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Sample records for juvenile nematode penetrated

  1. Fly ash effect on hatching, mortality and penetration of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita in pumpkin roots

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    Gufran Ahmad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to observe the effect of fly ash on hatching, mortality and penetration of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita in pumpkin roots. For hatching experiment different fly ash-extract concentrations (5, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50% were prepared. Hatching was significantly reduced in all concentrations, maximum being at 50% concentration. The mortality (% of juveniles was observed in 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7th days with different levels (5, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 % of fly ash-extract. All the levels were found harmful to juveniles. As the level was increased, the killing percentage of juveniles was also increased. Highest mortality was observed in 7th day with 50% level.For the penetration experiment, fly ash was mixed with soil to prepare different concentrations (5, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50%. Seeds of pumpkin were grown in coffee cups filled with different mixtures. At two leaf stage, seedlings were inoculated with 2000 larvae. The penetrated larvae in roots were observed after 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 days. Root penetration was found inversely proportional to concentration. Significant results in the suppression of nematode penetration were noted up to 40% concentration. However, none of the juveniles was penetrated at 50% concentration.International Journal of Environment Vol.5(3 2016, pp.66-73

  2. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi affect both penetration and further life stage development of root-knot nematodes in tomato.

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    Vos, Christine; Geerinckx, Katleen; Mkandawire, Rachel; Panis, Bart; De Waele, Dirk; Elsen, Annemie

    2012-02-01

    The root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita poses a worldwide threat to agriculture, with an increasing demand for alternative control options since most common nematicides are being withdrawn due to environmental concerns. The biocontrol potential of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) against plant-parasitic nematodes has been demonstrated, but the modes of action remain to be unraveled. In this study, M. incognita penetration of second-stage juveniles at 4, 8 and 12 days after inoculation was compared in tomato roots (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Marmande) pre-colonized or not by the AMF Glomus mosseae. Further life stage development of the juveniles was also observed in both control and mycorrhizal roots at 12 days, 3 weeks and 4 weeks after inoculation by means of acid fuchsin staining. Penetration was significantly lower in mycorrhizal roots, with a reduction up to 32%. Significantly lower numbers of third- and fourth-stage juveniles and females accumulated in mycorrhizal roots, at a slower rate than in control roots. The results show for the first time that G. mosseae continuously suppresses root-knot nematodes throughout their entire early infection phase of root penetration and subsequent life stage development.

  3. Penetration and post-infection development of root-knot nematodes in watermelon

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    López-Gómez, M.; Verdejo-Lucas, S.

    2017-07-01

    Meloidogyne javanica has showed less reproductive success than M. incognita in watermelon genotypes. This study was conducted to elucidate the low reproduction of M. javanica in watermelon. The post-infection development of M. javanica in watermelon ‘Sugar Baby’ was determined at progressively higher initial population (Pi) levels at two time points during the life cycle. Plants were inoculated with 0, 25, 50, 100, 200, and 300 second-stage juveniles (J2)/plant. The increase in Pi was correlated with the penetration rates (R2= 0.603, p<0.001) and total numbers of nematodes in the root (R2 =0.963, p< 0.001) but there was no correlation between the Pi and the reproduction factor (eggs/plant/Pi). The population in the roots at 26 days post-inoculation (dpi) consisted primarily of third-stage juveniles (J3) with a small presence of J2 and fourth stages, and egg-laying females. The dominance of the J3, when egg-laying females are expected, point to the malfunction of the feeding sites that failed to support nematode development beyond the J3 stage. The similarities in egg-laying females at 26 and 60 dpi imply the disruption of the life cycle. Watermelon compensated for M. javanica parasitism by increasing vine length (19% to 33%) and dry top weight (40%) in comparison with the non-inoculated plants. The area under the vine length progress curve was significantly larger as the Pi progressively increased (R²=0.417, p<0.001). Physiological variation was detected between the M. incognita populations. M. arenaria had less ability to invade watermelon roots than did M. incognita and M. javanica.

  4. Adhering Pasteuria penetrans endospores affect movements of root-knot nematode juveniles

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    Ioannis VAGELAS

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pasteuria penetrans is a biological control agent of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp., preventing root invasion by second-stage juveniles (J2s, and eventually causing females sterility and death. greatest control effects for P. penetrans depend on the numbers of endospores attached to nematode cuticles. a method based on digital image analysis was used to record the effects of endospore attachment on the movements of juvenile root-knot nematodes, using a model based on the centroid point. Data showed that the numbers of endospores attached to the cuticle influenced nematode movement. At high endospore attachment levels (20‒30 per J2, nematodes did not show directional movement, whereas nematodes encumbered with five to eight spores showed limited directional movement, compared to those without endospores. nematode cephalic region turns were modelled using a markov chain, showing that P. penetrans endospores affected movements. Less nematodes invaded and established on tomato root systems when encumbered with low (five to eight or high numbers (20‒30 of P. penetrans endospores, compared with unencumbered nematodes.

  5. Population Genetics of Hirsutella rhossiliensis, a Dominant Parasite of Cyst Nematode Juveniles on a Continental Scale.

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    Wang, Niuniu; Zhang, Yongjie; Jiang, Xianzhi; Shu, Chi; Hamid, M Imran; Hussain, Muzammil; Chen, Senyu; Xu, Jianping; Xiang, Meichun; Liu, Xingzhong

    2016-11-01

    Hirsutella rhossiliensis is a parasite of juvenile nematodes, effective against a diversity of plant-parasitic nematodes. Its global distribution on various nematode hosts and its genetic variation for several geographic regions have been reported, while the global population genetic structure and factors underlying patterns of genetic variation of H. rhossiliensis are unclear. In this study, 87 H. rhossiliensis strains from five nematode species (Globodera sp., Criconemella xenoplax, Rotylenchus robustus, Heterodera schachtii, and Heterodera glycines) in Europe, the United States, and China were investigated by multilocus sequence analyses. A total of 280 variable sites (frequency, 0.6%) at eight loci and six clustering in high accordance with geographic populations or host nematode-associated populations were identified. Although H. rhossiliensis is currently recognized as an asexual fungus, recombination events were frequently detected. In addition, significant genetic isolation by geography and nematode hosts was revealed. Overall, our analyses showed that recombination, geographic isolation, and nematode host adaptation have played significant roles in the evolutionary history of H. rhossiliensis IMPORTANCE: H. rhossiliensis has great potential for use as a biocontrol agent to control nematodes in a sustainable manner as an endoparasitic fungus. Therefore, this study has important implications for the use of H. rhossiliensis as a biocontrol agent and provides interesting insights into the biology of this species. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. An electron-microscopical analysis of capture and initial stages of penetration of nematodes by Arthrobotrys oligospora

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    Veenhuis, Marten; Nordbring-Hertz, Birgit; Harder, Wim

    1985-01-01

    A detailed analysis was made of the capture and subsequent penetration of nematodes by the nematophagous fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora using different electron-microscopical techniques. Capture of nematodes by this fungus occurred on complex hyphal structures (traps) and was effectuated by an

  7. Penicillium oxalicum reduces the number of cysts and juveniles of potato cyst nematodes.

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    Martinez-Beringola, M L; Salto, T; Vázquez, G; Larena, I; Melgarejo, P; De Cal, A

    2013-07-01

    To test the biocontrol potential of Penicillium oxalicum, a biocontrol agent against fungal diseases and against the potato cyst nematodes (PCNs), Globodera pallida and Globodera rostochiensis. We tested the effect of P. oxalicum on the nematode cysts under laboratory conditions or in soil microcosms. A reduction in the rate of G. pallida juveniles hatching by P. oxalicum was observed when root diffusates from the 'Monalisa' and the 'Désirée' potato cultivar were used (98·6 and 74·1% reduction, respectively). However, the rate of G. pallida juveniles hatching was not significantly reduced when root diffusates from the 'San Pedro' tomato cultivar were used. Penicillium oxalicum also significantly reduced the ability of the G. rostochiensis juveniles to hatch (30·9% reduction) when root diffusates of the 'Désirée' potato cultivars were used. Penicillium oxalicum treatment of the soil significantly reduced the number of G. pallida cysts that were recovered from the soil of each pot that contained the 'Désirée' potato cultivar. Our results show that P. oxalicum is a potential biocontrol inoculant for protecting potato crops against PCNs. Penicillium oxalicum has potential to be used in order to reduce PCNs. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Infective Juveniles of the Entomopathogenic Nematode Steinernema scapterisci Are Preferentially Activated by Cricket Tissue.

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    Dihong Lu

    Full Text Available Entomopathogenic nematodes are a subgroup of insect-parasitic nematodes that are used in biological control as alternatives or supplements to chemical pesticides. Steinernema scapterisci is an unusual member of the entomopathogenic nematode guild for many reasons including that it is promiscuous in its association with bacteria, it can reproduce in the absence of its described bacterial symbiont, and it is known to have a narrow host range. It is a powerful comparative model within the species and could be used to elucidate parasite specialization. Here we describe a new method of efficiently producing large numbers of S. scapterisci infective juveniles (IJs in house crickets and for quantifying parasitic activation of the IJs upon exposure to host tissue using morphological features. We found that parasite activation is a temporal process with more IJs activating over time. Furthermore, we found that activated IJs secrete a complex mixture of proteins and that S. scapterisci IJs preferentially activate upon exposure to cricket tissue, reaffirming the description of S. scapterisci as a cricket specialist.

  9. Nematodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Kenshi; Ishii, Naoaki

    1977-01-01

    Utilization of nematodes for a study of radiation biology was considered. Structure, generation, rearing method, and genetic nature of nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans, Turbatri acetic, etc.) were given an outline. As the advantage of a study using nematodes as materials, shortness of one generation time, simplicity in structure, and smallness of the whole cells, specific regular movement, and heliotaxis to chemical substances and light were mentioned. Effect of x-ray on survival rate of nematodes and effect of ultraviolet on nematodes and their eggs were described. It was suggested that nematodes was useful for studies on aging and radiation biology, and a possibility existed that nematodes would be used in studies of cancer and malformation. (Serizawa, K.)

  10. Influence of cell density and phase variants of bacterial symbionts (Xenorhabdus spp.) on dauer juvenile recovery and development of biocontrol nematodes Steinernema carpocapsae and S. feltiae (Nematoda: Rhabditida).

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    Hirao, A; Ehlers, R-U

    2009-08-01

    The rhabditid nematodes Steinernema carpocapsae and Steinernema feltiae are used in biological control of insect pests. Mass production is done in liquid culture media pre-incubated with their bacterial symbionts Xenorhabdus nematophila and Xenorhabdus bovienii, respectively, before nematode dauer juveniles (DJs) are inoculated. As a response to food signals produced by the bacterial symbionts, the DJs exit from the developmentally arrested dauer stage (they recover development) and grow to adults, which produce DJ offspring. Variable DJ recovery after inoculation often causes process failure due to non-synchronous population development and low numbers of adult nematodes. This contribution investigated the influence of the bacterial cell density on DJ recovery and development to adults. At higher density of 10(10) bacterial cells ml(-1), a higher percentage of DJ recovery was induced, and adults occurred earlier in both Steinernema spp. than at lower density of 10(9) and 10(8) cells ml(-1). Xenorhabdus symbionts produce phase variants. Recovery in bacteria-free supernatants was lower than in supernatants containing bacterial cells for both primary and secondary phase Xenorhabdus spp. and lower in secondary than in primary phase supernatants or cell suspensions. In general, recovery was lower for Steinernema feltiae and the time at which 50% of the population had recovered after exposure to the food signal was longer (RT(50) = 17.1 h) than for Steinernema carpocapsae (RT(50) = 6.6 h). Whereas >90% S. carpocapsae DJs recovered in hemolymph serum of the lepidopteran insect Galleria mellonella, recovery of S. feltiae only reached 31%. Penetration into a host insect prior to exposure to the insect's food signal did not enhance DJ recovery. Consequences for liquid culture mass production of the nematodes and differences between species of the genera Steinernema and Heterorhabditis are discussed.

  11. The effect of linalool on second-stage juveniles of the potato cyst nematodes Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida.

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    Būda, Vincas; Cepulytė-Rakauskienė, Rasa

    2011-09-01

    Linalool is either a toxic compound to a few species of plant parasitic nematodes or attractive to entomopathogenic nematodes. This compound is produced and emitted by several host plants of Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida, the potato cyst nematodes (PCN). With the aim to reveal the effect of linalool on PCN, laboratory assays were carried out. Survival of PCN second-stage juveniles (J2s) in water + linalool control did not differ; thus, proving linalool to be nontoxic to PCN. Behavioral assays carried out in Petri dishes revealed attractiveness in the form of positive response of J2s of both PCN species towards linalool. Based on these behavioral assays, sensitivity to linalool of G. rostochiensis J2s was higher compared with that of G. pallida J2s. Linalool is the first compound of plant origin to elicit positive response in both PCN species.

  12. Liquid culture mass production of biocontrol nematodes, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Nematoda: Rhabditida): improved timing of dauer juvenile inoculation.

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    Johnigk, S-A; Ecke, F; Poehling, M; Ehlers, R-U

    2004-06-01

    Heterorhabditis bacteriophora is used in biological control of soil-borne insect pests in horticulture and turf. Mass production is carried out in monoxenic liquid cultures pre-incubated with the symbiont of the nematodes, the bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens, before nematode dauer juveniles (DJ) are inoculated. As a response to bacterial food signals, the DJ recover from the developmentally arrested dauer stage, grow to adults and produce DJ offspring. Variable DJ recovery after inoculation into cultures of P. luminescens often causes process failure due to low numbers of adult nematodes in the medium. In order to enhance DJ recovery, improve nematode population management and increase yields, the optimal timing for DJ inoculation was sought. The process parameter pH and respiration quotient (RQ) were recorded in order to test whether changes can be used to identify the best moment for DJ inoculation. When DJ were inoculated during the lag and early logarithmic growth phases of P. luminescens cultures, DJ recovery was low and almost no nematode reproduction was obtained. High populations of P. luminescens phase variants were recorded. Recovery and yields increased when DJ were inoculated during the latter log phase during which the RQ dropped to values <0.8 and the pH reached a maximum. The highest DJ recovery and yields were observed in cultures that were inoculated during the late stationary growth phase. This period started with the increase of the pH after its distinct minimum at pH <8.0. Thus optimal timing for DJ inoculation can be defined through monitoring of the pH in the P. luminescens culture.

  13. Screening of non-tuber bearing Solanaceae for resistance to and induction of juvenile hatch of potato cyst nematodes and their potential for trap cropping

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    Scholte, K.

    2000-01-01

    Ninety accessions of non-tuber bearing Solanaceae were screened for (i) resistance to and (ii) stimulatory effect on juvenile hatch of potato cyst nematodes, and (iii) their growth under temperate climatic conditions. All plant species belonging to the genus Solanum tested induced hatching but this

  14. Effect of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus on penetration and reproduction of meloidogyne incognita in cowpea

    OpenAIRE

    Adekunle O.K.; Owa T.E.

    2008-01-01

    greenhouse studies were conducted to investigate the effects of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus on penetration and reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita in cowpea and the influence of these pathogens on the yield of cowpea. The interaction of both pathogens resulted in higher population density of the nematode at harvest and correspondingly reduced grain yield in comparison to inoculation of either pathogen alone or un-inoculated control. An almost equal number of nematode juveniles penetrate...

  15. Penetration of Treosulfan and its Active Monoepoxide Transformation Product into Central Nervous System of Juvenile and Young Adult Rats.

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    Romański, Michał; Baumgart, Joachim; Böhm, Sonja; Główka, Franciszek K

    2015-12-01

    Treosulfan (TREO) is currently investigated as an alternative treatment of busulfan in conditioning before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The knowledge of the blood-brain barrier penetration of the drug is still scarce. In this paper, penetration of TREO and its active monoepoxide (S,S-EBDM) and diepoxide (S,S-DEB) into the CNS was studied in juvenile (JR) and young adult rats (YAR) for the first time. CD rats of both sexes (n = 96) received an intravenous dose of TREO 500 mg/kg b.wt. Concentrations of TREO, S,S-EBDM, and S,S-DEB in rat plasma, brain, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, in YAR only) were determined by validated bioanalytical methods. Pharmacokinetic calculations were performed in WinNonlin using a noncompartmental analysis and statistical evaluation was done in Statistica software. In male JR, female JR, male YAR, and female YAR, the brain/plasma area under the curve (AUC) ratio for unbound TREO was 0.14, 0.17, 0.10, and 0.07 and for unbound S,S-EBDM, it was 0.52, 0.48, 0.28, and 0.22, respectively. The CSF/plasma AUC ratio in male and female YAR was 0.12 and 0.11 for TREO and 0.66 and 0.64 for S,S-EBDM, respectively. Elimination rate constants of TREO and S,S-EBDM in all the matrices were sex-independent with a tendency to be lower in the JR. No quantifiable levels of S,S-DEB were found in the studied samples. TREO and S,S-EBDM demonstrated poor and sex-independent penetration into CNS. However, the brain exposure was greater in juvenile rats, so very young children might potentially be more susceptible to high-dose TREO-related CNS exposure than young adults. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  16. Influence of inoculum density on population dynamics and dauer juvenile yields in liquid culture of biocontrol nematodes Steinernema carpocapsae and S. feltiae (Nematoda: Rhabditida).

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    Hirao, Ayako; Ehlers, Ralf-Udo

    2010-01-01

    For improvement of mass production of the rhabditid biocontrol nematodes Steinernema carpocapsae and Steinernema feltiae in monoxenic liquid culture with their bacterial symbionts Xenorhabdus nematophila and Xenorhabdus bovienii, respectively, the effect of the initial nematode inoculum density on population development and final concentration of dauer juveniles (DJs) was investigated. Symbiotic bacterial cultures are pre-incubated for 1 day prior to inoculation of DJs. DJs are developmentally arrested and recover development as a reaction to food signals provided by their symbionts. After development to adults, the nematodes produce DJ offspring. Inoculum density ranged from 1 to 10 x 10(3) DJ per milliliter for S. carpocapsae and 1 to 8 x 10(3) DJs per milliliter for S. feltiae. No significant influence of the inoculum density on the final DJ yields in both nematode species was recorded, except for S. carpocapsae cultures with a parental female density 300 for S. carpocapsae and almost 200 for S. feltiae. The compensative adaptation of fecundity to nematode population density is responsible for the lack of an inoculum (or parental female) density effect on DJ yields. At optimal inoculation density of S. carpocapsae, offspring were produced by the parental female population, whereas S. feltiae always developed a F1 female population, which contributed to the DJ yields and was the reason for a more scattered distribution of the yields. The F1 female generation was accompanied by a second peak in X. bovienii density. The optimal DJ inoculum density for S. carpocapsae is 3-6 x 10(3) DJs per milliliter in order to obtain >10(3) parental females per milliliter. Density-dependent effects were neither observed on the DJ recovery nor on the sex ratio in the parental adult generation. As recovery varied between different batches, assessment of the recovery of inoculum DJ batches is recommended. S. feltiae was less variable in DJ recovery usually reaching >90%. The

  17. Non-nematode-derived double-stranded RNAs induce profound phenotypic changes in Meloidogyne incognita and Globodera pallida infective juveniles.

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    Dalzell, Johnathan J; McMaster, Steven; Johnston, Michael J; Kerr, Rachel; Fleming, Colin C; Maule, Aaron G

    2009-11-01

    Nine non-nematode-derived double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs), designed for use as controls in RNA interference (RNAi) screens of neuropeptide targets, were found to induce aberrant phenotypes and an unexpected inhibitory effect on motility of root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita J2s following 24h soaks in 0.1 mg/ml dsRNA; a simple soaking procedure which we have found to elicit profound knockdown of neuronal targets in Globodera pallida J2s. We have established that this inhibitory phenomenon is both time- and concentration-dependent, as shorter 4h soaks in 0.1 mg/ml dsRNA had no negative impact on M. incognita J2 stage worms, yet a 10-fold increase in concentration to 1 mg/ml for the same 4h time period had an even greater qualitative and quantitative impact on worm phenotype and motility. Further, a 10-fold increase of J2s soaked in 0.1 mg/ml dsRNA did not significantly alter the observed phenotypic aberration, which suggests that dsRNA uptake of the soaked J2s is not saturated under these conditions. This phenomenon was not initially observed in potato cyst nematode G. pallida J2s, which displayed no aberrant phenotype, or diminution of migratory activity in response to the same 0.1 mg/ml dsRNA 24h soaks. However, a 10-fold increase in dsRNA to 1mg/ml was found to elicit comparable irregularity of phenotype and inhibition of motility in G. pallida, to that initially observed in M. incognita following a 24h soak in 0.1 mg/ml dsRNA. Again, a 10-fold increase in the number of G. pallida J2s soaked in the same volume of 1 mg/ml dsRNA preparation did not significantly affect the observed phenotypic deviation. We do not observe any global impact on transcript abundance in either M. incognita or G. pallida J2s following 0.1 mg/ml dsRNA soaks, as revealed by reverse transcriptase-PCR and quantitative PCR data. This study aims to raise awareness of a phenomenon which we observe consistently and which we believe signifies a more expansive deficiency in our knowledge and

  18. Life cycle of the potato golden cyst nematode (Globodera rostochiensis grown under climatic conditions in Belgrade

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    Bačić Jasmina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The life cycle of a population of the quarantine nematode Globodera rostochiensis on the root of susceptible potato variety, Desiree, originating from an infected field (CC Ljubovija no. 413 on the mountain of Jagodnja in the district of Mačva, was studied under experimental conditions in Belgrade in 2002-2003. The golden cyst nematode completed one generation per year in the temperate climate of this region. In 2002, the life cycle lasted 29 days after the penetration of the second stage juveniles into the roots. An adverse effect of high soil temperatures above 25 °C was observed in 2003, influencing the development of the nematode and making the life cycle last two months longer.

  19. Comparative Genomics and Transcriptomics Analyses Reveal Divergent Lifestyle Features of Nematode Endoparasitic Fungus Hirsutella minnesotensis

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    Lai, Yiling; Liu, Keke; Zhang, Xinyu; Zhang, Xiaoling; Li, Kuan; Wang, Niuniu; Shu, Chi; Wu, Yunpeng; Wang, Chengshu; Bushley, Kathryn E.; Xiang, Meichun; Liu, Xingzhong

    2014-01-01

    Hirsutella minnesotensis [Ophiocordycipitaceae (Hypocreales, Ascomycota)] is a dominant endoparasitic fungus by using conidia that adhere to and penetrate the secondary stage juveniles of soybean cyst nematode. Its genome was de novo sequenced and compared with five entomopathogenic fungi in the Hypocreales and three nematode-trapping fungi in the Orbiliales (Ascomycota). The genome of H. minnesotensis is 51.4 Mb and encodes 12,702 genes enriched with transposable elements up to 32%. Phylogenomic analysis revealed that H. minnesotensis was diverged from entomopathogenic fungi in Hypocreales. Genome of H. minnesotensis is similar to those of entomopathogenic fungi to have fewer genes encoding lectins for adhesion and glycoside hydrolases for cellulose degradation, but is different from those of nematode-trapping fungi to possess more genes for protein degradation, signal transduction, and secondary metabolism. Those results indicate that H. minnesotensis has evolved different mechanism for nematode endoparasitism compared with nematode-trapping fungi. Transcriptomics analyses for the time-scale parasitism revealed the upregulations of lectins, secreted proteases and the genes for biosynthesis of secondary metabolites that could be putatively involved in host surface adhesion, cuticle degradation, and host manipulation. Genome and transcriptome analyses provided comprehensive understanding of the evolution and lifestyle of nematode endoparasitism. PMID:25359922

  20. Predator-prey interactions of nematode-trapping fungi and nematodes: both sides of the coin.

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    Vidal-Diez de Ulzurrun, Guillermo; Hsueh, Yen-Ping

    2018-05-01

    Nematode-trapping fungi develop complex trapping devices to capture and consume nematodes. The dynamics of these organisms is especially important given the pathogenicity of nematodes and, consequently, the potential application of nematode-trapping fungi as biocontrol agents. Furthermore, both the nematodes and nematode-trapping fungi can be easily grown in laboratories, making them a unique manipulatable predator-prey system to study their coevolution. Several different aspects of these fungi have been studied, such as their genetics and the different factors triggering trap formation. In this review, we use the nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora (which forms adhesive nets) as a model to describe the trapping process. We divide this process into several stages; namely attraction, recognition, trap formation, adhesion, penetration, and digestion. We summarize the latest findings in the field and current knowledge on the interactions between nematodes and nematode-trapping fungi, representing both sides of the predator-prey interaction.

  1. Studies on Lasioseius scapulatus, a Mesostigmatid mite predaceous on nematodes

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    Imbriani, I.; Mankau, R.

    1983-01-01

    The life history and feeding habits of Lasioseius scapulatus, an ascid predator and potential biocontrol agent of nematodes, was examined. Reproduction was asexual, and the life cycle was 8-10 days at room temperature. Life history consisted of the egg, protonymph, deutonymph, and adult. Both nymphal stages and the adult captured and consumed nematodes. Two fungal genera and eight genera of nematodes were suitable food sources. Second-stage root-knot nematode juveniles were eaten, but eggs an...

  2. A distinct role of pectate lyases in the formation of feeding structures induced by cyst and root-knot nematodes.

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    Wieczorek, K; Elashry, A; Quentin, M; Grundler, F M W; Favery, B; Seifert, G J; Bohlmann, H

    2014-09-01

    Pectin in the primary plant cell wall is thought to be responsible for its porosity, charge density, and microfibril spacing and is the main component of the middle lamella. Plant-parasitic nematodes secrete cell wall-degrading enzymes that macerate the plant tissue, facilitating the penetration and migration within the roots. In sedentary endoparasitic nematodes, these enzymes are released only during the migration of infective juveniles through the root. Later, nematodes manipulate the expression of host plant genes, including various cell wall enzymes, in order to induce specific feeding sites. In this study, we investigated expression of two Arabidopsis pectate lyase-like genes (PLL), PLL18 (At3g27400) and PLL19 (At4g24780), together with pectic epitopes with different degrees of methylesterification in both syncytia induced by the cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii and giant cells induced by the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. We confirmed upregulation of PLL18 and PLL19 in both types of feeding sites with quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and in situ RT-PCR. Furthermore, the functional analysis of mutants demonstrated the important role of both PLL genes in the development and maintenance of syncytia but not giant cells. Our results show that both enzymes play distinct roles in different infected root tissues as well as during parasitism of different nematodes.

  3. Venereal worms: sexually transmitted nematodes in the decorated cricket.

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    Luong, L T; Platzer, E G; Zuk, M; Giblin-Davis, R M

    2000-06-01

    The nematode, Mehdinema alii, occurs in the alimentary canal of the decorated cricket Gryllodes sigillatus. Adult nematodes occur primarily in the hindgut of mature male crickets, whereas juvenile nematodes are found in the genital chambers of mature male and female crickets. Here, we present experimental evidence for the venereal transmission of M. alii in G. sigillatus. Infectivity experiments were conducted to test for transmission via oral-fecal contamination, same-sex contact, and copulation. The infective dauers of the nematode are transferred from male to female crickets during copulation. Adult female crickets harboring infective dauers subsequently transfer the nematode to their next mates. Thus, M. alii is transmitted sexually during copulation.

  4. The diverse nematicidal properties and biocontrol efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry6A against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne hapla.

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    Yu, Ziquan; Xiong, Jing; Zhou, Qiaoni; Luo, Haiyan; Hu, Shengbiao; Xia, Liqiu; Sun, Ming; Li, Lin; Yu, Ziniu

    2015-02-01

    Cry6A toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis is a representative nematicidal crystal protein with a variety of nematicidal properties to free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Cry6A shares very low homology and different structure with Cry5B, another representative nematicidal crystal protein, and probably acts in a distinct pathway. All these strongly indicate that Cry6A toxin is likely a potent candidate for nematicide. The present study dealt with global investigation to determine the detrimental impacts of Cry6Aa2 toxin on Meloidogyne hapla, a root-knot nematode, and evaluated its biocontrol efficacy in pot experiment. Obtained results indicated that Cry6Aa2 toxin exhibits obvious toxicity to second-stage juvenile of M. hapla, and significantly inhibits egg hatch, motility, and penetration to host plant. Pot experiment suggested that soil drenching with spore-crystal mixture of Cry6Aa2 can clearly lighten the disease of root-knot nematode, including reduction of galling index and egg masses on host plant root, decreasing final population of nematode in soil. Moreover, application of Cry6Aa2 can obviously promote plant growth. These results demonstrated that Cry6Aa2 toxin is a promising nematicidal agent, and possesses great potential in plant-parasitic nematode management and construction of transgenic crop with constant resistance to nematode. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Entomogenous nematode Neoaplectana carpocapsae: radiation and mammalian safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaugler, R.R.

    1978-01-01

    Infective-stage juveniles of Neoaplacetana carpocapsae were acutely sensitive to short uv radiation (254 nm) and natural sunlight. High nematode mortality, although delayed, accompanied uv exposure. Irradiation rapidly reduced nematode pathogenicity, so that nematodes exposed for 7 min were unable to cause lethal infections in Galleria mallonella larvae. Moreover, the median survival time of Galleria larvae increased progressively as nematode exposure to uv was lengthened. Inhibition of nematode reproduction and development was noted at exposure periods more than 2.45 and 5 min, respectively. However, irradiation did not appear to affect juvenile motility. Exposure to direct sunlight also reduced pathogenicity, in a range from 6.9 to 94.9% at 30 and 60 min of exposure, respectively. Long uv (366 nm) did not affect juveniles at the exposures tested

  6. Interactions between the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis sonorensis (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae) and the saprobic fungus Fusarium oxysporum (Ascomycota: Hypocreales).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, P D; McMullen, J G; Stock, S P

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we assessed the effect of the saprobic fungus, Fusarium oxysporum (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) on the fitness of the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis sonorensis (Caborca strain). Sand column assays were considered to evaluate the effect of fungal mycelia on infective juvenile (IJ) movement and host access. Additionally, we investigated the effect of fungal spores on the nematodes' ability to search for a host, its virulence, penetration efficiency and reproduction. Three application timings were considered to assess interactions between the fungus and the nematodes. In vitro assays were also considered to determine the effect of fungal extracts on the nematode's symbiotic bacteria. Our observations indicate that presence and age of fungal mycelia significantly affect IJ movement in the sand columns and their ability to establish in the host. These results were also reflected in a reduced insect mortality. In particular, treatments with the 15 days old mycelia showed a significant reduction in insect mortality and penetration efficiency. Presence of fungal spores also impacted nematode virulence and reproduction. In particular, two of the application timings tested (simultaneous [EPN and fungal spores applied at the same time] and alternate I [EPN applied first, fungus applied 24h later]) resulted in antagonistic interactions. Moreover, IJ progeny was reduced to half in the simultaneous application. In vitro assays revealed that fungal extracts at the highest concentration tested (10mg/ml) inhibited the growth of the symbiotic bacteria. Overall, these results suggest that saprobic fungi may play an important role in regulating. EPN populations in the soil, and that they may be one of the factors that impact nematode survival in the soil and their access to insect hosts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Interspecific nematode signals regulate dispersal behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Kaplan

    Full Text Available Dispersal is an important nematode behavior. Upon crowding or food depletion, the free living bacteriovorus nematode Caenorhabditis elegans produces stress resistant dispersal larvae, called dauer, which are analogous to second stage juveniles (J2 of plant parasitic Meloidogyne spp. and infective juveniles (IJs of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN, e.g., Steinernema feltiae. Regulation of dispersal behavior has not been thoroughly investigated for C. elegans or any other nematode species. Based on the fact that ascarosides regulate entry in dauer stage as well as multiple behaviors in C. elegans adults including mating, avoidance and aggregation, we hypothesized that ascarosides might also be involved in regulation of dispersal behavior in C. elegans and for other nematodes such as IJ of phylogenetically related EPNs.Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of C. elegans dauer conditioned media, which shows strong dispersing activity, revealed four known ascarosides (ascr#2, ascr#3, ascr#8, icas#9. A synthetic blend of these ascarosides at physiologically relevant concentrations dispersed C. elegans dauer in the presence of food and also caused dispersion of IJs of S. feltiae and J2s of plant parasitic Meloidogyne spp. Assay guided fractionation revealed structural analogs as major active components of the S. feltiae (ascr#9 and C. elegans (ascr#2 dispersal blends. Further analysis revealed ascr#9 in all Steinernema spp. and Heterorhabditis spp. infected insect host cadavers.Ascaroside blends represent evolutionarily conserved, fundamentally important communication systems for nematodes from diverse habitats, and thus may provide sustainable means for control of parasitic nematodes.

  8. Development of the system nematode, Ditylenchus Dipsaci (Kuehn) Filipjev, and the potato tuber nematode, D. Destructor thore, after gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatowicz, S.; Karnkowski, W.

    1996-01-01

    Juvenile and adult nematodes emerged from onion and garlic samples on the 3 rd week after irradiation with doses up to 0.5 kGy and from potato treated with doses up to 2.0 kGy. However, irradiation of onion infected with Ditylenchus dipsaci caused the inhibition of the development and growth of juvenile nematodes to mature forms. Doses of gamma radiation ranging from 0.1 to 0.5 kGy had only a slight effect, if any, on the development and growth of D. dipsaci nematodes infecting garlic, but they increased juvenile mortality. Gamma radiation at doses up to 2.0 kGy induced increased mortality of nematode juveniles of the potato tuber nematode, D. destructor but less so inhibited their development to mature forms. Nematodes were found to be resistant to irradiation treatment. Therefore the use of gamma irradiation for nematode disinfestation of agricultural products seems to be impractical, if the aim of the treatment is to kill these pests within a few weeks. The level of radiation required to kill nematodes in infected plants would damage plant tissues so that the further storage of vegetables will be impossible. (author). 22 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  9. Management of Root-Nematode (Meloidogyne SPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miano, D.W

    2002-01-01

    Greenhouse and field experiments were undertaken to determine the possibility of using soil amendments with different C:N levels or applied at different rates and times in the control of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.)in tomato c.v Cal J.A naturally infested field was used while artificial inoculation was done in the greenhouse. Root galling was rated on a scale of 0-10, nematode population was estimated by counting second stage juveniles extracted from 200 cm 3 soil and fruit yields were recorded at the end of the season. Nematode population densities and galling indices were significantly (P< or=0.05) lower in amended soils compared to the control. Application of the amendments also resulted in significant (P< or=0.05) increase in yields. Chicken manure, compost manure, neem products and pig manure were were the most effective amendments. Fresh chicken manure had a more suppressive effect on nematode than when the manure was decomposed within or outside a nematode infested field. A general decrease in juvenile populations and galling was observed with increase of organic amendments applied

  10. Bacterial antagonists of fungal pathogens also control root-knot nematodes by induced systemic resistance of tomato plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Adam

    Full Text Available The potential of bacterial antagonists of fungal pathogens to control the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita was investigated under greenhouse conditions. Treatment of tomato seeds with several strains significantly reduced the numbers of galls and egg masses compared with the untreated control. Best performed Bacillus subtilis isolates Sb4-23, Mc5-Re2, and Mc2-Re2, which were further studied for their mode of action with regard to direct effects by bacterial metabolites or repellents, and plant mediated effects. Drenching of soil with culture supernatants significantly reduced the number of egg masses produced by M. incognita on tomato by up to 62% compared to the control without culture supernatant. Repellence of juveniles by the antagonists was shown in a linked twin-pot set-up, where a majority of juveniles penetrated roots on the side without inoculated antagonists. All tested biocontrol strains induced systemic resistance against M. incognita in tomato, as revealed in a split-root system where the bacteria and the nematodes were inoculated at spatially separated roots of the same plant. This reduced the production of egg masses by up to 51%, while inoculation of bacteria and nematodes in the same pot had only a minor additive effect on suppression of M. incognita compared to induced systemic resistance alone. Therefore, the plant mediated effect was the major reason for antagonism rather than direct mechanisms. In conclusion, the bacteria known for their antagonistic potential against fungal pathogens also suppressed M. incognita. Such "multi-purpose" bacteria might provide new options for control strategies, especially with respect to nematode-fungus disease complexes that cause synergistic yield losses.

  11. Bacterial antagonists of fungal pathogens also control root-knot nematodes by induced systemic resistance of tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Mohamed; Heuer, Holger; Hallmann, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    The potential of bacterial antagonists of fungal pathogens to control the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita was investigated under greenhouse conditions. Treatment of tomato seeds with several strains significantly reduced the numbers of galls and egg masses compared with the untreated control. Best performed Bacillus subtilis isolates Sb4-23, Mc5-Re2, and Mc2-Re2, which were further studied for their mode of action with regard to direct effects by bacterial metabolites or repellents, and plant mediated effects. Drenching of soil with culture supernatants significantly reduced the number of egg masses produced by M. incognita on tomato by up to 62% compared to the control without culture supernatant. Repellence of juveniles by the antagonists was shown in a linked twin-pot set-up, where a majority of juveniles penetrated roots on the side without inoculated antagonists. All tested biocontrol strains induced systemic resistance against M. incognita in tomato, as revealed in a split-root system where the bacteria and the nematodes were inoculated at spatially separated roots of the same plant. This reduced the production of egg masses by up to 51%, while inoculation of bacteria and nematodes in the same pot had only a minor additive effect on suppression of M. incognita compared to induced systemic resistance alone. Therefore, the plant mediated effect was the major reason for antagonism rather than direct mechanisms. In conclusion, the bacteria known for their antagonistic potential against fungal pathogens also suppressed M. incognita. Such "multi-purpose" bacteria might provide new options for control strategies, especially with respect to nematode-fungus disease complexes that cause synergistic yield losses.

  12. Infection Assay of Cyst Nematodes on Arabidopsis Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlmann, Holger; Wieczorek, Krzysztof

    2015-09-20

    Plant parasitic nematodes are devastating pests on many crops. Juveniles (J2) of cyst nematodes invade the roots to induce a syncytium. This feeding site is their only source of nutrients. Male nematodes leave the roots after the fourth molt to mate with females. The females stay attached to their syncytia throughout their life and produce hundreds of eggs, which are contained in their bodies. When the females die their bodies form the cysts, which protect the eggs. Cysts can survive for many years in the soil until favorable conditions induce hatching of the juveniles. The beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii ( H. schachtii )is a pathogen of sugar beet ( Beta vulgaris ) but can also complete its life cycle on Arabidopsis roots growing on agar plates under sterile conditions. We present here protocols for a stock culture of H. schachtii and an infection assay on agar plates.

  13. Juvenile angiofibroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasal tumor; Angiofibroma - juvenile; Benign nasal tumor; Juvenile nasal angiofibroma; JNA ... Juvenile angiofibroma is not very common. It is most often found in adolescent boys. The tumor contains many blood ...

  14. Impact of direct and indirect application of rising furfural concentrations on viability, infectivity and reproduction of the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita in Pisum sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelnabby, Hazem; Wang, Yunhe; Xiao, Xueqiong; Wang, Gaofeng; Yang, Fan; Xiao, Yannong

    2016-07-01

    The gradual withdraw of several broadly used nematicides from market has enhanced the need to develop sustainable and eco-friendly alternatives with nematicidal properties. Furfural is one of the promising alternatives to fill this need. Baseline information about the impact of furfural on egg hatch, penetration potential and ultrastructure of nematode is lacking. In this study, the reagent-grade (purity ≥ 99.0%) of furfural was applied against Meloidogyne incognita. In vitro tests showed gradual reduction in either the rate of egg hatch or second stage juvenile (J2) viability of M. incognita when immersed in concentrations ranging from 0 to 10.0 μl/ml furfural. The mean EC50 for J2 and egg hatch was 0.37 and 0.27 μl/ml furfural, respectively. Furfural, even at low concentrations, resulted in a considerable suppression in egg hatch. Hatch was 0.2 ml/kg soil. No adverse effect was detected on plants or free-living nematodes as a result of furfural application. Liquid furfural proved to have superior juvenile-suppressive effect whereas its vapor has such superiority against eggs. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) study showed irregular appearance of the body surface accompanied with some cuticle disfigurement of furfural-treated juveniles. These results indicated that furfural can adversely affect egg hatch, juvenile viability, penetration potential and ultrastructure of M. incognita. Furfural may therefore be of a considerable potential as an appropriate alternative for class I nematicides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessment of the effects of Hirsutella minnesotensis on Soybean Cyst Nematode and growth of soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsutella minnesotensis is a fungal endoparasite of nematodes juvenile and parasitizes soybean cyst nematodes (SCN) with high frequency. In this study, the effects of two H. minnesotensis isolates on population and distribution of SCN and growth of soybean were evaluated. Experiments were conducted...

  16. Unexpected variation in neuroanatomy among diverse nematode species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziduan eHan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nematodes are considered excellent models for understanding fundamental aspects of neuron function. However, nematodes are less frequently used as models for examining the evolution of nervous systems. While the habitats and behaviors of nematodes are diverse, the neuroanatomy of nematodes is often considered highly conserved. A small number of nematode species greatly influences our understanding of nematode neurobiology. The free-living species Caenorhabditis elegans and, to a lesser extent, the mammalian gastrointestinal parasite Ascaris suum are, historically, the primary sources of knowledge regarding nematode neurobiology. Despite differences in size and habitat, C. elegans and Ascaris suum share a surprisingly similar neuroanatomy. Here, we examined species across several clades in the phylum Nematoda and show that there is a surprising degree of neuroanatomical variation both within and among nematode clades when compared to C. elegans and Ascaris. We found variation in the numbers of neurons in the ventral nerve cord and dye-filling pattern of sensory neurons. For example, we found that Pristionchus pacificus, a bacterial feeding species used for comparative developmental research, had 20% fewer ventral cord neurons compared to C. elegans. Steinernema carpocapse, an insect-parasitic nematode capable of jumping behavior, had 40% more ventral cord neurons than C. elegans. Interestingly, the non-jumping congeneric nematode, S. glaseri showed an identical number of ventral cord neurons as S. carpocapsae. There was also variability in the timing of neurodevelopment of the ventral cord with two of five species that hatch as second-stage juveniles showing delayed neurodevelopment. We also found unexpected variation in the dye-filling of sensory neurons among examined species. Again, sensory neuron dye-filling pattern did not strictly correlate with phylogeny. Our results demonstrate that variation in nematode neuroanatomy is more prevalent

  17. Biocontrol: Bacillus penetrans and Related Parasites of Nematodes

    OpenAIRE

    Sayre, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    Bacillus penetrans Mankau, 1975, previously described as Duboscqia penetrans Thorne 1940, is a candidate agent for biocontrol of nematodes. This review considers the life stages of this bacterium: vegetative growth phase, colony fragmentation, sporogenesis, soil phase, spore attachment, and penetration into larvae of root-knot nematodes. The morphology of the microthallus colonies and the unusual external features of the spore are discussed. Taxonomic affinities with the actinomycetes, partic...

  18. Temperature-dependent changes in the host-seeking behaviors of parasitic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joon Ha; Dillman, Adler R; Hallem, Elissa A

    2016-05-06

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) are lethal parasites of insects that are of interest as biocontrol agents for insect pests and disease vectors. Although EPNs have been successfully commercialized for pest control, their efficacy in the field is often inconsistent for reasons that remain elusive. EPN infective juveniles (IJs) actively search for hosts to infect using a diverse array of host-emitted odorants. Here we investigate whether their host-seeking behavior is subject to context-dependent modulation. We find that EPN IJs exhibit extreme plasticity of olfactory behavior as a function of cultivation temperature. Many odorants that are attractive for IJs grown at lower temperatures are repulsive for IJs grown at higher temperatures and vice versa. Temperature-induced changes in olfactory preferences occur gradually over the course of days to weeks and are reversible. Similar changes in olfactory behavior occur in some EPNs as a function of IJ age. EPNs also show temperature-dependent changes in their host-seeking strategy: IJs cultured at lower temperatures appear to more actively cruise for hosts than IJs cultured at higher temperatures. Furthermore, we find that the skin-penetrating rat parasite Strongyloides ratti also shows temperature-dependent changes in olfactory behavior, demonstrating that such changes occur in mammalian-parasitic nematodes. IJs are developmentally arrested and long-lived, often surviving in the environment through multiple seasonal temperature changes. Temperature-dependent modulation of behavior may enable IJs to optimize host seeking in response to changing environmental conditions, and may play a previously unrecognized role in shaping the interactions of both beneficial and harmful parasitic nematodes with their hosts.

  19. Challenges for mass production of nematodes in submerged culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre, Mayra

    2003-08-01

    Nematodes of Steinernema and Heterorhabditis genera are used as agents in insect biocontrol programs. They are associated with specific bacteria which are also involved in the mechanism of pathogenicity and which are consumed by nematodes as living food. S. feltiae has various developmental stages in its life cycle, including four juvenile stages, adults and the free living form. During mating, males coil themselves around the female, which is around 1 cm long. Successful commercialization of nematode-bacteria biocontrol products depends on the ability to produce sufficient quantities of these products at competitive prices for a full pest control program. This could be feasible if high cell density submerged cultures are designed and implemented; however, major problems related to nematodes mass production in a bioreactor remain unsolved due to the lack of knowledge about the physiological aspects of the nematode, bacteria and nematode-bacteria association, interaction between the three phases present in the bioreactor (liquid, gas, nematodes-bacteria), possibility of mating under hydrodynamic stress conditions, etc. We have found that the two most important engineering aspects to take into account the mass propagation of nematodes are oxygen transfer rate and hydrodynamics to allow mating and to avoid mechanical damage of juveniles in stage 2. This article focuses on several aspects related to the fermentation system such as kinetics of growth, shear stress, hydrodynamics fields in the bioreactor and oxygen demand. Also, results published by other groups, together with those of our own, will be discussed in relation to the main challenges found during the fermentation process.

  20. Nematode-Trapping Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiangzhi; Xiang, Meichun; Liu, Xingzhong

    2017-01-01

    Nematode-trapping fungi are a unique and intriguing group of carnivorous microorganisms that can trap and digest nematodes by means of specialized trapping structures. They can develop diverse trapping devices, such as adhesive hyphae, adhesive knobs, adhesive networks, constricting rings, and nonconstricting rings. Nematode-trapping fungi have been found in all regions of the world, from the tropics to Antarctica, from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems. They play an important ecological role in regulating nematode dynamics in soil. Molecular phylogenetic studies have shown that the majority of nematode-trapping fungi belong to a monophyletic group in the order Orbiliales (Ascomycota). Nematode-trapping fungi serve as an excellent model system for understanding fungal evolution and interaction between fungi and nematodes. With the development of molecular techniques and genome sequencing, their evolutionary origins and divergence, and the mechanisms underlying fungus-nematode interactions have been well studied. In recent decades, an increasing concern about the environmental hazards of using chemical nematicides has led to the application of these biological control agents as a rapidly developing component of crop protection.

  1. Phylogency and Evolution of Nematodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bert, W.; Karssen, G.; Helder, J.

    2011-01-01

    Many plant-parasitic nematodes including members of the genera Meloidogyne (root-knot nematodes), Heterodera and Globodera (cyst nematodes) and Pratylenchus (lesion nematodes) are studied as they cause major damage to crops such as potato, tomato, soybean and sugar beet. Both for fundamental reasons

  2. Cereal Cyst Nematode (Heterodera avenae) on Oats. II. Early Root Development and Nematode Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Volkmar, K. M.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of Heterodera avenae infestation on early seminal and lateral root growth was examined in four oat genotypes differing in tolerance to H. avenae. Recently emerged seminal roots were inoculated with a range of H. avenae larval densities, then transferred a hydroponic system to remove the effect of later nematode penetration on root development. Intolerance to H. avenae was assessed in terms of impairment of seminal root extension resulting in fewer primary lateral roots emerging fro...

  3. Juvenile Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile arthritis (JA) is arthritis that happens in children. It causes joint swelling, pain, stiffness, and loss of motion. It can affect any joint, but ... of JA that children get is juvenile idiopathic arthritis. There are several other forms of arthritis affecting ...

  4. Relationship between production, nematodes and "redness" in strawberries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Nogueira Curi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In recent years "redness" has increasingly appeared in strawberry plants with leaves taking on a reddish color. No causal agent has been associated with plants. Since strawberries presented problems due to the incidence of nematodes, the purpose of this study was to look at the relationship between production, resistance to the Meloidogyne hapla nematode and the "redness" symptom in strawberry cultivars. Two experiments were performed, both with the 'Camino Real', 'Festival', 'Oso Grande', 'Albion' and 'Camarosa' cultivars. The first experiment was performed in the field, where the following were evaluated: strawberry production, fruit quality, macro and micronutrient contents in fruit and leaves, percentage of plant survival, incidence of nematodes, quantity of eggs in the roots and juveniles in the soil, and the incidence of Botrytis cinerea . In the second experiment, the strawberries were transplanted into pots and filled with pinus bark-based commercial substrate. Half the pots were inocculated with Meloidogyne hapla . Cultivars presented differences in fruit production and also in the incidence of "redness". Lowest performance in production was related to the high incidence of the nematode Meloidogyne hapla. 'Oso Grande' and 'Albion' presented nematode-resistant behavior. It was possible find a relationship between the incidence of the Meloidogyne hapla nematode, and the incidence of "redness" only 'Camino Real' cultivar.

  5. Juvenile Firesetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Brittany; Freeman, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile firesetting is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Male gender, substance use, history of maltreatment, interest in fire, and psychiatric illness are commonly reported risk factors. Interventions that have been shown to be effective in juveniles who set fires include cognitive behavior therapy and educational interventions, whereas satiation has not been shown to be an effective intervention. Forensic assessments can assist the legal community in adjudicating youth with effective interventions. Future studies should focus on consistent assessment and outcome measures to create more evidence for directing evaluation and treatment of juvenile firesetters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Association between entomopathogenic nematodes and fungi for control of Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Caio Márcio Oliveira; Araújo, Laryssa Xavier; Matos, Renata Silva; da Silva Golo, Patrícia; Angelo, Isabele Costa; de Souza Perinotto, Wendell Marcelo; Coelho Rodrigues, Camila Aparecida; Furlong, John; Bittencourt, Vânia Rita Elias Pinheiro; Prata, Márcia Cristina Azevedo

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the effect of the association of entomopathogenic nematodes and fungi on Rhipicephalus microplus. The nematodes used were Heterorhabditis bacteriophora HP88 and Heterorhabditis indica LPP1 and the fungi were Metarhizium anisopliae IBCB 116 and Beauveria bassiana ESALQ 986. In the groups treated with the fungi, the females were immersed for 3 min in a conidial suspension, while in the groups treated with the nematodes, the ticks were exposed to infective juveniles. To evaluate the interaction between entomopathogens, the females were first immersed in a conidial suspension and then exposed to the nematodes. The egg mass weight and hatching percentage values of the groups treated with M. anisopliae IBCB 116 and B. bassiana ESALQ 986 in the two experiments were statistically similar (p > 0.05) to the values of the control group. In the groups treated only with nematodes, there was a significant reduction (p fungus M. anisopliae IBCB 116.

  7. Heterorhabditis sp. (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae): A Nematode Parasite Isolated from the Banded Cucumber Beetle Diabrotica balteata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creighton, C. S.; Fassuliotis, G.

    1985-01-01

    A nematode identified as Heterorhabditis sp. was discovered in June 1982 in larval cadavers of the banded cucumber beetle, Diabrotica balteata, in soil on wooded land. Effective beetle control (over 95%) was obtained when larvae were exposed to potted soil containing infective stage nematode juveniles or infected larval cadavers. The nematode was propagated in vivo on larvae of D. balteata, Diaphania nitidalis (the pickleworm), and Galleria mellonella (the greater wax moth). This Heterorhabditis sp. has promising potential as a biocontrol agent for the banded cucumber beetle. PMID:19294074

  8. Inter- and intra-specific cuticle variation between amphimictic and parthenogenetic species of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.) as revealed by a bacterial parasite (Pasteuria penetrans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, K G; Rowe, J A; Williamson, V M

    2008-06-01

    Specific host-parasite interactions exist between species and strains of plant parasitic root-knot nematodes and the Gram-positive bacterial hyperparasite Pasteuria penetrans. This bacterium produces endospores that adhere to the cuticle of migrating juveniles, germinate and colonise the developing female within roots. Endospore attachment of P. penetrans populations to second-stage juveniles of the root-knot nematode species Meloidogyne incognita and Meloidogyne hapla showed there were interactive differences between bacterial populations and nematode species. Infected females of M. incognita produced a few progeny which were used to establish two nematode lines from single infective juveniles encumbered with either three or 26 endospores. Single juvenile descent lines of each nematode species were produced to test whether cuticle variation was greater within M. hapla lines that reproduce by facultative meiotic parthenogenesis than within lines of M. incognita, which reproduces by obligate parthenogenesis. Assays revealed variability between broods of individual females derived from single second-stage juvenile descent lines of both M. incognita and M. hapla suggesting that progeny derived from a single individual can differ in spore adhesion in both sexual and asexual nematode species. These results suggest that special mechanisms that produced these functional differences in the cuticle surface may have evolved in both sexually and asexually reproducing nematodes as a strategy to circumvent infection by this specialised hyperparasite.

  9. Quantitative detection of the potato cyst nematode, Globodera pallida, and the beet cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii, using Real-Time PCR with SYBR green I dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, Mehrdad; Subbotin, Sergei A; Moens, Maurice

    2005-04-01

    The potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida and the beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii are major nematode pests in world agriculture. Precise identification and knowledge about the number of nematodes in field soil are necessary to develop effective integrated pest control. Here we report the results of the Real-Time PCR assay for the rapid detection and quantification of G. pallida and H. schachtii. Using species specific primers and SYBR green I dye, we were able to detect a single second stage juvenile of cyst forming nematodes in samples. The specificity of the reaction was confirmed by the lack of amplification of DNAs from other Heterodera or Globodera species. Validation tests showed a rather high correlation between real numbers of second stage juveniles in a sample and expected numbers detected by Real-Time PCR. Reasons for observed differences in sensitivity and reliability of quantification detection for two species as well as other problems of Real-Time PCR are discussed. The Real-Time PCR assay with SYBR green I dye targeting fragments of the ITS-rDNA provided a sensitive means for the rapid and simultaneous detection and quantification of juveniles of these pests.

  10. Juvenile Prostitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csapo, Marg

    1986-01-01

    Recent research and Canadian government committee reports concerning juvenile prostitution are reviewed. Proposals are made in the realms of law and social policy; and existing programs are described. (DB)

  11. Effects of associated bacteria on the pathogenicity and reproduction of the insect-parasitic nematode Rhabditis blumi (Nematoda: Rhabditida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hae Woong; Kim, Yong Ook; Ha, Jae-Seok; Youn, Sung Hun; Kim, Hyeong Hwan; Bilgrami, Anwar L; Shin, Chul Soo

    2011-09-01

    Three bacteria, Alcaligenes faecalis , Flavobacterium sp., and Providencia vermicola , were isolated from dauer juveniles of Rhabditis blumi . The pathogenic effects of the bacteria against 4th instar larvae of Galleria mellonella were investigated. Providencia vermicola and Flavobacterium sp. showed 100% mortality at 48 h after haemocoelic injection, whereas A. faecalis showed less than 30% mortality. Dauer juveniles showed 100% mortality against G. mellonella larvae, whereas axenic juveniles, which do not harbor associated bacteria, exhibited little mortality. All of the associated bacteria were used as a food source for nematode growth, and nematode yield differed with bacterial species. Among the bacterial species, P. vermicola was most valued for nematode yield, showing the highest yield of 5.2 × 10(4) nematodes/mL in the plate. In bacterial cocultures using two of the three associated bacteria, one kind stimulated the other. The highest total bacterial yield of 12.6 g/L was obtained when the inoculum ratio of P. vermicola to A. faecalis was 10:1. In air-lift bioreactors, the nematode growth rate increased with an increasing level of dissolved oxygen. The maximum nematode yield of 1.75 × 10(5) nematodes/mL was obtained at 192 h with an aeration rate of 6 vvm.

  12. Tomato transgenic plants expressing hairpin construct of a nematode protease gene conferred enhanced resistance to root-knot nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar Kanti Dutta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita cause substantial yield losses in vegetables worldwide, and are difficult to manage. Continuous withdrawal of environmentally-harmful nematicides from the global market warrants the need for novel nematode management strategies. Utility of host-delivered RNAi has been demonstrated in several plants (Arabidopsis, tobacco and soybean that exhibited resistance against root-knot and cyst nematodes. Herein, a M. incognita-specific protease gene, cathepsin L cysteine proteinase (Mi-cpl-1, was targeted to generate tomato transgenic lines to evaluate the genetically modified nematode resistance. In vitro knockdown of Mi-cpl-1 gene led to the reduced attraction and penetration of M. incognita in tomato, suggesting the involvement of Mi-cpl-1 in nematode parasitism. Transgenic expression of the RNAi construct of Mi-cpl-1 gene resulted in 60-80% reduction in infection and multiplication of M. incognita in tomato. Evidence for in vitro and in vivo silencing of Mi-cpl-1 was confirmed by expression analysis using quantitative PCR. Our study demonstrates that Mi-cpl-1 plays crucial role during plant-nematode interaction and plant-mediated downregulation of this gene elicits detrimental effect on M. incognita development, reinforcing the potential of RNAi technology for management of phytonematodes in crop plants.

  13. Glutathione peroxidases of the potato cyst nematode Globodera Rostochiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J T; Reavy, B; Smant, G; Prior, A E

    2004-01-07

    We report the cloning and characterisation of full-length DNAs complementary to RNA (cDNAs) encoding two glutathione peroxidases (GpXs) from a plant parasitic nematode, the potato cyst nematode (PCN) Globodera rostochiensis. One protein has a functional signal peptide that targets the protein for secretion from animal cells while the other is predicted to be intracellular. Both genes are expressed in all parasite stages tested. The mRNA encoding the intracellular GpX is present throughout the nematode second stage juvenile and is particularly abundant in metabolically active tissues including the genital primordia. The mRNA encoding the secreted GpX is restricted to the hypodermis, the outermost cellular layer of the nematode, a location from which it is likely to be secreted to the parasite surface. Biochemical studies confirmed the secreted protein as a functional GpX and showed that, like secreted GpXs of other parasitic nematodes, it does not metabolise hydrogen peroxide but has a preference for larger hydroperoxide substrates. The intracellular protein is likely to have a role in metabolism of active oxygen species derived from internal body metabolism while the secreted protein may protect the parasite from host defences. Other functional roles for this protein are discussed.

  14. Toxicity of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG) to plant-parasitic and bacterial-feeding nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Susan L F; Halbrendt, John M; Carta, Lynn K; Skantar, Andrea M; Liu, Ting; Abdelnabby, Hazem M E; Vinyard, Bryan T

    2009-12-01

    The antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG) is produced by some isolates of the beneficial bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. DAPG is toxic to many organisms, and crop yield increases have been reported after application of DAPG-producing P. fluorescens. This study was conducted to determine whether DAPG is toxic to selected nematodes. The plant-parasitic nematodes Heterodera glycines, Meloidogyne incognita, Pratylenchus scribneri and Xiphinema americanum, and the bacterial-feeding nematodes Caenorhabditis elegans, Pristionchus pacificus, and Rhabditis rainai, were immersed in concentrations ranging from 0 to 100 μg/ml DAPG. Egg hatch and viability of juveniles and adults were determined. DAPG was toxic to X. americanum adults, with an LD₅₀ of 8.3 μg/ml DAPG. DAPG decreased M. incognita egg hatch, but stimulated C. elegans hatch during the first hours of incubation. Viability of M. incognita J2 and of C. elegans J1 and adults was not affected. There were no observed effects on the other nematodes. The study indicated that DAPG is not toxic to all nematodes, and did not affect the tested species of beneficial bacterial-feeding nematodes. Augmentation of DAPG-producing P. fluorescens populations for nematode biocontrol could be targeted to specific nematode species known to be affected by this compound and by other antibiotics produced by the bacteria, or these bacteria could be used for other possible effects, such as induced plant resistance.

