sampaio; Ricardo B Robaldo

    2010-09-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is one of the most potent stimulants of food intake in vertebrates, mammals and fish. However, the present knowledge about feeding behaviour in fish is still limited and based on studies in a few species. The Brazilian flounder Paralichthys orbignyanus is being considered for aquaculture, and it is important to understand the mechanisms regulating feeding in order to improve its performance in captivity. The objectives of this study were to clone NPY cDNA, evaluate the mRNA levels in different tissues of flounder, and also evaluate brain NPY expression to associate food intake with NPY expression levels. A 597 bp NPY cDNA was cloned from Brazilian flounder brain. NPY expression was detected in all the peripheral tissues analysed. No significant differences were observed in brain NPY gene expression over 24 h after food intake at a temperature of 15 ± 3°C. No correlation was observed among plasma glucose, total protein, cholesterol, triglycerides and NPY expression levels during this 24 h period. On the other hand, mRNA levels were increased after two weeks of fasting at elevated temperatures. Our results suggest that NPY mRNA levels in Brazilian flounder are affected by temperature.

  11. Health effects of some aquatic pollutants in European flounder : Laboratory experiments with emphasis on histopathological and immunological aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grinwis, G.C.M.

    2006-01-01

    Triggered by the concern over relative high prevalences of liver tumors, skin ulcers and the viral lymphocystis disease in European flounder (Platichthys flesus) living in Dutch coastal and estuarine waters, an integrated study was initiated to investigate a possible causal relationship between chem

  12. Edwardsiella tarda and Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from diseased Southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma) are virulent to channel catfish and Nile tilapia

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this study is to identify bacterial pathogens isolated from diseased Southern flounder and determine their virulence to channel catfish and Nile tilapia. Twenty five Gram-negative bacteria isolates were recovered from five tissues (skin lesions, brain, liver, intestine, and posterior kidn...

  13. Edwardsiella tarda Outer Membrane Protein C: An Immunogenic Protein Induces Highly Protective Effects in Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus against Edwardsiellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuguo Liu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Outer membrane protein C of Edwardsiella tarda is a major cell surface antigen and it was identified to be an immunogenic protein by Western blot using flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus anti-recombinant OmpC (rOmpC, and anti-E. tarda antibodies. rOmpC tested the immune protective effect against E. tarda challenge in a flounder model and produced a relative percentage of survival rate of 85%. The immune response of flounder induced by rOmpC was investigated, and the results showed that: (1 the levels of specific serum antibodies induced by rOmpC were significantly higher than the control group after the second week after immunization, and the peak level occurred at week five after immunization; (2 rOmpC could induce the proliferation of sIg+ lymphocytes, and the peak levels of sIg+ lymphocytes in blood, spleen, and pronephros occurred at 4–5 weeks after immunization; and (3 the MHCIIα, CD4-1, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α genes were significantly induced after being injected with rOmpC. Taken together, these results demonstrated that rOmpC could evoke highly protective effects against E. tarda challenge and induce strong innate immune response and humoral immune response of flounder, which indicated that OmpC was a promising vaccine candidate against E. tarda infection.

  14. Pedologic Factors Affecting Virgin Olive Oil Quality of "Chemlali" Olive Trees (Olea europaea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rached, Mouna Ben; Galaverna, Gianni; Cirlini, Martina; Boujneh, Dalenda; Zarrouk, Mokhtar; Guerfel, Mokhtar

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study examined the characterization of extra virgin olive oil samples from the main cultivar Chemlali, grown in five olive orchards with different soil type (Sandy, Clay, Stony, Brown, Limestone and Gypsum). Volatile compounds were studied using headspace-solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technics. Moreover, the sterol profile was established using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. 35 different volatile compounds were identified: alcohols, esters, aldehydes, ketones and hydrocarbons. The chemical composition of the volatile fraction was characterized by the preeminence of 2-hexenal (32.75%) and 1-hexanol (31.88%). Three sterols were identified and characterized. For all olive oil samples, ß-sitosterol (302.25 mg/kg) was the most abundant sterol. Interestingly, our results showed significant qualitative and quantitative differences in the levels of the volatile compounds and sterols from oils obtained from olive trees grown in different soil type.

  15. Olive Fruit Phenols Transfer, Transformation, and Partition Trail during Laboratory-Scale Olive Oil Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerman Klen, Tina; Golc Wondra, Alenka; Vrhovšek, Urška; Sivilotti, Paolo; Vodopivec, Branka Mozetič

    2015-05-13

    This work is the most comprehensive study on the quantitative behavior of olive fruit phenols during olive oil processing, providing insight into their transfer, transformation, and partition trail. In total, 69 phenols were quantified in 6 olive matrices from a three-phase extraction line employing ultra high pressure liquid chromatography-diode array detection analysis. Crushing had a larger effect than malaxation in terms of phenolic degradation and transformation, resulting in several new evolutions of respective derivatives. The peel and pulp together confined 95% of total fruit phenols, while stone only 5%. However, only 0.53% of all ended-up in olive oil, nearly 6% in wastewater, and 48% in pomace. Secoiridoids were the predominant class in all matrices, though represented by different individuals. Their partition behavior was rather similar to other phenolic classes, where with few minor exceptions only aglycones were partitioned to the oil, while other glycosides were lost with the wastes.

  16. Sorting Olive Batches for the Milling Process Using Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Aguilera Puerto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The quality of virgin olive oil obtained in the milling process is directly bound to the characteristics of the olives. Hence, the correct classification of the different incoming olive batches is crucial to reach the maximum quality of the oil. The aim of this work is to provide an automatic inspection system, based on computer vision, and to classify automatically different batches of olives entering the milling process. The classification is based on the differentiation between ground and tree olives. For this purpose, three different species have been studied (Picudo, Picual and Hojiblanco. The samples have been obtained by picking the olives directly from the tree or from the ground. The feature vector of the samples has been obtained on the basis of the olive image histograms. Moreover, different image preprocessing has been employed, and two classification techniques have been used: these are discriminant analysis and neural networks. The proposed methodology has been validated successfully, obtaining good classification results.

  17. Site specific management in an olive tree plantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fountas, S.; Aggelopoulou, K.; Bouloulis, C.

    2011-01-01

    Yield and soil mapping were carried out in 2007 and 2008 in a 9.1 ha commercial olive tree plantation for olive oil production. The orchard is in the southern Peloponnese, where olives are cultivated extensively for extra virgin olive oil production. The field is planted in rows with about 1650...... trees in total. Weed control was practiced during the previous 3 years using post emergence herbicides under no-tillage over about 2/3 of the field, and over the remaining 1/3 by mechanical weeding using a rotary cultivator. For yield mapping, olives were collected manually using rods to shake the tree...... shoots and letting the olives fall onto a plastic net covering the ground. Sacks of approximately 58 kg capacity were filled with olives from as many adjacent trees as were needed to fill a sack. The location of the sacks, or group of closely placed sacks, was identified using a commercial GPS (5 m...

  18. Morphological and molecular characterisation of Xiphinema macroacanthum Lamberti, Roca & Agostinelli, 1989 (Nematoda: Longidoridae) from olive orchards in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Francesca; Lazarova, Stela; Troccoli, Alberto; Vovlas, Nicola; Peneva, Vlada

    2013-06-01

    A population of Xiphinema macroacanthum Lamberti, Roca & Agostinelli, 1989 originating from olive orchards in Brindisi, Italy and containing both adults and all juvenile stages, is described and illustrated. The first juvenile stage is reported for the first time. Molecular characterisation of this species, using the D2-D3 expansion domains of the 28S rDNA and ITS region, was carried out. PCR-RFLP analyses of the ribosomal gene regions determined species-specific patterns that clearly differentiate X. macroacanthum. Sequences of the D2-D3 domains and the partial 18S-ITS1 rRNA genes were analysed using several methods for inferring phylogeny to reconstruct the relationships between X. macroacanthum and other Xiphinema species.

  19. Antioxidant activity of olive wine, a byproduct of olive mill wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Qian; He, Gang; Guo, Xiaoqiang; Hu, Yibing; Shen, Yuanfu; Gou, Xiaojun

    2016-10-01

    Context Although olive mill wastewater (OMWW) is a good source of bioactive phenolic compounds, disposing OMWW is a serious environmental challenge. Production of wine via fermenting OMWW may be a promising alternative to deal with OMWW. However, whether or not olive wine from OMWW still reserves its original bioactivities remains unclear. Objective This study examines antioxidant activity of olive wine fermented from OMWW. Materials and methods Hydroxytyrosol in olive oil was determined by HPLC. Total flavonoid, total polyphenol and in vitro antioxidant activities were measured by spectrophotometry. Aged mice were intragastricly administered 7, 14 and 28 mL/kg olive wine consecutively for 30 d. Afterward, levels of malonaldehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl, reduced glutathione (GSH) and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) were assayed in mouse plasma and liver. Results Contents of hydroxytyrosol, total flavonoid and total polyphenol in olive wine were 0.14 ± 0.01, 0.29 ± 0.06 and 0.43 ± 0.03 mg/mL, respectively. The IC50 value of olive wine to scavenge DPPH and hydroxyl free radicals was 2.5% and 3.2% (v/v), respectively. Compared with the solvent control group, olive wine with a dose of 28 mL/kg remarkably lowered mouse MDA concentration in liver, and reduced protein carbonyl level in plasma (p wine at doses of 7 and 28 mL/kg notably enhanced SOD activity in both mouse plasma and liver (p wine from OMWW has potential for treating oxidative stress-associated diseases.

  20. Virgin olive oil color and perceived quality among consumers in emerging olive-growing countries

    OpenAIRE

    A. GÁMBARO; Raggio, L.; Ellis, A. C.; Amarillo, M.

    2014-01-01

    Five virgin olive oil samples were evaluated by 122 consumers for their color acceptability and expected quality on 9-point structured scales. A description of the attributes expected in the different oils was obtained from the responding consumers by means of a check-all-that-apply questionnaire consisting of a list of 17 possible virgin olive oil attributes. Hierarchical cluster analysis led to the identification of two consumer clusters with distinct behavior. Whereas one consumer cluster ...

  1. Evaluating potential olive orchard sugar food sources for the olive fly parasitoid Psyttalia concolor

    OpenAIRE

    Furtado, C.; A.F. Belo; Nunes, F. M.; Ganhão, E.; Müller, Carsten Theodor; Torres, L.; Rei, F. T.

    2016-01-01

    Olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a major olive pest in the Mediterranean basin where increasing insecticide resistance has enhanced damage and necessitates more reliance on other control strategies, such as biological control. Provision of floral resources has been reported to improve the effectiveness of natural enemies. Here, we tested the effect of six plant nectars and two honeydew sources on the survival of Psyttalia concolor (Szépligeti) (Hymenoptera: B...

  2. Oliver Kruuda : Valitsus on loll. Riiki ei juhi keegi / Oliver Kruuda ; interv. Urmo Soonvald

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kruuda, Oliver, 1967-

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Vesti Dnja 28. mai lk. 4. Ärimees Oliver Kruuda majandusprobleemide põhjustest Eestis, peaminister Andrus Ansipist, hüpoteegipanga rajamise vajadusest, Eesti ajakirjanduse erapoolikust suhtumisest tema ja Edgar Savisaare tegevusse, Kalevi ja Tere müümisest, Kalev Meedia asutamise ajenditest ja perspektiividest, jõukusest, võlgadest, poegade kasvatamisest. Lisad: Kuidas riigi raha säästa; Kes on Oliver Kruuda?

  3. Comparative Evolution of Duplicated Ddx3 Genes in Teleosts: Insights from Japanese Flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongkai; Liu, Wei; Song, Huayu; Wang, Huizhen; Liu, Jinxiang; Zhao, Haitao; Du, Xinxin; Zhang, Quanqi

    2015-06-24

    Following the two rounds of whole-genome duplication that occurred during deuterostome evolution, a third genome duplication event occurred in the stem lineage of ray-finned fishes. This teleost-specific genome duplication is thought to be responsible for the biological diversification of ray-finned fishes. DEAD-box polypeptide 3 (DDX3) belongs to the DEAD-box RNA helicase family. Although their functions in humans have been well studied, limited information is available regarding their function in teleosts. In this study, two teleost Ddx3 genes were first identified in the transcriptome of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). We confirmed that the two genes originated from teleost-specific genome duplication through synteny and phylogenetic analysis. Additionally, comparative analysis of genome structure, molecular evolution rate, and expression pattern of the two genes in Japanese flounder revealed evidence of subfunctionalization of the duplicated Ddx3 genes in teleosts. Thus, the results of this study reveal novel insights into the evolution of the teleost Ddx3 genes and constitute important groundwork for further research on this gene family.

  4. Spatial and temporal variability in growth of southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midway, Stephen R.; Wagner, Tyler; Arnott, Stephen A.; Biondo, Patrick; Martinez-Andrade, Fernando; Wadsworth, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    Delineation of stock structure is important for understanding the ecology and management of many fish populations, particularly those with wide-ranging distributions and high levels of harvest. Southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma) is a popular commercial and recreational species along the southeast Atlantic coast and Gulf of Mexico, USA. Recent studies have provided genetic and otolith morphology evidence that the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean stocks differ. Using age and growth data from four states (Texas, Alabama, South Carolina, and North Carolina) we expanded upon the traditional von Bertalanffy model in order to compare growth rates of putative geographic stocks of southern flounder. We improved the model fitting process by adding a hierarchical Bayesian framework to allow each parameter to vary spatially or temporally as a random effect, as well as log transforming the three model parameters (L∞, K, andt0). Multiple comparisons of parameters showed that growth rates varied (even within states) for females, but less for males. Growth rates were also consistent through time, when long-term data were available. Since within-basin populations are thought to be genetically well-mixed, our results suggest that consistent small-scale environmental conditions (i.e., within estuaries) likely drive growth rates and should be considered when developing broader scale management plans.

  5. Detection of lymphocystis disease virus infection to flounder gill cells in vitro by monoclonal antibodies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Flounder gill (FG) cells were used to isolate lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV) and two monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) (1A8 and 3G3) against LCDV were used to trace LCDV infection to FG cells. FG monolayer cells was inoculated with LCDV supernatant, obtained from lymphocystis cells of diseased flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. LCDV infection was detected with Mabs employing immunocytochemical assay (ICA) and indirect immunofluorescence assay test (ⅡFAT) technique. Detected by ⅡFAT, they were specific for LCDV. The results of experimental infection illustrated that FG cells was sensitive to LCDV, and showed virus-infection positive detected by ICA. Cytopathic effect (CPE) occurred 1-2 days post inoculation (PI), and half tissue culture infection dosage (TCID50) of virus supernatant was 22.57 per 40μl. Tracing by ⅡFAT showed that LCDV positive signal first appeared at the cell membrane immediately PI, and then in cytoplasm at 24h PI, it reached the strongest positive at 48-72 h PI, and began to decrease at 96h PI.

  6. A VIBRIO ANGUILLARUM STRAIN ASSOCIATED WITH SKIN ULCER ON CULTURED FLOUNDER, PARALICHTHYS OLIVACEUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫照兰; 谭训刚; 徐永立; 张培军

    2001-01-01

    The characteristics of a bacterium strain M3, isolated from cultured flounder Paralichthys olivaceus with remarkable external sign of skin ulcer during an epizootic outbreak, indicated that the bacterium belonged to the species Vibrio anguillarum. Challenge by I.M. ( intramuscular injection), bath, and oral administration with M3 showed that it was highly pathogenic for Paralichthys olivacues. The LD50 dose was 5. 144 × 103 CFU/per fish infection by I.M. injection. Recovered inoculated bacteria from the surviving fish revealed that the asymptomatic carriers could be a latent contagious source. Study of the effect of bacterial culture CFS (cell-free-supernatant) showed that the exotoxins produced by M3 play an important role in its pathogenicity for flounder. The resistance of M3 to 36 out of 41 antibiotics indicated that the bacterial disease outbreak was mainly attributable to the frequent and excessive use of antimicrobial agents; and that vaccination would be an effective precaution against bacterial disease.

  7. A VIBRIO ANGUILIARUM STRAIN ASSOCIATED WITH SKIN ULCER ON CULTURED FLOUNDER, PARALICHTHYS OLIVACEUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫照兰; 谭训刚; 徐永立; 张培军

    2001-01-01

    The characteristics of a bacterium strain M3, isolated from cultured flounder Paralichthys chthys olivacues with remarkable external sign of skin ulcer during an epizoctic outbreak, indicated that the bacterium belonged to the species Vibrio anguillarum. Challenge by I.M. ( intramuscular injection),bath, and oral administration with M3 showed that it was highly pathogenic for Paralichthys olivacues.The LD50 dose was 5.144×103 CFU/per fish infection by I.M. injection. Recovered inoculated bacteria from the surviving fish revealed that the asymptomatic carriers could be a latent contagious source. Study of the effect of bacterial culture CFS (cell-free-supernatant) showed that the exotoxins produced by M3 play an important role in its pathogenicity for flounder. The resistance of M3 to 36 out of 41 antibiotics indicated that the bacterial disease outbreak was mainly attributable to the frequent and excessive use of anfimicroblal agents; and that vaccination would be an effective precaution against bacterial disease.

  8. Differences in female individual reproductive potential among three stocks of winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, W. David; Wuenschel, Mark J.; Press, Yvonna K.; Towle, Emilee K.; McBride, Richard S.

    2013-01-01

    Potential annual fecundity (PAF) and skipped spawning of winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus, were compared among the three stocks in United States waters and between two spawning seasons. Winter flounder have group-synchronous oocyte development and determinate fecundity. These characteristics enable estimation of PAF just prior to spawning by enumeration of the late-vitellogenic cohort of oocytes, in this case employing the autodiametric method. There was a low level of down-regulation, which was limited to fish in the earlier stages of vitellogenesis. Estimates of PAF increased substantially with female size and age, ranging from 5 million eggs per female. Fecundity at size decreased with increasing latitude. On average, fish from the Southern New England (SNE) stock had the highest individual fecundities at length and Gulf of Maine (GOM) the lowest, but differences varied among the years. Fecundity at length of fish from Georges Bank (GB) was intermediate to these two stocks and displayed less variability at size; however, GB fish grow faster so they had the highest relative fecundity at age. Skipped spawning also exhibited geographic differences; it was infrequent (published estimates suggest fecundity is highly variable in this species. Overall, different rates of reproductive productivity exist among individuals of the three stocks.

  9. Cyclic volatile methylsiloxane bioaccumulation in flounder and ragworm in the Humber Estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierkegaard, Amelie; van Egmond, Roger; McLachlan, Michael S

    2011-07-15

    Cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes are being subjected to regulatory scrutiny as possible PBT chemicals. The investigation of bioaccumulation has yielded apparently contradictory results, with high laboratory fish bioconcentration factors on the one hand and low field trophic magnification factors on the other. In this study, octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5), and dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6) were studied along with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediments, ragworm, and flounder from six sites in the Humber Estuary. Bioaccumulation was evaluated using multimedia bioaccumulation factors (mmBAFs) which quantified the fraction of the contaminant present in the aquatic environment that is transferred to the biota. PCB 180, a known strongly bioaccumulative chemical, was used as a benchmark. The mean mmBAF of D5 was about twice that of PCB 180 in both polycheates and flounder, while for D4 it was 6 and 14 times higher, respectively. The mmBAF of D6 was a factor 5-10 lower than that of PCB180. The comparatively strong multimedia bioaccumulation of D4 and D5, even in the absence of biomagnification, was explained by both compounds having a >100 times stronger tendency to partition into lipid rather than into organic carbon, while PCB 180 partitions to a similar extent into both matrices.

  10. A Vibrio anguillarum strain associated with skin ulcer on cultured flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Zhao-Lan; Tan, Xun-Gang; Xu, Yong-Li; Zhang, Pei-Jun

    2001-12-01

    The characteristics of a bacterium strain M3, isolated from cultured flounder Paralichthys olivaceus with remarkable external sign of skin ulcer during an epizootic outbreak, indicated that the bacterium belonged to the species Vibrio anguillarum. Challenge by I.M. (intramuscular injection), bath, and oral administration with M3 showed that it was highly pathogenic for Paralichthys olivacues. The LD50 dose was 5.144×103 CFU/ per fish infection by I.M. injection. Recovered inoculated bacteria from the surviving fish revealed that the asymptomatic carriers could be a latent contagious source. Study of the effect of bacterial culture CFS (cell-free-supernatant) showed that the exotoxins produced by M3 play an important role in its pathogenicity for flounder. The resistance of M3 to 36 out of 41 antibiotics indicated that the bacterial disease outbreak was mainly attributable to the frequent and excessive use of antimicrobial agents; and that vaccination would be an effective precaution against bacterial disease.

  11. OGDD (Olive Genetic Diversity Database): a microsatellite markers' genotypes database of worldwide olive trees for cultivar identification and virgin olive oil traceability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ayed, Rayda; Ben Hassen, Hanen; Ennouri, Karim; Ben Marzoug, Riadh; Rebai, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Olive (Olea europaea), whose importance is mainly due to nutritional and health features, is one of the most economically significant oil-producing trees in the Mediterranean region. Unfortunately, the increasing market demand towards virgin olive oil could often result in its adulteration with less expensive oils, which is a serious problem for the public and quality control evaluators of virgin olive oil. Therefore, to avoid frauds, olive cultivar identification and virgin olive oil authentication have become a major issue for the producers and consumers of quality control in the olive chain. Presently, genetic traceability using SSR is the cost effective and powerful marker technique that can be employed to resolve such problems. However, to identify an unknown monovarietal virgin olive oil cultivar, a reference system has become necessary. Thus, an Olive Genetic Diversity Database (OGDD) (http://www.bioinfo-cbs.org/ogdd/) is presented in this work. It is a genetic, morphologic and chemical database of worldwide olive tree and oil having a double function. In fact, besides being a reference system generated for the identification of unkown olive or virgin olive oil cultivars based on their microsatellite allele size(s), it provides users additional morphological and chemical information for each identified cultivar. Currently, OGDD is designed to enable users to easily retrieve and visualize biologically important information (SSR markers, and olive tree and oil characteristics of about 200 cultivars worldwide) using a set of efficient query interfaces and analysis tools. It can be accessed through a web service from any modern programming language using a simple hypertext transfer protocol call. The web site is implemented in java, JavaScript, PHP, HTML and Apache with all major browsers supported. Database URL: http://www.bioinfo-cbs.org/ogdd/. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  12. Development of a phenol-enriched olive oil with phenolic compounds from olive cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Manuel; Romero, Maria-Paz; Motilva, Maria-José

    2010-10-13

    The recent information regarding the healthy properties of virgin olive oil phenols and the interest in increasing the value of byproducts from the oil extraction processs support the standardized development of phenol-enriched olive oil. Accordingly, the aim of this research work was to evaluate strategies for the development of a virgin olive oil enriched with phenolic compounds obtained from olive cake to increase phenolic ingestion without the drawback of a higher calorie intake. For this proposal, different combinations of phenolic extracts were evaluated at a range of concentrations to obtain the best prototype of enriched olive oil. To study the functionality of the phenol enrichments, the total phenolic content and the oxidative stability were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu and Rancimat tests, respectively. In addition, the phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity (ORAC assay) of the oils were studied. Finally, the stability and potential bioaccesibility of the phenolic fraction of the enriched oils were tested by an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion model. Results of the study showed different strategies to select the best prototype of enriched olive oil, taking into consideration not only their phenolic content but also other important factors such as the feasibility of implementing the preparation process in the food industry.

  13. Size selectivity and trawling efficiency of two sampling trawls used in resource surveys of yellowtail flounder on Grand Bank, NAFO Div. 3LNO

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walsh, S.J; McCallum, B.R

    1998-01-01

    .... Size selectivity and trawl efficiency of two shrimp trawls used in the surveys of the Grand Bank yellowtail flounder, Pleuronectes ferruginea, were analyzed from a series of comparative fishing tows...

  14. Osmoregulation and expression of ion transport proteins and putative claudins in the gill of southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tipsmark, Christian K; Luckenbach, J Adam; Madsen, Steffen S;

    2008-01-01

    (-) cotransporter protein expression after salinity challenge. Transfer of freshwater (FW)-acclimated flounder to sea water (SW) induced an increase in plasma osmolality and cortisol and a decrease in muscle water content, plasma insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and hepatic IGF-I mRNA, all returning to control...... levels after 4 days. Gill Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and Na(+),K(+),2Cl(-) cotransporter protein levels were elevated in response to SW after 4 days. Transfer of SW-acclimated flounder to FW reduced gill Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and Na(+),K(+),2Cl(-) cotransporter protein, increased plasma IGF-I, but did not alter...... hepatic IGF-I mRNA or plasma cortisol levels. Gill claudin-3 and claudin-4 immunoreactive proteins were elevated in FW versus SW acclimated flounder. The study demonstrates that successful acclimation of southern flounder to SW or FW occurs after an initial crisis period and that the salinity adaptation...

  15. Synonymical remark about Cetonia bifida Oliv

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kannegieter, J.Z.

    1891-01-01

    In a paper on the Australian Schizorrhinidae Dr. Kraatz established a. o. a new genus Dysephicta (Deuts. Ent. Zeitschr. XXIV, p. 208) for the reception of Cetonia bifida Oliv. (the Schizorrhina bifida of G. & P., Schaum and the Munich Catalogue), which was said to be from India or. The type specimen

  16. Role of yeasts in table olive production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-López, F N; Querol, A; Bautista-Gallego, J; Garrido-Fernández, A

    2008-12-10

    Table olives are a traditional fermented vegetable of the Mediterranean countries, but their production and consumption are now spread all around the world. Yeasts can play a double role in this food. They are present throughout the fermentative process and it is generally accepted that they can produce compounds with important organoleptic attributes determining the quality and flavour of the final product. However, yeasts can also be spoilage microorganisms in olive fermentation/storage and packing causing gas pockets, swollen containers, cloudy brines and off-flavours and off-odours. Candida boidinii, Debaryomyces hansenii, Pichia anomala, P. membranifaciens, Rhodotorula glutinis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae are species isolated with a high frequency from olive processes. Scarce information is still available about the ecology, biochemistry and molecular biology of these important microorganisms in table olives. A wider knowledge about these aspects could facilitate the possible application of yeasts as a starter culture, due to their ability to produce aromatic compounds, antioxidants, enzymes, and improve the growth of lactic acid bacteria.

  17. The Making of a Special "Oliver!"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beall, Lee

    1985-01-01

    How trainable mentally handicapped high school students very successfully adapted Charles Dickens's novel "Oliver Twist" into a musical play is described. The project, which involved the entire school as well as the community, shows that handicapped people are capable of artistic endeavors and growth when given the proper environment. (RM)

  18. Analysis of Cohesion inOliver Twist

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程文文

    2016-01-01

    Cohesion is an important concept in the study of stylistics. This thesis aims to study the applications of cohesion in the Charles Dicken’ world-famous novelOliver Twist, including both the grammatical and lexical cohesive devices in the work.

  19. Late Onset Juvenile Xanthogranuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punithwavathy K

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A 19 year old female was seen with multiple skin coloured and hyperpigmented macules, discrete as well as grouped papules and nodules of varying sizes distributed over the face, neck, extensor and flexor aspects of both upper and lower extremities including joints. The trunk was spared. Some of the lesions showed features of spontaneous regression. Investigations confirmed the diagnosis of juvenile xanthogranuloma. Lesions regressed satisfactorily with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy.

  20. Juvenile Incarceration and Health

    OpenAIRE

    Barnert, ES; R Perry; Morris, RE

    2015-01-01

    © 2015. Addressing the health status and needs of incarcerated youth represents an issue at the nexus of juvenile justice reform and health care reform. Incarcerated youth face disproportionately higher morbidity and higher mortality compared to the general adolescent population. Dental health, reproductive health, and mental health needs are particularly high, likely as a result of lower access to care, engagement in high-risk behaviors, and underlying health disparities. Violence exposure a...

