WorldWideScience

Sample records for juvenile life stages

  1. Donor life stage influences juvenile American eel Anguilla rostrata attraction to conspecific chemical cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Heather S.; Blakeslee, Carrie J.; Schmucker, Andrew K.; Johnson, Nicholas; Hansen, Michael J.; Li, Weiming

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the potential role of conspecific chemical cues in inland juvenile American eel Anguilla rostrata migrations by assessing glass eel and 1 year old elver affinities to elver washings, and elver affinity to adult yellow eel washings. In two-choice maze assays, glass eels were attracted to elver washings, but elvers were neither attracted to nor repulsed by multiple concentrations of elver washings or to yellow eel washings. These results suggest that A. rostrata responses to chemical cues may be life-stage dependent and that glass eels moving inland may use the odour of the previous year class as information to guide migration. The role of chemical cues and olfaction in eel migrations warrants further investigation as a potential restoration tool.

  2. Effects of food restriction across stages of juvenile and early adult development on body weight, survival and adult life history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, J W Y; Kölliker, M

    2014-11-01

    Organisms have to allocate limited resources among multiple life-history traits, which can result in physiological trade-offs, and variation in environmental conditions experienced during ontogeny can influence reproduction later in life. Food restriction may lead to an adaptive reallocation of the limited resources among traits as a phenotypically plastic adjustment, or it can act as an overall constraint with detrimental effects throughout reproductive life. In this study, we investigated experimentally the effects of food restriction during different stages of the juvenile and early adult development on body weight, survival and reproductive success in females and males of the European earwig Forficula auricularia. Individuals either received limited or unlimited access to food across three different stages of development (fully crossed) allowing us to identify sensitive periods during development and to test both additive and interactive effects of food limitation across stages on development and reproduction. Food restriction during the early and late juvenile stage had additive negative effects on juvenile survival and adult body weight. With regard to reproductive success of females which produce up to two clutches in their lifetime, restriction specifically in the late juvenile stage led to smaller first and second clutch size, lower probability of second clutch production and reduced hatching success in the second clutch. Reproductive success of females was not significantly affected when their male mates experienced food restriction during their development. Our findings in general support the 'silver-spoon' hypothesis in that food restriction during juvenile development poses constraints on development and reproduction throughout life. © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  3. Juvenile life stages of the brown alga Fucus serratus L. are more sensitive to combined stress from high copper concentration and temperature than adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Laurentius; Nielsen, Hanne Dalsgaard; Pedersen, Morten Foldager

    2014-01-01

    of high copper concentration was amplified by high temperature. We conclude that juveniles of F. serratus are more susceptible to environmental stressors than adult specimens and recommend therefore including early life stages when assessing the risk of exposure to toxic compounds. Considering...... the response of adult specimens only may lead to false conclusions regarding the ecological impact of environmental stress...

  4. Life-stage-specific differences in exploitation of food mixtures: diet mixing enhances copepod egg production but not juvenile development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koski, Marja; Breteler, W.K.; Schogt, N.

    2006-01-01

    , the copepods failed to moult past the first copepodite stage, and the mortality was high. In sharp contrast, mixing two nutritionally poor food species often resulted in egg production which was not significantly different from nutritionally high quality food, although hatching success in many mixtures was low......Development, egg production and hatching success of the calanoid copepods Temora longicornis and Pseudocalanus elongatus were measured in food mixtures to test their ability to obtain a complete nutrition by combining different nutritionally poor food species. In all the food mixtures used....... Whereas egg production was significantly correlated with particulate organic nitrogen in the diet, and independent of the highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), hatching increased with increasing DHA and EPA concentration. Growth and juvenile...

  5. Aspects of the morphology of the juvenile life stages of Paradiplozoon ichthyoxanthon Avenant-Oldewage, 2013 (Monogenea: Diplozoidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avenant-Oldewage, Annemariè; Milne, Simon John

    2014-06-01

    There are eight life stages in the life-cycle of Diplozoon paradoxum and limited knowledge of the life-cycle for other diplozoid genera exists. The aim of this study was to record the number of life-stages of Paradiplozoon ichthyoxanthon obtained from, Labeobarbus aeneus and Labeobarbus kimberlyensis, in the Vaal Dam from 2005 to 2007. Six larval life stages and one adult stage of P. ichtyoxanthon were identified from specimens collected in vitro and in situ. In vitro, eggs hatched after 21 days at 18°C. Eggs collected during winter were significantly larger than those laid during spring or summer. Paradiplozoon ichthyoxanthon oncomiracidia have peripheral eyes with pink pigmentation, a tubular anterior bladder-like structure, bicuspid basal pharynx valve and a branched digestive caecum and residual shell material or vitellaria in the caecum. Immature reproductive tissue connected to the ventral sucker and dorsal papillae were noted for the first time in diporpa. Large nervous ganglia and innervation of muscle were observed around the ventral sucker.

  6. Impacts of ocean acidification on sea urchin growth across the juvenile to mature adult life-stage transition is mitigated by warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworjanyn, Symon A; Byrne, Maria

    2018-04-11

    Understanding how growth trajectories of calcifying invertebrates are affected by changing climate requires acclimation experiments that follow development across life-history transitions. In a long-term acclimation study, the effects of increased acidification and temperature on survival and growth of the tropical sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla from the early juvenile (5 mm test diameter-TD) through the developmental transition to the mature adult (60 mm TD) were investigated. Juveniles were reared in a combination of three temperature and three pH/ p CO 2 treatments, including treatments commensurate with global change projections. Elevated temperature and p CO 2 /pH both affected growth, but there was no interaction between these factors. The urchins grew more slowly at pH 7.6, but not at pH 7.8. Slow growth may be influenced by the inability to compensate coelomic fluid acid-base balance at pH 7.6. Growth was faster at +3 and +6°C compared to that in ambient temperature. Acidification and warming had strong and interactive effects on reproductive potential. Warming increased the gonad index, but acidification decreased it. At pH 7.6 there were virtually no gonads in any urchins regardless of temperature. The T. gratilla were larger at maturity under combined near-future warming and acidification scenarios (+3°C/pH 7.8). Although the juveniles grew and survived in near-future warming and acidification conditions, chronic exposure to these stressors from an early stage altered allocation to somatic and gonad growth. In the absence of phenotypic adjustment, the interactive effects of warming and acidification on the benthic life phases of sea urchins may compromise reproductive fitness and population maintenance as global climatic change unfolds. © 2018 The Author(s).

  7. Heritability and social brood effects on personality in juvenile and adult life-history stages in a wild passerine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winney, I S; Schroeder, J; Nakagawa, S; Hsu, Y-H; Simons, M J P; Sánchez-Tójar, A; Mannarelli, M-E; Burke, T

    2018-01-01

    How has evolution led to the variation in behavioural phenotypes (personalities) in a population? Knowledge of whether personality is heritable, and to what degree it is influenced by the social environment, is crucial to understanding its evolutionary significance, yet few estimates are available from natural populations. We tracked three behavioural traits during different life-history stages in a pedigreed population of wild house sparrows. Using a quantitative genetic approach, we demonstrated heritability in adult exploration, and in nestling activity after accounting for fixed effects, but not in adult boldness. We did not detect maternal effects on any traits, but we did detect a social brood effect on nestling activity. Boldness, exploration and nestling activity in this population did not form a behavioural syndrome, suggesting that selection could act independently on these behavioural traits in this species, although we found no consistent support for phenotypic selection on these traits. Our work shows that repeatable behaviours can vary in their heritability and that social context influences personality traits. Future efforts could separate whether personality traits differ in heritability because they have served specific functional roles in the evolution of the phenotype or because our concept of personality and the stability of behaviour needs to be revised. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  8. Characteristics of juvenile survivors reveal spatio-temporal differences in early life stage survival of Baltic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huwer, Bastian; Hinrichsen, H.H.; Böttcher, U.

    2014-01-01

    with previous modeling studies on the survival chances of early-stage larvae and with general spatio-temporal patterns of larval prey availability suggests that differences in survival are related to food availability during the early larval stage. Results are discussed in relation to the recruitment process...

  9. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma staging: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshaikh, Nada Ali; Eleftheriadou, Anna

    2015-06-01

    Staging of tumors is very important in treatment and surgical decision making, as well as in predicting disease recurrence and prognosis. This review focuses on the different available classifications of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) and their impact on the evaluation, management, and prognosis of JNA. The literature was reviewed, and publications on JNA staging were examined. Our MEDLINE search of the entire English-language literature found no review article on the current available staging systems for JNA. In this article, we review the common JNA classification systems that have been published, and we discuss some of their advantages and disadvantages. The most commonly used staging systems for JNA are the Radkowski and the Andrews-Fisch staging systems. However, some newer staging systems that are based on advances in technology and surgical approaches-the Onerci, INCan, and UPMC systems-have shown promising utility, and they will probably gain popularity in the future.

  10. Comparative Glycoproteome Analysis: Dynamics of Protein Glycosylation during Metamorphic Transition from Pelagic to Benthic Life Stages in Three Invertebrates

    KAUST Repository

    Chandramouli, Kondethimmanahalli; Zhang, Yu; Wong, Yue Him; Qian, Pei Yuan

    2012-01-01

    The life cycle of most benthic marine invertebrates has two distinct stages: the pelagic larval stage and the sessile juvenile stage. The transition between the larval stage and the juvenile stage is often abrupt and may be triggered by post

  11. The Juvenile Transition: A Developmental Switch Point in Human Life History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Giudice, Marco; Angeleri, Romina; Manera, Valeria

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a new perspective on the transition from early to middle childhood (i.e., human juvenility), investigated in an integrative evolutionary framework. Juvenility is a crucial life history stage, when social learning and interaction with peers become central developmental functions; here it is argued that the "juvenile transition"…

  12. Modelling the beginning and end of a planktonic life stage — the distribution of cod eggs and settled juveniles in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höffle, Hannes; Munk, Peter

    2012-01-01

    distribution of haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus), whiting (Merlangius merlangus), and plaice (Pleuronectes platessa). Findings indicated that in the egg stage, the environment is more important for the probability of occurrence, while abundance is more under the control of spatial dependency. Modelling......The North Sea cod stock is close to the southern limit of the species’ range. Therefore, it might be vulnerable to future climate change. Direct as well as indirect effects of climate forcing may have the greatest effects on early life stages. Here we present a study on the distribution of cod...

  13. From metamorphosis to maturity in complex life cycles: equal performance of different juvenile life history pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Benedikt R; Hödl, Walter; Schaub, Michael

    2012-03-01

    Performance in one stage of a complex life cycle may affect performance in the subsequent stage. Animals that start a new stage at a smaller size than conspecifics may either always remain smaller or they may be able to "catch up" through plasticity, usually elevated growth rates. We study how size at and date of metamorphosis affected subsequent performance in the terrestrial juvenile stage and lifetime fitness of spadefoot toads (Pelobates fuscus). We analyzed capture-recapture data of > 3000 individuals sampled during nine years with mark-recapture models to estimate first-year juvenile survival probabilities and age-specific first-time breeding probabilities of toads, followed by model selection to assess whether these probabilities were correlated with size at and date of metamorphosis. Males attained maturity after two years, whereas females reached maturity 2-4 years after metamorphosis. Age at maturity was weakly correlated with metamorphic traits. In both sexes, first-year juvenile survival depended positively on date of metamorphosis and, in males, also negatively on size at metamorphosis. In males, toads that metamorphosed early at a small size had the highest probability to reach maturity. However, because very few toadlets metamorphosed early, the vast majority of male metamorphs had a very similar probability to reach maturity. A matrix projection model constructed for females showed that different juvenile life history pathways resulted in similar lifetime fitness. We found that the effects of date of and size at metamorphosis on different juvenile traits cancelled each other out such that toads that were small or large at metamorphosis had equal performance. Because the costs and benefits of juvenile life history pathways may also depend on population fluctuations, ample phenotypic variation in life history traits may be maintained.

  14. Extinguishing All Hope: Life-without-Parole for Juveniles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Sentencing juveniles to life-without-parole (JLWOP) is a practice fraught with ethical dilemmas. Through in-depth interviews with 11 men living sentences of JLWOP, their narratives of their backgrounds and experiences as juveniles were studied. Common themes were identified, and 3 general categories of cases emerged from the narratives. Ethical…

  15. Early Life Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood should be viewed as a sequence of lifestages, from birth through infancy and adolescence. When assessing early life risks, consideration is given to risks resulting from fetal exposure via the pregnant mother, as well as postnatal exposures.

  16. Artificial induction of third-stage dispersal juveniles of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus using newly established inbred lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suguru E Tanaka

    Full Text Available The pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is the causal agent of pine wilt disease. This nematode has two developmental forms in its life cycle; i.e., the propagative and dispersal forms. The former is the form that builds up its population inside the host pine. The latter is specialized for transport by the vector. This form is separated into two dispersal stages (third and fourth; the third-stage dispersal juvenile (JIII is specialized for survival under unfavorable conditions, whereas the fourth-stage juvenile (JIV, which is induced by a chemical signal from the carrier Monochamus beetle, is transported to new host pines and invades them. Because of its importance in the disease cycle, molecular and chemical aspects of the JIV have been investigated, while the mechanism of JIII induction has not been sufficiently investigated. In an effort to clarify the JIII induction process, we established inbred lines of B. xylophilus and compared their biological features. We found that the total number of nematodes (propagation proportion was negatively correlated with the JIII emergence proportion, likely because nematode development was arrested at JIII; i.e., they could not develop to adults via the reproductive stage. In addition, JIII induction seemed to be regulated by a small number of genes because the JIII induction proportion varied among inbred lines despite the high homozygosity of the parental line. We also demonstrated that JIII can be artificially induced by the nematode's secreted substances. This is the first report of artificial induction of JIII in B. xylophilus. The dauer (dispersal juvenile of the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans corresponds functionally to JIII of B. xylophilus, and this stage is known to be induced by a chemical signal referred to as daumone, derived from the nematodes' secretion. The artificial induction of JIII suggests the presence of daumone-like material in B. xylophilus.

  17. Differential metabolic responses in three life stages of mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed to cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huifeng; Xu, Lanlan; Yu, Deliang; Ji, Chenglong

    2017-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most important metal contaminants in the Bohai Sea. In this work, NMR-based metabolomics was used to investigate the toxicological effects of Cd at an environmentally relevant concentration (50 µg L -1 ) in three different life stages (D-shape larval, juvenile and adult) of mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis. Results indicated that the D-shape larval mussel was the most sensitive life stage to Cd. The significantly different metabolic profiles meant that Cd induced differential toxicological effects in three life stages of mussels. Basically, Cd caused osmotic stress in all the three life stages via different metabolic pathways. Cd exposure reduced the anaerobiosis in D-shape larval mussels and disturbed lipid metabolism in juvenile mussels, respectively. Compared with the D-shape larval and juvenile mussels, the adult mussels reduced energy consumption to deal with Cd stress.

  18. The genetic covariance between life cycle stages separated by metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, J David; Blows, Mark W; Marshall, Dustin J

    2014-08-07

    Metamorphosis is common in animals, yet the genetic associations between life cycle stages are poorly understood. Given the radical changes that occur at metamorphosis, selection may differ before and after metamorphosis, and the extent that genetic associations between pre- and post-metamorphic traits constrain evolutionary change is a subject of considerable interest. In some instances, metamorphosis may allow the genetic decoupling of life cycle stages, whereas in others, metamorphosis could allow complementary responses to selection across the life cycle. Using a diallel breeding design, we measured viability at four ontogenetic stages (embryo, larval, juvenile and adult viability), in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis and examined the orientation of additive genetic variation with respect to the metamorphic boundary. We found support for one eigenvector of G: (gobsmax ), which contrasted larval viability against embryo viability and juvenile viability. Target matrix rotation confirmed that while gobsmax shows genetic associations can extend beyond metamorphosis, there is still considerable scope for decoupled phenotypic evolution. Therefore, although genetic associations across metamorphosis could limit that range of phenotypes that are attainable, traits on either side of the metamorphic boundary are capable of some independent evolutionary change in response to the divergent conditions encountered during each life cycle stage. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparative copper sensitivity between life stages of common subantarctic marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holan, Jessica R; King, Catherine K; Davis, Andrew R

    2018-03-01

    The development of environmental guidelines in the Antarctic and subantarctic is essential, because expansion of research, tourism, and fishing is placing these regions at increasing risk of contamination. Data are currently insufficient to create the region-specific guidelines needed for the unique conditions in these areas. To develop the most appropriate environmental guidelines, data from the most sensitive life stages of a species should be included to ensure effective protection throughout its life cycle. It is generally accepted that early life stages are more sensitive to contaminants. We compared the toxicity of copper between juvenile and adult life stages of 4 subantarctic marine invertebrates using sublethal and lethal endpoints. For 2 of the species tested, juveniles were more sensitive than adults. (The 7-d median effect concentration [EC50] values for the gastropod Laevilittorina caliginosa were 79 μg/L at the juvenile stage and 125 μg/L at the adult; for the flatworm Obrimoposthia ohlini, values were 190 μg/L at the juvenile stage and 300 μg/L at the adult.) For the isopod Limnoria stephenseni, juveniles were either more sensitive or of equal sensitivity to adults (7-d EC50 values: juvenile 278 μg/L and adult 320 μg/L). In contrast, for the bivalve Gaimardia trapesina, adults appeared to be more sensitive than young adults (7-d EC50 values: juvenile 23 μg/L and adult life history stages was observed, the present study contributes important information for the development of water quality guidelines in polar regions. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:807-815. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  20. Thermal habitat restricts patterns of occurrence in multiple life-stages of a headwater fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischa P. Turschwell; Stephen R. Balcombe; E. Ashley Steel; Fran Sheldon; Erin E. Peterson

    2017-01-01

    Our lack of knowledge on the spatiotemporal drivers of the distribution of many freshwater fishes, particularly as they differ among life-history stages, is a challenge to conservation of these species. We used 2-stage hurdle models to investigate drivers of occurrence and abundance of locally threatened adult and juvenile Northern River Blackfish in the upper...