  15. Nematode cholinergic pharmacology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segerberg, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Nematode acetylcholine (ACh) receptors were characterized using both biochemical and electrophysiological techniques, including: (1) receptor binding studies in crude homogenates of the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the parasitic nematode Ascaris lumbricoides with the high-affinity probe [ 3 H]N-methylscopolamine ([ 3 H]NMS) which binds to muscarinic receptors in many vertebrate and invertebrate tissues (2) measurement of depolarization and contraction induced by a variety of cholinergic agents, including N-methylscopolamine (NMS), in an innervated dorsal muscle strip preparation of Ascaris; (3) examination of the antagonistic actions of d-tubocurarine (dTC) and NMS at dorsal neuromuscular junction; (4) measurement of input resistance changes in Ascaris commissural motorneurons induced by ACh, dTC, NMS, pilocarpine and other cholinergic drugs

  16. Juvenile angiofibromer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Anne Daugaard; Jakobsen, John; Nepper-Rasmussen, Jørgen

    2005-01-01

    Juvenile angiofibroma is a rare, benign, rich vascular tumor, and approximately one new case is diagnosed in Denmark each year. It sits in the foramen sphenopalatinum and occurs in boys from 14 to 25 years of age. The most frequent initial symptoms are nasal obstruction and epistaxis. Through...... the years, the treatment of juvenile angiofibroma has included many methods, including surgical excision, electrocoagulation, interstitial or external radiation therapy, cryosurgery, hormone administration and chemotherapy. Radiation, chemotherapy and surgery have proven to be the most effective treatments...

  17. Analysis and Characterization of Vitamin B Biosynthesis Pathways in the Phytoparasitic Nematode Heterodera Glycines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, James P.

    2009-01-01

    The soybean cyst nematode (SCN), "Heterodera glycines" is an obligate plant parasite that can cause devastating crop losses. To aide in the study of this pathogen, the SCN genome and the transcriptome of second stage juveniles and eggs were shotgun sequenced. A bioinformatic screen of the data revealed nine genes involved in the "de novo"…

  18. Investigation on the infection mechanism of the fungus Clonostachys rosea against nematodes using the green fluorescent protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Yang, Jinkui; Niu, Qiuhong; Zhao, Xuna; Ye, Fengping; Liang, Lianming; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2008-04-01

    The fungus Clonostachys rosea (syn. Gliocladium roseum) is a potential biocontrol agent. It can suppress the sporulation of the plant pathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea and kill pathogenic nematodes, but the process of nematode pathogenesis is poorly understood. To help understand the underlying mechanism, we constructed recombinant strains containing a plasmid with both the enhanced green fluorescent protein gene egfp and the hygromycin resistance gene hph. Expression of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) was monitored using fluorescence microscopy. Our observations reveal that the pathogenesis started from the adherence of conidia to nematode cuticle for germination, followed by the penetration of germ tubes into the nematode body and subsequent death and degradation of the nematodes. These are the first findings on the infection process of the fungal pathogen marked with GFP, and the developed method can become an important tool for studying the molecular mechanisms of nematode infection by C. rosea.

  19. Combined effect of Azadirachta indica and the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema glaseri against subterranean termite, Reticulitermes flavipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadarkarai Murugan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory study has been conducted on the bioactivities of entomopathogenic nematodes and neem seed kernel extract (NSKE against worker termites of Reticulitermes flavipes. Neem at various concentrations did not affect the survivability of nematodes, whereas neem had considerable impact on the survivability of worker termites and this may be due to the presence of active neem compounds (Azadirachtin, salanin etc.. Mortality was 40% on 4th day at lower concentration of 1.0% NSKE treatment; whereas mortality has been increased to 70% at higher concentration (4.0% on 4th day. There was 100% mortality after the combined treatment with 4.0% NSKE + 600 infective juvenile Steinernema glaseri, even at the first day of the experiment. In the present experiment, neem extract does not affected the survival of the nematodes. Hence, nematode and neem extract can be used for soil-insect control particularly for the subterranean termites.

  20. Can arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi and NPK fertilizer suppress nematodes and improve tuber yield of yam (Dioscorea rotundata ‘cv’ ewuru?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gani Oladejo Kolawole

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Poor soil fertility and nematodes limit yam tuber yield and quality. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and fertilizers may suppress nematodes and improve yam productivity. We evaluated the extent AMF and fertilizer suppressed nematodes and improved yam performance. Tuber weight, mycorrhizal colonization of roots and nematode populations were evaluated with eight treatments; Control (No amendments, 90-50-75, kg N- P2O5-K2O ha-1 (NPK, (AMF (2g/kg soil, nematodes (5000 juvenile/pot, and their combinations. Tuber weight was higher in NPK+AMF and NPK+nematode treatments than AMF+nematode. NPK+AMF improved tuber weight by 17.5% and 32% compared with sole NPK or AMF respectively. Compared with control, nematodes did not reduce tuber weight but, AMF+nematode reduced it by 49.4%. NPK reduced AMF colonization of roots and reduced nematode population on tuber, in roots and soil by 34%, 42.6% and 41% respectively. NPK+AMF treatment was superior to either NPK or AMF in improving tuber yield while NPK was superior to AMF in suppressing nematodes in roots, soil, and tuber.

  1. Entomopathogenic nematodes in agricultural areas in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brida, Andressa Lima; Rosa, Juliana Magrinelli Osório; Oliveira, Cláudio Marcelo Gonçalves de; Castro, Bárbara Monteiro de Castro E; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola; Leite, Luis Garrigós; Wilcken, Silvia Renata Siciliano

    2017-04-06

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) (Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae) can control pests due to the mutualistic association with bacteria that kill the host by septicemia and make the environment favorable for EPNs development and reproduction. The diversity of EPNs in Brazilian soils requires further study. The identification of EPNs, adapted to environmental and climatic conditions of cultivated areas is important for sustainable pest suppression in integrated management programs in agricultural areas of Brazil. The objective was to identify EPNs isolated from agricultural soils with annual, fruit and forest crops in Brazil. Soil samples were collected and stored in 250 ml glass vials. The nematodes were isolated from these samples with live bait traps ([Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae]. Infective juveniles were collected with White traps and identified by DNA barcoding procedures by sequencing the D2/D3 expansion of the 28S rDNA region by PCR. EPNs identified in agricultural areas in Brazil were Heterorhabditis amazonensis, Metarhabditis rainai, Oscheios tipulae and Steinernema rarum. These species should be considered pest biocontrol agents in Brazilian agricultural areas.

  2. Application technology for the entomopathogenic nematodes Heterorhabditis indica and Steinernema sp. (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae and Steinernematidae) to control Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in corn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Luiz C.; Raetano, Carlos G. [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Producao Vegetal - Defesa Fitossanitaria]. E-mails: lcgarcia@fca.unesp.br; raetano@fca.unesp.br; Leite, Luis G. [Instituto Biologico, Campinas, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Controle Biologico]. E-mail: lgleite@biologico.sp.gov.br

    2008-05-15

    The effects of different application technologies were evaluated on the concentration, viability, and efficiency of infective juveniles of the nematodes Heterorhabditis indica Poinar, Karunakar and David and Steinernema sp. (IBCB-n6) to control Spodoptera frugiperda Smith on corn plants. Two hundred and eighty infective juveniles of Steinernema sp. were required to kill 100% third-instar fall army worms in petri dishes, as compared to 400 infective juveniles of the H. indica nematode to obtain 75% fall army worm control. It is possible to spray entomopathogenic nematodes without significant loss in their concentration and viability, with equipment that produces electrical charges to the spraying mix, and with those using hydraulic and rotary nozzle tips. The concentrations of infective juveniles of H. indica and Steinernema sp. nematodes were reduced by 28% and 53%, respectively, when hydraulic spraying nozzles that require 100-mesh filtrating elements were used. Tensoactive agents of the organo silicone and ethoxylate groups did not affect the viability of infective juveniles of Steinernema sp. juveniles. Spraying corn plants (V6 growth stage) with up to 288 million infective juveniles of Steinernema sp. per hectare, diluted in the spraying mix up to 800 L ha{sup -1}, with 0.01% ethoxylate tensoactive agent, or at the same volume followed by artificial rain (6 mm water depth) was not sufficient to control S. frugiperda in a controlled environment. (author)

  3. Application technology for the entomopathogenic nematodes Heterorhabditis indica and Steinernema sp. (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae and Steinernematidae) to control Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in corn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Luiz C.; Raetano, Carlos G.; Leite, Luis G.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of different application technologies were evaluated on the concentration, viability, and efficiency of infective juveniles of the nematodes Heterorhabditis indica Poinar, Karunakar and David and Steinernema sp. (IBCB-n6) to control Spodoptera frugiperda Smith on corn plants. Two hundred and eighty infective juveniles of Steinernema sp. were required to kill 100% third-instar fall army worms in petri dishes, as compared to 400 infective juveniles of the H. indica nematode to obtain 75% fall army worm control. It is possible to spray entomopathogenic nematodes without significant loss in their concentration and viability, with equipment that produces electrical charges to the spraying mix, and with those using hydraulic and rotary nozzle tips. The concentrations of infective juveniles of H. indica and Steinernema sp. nematodes were reduced by 28% and 53%, respectively, when hydraulic spraying nozzles that require 100-mesh filtrating elements were used. Tensoactive agents of the organo silicone and ethoxylate groups did not affect the viability of infective juveniles of Steinernema sp. juveniles. Spraying corn plants (V6 growth stage) with up to 288 million infective juveniles of Steinernema sp. per hectare, diluted in the spraying mix up to 800 L ha -1 , with 0.01% ethoxylate tensoactive agent, or at the same volume followed by artificial rain (6 mm water depth) was not sufficient to control S. frugiperda in a controlled environment. (author)

  4. Penetration, Post-penetration Development, and Reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita on Cucumis melo var. texanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faske, T R

    2013-03-01

    Cucumis melo var. texanus, a wild melon commonly found in the southern United States and two accessions, Burleson Co. and MX 1230, expressed resistance to Meloidogyne incognita in preliminary experiments. To characterize the mechanism of resistance, we evaluated root penetration, post-penetration development, reproduction, and emigration of M. incognita on these two accessions of C. melo var. texanus. Additionally, we evaluated 22 accessions of C. melo var. texanus for their reaction against M. incognita in a greenhouse experiment. Fewer (P ≤ 0.05) J2 penetrated the root system of C. melo var. texanus accessions (Burleson Co. and MX 1230) and C. metuliferus (PI 482452) (resistant control), 7 days after inoculation (DAI) than in C. melo 'Hales Best Jumbo' (susceptible control). A delayed (P ≤ 0.05) rate of nematode development was observed at 7, 14, and 21 DAI that contributed to lower (P ≤ 0.05) egg production on both accessions and C. metuliferus compared with C. melo. Though J2 emigration was observed on all Cucumis genotypes a higher (P ≤ 0.05) rate of J2 emigration was observed from 3 to 6 DAI on accession Burleson Co. and C. metuliferus than on C. melo. The 22 accessions of C. melo var. texanus varied relative to their reaction to M. incognita with eight supporting similar levels of nematode reproduction to that of C. metuliferus. Cucumis melo var. texanus may be a useful source of resistance against root-knot nematode in melon.

  5. The evolutionary position of nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gojobori Takashi

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The complete genomes of three animals have been sequenced by global research efforts: a nematode worm (Caenorhabditis elegans, an insect (Drosophila melanogaster, and a vertebrate (Homo sapiens. Remarkably, their relationships have yet to be clarified. The confusion concerns the enigmatic position of nematodes. Traditionally, nematodes have occupied a basal position, in part because they lack a true body cavity. However, the leading hypothesis now joins nematodes with arthropods in a molting clade, Ecdysozoa, based on data from several genes. Results We tested the Ecdysozoa hypothesis with analyses of more than 100 nuclear protein alignments, under conditions that would expose biases, and found that it was not supported. Instead, we found significant support for the traditional hypothesis, Coelomata. Our result is robust to different rates of sequence change among genes and lineages, different numbers of taxa, and different species of nematodes. Conclusion We conclude that insects (arthropods are genetically and evolutionarily closer to humans than to nematode worms.

  6. What Is Juvenile Arthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Initiative Breadcrumb Home Health Topics English Español Juvenile Arthritis Basics In-Depth Download Download EPUB Download PDF What is it? Points To Remember About Juvenile Arthritis Juvenile arthritis is the term used to describe ...

  7. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... joints. This form of JIA may turn into rheumatoid arthritis. It may involve 5 or more large and ... no known prevention for JIA. Alternative Names Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA); Juvenile chronic polyarthritis; Still disease; Juvenile spondyloarthritis ...

  8. [Diversity of actinomycetes associated with root-knot nematode and their potential for nematode control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hong-li; Sun, Man-hong; Xie, Jian-ping; Liu, Zhi-heng; Huang, Ying

    2006-08-01

    Twenty actinomycetes were isolated from root-knot nematode eggs and females collected from 11 plant root samples infested by Meloidogyne spp.. The isolates were assigned to the genera Streptomyces, Nocardia and Pseudonocardia respectively, based on analysis of morphological characteristics, cell-wall DAPs and 16S rRNA gene sequences. 80% of them were streptomycetes. Biocontrol potential of the isolates against Meloidogyne hapla was evaluated in liquid culture in vitro. The average percentages of egg parasitism, egg hatching, and juvenile mortality were 54.1, 40.4 and 26.2, respectively. Three Streptomyces strains and one Nocardia strain with high pathogenicity in vitro were selected to determine their ability to reduce tomato root galls in greenhouse. The results demonstrated good biocontrol efficacy (31.4%-56.4%) of the strains.

  9. Resistance and Resistant Reaction of Gossypium arboreum to the Reniform, Nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, William W.

    1981-01-01

    Gossypium arboreum 'Nanking CB 1402' possessed a high level of resistance to Rotylenchulus reniformis. Within 16 h, the nematode penetrated roots of resistant and susceptible cottons equally. After 36 h, significantly fewer nematodes were found in resistant roots. Larvae fed in either an endodermal or pericyclic cell and had no specificity for root tissue of a particular age. In roots of resistant G. arboreum '1402,' wall breakdown of pericyclic cells was evident after 3 d, endodermal and cortical cells collapsed, and the hypertrophied pericyclic cells disintegrated within 12 d. Cell walls immediately adjacent to the nematode's head were thickened and more safranin positive in resistant than in susceptible cotton cultivars. Several other cultivars of G. arboreum were also resistant to R. reniformis, based on nematode fecundity and percent egg reduction. PMID:19300777

  10. Influence of root exudates and soil on attachment of Pasteuria penetrans to root-knot nematode Meloidogyne arenaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasteuria penetrans is a parasite of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.). Spores of P. penetrans attach to the cuticle of second stage juvenile (J2) and sterilize infected female. This study looked at different factors that influence spore attachment of P. penetrans to M. arenaria. Incubating J2 ...

  11. Parasitic nematode Meloidogyne incognita interactions with different Capsicum annum cultivars reveal the chemical constituents modulating root herbiovry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant volatile signatures are often used as cues by herbivores to locate their preferred hosts. Here, we report on the volatile organic compounds used by the subterranean root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne incognita for host location. We compared responses of infective second stage juveniles (J2s)...

  12. Influence of industrial heavy metal pollution on soil free-living nematode population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pen-Mouratov, Stanislav; Shukurov, Nosir; Steinberger, Yosef

    2008-01-01

    The effect of distance from a heavy metal pollution source on the soil nematode community (trophic structure, sex structure, and taxa composition) was investigated along a 15-km transect originating at the Almalyk Industrial Complex, Uzbekistan (pollution source). The soil nematode community was exposed to heavy metal influence both directly and through soil properties changes. Pollution effect on the density and biomass of soil free-living nematodes was found to be highest at pollution source, with fungivores and plant parasites dominating at the upper and deeper soil layers next to the pollution source. These groups decreased along the transect, yielding domination to bacteria- and fungi-feeders. The sex ratio of nematode communities was found to be dependent on heavy metal pollution levels, with the juveniles being the most sensitive nematode group. The Maturity and modified Maturity Indices, reflecting the degree of disturbance of the soil ecosystem, were found to be the most sensitive indices. - Trophic structure and sex ratio of soil nematode population are sensitive tools for monitoring industrial pollution

  13. A survival-reproduction trade-off in entomopathogenic nematodes mediated by their bacterial symbionts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emelianoff, Vanya; Chapuis, Elodie; Le Brun, Nathalie; Chiral, Magali; Moulia, Catherine; Ferdy, Jean-Baptiste

    2008-04-01

    In this work, we investigate the investment of entomopathogenic Steinernema nematodes (Rhabditidae) in their symbiotic association with Xenorhabdus bacteria (Enterobacteriaceae). Their life cycle comprises two phases: (1) a free stage in the soil, where infective juveniles (IJs) of the nematode carry bacteria in a digestive vesicle and search for insect hosts, and (2) a parasitic stage into the insect where bacterial multiplication, nematode reproduction, and production of new IJs occur. Previous studies clearly showed benefits to the association for the nematode during the parasitic stage, but preliminary data suggest the existence of costs to the association for the nematode in free stage. IJs deprived from their bacteria indeed survive longer than symbiotic ones. Here we show that those bacteria-linked costs and benefits lead to a trade-off between fitness traits of the symbiotic nematodes. Indeed IJs mortality positively correlates with their parasitic success in the insect host for symbiotic IJs and not for aposymbiotic ones. Moreover mortality and parasitic success both positively correlate with the number of bacteria carried per IJ, indicating that the trade-off is induced by symbiosis. Finally, the trade-off intensity depends on parental effects and, more generally, is greater under restrictive environmental conditions.

  14. Influence of industrial heavy metal pollution on soil free-living nematode population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pen-Mouratov, Stanislav [The Mina and Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel); Shukurov, Nosir [Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Academy of Sciences, Tashkent 700041 (Uzbekistan); Steinberger, Yosef [The Mina and Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel)], E-mail: steinby@mail.biu.ac.il

    2008-03-15

    The effect of distance from a heavy metal pollution source on the soil nematode community (trophic structure, sex structure, and taxa composition) was investigated along a 15-km transect originating at the Almalyk Industrial Complex, Uzbekistan (pollution source). The soil nematode community was exposed to heavy metal influence both directly and through soil properties changes. Pollution effect on the density and biomass of soil free-living nematodes was found to be highest at pollution source, with fungivores and plant parasites dominating at the upper and deeper soil layers next to the pollution source. These groups decreased along the transect, yielding domination to bacteria- and fungi-feeders. The sex ratio of nematode communities was found to be dependent on heavy metal pollution levels, with the juveniles being the most sensitive nematode group. The Maturity and modified Maturity Indices, reflecting the degree of disturbance of the soil ecosystem, were found to be the most sensitive indices. - Trophic structure and sex ratio of soil nematode population are sensitive tools for monitoring industrial pollution.

  15. Molecular aspects of cyst nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilley, Catherine J; Atkinson, Howard J; Urwin, Peter E

    2005-11-01

    SUMMARY Taxonomy: Superkingdom Eukaryota; kingdom Metazoa; phylum Nematoda; class Chromadorea; order Tylenchida; suborder Tylenchina; superfamily Tylenchoidea; family Heteroderidae; subfamily Heteroderinae; main genera Heterodera and Globodera. Cyst nematodes comprise approximately 100 known species in six genera. They are pathogens of temperate, subtropical and tropical plant species and the host range of many species is narrow. The most economically important species are within the Globodera and Heterodera genera. Globodera pallida and G. rostochiensis are important pathogens of potato crops. There are many economic species in the Heterodera genus, including Heterodera glycines (soybean cyst nematode), H. avenae (cereal cyst nematode) and H. schachtii (sugar beet cyst nematode), the last of which attacks a range of Chenopodiaceae and Cruciferae, including Arabidopsis thaliana. Disease symptoms: Field symptoms of severe cyst nematode infection are often stunting, wilting and chlorosis, but considerable yield loss can occur without obvious symptoms. The only unique indicator of cyst nematode infection is the presence of adult female nematodes attached to host roots after several weeks of parasitism. Disease control: This is usually achieved by using integrated pest management involving cultural practices such as crop rotation, resistant cultivars if available and chemical control when economically justified.

  16. RNAi effector diversity in nematodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnathan J Dalzell

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available While RNA interference (RNAi has been deployed to facilitate gene function studies in diverse helminths, parasitic nematodes appear variably susceptible. To test if this is due to inter-species differences in RNAi effector complements, we performed a primary sequence similarity survey for orthologs of 77 Caenorhabditis elegans RNAi pathway proteins in 13 nematode species for which genomic or transcriptomic datasets were available, with all outputs subjected to domain-structure verification. Our dataset spanned transcriptomes of Ancylostoma caninum and Oesophagostomum dentatum, and genomes of Trichinella spiralis, Ascaris suum, Brugia malayi, Haemonchus contortus, Meloidogyne hapla, Meloidogyne incognita and Pristionchus pacificus, as well as the Caenorhabditis species C. brenneri, C. briggsae, C. japonica and C. remanei, and revealed that: (i Most of the C. elegans proteins responsible for uptake and spread of exogenously applied double stranded (dsRNA are absent from parasitic species, including RNAi-competent plant-nematodes; (ii The Argonautes (AGOs responsible for gene expression regulation in C. elegans are broadly conserved, unlike those recruited during the induction of RNAi by exogenous dsRNA; (iii Secondary Argonautes (SAGOs are poorly conserved, and the nuclear AGO NRDE-3 was not identified in any parasite; (iv All five Caenorhabditis spp. possess an expanded RNAi effector repertoire relative to the parasitic nematodes, consistent with the propensity for gene loss in nematode parasites; (v In spite of the quantitative differences in RNAi effector complements across nematode species, all displayed qualitatively similar coverage of functional protein groups. In summary, we could not identify RNAi effector deficiencies that associate with reduced susceptibility in parasitic nematodes. Indeed, similarities in the RNAi effector complements of RNAi refractory and competent nematode parasites support the broad applicability of this research

  17. Mechanisms and Characterization of Trichoderma longibrachiatum T6 in Suppressing Nematodes (Heterodera avenae in Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuwu Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Heterodera avenae is an important soil-borne pathogen that affects field crops worldwide. Chemical nematicides can be used to control the nematode, but they bring toxicity to the environment and human. Trichoderma longibrachiatum has been shown to have the ability to control H. avenae cysts, but detailed microscopic observations and bioassays are lacking. In this study, we used microscopic observations and bioassays to study the effect of T. longibrachiatum T6 (TL6 on the eggs and second stage juveniles (J2s of H. avenae, and investigate the role of TL6 in inducing the resistance to H. avenae in wheat seedling at physiological and biochemical levels. Microscopic observations recorded that TL6 parasitized on the H. avenae eggs, germinated, and produced a large number of hyphae on the eggs surface at the initial stage, thereafter, the eggs were completely surrounded by dense mycelia and the contents of eggs were lysed at the late stage. Meanwhile, the conidia suspension of TL6 parasitized on the surface of J2s, produced a large number of hyphae that penetrated the cuticle and caused deformation of the nematodes. TL6 at the concentration of 1.5 × 107 conidia ml−1 had the highest rates of parasitism on eggs and J2s, reflected by the highest hatching-inhibition of eggs and the mortality of J2s. In the greenhouse experiments, wheat seedlings treated with TL6 at 1.5 × 107 conidia ml−1 had reduced H. avenae infection, and increased plant growth significantly compared to the control. The cysts and juveniles in soil were reduced by 89.8 and 92.7%, the juveniles and females in roots were reduced by 88.3 and 91.3%, whereas the activity of chitinase and β-1, 3-glucanase, total flavonoids and lignin contents in wheat roots were increased significantly at different stage after inoculation with the eggs and TL6 conidia in comparison to the control. Maximum activity of chitinase and β-1, 3-glucanase were recorded at the 20th and 15th Days after

  18. IMMUNE REGULATING ES-PRODUCTS IN PARASITIC NEMATODES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahlool, Qusay Zuhair Mohammad; Buchmann, Kurt; Kania, Per Walter

    work elucidates the effect of ES substances on the fish immune system by measuring immune gene expression in spleen and liver of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) injected intraperitoneally with ES products isolated from A. simplex third stage larvae. The overall gene expression profile of exposed...... fish showed a generalized down-regulation of the immune genes tested, suggesting a role of ES proteins in minimizing the immune reaction of rainbow trout against invading nematodes. We also tested the enzymatic activity of the ES proteins and found that lipase, esterase lipase, valine and cysteine...... arylamidases, naphthol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase and a-galactosidase activities were present in the ES solution. This type of hydrolytic enzyme activity may play a role in nematode penetration of host tissue. Based on the notion that A. simplex ES-proteins may have an immune-depressive effect, it could also...

  19. Ecological characterisation of the Colombian entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis sp. SL0708.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia-Torres, M C; Sáenz, A

    2013-05-01

    The entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis sp. SL0708 (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae) isolated from soil in Alcalá, Valle del Cauca (Colombia) was characterised ecologically using Galleria mellonella larvae (L) (Pyralidae: Galleriinae) as hosts. The effect of temperature on the viability, infectivity and reproduction, and of moisture on infectivity and storage in liquid were evaluated in infective juveniles (IJs). Significant differences were found in the viability, infectivity and reproduction of the IJs at different temperatures. No nematodes were recovered at 5 °C and 10 °C, and at 35 °C no infectivity was observed. Average daily nematode recovery was best at 25 °C, and survival of the IJs was low in substrates presenting 13% moisture. The optimal storage temperature for Heterorhabditis sp. SL0708 was between 20 °C and 30 °C, keeping its infectivity for up to 8 weeks.

  20. Nematicidal effect of volatile organic compounds (VOCs on the plant-parasitic nematode Meloidogyne javanica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Batista Fialho

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated that volatile organic compounds (VOCs, produced by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, were able to inhibit the development of phytopathogenic fungi. In this context, the nematicidal potential of the synthetic mixture of VOCs, constituted of alcohols and esters, was evaluated for the control of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica, which causes losses to crops of high economic value. The fumigation of substrate containing second-stage juveniles with VOCs exhibited nematicidal effect higher than 30% for the lowest concentration tested (33.3 µL g-1 substrate, whereas at 66.6 and 133.3 µL g-1 substrate, the nematode mortality was 100%. The present results stimulate other studies on VOCs for nematode management.

  1. The pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus

    OpenAIRE

    Mota, Manuel; Vieira, Paulo

    2004-01-01

    According to the European Plant Protection Organization, the pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is a quarantine organism at the top of the list of the pathogenic species. PWN may be found in North America (Canada, USA and Mexico) and in East Asia (Japan, Korea, China and Taiwan) and has a highly destructive capability towards conifers, in a relatively short time, causing serious economic damage in Japan, China and Korea. This nematode surveying is extremely imp...

  2. Practical application of insect-parasitic nematodes and sterile flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galle, F.; Loosjes, M.

    1987-01-01

    The company 'de Groene Vlieg' started with commercial control of the onion fly by means of the sterile insect technique. At the moment 10 per cent of the Dutch spring sown onions are treated with this method. The mass-rearing, the estimations of populations and the repeated releases of sterilized flies make it a rather complicated method. It can be applied economically per field, but only in areas with a concentration of onion growing. For export we see no possibilities yet. In principle the sterile insect technique can be applied also to other flies (carrot rust fly, cabbage root fly), but a suitable artificial diet is still lacking. Since some years we also rear the insect parasitic nematodes Heterorhabditis sp. and Neoaplectana bibionis. The later is experimentally used with success against Agrotis segetum caterpillars in lettuce. Research will yield more applications of nematodes against different pests. We use Heterorhabditis sp. in practice against the black vine weevil (Otiorhynchus sulcatus), a serious pest in glass houses, tree nurseries and gardens. Good control is achieved with a dose of one half to one million nematodes per square meter in moist soil and with temperatures above 12 degrees C. The application is similar to that of a chemical insecticide. The pest is killed by symbiontic bacteria, released by the nematodes after penetrating into the body cavity of the larvae. The nematodes are delivered by mail. If cooled they can be kept alive for over four weeks in the package. We export already to Switzerland and plan to export also to Western Germany. At this moment a possible admittance is under investigation in the Netherlands for application of a nuclear polyhedrosis virus against Spodoptera exigua caterpillars

  3. Entomopathogenic nematodes for the control of phorid and sciarid flies in mushroom crops

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro, María Jesús; Gea, Francisco José

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of two nematodes, Steinernema feltiae and S. carpocapsae, to control mushroom flies and to evaluate the effect of these treatments on Agaricus bisporus production. Two mushroom cultivation trials were carried out in controlled conditions, in substrate previously infested with the diptera Megaselia halterata and Lycoriella auripila, with two treatments: 106infective juveniles (IJ) per square meter of S. feltiae and 0.5x106IJ m-2S. feltiae...

  4. De novo transcriptome sequencing and analysis of the cereal cyst nematode, Heterodera avenae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Kumar

    Full Text Available The cereal cyst nematode (CCN, Heterodera avenae is a major pest of wheat (Triticum spp that reduces crop yields in many countries. Cyst nematodes are obligate sedentary endoparasites that reproduce by amphimixis. Here, we report the first transcriptome analysis of two stages of H. avenae. After sequencing extracted RNA from pre parasitic infective juvenile and adult stages of the life cycle, 131 million Illumina high quality paired end reads were obtained which generated 27,765 contigs with N50 of 1,028 base pairs, of which 10,452 were annotated. Comparative analyses were undertaken to evaluate H. avenae sequences with those of other plant, animal and free living nematodes to identify differences in expressed genes. There were 4,431 transcripts common to H. avenae and the free living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and 9,462 in common with more closely related potato cyst nematode, Globodera pallida. Annotation of H. avenae carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZy revealed fewer glycoside hydrolases (GHs but more glycosyl transferases (GTs and carbohydrate esterases (CEs when compared to M. incognita. 1,280 transcripts were found to have secretory signature, presence of signal peptide and absence of transmembrane. In a comparison of genes expressed in the pre-parasitic juvenile and feeding female stages, expression levels of 30 genes with high RPKM (reads per base per kilo million value, were analysed by qRT-PCR which confirmed the observed differences in their levels of expression levels. In addition, we have also developed a user-friendly resource, Heterodera transcriptome database (HATdb for public access of the data generated in this study. The new data provided on the transcriptome of H. avenae adds to the genetic resources available to study plant parasitic nematodes and provides an opportunity to seek new effectors that are specifically involved in the H. avenae-cereal host interaction.

  5. De novo transcriptome sequencing and analysis of the cereal cyst nematode, Heterodera avenae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mukesh; Gantasala, Nagavara Prasad; Roychowdhury, Tanmoy; Thakur, Prasoon Kumar; Banakar, Prakash; Shukla, Rohit N; Jones, Michael G K; Rao, Uma

    2014-01-01

    The cereal cyst nematode (CCN, Heterodera avenae) is a major pest of wheat (Triticum spp) that reduces crop yields in many countries. Cyst nematodes are obligate sedentary endoparasites that reproduce by amphimixis. Here, we report the first transcriptome analysis of two stages of H. avenae. After sequencing extracted RNA from pre parasitic infective juvenile and adult stages of the life cycle, 131 million Illumina high quality paired end reads were obtained which generated 27,765 contigs with N50 of 1,028 base pairs, of which 10,452 were annotated. Comparative analyses were undertaken to evaluate H. avenae sequences with those of other plant, animal and free living nematodes to identify differences in expressed genes. There were 4,431 transcripts common to H. avenae and the free living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and 9,462 in common with more closely related potato cyst nematode, Globodera pallida. Annotation of H. avenae carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZy) revealed fewer glycoside hydrolases (GHs) but more glycosyl transferases (GTs) and carbohydrate esterases (CEs) when compared to M. incognita. 1,280 transcripts were found to have secretory signature, presence of signal peptide and absence of transmembrane. In a comparison of genes expressed in the pre-parasitic juvenile and feeding female stages, expression levels of 30 genes with high RPKM (reads per base per kilo million) value, were analysed by qRT-PCR which confirmed the observed differences in their levels of expression levels. In addition, we have also developed a user-friendly resource, Heterodera transcriptome database (HATdb) for public access of the data generated in this study. The new data provided on the transcriptome of H. avenae adds to the genetic resources available to study plant parasitic nematodes and provides an opportunity to seek new effectors that are specifically involved in the H. avenae-cereal host interaction.

  6. Levels of infection of gastric nematodes in a flock of great cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo) from Lake Biwa, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Dakhly, Kh M; El-Nahass, E; Uni, S; Tuji, H; Sakai, H; Yanai, T

    2012-03-01

    A high prevalence (86.7%) of various species of nematodes was observed in the stomach of great cormorants living in Lake Biwa, Japan. There were varying numbers of adults belonging to two common genera, Eustrongylides Jagerskiold 1909 (Nematoda: Dioctophymatidae) and Contracaecum Railliet & Henry 1912 (Nematoda: Anisakidae). The first included common adenophorean nematodes comprising a single species, Eustrongylides tubifex and the second comprised ascaroid nematodes that contained four named species: Contracaecum rudolphii Hartwich, 1964, Contracaecum microcephalum Yamaguti, 1961, Contracaecum multipapillatum Drasche, 1882 and Contracaecum chubutensis Garbin, 2008. After the prevalence and intensity of the infection had been noted, both types of nematodes were frequently observed to penetrate the mucosa and intrude into the wall of the glandular stomach, where they caused gross haemorrhage and ulceration. The Eustrongylides sp. was predominantly found in a nodular lesion of the proventricular wall, while Contracaecum spp. were observed either free in the lumen of the proventriculus or, on occasion, deeply penetrating its wall. Of the Contracaecum spp., C. rudolphii was the most prevalent. Grossly, large numbers of nematodes were present in infected stomachs (for C. rudolphii intensity was 1-34 and 3-57 nematodes in male birds and 1-21 and 1-32 in females; for C. microcephalum 1-2 and 1 in male birds and 1-2 in females; for C. multipapillatum 2 in male cormorants and no infection in females; for C. chubutensis 1-2 and 1 in male birds and 1-5 and 1 in females and for E. tubifex 1-5 nematodes in male birds and 2-8 in females). Ulcerative inflammation and hyperaemia were the most common pathological presentations, especially in areas that had been invaded by parasites. Microscopically, varying degrees of granulomatous inflammatory reactions were seen, in addition to degenerated nematodes which appeared to have deeply penetrated mucosal surfaces and were surrounded by

  7. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, M.

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted.

  8. PATHOGENICITY, DEVELOPMENT AND REPRODUCTION OF THE ENTOMOPATHOGENIC NEMATODE Steinernema sp., IN MEALWORM Tenebrio molitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliantoro Baliadi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenicity, development and reproduction of Steinernema sp., isolate Skpr-20/Str, were studied using Tenebrio molitor. Results revealed that pathogenicity, development and reproduction were significantly influenced by nematode doses. Although the number of invading IJs increased with increasing dose, percentage penetration declined. The IJs reached adulthood within 3 days. Females laid eggs from day 4-7. All eggs remaining inside uterus develop inside the maternal body. The first female bearing endotokia matricida was observed on day 5. In a sand-based assay, nematode was more pathogenic at lower dose instead of higher ones, where optimum dose was 80 nematodes per larva and average number of progeny per female was 5438. Under crowded conditions, development proceeds to IJ stage instead of the J3. The average length and width decreased with increasing of nematode doses. The IJ produced in cadavers infested with 640 nematodes per larva was significantly smaller (492 ± 6.4 µm than offspring from other doses. The number of days which nematodes first emerged from the cadavers decreased with increasing dose. IJ first emerged at the average of 10-13 days at high IJ densities. It is concluded that the wide experimental characteristic of EPNs is also true for Steinernema sp., isolate Skpr-20/Str.

  9. Juvenile Court Statistics - 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Youth Development (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    This report is a statistical study of juvenile court cases in 1972. The data demonstrates how the court is frequently utilized in dealing with juvenile delinquency by the police as well as by other community agencies and parents. Excluded from this report are the ordinary traffic cases handled by juvenile court. The data indicate that: (1) in…

  10. Juvenile Court Statistics, 1974.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Jacqueline; Vereb, Thomas S.

    This report presents information on juvenile court processing of youth in the U.S. during 1974. It is based on data gathered under the National Juvenile Court Statistical Reporting System. Findings can be summarized as follows: (1) 1,252,700 juvenile delinquency cases, excluding traffic offenses, were handled by courts in the U.S. in 1974; (2) the…

  11. In Vivo Production of Entomopathogenic Nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Morales-Ramos, Juan A; Rojas, M Guadalupe

    2016-01-01

    In nature, entomopathogenic nematodes in the genera Heterorhabditis and Steinernema are obligate parasites of insects. The nematodes are used widely as biopesticides for suppression of insect pests. More than a dozen entomopathogenic nematode species have been commercialized for use in biological control. Most nematodes intended for commercial application are produced in artificial media via solid or liquid fermentation. However, for laboratory research and small greenhouse or field trials, in vivo production of entomopathogenic nematodes is the common method of propagation. Additionally, small companies continue to produce nematodes using in vivo methods for application in niche markets. Advances in mechanization and alternative production routes (e.g., production geared toward application of nematodes in infected host cadavers) can improve efficiency and economy of scale. The objective of this chapter is to describe basic and advanced procedures for in vivo production of entomopathogenic nematodes.

  12. Basic and applied research: Entomopathogenic nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entomopathogenic nematodes in the genera Heterorhabditis and Steinernema kill arthropods with the aid of their bacterial symbionts. These nematodes are potent microbial control agents that have been widely commercialized for control of economically important insect pests. Biocontrol efficacy relies...

  13. Soybean cyst nematode culture collections and field populations from North Carolina and Missouri reveal high incidences of infection by viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruark, Casey L; Koenning, Stephen R; Davis, Eric L; Opperman, Charles H; Lommel, Steven A; Mitchum, Melissa G; Sit, Tim L

    2017-01-01

    Five viruses were previously discovered infecting soybean cyst nematodes (SCN; Heterodera glycines) from greenhouse cultures maintained in Illinois. In this study, the five viruses [ScNV, ScPV, ScRV, ScTV, and SbCNV-5] were detected within SCN greenhouse and field populations from North Carolina (NC) and Missouri (MO). The prevalence and titers of viruses in SCN from 43 greenhouse cultures and 25 field populations were analyzed using qRT-PCR. Viral titers within SCN greenhouse cultures were similar throughout juvenile development, and the presence of viral anti-genomic RNAs within egg, second-stage juvenile (J2), and pooled J3 and J4 stages suggests active viral replication within the nematode. Viruses were found at similar or lower levels within field populations of SCN compared with greenhouse cultures of North Carolina populations. Five greenhouse cultures harbored all five known viruses whereas in most populations a mixture of fewer viruses was detected. In contrast, three greenhouse cultures of similar descent to one another did not possess any detectable viruses and primarily differed in location of the cultures (NC versus MO). Several of these SCN viruses were also detected in Heterodera trifolii (clover cyst) and Heterodera schachtii (beet cyst), but not the other cyst, root-knot, or reniform nematode species tested. Viruses were not detected within soybean host plant tissue. If nematode infection with viruses is truly more common than first considered, the potential influence on nematode biology, pathogenicity, ecology, and control warrants continued investigation.

  14. Group selection on population size affects life-history patterns in the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashey, Farrah; Lively, Curtis M

    2009-05-01

    Selection is recognized to operate on multiple levels. In disease organisms, selection among hosts is thought to provide an important counterbalance to selection for faster growth within hosts. We performed three experiments, each selecting for a divergence in group size in the entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema carpocapsae. These nematodes infect and kill insect larvae, reproduce inside the host carcass, and emerge as infective juveniles. We imposed selection on group size by selecting among hosts for either high or low numbers of emerging nematodes. Our goal was to determine whether this trait could respond to selection at the group level, and if so, to examine what other traits would evolve as correlated responses. One of the three experiments showed a significant response to group selection. In that experiment, the high-selected treatment consistently produced more emerging nematodes per host than the low-selected treatment. In addition, nematodes were larger and they emerged later from hosts in the low-selected lines. Despite small effective population sizes, the effects of inbreeding were small in this experiment. Thus, selection among hosts can be effective, leading to both a direct evolutionary response at the population level, as well as to correlated responses in populational and individual traits.

  15. Nematicidal effect of rhizobacteria on plant-parasitic nematodes associated with vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aballay, E; Prodan, S; Zamorano, A; Castaneda-Alvarez, C

    2017-07-01

    The action of metabolites and exoenzymes from rhizobacteria on different plant-parasitic nematodes has an influence on the nematicidal efficacy of the microbe. Seven rhizobacteria, divided into two bacterial groups, were evaluated in vitro for nematicidal activity on Meloidogyne ethiopica and Xiphinema index. The direct effect of their filtrates on egg hatching and juveniles of M. ethiopica as well as mobile stages of X. index was evaluated during a 72-h period. The production of four exoenzymes and two metabolites associated with nematode mortality was investigated. Molecular characterization of three isolates was performed, and the physiological profiles and lipase activity of all isolates were obtained using the BIOLOG EcoPlate system. While chitinase and collagenase were measured using the BIOLOG MT2 plate system, protease, hydrogen cyanide and hydrogen sulphide were directly determined in Petri dishes. Nematode mobile stages exposure to the bacterial filtrate revealed a nematicidal effect up to 93.7% on X. Index and up to 83.3% on M. ethiopica. The control of egg hatching varied between 35 and 85%. A positive correlation was found between the mortality of both nematode mobile stages and the concerted activities of the bacterial enzymes as well as the level of the volatile metabolites. The nematicidal effect of rhizobacteria strains varies by nematode genera and among the developmental stages evaluated.

  16. Nematode neuropeptides as transgenic nematicides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil D Warnock

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant parasitic nematodes (PPNs seriously threaten global food security. Conventionally an integrated approach to PPN management has relied heavily on carbamate, organophosphate and fumigant nematicides which are now being withdrawn over environmental health and safety concerns. This progressive withdrawal has left a significant shortcoming in our ability to manage these economically important parasites, and highlights the need for novel and robust control methods. Nematodes can assimilate exogenous peptides through retrograde transport along the chemosensory amphid neurons. Peptides can accumulate within cells of the central nerve ring and can elicit physiological effects when released to interact with receptors on adjoining cells. We have profiled bioactive neuropeptides from the neuropeptide-like protein (NLP family of PPNs as novel nematicides, and have identified numerous discrete NLPs that negatively impact chemosensation, host invasion and stylet thrusting of the root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita and the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida. Transgenic secretion of these peptides from the rhizobacterium, Bacillus subtilis, and the terrestrial microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii reduce tomato infection levels by up to 90% when compared with controls. These data pave the way for the exploitation of nematode neuropeptides as a novel class of plant protective nematicide, using novel non-food transgenic delivery systems which could be deployed on farmer-preferred cultivars.

  17. Plant-parasitic nematodes in Hawaiian agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawaii’s diverse and mild climate allows for the cultivation of many crops. The introduction of each crop plant brought along its associated nematode pests. These plant-parasitic nematodes became established and are now endemic to the islands. Plantation agriculture determined the major nematode ...

  18. Entomopathogenic nematodes for the biocontrol of ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samish, M; Glazer, I

    2001-08-01

    Entomopathogenic steinemematid and heterorhabditid nematodes are increasingly used to control insect pests of economically important crops. Laboratory and field simulation trials show that ticks are also susceptible to these nematodes. The authors review the potential of entomogenous nematodes for the control of ticks.

  19. Meloidogyne incognita Fatty Acid- and Retinol- Binding Protein (Mi-FAR-1) Affects Nematode Infection of Plant Roots and the Attachment of Pasteuria penetrans Endospores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phani, Victor; Shivakumara, Tagginahalli N; Davies, Keith G; Rao, Uma

    2017-01-01

    Root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne incognita is an economically important pest of crops. Pasteuria penetrans , is a nematode hyperparasitic bacterium capable of suppressing the reproduction of RKN and thereby useful for its management. Secreted fatty acid and retinol-binding proteins are unique in nematodes and are engaged in nutrient acquisition, development and reproduction; they are also a component of the nematode cuticle and thought to be involved in the interface between hosts and parasites. Attachment of endospores to the cuticle of second stage juveniles of RKN is the primary step of infection and several factors have been identified to facilitate attachment. In this study, the full length of Mi-far-1 (573 bp) was cloned from M. incognita and characterized. Analysis revealed that the Mi-far-1 was rich in α-helix structure, contained a predicted consensus casein kinase II phosphorylation site and a glycosylation site. Quantitative PCR showed the highest expression in the fourth stage juveniles and in situ hybridization revealed the presence of Mi-far-1 mRNA in the hypodermis below the cuticle. Single copy insertion pattern of Mi-far-1 in M. incognita genome was detected by Southern blotting. Knockdown of Mi-far-1 showed significantly increased attachment of P. penetrans' endospores on juvenile cuticle surface and also affected host finding, root infection and nematode fecundity.

  20. Meloidogyne incognita Fatty Acid- and Retinol- Binding Protein (Mi-FAR-1 Affects Nematode Infection of Plant Roots and the Attachment of Pasteuria penetrans Endospores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Phani

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Root-knot nematode (RKN Meloidogyne incognita is an economically important pest of crops. Pasteuria penetrans, is a nematode hyperparasitic bacterium capable of suppressing the reproduction of RKN and thereby useful for its management. Secreted fatty acid and retinol-binding proteins are unique in nematodes and are engaged in nutrient acquisition, development and reproduction; they are also a component of the nematode cuticle and thought to be involved in the interface between hosts and parasites. Attachment of endospores to the cuticle of second stage juveniles of RKN is the primary step of infection and several factors have been identified to facilitate attachment. In this study, the full length of Mi-far-1 (573 bp was cloned from M. incognita and characterized. Analysis revealed that the Mi-far-1 was rich in α-helix structure, contained a predicted consensus casein kinase II phosphorylation site and a glycosylation site. Quantitative PCR showed the highest expression in the fourth stage juveniles and in situ hybridization revealed the presence of Mi-far-1 mRNA in the hypodermis below the cuticle. Single copy insertion pattern of Mi-far-1 in M. incognita genome was detected by Southern blotting. Knockdown of Mi-far-1 showed significantly increased attachment of P. penetrans’ endospores on juvenile cuticle surface and also affected host finding, root infection and nematode fecundity.

  1. Effect of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) aqueous extracts on the performance of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adomako, J.; Kwoseh, C. K.

    2013-01-01

    The increased concern for environmental and health hazards have called for a reduction in the use of synthetic nematicides for nematode control. Experiments were, therefore, conducted to ascertain the nematicidal potential of castor bean's crude extract and its five lower concentrations with water as control. In the in vitro studies, crude castor bean aqueous extract and 10, 20, 30 and 40% different concentrations with 100 root-knot nematode eggs or juveniles in separate Petri dishes showed that all the different concentrations had toxic effects on eggs and juveniles of root-knot nematode. Egg hatch inhibition and juvenile mortality increased with increased concentration of the extracts. With an increase in exposure time, juvenile mortality increased. In potted plant studies, crude castor bean aqueous extracts and its lower concentrations of 20, 40 and 60% caused significant improvement in plant growth measures such as height and fresh shoot weight over the water blank control. The crude castor bean extract was nematotoxic to root -knot nematodes in vitro and in potted-tomato plants, but this was not demonstrated in field studies. Further work needs to be done before a firm recommendation can be made. (au)

  2. Naturally Induced Secretions of the Potato Cyst Nematode Co-stimulate the Proliferation of Both Tobacco Leaf Protoplasts and Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goverse, A.; Rouppe van der Voort, J.N.A.M.; Rouppe van der voort, C.; Kavelaars, A.; Smant, G.; Schots, A.; Bakker, J.; Helder, J.

    1999-01-01

    Naturally induced secretions from infective juveniles of the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis co-stimulate the proliferation of tobacco leaf protoplasts in the presence of the synthetic phytohormones α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). With the use of a

  3. Naturally induced secretions of the potato cyst nematode co-stimulate the proliferation of both tobacco leaf protoplasts and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goverse, A; Rouppe van der Voort, J; Roppe van der Voort, C; Kavelaars, A; Smant, G; Schots, A; Bakker, J; Helder, J

    1999-10-01

    Naturally induced secretions from infective juveniles of the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis co-stimulate the proliferation of tobacco leaf protoplasts in the presence of the synthetic phytohormones alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). With the use of a protoplast-based bioassay, a low-molecular-weight peptide(s) (cyst nematode secretions also co-stimulated mitogenesis in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). The stimulation of plant cells isolated from nontarget tissue--these nematodes normally invade the roots of potato plants--suggests the activation of a general signal transduction mechanism(s) by an oligopeptide(s) secreted by the nematode. Whether a similar oligopeptide-induced mechanism underlies human PBMC activation remains to be investigated. Reactivation of the cell cycle is a crucial event in feeding cell formation by cyst nematodes. The secretion of a mitogenic low-molecular-weight peptide(s) by infective juveniles of the potato cyst nematode could contribute to the redifferentiation of plant cells into such a feeding cell.

  4. Artificial induction of third-stage dispersal juveniles of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus using newly established inbred lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suguru E Tanaka

    Full Text Available The pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is the causal agent of pine wilt disease. This nematode has two developmental forms in its life cycle; i.e., the propagative and dispersal forms. The former is the form that builds up its population inside the host pine. The latter is specialized for transport by the vector. This form is separated into two dispersal stages (third and fourth; the third-stage dispersal juvenile (JIII is specialized for survival under unfavorable conditions, whereas the fourth-stage juvenile (JIV, which is induced by a chemical signal from the carrier Monochamus beetle, is transported to new host pines and invades them. Because of its importance in the disease cycle, molecular and chemical aspects of the JIV have been investigated, while the mechanism of JIII induction has not been sufficiently investigated. In an effort to clarify the JIII induction process, we established inbred lines of B. xylophilus and compared their biological features. We found that the total number of nematodes (propagation proportion was negatively correlated with the JIII emergence proportion, likely because nematode development was arrested at JIII; i.e., they could not develop to adults via the reproductive stage. In addition, JIII induction seemed to be regulated by a small number of genes because the JIII induction proportion varied among inbred lines despite the high homozygosity of the parental line. We also demonstrated that JIII can be artificially induced by the nematode's secreted substances. This is the first report of artificial induction of JIII in B. xylophilus. The dauer (dispersal juvenile of the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans corresponds functionally to JIII of B. xylophilus, and this stage is known to be induced by a chemical signal referred to as daumone, derived from the nematodes' secretion. The artificial induction of JIII suggests the presence of daumone-like material in B. xylophilus.

  5. Olfactory circuits and behaviors of nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengarajan, Sophie; Hallem, Elissa A

    2016-12-01

    Over one billion people worldwide are infected with parasitic nematodes. Many parasitic nematodes actively search for hosts to infect using volatile chemical cues, so understanding the olfactory signals that drive host seeking may elucidate new pathways for preventing infections. The free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a powerful model for parasitic nematodes: because sensory neuroanatomy is conserved across nematode species, an understanding of the microcircuits that mediate olfaction in C. elegans may inform studies of olfaction in parasitic nematodes. Here we review circuit mechanisms that allow C. elegans to respond to odorants, gases, and pheromones. We also highlight work on the olfactory behaviors of parasitic nematodes that lays the groundwork for future studies of their olfactory microcircuits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Immunity to gastrointestinal nematode infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorobetea, D.; Svensson Frej, M.; Grencis, R.

    2018-01-01

    Numerous species of nematodes have evolved to inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of animals and humans, with over a billion of the world's population infected with at least one species. These large multicellular pathogens present a considerable and complex challenge to the host immune system give...

  7. Anthelmintic resistance in equine nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline B. Matthews

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthelmintics have been applied indiscriminately to control horse nematodes for over 40 years. Three broad-spectrum anthelmintic classes are currently registered for nematode control in horses: benzimidazoles (fenbendazole, oxibendazole, tetrahydropyrimidines (pyrantel and macrocyclic lactones (ivermectin, moxidectin. Generally, control strategies have focused on nematode egg suppression regimens that involve the frequent application of anthelmintics to all horses at intervals based on strongyle egg reappearance periods after treatment. The widespread use of such programmes has substantially reduced clinical disease, especially that associated with large strongyle species; however, high treatment frequency has led to considerable selection pressure for anthelmintic resistance, particularly in cyathostomin species. Field studies published over the last decade indicate that benzimidazole resistance is widespread globally in cyathostomins and there are also many reports of resistance to pyrantel in these worms. Cyathostomin resistance to macrocyclic lactone compounds is emerging, principally measured as a reduction in strongyle egg reappearance time observed after treatment. Ivermectin resistance is a further concern in the small intestinal nematode, Parascaris equorum, an important pathogen of foals. These issues indicate that horse nematodes must now be controlled using methods less dependent on anthelmintic use and more reliant on management practices designed to reduce the force of infection in the environment. Such strategies include improved grazing management integrated with targeted anthelmintic administration involving faecal egg count (FEC-directed treatments. The latter require that the supporting diagnostic tests available are robust and practically applicable. Recent research has focused on maximising the value of FEC analysis in horses and on optimizing protocols for anthelmintic efficacy testing. Other studies have sought to develop

  8. Juvenile Confinement in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendel, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    For more than a century, the predominant strategy for the treatment and punishment of serious and sometimes not-so-serious juvenile offenders in the United States has been placement into large juvenile corrections institutions, alternatively known as training schools, reformatories, or youth corrections centers. America's heavy reliance on…

  9. Juvenile giant fibroadenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipul Yagnik

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Fibroadenomas are benign solid tumor associated with aberration of normal lobular development. Juvenile giant fibroadenoma is usually single and >5 cm in size /or >500 gms in weight. Important differential diagnoses are: phyllodes tumor and juvenile gigantomastia. Simple excision is the treatment of choice.

  10. Perspectives on the behavior of entomopathogenic nematodes from dispersal to reproduction: traits contributing to nematode fitness and biocontrol efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Christine T

    2012-06-01

    The entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) Heterorhabditis and Steinernema are widely used for the biological control of insect pests and are gaining importance as model organisms for studying parasitism and symbiosis. In this paper recent advances in the understanding of EPN behavior are reviewed. The "foraging strategy" paradigm (distinction between species with ambush and cruise strategies) as applied to EPN is being challenged and alternative paradigms proposed. Infection decisions are based on condition of the potential host, and it is becoming clear that already-infected and even long-dead hosts may be invaded, as well as healthy live hosts. The state of the infective juvenile (IJ) also influences infection, and evidence for a phased increase in infectivity of EPN species is mounting. The possibility of social behavior - adaptive interactions between IJs outside the host - is discussed. EPNs' symbiotic bacteria (Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus) are important for killing the host and rendering it suitable for nematode reproduction, but may reduce survival of IJs, resulting in a trade-off between survival and reproduction. The symbiont also contributes to defence of the cadaver by affecting food-choice decisions of insect and avian scavengers. I review EPN reproductive behavior (including sperm competition, copulation and evidence for attractive and organizational effects of pheromones), and consider the role of endotokia matricida as parental behavior exploited by the symbiont for transmission.

  11. Juvenile mammary papillomatosis; Papilomatosis juvenil mamaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, M.; Jimenez, A. V. [Hospital Reina Sofia. Cordoba (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    Juvenile mammary papillomatosis is a benign proliferative disease of young patients, generally under 30 years of age. The most frequent clinical presentation is the existence of an elastic and mobile lymph node of the breast. Anatomopathologically, it is characterized because it presents ductal epithelial hyperplasia, sometimes with marked atypia, and there are numerous cysts having different sizes among the findings. It has been associated with an increase in the incidence of breast cancer, both in the patient herself as well as her family. We review the literature on the subject and present the mammographic and ultrasonographic findings of a 22 year old woman diagnosed of juvenile mammary papillomatosis. (Author) 12 refs.

  12. Entomopathogenic nematodes for the control of phorid and sciarid flies in mushroom crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Jesús Navarro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of two nematodes, Steinernema feltiae and S. carpocapsae, to control mushroom flies and to evaluate the effect of these treatments on Agaricus bisporus production. Two mushroom cultivation trials were carried out in controlled conditions, in substrate previously infested with the diptera Megaselia halterata and Lycoriella auripila, with two treatments: 106infective juveniles (IJ per square meter of S. feltiae and 0.5x106IJ m-2S. feltiae + 0.5x106IJ m-2S. carpocapsae. Another experiment was carried out using the same treatments to evaluate the possible nematode effect on mushroom yield. The number of adults emerging from the substrate was evaluated for each fly species. No decrease in the population of M. halterata was detected with nematode application, whereas the number of L. auripila was reduced in both treatments, particularly in the individual treatment with S. feltiae. The application of entomopathogenic nematodes has no adverse effect on mushroom production.

  13. Infection by anisakid nematodes contracaecum spp. in the Mayan cichlid fish 'Cichlasoma (Nandopsis)' urophthalmus (Gunther 1862).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Gaddy T; Motta, Philip J

    2004-04-01

    Larval nematodes that parasitize the Mayan cichlid fish 'Cichlasoma (Nandopsis)' urophthalmus (Günther 1862) in southern Florida were identified as Contracaecum spp. (Nematoda: Anisakidae, Anisakinae). The objective of this study was to determine whether infection intensity and prevalence of these parasites differ between a brackish water and freshwater habitat or through ontogeny in the freshwater habitat only. The nematodes were removed from the abdominal cavity of the fishes and counted. Infection intensity was compared between habitats using analysis of covariance and evaluated through ontogeny using Spearman rank order correlation. Prevalence was compared between habitats and between adults and juveniles from the freshwater habitat using a z-test. Although infection intensity did not differ between habitats, infection prevalence was greater at the freshwater site (FWS). Both the prevalence and intensity of nematode infection increased through ontogeny at the FWS, and no nematode was found in fishes that were smaller than 93 mm standard length. Thus, the parasites appear to accumulate during the lifetime of the fishes.