  1. Pure Culture Fermentation of Green Olives1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchells, J. L.; Borg, A. F.; Kittel, I. D.; Bell, T. A.; Fleming, H. P.

    1966-01-01

    The method previously developed by us for the pure-culture fermentation of brined cucumbers and other vegetables has been applied successfully to Manzanillo variety olives. Field-run grade fruit was processed first by conventional procedures to remove most of the bitterness. Then the relative abilities of Lactobacillus plantarum, L. brevis, Pediococcus cerevisiae, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides to become established and produce acid in both heat-shocked (74 C for 3 min) and unheated olives, brined at 4.7 to 5.9% NaCl (w/v basis), were evaluated. The heat-shock treatment not only proved effective in ridding the fruit of naturally occurring, interfering, and competitive microbial groups prior to brining and inoculation, but also made the olives highly fermentable with respect to growth and acid production by the introduced culture, particularly L. plantarum. Of the four species used as inocula, L. plantarum was by far the most vigorous in fermentation ability. It consistently produced the highest levels of brine acidity (1.0 to 1.2% calculated as lactic acid) and the lowest pH values (3.8 to 3.9) during the fermentation of heat-shocked olives. Also, L. plantarum completely dominated fermentations when used in two-species (with P. cerevisiae) and three-species (with P. cerevisiae and L. brevis) combinations as inocula. In contrast, when L. plantarum was inoculated into the brines of unheated olives it failed to become properly established; the same was true for the other species tested, but even to a more pronounced degree. L. brevis was the only species used that failed to develop in brines of both heat-shocked and unheated olives. Modification of the curing brine by the addition of lactic acid at the outset, either with or without dextrose, led to a much earlier onset of fermentation with accompanying acid development, as compared to treatments with dextrose alone or nonadditive controls. Reasons for the marked improvement of the fermentability of Manzanillo olives

  2. Juvenile Ultracool Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Rice, Emily L; Cruz, Kelle; Barman, Travis; Looper, Dagny; Malo, Lison; Mamajek, Eric E; Metchev, Stanimir; Shkolnik, Evgenya L

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile ultracool dwarfs are late spectral type objects (later than ~M6) with ages between 10 Myr and several 100 Myr. Their age-related properties lie intermediate between very low mass objects in nearby star-forming regions (ages 1-5 Myr) and field stars and brown dwarfs that are members of the disk population (ages 1-5 Gyr). Kinematic associations of nearby young stars with ages from ~10-100 Myr provide sources for juvenile ultracool dwarfs. The lowest mass confirmed members of these groups are late-M dwarfs. Several apparently young L dwarfs and a few T dwarfs are known, but they have not been kinematically associated with any groups. Normalizing the field IMF to the high mass population of these groups suggests that more low mass (mainly late-M and possibly L dwarf) members have yet to be found. The lowest mass members of these groups, along with low mass companions to known young stars, provide benchmark objects with which spectroscopic age indicators for juvenile ultracool dwarfs can be calibrated and...

  3. Modeling olive-crop forecasting in Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Dhiab, Ali; Ben Mimoun, Mehdi; Oteros, Jose; Garcia-Mozo, Herminia; Domínguez-Vilches, Eugenio; Galán, Carmen; Abichou, Mounir; Msallem, Monji

    2016-01-01

    Tunisia is the world's second largest olive oil-producing region after the European Union. This paper reports on the use of models to forecast local olive crops, using data for Tunisia's five main olive-producing areas: Mornag, Jemmel, Menzel Mhiri, Chaal, and Zarzis. Airborne pollen counts were monitored over the period 1993-2011 using a Cour trap. Forecasting models were constructed using agricultural data (harvest size in tonnes of fruit/year) and data for several weather-related and phenoclimatic variables (rainfall, humidity, temperature, Growing Degree Days, and Chilling). Analysis of these data revealed that the amount of airborne pollen emitted over the pollen season as a whole (i.e., the Pollen Index) was the variable most influencing harvest size. Findings for all local models also indicated that the amount, timing, and distribution of rainfall (except during blooming) had a positive impact on final olive harvests. Air temperature also influenced final crop yield in three study provinces (Menzel Mhiri, Chaal, and Zarzis), but with varying consequences: in the model constructed for Chaal, cumulative maximum temperature from budbreak to start of flowering contributed positively to yield; in the Menzel Mhiri model, cumulative average temperatures during fruit development had a positive impact on output; in Zarzis, by contrast, cumulative maximum temperature during the period prior to flowering negatively influenced final crop yield. Data for agricultural and phenoclimatic variables can be used to construct valid models to predict annual variability in local olive-crop yields; here, models displayed an accuracy of 98, 93, 92, 91, and 88 % for Zarzis, Mornag, Jemmel, Chaal, and Menzel Mhiri, respectively.

  4. Centennial olive trees as a reservoir of genetic diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez, Concepción M.; Trujillo, Isabel; Barrio, Eladio; Belaj, Angjelina; Barranco, Diego; Rallo, Luis

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Genetic characterization and phylogenetic analysis of the oldest trees could be a powerful tool both for germplasm collection and for understanding the earliest origins of clonally propagated fruit crops. The olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is a suitable model to study the origin of cultivars due to its long lifespan, resulting in the existence of both centennial and millennial trees across the Mediterranean Basin. Methods The genetic identity and diversity as well as the phylogenetic relationships among the oldest wild and cultivated olives of southern Spain were evaluated by analysing simple sequence repeat markers. Samples from both the canopy and the roots of each tree were analysed to distinguish which trees were self-rooted and which were grafted. The ancient olives were also put into chronological order to infer the antiquity of traditional olive cultivars. Key Results Only 9·6 % out of 104 a priori cultivated ancient genotypes matched current olive cultivars. The percentage of unidentified genotypes was higher among the oldest olives, which could be because they belong to ancient unknown cultivars or because of possible intra-cultivar variability. Comparing the observed patterns of genetic variation made it possible to distinguish which trees were grafted onto putative wild olives. Conclusions This study of ancient olives has been fruitful both for germplasm collection and for enlarging our knowledge about olive domestication. The findings suggest that grafting pre-existing wild olives with olive cultivars was linked to the beginnings of olive growing. Additionally, the low number of genotypes identified in current cultivars points out that the ancient olives from southern Spain constitute a priceless reservoir of genetic diversity. PMID:21852276

  5. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions juvenile idiopathic arthritis juvenile idiopathic arthritis Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Juvenile idiopathic arthritis refers to a group of conditions involving joint ...

  6. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile primary osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions juvenile primary osteoporosis juvenile primary osteoporosis Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... PDF Open All Close All Description Juvenile primary osteoporosis is a skeletal disorder characterized by thinning of ...

  7. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile myoclonic epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions juvenile myoclonic epilepsy juvenile myoclonic epilepsy Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... PDF Open All Close All Description Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy is a condition characterized by recurrent seizures (epilepsy). ...

  8. Transcriptomic Analysis Using Olive Varieties and Breeding Progenies Identifies Candidate Genes Involved in Plant Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Plaza, Juan J; Ortiz-Martín, Inmaculada; Muñoz-Mérida, Antonio; García-López, Carmen; Sánchez-Sevilla, José F; Luque, Francisco; Trelles, Oswaldo; Bejarano, Eduardo R; De La Rosa, Raúl; Valpuesta, Victoriano; Beuzón, Carmen R

    2016-01-01

    Plant architecture is a critical trait in fruit crops that can significantly influence yield, pruning, planting density and harvesting. Little is known about how plant architecture is genetically determined in olive, were most of the existing varieties are traditional with an architecture poorly suited for modern growing and harvesting systems. In the present study, we have carried out microarray analysis of meristematic tissue to compare expression profiles of olive varieties displaying differences in architecture, as well as seedlings from their cross pooled on the basis of their sharing architecture-related phenotypes. The microarray used, previously developed by our group has already been applied to identify candidates genes involved in regulating juvenile to adult transition in the shoot apex of seedlings. Varieties with distinct architecture phenotypes and individuals from segregating progenies displaying opposite architecture features were used to link phenotype to expression. Here, we identify 2252 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated to differences in plant architecture. Microarray results were validated by quantitative RT-PCR carried out on genes with functional annotation likely related to plant architecture. Twelve of these genes were further analyzed in individual seedlings of the corresponding pool. We also examined Arabidopsis mutants in putative orthologs of these targeted candidate genes, finding altered architecture for most of them. This supports a functional conservation between species and potential biological relevance of the candidate genes identified. This study is the first to identify genes associated to plant architecture in olive, and the results obtained could be of great help in future programs aimed at selecting phenotypes adapted to modern cultivation practices in this species.

  9. Transcriptomic analysis using olive varieties and breeding progenies identify candidate genes involved in plant architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José eGonzález Plaza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant architecture is a critical trait in fruit crops that can significantly influence yield, pruning, planting density and harvesting. Little is known about how plant architecture is genetically determined in olive, were most of the existing varieties are traditional with an architecture poorly suited for modern growing and harvesting systems. In the present study, we have carried out microarray analysis of meristematic tissue to compare expression profiles of olive varieties displaying differences in architecture, as well as seedlings from their cross pooled on the basis of their sharing architecture-related phenotypes. The microarray used, previously developed by our group has already been applied to identify candidates genes involved in regulating juvenile to adult transition in the shoot apex of seedlings. Varieties with distinct architecture phenotypes and individuals from segregating progenies displaying opposite architecture features were used to link phenotype to expression. Here, we identify 2,252 differentially expressed genes associated to differences in plant architecture. Microarray results were validated by quantitative RT-PCR carried out on genes with functional annotation likely related to plant architecture. Twelve of these genes were further analyzed in individual seedlings of the corresponding pool. We also examined Arabidopsis mutants in putative orthologs of these targeted candidate genes, finding altered architecture for most of them. This supports a functional conservation between species and potential biological relevance of the candidate genes identified. This study is the first to identify genes associated to plant architecture in olive, and the results obtained could be of great help in future programs aimed at selecting phenotypes adapted to modern cultivation practices in this species.

  10. Transcriptomic responses of the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae and its symbiont Candidatus Erwinia dacicola to olive feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlidi, Nena; Gioti, Anastasia; Wybouw, Nicky; Dermauw, Wannes; Ben-Yosef, Michael; Yuval, Boaz; Jurkevich, Edouard; Kampouraki, Anastasia; van Leeuwen, Thomas; Vontas, John

    2017-02-01

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the most destructive pest of olive orchards worldwide. The monophagous larva has the unique capability of feeding on olive mesocarp, coping with high levels of phenolic compounds and utilizing non-hydrolyzed proteins present, particularly in the unripe, green olives. On the molecular level, the interaction between B. oleae and olives has not been investigated as yet. Nevertheless, it has been associated with the gut obligate symbiotic bacterium Candidatus Erwinia dacicola. Here, we used a B.oleae microarray to analyze the gene expression of larvae during their development in artificial diet, unripe (green) and ripe (black) olives. The expression profiles of Ca. E. dacicola were analyzed in parallel, using the Illumina platform. Several genes were found overexpressed in the olive fly larvae when feeding in green olives. Among these, a number of genes encoding detoxification and digestive enzymes, indicating a potential association with the ability of B. oleae to cope with green olives. In addition, a number of biological processes seem to be activated in Ca. E. dacicola during the development of larvae in olives, with the most notable being the activation of amino-acid metabolism.

  11. Transcriptomic responses of the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae and its symbiont Candidatus Erwinia dacicola to olive feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlidi, Nena; Gioti, Anastasia; Wybouw, Nicky; Dermauw, Wannes; Ben-Yosef, Michael; Yuval, Boaz; Jurkevich, Edouard; Kampouraki, Anastasia; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Vontas, John

    2017-01-01

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the most destructive pest of olive orchards worldwide. The monophagous larva has the unique capability of feeding on olive mesocarp, coping with high levels of phenolic compounds and utilizing non-hydrolyzed proteins present, particularly in the unripe, green olives. On the molecular level, the interaction between B. oleae and olives has not been investigated as yet. Nevertheless, it has been associated with the gut obligate symbiotic bacterium Candidatus Erwinia dacicola. Here, we used a B.oleae microarray to analyze the gene expression of larvae during their development in artificial diet, unripe (green) and ripe (black) olives. The expression profiles of Ca. E. dacicola were analyzed in parallel, using the Illumina platform. Several genes were found overexpressed in the olive fly larvae when feeding in green olives. Among these, a number of genes encoding detoxification and digestive enzymes, indicating a potential association with the ability of B. oleae to cope with green olives. In addition, a number of biological processes seem to be activated in Ca. E. dacicola during the development of larvae in olives, with the most notable being the activation of amino-acid metabolism. PMID:28225009

  12. Juvenile Justice Bulletin: Aftercare Services. Juvenile Justice Practices Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gies, Steve V.

    This bulletin examines aftercare services that provide youth with comprehensive health, education, family, and vocational services upon their release from the juvenile justice system. Aftercare can be defined as reintegrative services that prepare out-of-home placed juveniles for reentry into the community by reestablishing the necessary…

  13. Matter transfer during virgin olive oil elaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Herrera, Carlos

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In the course of the process of elaboration of virgin olive oil (whose main stages are crushing, malaxation and centrifugation the transfer of several minor components to the triacylglycerol constituent of the oily globules originally present in the cells of the fruit mesocarp is produced. Such minor components are chemical species present in the olive fruits, as well as those resulting from chemical or enzymatic processes which take place in the olive paste upon crushing. In this paper several types of transferable minor components, as well as those parameters affecting the rates of transfer are studied.Geometric and physical variations of interfacial regions between the oil and other systems in contact with it are discussed. These systems are olive vegetation water, olive pulp components, and fragments of the woody endocarp, as well as the atmospheric air and the tools and equipment of the oil mill.This article concludes with some considerations about the improvements of virgin olive oils achieved by controlling the transfer of minor components.Durante la elaboración del aceite de oliva virgen (cuyas principales etapas son molturación, batido y centrifugación se producen transferencias de diversos componentes menores a los triacilgliceroles originalmente presentes en los glóbulos oleosos de las células del mesocarpio de los frutos. Estos componentes menores son especies químicas presentes en las aceitunas, así como especies resultantes de procesos químicos o enzimáticos que se producen en la pasta a partir de la molturación. En este artículo se estudian diversos tipos de componentes menores transferibles, así como aquellos parámetros que afectan sus velocidades de transferencia.Se discuten las variaciones geométricas y físicas de las regiones interfaciales situadas entre el aceite y los otros sistemas en contacto con el mismo. Estos sistemas son el agua de vegetación, los componentes de la pulpa y los fragmentos de endocarpio

  14. Sterol composition of virgin olive oil of forty-three olive cultivars from the World Collection Olive Germplasm Bank of Cordoba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyçyk, Onejda; Aguilera, Maria Paz; Gaforio, José Juan; Jiménez, Antonio; Beltrán, Gabriel

    2016-09-01

    In olive oil, sterols constitute the majority of the unsaponifiable fraction. In recent years there has been increased interest in the sterols of olive oil for their health benefits and their importance to virgin olive oil (VOO) quality regulation. Forty-three olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars from the World Olive Germplasm Bank, IFAPA Centro 'Alameda de Obispo', Cordoba, Spain were studied for their oil sterol composition and total content. The main sterols found in olive oil were β-sitosterol, Δ(5) -avenasterol, campesterol and stigmasterol, most of them showing high variability. Most cultivars showed total sterol contents within the limits established by EU regulations, although 28% of VOOs analysed were outside the limits established for total content and/or for individual sterols. Over the group of cultivars, total sterol contents ranged from 855 to 2185 mg kg(-1) . The high variability observed was due to the genetic component, since other agronomic and technological factors were similar. Because of the high variability, the sterol fraction can be considered as a useful tool to characterize and discriminate monovarietal VOOs. The results can be useful for nutritionists for VOO inclusion in nutrition studies. Furthermore, the variability observed can be applied in olive breeding projects to select the parents of new olive cultivars with an improved sterol fraction. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Effect of olive storage conditions on Chemlali olive oil quality and the effective role of fatty acids alkyl esters in checking olive oils authenticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeur, Hazem; Zribi, Akram; Abdelhedi, Ridha; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2015-02-15

    The present paper accounts for the study of the storage of Chemlali olive fruits at two conditions of limited aerobiosis: in closed plastic bags and in open perforated plastic boxes for different periods before oil extraction. The ultimate objective is to investigate the effect of the container type of the postharvest fruit storage on the deterioration of the olive oil quality. The results have shown that the oil quality of Chemlali olives deteriorated more rapidly during fruit storage in closed plastic bags than in perforated plastic boxes. Therefore, the use of perforated plastic boxes is recommended for keeping the olives for longer periods of storage. The repeated measures analysis of variance of all parameters analyzed indicated that the olive oil quality is mainly affected by the olives storage conditions (containers type and storage periods). Finally, blends of extra-virgin olive oil and mildly deodorized low-quality olive oils can be detected by their alkyl esters concentrations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Miastenia gravis juvenil Juvenile myasthenia gravis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Papazian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La miastenia gravis juvenil (MGJ es un trastorno crónico auto inmune en el cual existen anticuerpos séricos que al unirse a los receptores de acetilcolin nicotínicos de la membrana muscular de la placa motora alteran la transmisión neuromuscular. El resultado es fatiga muscular precoz con progresión a la parálisis durante estados de contracción muscular iterativos (movimientos o sostenidos (posturas y más raramente parálisis permanente durante el reposo. Los músculos inervados por los nervios craneales, especialmente los extraoculares y elevadores de los párpados, tienen más tendencia a la debilidad muscular persistente que los inervados por otros pares craneales y las extremidades. Las formas clínicas de presentación son generalizadas, oculares y respiratorias. El diagnóstico se sospecha mediante la anamnesia, la fatiga anormal se comprueba mediante el examen físico y la estimulación eléctrica iterativa del nervio que inerva al músculo afectado pero no paralizado. Se corrobora mediante la administración de inhibidores de la acetilcolin esterasa (IACE que al aumentar la cantidad de acetilcolin en la hendidura sináptica, corrigen la fatiga o la debilidad muscular transitoriamente. Se hace el diagnóstico de certeza mediante la demostración sérica de anticuerpos contra los receptores de acetilcolin (ACRA. El tratamiento es a largo plazo sintomático con IACE y etiopatogénico con inmunosupresores, plasmaféresis, gamma globulina endovenosa y timectomía. El curso es crónico. La remisión espontánea o después de tratamiento sintomático o etiopatogénico ocurre entre 1-10 años respectivamente. La mortalidad es prácticamente nula aun durantes las crisis miastenias gracias a la educación de padres, pacientes y público en general sobre el tema, al desarrollo del sistema de respuesta rápida de auxilio domiciliario y las unidades de cuidados intensivos y el empleo de la ventilación asistida profiláctica, plasmaféresis y

  17. Biological pretreatment and ethanol production from olive cake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurado, Esperanza; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Baroi, George Nabin

    2010-01-01

    Olive oil is one of the major Mediterranean products, whose nutritional and economic importance is well-known. However the extraction of olive oil yields a highly contaminating residue that causes serious environmental concerns in the olive oil producing countries. The olive cake (OC) coming out...... of the three-phase olive oil production process could be used as low price feedstock for lignocellulosic ethanol production due to its high concentration in carbohydrates. However, the binding of the carbohydrates with lignin may significantly hinder the necessary enzymatic hydrolysis of the polymeric sugars...... before ethanol fermentation. Treatment with three white rot fungi, Phaneroachaete chrysosporium, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Ceriolopsis polyzona has been applied on olive cake in order to investigate the potential for performing delignification and thus enhancing the efficiency of the subsequent...

  18. Monitoring endogenous enzymes during olive fruit ripening and storage: correlation with virgin olive oil phenolic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachicha Hbaieb, Rim; Kotti, Faten; García-Rodríguez, Rosa; Gargouri, Mohamed; Sanz, Carlos; Pérez, Ana G

    2015-05-01

    The ability of olive endogenous enzymes β-glucosidase, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POX), to determine the phenolic profile of virgin olive oil was investigated. Olives used for oil production were stored for one month at 20 °C and 4 °C and their phenolic content and enzymatic activities were compared to those of ripening olive fruits. Phenolic and volatile profiles of the corresponding oils were also analysed. Oils obtained from fruits stored at 4 °C show similar characteristics to that of freshly harvested fruits. However, the oils obtained from fruits stored at 20 °C presented the lowest phenolic content. Concerning the enzymatic activities, results show that the β-glucosidase enzyme is the key enzyme responsible for the determination of virgin olive oil phenolic profile as the decrease in this enzyme activity after 3 weeks of storage at 20 °C was parallel to a dramatic decrease in the phenolic content of the oils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Olives and olive oil are sources of electrophilic fatty acid nitroalkenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Fazzari

    Full Text Available Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO and olives, key sources of unsaturated fatty acids in the Mediterranean diet, provide health benefits to humans. Nitric oxide (•NO and nitrite (NO2 (--dependent reactions of unsaturated fatty acids yield electrophilic nitroalkene derivatives (NO2-FA that manifest salutary pleiotropic cell signaling responses in mammals. Herein, the endogenous presence of NO2-FA in both EVOO and fresh olives was demonstrated by mass spectrometry. The electrophilic nature of these species was affirmed by the detection of significant levels of protein cysteine adducts of nitro-oleic acid (NO2-OA-cysteine in fresh olives, especially in the peel. Further nitration of EVOO by NO2 (- under acidic gastric digestive conditions revealed that human consumption of olive lipids will produce additional nitro-conjugated linoleic acid (NO2-cLA and nitro-oleic acid (NO2-OA. The presence of free and protein-adducted NO2-FA in both mammalian and plant lipids further affirm a role for these species as signaling mediators. Since NO2-FA instigate adaptive anti-inflammatory gene expression and metabolic responses, these redox-derived metabolites may contribute to the cardiovascular benefits associated with the Mediterranean diet.

  20. Juvenile Dermatomyositis in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Emeka Madu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile dermatomyositis has variable clinical presentations both in and outside of pregnancy. A literature review indicated that optimal maternal and fetal outcomes can be anticipated when the pregnancy is undertaken while the disease is in remission. Poorer outcomes are associated with flare-up of the disease in early pregnancy compared with exacerbation in the second or third trimester, when fetal prognosis is usually good. We present a case of JDM in pregnancy with disease exacerbation late in pregnancy and review of the relevant literature.

  1. Juvenile dermatomyositis in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madu, Anthony Emeka; Omih, Edwin; Baguley, Elaine; Lindow, Stephen W

    2013-01-01

    Juvenile dermatomyositis has variable clinical presentations both in and outside of pregnancy. A literature review indicated that optimal maternal and fetal outcomes can be anticipated when the pregnancy is undertaken while the disease is in remission. Poorer outcomes are associated with flare-up of the disease in early pregnancy compared with exacerbation in the second or third trimester, when fetal prognosis is usually good. We present a case of JDM in pregnancy with disease exacerbation late in pregnancy and review of the relevant literature.

  2. Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larralde, M; Santos-Muñoz, A; Calb, I; Magariños, C

    2001-01-01

    Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis (JHF) is a rare autosomal recessive disease with onset in infancy or early childhood. It is characterized by papulonodular skin lesions, soft tissue masses, gingival hypertrophy, and flexion contractures of the large joints. The light and electron microscopic features are very distinctive. Here we report an 8-month-old boy with characteristic stiffness of the knees and elbows and pink confluent papules on the paranasal folds, and periauricular and perianal regions. He also had hard nodules all over the scalp and around the mouth, and severe gingival hypertrophy. Histologic and ultrastructural features were typical of JHF. Clinical features, pathology, and physiology are discussed.

  3. Olive tree (Olea europaea L.) leaf as a waste by-product of table olive and olive oil industry: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahin, Selin; Bilgin, Mehmet

    2017-08-11

    Research into finding new uses for by-products of table olive and olive oil industry are of great value not only to the economy but also to the environment where olives are grown and to the human health. Since leaves represent around 10% of the total weight of olives arriving at the mill, it is worth obtaining high added-value compounds from those materials for the preparation of dietary supplements, nutraceuticals, functional food ingredients or cosmeceuticals. In this review article, olive tree (Olea europaea L.) leaf is reviewed as being a potential inexpensive, renewable and abundant source of biophenols. The importance of this agricultural and industrial waste is emphasised by means of describing its availability, nutritional and therapeutic effects and studies conducted on this field. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Survival of foodborne pathogens in natural cracked olive brines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Eduardo; Romero-Gil, Verónica; Garrido-Fernández, Antonio; Arroyo-López, Francisco Noé

    2016-10-01

    This work reports the survival (challenge tests) of foodborne pathogen species (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica) in Aloreña de Málaga table olive brines. The inhibitions were fit using a log-linear model with tail implemented in GInaFIT excel software. The olive brine had a considerable inhibitory effect on the pathogens. The residual (final) populations (Fp) after 24 h was below detection limit (olives for foodborne pathogenic microorganisms.

  5. Impact of Olive Cultivation on Biodiversity in Messenia, Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Kjellström, Felicia

    2014-01-01

    The biggest threat and cause to loss of biodiversity have been found to be the intensification of agriculture under the 20th century. Messenia is one of the oldest olive cultivation areas in Greece and the landscape is dominated by olive groves characterized by extensive tillage, which causes serious erosion and might be a threat to plant diversity. Organic olive cultivation is an alternative that aims to preserve and support biodiversity. In this study the plant composition in the edge zones...

  6. Juvenile Justice in Rural America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankovic, Joanne, Ed.; And Others

    Producing a much-needed organized body of literature about rural juvenile justice, 14 papers (largely from the 1979 National Symposium on Rural Justice) are organized to identify current issues, identify forces causing changes in current systems, review programs responding to rural juvenile justice problems, and provide planning models to aid…

  7. Different organochlorine contaminant profiles in groups of flounders (Platichthys flesus) from sampling locations around Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorkamp, Katrin; Svendsen, Tore Christian; Rønsholdt, Bent;

    2012-01-01

    Flounders (Platichthys flesus) from the waters around Denmark were analysed for their organochlorine (OC) profile to study whether fish from the same genetic population could be separated into characteristic subpopulations, based on their feeding grounds. The chemical analysis of fish liver...... provided a data set of 16 OC compounds in 94 samples from 2004 to 2006. Except for hexachlorocyclohexane, OC compounds were intercorrelated, indicating similar environmental fate and bioaccumulation. OC profiles are less affected than absolute concentrations by potentially confounding biological factors...... and thus more suitable for studies of intrapopulation differences in relation to feeding grounds. Principal component analysis grouped the samples according to locations. All but three of the 94 samples could be reclassified. Samples from the same and additional locations collected in 2003 provided...

  8. Occurrence of scuticociliatosis in the flounder Paralichthys adspersus caused by Miamiensis avidus, in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Medina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Scuticociliatosis, a disease caused by ciliates from the order Scuticociliatida characterized by their high potential to invade the host, is a serious problem in marine aquaculture. This paper describes scuticociliatosis infection in farmed flounder Paralichthys adspersus. External and internal signs of infection include necrotic areas in the tegument, abundant mucus, swelling of the visceral cavity with ascitic fluid accumulation, necrotic muscle fibers and brain liquefaction, among others. The ciliate parasite was molecularly identified and characterized as M. avidus, using sequences of mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I (COI, and nuclear genes β-tubulin and the region of the small subunit 18S rRNA, showing synonymy with P. dicentrarchi . All lesions were infested by ciliates. Histologically, ciliates are detected in almost all tissues being the brain the organ more parasitized. The infected specimens associated with secondary bacterial infections, predominantly Vibrio alginolyticus, died after a lethargy period.