  1. Habitat filtering across tree life stages in tropical forest communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldeck, C. A.; Harms, K. E.; Yavitt, J. B.; John, R.; Turner, B. L.; Valencia, R.; Navarrete, H.; Bunyavejchewin, S.; Kiratiprayoon, S.; Yaacob, A.; Supardi, M. N. N.; Davies, S. J.; Hubbell, S. P.; Chuyong, G. B.; Kenfack, D.; Thomas, D. W.; Dalling, J. W.

    2013-01-01

    Tropical tree communities are shaped by local-scale habitat heterogeneity in the form of topographic and edaphic variation, but the life-history stage at which habitat associations develop remains poorly understood. This is due, in part, to the fact that previous studies have not accounted for the widely disparate sample sizes (number of stems) that result when trees are divided into size classes. We demonstrate that the observed habitat structuring of a community is directly related to the number of individuals in the community. We then compare the relative importance of habitat heterogeneity to tree community structure for saplings, juveniles and adult trees within seven large (24–50 ha) tropical forest dynamics plots while controlling for sample size. Changes in habitat structuring through tree life stages were small and inconsistent among life stages and study sites. Where found, these differences were an order of magnitude smaller than the findings of previous studies that did not control for sample size. Moreover, community structure and composition were very similar among tree sub-communities of different life stages. We conclude that the structure of these tropical tree communities is established by the time trees are large enough to be included in the census (1 cm diameter at breast height), which indicates that habitat filtering occurs during earlier life stages. PMID:23843384

  2. Predictors of Longitudinal Quality of Life in Juvenile Localized Scleroderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardalan, Kaveh; Zigler, Christina K; Torok, Kathryn S

    2017-07-01

    Localized scleroderma can negatively affect children's quality of life (QoL), but predictors of impact have not been well described. We sought to identify predictors of QoL impact in juvenile localized scleroderma patients. We analyzed longitudinal data from a single-center cohort of juvenile localized scleroderma patients, using hierarchical generalized linear modeling (HGLM) to identify predictors of QoL impact. HGLM is useful for nested data and allows for evaluation of both time-variant and time-invariant predictors. The number of extracutaneous manifestations (ECMs; e.g., joint contracture and hemifacial atrophy) and female sex predicted negative QoL impact, defined as a Children's Dermatology Life Quality Index score >1 (P = 0.019 for ECMs and P = 0.002 for female sex). As the time since the initial visit increased, the odds of reporting a negative QoL impact decreased (P scleroderma than cutaneous features. Further study is required to determine which ECMs have the most impact on QoL, which factors underlie sex differences in QoL in localized scleroderma, and why increasing the time since the initial visit appears to be protective. An improved understanding of predictors of QoL impact may allow for the identification of patients at risk of poorer outcomes and for the tailoring of treatment and psychosocial support. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  3. Large birth size does not reduce the negative latent effects of harsh environmental conditions across life stages in two coral species.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, A.C.; Marhaver, K.L.; Chamberland, V.F.; Sandin, S.A.; Vermeij, M.J.A.

    2013-01-01

    When juveniles must tolerate harsh environments early in life, the disproportionate success of certain phenotypes across multiple early life stages will dramatically influence adult community composition and dynamics. In many species, large offspring have a higher tolerance for stressful

  4. De novo transcriptome sequencing and analysis of the juvenile and adult stages of Fasciola gigantica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Cong, Wei; Elsheikha, Hany M; Liu, Guo-Hua; Ma, Jian-Gang; Huang, Wei-Yi; Zhao, Quan; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2017-07-01

    Fasciola gigantica is regarded as the major liver fluke causing fasciolosis in livestock in tropical countries. Despite the significant economic and public health impacts of F. gigantica there are few studies on the pathogenesis of this parasite and our understanding is further limited by the lack of genome and transcriptome information. In this study, de novo Illumina RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) was performed to obtain a comprehensive transcriptome profile of the juvenile (42days post infection) and adult stages of F. gigantica. A total of 49,720 unigenes were produced from juvenile and adult stages of F. gigantica, with an average length of 1286 nucleotides (nt) and N50 of 2076nt. A total of 27,862 (56.03%) unigenes were annotated by BLAST similarity searches against the NCBI non-redundant protein database. Because F. gigantica needs to feed and/or digest host tissues, some proteases (including cysteine proteases and aspartic proteases), which play a role in the degradation of host tissues (protein), have been paid more attention in the present study. A total of 6511 distinct genes were found differentially expressed between juveniles and adults, of which 3993 genes were up-regulated and 2518 genes were down-regulated in adults versus juveniles, respectively. Moreover, stage-specific differentially expressed genes were identified in juvenile (17,009) and adult (6517) F. gigantica. The significantly divergent pathways of differentially expressed genes included cAMP signaling pathway (226; 4.12%), proteoglycans in cancer (256; 4.67%) and focal adhesion (199; 3.63%). The transcription pattern also revealed two egg-laying-associated pathways: cGMP-PKG signaling pathway and TGF-β signaling pathway. This study provides the first comparative transcriptomic data concerning juvenile and adult stages of F. gigantica that will be of great value for future research efforts into understanding parasite pathogenesis and developing vaccines against this important parasite

  5. Juvenile Sex Offending Through a Developmental Life Course Criminology Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lussier, Patrick

    2017-02-01

    Current American policies and responses to juvenile sex offending have been criticized for being based on myths, misconceptions, and unsubstantiated claims. In spite of the criticism, no organizing framework has been proposed to guide policy development with respect to the prevention of juvenile sex offending. This article proposes a developmental life course (DLC) criminology perspective to investigate the origins, development, and termination of sex offending among youth. It also provides a review of the current state of knowledge regarding various parameters characterizing the development of sex offending (e.g., prevalence, age of onset, frequency, persistence, continuity in adulthood, and versatility). The review highlights some heterogeneity across these developmental parameters suggesting the presence of different sex offending patterns among youth. In fact, it is proposed that, based on the current knowledge, such heterogeneity can be accounted for by a dual taxonomy of adolescents involved in sexual offenses: (a) the adolescent-limited and (b) the high-rate/slow-desister. The DLC criminology approach and the dual taxonomy are proposed as organizing frameworks to conduct prospective longitudinal research to better understand the origins and development of sex offending and to guide policy development and responses to at-risk youth and those who have committed sexual offenses.

  6. Spatial distribution of juvenile and adult stages of limnetic Cladocera in relation to selected environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Adamczuk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental factors have a varied impact on the development of juvenile and adult Cladocera, depending on their different physiological conditions and body size. The values of these factors alter spatially and temporarily, thus implying that they play a role in the spatial distribution of the pre-reproductive and potentially reproductive stages of cladocerans. The aim of the study was to determine seasonal and spatial variations in the distribution of juvenile and adult individuals of limnetic Cladocera in relation to selected physicochemical factors (temperature, conductivity, pH, concentration of dissolved oxygen, total organic carbon, total suspended solids and fish predation pressure (measured by Chesson’s coefficient λ in deep Lake Piaseczno (eastern Poland. Adult Cladocera displayed spatial distribution related to fish predation pressure. The species selectively eaten, B. coregoni and D. longispina, and non-selectively eaten, D. cucullata, selected the pelagic zone to exist, whereas those avoided by fish, D. brachyurum and B. longirostris, were evenly distributed in the littoral and pelagic zone. Juvenile cladocerans were strongly impacted by physico-chemical factors. Juvenile Daphnia, Diaphanosoma and B. longirostris showed preferences to biotic zones similar to the adults but differed in their habitat choices. Juvenile and adult stages of B. coregoni differed in their distribution, indicating that adult individuals impacted by high predation pressure alternatively modified their habitat selection. Principal component analysis (PCA ordination showed a seasonal tendency for the spatial segregation of the cladocerans, suggesting that possible competitive interactions between the studied cladocerans may also influence their distribution patterns.

  7. Knockout silkworms reveal a dispensable role for juvenile hormones in holometabolous life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daimon, Takaaki; Uchibori, Miwa; Nakao, Hajime; Sezutsu, Hideki; Shinoda, Tetsuro

    2015-08-04

    Insect juvenile hormones (JHs) prevent precocious metamorphosis and allow larvae to undergo multiple rounds of status quo molts. However, the roles of JHs during the embryonic and very early larval stages have not been fully understood. We generated and characterized knockout silkworms (Bombyx mori) with null mutations in JH biosynthesis or JH receptor genes using genome-editing tools. We found that embryonic growth and morphogenesis are largely independent of JHs in Bombyx and that, even in the absence of JHs or JH signaling, pupal characters are not formed in first- or second-instar larvae, and precocious metamorphosis is induced after the second instar at the earliest. We also show by mosaic analysis that a pupal specifier gene broad, which is dramatically up-regulated in the late stage of the last larval instar, is essential for pupal commitment in the epidermis. Importantly, the mRNA expression level of broad, which is thought to be repressed by JHs, remained at very low basal levels during the early larval instars of JH-deficient or JH signaling-deficient knockouts. Therefore, our study suggests that the long-accepted paradigm that JHs maintain the juvenile status throughout larval life should be revised because the larval status can be maintained by a JH-independent mechanism in very early larval instars. We propose that the lack of competence for metamorphosis during the early larval stages may result from the absence of an unidentified broad-inducing factor, i.e., a competence factor.

  8. Sentencing Juveniles to Life in Prison: The Reproduction of Juvenile Justice for Young Adolescents Charged with Murder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Simon I.

    2011-01-01

    In "Roper v. Simmons," the U.S. Supreme Court determined that the sentencing of juveniles to death violated the constitutional amendment against cruel and unusual punishment. Similarly, the Court most recently decided that life without parole for non-homicide offenses is also unconstitutional ("Graham v. Florida," 2010). Part of the reason for the…

  9. Teacher Concerns and Teacher Life Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Yan Fung

    2005-01-01

    This article examines teaching concerns at successive life stages among teachers with up to twenty years' or more teaching experience. Three concern stages are discerned. Nine common concern factors were found from factor-analysing thirty-three concern items. Results show that student discipline, relations with students, and students' learning and…

  10. Life cycle analysis in preliminary design stages

    OpenAIRE

    Agudelo , Lina-Maria; Mejía-Gutiérrez , Ricardo; Nadeau , Jean-Pierre; PAILHES , Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    International audience; In a design process the product is decomposed into systems along the disciplinary lines. Each stage has its own goals and constraints that must be satisfied and has control over a subset of design variables that describe the overall system. When using different tools to initiate a product life cycle, including the environment and impacts, its noticeable that there is a gap in tools that linked the stages of preliminary design and the stages of materialization. Differen...

  11. Public Opinion regarding Juvenile Life without Parole in Consecutive Statewide Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiak, Sheryl Pimlott; Allen, Terrence

    2011-01-01

    Abolition of the death penalty results in life without parole (LWOP) as the most severe sanction for convicted juveniles. Although internationally the use of LWOP for juveniles is rare, 2,225 youth have been sentenced to LWOP within the United States. To address the dearth of public opinion on the issue, the authors proposed questions to the…

  12. Juvenile life history of NE Atlantic orange roughy from otolith stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, Samuel; Trueman, Clive; Rickaby, Rosalind; Rogan, Emer

    2007-08-01

    Otoliths of pre-recruit orange roughy ( Hoplostethus atlanticus) were sampled from different deep-water habitats ('flat' and 'hill') and areas (north and south) on the Porcupine Bank. Age-based profiles for stable isotopes of carbon (δ 13C) and oxygen (δ 18O) in these otoliths were developed, which provide a fish life-history record of water depth and metabolic activity. These profiles were consistent among all individuals implying endogenous (ontogenic) influences on the pattern. The data indicate that post-larval orange roughy are mesopelagic active foragers, early juvenile fish move into a low energy deep-demersal phase, and older pre-recruit orange roughy assume the habitat depth and metabolic rate typical of adults. Comparison of otolith stable isotope profiles among areas and habitats on the Porcupine Bank suggest that juvenile orange roughy from South 'hill' and 'flat' habitats experience differing temperature and metabolic status at certain life stages. This may reflect oceanographic and ecological divergence between the two environments and suggests fine-scale population structure that may reduce resilience to exploitation.

  13. Trading Stages: Life Expectancies in Structured Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Coulson, Tim; Horvitz, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Interest in stage-and age structured models has recently increased because they can describe quantitative traits such as size that are left out of age-only demography. Available methods for the analysis of effects of vital rates on lifespan in stage-structured models have not been widely applied because they are hard to use and interpret, and tools for age and stage structured populations are missing. We present easily interpretable expressions for the sensitivities and elasticities of life expectancy to vital rates in age-stage models, and illustrate their application with two biological examples. Much of our approach relies on trading of time and mortality risk in one stage for time and risk in others. Our approach contributes to the new framework of the study of age- and stage-structured biodemography. PMID:22664576

  14. Comparative myoanatomy of cycliophoran life cycle stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neves, Ricardo C.; Cunha, Maria R.; Funch, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The metazoan phylum Cycliophora includes small cryptic epibionts that live attached to the mouthparts of clawed lobsters. The life cycle is complex, with alternating sexual and asexual generations, and involves several sessile and free-living stages. So far, the morphological and genetic characte......The metazoan phylum Cycliophora includes small cryptic epibionts that live attached to the mouthparts of clawed lobsters. The life cycle is complex, with alternating sexual and asexual generations, and involves several sessile and free-living stages. So far, the morphological and genetic...

  15. Temperature influences selective mortality during the early life stages of a coral reef fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauna L Rankin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available For organisms with complex life cycles, processes occurring at the interface between life stages can disproportionately impact survival and population dynamics. Temperature is an important factor influencing growth in poikilotherms, and growth-related processes are frequently correlated with survival. We examined the influence of water temperature on growth-related early life history traits (ELHTs and differential mortality during the transition from larval to early juvenile stage in sixteen monthly cohorts of bicolor damselfish Stegastes partitus, sampled on reefs of the upper Florida Keys, USA over 6 years. Otolith analysis of settlers and juveniles coupled with environmental data revealed that mean near-reef water temperature explained a significant proportion of variation in pelagic larval duration (PLD, early larval growth, size-at-settlement, and growth during early juvenile life. Among all cohorts, surviving juveniles were consistently larger at settlement, but grew more slowly during the first 6 d post-settlement. For the other ELHTs, selective mortality varied seasonally: during winter and spring months, survivors exhibited faster larval growth and shorter PLDs, whereas during warmer summer months, selection on PLD reversed and selection on larval growth became non-linear. Our results demonstrate that temperature not only shapes growth-related traits, but can also influence the direction and intensity of selective mortality.

  16. Consequences of life history switch point plasticity for juvenile morphology and locomotion in the Túngara frog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie F. Charbonnier

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Many animals with complex life cycles can cope with environmental uncertainty by altering the timing of life history switch points through plasticity. Pond hydroperiod has important consequences for the fitness of aquatic organisms and many taxa alter the timing of life history switch points in response to habitat desiccation. For example, larval amphibians can metamorphose early to escape drying ponds. Such plasticity may induce variation in size and morphology of juveniles which can result in carry-over effects on jumping performance. To investigate the carry-over effects of metamorphic plasticity to pond drying, we studied the Túngara frog, Physalaemus pustulosus, a tropical anuran that breeds in highly ephemeral habitats. We conducted an outdoor field mesocosm experiment in which we manipulated water depth and desiccation and measured time and size at metamorphosis, tibiofibula length and jumping performance. We also conducted a complimentary laboratory experiment in which we manipulated resources, water depth and desiccation. In the field experiment, metamorphs from dry-down treatments emerged earlier, but at a similar size to metamorphs from constant depth treatments. In the laboratory experiment, metamorphs from the low depth and dry-down treatments emerged earlier and smaller. In both experiments, frogs from dry-down treatments had relatively shorter legs, which negatively impacted their absolute jumping performance. In contrast, reductions in resources delayed and reduced size at metamorphosis, but had no negative effect on jumping performance. To place these results in a broader context, we review past studies on carry-over effects of the larval environment on jumping performance. Reductions in mass and limb length generally resulted in lower jumping performance across juvenile anurans tested to date. Understanding the consequences of plasticity on size, morphology and performance can elucidate the linkages between life stages.

  17. Carryover effects of predation risk on postembryonic life-history stages in a freshwater shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ituarte, Romina Belén; Vázquez, María Guadalupe; González-Sagrario, María de los Ángeles; Spivak, Eduardo Daniel

    2014-04-01

    For organisms with complex life histories it is well known that risk experienced early in life, as embryos or larvae, may have effects throughout the life cycle. Although carryover effects have been well documented in invertebrates with different levels of parental care, there are few examples of predator-induced responses in externally brooded embryos. Here, we studied the effects of nonlethal predation risk throughout the embryonic development of newly spawned eggs carried by female shrimp on the timing of egg hatching, hatchling morphology, larval development and juvenile morphology. We also determined maternal body mass at the end of the embryonic period. Exposure to predation risk cues during embryonic development led to larger larvae which also had longer rostra but reached the juvenile stage sooner, at a smaller size and with shorter rostra. There was no difference in hatching timing, but changes in larval morphology and developmental timing showed that the embryos had perceived waterborne substances indicative of predation risk. In addition to carryover effects on larval and juvenile stages, predation threat provoked a decrease of body mass in mothers exposed to predator cues while brooding. Our results suggest that risk-exposed embryos were able to recognize the same infochemicals as their mothers, manifesting a response in the free-living larval stage. Thus, future studies assessing anti-predator phenotypes should include embryonic development, which seems to determine the morphology and developmental time of subsequent life-history stages according to perceived environmental conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Researching the life stages of medicines: Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Geest, S.; Chamberlain, K.