  14. A novel approach to biocontrol: Release of live insect hosts pre-infected with entomopathogenic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumus, Arife; Karagoz, Mehmet; Shapiro-Ilan, David; Hazir, Selcuk

    2015-09-01

    As a new application approach, we tested the efficacy of releasing live insect hosts that were pre-infected with entomopathogenic nematodes against insect pests living in cryptic habitats. We hypothesized that the pre-infected hosts could carry the next generation of emerging nematode infective juveniles to hard-to-reach target sites, and thereby facilitate enhanced control in cryptic habitats. Thus, the infected hosts act as "living insect bombs" against the target pest. We tested this approach using two model insect pests: a chestnut tree pest, the goat moth Cossus cossus (Lepidiptera: Cossidae), and a lawn caterpillar, Spodoptera cilium (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). One pest is considered hard-to-reach via aqueous spray (C. cossus) and the other is more openly exposed in the environment (S. cilium). C. cossus and S. cilium studies were conducted in chestnut logs and Bermudagrass arenas, respectively. The living bomb approach was compared with standard nematode application in aqueous spray and controls (without nematode application); Steinernema carpocapsae (Rize isolate) was used in all experiments. The percentage larval mortality of C. cossus was 86% in the living insect bomb treatment, whereas, all other treatments and controls exhibited less than 4% mortality. The new approach (living bomb) was equally successful as standard aqueous application for the control of S. cilium larvae. Both methods exhibited more than 90% mortality in the turfgrass arena. Our new approach showed an immense potential to control insect pests living in hard-to-reach cryptic habitats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Biocontrol: Fungal Parasites of Female Cyst Nematodes

    OpenAIRE

    Kerry, Brian

    1980-01-01

    Three species of fungi, Catenaria auxiliarls (Kühn) Tribe, Nematophthora gynophila Kerry and Crump, and a Lagenidiaceous fungus have been found attacking female cyst nematodes. All are zoosporic fungi which parasitize females on the root surface, cause the breakdown of the nematode cuticle, and prevent cyst formation. Their identification and some aspects of their biology are reviewed. N. gynophila is widespread in Britain and reduces populations of the cereal cyst nematode, Heterodera avenae...

  16. Effect of Entomopathogenic Nematodes on Mesocriconema xenoplax Populations in Peach and Pecan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyczepir, A. P.; Shapiro-Ilan, D. I.; Lewis, E. E.; Handoo, Z. A.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of Steinernema riobrave and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora on population density of Mesocriconema xenoplax in peach was studied in the greenhouse. Twenty-one days after adding 112 M. xenoplax adults and juveniles/1,500 cm³ soil to the soil surface of each pot, 50 infective juveniles/cm² soil surface of either S. riobrave or H. bacteriophora were applied. Another entomopathogenic nematode application of the same density was administered 3 months later. The experiment was repeated once. Mesocriconema xenoplax populations were not suppressed (P ≤ 0.05) in the presence of either S. riobrave or H. bacteriophora 180 days following ring nematode inoculation. On pecan, 200 S. riobrave infective-stage juveniles/cm² were applied to the soil surface of 2-year-old established M. xenoplax populations in field microplots. Additional applications of S. riobrave were administered 2 and 4 months later. This study was terminated 150 days following the initial application of S. riobrave. Populations of M. xenoplax were not suppressed in the presence of S. riobrave. PMID:19262805

  17. Effect of Entomopathogenic Nematodes on Mesocriconema xenoplax Populations in Peach and Pecan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyczepir, A P; Shapiro-Ilan, D I; Lewis, E E; Handoo, Z A

    2004-06-01

    The effect of Steinernema riobrave and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora on population density of Mesocriconema xenoplax in peach was studied in the greenhouse. Twenty-one days after adding 112 M. xenoplax adults and juveniles/1,500 cm(3) soil to the soil surface of each pot, 50 infective juveniles/cm(2) soil surface of either S. riobrave or H. bacteriophora were applied. Another entomopathogenic nematode application of the same density was administered 3 months later. The experiment was repeated once. Mesocriconema xenoplax populations were not suppressed (P nematode inoculation. On pecan, 200 S. riobrave infective-stage juveniles/cm(2) were applied to the soil surface of 2-year-old established M. xenoplax populations in field microplots. Additional applications of S. riobrave were administered 2 and 4 months later. This study was terminated 150 days following the initial application of S. riobrave. Populations of M. xenoplax were not suppressed in the presence of S. riobrave.

  18. Epidemiological studies of nematodes in fishes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qamar, M.F.; Butt, K.; Qureshi, N.A.

    2014-01-01

    Three hundred fresh water fishes of six species were collected from six different fish farms of Lahore for the prevalence of nematodes. Out of 300 fishes examined, 12 were found to be infected with the helminthes, majority of them were isolated from the stomach and intestines. The following two species of nematodes were recorded; Capillaria spp. and Eustrongylides spp. The overall prevalence of intestinal nematodes was recorded as 4%(12/300). The prevalence of nematodes was recorded on monthly basis which ranged from 0-8%. The highest prevalence of nematodes was 8% (4/50) during March, while the lowest prevalence was noted in June 0%.Singharee (Sperata sawari) showed the maximum infestation of nematodes of 8% (4/50), whereas in Silver Carp (Hypopthaimichthys molitrix) minimum prevalence of nematode (0%) was noted. The prevalence of different nematode in a particular fish specie was also recorded, and it was stated that overall prevalence of capillaria spp. was 6% in Rahu (Labeo rohita) and Saul (Channa marullius). Similarly overall infestation of Eustrongylides sp. was recorded as 4% in Singharee (Sperata sawari) and Silver carp (Hypopthaimichthys molitrix). The nematode intensity might be linked with the genetic makeup, intestinal vigor, and other managemental and environmental factors. (author)

  19. Management of the potato cyst nematode (Globodera pallida) with bio-fumigants/stimulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, T J G; Turner, S J; Fleming, C C

    2007-01-01

    Field trials evaluated the effect of four plant-based bio-fumigants/stimulants on population levels of G. pallida and the resulting potato yields and quality. Three formulations contained seaweed biostimulants (Algifol, Nutridip and Metastim) and one bio-fumigant containing mustard and chilli pepper extracts (Dazitol). These were compared with the fumigant nematicide Nemathorin and untreated control plots. The effect of G. pallida on growing potato crops was assessed by recording haulm characteristics which indicated that the nematicide treatment gave most protection. Levels of PCN juveniles and migratory nematodes were assessed during the trial. Plots treated with Nemathorin and Dazitol had fewest PCN, whilst the highest number of migratory nematodes occurred in fallow plots. Sixteen weeks after planting the nematicide treatment produced highest yield and tuber numbers. Dazitol treatment produced a lower yield but the largest tubers.

  20. 1,10-Phenanthroline and its derivatives are novel hatching stimulants for soybean cyst nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, Shiori; Katsuyama, Tsutomu; Kondo, Tatsuhiko; Sasaki, Yasuyuki; Asami, Tadao; Yajima, Shunsuke; Ito, Shinsaku

    2016-11-01

    Soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines Ichinohe, is a plant-parasitic nematode and one of the most serious soybean pests. Herein, we present the heterocyclic compound 1,10-phenanthroline (Phen) and its derivatives as novel hatching stimulants for SCN. Phen treatment promoted hatching of second-stage juveniles of SCNs in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, the hatching of SCNs following treatment with Phen occurred more rapidly than that following treatment with the known hatching stimulant, glycinoeclepin A (GEA). Furthermore, the co-application of Phen and GEA enhanced SCN hatching rate compared with that of Phen or GEA alone. A structure-activity relationship study for Phen derivatives suggested that 2,2'-bipyridine is the essential structure of the SCN-hatching stimulants. These results suggest that Phen and its derivatives activate different hatching pathways of SCNs from GEA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Metasploit penetration testing cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, Monika

    2013-01-01

    This book follows a Cookbook style with recipes explaining the steps for penetration testing with WLAN, VOIP, and even cloud computing. There is plenty of code and commands used to make your learning curve easy and quick.This book targets both professional penetration testers as well as new users of Metasploit, who wish to gain expertise over the framework and learn an additional skill of penetration testing, not limited to a particular OS. The book requires basic knowledge of scanning, exploitation, and the Ruby language.

  2. Control of Pathogenicity Root-Knot Nematode (Meloidogyne Javanica by Earthworm Eisenia Feoetida-Based Products in Greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rostami

    2016-06-01

    and nematode growth indices separately measured and compared. Results and Discussion: The aim of the present investigation is to explore the impact of earthworm’s (Eisenia fetida solid (Vermicompost and liquid (liquid Vermicompost, Vermiwash, and Coelomic fluid products on the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne javanica under greenhouse conditions infecting tomato. The first Stage greenhouse experiment -The root-knot nematode indices as well as plant growth parameters recorded. Results showed that all products could reduce the root-knot index, number of juveniles and gall index in greenhouse conditions. The best combination for controlling disease was Wormtea100% and the highest rates of growth is related to plants were treated with Vermicompost + Vermiwash10%. Effects of Vermicompost on the Pathogenicity of various nematode initial inoculum showed, Vermicompost treatment caused increase in plant growth and also reduce nematode reproduction. In other words, Vermicompost could reduce the damage of nematodes. It is concluded that earthworm products have a remarkable potential as biocontrol agents against root-knot nematode. The second stage greenhouse experiment- the treatments , that have Vermicompost + nematod, grew more than control (without Vermicompost. That tomatoes Incubated with 10000 nematode Vermicompost grew until end experiment but those treatment without Vermicompost (They had nematode died at first of this experiment. Conclusions: Treatments with Wormtea while controlling the nematodes in the soil, reduced root infected indices to nematodes like gall and egg no. and gall index in the root and at the same time, tomato growth indices in treatments having Vermiwash get increased which indicated nematode damage on the host plant has been compensated. Its worthy to say that the aim of nematode control is bring the nematode no below the economic threshold and in this context we can conclude that all these products could achieve reducing economic losses in the

  3. Biology and predatory attributes of a diplogasterid nematode, Fictor composticola Khan et al., 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajaj H. K.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Biology of Fictor composticola has been studied on Aphelenchus avenae in vitro. It reproduces by amphimixis, embryonic development is completed in 24 - 27 h and life cycle in 3 - 4 days. Fusion of sperm and egg pronuclei occurs in the uteri. Pulsation of median oesophageal bulb and pressing of lips against egg shell is seen just prior to hatching but teeth seem to play no role in this process. No moulting occurs inside the egg shell and the first stage juvenile hatches out. Female and male undergo mating upon addition of water in the culture plates and continue to swim in copula for a considerable time. A female lays 1.6 - 4.0 eggs in 24 h while feeding upon A. radicicolus. Predation and reproduction is affected by the temperature and 25 - 35 °C is the optimum range for these phenomena. Process of feeding as recorded with a CCTV attached to a compound microscope is described. F. composticola engulfs small preys; sucks the intestinal contents while holding them or cuts the body wall of large-sized preys and then feeds on prolapsed organs. Two sexes differ in their efficiencies of predation, a female on an average kills 53 A. avenae as compared to 11 by a male in 24 h. F. composticola feeds and reproduces on mycophagous nematodes and juveniles of root- knot, cyst and citrus nematodes but does not prey upon adult nematodes having coarsely annulated cuticle. Cannibalism in this species is also observed. F. composticola and Seinura paratenuicaudata prey upon each other. Biocontrol potential of F. composticola for managing nematode problems in button mushroom and agricultural crops has also been discussed.

  4. Nematode parasites of two anuran species Rhinella schneideri (Bufonidae and Scinax acuminatus (Hylidae from Corrientes, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthya Elizabeth González

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The nematological fauna of most anuran species from Corrientes province, north of Argentina; has not been studied. We report for the first time the nematode species found in Rhinella schneideri and Scinax acuminatus. Forty four amphibians representing two species (R. schneideri -six males, three females and two juveniles- and S. acuminatus -fifteen males and eighteen females were collected near the city of Corrientes, between January 2002 and December 2003 and searched for nematodes. R. schneideri contained eight species of nematodes (adults: Rhabdias füelleborni, R. elegans, Oswaldocruzia proencai, Cosmocerca podicipinus, C. parva and Falcaustra mascula; larvae: Porrocaecum sp. and Physaloptera sp., and S. acuminatus contained three (adults: Cosmocerca parva and Oxyascaris caudacutus; larvae: Physaloptera sp.. We present morphology (scanning electron microscope and metric information, range extensions, and new host records for these nematode species. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (4: 2147-2161. Epub 2008 December 12.Cuarenta y cuatro anfibios pertenecientes a dos especies (Rhinella schneideri -seis machos, tres hembras y dos juveniles- y Scinax acuminatus -quince machos y dieciocho hembras fueron recolectados para extraer nemátodos en las proximidades de la ciudad de Corrientes, provincia de Corrientes en Argentina, entre enero 2002 y diciembre 2003. Rhinella schneideri estuvo parasitada por ocho especies de nemátodos (adultos: Rhabdias füelleborni, R. elegans, Oswaldocruzia proencai, Cosmocerca podicipinus, C. parva y Falcaustra mascula; larvas: Porrocaecum sp. y Physaloptera sp., y S. acuminatus presentó tres especies de nemátodos (adultos: Cosmocerca parva y Oxyascaris caudacutus; larva: Physaloptera sp.. Para todas estas especies de nemátodos se presentan datos morfológicos y métricos, y para algunas sus nuevos ámbitos y caracteres, así como también los detalles obtenidos mediante el microscopio electrónico de barrido. Éste es el primer

  5. Penetration testing with Perl

    CERN Document Server

    Berdeaux, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    If you are an expert Perl programmer interested in penetration testing or information security, this guide is designed for you. However, it will also be helpful for you even if you have little or no Linux shell experience.

  6. penetrating abdominal trauma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gender, mechanism of injury, injury severity scores (ISS), penetrating ... ileus, reduced pulmonary function and loss of muscle mass and function, all of .... pathophysiology and rehabilitation. ... quality of life after surgery for colorectal cancer.

  7. The Role of Programmed Cell Death Regulator LSD1 in Nematode-Induced Syncytium Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuszkiewicz, Mateusz; Sobczak, Miroslaw; Cabrera, Javier; Escobar, Carolina; Karpiński, Stanislaw; Filipecki, Marcin

    2018-01-01

    Cyst-forming plant-parasitic nematodes are common pests of many crops. They inject secretions into host cells to induce the developmental and metabolic reprogramming that leads to the formation of a syncytium, which is the sole food source for growing nematodes. As in other host-parasite models, avirulence leads to rapid and local programmed cell death (PCD) known as the hypersensitive response (HR), whereas in the case of virulence, PCD is still observed but is limited to only some cells. Several regulators of PCD were analyzed to understand the role of PCD in compatible plant–nematode interactions. Thus, Arabidopsis plants carrying recessive mutations in LESION SIMULATING DISEASE1 (LSD1) family genes were subjected to nematode infection assays with juveniles of Heterodera schachtii. LSD1 is a negative and conditional regulator of PCD, and fewer and smaller syncytia were induced in the roots of lsd1 mutants than in wild-type Col-0 plants. Mutation in LSD ONE LIKE2 (LOL2) revealed a pattern of susceptibility to H. schachtii antagonistic to lsd1. Syncytia induced on lsd1 roots compared to Col0 showed significantly retarded growth, modified cell wall structure, increased vesiculation, and some myelin-like bodies present at 7 and 12 days post-infection. To place these data in a wider context, RNA-sequencing analysis of infected and uninfected roots was conducted. During nematode infection, the number of transcripts with changed expression in lsd1 was approximately three times smaller than in wild-type plants (1440 vs. 4206 differentially expressed genes, respectively). LSD1-dependent PCD in roots is thus a highly regulated process in compatible plant–nematode interactions. Two genes identified in this analysis, coding for AUTOPHAGY-RELATED PROTEIN 8F and 8H were down-regulated in syncytia in the presence of LSD1 and showed an increased susceptibility to nematode infection contrasting with lsd1 phenotype. Our data indicate that molecular regulators belonging to the

  8. The Role of Programmed Cell Death Regulator LSD1 in Nematode-Induced Syncytium Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Matuszkiewicz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cyst-forming plant-parasitic nematodes are common pests of many crops. They inject secretions into host cells to induce the developmental and metabolic reprogramming that leads to the formation of a syncytium, which is the sole food source for growing nematodes. As in other host-parasite models, avirulence leads to rapid and local programmed cell death (PCD known as the hypersensitive response (HR, whereas in the case of virulence, PCD is still observed but is limited to only some cells. Several regulators of PCD were analyzed to understand the role of PCD in compatible plant–nematode interactions. Thus, Arabidopsis plants carrying recessive mutations in LESION SIMULATING DISEASE1 (LSD1 family genes were subjected to nematode infection assays with juveniles of Heterodera schachtii. LSD1 is a negative and conditional regulator of PCD, and fewer and smaller syncytia were induced in the roots of lsd1 mutants than in wild-type Col-0 plants. Mutation in LSD ONE LIKE2 (LOL2 revealed a pattern of susceptibility to H. schachtii antagonistic to lsd1. Syncytia induced on lsd1 roots compared to Col0 showed significantly retarded growth, modified cell wall structure, increased vesiculation, and some myelin-like bodies present at 7 and 12 days post-infection. To place these data in a wider context, RNA-sequencing analysis of infected and uninfected roots was conducted. During nematode infection, the number of transcripts with changed expression in lsd1 was approximately three times smaller than in wild-type plants (1440 vs. 4206 differentially expressed genes, respectively. LSD1-dependent PCD in roots is thus a highly regulated process in compatible plant–nematode interactions. Two genes identified in this analysis, coding for AUTOPHAGY-RELATED PROTEIN 8F and 8H were down-regulated in syncytia in the presence of LSD1 and showed an increased susceptibility to nematode infection contrasting with lsd1 phenotype. Our data indicate that molecular regulators

  9. Barrier penetration database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fainberg, A.; Bieber, A.M. Jr.

    1978-11-01

    This document is intended to supply the NRC and nuclear power plant licensees with basic data on the times required to penetrate forcibly the types of barriers commonly found in nuclear plants. These times are necessary for design and evaluation of the physical protection system required under 10CFR73.55. Each barrier listed is described in detail. Minor variations in basic barrier construction that result in the same penetration time, are also described

  10. Understanding the interaction between an obligate hyperparasitic bacterium, Pasteuria penetrans and its obligate plant-parasitic nematode host, Meloidogyne spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Keith G

    2009-01-01

    Pasteuria penetrans is an endospore-forming bacterium, which is a hyperparasite of root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne spp. that are economically important pests of a wide range of crops. The life cycle of the bacterium and nematode are described with emphasis on the bacterium's potential as a biocontrol agent. Two aspects that currently prohibit the commercial development of the bacterium as a biocontrol agent are the inability to culture it outside its host and its host specificity. Vegetative growth of the bacterium is possible in vitro; however, getting the vegetative stages of the bacterium to enter sporogenesis has been problematic. Insights from genomic survey sequences regarding the role of cation concentration and the phosphorylation of Spo0F have proved useful in inducing vegetative bacteria to sporulate. Similarly, genomic data have also proved useful in understanding the attachment of endospores to the cuticle of infective nematode juveniles, and a Velcro-like model of spore attachment is proposed that involves collagen-like fibres on the surface of the endospore interacting with mucins on the nematode cuticle. Ecological studies of the interactions between Daphnia and Pasteuria ramosa are examined and similarities are drawn between the co-evolution of virulence in the Daphnia system and that of plant-parasitic nematodes.

  11. Identification of Angiostrongylus cantonensis and other nematodes using the SSU rDNA in Achatina fulica populations of Metro Manila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantino-Santos, M A; Basiao, Z U; Wade, C M; Santos, B S; Fontanilla I, K C

    2014-06-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a parasitic nematode that causes eosinophilic meningitis in humans. Accidental infection occurs by consumption of contaminated intermediates, such as the giant African land snail, Achatina fulica. This study surveyed the presence of A. cantonensis juveniles in A. fulica populations from 12 sites in Metropolitan Manila, Philippines using the SSU rDNA. Fourteen distinct sequences from 226 nematodes were obtained; of these, two matched A. cantonensis and Ancylostoma caninum, respectively, with 100% identity. Exact identities of the remaining twelve sequences could not be determined due to low percent similarities. Of the sequenced nematodes, A. cantonensis occurred with the highest frequency (139 out of 226). Most of these (131 out of 139) were collected in just one area in Quezon City. Nematode infection of A. fulica in this area and two others from Makati and another area in Quezon City, respectively, were highest, combining for 95% of the total infection. Ancylostoma caninum, on the other hand, was detected in four different sites. A. caninum is a canine parasite, and this is the first report of the nematode in A. fulica. These results cause public health concerns as both A. cantonensis and A. caninum are zoonotic to humans.

  12. Differential Change Patterns of Main Antimicrobial Peptide Genes During Infection of Entomopathogenic Nematodes and Their Symbiotic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darsouei, Reyhaneh; Karimi, Javad; Ghadamyari, Mohammad; Hosseini, Mojtaba

    2017-08-01

    The expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) as the main humoral defense reactions of insects during infection by entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) and their symbiont is addressed herein. Three AMPs, attacin, cecropin, and spodoptericin, were evaluated in the fifth instar larvae of Spodoptera exigua Hübner (beet armyworm) when challenged with Steinernema carpocapsae or Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. The results indicated that attacin was expressed to a greater extent than either cecropin or spodoptericin. While spodoptericin was expressed to a much lesser extent, this AMP was induced against Gram-positive bacteria, and thus not expressed after penetration of Xenorhabdus nematophila and Photorhabdus luminescens. Attacin and cecropin in the larvae treated with S. carpocapsae at 8 hr post-injection (PI) attained the maximum expression levels and were 138.42-fold and 65.84-fold greater than those of larvae infected with H. bacteriophora, respectively. Generally, the ability of H. bacteriophora to suppress attacin, cecropin, and spodoptericin was greater than that of S. carpocapsae. According to the results, the expression of AMPs by Sp. exigua larvae against S. carpocapsae was determined in the 4 statuses of monoxenic nematode, axenic nematode, live symbiotic bacterium, and dead symbiotic bacterium. The expression of attacin in larvae treated with a monoxenic nematode and live bacterium at 8 and 2 hr PI, respectively, were increased to the maximum amount. Live X. nematophila was the strongest agent for the suppression of attacin. The expression of cecropin against monoxenic nematodes and live symbiotic bacteria at 8 and 4 hr PI, respectively, reached the maximum amount while the expression levels of attacin and cecropin for axenic nematodes were lesser and stable. The results highlighted that the ability of P. luminescens in AMPs suppression was much more than X. nematophila. The results also showed that the effect of symbiotic bacterium in suppressing attacin and

  13. Early responses of resistant and susceptible potato roots during invasion by the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Jacqueline P; Miller, Anthony J; Perry, Roland N

    2004-03-01

    Signals from roots of resistant (cv. Maris Piper) and susceptible (cv. Désirée) potato cultivars during invasion by second stage juveniles (J2s) of the potato cyst nematode, Globodera rostochiensis, were investigated. Novel experimental chambers enabled the recording of electrophysiological responses from roots during nematode invasion. The root cell membrane potentials were maintained throughout the 3 d required to assess invasion and feeding site development. The steady-state resting membrane potentials of Désirée were more negative than those of Maris Piper on day 1, but the reverse on day 3. After 5 d there was no difference between the two cultivars. Intracellular microelectrodes detected marked spike activity in roots after the application of J2s and there were distinct and reproducible differences between the two cultivars, with the response from Désirée being much greater than that from Maris Piper. The responses to mechanical stimulation of roots by blunt micropipettes and sharp electrodes were consistent and similar in both cultivars to the responses in Maris Piper obtained after nematode invasion, but could not account for the marked response found in Désirée. Exogenous application of exoenzymes, used to mimic nematode chemical secretions, resulted in a distinct depolarization pattern that, although similar in both cultivars, was different from patterns obtained during nematode invasion or mechanical stimulation. The pH of homogenates prepared from roots of both cultivars was measured and a Ca2+ channel blocker was used to assess the role of Ca2+ in nematode invasion. The results indicated a role for Ca2+ in the signalling events that occur during nematode invasion.

  14. Juvenil idiopatisk arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlin, Troels

    2002-01-01

    The new classification of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is described in this review. Clinical characteristics divide JIA in to subtypes: systemic, oligoarticular (persistent and extended type), RF-positive and--negative polyarticular, enthesitis-related arthritis and psoriatic arthritis...

  15. Juvenile Rockfish Recruitment Cruise

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 1983, the groundfish analysis project began a series of yearly cruises designed to assess the annual abundance of juvenile rockfish along the central California...

  16. Mechanisms of host seeking by parasitic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gang, Spencer S; Hallem, Elissa A

    2016-07-01

    The phylum Nematoda comprises a diverse group of roundworms that includes parasites of vertebrates, invertebrates, and plants. Human-parasitic nematodes infect more than one billion people worldwide and cause some of the most common neglected tropical diseases, particularly in low-resource countries [1]. Parasitic nematodes of livestock and crops result in billions of dollars in losses each year [1]. Many nematode infections are treatable with low-cost anthelmintic drugs, but repeated infections are common in endemic areas and drug resistance is a growing concern with increasing therapeutic and agricultural administration [1]. Many parasitic nematodes have an environmental infective larval stage that engages in host seeking, a process whereby the infective larvae use sensory cues to search for hosts. Host seeking is a complex behavior that involves multiple sensory modalities, including olfaction, gustation, thermosensation, and humidity sensation. As the initial step of the parasite-host interaction, host seeking could be a powerful target for preventative intervention. However, host-seeking behavior remains poorly understood. Here we review what is currently known about the host-seeking behaviors of different parasitic nematodes, including insect-parasitic nematodes, mammalian-parasitic nematodes, and plant-parasitic nematodes. We also discuss the neural bases of these behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. root nematode control and crop yield

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2016-05-31

    May 31, 2016 ... The relationship between cost and benefit of the nematicide applications was also estimated. ... based on nematode threshold (100 nematodes per g of fresh root) which resulted in two applications; ..... France. Araya M, 2004. Situación actual del manejo de nematodos en banano (Musa AAA) y plátano.

  18. Benthic freshwater nematode community dynamics under conditions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies of the influence of fish aquaculture on benthic freshwater nematode assemblages are scarce, but could provide a way of gauging environmental effects. The abundance and diversity of nematode assemblages in response to Oreochromis niloticus aquaculture were investigated in Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate, Egypt, ...

  19. Juvenile Justice in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Frías Armenta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The first tribunal in Mexico was established in the central state of San Luis Potosi in 1926. The Law Regarding Social Prevention and Juvenile Delinquency for the Federal District and Mexican territories was promulgated in 1928. In 2005, Article 18 of the Mexican Constitution was modified to establish a comprehensive system (“Sistema Integral de justicia” in Spanish of justice for juveniles between 12 and 18 years old who had committed a crime punishable under criminal law. Its objective was to guarantee juveniles all the due process rights established for adults, in addition to the special ones recognized for minors. The constitutional reform also provides a framework that includes special tribunals as well as alternative justice options for juveniles. With these reforms, institutionalization of minors was to be considered an extreme measure applicable only to felonies and to juveniles older than 14. In 2006, all states within the Mexican federation enacted the “Law of justice for adolescents”. This system, at both the federal and state levels, formalizes a new global paradigm with regard to the triangular relationship between children, the State and the Law. It recognizes that children are also bearers of the inherent human rights recognized for all individuals, instead of simply objects in need of protection. However, despite formally aligning Mexican juvenile justice law with the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC, issues of actual substantive rights remained and new ones have appeared. For example, juveniles younger than 14 who have not committed a felony are released from institutions without any rehabilitation or treatment options, and alternative forms of justice were included without evaluating their possibilities of application or their conditions for success. In addition, the economic status of most juvenile detainees continues to be one of the most important determining factors in the administration of justice

  20. Juvenile polyposis syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Hsiao, Yi-Han; Wei, Chin-Hung; Chang, Szu-Wen; Chang, Lung; Fu, Yu-Wei; Lee, Hung-Chang; Liu, Hsuan-Liang; Yeung, Chun-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Juvenile polyposis syndrome, a rare disorder in children, is characterized with multiple hamartomatous polyps in alimentary tract. A variety of manifestations include bleeding, intussusception, or polyp prolapse. In this study, we present an 8-month-old male infant of juvenile polyposis syndrome initially presenting with chronic anemia. To the best of our knowledge, this is the youngest case reported in the literature. Methods: We report a rare case of an 8-month-old male...

  1. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    OpenAIRE

    Hoeve, M.

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted. The first study addressed a meta-analysis on parenting characteristics and styles in relation to delinquency. In this meta-analysis, previous manuscripts were systematically analyzed, computing mean ...

  2. How do humans affect wildlife nematodes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Sara B.; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2015-01-01

    Human actions can affect wildlife and their nematode parasites. Species introductions and human-facilitated range expansions can create new host–parasite interactions. Novel hosts can introduce parasites and have the potential to both amplify and dilute nematode transmission. Furthermore, humans can alter existing nematode dynamics by changing host densities and the abiotic conditions that affect larval parasite survival. Human impacts on wildlife might impair parasites by reducing the abundance of their hosts; however, domestic animal production and complex life cycles can maintain transmission even when wildlife becomes rare. Although wildlife nematodes have many possible responses to human actions, understanding host and parasite natural history, and the mechanisms behind the changing disease dynamics might improve disease control in the few cases where nematode parasitism impacts wildlife.

  3. Nematode infections: soil-transmitted helminths and trichinella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopp, Stefanie; Steinmann, Peter; Keiser, Jennifer; Utzinger, Jürg

    2012-06-01

    Infection with soil-transmitted helminths occurs via ingestion of nematode eggs with contaminated food and water, via hands, or inhalation of dust, or by penetration of larvae through the skin. Trichinella infections are caused by the ingestion of larvae contained in undercooked meat. In highly endemic areas, preventive chemotherapy (ie, regular administration of anthelmintic drugs to at-risk populations) is the key strategy against soil-transmitted helminthiasis. Integrated control approaches, including improved hygiene, sanitation, and water, are required for lasting effects. Because of growing tourism, travel, and migration, clinicians and specialized travel clinics must remain aware of the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of soil-transmitted helminth and Trichinella infections. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Study on Penetration Characteristics of Tungsten Cylindrical Penetrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Jong Hyun; Lee, Young Shin; Kim, Jae Hoon [Chungnam Nat' l Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Yong Woon [Agency for Defense Development, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    The design of missile require extremely small warheads that must be highly efficient and lethal. The penetration characteristics of each penetrator and the total number of penetrators on the warhead are obvious key factors that influence warhead lethality. The design of the penetrator shape and size are directly related to the space and weight of the warhead. The design of the penetrator L/D was directly related to the space and weight of the warhead. L and D are the length and the diameter of the projectile, respectively. The AUTODYN-3a code was used to study the effect of penetrator penetration. The objective of numerical analysis was to determine the penetration characteristics of penetrator produced by hypervelocity impacts under different initial conditions such as initial velocity, obliquity angle and L/D of penetrator. The residual velocity and residual mass were decreased with increasing initial impact velocity under L/D{<=}4.

  5. Penetration portion shielding structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Katsumi; Narita, Hitoshi; Handa, Hiroyuki; Takeuchi, Jun; Tozuka, Fumio.

    1994-01-01

    Openings of a plurality of shieldings for penetration members are aligned to each other, and penetration members are inserted from the openings. Then, the openings of the plurality of shielding members are slightly displaced with each other to make the penetration portions into a helical configuration, so that leakage of radiation is reduced. Upon removal of the members, reverse operation is conducted. When a flowable shielding material is used, the penetration portions are constituted with two plates having previously formed openings and pipes for connecting the openings with each other and a vessel covering the entire of them. After passing the penetration members such as a cable, the relative position of the two plates is changed by twisting, to form a helical configuration which reduces radiation leakage. Since they are bent into the helical configuration, shielding performance is extremely improved compared with a case that radiation leakage is caused from an opening of a straight pipe. In addition, since they can be returned to straight pipes, attachment, detachment and maintenance can be conducted easily. (N.H.)

  6. Annual and spatial variability in endo- and ectoparasite infections of North Sea cod (Gadus morhua Linnaeus, 1758) larvae, post-larvae and juveniles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehrdana, Foojan; Bahlool, Qusay Z. M.; Skovgaard, Alf

    2014-01-01

    A parasitological investigation was performed on a total of 5380 Atlantic cod larvae, post-larvae and small juveniles sampled from the North Sea during a period of five years. The copepod Caligus elongatus (Von Nordmann, 1832) and the nematode Hysterothylacium aduncum (Rudolphi, 1802) were found ...

  7. Soybean cyst nematode culture collections and field populations from North Carolina and Missouri reveal high incidences of infection by viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey L Ruark

    Full Text Available Five viruses were previously discovered infecting soybean cyst nematodes (SCN; Heterodera glycines from greenhouse cultures maintained in Illinois. In this study, the five viruses [ScNV, ScPV, ScRV, ScTV, and SbCNV-5] were detected within SCN greenhouse and field populations from North Carolina (NC and Missouri (MO. The prevalence and titers of viruses in SCN from 43 greenhouse cultures and 25 field populations were analyzed using qRT-PCR. Viral titers within SCN greenhouse cultures were similar throughout juvenile development, and the presence of viral anti-genomic RNAs within egg, second-stage juvenile (J2, and pooled J3 and J4 stages suggests active viral replication within the nematode. Viruses were found at similar or lower levels within field populations of SCN compared with greenhouse cultures of North Carolina populations. Five greenhouse cultures harbored all five known viruses whereas in most populations a mixture of fewer viruses was detected. In contrast, three greenhouse cultures of similar descent to one another did not possess any detectable viruses and primarily differed in location of the cultures (NC versus MO. Several of these SCN viruses were also detected in Heterodera trifolii (clover cyst and Heterodera schachtii (beet cyst, but not the other cyst, root-knot, or reniform nematode species tested. Viruses were not detected within soybean host plant tissue. If nematode infection with viruses is truly more common than first considered, the potential influence on nematode biology, pathogenicity, ecology, and control warrants continued investigation.

  8. Antagonistic Activities of Streptomyces against Root Knot Nematode of Kiwifruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bashiri

    2016-02-01

    into counting Petri plate and examined under a stereomicroscope. Nematode larvae were identified to generic level and were counted. Evaluation of Actinomycetes isolates against root-knot nematodes in vitro performed according to Sun et al. Seedlings (Six-month-old of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa were sown in 30 cm3 pots containing autoclaved sandy loam soil (1:1. Pots were divided into three groups by three replicates. Bioagents were individually incorporated into the soil at a dose rate of 10 cm3 (Heavy cell suspension of all isolates was prepared at rate 105 spores ml-1 were added to the soil. After seven days, (when bacterial cells reach its maximum growth peak plants were inoculated with 2000 freshly hatched second stage juveniles(J2 of Meloidogyne spp. Pots were fertilized with recommended dose and kept at 25ºC ± 3ºC in complete randomized design. After two months plants were uprooted then galls and egg masses were counted and their indices were recorded according to Sharma et al. Fresh weight of roots was also registered. Treatments means were compared by the Duncan Multiple Range Test at 0.05 level of probability. The growth responses of kiwifruit (roots weight and number of galls and egg mass were also recorded. Statistical analyses were achieved using SAS. Results and Discussion: Among 25 isolates identified as Streptomyces genus, 9 Actinomycetes isolates showed the antagonistic potential in vitro and reduced the rate of egg hatching in seven days and larval mortality in four days. Streptomyces sp3. Streptomyces sp4., Streptomyces sp5., Streptomyces sp9. And Streptomyces sp12. were able to reduce egg hatching 16.29%, 19.99%, 27.11%, 20.22% and 18.41% and increased the percentage of larval mortality 45%, 33.3%, 37.53%,35.01% and 37.50%, respectively. They showed the greatest effect and selected for evaluating in greenhouse condition. In addition, Streptomyces sp9.and Streptomyces sp4. reduced galls by 65.35% and 64.56% compared with the phenamiphus 57

  9. Ground penetrating radar

    CERN Document Server

    Daniels, David J

    2004-01-01

    Ground-penetrating radar has come to public attention in recent criminal investigations, but has actually been a developing and maturing remote sensing field for some time. In the light of recent expansion of the technique to a wide range of applications, the need for an up-to-date reference has become pressing. This fully revised and expanded edition of the best-selling Surface-Penetrating Radar (IEE, 1996) presents, for the non-specialist user or engineer, all the key elements of this technique, which span several disciplines including electromagnetics, geophysics and signal processing. The

  10. Skull penetrating wound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Orlandi, Yvei; Junco Martin, Reinel; Rojas Manresa, Jorge; Duboy Limonta, Victor; Matos Herrera, Omar; Saez Corvo, Yunet

    2011-01-01

    The cranioencephalic trauma is common in the emergence centers to care for patients with multiple traumata and it becames in a health problem in many countries. Skull penetrating trauma is located in a special place due to its low frequency. In present paper a case of male patient aged 52 severely skull-injured with penetrating wound caused by a cold steel that remained introduced into the left frontotemporal region. After an imaging study the emergence surgical treatment was applied and patient evolves adequately after 25 days of hospitalization. Nowadays, she is under rehabilitation treatment due to a residual right hemiparesis.(author)

  11. Nematode communities in contaminated river sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heininger, Peter; Hoess, Sebastian; Claus, Evelyn; Pelzer, Juergen; Traunspurger, Walter

    2007-01-01

    Nematode communities of eight sites from three river catchments were investigated in terms of the genera composition, feeding types, and life-history strategists. The sampling sites showed a gradient of anthropogenic contamination with heavy metals and organic pollutants being important factors in differentiating the sites. Nematode community structure was related to sediment pollution and the hydro-morphological structure of the sampling sites. Heavily contaminated sites were characterized by communities with high relative abundances of omnivorous and predacious nematodes (Tobrilus, c-p 3; Mononchus, c-p 4), while sites with low to medium contamination were dominated by bacterivorous nematodes (Monhystera, Daptonema; c-p 2) or suction feeders (Dorylaimus, c-p 4). The relatively high Maturity Index values in the heavily polluted sites were surprising. Nematodes turned out to be a suitable organism group for monitoring sediment quality, with generic composition being the most accurate indicator for assessing differences in nematode community structure. - Nematode community structure of river sediments is related to pollution and site structure

  12. Nematode communities in contaminated river sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heininger, Peter [Federal Institute of Hydrology (BfG), Am Mainzer Tor 1, 56068 Koblenz (Germany); Hoess, Sebastian [Ecossa - Ecological Sediment and Soil Assessment, Thierschstr. 43, 80538 Munich (Germany); Claus, Evelyn [Federal Institute of Hydrology (BfG), Am Mainzer Tor 1, 56068 Koblenz (Germany); Pelzer, Juergen [Federal Institute of Hydrology (BfG), Am Mainzer Tor 1, 56068 Koblenz (Germany); Traunspurger, Walter [University of Bielefeld, Department of Animal Ecology, Morgenbreede 45, 33615 Bielefeld (Germany)]. E-mail: traunspurger@uni-bielefeld.de

    2007-03-15

    Nematode communities of eight sites from three river catchments were investigated in terms of the genera composition, feeding types, and life-history strategists. The sampling sites showed a gradient of anthropogenic contamination with heavy metals and organic pollutants being important factors in differentiating the sites. Nematode community structure was related to sediment pollution and the hydro-morphological structure of the sampling sites. Heavily contaminated sites were characterized by communities with high relative abundances of omnivorous and predacious nematodes (Tobrilus, c-p 3; Mononchus, c-p 4), while sites with low to medium contamination were dominated by bacterivorous nematodes (Monhystera, Daptonema; c-p 2) or suction feeders (Dorylaimus, c-p 4). The relatively high Maturity Index values in the heavily polluted sites were surprising. Nematodes turned out to be a suitable organism group for monitoring sediment quality, with generic composition being the most accurate indicator for assessing differences in nematode community structure. - Nematode community structure of river sediments is related to pollution and site structure.

  13. MicroRNA discovery and analysis of pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus by deep sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi-Xing Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs are considered to be very important in regulating the growth, development, behavior and stress response in animals and plants in post-transcriptional gene regulation. Pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is an important invasive plant parasitic nematode in Asia. To have a comprehensive knowledge about miRNAs of the nematode is necessary for further in-depth study on roles of miRNAs in the ecological adaptation of the invasive species. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Five small RNA libraries were constructed and sequenced by Illumina/Solexa deep-sequencing technology. A total of 810 miRNA candidates (49 conserved and 761 novel were predicted by a computational pipeline, of which 57 miRNAs (20 conserved and 37 novel encoded by 53 miRNA precursors were identified by experimental methods. Ten novel miRNAs were considered to be species-specific miRNAs of B. xylophilus. Comparison of expression profiles of miRNAs in the five small RNA libraries showed that many miRNAs exhibited obviously different expression levels in the third-stage dispersal juvenile and at a cold-stressed status. Most of the miRNAs exhibited obviously down-regulated expression in the dispersal stage. But differences among the three geographic libraries were not prominent. A total of 979 genes were predicted to be targets of these authentic miRNAs. Among them, seven heat shock protein genes were targeted by 14 miRNAs, and six FMRFamide-like neuropeptides genes were targeted by 17 miRNAs. A real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify the mRNA expression levels of target genes. CONCLUSIONS: Basing on the fact that a negative correlation existed between the expression profiles of miRNAs and the mRNA expression profiles of their target genes (hsp, flp by comparing those of the nematodes at a cold stressed status and a normal status, we suggested that miRNAs might participate in ecological adaptation and behavior regulation of the

  14. Atração e penetração de Meloidogyne javanica e Heterodera glycines em raízes excisadas de soja Attraction and penetration of Meloidogyne javanica and Heterodera glycines in excised soybean roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hercules Diniz Campos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Com vista ao estudo de atração e penetração de Meloidogyne javanica (Treub Chitwood e Heterodera glycines (Ichinoe em soja (Glycine max L., desenvolveu-se uma técnica empregando-se segmento de raiz com 2cm de comprimento. Nos segmentos de raiz de soja infectados, observou-se que a penetração de juvenis de segundo estádio (J2 de M. javanica ocorre pela coifa seguida de migração entre os feixes vasculares do cilindro central. Juvenis de H. glycines penetraram, aproximadamente, 15mm da coifa. A região seccionada da raiz de soja atraiu três vezes mais J2 de M. javanica do que a região da coifa, mas esta não foi tão atrativa para J2 de H. glycines. A obstrução conjunta da coifa e do local seccionado reduziu (83% a penetração de J2, tanto de M. javanica quanto de H. glycines. Quando apenas um desses locais foi obstruído, a outra extremidade livre compensou o processo atrativo. Portanto, as substâncias atrativas são liberadas por essas extremidades. A penetração de J2 de M. javanica foi maior no segmento de raiz quando comparada com a plântula intacta de soja. Entretanto, os J2 de H. glycines penetraram menos em segmentos de raiz e em plântulas sem folhas, quando comparados com plântulas intactas e com as seccionadas no colo. Portanto, na cultivar de soja "Embrapa 20", a atração e os locais de penetração de J2 de H. glycines e M. javanica são diferenciados. Esta técnica poderá ser útil nos estudos de atração e penetração de outros nematoides endoparasitas.To study the attraction and penetration of Meloidogyne javanica (Treub Chitwood and Heterodera glycines (Ichinoe in soybean (Glycine max L., a technique using 2-cm long root segments was developed. In infected soybean root segments penetration of second stage juveniles (J2 of M. javanica occured through the root cap following migration between the vascular bundles of the central cylinder. Juveniles of H. glycines penetrated about 15mm from the root cap. The cut

  15. Tumor penetrating peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tambet eTeesalu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Tumor-homing peptides can be used to deliver drugs into tumors. Phage library screening in live mice has recently identified homing peptides that specifically recognize the endothelium of tumor vessels, extravasate, and penetrate deep into the extravascular tumor tissue. The prototypic peptide of this class, iRGD (CRGDKGPDC, contains the integrin-binding RGD motif. RGD mediates tumor homing through binding to αv integrins, which are selectively expressed on various cells in tumors, including tumor endothelial cells. The tumor-penetrating properties of iRGD are mediated by a second sequence motif, R/KXXR/K. This C-end Rule (or CendR motif is active only when the second basic residue is exposed at the C-terminus of the peptide. Proteolytic processing of iRGD in tumors activates the cryptic CendR motif, which then binds to neuropilin-1 activating an endocytic bulk transport pathway through tumor tissue. Phage screening has also yielded tumor-penetrating peptides that function like iRGD in activating the CendR pathway, but bind to a different primary receptor. Moreover, novel tumor-homing peptides can be constructed from tumor-homing motifs, CendR elements and protease cleavage sites. Pathologies other than tumors can be targeted with tissue-penetrating peptides, and the primary receptor can also be a vascular zip code of a normal tissue. The CendR technology provides a solution to a major problem in tumor therapy, poor penetration of drugs into tumors. The tumor-penetrating peptides are capable of taking a payload deep into tumor tissue in mice, and they also penetrate into human tumors ex vivo. Targeting with these peptides specifically increases the accumulation in tumors of a variety of drugs and contrast agents, such as doxorubicin, antibodies and nanoparticle-based compounds. Remarkably the drug to be targeted does not have to be coupled to the peptide; the bulk transport system activated by the peptide sweeps along any compound that is

  16. Extending juvenility in grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaeppler, Shawn; de Leon Gatti, Natalia; Foerster, Jillian

    2017-04-11

    The present invention relates to compositions and methods for modulating the juvenile to adult developmental growth transition in plants, such as grasses (e.g. maize). In particular, the invention provides methods for enhancing agronomic properties in plants by modulating expression of GRMZM2G362718, GRMZM2G096016, or homologs thereof. Modulation of expression of one or more additional genes which affect juvenile to adult developmental growth transition such as Glossy15 or Cg1, in conjunction with such modulation of expression is also contemplated. Nucleic acid constructs for down-regulation of GRMZM2G362718 and/or GRMZM2G096016 are also contemplated, as are transgenic plants and products produced there from, that demonstrate altered, such as extended juvenile growth, and display associated phenotypes such as enhanced yield, improved digestibility, and increased disease resistance. Plants described herein may be used, for example, as improved forage or feed crops or in biofuel production.

  17. Miastenia gravis juvenil Juvenile myasthenia gravis

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar Papazian; Israel Alfonso; Nayle Araguez

    2009-01-01

    La miastenia gravis juvenil (MGJ) es un trastorno crónico auto inmune en el cual existen anticuerpos séricos que al unirse a los receptores de acetilcolin nicotínicos de la membrana muscular de la placa motora alteran la transmisión neuromuscular. El resultado es fatiga muscular precoz con progresión a la parálisis durante estados de contracción muscular iterativos (movimientos) o sostenidos (posturas) y más raramente parálisis permanente durante el reposo. Los músculos inervados por los nerv...

  18. IMPORTANT NEMATODE INFECTIONS IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Oemijati

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available At least 13 species of intestinal nematodes and 4 species of blood and tissue nematodes have been reported infecting man in Indonesia. Five species of intestinal nematodes are very common and highly prevalent, especially in the rural areas and slums of the big cities. Those species are Ascaris lumbricoides, Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale, Trichuris trichiura and Oxyuris vermicularis, while Strongyloides stercoralis is disappearing. The prevalence of the soil transmitted helminths differs from place to place, depending on many factors such as the type of soil, human behaviour etc. Three species of lymph dwelling filarial worms are known to be endemic, the urban Wuchereria bancrofti is low endemic in Jakarta and a few other cities along the north coast of Java, with Culex incriminated as vector, high endemicity is found in Irian Jaya, where Anopheline mosquitoes act as vectors. Brugia malayi is widely distributed and is still highly endemic in many areas. The zoonotic type is mainly endemic in swampy areas, and has many species of Mansonia mosquitoes as vectors. B.timori so far has been found only in the south eastern part of the archipelago and has Anopheles barbirostris as vector. Human infections with animal parasites have been diagnosed properly only when adult stages were found either in autopsies or removed tissues. Cases of infections with A. caninum, A.braziliense, A.ceylanicum, Trichostrongylus colubriformis, T.axei and Oesophagostomum apiostomum have been desribed from autopsies, while infections with Gnathostoma spiningerum have been reported from removed tissues. Infections with the larval stages such as VLM, eosinophylic meningitis, occult filanasis and other could only be suspected, since the diagnosis was extremely difficult and based on the finding and identification of the parasite. Many cases of creeping eruption which might be caused by the larval stages of A.caninum and A.braziliense and Strongyloides stercoralis

  19. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Barut

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is the most common chronic rheumatic disease of unknown aetiology in childhood and predominantly presents with peripheral arthritis. The disease is divided into several subgroups, according to demographic characteristics, clinical features, treatment modalities and disease prognosis. Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis, which is one of the most frequent disease subtypes, is characterized by recurrent fever and rash. Oligoarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis, common among young female patients, is usually accompanied by anti-nuclear antibodie positivity and anterior uveitis. Seropositive polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis, an analogue of adult rheumatoid arthritis, is seen in less than 10% of paediatric patients. Seronegative polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis, an entity more specific for childhood, appears with widespread large- and small-joint involvement. Enthesitis-related arthritis is a separate disease subtype, characterized by enthesitis and asymmetric lower-extremity arthritis. This disease subtype represents the childhood form of adult spondyloarthropathies, with human leukocyte antigen-B27 positivity and uveitis but commonly without axial skeleton involvement. Juvenile psoriatic arthritis is characterized by a psoriatic rash, accompanied by arthritis, nail pitting and dactylitis. Disease complications can vary from growth retardation and osteoporosis secondary to treatment and disease activity, to life-threatening macrophage activation syndrome with multi-organ insufficiency. With the advent of new therapeutics over the past 15 years, there has been a marked improvement in juvenile idiopathic arthritis treatment and long-term outcome, without any sequelae. The treatment of juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients involves teamwork, including an experienced paediatric rheumatologist, an ophthalmologist, an orthopaedist, a paediatric psychiatrist and a physiotherapist. The primary goals

  20. DERMATOMIOSITIS JUVENIL Y EMBARAZO

    OpenAIRE

    Evans M,Gregorio; Poulsen R,Ronald; Blanco R,Romiely; Luna V,Viviana

    2002-01-01

    La dermatomiositis juvenil es un desorden inflamatorio crónico multisistémico del tejido conectivo. Tiene una incidencia de 2-3/100.000/año. Con la disminución en la mortalidad experimentada en los últimos decenios, la atención está cifrada en la morbilidad a largo plazo y en las alteraciones funcionales. Con un tratamiento agresivo los niños con dermatomiositis juvenil generalmente tienen un futuro promisorio, sin incapacidad o con incapacidad mínima. La mortalidad actualmente se estima cerc...

  1. Ijuhya vitellina sp. nov., a novel source for chaetoglobosin A, is a destructive parasite of the cereal cyst nematode Heterodera filipjevi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Ashrafi

    Full Text Available Cyst nematodes are globally important pathogens in agriculture. Their sedentary lifestyle and long-term association with the roots of host plants render cyst nematodes especially good targets for attack by parasitic fungi. In this context fungi were specifically isolated from nematode eggs of the cereal cyst nematode Heterodera filipjevi. Here, Ijuhya vitellina (Ascomycota, Hypocreales, Bionectriaceae, encountered in wheat fields in Turkey, is newly described on the basis of phylogenetic analyses, morphological characters and life-style related inferences. The species destructively parasitises eggs inside cysts of H. filipjevi. The parasitism was reproduced in in vitro studies. Infected eggs were found to harbour microsclerotia produced by I. vitellina that resemble long-term survival structures also known from other ascomycetes. Microsclerotia were also formed by this species in pure cultures obtained from both, solitarily isolated infected eggs obtained from fields and artificially infected eggs. Hyphae penetrating the eggshell colonised the interior of eggs and became transformed into multicellular, chlamydospore-like structures that developed into microsclerotia. When isolated on artificial media, microsclerotia germinated to produce multiple emerging hyphae. The specific nature of morphological structures produced by I. vitellina inside nematode eggs is interpreted as a unique mode of interaction allowing long-term survival of the fungus inside nematode cysts that are known to survive periods of drought or other harsh environmental conditions. Generic classification of the new species is based on molecular phylogenetic inferences using five different gene regions. I. vitellina is the only species of the genus known to parasitise nematodes and produce microsclerotia. Metabolomic analyses revealed that within the Ijuhya species studied here, only I. vitellina produces chaetoglobosin A and its derivate 19-O-acetylchaetoglobosin A. Nematicidal

  2. Ijuhya vitellina sp. nov., a novel source for chaetoglobosin A, is a destructive parasite of the cereal cyst nematode Heterodera filipjevi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafi, Samad; Helaly, Soleiman; Schroers, Hans-Josef; Stadler, Marc; Richert-Poeggeler, Katja R; Dababat, Abdelfattah A; Maier, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Cyst nematodes are globally important pathogens in agriculture. Their sedentary lifestyle and long-term association with the roots of host plants render cyst nematodes especially good targets for attack by parasitic fungi. In this context fungi were specifically isolated from nematode eggs of the cereal cyst nematode Heterodera filipjevi. Here, Ijuhya vitellina (Ascomycota, Hypocreales, Bionectriaceae), encountered in wheat fields in Turkey, is newly described on the basis of phylogenetic analyses, morphological characters and life-style related inferences. The species destructively parasitises eggs inside cysts of H. filipjevi. The parasitism was reproduced in in vitro studies. Infected eggs were found to harbour microsclerotia produced by I. vitellina that resemble long-term survival structures also known from other ascomycetes. Microsclerotia were also formed by this species in pure cultures obtained from both, solitarily isolated infected eggs obtained from fields and artificially infected eggs. Hyphae penetrating the eggshell colonised the interior of eggs and became transformed into multicellular, chlamydospore-like structures that developed into microsclerotia. When isolated on artificial media, microsclerotia germinated to produce multiple emerging hyphae. The specific nature of morphological structures produced by I. vitellina inside nematode eggs is interpreted as a unique mode of interaction allowing long-term survival of the fungus inside nematode cysts that are known to survive periods of drought or other harsh environmental conditions. Generic classification of the new species is based on molecular phylogenetic inferences using five different gene regions. I. vitellina is the only species of the genus known to parasitise nematodes and produce microsclerotia. Metabolomic analyses revealed that within the Ijuhya species studied here, only I. vitellina produces chaetoglobosin A and its derivate 19-O-acetylchaetoglobosin A. Nematicidal and nematode

  3. Phylogenetic Analysis of Entomoparasitic Nematodes, Potential Control Agents of Flea Populations in Natural Foci of Plague

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshel, E. I.; Aleshin, V. V.; Eroshenko, G. A.; Kutyrev, V. V.

    2014-01-01

    Entomoparasitic nematodes are natural control agents for many insect pests, including fleas that transmit Yersinia pestis, a causative agent of plague, in the natural foci of this extremely dangerous zoonosis. We examined the flea samples from the Volga-Ural natural focus of plague for their infestation with nematodes. Among the six flea species feeding on different rodent hosts (Citellus pygmaeus, Microtus socialis, and Allactaga major), the rate of infestation varied from 0 to 21%. The propagation rate of parasitic nematodes in the haemocoel of infected fleas was very high; in some cases, we observed up to 1,000 juveniles per flea specimen. Our study of morphology, life cycle, and rDNA sequences of these parasites revealed that they belong to three distinct species differing in the host specificity. On SSU and LSU rRNA phylogenies, these species representing three genera (Rubzovinema, Psyllotylenchus, and Spilotylenchus), constitute a monophyletic group close to Allantonema and Parasitylenchus, the type genera of the families Allantonematidae and Parasitylenchidae (Nematoda: Tylenchida). We discuss the SSU-ITS1-5.8S-LSU rDNA phylogeny of the Tylenchida with a special emphasis on the suborder Hexatylina. PMID:24804197

  4. Susceptibility of Dalotia coriaria (Kraatz (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae to Entomopathogenic Nematodes (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae and Steinernematidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Tourtois

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dalotia coriaria (Kraatz (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae and entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae and Steinernematidae are two soil-dwelling biological control agents used to manage western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae and fungus gnats Bradysis spp. (Diptera: Sciaridae in glasshouses. Growers often use multiple natural enemies to achieve economic control, but knowledge of interactions among natural enemies is lacking. We conducted a laboratory bioassay to test the pathogenicity of four commercially available nematode species—Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar (Rhabditida: Heterorhbditidae, Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae, S. feltiae (Filipjev, and S. riobrave Cabanillas et al.—to third instar and adult D. coriaria. Third instars were three times more susceptible than the adults to the entomopathogenic nematodes. Mortality for D. coriaria adults and third instars treated with S. feltiae and H. bacteriophora was lower than the mortality for D. coriaria adults and third instars treated with S. carpocapsae and S. riobrave. Neither infective juvenile foraging behavior nor size correlates with D. coriaria mortality. Dalotia coriaria appears to be most likely compatible with applications of S. feltiae and H. bacteriophora.

  5. The nematicidal effect of camellia seed cake on root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica of banana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiujuan Yang

    Full Text Available Suppression of root-knot nematodes is crucially important for maintaining the worldwide development of the banana industry. Growing concerns about human and environmental safety have led to the withdrawal of commonly used nematicides and soil fumigants, thus motivating the development of alternative nematode management strategies. In this study, Meloidogyne javanica was isolated, and the nematicidal effect of Camellia seed cake on this pest was investigated. The results showed that in dish experiments, Camellia seed cake extracts under low concentration (2 g/L showed a strong nematicidal effect. After treatment for 72 h, the eggs of M. javanica were gradually dissolved, and the intestine of the juveniles gradually became indistinct. Nematicidal compounds, including saponins identified by HPLC-ESI-MS and 8 types of volatile compounds identified by GC-MS, exhibited effective nematicidal activities, especially 4-methylphenol. The pot experiments demonstrated that the application of Camellia seed cake suppressed M. javanica, and promoted the banana plant growth. This study explored an effective nematicidal agent for application in soil and revealed its potential mechanism of nematode suppression.

  6. Parasitic Nematode Interactions with Mammals and Plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jasmer, D.P.; Goverse, A.; Smant, G.

    2003-01-01

    Parasitic nematodes that infect humans, animals, and plants cause serious diseases that are deleterious to human health and agricultural productivity. Chemical and biological control methods have reduced the impact of these parasites. However, surviving environmental stages lead to persistent

  7. Genome Evolution of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Taisei; Eves-van den Akker, Sebastian; Jones, John T

    2017-08-04

    Plant parasitism has evolved independently on at least four separate occasions in the phylum Nematoda. The application of next-generation sequencing (NGS) to plant-parasitic nematodes has allowed a wide range of genome- or transcriptome-level comparisons, and these have identified genome adaptations that enable parasitism of plants. Current genome data suggest that horizontal gene transfer, gene family expansions, evolution of new genes that mediate interactions with the host, and parasitism-specific gene regulation are important adaptations that allow nematodes to parasitize plants. Sequencing of a larger number of nematode genomes, including plant parasites that show different modes of parasitism or that have evolved in currently unsampled clades, and using free-living taxa as comparators would allow more detailed analysis and a better understanding of the organization of key genes within the genomes. This would facilitate a more complete understanding of the way in which parasitism has shaped the genomes of plant-parasitic nematodes.

  8. WormBase: Annotating many nematode genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Kevin; Davis, Paul; Paulini, Michael; Tuli, Mary Ann; Williams, Gary; Yook, Karen; Durbin, Richard; Kersey, Paul; Sternberg, Paul W

    2012-01-01

    WormBase (www.wormbase.org) has been serving the scientific community for over 11 years as the central repository for genomic and genetic information for the soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The resource has evolved from its beginnings as a database housing the genomic sequence and genetic and physical maps of a single species, and now represents the breadth and diversity of nematode research, currently serving genome sequence and annotation for around 20 nematodes. In this article, we focus on WormBase's role of genome sequence annotation, describing how we annotate and integrate data from a growing collection of nematode species and strains. We also review our approaches to sequence curation, and discuss the impact on annotation quality of large functional genomics projects such as modENCODE.