  9. Physiological response in the European flounder (Platichthys flesus) to variable salinity and oxygen conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgreen, Kim; Kiilerich, Pia; Tipsmark, Christian Kølbæk

    2008-01-01

    Physiological mechanisms involved in acclimation to variable salinity and oxygen levels and their interaction were studied in European flounder. The fish were acclimated for two weeks to freshwater (1 ‰ salinity), brackish water (11 ‰) or full strength seawater (35 ‰) under normoxic conditions...... (water Po2 = 158 mmHg) and then subjected to 48 h of continued normoxia or hypoxia at a level (Po2 = 54 mmHg) close to but above the critical Po2. Plasma osmolality, [Na+] and [Cl-] increased with increasing salinity, but the rises were limited, reflecting an effective extracellular osmoregulation....... Muscle water content was the same at all three salinities, indicating complete cell volume regulation. Gill Na+/K+-ATPase activity did not change with salinity, but hypoxia caused a 25 % decrease in branchial Na+/K+-ATPase activity at all three salinities. Furthermore, hypoxia induced a significant...

  10. In vitro acute cytotoxicity of neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid to gill cell line of flounder Paralichthy olivaceus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Feng; Zhang, Shicui; Li, Hongyan; Guo, Huarong

    2007-04-01

    In vitro acute cytotoxicity of neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid (IMI) to the gill cell line of flounder (FG) that collected in the gill of Paralichthys olivaceus, was examined by 3 widely used endpoint bioassays: NR (neutral red), MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) and TCP (total cell protein). The result shows that the IMI increased at concentrations ≥0.5 μg/ml. The IC50 value of NR. MTT, and TCP was 41.86, 38.46, and 39.08 μg/ml, respectively. The ultrastructural observation revealed that the mitochondria of the cells exposed to 60 μg/ml IMI for 48 h were severely damaged, swollen or disrupted, while their nuclei and rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) remained normal. This would suggest that the mitochondria are probably the primary target of IMI.

  11. In vitro acute cytotoxicity of neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid to gill cell line of flounder Paralichthy olivaceus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Feng; ZHANG Shicui; LI Hongyan; GUO Huarong

    2007-01-01

    In vitro acute cytotoxicity of neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid (IMI) to the gill cell line of flounder (FG) that collected in the gill of Paralichthys olivaceus, was examined by 3 widely used endpoint bioassays: NR (neutral red), MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) and TCP (total cell protein). The result shows that the IMI increased at concentrations ≥0.5 μg/ml. The IC50 value of NR, MTT, and TCP was 41.86, 38.46, and 39.08 μg/ml, respectively. The ultrastructural observation revealed that the mitochondria of the cells exposed to 60 μg/ml IMI for 48 h were severely damaged, swollen or disrupted, while their nuclei and rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) remained normal. This would suggest that the mitochondria are probably the primary target of IMI.

  12. Analysis of minor components in olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murkovic, Michael; Lechner, Sonja; Pietzka, Ariane; Bratacos, Michael; Katzogiannos, Evangellos

    2004-10-29

    Virgin olive oil is well known for its high content of phenolic substances that are thought to have health-promoting properties. These substances also contribute to the distinctive taste of the oil. In this study, tyrosol, vanillic acid, luteolin, and apigenin were identified and quantified by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS). In the seven samples analysed, tyrosol, the most abundant, was in the range of 1.4-29 mg/kg, vanillic acid was in the range of 0.67-4.0 mg/kg, luteolin was in the range of 0.22-7.0 mg/kg, and apigenin was in the range of 0.68-1.6 mg/kg. It was also shown that in olive oil, squalene can be analysed by using a refractive index detector. In the samples analysed, squalene occurred in the range of 3.9-9.6 g/l.

  13. Studying on rooting ability of olive cultivars region of Tirana

    OpenAIRE

    KOZETA BREGU; FADIL THOMAJ; ANIDA MEMA

    2014-01-01

    The results brought in this study present the rooting ability of semi dendric olive pieces, including the five most important cultivars of the area which are used as oil cultivar ("olive white", “Kushan", "Karre" and "black olive from Ndroq Tirana") or as cultivar used for oil and salting (Boç and red olive). Anchoring (sample) material is taken from three age-old mother plants and with a good health and vegetation condition. Previously pieces are treated with IBA at 4000 ppm concentration. ...

  14. Sensory characterization of virgin olive oil-based cosmetic creams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, Maria Emma; Gámbaro, Adriana; Boinbaser, Lucia; Roascio, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    The influence of olive oil concentration and sensory profile on the odor of virgin olive oil-based cosmetic creams was studied. Four olive oils were selected on the basis of different intensities of positive and defective odor attributes: two extra virgin olive oils, one virgin olive oil, and one ordinary virgin olive oil. Thirty cosmetic creams were prepared, by both cold and hot processing methods, using each of the above oils at concentrations of 3%, 5%, and 10%, in addition to mineral oil controls. A trained sensory panel evaluated the fruitiness and defectiveness intensities in the odor of creams, using unstructured 10-cm scales ranging from "none at all" to "much." The fruity and defective attributes perceived in the odor of creams were significantly influenced by the sensory profile of the starting olive oil, oil concentration, and preparation method. Overall, these findings suggest that virgin olive oils of only slightly fruity odor may be conveniently used for the preparation of cold-processed cosmetic creams, whereas ordinary virgin olive oils appear to be suitable for the preparation of cosmetic creams only by hot processing of the emulsion at a low oil concentration.

  15. Potential for biohydrogen and methane production from olive pulp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær;

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigates the potential for thermophilic biohydrogen and methane production from olive pulp, which is the semi-solid residue coming from the two-phase processing of olives. It focussed on: a) production of methane from the raw olive pulp, b) anaerobic bio-production of hydrogen...... and hydrogen-effluent was as high as 19 mmole CH4 per g TS. This suggests that olive pulp is an ideal substrate for methane production and it shows that biohydrogen production can be very efficiently coupled with a subsequent step for methane production....

  16. Effects of the planting density on virgin olive oil quality of "Chemlali" olive trees (Olea europaea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerfel, Mokhtar; Zaghdoud, Chokri; Jebahi, Khaled; Boujnah, Dalenda; Zarrouk, Mokhtar

    2010-12-08

    Here, we report the characterization of virgin olive oil samples obtained from fruits of the main Tunisian olive cultivar (Chemlali) grown in four planting densities (156, 100, 69, and 51 trees ha(-1)). Olive oil samples obtained from fruits of trees grown at 100 trees ha(-1) had a higher content of oleic acid (65.5%), a higher content of chlorophyll and carotenoids, and a higher content in total phenols (1059.08 mg/kg). Interestingly, olives grown at the two highest planting densities yielded more stable oils than olives grown at the two lowest ones. Thus planting density is found to be a key factor for the quality of olive oils in arid regions.

  17. Evaluation of processing factors for selected organic contaminants during virgin olive oil production: Distribution of BTEXS during olives processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Blanco, Rafael; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; Rojas-Jiménez, Rubén; Robles-Molina, José; Ramos-Martos, Natividad; García-Reyes, Juan F; Molina-Díaz, Antonio

    2016-05-15

    The presence of BTEXS (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes and styrene) in virgin olive oils can be attributed to environmental contamination, but also to biological processes during oil lipogenesis (styrene). In this work, the processing factor of BTEXS from olives to olive oil during its production was evaluated at lab-scale with an Abencor system. Benzene showed the lowest processing factor (15%), whereas toluene and xylenes showed an intermediate behavior (with 40-60% efficiency), and ethylbenzene and styrene were completely transferred (100%). In addition, an attempt to examine the contribution of potential sources to olives contamination with BTEXS was carried out for the first time. Two types of olives samples were classified according to their proximity to the contamination source (road). Although higher levels of BTEXS were found in samples close to roads, the concentrations were relatively low and do not constitute a major contribution to BTEXS usually detected in olive oil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cooling treatment of olive paste during the oil processing: Impact on the yield and extra virgin olive oil quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneziani, G; Esposto, S; Taticchi, A; Urbani, S; Selvaggini, R; Di Maio, I; Sordini, B; Servili, M

    2017-04-15

    In recent years, the temperature of processed olives in many olive-growing areas was often close to 30°C, due to the global warming and an early harvesting period. Consequently, the new trends in the extraction process have to include the opportunity to cool the olives or olive paste before processing to obtain high quality EVOO. A tubular thermal exchanger was used for a rapid cooling treatment (CT) of olive paste after crushing. The results did not show a significant difference in the oil yield or any modifications in the legal parameters. The cooling process determined a significant improvement of phenolic compounds in all the three Italian cultivar EVOOs analyzed, whereas the volatile compounds showed a variability largely affected by the genetic origin of the olives with C6 aldehydes that seem to be more stable than C6 alcohols and esters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of some chemical parameters of a naturally debittered olive (Olea europaea L.) type with regular olive varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, Ayse Burcu; Ozen, Banu; Tokatli, Figen; Sen, Ilknur

    2014-10-15

    Some olives grown in Karaburun peninsula in the west part of Turkey and mostly coming from Erkence variety lose their bitterness while still on the tree and are called Hurma among locals. This olive type does not require further processing to remove the bitter compounds. In this study, sugar, organic acid and fatty acid profiles of Hurma, Erkence (not naturally debittered) and Gemlik (commonly consumed as table olive) olives were determined throughout 8weeks of maturation period for two consecutive harvest seasons, and the results were analysed by principal component analysis (PCA). PCA of sugar and organic acid data revealed a differentiation in terms of harvest year but not on variety. Hurma olive is separated from others due to its fatty acid profile, and it has higher linoleic acid content compared to others. This might be an indication of increased desaturase enzyme activity for Hurma olives during natural debittering phase.

  20. 中草药对牙鲆免疫力的影响%Effect of Chinese herbal medicine on immunity of flounder Paralich thvs olivaceus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李霞; 马驰原; 李雅娟; 姜志强; 王斌; 姚远; 孔相铁

    2011-01-01

    vFlounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)juveniles, (22.89± 12.60)g, were stocked in circulating water and temperature controlled channels and fed the diets containing 1%, 3% and 5% Chinese herbal medicine. On the 15th, 30th and 45th day, serological immunological index were analyzed. Histology section of epithelium and the number of mucus cells were observed under microscope. Noxious experiment with injecting Edwardsiella Tarda into the back muscle was carried. Results showed that the number of white blood cells, the active of lysozyme, alkaline phosphatasein and the total protein in serum were increased as the inrising of concentration of Chinese herbal medicine and the sustained time under the condition of 3% and 5%. Complement C3 and superoxide dismutase were increased after feeding the diets containing 5% Chinese herbal medicine. Numbers of mucus cells in the skin, the index of spleen and rate of the immune protection were positive correlated with the concentration of Chinese herbal medicine and sustained time. The rate of immune protection was as high as 80% in 5% concentration group. It showed that feeding Chinese herbal medicine added in could improve the flounder's immunity.%以初始体重为(22.89±12.60)g的牙鲆幼鱼为试验对象,在室内控温循环水槽中进行中草药对牙鲆免疫力影响的试验.向基础饲料中添加的中草药含量分别为1%、3%和5%,经过15、30和45 d后分别取血清进行免疫指标的分析测定,取鱼表皮进行常规组织学制片,在光学显微镜下观察粘液细胞的数量变化.饲喂实验结束时通过背部肌肉注射爱得华氏菌进行攻毒实验.结果表明,以3%和5%浓度中草药的牙鲆混合饲料饲喂45 d后牙鲆血液中白细胞数、碱性磷酸酶活性、溶菌酶活性和血清总蛋白含量随中草药添加浓度和投喂时间的增加而增多;而在添加量5%的条件下,补体C3的含量和超氧化物歧化酶活性较对照组有明显增加.牙

  1. Olive oil: maternal and pediatric health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Trapani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The new base of the pyramid that represents the Mediterranean Diet (MD includes a balanced lifestyle, healthy cooking methods, traditional, local and eco-friendly products, conviviality, physical activity with an adequate amount of rest, as well as caloric restriction and food frugality. Moreover, it has been confirmed that the main source of MD fat is Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO. EVOO is considered a key feature of the healthy properties of the MD, due to its fatty acid, vitamin and polyphenol composition. However, these components need to be bioavailable to allow EVOO to exert its nutraceutical properties, which include antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, antimicrobial, antiviral and hypoglycemic properties, as well as protective effects on the heart and brain, and during pregnancy and breast feeding. The main phenolic components responsible for the nutraceutical properties of EVOO are hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol and oleuropein. The adopted oil production and extraction technologies, such as extraction at low oxidative stress, determine the final polyphenol content in virgin olive oil.Limited information on the epigenetic effects of olive polyphenols is presently available, although the epigenetic effects of many other plant polyphenols have been well documented. In this context, it has been found that, if mothers consume an adequate amount of olive oil during pregnancy, their children will be exposed to a lower risk of wheezing in the first period of their lives. In addition, EVOO, because of its oleochantal content, a natural anti-inflammatory substance, may have an effect on many inflammatory diseases, even in the early period of life.

  2. Long-Term Effects of Olive oil Mill wastewater spreading on soil and olive trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben rouina, B.; Ben Ahmed, C.; Boukhris, M.

    2009-07-01

    The olive oil extraction process produces huge amounts of liquid waste called olive mill waste water (OMWW). Large amounts of OMWW (30 million m{sup 3}) are produced in the Mediterranean regions that accounts for 95% of the total olive oil production worldwide. In Tunisia, OMWW constitutes a serious environmental problem due to the features associated with this type of agro-waste and to its diverse organic load which may reach values as high as 100 g/L and is mained with this type of agro-waste and to its diverse organic load which may reach values as high as 100 g/L is mainly due to sugars. lipids, phenols, and tannins. (Author)

  3. Juvenile arthritis and uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanski, J J

    1990-01-01

    The association between juvenile arthritis and uveitis is reviewed. Some children with the HLA-B27 related spondyloarthropathies develop anterior uveitis. About 20% of patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) who are negative for IgM rheumatoid factor develop a frequently bilateral, nongranulomatous chronic anterior uveitis. Risk factors for uveitis in JRA patients are: female gender, pauciarticular onset of arthritis, presence of circulating antinuclear antibodies, and the antigens HLA-DW5 and HLA-DPw2. Uveitis is rare after seven years or more have elapsed from the onset of arthritis. The visual prognosis in patients with uveitis is good in 25% and fair in 50%. The remaining 25% develop visual impairment from complicated cataract and/or secondary inflammatory glaucoma. The potential benefit of cytotoxic agents in the treatment of intractable uveitis is outweighed by the risk of serious side effects. The management of secondary inflammatory glaucoma is unsatisfactory, but the results of treatment of complicated cataracts by lensectomy-vitrectomy are good.

  4. Aggressive juvenile mandibular fibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Georgi P; Atanasov, Dimitar T; Anavi, Beniamin L

    2013-01-01

    Aggressive juvenile fibromatosis of the jawbones is a rare tumor presenting as infiltrative mass with unpredictable evolution. We report herein a 17-year-old student with a 6-month history of radiologically proven resorption of a part of the mandible, lingual displacement of tooth 34 and malocclusion. Alveolar ridge resorption and three dark-brown foci in the bone were seen after the tooth was extracted. Histological study showed the tumor tissue to have a bundle-like structure; immunohistochemically it was positive for vimentin, smooth muscle actin, beta-catenin, Ki-67 (5%), and negative for desmin and cytokeratin 34bE12. The golden standard in the diagnostics of desmoid fibromatoses is the nuclear or membrane expression of beta-catenin, which is found in 90% of the cases. Differential diagnosis include mandibular fibroma, well-differentiated fibrosarcoma, fibrosing histiocytoma, and infiltration from adjacent soft-tissue tumor. Aggressive juvenile fibromatosis should be managed by radical excision. Local recurrences are not rare, but metastases do not develop. In rare cases this type of fibromatosis has been known to regress spontaneously. Aggressive fibromatosis is a diagnostic challenge, since it remains in the grey zone between benign and malignant lesions of the oral cavity.

  5. Medical professionalism development of oliver R. Avison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryue, Sook-Hee; Yang, Eun Bae

    2009-06-01

    How does professionalism develop while becoming a great doctor? This study based on the life of Avison, a great doctor, aims to identify the developmental features of an excellence and professionally ethical doctor. We chose Oliver R. Avison, who founded the first modern hospital and medical school in Korea, now known as Severance Hospital and Yonsei University College of Medicine. Sixteen pivotal events in Avison's life were extracted, based on 2 standards: self-memory and strong feeling. Further we analyzed Avison' life using a professional development analysis model. Oliver Avison's medical professionalism development was divided into 4 periods: 'Motivating in Medicine period', 'Medical Training period', 'Medical Doctor period', and 'Medical Educating period'. A hallmark of Oliver Avison's medical professionalism development was the growth of motivation and social responsibility, medical knowledge, medical creativity, intra-personal intelligence, and relationship forming abilities. To excel in medicine, a medical student should be encouraged to understand his unique intellectual potentials and interest as a medical worker, and try to understand problems in the established domain and field of medicine, to develop new medical symbol systems, and climates.

  6. Quality parameters of olive oil from stoned and nonstoned Koroneiki and Megaritiki Greek olive varieties at different maturity levels

    OpenAIRE

    Katsoyannos, E.; Batrinou, A.; Chatzilazarou, A.; Bratakos, S. M.; Stamatopoulos, K; Sinanoglou, V. J.

    2015-01-01

    Virgin olive oil is a natural functional food and its beneficial role in health as an integral ingredient of the Mediterranean diet is universally recognized. The effects of olive pitting, degree of ripeness and variety (Greek varieties Koroneiki and Megaritiki) were investigated on the physicochemical characteristics, antioxidant constituent contents and capacity and on the fatty acid profile of olive oil. Ripeness resulted in a decrease (P < 0.05) in phenolic and tocopherol contents and the...

  7. Spatial distribution of grossly visible diseases and parasites in flounder ( Platichthys flesus ) from the Baltic Sea : a synoptic survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lang, T.; Mellergaard, Stig; Wosniok, W.;

    1999-01-01

    for lymphocystis (14.4%) and acute/healing stages of the skin ulcer disease (5.9%). The prevalences of liver neoplasms >2 mm in diameter (0.4%), skeletal deformities (0.6%), and fin rot/erosion (0.5%) were low. The only externally visible parasite recorded was Cryptocotyle concavum (28.2%). The results......Information on prevalences of grossly visible diseases and parasites of flounder (Platichthys flesus) from the Baltic Sea is presented for 11 sampling areas on a transect from the Mecklenburg Eight to the Gulf of Finland. Among the 3008 flounder examined, highest overall prevalences were observed...... of a multivariate statistical analysis reveal that the diseases are influenced by a variety of host-specific (length, age, sex) and area-specific (salinity, temperature) factors as well as their interactions. By calculating the expected prevalence for a standardized fish population for each area and disease...

  8. Studies on the edwardsiellosis and characterization of pathogenic bacteria from diseased flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus L.) and turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L. )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Hai; ZHANG Xiaojun; CHEN Cuizhen; JIN Xiaomin; WANG Xiuyun

    2006-01-01

    Edwardsiellosis of flounder and turbot occurring in different mariculture farms during 2001 ~2004 was examined, including the conditions of disease occurrence, clinical signs and pathological changes. The results showed that all diseased fishes expressed bacterial septicaemia. A total of 148 strains were identified using a combination of traditional physiological and biochemical tests and partial 16S rRNA gene analysis. In addition, the mole fraction G + C ratio of the DNA of representative strain of isolates and serum homology were detected, and pathogenicity tests of isolates were conducted by experimental infection. The results revealed that 148 strains were identified as E. tarda of genus Edwardsiella, all the isolates are of serologic similarity, and have strong pathogenicity to flounder and turbot.

  9. Evolutionary mechanisms shaping the genetic population structure of marine fishes; lessons from the European flounder ( Platichthys flesus L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Hemmer; Eg Nielsen, Einar; Grønkjær, P.

    2007-01-01

    A number of evolutionary mechanisms have been suggested for generating low but significant genetic structuring among marine fish populations. We used nine microsatellite loci and recently developed methods in landscape genetics and coalescence-based estimation of historical gene flow and effective...... population sizes to assess temporal and spatial dynamics of the population structure in European flounder (Platichthys flesus L.). We collected 1062 flounders from 13 localities in the northeast Atlantic and Baltic Seas and found temporally stable and highly significant genetic differentiation among samples...... with the extreme isolation of the island population at the Faroe Islands. A sharp genetic break was associated with a change in life history from pelagic to benthic spawners in the Baltic Sea. Partial Mantel tests showed that geographical distance per se was not related with genetic structuring among Atlantic...

  10. Juvenile justice mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Christopher R; Penn, Joseph V

    2002-10-01

    As the second century of partnership begins, child psychiatry and juvenile justice face continuing challenges in meeting the mental health needs of delinquents. The modern juvenile justice system is marked by a significantly higher volume of cases, with increasingly complicated multiproblem youths and families with comorbid medical, psychiatric, substance abuse disorders, multiple family and psychosocial adversities, and shrinking community resources and alternatives to confinement. The family court is faced with shrinking financial resources to support court-ordered placement and treatment programs in efforts to treat and rehabilitate youths. The recognition of high rates of mental disorders for incarcerated youth has prompted several recommendations for improvement and calls for reform [56,57]. In their 2000 annual report, the Coalition for Juvenile Justice advocated increased access to mental health services that provide a continuum of care tailored to the specific problems of incarcerated youth [58]. The specific recommendations of the report for mental health providers include the need for wraparound services, improved planning and coordination between agencies, and further research. The Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention has set three priorities in dealing with the mental health needs of delinquents: further research on the prevalence of mental illness among juvenile offenders, development of mental health screening assessment protocols, and improved mental health services [59]. Other programs have called for earlier detection and diversion of troubled youth from juvenile justice to mental health systems [31,56]. Most recently, many juvenile and family courts have developed innovative programs to address specific problems such as truancy or substance use and diversionary or alternative sentencing programs to deal with first-time or nonviolent delinquents. All youths who come in contact with the juvenile justice system

  11. Mutations in exons of the CYP17-II gene affect sex steroid concentration in male Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ruiqin; He, Feng; Wen, Haishen; Li, Jifang; Shi, Bao; Shi, Dan; Liu, Miao; Mu, Weijie; Zhang, Yuanqing; Hu, Jian; Han, Weiguo; Zhang, Jianan; Wang, Qingqing; Yuan, Yuren; Liu, Qun

    2012-03-01

    As a specific gene of fish, cytochrome P450c17-II ( CYP17-II) gene plays a key role in the growth, development an reproduction level of fish. In this study, the single-stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP) technique was used to characterize polymorphisms within the coding region of CYP17-II gene in a population of 75 male Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus). Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in CYP17-II gene of Japanese flounder. They were c.G594A (p.G188R), c.G939A and c.G1502A (p.G490D). SNP1 (c.G594A), located in exon 4 of CYP17-II gene, was significantly associated with gonadosomatic index (GSI). Individuals with genotype GG of SNP1 had significantly lower GSI ( P < 0.05) than those with genotype AA or AG. SNP2 (c.G939A) located at the CpG island of CYP17-II gene. The mutation changed the methylation of exon 6. Individuals with genotype AA of SNP2 had significantly lower serum testosterone (T) level and hepatosomatic index (HSI) compared to those with genotype GG. The results suggested that SNP2 could influence the reproductive endocrine of male Japanese flounder. However, the SNP3 (c.G1502A) located in exon 9 did not affect the four measured reproductive traits. This study showed that CYP17-II gene could be a potentially useful candidate gene for the research of genetic breeding and physiological aspects of Japanese flounder.

  12. Molecular response of estuarine fish to hypoxia: a comparative study with ruffe and flounder from field and laboratory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Tiedke

    Full Text Available On a global scale, the frequencies and magnitudes of hypoxic events in coastal and estuarine waters have increased dramatically over the past 20 years. Fish populations are suitable indicators for the assessment of the quality of aquatic ecosystems, as they are omnipresent and often comprise a variety of different lifestyles and adaption strategies. We have investigated on the molecular level the impact of hypoxia on two fish species typical of European estuaries. We monitored the expression of eleven putatively hypoxia-responsive genes by means of quantitative real-time RT-PCR in brains, gills and hearts of the ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernua and the flounder (Platichthys flesus. We first investigated the effect of naturally occurring hypoxia in the Elbe estuary. In a second approach, expression changes in the response to hypoxia were monitored under controlled laboratory conditions. The genes that showed the strongest effect were two respiratory proteins, myoglobin and neuroglobin, as well as the apoptosis enzyme caspase 3. As previously observed in other fish, myoglobin, which was considered to be muscle-specific, was found in brain and gills as well. Comparison of field and laboratory studies showed that--with the exception of the heart of flounder--that mRNA levels of the selected genes were about the same, suggesting that laboratory conditions reflect natural conditions. Likewise, trends of gene expression changes under hypoxia were the same, although hypoxia response was more pronounced in the Elbe estuary. In general, the flounder displayed a stronger response to hypoxia than the ruffe, suggesting that the flounder is more susceptible to hypoxia. The most pronounced differences were found among tissues within a species, demonstrating that hypoxia response is largely tissue-specific. In summary, our data suggest that laboratory experiments essentially mimic field data, but additional environmental factors enhance hypoxia response in nature.

  13. Mutations in Exons of the CYP17- Ⅱ Gene Affect Sex Steroid Concentration in Male Japanese Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Ruiqin; HU Jian; HAN Weiguo; ZHANG Jianan; WANG Qingqing; YUAN Yuren; LIU Qun; HE Feng; WEN Haishen; LI Jifang; SHI Bao; SHI Dan; LIU Miao; MU Weijie; ZHANG Yuanqing

    2012-01-01

    As a specific gene of fish,cytochrome P450c 17-Ⅱ (CYP17-Ⅱ) gene plays a key role in the growth,development and reproduction level of fish.In this study,the single-stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP) technique was used to characterize polymorphisms within the coding region of CYP17- Ⅱ gene in a population of 75 male Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in CYP17-Ⅱ gene of Japanese flounder.They were c.G594A (p.G188R),c.G939A and c.G1502A (p.G490D).SNP1 (c.G594A),located in exon 4 of CYP17-Ⅱ gene,was significantly associated with gonadosomatic index (GSI).Individuals with genotype GG of SNP1 had significantly lower GSI (P<0.05) than those with genotype AA or AG.SNP2 (c.G939A) located at the CpG island of CYP17-Ⅱ gene.The mutation changed the methylation of exon 6.Individuals with genotype AA of SNP2 had significantly lower serum testosterone (T) level and hepatosomatic index (HSI) compared to those with genotype GG.The results suggested that SNP2 could influence the reproductive endocrine of male Japanese flounder.However,the SNP3 (c.G 1502A) located in exon 9 did not affect the four measured reproductive traits.This study showed that CYP17-Ⅱgene could be a potentially useful candidate gene for the research of genetic breeding and physiological aspects of Japanese flounder.

  14. De Novo assembly of the Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus spleen transcriptome to identify putative genes involved in immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Huang

    Full Text Available Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus is an economically important marine fish in Asia and has suffered from disease outbreaks caused by various pathogens, which requires more information for immune relevant genes on genome background. However, genomic and transcriptomic data for Japanese flounder remain scarce, which limits studies on the immune system of this species. In this study, we characterized the Japanese flounder spleen transcriptome using an Illumina paired-end sequencing platform to identify putative genes involved in immunity.A cDNA library from the spleen of P. olivaceus was constructed and randomly sequenced using an Illumina technique. The removal of low quality reads generated 12,196,968 trimmed reads, which assembled into 96,627 unigenes. A total of 21,391 unigenes (22.14% were annotated in the NCBI Nr database, and only 1.1% of the BLASTx top-hits matched P. olivaceus protein sequences. Approximately 12,503 (58.45% unigenes were categorized into three Gene Ontology groups, 19,547 (91.38% were classified into 26 Cluster of Orthologous Groups, and 10,649 (49.78% were assigned to six Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. Furthermore, 40,928 putative simple sequence repeats and 47, 362 putative single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified. Importantly, we identified 1,563 putative immune-associated unigenes that mapped to 15 immune signaling pathways.The P. olivaceus transciptome data provides a rich source to discover and identify new genes, and the immune-relevant sequences identified here will facilitate our understanding of the mechanisms involved in the immune response. Furthermore, the plentiful potential SSRs and SNPs found in this study are important resources with respect to future development of a linkage map or marker assisted breeding programs for the flounder.