    2011-01-01

    This introduction presents the concept of ‘biography’ or ‘life stages’ of medicines as an ordering principle and analytical tool for the study of medicines as social, commercial and symbolic objects. The first stages, production and marketing, which have been largely neglected by social scientists,

  19. Underlying Motivations of Volunteering Across Life Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Takashi; Keene, Jennifer R; Lu, Chi-Jung; Carr, Dawn C

    2017-03-01

    Volunteering is beneficial not only for individuals' well-being but also for society's well-being; yet only a fraction of U.S. citizens regularly engage in volunteer activities. This study examined how underlying motivations are associated with interest in volunteering for individuals in three major life phases: early, middle, and later adulthood. Data were collected from 1,046 adults who volunteered through nonprofit organizations in Nevada (USA). Exploratory factor analysis revealed that community service, career advancement, and well-being were common underlying motivations for individuals across life stages. However, generativity among the later adulthood group, and social networking among the early and middle adulthood groups were unique motivations for volunteering. Regression analysis showed that the community service motivation was significantly associated with individuals' interest in volunteering among all life stages. Simultaneously, generativity for the later adulthood group, and career advancement for the early adulthood group were unique motivations linked to their actual interest in volunteering.

  20. Complex offspring size effects: variations across life stages and between species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhao; Hamel, Jean-François; Parrish, Christopher C; Mercier, Annie

    2015-03-01

    Classical optimality models of offspring size and number assume a monotonically increasing relationship between offspring size and performance. In aquatic organisms with complex life cycles, the size-performance function is particularly hard to grasp because measures of performance are varied and their relationships with size may not be consistent throughout early ontogeny. Here, we examine size effects in premetamorphic (larval) and postmetamorphic (juvenile) stages of brooding marine animals and show that they vary contextually in strength and direction during ontogeny and among species. Larger offspring of the sea anemone Urticina felina generally outperformed small siblings at the larval stage (i.e., greater settlement and survival rates under suboptimal conditions). However, results differed when analyses were conducted at the intrabrood versus across-brood levels, suggesting that the relationship between larval size and performance is mediated by parentage. At the juvenile stage (15 months), small offspring were less susceptible than large ones to predation by subadult nudibranchs and both sizes performed similarly when facing adult nudibranchs. In a sympatric species with a different life history (Aulactinia stella), all juveniles suffered similar predation rates by subadult nudibranchs, but smaller juveniles performed better (lower mortalities) when facing adult nudibranchs. Size differences in premetamorphic performance of U. felina were linked to total lipid contents of larvae, whereas size-specific predation of juvenile stages followed the general predictions of the optimal foraging strategy. These findings emphasize the challenge in gathering empirical support for a positive monotonic size-performance function in taxa that exhibit complex life cycles, which are dominant in the sea.

  1. Effects of hydroelectric turbine passage on fish early life stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cada, G.F.

    1991-01-01

    Turbine-passage mortality has been studied extensively for juveniles and adults of migratory fish species, but few studies have directly quantified orality of fish eggs and larvae. This paper provides an analysis of literature relating to component stresses of turbine passage (i.e., pressure changes, blade contact, and shear) which indicates that mortality of early life stages of fish would be relatively low at low-head, bulb turbine installations. The shear forces and pressure regimes normally experienced are insufficient to cause high mortality rates. The probability of contact with turbine blades is related to the size of the fish; less than 5% of entrained ichthyoplankton would be killed by the blades in a bulb turbine. Other sources of mortality (e.g., cavitation and entrainment of fish acclimated to deep water) are controlled by operation of the facility and thus are mitigable. Because turbine-passage mortality among fish early life stages can be very difficult to estimate directly, it may be more fruitful to base the need for mitigation at any given site on detailed knowledge of turbine characteristics and the susceptibility of the fish community to entrainment

  2. OBSERVATION ON SKELETAL DEFORMITY IN HATCHERY-REARED RED SPOTTED GROUPER, Epinephelus akaara (Temmick et Schlegel FROM LARVAL TO JUVENILE STAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eri Setiadi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal deformity is a significant problem in fish culture. The skeletal deformities in red spotted grouper from yolk-sac to juvenile stages were examined through clearing and staining of the cartilage and bone using Alcian Blue and Alizarin Red S. The overall results showed that the pattern of incidence of deformities showed an increase from preflexion to juvenile stages. The rate of deformities based on ten elements of bone from preflexion to juvenile stages were as follows: vertebral (42.6%—9.0%, dorsal proximal radials (4.8%—25.2%, neural spine (0%—8.4%, haemal spine (0%—6.8%, hypural (1.3%—5.4%, anal proximal radials (0%—5.4%, epural (1.3%—4.9%, arypural (2.0%—4.5%, lower jaw (1.3%—2.5%, and upper jaw (0%. Vertebral and dorsal proximal radials were recognized as the most susceptible parts to deformation. The main types of bone deformity were lordosis, scoliosis, fusion, shortening, branching, supernumerary elements, and saddleback syndrome. Development of saddleback syndrome was detected initially in preflexion stage, which was accompanied by deformity of the neural spines, dorsal proximal radials, and disposition of the distal radials and dorsal spines in later life stages. The skeletal deformity encountered during the larval rearing period could be caused by water surface tension.

  3. Hormonal correlates of male life history stages in wild white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Katharine M; Schoof, Valérie A M; Sheller, Claire R; Rich, Catherine I; Klingelhofer, Peter P; Ziegler, Toni E; Fedigan, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Much attention has been paid to hormonal variation in relation to male dominance status and reproductive seasonality, but we know relatively little about how hormones vary across life history stages. Here we examine fecal testosterone (fT), dihydrotestosterone (fDHT), and glucocorticoid (fGC) profiles across male life history stages in wild white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus). Study subjects included 37 males residing in three habituated social groups in the Área de Conservacíon Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Male life history stages included infant (0 to Life history stage was a significant predictor of fT; levels were low throughout the infant and juvenile phases, doubled in subadult and subordinate adults, and were highest for alpha males. Life history stage was not a significant predictor of fDHT, fDHT:fT, or fGC levels. Puberty in white-faced capuchins appears to begin in earnest during the subadult male phase, indicated by the first significant rise in fT. Given their high fT levels and exaggerated secondary sexual characteristics, we argue that alpha adult males represent a distinctive life history stage not experienced by all male capuchins. This study is the first to physiologically validate observable male life history stages using patterns of hormone excretion in wild Neotropical primates, with evidence for a strong association between fT levels and life history stage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Signatures of natural selection between life cycle stages separated by metamorphosis in European eel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pujolar, J.M.; Jacobsen, M.W.; Bekkevold, Dorte

    2015-01-01

    Species showing complex life cycles provide excellent opportunities to study the genetic associations between life cycle stages, as selective pressures may differ before and after metamorphosis. The European eel presents a complex life cycle with two metamorphoses, a first metamorphosis from larvae...... into glass eels (juvenile stage) and a second metamorphosis into silver eels (adult stage). We tested the hypothesis that different genes and gene pathways will be under selection at different life stages when comparing the genetic associations between glass eels and silver eels. Results: We used two sets...... of markers to test for selection: first, we genotyped individuals using a panel of 80 coding-gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) developed in American eel; second, we investigated selection at the genome level using a total of 153,423 RAD-sequencing generated SNPs widely distributed across the genome...

  5. Association between vascular supply, stage and tumour size of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehan, Raghav; Rupa, V; Lukka, Vijay Kumar; Ahmed, Munawar; Moses, Vinu; Shyam Kumar, N K

    2016-12-01

    Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) is a highly vascular tumour seen in adolescent males. To study the vascular pattern of these tumours, we retrospectively reviewed the records of patients with JNA who underwent preoperative angiography. Most (82.2 %) of the 45 patients assessed were Radkowski stage III with a mean size of 5.29 cm. There was a significant association between tumour stage and size (p = 0.029). Ten different vessels were seen to supply these tumours. All tumours had primary supply from the distal third of the ipsilateral internal maxillary artery (IMA). Accessory vessel supply was chiefly from the Vidian branch of internal carotid artery (ICA) (55.6 %). Stage III tumours were supplied by a greater number of feeding vessels than earlier stage tumours (p < 0.01). Larger tumours were more likely to have ICA supply (p = 0.04). Bilateral supply was seen in 48.7 %. However, there was no predominance of bilateral over ipsilateral IMA supply even in advanced stage tumours. One patient in our series was found to have a caroticocavernous fistula. Residual or recurrent tumours were characterized by new vasculature (100 %) and greater accessory supply from the ipsilateral ICA (85.7 %). Our study highlights the fact that surgical planning cannot be dependent on staging alone and should include preoperative assessment of tumour vasculature by angiography.

  6. Acute and chronic toxicity of cadmium to different life history stages of the freshwater crustacean Asellus aquaticus (L)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, D.W.J.; Williams, K.A.; Pascoe, D.

    1986-09-01

    Different life-history stages of the freshwater isopod crustacean Asellus aquaticus were exposed to a range of cadmium concentrations using a semi-static toxicity testing procedure. Median lethal concentrations (96-hr LC50) ranged from 80 ..mu..g Cd/L for juveniles to > 2000 ..mu..g Cd/L for embryos. Pre-treatment of eggs with cadmium did not increase their tolerance to the metal as juveniles. The responses of each stage are discussed in relation to the use of macroinvertebrate toxicity test data in predicting the hazardous effects of pollutants.

  7. Histological organization of the female queen Devario regina (Fowler, 1934 during its juvenile stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyakorn Boonyoung

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Limited research has been reported in the basic information about the structural organizations of fish organs in their juvenile state that could be used as histopathological biomarkers. Thus, the histological structures of important organs of the female fish Devario regina (Fowler, 1934 during its juvenile stage were exclusively examined using histological and histochemical approaches. Specimens were collected during the fishing season (July and October 2010 from the Tapee river, Thailand. Using histological analysis, the digestive system was distinctly composed of two parts; the digestive tract and accessory organs (liver and pancreas. Based on their histological structure, the epithelial organization of the oral cavity and pharynx was lined by stratified epithelium whereas the intestine was covered by a simple columnar epithelium and contained several goblet cells. The goblet cells were negatively stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E and Masson’s Trichrome (MT. In contrast, they were positively stained with Periodic Acid Schiff reaction (PAS and aniline blue (AB. The liver tissue in this fish was composed of polyhedral hepatocytes, with their sinusoids being distinctly located between the hepatocytes. The sinusoids were lined by a simple squamous epithelium. The pancreatic parenchyma mainly consisted of pyramidal cells that rested on a basal lamina in the acinar. Moreover, the pancreatic cells had a basophilic cytoplasm, a distinct basal nucleus and contained large eosinophilic zymogen granules. The excretory system especially referred to the kidney, and was composed of renal tubules and hematopoietic tissue. The female reproductive system was the ovary that was surrounded by a tunica albuginea. The ovary contained oocytes at differential stages of development including oogonia and the previtellogenic stage. Finally, the integument of this species consisted mainly of three layers of epidermis, dermis and hypodermis, respectively.

  8. Early-Life Stress Triggers Juvenile Zebra Finches to Switch Social Learning Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farine, Damien R; Spencer, Karen A; Boogert, Neeltje J

    2015-08-17

    Stress during early life can cause disease and cognitive impairment in humans and non-humans alike. However, stress and other environmental factors can also program developmental pathways. We investigate whether differential exposure to developmental stress can drive divergent social learning strategies between siblings. In many species, juveniles acquire essential foraging skills by copying others: they can copy peers (horizontal social learning), learn from their parents (vertical social learning), or learn from other adults (oblique social learning). However, whether juveniles' learning strategies are condition dependent largely remains a mystery. We found that juvenile zebra finches living in flocks socially learned novel foraging skills exclusively from adults. By experimentally manipulating developmental stress, we further show that social learning targets are phenotypically plastic. While control juveniles learned foraging skills from their parents, their siblings, exposed as nestlings to experimentally elevated stress hormone levels, learned exclusively from unrelated adults. Thus, early-life conditions triggered individuals to switch strategies from vertical to oblique social learning. This switch could arise from stress-induced differences in developmental rate, cognitive and physical state, or the use of stress as an environmental cue. Acquisition of alternative social learning strategies may impact juveniles' fit to their environment and ultimately change their developmental trajectories. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of Uveitis on Quality of Life in Adult Patients With Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haasnoot, Anne Mieke J.W.; Sint Jago, Naïlah F.M.; Tekstra, Janneke; de Boer, Joke H.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To establish the impact of uveitis on the quality of life (QoL) in adult patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Methods: Adult patients with a history of JIA, both with (n = 31) or without (n = 51) chronic anterior uveitis, were included. Their scores on 3 validated QoL

  10. Comparative Glycoproteome Analysis: Dynamics of Protein Glycosylation during Metamorphic Transition from Pelagic to Benthic Life Stages in Three Invertebrates

    KAUST Repository

    Chandramouli, Kondethimmanahalli

    2012-02-03

    The life cycle of most benthic marine invertebrates has two distinct stages: the pelagic larval stage and the sessile juvenile stage. The transition between the larval stage and the juvenile stage is often abrupt and may be triggered by post-translational modification of proteins. Glycosylation, a very important post-translational modification, influences the biological activity of proteins. We used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) followed by glycoprotein-specific fluorescence staining and mass spectrometry with the goal of identifying glycosylation pattern changes during larval settlement and metamorphosis in barnacles, bryozoans, and polychaetes. Our results revealed substantial changes in the protein glycosylation patterns from larval to juvenile stages. Before metamorphosis, the degree of protein glycosylation was high in the barnacle Balanus (=Amphibalanus) amphitrite and the spionid polychaete Pseudopolydora vexillosa, whereas it increased after metamorphosis in the bryozoan Bugula neritina. We identified 19 abundant and differentially glycosylated proteins in these three species. Among the proteins, cellular stress- and metabolism-related proteins exhibited distinct glycosylation in B. amphitrite and B. neritina, whereas fatty acid metabolism-related proteins were abundantly glycosylated in P. vexillosa. Furthermore, the protein and gene expression analysis of some selected glycoproteins revealed that the degree of protein glycosylation did not always complement with transcriptional and translational changes associated with the larval-juvenile transition. The current study provides preliminary information on protein glycosylation in marine invertebrates that will serve as a solid basis for future comprehensive analysis of glycobiology during larval settlement and metamorphosis. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  11. Life History Consequences of the Facultative Expression of a Dispersal Life Stage in the Phoretic Bulb Mite (Rhizoglyphus robini.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques A Deere

    Full Text Available Life history traits play an important role in population dynamics and correlate, both positively and negatively, with dispersal in a wide range of taxa. Most invertebrate studies on trade-offs between life history traits and dispersal have focused on dispersal via flight, yet much less is known about how life history trade-offs influence species that disperse by other means. In this study, we identify effects of investing in dispersal morphology (dispersal expression on life history traits in the male dimorphic bulb mite (Rhizoglyphus robini. This species has a facultative juvenile life stage (deutonymph during which individuals can disperse by phoresy. Further, adult males are either fighters (which kill other mites or benign scramblers. Here, in an experiment, we investigate the effects of investing in dispersal on size at maturity, sex and male morph ratio, and female lifetime reproductive success. We show that life history traits correlate negatively with the expression of the dispersal stage. Remarkably, all males that expressed the dispersal life stage developed into competitive fighters and none into scramblers. This suggests that alternative, male reproductive strategies and dispersal should not be viewed in isolation but considered concurrently.

  12. Intraguild Predation Responses in Two Aphidophagous Coccinellids Identify Differences among Juvenile Stages and Aphid Densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondoni, Gabriele; Ielo, Fulvio; Ricci, Carlo; Conti, Eric

    2014-12-08

    (1) Intraguild predation (IGP) can occur among aphidophagous predators thus reducing their effectiveness in controlling crop pests. Among ladybirds, Coccinella septempunctata L. and Hippodamia variegata Goeze are the most effective predators upon Aphis gossypii Glov., which is an economically important pest of melon. Understanding their likelihood to engage in reciprocal predation is a key point for conservation of biological control. Here, we aim to investigate, under laboratory conditions, the level of IGP between the two above mentioned aphidophagous species. (2) Fourth-instars of the two species were isolated in petri dishes with combinations of different stages of the heterospecific ladybird and different densities of A. gossypii. The occurrence of IGP events was recorded after six hours. (3) C. septempunctata predated H. variegata at a higher rate than vice versa (70% vs. 43% overall). Higher density of the aphid or older juvenile stage of the IG-prey (22% of fourth instars vs. 74% of eggs and second instars) reduces the likelihood of predation. (4) To our knowledge, IGP between C. septempunctata and H. variegata was investigated for the first time. Results represent a baseline, necessary to predict the likelihood of IGP occurrence in the field.