  9. Molecular and Morphological Characterization and Biological Control Capabilities of a Pasteuria ssp. Parasitizing Rotylenchulus reniformis, the Reniform Nematode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Liesbeth M; Hewlett, Thomas E; Green, April; Simmons, Lee J; Kelley, Karen; Doroh, Mark; Stetina, Salliana R

    2010-09-01

    Rotylenchulus reniformis is one of 10 described species of reniform nematodes and is considered the most economically significant pest within the genus, parasitizing a variety of important agricultural crops. Rotylenchulus reniformis collected from cotton fields in the Southeastern US were observed to have the nematode parasitic bacterium Pasteuria attached to their cuticles. Challenge with a Pasteuria-specific monoclonal antibody in live immuno-fluorescent assay (IFA) confirmed the discovery of Pasteuria infecting R. reniformis. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy were employed to observe endospore ultrastructure and sporogenesis within the host. Pasteuria were observed to infect and complete their life-cycle in juvenile, male and female R. reniformis. Molecular analysis using Pasteuria species-specific and degenerate primers for 16s rRNA and spoII, and subsequent phylogenetic assessment, placed the Pasteuria associated with R. reniformis in a distinct clade within established assemblages for the Pasteuria infecting phytopathogenic nematodes. A global phylogenetic assessment of Pasteuria 16s rDNA using the Neighbor-Joining method resulted in a clear branch with 100% boot-strap support that effectively partitioned the Pasteuria infecting phytopathogenic nematodes from the Pasteuria associated with bacterivorous nematodes. Phylogenetic analysis of the R. reniformis Pasteuria and Pasteuria spp. parasitizing a number of economically important plant parasitic nematodes revealed that Pasteuria with different host specificities are closely related and likely constitute biotypes of the same species. This suggests host preference, and thus effective differentiation and classification are most likely predicated by an influential virulence determinant(s) that has yet to be elucidated. Pasteuria Pr3 endospores produced by in vitro fermentation demonstrated efficacy as a commercial bionematicide to control R. reniformis on cotton in pot tests, when applied as a seed

  10. Fungi associated with free-living soil nematodes in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karabörklü Salih

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Free-living soil nematodes have successfully adapted world-wide to nearly all soil types from the highest to the lowest of elevations. In the current study, nematodes were isolated from soil samples and fungi associated with these free-living soil nematodes were determined. Large subunit (LSU rDNAs of nematode-associated fungi were amplified and sequenced to construct phylogenetic trees. Nematode-associated fungi were observed in six nematode strains belonging to Acrobeloides, Steinernema and Cephalobus genera in different habitats. Malassezia and Cladosporium fungal strains indicated an association with Acrobeloides and Cephalobus nematodes, while Alternaria strains demonstrated an association with the Steinernema strain. Interactions between fungi and free-living nematodes in soil are discussed. We suggest that nematodes act as vectors for fungi.

  11. Conserving and enhancing biological control of nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timper, Patricia

    2014-06-01

    Conservation biological control is the modification of the environment or existing practices to protect and enhance antagonistic organisms to reduce damage from pests. This approach to biological control has received insufficient attention compared with inundative applications of microbial antagonists to control nematodes. This review provides examples of how production practices can enhance or diminish biological control of plant-parasitic nematodes and other soilborne pests. Antagonists of nematodes can be enhanced by providing supplementary food sources such as occurs when organic amendments are applied to soil. However, some organic amendments (e.g., manures and plants containing allelopathic compounds) can also be detrimental to nematode antagonists. Plant species and genotype can strongly influence the outcome of biological control. For instance, the susceptibility of the plant to the nematode can determine the effectiveness of control; good hosts will require greater levels of suppression than poor hosts. Plant genotype can also influence the degree of rhizosphere colonization and antibiotic production by antagonists, as well the expression of induced resistance by plants. Production practices such as crop rotation, fallow periods, tillage, and pesticide applications can directly disrupt populations of antagonistic organisms. These practices can also indirectly affect antagonists by reducing their primary nematode host. One of the challenges of conservation biological control is that practices intended to protect or enhance suppression of nematodes may not be effective in all field sites because they are dependent on indigenous antagonists. Ultimately, indicators will need to be identified, such as the presence of particular antagonists, which can guide decisions on where it is practical to use conservation biological control. Antagonists can also be applied to field sites in conjunction with conservation practices to improve the consistency, efficacy, and

  12. Nematode parasites of animals are more prone to develop xenobiotic resistance than nematode parasites of plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvestre A.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we concentrate on a comparison of plant and animal-parasitic nematodes, to gain insight into the factors that influence the acquisition of the drug resistance by nematodes. Comparing nematode parasite of domestic animals and cultivated plants, it appears that drug resistance threatens only domestic animal production. Does the paucity of report on nematicide field resistance reflect reality or, is nematicide resistance bypassed by other management practices, specific to cultivated plants (i.e. agricultural control ? First, it seems that selection pressure by treatments in plants is not as efficient as selection pressure in ruminants. Agronomic practices (i.e. sanitation, early planting, usage of nematodes resistant cultivar and crop rotation are frequently used to control parasitic-plant nematodes. Although the efficiency of such measures is generally moderate to high, integrated approaches are developing successfully in parasitic-plant nematode models. Secondly, the majority of anthelmintic resistance cases recorded in animal-parasitic nematodes concern drug families that are not used in plant-parasitic nematodes control (i.e. benzimidazoles, avermectines and levamisole. Thirdly, particular life traits of parasitic-plant nematodes (low to moderate fecundity and reproductive strategy are expected to reduce probability of appearance and transmission of drug resistance genes. It has been demonstrated that, for a large number of nematodes such as Meloidogyne spp., the mode of reproduction by mitotic parthenogenesis reduced genetic diversity of populations which may prevent a rapid drug resistance development. In conclusion, anthelmintic resistance develops in nematode parasite of animals as a consequence of an efficient selection pressure. Early detection of anthelmintic resistance is then crucial : it is not possible to avoid it, but only to delay its development in farm animal industry.

  13. Juvenile polyposis syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Yi-Han; Wei, Chin-Hung; Chang, Szu-Wen; Chang, Lung; Fu, Yu-Wei; Lee, Hung-Chang; Liu, Hsuan-Liang; Yeung, Chun-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Juvenile polyposis syndrome, a rare disorder in children, is characterized with multiple hamartomatous polyps in alimentary tract. A variety of manifestations include bleeding, intussusception, or polyp prolapse. In this study, we present an 8-month-old male infant of juvenile polyposis syndrome initially presenting with chronic anemia. To the best of our knowledge, this is the youngest case reported in the literature. Methods: We report a rare case of an 8-month-old male infant who presented with chronic anemia and gastrointestinal bleeding initially. Panendoscopy and abdominal computed tomography showed multiple polyposis throughout the entire alimentary tract leading to intussusception. Technetium-99m-labeled red blood cell (RBC) bleeding scan revealed the possibility of gastrointestinal tract bleeding in the jejunum. Histopathological examination on biopsy samples showed Peutz-Jeghers syndrome was excluded, whereas the diagnosis of juvenile polyposis syndrome was established. Results: Enteroscopic polypectomy is the mainstay of the treatment. However, polyps recurred and occupied the majority of the gastrointestinal tract in 6 months. Supportive management was given. The patient expired for severe sepsis at the age of 18 months. Conclusion: Juvenile polyposis syndrome is an inherited disease, so it is not possible to prevent it. Concerning of its poor outcome and high mortality rate, it is important that we should increase awareness and education of the parents at its earliest stages. PMID:27631205

  14. [ABOUT JUVENILE NASOPHARYNGEAL ANGIOFIBROMA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbain, V; Meunier, P; Otto, B

    2015-09-01

    We report the case of a young man with a juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma. In this paper, we will first remind the clinical signs of this pathology and its radiological appearance (localisation and extensions). Then we will explain how radioembolisation techniques were used to facilitate the surgical intervention. Finally we will discuss the histology of this tumor.

  15. Naevoxanthoendothelioma (Synonym: Juvenile Xanthogranuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Handa

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of naevoxanthoendothelioma juvenile xanthogranuloma is reported with rare features like late onset of the disease, involvement of liver and diffuse cutaneous lesions including cafe au lait spots and pigmented naevus. Final diagnosis could be achieved only on histopathology report.

  16. An ANNEXIN-like protein from the cereal cyst nematode Heterodera avenae suppresses plant defense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changlong Chen

    Full Text Available Parasitism genes encoding secreted effector proteins of plant-parasitic nematodes play important roles in facilitating parasitism. An annexin-like gene was isolated from the cereal cyst nematode Heterodera avenae (termed Ha-annexin and had high similarity to annexin 2, which encodes a secreted protein of Globodera pallida. Ha-annexin encodes a predicted 326 amino acid protein containing four conserved annexin domains. Southern blotting revealed that there are at least two homologies in the H. avenae genome. Ha-annexin transcripts were expressed within the subventral gland cells of the pre-parasitic second-stage juveniles by in situ hybridization. Additionally, expression of these transcripts were relatively higher in the parasitic second-stage juveniles by quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis, coinciding with the time when feeding cell formation is initiated. Knockdown of Ha-annexin by method of barley stripe mosaic virus-based host-induced gene silencing (BSMV-HIGS caused impaired nematode infections at 7 dpi and reduced females at 40 dpi, indicating important roles of the gene in parasitism at least in early stage in vivo. Transiently expression of Ha-ANNEXIN in onion epidermal cells and Nicotiana benthamiana leaf cells showed the whole cell-localization. Using transient expression assays in N. benthamiana, we found that Ha-ANNEXIN could suppress programmed cell death triggered by the pro-apoptotic mouse protein BAX and the induction of marker genes of PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI in N. benthamiana. In addition, Ha-ANNEXIN targeted a point in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathway downstream of two kinases MKK1 and NPK1 in N. benthamiana.

  17. Antibody tumor penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Greg M.; Schmidt, Michael M.; Wittrup, K. Dane

    2009-01-01

    Antibodies have proven to be effective agents in cancer imaging and therapy. One of the major challenges still facing the field is the heterogeneous distribution of these agents in tumors when administered systemically. Large regions of untargeted cells can therefore escape therapy and potentially select for more resistant cells. We present here a summary of theoretical and experimental approaches to analyze and improve antibody penetration in tumor tissue. PMID:18541331

  18. Python penetration testing essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Mohit

    2015-01-01

    If you are a Python programmer or a security researcher who has basic knowledge of Python programming and want to learn about penetration testing with the help of Python, this book is ideal for you. Even if you are new to the field of ethical hacking, this book can help you find the vulnerabilities in your system so that you are ready to tackle any kind of attack or intrusion.

  19. Molecular mechanisms of nematode-nematophagous microbe interactions: basis for biological control of plant-parasitic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Zou, Chenggang; Xu, Jianping; Ji, Xinglai; Niu, Xuemei; Yang, Jinkui; Huang, Xiaowei; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2015-01-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes cause significant damage to a broad range of vegetables and agricultural crops throughout the world. As the natural enemies of nematodes, nematophagous microorganisms offer a promising approach to control the nematode pests. Some of these microorganisms produce traps to capture and kill the worms from the outside. Others act as internal parasites to produce toxins and virulence factors to kill the nematodes from within. Understanding the molecular basis of microbe-nematode interactions provides crucial insights for developing effective biological control agents against plant-parasitic nematodes. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of the interactions between nematodes and nematophagous microorganisms, with a focus on the molecular mechanisms by which nematophagous microorganisms infect nematodes and on the nematode defense against pathogenic attacks. We conclude by discussing several key areas for future research and development, including potential approaches to apply our recent understandings to develop effective biocontrol strategies.

  20. Incidence and Identification of Root-Knot Nematode in Plastic-House Fields of Central Area of Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoung Rai Ko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To investigate occurrence of root-knot nematode (RKN in plastic house of central area of Korea, 132 soil samples were collected in cucumber, water melon, tomato, red pepper and strawberry fields from 2013 to 2015. Among 132 soil samples, 65 soil samples (49% were infested with RKN and mean density of RKN was 178 second-stage juveniles per 100 cm³ soil (min. 1 ~ max. 3,947. The frequency of RKN by regional was the highest in Chuncheon with 80%, followed by Cheonan (68%, Nonsan (36%, Buyeo (33% and Yesan (30%. The frequency of RKN by crops was the highest in tomato with 83%, followed by cucumber (61%, strawberry (41%, red pepper (30%, watermelon (26%. To identify the species of RKN, fifteen populations were selected for representative populations. As a phylogenetic analysis of 15 populations, southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita, peanut root-knot nematode (M. arenaria and northern root-knot nematode (M. hapla were identified with 47%, 20% and 33% ratio, respectively. In crops, M. incognita, M. arenaria and M. hapla were detected in tomato, M. incognita and M. arenaria were detected in cucumber and watermelon, and M. hapla was detected in strawberry and lettuce. Thus, there should be a continuous management to major species of each crops to prevent dispersal of RKN damages.

  1. Progressive metabolic impairment underlies the novel nematicidal action of fluensulfone on the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearn, James; Lilley, Catherine; Urwin, Peter; O'Connor, Vincent; Holden-Dye, Lindy

    2017-10-01

    Fluensulfone is a new nematicide with an excellent profile of selective toxicity against plant parasitic nematodes. Here, its effects on the physiology and biochemistry of the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida have been investigated and comparisons made with its effect on the life-span of the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to provide insight into its mode of action and its selective toxicity. Fluensulfone exerts acute effects (≤1h; ≥100μM) on stylet thrusting and motility of hatched second stage G. pallida juveniles (J2s). Chronic exposure to lower concentrations of fluensulfone (≥3days; ≤30μM), reveals a slowly developing metabolic insult in which G. pallida J2s sequentially exhibit a reduction in motility, loss of a metabolic marker for cell viability, high lipid content and tissue degeneration prior to death. These effects are absent in adults and dauers of the model genetic nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The nematicidal action of fluensulfone follows a time-course which progresses from an early impact on motility through to an accumulating metabolic impairment, an inability to access lipid stores and death. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Long-term in vitro system for maintenance and amplification of root-knot nematodes in Cucumis sativus roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando E. eDíaz-Manzano

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Root-knot nematodes (RKN are polyphagous plant-parasitic roundworms that produce large crop losses, representing a relevant agricultural pest worldwide. After infection, they induce swollen root structures called galls containing giant cells (GCs indispensable for nematode development. Among efficient control methods are biotechnology-based strategies that require a deep knowledge of underlying molecular processes during the plant-nematode interaction. Methods of achieving this knowledge include the application of molecular biology techniques such as transcriptomics (massive sequencing or microarray hybridization, proteomics or metabolomics. These require aseptic experimental conditions, as undetected contamination with other microorganisms could compromise the interpretation of the results. Herein, we present a simple, efficient and long-term method for nematode amplification on cucumber roots grown in vitro. Amplification of juveniles (J2 from the starting inoculum is around 40-fold. The method was validated for three Meloidogyne species (M. javanica, M. incognita and M. arenaria, producing viable and robust freshly hatched J2s. These can be used for further in vitro infection of different plant species such as Arabidopsis, tobacco and tomato, as well as enough J2s to maintain the population. The method allowed maintenance of around 90 Meloidogyne spp. generations (one every two months from a single initial female over 15 years.

  3. Divergent expression of cytokinin biosynthesis, signaling and catabolism genes underlying differences in feeding sites induced by cyst and root-knot nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, Carola D; Chronis, Demosthenis; Radakovic, Zoran S; Siddique, Shahid; Schmülling, Thomas; Werner, Tomáš; Kakimoto, Tatsuo; Grundler, Florian M W; Mitchum, Melissa G

    2017-10-01

    Cyst and root-knot nematodes are obligate parasites of economic importance with a remarkable ability to reprogram root cells into unique metabolically active feeding sites. Previous studies have suggested a role for cytokinin in feeding site formation induced by these two types of nematodes, but the mechanistic details have not yet been described. Using Arabidopsis as a host plant species, we conducted a comparative analysis of cytokinin genes in response to the beet cyst nematode (BCN), Heterodera schachtii, and the root-knot nematode (RKN), Meloidogyne incognita. We identified distinct differences in the expression of cytokinin biosynthesis, catabolism and signaling genes in response to infection by BCN and RKN, suggesting differential manipulation of the cytokinin pathway by these two nematode species. Furthermore, we evaluated Arabidopsis histidine kinase receptor mutant lines ahk2/3, ahk2/4 and ahk3/4 in response to RKN infection. Similar to our previous studies with BCN, these lines were significantly less susceptible to RKN without compromising nematode penetration, suggesting a requirement of cytokinin signaling in RKN feeding site formation. Moreover, an analysis of ahk double mutants using CycB1;1:GUS/ahk introgressed lines revealed contrasting differences in the cytokinin receptors mediating cell cycle activation in feeding sites induced by BCN and RKN. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Development of the yellow potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis (Woll.) on potatoes after gamma irradiation of cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karnkowski, W.; Ignatowicz, S.

    1999-01-01

    Gamma irradiation inhibited the development of the yellow potato cyst nematode, Globodera rostochiensis (Woll.) Behrens when cysts containing juveniles in anabiosis were irradiated with a dose of 0.5 kGy or higher. A dose of 0.5 kGy reduced the infestation level and the density of females/cysts on root of infested plants. However, a few cysts were found on roots of plants grown in pots with soil treated with a dose of 3.0 kGy. Development of the second generation of the potato cyst nematode (= F1 cysts that originated from irradiated cysts) was much weaker than that of the parental generation. The F1 females and/or cysts were found only in the control and in the 0.5 kGy treatment in low numbers. (author)

  5. Cell lineages of the embryo of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deppe, U; Schierenberg, E; Cole, T; Krieg, C; Schmitt, D; Yoder, B; von Ehrenstein, G

    1978-01-01

    Embryogenesis of the free-living soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans produces a juvenile having about 550 cells at hatching. We have determined the lineages of 182 cells by tracing the divisions of individual cells in living embryos. An invariant pattern of cleavage divisions of the egg generates a set of stem cells. These stem cells are the founders of six stem cell lineages. Each lineage has its own clock--i.e., an autonomous rhythm of synchronous cell divisions. The rhythms are maintained in spite of extensive cellular rearrangement. The rate and the orientation of the cell divisions of the cell lineages are essentially invariant among individuals. Thus, the destiny of cells seems to depend primarily on their lineage history. The anterior position of the site of origin of the stem cells in the egg relates to the rate of the cell cycle clock, suggesting intracellular preprogramming of the uncleaved egg. We used a technique that allows normal embryogenesis, from the fertilized egg to hatching, outside the parent under a cover glass. Embryogenesis was followed microscopically with Nomarski interference optics and high-resolution video recording.

  6. Penetrating ureteral trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo P. Fraga

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this series is to report our experience in managing ureteral trauma, focusing on the importance of early diagnosis, correct treatment, and the impact of associated injuries on the management and morbid-mortality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 1994 to December 2002, 1487 laparotomies for abdominal trauma were performed and 20 patients with ureteral lesions were identified, all of them secondary to penetrating injury. Medical charts were analyzed as well as information about trauma mechanisms, diagnostic routine, treatment and outcome. RESULTS: All patients were men. Mean age was 27 years. The mechanisms of injury were gunshot wounds in 18 cases (90% and stab wounds in two (10%. All penetrating abdominal injuries had primary indication of laparotomy, and neither excretory urography nor computed tomography were used in any case before surgery. The diagnosis of ureteric injury was made intra-operatively in 17 cases (85%. Two ureteral injuries (10% were initially missed. All patients had associated injuries. The treatment was dictated by the location, extension and time necessary to identify the injury. The overall incidence of complications was 55%. The presence of shock on admission, delayed diagnosis, Abdominal Trauma Index > 25, Injury Severity Score > 25 and colon injuries were associated to a high complication rate, however, there was no statistically significant difference. There were no mortalities in this group. CONCLUSIONS: A high index of suspicion is required for diagnosis of ureteral injuries. A thorough exploration of all retroperitoneal hematoma after penetrating trauma should be an accurate method of diagnosis; even though it failed in 10% of our cases.

  7. Market penetration of ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szulczyk, Kenneth R.; McCarl, Bruce A.; Cornforth, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    This research examines in detail the technology and economics of substituting ethanol for gasoline. This endeavor examines three issues. First, the benefits of ethanol/gasoline blends are examined, and then the technical problems of large-scale implementation of ethanol. Second, ethanol production possibilities are examined in detail from a variety of feedstocks and technologies. The feedstocks are the starch/sugar crops and crop residues, while the technologies are corn wet mill, dry grind, and lignocellulosic fermentation. Examining in detail the production possibilities allows the researchers to identity the extent of technological change, production costs, byproducts, and GHG emissions. Finally, a U.S. agricultural model, FASOMGHG, is updated which predicts the market penetration of ethanol given technological progress, variety of technologies and feedstocks, market interactions, energy prices, and GHG prices. FASOMGHG has several interesting results. First, gasoline prices have a small expansionary impact on the U.S. ethanol industry. Both agricultural producers' income and cost both increase with higher energy prices. If wholesale gasoline is $4 per gallon, the predicted ethanol market penetration attains 53% of U.S. gasoline consumption in 2030. Second, the corn wet mill remains an important industry for ethanol production, because this industry also produces corn oil, which could be converted to biodiesel. Third, GHG prices expand the ethanol industry. However, the GHG price expands the corn wet mill, but has an ambiguous impact on lignocellulosic ethanol. Feedstocks for lignocellulosic fermentation can also be burned with coal to generate electricity. Both industries are quite GHG efficient. Finally, U.S. government subsidies on biofuels have an expansionary impact on ethanol production, but may only increase market penetration by an additional 1% in 2030, which is approximately 6 billion gallons. (author)

  8. Study of Penetration Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-11-01

    srecimens fabricated at the AFATL, AISI-01 oil quenched bar stock was used. Three of the projectiles used in the Eglin penetration experiments are shown...in the Mathema- tical Laboratory at Eglin AFB, is essencially a fourth order Runge-Kutta numerical method for solving simultaneous differential...C9G. VEL. X-COMPo (M4/5): d!10. I oil 140. 107. 82. RmCC~kr’ED TIME OF MAXIftjM/MINIM94U COIL VOLTAGE tSI MAX 0040 A 55 *.03J04A 0 0 05ji6 .000634 MIN

  9. Deep penetration calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, W.L.; Deutsch, O.L.; Booth, T.E.

    1980-04-01

    Several Monte Carlo techniques are compared in the transport of neutrons of different source energies through two different deep-penetration problems each with two parts. The first problem involves transmission through a 200-cm concrete slab. The second problem is a 90 0 bent pipe jacketed by concrete. In one case the pipe is void, and in the other it is filled with liquid sodium. Calculations are made with two different Los Alamos Monte Carlo codes: the continuous-energy code MCNP and the multigroup code MCMG

  10. FMRFamide-related peptides in potato cyst nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimber, M J; Fleming, C C; Bjourson, A J; Halton, D W; Maule, A G

    2001-09-03

    This study presents data demonstrating the presence of FMRFamide-related peptides (FaRPs) in potato cyst nematodes (PCN). Five transcripts of FaRP encoding genes, designated gpflp-1 to gpflp-5, were characterised using RACE. In terms of ORFs, gpflp-1 was 444 base pairs (bp) long and coded for four copies of the FaRP, PF3 (KSAYMRFamide) whilst gpflp-2 was 309 bp long and encoded one copy of the peptide, KNKFEFIRFamide. gpflp-3 (420 bp) Encoded two copies of KHEYLRFamide (AF2) and the genes gpflp-4 and gpflp-5 encoded a total of 11 FaRPs, most of which are novel to PCN. FMRFamide-related peptide (FaRP)-like immunoreactivity was observed in both PCN species, Globodera pallida and Globodera rostochiensis, using an antiserum raised against the invertebrate peptide, FMRFamide. Immunopositive neurones were found throughout the central nervous system in the ventral and dorsal nerve cords and the circumpharyngeal and perianal nerve rings. Reactive neurones were also present peripherally, innervating the highly muscular pharynx with a nerve net and ring-like structures. Positive immunostaining was also observed in neurones running toward the stylet protractor muscles and/or the anterior sensory apparatus. This study implicates a role for FaRPs in feeding, host penetration and sensory function of PCN. This is the first study to characterise FaRP encoding genes from a plant-parasitic nematode using a targeted PCR based RACE approach and further underlines the importance and diversity of this neuropeptide group in the phylum Nematoda.

  11. A Nematode Calreticulin, Rs-CRT, Is a Key Effector in Reproduction and Pathogenicity of Radopholus similis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu; Wang, Ke; Xie, Hui; Wang, Yan-Tao; Wang, Dong-Wei; Xu, Chun-Lin; Huang, Xin; Wang, De-Sen

    2015-01-01

    Radopholus similis is a migratory plant-parasitic nematode that causes severe damage to many agricultural and horticultural crops. Calreticulin (CRT) is a Ca2+-binding multifunctional protein that plays key roles in the parasitism, immune evasion, reproduction and pathogenesis of many animal parasites and plant nematodes. Therefore, CRT is a promising target for controlling R. similis. In this study, we obtained the full-length sequence of the CRT gene from R. similis (Rs-crt), which is 1,527-bp long and includes a 1,206-bp ORF that encodes 401 amino acids. Rs-CRT and Mi-CRT from Meloidogyne incognita showed the highest similarity and were grouped on the same branch of the phylogenetic tree. Rs-crt is a multi-copy gene that is expressed in the oesophageal glands and gonads of females, the gonads of males, the intestines of juveniles and the eggs of R. similis. The highest Rs-crt expression was detected in females, followed by juveniles, eggs and males. The reproductive capability and pathogenicity of R. similis were significantly reduced after treatment with Rs-crt dsRNA for 36 h. Using plant-mediated RNAi, we confirmed that Rs-crt expression was significantly inhibited in the nematodes, and resistance to R. similis was significantly improved in transgenic tomato plants. Plant-mediated RNAi-induced silencing of Rs-crt could be effectively transmitted to the F2 generation of R. similis; however, the silencing effect of Rs-crt induced by in vitro RNAi was no longer detectable in F1 and F2 nematodes. Thus, Rs-crt is essential for the reproduction and pathogenicity of R. similis.

  12. A Nematode Calreticulin, Rs-CRT, Is a Key Effector in Reproduction and Pathogenicity of Radopholus similis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Li

    Full Text Available Radopholus similis is a migratory plant-parasitic nematode that causes severe damage to many agricultural and horticultural crops. Calreticulin (CRT is a Ca2+-binding multifunctional protein that plays key roles in the parasitism, immune evasion, reproduction and pathogenesis of many animal parasites and plant nematodes. Therefore, CRT is a promising target for controlling R. similis. In this study, we obtained the full-length sequence of the CRT gene from R. similis (Rs-crt, which is 1,527-bp long and includes a 1,206-bp ORF that encodes 401 amino acids. Rs-CRT and Mi-CRT from Meloidogyne incognita showed the highest similarity and were grouped on the same branch of the phylogenetic tree. Rs-crt is a multi-copy gene that is expressed in the oesophageal glands and gonads of females, the gonads of males, the intestines of juveniles and the eggs of R. similis. The highest Rs-crt expression was detected in females, followed by juveniles, eggs and males. The reproductive capability and pathogenicity of R. similis were significantly reduced after treatment with Rs-crt dsRNA for 36 h. Using plant-mediated RNAi, we confirmed that Rs-crt expression was significantly inhibited in the nematodes, and resistance to R. similis was significantly improved in transgenic tomato plants. Plant-mediated RNAi-induced silencing of Rs-crt could be effectively transmitted to the F2 generation of R. similis; however, the silencing effect of Rs-crt induced by in vitro RNAi was no longer detectable in F1 and F2 nematodes. Thus, Rs-crt is essential for the reproduction and pathogenicity of R. similis.

  13. Preventing Juvenile Delinquency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina dos Reis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to problematize discourses about protection and care that have surrounded compulsory hospitalization by evidencing its use as a control and punishment mechanism that increases the social vulnerability of young drug users. For such, we analyze lawsuits involving juveniles who were consigned to psychiatric institutions for drug addiction treatment as a protection measure in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, in Brazil. The analysis of the materials has evidenced discourses that have circumscribed young drug users and constructed this population as potentially dangerous subjects as well as a population category at risk. In this sense, we point out how compulsory hospitalization has emerged out of the lawsuits as a tool for prevention of juvenile delinquency.

  14. Late Onset Juvenile Xanthogranuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punithwavathy K

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A 19 year old female was seen with multiple skin coloured and hyperpigmented macules, discrete as well as grouped papules and nodules of varying sizes distributed over the face, neck, extensor and flexor aspects of both upper and lower extremities including joints. The trunk was spared. Some of the lesions showed features of spontaneous regression. Investigations confirmed the diagnosis of juvenile xanthogranuloma. Lesions regressed satisfactorily with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy.

  15. Extended phenotype: nematodes turn ants into bird-dispersed fruits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, D P; Kronauer, D J C; Boomsma, J J

    2008-01-01

    A recent study has discovered a novel extended phenotype of a nematode which alters its ant host to resemble ripe fruit. The infected ants are in turn eaten by frugivorous birds that disperse the nematode's eggs.......A recent study has discovered a novel extended phenotype of a nematode which alters its ant host to resemble ripe fruit. The infected ants are in turn eaten by frugivorous birds that disperse the nematode's eggs....

  16. Biocontrol: The Potential of Entomophilic Nematodes in Insect Management

    OpenAIRE

    Webster, John M.

    1980-01-01

    A review of the development of entomophilic nematology and a commentary on the potential of entomophilic nematodes in controlling insect pests. The paper considers some of the major contributions to our knowledge of entomophilic nematology; factors involved in insect pest management and how they are applicable to the use of nematodes; nematodes which are most promising as biological control agents; and problems to be solved to facilitate the use of entomophilic nematodes in insect management.

  17. Parasitic nematode interactions with mammals and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasmer, Douglas P; Goverse, Aska; Smant, Geert

    2003-01-01

    Parasitic nematodes that infect humans, animals, and plants cause serious diseases that are deleterious to human health and agricultural productivity. Chemical and biological control methods have reduced the impact of these parasites. However, surviving environmental stages lead to persistent reinfection of host species. In addition, development of resistance to nematicides and anthelmintics by these parasites and reduced availability of some nematicides, for environmental protection, pose significant obstacles for current and future prospects of effective parasite control. Due to marked differences in host species, research on animal and plant parasitic nematodes often proceeds independently. Despite the differences between animals and plants, basic cellular properties are shared among these host organisms. Some common properties may be important for mechanisms [homologous or convergent (homoplastic)] by which nematodes successfully infect these diverse hosts or by which animal and plant hosts resist infections by these pathogens. Here we compare host/parasite interactions between plant parasitic nematodes (PPN) and animal parasitic nematodes, with an emphasis on mammalian hosts (MPN). Similarities and differences are considered in the context of progress on molecular dissection of these interactions. A comprehensive coverage is not possible in the space allotted. Instead, an illustrative approach is used to establish examples that, it is hoped, exemplify the value of the comparative approach.

  18. The first report of Xenorhabdus indica from Steinernema pakistanense: co-phylogenetic study suggests co-speciation between X. indica and its steinernematid nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, A H; Chaubey, A K; Půža, V

    2018-01-17

    During a survey in agricultural fields of the sub-humid region of Meerut district, India, two strains of entomopathogenic nematodes, labelled CS31 and CS32, were isolated using the Galleria baiting technique. Based on morphological and morphometric studies, and molecular data, the nematodes were identified as Steinernema pakistanense, making this finding the first report of this species from India. For the first time, we performed a molecular and biochemical characterization of the bacterial symbiont of S. pakistanense. Furthermore, a co-phylogenetic analysis of the bacteria from the monophyletic clade containing a symbiont of S. pakistanense, together with their nematode hosts, was conducted, to test the degree of nematode-bacteria co-speciation. Both isolates were also tested in a laboratory assay for pathogenicity against two major pests, Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura. The morphology of the Indian isolates corresponds mainly to the original description, with the only difference being the absence of a mucron in first-generation females and missing epiptygmata in the second generation. The sequences of bacterial recA and gyrB genes have shown that the symbiont of S. pakistanense is closely related to Xenorhabdus indica, which is associated with some other nematodes from the 'bicornutum' group. Co-phylogenetic analysis has shown a remarkable congruence between the nematode and bacterial phylogenies, suggesting that, in some lineages within the Steinernema / Xenorhabdus complex, the nematodes and bacteria have undergone co-speciation. In the virulence assay, both strains caused a 100% mortality of both tested insects after 48 h, even at the lowest doses of 25 infective juveniles per insect, suggesting that S. pakistanense could be considered for use in the biocontrol of these organisms in India.

  19. The prevalence of gastrointestinal nematode infection and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GIN infection was associated with 1.4 litres per cow per day less milk and this ... Gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infections in cattle are of considerable economic importance .... Table 2. Mean faecal egg counts of gastrointestinal nematodes and the 95% confidence ... 3.2 Gastrointestinal nematode species. The pooled ...

  20. Ecology of the Pinewood Nematode in Southern Pine Chip Piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. David Dwinell

    1986-01-01

    The optimum temperature range for pinewood nematodes in southern pine chips was 35 to 40° C. Nematode populations declined at temperatures of -20°C. at temperatures above 45°C. and in anaerobic environments. Wood moisture content and presence of bluestain fungus also influenced nematode populations.

  1. Microbial ecology and nematode control in natural ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa, S.R.; Van der Putten, W.H.; Kerry, B.R.

    2011-01-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes have traditionally been studied in agricultural systems, where they can be pests of importance on a wide range of crops. Nevertheless, nematode ecology in natural ecosystems is receiving increasing interest because of the role of nematodes in soil food webs, nutrient

  2. Nematode CLE signaling in Arabidopsis requires CLAVATA2 and CORYNE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant-parasitic cyst nematodes secrete CLAVATA3 (CLV3)/ESR(CLE)-like effector proteins. These proteins have been shown to act as ligand mimics of plant CLE peptides and are required for successful nematode infection; however, the receptors for nematode CLE-like peptides have not been identified. Her...

  3. Opportunity to use native nematodes for pest control

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have surveyed wild cranberry bogs in WI and found three isolates of native nematodes. We have been testing these nematodes as potential biological control agents in for cranberry insect pests including sparganothis fruitworm and flea beetle. The nematodes seem to be effective at finding and killi...

  4. Bacterial microbiome and nematode occurrence in different potato agricultural soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratylenchus neglectus and Meloidogyne chitwoodi are the main plant-parasitic nematodes in potato crops of the San Luis Valley, Colorado. Bacterial microbiome (16S rRNA copies per gram of soil) and nematode communities (nematodes per 200 gr of soil) from five different potato farms were analyzed to ...

  5. 77 FR 22185 - Golden Nematode; Removal of Regulated Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ...-0036] Golden Nematode; Removal of Regulated Areas AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service..., without change, an interim rule that amended the golden nematode regulations by removing the townships of... that the fields in these two townships are free of golden nematode, and we determined that regulation...

  6. 76 FR 60357 - Golden Nematode; Removal of Regulated Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    .... APHIS-2011-0036] Golden Nematode; Removal of Regulated Areas AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Interim rule and request for comments. SUMMARY: We are amending the golden nematode... infested areas. Surveys have shown that the fields in these two townships are free of golden nematode, and...

  7. Extracellular Protease of Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0, a Biocontrol Factor with Activity against the Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne incognita

    OpenAIRE

    Siddiqui, Imran Ali; Haas, Dieter; Heeb, Stephan

    2005-01-01

    In Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0, mutation of the GacA-controlled aprA gene (encoding the major extracellular protease) or the gacA regulatory gene resulted in reduced biocontrol activity against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita during tomato and soybean infection. Culture supernatants of strain CHA0 inhibited egg hatching and induced mortality of M. incognita juveniles more strongly than did supernatants of aprA and gacA mutants, suggesting that AprA protease contributes to biocon...

  8. Extracellular Protease of Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0, a Biocontrol Factor with Activity against the Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne incognita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Imran Ali; Haas, Dieter; Heeb, Stephan

    2005-01-01

    In Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0, mutation of the GacA-controlled aprA gene (encoding the major extracellular protease) or the gacA regulatory gene resulted in reduced biocontrol activity against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita during tomato and soybean infection. Culture supernatants of strain CHA0 inhibited egg hatching and induced mortality of M. incognita juveniles more strongly than did supernatants of aprA and gacA mutants, suggesting that AprA protease contributes to biocontrol. PMID:16151170

  9. A new class of ubiquitin extension proteins secreted by the dorsal pharyngeal gland in plant parasitic cyst nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tytgat, Tom; Vanholme, Bartel; De Meutter, Jan; Claeys, Myriam; Couvreur, Marjolein; Vanhoutte, Isabelle; Gheysen, Greetje; Van Criekinge, Wim; Borgonie, Gaetan; Coomans, August; Gheysen, Godelieve

    2004-08-01

    By performing cDNA AFLP on pre- and early parasitic juveniles, we identified genes encoding a novel type of ubiquitin extension proteins secreted by the dorsal pharyngeal gland in the cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii. The proteins consist of three domains, a signal peptide for secretion, a mono-ubiquitin domain, and a short C-terminal positively charged domain. A gfp-fusion of this protein is targeted to the nucleolus in tobacco BY-2 cells. We hypothesize that the C-terminal peptide might have a regulatory function during syncytium formation in plant roots.

  10. Remote Sensing of Parasitic Nematodes in Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Gary W.; King, Roger; Kelley, Amber T.; Vickery, John

    2007-01-01

    A method and apparatus for remote sensing of parasitic nematodes in plants, now undergoing development, is based on measurement of visible and infrared spectral reflectances of fields where the plants are growing. Initial development efforts have been concentrated on detecting reniform nematodes (Rotylenchulus reniformis) in cotton plants, because of the economic importance of cotton crops. The apparatus includes a hand-held spectroradiometer. The readings taken by the radiometer are processed to extract spectral reflectances at sixteen wavelengths between 451 and 949 nm that, taken together, have been found to be indicative of the presence of Rotylenchulus reniformis. The intensities of the spectral reflectances are used to estimate the population density of the nematodes in an area from which readings were taken.

  11. Nematode taxonomy: from morphology to metabarcoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M.; Sapp, M.; Prior, T.; Karssen, G.; Back, M.

    2015-11-01

    Nematodes represent a species rich and morphologically diverse group of metazoans inhabiting both aquatic and terrestrial environments. Their role as biological indicators and as key players in nutrient cycling has been well documented. Some groups of nematodes are also known to cause significant losses to crop production. In spite of this, knowledge of their diversity is still limited due to the difficulty in achieving species identification using morphological characters. Molecular methodology has provided very useful means of circumventing the numerous limitations associated with classical morphology based identification. We discuss herein the history and the progress made within the field of nematode systematics, the limitations of classical taxonomy and how the advent of high throughput sequencing is facilitating advanced ecological and molecular studies.

  12. Different Oceanographic Regimes in the Vicinity of the Antarctic Peninsula Reflected in Benthic Nematode Communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freija Hauquier

    Full Text Available Marine free-living nematode communities were studied at similar depths (~500 m at two sides of the Antarctic Peninsula, characterised by different environmental and oceanographic conditions. At the Weddell Sea side, benthic communities are influenced by cold deep-water formation and seasonal sea-ice conditions, whereas the Drake Passage side experiences milder oceanic conditions and strong dynamics of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. This resulted in different surface primary productivity, which contrasted with observed benthic pigment patterns and varied according to the area studied: chlorophyll a concentrations (as a proxy for primary production were high in the Weddell Sea sediments, but low in the surface waters above; this pattern was reversed in the Drake Passage. Differences between areas were largely mirrored by the nematode communities: nematode densities peaked in Weddell stations and showed deeper vertical occurrence in the sediment, associated with deeper penetration of chlorophyll a and indicative of a strong bentho-pelagic coupling. Generic composition showed some similarities across both areas, though differences in the relative contribution of certain genera were noted, together with distinct community shifts with depth in the sediment at all locations.

  13. Penetrating abdominal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneman, P L

    1989-08-01

    The management of patients with penetrating abdominal trauma is outlined in Figure 1. Patients with hemodynamic instability, evisceration, significant gastrointestinal bleeding, peritoneal signs, gunshot wounds with peritoneal violation, and type 2 and 3 shotgun wounds should undergo emergency laparotomy. The initial ED management of these patients includes airway management, monitoring of cardiac rhythm and vital signs, history, physical examination, and placement of intravenous lines. Blood should be obtained for initial hematocrit, type and cross-matching, electrolytes, and an alcohol level or drug screen as needed. Initial resuscitation should utilize crystalloid fluid replacement. If more than 2 liters of crystalloid are needed to stabilize an adult (less in a child), blood should be given. Group O Rh-negative packed red blood cells should be immediately available for a patient in impending arrest or massive hemorrhage. Type-specific blood should be available within 15 minutes. A patient with penetrating thoracic and high abdominal trauma should receive a portable chest x-ray, and a hemo- or pneumothorax should be treated with tube thoracostomy. An unstable patient with clinical signs consistent with a pneumothorax, however, should receive a tube thoracostomy prior to obtaining roentgenographic confirmation. If time permits, a nasogastric tube and Foley catheter should be placed, and the urine evaluated for blood (these procedures can be performed in the operating room). If kidney involvement is suspected because of hematuria or penetrating trauma in the area of a kidney or ureter in a patient requiring surgery, a single-shot IVP should be performed either in the ED or the operating room. An ECG is important in patients with possible cardiac involvement and in patients over the age of 40 going to the operating room. Tetanus status should be updated, and appropriate antibiotics covering bowel flora should be given. Operative management should rarely be delayed

  14. Penetrating cardiothoracic war wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biocina, B; Sutlić, Z; Husedzinović, I; Rudez, I; Ugljen, R; Letica, D; Slobodnjak, Z; Karadza, J; Brida, V; Vladović-Relja, T; Jelić, I

    1997-03-01

    Penetrating cardiothoracic war wounds are very common among war casualties. Those injuries require prompt and specific treatment in an aim to decrease mortality and late morbidity. There are a few controversies about the best modality of treatment for such injuries, and there are not many large series of such patients in recent literature. We analysed a group of 259 patients with penetrating cardiothoracic war wounds admitted to our institutions between May 1991 and October 1992. There were 235 (90.7%) patients with thoracic wounds, 14 (5.4%) patients with cardiac, wounds and in 10 (3.7%) patients both heart and lungs were injured. The cause of injury was shrapnel in 174 patients (67%), bullets in 25 patients (9.7%), cluster bomb particles in 45 patients (17.3%) and other (blast etc.) in 15 patients (6%). Patients, 69, had concomitant injuries of various organs. The initial treatment in 164 operated patients was chest drainage in 76 (46.3%) patients, thoracotomy and suture of the lung in 71 (43.2%) patients, lobectomy in 12 (7.3%) patients and pneumonectomy in 5 (3%) patients. Complications include pleural empyema and/or lung abscess in 20 patients (8.4%), incomplete reexpansion of the lung in 10 patients (4.2%), osteomyelitis of the rib in 5 patients (2.1%) and bronchopleural fistula in 1 patient (0.4%). Secondary procedures were decortication in 12 patients, rib resection in 5 patients, lobectomy in 2 patients, pneumonectomy in 4 patients, reconstruction of the chest wall in 2 patients and closure of the bronchopleural fistula in 1 patient. The cardiac chamber involved was right ventricle in 12 patients, left ventricular in 6 patients, right atrium in 7 patients, left atrium in 3 patients, ascending aorta in 2 patients and 1 patient which involved descending aorta, right ventricle and coronary artery (left anterior descending) and inferior vena cava, respectively. The primary procedure was suture in 17 patients (in 10 patients with the additional suture of the

  15. Biological control potential of the obligate parasite Pasteuria penetransagainst the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita infestation in Brinjal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, N Swarna; Sivakumar, C V

    2005-01-01

    The efficacy of the obligate bacterial parasite, Pasteuria penetrans against the rootknot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita infestation was assessed in brinjal. The seedling pans with sterilized soil were inoculated with nematodes and root powder of P. penetrans were applied at different dosages viz., 0 x 10(6), 0.5 x 10(6) spores and 1 x 10(6) spores/pan. Seeds of brinjal cv Co2 were sown in the pans and seedlings were allowed to grow. The seedlings were transplanted to microplots containing sterilized soil. Observations on nematode infestation and plant growth were recorded at seedling, flowering, and fruiting stages. Nematode infestation was significantly reduced by P. penetrans treatment. There was 22, 75 and 86% reduction in nematode population of soil over control at seedling, flowering and fruiting stages, respectively, at higher spore density (1 x 10(6)). Egg mass production was decreased by 63, 78 and 89% over control at 35 (seedling), 100 (flowering) and 160 (fruiting) days after sowing respectively, at 1 x 10(6) spores treated soil. The parasitizing ability of P. penetrans increased with the age of the crop. At higher spore density the percentage of parasitization was increased from 52.0 (35 days after sowing) to 90.0 (160 days after sowing) %. At these stages of the crop, the spore load per juvenile also increased at the higher dose. The P. penetrans application enhanced the plant growth. The weight of the shoot was increased by 17.6% whereas root weight by 41.0% over the control at fruiting stage. The experimental results revealed the potential use of P. penetrans as biological control agent of M. incognita. Application of P. penetrans spores in the nursery is a good strategy since the mass multiplication is quite difficult.

  16. Pathogenicity of Two Species of Entomopathogenic Nematodes Against the Greenhouse Whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), in Laboratory and Greenhouse Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Nastaran; Karimi, Javad; Hosseini, Mojtaba; Goldani, Morteza; Campos-Herrera, Raquel

    2015-03-01

    The greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a polyphagous pest in greenhouse crops. The efficacy of two entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN), Steinernema feltiae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, as biological control agents against T. vaporariorum was evaluated using two model crops typical of vegetable greenhouse productions: cucumber and pepper. Laboratory tests evaluated adults and second nymphal instars for pest susceptibility to different EPN species at different concentrations of infective juveniles (IJ; 0, 25, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 IJ per cm(2)); subsequent greenhouse trials against second nymphal instars on cucumber and pepper plants evaluated more natural conditions. Concentrations were applied in combination with Triton X-100 (0.1% v/v), an adjuvant for increasing nematode activity. In laboratory studies, both life stages were susceptible to infection by the two nematode species, but S. feltiae recorded a lower LC50 than H. bacteriophora for both insect stages. Similarly, in greenhouse experiments, S. feltiae required lower concentrations of IJ than H. bacteriophora to reach the same mortality in nymphs. In greenhouse trials, a significant difference was observed in the triple interaction among nematode species × concentration × plant. Furthermore, the highest mortality rate of the second nymphal instars of the T. vaporariorum was obtained from the application of S. feltiae concentrated to 250 IJ/cm(2) on cucumber (49 ± 1.23%). The general mortality caused by nematodes was significantly higher in cucumber than in pepper. These promising results support further investigation for the optimization of the best EPN species/concentration in combination with insecticides or adjuvants to reach a profitable control of this greenhouse pest.

  17. Vittatidera zeaphila (Nematoda: Heteroderidae), a new genus and species of cyst nematode parasitic on corn (Zea mays).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Ernest C; Handoo, Zafar A; Powers, Thomas O; Donald, Patricia A; Heinz, Robert D

    2010-06-01

    A new genus and species of cyst nematode, Vittatidera zeaphila, is described from Tennessee. The new genus is superficially similar to Cactodera but is distinguished from other cyst-forming taxa in having a persistent lateral field in females and cysts, persistent vulval lips covering a circumfenestrate vulva, and subventral gland nuclei of the female contained in a separate small lobe. Infective juveniles (J2) are distinguished from all previously described Cactodera spp. by the short stylet in the second-stage juvenile (14-17 μm); J2 of Cactodera spp. have stylets at least 18 μm long. The new species also is unusual in that the females produce large egg masses. Known hosts are corn and goosegrass. DNA analysis suggests that Vittatidera forms a separate group apart from other cyst-forming genera within Heteroderinae.

  18. Penetration Tester's Open Source Toolkit

    CERN Document Server

    Faircloth, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Great commercial penetration testing tools can be very expensive and sometimes hard to use or of questionable accuracy. This book helps solve both of these problems. The open source, no-cost penetration testing tools presented do a great job and can be modified by the user for each situation. Many tools, even ones that cost thousands of dollars, do not come with any type of instruction on how and in which situations the penetration tester can best use them. Penetration Tester's Open Source Toolkit, Third Edition, expands upon existing instructions so that a professional can get the most accura

  19. Miastenia gravis juvenil Juvenile myasthenia gravis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Papazian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La miastenia gravis juvenil (MGJ es un trastorno crónico auto inmune en el cual existen anticuerpos séricos que al unirse a los receptores de acetilcolin nicotínicos de la membrana muscular de la placa motora alteran la transmisión neuromuscular. El resultado es fatiga muscular precoz con progresión a la parálisis durante estados de contracción muscular iterativos (movimientos o sostenidos (posturas y más raramente parálisis permanente durante el reposo. Los músculos inervados por los nervios craneales, especialmente los extraoculares y elevadores de los párpados, tienen más tendencia a la debilidad muscular persistente que los inervados por otros pares craneales y las extremidades. Las formas clínicas de presentación son generalizadas, oculares y respiratorias. El diagnóstico se sospecha mediante la anamnesia, la fatiga anormal se comprueba mediante el examen físico y la estimulación eléctrica iterativa del nervio que inerva al músculo afectado pero no paralizado. Se corrobora mediante la administración de inhibidores de la acetilcolin esterasa (IACE que al aumentar la cantidad de acetilcolin en la hendidura sináptica, corrigen la fatiga o la debilidad muscular transitoriamente. Se hace el diagnóstico de certeza mediante la demostración sérica de anticuerpos contra los receptores de acetilcolin (ACRA. El tratamiento es a largo plazo sintomático con IACE y etiopatogénico con inmunosupresores, plasmaféresis, gamma globulina endovenosa y timectomía. El curso es crónico. La remisión espontánea o después de tratamiento sintomático o etiopatogénico ocurre entre 1-10 años respectivamente. La mortalidad es prácticamente nula aun durantes las crisis miastenias gracias a la educación de padres, pacientes y público en general sobre el tema, al desarrollo del sistema de respuesta rápida de auxilio domiciliario y las unidades de cuidados intensivos y el empleo de la ventilación asistida profiláctica, plasmaféresis y

  20. Physical Penetration Testing: A Whole New Story in Penetration Testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimkov, T.; Pieters, Wolter

    2011-01-01

    Physical penetration testing plays an important role in assuring a company that the security policies are properly enforced and that the security awareness of the employees is on the appropriate level. In physical penetration tests the tester physically enters restricted locations and directly

  1. An improved method for generating axenic entomopathogenic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Shruti; Shokal, Upasana; Forst, Steven; Eleftherianos, Ioannis

    2015-09-19

    Steinernema carpocapsae are parasitic nematodes that invade and kill insects. The nematodes are mutualistically associated with the bacteria Xenorhabdus nematophila and together form an excellent model to study pathogen infection processes and host anti-nematode/antibacterial immune responses. To determine the contribution of S. carpocapsae and their associated X. nematophila to the successful infection of insects as well as to investigate the interaction of each mutualistic partner with the insect immune system, it is important to develop and establish robust methods for generating nematodes devoid of their bacteria. To produce S. carpocapsae nematodes without their associated X. nematophila bacteria, we have modified a previous method, which involves the use of a X. nematophila rpoS mutant strain that fails to colonize the intestine of the worms. We confirmed the absence of bacteria in the nematodes using a molecular diagnostic and two rounds of an axenicity assay involving appropriate antibiotics and nematode surface sterilization. We used axenic and symbiotic S. carpocapsae to infect Drosophila melanogaster larvae and found that both types of nematodes were able to cause insect death at similar rates. Generation of entomopathogenic nematodes lacking their mutualistic bacteria provides an excellent tool to dissect the molecular and genetic basis of nematode parasitism and to identify the insect host immune factors that participate in the immune response against nematode infections.

  2. Juvenile psittacine environmental enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone-Freilicher, Elisabeth; Rupley, Agnes E

    2015-05-01

    Environmental enrichment is of great import to the emotional, intellectual, and physical development of the juvenile psittacine and their success in the human home environment. Five major types of enrichment include social, occupational, physical, sensory, and nutritional. Occupational enrichment includes exercise and psychological enrichment. Physical enrichment includes the cage and accessories and the external home environment. Sensory enrichment may be visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory, or taste oriented. Nutritional enrichment includes variations in appearance, type, and frequency of diet, and treats, novelty, and foraging. Two phases of the preadult period deserve special enrichment considerations: the development of autonomy and puberty. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Juvenile Dermatomyositis in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Emeka Madu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile dermatomyositis has variable clinical presentations both in and outside of pregnancy. A literature review indicated that optimal maternal and fetal outcomes can be anticipated when the pregnancy is undertaken while the disease is in remission. Poorer outcomes are associated with flare-up of the disease in early pregnancy compared with exacerbation in the second or third trimester, when fetal prognosis is usually good. We present a case of JDM in pregnancy with disease exacerbation late in pregnancy and review of the relevant literature.

  4. Cryopreservation of roe deer abomasal nematodes for morphological identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beraldo, Paola; Pascotto, Ernesto

    2014-02-01

    Conventional methods to preserve adult nematodes for taxonomic purposes involve the use of fixative or clearing solutions (alcohol, formaldehyde, AFA and lactophenol), which cause morphological alterations and are toxic. The aim of this study is to propose an alternative method based on glycerol-cryopreservation of nematodes for their subsequent identification. Adults of trichostrongylid nematodes from the abomasum of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus Linnaeus) were glycerol-cryopreserved and compared with those fixed in formaldehyde, fresh and frozen without cryoprotectans. Morphology, transparency and elasticity of the anterior and posterior portion of male nematodes were compared, especially the caudal cuticular bursa and genital accessories. The method presented is quick and easy to use, and the quality of nematode specimens is better than that of nematodes fixed by previously used fixatives. Moreover, glycerol cryopreserved nematodes can be stored for a long time at -20 degrees C in perfect condition and they could be suitable for further analyses, such as histological or ultrastructural examinations.

  5. First Report of Korean Cyst Nematode, Heterodera koreana, Parasitic on Bamboo, Phyllostachys nigra, from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maafi, Zahra Tanha; Taheri, Zahra Majd

    2015-09-01

    Bamboo is grown sporadically in the north of Iran and is confined to very limited areas. The history of growing bamboo was to some extent simultaneous with the entrance, commencement, and growth of the tea industry in the north about a century ago. The bamboo was used for making baskets to transfer the harvested tea foliage from farm to the factory and other linked functions. A main area allocated for bamboo growing is located in Lahidjan Agricultural Research Station (LARS) in the north of Iran, where several species of bamboo were cultivated in an area of 5 ha. The species include five species of Phyllostachys (viz., P. aurea, P. bambusoides, P. decora, P. nigra, P. vivax) and one species of Arundinaria gigantean, Pleioblastus fortune, and Semiarundinaria fastuosa; however, only P. aurea and P. nigra have been precisely identified. A survey on plant parasitic nematodes associated with bamboo mainly on P. nigra in LARS revealed second-stage juveniles of cyst forming nematode in soil samples. Further analysis of root and soil samples led to recovery of a cyst nematode belonging to the genus Heterodera and the Afenestrata group. Cysts, vulval cone, and second-stage juveniles were studied for morphological and morphometric features. The classical identification was followed by amplification of the ribosomal RNA-ITS region and the D2-D3 expansion segments of 28S large-subunit rRNA gene; the amplified fragments were sequenced, edited, and compared with those of the corresponding published gene sequences. New D2-D3 and rRNA-ITS gene sequences were deposited in the GenBank database under the accession numbers KR818910 and KR818911, respectively. Based on the morphological and molecular data, the species of the cyst-forming nematode was identified as H. koreana (Vovlas et al., 1992; Mundo-Ocampo et al., 2008). The body contour of cysts was mainly subspherical, vey often with irregular shape (Fig. 1A), yellowish to light brown, thin cuticle with fine zigzag pattern

  6. PCR detection of potato cyst nematode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Potato cyst nematode (PCN) is responsible for losses in potato production totalling millions of euros every year in the EC. It is important for growers to know which species is present in their land as this determines its subsequent use. The two species Globodera pallida and Globodera rostochiensis can be differentiated using an allele-specific PCR.

  7. [Biomorphology of gastrointestinal nematodes of small ruminants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannetto, S

    2006-09-01

    Under the term gastrointestinal nematodes are included numerous parasites species of livestock belonging to the families Strongyloididae (Strongyloides), Strongylidae (Chabertia, Oesophagostomum) Trichostrongylidae (Trichostrongylus, Ostertagia, Teladorsagia, Cooperia, Marshallagia), Molineidae (Nematodirus), Ancylostomatidae (Bunostomum) and Trichuridae (Trichuris). This paper reviews the biomorphology aspects of these parasites as well as the controversy by the taxonomists in the classifications.

  8. Excretory/secretory products of anisakid nematodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehrdana, Foojan; Buchmann, Kurt

    2017-01-01

    Parasites from the family Anisakidae are widely distributed in marine fish populations worldwide and mainly nematodes of the three genera Anisakis, Pseudoterranova and Contracaecum have attracted attention due to their pathogenicity in humans. Their life cycles include invertebrates and fish as i...

  9. Potato cyst nematodes: pests of national importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato cyst nematodes (PCN; G. rostochiensis and G. pallida) are internationally-recognized quarantine pests and considered the most devastating pests of potatoes due to annual worldwide yield losses estimated at 12.2%. PCNs continue to spread throughout North America and were recently detected in I...

  10. Nutritional requirements for soybean cyst nematode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybeans [Glycine max] are the second largest cash crop in US Agriculture, but the soybean yield is compromised by infections from Heterodera glycines, also known as Soybean Cyst Nematodes [SCN]. SCN are the most devastating pathogen or plant disease soybean producers confront. This obligate parasi...

  11. Natural product synthesis: Making nematodes nervous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Scott A.

    2011-06-01

    A highly inventive route for the synthesis of a key substance that stimulates potato cyst nematodes to hatch has been developed. This discovery has potential to impact food supplies, as treatment of crops with this compound could alleviate the devastating effect of these parasites.

  12. RNA interference in plant parasitic nematodes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    Aug 4, 2008 ... grower preference or by government restrictions to limit the environmental ... risks associated with chemical control and (c) the pro- vision of ... certain model organisms. The first ... reproductive system (Lilley et al., 2005b), sperm (Urwin .... interference of dual oxidase in the plant nematode Meloidogyne.