  15. First isolation and characterization of a new species of Vibrio from diseased flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus Temminck et Schlegel)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiaojun; FANG Hai; CHEN Cuizhen; ZHAN Wenbin; JIN Xiaomin; WANG Xiuyun

    2005-01-01

    Appropriate pathogenic bacteria were isolated from diseased (or dead) flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus L) occurring in a mariculture farms of Qinhuangdao, which all diseased fishes expressed bacterial septieaemia. The phenotypic information of the 12 pure cultures was studied extensively, including morphological characteristics, colony characteristics in different media, physiological and biochemical characteristics, and the mole fraction G+C ratio of the DNA for representative strain. The results show that the isolates belong to a new species of Vibrio, and are designated as Vibrio qinhuangdaora sp.nov. by the area from which the diseased flounders are collected (Qinhuangdao) based on its biological properties following Rules of International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria. At the same time,studies on the serum homology of isolates, and pathogenicity of isolates were conducted by experimental infection. The results show that all the isolates are of serologic similarity, and the isolates have strong pathogenicity to flounder. The studies can extensively reflect the main biological properties of this new species of Vibrio.

  16. Sequence and organization of the complete mitochondrial genomes of spotted halibut (Verasper variegatus) and barfin flounder (Verasper moseri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chongbo; Han, Jiabo; Ge, Longli; Zhou, Zunchun; Gao, Xianggang; Mu, Yunlei; Liu, Weidong; Cao, Jie; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2008-06-01

    In this work, the mitochondrial genomes for spotted halibut (Verasper variegatus) and barfin flounder (Verasper moseri) were completely sequenced. The entire mitochondrial genome sequences of the spotted halibut and barfin flounder were 17,273 and 17,588 bp in length, respectively. The organization of the two mitochondrial genomes was similar to those reported from other fish mitochondrial genomes containing 37 genes (2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs and 13 protein-coding genes) and two non-coding regions (control region (CR) and WANCY region). In the CR, the termination associated sequence (ETAS), six central conserved block (CSB-A,B,C,D,E,F), three conserved sequence blocks (CSB1-3) and a region of 61-bp tandem repeat cluster at the end of CSB-3 were identified by similarity comparison with fishes and other vertebrates. The tandem repeat sequences show polymorphism among the different individuals of the two species. The complete mitochondrial genomes of spotted halibut and barfin flounder should be useful for evolutionary studies of flatfishes and other vertebrate species.

  17. Early development of circadian rhythmicity in the suprachiamatic nuclei and pineal gland of teleost, flounder (Paralichthys olivaeus), embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogi, Makoto; Uji, Susumu; Yokoi, Hayato; Suzuki, Tohru

    2015-08-01

    Circadian rhythms enable organisms to coordinate multiple physiological processes and behaviors with the earth's rotation. In mammals, the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), the sole master circadian pacemaker, has entrainment mechanisms that set the circadian rhythm to a 24-h cycle with photic signals from retina. In contrast, the zebrafish SCN is not a circadian pacemaker, instead the pineal gland (PG) houses the major circadian oscillator. The SCN of flounder larvae, unlike that of zebrafish, however, expresses per2 with a rhythmicity of daytime/ON and nighttime/OFF. Here, we examined whether the rhythm of per2 expression in the flounder SCN represents the molecular clock. We also examined early development of the circadian rhythmicity in the SCN and PG. Our three major findings were as follows. First, rhythmic per2 expression in the SCN was maintained under 24 h dark (DD) conditions, indicating that a molecular clock exists in the flounder SCN. Second, onset of circadian rhythmicity in the SCN preceded that in the PG. Third, both 24 h light (LL) and DD conditions deeply affected the development of circadian rhythmicity in the SCN and PG. This is the first report dealing with the early development of circadian rhythmicity in the SCN in fish.

  18. Effects of dietary soybean stachyose and phytic acid on gene expressions of serine proteases in Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Haifeng; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Wenbing; Wu, Chenglong; Cai, Yinghua

    2011-09-01

    Soybean stachyose (SBS) and phytic acid (PA) are anti-nutritional factors (ANF) which have deleterious effects on the growth and digestibility in fish. The present research studied the effects of dietary SBS and PA on the expression of three serine protease genes in the liver of Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus). These genes are trypsinogen 1 (poTRY), elastase 1 (poEL) and chymotrypsinogen 1 (poCTRY). Eight artificial diets with graded levels of supplemented ANFs were formulated to 4 levels of SBS (0.00, 0.40, 0.80 and 1.50%), 4 levels of PA (0.00, 0.20, 0.40 and 0.80), respectively. Japanese flounder (initial weight 2.45 g ± 0.01 g) were fed with these diets for 10 weeks with three replications per treatment. At the end of 10 weeks, supplementation of 0.40% of dietary SBS or PA significantly increased the gene expression of poTRY and poCTRY ( P0.05). These results suggested that dietary SBS and dietary PA could directly affect the serine protease genes at the transcriptional level in Japanese flounder, and these genes' expression was more sensitive to dietary PA than to SBS under the current experimental conditions.

  19. Miranda Rights: Implications for Juveniles with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsiyannis, Antonis; Barrett, David E.; Losinski, Mickey L.

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency in the United States has been a persistent concern for decades. Consequently, because more juveniles have been referred to juvenile court and the arrest rate of preteen offenders has increased to almost three times that of older youth, the persistent and often controversial issue of the capacity of juvenile offenders to waive…

  20. Multiple Biological Effects of Olive Oil By-products such as Leaves, Stems, Flowers, Olive Milled Waste, Fruit Pulp, and Seeds of the Olive Plant on Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishikawa, Asuka; Ashour, Ahmed; Zhu, Qinchang; Yasuda, Midori; Ishikawa, Hiroya; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2015-06-01

    As olive oil production increases, so does the amount of olive oil by-products, which can cause environmental problems. Thus, new ways to utilize the by-products are needed. In the present study, five bioactive characteristics of olive oil by-products were assessed, namely their antioxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-melanogenesis, anti-allergic, and collagen-production-promoting activities. First, the extracts of leaves (May and October), stems (May and October), flowers, olive milled waste, fruit pulp and seeds were prepared using two safe solvents, ethanol and water. According to HPLC and LC/MS analysis and Folin-Ciocalteu assay, the ethanol extracts of the leaves (May and October), stems (May and October) and flowers contained oleuropein, and the ethanol extract of the stems showed the highest total phenol content. Oleuropein may contribute to the antioxidant and anti-melanogenesis activities of the leaves, stems, and flowers. However, other active compounds or synergistic effects present in the ethanol extracts are also likely to contribute to the anti-bacterial activity of the leaves and flowers, the anti-melanogenesis activity of some parts, the anti-allergic activity of olive milled waste, and the collagen-production-promoting activity of the leaves, stems, olive milled waste and fruit pulp. This study provides evidence that the by-products of olive oil have the potential to be further developed and used in the skin care industry. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Juvenile prison in parallel legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutovac Mitar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for punishment of juveniles occurred from the time when there was no clear line separating them from the adult criminal population. At the same time, the evolution of the juvenile punishment is not in itself involve substantial changes to their criminal status. On the contrary, the status of minors in society did not show serious differences regarding the status of young adults, as well as the adult elderly. On the other hand, on the ground of their punishment is recorded deviations that go in the direction of application of mild corporal punishment. Closing the minor was performed in a physically separate parts of the general penal institutions with the use of a lower degree of restrictions while serving juvenile prison. Due to the different treatment of minors during the evolution of their criminal status leads to their different treatment in comparative law. That is why we are witnessing the existence of numerous differences in the juvenile punishment in some countries in the world. On the European continent there is a wide range of different legal solutions when it comes to punishing juveniles. There are considerable differences in the procedure pronouncing juvenile prison and in particular penal treatment of juveniles in penitentiary institutions. For these reasons, the author has decided to show the basic statutory provisions in the part that relates to the issue of punishment of minors in the legislation of individual countries.

  2. Update on juvenile myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Wendy K M; Kang, Peter B

    2013-12-01

    Juvenile myasthenia gravis is a relatively rare autoimmune neuromuscular disorder. The pathophysiology of juvenile myasthenia gravis is similar to that of adult myasthenia gravis, though there remain important differences regarding presentation and therapeutic options. We review the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and treatment options for juvenile myasthenia gravis. Randomized clinical studies of myasthenia gravis have been carried out primarily in adult populations. As juvenile myasthenia gravis is rare, it has been difficult to collect prospective randomized controlled data to evaluate treatment outcomes and efficacy. A recent retrospective series suggests that, as in adult myasthenia gravis, thymectomy is a viable therapeutic option for selected cases of generalized juvenile myasthenia gravis. This is corroborated by the clinical experience of the authors in a referral center with a cohort of patients affected by juvenile myasthenia gravis over a number of years. Recent studies illustrate that some, but not all, adult research on myasthenia gravis is applicable to children and adolescents with juvenile myasthenia gravis. Adult research can inform pediatric studies, but should not be regarded as a substitute for dedicated research in those populations.

  3. Effects of olive mill wastes added to olive grove soils on erosion and soil properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-García, Beatriz; Parras-Alcántara, Luis

    2014-05-01

    INTRODUCTION The increasing degradation of olive groves by effect of organic matter losses derived from intensive agricultural practices has promoted the use (by olive farmers) of olive mill wastes (olive leaves and alperujo) which contain large amounts of organic matter and are free of heavy metals and pathogenic microorganisms. In this work we compared the effects of these oil mill wastes on the decrease of soil erosion, also, we undertook the assessment of the organic carbon and nitrogen contents of soil, their distribution across the profile, the accumulation and Stratification ratios (SRs) of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN), and the C:N ratio, in Cambisols in Mediterranean olive groves treated with olive leaves and alperujo. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study area was a typical olive grove in southern Spain under conventional tillage (CT). Three plots were established. The first one was the control plot; the second one was treated with olive leaves (CTol) and the third one, with alperujo (CTa). 9 samples per plot were collected to examine the response of the soil 3 years after application of the wastes. Soil properties determined were: soil particle size, pH, bulk density, the available water capacity, SOC, TN and C:N ratio. SOC and N stock, expressed for a specific depth in Mg ha-1. Stratification ratios (SRs) (that can be used as an indicator of dynamic soil quality) for SOC and TN at three different depths were calculated. The erosion study was based on simulations of rain; that have been carried out in order to highlight differences in the phenomena of runoff and soil losses in the three plots considered. The effect of different treatments on soil properties was analyzed using a ANOVA, followed by an Anderson-Darling test. RESULTS Supplying the soil with the wastes significantly improved physical and chemical properties in the studied soils with respect to the control. C and N stocks increased, the SOC stock was 75.4 Mg ha-1 in CT, 91.5 Mg

  4. Olive trees protected from the olive bark beetle, Phloeotribus scarabaeoides (Bernard 1788) (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Scolytinae) with a pyrethroid insecticide: Effect on the insect community of the olive grove.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruano, Francisca; Campos, Mercedes; Sánchez-Raya, A Juan; Peña, Aránzazu

    2010-06-01

    Field studies were performed in two successive years, 2005 and 2006, in different olive groves of the province of Granada (South-eastern Spain) by spraying olive trees (Olea europaea) with a pyrethroid insecticide, deltamethrin, for the control of the olive bark beetle Phloeotribus scarabaeoides (Bernard 1788) (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Scolytinae). Three olive groves received each year three treatments in June consisting of water (control) and two insecticide doses, which were halved the second year. From June to September six olives trees per site were inspected every 15d for feeding galleries in olive branches; the arthropods, collected in traps placed below the olive trees (three traps per site), were identified and counted. Results show that feeding galleries were significantly reduced, what proves that the pyrethroid insecticide efficiently protected the olive trees from the olive bark beetle with a single application and even at the lower dose employed in 2006. Some repellent effect may occur as deduced from the number of P. scarabaeoides individuals captured. Other individuals from the insect community were also affected to a great extent by insecticide application, though no statistical differences were found among the treatments due to the high variability in insect captures. Among the parasitoids, Scelionidae, Encyrtidae, Eurytomidae and Pteromalidae were captured in great numbers. Mirids were the predators whose numbers drastically increased in traps placed under the treated trees, while spiders and ants were less affected. A knock-down effect was noticed for some insect groups, for instance mirids and Euphyllura olivina. Approximately 80% of their captures corresponded to the first date of sampling after insecticide application.

  5. Juvenile chronic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwood, T R; Woo, P

    1995-05-01

    The nomenclature and classification criteria for arthritis in children should be dealt with initially as separate issues, although they are undoubtedly intertwined. The classification criteria should aim to delineate homogeneous patient populations, yet should be flexible enough to incorporate advances in disease knowledge. It should be recognized that arriving at an international consensus for classification criteria will merely provide a set of operational definitions to facilitate research, and not a set of diagnostic criteria. Indeed the only point to obtaining consensus is to begin a process of systematic ongoing review of the criteria. The labels attached to any of these diseases should facilitate accurate communication. In view of the heterogeneous nature of childhood arthritis, consideration should be given to using a broad umbrella term such as juvenile or childhood arthritis only for communicating with the lay public. Medical nomenclature should be formulated to reflect accurately homogeneous subgroups of arthritis, and should not artificially proscribe a relationship between paediatric and adult disease.

  6. [Juvenile idiopathic arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlin, Troels

    2002-08-19

    The new classification of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is described in this review. Clinical characteristics divide JIA in to subtypes: systemic, oligoarticular (persistent and extended type), RF-positive and--negative polyarticular, enthesitis-related arthritis and psoriatic arthritis. In addition to the clinical characteristics, genetic and biochemical differences suggest that JIA could be regarded as a general term covering various diseases. Complications described are uveitis, temporomandibular joint affection and growth disturbances. The therapeutic strategy should be planned individually according to age, subtype and disease activity and carried out as teamwork with several specialties. Drugs showing significant effectiveness in controlled studies are primarily methotrexate and sulphasalazine. An immunomodulating agent, etanercept, a soluble TNF alpha-receptor fusion protein, has shown a promising effect in severe polyarticular JIA refractory to methotrexate treatment.

  7. Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayashree Krishnamurthy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis is a rare, autosomal-recessive disease characterized by papular and nodular skin lesions, gingival hyperplasia, joint contractures and bone involvement in variable degrees. It is a connective tissue disorder with aberrant synthesis of glycosaminoglycans by fibroblasts. We report a 5-year-old female born of first-degree consanguineous marriage who presented with multiple, recurrent, painless, variable-sized nodules. Fine needle aspiration cytology smears and the subsequent histopathological examination from the nodules showed benign spindle cells in a Periodic acid Schiff-positive myxoid background. The disease has a relentlessly progressive course, with most patients surviving only up to the 4 th decade. As of now, there is no specific treatment for this disorder. Genetic counseling is essential to explain to parents about a 25% chance of having a diseased baby in any pregnancy. With the gene being mapped recently, techniques for antenatal diagnosis are likely to be established.

  8. [JUVENILE DERMATOMYOSITIS AND CALCINOSIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhvania, M

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile Dermatomiositis (JD) is autoimmune disease that progresses with time; JD's main differentiated syndromes are rash on the skin, poor function of muscles, and often developing invalidism. If the health practitioners manage to diagnose the JD on an early stage and prescribe the adequate treatment the disease will not progress aggressively. This approach is tangible for practical rheumatology and pediatric. The article aims to present the reasons of the development of the JD and calcinosis. The study based on the description of the patients with JD. There are distinguished the main symptoms of the disease in children: frequent and acute developments of muscles calcinosis, occasionally with diffuse character followed with hypotrophy of the muscles, contractures and invalidism. One of the patient cases that describe the article is the thirteen-year boy with JD indicating repeated sequence of the disease, with diffusive calcinosis, cellulitis followed with secondary infection and impaired vision.

  9. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krupa H Bhatt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA is the most chronic musculoskeletal disease of pediatric population. The chronic course of disease has a great impact on oral health. Temporomandibular joint is involved in JIA causing limited mouth opening with progressive open bite, retrognathia, microgenia and bird like appearance. Joints of upper and lower extremities are also involved. Effect on upper limb function leads to difficulty with fine motor movements required for brushing and flossing. This increases incidence of caries and periodontal disease in children. The cause of JIA is still poorly understood and none of the available drugs for JIA can cure the disease. However, prognosis has improved as a result of progress in disease classification and management. The dental practitioner should be familiar with the symptoms and oral manifestations of JIA to help manage as multidisciplinary management is essential.

  10. Juvenile homosexual homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Wade C; Chan, Heng Choon Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Limited information exists on juvenile homosexual homicide (JHH), that is, youths who perpetrate sexual homicides against same-sex victims. Only a handful of cases from the United States and internationally have been described in the literature. This study, the first of its kind, examines the epidemiology, victimology, victim-offender relationship, and weapon-use patterns in JHH offenders using a large U.S. database on homicide spanning three decades. The data for this study were derived from the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Supplementary Homicide Reports (SHRs) for the years 1976 through 2005. A total of 93 cases of JHH were identified. On average, three of these crimes occurred annually in the U.S., and there was a marked decline in its incidence over the study period. Ninety-five percent were male offender-male victim cases and 5% were female offender-female victim cases. JHH offenders were over-represented amongst all juvenile sexual murderers, similar to their adult counterparts. The majority of these boys were aged 16 or 17 and killed adult victims. They were significantly more likely to kill adult victims than other age groups, to be friends or acquaintances of the victims, and to use contact/edged weapons or firearms. Most offenders killed same-race victims, although Black offenders were significantly more likely than White offenders to kill interracially. A case report is provided to illustrate JHH. Further research is needed to promote our understanding of the pathogenesis, etiology, and associated risk factors for this aberrant form of murder by children.

  11. From Olive Fruits to Olive Oil: Phenolic Compound Transfer in Six Different Olive Cultivars Grown under the Same Agronomical Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talhaoui, Nassima; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; León, Lorenzo; De la Rosa, Raúl; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2016-03-04

    Phenolic compounds are responsible of the nutritional and sensory quality of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO). The composition of phenolic compounds in EVOO is related to the initial content of phenolic compounds in the olive-fruit tissues and the activity of enzymes acting on these compounds during the industrial process to produce the oil. In this work, the phenolic composition was studied in six major cultivars grown in the same orchard under the same agronomical and environmental conditions in an effort to test the effects of cultivars on phenolic composition in fruits and oils as well as on transfer between matrices. The phenolic fractions were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry. A total of 33 phenolic compounds were determined in the fruit samples and a total of 20 compounds in their corresponding oils. Qualitative and quantitative differences in phenolic composition were found among cultivars in both matrices, as well as regarding the transfer rate of phenolic compounds from fruits to oil. The results also varied according to the different phenolic groups evaluated, with secoiridoids registering the highest transfer rates from fruits to oils. Moreover, wide-ranging differences have been noticed between cultivars for the transfer rates of secoiridoids (4.36%-65.63% of total transfer rate) and for flavonoids (0.18%-0.67% of total transfer rate). 'Picual' was the cultivar that transferred secoiridoids to oil at the highest rate, whereas 'Changlot Real' was the cultivar that transferred flavonoids at the highest rates instead. Principal-component analysis confirmed a strong genetic effect on the basis of the phenolic profile both in the olive fruits and in the oils.

  12. From Olive Fruits to Olive Oil: Phenolic Compound Transfer in Six Different Olive Cultivars Grown under the Same Agronomical Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassima Talhaoui

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are responsible of the nutritional and sensory quality of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO. The composition of phenolic compounds in EVOO is related to the initial content of phenolic compounds in the olive-fruit tissues and the activity of enzymes acting on these compounds during the industrial process to produce the oil. In this work, the phenolic composition was studied in six major cultivars grown in the same orchard under the same agronomical and environmental conditions in an effort to test the effects of cultivars on phenolic composition in fruits and oils as well as on transfer between matrices. The phenolic fractions were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry. A total of 33 phenolic compounds were determined in the fruit samples and a total of 20 compounds in their corresponding oils. Qualitative and quantitative differences in phenolic composition were found among cultivars in both matrices, as well as regarding the transfer rate of phenolic compounds from fruits to oil. The results also varied according to the different phenolic groups evaluated, with secoiridoids registering the highest transfer rates from fruits to oils. Moreover, wide-ranging differences have been noticed between cultivars for the transfer rates of secoiridoids (4.36%–65.63% of total transfer rate and for flavonoids (0.18%–0.67% of total transfer rate. ‘Picual’ was the cultivar that transferred secoiridoids to oil at the highest rate, whereas ‘Changlot Real’ was the cultivar that transferred flavonoids at the highest rates instead. Principal-component analysis confirmed a strong genetic effect on the basis of the phenolic profile both in the olive fruits and in the oils.

  13. From Olive Fruits to Olive Oil: Phenolic Compound Transfer in Six Different Olive Cultivars Grown under the Same Agronomical Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talhaoui, Nassima; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; León, Lorenzo; De la Rosa, Raúl; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are responsible of the nutritional and sensory quality of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO). The composition of phenolic compounds in EVOO is related to the initial content of phenolic compounds in the olive-fruit tissues and the activity of enzymes acting on these compounds during the industrial process to produce the oil. In this work, the phenolic composition was studied in six major cultivars grown in the same orchard under the same agronomical and environmental conditions in an effort to test the effects of cultivars on phenolic composition in fruits and oils as well as on transfer between matrices. The phenolic fractions were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry. A total of 33 phenolic compounds were determined in the fruit samples and a total of 20 compounds in their corresponding oils. Qualitative and quantitative differences in phenolic composition were found among cultivars in both matrices, as well as regarding the transfer rate of phenolic compounds from fruits to oil. The results also varied according to the different phenolic groups evaluated, with secoiridoids registering the highest transfer rates from fruits to oils. Moreover, wide-ranging differences have been noticed between cultivars for the transfer rates of secoiridoids (4.36%–65.63% of total transfer rate) and for flavonoids (0.18%–0.67% of total transfer rate). ‘Picual’ was the cultivar that transferred secoiridoids to oil at the highest rate, whereas ‘Changlot Real’ was the cultivar that transferred flavonoids at the highest rates instead. Principal-component analysis confirmed a strong genetic effect on the basis of the phenolic profile both in the olive fruits and in the oils. PMID:26959010

  14. Carbonyl trapping and antiglycative activities of olive oil mill wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Navarro, M.; Fiore, A.; Fogliano, V.; Morales, F.

    2015-01-01

    The use of natural compounds as antiglycative agents to reduce the load of advanced glycation end products from diet is very promising. Olive mill wastewater is a by-product of the olive oil extraction processes with a high content of hydroxytyrosol, hydroxytyrosol derivatives and molecules containi

  15. Olive cake combustion in a circulating fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topal, H.; Durmaz, A. [Gazi Univ, Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Atimtay, A.T. [Middle East Technical Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Environmental Engineering

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents the results of a study in which an environmentally sound technology was developed for biomass usage for energy production in Turkey. A circulating fluidized bed of 125 mm diameter and 1,800 mm height was used to determine the combustion characteristics of olive cake (OC) produced in Turkey. Olive cake, an olive oil milling waste product, is available in large amounts at a very low cost. Efficient use of OC in energy production solves the problem of waste management and contributes to meeting targets of the Kyoto Protocol. In this study, olive cake alone and olive cake plus lignite mixtures were burned in separate experiments and in various ratios. A new feeding mechanism was developed to feed the olive cake to the bed. On-line concentrations of oxygen, sulphur dioxide, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and total hydrocarbons were measured in the flue gas along with temperature distribution in the bed. Emissions were compared with national standards and combustion efficiency of the olive cake plus lignite coal mixtures and olive cake alone were calculated. The optimum operating parameters were described. OC burned with 94 to 98.5 per cent efficiency. The combustion efficiency increased with increased excess air ratio because volatiles released from the fuel were burned more completely. 3 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs.

  16. Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP guidelines for virgin olive oil production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrakis, Christos

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents GMP guidelines for the production of virgin olive oil. Standard procedures and conditions are indicated for olive production, harvesting, transportation and storage, for oil manufacture, storage and packaging, for buildings, process logistics and the materials used throughout the production chain.

  17. Olive oil stability under deep-frying conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casal, Susana; Malheiro, Ricardo; Sendas, Artur; Oliveira, Beatriz P P; Pereira, José Alberto

    2010-10-01

    The suitability of different commercial olive oil categories for domestic frying was investigated. Oil samples were taken every 3h of frying and evaluated for free acidity, peroxide and p-anisidine values, specific extinction coefficients, oxidative stability, fatty acids, vitamin E, β-carotene and total phenols, until the total polar compounds achieved the maximum legal value (25%). All olive oils were fried during more time than the commercial vegetable oil blend taken for comparison (from 24 to 27 h, against 15 h). The extra-virgin Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) olive oil was characterized by reduced levels of oxidation and hydrolysis, and superior amounts of minor antioxidant compounds. The "olive oil" commercial category behaves similarly, but "Cobrançosa" olive oils performance was slightly worse, and clearly different between years, highlighting the importance of blending different cultivars. The vegetable oil, despite containing significantly higher amounts of vitamin E, was highly susceptible to oxidation under frying conditions when compared to all olive oils. The results also show that the chemical composition of olive oils, particularly the amount of natural antioxidants, are important parameters in their predictive behavior along the frying process, but mostly that olive oil is clearly resistant to frying conditions, independently to the commercial category chosen.

  18. Bioremediation and biovalorisation of olive-mill wastes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morillo Perez, J.A.; Antizar-Ladislao, B.; Monteoliva-Sanchez, M.; Ramos-Cormenzana, A.; Russell, N.J.

    2009-01-01

    Olive-mill wastes are produced by the industry of olive oil production, which is a very important economic activity, particularly for Spain, Italy and Greece, leading to a large environmental problem of current concern in the Mediterranean basin. There is as yet no accepted treatment method for all

  19. Cosmetic emulsion from virgin olive oil: Formulation and bio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cosmetic emulsion from virgin olive oil: Formulation and bio-physical ... virgin olive oil was developed by entrapping it in the oily phase of oil-in-water (o/w) emulsion. ... The evaluation parameters consisted of color, smell, phase separation, ...

  20. Geographical origin classification of olive oils by PTR-MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araghipour, N.; Colineau, J.; Koot, A.H.; Akkermans, W.; Rojas, J.M.M.; Beauchamp, J.; Wisthaler, A.; Märk, T.D.; Downey, G.; Guillou, C.; Mannina, L.; Ruth, van S.M.

    2008-01-01

    The volatile compositions of 192 olive oil samples from five different European countries were investigated by PTR-MS sample headspace analysis. The mass spectra of all samples showed many masses with high abundances, indicating the complex VOC composition of olive oil. Three different PLS-DA models

  1. Carbonyl trapping and antiglycative activities of olive oil mill wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Navarro, M.; Fiore, A.; Fogliano, V.; Morales, F.

    2015-01-01

    The use of natural compounds as antiglycative agents to reduce the load of advanced glycation end products from diet is very promising. Olive mill wastewater is a by-product of the olive oil extraction processes with a high content of hydroxytyrosol, hydroxytyrosol derivatives and molecules

  2. Bioremediation and biovalorisation of olive-mill wastes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morillo Perez, J.A.; Antizar-Ladislao, B.; Monteoliva-Sanchez, M.; Ramos-Cormenzana, A.; Russell, N.J.