  13. Size Scaling in Western North Atlantic Loggerhead Turtles Permits Extrapolation between Regions, but Not Life Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marn, Nina; Klanjscek, Tin; Stokes, Lesley; Jusup, Marko

    2015-01-01

    Sea turtles face threats globally and are protected by national and international laws. Allometry and scaling models greatly aid sea turtle conservation and research, and help to better understand the biology of sea turtles. Scaling, however, may differ between regions and/or life stages. We analyze differences between (i) two different regional subsets and (ii) three different life stage subsets of the western North Atlantic loggerhead turtles by comparing the relative growth of body width and depth in relation to body length, and discuss the implications. Results suggest that the differences between scaling relationships of different regional subsets are negligible, and models fitted on data from one region of the western North Atlantic can safely be used on data for the same life stage from another North Atlantic region. On the other hand, using models fitted on data for one life stage to describe other life stages is not recommended if accuracy is of paramount importance. In particular, young loggerhead turtles that have not recruited to neritic habitats should be studied and modeled separately whenever practical, while neritic juveniles and adults can be modeled together as one group. Even though morphometric scaling varies among life stages, a common model for all life stages can be used as a general description of scaling, and assuming isometric growth as a simplification is justified. In addition to linear models traditionally used for scaling on log-log axes, we test the performance of a saturating (curvilinear) model. The saturating model is statistically preferred in some cases, but the accuracy gained by the saturating model is marginal.

  14. Size Scaling in Western North Atlantic Loggerhead Turtles Permits Extrapolation between Regions, but Not Life Stages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Marn

    Full Text Available Sea turtles face threats globally and are protected by national and international laws. Allometry and scaling models greatly aid sea turtle conservation and research, and help to better understand the biology of sea turtles. Scaling, however, may differ between regions and/or life stages. We analyze differences between (i two different regional subsets and (ii three different life stage subsets of the western North Atlantic loggerhead turtles by comparing the relative growth of body width and depth in relation to body length, and discuss the implications.Results suggest that the differences between scaling relationships of different regional subsets are negligible, and models fitted on data from one region of the western North Atlantic can safely be used on data for the same life stage from another North Atlantic region. On the other hand, using models fitted on data for one life stage to describe other life stages is not recommended if accuracy is of paramount importance. In particular, young loggerhead turtles that have not recruited to neritic habitats should be studied and modeled separately whenever practical, while neritic juveniles and adults can be modeled together as one group. Even though morphometric scaling varies among life stages, a common model for all life stages can be used as a general description of scaling, and assuming isometric growth as a simplification is justified. In addition to linear models traditionally used for scaling on log-log axes, we test the performance of a saturating (curvilinear model. The saturating model is statistically preferred in some cases, but the accuracy gained by the saturating model is marginal.

  15. QUALITY OF LIFE IN CHILDREN WITH JUVENILE RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS TREATED WITH INFLIXIMAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.V. Denisova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA is chronic disease, leading to early incapacitating injury in patients. Treatment of JRA with new expensive biological agents allows obtaining long term remission of disease and improving its prognosis. Estimation of quality of life is one of the main effectiveness criteria of treatment. A quality of life in children who were 2–4 years old treated with infliximab was estimated. 43 patients with different types of JRA were examined. A quality of life was estimated with the help of questionnaire PEDSQL generic core scale, PEDSQL rheumatology module. Index of functional disability was estimated by childhood health assessment questionnaire (CHAQ. Significant increase of quality of life rates and decrease of index of functional disability was registered in 6 weeks of therapy with infliximab. The rates of quality of life in patients with JRA treated with infliximab were significantly equal to that in healthy children in the same age in 6, 12 and 24 months of treatment. Thus, treatment with infliximab significantly increases quality of life in children in 2–4 years old with JRA and their families, decreases negative influence of disease on child's living, improves physical activity and emotional state of patients, and allows improving contact between patients and healthy children in the same age.Key words: children, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, quality of life, infliximab.

  16. Anthropogenic chemical cues can alter the swimming behaviour of juvenile stages of a temperate fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Gil, Carlos; Cotgrove, Lucy; Smee, Sarah Louise; Simón-Otegui, David; Hinz, Hilmar; Grau, Amalia; Palmer, Miquel; Catalán, Ignacio A

    2017-04-01

    Human pressure on coastal areas is affecting essential ecosystems including fish nursery habitats. Among these anthropogenic uses, the seasonal increment in the pressure due to leisure activities such as coastal tourism and yachting is an important environmental stressor in many coastal zones. These pressures may elicit understudied impacts due to, for example, sunscreens or other seasonal pollutants. The island of Majorca, northwest Mediterranean Sea, experiences one of the highest number of tourist visits per capita in the world, thus the surrounding coastal habitat is subject to high anthropogenic seasonal stress. Studies on early stages of fishes have observed responses to coastal chemical cues for the selection or avoidance of habitats. However, the potential interferences of human impacts on these signals are largely unknown. A choice chamber was used to determine water type preference and behaviour in naïve settled juvenile gilt-head sea bream (Sparus aurata), a temperate species of commercial interest. Fish were tested individually for behavioural changes with respect to water types from potential beneficial habitats, such as seawater with extract of the endemic seagrass Posidonia oceanica, anthropogenically influenced habitats such as water extracted from a commercial and recreational harbour and seawater mixed with sunscreen at concentrations observed in coastal waters. Using a Bayesian approach, we investigated a) water type preference; b) mean speed; and c) variance in the movement (as an indicator of burst swimming activity, or "sprint" behaviour) as behavioural descriptors with respect to water type. Fish spent similar percentage of time in treatment and control water types. However, movement descriptors showed that fish in sunscreen water moved slower (98.43% probability of being slower) and performed fewer sprints (90.1% probability of having less burst in speed) compared to control water. Less evident increases in sprints were observed in harbour

  17. Proteomic responses reveal the differential effects induced by cadmium in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis at early life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lanlan; Peng, Xiao; Yu, Deliang; Ji, Chenglong; Zhao, Jianmin; Wu, Huifeng

    2016-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) has become an important metal contaminant and posed severe risk on the organisms in the coastal environments of the Bohai Sea. Marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis is widely distributed along the Bohai coast and consumed as seafood by local residents. Evidences indicate that the early stages of marine organisms are more sensitive to metal contaminants. In this study, we applied two-dimensional electrophoresis-based proteomics to characterize the biological effects of Cd (50 μg L(-1)) in the early life stages (D-shape larval and juvenile) of mussels. The different proteomic responses demonstrated the differential responsive mechanisms to Cd exposure in these two early life stages of mussels. In details, results indicated that Cd mainly induced immune and oxidative stresses in both D-shape larval and juvenile mussels via different pathways. In addition, the significant up-regulation of triosephosphate isomerase and metallothionein confirmed the enhanced energy demand and mobilized detoxification mechanism in D-shape larval mussels exposed to Cd. In juvenile mussels, Cd exposure also induced clear apoptosis. Overall, this work suggests that Cd is a potential immune toxicant to mussel M. galloprovincialis at early life stages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cumulative Effects of Nutrient Enrichment and Elevated Temperature Compromise the Early Life History Stages of the Coral Acropora tenuis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humanes, Adriana; Noonan, Sam H C; Willis, Bette L; Fabricius, Katharina E; Negri, Andrew P

    2016-01-01

    Inshore coral reefs are experiencing the combined pressures of excess nutrient availability associated with coastal activities and warming seawater temperatures. Both pressures are known to have detrimental effects on the early life history stages of hard corals, but studies of their combined effects on early demographic stages are lacking. We conducted a series of experiments to test the combined effects of nutrient enrichment (three levels) and elevated seawater temperature (up to five levels) on early life history stages of the inshore coral Acropora tenuis, a common species in the Indo-Pacific and Red Sea. Gamete fertilization, larval survivorship and larval settlement were all significantly reduced as temperature increased, but only fertilization was further affected by simultaneous nutrient enrichment. Combined high temperatures and nutrient enrichment affected fertilization in an additive manner, whereas embryo abnormalities increased synergistically. Higher than normal temperatures (32°C) increased coral juvenile growth rates 1.6-fold, but mortality also increased by 50%. The co-occurrence of nutrient enrichment with high temperatures reduced juvenile mortality to 36%, ameliorating temperature stress (antagonistic interaction). Overall, the types of effect (additive vs synergistic or antagonistic) and their magnitude varied among life stages. Gamete and embryo stages were more affected by temperature stress and, in some cases, also by nutrient enrichment than juveniles. The data suggest that coastal runoff events might exacerbate the impacts of warming temperatures on fertilization if these events co-occur during corals spawning. The cumulative impacts of simultaneous exposure to nutrient enrichment and elevated temperatures over all early life history stages increases the likelihood for failure of larval supply and recruitment for this coral species. Our results suggest that improving the water quality of river discharges into coastal areas might help to

  19. Cumulative Effects of Nutrient Enrichment and Elevated Temperature Compromise the Early Life History Stages of the Coral Acropora tenuis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, Sam H. C.; Willis, Bette L.; Fabricius, Katharina E.; Negri, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    Inshore coral reefs are experiencing the combined pressures of excess nutrient availability associated with coastal activities and warming seawater temperatures. Both pressures are known to have detrimental effects on the early life history stages of hard corals, but studies of their combined effects on early demographic stages are lacking. We conducted a series of experiments to test the combined effects of nutrient enrichment (three levels) and elevated seawater temperature (up to five levels) on early life history stages of the inshore coral Acropora tenuis, a common species in the Indo-Pacific and Red Sea. Gamete fertilization, larval survivorship and larval settlement were all significantly reduced as temperature increased, but only fertilization was further affected by simultaneous nutrient enrichment. Combined high temperatures and nutrient enrichment affected fertilization in an additive manner, whereas embryo abnormalities increased synergistically. Higher than normal temperatures (32°C) increased coral juvenile growth rates 1.6-fold, but mortality also increased by 50%. The co-occurrence of nutrient enrichment with high temperatures reduced juvenile mortality to 36%, ameliorating temperature stress (antagonistic interaction). Overall, the types of effect (additive vs synergistic or antagonistic) and their magnitude varied among life stages. Gamete and embryo stages were more affected by temperature stress and, in some cases, also by nutrient enrichment than juveniles. The data suggest that coastal runoff events might exacerbate the impacts of warming temperatures on fertilization if these events co-occur during corals spawning. The cumulative impacts of simultaneous exposure to nutrient enrichment and elevated temperatures over all early life history stages increases the likelihood for failure of larval supply and recruitment for this coral species. Our results suggest that improving the water quality of river discharges into coastal areas might help to

  20. Using physiology and behaviour to understand the responses of fish early life stages to toxicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloman, K A; McNeil, P L

    2012-12-01

    The use of early life stages of fishes (embryos and larvae) in toxicity testing has been in existence for a long time, generally utilizing endpoints such as morphological defects and mortality. Behavioural endpoints, however, may represent a more insightful evaluation of the ecological effects of toxicants. Indeed, recent years have seen a considerable increase in the use of behavioural measurements in early life stages reflecting a substantial rise in zebrafish Danio rerio early life-stage toxicity testing and the development of automated behavioural monitoring systems. Current behavioural endpoints identified for early life stages in response to toxicant exposure include spontaneous activity, predator avoidance, capture of live food, shoaling ability and interaction with other individuals. Less frequently used endpoints include measurement of anxiogenic behaviours and cognitive ability, both of which are suggested here as future indicators of toxicant disruption. For many simple behavioural endpoints, there is still a need to link behavioural effects with ecological relevance; currently, only a limited number of studies have addressed this issue. Understanding the physiological mechanisms that underlie toxicant effects on behaviour so early in life has received far less attention, perhaps because physiological measurements can be difficult to carry out on individuals of this size. The most commonly established physiological links with behavioural disruption in early life stages are similar to those seen in juveniles and adults including sensory deprivation (olfaction, lateral line and vision), altered neurogenesis and neurotransmitter concentrations. This review highlights the importance of understanding the integrated behavioural and physiological response of early life stages to toxicants and identifies knowledge gaps which present exciting areas for future research. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  1. Chromium Toxicity Test for Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Using Hanford Site Groundwater: Onsite Early Life-Stage Toxicity Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patton, Gregory W; Dauble, Dennis D; Chamness, Mickie A; Abernethy, Cary S; McKinstry, Craig A

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate site-specific effects for early life-stage (eyed eggs to free swimming juveniles) fall chinook salmon that might be exposed to hexavalent chromium from Hanford groundwater sources. Our exposure conditions included hexavalent chromium obtained from Hanford groundwater wells near the Columbia River, Columbia River water as the diluent, and locally adapted populations of fall chinook salmon. This report describes both a 96-hr pretest using rainbow trout eggs and an early life-stage test beginning with chinook salmon eggs

  2. Seasonal variations of agar extracted from different life stages of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seasonality in yield, physical and chemical properties of the native agar from different life stages of Gracilaria cliftonii was investigated over a period of six seasons (autumn 2008–winter 2009). Agar yield and its properties varied as a function of seasons and life stages but there was no significant correlation between ...

  3. Chemical defense of early life stages of benthic marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Niels

    2002-10-01

    Accurate knowledge of factors affecting the survival of early life stages of marine invertebrates is critically important for understanding their population dynamics and the evolution of their diverse reproductive and life-history characteristics. Chemical defense is an important determinant of survival for adult stages of many sessile benthic invertebrates, yet relatively little consideration has been given to chemical defenses at the early life stages. This review examines the taxonomic breadth of early life-stage chemical defense in relation to various life-history and reproductive characteristics, as well as possible constraints on the expression of chemical defense at certain life stages. Data on the localization of defensive secondary metabolites in larvae and the fitness-related consequences of consuming even a small amount of toxic secondary metabolites underpin proposals regarding the potential for Müllerian and Batesian mimicry to occur among marine larvae. The involvement of microbial symbionts in the chemical defense of early life stages illustrates its complexity for some species. As our knowledge of chemical defenses in early life stages grows, we will be able to more rigorously examine connections among phylogeny, chemical defenses, and the evolution of reproductive and life-history characteristics among marine invertebrates.

  4. Amphibians at risk? Susceptibility of terrestrial amphibian life stages to pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brühl, Carsten A; Pieper, Silvia; Weber, Brigitte

    2011-11-01

    Current pesticide risk assessment does not specifically consider amphibians. Amphibians in the aquatic environment (aquatic life stages or postmetamorphic aquatic amphibians) and terrestrial living juvenile or adult amphibians are assumed to be covered by the risk assessment for aquatic invertebrates and fish, or mammals and birds, respectively. This procedure has been evaluated as being sufficiently protective regarding the acute risk posed by a number of pesticides to aquatic amphibian life stages (eggs, larvae). However, it is unknown whether the exposure and sensitivity of terrestrial living amphibians are comparable to mammalian and avian exposure and sensitivity. We reviewed the literature on dermal pesticide absorption and toxicity studies for terrestrial life stages of amphibians, focusing on the dermal exposure pathway, that is, through treated soil or direct overspray. In vitro studies demonstrated that cutaneous absorption of chemicals is significant and that chemical percutaneous passage, P (cm/h), is higher in amphibians than in mammals. In vivo, the rapid and substantial uptake of the herbicide atrazine from treated soil by toads (Bufo americanus) has been described. Severe toxic effects on various amphibian species have been reported for field-relevant application rates of different pesticides. In general, exposure and toxicity studies for terrestrial amphibian life stages are scarce, and the reported data indicate the need for further research, especially in light of the global amphibian decline. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  5. Signatures of natural selection between life cycle stages separated by metamorphosis in European eel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujolar, J M; Jacobsen, M W; Bekkevold, D; Lobón-Cervià, J; Jónsson, B; Bernatchez, L; Hansen, M M

    2015-08-13

    Species showing complex life cycles provide excellent opportunities to study the genetic associations between life cycle stages, as selective pressures may differ before and after metamorphosis. The European eel presents a complex life cycle with two metamorphoses, a first metamorphosis from larvae into glass eels (juvenile stage) and a second metamorphosis into silver eels (adult stage). We tested the hypothesis that different genes and gene pathways will be under selection at different life stages when comparing the genetic associations between glass eels and silver eels. We used two sets of markers to test for selection: first, we genotyped individuals using a panel of 80 coding-gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) developed in American eel; second, we investigated selection at the genome level using a total of 153,423 RAD-sequencing generated SNPs widely distributed across the genome. Using the RAD approach, outlier tests identified a total of 2413 (1.57%) potentially selected SNPs. Functional annotation analysis identified signal transduction pathways as the most over-represented group of genes, including MAPK/Erk signalling, calcium signalling and GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone) signalling. Many of the over-represented pathways were related to growth, while others could result from the different conditions that eels inhabit during their life cycle. The observation of different genes and gene pathways under selection when comparing glass eels vs. silver eels supports the adaptive decoupling hypothesis for the benefits of metamorphosis. Partitioning the life cycle into discrete morphological phases may be overall beneficial since it allows the different life stages to respond independently to their unique selection pressures. This might translate into a more effective use of food and niche resources and/or performance of phase-specific tasks (e.g. feeding in the case of glass eels, migrating and reproducing in the case of silver eels).

  6. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi affect both penetration and further life stage development of root-knot nematodes in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Christine; Geerinckx, Katleen; Mkandawire, Rachel; Panis, Bart; De Waele, Dirk; Elsen, Annemie

    2012-02-01

    The root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita poses a worldwide threat to agriculture, with an increasing demand for alternative control options since most common nematicides are being withdrawn due to environmental concerns. The biocontrol potential of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) against plant-parasitic nematodes has been demonstrated, but the modes of action remain to be unraveled. In this study, M. incognita penetration of second-stage juveniles at 4, 8 and 12 days after inoculation was compared in tomato roots (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Marmande) pre-colonized or not by the AMF Glomus mosseae. Further life stage development of the juveniles was also observed in both control and mycorrhizal roots at 12 days, 3 weeks and 4 weeks after inoculation by means of acid fuchsin staining. Penetration was significantly lower in mycorrhizal roots, with a reduction up to 32%. Significantly lower numbers of third- and fourth-stage juveniles and females accumulated in mycorrhizal roots, at a slower rate than in control roots. The results show for the first time that G. mosseae continuously suppresses root-knot nematodes throughout their entire early infection phase of root penetration and subsequent life stage development.