  13. Nematodes: Model Organisms in High School Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, TJ; Anderson, Margery; Dillman, Adler; Yourick, Debra; Jett, Marti; Adams, Byron J.; Russell, RevaBeth

    2007-01-01

    In a collaborative effort between university researchers and high school science teachers, an inquiry-based laboratory module was designed using two species of insecticidal nematodes to help students apply scientific inquiry and elements of thoughtful experimental design. The learning experience and model are described in this article. (Contains 4…

  14. Nematode survival in relation to soil moisture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, W.R.

    1973-01-01

    Established nematode populations are very persistent in the soil. It is known that they need sufficient soil moisture for movement, feeding and reproduction (fig. 5), and that there are adverse soil moisture conditions which they cannot survive. The influence of soil moisture on survival

  15. Alternative splicing: a novel mechanism of regulation identified in the chorismate mutase gene of the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shun-Wen; Tian, Duanhua; Borchardt-Wier, Harmony B; Wang, Xiaohong

    2008-11-01

    Chorismate mutase (CM) secreted from the stylet of plant-parasitic nematodes plays an important role in plant parasitism. We isolated and characterized a new nematode CM gene (Gr-cm-1) from the potato cyst nematode, Globodera rostochiensis. The Gr-cm-1 gene was found to exist in the nematode genome as a single-copy gene that has two different alleles, Gr-cm-1A and Gr-cm-1B, both of which could give rise to two different mRNA transcripts of Gr-cm-1 and Gr-cm-1-IRII. In situ mRNA hybridization showed that the Gr-cm-1 gene was exclusively expressed within the subventral oesophageal gland cells of the nematode. Gr-cm-1 was demonstrated to encode a functional CM (GR-CM-1) potentially having a dimeric structure as the secreted bacterial *AroQ CMs. Gr-cm-1-IRII, generated by retention of intron 2 of the Gr-cm-1 pre-mRNA through alternative splicing (AS), would encode a truncated protein (GR-CM-1t) lacking the CM domain with no CM activity. The quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR assay revealed that splicing of the Gr-cm-1 gene was developmentally regulated; Gr-cm-1 was up-regulated whereas Gr-cm-1-IRII was down-regulated in early nematode parasitic stages compared to the preparasitic juvenile stage. Low-temperature SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that GR-CM-1 could form homodimers when expressed in Escherichia coli and the dimerization domain was retained in the truncated GR-CM-1t protein. The specific interaction between the two proteins was demonstrated in yeast. Our data suggested that the novel splice variant might function as a dominant negative isoform through heterodimerization with the full-length GR-CM-1 protein and that AS may represent an important mechanism for regulating CM activity during nematode parasitism.

  16. Effects of storage temperature on survival and infectivity of three indigenous entomopathogenic nematodes strains (Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae) from Meghalaya, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalramliana; Yadav, Arun K

    2016-12-01

    Three locally isolated strains of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs), viz. Heterorhabditis indica , Steinernema thermophilum and Steinernema glaseri , from Meghalaya, India were characterized in terms of storage temperature and survival and infectivity of their infective juveniles (IJs). The survival and infectivity of nematode IJs was studied at, 5 ± 2 and 25 ± 2 °C, for a period of 120 days, using deionized water as storage medium. The viability of nematode IJs was checked by mobility criterion at different storage periods, while the infectivity of nematode IJs was ascertained on the basis of establishment of IJs, using Galleria mellonella larva mortality tests in petridishes. The results of this study revealed that storage temperature markedly affects the survival as well as the establishment of nematode IJs of the three EPN species. At 5 °C, comparatively higher rate of IJ's survival (i.e. 74-86 %) was observed for 15 days of storage, but the same reduced drastically to 28-32 % after 30 days of storage for H. indica and S. thermophilum . On the other hand, at 25 °C, the survival of nematode IJs was observed till 120 days for all the three studied EPNs. In case of S. thermophilum and S. glaseri , higher rate of IJs survival (>75 %) was observed respectively at 15 and 30 days of observation. The study also showed that the establishment of IJs of the three EPN species declines with increase in storage periods, at both the test temperatures. In general, the nematodes stored at 25 °C showed comparatively better establishment than those stored at 5 °C. Among the three EPN studied, the establishment of S. glaseri was comparatively better than the rest of the species at both the temperatures and for different storage durations. In conclusion, our study adds further valuable information about the effect of storage temperature on survival and infectivity of three indigenous EPN species of Meghalaya, India which appears to be promising biocontrol

  17. Penetration of Photovoltaics in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Giannini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, an interesting experiment was completed in Greece concerning photovoltaic penetration into the electricity production sector. Based on the relevant laws and in accordance to the related European directives, an explosive penetration process was completed in less than three years, resulting in a 7% share of photovoltaics in electricity production instead of the previous negligible share. The legislation was based on licensing simplification and generous feed-in-tariffs. This approach transformed photovoltaic technology from a prohibitively expensive to a competitive one. This work aims to summarize the relevant legislation and illustrate its effect on the resulting penetration. A sigmoid-shape penetration was observed which was explained by a pulse-type driving force. The return on investment indicator was proposed as an appropriate driving force, which incorporates feed-in-tariffs and turnkey-cost. Furthermore, the resulting surcharge on the electricity price due to photovoltaic penetration was also analyzed.

  18. Direct analysis of the secretions of the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, L; Robertson, W M; Jones, J T

    1999-08-01

    Secretions were induced from second (invasive) stage juveniles (J2s) of the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis by exposing them to 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyl tryptamine oxalate (DMT). Secretions were collected from J2s in sufficient quantity to allow direct analysis. Gel electrophoresis followed by monochromatic silver staining demonstrated the presence of at least 10 proteins. The presence of several enzymes, including superoxide dismutase and proteases, was demonstrated using Western blots and activity assays. Antisera raised against the secretions recognized bands on Western blots consistent in molecular mass with those identified on silver stained gels. The antisera recognized structures implicated in the production of secretions including the subventral gland cells and surface of J2s.

  19. Evaluation of entomopathogenic nematodes and the supernatants of the in vitro culture medium of their mutualistic bacteria for the control of the root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne incognita and M. arenaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepenekci, Ilker; Hazir, Selcuk; Lewis, Edwin E

    2016-02-01

    The suppressive effects of various formulations of four entomopathogenic nematode (EPN) species and the supernatants of their mutualistic bacteria on the root-knot nematodes (RKNs) Meloidogyne incognita and M. arenaria in tomato roots were evaluated. The EPNs Steinernema carpocapsae, S. feltiae, S. glaseri and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora were applied as either live infective juveniles (IJs) or infected insect cadavers. Spent medium from culturing the bacterial symbionts Xenorhabdus bovienii and Photorhabdus luminescens kayaii with the cells removed was also applied without their nematode partners. The aqueous suspensions of IJs, infected cadaver applications of EPNs and especially treatments of X. bovienii supernatant suppressed the negative impact of RKNs on tomatoes. Specific responses to treatment were reduced RKN egg masses, increased plant height and increased fresh and dry weights compared with the control where only RKNs were applied. Among the treatments tested, the plant-dipping method of X. bovienii into bacterial culture fluid may be the most practical and effective method for M. incognita and M. arenaria control. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. [Larval biology of Cyrnea (Cyrnea) eurycerca Seurat, 1914, a habronemid nematode parasite of the francolin in Togo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seureau, C; Quentin, J C

    1983-01-01

    Larval biology of the habronemid nematode Cyrnea (Cyrnea) eurycerca Seurat, 1914, parasite of the Double-spurred Francolin Francolinus bicalcaratus, in Togo, is experimentally studied with the orthopteran Acrididae Tylotropidius patagiatus Karsch as intermediate host. The first three larval stages are described and illustrated. Infective larvae, which occur after two weeks of development at 30 degrees C, are unusually large (3 mm). The biology of this habronemid nematode is compared with the biology of the other Spirurids. It differs by: --an asynchronous penetration of the first stage larvae in the insect adipose tissue, --a short stay in this tissue (about 5 days) with a cell reaction of encapsulation, followed by an active escape of second stage larvae out of their capsule, --free and movable infective larvae in the hemocoele of the insect.

  1. Top 10 plant-parasitic nematodes in molecular plant pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, John T; Haegeman, Annelies; Danchin, Etienne G J; Gaur, Hari S; Helder, Johannes; Jones, Michael G K; Kikuchi, Taisei; Manzanilla-López, Rosa; Palomares-Rius, Juan E; Wesemael, Wim M L; Perry, Roland N

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this review was to undertake a survey of researchers working with plant-parasitic nematodes in order to determine a 'top 10' list of these pathogens based on scientific and economic importance. Any such list will not be definitive as economic importance will vary depending on the region of the world in which a researcher is based. However, care was taken to include researchers from as many parts of the world as possible when carrying out the survey. The top 10 list emerging from the survey is composed of: (1) root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.); (2) cyst nematodes (Heterodera and Globodera spp.); (3) root lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus spp.); (4) the burrowing nematode Radopholus similis; (5) Ditylenchus dipsaci; (6) the pine wilt nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus; (7) the reniform nematode Rotylenchulus reniformis; (8) Xiphinema index (the only virus vector nematode to make the list); (9) Nacobbus aberrans; and (10) Aphelenchoides besseyi. The biology of each nematode (or nematode group) is reviewed briefly. © 2013 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  2. Juvenile hyperthyroidism: an experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadada, S; Bhansali, A; Velayutham, P; Masoodi, S R

    2006-04-01

    To analyze the clinical profile of juvenile hyperthyroidism at presentation, their treatment outcome; predictors of remission and relapse. Retrospective analysis of medical records of 56 patients with juvenile hyperthyroidism seen over a period of 16 years. A cohort of 38 females and 18 males with mean (+/-SD) age of 14.9 +/- 3.4 years (range 3 to 18 years) was analyzed. Majority of patients was in the age group of 12-16 years. Common symptoms observed at presentation were weight loss (82.1%), excessive sweating (78.6%), heat intolerance (76.8%), increased appetite (73.2%) and diarrhea in 48.2%. In addition, accelerated linear growth was observed in 7.1% of patients. Goiter was present in 98.2% of children; 94.5% of which was diffuse and 4.8% was multinodular. The mean ((+/-SD) T3 was 4.8 +/- 3.4 ng/mL (N, 0.6-1.6), T4 was 218 +/- 98 ng/mL (N, 60-155) and TSH was 0.44 +/- 0.36 (N, 0.5-5.5 microIU/mL). TMA positivity seen in 36.9% of patients. All patients were treated with carbimazole; subsequently 4 patients required thyroidectomy and one required radioactive iodine ablation. Mean (+/-SD) duration of follow-up in our patients was 4.9 +/- 3 years, ranging between 1.6 to 16 years and mean (+/-SD) duration of treatment was 34.4 +/- 22.6 months (range 12 to 120 months). Mean (+/-SD) duration to achieve euthyroidism was 5.2 +/- 4.7 months, ranging between 1-33 months. On intention to treat analysis, remission with carbimazole was achieved in 47.6%, remaining patients failed to achieve remission with drug treatment. Graves disease is the commonest cause of juvenile hyperthyroidism. Carbimazole is safe, effective, cheap, and easily available form of therapy. It is occasionally associated with serious side effects but requires prolonged follow up.

  3. The bacterial community of entomophilic nematodes and host beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koneru, Sneha L; Salinas, Heilly; Flores, Gilberto E; Hong, Ray L

    2016-05-01

    Insects form the most species-rich lineage of Eukaryotes and each is a potential host for organisms from multiple phyla, including fungi, protozoa, mites, bacteria and nematodes. In particular, beetles are known to be associated with distinct bacterial communities and entomophilic nematodes. While entomopathogenic nematodes require symbiotic bacteria to kill and reproduce inside their insect hosts, the microbial ecology that facilitates other types of nematode-insect associations is largely unknown. To illuminate detailed patterns of the tritrophic beetle-nematode-bacteria relationship, we surveyed the nematode infestation profiles of scarab beetles in the greater Los Angeles area over a five-year period and found distinct nematode infestation patterns for certain beetle hosts. Over a single season, we characterized the bacterial communities of beetles and their associated nematodes using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. We found significant differences in bacterial community composition among the five prevalent beetle host species, independent of geographical origin. Anaerobes Synergistaceae and sulphate-reducing Desulfovibrionaceae were most abundant in Amblonoxia beetles, while Enterobacteriaceae and Lachnospiraceae were common in Cyclocephala beetles. Unlike entomopathogenic nematodes that carry bacterial symbionts, insect-associated nematodes do not alter the beetles' native bacterial communities, nor do their microbiomes differ according to nematode or beetle host species. The conservation of Diplogastrid nematodes associations with Melolonthinae beetles and sulphate-reducing bacteria suggests a possible link between beetle-bacterial communities and their associated nematodes. Our results establish a starting point towards understanding the dynamic interactions between soil macroinvertebrates and their microbiota in a highly accessible urban environment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Juvenile prison in parallel legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutovac Mitar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for punishment of juveniles occurred from the time when there was no clear line separating them from the adult criminal population. At the same time, the evolution of the juvenile punishment is not in itself involve substantial changes to their criminal status. On the contrary, the status of minors in society did not show serious differences regarding the status of young adults, as well as the adult elderly. On the other hand, on the ground of their punishment is recorded deviations that go in the direction of application of mild corporal punishment. Closing the minor was performed in a physically separate parts of the general penal institutions with the use of a lower degree of restrictions while serving juvenile prison. Due to the different treatment of minors during the evolution of their criminal status leads to their different treatment in comparative law. That is why we are witnessing the existence of numerous differences in the juvenile punishment in some countries in the world. On the European continent there is a wide range of different legal solutions when it comes to punishing juveniles. There are considerable differences in the procedure pronouncing juvenile prison and in particular penal treatment of juveniles in penitentiary institutions. For these reasons, the author has decided to show the basic statutory provisions in the part that relates to the issue of punishment of minors in the legislation of individual countries.

  5. Females and males of root-parasitic cyst nematodes induce different symplasmic connections between their syncytial feeding cells and the phloem in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Julia; Grundler, Florian M W

    2006-01-01

    Root syncytia induced by the beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii were thought to be symplasmically isolated. A recent study with mobile and immobile GFP constructs expressed in transgenic Arabidopsis plants under the control of pAtSUC2 showed that only mobile GFP could be detected in syncytia and suggested the existence of plasmodesmata between syncytia and the phloem. In the present study the existence of plasmodesmata between syncytia and the phloem is proven by grafting experiments. This technique rules out the possibility that GFP accumulation in syncytia is due to GFP expression in syncytia. Mobile GFP could be followed from transgenic scions carrying a pAtSUC2-gfp fusion construct via wild-type rootstocks into nematode-induced syncytia. While GFP could be detected in all syncytia associated to female nematodes, it was never observed in syncytia of male juveniles. As no GFP-mRNA could be detected in the rootstock we postulate that GFP as protein entered syncytia of females via plasmodesmata, while the protein was excluded from syncytia of male juveniles by plasmodesmata with a lower size exclusion limit.

  6. A neuropeptide modulates sensory perception in the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Morris

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs employ a sophisticated chemosensory apparatus to detect potential hosts. Understanding the molecular basis of relevant host-finding behaviours could facilitate improved EPN biocontrol approaches, and could lend insight to similar behaviours in economically important mammalian parasites. FMRFamide-like peptides are enriched and conserved across the Phylum Nematoda, and have been linked with motor and sensory function, including dispersal and aggregating behaviours in the free living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The RNA interference (RNAi pathway of Steinernema carpocapsae was characterised in silico, and employed to knockdown the expression of the FMRFamide-like peptide 21 (GLGPRPLRFamide gene (flp-21 in S. carpocapsae infective juveniles; a first instance of RNAi in this genus, and a first in an infective juvenile of any EPN species. Our data show that 5 mg/ml dsRNA and 50 mM serotonin triggers statistically significant flp-21 knockdown (-84%*** over a 48 h timecourse, which inhibits host-finding (chemosensory, dispersal, hyperactive nictation and jumping behaviours. However, whilst 1 mg/ml dsRNA and 50 mM serotonin also triggers statistically significant flp-21 knockdown (-51%** over a 48 h timecourse, it does not trigger the null sensory phenotypes; statistically significant target knockdown can still lead to false negative results, necessitating appropriate experimental design. SPME GC-MS volatile profiles of two EPN hosts, Galleria mellonella and Tenebrio molitor reveal an array of shared and unique compounds; these differences had no impact on null flp-21 RNAi phenotypes for the behaviours assayed. Localisation of flp-21 / FLP-21 to paired anterior neurons by whole mount in situ hybridisation and immunocytochemistry corroborates the RNAi data, further suggesting a role in sensory modulation. These data can underpin efforts to study these behaviours in other economically important parasites, and could

  7. A neuropeptide modulates sensory perception in the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Robert; Wilson, Leonie; Sturrock, Matthew; Warnock, Neil D; Carrizo, Daniel; Cox, Deborah; Maule, Aaron G; Dalzell, Johnathan J

    2017-03-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) employ a sophisticated chemosensory apparatus to detect potential hosts. Understanding the molecular basis of relevant host-finding behaviours could facilitate improved EPN biocontrol approaches, and could lend insight to similar behaviours in economically important mammalian parasites. FMRFamide-like peptides are enriched and conserved across the Phylum Nematoda, and have been linked with motor and sensory function, including dispersal and aggregating behaviours in the free living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The RNA interference (RNAi) pathway of Steinernema carpocapsae was characterised in silico, and employed to knockdown the expression of the FMRFamide-like peptide 21 (GLGPRPLRFamide) gene (flp-21) in S. carpocapsae infective juveniles; a first instance of RNAi in this genus, and a first in an infective juvenile of any EPN species. Our data show that 5 mg/ml dsRNA and 50 mM serotonin triggers statistically significant flp-21 knockdown (-84%***) over a 48 h timecourse, which inhibits host-finding (chemosensory), dispersal, hyperactive nictation and jumping behaviours. However, whilst 1 mg/ml dsRNA and 50 mM serotonin also triggers statistically significant flp-21 knockdown (-51%**) over a 48 h timecourse, it does not trigger the null sensory phenotypes; statistically significant target knockdown can still lead to false negative results, necessitating appropriate experimental design. SPME GC-MS volatile profiles of two EPN hosts, Galleria mellonella and Tenebrio molitor reveal an array of shared and unique compounds; these differences had no impact on null flp-21 RNAi phenotypes for the behaviours assayed. Localisation of flp-21 / FLP-21 to paired anterior neurons by whole mount in situ hybridisation and immunocytochemistry corroborates the RNAi data, further suggesting a role in sensory modulation. These data can underpin efforts to study these behaviours in other economically important parasites, and could facilitate

  8. Influence of root-knot nematode infestation on antioxidant enzymes, chlorophyll content and growth in Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhau, B S; Borah, Bitupon; Ahmed, Reshma; Phukon, P; Gogoi, Barbi; Sarmah, D K; Lal, M; Wann, S B

    2016-04-01

    Plants adapt themselves to overcome adverse environmental conditions, and this involves a plethora of concurrent cellular activities. Physiological experiments or metabolic profiling can quantify this response. Among several diseases of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth. (Patchouli), root-knot nematode infection caused by Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood causes severe damage to the plant and hence, the oil production. In the present study, we identified M. incognita morphologically and at molecular level using sequenced characterized amplified region marker (SCAR). M. incognita was artificially inoculated at different levels of second stage juveniles (J₂) to examine the effect on Patchouli plant growth parameters. Peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase enzyme activity and changes in the total phenol and chlorophyll contents in M. incognita was also evaluated in response to infection. The results have demonstrated that nematode infestation leads to increased peroxidase activities in the leaves of the patchouli plants and thereby, increase in phenolic content as a means of defence against nematode infestation. Chlorophyll content was also found decreased but no changes in polyphenol oxidase enzyme activity.

  9. Efficacy of organic matter and some bio-inoculants for the management of root-knot nematode infesting tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Khan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of an organic matter like Tagetes erecta and bioinoculants Azotobacter chroococcum and Glomus fasciculatum was investigated in tomato cultivar ‘Pusa Ruby’ when inoculated individually as well as concomitantly for the management of the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita in terms of growth parameters such as plant length, fresh and dry weights, chlorophyll content, per cent pollen fertility and mycorrhization. Greatest reduction in the numbers of second-stage juveniles in soil, number of root-galls, egg-masses and nematode multiplication was recorded with combined application of T. erecta and bio-inoculants A. chroococcum and G. fasciculatum as compared to untreated control and other treatments. Similarly, the greatest improvement in the plant growth and biomass of tomato was noted in the same treatments. However, individual inoculation of these bio-inoculants and organic fertilizers also showed significant enhancement but was less as compared to combined treatment. A. chroococcum was found most effective against disease incidence followed by G. fasciculatum and T. erecta. Parameters like NP and K contents were significantly enhanced in those plants which received combined treatments of organic matter and bio-inoculants. Azotobacter was found more efficacious against nematodes than Glomus fasciculatum. Organic matter also influenced the activity of bio-inoculants, more with the Azotobacter than G. fasciculatum. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12643 International Journal of Environment Vol.4(2 2015: 206-220

  10. Identification and characterization of parasitism genes from the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus reveals a multilayered detoxification strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espada, Margarida; Silva, Ana Cláudia; Eves van den Akker, Sebastian; Cock, Peter J A; Mota, Manuel; Jones, John T

    2016-02-01

    The migratory endoparasitic nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, which is the causal agent of pine wilt disease, has phytophagous and mycetophagous phases during its life cycle. This highly unusual feature distinguishes it from other plant-parasitic nematodes and requires profound changes in biology between modes. During the phytophagous stage, the nematode migrates within pine trees, feeding on the contents of parenchymal cells. Like other plant pathogens, B. xylophilus secretes effectors from pharyngeal gland cells into the host during infection. We provide the first description of changes in the morphology of these gland cells between juvenile and adult life stages. Using a comparative transcriptomics approach and an effector identification pipeline, we identify numerous novel parasitism genes which may be important for the mediation of interactions of B. xylophilus with its host. In-depth characterization of all parasitism genes using in situ hybridization reveals two major categories of detoxification proteins, those specifically expressed in either the pharyngeal gland cells or the digestive system. These data suggest that B. xylophilus incorporates effectors in a multilayer detoxification strategy in order to protect itself from host defence responses during phytophagy. © 2015 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  11. Deep ocean model penetrator experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, T.J.; Burdett, J.R.F.

    1986-01-01

    Preliminary trials of experimental model penetrators in the deep ocean have been conducted as an international collaborative exercise by participating members (national bodies and the CEC) of the Engineering Studies Task Group of the Nuclear Energy Agency's Seabed Working Group. This report describes and gives the results of these experiments, which were conducted at two deep ocean study areas in the Atlantic: Great Meteor East and the Nares Abyssal Plain. Velocity profiles of penetrators of differing dimensions and weights have been determined as they free-fell through the water column and impacted the sediment. These velocity profiles are used to determine the final embedment depth of the penetrators and the resistance to penetration offered by the sediment. The results are compared with predictions of embedment depth derived from elementary models of a penetrator impacting with a sediment. It is tentatively concluded that once the resistance to penetration offered by a sediment at a particular site has been determined, this quantity can be used to sucessfully predict the embedment that penetrators of differing sizes and weights would achieve at the same site

  12. A ubiquitin carboxyl extension protein secreted from a plant-parasitic nematode Globodera rostochiensis is cleaved in planta to promote plant parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronis, Demosthenis; Chen, Shiyan; Lu, Shunwen; Hewezi, Tarek; Carpenter, Sara C D; Loria, Rosemary; Baum, Thomas J; Wang, Xiaohong

    2013-04-01

    Nematode effector proteins originating from esophageal gland cells play central roles in suppressing plant defenses and in formation of the plant feeding cells that are required for growth and development of cyst nematodes. A gene (GrUBCEP12) encoding a unique ubiquitin carboxyl extension protein (UBCEP) that consists of a signal peptide for secretion, a mono-ubiquitin domain, and a 12 amino acid carboxyl extension protein (CEP12) domain was cloned from the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis. This GrUBCEP12 gene was expressed exclusively within the nematode's dorsal esophageal gland cell, and was up-regulated in the parasitic second-stage juvenile, correlating with the time when feeding cell formation is initiated. We showed that specific GrUBCEP12 knockdown via RNA interference reduced nematode parasitic success, and that over-expression of the secreted Gr(Δ) (SP) UBCEP12 protein in potato resulted in increased nematode susceptibility, providing direct evidence that this secreted effector is involved in plant parasitism. Using transient expression assays in Nicotiana benthamiana, we found that Gr(Δ) (SP) UBCEP12 is processed into free ubiquitin and a CEP12 peptide (GrCEP12) in planta, and that GrCEP12 suppresses resistance gene-mediated cell death. A target search showed that expression of RPN2a, a gene encoding a subunit of the 26S proteasome, was dramatically suppressed in Gr(Δ) (SP) UBCEP12 but not GrCEP12 over-expression plants when compared with control plants. Together, these results suggest that, when delivered into host plant cells, Gr(Δ) (SP) UBCEP12 becomes two functional units, one acting to suppress plant immunity and the other potentially affecting the host 26S proteasome, to promote feeding cell formation. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Efficiency of green manure species on the population of reniform nematode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Gonçalves Gardiano

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the growing of soil improving crops on the population of Rotylenchulus reniformis in naturally infested soil. It was evaluated the effect of 6 species of plants as cover crops in winter and 13 summer species and a fallow treatment on the nematode population under greenhouse. After 60 days, the root system was collected. Then, a sample of soil was taken in order to extract juveniles from the soil and quantification the final population of the pathogen in each pot for determining of the reproduction factor (RF. Fallow and all winter species of green manure, except hairy vetch, reduced the population of R. reniformis after cultivation in infested soil, in comparison to the control. Regarding summer cover crops, it was observed that sorghum ‘SI03204’ (Sorghum vulgare, millet ‘BRS1501’ (Pennisetum glaucum, Brachiaria ruziziensis, finger millet (Eleusine coracana, estylo ‘Campo Grande’ (Stylosanthes capitata x S. macrocephala, peanut ‘IAC Tatu ST’ (Arachis hypogaea and dwarf velvet bean (Mucuna deeringiana reduced the population of R. reniformis, when compared to the control, could be used in the management of this nematode.

  14. Occurrence, hosts, morphology, and molecular characterisation of Pasteuria bacteria parasitic in nematodes of the family Plectidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturhan, Dieter; Shutova, Tatyana S; Akimov, Vladimir N; Subbotin, Sergei A

    2005-01-01

    Parasitic bacteria of the genus Pasteuria are reported for three Anaplectus and four identified and several unidentified Plectus species found in eight countries in various habitats. The pasteurias from plectids agree in essential morphological characters of sporangia and endospores as well as in developmental cycle with those of the Pasteuria species and strains described from tylenchid nematodes, but appear to be mainly distinguished from these by absence of a distinct perisporium in the spores and the endospores obviously not being cup- or saucer-shaped. The wide range of measurements and morphological peculiarities of sporangia and endospores suggest that probably several Pasteuria species have to be distinguished as parasites in Plectidae. From an infected juvenile of an unidentified plectid species the 16S rRNA gene sequence of Pasteuria sp. was obtained. Substantial sequence divergence from described Pasteuria species and its phylogenetic position on molecular trees indicate that this Pasteuria sp. could be considered as a new species. Preliminary results of the analysis of DNA phylogeny of Pasteuria spp. and their nematode hosts provide evidence for incongruence of their phylogenetic history and of host switching events during evolution of the bacterial parasites.

  15. Assessments of iodoindoles and abamectin as inducers of methuosis in pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekharan, Satish Kumar; Lee, Jin-Hyung; Ravichandran, Vinothkannan; Lee, Jintae

    2017-07-28

    Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is a quarantined migratory endoparasite known to cause severe economic losses in pine forest ecosystems. The study presents the nematicidal effects of halogenated indoles on B. xylophilus and their action mechanisms. 5-Iodoindole and abamectin (positive control) at low concentration (10 µg/mL) presented similar and high nematicidal activities against B. xylophilus. 5-Iodoindole diminished fecundity, reproductive activities, embryonic and juvenile lethality and locomotor behaviors. Molecular interactions of ligands with invertebrate-specific glutamate gated chloride channel receptor reinforced the notion that 5-iodoindole, like abamectin, rigidly binds to the active sites of the receptor. 5-Iodoindole also induced diverse phenotypic deformities in nematodes including abnormal organ disruption/shrinkage and increased vacuolization. These findings suggest the prospective role of vacuoles in nematode death by methuosis. Importantly, 5-iodoindole was nontoxic to two plants, Brassica oleracea and Raphanus raphanistrum. Henceforth, the study warrants the application of iodoindoles in ecological environments to control the devastating pine destruction by B. xylophilus.

  16. Prevalence and Molecular Identification of Nematode and Dipteran Parasites in an Australian Alpine Grasshopper (Kosciuscola tristis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbers, Kate D. L.; Byatt, Lachlan J.; Hill, Nichola J.; Bartolini, Remo J.; Hose, Grant C.; Herberstein, Marie E.; Power, Michelle L

    2015-01-01

    In alpine Australia, Orthoptera are abundant, dominant herbivores, important prey species, and hosts for parasites and parasitoids. Despite the central role of orthopterans in alpine ecosystems, the impact of parasites on orthopteran populations is under-explored. In this study we describe the relationship between parasite prevalence and host sex, body size and year of collection. We accessed an existing, preserved collection of 640 Kosciuscola tristis collected from across its range between 2007 and 2011. Upon dissection we collected juvenile parasites and used molecular tools to identify them to three families (Nematoda; Mermithidae, and Arthropoda: Diptera: Tachinidae and Sarcophagidae). The prevalence of nematodes ranged from 3.5% to 25.0% and dipterans from 2.4% to 20.0%. Contrary to predictions, we found no associations between parasite prevalence and grasshopper sex or size. Although there was an association between prevalence of both nematodes and dipterans with year of collection, this is likely driven by a small sample size in the first year. Our results provide a foundation for future studies into parasite prevalence within the alpine environment and the abiotic factors that might influence these associations. PMID:25919745

  17. The plant cell wall in the feeding sites of cyst nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlmann, Holger; Sobczak, Miroslaw

    2014-01-01

    Plant parasitic cyst nematodes (genera Heterodera and Globodera) are serious pests for many crops. They enter the host roots as migratory second stage juveniles (J2) and migrate intracellularly toward the vascular cylinder using their stylet and a set of cell wall degrading enzymes produced in the pharyngeal glands. They select an initial syncytial cell (ISC) within the vascular cylinder or inner cortex layers to induce the formation of a multicellular feeding site called a syncytium, which is the only source of nutrients for the parasite during its entire life. A syncytium can consist of more than hundred cells whose protoplasts are fused together through local cell wall dissolutions. While the nematode produces a cocktail of cell wall degrading and modifying enzymes during migration through the root, the cell wall degradations occurring during syncytium development are due to the plants own cell wall modifying and degrading proteins. The outer syncytial cell wall thickens to withstand the increasing osmotic pressure inside the syncytium. Furthermore, pronounced cell wall ingrowths can be formed on the outer syncytial wall at the interface with xylem vessels. They increase the surface of the symplast-apoplast interface, thus enhancing nutrient uptake into the syncytium. Processes of cell wall degradation, synthesis and modification in the syncytium are facilitated by a variety of plant proteins and enzymes including expansins, glucanases, pectate lyases and cellulose synthases, which are produced inside the syncytium or in cells surrounding the syncytium.

  18. Analysis of survival and hatching transcriptomes from potato cyst nematodes, Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duceppe, Marc-Olivier; Lafond-Lapalme, Joël; Palomares-Rius, Juan Emilio; Sabeh, Michaël; Blok, Vivian; Moffett, Peter; Mimee, Benjamin

    2017-06-20

    Potato cyst nematodes (PCNs), Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida, cause important economic losses. They are hard to manage because of their ability to remain dormant in soil for many years. Although general knowledge about these plant parasitic nematodes has considerably increased over the past decades, very little is known about molecular events involved in cyst dormancy and hatching, two key steps of their development. Here, we have studied the progression of PCN transcriptomes from dry cysts to hatched juveniles using RNA-Seq. We found that several cell detoxification-related genes were highly active in the dry cysts. Many genes linked to an increase of calcium and water uptake were up-regulated during transition from dormancy to hydration. Exposure of hydrated cysts to host plant root exudates resulted in different transcriptional response between species. After 48 h of exposure, G. pallida cysts showed no significant modulation of gene expression while G. rostochiensis had 278 differentially expressed genes. The first G. rostochiensis significantly up-regulated gene was observed after 8 h and was coding for a transmembrane metalloprotease. This enzyme is able to activate/inactivate peptide hormones and could be involved in a cascade of events leading to hatching. Several known effector genes were also up-regulated during hatching.

  19. The plant cell wall in the feeding sites of cyst nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger eBohlmann

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant parasitic cyst nematodes (genera Heterodera and Globodera are serious pests for many crops. They enter the host roots as migratory second stage juveniles (J2 and migrate intracellularly towards the vascular cylinder using their stylet and a set of cell wall degrading enzymes produced in the pharyngeal glands. They select an initial syncytial cell (ISC within the vascular cylinder or inner cortex layers to induce the formation of a multicellular feeding site called a syncytium, which is the only source of nutrients for the parasite during its entire life. A syncytium can consist of more than hundred cells whose protoplasts are fused together through local cell wall dissolutions. While the nematode produces a cocktail of cell wall degrading and modifying enzymes during migration through the root, the cell wall degradations occurring during syncytium development are due to the plants own cell wall modifying and degrading proteins. The outer syncytial cell wall thickens to withstand the increasing osmotic pressure inside the syncytium. Furthermore, pronounced cell wall ingrowths can be formed on the outer syncytial wall at the interface with xylem vessels. They increase the surface of the symplast-apoplast interface, thus enhancing nutrient uptake into the syncytium. Processes of cell wall degradation, synthesis and modification in the syncytium are facilitated by a variety of plant proteins and enzymes including expansins, glucanases, pectate lyases and cellulose synthases, which are produced inside the syncytium or in cells surrounding the syncytium.

  20. THE INFLUENCE OF POTATO CYST NEMATODE G. ROSTOCHIENSIS INFESTATION ON DIFFERENT POTATO CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Urek

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis is one of the most serious pests of potato in Slovenia. Precise nematode identification and knowledge about potato cultivars, which are most suitable for growing in the Slovenian climate conditions and most resistant to G. rostochiensis, are necessary to develop an effective integrated pest control. Here we report the results of the influence of G. rostochiensis pathotype Ro1/4 on the yield of different potato cultivars: the susceptible cultivar Desiree, the resistant cultivars White Lady, Miranda, Aladin, Sante and Adora, and the clone KIS 94-1/5-14. The yield of cv. White Lady was the highest and that of susceptible cv. Desiree the lowest. The influence of several resistant and one susceptible potato cultivars on population dynamics of G. rostochiensis was also determined. The total number of cysts/100 cm3 and the number of eggs and juveniles per cyst increased in the susceptible cv. Desiree and decreased in the resistant cultivars White Lady, Sante and Adora.

  1. Isolation and characterization of a rhizobacterial antagonist of root-knot nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lihui; Shao, Ying; Wan, Jingwang; Feng, Hui; Zhu, Hua; Huang, Huiwen; Zhou, Yijun

    2014-01-01

    The rhizobacterial strain Jdm2 was isolated from the rhizosphere of the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Trichosanthes kirilowii in Jiangsu province, China, and was identified as Bacillus subtilis. Exposure of cell-free filtrate of the strain to the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita under in vitro conditions caused substantial mortality of the second stage juvenile (J2) and significantly reduced egg hatchability. A greenhouse trial demonstrated that 56 days after treatment with Jdm2, the number of galls associated with M. incognita infection in the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) roots was significantly reduced compared to controls, and the disease severity of infected plants was lower in treated plants (36%) compared to water control (75%). Consistently, in the field trial, the biocontrol efficacy of Jdm2 reached 69%, 51% and 48% after 30, 60 and 90 days post-transplantation, respectively. As indicated by PCR-DGGE analysis, inoculation with Jdm2 strain had an effect on the bacterial community of the tomato rhizosphere at the first stage, but was not able to imperil the bacterial community stability for long time. The novel bacterial strain Jdm2 enhances plant growth and inhibits nematode activity, and has the potential to be a safe and effective microbial pesticide.

  2. Isolation and characterization of a rhizobacterial antagonist of root-knot nematodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihui Wei

    Full Text Available The rhizobacterial strain Jdm2 was isolated from the rhizosphere of the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Trichosanthes kirilowii in Jiangsu province, China, and was identified as Bacillus subtilis. Exposure of cell-free filtrate of the strain to the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita under in vitro conditions caused substantial mortality of the second stage juvenile (J2 and significantly reduced egg hatchability. A greenhouse trial demonstrated that 56 days after treatment with Jdm2, the number of galls associated with M. incognita infection in the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum roots was significantly reduced compared to controls, and the disease severity of infected plants was lower in treated plants (36% compared to water control (75%. Consistently, in the field trial, the biocontrol efficacy of Jdm2 reached 69%, 51% and 48% after 30, 60 and 90 days post-transplantation, respectively. As indicated by PCR-DGGE analysis, inoculation with Jdm2 strain had an effect on the bacterial community of the tomato rhizosphere at the first stage, but was not able to imperil the bacterial community stability for long time. The novel bacterial strain Jdm2 enhances plant growth and inhibits nematode activity, and has the potential to be a safe and effective microbial pesticide.

  3. A realistic appraisal of methods to enhance desiccation tolerance of entomopathogenic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Roland N; Ehlers, Ralf-Udo; Glazer, Itamar

    2012-06-01

    Understanding the desiccation survival attributes of infective juveniles of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) of the genera Steinernema and Heterorhabditis, is central to evaluating the reality of enhancing the shelf-life and field persistence of commercial formulations. Early work on the structural and physiological aspects of desiccation survival focused on the role of the molted cuticle in controlling the rate of water loss and the importance of energy reserves, particularly neutral lipids. The accumulation of trehalose was also found to enhance desiccation survival. Isolation of natural populations that can survive harsh environments, such as deserts, indicated that some populations have enhanced abilities to survive desiccation. However, survival abilities of EPN are limited compared with those of some species of plant-parasitic nematodes inhabiting aerial parts of plants. Research on EPN stress tolerance has expanded on two main lines: i) to select strains of species, currently in use commercially, which have increased tolerance to environmental extremes; and ii) to utilize molecular information, including expressed sequence tags and genome sequence data, to determine the underlying genetic factors that control longevity and stress tolerance of EPN. However, given the inherent limitations of EPN survival ability, it is likely that improved formulation will be the major factor to enhance EPN longevity and, perhaps, increase the range of applications.

  4. Recurrent giant juvenile fibroadenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn S. King

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Breast masses in children, though rare, present a difficult clinical challenge as they can represent a wide variety of entities from benign fibroadenomas to phyllodes tumors. Rapidly growing or recurrent masses can be particularly concerning to patients, families and physicians alike. Clinical examination and conventional imaging modalities are not efficacious in distinguishing between different tumor types and surgical excision is often recommended for both final diagnosis and for treatment of large or rapidly growing masses. While surgical excision can result in significant long-term deformity of the breast there are some surgical techniques that can be used to limit deformity and/or aid in future reconstruction. Here we present a case of recurrent giant juvenile fibroadenoma with a review of the clinical presentation, diagnostic tools and treatment options.

  5. Fetal and juvenile radiotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    A number of studies conducted under this project have demonstrated that many of the biological parameters used to calculate permissible levels of exposure of adults to radioactive materials are inappropriate for the rapidly growing infant or child or for the pregnant female. These include age-related differences in radionuclide deposition, distribution, and retention and associated differences in microdosimetry, as well as the greater intrinsic radiosensitivity of the immature organism. These findings emphasize the need for more detailed information on the metabolism and toxicity of radionuclides in the prenatal and juvenile mammal. The continuing objective of this project is to obtain such information, which is needed to establish appropriate exposure limits for radionuclides of greatest potential hazard to these age groups

  6. Damage-associated responses of the host contribute to defence against cyst nematodes but not root-knot nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Syed Jehangir; Anjam, Muhammad Shahzad; Mendy, Badou; Anwer, Muhammad Arslan; Habash, Samer S; Lozano-Torres, Jose L; Grundler, Florian M W; Siddique, Shahid

    2017-12-16

    When nematodes invade and subsequently migrate within plant roots, they generate cell wall fragments (in the form of oligogalacturonides; OGs) that can act as damage-associated molecular patterns and activate host defence responses. However, the molecular mechanisms mediating damage responses in plant-nematode interactions remain unexplored. Here, we characterized the role of a group of cell wall receptor proteins in Arabidopsis, designated as polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs), during infection with the cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii and the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. PGIPs are encoded by a family of two genes in Arabidopsis, and are involved in the formation of active OG elicitors. Our results show that PGIP gene expression is strongly induced in response to cyst nematode invasion of roots. Analyses of loss-of-function mutants and overexpression lines revealed that PGIP1 expression attenuates infection of host roots by cyst nematodes, but not root-knot nematodes. The PGIP1-mediated attenuation of cyst nematode infection involves the activation of plant camalexin and indole-glucosinolate pathways. These combined results provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying plant damage perception and response pathways during infection by cyst and root-knot nematodes, and establishes the function of PGIP in plant resistance to cyst nematodes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  7. Practical application of insect-parasitic nematodes and sterile flies; Praktische Anwendung insektenparasitischer Nematoden und sterilisierter Fliegen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galle, F. [Bayerisches Staatsministerium fuer Ernaehrung, Landwirtschaft und Forsten, Muenchen (Germany); Loosjes, M. [De Groene Vlieg, Nieuwe Tonge (Netherlands)

    1987-07-01

    The company 'de Groene Vlieg' started with commercial control of the onion fly by means of the sterile insect technique. At the moment 10 per cent of the Dutch spring sown onions are treated with this method. The mass-rearing, the estimations of populations and the repeated releases of sterilized flies make it a rather complicated method. It can be applied economically per field, but only in areas with a concentration of onion growing. For export we see no possibilities yet. In principle the sterile insect technique can be applied also to other flies (carrot rust fly, cabbage root fly), but a suitable artificial diet is still lacking. Since some years we also rear the insect parasitic nematodes Heterorhabditis sp. and Neoaplectana bibionis. The later is experimentally used with success against Agrotis segetum caterpillars in lettuce. Research will yield more applications of nematodes against different pests. We use Heterorhabditis sp. in practice against the black vine weevil (Otiorhynchus sulcatus), a serious pest in glass houses, tree nurseries and gardens. Good control is achieved with a dose of one half to one million nematodes per square meter in moist soil and with temperatures above 12 degrees C. The application is similar to that of a chemical insecticide. The pest is killed by symbiontic bacteria, released by the nematodes after penetrating into the body cavity of the larvae. The nematodes are delivered by mail. If cooled they can be kept alive for over four weeks in the package. We export already to Switzerland and plan to export also to Western Germany. At this moment a possible admittance is under investigation in the Netherlands for application of a nuclear polyhedrosis virus against Spodoptera exigua caterpillars.

  8. Juvenile delinquency and correctional treatment in Britain

    OpenAIRE

    堀尾, 良弘; ホリオ, ヨシヒロ; Yoshihiro, Horio

    2006-01-01

    Japanese modernistic culture is influenced not a little from Britain. In looking at the Juvenile Law and the history of correctional treatment in Britain, understanding of today's juvenile delinquency and treatment deepen. Moreover, the background and issue of juvenile delinquency in Britain are also discussed. As a feature of the juvenile delinquency in Britain, the common field with Japan and the field peculiar to Britain became clear in each. It is common to the world that the juvenile del...

  9. Small RNAs and extracellular vesicles in filarial nematodes: From nematode development to diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, J F; Babayan, S A; Buck, A H

    2017-02-01

    Parasitic nematodes have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to communicate with their hosts in order to survive and successfully establish an infection. The transfer of RNA within extracellular vesicles (EVs) has recently been described as a mechanism that could contribute to this communication in filarial nematodes. It has been shown that these EVs are loaded with several types of RNAs, including microRNAs, leading to the hypothesis that parasites could actively use these molecules to manipulate host gene expression and to the exciting prospect that these pathways could result in new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Here, we review the literature on the diverse RNAi pathways that operate in nematodes and more specifically our current knowledge of extracellular RNA (exRNA) and EVs derived from filarial nematodes in vitro and within their hosts. We further detail some of the issues and questions related to the capacity of RNA-mediated communication to function in parasite-host interactions and the ability of exRNA to enable us to distinguish and detect different nematode parasites in their hosts. © 2016 The Authors. Parasite Immunology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Plant actin cytoskeleton re-modeling by plant parasitic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler, Janice de Almeida; Rodiuc, Natalia; Smertenko, Andrei; Abad, Pierre

    2010-03-01

    The cytoskeleton is an important component of the plant's defense mechanism against the attack of pathogenic organisms. Plants however, are defenseless against parasitic root-knot and cyst nematodes and respond to the invasion by the development of a special feeding site that supplies the parasite with nutrients required for the completion of its life cycle. Recent studies of nematode invasion under treatment with cytoskeletal drugs and in mutant plants where normal functions of the cytoskeleton have been affected, demonstrate the importance of the cytoskeleton in the establishment of a feeding site and successful nematode reproduction. It appears that in the case of microfilaments, nematodes hijack the intracellular machinery that regulates actin dynamics and modulate the organization and properties of the actin filament network. Intervening with this process reduces the nematode infection efficiency and inhibits its life cycle. This discovery uncovers a new pathway that can be exploited for the protection of plants against nematodes.

  11. Caenorhabditis elegans: nature and nurture gift to nematode parasitologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Gustavo; Risi, Gastón

    2017-12-06

    The free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is the simplest animal model organism to work with. Substantial knowledge and tools have accumulated over 50 years of C. elegans research. The use of C. elegans relating to parasitic nematodes from a basic biology standpoint or an applied perspective has increased in recent years. The wealth of information gained on the model organism, the use of the powerful approaches and technologies that have advanced C. elegans research to parasitic nematodes and the enormous success of the omics fields have contributed to bridge the divide between C. elegans and parasite nematode researchers. We review key fields, such as genomics, drug discovery and genetics, where C. elegans and nematode parasite research have convened. We advocate the use of C. elegans as a model to study helminth metabolism, a neglected area ready to advance. How emerging technologies being used in C. elegans can pave the way for parasitic nematode research is discussed.

  12. Europa Kinetic Ice Penetrator (EKIP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of the proposed work is to validate an initial design for a Europa penetrator that can withstand the high g load associated with the expected hypervelocity...

  13. Group Work with Juvenile Delinquents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimpfer, David G.

    1992-01-01

    Reviews group work literature on juvenile delinquents. Presents overview of interventions, including positive peer culture, cognitive-behavioral treatment, psychoeducational treatment, treatment of learned behavior, action-oriented treatment, milieu therapy, parental involvement, assertiveness training, and music therapy. Discusses outcome…

  14. Juvenile Angiofibroma: Evolution of Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolai, Piero; Schreiber, Alberto; Bolzoni Villaret, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Juvenile angiofibroma is a rare benign lesion originating from the pterygopalatine fossa with distinctive epidemiologic features and growth patterns. The typical patient is an adolescent male with a clinical history of recurrent epistaxis and nasal obstruction. Although the use of nonsurgical therapies is described in the literature, surgery is currently considered the ideal treatment for juvenile angiofibroma. Refinement in preoperative embolization has provided significant reduction of complications and intraoperative bleeding with minimal risk of residual disease. During the last decade, an endoscopic technique has been extensively adopted as a valid alternative to external approaches in the management of small-intermediate size juvenile angiofibromas. Herein, we review the evolution in the management of juvenile angiofibroma with particular reference to recent advances in diagnosis and treatment. PMID:22164185

  15. Juvenile Angiofibroma: Evolution of Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Nicolai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile angiofibroma is a rare benign lesion originating from the pterygopalatine fossa with distinctive epidemiologic features and growth patterns. The typical patient is an adolescent male with a clinical history of recurrent epistaxis and nasal obstruction. Although the use of nonsurgical therapies is described in the literature, surgery is currently considered the ideal treatment for juvenile angiofibroma. Refinement in preoperative embolization has provided significant reduction of complications and intraoperative bleeding with minimal risk of residual disease. During the last decade, an endoscopic technique has been extensively adopted as a valid alternative to external approaches in the management of small-intermediate size juvenile angiofibromas. Herein, we review the evolution in the management of juvenile angiofibroma with particular reference to recent advances in diagnosis and treatment.

  16. Bilateral, independent juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkenborg, Marie-Louise; Frendø, M; Stavngaard, T

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a benign, vascular tumour that primarily occurs in adolescent males. Despite its benign nature, aggressive growth patterns can cause potential life-threatening complications. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is normally unilateral, originating...... from the sphenopalatine artery, but bilateral symptoms can occur if a large tumour extends to the contralateral side of the nasopharynx. This paper presents the first reported case of true bilateral extensive juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma involving clinically challenging pre-surgical planning...... embolisation. Radical removal performed as one-step, computer-assisted functional endoscopic sinus surgery was performed. The follow-up period was uncomplicated. CONCLUSION: This case illustrates the importance of suspecting bilateral juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma in patients presenting with bilateral...

  17. Regulation of Population Densities of Heterodera cajani and Other Plant-Parasitic Nematodes by Crop Rotations on Vertisols, in Semi-Arid Tropical Production Systems in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S. B.; Rego, T. J.; Mohiuddin, M.; Rao, V. N.

    1996-01-01

    The significance of double crop (intercrop and sequential crop), single crop (rainy season crop fallow from June to September), and rotations on densities of Heterodera cajani, Helicotylenchus retusus, and Rotylenchulus reniformis was studied on Vertisol (Typic Pellusterts) between 1987 and 1993. Cowpea (Vigna sinensis), mungbean (Phaseolus aureus), and pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) greatly increased the population densities of H. cajani and suppressed the population densities of other plant-parasitic nematodes. Mean population densities of H. cajani were about 8 times lower in single crop systems than in double crop systems, with pigeonpea as a component intercrop. Plots planted to sorghum, safflower, and chickpea in the preceding year contained fewer H. cajani eggs and juveniles than did plots previously planted to pigeonpea, cowpea, or mungbean. Continuous cropping of sorghum in the rainy season and safflower in the post-rainy season markedly reduced the population density of H. cajani. Sorghum, safflower, and chickpea favored increased population densities of H. retusus. Adding cowpea to the system resulted in a significant increase in the densities of R. reniformis. Mean densities of total plant-parasitic nematodes were three times greater in double crop systems, with pigeonpea as a component intercrop than in single crop systems with rainy season fallow component. Cropping systems had a regulatory effect on the nematode populations and could be an effective nematode management tactic. Intercropping of sorghum with H. cajani tolerant pigeonpea could be effective in increasing the productivity of traditional production systems in H. cajani infested regions. PMID:19277141

  18. Penetration of Photovoltaics in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Eugenia Giannini; Antonia Moropoulou; Zacharias Maroulis; Glykeria Siouti

    2015-01-01

    Recently, an interesting experiment was completed in Greece concerning photovoltaic penetration into the electricity production sector. Based on the relevant laws and in accordance to the related European directives, an explosive penetration process was completed in less than three years, resulting in a 7% share of photovoltaics in electricity production instead of the previous negligible share. The legislation was based on licensing simplification and generous feed-in-tariffs. This approach ...

  19. A Giant Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüce, Salim; Uysal, İsmail Önder; Doğan, Mansur; Polat, Kerem; Şalk, İsmail; Müderris, Suphi

    2012-01-01

    Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) are locally growing highly vascular tumours. They are treated primarily by surgical excision ranging from open approach to endoscopic approach. We presented a 20-year-old male with a giant nasopharyngeal juvenile angiofibroma obliterating the pterygopalatine fossa bilaterally, invasing the sphenoid bone and extending to the left nasal passage. His complaints were epistaxis and nasal obstruction. After embolization, the patient was treated surgically with endoscopic approach and discharged as cured without any complication. PMID:23714961

  20. Projectile penetration into ballistic gelatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, M V; Kieser, D C; Shah, S; Kieser, J A

    2014-01-01

    Ballistic gelatin is frequently used as a model for soft biological tissues that experience projectile impact. In this paper we investigate the response of a number of gelatin materials to the penetration of spherical steel projectiles (7 to 11mm diameter) with a range of lower impacting velocities (projectile velocity are found to be linear for all systems above a certain threshold velocity required for initiating penetration. The data for a specific material impacted with different diameter spheres were able to be condensed to a single curve when the penetration depth was normalised by the projectile diameter. When the results are compared with a number of predictive relationships available in the literature, it is found that over the range of projectiles and compositions used, the results fit a simple relationship that takes into account the projectile diameter, the threshold velocity for penetration into the gelatin and a value of the shear modulus of the gelatin estimated from the threshold velocity for penetration. The normalised depth is found to fit the elastic Froude number when this is modified to allow for a threshold impact velocity. The normalised penetration data are found to best fit this modified elastic Froude number with a slope of 1/2 instead of 1/3 as suggested by Akers and Belmonte (2006). Possible explanations for this difference are discussed. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. An efficient cDNA-AFLP-based strategy for the identification of putative pathogenicity factors from the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, L; Overmars, H; Helder, J; Popeijus, H; van der Voort, J R; Groenink, W; van Koert, P; Schots, A; Bakker, J; Smant, G

    2000-08-01

    A new strategy has been designed to identify putative pathogenicity factors from the dorsal or subventral esophageal glands of the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis. Three independent criteria were used for selection. First, genes of interest should predominantly be expressed in infective second-stage juveniles, and not, or to a far lesser extent, in younger developmental stages. For this, gene expression profiles from five different developmental stages were generated with cDNA-AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism). Secondly, the mRNA corresponding to such a putative pathogenicity factor should predominantly be present in the esophageal glands of pre-parasitic juveniles. This was checked by in situ hybridization. As a third criterion, these proteinaceous factors should be preceded by a signal peptide for secretion. Expression profiles of more than 4,000 genes were generated and three up-regulated, dorsal gland-specific proteins preceded by signal peptide for secretion were identified. No dorsal gland genes have been cloned before from plant-parasitic nematodes. The partial sequence of these three factors, A4, A18, and A41, showed no significant homology to any known gene. Their presence in the dorsal glands of infective juveniles suggests that these proteins could be involved in feeding cell initiation, and not in migration in the plant root or in protection against plant defense responses. Finally, the applicability of this new strategy in other plant-microbe interactions is discussed.

  2. Entomopathogenic and plant pathogenic nematodes as opposing forces in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Eric; Eleftherianos, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes are responsible for substantial damages within the agriculture industry every year, which is a challenge that has thus far gone largely unimpeded. Chemical nematicides have been employed with varying degrees of success, but their implementation can be cumbersome, and furthermore they could potentially be neutralising an otherwise positive effect from the entomopathogenic nematodes that coexist with plant-parasitic nematodes in soil environments and provide protection for plants against insect pests. Recent research has explored the potential of employing entomopathogenic nematodes to protect plants from plant-parasitic nematodes, while providing their standard degree of protection against insects. The interactions involved are highly complex, due to both the three-organism system and the assortment of variables present in a soil environment, but a strong collection of evidence has accumulated regarding the suppressive capacity of certain entomopathogenic nematodes and their mutualistic bacteria, in the context of limiting the infectivity of plant-parasitic nematodes. Specific factors produced by certain entomopathogenic nematode complexes during the process of insect infection appear to have a selectively nematicidal, or at least repellant, effect on plant-parasitic nematodes. Using this information, an opportunity has formed to adapt this relationship to large-scale, field conditions and potentially relieve the agricultural industry of one of its most substantial burdens. Copyright © 2015 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Efficacy of moxidectin against nematodes in naturally infected sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, G C; Giordano-Fenton, D J; Tritschler, J P

    1994-07-09

    The activity of an oral drench of moxidectin against nematodes in naturally infected sheep known to harbour Nematodirus species was evaluated at doses of 0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg bodyweight. Moxidectin was 100 per cent effective against nematodes in the abomasum and 100 per cent effective against nematodes in the small intestine except for adult Trichostrongylus species, against which its efficacy was 94 per cent. It was 100 per cent effective against nematodes in the large intestine except for Trichuris ovis, against which its efficacy was 83 per cent.

  4. identification of banana varieties with resistance to nematodes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jen

    Institut des Sciences Agronomiques du Rwanda (ISAR), ISAR-Kibungo, Ngoma district, Rwanda ... for sustainable nematode management. Previous studies ..... Technology Development and Transfer project. ... INIBAP, Montpellier, France.

  5. Assaying environmental nickel toxicity using model nematodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rudel

    Full Text Available Although nickel exposure results in allergic reactions, respiratory conditions, and cancer in humans and rodents, the ramifications of excess nickel in the environment for animal and human health remain largely undescribed. Nickel and other cationic metals travel through waterways and bind to soils and sediments. To evaluate the potential toxic effects of nickel at environmental contaminant levels (8.9-7,600 µg Ni/g dry weight of sediment and 50-800 µg NiCl2/L of water, we conducted assays using two cosmopolitan nematodes, Caenorhabditis elegans and Pristionchus pacificus. We assayed the effects of both sediment-bound and aqueous nickel upon animal growth, developmental survival, lifespan, and fecundity. Uncontaminated sediments were collected from sites in the Midwestern United States and spiked with a range of nickel concentrations. We found that nickel-spiked sediment substantially impairs both survival from larval to adult stages and adult longevity in a concentration-dependent manner. Further, while aqueous nickel showed no adverse effects on either survivorship or longevity, we observed a significant decrease in fecundity, indicating that aqueous nickel could have a negative impact on nematode physiology. Intriguingly, C. elegans and P. pacificus exhibit similar, but not identical, responses to nickel exposure. Moreover, P. pacificus could be tested successfully in sediments inhospitable to C. elegans. Our results add to a growing body of literature documenting the impact of nickel on animal physiology, and suggest that environmental toxicological studies could gain an advantage by widening their repertoire of nematode species.

  6. Association of nematodes and dogwood cankers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self, L H; Bernard, E C

    1994-03-01

    Dogwood canker is a serious production problem of unknown etiology. From May 1985 through April 1989, cankers from 290 flowering dogwood trees in 15 separate nurseries were sampled for nematodes. Seventy-three percent (213) of the cankers contained nematodes. Panagrolaimus rigidus (Schneider) Thorne (115/290) and Aphelenchoides spp. (91/290) were the most frequently collected taxa. Panagrolaimus rigidus was reared on 2% water agar with unidentified bacteria as the food source. Aphelenchoides spp. were reared in antibiotic-amended agar culture with the fungus Glomerella cingulata (Stoneman) Spauld. &Schrenk as a food source. Repeated attempts to culture Aphelenchoides spp. on dogwood callus tissue were unsuccessful. Artificially created stem wounds inoculated with combinations of Aphelenchoides spp. and P. rigidus callused completely in 60 days with no indication of canker development. Very low numbers of nematodes were recovered from inoculated trees, but P. rigidus and one Aphelenchoides sp. were efficient dispersers and occurred in treatments other than those in which they were inoculated.

  7. Assaying environmental nickel toxicity using model nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudel, David; Douglas, Chandler; Huffnagle, Ian; Besser, John M.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.

    2013-01-01

    Although nickel exposure results in allergic reactions, respiratory conditions, and cancer in humans and rodents, the ramifications of excess nickel in the environment for animal and human health remain largely undescribed. Nickel and other cationic metals travel through waterways and bind to soils and sediments. To evaluate the potential toxic effects of nickel at environmental contaminant levels (8.9-7,600 µg Ni/g dry weight of sediment and 50-800 µg NiCl2/L of water), we conducted assays using two cosmopolitan nematodes, Caenorhabditis elegans and Pristionchus pacificus. We assayed the effects of both sediment-bound and aqueous nickel upon animal growth, developmental survival, lifespan, and fecundity. Uncontaminated sediments were collected from sites in the Midwestern United States and spiked with a range of nickel concentrations. We found that nickel-spiked sediment substantially impairs both survival from larval to adult stages and adult longevity in a concentration-dependent manner. Further, while aqueous nickel showed no adverse effects on either survivorship or longevity, we observed a significant decrease in fecundity, indicating that aqueous nickel could have a negative impact on nematode physiology. Intriguingly, C. elegansand P. pacificus exhibit similar, but not identical, responses to nickel exposure. Moreover, P. pacificus could be tested successfully in sediments inhospitable to C. elegans. Our results add to a growing body of literature documenting the impact of nickel on animal physiology, and suggest that environmental toxicological studies could gain an advantage by widening their repertoire of nematode species.