    2009-01-01

    Olive-mill wastes are produced by the industry of olive oil production, which is a very important economic activity, particularly for Spain, Italy and Greece, leading to a large environmental problem of current concern in the Mediterranean basin. There is as yet no accepted treatment method for all

  3. Effects rearing conditions on the ambicoloration by young Japanese flounder; Hirame chigyo no mugen sokukokuka ni taisuru shiiku kankyo no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwata, N.; Kikuchi, K.; Furuta, T. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-06-01

    Investigations were carried out on effects of rearing environments such as light and bottom conditions on the ambicoloration of Japanese flounder. Young flounders were reared for 4 to 16 weeks in a water tank whose lid and bottom are made of colorless transparent plastic plates. Intensities of fluorescent lamps installed above and below the water tank were controlled. Sand and black resin plates were laid on the bottom of the rearing tank to discuss effects from change in the bottom properties. When the bottom of the rearing tank is made of a transparent plastic plate, ambicoloration has occurred to the flounders even if lights were irradiated from below at intensities of 1100 Lux and 7 Lux or even if the lights were cut off by a black resin plate. Even under a condition that a sandpaper is laid on the bottom to give fish feeling like contacting sand, the ambicoloration has progressed. When sandy transparent glass powder is scattered on the bottom, generation factor of individuals with ambicoloration has reduced to about a quarter. These results revealed that existence of a sandy material into which flounders can hide themselves is important for the effect on the ambicoloration of flounder, rather than existence of light irradiation or stimulation given something like sand. 18 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Influence of Picual olive ripening on virgin olive oil alteration and stability during potato frying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivero-David, Raul; Mena, Carmen; Pérez-Jimenez, M Angeles; Sastre, Blanca; Bastida, Sara; Márquez-Ruiz, Gloria; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2014-12-03

    Ripening modifies oil attributes and composition. However, the influence of olive ripening on virgin olive oil (VOO) thermal oxidative stability on food-frying has not been studied yet. Oils from Picual olives of low (VOO1), medium (VOO2), and high (VOO3) ripeness were obtained, and their thermal oxidative stability during 40 potato-fryings was tested. Unused VOO1 showed higher antioxidant content and oxidative stability than VOO2 and VOO3. Polar compounds (PC), oligomers, and altered fatty acid methyl esters (polar-FAME) increased, whereas linoleic acid, polyphenols, and tocopherols decreased in the three VOOs through frying. The alteration was lower in VOO1, followed by VOO2 (0.105, 0.117, and 0.042 g/100 g oil less of PC, oligomers and polar-FAME per frying, respectively, in VOO1 than in VOO3). In conclusion, VOO obtained from low-ripeness Picual olives should be preferred when frying fresh-potatoes due to its higher thermal and oxidative stability, permitting a higher number of potato-frying uses.

  5. Effect of preprocessing olive storage conditions on virgin olive oil quality and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inarejos-García, Antonio M; Gómez-Rico, Aurora; Desamparados Salvador, M; Fregapane, Giuseppe

    2010-04-28

    The quality of virgin olive oil (VOO) is intimately related to the characteristics and composition of the olive fruit at the moment of its milling. In this study, the determination of suitable olive storage conditions and feasibility of using this preprocessing operation to modulate the sensory taste of VOO are reported. Several olive batches were stored in different conditions (from monolayer up to 60 cm thickness, at 20 and 10 degrees C) for a period of up to three weeks, and the quality and composition of minor constituents, mainly phenols and volatiles, in the corresponding VOO were monitored. Cornicabra cultivar VOO obtained from drupes stored for 5 or 8 days at 20 or 10 degrees C, respectively, retained the "extra virgin" category, according to chemical quality indices, since only small increases in free acidity and peroxide values were observed, and the bitter index of this monovarietal oil was reduced by 30-40%. Storage under monolayer conditions at 10 degrees C for up to two weeks is also feasible because "off-odor" development was delayed, a 50% reduction in bitterness was obtained, and the overall good quality of the final product was preserved.

  6. A MODELLING APPROACH TO EXTRA VIRGIN OLIVE OIL EXTRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Daou

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work is described a feasibility assessment for a new approach in virgin olive oil production control system. A predicting or simulating algorithm is implemented as artificial neural network based software, using literature found data concerning parameters related to olive grove, process, machine. Test and validation proved this tool is able to answer two different frequently asked questions by olive oil mill operators, using few agronomic and technological parameters with time and cost saving: – which quality level is up to oil extracted from defined olive lot following a defined process (predicting mode; – which process and machine parameters set would determine highest quality level for oil extracted from a defined olive lot (simulating mode.

  7. Do juvenile Amphiprion ocellaris (Pisces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brolund, Thea Marie; Nielsen, Lis Engdahl; Arvedlund, Michael

    2003-01-01

    . This is contrary to the settling mechanisms of the damselfish D. aruanus and D. reticulatus, and of the temperate herring Clupea harengus. Hence the results emphasize the variation of sensory abilities and behaviours in fish larvae and juveniles. It is not an area prone for generalizations.......Juvenile anemonefish Amphiprion ocellaris were tested in two behavioural laboratory set-ups for their ability to visually or chemically recognize conspecifics. Individuals of two other species of anemonefish, A. clarkii and Dascyllus aruanus, were also used as test specimens for recognition....... The results indicate that juvenile A. ocellaris recognize conspecifics visually rather than by olfaction. This is contrary to their finding mechanism of their host anemone. However, the results also indicate that the juvenile A ocellaris are neither attracted nor deterred by the presence of conspecifics...

  8. Bilateral, independent juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkenborg, Marie-Louise; Frendø, M; Stavngaard, T;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a benign, vascular tumour that primarily occurs in adolescent males. Despite its benign nature, aggressive growth patterns can cause potential life-threatening complications. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is normally unilateral, originating...... from the sphenopalatine artery, but bilateral symptoms can occur if a large tumour extends to the contralateral side of the nasopharynx. This paper presents the first reported case of true bilateral extensive juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma involving clinically challenging pre-surgical planning...... embolisation. Radical removal performed as one-step, computer-assisted functional endoscopic sinus surgery was performed. The follow-up period was uncomplicated. CONCLUSION: This case illustrates the importance of suspecting bilateral juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma in patients presenting with bilateral...

  9. Editor's Shelf: International Juvenile Titles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell-Powell, Brenda

    1994-01-01

    Provides an annotated list of international juvenile picture books and notes those that emphasize text over pictures. The 49 titles present international perspectives for educators, librarians, and parents seeking materials with alternative cultural content. The majority are folk tales. (SLD)

  10. A cost-effectiveness analysis of live feeds in juvenile turbot Scophthalmus maximus (Linnaeus, 1758) farming: copepods versus Artemiapepods versus Artemiacopepods versus Artemiacopepods versus Artemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gedefaw Abate, Tenaw; Nielsen, Rasmus; Nielsen, Max;

    2016-01-01

    , their current usage is quite limited. One of the reasons has been lack of economic knowledge concerning the cost-effectiveness of copepod application compared to other commonly used feed items such as the brine shrimp Artemia. In this study, a cost-effectiveness analysis is made on two alternative live feed...... but they are also economically a cost-effective alternative. Thus, a commercial use of copepods will significantly reduce the production costs for turbot. Furthermore, the unexploited economic potential can be utilized for the successful farming of other high-valued marine finfish species such as tuna, flounders...... items (copepods and Artemia) in juvenile turbot farming. Unit cost of production and profit are compared between the two feeding regimes using a unique data set from an existing turbot fry production facility in Denmark. The result reveals that copepods are not only biochemically superior...

  11. Digestion and absorption of olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriana, Francisco J.G.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil is a monounsaturated (oleic acid-rich fat, mainly constituted by triglycerides (>98 % and minor compounds. As other macronutrients, dietary triglyceride digestion and absorption are a complex processes involving enzyme activities and physicochemical changes. In humans, hydrolysis of olive oil triglycerides begins in the stomach where it is catalyzed by an acid-stable gastric lipase. Triglyceride hydrolysis continues in the duodenum, by the synergetic actions of gastric and colipase-dependent pancreatic lipases and bile secretion. Gastric lipolysis leads to the hydrolysis of 10-30 % of ingested triglycerides, generating mainly diglycerides (DG and free fatty acids. This facilitates subsequent triglyceride hydrolysis by pancreatic lipase by allowing fat emulsification. Pancreatic lipase cleaves the sn-1 and sn-3 positions of triglycerides and/or DG obtaining sn-2 monoglycerides. Different lipid metabolites are quickly absorbed along the epithelial cells of the small intestine, acting olive oil as a supplier of oleic-acid-rich hydrocarbon skeletons for cellular synthesis of triglycerides and phospholipids. Absorption of mostly minor compounds of (extra virgin olive oil takes place in the small intestine, as native or derivatives. Compared to diets rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, olive oil suppresses gastric acid secretion and is a potent releasing factor of cholecystokinin peptide, which consistently indicate that the consumption of olive oil might be beneficial in digestive diseases.El aceite de oliva es una grasa monoinsaturada (rica en ácido oleico, compuesta por triglicéridos (>98% y componentes menores. En los procesos de digestión y absorción de los triglicéridos participan enzimas y se producen cambios fisicoquímicos. La lipasa gástrica es el componente mayoritario de la actividad lipolítica gástrica en humanos. La hidrólisis de los triglicéridos continúa en el duodeno, por la acción sinérgica de las lipasas g

  12. Olive leaf extract inhibits lead poisoning-induced brain injury**

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Wang; Shengqing Wang; Wenhui Cui; Jiujun He; Zhenfu Wang; Xiaolu Yang

    2013-01-01

    Olive leaves have an antioxidant capacity, and olive leaf extract can protect the blood, spleen and hippocampus in lead-poisoned mice. However, little is known about the effects of olive leaf extract on lead-induced brain injury. This study was designed to determine whether olive leaf extract can inhibit lead-induced brain injury, and whether this effect is associated with antioxidant capacity. First, we established a mouse model of lead poisoning by continuous intragastric administration of lead acetate for 30 days. Two hours after successful model establishment, lead-poisoned mice were given olive leaf extract at doses of 250, 500 or 1 000 mg/kg daily by intragastric administration for 50 days. Under the transmission electron microscope, olive leaf extract attenuated neuronal and capil ary injury and reduced damage to organel es and the matrix around the capil aries in the frontal lobe of the cerebral cortex in the lead-poisoned mice. Olive leaf extract at a dose of 1 000 mg/kg had the greatest protective effect. Spectrophotometry showed that olive leaf extract significantly in-creased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, alkaline phosphatase and acid phospha-tase, while it reduced malondialdehyde content, in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, im-munohistochemical staining revealed that olive leaf extract dose-dependently decreased Bax pro-tein expression in the cerebral cortex of lead-poisoned mice. Our findings indicate that olive leaf extract can inhibit lead-induced brain injury by increasing antioxidant capacity and reducing apop-tosis.

  13. Sector Modeling for the Prediction and Evaluation of Cretan olive oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Migdalas, A.; Baourakis, G.; Kalogeras, N.; Meriem, H.B.

    2004-01-01

    Greece is a major international olive oil producer. Olive oil varieties constitute the major crops for Greek farmers growing certain oriental olive oil varieties. Currently, the olive oil sector in Greece is undergoing substantial changes and the response of farmers and consumers to this will be a

  14. Sector Modeling for the Prediction and Evaluation of Cretan olive oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Migdalas, A.; Baourakis, G.; Kalogeras, N.; Meriem, H.B.

    2004-01-01

    Greece is a major international olive oil producer. Olive oil varieties constitute the major crops for Greek farmers growing certain oriental olive oil varieties. Currently, the olive oil sector in Greece is undergoing substantial changes and the response of farmers and consumers to this will be a v

  15. Effects of soybean oligosaccharides on lipid metabolism of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus Temminck et Schlegel) fed animal or plant protein source-based diets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Junming; MAI Kangsen; AI Qinghui; ZHANG Wenbing

    2007-01-01

    A feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary soybean oligosaccharides (SBOS) on the levels of cholesterol in plasma and liver,and the fatty acid composition in muscle and liver of juvenile Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus Temminck et Schlegel).Four isonitrogenous and isocaloric practical diets (crude protein 49%,gross energy 19 kJ/g) including only fish meal (FM) or soy protein isolate (SPI) as sole dietary protein source with (Diets FMO and SPIO) or without (Diets FM and SPI) supplemented SBOS (stachyose,2.61%;raffinose,0.61%) were formulated.Each diet was randomly assigned to triplicate aquaria stocked with 30 fish (initial body weight 1.93 ±0.02 g) each.Fish were maintained in the flow-through aquaria at water temperature ranging from 22.0℃ to 25.0℃ and fed twice (08:00,16:00) daily to apparent satiation for 8 weeks.Dietary SBOS supplementation significantly increased the levels of total cholesterol (TC) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in plasma of the fish fed FM-based diets (P<0.05),but no significant differences were observed at the levels of plasma triacylglycerol (TG) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and LDL-C/HDL-C ratio (P>0.05).The levels of TC,TG,HDL-C and LDL-C,and LDL-C/HDLC ratio in plasma of the fish fed SPI-based diets were not significantly influenced by the supplemented SBOS (P>0.05).Supplementation of SBOS did not influence the hepatic TC,TG and lipid contents and lipid droplet accumulation in fish fed FM-based diets,but significantly decreased the hepatic TC,TG and lipid contents and lipid droplet accumulation in fish fed SPI-based diets (P<0.05).In contrast,supplemented SBOS significantly increased fecal cholesterol extraction in the fish fed FM-based diets (P<0.05),but no significant difference was observed in the fish fed SPI-based diets (P>0.05).The fatty acid composition in muscle and liver was not significantly affected by supplemental SBOS regardless of

  16. Ocean acidification effects in the early life-stages of summer flounder, Paralichthys dentatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Chambers

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The limited available evidence about effects of high CO2 and acidification of our oceans on fish suggests that effects will differ across fish species, be subtle, and interact with other stressors. An experimental framework was implemented that includes the use of (1 multiple marine fish species of relevance to the northeastern USA that differ in their ecologies including spawning season and habitat; (2 a wide yet realistic range of environmental conditions (i.e., concurrent manipulation of CO2 levels and water temperatures, and (3 a diverse set of response variables related to fish sensitivity to elevated CO2 levels, water temperatures, and their interactions. This report is on an array of early life-history responses of summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus, an ecologically and economically important flatfish of this region, to a wide range of pH and CO2 levels. Survival of summer flounder embryos was reduced by 50% below local ambient conditions (7.8 pH, 775 ppm pCO2 when maintained at the intermediate conditions (7.4 pH, 1860 ppm pCO2, and by 75% below local ambient when maintained at the most acidic conditions tested (7.1 pH, 4715 ppm pCO2. This pattern of reduced survival of embryos at higher CO2 levels was consistent among three females used as sources of embryos. Sizes and shapes of larvae were altered by elevated CO2 levels with longer larvae in more acidic waters. This pattern of longer larvae was evident at hatching (although longer hatchlings had less energy reserves to midway through the larval period. Larvae from the most acidic conditions initiated metamorphosis at earlier ages and smaller sizes than those from more moderate and ambient conditions. Tissue damage was evident in older larvae (age 14 to 28 d post-hatching from both elevated CO2 levels. Damage included liver sinusoid dilation, focal hyperplasia on the epithelium, separation of the trunk muscle bundles, and dilation of the liver sinusoids and central veins. Cranial

  17. Is Jamie Oliver "easy peasy" in Slovene?:

    OpenAIRE

    Metka Lovrin

    2013-01-01

    The research aims to identify the idiolectal features in selected cookbooks by Jamie Oliver (The Naked Chef, Happy Days with the Naked Chef and Jamie’s Ministry of Food), and how they were rendered into Slovene by Oliver’s translators. As a theoretical basis, it relies on Koller’s three-stage model for analyzing the original and the translation. The paper also confronts the problems that arise from cultural differences between Slovene and British culture. Lexical items are layered into indepe...

  18. THE OLIVE INDUSTRY OF BRONZE AGE CRETE: EVIDENCE FOR VOLCANIC DAMAGE TO OLIVE GROVES AND PROPERTY IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN CRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. R. Riley

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Olive wood, stone olive presses and clay spouted tubs, used for separating olive oil and water, are found on Crete in association with the Late Bronze Age archaeological evidence for earthquake and fire damage to property. Recovery of these artefacts suggests that the Cretan olive industry was adversely affected by the volcanic eruption on the neighbouring island of Santorini. The intention in this paper is to sketch the background to Minoan olive farming, and then to examine the archaeological evidence for connections between the Santorini eruption and the Cretan olive industry in the Late Bronze Age.

  19. THE EXISTENCE OF OLIVE TREES IN TURKEY AND SEYİTOBA VILLAGE WHICH IS AN EXAMPLE OF CULTIVATION OF OLIVE SEEDLING (SARUHANLI, MANİSA)

    OpenAIRE

    M. Dursun ÇİTÇİ (M.A.H); Güner, Bülent; Zeki BOYRAZ

    2010-01-01

    A significant portion of our country furits field is the olive grove. The number of olive trees and, applied with a large range of support has been growing rapidly in Turkey. In just the last five years, 40 million olive trees planted with olive trees in our country the number has exceeded 150 million. This situation needs a significant amount of olive seedlings are exposed in many parts of our country.Olive trees prodcution is mainly based on the private companies. Manisa's Saruhanlı Seyitob...

  20. Are olive oil diets antithrombotic? Diets enriched with olive, rapeseed, or sunflower oil affect postprandial factor VII differently

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L.F.; Jespersen, J; Marckmann, P.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The incidence of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in Crete was lower than expected on the basis of blood lipid concentrations of participants in the Seven Countries Study. A favorable effect of a high intake of olive oil on thrombogenesis may have contributed to this finding. OBJECTIVE: We...... compared the effects of virgin olive oil with those of rapeseed and sunflower oils on blood coagulation factor VII (FVII), a key factor in thrombogenesis. DESIGN: In a randomized and strictly controlled crossover study, 18 healthy young men consumed diets enriched with 5 g/MJ (19% of total energy) olive...... FVII (FVIIa) were 11.3 +/- 5.1 U/L lower after olive oil than after sunflower oil, an 18% reduction (P Olive oil also tended to cause lower FVIIa peak concentrations than did rapeseed oil (mean difference: 8.6 U/L, a 15% reduction; P = 0.09). There were no significant differences between diets...

  1. Relationship between biomarker responses and contaminant concentration in selected tissues of flounder (Platichthys flesus from the Polish coastal area of the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Podolska

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies in the Gulf of Gdańsk discussed the responses of selected enzymatic biomarkers to the contaminant gradient in fish and mussels. In the present study, flounder muscle and liver tissues were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB congeners: 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180, organochlorine pesticides (HCHs, HCB and DDTs, and trace metals (Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Hg, Cr. An attempt was made to identify the relationship between the measured enzymatic biomarker responses (cholinesterases, malic enzyme, isocitrate dehydrogenase, glutathione S-transferase and contaminant concentrations in selected flounder tissues. The observed differences in enzymatic biomarker levels suggest that chronic exposure to low-concentration mixtures of contaminants may be occurring in the studied area. However, no conclusive evidence was found of a clear link between the biomarker responses and contaminant concentrations in flounder tissues.

  2. The effects of fin rot disease and sampling method on blood chemistry and hematocrit measurements of winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus from New Haven Harbor (1987--1990).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziskowski, J; Mercaldo-Allen, R; Pereira, J J; Kuropat, C; Goldberg, R

    2008-04-01

    Winter flounder from New Haven, Connecticut were evaluated for fin rot disease. Blood samples collected from healthy and diseased fish were used to measure bilirubin, calcium, hematocrit, inorganic phosphorus, osmolality, and total protein. Blood measurements were significantly affected by the presence of fin rot disease and by sampling mode (bled immediately or after 18 h). A reduction in blood chemistry values was associated with fin rot disease. Logistic regression modeling was used to identify explanatory variables contributing to the fin rot outcome in winter flounder. Blood constituent levels were higher in fish bled immediately versus 18 h post-capture, especially among fish without fin rot, suggesting that a waiting period is necessary for blood values to stabilize following initial sampling stress. This study presents evidence that winter flounder blood chemistry and hematocrit measurements are affected by fin rot disease.

  3. UC Cooperative Extension sensory analysis panel enhances the quality of California olive oil

    OpenAIRE

    Paul VOSSEN; Kicenik Devarenne, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    California’s olive oil industry has evolved from primarily a salvage operation of the table olive industry to a producer of world-class, premium, extra-virgin olive oil. In 1997, UC Cooperative Extension started the first California olive oil taste panel, which was officially recognized by the International Olive Council in 2001. Specific protocols were used to screen potential panelists and train them to identify defects and positive characteristics, identical to 43 other world taste panels....

  4. Microbiological characterization of table olives commercialized in Portugal in respect to safety aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Ana Paula; PEREIRA, J. A.; Bento, Albino; Leticia M. Estevinho

    2008-01-01

    Table olives are a traditional component of the Mediterranean diet and are largely consumed in the world. There are different trade treatments that originate different types of olives. The aim of the present work was to proceed to the microbiological characterization of table olives commercialized in the Portuguese market, with respect to their microbiological safety. The microbiological characterization was made in the olive pulp and packing brine of thirty-five table olives samples of diffe...

  5. JUVENILE RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I N Sartika

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA is the most common rheumatic condition in children. JRA is defined as persistent arthritis in 1 or more joints for at least 6 weeks, with the onset before age 16 years. The etiology of JRA is unknown. Antigen activated CD4+ T cell stimulate monocytes, macrophages, and synovial fibroblasts to produce the cytokines Interleukin-1 (IL-1, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-? and to secrete matrix metalloproteinases, which lead to chronic inflammation due to infiltration of inflammatory cell, angiogenesis, destruction of cartilage and bone with pannus formation. The 3 major subtypes of JRA are based on the symptoms at disease onset and are designated systemic onset, pauciarticular onset, and polyarticular onset. For all patients, the goals of therapy are to decrease chronic joint pain and suppress the inflammatory process. Poor prognostic have been observed in patients with polyarticular onset, rheumatoid factor, persistent morning stiffness, tenosynovitis, involvement of the small joints, rapid appearance of erosions, active late onset childhood, subcutaneous nodules, or antinuclear antibody.

  6. Olive bagasse (Olea europa L.) pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sensoz, S.; Demiral, I. [Osmangazi Univ., Eskisehir (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Gercel, H.F. [Anadolu Univ., Eskisehir (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2006-02-15

    Olive bagasse (Olea europea L.) was pyrolysed in a fixed-bed reactor. The effects of pyrolysis temperature, heating rate, particle size and sweep gas flow rates on the yields of the products were investigated. Pyrolysis runs were performed using pyrolysis temperatures between 350 and 550 {sup o}C with heating rates of 10 and 50 {sup o}C min{sup -} {sup 1}. The particle size and sweep gas flow rate varied in the ranges 0.224-1.8 mm and 50-200 cm{sup 3} min {sup -1}, respectively. The bio-oil obtained at 500 {sup o}C was analysed and at this temperature the liquid product yield was the maximum. The various characteristics of bio-oil obtained under these conditions were identified on the basis of standard test methods. The empirical formula of the bio-oil with heating value of 31.8 MJ kg{sup -1} was established as CH{sub 1.65}O{sub 0.25}N{sub 0.03}. The chemical characterization showed that the bio-oil obtained from olive bagasse may be potentially valuable as a fuel and chemical feedstock. (author)

  7. Catalytic pyrolysis of olive mill wastewater sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellaoui, Hamza

    From 2008 to 2013, an average of 2,821.4 kilotons/year of olive oil were produced around the world. The waste product of the olive mill industry consists of solid residue (pomace) and wastewater (OMW). Annually, around 30 million m3 of OMW are produced in the Mediterranean area, 700,000 m3 year?1 in Tunisia alone. OMW is an aqueous effluent characterized by an offensive smell and high organic matter content, including high molecular weight phenolic compounds and long-chain fatty acids. These compounds are highly toxic to micro-organisms and plants, which makes the OMW a serious threat to the environment if not managed properly. The OMW is disposed of in open air evaporation ponds. After evaporation of most of the water, OMWS is left in the bottom of the ponds. In this thesis, the effort has been made to evaluate the catalytic pyrolysis process as a technology to valorize the OMWS. The first section of this research showed that 41.12 wt. % of the OMWS is mostly lipids, which are a good source of energy. The second section proved that catalytic pyrolysis of the OMWS over red mud and HZSM-5 can produce green diesel, and 450 °C is the optimal reaction temperature to maximize the organic yields. The last section revealed that the HSF was behind the good fuel-like properties of the OMWS catalytic oils, whereas the SR hindered the bio-oil yields and quality.

  8. Fruit load governs transpiration of olive trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustan, Amnon; Dag, Arnon; Yermiyahu, Uri; Erel, Ran; Presnov, Eugene; Agam, Nurit; Kool, Dilia; Iwema, Joost; Zipori, Isaac; Ben-Gal, Alon

    2016-03-01

    We tested the hypothesis that whole-tree water consumption of olives (Olea europaea L.) is fruit load-dependent and investigated the driving physiological mechanisms. Fruit load was manipulated in mature olives grown in weighing-drainage lysimeters. Fruit was thinned or entirely removed from trees at three separate stages of growth: early, mid and late in the season. Tree-scale transpiration, calculated from lysimeter water balance, was found to be a function of fruit load, canopy size and weather conditions. Fruit removal caused an immediate decline in water consumption, measured as whole-plant transpiration normalized to tree size, which persisted until the end of the season. The later the execution of fruit removal, the greater was the response. The amount of water transpired by a fruit-loaded tree was found to be roughly 30% greater than that of an equivalent low- or nonyielding tree. The tree-scale response to fruit was reflected in stem water potential but was not mirrored in leaf-scale physiological measurements of stomatal conductance or photosynthesis. Trees with low or no fruit load had higher vegetative growth rates. However, no significant difference was observed in the overall aboveground dry biomass among groups, when fruit was included. This case, where carbon sources and sinks were both not limiting, suggests that the role of fruit on water consumption involves signaling and alterations in hydraulic properties of vascular tissues and tree organs.

  9. Olive mill wastewater treatment: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettazzi, E; Morelli, M; Caffaz, S; Caretti, C; Azzari, E; Lubello, C

    2006-01-01

    Olive oil production, one of the main agro-industries in Mediterranean countries, generates significant amounts of olive mill wastewaters (OMWs), which represent a serious environmental problem, because of their high organic load, the acidic pH and the presence of recalcitrant and toxic substances such as phenolic and lipidic compounds (up to several grams per litre). In Italy, traditional disposal on the soil is the most common way to discharge OMWs. This work is aimed at investigating the efficiency and feasibility of AOPs and biological processes for OMW treatment. Trials have been carried out on wastewaters taken from one of the largest three-phase mills of Italy, located in Quarrata (Tuscany), as well as on synthetic solutions. Ozone and Fenton's reagents applied both on OMWs and on phenolic synthetic solutions guaranteed polyphenol removal efficiency up to 95%. Aerobic biological treatment was performed in a batch reactor filled with raw OMWs (pH = 4.5, T = 30 degrees C) without biomass inoculum. A biomass rich of fungi, developed after about 30 days, was able to biodegrade phenolic compounds reaching a removal efficiency of 70%. Pretreatment of OMWs by means of oxidation increased their biological treatability.

  10. The effect of different processing stages of olive fruit on the extracted olive oil polyphenol content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koutsaftakis, A.

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the distribution of olive fruit polyphenolic fraction through the phases of olive oil extraction by a classical and a centrifugal system has been investigated. Olives of two Cretan origin varieties were used. Consequently, samples from different stages of oil extraction with and without their polyphenols were stored for a month under 64 ºC by periodical testing their peroxide value. In olive oils extracted by the centrifugal factory a large reduction of polyphenols content was noticed during their elaboration that reached to the half amount compared with that of classical type. During oven test the control sample of olive oil obtained from the separation phase of centrifugal system was oxidized easier than that of classic one. The variation of polyphenol content as well as of the main olive oil quality characteristics with the temperature and the mixing time was also studied for a period of time.En el presente estudio se ha investigado la distribución de la fracción fenólica de aceitunas a través de las fases de extracción del aceite de oliva mediante los sistemas clásico y por centrifugación. Se han utilizado dos variedades de aceitunas cuya procedencia es la isla de Creta. Por otra parte, se han estudiado los aceites obtenidos en las diferentes etapas con y sin sus polifenoles, conservadolos durante un mes a 64 ºC y evaluándoles durante este tiempo el índice de peróxidos. En los aceites de oliva extraídos mediante centrífuga se ha observado una gran reducción en el contenido de polifenoles, reducción que alcanzó el 50 % comparado con el sistema clásico. Durante las pruebas en horno los aceites obtenidos mediante el sistema de centrifugación se oxidaron mas fácilmente que los obtenidos mediante el sistema clásico. La variación en el contenido de polifenoles así como los principales parámetros de calidad han sido estudiados en función de la temperatura y del tiempo.