  7. Life cycle stage and water depth affect flooding-induced adventitious root formation in the terrestrial species Solanum dulcamara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Visser, Eric J W; de Kroon, Hans; Huber, Heidrun

    2015-08-01

    Flooding can occur at any stage of the life cycle of a plant, but often adaptive responses of plants are only studied at a single developmental stage. It may be anticipated that juvenile plants may respond differently from mature plants, as the amount of stored resources may differ and morphological changes can be constrained. Moreover, different water depths may require different strategies to cope with the flooding stress, the expression of which may also depend on developmental stage. This study investigated whether flooding-induced adventitious root formation and plant growth were affected by flooding depth in Solanum dulcamara plants at different developmental stages. Juvenile plants without pre-formed adventitious root primordia and mature plants with primordia were subjected to shallow flooding or deep flooding for 5 weeks. Plant growth and the timing of adventitious root formation were monitored during the flooding treatments. Adventitious root formation in response to shallow flooding was significantly constrained in juvenile S. dulcamara plants compared with mature plants, and was delayed by deep flooding compared with shallow flooding. Complete submergence suppressed adventitious root formation until up to 2 weeks after shoots restored contact with the atmosphere. Independent of developmental stage, a strong positive correlation was found between adventitious root formation and total biomass accumulation during shallow flooding. The potential to deploy an escape strategy (i.e. adventitious root formation) may change throughout a plant's life cycle, and is largely dependent on flooding depth. Adaptive responses at a given stage of the life cycle thus do not necessarily predict how the plant responds to flooding in another growth stage. As variation in adventitious root formation also correlates with finally attained biomass, this variation may form the basis for variation in resistance to shallow flooding among plants. © The Author 2015. Published by

  8. Assessing variability in chemical acute toxicity of unionid mussels: Influence of intra- and inter-laboratory testing, life stage, and species - SETAC Abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    We developed a toxicity database for unionid mussels to examine the extent of intra- and inter-laboratory variability in acute toxicity tests with mussel larvae (glochidia) and juveniles; the extent of differential sensitivity of the two life stages; and the variation in sensitiv...

  9. Assessing variability in chemical acute toxicity of unionid mussels: Influence of intra- and inter-laboratory testing, life stage, and species

    Science.gov (United States)

    The authors developed a toxicity database for unionid mussels to examine the extent of intra- and interlaboratory variability in acute toxicity tests with mussel larvae (glochidia) and juveniles; the extent of differential sensitivity of the 2 life stages; and the variation in se...

  10. USE OF MULTI-PHOTON LASER SCANNING CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY TO DESCRIBE THE TISSUE DISTRIBUTION OF PBTS IN FISH EARLY LIFE STAGES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish early life stages (ELS) are more sensitive than juveniles or adults to many persistent bioaccumulative toxicants (PBTs). To better understand the mechanisms by which these chemicals produce toxicity during ELS, dose-response relationships need to be determined in relation t...

  11. Air Pollution Mixtures: Health Effects across Life Stages

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The main objectives of the proposed Center are: 1) to investigate the acute and chronic health effects across life stages of six exposure metrics (short- and long-...

  12. Maternal, social and abiotic environmental effects on growth vary across life stages in a cooperative mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Sinead; Bateman, Andrew W; Mares, Rafael; Ozgul, Arpat; Clutton-Brock, Tim H

    2014-03-01

    Resource availability plays a key role in driving variation in somatic growth and body condition, and the factors determining access to resources vary considerably across life stages. Parents and carers may exert important influences in early life, when individuals are nutritionally dependent, with abiotic environmental effects having stronger influences later in development as individuals forage independently. Most studies have measured specific factors influencing growth across development or have compared relative influences of different factors within specific life stages. Such studies may not capture whether early-life factors continue to have delayed effects at later stages, or whether social factors change when individuals become nutritionally independent and adults become competitors for, rather than providers of, food. Here, we examined variation in the influence of the abiotic, social and maternal environment on growth across life stages in a wild population of cooperatively breeding meerkats. Cooperatively breeding vertebrates are ideal for investigating environmental influences on growth. In addition to experiencing highly variable abiotic conditions, cooperative breeders are typified by heterogeneity both among breeders, with mothers varying in age and social status, and in the number of carers present. Recent rainfall had a consistently marked effect on growth across life stages, yet other seasonal terms only influenced growth during stages when individuals were growing fastest. Group size and maternal dominance status had positive effects on growth during the period of nutritional dependence on carers, but did not influence mass at emergence (at 1 month) or growth at independent stages (>4 months). Pups born to older mothers were lighter at 1 month of age and subsequently grew faster as subadults. Males grew faster than females during the juvenile and subadult stage only. Our findings demonstrate the complex ways in which the external environment

  13. Effects of acidifying ocean conditions on growth and survival of two life stages of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giltz, S.; Taylor, C.

    2016-02-01

    Blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus, begin their larval phase offshore and circulate for approximately 30 days before settling near shore. As crabs transition to the juvenile stage, they move into coastal or estuarine environments characterized by lower salinity. Presently the average pH of the ocean is 8.1, 30% down from the beginning of the industrial revolution and is forecasted to drop to 7.8 by 2100. Decreasing pH causes dissolution of calcium carbonate shells, but the overall effects on crustaceans, such as blue crabs, are unknown. This study investigated the effect of a lower pH environment on the growth, survival, carapace hardness and molt frequency of larval and juvenile blue crabs in the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Larval crabs showed delayed growth under low pH (7.8) conditions compared to crabs in a control (present day) pH (8.1) environment. Population crashes (complete mortality) were experienced in 55% of the low pH aquaria but not in any of the control aquaria, suggesting that acidification poses a mortality risk. Under low pH conditions the intermolt duration decreased in juveniles, but the body length and weight did not differ from crabs raised in the control pH. Larvae (in tanks that did not crash) and juveniles did not experience increased mortality from a lower pH, but there do appear to be sublethal effects on growth and molting that differ between life history stages.

  14. Spatial variation in density and size structure indicate habitat selection throughout life stages of two Southwestern Atlantic snappers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschenbrenner, Alexandre; Hackradt, Carlos Werner; Ferreira, Beatrice Padovani

    2016-02-01

    The early life history of Lutjanus alexandrei and Lutjanus jocu in Southwestern Atlantic is still largely unknown. Habitat use of different life stages (i.e. size categories and densities) of the Brazilian snapper (L. alexandrei) and dog snapper (L. jocu) was examined in a tropical portion of NE coast of Brazil. Visual surveys were conducted in different shallow habitats (mangroves and reefs). Both snapper species showed higher densities in early life stages in mangrove habitat, with a clear increase in fish size from mangrove to adjacent reefs. Post-settler individuals were exclusively found in mangroves for both species. Juveniles of L. alexandrei were also registered only in mangroves, while sub-adult individuals were associated with both mangrove and reef habitats. Mature individuals of L. alexandrei were only observed in reef habitats. Juvenile and sub-adult individuals of the dog snapper were both associated with mangrove and reef habitats, with high densities registered in mangroves. Mature individuals of L. jocu were not registered in the study area. This pattern suggests preference for mangrove habitat in early life stages for both species. Ontogenetic movement between habitats was also recorded. This pattern denotes habitat selection across different life cycle of both species. Such information highlights the importance of directing management and conservation efforts to these habitats to secure the continuity of contribution to adult populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. In vivo effect of single oral dose of artemether against early juvenile stages of Schistosoma mansoni Egyptian strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Beshbishi, Samar N; Taman, Amira; El-Malky, Mohamed; Azab, Manar S; El-Hawary, Amira K; El-Tantawy, Dina A

    2013-10-01

    The current treatment and control of schistosomiasis, rely on a single drug, praziquantel, although, it has minor activity against juvenile stages of the parasite. Studies have shown that artemether (ART) exhibits effects against juveniles of Schistosoma mansoni Liberian and Puerto Rican strains, Schistosoma japonicum and Schistosoma haematobium. Aiming to assess the in vivo activity of single oral dose of ART against early juvenile stages of S. mansoni Egyptian strain, this study was established. Mice were treated with ART (400 mg/kg) at two time points evenly spaced over the period of larval development (7 and 21 days post-infection; pi), and a third treatment point (day 49 pi) was included to elucidate when susceptibility decreases. Administration of ART on day 7 pi reduced the total worm burden by 85.94%. The greatest reductions were seen when treatment was given on day 21 pi, with total and female worm burden reductions of 91.52% and 90.57%, respectively, and cessation of oviposition. Similar dose given on day 49 pi reduced total worm burden by 55.17% and female worm burden by 66.51%. Moreover, it induced significant reduction in the tissue egg load and significant alterations in the oogram pattern with decreased immature eggs and increased dead eggs. Antipathological activities were evident in significant reductions in granulomata count and diameter. In conclusion, ART exhibits major in vivo schistosomicidal effects against the early larval migratory stages of S. mansoni Egyptian strain, mainly the 21-day old schistosomula, hence preventing disease progression and morbidity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Coral Demography (Adult and Juvenile Corals) across the Hawaiian Archipelago since 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic coral demographic surveys for two life stages (juveniles, adults) across the Hawaiian archipelago since 2013. Juvenile...

  17. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Coral Demography (Adult and Juvenile Corals) across American Samoa since 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic coral demographic surveys for two life stages (juveniles, adults) across American Samoa in 2015. Juvenile colony surveys...

  18. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Coral Demography (Adult and Juvenile Corals) across the Mariana Archipelago since 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic coral demographic surveys for two life stages (juveniles, adults) across the Mariana archipelago since 2014. Juvenile...

  19. Nasoangiofibroma juvenil: concordância interobservadores no estadiamento por tomografia computadorizada Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma: interobserver agreement in cancer staging using computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Luiz Gusso

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o advento da tomografia computadorizada, a avaliação dos locais de acometimento e extensão do nasoangiofibroma juvenil tornou-se mais precisa, o que facilitou o correto estadiamento pré-operatório. O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar a concordância interobservadores, por meio da análise por tomografia computadorizada, de 15 casos de nasoangiofibroma juvenil em relação à extensão para locais relacionados com altos índices de recidivas. Todos os pacientes eram do sexo masculino, com idade média de 15,8 anos. A análise da concordância entre os observadores quanto à extensão e envolvimento da fossa infratemporal, seios esfenóide e cavernoso e fossa craniana média foi excelente, em relação à fissura orbitária superior foi boa e em relação à base do processo pterigóide e fossa craniana anterior foi ruim. Concluiu-se que a análise apresenta alta concordância entre os observadores para os locais estabelecidos, com exceção da base do processo pterigóide e da fossa craniana anterior.The advent of computed tomography permitted a much more precise evaluation of tumor localization, thus facilitating presurgical staging. The objective of this study was to evaluate the interobserver agreement on the analysis of computed tomography scans of 15 patients with juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma, regarding assessment of tumor extension to sites of high recurrence rate. All patients were male and had a mean age of 15.8 years. The results of the interobserver agreement analysis regarding tumor invasion and extension to the infratemporal fossa, cavernous sinus, sphenoid sinus and medium cranial fossa were excellent. Identification of involvement of the superior orbital fissure was considered good. Interobserver agreement regarding tumor extension to the base of pterigoid process and anterior cranial fossa was considered poor. We concluded that there is a very good interobserver agreement on the evaluation of the established

  20. Life-cycle stages of Dinophysis acuminata (Dinophyceae) in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite many observations of different life-cycle stages of Dinophysis species, the complete life history of the genus is still unknown owing to the difficulties encountered in culturing these species. The seasonal distribution of D. acuminata was followed at two offshore stations in the brackish Baltic Sea by means of in situ ...

  1. Temperature induced variation in oxygen consumption of juvenile and adult stage of the dog conch Laevistrombus canarium (Linnaeus 1758)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Wan Nurul Husna Wan; Amin, S. M. Nurul; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd; Cob, Zaidi Che

    2015-09-01

    Laevistrombus canarium Linnaeus, 1758 is one of the important edible sea snail within the western Johor Straits, Malaysia. In this study, the impact of temperature on oxygen consumption (MO2) of L. canarium based on their ontogenetic changes (juvenile and adult) was measured in the laboratory condition at 22.0, 26.0, 30.0 and 34.0°C. Measurement of MO2 were taken every 1 s for 60 min on 4.20 - 34.00 g dog conch using respirometry chamber. All experiments were carried out in static conditions in five replicates with one snail per chambers. The results of oxygen consumption showed that juvenile dog conch respired at the rate of 0.163 ml h-1 and adult respired at the rate of 0.119 ml h-1. Consequently, the oxygen consumption in juvenile and adult dog conch was expressed as a total energy spends. The results indicates that total energy spend for oxygen consumed (ml h-1) of L. canarium at different temperature regimes (22.0 to 34.0°C) slightly increased over time period (0.63 ± 0.12 to 3.24 ± 0.05 J h-1) respectively. This finding of the present study suggested L. canarium is well adapted for life in high temperature environment.

  2. Resistance to starvation of first-stage juveniles of the Caribbean spiny lobster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alí Espinosa-Magaña

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The non-feeding postlarva (puerulus of spiny lobsters actively swims from the open ocean to the coastal habitats where it settles and molts to the first-stage juvenile (JI. Because pueruli use much of their energy reserves swimming and preparing for the post-settlement molt, the survival of JIs presumably depends on resuming feeding as soon as possible. To test this hypothesis, the resistance to starvation of JIs of the Caribbean spiny lobster, Panulirus argus, was evaluated by measuring their point-of-no-return (PNR, minimum time of initial starvation preventing recovery after later feeding and point-of-reserve-saturation (PRS, minimum time of initial feeding allowing for food-independent development through the rest of the molting cycle in a warm and a cold season. Each experiment consisted of eight groups: a continuously fed control (FC group, a continuously starved control (SC group, and six groups subjected to differential periods of either initial starvation and subsequent feeding (PNR experiments or initial feeding and subsequent starvation (PSR experiments. No JIs molted under continuous absence of food (SC. In both PNR experiments (temperature in warm season: 29.79 ± 0.07°C, mean ± 95% CI; in cold season: 25.63 ± 0.12°C mortality increased sharply after 9 d of initial starvation and intermolt periods increased with period of initial starvation, but were longer in the cold season. The PNR50 was longer in the warm season (12.1 ± 1.2 d, mean ± 95% CI than in the cold season (9.5 ± 2.1 d. In PRS experiments (temperature in warm season: 29.54 ± 0.07 °C; in cold season: 26.20 ± 0.12 °C, JIs that molted did so near the end of the feeding period; all JIs initially fed for up to 6 d succumbed, and no JIs molted after 13 d of starvation despite having fed previously. The PRS50 did not differ between the cold (13.1 ± 0.7 d and warm seasons (12.1 ± 1.1 d. JIs of P. argus exhibit a remarkable resistance to

  3. Spatial Patterns and Interspecific Associations of Three Canopy Species at Different Life Stages in a Subtropical Forest,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Li; Shi-Guang Wei; Zhong-Liang Huang; Wan-Hui Ye; Hong-Lin Cao

    2008-01-01

    Spatial patterns of species at different life stages are an important aspect for understanding causal mechanisms that facilitate species co-existence.Using Ripley's univariate L(t) and bivariate L12(t) functions,we analyzed the spatial patterns and interspecific associations of three canopy species at different life history stages in a 20-ha subtropical forest plot in Dinghushan Nature Reserve.Based on diameter at breast height (DBH),four life stages were distinguished.Castanopsis chinensis and Schima superba showed a unimodal DBH distribution.Engelhardtia roxburghiana showed a bimodal curve.L(t) function analysis showed significantly aggregated distributions of all three species at later life stages and random distribution at early life stages at some scales.From the analysis of L12(t) function,the results showed the positive association was a dominant pattern for most species pairs at most scales but the intensity of association decreases with the increase of life stages.Juveniles of the three species had no negative intra- and interspecific associations with the older life stages.Only premature trees were suppressed by overmature trees at some scales.Considering these results,we found three canopy-dominant species that lacked regeneration.There was no direct competition occurring between understorey individuals.Young trees can grow well under conspecific species with two other species.Longevity and lack of regeneration led to a large number of trees stored in mature and overmature stages,therefore,intra-and inter-competition can be strong at later life stages.

  4. Molecular changes in Opisthorchis viverrini (Southeast Asian liver fluke during the transition from the juvenile to the adult stage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron R Jex

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Southeast Asian liver fluke (Opisthorchis viverrini chronically infects and affects tens of millions of people in regions of Asia, leading to chronic illness and, importantly, inducing malignant cancer (= cholangiocarcinoma. In spite of this, little is known, at the molecular level, about the parasite itself, its interplay with its hosts or the mechanisms of disease and/or carcinogenesis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we generated extensive RNA-Seq data (Illumina representing adult and juvenile stages of O. viverrini, and combined these sequences with previously published transcriptomic data (454 technology for this species, yielding a combined assembly of significantly increased quality and allowing quantitative assessment of transcription in the juvenile and adult stage. CONCLUSIONS: This enhanced assembly reveals that, despite the substantial biological similarities between the human liver flukes, O. viverinni and Clonorchis sinensis, there are previously unrecognized differences in major aspects of their molecular biology. Most notable are differences among the C13 and cathepsin L-like cysteine peptidases, which play key roles in tissue migration, immune evasion and feeding, and, thus, represent potential drug and/or vaccine targets. Furthermore, these data indicate that major lineages of cysteine peptidases of socioeconomically important trematodes have evolved through a process of gene loss rather than independent radiation, contrasting previous proposals.