  8. Prevalence of intestinal nematodes in alcoholic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zago-Gomes Maria P.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the results of a retrospective study on the frequency of intestinal nematodes among 198 alcoholic and 440 nonalcoholic patients at the University Hospital Cassiano Antonio Moraes in Vitória, ES, Brazil. The control sample included 194 nonalcoholic patients matched according to age, sex and neighborhood and a random sample of 296 adults admitted at the same hospital. Stool examination by sedimentation method (three samples was performed in all patients. There was a significantly higher frequency of intestinal nematodes in alcoholics than in controls (35.3% and 19.2%, respectively, due to a higher frequency of Strongyloides stercoralis (21.7% and 4.1%, respectively. Disregarding this parasite, the frequency of the other nematodes was similar in both groups. The higher frequency of S. stercoralis infection in alcoholics could be explained by immune modulation and/or by some alteration in corticosteroid metabolism induced by chronic ethanol ingestion. Corticosteroid metabolites would mimic the worm ecdisteroids, that would in turn increase the fecundity of females in duodenum and survival of larvae. Consequently, the higher frequency of Strongyloides larvae in stool of alcoholics does not necessarily reflect an increased frequency of infection rate, but only an increased chance to present a positive stool examination using sedimentation methods.

  9. Isolation and identification of entomopathogenic nematodes from citrus orchards in South Africa and their biocontrol potential against false codling moth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malan, Antoinette P; Knoetze, Rinus; Moore, Sean D

    2011-10-01

    A survey was conducted to determine the diversity and frequency of endemic entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) in citrus orchards in the Western Cape, Eastern Cape and Mpumalanga provinces of South Africa. The main aim of the survey was to obtain nematodes as biological control agents against false codling moth (FCM), Thaumatotibia leucotreta, a key pest of citrus in South Africa. From a total of 202 samples, 35 (17%) tested positive for the presence of EPN. Of these, four isolates (11%) were found to be steinernematids, while 31 (89%) were heterorhabditids. Sequencing and characterisation of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region was used to identify all nematode isolates to species level. Morphometrics, morphology and biology of the infective juvenile (IJ) and the first-generation male were used to support molecular identification and characterisation. The Steinernema spp. identified were Steinernema khoisanae, Steinernema yirgalemense and Steinernema citrae. This is the first report of S. yirgalemense in South Africa, while for S. citrae it is the second new steinernematid to be identified from South Africa. Heterorhabditis species identified include Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, Heterorhabditis zealandica and an unknown species of Heterorhabditis. Laboratory bioassays, using 24-well bioassay disks, have shown isolates of all six species found during the survey, to be highly virulent against the last instar of FCM larvae. S. yirgalemense, at a concentration of 50IJs/FCM larva caused 100% mortality and 74% at a concentration of 200IJs/pupa. Using a sand bioassay, S. yirgalemense gave 93% control of cocooned pupae and emerging moths at a concentration of 20IJs/cm(2). This is the first report on the potential use of EPN to control the soil-borne life stages of FCM, which includes larvae, pupae and emerging moths. It was shown that emerging moths were infected with nematodes, which may aid in control and dispersal. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  10. Fetal and juvenile radiotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikov, M.R.

    1985-01-01

    This project is directed at obtaining detailed comparative information on the deposition, distribution, retention, and toxicity of radionuclides in the prenatal and juvenile mammal. Because quantitative data cannot necessarily be extrapolated to man, emphasis is also directed toward establishing patterns, phenomenologic interactions, and relationships which will be useful in determining appropriate exposure levels for rapidly growing infants or children and for pregnant women. Further dosimetry for an experiment to evaluate the effects of foster-rearing of newborn rats on the lifetime effects of 239 Pu exposure has demonstrated that most of the lifetime burden is derived from prenatal exposure and that milk contributes little in addition. Other measurements have confirmed a tentative observation that the lifetime burden in offspring is greater with near-term exposure than with exposure earlier in gestation. Additional results from a comparison of the embryotoxicity of 239 Pu and 241 Am have confirmed that, on the basis of dose administered to the dam, the former has a greater effect on the conceptus. Pilot studies indicate that 233 U is teratogenic, acting as a chemical rather than as a radiological teratogen. Studies with 239 Pu-exposed pregnant rabbits have shown that maternal distribution differs from that in rodents; concentration patterns in the placenta and membranes also differed. 4 figures, 1 table

  11. [Localized eruptive juvenile xanthogranuloma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanotti, S; Chiaverini, C; Rostain, G; Cardot-Leccia, N; Lacour, J-P

    2014-03-01

    Juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG) is a non-Langerhans histiocytosis of young children characterized by solitary or multiple yellowish cutaneous nodules. Atypical skin lesions such as lichenoid eruptions, and pedunculated, maculopapular, plaque-like or linear lesions have been described. We report a case of eruptive XGJ en plaque in the left leg in an infant. A 13-month-old child presented asymptomatic eruptive, yellowish papules of the leg measuring 5 to 10mm since the age of 2months. There was no cutaneous infiltration between the lesions. Darier's sign was negative. Histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of JXG. The course of the disease comprised a gradual decrease in the number of active lesions with slight residual pigmentation. Our case was suggestive of JXG en plaque. Only 7 cases have been reported in the literature, all appearing before the age of 5months. The lesions corresponded mostly to an asymptomatic erythematous plaque studded with small yellowish/red nodules of variable localisation. Spontaneous involvement was noted in all cases. No systemic involvement was found. Herein we present a unique case of localised multiple JXG without evident clinical infiltrating plaque progressing with self-resolving flares. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Fetal and juvenile radiotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikov, M.R.

    1982-01-01

    This project is directed at obtaining detailed comparative information on the deposition, distribution, retention, and toxicity of radionuclides in the prenatal and juvenile mammal. Because quantitative data cannot necessarily be extrapolated to man, our emphasis is directed toward establishing patterns, phenomenologic interactions, and relationships which will be useful in determining appropriate exposure levels for the rapidly growing infant or child, and for pregnant women. Recent results demonstrated that injection of pregnant rats with 23 Pu had the greatest effect on longevity and bone-tumor incidence of the offspring when exposure occurred at 19 days of gestation (dg); less effect at 15 dg and the least effect at 9 dg. Ongoing distribution studies are providing data which confirm our tentative explanation that marked variations in the anatomic distributions of bone tumors, with age at the time of injection, were attributable to age-related differences in 239 Pu microdosimetry and concentrations among skeletal components. Other studies, using a placental perfusion technique, have demonstrated that intravenous injection of 239 Pu in pregnant guinea pigs leads to a marked decrease in maternal blood flow to the placenta

  13. JUVENILE RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I N Sartika

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA is the most common rheumatic condition in children. JRA is defined as persistent arthritis in 1 or more joints for at least 6 weeks, with the onset before age 16 years. The etiology of JRA is unknown. Antigen activated CD4+ T cell stimulate monocytes, macrophages, and synovial fibroblasts to produce the cytokines Interleukin-1 (IL-1, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-? and to secrete matrix metalloproteinases, which lead to chronic inflammation due to infiltration of inflammatory cell, angiogenesis, destruction of cartilage and bone with pannus formation. The 3 major subtypes of JRA are based on the symptoms at disease onset and are designated systemic onset, pauciarticular onset, and polyarticular onset. For all patients, the goals of therapy are to decrease chronic joint pain and suppress the inflammatory process. Poor prognostic have been observed in patients with polyarticular onset, rheumatoid factor, persistent morning stiffness, tenosynovitis, involvement of the small joints, rapid appearance of erosions, active late onset childhood, subcutaneous nodules, or antinuclear antibody.

  14. Fetal and juvenile radiotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikov, M.R.

    1983-01-01

    Comparative information on the deposition, distribution, retention, and toxicity of radionuclides in the prenatal and juvenile mammal is reported. Emphasis is toward establishing patterns, phenomenologic interactions, and relationships which will be useful in determining appropriate exposure levels for the rapidly growing infant or child and for pregnant women. Recent results have shown that injection of pregnant rats with 239 Pu increases the incidence and severity of adenomatous hyperplasia of the liver in the offspring; the magnitude of these effects is relatd to dose and prenatal age at exposure. Analysis of combined data from several experiments leads to the conclusion that perinatal rats are more sensitive to bone tumor induction by 239 Pu alpha-particle irradiation than are adults. Further histopathologic evaluations of material from earlier experiments have demonstrated that most of the increased incidence of thyroid tumors following 131 I exposure is attributable to follicular tumors. An analysis of the literature led to the conclusion that prenatal irradiation can lead to an increased or decreased incidence of tumors, depending on the specific details of the experimental design and system

  15. Fetal and juvenile radiotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikov, M.R.

    1984-01-01

    This project is directed at obtaining detailed comparative information on the deposition, distribution, retention, and toxicity of radionuclides in the prenatal and juvenile mammal. Because quantitative data cannot necessarily be extrapolated to man, emphasis is also directed toward establishing patterns, phenomenologic interactions, and relationships which will be useful in determining appropriate exposure levels for the rapidly growing infant or child and for pregnant women. An experiment to evaluate the effects of foster-rearing of newborn rats on the lifetime effects of 239 Pu exposure has demonstrated that, while longevity is primarily dependent on radiation history, growth rate and adult body weight are related to the exposure and fitness of the foster dam. Results from an ongoing comparison of the dosimetry and embryotoxicity of 239 Pu and 241 Am confirm that the former has a greater effect on the conceptus, on the basis of dose administered to the dam. Studies in the guinea-pig perfusion system have confirmed that maternal blood flow to the placenta is decreased by intravenous doses of 30 nCi/g 239 Pu and suggest that the threshold lies at approximately 5 nCi/g body weight. A dose of 30 nCi/g of 241 Am does not affect blood flow. Clearance of the two actinides is similar when blood flow effects are not considered. 3 figures, 3 tables

  16. Plutonium in depleted uranium penetrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, J.P.; Leon-Vintro, L.; Smith, K.; Mitchell, P.I.; Zunic, Z.S.

    2002-01-01

    Depleted Uranium (DU) penetrators used in the recent Balkan conflicts have been found to be contaminated with trace amounts of transuranic materials such as plutonium. This contamination is usually a consequence of DU fabrication being carried out in facilities also using uranium recycled from spent military and civilian nuclear reactor fuel. Specific activities of 239+240 Plutonium generally in the range 1 to 12 Bq/kg have been found to be present in DU penetrators recovered from the attack sites of the 1999 NATO bombardment of Kosovo. A DU penetrator recovered from a May 1999 attack site at Bratoselce in southern Serbia and analysed by University College Dublin was found to contain 43.7 +/- 1.9 Bq/kg of 239+240 Plutonium. This analysis is described. An account is also given of the general population radiation dose implications arising from both the DU itself and from the presence of plutonium in the penetrators. According to current dosimetric models, in all scenarios considered likely ,the dose from the plutonium is estimated to be much smaller than that due to the uranium isotopes present in the penetrators. (author)

  17. Effects of silicon on the penetration and reproduction events of Meloidogyne exigua on coffee roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Vieira Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering that the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne exigua has caused great yield losses to coffee production in Brazil, this study aimed to determine whether the penetration and the reproduction events of this nematode on the roots of plants from two coffee cultivars with different levels of basal resistance to this nematode could be affected by silicon (Si. Coffee plants from the cultivars Catuaí and IAPAR 59, which are susceptible and resistant, respectively, to M. exigua, were grown in pots containing Si-deficient soil that was amended with either calcium silicate (+Si or calcium carbonate (–Si. The Si concentration on the root tissue significantly increased by 159 and 97% for the +Si plants from the cultivars Catuaí and IAPAR 59, respectively, compared to the –Si plants of these cultivars. The population of M. exigua, the number of galls and the number of eggs were significantly reduced on the roots of the +Si plants of the cultivars Catuaí and IAPAR 59 compared to the –Si plants of these cultivars. It was concluded that the development and reproduction events of M. exigua were negatively impacted on the roots of coffee plants supplied with Si.

  18. Penetration shielding applications of CYLSEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dexheimer, D.T.; Hathaway, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Evaluation of penetration and discontinuity shielding is necessary to meet 10CFR20 regulations for ensuring personnel exposures are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Historically, those shielding evaluations have been done to some degree on all projects. However, many early plants used conservative methods due to lack of an economical computer code, resulting in costly penetration shielding programs. With the increased industry interest in cost effectively reducing personnel exposures to meet ALARA regulations and with the development of the CYLSEC gamma transport computer code at Bechtel, a comprehensive effort was initiated to reduce penetration and discontinuity shielding but still provide a prudent degree of protection for plant personnel from radiation streaming. This effort was more comprehensive than previous programs due to advances in shielding analysis technology and increased interest in controlling project costs while maintaining personnel exposures ALARA. Methodology and resulting cost savings are discussed

  19. PSYCHOSOCIAL PROFILE OF JUVENILE DIABETES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dass, Jyoti; Dhavale, H.S.; Rathi, Anup

    1999-01-01

    A study of the complex relationships between the patient characteristics, family and environmental influences, physician's behaviour and the demands of the disease with its management in Juvenile Diabetics was taken up at a general hospital. 90 subjects were selected for the study and grouped into three. Group A consisted of 30 Juvenile Diabetics, Group B of 30 Adult Diabetics and Group C of 30 Normal healthy adolescents. The impact of the illness was measured on the Diabetes Impact Measurement Scale (DIMS), the behavioural deviations and the parental attitudes towards child rearing on the Fallstrom's Questionnaire (FQ) and the family environment on the Family Climate Scale (FCS). Psychiatric morbidity was assessed using DSM-IV criteria. Group A & B were compared on the DIMS and Group A & C on FQ & FCS. Adult diabetics had a greater impact of diabetes. Juvenile diabetics had significantly higher frequency of behavioural deviations as compared to controls. Also there was a higher number of responses on questions indicating an overprotecting attitude amongst parents of juvenile diabetics. There was an increased incidence of psychiatric morbidity in juvenile diabetics as compared to normal adolescents irrespective of the family environment. The results are discussed in relation to current literature. PMID:21430802

  20. The novel cyst nematode effector protein 19C07 interacts with the Arabidopsis auxin influx transporter LAX3 to control feeding site development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chris; Chronis, Demosthenis; Kenning, Charlotte; Peret, Benjamin; Hewezi, Tarek; Davis, Eric L; Baum, Thomas J; Hussey, Richard; Bennett, Malcolm; Mitchum, Melissa G

    2011-02-01

    Plant-parasitic cyst nematodes penetrate plant roots and transform cells near the vasculature into specialized feeding sites called syncytia. Syncytia form by incorporating neighboring cells into a single fused cell by cell wall dissolution. This process is initiated via injection of esophageal gland cell effector proteins from the nematode stylet into the host cell. Once inside the cell, these proteins may interact with host proteins that regulate the phytohormone auxin, as cellular concentrations of auxin increase in developing syncytia. Soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) Hg19C07 is a novel effector protein expressed specifically in the dorsal gland cell during nematode parasitism. Here, we describe its ortholog in the beet cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii), Hs19C07. We demonstrate that Hs19C07 interacts with the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) auxin influx transporter LAX3. LAX3 is expressed in cells overlying lateral root primordia, providing auxin signaling that triggers the expression of cell wall-modifying enzymes, allowing lateral roots to emerge. We found that LAX3 and polygalacturonase, a LAX3-induced cell wall-modifying enzyme, are expressed in the developing syncytium and in cells to be incorporated into the syncytium. We observed no decrease in H. schachtii infectivity in aux1 and lax3 single mutants. However, a decrease was observed in both the aux1lax3 double mutant and the aux1lax1lax2lax3 quadruple mutant. In addition, ectopic expression of 19C07 was found to speed up lateral root emergence. We propose that Hs19C07 most likely increases LAX3-mediated auxin influx and may provide a mechanism for cyst nematodes to modulate auxin flow into root cells, stimulating cell wall hydrolysis for syncytium development.

  1. Trait-mediated diversification in nematode predator–prey systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, C.; Helder, J.; Vervoort, M.T.W.; Vonk, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Nematodes are presumably the most numerous Metazoans in terrestrial habitats. They are represented at all trophic levels and are known to respond to nutrient limitation, prey availability, and microbial resources. Predatory nematodes reside at the highest trophic level, and as such their feeding

  2. A model of nematode dynamics in the Westerschelde estuary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, J.; Vincx, M.; Herman, P.M.J.

    1996-01-01

    We developed a time dynamic model to investigate the temporal dynamics of nematode community in the brackish zone of the Westerschelde Estuary. The biomass of four nematode feeding groups observed from March 1991 to February 1992 is used to calibrate the model. Using environmental data as the input,

  3. A Survey of Nematode Infection in Oreochromis niloticus (L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence and intensity of nematode infection was investigated in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus from Lake Kyoga, Uganda and 11% of the 406 fish examined were parasitized by nematodes of the genus Contracaecum. The prevalence of these parasites was greatest in the smallest and largest size classes, but this ...

  4. Free-living Marine Nematodes. Part 1 British Enoplids

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is the first of three volumes dealing with the most abundant group of animals on the sea-bed and sea-shore, the free-living marine nematodes, and is devoted to those marine nematodes belonging to the subclass Enoplia. Separate volumes will deal with the orders Chromadorida and. Monhysterida. To most marine ...

  5. 5 Spatial Distribution of Nematodes at Organic.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    in organic crop production fields can favour or inhibit nematode build-up. ... that nematode control strategies employed on the organic field might be less effective than expected. ... Method. Study site. Soil samples were collected from an organic vegetable field and a conventional ..... chemical analysis: a practical handbook.

  6. Nematode effector proteins: an emerging paradigm of parasitism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytonematodes use a stylet and secreted effectors to invade host tissues and extract nutrients to support their growth and development. The molecular function of nematode effectors is currently the subject of intense investigation. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of nematode ...

  7. Glutathione peroxidases of the potato cyst nematode Globodera Rostochiensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, J.T.; Reavy, B.; Smant, G.; Prior, A.E.

    2004-01-01

    We report the cloning and characterisation of full-length DNAs complementary to RNA (cDNAs) encoding two glutathione peroxidases (GpXs) from a plant parasitic nematode, the potato cyst nematode (PCN) Globodera rostochiensis. One protein has a functional signal peptide that targets the protein for

  8. Mapping genetic factors controlling potato - cyst nematode interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouppe van der Voort, J.N.A.M.

    1998-01-01

    The thesis describes strategies for genetic mapping of the genomes of the potato cyst nematode and potato. Mapping in cyst nematodes was achieved by AFLP genotyping of single cysts and subsequent segregation analysis in a family of sibling populations. The genetic map of Globodera

  9. Cyst nematode-induced changes in plant development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goverse, A.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis describes a first attempt to investigate the biological activity of cyst nematode secretions on plant cell proliferation and the molecular mechanisms underlying feeding cell development in plant roots upon cyst nematode infection.

    To investigate the role of

  10. Molecular and genetic analyses of potato cyst nematode resistance loci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, E.H.

    2003-01-01

    This thesis describes the genomic localisation and organisation of loci that harbour resistance to the potato cyst nematode species Globodera pallida and G. rostochiensis . Resistance to the potato cyst nematodes G. pallida and G. rostochiensis is an important aspect in potato breeding. To gain

  11. Nematode community structure as a bioindicator in environmental monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, T.; Ferris, H.

    1999-01-01

    Four of every five multicellular animals on the planet are nematodes. They occupy any niche that provides an available source of organic carbon in marine, freshwater and terrestrial environments. Nematodes vary in sensitivity to pollutants and environmental disturbance. Recent development of indices

  12. Human Intraocular Filariasis Caused by Pelecitus sp. Nematode, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Odile; Diniz, Daniel G.; Nascimento dos Santos, Jeannie; Pinto de Oliveira, Norimar; Frota de Almeida, Izabela Negrão; Frota de Almeida, Rafael Negrão; Frota de Almeida, Luciana Negrão; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Sobrinho, Edmundo Frota de Almeida

    2011-01-01

    A male nematode was extracted from iris fibers of a man from the Brazilian Amazon region. This nematode belonged to the genus Pelecitus but was distinct from the 16 known species in this genus. Similarities with Pelecitus spp. from neotropical birds suggested an avian origin for this species. PMID:21529397

  13. 75 FR 11111 - Pale Cyst Nematode; Update of Quarantined Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ...] Pale Cyst Nematode; Update of Quarantined Areas AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...: Background The pale cyst nematode (PCN, Globodera pallida) is a major pest of potato crops in cool... made changes to the area in the State of Idaho that is quarantined to prevent the spread of pale cyst...

  14. Book review: Systematics of Cyst Nematodes (Nematoda: Heteroderinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cyst nematodes are an important group of plant-parasitic nematodes that cause billions of dollars in economic damage to crops every year. This article reviews a recently published, two-volume monograph that describes the morphological and molecular characteristics of these agriculturally signif...

  15. Transgenic Strategies for Enhancement of Nematode Resistance in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad A. Ali

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant parasitic nematodes (PPNs are obligate biotrophic parasites causing serious damage and reduction in crop yields. Several economically important genera parasitize various crop plants. The root-knot, root lesion, and cyst nematodes are the three most economically damaging genera of PPNs on crops within the family Heteroderidae. It is very important to devise various management strategies against PPNs in economically important crop plants. Genetic engineering has proven a promising tool for the development of biotic and abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants. Additionally, the genetic engineering leading to transgenic plants harboring nematode resistance genes has demonstrated its significance in the field of plant nematology. Here, we have discussed the use of genetic engineering for the development of nematode resistance in plants. This review article also provides a detailed account of transgenic strategies for the resistance against PPNs. The strategies include natural resistance genes, cloning of proteinase inhibitor coding genes, anti-nematodal proteins and use of RNA interference to suppress nematode effectors. Furthermore, the manipulation of expression levels of genes induced and suppressed by nematodes has also been suggested as an innovative approach for inducing nematode resistance in plants. The information in this article will provide an array of possibilities to engineer resistance against PPNs in different crop plants.

  16. 75 FR 54592 - Pale Cyst Nematode; Update of Quarantined Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ...] Pale Cyst Nematode; Update of Quarantined Areas AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... made changes to the area in the State of Idaho that is quarantined to prevent the spread of pale cyst nematode. The description of the quarantined area was updated on April 26, 2010. As a result of these...

  17. Biocontrol of ticks by entomopathogenic nematodes. Research update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samish, M; Alekseev, E; Glazer, I

    2000-01-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) are lethal to ticks even though they do not use their normal propagation cycle within tick cadavers. The tick Boophilus annulatus was found to be far more susceptible to EPNs than Hyalomma excavatum, Rhipicephalus bursa, or Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Ticks seem to be less susceptible to nematodes when feeding on a host. Preimaginal tick stages were less susceptible to nematodes than adult ticks. The mortality rate of unfed females was highest, followed by unfed males, and engorged females. The virulence of nematodes to ticks varied greatly among different nematode strains. In most cases, the Heterorhabditis sp. strains were the most virulent strains tested in petri dishes. In buckets containing sandy soil sprayed with 50 nematodes/cm2 and engorged B. annulatus females, the LT50 of the ticks was less than five days. The addition of manure to soil or a manure extract to petri dishes reduced nematode virulence. Since ticks spend most of their life cycle in the upper humid layer of the ground, and many nematode strains share this same ecological niche, the use of EPNs for biocontrol of ticks appears promising.

  18. Laboratory experiments on the infaunal activity of intertidal nematodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steyaert, M.; Moodley, L.; Vanaverbeke, J.; Vandewiele, S.L.; Vincx, M.

    2005-01-01

    The impact of oxygen on the vertical distribution of an intertidal nematode community was investigated in a manipulation experiment with sediments collected from the Oosterschelde (The Netherlands). The vertical distribution of nematodes was examined in response to sediment inversion in perspex

  19. Native nematodes as new bio-insecticides for cranberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the summer of 2015, an effort was made in central Wisconsin to find an entomopathogenic nematode capable controlling Wisconsin’s cranberry pests. Using a standard baiting method, a nematode of the Oscheius genus was collected from the mossy, sandy, peat-filled soils of a wild cranberry marsh. Thi...

  20. The cyst nematodes Heterodera and Globodera species in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information concerning the occurrence and distribution of the cyst nematodes (Heterodera spp. and Globodera spp.) in Egypt is important to assess their potential to cause economic damage to many crop plants. A nematode survey was conducted in Alexandria, El Behera and Sohag governorates during 2012-...

  1. Screening of in vitro derived mutants of banana against nematodes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rest of the mutants namely Ro Im V4 6-1-2 and Si Im V4 6-2-5 were found to be susceptible to nematodes. The resistant and moderately resistant mutants of banana could be further used in breeding programmes as well as being recognized as potential cultivars of commerce. Key words: Banana, nematode, resistance, ...

  2. Statistical analysis of nematode counts from interlaboratory proficiency tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den W.; Hartsema, O.; Nijs, Den J.M.F.

    2014-01-01

    A series of proficiency tests on potato cyst nematode (PCN; n=29) and free-living stages of Meloidogyne and Pratylenchus (n=23) were investigated to determine the accuracy and precision of the nematode counts and to gain insights into possible trends and potential improvements. In each test, each

  3. Nematode parasitism in adult dairy cows in Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agneessens, J.; Claerebout, E.; Dorny, P.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Vercruysse, J.

    2000-01-01

    Over a period of 1 year, from November 1997 to October 1998, the abomasa, blood and faecal samples of 121 dairy cows in Belgium were collected and examined for nematode infections. Nematodes were present in the abomasa of 110 animals. Ostertagia was found in all 110, Trichostrongylus was seen in 65

  4. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naz, S.; Mushtaq, A.; Bari, A.; Maqsud, A.; Khan, M. Z.; Ahmad, T. M.; Saira Rehman

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the spectrum of clinical presentation, laboratory parameters and drug therapy in patients with Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (JRA). Study Design: Case series. Place and Duration of Study: The Children's Hospital and The Institute of Child Health, Lahore, from October 2008 to October 2011. Methodology: All patients who fulfilled the American College of Rheumatology criteria for JRA were enrolled. Their clinical features, investigations done and treatment received for JRA were noted. Statistical analysis of data was done on SPSS version 16.0 for obtaining descriptive statistics. Results: Out of 185 patients, 50.3% (n = 93) were females; 54% (n = 100) were between 10 - 15 years of age. Polyarthritis was found in 71.9% (n = 133) followed by oligoarthritis (22.7%, n = 42) and systemic onset disease (5.4%, n = 10). Morning stiffness (78%) and fever (68%) were the most common clinical presentations. All patients with systemic onset disease had fever (n = 10) followed by skin rash, hepatosplenomegaly and lymphadenopathy. Uveitis was found in 2 patients, and both belonged to the oligoarticular group. Rheumatoid factor was found in 10.27% (n = 19) of all patients. All patients were given non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Disease modifying agents (methotrexate) were given to 43.8% (n = 81). Steroids were used in 61% (n = 113) of patients either with NSAIDs alone or NSAIDs plus methotrexate. Conclusion: Disease profile of JRA at the study centre showed that polyarthritis is the commonest type. Recognition of subtypes will help in planning the management of these patients. (author)

  5. influence of some types of Algerian soil on the development of rot-knot nematodes Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica and M. arenaria (Tylenchida,Meloidogynidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammach, M.

    2010-01-01

    Crops under greenhouses offer the possibility of vegetables production of high added value by focusing on earliness. They help to spread the availability timing of vegetables and fruits in the market throughout the year. However, these crops are subject to numerous attacks entailing heavy losses of yield quantity and quality. The plant parasitic nematodes especially rot-knot nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne are considered dangerous enemies of these cultures. The evolution study of these nematodes in different soil types allows one to compare the migration and movement of these nematodes in sandy soils considered as light soils, in clay soils heavy and intermediate silty clay soils. These soils have also rates of organic matter and a percentage of magnesium and calcium that might provide better conditions to the survival and migration of second stage larvae inoculated at a rate of 650 juveniles per pot of 24 cm in diameter where plants of melon Cucumis melo var. (Charentais) known to be susceptible to Meloidogyne was cultivated. The results for the population development of Meloidogyne, after a growing period of 3 months show an increase in the number of eggs, juvenile stages, inflated, swollen females and males in the 3 types of soil and that independently of clay fraction although clay soil may asphyxiate Meloidogyne. The development of the three species of Meloidogyne studied in these soils, the parameters taken into consideration (index of galls, which were 1.58, 1.75 and 1.5 for the sandy clay and the middle ground soils, vigour index and the evolution of populations of Meloidogyne and roots and soil as well as parameters related to production reveal the adaptation of these root-knot nematodes to the clay and sandy loam soils. At the end of culture, the final populations are important in the soils studied; 2680 for soil S. (sandy), 2272 for soil A (clay) and 2327 for soil I (intermediate) with a multiplication rate almost similar ( 4.12, 3.49 and 3

  6. BASIDIOMYCETE-BASED METHOD FOR BIOCONTROL OF PHYTOPATHOGENIC NEMATODES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiberius BALAEŞ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytopathogenic nematodes represent one of the most important groups of pathogens in crops. The use of chemical to control the nematodes attack in crops is decreasing every year due to the concern of the toxicity and side effects of such compounds. In the course for finding alternatives to the use of chemicals, biological control of nematodes is gaining much attention. Some saprotrophic fungi are able to feed on invertebrates, thus becoming efficient agents of control. In this study, three species of basidiomycetes were analyzed for their potential to be used as control agents of phytopathogenic nematodes. Through on in vitro investigation of these potential, one strain – Gymnopilus junonius was further selected for a pot test against Meloidogyne incognita, a very important phytopathogenic species of nematodes. The fungal treatment strongly decreased the M. incognita population on the tested pots, proving the potential of G. junonius strain to be used in biocontrol.

  7. Survey of nematodes associated with terrestrial slugs in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J L; Ivanova, E S; Hatteland, B A; Brurberg, M B; Haukeland, S

    2016-09-01

    A survey of nematodes associated with terrestrial slugs was conducted for the first time in Norway. A total of 611 terrestrial slugs were collected from 32 sample sites. Slugs were identified by means of morphological examination, dissection of genitalia and molecular analysis using mitochondrial DNA. Twelve slug species were identified, representing four different slug families. Internal nematodes were identified by means of morphological analysis and the sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene. Of the sample sites studied, 62.5% were found to be positive for nematode parasites, with 18.7% of all slugs discovered being infected. Five nematode species were identified in this study: Alloionema appendiculatum, Agfa flexilis, Angiostoma limacis, Angiostoma sp. and Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita. Of these species, only one nematode was previously undescribed (Angiostoma sp.). This is the first record of the presence of A. appendiculatum, A. flexilis and A. limacis in Norway.

  8. REFORMATIONS IN ZIMBABWE'S JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mugumbate

    1996-05-23

    May 23, 1996 ... The article is based on a desk review of existing literature on juvenile crime in the country. ... that Zimbabwe's juvenile justice system is transforming from being ... recommendations include expanding the Pre-trial Diversion ...

  9. Multifaceted effects of host plants on entomopathogenic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazir, Selcuk; Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Hazir, Canan; Leite, Luis G; Cakmak, Ibrahim; Olson, Dawn

    2016-03-01

    The success of parasites can be impacted by multi-trophic interactions. Tritrophic interactions have been observed in parasite-herbivore-host plant systems. Here we investigate aspects of multi-trophic interactions in a system involving an entomopathogenic nematode (EPN), its insect host, and host plant. Novel issues investigated include the impact of tritrophic interactions on nematode foraging behavior, the ability of EPNs to overcome negative tritrophic effects through genetic selection, and interactions with a fourth trophic level (nematode predators). We tested infectivity of the nematode, Steinernema riobrave, to corn earworm larvae (Helicoverpa zea) in three host plants, tobacco, eggplant and tomato. Tobacco reduced nematode virulence and reproduction relative to tomato and eggplant. However, successive selection (5 passages) overcame the deficiency; selected nematodes no longer exhibited reductions in phenotypic traits. Despite the loss in virulence and reproduction nematodes, first passage S. riobrave was more attracted to frass from insects fed tobacco than insects fed on other host plants. Therefore, we hypothesized the reduced virulence and reproduction in S. riobrave infecting tobacco fed insects would be based on a self-medicating tradeoff, such as deterring predation. We tested this hypothesis by assessing predatory success of the mite Sancassania polyphyllae and the springtail Sinella curviseta on nematodes reared on tobacco-fed larvae versus those fed on greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella, tomato fed larvae, or eggplant fed larvae. No advantage was observed in nematodes derived from tobacco fed larvae. In conclusion, our results indicated that insect-host plant diet has an important effect on nematode foraging, infectivity and reproduction. However, negative host plant effects, might be overcome through directed selection. We propose that host plant species should be considered when designing biocontrol programs using EPNs. Copyright © 2016

  10. Identification and functional analysis of secreted effectors from phytoparasitic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Sajid; Gupta, Vijai K; Goyal, Aakash K

    2016-03-21

    Plant parasitic nematodes develop an intimate and long-term feeding relationship with their host plants. They induce a multi-nucleate feeding site close to the vascular bundle in the roots of their host plant and remain sessile for the rest of their life. Nematode secretions, produced in the oesophageal glands and secreted through a hollow stylet into the host plant cytoplasm, are believed to play key role in pathogenesis. To combat these persistent pathogens, the identity and functional analysis of secreted effectors can serve as a key to devise durable control measures. In this review, we will recapitulate the knowledge over the identification and functional characterization of secreted nematode effector repertoire from phytoparasitic nematodes. Despite considerable efforts, the identity of genes encoding nematode secreted proteins has long been severely hampered because of their microscopic size, long generation time and obligate biotrophic nature. The methodologies such as bioinformatics, protein structure modeling, in situ hybridization microscopy, and protein-protein interaction have been used to identify and to attribute functions to the effectors. In addition, RNA interference (RNAi) has been instrumental to decipher the role of the genes encoding secreted effectors necessary for parasitism and genes attributed to normal development. Recent comparative and functional genomic approaches have accelerated the identification of effectors from phytoparasitic nematodes and offers opportunities to control these pathogens. Plant parasitic nematodes pose a serious threat to global food security of various economically important crops. There is a wealth of genomic and transcriptomic information available on plant parasitic nematodes and comparative genomics has identified many effectors. Bioengineering crops with dsRNA of phytonematode genes can disrupt the life cycle of parasitic nematodes and therefore holds great promise to develop resistant crops against plant

  11. Molecular Diagnostics and Variability of Longidorid Nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca De Luca

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available PCR-RFLP and sequencing approaches of ribosomal DNA are being used to study taxonomy, molecular identification and phylogeny of plant parasitic nematodes. In this paper, we discuss on the usefulness of ITS PCRRFLP analysis to differentiate among longidorid species. In addition, we examined how well ITS PCR-RFLP differentiated between longidorid species, and how well sequencing of two different ribosomal regions, the ITS containing region and D1-D2 domains of the 26S rDNA, were able to infer phylogenetic relationships among those same species. These methods and their advantages in identifying longidorids and establishing their phylogenetic relationships are examined and discussed.

  12. Entomopathogenic nematodes in the European biocontrol market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, R U

    2003-01-01

    In Europe total revenues in the biocontrol market have reached approximately 200 million Euros. The sector with the highest turn-over is the market for beneficial invertebrates with a 55% share, followed by microbial agents with approximately 25%. Annual growth rates of up to 20% have been estimated. Besides microbial plant protection products that are currently in the process of re-registration, several microbial products have been registered or are in the process of registration, following the EU directive 91/414. Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) are exceptionally safe biocontrol agents. Until today, they are exempted from registration in most European countries, the reason why SMEs were able to offer economically reasonable nematode-based products. The development of technology for mass production in liquid media significantly reduced the product costs and accelerated the introduction of nematode products in tree nurseries, ornamentals, strawberries, mushrooms, citrus and turf. Progress in storage and formulation technology has resulted in high quality products which are more resistant to environmental extremes occurring during transportation to the user. The cooperation between science, industry and extension within the EU COST Action 819 has supported the development of quality control methods. Today four companies produce EPN in liquid culture, offering 8 different nematode species. Problems with soil insects are increasing. Grubs, like Melolontha melolontha and other scarabaeidae cause damage in orchards and turf. Since the introduction of the Western Corn Rootworm Diabrotica virgifera into Serbia in 1992, this pests as spread all over the Balkan Region and has reached Italy, France and Austria. These soil insect pests are potential targets for EPN. The development of insecticide resistance has opened another sector for EPN. Novel adjuvants used to improve formulation of EPN have enabled the foliar application against Western Flower Thrips and Plutella

  13. Evolution of Juvenile Ankylosing Spondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye.V. Prohorov

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Evolution of juvenile ankylosing spondylitis tend to follow a more frequent involvement in the pathological process of elbow and ankle joints, development of enthesiopathies, changes of intraarticular meniscal horns, forming of Baker’s cysts, cartilage flaps and systemic osteoporosis, and total value of all these signs 13 times exceeds thereof in patients with with the debut of disease in adulthood, but for juvenile ankylosing spondylitis vertebral lesion is less common. Age dimorphism of the use of certain groups of drugs and physiotherapy facilities is observed.

  14. Juvenile technologies in foreign publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shpagina E.M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article provides the review of foreign publications, concerning the juvenile technologies used in France, Canada, Germany and Switzerland. The paper presents legal, social and psychotherapeutic aspects of juvenile judiciary in foreign countries. The authors paid special attention to the complexity of approaches to young children and teenagers who found themselves in complicated life circumstances or got into trouble with the law. The article gives examples of using the following techniques: cognitive-behavioral intervention, mediation, family therapy (including family background and family history, relations theory, narrative practices, utilization of «emotional intelligence» resources.

  15. Mining the secretome of root-knot nematodes for cell wall modifying proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roze, E.H.A.

    2008-01-01

    The products of parasitism genes in nematodes must be secreted to reach their targets at the nematode-plant interface. These nematode secretory proteins are therefore recognised to play an important role in the nematode-plant interaction and as a result have been subject of intense study for years.

  16. [Nematodes (Nematoda) from bats (Chiroptera) of the Samarskaya Luka Peninsula (Russia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirillova, N Iu; Kirillov, A A; Vekhnik, V P

    2008-01-01

    Fauna of parasitic nematodes from Chiroptera of the Samarskaya Luka has been studied. Seven nematode species has been recorded. Numbers of host specimens, indices of extensiveness and intensiveness of the invasion, parasite abundance, and brief characteristics of the nematode species are given. Some nematode species were for the first time recorded in bats of Russia.

  17. First report of the spiral nematode Helicotylenchus microlobus infecting soybean in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiral nematodes (Helicotylenchus spp.) are common plant-parasitic nematodes in fields of many crops. In June 2015, two soil samples were collected from a soybean field in Richland County, ND. Nematodes were extracted from soil using the sugar centrifugal flotation method. Plant-parasitic nematodes ...

  18. Prediction of electric vehicle penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The object of this report is to present the current market status of plug-in-electric : vehicles (PEVs) and to predict their future penetration within the world and U.S. : markets. The sales values for 2016 show a strong year of PEV sales both in the...

  19. FAA Fluorescent Penetrant Laboratory Inspections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WINDES,CONNOR L.; MOORE,DAVID G.

    2000-08-02

    The Federal Aviation Administration Airworthiness Assurance NDI Validation Center currently assesses the capability of various non-destructive inspection (NDI) methods used for analyzing aircraft components. The focus of one such exercise is to evaluate the sensitivity of fluorescent liquid penetrant inspection. A baseline procedure using the water-washable fluorescent penetrant method defines a foundation for comparing the brightness of low cycle fatigue cracks in titanium test panels. The analysis of deviations in the baseline procedure will determine an acceptable range of operation for the steps in the inspection process. The data also gives insight into the depth of each crack and which step(s) of the inspection process most affect penetrant sensitivities. A set of six low cycle fatigue cracks produced in 6.35-mm thick Ti-6Al-4V specimens was used to conduct the experiments to produce sensitivity data. The results will document the consistency of the crack readings and compare previous experiments to find the best parameters for water-washable penetrant.

  20. Industrial Penetration and Internet Intensity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael); Y-C. Wu (Yu-Chieh)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis paper investigates the effect of industrial penetration and internet intensity for Taiwan manufacturing firms, and analyses whether the relationships are substitutes or complements. The sample observations are based on 153,081 manufacturing plants, and covers 26 two-digit industry

  1. Import market penetration in services

    OpenAIRE

    Langhammer, Rolf J.

    1991-01-01

    The EC-1992 programme foresees the complete liberalization of trade in services among member countries. To what extent has import market penetration in the Community already begun in selected service industries? Which EC member countries have been the forerunners to date? The following paper uses a new data base released recently by EUROSTAT in an attempt to answer these and other related questions.

  2. [Professor WU Zhongchao's experience of penetration needling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Wang, Bing; Zhou, Yu

    2016-08-12

    Professor WU Zhongchao has unique application of penetration needling in clinical treatment. Professor WU applies penetration needling along meridians, and the methods of penetration needling include self-meridian penetration, exterior-interior meridian penetration, identical-name meridian penetration, different meridian penetration. The meridian differentiation is performed according to different TCM syndromes, locations and natures of diseases and acupoint nature, so as to make a comprehensive assessment. The qi movement during acupuncture is focused. In addition, attention is paid on anatomy and long-needle penetration; the sequence and direction of acupuncture is essential, and the reinforcing and reducing methods have great originality, presented with holding, waiting, pressing and vibrating. Based on classical acupoint, the acupoint of penetration needling is flexible, forming unique combination of acupoints.

  3. Viability Test Device for anisakid nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kroeger

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Up to now the visual inspection of mobility of isolated anisakid larvae serves as a measure of viability and possible risk of infection. This paper presents a new method to rule out unreliability – caused by the temporary immobility of the larvae and by the human uncertainty factor of visual observation. By means of a Near infrared (NIR imaging method, elastic curvature energies and geometric shape parameters were determined from contours, and used as a measure of viability. It was based on the modelling of larvae as a cylindrical membrane system. The interaction between curvatures, contraction of the longitudinal muscles, and inner pressure enabled the derivation of viability from stationary form data. From series of spectrally signed images within a narrow wavelength range, curvature data of the larvae were determined. Possible mobility of larvae was taken into account in statistical error variables. Experiments on individual living larvae, long-term observations of Anisakis larvae, and comparative studies of the staining method and the VTD measurements of larvae from the tissue of products confirmed the effectiveness of this method. The VTD differentiated clearly between live and dead nematode larvae isolated from marinated, deep-frozen and salted products. The VTD has been proven as excellent method to detect living anisakid nematode larvae in fishery products and is seen as useful tool for fish processing industry and control authorities. Keywords: Biophysics

  4. Arrested larval development in cattle nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, J; Duncan, M

    1987-06-01

    Most economically important cattle nematodes are able to arrest their larval development within the host - entering a period of dormancy or hypobiosis. Arrested larvae have a low death rate, and large numbers can accumulate in infected cattle during the grazing season. Because of this, outbreaks of disease caused by such nematodes can occur at times when recent infection with the parasites could not have occurred, for example during winter in temperature northern climates when cattle are normally housed. The capacity to arrest is a heritable trait. It is seen as an adaptation by the parasite to avoid further development to its free-living stages during times when the climate is unsuitable for free-living survival. But levels of arrestment can vary markedly in different regions, in different cattle, and under different management regimes. Climatic factors, previous conditioning, host immune status, and farm management all seem to affect arrestment levels. In this article, James Armour and Mary Duncan review the biological basis of the phenomenon, and discuss the apparently conflicting views on how it is controlled.

  5. Control of penetration zone GMAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Віталій Петрович Iванов

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Thermal properties of the base metal, shielding medium and the nature of the electrode metal transfer to a great extent determine the penetration area formation in gas-arc welding. It is not always possible to take into account the influence of these factors on penetration front forming within the existing models. The aim of the work was to research the penetration area forming in gas-arc welding. The research of the penetration area forming in gas-arc welding of CrNi austenitic steels was made. The parameters of the regime as well as the kind of the gaseous medium influence on the formation of the penetration zone were studied. The article shows a linear proportional relationship between the electrode feed rate and the size of the base metal plate. The penetration area formation mode for welding in argon and carbon dioxide have been worked out. Diameter, feed rate and the speed of the electrode movement have been chosen as the main input parameters. Multiple regression analysis method was used to make up the modes. The relations of the third order that make it possible to take into account the electrode metal transfer and thermal properties change of the materials to be welded were used. These relationships show quite good agreement with the experimental measurements in the calculation of the fusion zone shape with consumable electrode in argon and carbon dioxide. It was determined that the shape of the melting front curve can be shown as a generalized function in which the front motion parameters depend on feed rate and the diameter of the electrode. Penetration zone growth time is determined by the welding speed and is calculated as a discrete function of the distance from the electrode with the spacing along the movement coordinate. The influence of the mode parameters on the formation of the fusion zone has been investigated and the ways to manage and stabilize the weld pool formation have been identified. The modes can be used to develop

  6. Identification of Virulence Factors in Nematode-Trapping Fungi - Insights from Genomics, Transcriptomics and Proteomics

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Karl-Magnus

    2013-01-01

    Nematode-trapping fungi are soil-living organisms with the unique ability to capture and infect free-living nematodes. The interest in studying these fungi arises from their potential use as biological control agents for plant- and animal-parasitic nematodes. To enter the parasitic stage, nematode-trapping fungi develop different kinds of trapping structures. In order to understand more about the evolution of parasitism in the nematode-trapping fungi and to identify virulence factors in these...

  7. Juvenile Courts. Creation and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat GONZÁLEZ FERNÁNDEZ

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the creation of Juvenile or Children's Courts in Spain, analysing their reasons and aims, as well as the ethical and political connotations present on their way of acting. Their history and the one of the institutions that complement them is built from the legislation, writings and ideas of their promoters.

  8. Juvenile Justice: A Bibliographic Essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondak, Ann

    1979-01-01

    Provides information on the background and legal framework of the juvenile justice system, the issues that confront it, and the pressures for change, as well as noting some sources of information on the system. Available from American Association of Law Libraries, 53 West Jackson Blvd., Suite 1201, Chicago, Illinois 60604; sc $4.00. (Author/IRT)

  9. [Sex-linked juvenile retinoschisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, P; Turut, P; Soltysik, C; Hache, J C

    1976-02-01

    About 13 observations of sexe linked juvenile retinoschisis, the authors describe the ophthalmoscopic, fluorographic and functional aspects of the disease whose caracteristics are:--its sexe linked recessive heredity; --its clinical characterestics associating: a microcystic macular degeneration, peripheral retinal lesions, vitreous body alterations, --an electroretinogram of the negative type.

  10. Juvenile European anchovy otolith microstructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Cermeño

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus has a complex incremental growth pattern that was studied using scanning electron microscope (SEM and optical microscope observations. Daily increments were identified and related to rhythmic growth patterns while double-band structures were identified as one increment. The causes of these growth patterns are discussed.

  11. CT appearance of juvenile angiofibroma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, Jun; Hara, Kazuo (Sumitomo Hospital, Osaka (Japan)); Fukuzumi, Akio; Uchida, Hideo

    1983-06-01

    Three verified cases of juvenile angiofibroma were presented. All of them were young and adolescent male CT proved to be an ideal tool in evaluating the extension of this tumor. The appearance on plain CT was multilobulated with displacement of the adjacent bony structures. On enhancement, there was intense staining of the tumor.

  12. What is Justice for Juveniles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, Jennifer Truran

    1997-01-01

    Provides background information and related learning activities for three areas of inquiry involving youth and violence: (1) "Evolution of the Juvenile Justice System"; (2) "The Literature of Crime and Poverty"; (3) "Youth Crime and Public Policy." Includes a list of six recommended Web sites. (MJP)

  13. Changes in soil nematode communities under the impact of fertilizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruzdeva, L. I.; Matveeva, E. M.; Kovalenko, T. E.

    2007-06-01

    Changes taking place in the communities of soil nematodes of an artificially sown meadow under the impact of annually applied mineral fertilizers have been studied in a field experiment for nine years. It is shown that changes in the species composition, trophic structure, and numbers of nematodes from different genera depend on the fertilizer applied and on the competitiveness of the plant species grown. The spectra of nematode genera sensitive to the complete mineral fertilizer (NPK) and to the particular nutrients have been identified with the use of a number of parameters, including the maturity index of nematode communities, the biotope preferences of the particular nematode genera, and the general pattern of nematode habitats. The results obtained in this study can be used to assess the effect of mineral fertilizers on the soil fauna and to suggest optimum application rates of mineral fertilizers ensuring the sustainable development of meadow herbs. The use of the data on the trophic structure of nematode communities for predicting the ways of organic matter decomposition in the soil is discussed.

  14. Novel RNA viruses within plant parasitic cyst nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruark, Casey L; Gardner, Michael; Mitchum, Melissa G; Davis, Eric L; Sit, Tim L

    2018-01-01

    The study of invertebrate-and particularly nematode-viruses is emerging with the advancement of transcriptome sequencing. Five single-stranded RNA viruses have now been confirmed within the economically important soybean cyst nematode (SCN; Heterodera glycines). From previous research, we know these viruses to be widespread in greenhouse and field populations of SCN. Several of the SCN viruses were also confirmed within clover (H. trifolii) and beet (H. schachtii) cyst nematodes. In the presented study, we sequenced the transcriptomes of several inbred SCN populations and identified two previously undiscovered viral-like genomes. Both of these proposed viruses are negative-sense RNA viruses and have been named SCN nyami-like virus (NLV) and SCN bunya-like virus (BLV). Finally, we analyzed publicly available transcriptome data of two potato cyst nematode (PCN) species, Globodera pallida and G. rostochiensis. From these data, a third potential virus was discovered and called PCN picorna-like virus (PLV). PCN PLV is a positive-sense RNA virus, and to the best of our knowledge, is the first virus described within PCN. The presence of these novel viruses was confirmed via qRT-PCR, endpoint PCR, and Sanger sequencing with the exception of PCN PLV due to quarantine restrictions on the nematode host. While much work needs to be done to understand the biological and evolutionary significance of these viruses, they offer insight into nematode ecology and the possibility of novel nematode management strategies.

  15. Reciprocal Interactions between Nematodes and Their Microbial Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midha, Ankur; Schlosser, Josephine; Hartmann, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    Parasitic nematode infections are widespread in nature, affecting humans as well as wild, companion, and livestock animals. Most parasitic nematodes inhabit the intestines of their hosts living in close contact with the intestinal microbiota. Many species also have tissue migratory life stages in the absence of severe systemic inflammation of the host. Despite the close coexistence of helminths with numerous microbes, little is known concerning these interactions. While the environmental niche is considerably different, the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans ( C. elegans ) is also found amongst a diverse microbiota, albeit on decaying organic matter. As a very well characterized model organism that has been intensively studied for several decades, C. elegans interactions with bacteria are much more deeply understood than those of their parasitic counterparts. The enormous breadth of understanding achieved by the C. elegans research community continues to inform many aspects of nematode parasitology. Here, we summarize what is known regarding parasitic nematode-bacterial interactions while comparing and contrasting this with information from work in C. elegans . This review highlights findings concerning responses to bacterial stimuli, antimicrobial peptides, and the reciprocal influences between nematodes and their environmental bacteria. Furthermore, the microbiota of nematodes as well as alterations in the intestinal microbiota of mammalian hosts by helminth infections are discussed.

  16. Host-Induced Silencing of Two Pharyngeal Gland Genes Conferred Transcriptional Alteration of Cell Wall-Modifying Enzymes of Meloidogyne incognita vis-à-vis Perturbed Nematode Infectivity in Eggplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivakumara, Tagginahalli N; Chaudhary, Sonam; Kamaraju, Divya; Dutta, Tushar K; Papolu, Pradeep K; Banakar, Prakash; Sreevathsa, Rohini; Singh, Bhupinder; Manjaiah, K M; Rao, Uma

    2017-01-01

    The complex parasitic strategy of Meloidogyne incognita appears to involve simultaneous expression of its pharyngeal gland-specific effector genes in order to colonize the host plants. Research reports related to effector crosstalk in phytonematodes for successful parasitism of the host tissue is yet underexplored. In view of this, we have used in planta effector screening approach to understand the possible interaction of pioneer genes ( msp-18 and msp-20 , putatively involved in late and early stage of M. incognita parasitism, respectively) with other unrelated effectors such as cell-wall modifying enzymes (CWMEs) in M. incognita . Host-induced gene silencing (HIGS) strategy was used to generate the transgenic eggplants expressing msp-18 and msp-20 , independently. Putative transformants were characterized via qRT-PCR and Southern hybridization assay. SiRNAs specific to msp-18 and msp - 20 were also detected in the transformants via Northern hybridization assay. Transgenic expression of the RNAi constructs of msp-18 and msp-20 genes resulted in 43.64-69.68% and 41.74-67.30% reduction in M. incognita multiplication encompassing 6 and 10 events, respectively. Additionally, transcriptional oscillation of CWMEs documented in the penetrating and developing nematodes suggested the possible interaction among CWMEs and pioneer genes. The rapid assimilation of plant-derived carbon by invading nematodes was also demonstrated using 14 C isotope probing approach. Our data suggests that HIGS of msp-18 and msp-20 , improves nematode resistance in eggplant by affecting the steady-state transcription level of CWME genes in invading nematodes, and safeguard the plant against nematode invasion at very early stage because nematodes may become the recipient of bioactive RNA species during the process of penetration into the plant root.

  17. Akon - A Penetrator for Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Geraint

    2016-04-01

    Jupiter's moon Europa is one of the most intriguing objects in our Solar System. This 2000km-wide body has a geologically young solid water ice crust that is believed to cover a global ocean of liquid water. The presence of this ocean, together with a source of heating through tidal forces, make Europa a conceivable location for extraterrestrial life. The science case for exploring all aspects of this icy world is compelling. NASA has selected the Europa Mission (formerly Europa Clipper) to study Europa in detail in the 2020s through multiple flybys, and ESA's JUICE mission will perform two flybys of the body in the 2030s. The US agency has extended to the European Space Agency an invitation to provide a contribution to their mission. European scientists interested in Europa science and exploration are currently organizing themselves, in the framework of a coordinated Europa M5 Inititative to study concurrently the main options for this ESA contribution, from a simple addition of individual instruments to the NASA spacecraft, to a lander to investigate Europa's surface in situ. A high speed lander - a penetrator - is by far the most promising technology to achieve this latter option within the anticipated mass constraints, and studies of such a hard lander, many funded by ESA, are now at an advanced level. An international team to formally propose an Europa penetrator to ESA in response to the anticipated ESA M5 call is growing. The working title of this proposal is Akon (Άκων), named after the highly accurate javelin gifted to Europa by Zeus in ancient Greek mythology. We present plans for the Akon penetrator, which would impact Europa's surface at several hundred metres per second, and travel up to several metres into the moon's subsurface. To achieve this, the penetrator would be delivered to the surface by a dedicated descent module, to be destroyed on impact following release of the penetrator above the surface. It is planned that the instruments to be

  18. Unraveling flp-11/flp-32 dichotomy in nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Louise E; Miskelly, Iain R; Moffett, Christy L; McCoy, Ciaran J; Maule, Aaron G; Marks, Nikki J; Mousley, Angela

    2016-10-01

    FMRFamide-like peptide (FLP) signalling systems are core to nematode neuromuscular function. Novel drug discovery efforts associated with nematode FLP/FLP receptor biology are advanced through the accumulation of basic biological data that can reveal subtle complexities within the neuropeptidergic system. This study reports the characterisation of FMRFamide-like peptide encoding gene-11 (flp-11) and FMRFamide-like peptide encoding gene-32 (flp-32), two distinct flp genes which encode the analogous peptide, AMRN(A/S)LVRFamide, in multiple nematode species - the only known example of this phenomenon within the FLPergic system of nematodes. Using bioinformatics, in situ hybridisation, immunocytochemistry and behavioural assays we show that: (i) flp-11 and -32 are distinct flp genes expressed individually or in tandem across multiple nematode species, where they encode a highly similar peptide; (ii) flp-11 does not appear to be the most widely expressed flp in Caenorhabditis elegans; (iii) in species expressing both flp-11 and flp-32, flp-11 displays a conserved, restricted expression pattern across nematode clades and lifestyles; (iv) in species expressing both flp-11 and flp-32, flp-32 expression is more widespread and less conserved than flp-11; (v) in species expressing only flp-11, the flp-11 expression profile is more similar to the flp-32 profile observed in species expressing both; and (vi) FLP-11 peptides inhibit motor function in multiple nematode species. The biological significance and evolutionary origin of flp-11 and -32 peptide duplication remains unclear despite attempts to identify a common ancestor; this may become clearer as the availability of genomic data improves. This work provides insight into the complexity of the neuropeptidergic system in nematodes, and begins to examine how nematodes may compensate for structural neuronal simplicity. From a parasite control standpoint, this work underscores the importance of basic biological data, and has

  19. Assessing high wind energy penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tande, J.O.

    1995-01-01

    In order to convincingly promote installing wind power capacity as a substantial part of the energy supply system, a set of careful analyses must be undertaken. This paper applies a case study concentrated on assessing the cost/benefit of high wind energy penetration. The case study considers...... expanding the grid connected wind power capacity in Praia, the capital of Cape Verde. The currently installed 1 MW of wind power is estimated to supply close to 10% of the electric energy consumption in 1996. Increasing the wind energy penetration to a higher level is considered viable as the project...... with the existing wind power, supply over 30% of the electric consumption in 1996. Applying the recommended practices for estimating the cost of wind energy, the life-cycle cost of this 2.4 MW investment is estimated at a 7% discount rate and a 20 year lifetime to 0.26 DKK/kW h....

  20. Mobile Termination and Mobile Penetration

    OpenAIRE

    Hurkens, Sjaak; Jeon, Doh-Shin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we study how access pricing affects network competition when subscription demand is elastic and each network uses non-linear prices and can apply termination-based price discrimination. In the case of a fixed per minute termination charge, we find that a reduction of the termination charge below cost has two oppos- ing effects: it softens competition but helps to internalize network externalities. The former reduces mobile penetration while the latter boosts it. We find that fi...

  1. Mobile termination and mobile penetration

    OpenAIRE

    Hurkens, Sjaak

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we study how access pricing affects network competition when subscription demand is elastic and each network uses non-linear prices and can apply termination-based price discrimination. In the case of a fixed per minute termination charge, we find that a reduction of the termination charge below cost has two opposing effects: it softens competition but helps to internalize network externalities. The former reduces mobile penetration while the latter boosts it. We find that firm...

  2. Fluorescent penetration crack testing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, A.

    1979-01-01

    The same cleaning, penetration, washing, development and evaluation agents are used in this method as for known methods. In order to accelerate or shorten the testing, the drying process is performed only to optical dryness of the material surface by blowing on it with pressurized air, the development by simple pressing into or dusting of the material with the developer and the temperature of the washing water is selected within room temperature range. (RW) [de

  3. Plant nematodes in South Africa. 11. Checklist of plant nematodes of the protected areas of KwaZulu-Natal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariette Marais

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Nematodes are some of the most abundant soil organisms and are an essential part of soil ecology. These organisms are used as indicator organisms and can be linked to soil health. Biological collections contain vast amounts of data, with the National Collection of Nematodes housed at the Plant Protection Research Institute, Agricultural Research Council being no different. During the digitising of the collection a number of unpublished records of plant nematodes reported from protected areas in KwaZulu-Natal were found in the South African Plant-Parasitic Nematode Survey database. A total of 222 plant nematode species belonging to 39 genera were reported from the province, with only 94 of these species reported from the protected areas and 172 and 159 species reported from uncultivated (outside the protected areas and cultivated areas, respectively. Only nine species, Criconema silvum, Criconema talanum, Helicotylenchus marethae, Ogma dracomontanum, Ogma louisi, Ogma ueckermanni, Paralongidorus deborae, Trichodorus rinae and Xiphinemella marindae were described from protected areas, whilst O. dracomontanum, P. deborae and T. rinae were subsequently also reported from other provinces. Conservation implications: A higher degree of diversity of nematodes was observed in the unprotected areas of the province. The observation suggests that nematode fauna, and by implication also other invertebrates, are not adequately protected.