  11. Saltcedar and Russian Olive Control Demonstration Act Science Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafroth, Patrick B.; Brown, Curtis A.; Merritt, David M.

    2010-01-01

    The primary intent of this document is to provide the science assessment called for under The Saltcedar and Russian Olive Control Demonstration Act of 2006 (Public Law 109-320; the Act). A secondary purpose is to provide a common background for applicants for prospective demonstration projects, should funds be appropriated for this second phase of the Act. This document synthesizes the state-of-the-science on the following topics: the distribution and abundance (extent) of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) and Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia) in the Western United States, potential for water savings associated with controlling saltcedar and Russian olive and the associated restoration of occupied sites, considerations related to wildlife use of saltcedar and Russian olive habitat or restored habitats, methods to control saltcedar and Russian olive, possible utilization of dead biomass following removal of saltcedar and Russian olive, and approaches and challenges associated with revegetation or restoration following control efforts. A concluding chapter discusses possible long-term management strategies, needs for additional study, potentially useful field demonstration projects, and a planning process for on-the-ground projects involving removal of saltcedar and Russian olive.

  12. Pinoresinol of olive oil decreases vitamin D intestinal absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Aurélie; Margier, Marielle; Tagliaferri, Camille; Lebecque, Patrice; Georgé, Stéphane; Wittrant, Yohann; Coxam, Véronique; Amiot, Marie-Josèphe; Reboul, Emmanuelle

    2016-09-01

    Enriching oils, such as olive oil, could be one solution to tackle the worldwide epidemic of vitamin D deficiency and to better fit with omega 3 (DHA) recommendations. However, data regarding the interactions occurring at the intestinal level between vitamin D and phenols from olive oil are scarce. We first determined the effect of polyphenols from a virgin olive oil, and a virgin olive oil enriched with DHA, on vitamin D absorption in rats. We then investigated the effects of 3 main olive oil phenols (oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol and pinoresinol) on vitamin D uptake by Caco-2 cells. The presence of polyphenols in the olive oil supplemented with DHA inhibited vitamin D postprandial response in rats (-25%, p<0.05). Similar results were obtained with a mix of the 3 polyphenols delivered to Caco-2 cells. However, this inhibitory effect was due to the presence of pinoresinol only. As the pinoresinol content can highly vary between olive oils, the present results should be taken into account to formulate an appropriate oil product enriched in vitamin D.

  13. Cardioprotective and neuroprotective roles of oleuropein in olive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Syed Haris

    2010-07-01

    Traditional diets of people living in the Mediterranean basin are, among other components, very rich in extra-virgin olive oil, the most typical source of visible fat. Olive is a priceless source of monounsaturated and di-unsaturated fatty acids, polyphenolic antioxidants and vitamins. Oleuropein is the main glycoside in olives and is responsible for the bitter taste of immature and unprocessed olives. Chemically, oleuropein is the ester of elenolic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl ethanol, which possesses beneficial effects on human health, such as antioxidant, antiatherogenic, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. The phenolic fraction extracted from the leaves of the olive tree, which contains significant amounts of oleuropein, prevents lipoprotein oxidation. In addition, oleuropein has shown cardioprotective effect against acute adriamycin cardiotoxicity and an anti-ischemic and hypolipidemic activities. Recently, oleuropein has shown neuroprotection by forming a non-covalent complex with the Aβ peptide, which is a key hallmark of several degenerative diseases like Alzheimer and Parkinson. Thus, a large mass of research has been accumulating in the area of olive oil, in the attempt to provide evidence for the health benefits of olive oil consumption and to scientifically support the widespread adoption of traditional Mediterranean diet as a model of healthy eating. These results provide a molecular basis for some of the benefits potentially coming from oleuropein consumption and pave the way to further studies on the possible pharmacological use of oleuropein to prevent or to slow down the cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases.

  14. Novel microsatellite marker development from the unassembled genome sequence data of the marbled flounder Pseudopleuronectes yokohamae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minegishi, Yuki; Ikeda, Minoru; Kijima, Akihiro

    2015-12-01

    Various genome-scale data have been increasingly published in diverged species, but they can be reused for other purposes by re-analyzing in other ways. As a case study to utilize the published genome data, we developed microsatellite markers from the genome sequence data (assembled contigs and unassembled reads) of the marbled flounder Pseudopleuronectes yokohamae. No microsatellites were identified in the contig sequences, whereas the computer software found 781,773 sequences containing microsatellites with di- to hexa-nucleotide motif in the unassembled reads. For 86,732 unique sequences among them, a total of 331,368 primer pairs were designed. Screening based on PCR amplification, polymorphisms and accurate genotyping resulted in sixteen primer sets, which were later characterized using 45 samples collected in Onagawa Bay, Miyagi, Japan. The presence of null alleles was suggested at four loci in the studied population but no evidence of allelic dropout was found. The observed number of alleles and heterozygosity was 2-20 and 0-0.88889, respectively, indicating polymorphisms and usefulness for population genetic analyses of this species. In addition, a large number of the microsatellite primers developed in this study are potentially applicable also for kinship estimation, individual fingerprint and linkage map construction.

  15. Evolution history of duplicated smad3 genes in teleost: insights from Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxin Du

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Following the two rounds of whole-genome duplication (WGD during deuterosome evolution, a third genome duplication occurred in the ray-fined fish lineage and is considered to be responsible for the teleost-specific lineage diversification and regulation mechanisms. As a receptor-regulated SMAD (R-SMAD, the function of SMAD3 was widely studied in mammals. However, limited information of its role or putative paralogs is available in ray-finned fishes. In this study, two SMAD3 paralogs were first identified in the transcriptome and genome of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus. We also explored SMAD3 duplication in other selected species. Following identification, genomic structure, phylogenetic reconstruction, and synteny analyses performed by MrBayes and online bioinformatic tools confirmed that smad3a/3b most likely originated from the teleost-specific WGD. Additionally, selection pressure analysis and expression pattern of the two genes performed by PAML and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR revealed evidence of subfunctionalization of the two SMAD3 paralogs in teleost. Our results indicate that two SMAD3 genes originate from teleost-specific WGD, remain transcriptionally active, and may have likely undergone subfunctionalization. This study provides novel insights to the evolution fates of smad3a/3b and draws attentions to future function analysis of SMAD3 gene family.

  16. Occurrence, Development and Histochemical Characteristics of Lymphocystis in Cultured Japanese Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng Xiuzhen(绳秀珍); Zhan Wenbin

    2004-01-01

    Occurrence and development of lymphocystis cells in flounder Paralichthys olivaceus, and some histochemical features are studied using light and electron microscopy and histochemical methods. Fibroblasts engulf virus particles forming phagocytosis vacuole in the cytoplasm. The infected cells proliferate and turn round and hypertrophied; basophilic inclusion bodies, Feulgen-positive, are present in the cytoplasm, and a hyaline capsule, containing acid ploysaccharide and protein, appears outside cell membrane. The mature lymphocystis cells possess numerous virus particles (200~220nm in diameter with a central core 120~140nm) and high electron-dense inclusions with budding virions at the surface in the cytoplasm, and show margination of chromatin. Moderate electron density particles (70~80nm in diameter) fill out perinuclear cisterna and arrange in crystalloid arrays in nucleus, liberated into the cytoplasm by rupture of nuclear membrane. No virus particles are observed in nucleus. Therefore, inclusion bodies are the sites of virus assembly and maturity, while replication processes of lymphocystis virus are involved in both nuclear and cytoplasmic phases. Besides, strongly basophilic link-like structures are present between adjacent cells or through connective tissue, and virus particles are observed in somewhere of the capsule, thus where may be the spread route of virus from one cell to another or to the environment. The senile lymphocystis cells release virus by the rupture of cells.

  17. Neuropeptide Y gene expression around meal time in the Brazilian flounder Paralichthys orbignyanus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vinicius F Campos; Ricardo B Robaldo; João C Deschamps; Fabiana K Seixas; Alan John A McBride; Luis Fernando Marins; Marcelo Okamoto; Luís A Sampaio; Tiago Collares

    2012-06-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is considered the major stimulant for food intake in mammals and fish. Previous results indicate that NPY is involved in the feeding behaviour of the Brazilian flounder, Paralichthys orbignyanus. In this study, we evaluated hypothalamic NPY expression before (−2 h), during (0 h) and after feeding (+2 h) in two independent experiments: (1) during a normal feeding schedule and (2) in fish fasted for 2 weeks. During normal feeding, changes in the levels of NPY mRNA were periprandial, with expression levels being significantly elevated at meal time ( < 0.05) and significantly reduced 2 h later (< 0.05). Comparing the fasting and unfasted groups, NPY mRNA levels were significantly higher ( < 0.05) at −2 h and +2 h in the fasting group, but there was no difference at 0 h. In addition, the higher NPY mRNA levels that were observed in the fasting group were maintained throughout the sampling period. In summary, our results show that NPY expression was associated with meal time (0 h) in food intake regulation.

  18. Intermolecular interaction studies of winter flounder antifreeze protein reveal the existence of thermally accessible binding state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dat H; Colvin, Michael E; Yeh, Yin; Feeney, Robert E; Fink, William H

    2004-10-05

    The physical nature underlying intermolecular interactions between two rod-like winter flounder antifreeze protein (AFP) molecules and their implication for the mechanism of antifreeze function are examined in this work using molecular dynamics simulations, augmented with free energy calculations employing a continuum solvation model. The energetics for different modes of interactions of two AFP molecules is examined in both vacuum and aqueous phases along with the water distribution in the region encapsulated by two antiparallel AFP backbones. The results show that in a vacuum two AFP molecules intrinsically attract each other in the antiparallel fashion, where their complementary charge side chains face each other directly. In the aqueous environment, this attraction is counteracted by both screening and entropic effects. Therefore, two nearly energetically degenerate states, an aggregated state and a dissociated state, result as a new aspect of intermolecular interaction in the paradigm for the mechanism of action of AFP. The relevance of these findings to the mechanism of function of freezing inhibition in the context of our work on Antarctic cod antifreeze glycoprotein (Nguyen et al., Biophysical Journal, 2002, Vol. 82, pp. 2892-2905) is discussed.

  19. Complex movement patterns of greenback flounder (Rhombosolea tapirina) in the Murray River estuary and Coorong, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, Jason; Fowler, Anthony J.; Ye, Qifeng; Dittmann, Sabine

    2017-04-01

    The greenback flounder Rhombosolea tapirina is a commercially-important flatfish species in southern Australia and New Zealand, whose population dynamics are poorly understood. Acoustic telemetry was used to assess movement patterns and area use for R. tapirina in the Murray River estuary and Coorong, South Australia. Twenty fish (221-313 mm total length) equipped with acoustic transmitters were monitored for up to seven months during a period of high freshwater inflow. Fish were detected over a large part of the system, but showed a strong preference for brackish and near-marine conditions in the inner estuary. Tagged fish exhibited complex movement patterns that differed among individuals, including: (1) within estuary movements; (2) dispersal from the estuary to the sea; and (3) return migrations between the estuary and the sea. A diurnal shift in fine-scale area use was observed in the part of the estuary where residency was highest, with individuals occupying deeper habitats during the day and shallower areas during the night. The results demonstrate the individualistic and often highly transient behaviour of this species and its ability to undertake regular movements over the spatial scale of 10s of km. Understanding such movement patterns can improve effective management of estuarine flatfish populations and ecosystems.

  20. Tissue expression and stock variation of isozymes of stone flounder ( Kareius bicoloratus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianpeng; Zhang, Quanqi; Qi, Jie; Wang, Zhigang

    2007-04-01

    Tissue expression and stock variation of isozymes of stone flounder ( Kareius bicoloratus) were analyzed with horizontal starch gel electrophoresis. For the fourteen enzymes assayed, 31 loci were recorded. The results indicated that all the isozymes examined were obviously tissue-specific. The expressions of SOD *, GDH *, G3PDH-2 * and ADH-2 * were detected only in liver, SDH-1 *, MDH-1 * and ADH-1 * only in muscle, and LDH-B * and LDH-C * only in eyes. In comparison, MDH-2 *, GPI-3 * and SDH-2 * were detected in all tissues examined. Other loci examined were detected in a variety of tissues. Muscle and liver were selected to detect the isozyme variation of the two geographic stocks of Qingdao and Weihai, Shandong Province, China. The percentages of polymorphic loci ( P 0.99) were 29.17% and 25.00%, the observed heterozygosities ( H 0) were 0.028 ± 0.014 and 0.040 ± 0.019, and the expected heterozygosities ( He) were 0.039 ± 0.017 and 0.052 ± 0.022 in Qingdao and Weihai stock, respectively. The coefficient of gene differentiation ( F st) and genetic distance ( D) between the two stocks was 0.012 and 0.0011, respectively, indicating that the genetic differentiation is low between them. Compared with other species of Pleuronectiformes, both the percentage of polymorphic loci and the mean heterozygosity of K. bicoloratus were at a middle level.

  1. Effects of cooking on levels of PCBs in the fillets of winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, T.M. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Durell, G.S.; Koczwara, G.; Spellacy, A.M. [Battelle Ocean Sciences, Duxbury, MA (United States)

    1995-08-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory and Battelle Ocean Sciences performed a study to determine the effect of cooking on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels in the fillets of winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus). Broiling, pan frying, and deep frying in oil were tested on fillets from 21 fish collected from New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts, on February 21, 1991. The evaluation involved estimating the change in PCB concentrations using a mass-balance approach that factored the change in fillet weight resulting from cooking with the changes in PCB concentration expressed on a precooked wet-weight basis. Deep frying in oil resulted in a 47% reduction in total PCB levels in fillet tissue. Additionally, deep frying caused a 40% reduction in fillet mass. Pan frying and broiling resulted in statistically in insignificant increases in total PCB levels of 15% and 17%, respectively. Fillet mass reductions resulting from pan frying and broiling were 7% and 15%, respectively. The effects of cooking on 18 individual congeners generally paralleled the results observed for total PCB. All 18 congeners were significantly reduced by deep frying. Congener Cl{sub 2}(08) also was significantly reduced by either pan frying. Congeners Cl{sub 5}(105) and Cl{sub 5}(118) showed apparent significant increases in concentrations following pan frying. Congeners Cl{sub 5}(105), Cl{sub 5}(118), and C1{sub 6}(138) showed significant increases in concentration following broiling.

  2. Effects of antinutritional factors on plasma lipoprotein levels in Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, J M; Mai, K S; Ai, Q H; Zhang, W B; Wang, X J; Xu, W; Liufu, Z G; Cai, Y H; Chen, W

    2012-02-01

    This study examined the effects of four types of antinutritional factor (phytic acid, stachyose, soy saponins and soy isoflavones) on lipoprotein levels in plasma of Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. A basal diet was prepared with fish meal as primary protein source, the other diets were supplemented with 0·2, 0·4 or 0·8% phytic acid, 0·4, 0·8 or 1·5% stachyose, 0·1, 0·35 or 0·7% soy saponins and 0·10, 0·35 or 0·70% soy isoflavones, by dry mass, in place of white flour in the basal diet. Total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels in plasma of P. olivaceus were not affected by phytic acid or stachyose. In general, addition of 0·2-0·8% phytic acid or 0·4-1·5% stachyose decreased plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, increased plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, thereby increasing the LDL-C:HDL-C ratio. By contrast, supplementation with 0·35-0·7% soy saponins generally depressed plasma TC levels and the LDL-C:HDL-C ratio. Supplementation with 0·35-0·7% soy isoflavones, however, increased plasma TC and TG levels. These results indicate that soy saponins may be partly responsible for the cholesterol-lowering effects of soybean meal.

  3. Effect of Industrial Effluents on Embryos of Lefteye Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qu Keming; Chen Minshan; Ma Shaosai; Xin Fuyan

    2003-01-01

    The studies have been carried out in laboratory on the effect of dyeing,electroplating, pesticide effluents and their intermixture on embryos of lefteye flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus ). The main toxic substances in dying effluent are aniline ( 20 mg/L ) and phenol ( 24 mg/L ). The main toxic substances in electroplating effluent are Zn ( 1 970 mg/L ), Cu ( 9 mg/L ) and Pb ( 7.5 mg/L ). The main toxic substances in pesticide effluent are monocrotophos and phosphite. The test results indicate that the lowest concentrations of dyeing, electroplating, pesticide effluents and their intermixture, having significant effect on the hatch rate and development of P. olivaceus embryos, are 0.5 %,0.15 %, 0.25 % and 0.25 %, respectively; and the incipient LC50 of dyeing, electroplating,pesticide effluents and their intermixture are 3.38 % ( 2.29 % ~ 3.87 %), 0.81% ( 0.71%~ 0.92 % ), 1.57 % ( 1.37 % ~ 1.82 % ) and 1.48 % ( 1.24 % ~ 1.76 %). Based on the incipient LC50values, the toxicity sequence of the three industrial effluents is in the order of electroplating effluent > pesticide effluent > dyeing effluent.

  4. Juveniles tried as adults: the age of the juvenile matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Jaclyn K; Woody, William Douglas

    2011-08-01

    Serious juvenile crimes require evaluation of a child as a criminal defendant in adult court. In such cases, it is crucial to understand jurors' attitudes, biases, and ability to follow legal instructions and maintain fairness. 308 undergraduate psychology students served as mock jurors, were randomly separated into four groups, and each group read the same realistic summary of a trial with the defendant's age presented as 13, 15, 17, or 21 years. Participants were asked to render guilty or not guilty verdicts and, if guilty, to suggest sentences. Chi-squared analysis indicated 13- and 15-year-old defendants were convicted less often than 17- and 21-year-old defendants, showing that jurors distinguished between juvenile defendants of different ages, but not minors and adults as defined by law. Additional analysis showed that age did not affect sentencing recommendations. Decision processes jurors use for juveniles tried as adults are discussed.

  5. Aroma transition from rosemary leaves during aromatization of olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Yılmazer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aroma profile of aromatized olive oil was determined in this study. The primary objective was to investigate the transition of major aroma compounds from rosemary and olive fruit during the kneading step of olive oil production by response surface methodology. For this purpose, temperature, time, and amount of rosemary leaves were determined as independent variables. The results indicated that temperature and time did not affect the transition of target compounds, but rosemary leaves addition had a strong influence on transition, especially for characteristic aroma compounds of this herb. Adequacies of developed models were found to be high enough to predict each aromatic component of interest.

  6. Price dependence in the principal EU olive oil markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmanouilides, C.; Fousekis, P.; Grigoriadis, V.

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the degree and the structure of price dependence in the principal EU olive oil markets (Spain, Italy and Greece). To this end, it utilizes monthly olive oil price data and the statistical tool of copulas. The empirical results suggest that prices are likely to boom together but not to crash together; this is especially true for the prices of the two most important players, Italy (importer) and Spain (exporter). The finding of asymmetric price co-movements implies that the three principal spatial olive oil markets in the EU cannot be thought of as one great pool. (Author)

  7. Price dependence in the principal EU olive oil markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Emmanouilides

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to assess the degree and the structure of price dependence in the principal EU olive oil markets (Spain, Italy and Greece. To this end, it utilizes monthly olive oil price data and the statistical tool of copulas. The empirical results suggest that prices are likely to boom together but not to crash together; this is especially true for the prices of the two most important players, Italy (importer and Spain (exporter. The finding of asymmetric price co-movements implies that the three principal spatial olive oil markets in the EU cannot be thought of as one great pool.

  8. Forensic aspects of juvenile violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, L H

    2000-10-01

    The juvenile justice system was created because it was recognized that youthful offenders needed to be managed differently from adults. They were to receive habilitation services instead of punishment. It is now more than a century since the creation of the first juvenile court. After 67 years, the US Supreme Court, in Kent v United States stated that the model was not working because juveniles in the criminal justice system received no treatment and they had no rights. Because the issue that had been appealed was the lack of rights (not lack of treatment), the Court mandated that juveniles, like adults, be given certain rights. The following year, in In re Gault, the Court expanded these rights. Subsequent Supreme Court cases have dealt with these kinds of issues--that is, whether juvenile offenders are entitled to the same rights as adults and subject to the same penalties. The Supreme Court has never heard a "right to treatment" case, which is the other part of the juvenile court system. Cases have been brought in lower courts (e.g., Nelson v. Heyne, 1972) alleging inadequate treatment services, but no national impact has resulted. Thus, in general, children in the juvenile court system do not have an enforceable right to treatment and can obtain only what services are available in their jurisdictions. The services often are woefully inadequate. Sentencing a youth to probation, with the requirement that he or she participate in counseling or mental health treatment, is meaningless if services are not available. Community-based, model programs that provide effective treatment do exist. They are, as yet, the rare exception rather than the norm and, therefore, are not available to most youthful offenders. Incarcerated juveniles, obviously, cannot avail themselves of community programs. Litigation to give these youth the same rights as adults in penal institutions is not the answer because incarcerated adults don't have a right to treatment, only a right to be free

  9. Reduction in pesticide residue levels in olives by ozonated and tap water treatments and their transfer into olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kırış, Sevilay; Velioglu, Yakup Sedat

    2016-01-01

    The effects of different wash times (2 and 5 min) with tap and ozonated water on the removal of nine pesticides from olives and the transfer ratios of these pesticides during olive oil production were determined. The reliability of the analytical methods was also tested. The applied methods of analysis were found to be suitable based on linearity, trueness, repeatability, selectivity and limit of quantification all the pesticides tested. All tap and ozonated water wash cycles removed a significant quantity of the pesticides from the olives, with a few exceptions. Generally, extending the wash time increased the pesticide reduction with ozonated water, but did not make significant differences with tap water. During olive oil processing, depending on the processing technique and physicochemical properties of the pesticides, eight of nine pesticides were concentrated into olive oil (processing factor > 1) with almost no significant difference between treatments. Imidacloprid did not pass into olive oil. Ozonated water wash for 5 min reduced chlorpyrifos, β-cyfluthrin, α-cypermethrin and imidacloprid contents by 38%, 50%, 55% and 61% respectively in olives.

  10. The Effect of Soil Management on Olive Yield and VOO Quality in a Rainfed Olive Grove of Central Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Sastre

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rainfed olive groves have been traditionally tilled in order to reduce the competition for water and nutrients. In sloping Mediterranean olive groves, this practice leads to high erosion rates, resulting in a reduction in soil fertility. Cover crops have been employed as a sustainable olive grove management strategy, but previous studies found differences in their effect on fruit load and there is scarce information on their influence on the virgin olive oil (VOO quality. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of different soil management strategies on olive and oil yield and VOO physicochemical and sensory characteristics in a rainfed olive grove (238 trees·ha−1 of Cornicabra cultivar, the main in Central Spain. No effect of soil management was found in olive or oil yield along three cropping seasons. VOO quality was mainly influenced by the year, but slight differences were found in the driest year between the studied treatments. Small differences in fruit ripening, pigments, and several fatty acids as well as in sensory parameters were found.

  11. The Heterogeneity of Juvenile Myositis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rider, Lisa G.

    2007-01-01

    Juvenile myositis is a heterogeneous group of systemic autoimmune diseases, in which clinical and serologic subgroups result in subsets of patients with distinct clinical manifestations, disease courses, immunogenetic associations, responses to therapy, and prognoses. A newly identified autoantibody of unknown specificity, anti-p155, is myositis-associated and seen in up to 20 – 30% of juvenile and adult DM patients. HLA DRB1*0301 and its linked allele DQA1*0501 have been identified as the major immunogenetic risk factor for juvenile and adult DM in both European- and African- American patients, and DQA1*0301 is an additional risk factor in European American patients. Several DQA1 alleles also are protective for juvenile DM. Environmental risk factors are poorly understood, but growing evidence suggests a role for infectious agents and ultraviolet radiation. The current therapy of juvenile DM consists of corticosteroids and other immunosuppressive agents, with the adjunctive treatment of cutaneous manifestations and rehabilitation. Therapeutic trials of biologic agents, including anti-TNFα and anti-CD20, may aid in developing promising new therapies for these disorders. PMID:17317616

  12. Fishing mortality in North Carolina's southern flounder fishery: direct estimates of instantaneous fishing mortality from a tag return experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, William E.; Scharf, Frederick S.; Hightower, Joseph E.

    2009-01-01

    Estimation of harvest rates is often a critical component of fishery stock assessment and management. These assessments are often based on catch-at-age data sets generated over many years, but estimates of instantaneous fishing mortality (F) can also be obtained from a shorter-term tag return study. We conducted a 2-year tag return experiment to generate direct estimates of F for southern flounder Paralichthys lethostigma in a North Carolina estuary. The southern flounder supports lucrative commercial and recreational fisheries within the state and has experienced heavy fishing pressure for more than a decade. During 2005 and 2006, fish were captured and tagged with the assistance of commercial harvesters in the New River estuary. Tag returns were used to generate monthly estimates of F, which demonstrated a clear seasonal pattern that was consistent between years. Several important assumptions of the tag return model were accounted for through the use of double-tagged individuals, the distribution of both high- and standard-reward tags, and the completion of an independent controlled experiment to evaluate mortality related to tagging. Annual estimates of F exceeded the short-term management target in both years. Residual patterns suggest that the estimates may actually have been biased low, possibly due to delayed mixing of tagged fish. Thus, despite recently amended fishery regulations, F in the North Carolina southern flounder gill-net fishery still has the potential to greatly exceed targeted levels, which may delay stock recovery. Tag return studies can provide reliable (and nearly real-time) information about F and natural mortality as long as the experimental design addresses specific assumptions related to tagging-induced mortality, tag shedding, and nonreporting of tags.

  13. An integrated assessment of pollution and biological effects in flounder, mussels and sediment in the southern Baltic Sea coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrowska, Henryka; Kopko, Orest; Lehtonen, Kari K; Lang, Thomas; Waszak, Ilona; Balode, Maija; Strode, Evita

    2017-02-01

    Organic and metal contaminants and biological effects were investigated in flounder, mussels, and sediments in the southern Baltic Sea coastal area in order to assess environmental quality status in that area. Four sites were selected, including two within the Gulf of Gdańsk (GoG). In biota and sediment at each site, DDTs dominated over PCBs and PBDEs were the least abundant among organic contaminants. Their concentrations decreased progressively outward from GoG. Among metal contaminants, the levels of Hg, Pb, and Cd were elevated in GoG. Biomarkers in flounder, EROD activity and DNA SB, showed moderate positive correlations with organic and metal contaminants. In flounder, the integrated biomarker index (IBR/n) presented a spatial trend coherent with chemical pollution index (CPI), but there was no clear spatial correspondence between IBR/n and CPI in mussels nor between sediment toxicity index (STI) and sediment CPI. The integrated assessment of contaminant and biological effect data against available assessment criteria indicated that in biota, the contaminant assessment thresholds were most often exceeded by CB-118, heptachlor, PBDE, and Hg (in the GoG sediments by p,p'-DDT, Hg and Cd), while of the biological determinants, the threshold was breeched by AChE activity in mussels in GoG. Applying the ICES/OSPAR traffic-light approach showed that of the 50 parameters assessed at each site, there were 18% of determinants in the red color category in the two GoG sites and 8% of determinants in the two sites outside GoG, which indicated that none of the four investigated sites attained good environmental status (GES).