  5. Habitat Fragmentation Drives Plant Community Assembly Processes across Life Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guang; Feeley, Kenneth J.; Yu, Mingjian

    2016-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation is one of the principal causes of biodiversity loss and hence understanding its impacts on community assembly and disassembly is an important topic in ecology. We studied the relationships between fragmentation and community assembly processes in the land-bridge island system of Thousand Island Lake in East China. We focused on the changes in species diversity and phylogenetic diversity that occurred between life stages of woody plants growing on these islands. The observed diversities were compared with the expected diversities from random null models to characterize assembly processes. Regression tree analysis was used to illustrate the relationships between island attributes and community assembly processes. We found that different assembly processes predominate in the seedlings-to-saplings life-stage transition (SS) vs. the saplings-to-trees transition (ST). Island area was the main attribute driving the assembly process in SS. In ST, island isolation was more important. Within a fragmented landscape, the factors driving community assembly processes were found to differ between life stage transitions. Environmental filtering had a strong effect on the seedlings-to-saplings life-stage transition. Habitat isolation and dispersal limitation influenced all plant life stages, but had a weaker effect on communities than area. These findings add to our understanding of the processes driving community assembly and species coexistence in the context of pervasive and widespread habitat loss and fragmentation. PMID:27427960

  6. Quality of life and emotional functioning in youth with chronic migraine and juvenile fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita; Zafar, Marium; Barnett, Kimberly A; Aylward, Brandon S; Strotman, Daniel; Slater, Shalonda K; Allen, Janelle R; Lecates, Susan L; Kabbouche, Marielle A; Ting, Tracy V; Hershey, Andrew D; Powers, Scott W

    2013-12-01

    Chronic pain in children is associated with significant negative impact on social, emotional, and school functioning. Previous studies on the impact of pain on children's functioning have primarily used mixed samples of pain conditions or single pain conditions (eg, headache and abdominal pain) with relatively small sample sizes. As a result, the similarities and differences in the impact of pain in subgroups of children with chronic pain have not been closely examined. To compare pain characteristics, quality of life, and emotional functioning among youth with pediatric chronic migraine (CM) and juvenile fibromyalgia (JFM). We combined data obtained during screening of patients for 2 relatively large intervention studies of youth (age range, 10 to 18 y) with CM (N=153) and JFM (N=151). Measures of pain intensity, quality of life (Pediatric Quality of Life; PedsQL, child and parent-proxy), depressive symptoms (Children's Depression Inventory), and anxiety symptoms (Adolescent Symptom Inventory-4-Anxiety subscale) were completed by youth and their parent. A multivariate analysis of covariance controlling for effects of age and sex was performed to examine differences in quality of life and emotional functioning between the CM and JFM groups. Youth with JFM had significantly higher anxiety and depressive symptoms, and lower quality of life in all domains. Among children with CM, overall functioning was higher but school functioning was a specific area of concern. Results indicate important differences in subgroups of pediatric pain patients and point to the need for more intensive multidisciplinary intervention for JFM patients.

  7. Extending Vulnerability Assessment to Include Life Stages Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Emma E; Essington, Timothy E; Kaplan, Isaac C

    2016-01-01

    Species are experiencing a suite of novel stressors from anthropogenic activities that have impacts at multiple scales. Vulnerability assessment is one tool to evaluate the likely impacts that these stressors pose to species so that high-vulnerability cases can be identified and prioritized for monitoring, protection, or mitigation. Commonly used semi-quantitative methods lack a framework to explicitly account for differences in exposure to stressors and organism responses across life stages. Here we propose a modification to commonly used spatial vulnerability assessment methods that includes such an approach, using ocean acidification in the California Current as an illustrative case study. Life stage considerations were included by assessing vulnerability of each life stage to ocean acidification and were used to estimate population vulnerability in two ways. We set population vulnerability equal to: (1) the maximum stage vulnerability and (2) a weighted mean across all stages, with weights calculated using Lefkovitch matrix models. Vulnerability was found to vary across life stages for the six species explored in this case study: two krill-Euphausia pacifica and Thysanoessa spinifera, pteropod-Limacina helicina, pink shrimp-Pandalus jordani, Dungeness crab-Metacarcinus magister and Pacific hake-Merluccius productus. The maximum vulnerability estimates ranged from larval to subadult and adult stages with no consistent stage having maximum vulnerability across species. Similarly, integrated vulnerability metrics varied greatly across species. A comparison showed that some species had vulnerabilities that were similar between the two metrics, while other species' vulnerabilities varied substantially between the two metrics. These differences primarily resulted from cases where the most vulnerable stage had a low relative weight. We compare these methods and explore circumstances where each method may be appropriate.

  8. Science advancements key to increasing management value of life stage monitoring networks for endangered Sacramento River winter-run Chinook salmon in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Rachel C.; Windell, Sean; Brandes, Patricia L.; Conrad, J. Louise; Ferguson, John; Goertler, Pascale A. L.; Harvey, Brett N.; Heublein, Joseph; Isreal, Joshua A.; Kratville, Daniel W.; Kirsch, Joseph E.; Perry, Russell W.; Pisciotto, Joseph; Poytress, William R.; Reece, Kevin; Swart, Brycen G.

    2017-01-01

    A robust monitoring network that provides quantitative information about the status of imperiled species at key life stages and geographic locations over time is fundamental for sustainable management of fisheries resources. For anadromous species, management actions in one geographic domain can substantially affect abundance of subsequent life stages that span broad geographic regions. Quantitative metrics (e.g., abundance, movement, survival, life history diversity, and condition) at multiple life stages are needed to inform how management actions (e.g., hatcheries, harvest, hydrology, and habitat restoration) influence salmon population dynamics. The existing monitoring network for endangered Sacramento River winterrun Chinook Salmon (SRWRC, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in California’s Central Valley was compared to conceptual models developed for each life stage and geographic region of the life cycle to identify relevant SRWRC metrics. We concluded that the current monitoring network was insufficient to diagnose when (life stage) and where (geographic domain) chronic or episodic reductions in SRWRC cohorts occur, precluding within- and among-year comparisons. The strongest quantitative data exist in the Upper Sacramento River, where abundance estimates are generated for adult spawners and emigrating juveniles. However, once SRWRC leave the upper river, our knowledge of their identity, abundance, and condition diminishes, despite the juvenile monitoring enterprise. We identified six system-wide recommended actions to strengthen the value of data generated from the existing monitoring network to assess resource management actions: (1) incorporate genetic run identification; (2) develop juvenile abundance estimates; (3) collect data for life history diversity metrics at multiple life stages; (4) expand and enhance real-time fish survival and movement monitoring; (5) collect fish condition data; and (6) provide timely public access to monitoring data in open data

  9. EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF FEED ON GROWTH, SURVIVAL AND DIGESTIVE ENZYME ACTIVITY OF EARLY JUVENILE-STAGE MARBLE GOBY, Oxyeleotris marmoratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Darwis

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The stable mass seed production technique of marble goby, Oxyeleotris marmoratus has not yet been established due to high mortality occurring on the early juvenile stage and/or after 40 days after hatching (d AH. In order to establish the mass seed production technique, O. marmoratus juveniles of 40 d AH were reared for 60 days to determine growth, survival and digestive enzyme activity at different types of feed (trash fish, artificial feed and Artemia sp. nauplii. Specific growth rate (5.32 and survival rate (91.3% in juveniles fed Artemia sp. nauplii showed significantly higher (P<0.05 than those of juveniles fed trash fish and artificial feed. At the end of the experiment, the mean specific trypsin, amylase and lipase activities of juveniles fed Artemia sp. nauplii were recorded as 0.04 mU mg protein-1m-1, 0.114 mg maltose mg protein-1h-1 and 9.58 m Units, respectively, and they were significantly higher than those of juveniles fed trash fish and artificial feed. In the present study it was shown that O. marmoratus early juveniles had more efficient digestibility and absorption the nutrient when fed with Artemia.

  10. Corticotropin-releasing hormone: Mediator of vertebrate life stage transitions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yugo; Grommen, Sylvia V H; De Groef, Bert

    2016-03-01

    Hormones, particularly thyroid hormones and corticosteroids, play critical roles in vertebrate life stage transitions such as amphibian metamorphosis, hatching in precocial birds, and smoltification in salmonids. Since they synergistically regulate several metabolic and developmental processes that accompany vertebrate life stage transitions, the existence of extensive cross-communication between the adrenal/interrenal and thyroidal axes is not surprising. Synergies of corticosteroids and thyroid hormones are based on effects at the level of tissue hormone sensitivity and gene regulation. In addition, in representative nonmammalian vertebrates, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) stimulates hypophyseal thyrotropin secretion, and thus functions as a common regulator of both the adrenal/interrenal and thyroidal axes to release corticosteroids and thyroid hormones. The dual function of CRH has been speculated to control or affect the timing of vertebrate life history transitions across taxa. After a brief overview of recent insights in the molecular mechanisms behind the synergic actions of thyroid hormones and corticosteroids during life stage transitions, this review examines the evidence for a possible role of CRH in controlling vertebrate life stage transitions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The validity of using juvenile stages for evaluation of salt stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Triticum durum) on the basis of their salt stress tolerance. The effect of this abiotic constraint was investigated at tillering stage using hydroponic culture. Some growth and development parameters were measured between three and six leaves stages ...

  12. Suicidal behaviors among adolescents in juvenile detention: role of adverse life experiences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhav P Bhatta

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of multiple adverse life experiences (sexual abuse, homelessness, running away, and substance abuse in the family on suicide ideation and suicide attempt among adolescents at an urban juvenile detention facility in the United States. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study sample included a total of 3,156 adolescents processed at a juvenile detention facility in an urban area in Ohio between 2003 and 2007. The participants, interacting anonymously with a voice enabled computer, self-administered a questionnaire with 100 items related to health risk behaviors. RESULTS: Overall 19.0% reported ever having thought about suicide (suicide ideation and 11.9% reported ever having attempted suicide (suicide attempt. In the multivariable logistic regression analysis those reporting sexual abuse (Odds Ratio = 2.75; 95% confidence interval  = 2.08-3.63 and homelessness (1.51; 1.17-1.94 were associated with increased odds of suicide ideation, while sexual abuse (3.01; 2.22-4.08, homelessness (1.49; 1.12-1.98, and running away from home (1.38; 1.06-1.81 were associated with increased odds of a suicide attempt. Those experiencing all four adverse events were 7.81 times more likely (2.41-25.37 to report having ever attempted suicide than those who experienced none of the adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the high prevalence of adverse life experiences and their association with suicidal behaviors in detained adolescents, these factors should not only be included in the suicide screening tools at the intake and during detention, but should also be used for the intervention programming for suicide prevention.

  13. Good daily habits during the early stages of life determine success throughout life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Kohyama

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses hypothesis that sufficient sleep duration and proper circadian rhythms during the early stages of life are indispensable to a successful life. Successful life was defined according to the famous cohort studies of Mischel's and Dunedin. To assess the hypothesis, neuronal elements presumably affecting early daily habits and successful life are reviewed. The effect of sufficient sleep duration and proper circadian rhythms during early stages of life on the development of the prefrontal cortex has been found to be the key issue to verify the hypothesis. Socioeconomic status is found to be another issue to be studied.

  14. Good daily habits during the early stages of life determine success throughout life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohyama, Jun

    2016-01-01

    This paper assesses hypothesis that sufficient sleep duration and proper circadian rhythms during the early stages of life are indispensable to a successful life. Successful life was defined according to the famous cohort studies of Mischel's and Dunedin. To assess the hypothesis, neuronal elements presumably affecting early daily habits and successful life are reviewed. The effect of sufficient sleep duration and proper circadian rhythms during early stages of life on the development of the prefrontal cortex has been found to be the key issue to verify the hypothesis. Socioeconomic status is found to be another issue to be studied.

  15. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Coral Demography (Adult and Juvenile Corals) across the Main Hawaiian Islands from 2013-08-02 to 2013-10-29 (NCEI Accession 0159147)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic coral demographic surveys for two life stages (juveniles, adults) across the Main Hawaiian Islands in 2013. Juvenile...

  16. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Coral Demography (Adult and Juvenile Corals) across Wake Island from 2014-03-16 to 2014-03-20 (NCEI Accession 0159162)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic coral demographic surveys for two life stages (juveniles, adults) across Wake Island in 2014. Juvenile colony surveys...

  17. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Coral Demography (Adult and Juvenile Corals) across the Mariana Archipelago from 2014-03-25 to 2014-05-07 (NCEI Accession 0159166)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic coral demographic surveys for two life stages (juveniles, adults) across the Mariana Archipelago in 2014. Juvenile colony...

  18. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Coral Demography (Adult and Juvenile Corals) across the Hawaiian Archipelago from 2016-07-13 to 2016-09-27 (NCEI Accession 0159163)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic coral demographic surveys for two life stages (juveniles, adults) across the Hawaiian archipelago in 2016. Juvenile...

  19. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Coral Demography (Adult and Juvenile Corals) across Jarvis Island from 2016-05-16 to 2016-05-22 (NCEI Accession 0159164)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic coral demographic surveys for two life stages (juveniles, adults) across Jarvis Island in 2016. Juvenile colony surveys...

  20. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Coral Demography (Adult and Juvenile Corals) across the Mariana Archipelago from 2017-05-05 to 2017-06-21 (NCEI Accession 0166383)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic coral demographic surveys for two life stages (juveniles, adults) across the Mariana archipelago in 2017. Juvenile colony...

  1. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Coral Demography (Adult and Juvenile Corals) across Rose Atoll from 2016-05-01 to 2016-05-04 (NCEI Accession 0159167)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic coral demographic surveys for two life stages (juveniles, adults) across Rose Atoll in 2016. Juvenile colony surveys...

  2. Life-Stage Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation discusses methods used to extrapolate from in vitro high-throughput screening (HTS) toxicity data for an endocrine pathway to in vivo for early life stages in humans, and the use of a life stage PBPK model to address rapidly changing physiological parameters. Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs), in this case endocrine disruption during development, provide a biologically-based framework for linking molecular initiating events triggered by chemical exposures to key events leading to adverse outcomes. The application of AOPs to human health risk assessment requires extrapolation of in vitro HTS toxicity data to in vivo exposures (IVIVE) in humans, which can be achieved through the use of a PBPK/PD model. Exposure scenarios for chemicals in the PBPK/PD model will consider both placental and lactational transfer of chemicals, with a focus on age dependent dosimetry during fetal development and after birth for a nursing infant. This talk proposes a universal life-stage computational model that incorporates changing physiological parameters to link environmental exposures to in vitro levels of HTS assays related to a developmental toxicological AOP for vascular disruption. In vitro toxicity endpoints discussed are based on two mechanisms: 1) Fetal vascular disruption, and 2) Neurodevelopmental toxicity induced by altering thyroid hormone levels in neonates via inhibition of thyroperoxidase in the thyroid gland. Application of our Life-stage computati

  3. [Theories of stages of life within the anthropology of romanticism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Pia-Johanna; Schweizer, Stefan

    2006-12-01

    The essay discusses the importance and prominence of theories about different stages of life in the anthropological and medical discourse of romanticism. This discourse has clearly a stabilising and restaurative function, favouring the age of moderate manhood. The political and social regulative implications of these theories demand a restaurative roll-back. The essay is based on a concept of sociology of knowledge formation.

  4. Early Stages of the Evolution of Life: a Cybernetic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melkikh, Alexey V.; Seleznev, Vladimir D.

    2008-08-01

    Early stages of the evolution of life are considered in terms of control theory. A model is proposed for the transport of substances in a protocell possessing the property of robustness with regard to changes in the environmental concentration of a substance.

  5. Quality of Life in End Stage Renal Failure Patients Undergoing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We assessed the quality of life of 45 patients with end stage renal failure undergoing dialysis in Mauritius using the standard United Kingdom version of the Short Form 36 Items Health Survey (SF36) questionnaire. Our findings showed that gender, level of social and emotional support, marital status, and travel time were ...

  6. The effect of linalool on second-stage juveniles of the potato cyst nematodes Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Būda, Vincas; Cepulytė-Rakauskienė, Rasa

    2011-09-01

    Linalool is either a toxic compound to a few species of plant parasitic nematodes or attractive to entomopathogenic nematodes. This compound is produced and emitted by several host plants of Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida, the potato cyst nematodes (PCN). With the aim to reveal the effect of linalool on PCN, laboratory assays were carried out. Survival of PCN second-stage juveniles (J2s) in water + linalool control did not differ; thus, proving linalool to be nontoxic to PCN. Behavioral assays carried out in Petri dishes revealed attractiveness in the form of positive response of J2s of both PCN species towards linalool. Based on these behavioral assays, sensitivity to linalool of G. rostochiensis J2s was higher compared with that of G. pallida J2s. Linalool is the first compound of plant origin to elicit positive response in both PCN species.

  7. Developmental intervals during the larval and juvenile stages of the Antarctic myctophid fish Electrona antarctica in relation to changes in feeding and swimming functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moteki, Masato; Tsujimura, Eri; Hulley, Percy-Alexander

    2017-06-01

    The Antarctic myctophid fish species Electrona antarctica is believed to play a key role in the Southern Ocean food web, but there have been few studies on its early life history. This study examined the developmental changes in the external morphology and osteology of E. antarctica from the early larva to juvenile stages through the transformation phase and inferred changes in its behaviour and feeding mode. Once the larvae reached 12-13 mm body length (BL), they adopted a primordial suction feeding mode along with the acquisition of early swimming capabilities. Thereafter, both swimming and feeding functions were enhanced through fin development and ossification and acquisition of elements of the jaw and suspensorium. These processes indicate that larvae transition from the planktonic to nektonic phase upon reaching 12-13 mm BL when they enhance their both swimming and feeding abilities with growth. Transformation occurred when larvae reached 19-21 mm BL with changes such as discontinuous increases in eye diameter and upper jaw length and the appearance of photophores and dense body pigmentation. Osteological development of swimming- and feeding-related structures were mostly complete after transformation. Rapid changes in external morphology and osteology during the transformation stage are most likely related to ontogenetic vertical migration into deep waters.