  4. Plant nematodes in South Africa. 11. Checklist of plant nematodes of the protected areas of KwaZulu-Natal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariette Marais

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Nematodes are some of the most abundant soil organisms and are an essential part of soil ecology. These organisms are used as indicator organisms and can be linked to soil health. Biological collections contain vast amounts of data, with the National Collection of Nematodes housed at the Plant Protection Research Institute, Agricultural Research Council being no different. During the digitising of the collection a number of unpublished records of plant nematodes reported from protected areas in KwaZulu-Natal were found in the South African Plant-Parasitic Nematode Survey database. A total of 222 plant nematode species belonging to 39 genera were reported from the province, with only 94 of these species reported from the protected areas and 172 and 159 species reported from uncultivated (outside the protected areas and cultivated areas, respectively. Only nine species, Criconema silvum, Criconema talanum, Helicotylenchus marethae, Ogma dracomontanum, Ogma louisi, Ogma ueckermanni, Paralongidorus deborae, Trichodorus rinae and Xiphinemella marindae were described from protected areas, whilst O. dracomontanum, P. deborae and T. rinae were subsequently also reported from other provinces. Conservation implications: A higher degree of diversity of nematodes was observed in the unprotected areas of the province. The observation suggests that nematode fauna, and by implication also other invertebrates, are not adequately protected.

  5. HMO penetration and physicians' earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, J; Mitchell, J M

    1999-11-01

    The goal of this study is to estimate whether cross-sectional variations in enrollment in health maintenance organizations (HMOs) affected physicians' earnings and hourly income in 1990. Using data from a nationally representative sample of 4,577 younger physicians (penetration is endogenous and used the instrumental variables approach to obtain unbiased estimates. HMO penetration had a negative and statistically significant impact on physicians earnings in 1990. A doubling of the average level of HMO penetration in the market is estimated to reduce annual earnings by 7% to 10.7%, and hourly earnings by approximately 6% to 9%. It appears that HMOs were successful in reducing physicians' annual and per hour earnings in 1990, presumably through a combination of fewer visits and lower payment rates for people covered by HMOs. Although these results cannot be generalized to all physicians, the experience of a younger cohort of physicians may still be a good indicator of the future effects of HMOs because younger physicians may be more susceptible to market forces than older and more established physicians. Moreover, these results may be somewhat conservative because they reflect market behavior in 1990, several years before the rapid growth and more aggressive market behavior of HMOs in recent years.

  6. Penetrating eye injury in war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biehl, J W; Valdez, J; Hemady, R K; Steidl, S M; Bourke, D L

    1999-11-01

    The percentage of penetrating eye injuries in war has increased significantly in this century compared with the total number of combat injuries. With the increasing use of fragmentation weapons and possibly laser weapons on the battle-field in the future, the rate of eye injuries may exceed the 13% of the total military injuries found in Operations Desert Storm/Shield. During the Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988), eye injuries revealed that retained foreign bodies and posterior segment injuries have an improved prognosis in future military ophthalmic surgery as a result of modern diagnostic and treatment modalities. Compared with the increasing penetrating eye injuries on the battlefield, advances in ophthalmic surgery are insignificant. Eye armor, such as visors that flip up and down and protect the eyes from laser injury, needs to be developed. Similar eye protection is being developed in civilian sportswear. Penetrating eye injury in the civilian sector is becoming much closer to the military model and is now comparable for several reasons.

  7. Real-Time Penetrating Particle Analyzer (PAN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X.; Ambrosi, G.; Bertucci, B.

    2018-02-01

    The PAN can measure penetrating particles with great precision to study energetic particles, solar activities, and the origin and propagation of cosmic rays. The real-time monitoring of penetrating particles is crucial for deep space human travel.

  8. A Practical Approach to Juvenile Dermatomyositis and Juvenile Scleroderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Liza J; Pain, Clare E

    2016-02-01

    Juvenile dermatomyositis and juvenile scleroderma are rare multisystem autoimmune disorders. Although they share some pathognomonic hallmarks with adult onset myositis or scleroderma, there are significant differences in presentation, characteristics and associated features when the diseases present in childhood. In view of this, and the rarity of the conditions, it is important for care to be led by teams with expertise in pediatric rheumatology conditions. Prognosis has improved significantly in the West; likely due to early diagnosis and aggressive treatment with immunosuppressive medications. However, this trend is not replicated in the developing world. Early recognition of these diseases is crucial to achieve rapid and sustained remission and prevent disease or medication associated complications. This article aims to provide a practical overview for recognition, diagnosis and treatment of these conditions.

  9. Role of mungbean root nodule associated fluorescent Pseudomonas and rhizobia in suppressing the root rotting fungi and root knot nematodes in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noreen, R.; Shafique, A.; Haque, S.E.; Ali, S.A.

    2016-01-01

    Three isolates each of fluorescent Pseudomonas (NAFP-19, NAFP-31 and NAFP-32) and rhizobia (NFB- 103, NFB-107 and NFB-109) which were originally isolated from root nodules of mungbean (Vigna radiata) showed significant biocontrol activity in the screen house and under field condition, against root rotting fungi viz., Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium solani, F. oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani evaluated on chickpea. Biocontrol potential of these isolates was also evaluated against Meloidogyne incognita, the root knot nematode. Application of Pseudomonas and rhizobial isolates as a soil drench, separately or mixed significantly reduced root rot disease under screen house and field conditions. Nematode penetration in roots was also found significantly less in rhizobia or Pseudomonas treatments used separately or mixed as compared to control. Fluorescent Pseudomonas treated plants produced greater number of nodules per plant than control plants and about equal to rhizobia treated plants, indicating that root nodule associated fluorescent Pseudomonas enhance root nodulation. (author)

  10. Network Penetration Testing and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Brandon F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper will focus the on research and testing done on penetrating a network for security purposes. This research will provide the IT security office new methods of attacks across and against a company's network as well as introduce them to new platforms and software that can be used to better assist with protecting against such attacks. Throughout this paper testing and research has been done on two different Linux based operating systems, for attacking and compromising a Windows based host computer. Backtrack 5 and BlackBuntu (Linux based penetration testing operating systems) are two different "attacker'' computers that will attempt to plant viruses and or NASA USRP - Internship Final Report exploits on a host Windows 7 operating system, as well as try to retrieve information from the host. On each Linux OS (Backtrack 5 and BlackBuntu) there is penetration testing software which provides the necessary tools to create exploits that can compromise a windows system as well as other operating systems. This paper will focus on two main methods of deploying exploits 1 onto a host computer in order to retrieve information from a compromised system. One method of deployment for an exploit that was tested is known as a "social engineering" exploit. This type of method requires interaction from unsuspecting user. With this user interaction, a deployed exploit may allow a malicious user to gain access to the unsuspecting user's computer as well as the network that such computer is connected to. Due to more advance security setting and antivirus protection and detection, this method is easily identified and defended against. The second method of exploit deployment is the method mainly focused upon within this paper. This method required extensive research on the best way to compromise a security enabled protected network. Once a network has been compromised, then any and all devices connected to such network has the potential to be compromised as well. With a compromised

  11. Ethical Dilemmas and Dimensions in Penetration Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Faily, Shamal; McAlaney, John; Iacob, C.

    2015-01-01

    Penetration testers are required to attack systems to evaluate their security, but without engaging in unethical behaviour while doing so. Despite work on hacker values and studies into security practice, there is little literature devoted to the ethical pressures associated with penetration testing. This paper presents several ethical dilemmas and dimensions associated with penetration testing;\\ud these shed light on the ethical positions taken by Penetration testers, and help identify poten...

  12. Kali Linux wireless penetration testing essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Alamanni, Marco

    2015-01-01

    This book is targeted at information security professionals, penetration testers and network/system administrators who want to get started with wireless penetration testing. No prior experience with Kali Linux and wireless penetration testing is required, but familiarity with Linux and basic networking concepts is recommended.

  13. Effect of compressibility on the hypervelocity penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, W. J.; Chen, X. W.; Chen, P.

    2018-02-01

    We further consider the effect of rod strength by employing the compressible penetration model to study the effect of compressibility on hypervelocity penetration. Meanwhile, we define different instances of penetration efficiency in various modified models and compare these penetration efficiencies to identify the effects of different factors in the compressible model. To systematically discuss the effect of compressibility in different metallic rod-target combinations, we construct three cases, i.e., the penetrations by the more compressible rod into the less compressible target, rod into the analogously compressible target, and the less compressible rod into the more compressible target. The effects of volumetric strain, internal energy, and strength on the penetration efficiency are analyzed simultaneously. It indicates that the compressibility of the rod and target increases the pressure at the rod/target interface. The more compressible rod/target has larger volumetric strain and higher internal energy. Both the larger volumetric strain and higher strength enhance the penetration or anti-penetration ability. On the other hand, the higher internal energy weakens the penetration or anti-penetration ability. The two trends conflict, but the volumetric strain dominates in the variation of the penetration efficiency, which would not approach the hydrodynamic limit if the rod and target are not analogously compressible. However, if the compressibility of the rod and target is analogous, it has little effect on the penetration efficiency.

  14. Development of penetrant materials from used oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Pauzi Ismail; Azhar Azmi

    2014-01-01

    This paper described the results of experiment to produce penetrant for nondestructive testing using used engine oil. The used engine oil was obtained from motor vehicle. It was mixed with kerosene at several mix proportion. The penetrability of these mixing were measured and compared with the penetrant available on the market. The results of measurement were explained and discussed. (author)

  15. Condensed tannins act against cattle nematodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novobilský, Adam; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    2011-01-01

    The use of natural plant anthelmintics was suggested as a possible alternative control of gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) in ruminants. Direct anthelmintic effects of tannin-containing plants have already been shown in sheep and goat GIN. These anthelmintic properties are mainly associated...... with condensed tannins. In the present study, we evaluated possible in vitro effects of three tannin-containing plants against bovine GIN. Effects of Onobrychis viciifolia, Lotus pedunculatus and Lotus corniculatus condensed tannin (CT) extracts on Cooperia oncophora and Ostertagia ostertagi were determined...... (third stage larvae) was also affected by CT extracts from all three plants. In both in vitro assays, extracts with added polyvinylpolypyrrolidone, an inhibitor of tannins, generated almost the same values as the negative control; this confirms the role of CT in the anthelmintic effect of these plant...

  16. RNA-Seq Based Identification of Candidate Parasitism Genes of Cereal Cyst Nematode (Heterodera avenae during Incompatible Infection to Aegilops variabilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghui Zheng

    Full Text Available One of the reasons for the progressive yield decline observed in cereals production is the rapid build-up of populations of the cereal cyst nematode (CCN, Heterodera avenae. These nematodes secrete so-call effectors into their host plant to suppress the plant defense responses, alter plant signaling pathways and then induce the formation of syncytium after infection. However, little is known about its molecular mechanism and parasitism during incompatible infection. To gain insight into its repertoire of parasitism genes, we investigated the transcriptome of the early parasitic second-stage (30 hours, 3 days and 9 days post infection juveniles of the CCN as well as the CCN infected tissue of the host Aegilops variabilis by Illumina sequencing. Among all assembled unigenes, 681 putative genes of parasitic nematode were found, in which 56 putative effectors were identified, including novel pioneer genes and genes corresponding to previously reported effectors. All the 681 CCN unigenes were mapped to 229 GO terms and 200 KEGG pathways, including growth, development and several stimulus-related signaling pathways. Sixteen clusters were involved in the CCN unigene expression atlas at the early stages during infection process, and three of which were significantly gene-enriched. Besides, the protein-protein interaction network analysis revealed 35 node unigenes which may play an important role in the plant-CCN interaction. Moreover, in a comparison of differentially expressed genes between the pre-parasitic juveniles and the early parasitic juveniles, we found that hydrolase activity was up-regulated in pre J2s whereas binding activity was upregulated in infective J2s. RT-qPCR analysis on some selected genes showed detectable expression, indicating possible secretion of the proteins and putative role in infection. This study provided better insights into the incompatible interaction between H. avenae and the host plant Ae. varabilis. Moreover, RNAi

  17. The beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii modulates the expression of WRKY transcription factors in syncytia to favour its development in Arabidopsis roots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Amjad Ali

    Full Text Available Cyst nematodes invade the roots of their host plants as second stage juveniles and induce a syncytium which is the only source of nutrients throughout their life. A recent transcriptome analysis of syncytia induced by the beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii in Arabidopsis roots has shown that thousands of genes are up-regulated or down-regulated in syncytia as compared to root segments from uninfected plants. Among the down-regulated genes are many which code for WRKY transcription factors. Arabidopsis contains 66 WRKY genes with 59 represented by the ATH1 GeneChip. Of these, 28 were significantly down-regulated and 6 up-regulated in syncytia as compared to control root segments. We have studied here the down-regulated genes WRKY6, WRKY11, WRKY17 and WRKY33 in detail. We confirmed the down-regulation in syncytia with promoter::GUS lines. Using various overexpression lines and mutants it was shown that the down-regulation of these WRKY genes is important for nematode development, probably through interfering with plant defense reactions. In case of WRKY33, this might involve the production of the phytoalexin camalexin.

  18. The effect of temperature on the fatty acids and isozymes of a psychrotrophic and two mesophilic species of Xenorhabdus, a bacterial symbiont of entomopathogenic nematodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, H. [Wisconsin Univ., Dept. of Biological Sciences, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Gordon, R. [Prince Edward Island Univ., Dept. of Biology, Charlottetown, PE (Canada); Gow, J. A. [Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John' s NF (Canada)

    2001-05-01

    Generation times relative to temperature were determined for four strains of Xenorhabdus bacteria that represented three geographically distinct species in order to study the capacity of these bacteria to adapt to changes in temperature, as shown by changes in fatty acid composition. Species of the genus Xenorhabdus are carried in the gut of non-feeding infective juvenile nematodes where they release antibacterial and antifungal compounds, to create a non-competitive environment for nematode and bacterial growth. One of the species investigated was psychotropic (i.e. thriving at low temperatures), the other two mesophilic (i.e. growing at moderate temperatures). Results showed that as temperatures declined, proportions of two of the major fatty acids increased significantly in all strains, while the proportion of the prevalent fatty acid (palmitic acid) decreased. Certain other fatty acids decreased with declining temperatures in all strains. The synthesis of isozymes in response to changing temperatures was also investigated. Results showed a broad capacity for physiological temperature adaptation among strains of different climatic origin. It is suggested that these results support the proposition that entomopathogenic bacteria associated with nematodes adjust to temperature changes physiologically by altering the synthesis of isozymes. 36 refs.,6 tabs.

  19. Prevalence of common gastro-intestinal nematode infections in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    (GIN) infection and identified the common GIN parasites in commercial goat production in. Central Uganda. .... Table 1. Prevalence of gastro-intestinal nematode parasites in goats in Central Uganda .... ILCA, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. pp. 40-76.

  20. Integrated management of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Integrated management of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) for tomato production and productivity. Bayuh Belay1* ... important food and cash crop of the farmers and is ...... some part of the research budget without any reservation.

  1. Potential Nematode Alarm Pheromone Induces Acute Avoidance in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Loeza-Cabrera, Mario; Liu, Zheng; Aleman-Meza, Boanerges; Nguyen, Julie K; Jung, Sang-Kyu; Choi, Yuna; Shou, Qingyao; Butcher, Rebecca A; Zhong, Weiwei

    2017-07-01

    It is crucial for animal survival to detect dangers such as predators. A good indicator of dangers is injury of conspecifics. Here we show that fluids released from injured conspecifics invoke acute avoidance in both free-living and parasitic nematodes. Caenorhabditis elegans avoids extracts from closely related nematode species but not fruit fly larvae. The worm extracts have no impact on animal lifespan, suggesting that the worm extract may function as an alarm instead of inflicting physical harm. Avoidance of the worm extract requires the function of a cGMP signaling pathway that includes the cGMP-gated channel TAX-2/TAX-4 in the amphid sensory neurons ASI and ASK. Genetic evidence indicates that the avoidance behavior is modulated by the neurotransmitters GABA and serotonin, two common targets of anxiolytic drugs. Together, these data support a model that nematodes use a nematode-specific alarm pheromone to detect conspecific injury. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  2. Variation in estuarine littoral nematode populations over three spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodda, M.

    1990-04-01

    The population characteristics of the nematode fauna from five replicate cores taken over four seasons at nine sites within mangroves, at three different estuaries on the south-east coast of Australia, are compared. Using cluster analysis, principal co-ordinate analysis and other statistical techniques, the variation in nematode populations is identified as arising from several sources: temperature changes between the more northerly and southerly estuaries (5%); changes in grain size and organic content of the sediment between sites (22%); changes between sites in the frequency of samples containing certain types of food, particularly associated with pools of water and surface topography (30%); stochastic changes in nematode populations within individual samples, probably caused by small scale spatial and temporal variability in food sources (35%); and seasonal changes at all the sites and estuaries (8%). The implications of this pattern of variation for the biology of the nematodes is discussed.

  3. Anisakid nematodes associated with aquatic orga- nisms and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    and respond to long- and medium-term physical, chemical and biological .... that the formation of fibrotic capsules around nematode larvae might prevent further ... capabilities and function primarily in the encapsulation of large parasitic ...

  4. Systemic induced tolerance against root-knot nematodes in rice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Rice plantlets were randomly grown in laboratory, sprayed with hormones and riboflavin .... between riboflavin, SA, JA and ET pathways in rice-nematodes interaction, ..... oxidative damage caused by aging as well as biotic and abiotic stress.

  5. The influence of organic matter content and media compaction on the dispersal of entomopathogenic nematodes with different foraging strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapranas, Apostolos; Maher, Abigail M D; Griffin, Christine T

    2017-12-01

    In laboratory experiments, we investigated how media with varying ratio of peat:sand and two levels of compaction influence dispersal success of entomopathogenic nematode (EPN) species with different foraging strategies: Steinernema carpocapsae (ambusher), Heterorhabditis downesi (cruiser) and Steinernema feltiae (intermediate). Success was measured by the numbers of nematodes moving through a 4 cm column and invading a wax moth larva. We found that both compaction and increasing peat content generally decreased EPN infective juvenile (IJ) success for all three species. Of the three species, H. downesi was the least affected by peat content, and S. carpocapsae was the most adversely influenced by compaction. In addition, sex ratios of the invading IJs of the two Steinernema species were differentially influenced by peat content, and in the case of S. feltiae, sex ratio was also affected by compaction. This indicates that dispersal of male and female IJs is differentially affected by soil parameters and that this differentiation is species-specific. In conclusion, our study shows that organic matter: sand ratio and soil compaction have a marked influence on EPN foraging behaviour with implications for harnessing them as biological pest control agents.

  6. RNA-seq data comparisons of wild soybean genotypes in response to soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hengyou Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.] is an important crop rich in vegetable protein and oil, and is a staple food for human and animals worldwide. However, soybean plants have been challenged by soybean cyst nematode (SCN, Heterodera glycines, one of the most damaging pests found in soybean fields. Applying SCN-resistant cultivars is the most efficient and environmentally friendly strategy to manage SCN. Currently, soybean breeding and further improvement in soybean agriculture are hindered by severely limited genetic diversity in cultivated soybeans. G. soja is a soybean wild progenitor with much higher levels of genetic diversity compared to cultivated soybeans. In this study, transcriptomes of the resistant and susceptible genotypes of the wild soybean, Glycine soja Sieb & Zucc, were sequenced to examine the genetic basis of SCN resistance. Seedling roots were treated with infective second-stage juveniles (J2s of the soybean cyst nematode (HG type 2.5.7 for 3, 5, 8 days and pooled for library construction and RNA sequencing. The transcriptome sequencing generated approximately 245 million (M high quality (Q > 30 raw sequence reads (125 bp in length for twelve libraries. The raw sequence reads were deposited in NCBI sequence read archive (SRA database, with the accession numbers SRR5227314-25. Further analysis of this data would be helpful to improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of soybean-SCN interaction and facilitate the development of diverse SCN resistance cultivars.

  7. Nematodes from terrestrial and freshwater habitats in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We present an updated list of terrestrial and freshwater nematodes from all regions of the Arctic, for which records of properly identified nematode species are available: Svalbard, Jan Mayen, Iceland, Greenland, Nunavut, Northwest territories, Alaska, Lena River estuary, Taymyr and Severnaya Zemlya and Novaya Zemlya. The list includes 391 species belonging to 146 genera, 54 families and 10 orders of the phylum Nematoda. PMID:25197239

  8. Targeted mutagenesis in a human-parasitic nematode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gang, Spencer S.; Castelletto, Michelle L.

    2017-01-01

    Parasitic nematodes infect over 1 billion people worldwide and cause some of the most common neglected tropical diseases. Despite their prevalence, our understanding of the biology of parasitic nematodes has been limited by the lack of tools for genetic intervention. In particular, it has not yet been possible to generate targeted gene disruptions and mutant phenotypes in any parasitic nematode. Here, we report the development of a method for introducing CRISPR-Cas9-mediated gene disruptions in the human-parasitic threadworm Strongyloides stercoralis. We disrupted the S. stercoralis twitchin gene unc-22, resulting in nematodes with severe motility defects. Ss-unc-22 mutations were resolved by homology-directed repair when a repair template was provided. Omission of a repair template resulted in deletions at the target locus. Ss-unc-22 mutations were heritable; we passed Ss-unc-22 mutants through a host and successfully recovered mutant progeny. Using a similar approach, we also disrupted the unc-22 gene of the rat-parasitic nematode Strongyloides ratti. Our results demonstrate the applicability of CRISPR-Cas9 to parasitic nematodes, and thereby enable future studies of gene function in these medically relevant but previously genetically intractable parasites. PMID:29016680

  9. Communities of terrestrial nematodes after different approaches to heathland restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radochova, Petra; Frouz, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Since the 20th century, the distribution of European heathlands rapidly decreased due to agricultural intensification, heavy use of artificial fertilizers or acidification (Aerts & Heil, 1993). Therefore, various attempts of heathland restoration are under way in these days. Analysis of nematode community composition can be one of the tools suitable for succession evaluation (Ferris et al., 2001). In 2011, 2013 and 2014, soil samples were collected from heathland restoration experiment (launched in 2011) where different restoration methods were applied in a 3 × 3 factorial experiment; existing heathlands were also sampled to identify the target community both in dry and wet heathland. A total of 60 samples of extracted nematodes were analysed for absolute abundance, trophic groups, and genera dominance. Various indices were calculated to describe the nematode community. We were able to prove faster development of wet heathlands towards the target community. However, because of large data variability, there was no significant difference between treatments. Development of wet and dry heathlands differed also in increased proportion of omniphagous nematodes in 2013 and predators in 2014 in dry heathlands. After three years of heathland restoration, nematode community has not yet reached parameters of the target community. References Aerts, R., Heil, G. W., 1993. Heathlands: patterns and processes in a changing environment, 1st ed, Geobotany: 20. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, p. 229. Ferris, H., Bongers, T., De Goede, R. G. M., 2001. A framework for soil food web diagnostics: Extension of the nematode faunal analysis oncept. Appl. Soil Ecol. 18, 13-29.

  10. Discovery of genomic intervals that underlie nematode responses to benzimidazoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamanian, Mostafa; Cook, Daniel E; Zdraljevic, Stefan; Brady, Shannon C; Lee, Daehan; Lee, Junho; Andersen, Erik C

    2018-03-01

    Parasitic nematodes impose a debilitating health and economic burden across much of the world. Nematode resistance to anthelmintic drugs threatens parasite control efforts in both human and veterinary medicine. Despite this threat, the genetic landscape of potential resistance mechanisms to these critical drugs remains largely unexplored. Here, we exploit natural variation in the model nematodes Caenorhabditis elegans and Caenorhabditis briggsae to discover quantitative trait loci (QTL) that control sensitivity to benzimidazoles widely used in human and animal medicine. High-throughput phenotyping of albendazole, fenbendazole, mebendazole, and thiabendazole responses in panels of recombinant lines led to the discovery of over 15 QTL in C. elegans and four QTL in C. briggsae associated with divergent responses to these anthelmintics. Many of these QTL are conserved across benzimidazole derivatives, but others show drug and dose specificity. We used near-isogenic lines to recapitulate and narrow the C. elegans albendazole QTL of largest effect and identified candidate variants correlated with the resistance phenotype. These QTL do not overlap with known benzimidazole target resistance genes from parasitic nematodes and present specific new leads for the discovery of novel mechanisms of nematode benzimidazole resistance. Analyses of orthologous genes reveal conservation of candidate benzimidazole resistance genes in medically important parasitic nematodes. These data provide a basis for extending these approaches to other anthelmintic drug classes and a pathway towards validating new markers for anthelmintic resistance that can be deployed to improve parasite disease control.

  11. FAA Fluorescent Penetrant Activities - An Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, D.G.

    1998-10-20

    The Federal Aviation Administration's Airworthiness Assurance NDI Validation Center (AANC) is currently characterizing low cycle fatigue specimens that will support the needs of penetrant manufacturers, commercial airline industry and the Federal Aviation Administration. The main focus of this characterization is to maintain and enhance the evaluation of penetrant inspection materials and apply resources to support the aircraft community needs. This paper discusses efforts to-date to document the Wright Laboratory penetrant evaluation process and characterize penetrant brightness readings in the initial set of sample calibration panels using Type 1 penetrant.

  12. Web penetration testing with Kali Linux

    CERN Document Server

    Muniz, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Web Penetration Testing with Kali Linux contains various penetration testing methods using BackTrack that will be used by the reader. It contains clear step-by-step instructions with lot of screenshots. It is written in an easy to understand language which will further simplify the understanding for the user.""Web Penetration Testing with Kali Linux"" is ideal for anyone who is interested in learning how to become a penetration tester. It will also help the users who are new to Kali Linux and want to learn the features and differences in Kali versus Backtrack, and seasoned penetration testers

  13. Entomopathogenic nematodes for the control of the codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.) in field and laboratory trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odendaal, D; Addison, M F; Malan, A P

    2016-09-01

    Three commercially available entomopathogenic nematode (EPN) strains (Steinernema feltiae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Hb1 and Hb2) and two local species (S. jeffreyense and S. yirgalemense) were evaluated for the control of the codling moth (Cydia pomonella). In field spray trials, the use of S. jeffreyense resulted in the most effective control (67%), followed by H. bacteriophora (Hb1) (42%) and S. yirgalemense (41%). Laboratory bioassays using spray application in simulated field conditions indicate S. feltiae to be the most virulent (67%), followed by S. yirgalemense (58%). A laboratory comparison of the infection and penetration rate of the different strains showed that, at 14°C, all EPN strains resulted in slower codling moth mortality than they did at 25°C. After 48 h, 98% mortality was recorded for all species involved. However, the washed codling moth larvae, cool-treated (at 14°C) with S. feltiae or S. yirgalemense, resulted in 100% mortality 24 h later at room temperature, whereas codling moth larvae treated with the two H. bacteriophora strains resulted in 68% and 54% control, respectively. At 14°C, S. feltiae had the highest average penetration rate of 20 IJs/larva, followed by S. yirgalemense, with 14 IJs/larva. At 25°C, S. yirgalemense had the highest penetration rate, with 39 IJs/larva, followed by S. feltiae, with 9 IJs/larva. This study highlights the biocontrol potential of S. jeffreyense, as well as confirming that S. feltiae is a cold-active nematode, whereas the other three EPN isolates tested prefer warmer temperatures.

  14. Penetration through the Skin Barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Benfeldt, Eva; Holmgaard, Rikke

    2016-01-01

    The skin is a strong and flexible organ with barrier properties essential for maintaining homeostasis and thereby human life. Characterizing this barrier is the ability to prevent some chemicals from crossing the barrier while allowing others, including medicinal products, to pass at varying rates......-through diffusion cells) as well as in vivo methods (microdialysis and microperfusion). Then follows a discussion with examples of how different characteristics of the skin (age, site and integrity) and of the penetrants (size, solubility, ionization, logPow and vehicles) affect the kinetics of percutaneous...

  15. Penetrating abdominal injuries: management controversies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Muhammad U; Zacharias, Nikolaos; Velmahos, George C

    2009-01-01

    Penetrating abdominal injuries have been traditionally managed by routine laparotomy. New understanding of trajectories, potential for organ injury, and correlation with advanced radiographic imaging has allowed a shift towards non-operative management of appropriate cases. Although a selective approach has been established for stab wounds, the management of abdominal gunshot wounds remains a matter of controversy. In this chapter we describe the rationale and methodology of selecting patients for non-operative management. We also discuss additional controversial issues, as related to antibiotic prophylaxis, management of asymptomatic thoracoabdominal injuries, and the use of colostomy vs. primary repair for colon injuries. PMID:19374761

  16. Penetrating abdominal injuries: management controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velmahos George C

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Penetrating abdominal injuries have been traditionally managed by routine laparotomy. New understanding of trajectories, potential for organ injury, and correlation with advanced radiographic imaging has allowed a shift towards non-operative management of appropriate cases. Although a selective approach has been established for stab wounds, the management of abdominal gunshot wounds remains a matter of controversy. In this chapter we describe the rationale and methodology of selecting patients for non-operative management. We also discuss additional controversial issues, as related to antibiotic prophylaxis, management of asymptomatic thoracoabdominal injuries, and the use of colostomy vs. primary repair for colon injuries.

  17. Penetration testing with Raspberry Pi

    CERN Document Server

    Muniz, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    If you are looking for a low budget, small form-factor remotely accessible hacking tool, then the concepts in this book are ideal for you. If you are a penetration tester who wants to save on travel costs by placing a low-cost node on a target network, you will save thousands by using the methods covered in this book. You do not have to be a skilled hacker or programmer to use this book. It will be beneficial to have some networking experience; however, it is not required to follow the concepts covered in this book.

  18. Correlation Between Cone Penetration Rate And Measured Cone Penetration Parameters In Silty Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Rikke; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2013-01-01

    This paper shows, how a change in cone penetration rate affects the cone penetration measurements, hence the cone resistance, pore pressure, and sleeve friction in silty soil. The standard rate of penetration is 20 mm/s, and it is generally accepted that undrained penetration occurs in clay while...... drained penetration occurs in sand. When lowering the penetration rate, the soil pore water starts to dissipate and a change in the drainage condition is seen. In intermediate soils such as silty soils, the standard cone penetration rate may result in a drainage condition that could be undrained......, partially or fully drained. However, lowering the penetration rate in silty soils has a great significance because of the soil permeability, and only a small change in penetration rate will result in changed cone penetration measurements. In this paper, analyses will be done on data from 15 field cone...

  19. Juvenile morphology in baleen whale phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Hsiu; Fordyce, R Ewan

    2014-09-01

    Phylogenetic reconstructions are sensitive to the influence of ontogeny on morphology. Here, we use foetal/neonatal specimens of known species of living baleen whales (Cetacea: Mysticeti) to show how juvenile morphology of extant species affects phylogenetic placement of the species. In one clade (sei whale, Balaenopteridae), the juvenile is distant from the usual phylogenetic position of adults, but in the other clade (pygmy right whale, Cetotheriidae), the juvenile is close to the adult. Different heterochronic processes at work in the studied species have different influences on juvenile morphology and on phylogenetic placement. This study helps to understand the relationship between evolutionary processes and phylogenetic patterns in baleen whale evolution and, more in general, between phylogeny and ontogeny; likewise, this study provides a proxy how to interpret the phylogeny when fossils that are immature individuals are included. Juvenile individuals in the peramorphic acceleration clades would produce misleading phylogenies, whereas juvenile individuals in the paedomorphic neoteny clades should still provide reliable phylogenetic signals.

  20. An unusual presentation of juvenile lupus nephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malleshwar Bottu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of juvenile lupus varies widely ranging between 4 and 250 per 100,000 population. Most common organ involvement in juvenile lupus is kidney. Neurological, cutaneous and hematological involvements are also involved. Skeletal muscle involvement in the form of myositis is rare. Myositis as presenting manifestation in juvenile lupus is also unusual. Herein, we report one such case wherein myositis preceded the onset of lupus nephritis

  1. Linguistic Intuitions and Cognitive Penetrability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Devitt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Metalinguistic intuitions play a very large evidential role in both linguistics and philosophy. Linguists think that these intuitions are products of underlying linguistic competence. I call this view “the voice of competence” (“VoC”. Although many philosophers seem to think that metalinguistic intuitions are a priori many may implicitly hold the more scientifically respectable VoC. According to VoC, I argue, these intuitions can be cognitively penetrated by the central processor. But, I have argued elsewhere, VoC is false. Instead, we should hold “the modest explanation” (“ME” according to which these intuitions are fairly unreflective empirical theory-laden central-processor responses to phenomena. On ME, no question of cognitive penetration arises. ME has great methodological significance for the study of language. Insofar as we rely on intuitions as evidence we should prefer those of linguists and philosophers because they are more expert. But, more importantly, we should be seeking other evidence in linguistic usage.

  2. Juvenile offenders: competence to stand trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulier, Matthew

    2012-12-01

    This article details the legal background and assists the reader in the preparation and practical conduct of evaluations regarding juvenile adjudicative competency. The material is presented to be useful as a guide to direct questions of competency and covers aspects of evaluation that include: legal standard for competency to stand trial, developmental immaturity, current practice in juvenile competency to stand trial, forensic evaluation of juvenile competency to stand trial, organizing the evaluation, collateral sources of information, psychiatric evaluation of juvenile adjudicative competency, assessment of mental disorder and intellectual disability, assessment of developmental status, assessment of functional abilities for adjudicative competence, and reaching the forensic opinion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. RNA-Seq reveals the molecular mechanism of trapping and killing of root-knot nematodes by nematode-trapping fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Ramesh; Patel, Reena; Patel, Namrata; Bhatt, Vaibhav; Joshi, Chaitanya; Singh, Pawan Kumar; Kunjadia, Anju

    2017-04-01

    Nematode-trapping fungi are well known for their inherent potential to trap and kill nematodes using specialized trapping devices. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the trapping and subsequent processes are still unclear. Therefore, in this study, we examined differential genes expression in two nematode-trapping fungi after baiting with nematode extracts. In Arthrobotrys conoides, 809 transcripts associated with diverse functions such as signal transduction, morphogenesis, stress response and peroxisomal proteins, proteases, chitinases and genes involved in the host-pathogen interaction showed differential expression with fold change (>±1.5 fold) in the presence of nematode extract with FDR (p-value nematode-trapping fungi for its host. The findings illustrate the molecular mechanism of fungal parasitism in A. conoides which may be helpful in developing a potential biocontrol agent against parasitic nematodes.

  4. Nematode assemblages in the rhizosphere of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) depended on fertilisation and plant growth phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mette Vestergård

    2004-01-01

    rhizosphere; nitrogen and phosphorus fertilisation; nematode assemblages; plant parasites; barley......rhizosphere; nitrogen and phosphorus fertilisation; nematode assemblages; plant parasites; barley...

  5. Transcriptional profiling of root-knot nematode induced feeding sites in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. using a soybean genome array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Sayan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The locus Rk confers resistance against several species of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp., RKN in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata. Based on histological and reactive oxygen species (ROS profiles, Rk confers a delayed but strong resistance mechanism without a hypersensitive reaction-mediated cell death process, which allows nematode development but blocks reproduction. Results Responses to M. incognita infection in roots of resistant genotype CB46 and a susceptible near-isogenic line (null-Rk were investigated using a soybean Affymetrix GeneChip expression array at 3 and 9 days post-inoculation (dpi. At 9 dpi 552 genes were differentially expressed in incompatible interactions (infected resistant tissue compared with non-infected resistant tissue and 1,060 genes were differentially expressed in compatible interactions (infected susceptible tissue compared with non-infected susceptible tissue. At 3 dpi the differentially expressed genes were 746 for the incompatible and 623 for the compatible interactions. When expression between infected resistant and susceptible genotypes was compared, 638 and 197 genes were differentially expressed at 9 and 3 dpi, respectively. Conclusions In comparing the differentially expressed genes in response to nematode infection, a greater number and proportion of genes were down-regulated in the resistant than in the susceptible genotype, whereas more genes were up-regulated in the susceptible than in the resistant genotype. Gene ontology based functional categorization revealed that the typical defense response was partially suppressed in resistant roots, even at 9 dpi, allowing nematode juvenile development. Differences in ROS concentrations, induction of toxins and other defense related genes seem to play a role in this unique resistance mechanism.

  6. First Report of the Fig Cyst Nematode, Heterodera fici Kirjanova, on Fig Tree, Ficus carica, in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fengcheng; Henry, Neil; Yu, Qing

    2017-06-01

    Although fig trees are a popular ornamental fruit tree in subtropical regions, some hardy species, such as Ficus carica , have been grown in the west coast of British Columbia and southern Ontario in Canada. The fig cyst nematode, Heterodera fici Kirjanova, is a pest on fig plants, and the heavy infestation can cause retarded growth and yellowing of leaves (Maqbool et al., 1987). In the spring of 2016, a sample of rhizosphere from a potted fig ( F. carica ) seedling was submitted to the Nematology Laboratory, Canadian Food Inspection Agency. The sample was collected from a nursery in Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario, Canada, during an inspection to support export certification. The fig trees in the nursery had been grown in the outside fields during the growing seasons and potted and moved to indoor during the winters for last 3 years. The sample was subjected to a nematode extraction process, including decanting and sieving and misting, and lemon-shaped cysts and second-stage juveniles of Heterodera sp. were recovered from the sample examined. The morphological and molecular analyses of the cysts, vulval cone, and second-stage juveniles from both the roots and the crushed cysts identified the species as Heterodera fici Kirjanova. The cysts were characterized by their dark brown color and lemon shape, as well as distinct necks and vulval cones. The vulval cones were observed having an ambifenestrate fenestra (Fig. 1AFig. 1Photomicrographs of Heterodera fici on fig tree from Ontario, Canada. A, B. Cyst vulval cones with the ambifenestrate fenestra in A) and well-developed underbridge and bullae in B). C-E. The second-stage juveniles from a crushed cyst with the whole body in C), the anterior region in D) and the posterior region in E).), dome-shaped bullae scattered around the underbridge plane (Fig. 1B), well-developed underbridge (Fig. 1B), and coarse zig-zag ridges surrounding the fenestra on the surface. The cyst measurements ( n = 3) were length 608.7 ± 91.6 (506

  7. A new oomycete species parasitic in nematodes, Chlamydomyzium dictyuchoides sp. nov.: developmental biology and phylogenetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beakes, Gordon W; Glockling, Sally L; James, Timothy Y

    2014-07-01

    The genus Chlamydomyzium is a little studied holocarpic oomycete parasite of nematodes of uncertain phylogenetic and taxonomic position. A new holocarpic species, Chlamydomyzium dictyuchoides, is described which has usually refractile cytoplasm and a dictyuchoid pattern of spore release. This new species infects bacteriotrophic rhabditid nematodes and was isolated from diverse geographical locations. Infection was initiated by zoospore encystment on the host surface and direct penetration of the cuticle. A sparsely branched, constricted, refractile thallus was formed which eventually occupied almost the entire host body cavity, often accompanied by complete dissolution of the host cuticle. Walled primary cysts formed throughout the thallus and each cyst released a single zoospore via an individual exit papillum, leaving a characteristic dictyuchoid wall net behind. At later stages of infection some thalli formed thick-walled stellate resting spores in uniseriate rows. Resting spore formation appeared to be parthenogenetic and was not accompanied by the formation of antheridial compartments. These spores had ooplast-like vacuoles and thick multi-layered walls, both of which suggest they were oospores. The maximum likelihood tree of sequences of the small ribosomal subunit (SSU) gene placed this new isolate in a clade before the main saprolegnialean and peronosporalean lines diverge. A second undescribed Chlamydomyzium sp., which has direct spore release forms a paraphyletic clade, close to C. dictyuchoides and Sapromyces. The fine structure of other documented Chlamydomyzium species was compared, including an undescribed (but sequenced) isolate, SL02, from Japan, Chlamydomyzium anomalum and Chlamydomyzium oviparasiticum. Chlamydomyzium as currently constituted is a paraphyletic genus that is part of a group of phylogenetically problematic early diverging clades that lie close to both the Leptomitales and Rhipidiales. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier

  8. Cable Braid Electromagnetic Penetration Model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, Larry K. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Langston, William L. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Basilio, Lorena I. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, W. A. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The model for penetration of a wire braid is rigorously formulated. Integral formulas are developed from energy principles and reciprocity for both self and transfer immittances in terms of potentials for the fields. The detailed boundary value problem for the wire braid is also setup in a very efficient manner; the braid wires act as sources for the potentials in the form of a sequence of line multipoles with unknown coefficients that are determined by means of conditions arising from the wire surface boundary conditions. Approximations are introduced to relate the local properties of the braid wires to a simplified infinite periodic planar geometry. This is used in a simplified application of reciprocity to be able to treat nonuniform coaxial geometries including eccentric interior coaxial arrangements and an exterior ground plane.

  9. The entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis megidis: host searching behaviour, infectivity and reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boff, M.I.C.

    2001-01-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes in the families Heterorhabditidae and Steinernematidae have considerable potential as biological control agents of soil-inhabiting insect pests. Attributes making these nematodes ideal biological control agents include their broad host range, high virulence,

  10. Characterization of soil nematode communities in three cropping systems through morphological and DNA metabarcoding approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Communities of soil nematodes impact ecosystem functions, including plant growth, decomposition, and nutrient cycling, all of which are vital processes in agriculture. We used complementary morphological and DNA metabarcoding analyses to characterize soil nematode communities in three cropping syste...

  11. Plant and soil nematodes from Lokchao Yangoupokpi Wildlife Sanctuary, Manipur, India

    OpenAIRE

    N. Mohilal; M. Pramodini; L. Bina

    2009-01-01

    In the present study soil samples were collected from Lokchao Yangoupokpi Wildlife Sanctuary to investigate about what nematode species are associated with different plant hosts. This study shows rich nematode diversity in the sanctuary.

  12. Plant and soil nematodes from Lokchao Yangoupokpi Wildlife Sanctuary, Manipur, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mohilal

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study soil samples were collected from Lokchao Yangoupokpi Wildlife Sanctuary to investigate about what nematode species are associated with different plant hosts. This study shows rich nematode diversity in the sanctuary.

  13. Bodily action penetrates affective perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigutti, Sara; Gerbino, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Fantoni & Gerbino (2014) showed that subtle postural shifts associated with reaching can have a strong hedonic impact and affect how actors experience facial expressions of emotion. Using a novel Motor Action Mood Induction Procedure (MAMIP), they found consistent congruency effects in participants who performed a facial emotion identification task after a sequence of visually-guided reaches: a face perceived as neutral in a baseline condition appeared slightly happy after comfortable actions and slightly angry after uncomfortable actions. However, skeptics about the penetrability of perception (Zeimbekis & Raftopoulos, 2015) would consider such evidence insufficient to demonstrate that observer’s internal states induced by action comfort/discomfort affect perception in a top-down fashion. The action-modulated mood might have produced a back-end memory effect capable of affecting post-perceptual and decision processing, but not front-end perception. Here, we present evidence that performing a facial emotion detection (not identification) task after MAMIP exhibits systematic mood-congruent sensitivity changes, rather than response bias changes attributable to cognitive set shifts; i.e., we show that observer’s internal states induced by bodily action can modulate affective perception. The detection threshold for happiness was lower after fifty comfortable than uncomfortable reaches; while the detection threshold for anger was lower after fifty uncomfortable than comfortable reaches. Action valence induced an overall sensitivity improvement in detecting subtle variations of congruent facial expressions (happiness after positive comfortable actions, anger after negative uncomfortable actions), in the absence of significant response bias shifts. Notably, both comfortable and uncomfortable reaches impact sensitivity in an approximately symmetric way relative to a baseline inaction condition. All of these constitute compelling evidence of a genuine top-down effect on

  14. Bodily action penetrates affective perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Fantoni

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fantoni & Gerbino (2014 showed that subtle postural shifts associated with reaching can have a strong hedonic impact and affect how actors experience facial expressions of emotion. Using a novel Motor Action Mood Induction Procedure (MAMIP, they found consistent congruency effects in participants who performed a facial emotion identification task after a sequence of visually-guided reaches: a face perceived as neutral in a baseline condition appeared slightly happy after comfortable actions and slightly angry after uncomfortable actions. However, skeptics about the penetrability of perception (Zeimbekis & Raftopoulos, 2015 would consider such evidence insufficient to demonstrate that observer’s internal states induced by action comfort/discomfort affect perception in a top-down fashion. The action-modulated mood might have produced a back-end memory effect capable of affecting post-perceptual and decision processing, but not front-end perception. Here, we present evidence that performing a facial emotion detection (not identification task after MAMIP exhibits systematic mood-congruent sensitivity changes, rather than response bias changes attributable to cognitive set shifts; i.e., we show that observer’s internal states induced by bodily action can modulate affective perception. The detection threshold for happiness was lower after fifty comfortable than uncomfortable reaches; while the detection threshold for anger was lower after fifty uncomfortable than comfortable reaches. Action valence induced an overall sensitivity improvement in detecting subtle variations of congruent facial expressions (happiness after positive comfortable actions, anger after negative uncomfortable actions, in the absence of significant response bias shifts. Notably, both comfortable and uncomfortable reaches impact sensitivity in an approximately symmetric way relative to a baseline inaction condition. All of these constitute compelling evidence of a genuine top

  15. Assessing high wind energy penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tande, J.O.

    1995-01-01

    In order to convincingly promote installing wind power capacity as a substantial part of the energy supply system, a set of careful analyses must be undertaken. This paper applies a case study concentrated on assessing the cost/benefit of high wind energy penetration. The case study considers expanding the grid connected wind power capacity in Praia, the capital of Cape Verde. The currently installed 1 MW of wind power is estimated to supply close to 10% of the electric energy consumption in 1996. Increasing the wind energy penetration to a higher level is considered viable as the project settings are close to ideal, including a very capable national utility company, Electra, a conventional power supply system based on imported heavy fuel and gas oil, and favourable wind conditions with an estimated annual average of 9.3 m/s at the hub height of the wind turbines. With the applied case study assumptions, simulations with WINSYS over the lifetime of the assessed wind power investment show that investments up to 4.2 MW are economically viable. The economic optimum is found at 2.4 MW reaching an internal rate of return of almost 8% p.a. This 2.4 MW of wind power would, together with the existing wind power, supply over 30% of the electric consumption in 1996. Applying the recommended practices for estimating the cost of wind energy, the life-cycle cost of this 2.4 MW investment is estimated at a 7% discount rate and a 20 year lifetime to 0.26 DKK/kW h. (Author)

  16. Varieties of cognitive penetration in visual perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Petra; Newen, Albert

    2014-07-01

    Is our perceptual experience a veridical representation of the world or is it a product of our beliefs and past experiences? Cognitive penetration describes the influence of higher level cognitive factors on perceptual experience and has been a debated topic in philosophy of mind and cognitive science. Here, we focus on visual perception, particularly early vision, and how it is affected by contextual expectations and memorized cognitive contents. We argue for cognitive penetration based on recent empirical evidence demonstrating contextual and top-down influences on early visual processes. On the basis of a perceptual model, we propose different types of cognitive penetration depending on the processing level on which the penetration happens and depending on where the penetrating influence comes from. Our proposal has two consequences: (1) the traditional controversy on whether cognitive penetration occurs or not is ill posed, and (2) a clear-cut perception-cognition boundary cannot be maintained. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Percutaneous penetration studies for risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sartorelli, Vittorio; Andersen, Helle Raun; Angerer, Jürgen

    2000-01-01

    . In order to predict the systemic risk of dermally absorbed chemicals and to enable agencies to set safety standards, data is needed on the rates of percutaneous penetration of important chemicals. Standardization of in vitro tests and comparison of their results with the in vivo data could produce...... internationally accepted penetration rates and/or absorption percentages very useful for regulatory toxicology. The work of the Percutaneous Penetration Subgroup of EC Dermal Exposure Network has been focussed on the standardization and validation of in vitro experiments, necessary to obtain internationally...... accepted penetration rates for regulatory purposes. The members of the Subgroup analyzed the guidelines on percutaneous penetration in vitro studies presented by various organizations and suggested a standardization of in vitro models for percutaneous penetration taking into account their individual...

  18. Ethical hacking and penetration testing guide

    CERN Document Server

    Baloch, Rafay

    2014-01-01

    Requiring no prior hacking experience, Ethical Hacking and Penetration Testing Guide supplies a complete introduction to the steps required to complete a penetration test, or ethical hack, from beginning to end. You will learn how to properly utilize and interpret the results of modern-day hacking tools, which are required to complete a penetration test. The book covers a wide range of tools, including Backtrack Linux, Google reconnaissance, MetaGooFil, dig, Nmap, Nessus, Metasploit, Fast Track Autopwn, Netcat, and Hacker Defender rootkit. Supplying a simple and clean explanation of how to effectively utilize these tools, it details a four-step methodology for conducting an effective penetration test or hack.Providing an accessible introduction to penetration testing and hacking, the book supplies you with a fundamental understanding of offensive security. After completing the book you will be prepared to take on in-depth and advanced topics in hacking and penetration testing. The book walks you through each ...

  19. Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis. Radiological diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuentes, R.; Sar, V.; Cabrera, J.J.; Diaz, L.; Hernandez, B.; Valeron, P.; Baez, O.; Rodriguez, M.

    1993-01-01

    Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis (JHF) is a rare disorder of unknown etiology, very few cases of which have been reported in the literature. It presents similarities to other fibromatosys, but has its particular radiological features which differentiate it from them. The clinical findings consist of several, slow growing, subcutaneous nodules, flexion contractures of the joints which can lead to disability, gingival hypertrophy and muscular atrophy. The suspected radiological diagnosis is confirmed by electron microscopy study of the nodules, although light microscopy can also reveal suggestive images. Author (9 refs.)

  20. Juvenile eye growth, when completed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fledelius, Hans C; Christensen, Anders S; Fledelius, Christian

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To test Sorsby's classical statement of axial eye growth as completed at the age of 13 years, with a view also to differentiating between basic eye growth and juvenile elongation associated with eventual refractive change towards myopia. METHODS: (i) A total of 160 healthy eyes close...... about age 13 as general limit found support from the cross-sectional data, which suggested stable emmetropic eye size from about 11-12 years, with an average apparently outgrown male emmetropic value of 23.5 mm versus females' 22.9 mm. The longitudinal data, however, showed emmetropic growth also beyond...

  1. Juvenile ossifying fibroma: Psammamatoid variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivani Aggarwal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile ossifying fibroma is a rare fibro-osseous lesion containing variable amount of calcified masses, which resembles bone or cementum within a fibrocellular connective tissue stroma. It has variable clinical behavior, highly aggressive in nature including invasion and destruction of adjacent anatomic structures with a strong tendency to recur. We reported a 28-year-old female patient with a growth in the upper left vestibule region extending from canine to molar region with clinical, histopathological, and radiological features are presented. Surgical management was done, and regular follow-up was advised.

  2. THE STUDY OF FEATURES OF GUILT OF JUVENILE OFFENDERS IN THE CONTEXT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalija Vladimirovna Galkina

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the results of empirical studies of the experiences of guilt of juvenile offenders in the context of juvenile justice where a minor appears as the subject of legal relations. Restorative approach of juvenile justice is based on an admission of guilt to the victim. In connection with it, the research of features of the guilt of minors who have committed an offence and the conditions for the development of the subjectivity will enhance understanding of the possibilities of restorative juvenile justice system in the prevention of juvenile delinquency.Thus, the results of empirical research presented in the article are important for determining of the psychological bases of realization of rehabilitation programs in the context of juvenile justice. In particular, the results are important for the organization and conduct of psychological work to overcome the psychological barriers in the behavior of juveniles having inherently maladaptive guilt and destructive psychological defense mechanisms.

  3. Initial response of a rock penetrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longcope, D.B.; Grady, D.E.

    1977-12-01

    An analysis based on elastic rod theory is given for the early-time axisymmetric response of pointed penetrators. Results of measurements by laser interferometry of the back surface particle velocity of laboratory scale penetrators impacted by sandstone targets are presented. Values of the initial pressure on the penetrator tip are determined which give good agreement between the analytical and experimental results. These initial tip pressures are found to be approximated by the stress-particle velocity Hugoniot for the target material

  4. The dual effects of root-cap exudates on nematodes: from quiescence in plant-parasitic nematodes to frenzy in entomopathogenic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiltpold, Ivan; Jaffuel, Geoffrey; Turlings, Ted C J

    2015-02-01

    To defend themselves against herbivores and pathogens, plants produce numerous secondary metabolites, either constitutively or de novo in response to attacks. An intriguing constitutive example is the exudate produced by certain root-cap cells that can induce a state of reversible quiescence in plant-parasitic nematodes, thereby providing protection against these antagonists. The effect of such root exudates on beneficial entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) remains unclear, but could potentially impair their use in pest management programmes. We therefore tested how the exudates secreted by green pea (Pisum sativum) root caps affect four commercial EPN species. The exudates induced reversible quiescence in all EPN species tested. Quiescence levels varied with the green pea cultivars tested. Notably, after storage in root exudate, EPN performance traits were maintained over time, whereas performances of EPNs stored in water rapidly declined. In sharp contrast to high concentrations, lower concentrations of the exudate resulted in a significant increase in EPN activity and infectiousness, but still reduced the activity of two plant-parasitic nematode species. Our study suggests a finely tuned dual bioactivity of the exudate from green pea root caps. Appropriately formulated, it can favour long-term storage of EPNs and boost their infectiousness, while it may also be used to protect plants from plant-parasitic nematodes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  5. Juveniles' Motivations for Remaining in Prostitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Shu-Ling; Bedford, Olwen

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were collected in 1990-1991, 1992, and 2000 with 49 prostituted juveniles remanded to two rehabilitation centers in Taiwan. These data are analyzed to explore Taiwanese prostituted juveniles' feelings about themselves and their work, their motivations for remaining in prostitution, and their difficulties…

  6. Moral development of solo juvenile sex offenders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vugt, E.; Stams, G.J.; Dekovic, M.; Brugman, D.; Rutten, E.; Hendriks, J.

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the moral development of solo juvenile male sex offenders (n = 20) and juvenile male non-offenders (n = 76), aged 13-19 years, from lower socioeconomic and educational backgrounds. The Moral Orientation Measure (MOM) was used to assess punishment- and victim-based moral

  7. Juvenile Obesity, Physical Activity, and Lifestyle Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Or, Oded

    2000-01-01

    Because many obese children become obese adults, the recent rapid increase in juvenile obesity poses a major public health challenge. Enhanced physical activity is a cornerstone in a multidisciplinary approach to preventing and treating juvenile obesity. Giving exercise recommendations focused for obese youth is critical. Cutting down on sedentary…

  8. Juvenile dispersal in Calomys venustus (Muridae: Sigmodontinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priotto, José; Steinmann, Andrea; Provensal, Cecilia; Polop, Jaime

    2004-05-01

    Both spacing behaviour and dispersal movement are viewed as hierarchical processes in which the effects may be expressed at spatial scale. This research was carried out to examine the hypothesis that the presence of parents promotes the dispersal of juveniles from their natal nest and their father or mother home-range, in Calomys venustus.The study was carried out in four 0.25 ha fences (two controls and two experimentals), in a natural pasture. This study had two periods: Father Removal (FR) (August and December 1997; year one) and Mother Removal (MR) (August 1998 and January 1999; year two). For the FR treatment fathers were removed after juveniles were born, but in the MR treatment mothers were removed after the juveniles were weaned. The effect of parents on the dispersal distance of juveniles was analysed with respect to their natal nest and their mother and father home-range. Dispersal distance from the nest of C. venustus was independent of either male or female parent. Juveniles were more dispersing in relation to the centre of activity of their mothers than to that of their fathers, and females were more dispersing than males. Female juveniles overlap their home-range with their parents less than male juveniles do. The differences observed between female and male juveniles would be related to their different sexual maturation times, as well as to the female territoriality.

  9. Using the Juvenile Justice Poster. Teaching Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Update on Law-Related Education, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Presents a lesson that can help students review and summarize what they have learned about the juvenile justice system. Explains that the students discuss how the juvenile justice system can be improved and conduct a survey on how it might be changed in the future. Provides a copy of the survey and directions. (CMK)

  10. Intelligence Score Profiles of Female Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Shelby Spare; Hart, Kathleen J.; Ficke, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have found that male juvenile offenders typically obtain low scores on measures of intelligence, often with a pattern of higher scores on measures of nonverbal relative to verbal tasks. The research on the intelligence performance of female juvenile offenders is limited. This study explored the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for…

  11. Reformations in Zimbabwe's juvenile justice system | Ruparanganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Children in conflict with the law are often stigmatized and shunned by society as they are perceived as a threat to society. Historically, Zimbabwe's juvenile justice system has been retributive and focused on punishing the juvenile offender. As a result, it has been criticised from a number of viewpoints, including the need to ...

  12. Survival and Movement of Insect Parasitic Nematodes in Poultry Manure and Their Infectivity Against Musca domestica

    OpenAIRE

    Georgis, Ramon; Mullens, Bradley A.; Meyer, Jeffery A.

    1987-01-01

    Survival, infectivity, and movement of three insect parasitic nematodes (Steinernema feltiae All strain, S. bibionis SN strain, and Heterorhabditis heliothidis NC strain) in poultry manure were tested under laboratory conditions. The majority (70-100%) of the nematodes died within 18 hours after exposure to the manure. Nematodes exposed to manure slurry for 6 hours killed at least 95% of the house fly larvae, Musca domestica, but nematodes exposed for 12 hours achieved less than 40% larval mo...

  13. The FMRFamide-like peptide family in nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katleen ePeymen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the three decades since the FMRFamide peptide was isolated from the mollusk Macrocallista nimbosa, structurally similar peptides sharing a C-terminal RFamide motif have been identified across the animal kingdom. FMRFamide-like peptides (FLPs represent the largest known family of neuropeptides in invertebrates. In the phylum Nematoda, at least 32 flp genes are classified, making the FLP system of nematodes unusually complex. The diversity of the nematode FLP complement is most extensively mapped in Caenorhabditis elegans, where over 70 FLPs have been predicted. FLPs have shown to be expressed in the majority of the 302 C. elegans neurons including interneurons, sensory and motor neurons. The vast expression of FLPs is reflected in the broad functional repertoire of nematode FLP signaling, including neuroendocrine and neuromodulatory effects on locomotory activity, reproduction, feeding, and behavior. In contrast to the many identified nematode FLPs, only few peptides have been assigned a receptor and there is the need to clarify the pathway components and working mechanisms of the FLP signaling network. Here, we review the diversity, distribution, and functions of FLPs in nematodes.