  14. Effects of Dietary Soybean Stachyose and Phytic Acid on Gene Expressions of Serine Proteases in Japanese Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MI Haifeng; MAI Kangsen; ZHANG Wenbing; WU Chenglong; CAI Yinghua

    2011-01-01

    Soybean stachyose (SBS) and phytic acid (PA) are anti-nutritional factors (ANF) which have deleterious effects on the growth and digestibility in fish.The present research studied the effects of dietary SBS and PA on the expression of three serine protease genes in the liver of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).These genes are trypsinogen 1 (poTRY),elastase 1 (poEL) and chymotrypsinogen 1 (poCTRY).Eight artificial diets with graded levels of supplemented ANFs were formulated to 4 levels of SBS (0.00,0.40,0.80 and 1.50%),4 levels of PA (0.00,0.20,0.40 and 0.80),respectively.Japanese flounder (initial weight 2.45 g±0.01 g)were fed with these diets for 10 weeks with three replications per treatment.At the end of 10 weeks,supplementation of 0.40% of dietary SBS or PA significantly increased the gene expression ofpoTRY and poCTRY (P<0.05).The same level of dietary SBS significantly decreased the gene expression of poEL.In comparison with the control group (ANF-free),dietary PA (0.2% and 0.8%)significantly decreased the gene expression ofpoTRY,poCTRY and poEL (P<0.05).However,excessive supplement of dietary SBS (1.5%) has no significant effects on these gene expressions (P>0.05).These results suggested that dietary SBS and dietary PA could directly affect the serine protease genes at the transcriptional level in Japanese flounder,and these genes' expression was more sensitive to dietary PA than to SBS under the current experimental conditions.

  15. Juvenile Correctional Institutions Library Services: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlister, Annette M.

    This bibliography lists citations for 14 articles, books, and reports concerned with library services in juvenile correctional institutions. A second section lists 21 additional materials on adult correctional libraries which also contain information relevant to the juvenile library. (KP)

  16. Physical and Oxidative Stability of Functional olive Oil-in-Water Emulsions Formulated Using Olive Mill Wastewater and Whey Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Caporaso, Nicola; Genovese, Alessandro; Burke, Roisin; Barry-Ryan, Catherine; Sacchi, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    The present paper reports on the use of phenolic extracts from olive mill wastewater (OMW) in model olive oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions to study their effect on their physical and chemical stability. Spray-dried OMW polyphenols were added to a model 20% olive O/W emulsion stabilized with whey protein isolate (WPI) and xanthan gum, in phosphate buffer solution at pH 7. The emulsions were characterised under accelerated storage conditions (40 °C) up to 30 days. Physical stability was evaluated b...

  17. Association of SSR markers with contents of fatty acids in olive oil and genetic diversity analysis of an olive core collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipek, M; Ipek, A; Seker, M; Gul, M K

    2015-03-27

    The purpose of this research was to characterize an olive core collection using some agronomic characters and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and to determine SSR markers associated with the content of fatty acids in olive oil. SSR marker analysis demonstrated the presence of a high amount of genetic variation between the olive cultivars analyzed. A UPGMA dendrogram demonstrated that olive cultivars did not cluster on the basis of their geographic origin. Fatty acid components of olive oil in these cultivars were determined. The results also showed that there was a great amount of variation between the olive cultivars in terms of fatty acid composition. For example, oleic acid content ranged from 57.76 to 76.9% with standard deviation of 5.10%. Significant correlations between fatty acids of olive oil were observed. For instance, a very high negative correlation (-0.812) between oleic and linoleic acids was detected. A structured association analysis between the content of fatty acids in olive oil and SSR markers was performed. STRUCTURE analysis assigned olive cultivars to two gene pools (K = 2). Assignment of olive cultivars to these gene pools was not based on geographical origin. Association between fatty acid traits and SSR markers was evaluated using the general linear model of TASSEL. Significant associations were determined between five SSR markers and stearic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids of olive oil. Very high associations (P olive.

  18. Genetic diversity in two Japanese flounder populations from China seas inferred using microsatellite markers and COI sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Dongdong; LI Sanlei; LOU Bao; ZHANG Yurong; ZHAN Wei; SHI Huilai

    2012-01-01

    Japanese flounder is one of the most important commercial species in China; however,information on the genetic background of natural populations in China seas is scarce.The lack of genetic data has hampered fishery management and aquaculture development programs for this species.In the present study,we have analyzed the genetic diversity in natural populations of Japanese flounder sampled from the Yellow Sea (Qingdao population,QD) and East China Sea (Zhoushan population,ZS) using 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci and cytochrome c oxidase subunit Ⅰ (COI) sequencing data.A total of 68 different alleles were observed over 10 microsatellite loci.The total number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 9,and the number of genotypes per locus ranged from 3 to 45.The observed hetcrozygosity and expected heterozygosity in QD were 0.733 and 0.779,respectively,and in ZS the heterozygosity values were 0.708 and 0.783,respectively.Significant departures from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were observed in 7 of the 10 microsatellite loci in each of the two populations.The COI sequencing analysis revealed 25 polymorphic sites and 15 haplotypes in the two populations.The haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity in the QD population were 0.746±0.072 8 and 0.003 34±0.001 03 respectively,and in ZS population the genetic diversity values were 0.712±0.047 0 and 0.003 18±0.000 49,respectively.The microsatellite data (Fst=0.048 7,P<0.001) and mitochondrial DNA data (Fst=0.128,P<0.001) both revealed significant genetic differentiation between the two populations.The information on the genetic variation and differentiation in Japanese flounder obtained in this study could be used to set up suitable guidelines for the management and conservation of this species,as well as for managing artificial selection programs.In future studies,more geographically diverse stocks should be used to obtain a deeper understanding of the population structure of Japanese flounder in the China seas

  19. Quantitative comparison of the expression of myogenic regulatory factors in flounder(Paralichthys olivaceus) embryos and adult tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉青; 谭训刚; 徐芃; 孙威; 徐永立; 张培军

    2010-01-01

    MyoD,Myf5,and myogenin are myogenic regulatory factors that play important roles during myogenesis.It is thought that MyoD and Myf5 are required for myogenic determination,while myogenin is important for terminal differentiation and lineage maintenance.To better understand the function of myogenic regulatory factors in muscle development of flounder,an important economic fish in Asia,real-time quantitative RT-PCR was used to characterize the expression patterns of MyoD,Myf5, and myogenin at early stages of ...

  20. Biorefinery based on olive biomass. State of the art and future trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-García, J M; Niño, L; Martínez-Patiño, C; Álvarez, C; Castro, E; Negro, M J

    2014-05-01

    With currently more than nine million hectares, olive tree cultivation has spread worldwide, table olives and olive oil as the main products. Moreover, a number of by-products and residues derived from both tree cultivation and the process of industrial olive oil production, most having no practical applications, are obtained yearly. This paper reviews the research regarding these by-products, namely biomass from olive tree pruning, olive stones, olive pomace and wastewaters obtained from the process of olive oil production. Furthermore, a wide range of compounds has been identified and can be produced using a broad definition of the term biorefinery based on olive tree biomass. As an example, this paper reviews ethanol production as one of the main proposed applications, as well as research on other value-added products. Finally, this paper also assesses recent technological advances, future perspectives and challenges in each stage of the process.

  1. Microbiota of table olive fermentations and criteria of selection for their use as starters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek eHeperkan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation is one of the oldest methods for preserving of olives applied worldwide for thousands of years. However, olive processing is a speculative area where whether olives are fermented products or pickled products produced by organic acids and salt. Although lactobacilli and yeasts play a major role in the process, literature survey indicates that lactobacilli are less relevant at least in some types of natural green olives during fermentation. There have been significant advances recently in understanding the process to produce olives, especially the role of lactic acid bacteria (LAB and yeasts including biofilm formation on olive surfaces by these organisms. The purpose of this paper is to review the latest developments regarding the microbiota of olives on the basis of olive types, their role on the fermentation process, the interaction between both group of microorganisms and the olive surface, the possibility to use starter cultures and the criteria to select appropriate cultures.

  2. Microbiota of table olive fermentations and criteria of selection for their use as starters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heperkan, Dilek

    2013-01-01

    Fermentation is one of the oldest methods for preserving of olives applied worldwide for thousands of years. However, olive processing is a speculative area where whether olives are fermented products or pickled products produced by organic acids and salt. Although lactobacilli and yeasts play a major role in the process, literature survey indicates that lactobacilli are less relevant at least in some types of natural green olives during fermentation. There have been significant advances recently in understanding the process to produce olives, especially the role of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts including biofilm formation on olive surfaces by these organisms. The purpose of this paper is to review the latest developments regarding the microbiota of olives on the basis of olive types, their role on the fermentation process, the interaction between both group of microorganisms and the olive surface, the possibility to use starter cultures and the criteria to select appropriate cultures.

  3. Assessment of inter- and intra-cultivar variations in olive using SSR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Ipek

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Olive (Olea europaea L. production in the world has been made by using many cultivars, and the genetic uniformity of commercial cultivars is important for standard olive oil and table olive production. The genetic variation among and within commonly cultivated olive cultivars in Turkey was analyzed using SSR markers. A total of 135 leaf samples were collected from 11 commonly cultivated olive cultivars from 11 provinces in four geographical regions of Turkey. Seven SSR primer pairs generated 46 SSR markers, and the number of SSR markers per primer pair ranged from 4 (UDO-14 to 9 (GAPU-89 with an average of 6.57. This high level of SSR polymorphism suggests that olive production in Turkey has been made using genetically diverse olive cultivars and this high level of genetic variation is probably due to the location of Turkey in the center of the origin of olive. The UPGMA dendrogram, developed to visualize the estimated genetic relationships among the 135 samples, demonstrated that the clustering of olive cultivars was not based on geographical regions of cultivation. Presence of genetic variation was detected within a nationwide grown Turkish olive cultivar, called 'Gemlik'. Olive growers successfully discriminated olive cultivars with distinct morphological and pomological characters. However, there was some confusion about the identification of cultivars with similar phenotypic traits. To prevent misidentification of olive cultivars and to minimize intra-cultivar variation, certified propagation materials which were characterized using DNA based molecular markers should be used during the establishment of new olive orchards.

  4. Microbiological characterization of table olives commercialized in Portugal in respect to safety aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ana Paula; Pereira, José Alberto; Bento, Albino; Estevinho, M Letícia

    2008-08-01

    Table olives are a traditional component of the Mediterranean diet and are largely consumed in the world. There are different trade treatments that originate different types of olives. The aim of the present work was to proceed to the microbiological characterization of table olives commercialized in the Portuguese market, with respect to their microbiological safety. The microbiological characterization was made in the olive pulp and packing brine of thirty-five table olives samples of different types and trade treatments, namely natural olives Cv. Galega (NOG), natural turning colour olives (NTCO), green olives (GO), black ripe olives (BO) and natural olives purchased in the traditional market and obtained from traditional producers (NOt). Simultaneously it was verified specific legislation of the table olives in what it concerns to labeling rules, pH values and the identification of isolated yeasts. In general, table olives consumed showed acceptable security with exception of four NOt samples that presented Staphylococcus aureus. In a considerable number of samples high number of microorganisms indicators of contaminations were observed that reveals the need of optimization the hygienic procedures during production process to improve the quality and safety of table olives. During the work seven yeasts were isolated from olive pulp and brine.

  5. The effect of olive oil on osteoporosis prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Martínez, Olga; Rivas, Ana; Ramos-Torrecillas, Javier; De Luna-Bertos, Elvira; Ruiz, Concepción

    2014-11-01

    The incidence of osteoporosis and associated fractures is found to be lower in countries where the Mediterranean diet is predominant. These observations might be mediated by the active constituents of olive oil and especially phenolic compounds. To review current knowledge by searching for all relevant publications since 2001 in the MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library databases, using the descriptors: Mediterranean diet, virgin olive oil, phenols, bone, osteoblast and osteoporosis. Published evidence suggests that olive oil phenols can be beneficial by preventing the loss of bone mass. It has been demonstrated that they can modulate the proliferative capacity and cell maturation of osteoblasts by increasing alkaline phosphatase activity and depositing calcium ions in the extracellular matrix. Further research on this issue is warranted, given the prevalence of osteoporosis and the few data available on the action of olive oil on bone.

  6. Origin assessment of EV olive oils by esterified sterols analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacalone, Rosa; Giuliano, Salvatore; Gulotta, Eleonora; Monfreda, Maria; Presti, Giovanni

    2015-12-01

    In this study extra virgin olive oils of Italian and non-Italian origin (from Spain, Tunisia and blends of EU origin) were differentiated by GC-FID analysis of sterols and esterified sterols followed by chemometric tools. PCA allowed to highlight the high significance of esterified sterols to characterise extra virgin olive oils in relation to their origin. SIMCA provided a sensitivity and specificity of 94.39% and 91.59% respectively; furthermore, an external set of 54 extra virgin olive oils bearing a designation of Italian origin on the labelling was tested by SIMCA. Prediction results were also compared with organoleptic assessment. Finally, the poor correlation found between ethylesters and esterified sterols allowed to hazard the guess, worthy of further investigations, that esterified sterols may prove to be promising in studies of geographical discrimination: indeed they appear to be independent of those factors causing the formation of ethyl esters and related to olive oil production.

  7. Polanski lavastas filmi "Oliver Twist" oma lastele / Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2005-01-01

    Mängufilm "Oliver Twist" Charles Dickensi romaani ainetel esilinastus Prahas, kus toimusid ka filmivõtted. Tšehhi, Suurbritannia, Prantsusmaa ja Itaalia koostöös valminud filmi lavastas Roman Polanski

  8. Õnnetu saatusega Oliver Twist Polanski meelevallas / Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2005-01-01

    Mängufilm Charles Dickensi romaani järgi "Oliver Twist" : stsenarist Ronald Harwood : režissöör Roman Polanski : nimiosas Barney Clark, Fagin - Ben Kingsley : Suurbritannia - Tšehhi - Prantsusmaa - Itaalia 2005

  9. Antimicrobial activity of commercial Olea europaea (olive) leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudjana, Aurelia N; D'Orazio, Carla; Ryan, Vanessa; Rasool, Nooshin; Ng, Justin; Islam, Nabilah; Riley, Thomas V; Hammer, Katherine A

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the activity of a commercial extract derived from the leaves of Olea europaea (olive) against a wide range of microorganisms (n=122). Using agar dilution and broth microdilution techniques, olive leaf extract was found to be most active against Campylobacter jejuni, Helicobacter pylori and Staphylococcus aureus [including meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA)], with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) as low as 0.31-0.78% (v/v). In contrast, the extract showed little activity against all other test organisms (n=79), with MICs for most ranging from 6.25% to 50% (v/v). In conclusion, olive leaf extract was not broad-spectrum in action, showing appreciable activity only against H. pylori, C. jejuni, S. aureus and MRSA. Given this specific activity, olive leaf extract may have a role in regulating the composition of the gastric flora by selectively reducing levels of H. pylori and C. jejuni.

  10. Polanski lavastas filmi "Oliver Twist" oma lastele / Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2005-01-01

    Mängufilm "Oliver Twist" Charles Dickensi romaani ainetel esilinastus Prahas, kus toimusid ka filmivõtted. Tšehhi, Suurbritannia, Prantsusmaa ja Itaalia koostöös valminud filmi lavastas Roman Polanski

  11. Õnnetu saatusega Oliver Twist Polanski meelevallas / Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2005-01-01

    Mängufilm Charles Dickensi romaani järgi "Oliver Twist" : stsenarist Ronald Harwood : režissöör Roman Polanski : nimiosas Barney Clark, Fagin - Ben Kingsley : Suurbritannia - Tšehhi - Prantsusmaa - Itaalia 2005

  12. A Stylistic Analysis of Register Theory in Oliver Twist

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鑫

    2015-01-01

    Stylistic analysis refers to the linguistic approach to literature.Stylistics will mainly focus on the register theory,taking Charles Dickens' masterpiece Oliver Twist as a good example to demonstrate how the register theory is embodied in the work.

  13. SINGLE CRITERION SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT IN OLIVE OIL INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvija Vlah Jerić

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we consider the supply chain management in olive oil industry. We construct the mixed-integer programming model connecting the optimization of olives harvesting and storage and olive oil production. The goal is to maximize the olive oil producer profit consisting of revenue, production cost and storage cost. In the same time, we have to take into the consideration the farmers’ (suppliers’ utility too. Namely, the suppliers want to maintain the harvest delay and delivery cost as minimal as possible. In the case of single criterion optimization problem we suppose that the producer is taking care of all five goals, so the objective function consists of the producer’s revenue, storage cost, production cost, harvest delay and delivery cost with the appropriate sign. Due to the big dimension of the problem two heuristics are proposed for solving it. Some simulations are performed and the results show good heuristics behavior.

  14. Immune adjuvant activity of the olive, soybean and corn oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia Marinho da Silva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last half of the century, a large amount of substances has been used as immune adjuvant. The immune adjuvant effect of olive, soybean and corn oils in Swiss mice immunized with ovalbumin (OVA plus aluminum hydroxide or emulsified in Marcol, soybean, olive or corn oils was evaluated through the OVA-specific antibodies determined by ELISA and Passive Cutaneous Anaphylaxis. In this work the comparison of the intensity of the immune response was established by the Bayesian analysis. The adjuvant effect of the vegetable oils was shown to be more effective than aluminium hydroxide. Regarding to OVA-specific IgE synthesis, olive oil had the slowest adjuvant effect of the three vegetable oils. Accordingly, olive oil was the most convenient among the vegetable oils to be used as immune adjuvant, since it stimulated a higher production of OVA-specific Ig and lower levels of anti-OVA IgE.

  15. A Stylistic Analysis of Register Theory in Oliver Twist

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鑫

    2015-01-01

    Stylistic analysis refers to the linguistic approach to literature.Stylistics will mainly focus on the register theory,taking Charles Dickens’ masterpiece Oliver Twist as a good example to demonstrate how the register theory is embodied in the work.

  16. Juvenile technologies in foreign publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shpagina E.M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article provides the review of foreign publications, concerning the juvenile technologies used in France, Canada, Germany and Switzerland. The paper presents legal, social and psychotherapeutic aspects of juvenile judiciary in foreign countries. The authors paid special attention to the complexity of approaches to young children and teenagers who found themselves in complicated life circumstances or got into trouble with the law. The article gives examples of using the following techniques: cognitive-behavioral intervention, mediation, family therapy (including family background and family history, relations theory, narrative practices, utilization of «emotional intelligence» resources.

  17. Evolution of Juvenile Ankylosing Spondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye.V. Prohorov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Evolution of juvenile ankylosing spondylitis tend to follow a more frequent involvement in the pathological process of elbow and ankle joints, development of enthesiopathies, changes of intraarticular meniscal horns, forming of Baker’s cysts, cartilage flaps and systemic osteoporosis, and total value of all these signs 13 times exceeds thereof in patients with with the debut of disease in adulthood, but for juvenile ankylosing spondylitis vertebral lesion is less common. Age dimorphism of the use of certain groups of drugs and physiotherapy facilities is observed.

  18. On the Prevention of Juvenile Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelekov, V. A.; Kosheleva, E. V.

    2008-01-01

    Crimes committed by juveniles are among the most urgent social problems. Juvenile crime is as prevalent as crime itself is, and it has not been solved completely in any society and cannot be solved through law enforcement measures alone. In this article, the authors discuss the dynamics and structure of juvenile crime in Russia and present data…

  19. School-Related Characteristics of Male Juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapp, Gary L.; Abbott, Gypsy A.

    School-related characteristics of 256 male juveniles under the jurisdiction of a Family Court system were examined by perusing court records and conducting individual interviews with the juveniles. Results indicated that most juveniles last attended eighth grade, more than 81% had failed at least once, and more than half had fought frequently at…

  20. Intensive Reading Instruction in Juvenile Correctional Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jacob L.; Wexler, Jade; Roberts, Greg; Carpenter, Clint

    2011-01-01

    Despite 60 years of evidence linking juvenile illiteracy and delinquency, practitioners and policymakers have been painfully slow in the implementation of evidence-based reading interventions for incarcerated juveniles. We will present the Texas Juvenile Justice Tiered Instructional Model, an evidence-based reading program model created…

  1. Sex Differences in Attributions of Juvenile Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagatun, Inger J.

    This paper is an application of attribution theory to the processing of juvenile delinquents in an attempt to understand the differential treatment of female and male offenders within the juvenile justice system. The paper explores the attributions of juvenile delinquency both by male and female minors, by male and female parents, and by male and…

  2. Do Juveniles Bully More than Young Offenders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Jane L.

    2002-01-01

    Study compares bullying behavior among juvenile and young offenders. Ninety-five male juvenile and 196 male young offenders completed two questionnaires, measuring bullying directly and behaviors indicative of "being bullied" or of "bullying others". Juveniles perceived a higher extent of bullying and reported significantly…

  3. The Juvenile Court: Changes and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feld, Barry C.

    2000-01-01

    Explores the changes in the juvenile court system, in particular, the juvenile waiver and sentencing laws, as it transformed from a social welfare agency into a type of criminal court system for young offenders. Addresses whether states should create an integrated juvenile and criminal justice system. (CMK)

  4. Reforming Our Expectations about Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Pamela F.; Baille, Daphne M.

    2010-01-01

    Typing the term "juvenile justice reform" into a Google[TM] search will result in 60 pages of entries. But what is meant by juvenile justice reform? What does it look like? How will one know when it is achieved? This article defines juvenile justice reform, discusses the principles of effective reform, and describes the practice of juvenile…

  5. Jamie Oliver i den gode smags tjeneste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leer, Jonatan

    2014-01-01

    klassestereotyper og hierarkier, ligesom den bruges til at legitimere Jamies disciplinering af personer med dårlige madkompetencer, særligt arbejderklassemødre. Der er med andre ord grund til at forholde sig kritisk til strategien i Jamie Olivers opbyggelige kogebogsprojekt og stille spørgsmålet, om ikke kampen i...... den gode sags tjeneste først og fremmest tjener til at skabe et positivt billede af tv-kokken/kogebogsforfatteren som etisk individ (og brand) på bekostning af de gastronomisk nødstedte. Det skal nævnes, at jeg i min læsning af Jamies kogebogs-kampskrift har ladet mig inspirere af den russisk...

  6. Guaianolide sesquiterpenes from Pulicaria crispa (Forssk.) Oliv.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavri, Michael; Mathew, K T; Gordon, Andrew; Shnyder, Steven D; Falconer, Robert A; Gibbons, Simon

    2008-06-01

    A phytochemical study of the asteraceous herb Pulicaria crispa (Forssk.) Oliv. resulted in the characterisation of three guaianolide sesquiterpenes, 2alpha,4alpha-dihydroxy-7alphaH,8alphaH,10alphaH-guaia-1(5),11(13)-dien-8beta,12-olide (1), 1alpha,2alpha-epoxy-4beta-hydroxy-5alphaH,7alphaH,8alphaH,10alphaH-guaia-11(13)-en-8beta,12-olide (2) and 5,10-epi-2,3-dihydroaromatin (3). The structures were assigned on the basis of extensive 1 and 2D NMR experiments. Compound 3 exhibited weak antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium phlei with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.52 mM and cytotoxicity (IC50 of 5.8+/-0.2 microM) in a human bladder carcinoma cell line, EJ-138.

  7. Treatment and valorization of olive mill wastewaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabila Slimani Alaoui

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the physicochemical process with lime and ferric chloride in removing the pollution generated by the olive mill wastewaters (OMW .The characterization of the samples has shown that they are acidic, with a black color and a strong organic load due to the presence of phenolic compounds. The combination of the lime and the ferric chloride allows the removal of 87% of the total suspended solid (TSs, 58% of chemical oxygen demand (COD and 75% of Phenolic compounds. After purification the treated OMW were valorised as wash water or used for irrigation of green spaces and the generated sludge were dried and used to combustion. 

  8. Use of solid residue from the olive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guinda, Ángeles

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Research into finding new uses for olive products, particularly by-products of olive oil production, is of great relevance not only to the economy, but also to the environment, in the towns where olives are grown. A large number of research articles has been published dealing with the chemical composition of olives and olive oil; however, only a few studies have centered on isolating and identifying compounds in the olive leaf. In this article an overview of the present body of knowledge on the chemical composition of the olive leaf will be presented. Also to be discussed is the use of solid residue, namely, the olive leaf and the olive stone. Both of these types of residue result from olive oil and table olive production, and can be used as a renewable energy source, as well as to obtain high added-value compounds. The latter, bioactive compounds are directed towards the cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and natural food supplements markets, all of which are currently highly receptive to products of natural origin.La investigación de nuevos aprovechamientos del olivar y en particular de lo subproductos del proceso de producción del aceite, tiene gran relevancia tanto en la economía como en el medio ambiente de los pueblos donde se desarrolla este cultivo. Son numerosos los trabajos publicados sobre la composición química de la aceituna y el aceite de oliva, en cambio sólo existen algunos estudios sobre el aislamiento e identificación de los compuestos de la hoja de olivo, en esta contribución se revisan los conocimientos sobre la composición química de la hoja de olivo, así como, las utilizaciones de los residuos sólidos -hoja de olivo y hueso de aceituna- que se originan en la producción del aceite de oliva y de aceitunas de mesa, como energía renovable y para la obtención de compuestos de alto valor añadido. Estos últimos, compuestos bioactivos dirigidos a los mercados de los aditivos alimentarios naturales, farmacéutico y cosm

  9. Recent patents in olive oil industry: New technologies for the recovery of phenols compounds from olive oil, olive oil industrial by-products and waste waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatini, N

    2010-06-01

    Olive oil is the major source of mono-unsaturated fatty acids in the Mediterranean basin. It has been demonstrated that several olive components play an important role in human health. Among these components, polyphenols play a very important role. They are responsible for olive oil stability and sensory attributes. Moreover, they have pharmacological properties, are natural antioxidants and inhibit the proliferation of many pathogen microorganisms. Studies in vitro have demonstrated that hydroxytyrosol scavenges free radicals, inhibits human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation which is a process involved in the pathogenesis of the atherosclerosis, inhibits platelet aggregation and discloses anticancer activity on cancer cells by means of pro-apoptotic mechanisms. It has also been demonstrated that hydroxytyrosol acts in vitro against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, which are involved in many infections of respiratory and intestinal tracts. In this review, the most recent patents developed to improve technologies for recovering of antioxidant compounds of olive oil, olive oil industrial by products and waste-waters have been presented.

  10. Seed size selection by olive baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Britta Kerstin; Linsenmair, Karl Eduard

    2008-10-01

    Seed size is an important plant fitness trait that can influence several steps between fruiting and the establishment of a plant's offspring. Seed size varies considerably within many plant species, yet the relevance of the trait for intra-specific fruit choice by primates has received little attention. Primates may select certain seed sizes within a species for a number of reasons, e.g. to decrease indigestible seed load or increase pulp intake per fruit. Olive baboons (Papio anubis, Cercopithecidae) are known to select seed size in unripe and mature pods of Parkia biglobosa (Mimosaceae) differentially, so that pods with small seeds, and an intermediate seed number, contribute most to dispersal by baboons. We tested whether olive baboons likewise select for smaller ripe seeds within each of nine additional fruit species whose fruit pulp baboons commonly consume, and for larger seeds in one species in which baboons feed on the seeds. Species differed in fruit type and seed number per fruit. For five of these species, baboons dispersed seeds that were significantly smaller than seeds extracted manually from randomly collected fresh fruits. In contrast, for three species, baboons swallowed seeds that were significantly longer and/or wider than seeds from fresh fruits. In two species, sizes of ingested seeds and seeds from fresh fruits did not differ significantly. Baboons frequently spat out seeds of Drypetes floribunda (Euphorbiaceae) but not those of other plant species having seeds of equal size. Oral processing of D. floribunda seeds depended on seed size: seeds that were spat out were significantly larger and swallowed seeds smaller, than seeds from randomly collected fresh fruits. We argue that seed size selection in baboons is influenced, among other traits, by the amount of pulp rewarded per fruit relative to seed load, which is likely to vary with fruit and seed shape.