  8. Early-life stress and the development of obesity and insulin resistance in juvenile bonnet macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Daniel; Banerji, Mary Ann; Shorman, Igor; Smith, Eric L P; Coplan, Jeremy D; Rosenblum, Leonard A; Kral, John G

    2007-05-01

    Stress is a risk factor for chronic illnesses such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and hypertension and has been postulated to cause the metabolic syndrome via perturbation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. In our model of early-life stress (variable foraging demand [VFD]), food insecurity is imposed on monkey mothers for 16 weeks beginning when their nursing offspring are 3-5 months of age. Under VFD, food availability is never restricted, and the infant's growth is unaffected. VFD rearing does, however, cause a range of neurobiological abnormalities, including dysregulation of the HPA axis, manifested in abnormal cerebrospinal fluid cortisol and corticotropin-releasing factor levels. We previously reported spontaneous occurrence of metabolic syndrome in 14% of normally reared peripubertal bonnet macaques given ad libitum access to standard monkey chow. Here, we show that compared with normally reared monkeys, peripubertal VFD juveniles exhibit greater weight, BMI, abdominal circumference, and glucagon-like peptide-1 and decreased glucose disposal rates during hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps. Our data suggest that early-life stress during a critical period of neuro development can result in the peripubertal emergence of obesity and insulin resistance.

  9. The validity of using juvenile stages for evaluation of salt stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-31

    Jan 31, 2012 ... The effect of this abiotic constraint was investigated at tillering stage ... plants that have some tolerance to salt to give good production face high ... Mahmoudi, Biskri, Chili and a cultivar namely "Alia" (referring to its origin).

  10. The Effect of Positive Thinking Training on Quality of Life, Depression, Stress and Anxiety in Delinquent Juveniles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Nikmanesh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of positive thinking training on quality of life and reduction of depression, stress and anxiety in delinquent boys of Zahedan Juvenile Correction and Rehabilitation Center (ZJCRC. Method of this research was a quasi-experimental with a design of pretest- posttest- follow up test and with a control group. The sample comprised of 29 boys (17 subjects in experimental group and 12 in control. Method of sampling was the census. That is, all of statistical population were be studied as sample group. Positive thinking training was conducted on the experimental group during 8 sessions with 90 minutes. After the last session the post-test, was conducted and one month after it, the follow-up test. For data gathering, the Quality of Life of Parkerson, Broadhear & Tse et al. and the Depression, Anxiety Stress of Lovibond & Lovibond were used. The results of co-variance analysis showed that the positive thinking training effected on reducing of depression, stress and anxiety and increasing quality of life. Therefore, in regard to effectiveness of positive thinking training on reducing of depression, stress and anxiety and increasing quality of life, it is recommended for Juvenile delinquent trainers to use of the positive thinking training for increasing quality of life and reducing of depression, stress and anxiety in these juveniles.

  11. Life Course Stage and Social Support Mobilization for End-of-Life Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaValley, Susan A; Gage-Bouchard, Elizabeth A

    2018-04-01

    Caregivers of terminally ill patients are at risk for anxiety, depression, and social isolation. Social support from friends, family members, neighbors, and health care professionals can potentially prevent or mitigate caregiver strain. While previous research documents the importance of social support in helping end-of-life caregivers cope with caregiving demands, little is known about differences in social support experiences among caregivers at different life course stages. Using life course theory, this study analyzes data from in-depth interviews with 50 caregivers of patients enrolled in hospice services to compare barriers to mobilizing social support among caregivers at two life course stages: midlife caregivers caring for parents and older adult caregivers caring for spouses/partners. Older adult caregivers reported different barriers to mobilizing social support compared with midlife caregivers. Findings enhance the understanding of how caregivers' life course stage affects their barriers to mobilization of social support resources.

  12. Is Drought Tolerance in Maize (Zea Mays L.) Cultivars at the Juvenile Stage Maintained at the Reproductive Stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, N.; Mahmood, S.; Zafar, Z. U.; Athar, H. R.; Manzoor, H.; Rasul, S.

    2016-01-01

    Among several abiotic stresses, drought or water scarcity is a major constraint for crop production in many parts of the world. Six maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars; DTC, EV-77, EV-78, EV-79, Faisalabad mays, and 6621 were evaluated for drought tolerance at germination and seedling stages. Distilled deionized water was used as control but uniform drought stress was induced using 3, 6 and 9 percent of polyethylene glycol-6000 (PEG-6000) which correspond to osmotic potential of -0.0466, -0.0759 and -0.0876 MPa, respectively. PEG influenced the germination and growth of the cultivars in a concentration dependent manner but the highest level of PEG induced more drastic decline for the various attributes studied. The cultivars showed significantly variable responses to different levels of PEG. The result of study clearly suggested variability of characters for drought tolerance among maize cultivars. Based on the pattern of variability for various attributes, 3 groups of cultivars can be classified. The cultivar 6621 had a consistent degree of sensitivity to drought in terms the reduction of various attributes studied. The second group includes DTC which showed a steady tolerance ((germination percentage (GP), energy of emergence (EG), germination rate (GR), root fresh and dry weight (RFW and RDW), shoot fresh and dry weight (SFW and SDW), dry biomass tolerance index (DBTI) and seedling vigor index (SVI)) thus seemed to provide some manifestation of drought tolerance. For the third group of cultivars, pattern of drought tolerance was independent for germination, growth and physiological indices as an incoherent variability of attributes was observed. A similar pattern of variability for a number of characters to simulated water stress in the cultivar DTC served as reliable determinants for drought tolerance in maize. To assess maintenance of degree of drought tolerance selected maize cultivars, a field experiment was also conducted. Kernel yield, 1000- kernel weight (g

  13. Management of advanced intracranial intradural juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma: combined single-stage rhinosurgical and neurosurgical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naraghi, Mohsen; Saberi, Hooshang; Mirmohseni, Atefeh Sadat; Nikdad, Mohammad Sadegh; Afarideh, Mohsen

    2015-07-01

    Although intracranial extension of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) occurs commonly, intradural penetration is extremely rare. Management of such tumors is a challenging issue in skull-base surgery, necessitating their removal via combined approaches. In this work, we share our experience in management of extensive intradural JNA. In a university hospital-based setting of 2 tertiary care academic centers, retrospective chart of 6 male patients (5 between 15 and 19 years old) was reviewed. Patients presented chiefly with nasal obstruction, epistaxis, and proptosis. One of them was an aggressive recurrent tumor in a 32-year-old patient. All cases underwent combined transnasal, transmaxillary, and craniotomy approaches assisted by the use of image-guided endoscopic surgery, with craniotomy preceding the rhinosurgical approach in 3 cases. Adding a transcranial approach to the transnasal and transmaxillary endoscopic approaches provided 2-sided exposure and appreciated access to the huge intradural JNAs. One postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leak and 1 postoperative recurrence at the site of infratemporal fossa were treated successfully. Otherwise, the course was uneventful in the remaining cases. Management of intracranial intradural JNA requires a multidisciplinary approach of combined open and endoscopic-assisted rhinosurgery and neurosurgery, because of greater risk for complications during the dissection. Carotid rupture and brain damage remain 2 catastrophic complications that should always be kept in mind. A combined rhinosurgical and neurosurgical approach also has the advantage of very modest cosmetic complications. © 2015 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  14. Roles of Apicomplexan protein kinases at each life cycle stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Kentaro; Sugi, Tatsuki; Iwanaga, Tatsuya

    2012-06-01

    Inhibitors of cellular protein kinases have been reported to inhibit the development of Apicomplexan parasites, suggesting that the functions of protozoan protein kinases are critical for their life cycle. However, the specific roles of these protein kinases cannot be determined using only these inhibitors without molecular analysis, including gene disruption. In this report, we describe the functions of Apicomplexan protein kinases in each parasite life stage and the potential of pre-existing protein kinase inhibitors as Apicomplexan drugs against, mainly, Plasmodium and Toxoplasma. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Increased prevalence of late stage T cell activation antigen (VLA-1) in active juvenile chronic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ødum, Niels; Morling, Niels; Platz, P

    1987-01-01

    The presence of activated T cells as judged from the reaction with monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) against (a) a late stage T cell activation antigen (VLA-1), (b) the interleukin 2 (IL2) receptor (CD25), and (c) four different HLA class II molecules (HLA-DR, DRw52, DQ, and DP) was studied in 15 pati...

  16. Verification of a ‘freshwater-type’ life history variant of juvenile American shad in the Columbia River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Lisa A.; Larsen, Kimberly A.; Parsley, Michael J.; Zimmerman, Christian E.

    2011-01-01

    American shad are native to the Atlantic coast of North America and were successfully introduced to the Pacific coast in the 1870s. They are now more abundant in the Columbia River than are its native salmon. As in their native range, Columbia River American shad are anadromous and have been assumed to solely exhibit an ‘ocean-type’ life history, characterized by a short period of juvenile rearing in freshwater, followed by seaward migration and saltwater entry before age-1, with sexually mature individuals returning to freshwater to spawn beginning at age-3. During October 2007, emigrating juvenile American shad were captured in the juvenile fish monitoring facility at Bonneville Dam (river kilometer 235) on the Columbia River. Their length frequencies revealed the presence of two modes; the lower mode averaged 77 mm fork length (FL) and the upper mode averaged 184 mm FL. A subsample of fish from each mode was aged using otoliths. Otoliths from the lower mode (n=10) had no annuli, indicating that they were all age-0, while otoliths from the upper mode (n=25) had one or two annuli, indicating that they were either age-1 or age-2, respectively. Spawning adults collected in June 2007 averaged 393 mm FL (range 305-460 mm; n=21) and were estimated to range in age from 3-6. Elemental analyses of juvenile and adult otoliths provide evidence for deviations from the typical migration pattern expected for this species, including extensive freshwater rearing of up to two years. This evidence shows that a ‘freshwater-type’ of juvenile American shad exists as year-round or transient residents in the Columbia River basin. The ecological role of this life history variant within the fish community is unknown.

  17. PHOTOSYNTHETIC EFFICIENCY IN JUVENILE STAGE AND WINTER BARLEY BREEDING FOR IMPROVED GRAIN YIELD AND STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Kovačević

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthetic efficiency parameters (Fv/Fm, ET0/ABS and PIABS were investigated at the end of tillering stage of winter barley grown in stress environment (21.3% vol. water content of soil and control (water content 30.4% vol. in relation to grain yield per vegetative pot. The trial was conducted in vegetative pots according to the RBD method of two-factorial experiment with 10 winter barley cultivars (7 tworowed and 3 six-rowed and 2 treatments in 3 repetitions. The stressed variant was exposed to water reduction three times (end of tillering stage, flag leaf to beginning of heading stage, grain filling stage. From sowing to maturity, the air temperature varied from -3.9°C to 32.9°C and water content from 16.4 % to 39.0 % of soil volume in vegetative pot. Significant differences were found for grain yield among the cultivars. The short-term drought stress caused significant reductions in grain yield per pot. The photosynthetic efficiency parameters were significant between cultivars, but significant effects for treatments and interaction were only detected for the Fv/Fm parameter. Photosynthetic efficiency parameters did not have significant correlation coefficients with grain yield and its stability in both treatments. Stability indexes of the parameters PIABS and Fv/Fm had positive but not significant correlations with grain yield in stressed variant (0.465 and 0.452 and stability index of grain yield (0.337 and 0.481.

  18. Acute effects of road salts and associated cyanide compounds on the early life stages of the unionid mussel Villosa iris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfo, Tamara J; Cope, W Gregory; Young, George B; Jones, Jess W; Hua, Dan; Lingenfelser, Susan F

    2012-08-01

    The toxicity of cyanide to the early life stages of freshwater mussels (order Unionida) has remained unexplored. Cyanide is known to be acutely toxic to other aquatic organisms. Cyanide-containing compounds, such as sodium ferrocyanide and ferric ferrocyanide, are commonly added to road deicing salts as anticaking agents. The purpose of the present study was to assess the acute toxicity of three cyanide compounds (sodium cyanide, sodium ferrocyanide, and ferric ferrocyanide), two road salts containing cyanide anticaking agents (Morton and Cargill brands), a brine deicing solution (Liquidow brand), and a reference salt (sodium chloride) on glochidia (larvae) and juveniles of the freshwater mussel Villosa iris. Sodium ferrocyanide and ferric ferrocyanide were not acutely toxic to glochidia and juvenile mussels at concentrations up to 1,000 mg/L and 100 mg/L, respectively. Lowest observed effect concentrations (LOECs) for these two chemicals ranged from 10 to >1,000 mg/L. Sodium cyanide was acutely toxic to juvenile mussels, with a 96-h median effective concentration (EC50) of 1.10 mg/L, although glochidia tolerated concentrations up to 10 mg/L. The EC50s for sodium chloride, Liquidow brine, Morton road salt, and Cargill road salt were not significantly different for tests within the same life stage and test duration (range, 1.66-4.92 g/L). These results indicate that cyanide-containing anticaking agents do not exacerbate the toxicity of road salts, but that the use of road salts and brine solutions for deicing or dust control on roads may warrant further investigation. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  19. Acute toxicity of polyacrylamide flocculants to early life stages of freshwater mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczek, Sean B.; Cope, W. Gregory; McLaughlin, Richard A.; Kwak, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    Polyacrylamide has become an effective tool for reducing construction-related suspended sediment and turbidity, which are considered to have significant adverse impacts on aquatic ecosystems and are a leading cause of the degradation of North American streams and rivers. However, little is known about the effects of polyacrylamide on many freshwater organisms, and prior to the present study, no information existed on the toxicity of polyacrylamide compounds to native freshwater mussels (family Unionidae), one of the most imperiled faunal groups globally. Following standard test guidelines, we exposed juvenile mussels (test duration 96 h) and glochidia larvae (test duration 24 h) to 5 different anionic polyacrylamide compounds and 1 non-ionic compound. Species tested included the yellow lampmussel (Lampsilis cariosa), an Atlantic Slope species that is listed as endangered in North Carolina; the Appalachian elktoe (Alasmidonta raveneliana), a federally endangered Interior Basin species; and the washboard (Megalonaias nervosa), a common Interior Basin species. We found that median lethal concentrations (LC50s) of polyacrylamide ranged from 411.7 to >1000 mg/L for glochidia and from 126.8 to >1000 mg/L for juveniles. All LC50s were orders of magnitude greater (2–3) than concentrations typically recommended for turbidity control (1–5 mg/L), regardless of their molecular weight or charge density. The results demonstrate that the polyacrylamide compounds tested were not acutely toxic to the mussel species and life stages tested, indicating minimal risk of short-term exposure from polyacrylamide applications in the environment. However, other potential uses of polyacrylamide in the environment (e.g., wastewater treatment, paper processing, mining, algae removal) and their chronic or sublethal effects remain uncertain and warrant additional investigation.

  20. Life cycle assessment of nanoadsorbents at early stage technological development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazemi, Ali; Bahramifar, Nader; Heydari, Akbar

    2018-01-01

    the process of the functionalization of nanoadsorbents leads to the increase of the adsorption capacity of nanoadsorbents, it is also paired with a significant enhancement of negative environmental impacts. The results of t-test comparing the cradle-to-use life cycle impacts of studied impact categories for 1...... in the control and removal of environmental pollutants. This application is still an emerging technology at the early stages of development. Hence, the heart of this study enables an environmental assessment of nanoadsorbents as an emerging product. In addition, the environmental impacts of synthesized...

  1. Life satisfaction of women in early stages of fertility treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Shlomo, Shirley; Pascal, Mor; Taubman Ben-Ari, Orit; Azuri, Yoseph; Horowtz, Eran

    2017-01-01

    As many women perceive motherhood to be a central component of identity that enhances life satisfaction, difficulties conceiving may lead to stress. This study examined women in the early stages of fertility treatment to ascertain the relations of perceived stress, cognitive appraisal, and self-mastery to the life satisfaction of women embarking on fertility treatment and whether the associations were the same for women who were already mothers versus those who were not. Women were recruited for the study over a period of 18 months, from January 2013 to June 2014. The final sample was composed of 145 women; of these, 67 had 1 or 2 children and 78 had no children. No significant differences were found in perceived stress and life satisfaction between women with and without children. However, in the sample as a whole, higher levels of self-mastery and lower levels of stress were associated with greater life satisfaction. Moreover, the associations between self-mastery and cognitive appraisals of threat and self-efficacy were mediated by perceived stress. The findings highlight the importance of developing interventions at fertility clinics that begin at the very first point of contact to promote the psychological well-being of women being treated for infertility.

  2. Taxonomy of the early life stages of arrowtooth flounder (Atheresthes stomias) and Kamchatka flounder (A. evermanni) in the eastern Bering Sea, with notes on distribution and condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Forest, Lisa; Duffy-Anderson, J. T.; Heintz, R. A.; Matarese, A. C.; Siddon, E. C.; Smart, T. I.; Spies, I. B.