  14. Smart Parasitic Nematodes Use Multifaceted Strategies to Parasitize Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad A. Ali

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Nematodes are omnipresent in nature including many species which are parasitic to plants and cause enormous economic losses in various crops. During the process of parasitism, sedentary phytonematodes use their stylet to secrete effector proteins into the plant cells to induce the development of specialized feeding structures. These effectors are used by the nematodes to develop compatible interactions with plants, partly by mimicking the expression of host genes. Intensive research is going on to investigate the molecular function of these effector proteins in the plants. In this review, we have summarized which physiological and molecular changes occur when endoparasitic nematodes invade the plant roots and how they develop a successful interaction with plants using the effector proteins. We have also mentioned the host genes which are induced by the nematodes for a compatible interaction. Additionally, we discuss how nematodes modulate the reactive oxygen species (ROS and RNA silencing pathways in addition to post-translational modifications in their own favor for successful parasitism in plants.

  15. Variation in the susceptibility of Drosophila to different entomopathogenic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Jennifer M; Carrillo, Mayra A; Hallem, Elissa A

    2015-03-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) in the genera Heterorhabditis and Steinernema are lethal parasites of insects that are of interest as models for understanding parasite-host interactions and as biocontrol agents for insect pests. EPNs harbor a bacterial endosymbiont in their gut that assists in insect killing. EPNs are capable of infecting and killing a wide range of insects, yet how the nematodes and their bacterial endosymbionts interact with the insect immune system is poorly understood. Here, we develop a versatile model system for understanding the insect immune response to parasitic nematode infection that consists of seven species of EPNs as model parasites and five species of Drosophila fruit flies as model hosts. We show that the EPN Steinernema carpocapsae, which is widely used for insect control, is capable of infecting and killing D. melanogaster larvae. S. carpocapsae is associated with the bacterium Xenorhabdus nematophila, and we show that X. nematophila induces expression of a subset of antimicrobial peptide genes and suppresses the melanization response to the nematode. We further show that EPNs vary in their virulence toward D. melanogaster and that Drosophila species vary in their susceptibilities to EPN infection. Differences in virulence among different EPN-host combinations result from differences in both rates of infection and rates of postinfection survival. Our results establish a powerful model system for understanding mechanisms of host-parasite interactions and the insect immune response to parasitic nematode infection. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. In-place HEPA filter penetration test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, W.; Wilson, K.; Elliott, J.; Bettencourt, B.; Slawski, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    We have demonstrated the feasibility of conducting penetration tests on high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters as installed in nuclear ventilation systems. The in-place penetration test, which is designed to yield equivalent penetration measurements as the standard DOP efficiency test, is based on measuring the aerosol penetration of the filter installation as a function of particle size using a portable laser particle counter. This in-place penetration test is compared to the current in-place leak test using light scattering photometers for single HEPA filter installations and for HEPA filter plenums using the shroud method. Test results show the in-place penetration test is more sensitive than the in-place leak test, has a similar operating procedure, but takes longer to conduct. Additional tests are required to confirm that the in-place penetration test yields identical results as the standard dioctyl phthalate (DOP) penetration test for HEPA filters with controlled leaks in the filter and gasket and duct by-pass leaks. Further development of the procedure is also required to reduce the test time before the in- place penetration test is practical

  17. Market penetration rates of new energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The market penetration rates of 11 different new energy technologies were studied covering energy production and end-use technologies. The penetration rates were determined by fitting observed market data to an epidemical diffusion model. The analyses show that the exponential penetration rates of new energy technologies may vary from 4 up to over 40%/yr. The corresponding take-over times from a 1% to 50% share of the estimated market potential may vary from less than 10 to 70 years. The lower rate is often associated with larger energy impacts. Short take-over times less than 25 years seem to be mainly associated with end-use technologies. Public policies and subsides have an important effect on the penetration. Some technologies penetrate fast without major support explained by technology maturity and competitive prices, e.g. compact fluorescent lamps show a 24.2%/yr growth rate globally. The penetration rates determined exhibit some uncertainty as penetration has not always proceeded close to saturation. The study indicates a decreasing penetration rate with increasing time or market share. If the market history is short, a temporally decreasing functional form for the penetration rate coefficient could be used to anticipate the probable behavior

  18. In-place HEPA filter penetration test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, W.; Wilson, K.; Elliott, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    We have demonstrated the feasibility of conducting penetration tests on high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters as installed in nuclear ventilation systems. The in-place penetration test, which is designed to yield equivalent penetration measurements as the standard DOP efficiency test, is based on measuring the aerosol penetration of the filter installation as a function of particle size using a portable laser particle counter. This in-place penetration test is compared to the current in-place leak test using light scattering photometers for single HEPA filter installations and for HEPA filter plenums using the shroud method. Test results show the in-place penetration test is more sensitive than the in-place leak test, has a similar operating procedure, but takes longer to conduct. Additional tests are required to confirm that the in-place penetration test yields identical results as the standard dioctyl phthalate (DOP) penetration test for HEPA filters with controlled leaks in the filter and gasket and duct by-pass leaks. Further development of the procedure is also required to reduce the test time before the in-place penetration test is practical. 14 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Do juveniles bully more than young offenders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Jane L

    2002-04-01

    This study compares bullying behaviour among juvenile and young offenders and incorporates two different methods to measure bullying. Ninety-five male juvenile and 196 male young offenders completed two questionnaires, one that measured bullying directly and one that measured behaviours indicative of "being bullied" or of "bullying others". Juveniles perceived a higher extent of bullying than young offenders. Juveniles reported significantly more physical, psychological or verbal and overall direct forms of bullying behaviour than young offenders. A number of differences were found between juveniles and young offenders with regard to the types of prisoners likely to become victims, who they would advise a victim to speak to and how bullying could be prevented. The results are discussed in relation to developmental theories of aggression and how bullying behaviour can be defined and measured among prisoners. Copyright 2002 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of jet thrust on penetrator penetration when studying the structure of space object blanket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Fedorova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the calculation-and-theory-based research results to examine the possibility for using the jet thrust impulse to increase a penetration depth of high-velocity penetrator modules. Such devices can be used for studies of Earth surface layer composition, and in the nearest future for other Solar system bodies too. Research equipment (sensors and different instruments is housed inside a metal body of the penetrator with a sharpened nose that decreases drag force in soil. It was assumed, that this penetrator is additionally equipped with the pulse jet engine, which is fired at a certain stage of penetrator motion into target.The penetrator is considered as a rigid body of variable mass, which is subjected to drag force and reactive force applied at the moment the engine fires. A drag force was represented with a binomial empirical law, and penetrator nose part was considered to be conical. The jet thrust force was supposed to be constant during its application time. It was in accordance with assumption that mass flow and flow rate of solid propellant combustion products were constant. The amount of propellant in the penetrator was characterized by Tsiolkovsky number Z, which specifies the ratio between the fuel mass and the penetrator structure mass with no fuel.The system of equations to describe the penetrator dynamics was given in dimensionless form using the values aligned with penetration of an equivalent inert penetrator as the time and penetration depth scales. Penetration dynamics of penetrator represented in this form allowed to eliminate the influence of penetrator initial mass and its cross-section diameter on the solution results. The lack of such dependency is convenient for comparing the calculation results since they hold for penetrators of various initial masses and cross-sections.To calculate the penetration a lunar regolith was taken as a soil material. Calculations were carried out for initial velocities of

  1. Prevalence of Pasteuria SP. on Renfirom Nematode in a Georgia Cotton Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasteuria species are bacterial parasites of nematodes and have been associated with suppression of root-knot, sting, and cyst nematode populations. Little is known about the Pasteuria sp. infecting the reniform nematode. While sampling a cotton field study near Cochran, GA, we found Pasteuria spo...

  2. Regulatory interplay between soybean root and soybean cyst nematode during a resistant and susceptible reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Plant parasitic nematodes (PPNs) are obligate parasites that feed on the roots of living host plants. Often, these nematodes can lay hundreds of eggs, each capable of surviving in the soil for as long as 12 years. When it comes to wreaking havoc on agricultural yield, few nematodes can c...

  3. 78 FR 27856 - Golden Nematode; Removal of Regulated Areas in Livingston and Steuben Counties, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    .... APHIS-2012-0079] Golden Nematode; Removal of Regulated Areas in Livingston and Steuben Counties, NY... nematode regulations by removing areas in Livingston and Steuben Counties in New York from the list of... nematode, and we determined that regulation of these areas was no longer necessary. As a result of that...

  4. 7 CFR 301.85-9 - Movement of live golden nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement of live golden nematodes. 301.85-9 Section... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Golden Nematode Quarantine and Regulations § 301.85-9 Movement of live golden nematodes. Regulations requiring a permit for and otherwise...

  5. 78 FR 1713 - Golden Nematode; Removal of Regulated Areas in Livingston and Steuben Counties, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ...-0079] Golden Nematode; Removal of Regulated Areas in Livingston and Steuben Counties, NY AGENCY: Animal... are amending the golden nematode regulations by removing areas in Livingston and Steuben Counties in... areas in these two counties are free of golden nematode, and we have determined that regulation of these...

  6. A SNARE-like protein and biotin are implicated in soybean cyst nematode virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some phytoparasitic nematodes have the ability to infect and reproduce on plants that are normally considered resistant to nematode infection. Such nematodes are referred to as virulent and the mechanisms they use to evade or suppress host plant defenses are not well understood. Here, we report the ...

  7. Family transitions and juvenile delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Ryan D; Osgood, Aurea K; Oghia, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    There is a large body of research that shows children from non-intact homes show higher rates of juvenile delinquency than children from intact homes, partially due to weaker parental control and supervision in non-intact homes. What has not been adequately addressed in the research is the influence of changes in family structure among individual adolescents over time on delinquent offending. Using the first and third waves of the National Youth Study, we assess the effect of family structure changes on changes in delinquent offending between waves through the intermediate process of changes in family time and parental attachment. Although prior research has documented adolescents in broken homes are more delinquent than youth in intact homes, the process of family dissolution is not associated with concurrent increases in offending. In contrast, family formation through marriage or cohabitation is associated with simultaneous increases in offending. Changes in family time and parental attachment account for a portion of the family formation effect on delinquency, and prior parental attachment and juvenile offending significantly condition the effect of family formation on offending.

  8. Juvenile Gaucher disease simulating osteomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.H.; Ortega, J.A.; Heisel, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    A case in which several imaging procedures suggested juvenile Gaucher disease in a child who presented with symptomatology of osteomyelitis is discussed. The 20-month girl was given a Technetium-99m radionuclide skeletal examination which revealed intense uptake of tracer agents along the shaft of the right femur. It was also found that the liver and spleen were dramatically Ga-67 avid. The bone pain symptomatology suggested an osteomyelitis of the femur, but skeletal scintigraphy with Tc-99m-labeled bone tracer demonstrated photopenic areas involving the femur, suggesting that the bone pain may have been due to marrow packed with Gaucher cells. This overexpansion of the marrow may lead to microfractures with remodeling seen radiographically as periosteal new bone and scintigraphically as increased periosteal deposition of tracer agent. The radiogallium study was useful to exclude an underlying osteomyelitis in the involved femurs. Although juvenile Gaucher disease is unusual, it should be considered in any child who presents with the constellation of hepatosplenomegaly and bone pain simulating osteomyelitis

  9. Juvenile Gaucher disease simulating osteomyelitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.H.; Ortega, J.A.; Heisel, M.A.

    1981-10-01

    A case in which several imaging procedures suggested juvenile Gaucher disease in a child who presented with symptomatology of osteomyelitis is discussed. The 20-month girl was given a Technetium-99m radionuclide skeletal examination which revealed intense uptake of tracer agents along the shaft of the right femur. It was also found that the liver and spleen were dramatically Ga-67 avid. The bone pain symptomatology suggested an osteomyelitis of the femur, but skeletal scintigraphy with Tc-99m-labeled bone tracer demonstrated photopenic areas involving the femur, suggesting that the bone pain may have been due to marrow packed with Gaucher cells. This overexpansion of the marrow may lead to microfractures with remodeling seen radiographically as periosteal new bone and scintigraphically as increased periosteal deposition of tracer agent. The radiogallium study was useful to exclude an underlying osteomyelitis in the involved femurs. Although juvenile Gaucher disease is unusual, it should be considered in any child who presents with the constellation of hepatosplenomegaly and bone pain simulating osteomyelitis.

  10. Atherosclerosis in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Jednacz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the arteries. Clinical consequences of the atherosclerotic process occur in the adult population, however atherosclerotic process begins in childhood. The classic risk factors for atherosclerosis include obesity, dyslipidaemia, age, gender or family history. In recent years, attention has been drawn to the similarity between atherosclerotic inflammatory processes and inflammatory changes in the course of systemic connective tissue disease, in particular systemic lupus etythematosus (SLE or rheumatoid arthritis (RA. There is also observed the similarity of the pathogenetic background of development of atherosclerosis and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA. Elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines are observed in the course of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Also homocysteine concentrations, which may play a significant role in the development of atherosclerotic lesions, are observed higher in patients with JIA. Some studies revealed higher carotid intima-media thickness (IMT index values in children with JIA. In view of the fact that atherosclerotic process begins as early as in childhood, the introduction of appropriate preventive measures in children is a matter of utmost importance.

  11. Mechanisms Involved in Nematode Control by Endophytic Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouten, Alexander

    2016-08-04

    Colonization of plants by particular endophytic fungi can provide plants with improved defenses toward nematodes. Evidently, such endophytes can be important in developing more sustainable agricultural practices. The mechanisms playing a role in this quantitative antagonism are poorly understood but most likely multifactorial. This knowledge gap obstructs the progress regarding the development of endophytes or endophyte-derived constituents into biocontrol agents. In part, this may be caused by the fact that endophytic fungi form a rather heterogeneous group. By combining the knowledge of the currently characterized antagonistic endophytic fungi and their effects on nematode behavior and biology with the knowledge of microbial competition and induced plant defenses, the various mechanisms by which this nematode antagonism operates or may operate are discussed. Now that new technologies are becoming available and more accessible, the currently unresolved mechanisms can be studied in greater detail than ever before.

  12. Induction of mutations for nematode resistance in tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alameddine, A.

    1976-01-01

    The objective of this work is to develop resistance to root-knot nematodes in tomato by induction, selection and utilization of the newly created resistant strains. Seeds of two varieties of tomato Lycopersicon esculentum L., namely Amcopack and Supermarmande, were subjected to various doses of gamma rays ranging from 10 Krads to 40 Krads in an effort to gain resistance to Meloidogyne incognita Chitwood, the prevalent species of nematodes in Lebanon. The variety Supermarmande seemed not to be affected by irradiation while Amcopack gained some resistance with a corresponding increase in the dose of radiation. The data suggest that in a variety like Amcopack, irradiation may stimulate resistance while in others like Supermarmande, susceptibility is not reduced with a corresponding increase of dosage. Those alterations in reaction within varieties may be due to genetic differences which allow some varieties to acquire resistance to nematodes when exposed to certain dosages, while others to suffer seriously due to sensitivity. (author)

  13. Small-molecule pheromones and hormones controlling nematode development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Rebecca A

    2017-05-17

    The existence of small-molecule signals that influence development in Caenorhabditis elegans has been known for several decades, but only in recent years have the chemical structures of several of these signals been established. The identification of these signals has enabled connections to be made between these small molecules and fundamental signaling pathways in C. elegans that influence not only development but also metabolism, fertility, and lifespan. Spurred by these important discoveries and aided by recent advances in comparative metabolomics and NMR spectroscopy, the field of nematode chemistry has the potential to expand dramatically in the coming years. This Perspective will focus on small-molecule pheromones and hormones that influence developmental events in the nematode life cycle (ascarosides, dafachronic acids, and nemamides), will cover more recent work regarding the biosynthesis of these signals, and will explore how the discovery of these signals is transforming our understanding of nematode development and physiology.

  14. Nematode spatial and ecological patterns from tropical and temperate rainforests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota L Porazinska

    Full Text Available Large scale diversity patterns are well established for terrestrial macrobiota (e.g. plants and vertebrates, but not for microscopic organisms (e.g. nematodes. Due to small size, high abundance, and extensive dispersal, microbiota are assumed to exhibit cosmopolitan distributions with no biogeographical patterns. This assumption has been extrapolated from local spatial scale studies of a few taxonomic groups utilizing morphological approaches. Recent molecularly-based studies, however, suggest something quite opposite. Nematodes are the most abundant metazoans on earth, but their diversity patterns are largely unknown. We conducted a survey of nematode diversity within three vertical strata (soil, litter, and canopy of rainforests at two contrasting latitudes in the North American meridian (temperate: the Olympic National Forest, WA, U.S.A and tropical: La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica using standardized sampling designs and sample processing protocols. To describe nematode diversity, we applied an ecometagenetic approach using 454 pyrosequencing. We observed that: 1 nematode communities were unique without even a single common species between the two rainforests, 2 nematode communities were unique among habitats in both rainforests, 3 total species richness was 300% more in the tropical than in the temperate rainforest, 4 80% of the species in the temperate rainforest resided in the soil, whereas only 20% in the tropics, 5 more than 90% of identified species were novel. Overall, our data provided no support for cosmopolitanism at both local (habitats and large (rainforests spatial scales. In addition, our data indicated that biogeographical patterns typical of macrobiota also exist for microbiota.

  15. Nematode Spatial and Ecological Patterns from Tropical and Temperate Rainforests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porazinska, Dorota L.; Giblin-Davis, Robin M.; Powers, Thomas O.; Thomas, W. Kelley

    2012-01-01

    Large scale diversity patterns are well established for terrestrial macrobiota (e.g. plants and vertebrates), but not for microscopic organisms (e.g. nematodes). Due to small size, high abundance, and extensive dispersal, microbiota are assumed to exhibit cosmopolitan distributions with no biogeographical patterns. This assumption has been extrapolated from local spatial scale studies of a few taxonomic groups utilizing morphological approaches. Recent molecularly-based studies, however, suggest something quite opposite. Nematodes are the most abundant metazoans on earth, but their diversity patterns are largely unknown. We conducted a survey of nematode diversity within three vertical strata (soil, litter, and canopy) of rainforests at two contrasting latitudes in the North American meridian (temperate: the Olympic National Forest, WA, U.S.A and tropical: La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica) using standardized sampling designs and sample processing protocols. To describe nematode diversity, we applied an ecometagenetic approach using 454 pyrosequencing. We observed that: 1) nematode communities were unique without even a single common species between the two rainforests, 2) nematode communities were unique among habitats in both rainforests, 3) total species richness was 300% more in the tropical than in the temperate rainforest, 4) 80% of the species in the temperate rainforest resided in the soil, whereas only 20% in the tropics, 5) more than 90% of identified species were novel. Overall, our data provided no support for cosmopolitanism at both local (habitats) and large (rainforests) spatial scales. In addition, our data indicated that biogeographical patterns typical of macrobiota also exist for microbiota. PMID:22984536

  16. [Screening endophytic bacteria against plant-parasitic nematodes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shuang; Yan, Shuzhen; Chen, Shuanglin

    2011-03-01

    Plant-parasite nematode is one of the most important pathogens in plant. Our objective is to screen endophytic bacteria against plant-parasitic nematodes from plant. Endophytic bacteria were isolated and screened by testing their metabolite against Bursaphelenchus xylophilus in vitro. Those strains inhibiting B. xylophilus were selected to culture in liquid medium and fermentation conditions were optimized by orthogonal test. The stability of the antinematode substances was evaluated by various. In addition, four strains were identified by 16SrDNA sequence analysis. In total 13 strains of endophytic bacteria secreting antinematode metabolite were isolated from 6 species of plant. The supernatant of the fermentation broth of these endophytic bacteria gave 100% mortality of nematodes after treated as the follows: 1 ml each was mixed with 0.2 ml of the suspension of nematodes (2000 nematodes/ml) then incubated at 250C for 24 h, some of which could led to leakage or dissolution of nematodes. Among them, four strains, BCM2, SZ5, CCM7 and DP1, showed stronger activity than others. The supernatants diluted three times also gave not less than 95% mortality after 24 h treatment, and those from DP1 and SZ5 even gave 100% mortality. The fermentation conditions of the four strains were optimized and the antinematode activity grew up four times after optimization. The antinematode substances of these strains were found stable when treated with protease or heating or stored at 4 degrees C after 100 days, while instable when treated with acid or alkali. DP1 and CCM7 were identified to be Bacillus subtilis, while SZ5 and BCM2 to be Bacillus cereus. Endophytic bacteria secreting antinematode metabolite were found in economic crops. The metabolite of some strains showed strong and stable antinematode activity. Our results indicate the real potential of biocontrol by endophytic bacteria.

  17. Viability and Virulence of Entomopathogenic Nematodes Exposed to Ultraviolet Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Hazir, Selcuk; Lete, Luis

    2015-09-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) can be highly effective biocontrol agents, but their efficacy can be reduced due to exposure to environmental stress such as from ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Our objectives were to 1) compare UV tolerance among a broad array of EPN species, and 2) investigate the relationship between reduced nematode viability (after exposure to UV) and virulence. Nematodes exposed to a UV radiation (254 nm) for 10 or 20 min were assessed separately for viability (survival) and virulence to Galleria mellonella. We compared 9 different EPN species and 15 strains: Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Baine, fl11, Oswego, and Vs strains), H. floridensis (332), H. georgiana (Kesha), H. indica (HOM1), H. megidis (UK211), Steinernema carpocapsae (All, Cxrd, DD136, and Sal strains), S. feltiae (SN), S. rarum (17C&E), and S. riobrave (355). In viability assessments, steinernematids, particularly strains of S. carpocapsae, generally exhibited superior UV tolerance compared with the heterorhabditids. However, some heterorhabditids tended to be more tolerant than others, e.g., H. megidis and H. bacteriophora (Baine) were most susceptible and H. bacteriophora (Vs) was the only heterorhabditid that did not exhibit a significant effect after 10 min of exposure. All heterorhabditids experienced reduced viability after 20 min exposure though several S. carpocapsae strains did not. In total, after 10 or 20 min exposure, the viability of seven nematode strains did not differ from their non-UV exposed controls. In virulence assays, steinernematids (particularly S. carpocapsae strains) also tended to exhibit higher UV tolerance. However, in contrast to the viability measurements, all nematodes experienced a reduction in virulence relative to their controls. Correlation analysis revealed that viability among nematode strains is not necessarily related to virulence. In conclusion, our results indicate that the impact of UV varies substantially among EPNs, and viability alone

  18. Microbeam irradiation of the C. elegans nematode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertucci, Antonella; Brenner, David J.; Pocock, Roger D.J.; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    The understanding of complex radiation responses in biological systems, such as non-targeted effects as represented by the bystander response, can be enhanced by the use of genetically amenable model organisms. Almost all bystander studies to date have been carried out by using conventional single-cell in vitro systems, which are useful tools to characterize basic cellular and molecular responses. A few studies have been reported in monolayer explants and bystander responses have been also investigated in a three-dimensional normal human tissue system. However, despite the well-know usefulness of in vitro models, they cannot capture the complexity of radiation responses of living systems such as animal models. To carry out in vivo studies on the bystander effect we have developed a new technique to expose living organisms using proton microbeams. We report the use of a nematode C. elegans strain with a Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) reporter for the hsp-4 heat-shock gene as an in vivo model for radiation studies. Exposing animals to heat and chemicals stressors leads to whole body increases in the hsp-4 protein reflected by enhanced fluorescence. We report here that γ-rays also can induce stress response in a dose dependent manner. However, whole body exposure to stress agents does not allow for evaluation of distance dependent response in non targeted tissues: the so-called bystander effect. We used the RARAF microbeam to site specifically deliver 3 MeV protons to a site in the tail of young worms. GFP expression was enhanced after 24 hours in a number dependent manner at distances > 100 μm from the site of irradiation. (author)

  19. A review of penetration mechanisms and dynamic properties of tungsten and depleted uranium penetrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrew, S.P.; Caligiuri, R.D.; Eiselstein, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    Kinetic energy penetrators must posses the best possible combination of hardness, stiffness, strength, and fracture toughness characteristics to be effective against modern armor systems. Over the last decade, depleted uranium (DU) and tungsten alloys have been the materials of choice for kinetic energy penetrators. Du and tungsten perform abut the same against semi-infinite targets, and DU outperforms tungsten penetrators in oblique, spaced array targets, but because of environmental and subsequent cost concerns, effort has focused on improving the performance of tungsten penetrators over the last few years. However, despite recent improvements in material properties, the penetration performance of tungsten still lags behind that of DU. One possible reason is the difference in deformation mechanisms at the leading edge of the penetrator during the penetration process-DU alloys tend to shear band and sharpen as they penetrate the target material, whereas tungsten penetrators tend to mushroom and blunt. As a first step to determine whether shear banding is truly the reason for superior DU performance, a review of the fabrication, high strain-rate properties, and penetration phenomena of penetrators manufactured from both tungsten and DU alloys. Specifically, the effects of composition, processing, and heat treatment on material properties and penetration mechanisms of these alloys are discussed

  20. Angiofibroma juvenil nasofaríngeo Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Gualberto Lescaille Torres

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de un angiofibroma juvenil nasofaríngeo, en un paciente del consultorio médico No. 9, que pertenece al Policlínico Integral Docente "Carlos Manuel Portuondo" de Marianao. Se reconoce la importancia de realizar una historia clínica detallada, así como un minucioso examen físico, por el médico de familia y el otorrinolaringólogo del área de salud, que incluyó la rinoscopia posterior, para poder llegar al diagnóstico de esa patología, y realizar la extirpación precoz del angiofibroma, mediante el proceder quirúrgico. Se concluyó que el diagnóstico clínico se correspondió con el histopatológico, y que la conducta quirúrgica temprana es resolutiva en la afección.It is presented a case of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma in a patient with this pathology, from the clicial practice No. 9, in Comprehensive Teaching Polyclinic "Carlos Manuel Portuondo" in Marianao. It recognizes the importance of a thorough clinical history and careful physical examination by the family physician and the otolaryngologist in this health area, including a posterior rhinoscopy, to diagnose this disease and to achieve early removal of the angiofibroma, by a surgical procedure. It was concluded that the clinical diagnosis corresponded to the histopathological diagnosis, and that early surgical treatment is resolute in this condition.

  1. Quantitative penetration testing with item response theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, W.; Arnold, F.; Stoelinga, M.I.A.

    2013-01-01

    Existing penetration testing approaches assess the vulnerability of a system by determining whether certain attack paths are possible in practice. Therefore, penetration testing has thus far been used as a qualitative research method. To enable quantitative approaches to security risk management,

  2. Generic penetration in the retail antidepressant market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventimiglia, Jeffrey; Kalali, Amir H

    2010-06-01

    In this article, we explore the accelerated penetration of generic antidepressants in the United States market following the availability of generic citalopram and sertraline. Analysis suggests that overall, generic penetration into the antidepressant market has grown from approximately 41 percent in January 2004 to over 73 percent in January 2010. Similar trends are uncovered when branded and generic prescriptions are analyzed by specialty.

  3. Quantitative Penetration Testing with Item Response Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, Florian; Pieters, Wolter; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette

    2014-01-01

    Existing penetration testing approaches assess the vulnerability of a system by determining whether certain attack paths are possible in practice. Thus, penetration testing has so far been used as a qualitative research method. To enable quantitative approaches to security risk management, including

  4. Quantitative penetration testing with item response theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, Florian; Pieters, Wolter; Stoelinga, Mariëlle

    2013-01-01

    Existing penetration testing approaches assess the vulnerability of a system by determining whether certain attack paths are possible in practice. Thus, penetration testing has so far been used as a qualitative research method. To enable quantitative approaches to security risk management, including

  5. Chemical Penetration Enhancers for Transdermal Drug Delivery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for transdermal administration. The permeation of drug through skin can be enhanced by both chemical penetration enhancement and physical methods. In this review, we have discussed the chemical penetration enhancement technology for transdermal drug delivery as well as the probable mechanisms of action.

  6. Statistical and Economic Techniques for Site-specific Nematode Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheng; Griffin, Terry; Kirkpatrick, Terrence L

    2014-03-01

    Recent advances in precision agriculture technologies and spatial statistics allow realistic, site-specific estimation of nematode damage to field crops and provide a platform for the site-specific delivery of nematicides within individual fields. This paper reviews the spatial statistical techniques that model correlations among neighboring observations and develop a spatial economic analysis to determine the potential of site-specific nematicide application. The spatial econometric methodology applied in the context of site-specific crop yield response contributes to closing the gap between data analysis and realistic site-specific nematicide recommendations and helps to provide a practical method of site-specifically controlling nematodes.

  7. Modelling nematode movement using time-fractional dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapca, Simona; Crawford, John W; MacMillan, Keith; Wilson, Mike J; Young, Iain M

    2007-09-07

    We use a correlated random walk model in two dimensions to simulate the movement of the slug parasitic nematode Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita in homogeneous environments. The model incorporates the observed statistical distributions of turning angle and speed derived from time-lapse studies of individual nematode trails. We identify strong temporal correlations between the turning angles and speed that preclude the case of a simple random walk in which successive steps are independent. These correlated random walks are appropriately modelled using an anomalous diffusion model, more precisely using a fractional sub-diffusion model for which the associated stochastic process is characterised by strong memory effects in the probability density function.

  8. [Effect of the soil contamination with a potato cyst-forming nematode on the community structure of soil-inhabiting nematodes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruzdeva, L I; Suzhchuk, A A

    2008-01-01

    Nematode community structure of the potato fields with different infection levels of potato cyst-forming nematode (PCN) such as 10, 30 and 214 cysts per 100 g of soil has been investigated. The influence of specialized parasite on nematode fauna and dominance character of different ecological-trophic groups were described. Parasitic nematode genera in natural meadow biocenosis and agrocenoses without PCN are Paratylenchus, Tylenchorhynchus, and Helicotylenchus. It is established, that Paratylenchus nanus was the prevalent species among plant parasites at low infection level. Larvae of Globodera prevailed in the soil with middle and high infection levels and substituted individuals of other genera of parasitic nematodes. The fact of increase in number of hyphal-feeding nematode Aphelenchus avenae was revealed.

  9. MDCT diagnosis of penetrating diaphragm injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodanapally, Uttam K.; Shanmuganathan, Kathirkamanathan; Mirvis, Stuart E.; Sliker, Clint W.; Fleiter, Thorsten R.; Sarada, Kamal; Miller, Lisa A. [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Stein, Deborah M. [University of Maryland, Department of Surgery, Shock Trauma Center, Baltimore, MD (United States); Alexander, Melvin [National Study Center for Trauma and Emergency Medical Systems, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2009-08-15

    The purpose of the study was to determine the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of multidetector CT (MDCT) in detection of diaphragmatic injury following penetrating trauma. Chest and abdominal CT examinations performed preoperatively in 136 patients after penetrating trauma to the torso with injury trajectory in close proximity to the diaphragm were reviewed by radiologists unaware of surgical findings. Signs associated with diaphragmatic injuries in penetrating trauma were noted. These signs were correlated with surgical diagnoses, and their sensitivity and specificity in assisting the diagnosis were calculated. CT confirmed diaphragmatic injury in 41 of 47 injuries (sensitivity, 87.2%), and an intact diaphragm in 71 of 98 patients (specificity, 72.4%). The overall accuracy of MDCT was 77%. The most accurate sign helping the diagnosis was contiguous injury on either side of the diaphragm in single-entry penetrating trauma (sensitivity, 88%; specificity, 82%). Thus MDCT has high sensitivity and good specificity in detecting penetrating diaphragmatic injuries. (orig.)

  10. MDCT diagnosis of penetrating diaphragm injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodanapally, Uttam K.; Shanmuganathan, Kathirkamanathan; Mirvis, Stuart E.; Sliker, Clint W.; Fleiter, Thorsten R.; Sarada, Kamal; Miller, Lisa A.; Stein, Deborah M.; Alexander, Melvin

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of multidetector CT (MDCT) in detection of diaphragmatic injury following penetrating trauma. Chest and abdominal CT examinations performed preoperatively in 136 patients after penetrating trauma to the torso with injury trajectory in close proximity to the diaphragm were reviewed by radiologists unaware of surgical findings. Signs associated with diaphragmatic injuries in penetrating trauma were noted. These signs were correlated with surgical diagnoses, and their sensitivity and specificity in assisting the diagnosis were calculated. CT confirmed diaphragmatic injury in 41 of 47 injuries (sensitivity, 87.2%), and an intact diaphragm in 71 of 98 patients (specificity, 72.4%). The overall accuracy of MDCT was 77%. The most accurate sign helping the diagnosis was contiguous injury on either side of the diaphragm in single-entry penetrating trauma (sensitivity, 88%; specificity, 82%). Thus MDCT has high sensitivity and good specificity in detecting penetrating diaphragmatic injuries. (orig.)

  11. Vegetative propagation of mature and juvenile northern red oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    James J. Zaczek; K. C. Steiner; C. W., Jr. Heuser

    1993-01-01

    Rooting trials were established to evaluate rooting success of cuttings from mature and juvenile, grafted and ungrafted northern red oak (NRO). Buds from 4 mature NRO ortets and juvenile seedlings were grafted onto juvenile and mature rootstock. Cuttings were collected from the grafts and from juvenile and mature shoots developed in situ and...

  12. The complete mitochondrial genomes of three parasitic nematodes of birds: a unique gene order and insights into nematode phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Analyses of mitochondrial (mt) genome sequences in recent years challenge the current working hypothesis of Nematoda phylogeny proposed from morphology, ecology and nuclear small subunit rRNA gene sequences, and raise the need to sequence additional mt genomes for a broad range of nematode lineages. Results We sequenced the complete mt genomes of three Ascaridia species (family Ascaridiidae) that infest chickens, pigeons and parrots, respectively. These three Ascaridia species have an identical arrangement of mt genes to each other but differ substantially from other nematodes. Phylogenetic analyses of the mt genome sequences of the Ascaridia species, together with 62 other nematode species, support the monophylies of seven high-level taxa of the phylum Nematoda: 1) the subclass Dorylaimia; 2) the orders Rhabditida, Trichinellida and Mermithida; 3) the suborder Rhabditina; and 4) the infraorders Spiruromorpha and Oxyuridomorpha. Analyses of mt genome sequences, however, reject the monophylies of the suborders Spirurina and Tylenchina, and the infraorders Rhabditomorpha, Panagrolaimomorpha and Tylenchomorpha. Monophyly of the infraorder Ascaridomorpha varies depending on the methods of phylogenetic analysis. The Ascaridomorpha was more closely related to the infraorders Rhabditomorpha and Diplogasteromorpha (suborder Rhabditina) than they were to the other two infraorders of the Spirurina: Oxyuridorpha and Spiruromorpha. The closer relationship among Ascaridomorpha, Rhabditomorpha and Diplogasteromorpha was also supported by a shared common pattern of mitochondrial gene arrangement. Conclusions Analyses of mitochondrial genome sequences and gene arrangement has provided novel insights into the phylogenetic relationships among several major lineages of nematodes. Many lineages of nematodes, however, are underrepresented or not represented in these analyses. Expanding taxon sampling is necessary for future phylogenetic studies of nematodes with mt genome

  13. A Simple Method to Measure Nematodes' Propulsive Thrust and the Nematode Ratchet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bau, Haim; Yuan, Jinzhou; Raizen, David

    2015-11-01

    Since the propulsive thrust of micro organisms provides a more sensitive indicator of the animal's health and response to drugs than motility, a simple, high throughput, direct measurement of the thrust is desired. Taking advantage of the nematode C. elegans being heavier than water, we devised a simple method to determine the propulsive thrust of the animals by monitoring their velocity when swimming along an inclined plane. We find that the swimming velocity is a linear function of the sin of the inclination angle. This method allows us to determine, among other things, the animas' propulsive thrust as a function of genotype, drugs, and age. Furthermore, taking advantage of the animals' inability to swim over a stiff incline, we constructed a sawteeth ratchet-like track that restricts the animals to swim in a predetermined direction. This research was supported, in part, by NIH NIA Grant 5R03AG042690-02.

  14. Juvenile fibromyalgia syndrome. Interdisciplinary treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Siuchnińska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia syndrome (FM belongs to soft tissue pain syndromes of unknown cause, also referred to as “soft tissue rheumatism”. It is characterized by chronic widespread pain as well as additional symptoms such as fatigue, sleep and mood disturbance and cognitive problems. There is more and more data showing that this condition may start at a young age or even in childhood, adversely affecting development processes and resulting in dysfunctional social and family relationships. Because of the multifaceted character of fibromyalgia the efficient treatment of this disorder can be difficult and requires comprehensive care. This work reviews most recommended procedures used in integrated treatment programmes for juvenile fibromyalgia syndrome (JFM.

  15. [Physiotherapy for juvenile idiopathic arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spamer, M; Georgi, M; Häfner, R; Händel, H; König, M; Haas, J-P

    2012-07-01

    Control of disease activity and recovery of function are major issues in the treatment of children and adolescents suffering from juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Functional therapies including physiotherapy are important components in the multidisciplinary teamwork and each phase of the disease requires different strategies. While in the active phase of the disease pain alleviation is the main focus, the inactive phase requires strategies for improving motility and function. During remission the aim is to regain general fitness by sports activities. These phase adapted strategies must be individually designed and usually require a combination of different measures including physiotherapy, occupational therapy, massage as well as other physical procedures and sport therapy. There are only few controlled studies investigating the effectiveness of physical therapies in JIA and many strategies are derived from long-standing experience. New results from physiology and sport sciences have contributed to the development in recent years. This report summarizes the basics and main strategies of physical therapy in JIA.

  16. Law & psychiatry: punishing juveniles who kill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, Paul S

    2012-10-01

    Punishment of juvenile murderers forces policy makers to weigh the developmental immaturity of adolescents against the heinousness of their crimes. The U.S. Supreme Court has progressively limited the severity of punishments that can be imposed on juveniles, holding that their impulsivity, susceptibility to peer pressure, and more fluid character render them less culpable for their actions. Having eliminated the death penalty as a punishment, the Court recently struck down mandatory life sentences without prospect of parole. The decision is interesting for its emphasis on rehabilitation, opening the door to further restrictions on punitive sentences for juveniles-and perhaps for adults too.

  17. Differential Selection by Nematodes on an Introduced Biocontrol Fungus vs. Indigenous Fungi in Nonsterile Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Gwan; Knudsen, Guy R

    2018-03-15

    Trophic interactions of introduced biocontrol fungi with soil animals can bea key determinant in the fungal proliferation and activity.This study investigated trophic interaction of an introduced biocontrol fungus with soil nematodes. The biocontrol fungus Trichoderma harzianum ThzID1-M3 and the fungivorous nematode Aphelenchoides sp. (10 per gram of soil) were added to nonsterile soil, and microbial populations were monitored for 40 days. Similar results were obtained when the experiment was duplicated. ThzID1-M3 stimulated the population growth of indigenous nematodes ( p nematodes did not increase in number and the added Aphelenchoides sp. nematodes almost disappeared by day 10. With ThzID1-M3, population growth of nematodes was rapid between 5 and 10 days after treatment. ThzID1-M3 biomass peaked on day 5, dropped at day 10, and then almost disappeared at day 20, which was not influenced by the addition of nematodes.In contrast, a large quantity of ThzID1-M3 hyphae were present in a heat-treated soil in which nematodes were eliminated.Total fungal biomass in all treatments peaked on day 5 and subsequently decreased.Addition of nematodes increased the total fungal biomass ( p nematode population growth; however, hyphae of the introduced fungus when densely localized did.The results suggest that soil fungivorous nematodes are an important constraint onhyphal proliferation of fungal agents introduced into natural soils.

  18. Stem nematode counteracts plant resistance of aphids in alfalfa, Medicago sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Ricardo A; Spears, Lori R

    2014-10-01

    Plants are exploited by a diverse community of insect herbivores and phytopathogens that interact indirectly through plant-mediated interactions. Generally, plants are thought to respond to insects and pathogens through different defensive signaling pathways. As plants are selected for resistance to one phytophagous organism type (insect vs. pathogen) in managed systems, it is not clear how this selection may affect community interactions. This study examined the effect of nematode-resistant varieties on aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) suppression, and then determined how infection by the stem nematode, Ditylenchus dipsaci, mediated ecological effects on aphids and on plant defense proteins. Four alfalfa (Medicago sativa) varieties were selected with resistance to nematodes only (+,-), aphids only (-,+), nematodes and aphids (+,+), and susceptibility to nematodes and aphids (-,-). Field and greenhouse experiments were conducted to isolate the effect of nematode infection and aphid abundance on each variety. We found that varieties resistant to nematode, regardless of aphid resistance, had the lowest aphid counts, suggesting possible cross-resistance. Aphid abundance, however, increased when plants were exposed to nematodes. Resistant varieties were associated with elevated saponins but these compounds were not affected by insect or pathogen feeding. Concentrations of peroxidases and trypsin inhibitors, however, were increased in nematode resistant varieties when exposed to nematodes and aphids, respectively. The patterns of plant defense were variable, and a combination of resistance traits and changes in nutrient availability may drive positive interactions between nematodes and aphids aboveground.

  19. The Ditylenchus destructor genome provides new insights into the evolution of plant parasitic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jinshui; Peng, Donghai; Chen, Ling; Liu, Hualin; Chen, Feng; Xu, Mengci; Ju, Shouyong; Ruan, Lifang; Sun, Ming

    2016-07-27

    Plant-parasitic nematodes were found in 4 of the 12 clades of phylum Nematoda. These nematodes in different clades may have originated independently from their free-living fungivorous ancestors. However, the exact evolutionary process of these parasites is unclear. Here, we sequenced the genome sequence of a migratory plant nematode, Ditylenchus destructor We performed comparative genomics among the free-living nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans and all the plant nematodes with genome sequences available. We found that, compared with C. elegans, the core developmental control processes underwent heavy reduction, though most signal transduction pathways were conserved. We also found D. destructor contained more homologies of the key genes in the above processes than the other plant nematodes. We suggest that Ditylenchus spp. may be an intermediate evolutionary history stage from free-living nematodes that feed on fungi to obligate plant-parasitic nematodes. Based on the facts that D. destructor can feed on fungi and has a relatively short life cycle, and that it has similar features to both C. elegans and sedentary plant-parasitic nematodes from clade 12, we propose it as a new model to study the biology, biocontrol of plant nematodes and the interaction between nematodes and plants. © 2016 The Author(s).

  20. Transconjunctival penetration of mitomycin C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velpandian T

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The study was performed to estimate transconjunctival penetration of mitomycin C (MMC to Tenon′s tissue following application over the intact conjunctiva before routine trabeculectomy. Settings and Design: Institution-based case series. Materials and Methods: In 41 eyes of 41 patients, MMC (0.4 mg/ml for 3 min was applied over the intact conjunctiva before beginning trabeculectomy. Tenon′s capsule directly beneath the site of application was excised during trabeculectomy and was homogenized, centrifuged and MMC concentrations were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was performed using stata0 8.0 version software (STATA Corporation, Houston, TX, USA. In this study, P -values less than 0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Results: The average weight of the sample of Tenon′s tissue excised was 5.51 ± 4.42 mg (range: 0.9-17.1 and the average estimated MMC concentration found to be present in Tenon′s tissue using HPLC was 18.67 ± 32.36 x 10−6 moles/kg of the tissue (range: 0.38-197.05 x 10−6 . In 36 of the 41 patients (87.80%, the MMC concentration reached above 2 x 10−6 moles/kg of the tissue concentration required to inhibit human conjunctival fibroblasts. Conclusions: Mitomycin C does permeate into the subconjunctival tissue after supraconjunctival application for 3 min. Application of MMC over the conjunctiva may be a useful alternative to subconjunctival or subscleral application during routine trabeculectomy and as an adjunct for failing blebs.

  1. High-throughput sequencing of nematode communities from total soil DNA extractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sapkota, Rumakanta; Nicolaisen, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    nematodes without the need for enrichment was developed. Using this strategy on DNA templates from a set of 22 agricultural soils, we obtained 64.4% sequences of nematode origin in total, whereas the remaining sequences were almost entirely from other metazoans. The nematode sequences were derived from...... in previous sequence-based studies are not nematode specific but also amplify other groups of organisms such as fungi and plantae, and thus require a nematode enrichment step that may introduce biases. Results: In this study an amplification strategy which selectively amplifies a fragment of the SSU from...... a broad taxonomic range and most sequences were from nematode taxa that have previously been found to be abundant in soil such as Tylenchida, Rhabditida, Dorylaimida, Triplonchida and Araeolaimida. Conclusions: Our amplification and sequencing strategy for assessing nematode diversity was able to collect...

  2. Profiling nematode communities in unmanaged flowerbed and agricultural field soils in Japan by DNA barcode sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisashi Morise

    Full Text Available Soil nematodes play crucial roles in the soil food web and are a suitable indicator for assessing soil environments and ecosystems. Previous nematode community analyses based on nematode morphology classification have been shown to be useful for assessing various soil environments. Here we have conducted DNA barcode analysis for soil nematode community analyses in Japanese soils. We isolated nematodes from two different environmental soils of an unmanaged flowerbed and an agricultural field using the improved flotation-sieving method. Small subunit (SSU rDNA fragments were directly amplified from each of 68 (flowerbed samples and 48 (field samples isolated nematodes to determine the nucleotide sequence. Sixteen and thirteen operational taxonomic units (OTUs were obtained by multiple sequence alignment from the flowerbed and agricultural field nematodes, respectively. All 29 SSU rDNA-derived OTUs (rOTUs were further mapped onto a phylogenetic tree with 107 known nematode species. Interestingly, the two nematode communities examined were clearly distinct from each other in terms of trophic groups: Animal predators and plant feeders were markedly abundant in the flowerbed soils, in contrast, bacterial feeders were dominantly observed in the agricultural field soils. The data from the flowerbed nematodes suggests a possible food web among two different trophic nematode groups and plants (weeds in the closed soil environment. Finally, DNA sequences derived from the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase c subunit 1 (COI gene were determined as a DNA barcode from 43 agricultural field soil nematodes. These nematodes were assigned to 13 rDNA-derived OTUs, but in the COI gene analysis were assigned to 23 COI gene-derived OTUs (cOTUs, indicating that COI gene-based barcoding may provide higher taxonomic resolution than conventional SSU rDNA-barcoding in soil nematode community analysis.

  3. Profiling Nematode Communities in Unmanaged Flowerbed and Agricultural Field Soils in Japan by DNA Barcode Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morise, Hisashi; Miyazaki, Erika; Yoshimitsu, Shoko; Eki, Toshihiko

    2012-01-01

    Soil nematodes play crucial roles in the soil food web and are a suitable indicator for assessing soil environments and ecosystems. Previous nematode community analyses based on nematode morphology classification have been shown to be useful for assessing various soil environments. Here we have conducted DNA barcode analysis for soil nematode community analyses in Japanese soils. We isolated nematodes from two different environmental soils of an unmanaged flowerbed and an agricultural field using the improved flotation-sieving method. Small subunit (SSU) rDNA fragments were directly amplified from each of 68 (flowerbed samples) and 48 (field samples) isolated nematodes to determine the nucleotide sequence. Sixteen and thirteen operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained by multiple sequence alignment from the flowerbed and agricultural field nematodes, respectively. All 29 SSU rDNA-derived OTUs (rOTUs) were further mapped onto a phylogenetic tree with 107 known nematode species. Interestingly, the two nematode communities examined were clearly distinct from each other in terms of trophic groups: Animal predators and plant feeders were markedly abundant in the flowerbed soils, in contrast, bacterial feeders were dominantly observed in the agricultural field soils. The data from the flowerbed nematodes suggests a possible food web among two different trophic nematode groups and plants (weeds) in the closed soil environment. Finally, DNA sequences derived from the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase c subunit 1 (COI) gene were determined as a DNA barcode from 43 agricultural field soil nematodes. These nematodes were assigned to 13 rDNA-derived OTUs, but in the COI gene analysis were assigned to 23 COI gene-derived OTUs (cOTUs), indicating that COI gene-based barcoding may provide higher taxonomic resolution than conventional SSU rDNA-barcoding in soil nematode community analysis. PMID:23284767

  4. Conceptualizing juvenile prostitution as child maltreatment: findings from the National Juvenile Prostitution Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kimberly J; Finkelhor, David; Wolak, Janis

    2010-02-01

    Two studies were conducted to identify the incidence (Study 1) and characteristics (Study 2) of juvenile prostitution cases known to law enforcement agencies in the United States. Study 1 revealed a national estimate of 1,450 arrests or detentions (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1,287-1,614) in cases involving juvenile prostitution during a 1-year period. In Study 2, exploratory data were collected from a subsample of 138 cases from police records in 2005. The cases are broadly categorized into three main types: (a) third-party exploiters, (b) solo prostitution, and (c) conventional child sexual abuse (CSA) with payment. Cases were classified into three initial categories based on police orientation toward the juvenile: (a) juveniles as victims (53%), (b) juveniles as delinquents (31%), and (c) juvenile as both victims and delinquents (16%). When examining the status of the juveniles by case type, the authors found that all the juveniles in CSA with payment cases were treated as victims, 66% in third-party exploiters cases, and 11% in solo cases. Findings indicate law enforcement responses to juvenile prostitution are influential in determining whether such youth are viewed as victims of commercial sexual exploitation or as delinquents.

  5. The dynamics of nematode infections of farmed ruminants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roberts, M.G.; Heesterbeek, J.A.P.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper the dynamics and control of nematode parasites of farmed ruminants are discussed via a qualitative analysis of a differential equation model. To achieve this a quantity, 'the basic reproduction quotient' (Q0), whose definition coincides with previous definitions of R0 for

  6. Foraging behavior and virulence of some entomopathogenic nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manana A. Lortkipanidze

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available At present the biological control as a pest control technology is becoming more desirable. Biological formulations on basis of entomopathogenic nematodes are one of the effective means for the protection of agricultural and forest plants from harmful insects. Nowadays, the use of entomopathogenic nematodes as biological control agents is a key component in IPM system. The foraging strategies of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs vary between species. This variation is consistent with use of different foraging strategies between ambush, cruise and intermediate to find their host insects. In order to ambush prey, some species of EPNs nictate, or raise their bodies of the soil surface so they are better poised to attach passing insects, other species adopt a cruising strategy and rarely nictate. Some species adopt an intermediate strategy between ambush and cruise. We compared in laboratory the foraging strategies of the entomopathogenic nematode species: Steinernema carpocapsae, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and the recently described species Steinernema tbilisiensis and assessed their virulence against mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae. The tests showed that S. tbilisiensis adopts both foraging strategies.

  7. Pack hunting by a common soil amoeba on nematodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geisen, Stefan; Rosengarten, J.; Koller, R.; Mulder, Christian; Urich, T.; Bonkowski, M.

    2015-01-01

    Soils host the most complex communities on Earth,
    including the most diverse and abundant eukaryotes,
    i.e. heterotrophic protists. Protists are generally con-
    sidered as bacterivores, but evidence for negative
    interactions with nematodes both from laboratory and
    field studies

  8. A critique of current methods in nematode taxonomy | Abebe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the past few decades, there have been efforts to integrate molecular methods and digital 3D image-capturing technology in nematode taxonomy, the former to enhance the accuracy of identification of such a taxonomically challenging group and the latter to communicate morphological data. While the employment of ...

  9. Nematode Infections Are Risk Factors for Staphylococcal Infection in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra F Moreira-Silva

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Nematode infection may be a risk factor for pyogenic liver abscess in children and we hypothesized that the immunomodulation induced by those parasites would be a risk factor for any staphylococcal infection in children. The present study was designed to compare, within the same hospital, the frequency of intestinal nematodes and Toxocara infection in children with and without staphylococcal infections. From October 1997 to February 1998, 80 children with staphylococcal infection and 110 children with other diseases were submitted to fecal examination, serology for Toxocara sp., evaluation of plasma immunoglobulin levels, and eosinophil counts. Mean age, gender distribution, birthplace, and socioeconomic conditions did not differ significantly between the two groups. Frequency of intestinal nematodes and positive serology for Toxocara, were remarkably higher in children with staphylococcal infections than in the non-staphylococcal group. There was a significant correlation between intestinal nematodes or Toxocara infection and staphylococcal infection in children, reinforced by higher eosinophil counts and higher IgE levels in these children than in the control group. One possible explanation for this association would be the enhancement of bacterial infection by the immunomodulation induced by helminth infections, due to strong activation of the Th2 subset of lymphocytes by antigens from larvae and adult worms.

  10. Human Intraocular Filariasis Caused by Dirofilaria sp. Nematode, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Daniel G.; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Casiraghi, Maurizio; de Almeida, Izabela N.F.; de Almeida, Luciana N.F.; Nascimento dos Santos, Jeannie; Furtado, Adriano Penha; Sobrinho, Edmundo F. de Almeida; Bain, Odile

    2011-01-01

    A case of human intraocular dirofilariasis is reported from northern Brazil. The nematode was morphologically and phylogenetically related to Dirofilaria immitis but distinct from reference sequences, including those of D. immitis infesting dogs in the same area. A zoonotic Dirofilaria species infesting wild mammals in Brazil and its implications are discussed. PMID:21529396

  11. Biochemical and Molecular Characterization of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. de O. Abrantes

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Nematologists need correct species identification to carry out research, teaching, extension and other activities. Therefore, nematode taxonomy must be pursued diligently at all levels. The identification of plant-parasitic nematodes is not always easy and that of some species is especially difficult. Most of the information that nematologists use when characterizing and identifying specimens is based on morphological and morphometrical characters. Although these characters are of primary importance, in the last three decades they have been supplemented by biochemical/ molecular characters. Biochemical approaches include the separation of proteins (general proteins and isozymes by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and sodium dodecyl sulphate-capillary gel electrophoresis. Serology has also been found effective in the identification and quantification of nematodes, monoclonal antibodies being a more useful immunological tool than polyclonal antibodies. Identification based on the direct examination of DNA is potentially a more powerful method to characterize inter- and intra-specific variability. The development of techniques such as the polymerase chain reaction, restriction fragment length polymorphism, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA, and amplified fragment length polymorphism has increased the accuracy and speed of nematode characterization/identification. Progress continues to be made and more and more nematologists are using molecular techniques for diagnostic purposes and to assess genetic variation.

  12. Evolutionary history of nematodes associated with sweat bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFrederick, Quinn S; Taylor, Douglas R

    2013-03-01

    Organisms that live in close association with other organisms make up a large part of the world's diversity. One driver of this diversity is the evolution of host-species specificity, which can occur via reproductive isolation following a host-switch or, given the correct circumstances, via cospeciation. In this study, we explored the diversity and evolutionary history of Acrostichus nematodes that are associated with halictid bees in North America. First, we conducted surveys of bees in Virginia, and found six halictid species that host Acrostichus. To test the hypothesis of cospeciation, we constructed phylogenetic hypotheses of Acrostichus based on three genes. We found Acrostichus puri and Acrostichus halicti to be species complexes comprising cryptic, host-specific species. Although several nodes in the host and symbiont phylogenies were congruent and tests for cospeciation were significant, the host's biogeography, the apparent patchiness of the association across the host's phylogeny, and the amount of evolution in the nematode sequence suggested a mixture of cospeciation, host switching, and extinction events instead of strict cospeciation. Cospeciation can explain the relationships between Ac. puri and its augochlorine hosts, but colonization of Halictus hosts is more likely than cospeciation. The nematodes are vertically transmitted, but sexual transmission is also likely. Both of these transmission modes may explain host-species specificity and congruent bee and nematode phylogenies. Additionally, all halictid hosts come from eusocial or socially polymorphic lineages, suggesting that sociality may be a factor in the suitability of hosts for Acrostichus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Genetic diversity of the potato cyst nematode in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folkertsma, R.T.

    1997-01-01


    The potato cyst nematodes Globodera rostochiensis (Woll.) Skarbilovich and G. pallida (Stone) originate from the Andes region in South America and have been introduced into Western Europe since 1850. Both species are

  14. Endogenous cellulases in stylet secretions of cyst nematodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smant, G.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis describes the identification ofβ-1,4-endoglucanases (cellulases) in stylet secretions of the two cyst nematodes species, Globodera rostochiensis and Heterodera glycines . A novel method was developed to raise monoclonal antibodies that were

  15. Limiting opportunities for cheating stabilizes virulence in insect parasitic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro-Ilan, David; Raymond, Ben

    2016-03-01

    Cooperative secretion of virulence factors by pathogens can lead to social conflict when cheating mutants exploit collective secretion, but do not contribute to it. If cheats outcompete cooperators within hosts, this can cause loss of virulence. Insect parasitic nematodes are important biocontrol tools that secrete a range of significant virulence factors. Critically, effective nematodes are hard to maintain without live passage, which can lead to virulence attenuation. Using experimental evolution, we tested whether social cheating might explain unstable virulence in the nematode Heterorhabditis floridensis by manipulating relatedness via multiplicity of infection (MOI), and the scale of competition. Passage at high MOI, which should reduce relatedness, led to loss of fitness: virulence and reproductive rate declined together and all eight independent lines suffered premature extinction. As theory predicts, relatedness treatments had more impact under stronger global competition. In contrast, low MOI passage led to more stable virulence and increased reproduction. Moreover, low MOI lineages showed a trade-off between virulence and reproduction, particularly for lines under stronger between-host competition. Overall, this study indicates that evolution of virulence theory is valuable for the culture of biocontrol agents: effective nematodes can be improved and maintained if passage methods mitigate possible social conflicts.

  16. Farmer evaluation of biocontrol methods against rootknot nematodes in tomatoes

    OpenAIRE

    McLeod, Anni; Ndungu, Beth; Karanja, Daniel; Karanja, Peter

    2002-01-01

    This report was presented at the UK Organic Research 2002 Conference. Root-knot nematodes in tomatoes cause financial loss to Kenyan smallholders. While soil fumigation appears to be losing effectiveness two bio-control agents (bcas), Pasteuria penetrans and Verticillium chlamydosporium, appear promising. Participatory budgeting is being used to compare the bcas with chemical and other biological controls on commercial and organic smallholdings.

  17. Mechanisms Involved in Nematode Control by Endophytic Fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Sander

    2016-01-01

    Colonization of plants by particular endophytic fungi can provide plants with improved defenses toward nematodes. Evidently, such endophytes can be important in developing more sustainable agricultural practices. The mechanisms playing a role in this quantitative antagonism are poorly understood

  18. Parasitic nematodes in the chimpanzee population on Rubondo Island, Tanzania

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrželková, Klára Judita; Hasegawa, H.; Moscovice, L. R.; Kaur, T.; Issa, M. H.; Huffman, M. A.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 3 (2006), s. 767-777 ISSN 0164-0291 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : chimpanzee * introduced population * nematode * new parasite record * Rubondo Island Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.331, year: 2006

  19. Rooting out Defense Mechanisms in Wheat against Plant Parasitic Nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root-lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus spp.) are soil borne pathogens of many important agricultural crops including wheat. Pratylenchus invade root cells and feed using a stylet, resulting in cell death. Common signs of Pratylenchus damage are root lesions, girdling, and lack of lateral branching. ...

  20. Top 10 plant-parasitic nematodes in molecular plant pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, J.T.; Haegeman, A.; Danchin, E.G.J.; Gaur, H.S.; Helder, J.; Jones, M.G.K.; Kikuchi, T.; Manzanilla-López, R.; Palomares-Rius, J.E.; Wesemael, W.M.L.; Perry, R.N.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this review was to undertake a survey of researchers working with plant-parasitic nematodes in order to determine a ‘top 10’ list of these pathogens based on scientific and economic importance. Any such list will not be definitive as economic importance will vary depending on the region