  11. Olive bagasse and nutshell as gamma shielding material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaç, Esra; Baytaş, A. Filiz

    2013-12-01

    Gamma ray linear attenuation coefficients have been measured experimentally for olive bagasse and nutshell by using narrow beam geometry for Co-60 and the values have been compared with soil. These values have been used calculate mean free path, half value layer and tenth value layer parameters. Besides, effect of multi-layered systems (soil + olive bagasse and soil + nutshell) has been analyzed in terms of half value layer.

  12. Biological Activities of Phenolic Compounds Present in Virgin Olive Oil

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet is associated with a lower incidence of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases and certain types of cancer. The apparent health benefits have been partially ascribed to the dietary consumption of virgin olive oil by Mediterranean populations. Much research has focused on the biologically active phenolic compounds naturally present in virgin olive oils to aid in explaining reduced mortality and morbidity experienced by people consuming a trad...

  13. Reducing the Environmental Impact of Olive Mill Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awni Khatib

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: A research was needed to monitor the environmental impact of olive mill wastewater (OMW: production and relative production of olive mill waste. This was achieved by collecting data from 92 local olive mills in order to study the olive production yield, water consumption in olive washing and in oil recovery, wastewater generation relative to olive processed and oil generated, and solid waste generation. The OMW is usually discharged in the open environment, thus producing pollution to the soil surface and underground water. Approach: The progress on this problem is made by reducing the chemical oxygen demand (COD as a major OMW pollutant. An upper flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB facility was constructed and operated for eight months in a progressive program operation for standardization and optimization purpose, and so to treat the waste by COD reduction. Results: The results reveal local variation in most of the investigated parameters. The olives in some area are found to contain large solid waste than other areas, resulting in lower oil yield and higher solid generation per ton of olive produced. The COD concentration was increased gradually from 5,000-30,000 mg/L and the efficiency improved significantly during the operation from 46%-84% COD removal. The organic load of OMW 27,000mg/L was reduce below 5,000 mg/L, that permits its direct discharge into municipal wastewater treatment plants. Conclusion: The implications and relevance of the results imply that OMW must be treated before discharge to the sewer system. On the other hand, the nonconformity between areas must be taken into consideration for future work.

  14. Symbiotic bacteria enable olive fly larvae to overcome host defences

    OpenAIRE

    Ben-Yosef, Michael; Pasternak, Zohar; Jurkevitch, Edouard; Yuval, Boaz

    2015-01-01

    Ripe fruit offer readily available nutrients for many animals, including fruit fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their associated rot-inducing bacteria. Yet, during most of their ontogeny, fruit remain chemically defended and effectively suppress herbivores and pathogens by high levels of secondary metabolites. Olive flies (Bactrocera oleae) are uniquely able to develop in unripe olives. Unlike other frugivorous tephritids, the larvae maintain bacteria confined within their midgut caeca. ...

  15. Olive Oil effectively mitigates ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Hanan A

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoporosis, a reduction in bone mineral density, represents the most common metabolic bone disease. Postmenopausal women are particularly susceptible to osteoporosis when their production of estrogen declines. For these women, fracture is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. This study was conducted to evaluate the protective effects of olive oil supplementation against osteoporosis in ovariectomized (OVX rats. Methods We studied adult female Wistar rats aged 12-14 months, divided into three groups: sham-operated control (SHAM, ovariectomized (OVX, and ovariectomized rats supplemented with extravirgin olive oil (Olive-OVX orally for 12 weeks; 4 weeks before ovariectomy and 8 weeks after. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were collected. Plasma levels of calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, malondialdehyde (MDA, and nitrates were assayed. Specimens from both the tibia and the liver were processed for light microscopic examination. Histomorphometric analysis of the tibia was also performed. Results The OVX-rats showed a significant decrease in plasma calcium levels, and a significant increase in plasma ALP, MDA, and nitrates levels. These changes were attenuated by olive oil supplementation in the Olive-OVX rats. Light microscopic examination of the tibia of the OVX rats revealed a significant decrease in the cortical bone thickness (CBT and the trabecular bone thickness (TBT. In addition, there was a significant increase in the osteoclast number denoting bone resorption. In the Olive-OVX rats these parameters were markedly improved as compared to the OVX group. Examination of the liver specimens revealed mononuclear cellular infiltration in the portal areas in the OVX-rats which was not detected in the Olive-OVX rats. Conclusions Olive oil effectively mitigated ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats, and is a promising candidate for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  16. Presence of toxic microbial metabolites in table olives

    OpenAIRE

    Medina-Pradas, Eduardo; Arroyo-López, Francisco Noé

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Medina-Pradas and Arroyo-López. Table olives have an enormous importance in the diet and culture of many Mediterranean countries. Albeit there are different ways to produce this fermented vegetable, brining/salting, fermentation, and acidification are common practices for all of them. Preservation methods such as pasteurization or sterilization are frequently used to guarantee the stability and safety of fermented olives. However, final products are not always subjected to a heat treat...

  17. Presence of toxic microbial metabolites in table olives

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo eMedina-Pradas; Francisco Noé eArroyo López

    2015-01-01

    Table olives have an enormous importance in the diet and culture of many Mediterranean countries. Albeit there are different ways to produce this fermented vegetable, brining/salting, fermentation and acidification are common practices for all of them. Preservation methods such as pasteurization or sterilization are frequently used to guarantee the stability and safety of fermented olives. However, final products are not always subjected to a heat treatment. Thus, microbiota is not always rem...

  18. Mobilizing Communities To Prevent Juvenile Crime. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bownes, Donna; Ingersoll, Sarah

    Through Title V Incentive Grants for Local Delinquency Prevention Programs (Community Prevention Grants), the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) allocated $20 million in fiscal year 1997 to states to complement law enforcement and justice system efforts by helping local communities foster strong families and nurture…

  19. Consumer attitudes and olive oil acceptance: The potential consumer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McEwan, Jean A.

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available       This paper outlines the results of consumer research to investigate consumer attitudes towards olive oil, and to evaluate selected experimental samples for acceptability.
          Consumer focus group discussions were used to investigate consumer attitudes to and awareness of olive oil, in relation to other culinary oils. A wide range of information was obtained, indicating the increasing importance of olive oil in the UK.
           Product use was examined to investigate the different types of olive oils consumers use, and the importance of different attributes for purchase. Price, quality and colour were the most important considerations for purchasing an olive oil, whilst package design, package material and brand were the least important.       Eight samples of virgin olive oil were evaluated for acceptability of appearance, odour, flavour and mouthfeel. These data indicated clear differences in acceptability between the samples, particularly on flavour, mouthfeel and overall acceptability. These data were then linked to sensory information to determine the characteristics of oil associated with liking for the product.

  20. Quality of Pelleted Olive Cake for Energy Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radmilo Čolović

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Olive cake is by-product of olive oil production. This material cannot be stored in original condition for a long time because it has high water content and relatively high portion of oil that causes rapid deterioration. Thus it is necessary to investigate possible methods of remediation of such by-product, where utilization for energy generation presents a useful option. Several studies have been conducted on energy generation from olive cake, however not one that includes pelleting as a pre-treatment. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to determine the chemical composition of different cultivars of olive cake, to produce pellets, and determine their basic quality parameters. The pellets obtained from olive cake had mainly satisfactory results regarding their quality in comparison to standards for fuel pellets. It should be kept in mind that these standards are manly for wood pellets, and therefore some lower criteria could be applied for olive cake and such biomass. The highest amount of residual oil and the lowest amount of protein was found in cultivar ‘Buža’ and produced pellets had the smallest abrasion index (8.15%. Other cultivars had lower oil and higher protein content, and abrasion index higher than 10%. For these cultivars preparation of material (conditioning and/or binder adding prior to pelleting is necessary. Higher heating value (HHV and lower heating value (LHV were not significantly influenced by different chemical composition of cultivars, thus attention should be paid on their influence on pelleting process.

  1. Nutrigenomics of extra-virgin olive oil: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piroddi, Marta; Albini, Adriana; Fabiani, Roberto; Giovannelli, Lisa; Luceri, Cristina; Natella, Fausta; Rosignoli, Patrizia; Rossi, Teresa; Taticchi, Agnese; Servili, Maurizio; Galli, Francesco

    2017-01-02

    Nutrigenomics data on the functional components of olive oil are still sparse, but rapidly increasing. Olive oil is the main source of fat and health-promoting component of the Mediterranean diet. Positive effects have been observed on genes involved in the pathobiology of most prevalent age- and lifestyle-related human conditions, such as cancer, cardiovascular disease and neurodegeneration. Other effects on health-promoting genes have been identified for bioactive components of olives and olive leafs. Omics technologies are offering unique opportunities to identify nutritional and health biomarkers associated with these gene responses, the use of which in personalized and even predictive protocols of investigation, is a main breakthrough in modern medicine and nutrition. Gene regulation properties of the functional components of olive oil, such as oleic acid, biophenols and vitamin E, point to a role for these molecules as natural homeostatic and even hormetic factors with applications as prevention agents in conditions of premature and pathologic aging. Therapeutic applications can be foreseen in conditions of chronic inflammation, and particularly in cancer, which will be discussed in detail in this review paper as major clinical target of nutritional interventions with olive oil and its functional components. © 2016 BioFactors, 43(1):17-41, 2017.

  2. Sensory intensity assessment of olive oils using an electronic tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloso, Ana C A; Dias, Luís G; Rodrigues, Nuno; Pereira, José A; Peres, António M

    2016-01-01

    Olive oils may be commercialized as intense, medium or light, according to the intensity perception of fruitiness, bitterness and pungency attributes, assessed by a sensory panel. In this work, the capability of an electronic tongue to correctly classify olive oils according to the sensory intensity perception levels was evaluated. Cross-sensitivity and non-specific lipid polymeric membranes were used as sensors. The sensor device was firstly tested using quinine monohydrochloride standard solutions. Mean sensitivities of 14±2 to 25±6 mV/decade, depending on the type of plasticizer used in the lipid membranes, were obtained showing the device capability for evaluating bitterness. Then, linear discriminant models based on sub-sets of sensors, selected by a meta-heuristic simulated annealing algorithm, were established enabling to correctly classify 91% of olive oils according to their intensity sensory grade (leave-one-out cross-validation procedure). This capability was further evaluated using a repeated K-fold cross-validation procedure, showing that the electronic tongue allowed an average correct classification of 80% of the olive oils used for internal-validation. So, the electronic tongue can be seen as a taste sensor, allowing differentiating olive oils with different sensory intensities, and could be used as a preliminary, complementary and practical tool for panelists during olive oil sensory analysis.

  3. The activity of ozonated olive oil against Leishmania major promastigotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Rajabi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Cutaneous Leishmaniasis is a common and endemic disease in Khorasan province in North-East of Iran. The pentavalant antimony (Sb V is the mainstay of treatment that has many side effects and resistance to the drug has been reported. The microbicidal effect of ozone was proven in different microorganisms. Since there is no study in this respect and to achieve a low cost and effective treatment, we decided to evaluate the efficacy of ozone against promastigotes of Leishmania major,in vitro. Materials and Methods: Ozonated olive oil was prepared after production of ozone by bubbling ozone-oxygen gas produced by ozone generator through olive oil until it solidified. Promastigotes of L. major were cultivated in two phasic media. After calculation of the number of promastigotes, they were incubated with ozonated olive oil (0, 0.626, 0.938, 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10 mcg/ml at 28 °c for 24 hr. Parasites survival percentage was evaluated using MTS and microscopic assay, and then compared with Glucantime and non-ozonated olive oil. Results:According to the results, there were significant differences in parasites survival percentage between ozonated olive oil and non-ozonated olive oil, at similar concentrations (P

  4. Potential for biohydrogen and methane production from olive pulp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavala, H.N.; Skiadas, I.V. [Patras Univ., Patras (Greece). Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering and Environmental Technology]|[Denmark Technical Univ., Lyngby (Denmark). Environmental Microbiology and Biotechnology Group; Ahring, B.K. [Denmark Technical Univ., Lyngby (Denmark). Environmental Microbiology and Biotechnology Group; Lyberatos, G. [Patras Univ., Patras (Greece). Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering and Environmental Technology

    2004-07-01

    Biomass rich in carbohydrates is a potential source of hydrogen. Fermentative hydrogen production includes the transformation of sugars into volatile fatty acids (VFA) without a major effect on the organic content. This study examined the potential for thermophilic biohydrogen and methane production from olive pulp, the semi-solid residue resulting from the two-phase processing of olives. Formation of VFA during acidogenesis of organic matter precedes methanogenesis. Therefore, anaerobic digestion can potentially be coupled with a preliminary step for hydrogen production. This study focused on production of methane from the raw olive pulp; anaerobic bio-production of hydrogen from the olive pulp; and, subsequent anaerobic treatment of the hydrogen-effluent with production of methane. Continuous and batch experiments were performed. The methane potential of the raw olive pulp and hydrogen effluent was up to 19 mmole of methane per gram of total solids. It was concluded that olive pulp is a suitable substrate for methane production and that biohydrogen can be coupled with a subsequent step for methane production. 12 refs., 7 tabs., 2 figs.

  5. Olive oil biophenols and women’s health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Fistonić

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Olea europea, the olive tree, is an ancient tree that originates fromthe Mediterranean environment of Asia Minor. The edible olive fruit is also used for its oil, gained by the process of pressing, a nutrient with proven beneficial effects. Virgin olive oil is the natural juice of the olive fruit, which plays a major role in the healthy Mediterranean diet. The source of its health effects are the biophenols and squalenes (oleocanthal, tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein it contains. They provide an exceptional antioxidative activity, removing harmful compounds from the body. Oxidants are essential in the genesis of many diseases and conditions, such as cardiovascular disorders, cancer, osteoporosis, Alzheimer disease, andpremenstrual syndrome. Oleic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid, has demonstrated a significant effect in the prevention of malignant diseases such as colon cancer and breast cancer. Biophenols from olive oil successfully suppress the synthesis of LDL, a protein that is crucial in the development of cardiovascular disease, by reducingblood pressure and the development of atherosclerotic plaques. In addition, there is strong evidence of the antimicrobic effect of the biphenols from olive oil that successfully destroy colonies of microorganisms which may cause respiratory tract, intestinal,and genital tract infections.

  6. Selective recognition of DNA from olive leaves and olive oil by PNA and modified-PNA microarrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Stefano; Calabretta, Alessandro; Tedeschi, Tullia; Sforza, Stefano; Arcioni, Sergio; Baldoni, Luciana; Corradini, Roberto; Marchelli, Rosangela

    2012-01-01

    PNA probes for the specific detection of DNA from olive oil samples by microarray technology were developed. The presence of as low as 5% refined hazelnut (Corylus avellana) oil in extra-virgin olive oil (Olea europaea L.) could be detected by using a PNA microarray. A set of two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the Actin gene of Olive was chosen as a model for evaluating the ability of PNA probes for discriminating olive cultivars. Both unmodified and C2-modified PNAs bearing an arginine side-chain were used, the latter showing higher sequence specificity. DNA extracted from leaves of three different cultivars (Ogliarola leccese, Canino and Frantoio) could be easily discriminated using a microarray with unmodified PNA probes, whereas discrimination of DNA from oil samples was more challenging, and could be obtained only by using chiral PNA probes. PMID:22772038

  7. The use of innate immune responses as biomarkers in a programme of integrated biological effects monitoring on flounder (Platichthys flesus) from the southern North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skouras, Andreas; Broeg, Katja; Dizer, Halim; von Westernhagen, Hein; Hansen, Peter-Diedrich; Steinhagen, Dieter

    2003-10-01

    Immunological biomarkers that reflect the effects of exposure to environmental contaminants in coastal marine habitats were sought in European flounder (Platichthys flesus) from five locations in the German Bight with different anthropogenic impacts. During a 2-year period of sampling, innate immune responses were monitored from a total of 331 individual flounder of a body length of 18 to 25 cm. From the fish, plasma lysozyme, phagocytosis and respiratory burst activity of head kidney leucocytes were analysed and implemented as part of an integrated biological effects monitoring programme. As the measurements of the parameters applied here varied within wide ranges at some locations, spatial differences could not always be established, but some general trends could be drawn: plasma lysozyme activity was decreased in flounder contaminated with DDT adducts and some PCBs, while cellular functions such as phagocytosis and respiratory burst were stimulated by some chlorinated hydrocarbons. Correlation analysis also revealed connections not only between the parameters applied here and some contaminants but also with some biochemical parameters used as biomarkers in pollution monitoring: in flounder with decreased integrity of hepatocyte lysosomal membranes, immune functions also were impaired, and plasma lysozyme as well as phagocytosis activity of head kidney cells were impaired when the activity of cytochrome P450 1A was induced. The data presented here indicate that innate immune responses may be useful parameters to monitor cellular functions in a battery of biomarkers of different levels of biological organisation.

  8. Vitellogenin as biomarker for estrogenicity in flounder Platichthys flesus in the field and exposed to 17α-ethinylestradiol via food and water in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Louise Leonharder; Korsgaard, Bodil; Pedersen, Knud Ladegaard; Bjerregaard, Lisette Bachmann; Aagaard, Thomas; Bjerregaard, Poul

    2013-12-01

    The ability of 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) to elevate vitellogenin levels were investigated in male flounder Platichthys flesus and vitellogenin concentrations in flounders from the Danish coastal environment were determined. Male flounders were exposed to 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) via food or water. Average vitellogenin concentrations in the control fish ranged between 25 and 100 ng mL(-)(1). Exposure to 5.1, 8.1 and 16.8 ng EE2 L(-)(1) in water and 500 and 5000 ng EE2 kg(-)(1) body weight (bw) every second day in the food increased the plasma vitellogenin concentration in a concentration and time dependent manner, whereas exposure to 2.7 ng EE2 L(-)(1) in water for 21 d and 5 and 50 ng EE2 kg(-)(1) bw for 12 days in the food did not. EE2 could be detected in liver and testes (but not in muscle) after exposure to 8.1 and 16.8 ng EE2 L(-)(1) in the water and 5000 ng EE2 kg(-)(1) bw in the food; the highest concentration was 6 ng g(-)(1) wet weight in liver. The majority of the male flounders collected from nine coastal Danish sites from 1999 to 2004 had vitellogenin concentrations below 100 ng mL(-)(1), and only at two sites moderate estrogenic inputs were indicated.

  9. Juvenile Justice and Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassin, Laurie

    2008-01-01

    Laurie Chassin focuses on the elevated prevalence of substance use disorders among young offenders in the juvenile justice system and on efforts by the justice system to provide treatment for these disorders. She emphasizes the importance of diagnosing and treating these disorders, which are linked both with continued offending and with a broad…

  10. Genetics in juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, Heleen Marion

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a non-common disease in children that can persist into adulthood. JIA is considered to be an auto-immune disease. Genetic factors play a role in the pathogenesis. In a new cohort of JIA patients from North-West European descent genetic candidate gene associatio

  11. Juvenile Courts. Creation and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat GONZÁLEZ FERNÁNDEZ

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the creation of Juvenile or Children's Courts in Spain, analysing their reasons and aims, as well as the ethical and political connotations present on their way of acting. Their history and the one of the institutions that complement them is built from the legislation, writings and ideas of their promoters.

  12. Juvenile Diabetes and Rehabilitation Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, J. Blair; Gregg, Charles H.

    1981-01-01

    Severe complications of diabetes are more likely to occur with the juvenile diabetic and problems of psychosocial adjustment are recurring and difficult. Implications for the rehabilitation counselor are discussed in terms of employment considerations, the effects of complications, genetic counseling, and cooperation with other professionals.…

  13. Case Report: Juvenile Tophaceous Gout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyma Gunes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gout is a metabolic disease that manifests as recurrent arthritis. Its incidance increases with age. Clinical findings include recurrent acute arthritis, tophus at joints and tissues, uricacid stones and gouty nephropathy. Tophi is a late period complication of arthritis. In this casereport we presented  a patient with early-onset juvenile tophaceous gout.

  14. Do juvenile Amphiprion ocellaris (Pisces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brolund, Thea Marie; Nielsen, Lis Engdahl; Arvedlund, Michael

    2003-01-01

    . This is contrary to the settling mechanisms of the damselfish D. aruanus and D. reticulatus, and of the temperate herring Clupea harengus. Hence the results emphasize the variation of sensory abilities and behaviours in fish larvae and juveniles. It is not an area prone for generalizations....

  15. [Sex-linked juvenile retinoschisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, P; Turut, P; Soltysik, C; Hache, J C

    1976-02-01

    About 13 observations of sexe linked juvenile retinoschisis, the authors describe the ophthalmoscopic, fluorographic and functional aspects of the disease whose caracteristics are:--its sexe linked recessive heredity; --its clinical characterestics associating: a microcystic macular degeneration, peripheral retinal lesions, vitreous body alterations, --an electroretinogram of the negative type.

  16. Quantitative trait loci detection of Edwardsiella tarda resistance in Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus using bulked segregant analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoxia; Xu, Wenteng; Liu, Yang; Wang, Lei; Sun, Hejun; Wang, Lei; Chen, Songlin

    2016-11-01

    In recent years, Edwardsiella tarda has become one of the most deadly pathogens of Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus), causing serious annual losses in commercial production. In contrast to the rapid advances in the aquaculture of P. olivaceus, the study of E. tarda resistance-related markers has lagged behind, hindering the development of a disease-resistant strain. Thus, a marker-trait association analysis was initiated, combining bulked segregant analysis (BSA) and quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping. Based on 180 microsatellite loci across all chromosomes, 106 individuals from the F1333 (♀: F0768 ×♂: F0915) (Nomenclature rule: F+year+family number) were used to detect simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and QTLs associated with E. tarda resistance. After a genomic scan, three markers (Scaffold 404-21589, Scaffold 404-21594 and Scaffold 270-13812) from the same linkage group (LG)-1 exhibited a significant difference between DNA, pooled/bulked from the resistant and susceptible groups (P CIM). These six QTLs, designated qE1-6, explained 16.0%-89.5% of the phenotypic variance. Two of the QTLs, qE-2 and qE-4, were located at the 66.7 cM region, which was considered a major candidate region for E. tarda resistance. This study will provide valuable data for further investigations of E. tarda resistance genes and facilitate the selective breeding of disease-resistant Japanese flounder in the future.

  17. Lipase production by yeasts from extra virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciafardini, G; Zullo, B A; Iride, A

    2006-02-01

    Newly produced olive oil has an opalescent appearance due to the presence of solid particles and micro-drops of vegetation water from the fruits. Some of our recent microbiological research has shown that a rich micro-flora is present in the suspended fraction of the freshly produced olive oil capable of improving the quality of the oil through the hydrolysis of the oleuropein. Present research however has, for the first time, demonstrated the presence of lipase-positive yeasts in some samples of extra virgin olive oil which can lower the quality of the oil through the hydrolysis of the triglycerides. The tests performed with yeasts of our collection, previously isolated from olive oil, demonstrated that two lipase-producing yeast strains named Saccharomyces cerevisiae 1525 and Williopsis californica 1639 were able to hydrolyse different specific synthetic substrates represented by p-nitrophenyl stearate, 4-nitrophenyl palmitate, tripalmitin and triolein as well as olive oil triglycerides. The lipase activity in S. cerevisiae 1525 was confined to the whole cells, whereas in W. californica 1639 it was also detected in the extracellular fraction. The enzyme activity in both yeasts was influenced by the ratio of the aqueous to the organic phase reaching its maximum value in S. cerevisiae 1525 when the water added to the olive oil was present in a ratio of 0.25% (v/v), whereas in W. californica 1639 the optimal ratio was 1% (v/v). Furthermore, the free fatty acids of olive oil proved to be good inducers of lipase activity in both yeasts. The microbiological analysis carried out on commercial extra virgin olive oil, produced in four different geographic areas, demonstrated that the presence of lipase-producing yeast varied from zero to 56% of the total yeasts detected, according to the source of oil samples. The discovery of lipase-positive yeasts in some extra virgin olive oils leads us to believe that yeasts are able to contribute in a positive or negative way towards

  18. Transcriptional Analysis of Stearoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Desaturase Genes from Olive (Olea europaea) in Relation to the Oleic Acid Content of the Virgin Olive Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvini, Farshid; Sicardo, M Dolores; Hosseini-Mazinani, Mehdi; Martinez-Rivas, Jose M; Hernandez, M Luisa

    2016-10-02

    The specific contribution of different stearoyl-ACP desaturase (SAD) genes to the oleic acid content in olive (Olea europaea) fruit has been studied. Towards that end, we isolated three distinct cDNA clones encoding three SAD isoforms from olive (cv. Picual), as revealed by sequence analysis. The expression levels of olive SAD genes were determined in different tissues from Picual and Arbequina cultivars, including developing mesocarp and seed, together with the unsaturated fatty acid content. Lipid and gene expression analysis indicate that OeSAD2 seems to be the main gene contributing to the oleic acid content of the olive fruit and, therefore, of the virgin olive oil. This conclusion was confirmed when the study was extended to Hojiblanca, Picudo and Manzanilla cultivars. Furthermore, our data indicate that the olive microsomal oleate desaturase gene OeFAD2-2, but not OeSAD2, is responsible for the linoleic acid content in the virgin olive oil.

  19. Selection of normalization factors for quantitative real time RT-PCR studies in Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) under conditions of viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Hu, Yong-hua; Sun, Bo-guang; Xiao, Zhi-zhong; Sun, Li

    2013-04-15

    Disease outbreaks caused by iridoviruses are known to affect farmed flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). To facilitate quantitative real time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis of gene expression in flounder and turbot during viral infection, we in this study examined the potentials of 9 housekeeping genes of flounder and turbot as internal references for qRT-PCR under conditions of experimental infection with megalocytivirus, a member of the Iridoviridae family. The mRNA levels of the 9 housekeeping genes in the brain, gill, heart, intestine, kidney, liver, muscle, and spleen of flounder and turbot were determined by qRT-PCR at 24h and 72h post-viral infection, and the expression stabilities of the genes were determined with geNorm and NormFinder algorithms. The results showed that (i) viral infection induced significant changes in the mRNA levels of the all the examined genes in a manner that was dependent on both tissue type and infection stage; (ii) for a given time point of infection, stability predictions made by the two algorisms were highly consistent for most tissues; (iii) the optimum reference genes differed at different infection time points at least in some tissues; (iv) at both examined time points, no common reference genes were identified across all tissue types. These results indicate that when studying gene expression in flounder and turbot in relation to viral infection, different internal references may have to be used not only for different tissues but also for different infection stages.

  20. Gaze following in baboons (Papio anubis): juveniles adjust their gaze and body position to human's head redirections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parron, Carole; Meguerditchian, Adrien

    2016-12-01

    Gaze following, the ability to follow the gaze of other individuals, has been widely studied in non-human primate species, mostly in adult individuals. Yet, the literature on gaze following revealed a quite variability across the different findings, some of it might reflect true inter-species differences, while others might be related to methodological differences, or to an underestimation of the factors involved in the expression of gaze following. In the current study, we tested 54 captive olive baboons (Papio anubis), housed in social groups, to assess how juvenile and adult baboons would spontaneously react to a sudden change in the direction of a human experimenter's head. First, our results showed that juveniles, more than adult baboons, co-oriented their gaze with the experimenter's gaze. We also observed a strong habituation effect in adult baboons but not in juveniles, as the adults' response vanished at the second exposure to a change of direction of the experimenter's head. Second, our results showed that juveniles subsequently adopted an original strategy when the experimenter's head indicated some new directions: they reliably adjusted their spatial body position to keep a gaze contact with the experimenter's line of sight. We discussed how the age class and the individual expertise of the baboons could lead to some modulations in terms of attentiveness, motivation, or cognitive abilities, and thus likely influence gaze following.