    2014-11-01

    Arrowtooth flounder (Atheresthes stomias) and Kamchatka flounder (A. evermanni) are closely related flatfish species that co-occur in the eastern Bering Sea. As adults, arrowtooth flounder can be distinguished from Kamchatka flounder; however, larvae and early juveniles can only be indentified to the genus level due to morphological similarities. This has precluded studies of ecology for the early life stages of both species in the eastern Bering Sea. In this study, we developed a genetic technique to identify the larvae and early juveniles of the two species using mtDNA cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI). Genetically identified specimens were then examined to determine a visual identification method based on pigment patterns and morphology. Specimens 6.0-12.0 mm SL and≥18.0 mm SL can be identified to the species level, but species identification of individuals 12.1-17.9 mm SL by visual means alone remains elusive. The distribution of larvae (<25.0 mm SL) of both arrowtooth flounder and Kamchatka flounder is similar in the eastern Bering Sea; however, juvenile (≥25.0 mm SL) Kamchatka flounder occur closer to the shelf break and in deeper water than juvenile arrowtooth flounder. Condition was determined for larvae and juveniles of each species by analyzing lipid content (%) and energy density (kJ/g dry mass). Kamchatka flounder larvae on average had higher lipid content than arrowtooth flounder larvae, but were also larger on average than arrowtooth flounder larvae in the summer. When corrected for length, both species had similar lipid content in the larval and juvenile stages.

  3. Contrasting patterns of changes in abundance following a bleaching event between juvenile and adult scleractinian corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Noriega, Mariana; Baird, Andrew H.; Bridge, Tom C. L.; Dornelas, Maria; Fontoura, Luisa; Pizarro, Oscar; Precoda, Kristin; Torres-Pulliza, Damaris; Woods, Rachael M.; Zawada, Kyle; Madin, Joshua S.

    2018-06-01

    Coral bleaching events have caused extensive mortality on reefs around the world. Juvenile corals are generally less affected by bleaching than their conspecific adults and therefore have the potential to buffer population declines and seed recovery. Here, we use juvenile and adult abundance data at 20 sites encircling Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, before and after the 2016 bleaching event to quantify: (1) correlates of changes in juvenile abundance following a bleaching event; (2) differences in susceptibility to extreme thermal stress between juveniles and adults. Declines in juvenile abundance were lower at sites closer to the 20-m-depth contour and higher for Acropora and Pocillopora juveniles than for other taxa. Juveniles of Acropora and Goniastrea were less susceptible to bleaching than adults, but the opposite was true for Pocillopora spp. and taxa in the family Merulinidae. Our results indicate that the potential of the juvenile life stage to act as a buffer during bleaching events is taxon-dependent.

  4. Does thermal variability experienced at the egg stage influence life history traits across life cycle stages in a small invertebrate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Xing

    Full Text Available Although effects of thermal stability on eggs have often been considered in vertebrates, there is little data thermal stability in insect eggs even though these eggs are often exposed in nature to widely fluctuating ambient conditions. The modularity of development in invertebrates might lead to compensation across life cycle stages but this remains to be tested particularly within the context of realistic temperature fluctuations encountered in nature. We simulated natural temperate fluctuations on eggs of the worldwide cruciferous insect pest, the diamondback moth (DBM, Plutella xylostella (L., while maintaining the same mean temperature (25°C±0°C, 25±4°C, 25±6°C, 25±8°C, 25±10°C, 25±12°C and assessed egg development, survival and life history traits across developmental stages. Moderate fluctuations (25±4°C, 25±6°C did not influence performance compared to the constant temperature treatment, and none of the treatments influenced egg survival. However the wide fluctuating temperatures (25±10°C, 25±12°C slowed development time and led to an increase in pre-pupal mass, although these changes did not translate into any effects on longevity or fecundity at the adult stage. These findings indicate that environmental effects can extend across developmental stages despite the modularity of moth development but also highlight that there are few fitness consequences of the most variable thermal conditions likely to be experienced by Plutella xylostella.

  5. Human dental age estimation using third molar developmental stages: does a Bayesian approach outperform regression models to discriminate between juveniles and adults?

    OpenAIRE

    Thevissen, P. W.; FIEUWS, Steffen; Willems, G.

    2010-01-01

    Dental age estimation methods based on the radiologically detected third molar developmental stages are implemented in forensic age assessments to discriminate between juveniles and adults considering the judgment of young unaccompanied asylum seekers. Accurate and unbiased age estimates combined with appropriate quantified uncertainties are the required properties for accurate forensic reporting. In this study, a subset of 910 individuals uniformly distributed in age between 16 and 22 years ...

  6. Distributions of larval and juvenile/adult stages of the Antarctic myctophid fish, Electrona antarctica, off Wilkes Land in East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moteki, Masato; Fujii, Kentaro; Amakasu, Kazuo; Shimada, Keishi; Tanimura, Atsushi; Odate, Tsuneo

    2017-06-01

    Myctophid fish are an important component of the Southern Ocean food web because of their very high biomass. This study investigated the spatial distributions of larval and juvenile/adult stages of the Antarctic myctophid Electrona antarctica. Fish were sampled in January 2011 and 2012 on a transect along 140°E and in January 2013 along 110°E using two different opening/closing net systems. In total, 1075 specimens of E. antarctica were collected: 948 larvae, 127 juveniles/adults, and 2 in the transformation stage. Most larvae were collected at 5-200 m depth, with diel vertical migration (DVM) not apparent. Larvae were mainly distributed in the Modified Circumpolar Deep Water (-1.5 °C-2.0 °C). By contrast, an analysis of the echogram at 38 kHz and discrete depth samples implied that juveniles/adults undertook DVM except in the continental slope area (65.5°S). As the distribution of krill is limited to the cold water mass (<-1.5 °C) along the continental slope, E. antarctica and krill populations are spatially separated off Wilkes Land during summer. According to the previously estimated larval period of 30-47 days, E. antarctica may spawn in late November to December in the marginal ice zone or near the sea ice edge. This study suggests that the environment related to sea ice provides a nursery ground for early stage larvae of E. antarctica.

  7. Diverse juvenile life-history behaviours contribute to the spawning stock of an anadromous fish population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsworth, Timothy E.; Schindler, Daniel E.; Griffiths, Jennifer R.; Zimmerman, Christian E.

    2015-01-01

    Habitat quality often varies substantially across space and time, producing a shifting mosaic of growth and mortality trade-offs across watersheds. Traditional studies of juvenile habitat use have emphasised the evolution of single optimal strategies that maximise recruitment to adulthood and eventual fitness. However, linking the distribution of individual behaviours that contribute to recruitment at the population level has been elusive, particularly for highly fecund aquatic organisms. We examined juvenile habitat use within a population of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) that spawn in a watershed consisting of two interconnected lakes and a marine lagoon. Otolith microchemical analysis revealed that the productive headwater lake accounted for about half of juvenile growth for those individuals surviving to spawn in a single river in the upper watershed. However, 47% of adults had achieved more than half of their juvenile growth in the downstream less productive lake, and 3% of individuals migrated to the estuarine environment during their first summer and returned to freshwater to overwinter before migrating back to sea. These results describe a diversity of viable habitat-use strategies by juvenile sockeye salmon that may buffer the population against poor conditions in any single rearing environment, reduce density-dependent mortality and have implications for the designation of critical habitat for conservation purposes. A network of accessible alternative habitats providing trade-offs in growth and survival may be important for long-term viability of populations.

  8. Comparative anatomy and histology of developmental and parasitic stages in the life cycle of the lined sea anemone Edwardsiella lineata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitzel, Adam M; Daly, Marymegan; Sullivan, James C; Finnerty, John R

    2009-02-01

    The evolution of parasitism is often accompanied by profound changes to the developmental program. However, relatively few studies have directly examined the developmental evolution of parasitic species from free-living ancestors. The lined sea anemone Edwardsiella lineata is a relatively recently evolved parasite for which closely related free-living outgroups are known, including the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis. The larva of E. lineata parasitizes the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi, and, once embedded in its host, the anemone assumes a novel vermiform body plan. That we might begin to understand how the developmental program of this species has been transformed during the evolution of parasitism, we characterized the gross anatomy, histology, and cnidom of the parasitic stage, post-parasitic larval stage, and adult stage of the E. lineata life cycle. The distinct parasitic stage of the life cycle differs from the post-parasitic larva with respect to overall shape, external ciliation, cnida frequency, and tissue architecture. The parasitic stage and planula both contain holotrichs, a type of cnida not previously reported in Edwardsiidae. The internal morphology of the post-parasitic planula is extremely similar to the adult morphology, with a complete set of mesenterial tissue and musculature despite this stage having little external differentiation. Finally, we observed 2 previously undocumented aspects of asexual reproduction in E. lineata: (1) the parasitic stage undergoes transverse fission via physal pinching, the first report of asexual reproduction in a pre-adult stage in the Edwardsiidae; and (2) the juvenile polyp undergoes transverse fission via polarity reversal, the first time this form of fission has been reported in E. lineata.

  9. Small larvae in large rivers: observations on downstream movement of European grayling Thymallus thymallus during early life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Leeuwen, C H A; Dokk, T; Haugen, T O; Kiffney, P M; Museth, J

    2017-06-01

    Behaviour of early life stages of the salmonid European grayling Thymallus thymallus was investigated by assessing the timing of larval downstream movement from spawning areas, the depth at which larvae moved and the distribution of juvenile fish during summer in two large connected river systems in Norway. Trapping of larvae moving downstream and electrofishing surveys revealed that T. thymallus larvae emerging from the spawning gravel moved downstream predominantly during the night, despite light levels sufficient for orientation in the high-latitude study area. Larvae moved in the water mostly at the bottom layer close to the substratum, while drifting debris was caught in all layers of the water column. Few young-of-the-year still resided close to the spawning areas in autumn, suggesting large-scale movement (several km). Together, these observations show that there may be a deliberate, active component to downstream movement of T. thymallus during early life stages. This research signifies the importance of longitudinal connectivity for T. thymallus in Nordic large river systems. Human alterations of flow regimes and the construction of reservoirs for hydropower may not only affect the movement of adult fish, but may already interfere with active movement behaviour of fish during early life stages. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  10. Methyl farnesoate epoxidase (mfe) gene expression and juvenile hormone titers in the life cycle of a highly eusocial stingless bee, Melipona scutellaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso-Júnior, Carlos Antônio Mendes; Silva, Renato Pereira; Borges, Naiara Araújo; de Carvalho, Washington João; Walter, S Leal; Simões, Zilá Luz Paulino; Bitondi, Marcia Maria Gentile; Ueira Vieira, Carlos; Bonetti, Ana Maria; Hartfelder, Klaus

    2017-08-01

    In social insects, juvenile hormone (JH) has acquired novel functions related to caste determination and division of labor among workers, and this is best evidenced in the honey bee. In contrast to honey bees, stingless bees are a much more diverse group of highly eusocial bees, and the genus Melipona has long called special attention due to a proposed genetic mechanism of caste determination. Here, we examined methyl farnesoate epoxidase (mfe) gene expression, encoding an enzyme relevant for the final step in JH biosynthesis, and measured the hemolymph JH titers for all life cycle stages of Melipona scutellaris queens and workers. We confirmed that mfe is exclusively expressed in the corpora allata. The JH titer is high in the second larval instar, drops in the third, and rises again as the larvae enter metamorphosis. During the pupal stage, mfe expression is initialy elevated, but then gradually drops to low levels before adult emergence. No variation was, however, seen in the JH titer. In adult virgin queens, mfe expression and the JH titer are significantly elevated, possibly associated with their reproductive potential. For workers we found that JH titers are lower in foragers than in nurse bees, while mfe expression did not differ. Stingless bees are, thus, distinct from honey bee workers, suggesting that they have maintained the ancestral gonadotropic function for JH. Hence, the physiological circuitries underlying a highly eusocial life style may be variable, even within a monophyletic clade such as the corbiculate bees. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Chemotherapy Toxicity On Quality of Life in Older Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial, Primary Peritoneal Cavity, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-03

    Stage I Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage III Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  12. Turning Your Life Around: Tips from an Ex-Juvenile Delinquent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Waln K.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, a former troubled youth who is now an expert on resilience shares his experience and provides youth a guided exercise in turning their own lives around. The ex-juvenile delinquent stresses the importance of setting goals claiming that goals are things to shoot for, like getting your chores done or saving your money to buy a car.…

  13. Alkyl PAH in crude oil cause chronic toxicity to early life stages of fish. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodson, P.V.; Khan, C.W.; Saravanabhavan, G.; Clarke, L.; Brown, R.S. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). School of Environmental Studies; Hollebone, B.; Wang, Z. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). ; Short, J. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Juneau, AK (United States). Auke Bay Lab; Lee, K.; King, T. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Centre for Offshore Oil and Gas Environmental Research

    2007-07-01

    In order to mitigate the risk to fisheries following an offshore oil spill, it is necessary to know the components of crude oil that are toxic. Chronic exposure of early life stages of fish to crude oil causes Blue Sac Disease, a syndrome characterized by induction of the cytochrome P450 (CYP1A) enzyme. In this study, effects-driven fractionation of Alaska North Slope Crude was used to identify the classes of compounds that cause CYP1A induction in juvenile rainbow trout and chronic toxicity to developing stages of Japanese medaka. Four fractions of compounds were created by low temperature vacuum distillation. This separated the constituents of oil according to their volatility within defined temperature ranges. The fractions were separated according to their boiling points. With a temperature range of 287-481 degrees C, fraction F3 was the only fraction as toxic as whole oil and induced CYPP1A enzymes of fish. Fractions containing specific classes of alkyl PAH were also collected. For all separations, the performance of the method was evaluated by the extent to which PAH were separated from aliphatics, resins and waxes, as well as by the quantitative recovery of mass in fractions and subfractions. The induction of CYP1A enzymes showed that PAH was present in all fractions that were highly toxic, but the toxicity tests indicated that not all fractions containing PAH were toxic. This research provided a scientific basis for comparing the risks of different crude oils based on chemical analyses that show the different proportions or amounts of PAH present. The results indicate which compounds of concern should be used to determine the extent and success of oil spill remediation, and provide a biological interpretation of chemical fingerprinting used to discriminate the sources of oil pollution. 15 refs., 1 tab.

  14. Alkyl PAH in crude oil cause chronic toxicity to early life stages of fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodson, P.V.; Khan, C.W.; Saravanabhavan, G.; Clarke, L.; Brown, R.S. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). School of Environmental Studies; Hollebone, B.; Wang, Z. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). ; Short, J. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Juneau, AK (United States). Auke Bay Lab; Lee, K.; King, T. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Centre for Offshore Oil and Gas Environmental Research

    2007-07-01

    In order to mitigate the risk to fisheries following an offshore oil spill, it is necessary to know the components of crude oil that are toxic. Chronic exposure of early life stages of fish to crude oil causes Blue Sac Disease, a syndrome characterized by induction of the cytochrome P450 (CYP1A) enzyme. In this study, effects-driven fractionation of Alaska North Slope Crude was used to identify the classes of compounds that cause CYP1A induction in juvenile rainbow trout and chronic toxicity to developing stages of Japanese medaka. Four fractions of compounds were created by low temperature vacuum distillation. This separated the constituents of oil according to their volatility within defined temperature ranges. The fractions were separated according to their boiling points. With a temperature range of 287-481 degrees C, fraction F3 was the only fraction as toxic as whole oil and induced CYPP1A enzymes of fish. Fractions containing specific classes of alkyl PAH were also collected. For all separations, the performance of the method was evaluated by the extent to which PAH were separated from aliphatics, resins and waxes, as well as by the quantitative recovery of mass in fractions and subfractions. The induction of CYP1A enzymes showed that PAH was present in all fractions that were highly toxic, but the toxicity tests indicated that not all fractions containing PAH were toxic. This research provided a scientific basis for comparing the risks of different crude oils based on chemical analyses that show the different proportions or amounts of PAH present. The results indicate which compounds of concern should be used to determine the extent and success of oil spill remediation, and provide a biological interpretation of chemical fingerprinting used to discriminate the sources of oil pollution. 15 refs., 1 tab.

  15. Effect of water temperature on survival of early-life stages of marbled flounder Pseudopleuronectes yokohamae in Tokyo Bay, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Hoon; Kodama, Keita; Oyama, Masaaki; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Horiguchi, Toshihiro

    2017-07-01

    We investigated factors that might have disturbed the stock recovery of marbled flounder in Tokyo Bay by focusing on the early life stages. Field surveys in Tokyo Bay from 2006 to 2011 revealed that mature adult biomass increased from 2006 to 2008 and decreased thereafter. Meanwhile, larval and juvenile densities were high in 2006 and 2008 but low in other years. Discrepancies in the yearly trends of these parameters suggest that mortality during life stages between spawning and early larval phases might have affected the abundance of the subsequent life stages. Monthly mean water temperature between January and February, in which hatching and pelagic larvae occur in the bay, was lower in 2006 (8.6 °C) and 2008 (9.6 °C) than was observed in other years (10.4-11.4 °C). Significant negative correlation between water temperature and larval density implies that mortality during pre- and post-larval stages would be higher in warmer winter years (>10 °C). To test this hypothesis, we examined the effects of water temperature on mortality and development in egg and larval stages under controlled laboratory conditions. Hatching rate was high in a water temperature range of 9.2-12.7 °C (66.6-82.5%), whereas it decreased in cooler (3.7% at 5.9 °C) or warmer (33.9% at 14.8 °C) conditions. Meanwhile, days from fertilization to hatching, size of larvae at hatching and survival rate of larvae after 18 d from hatching were monotonically and significantly decreased as water temperature was elevated. Combined evidence of the field and laboratory studies suggests that a warmer reproductive season (>10 °C) might induce mortalities of marbled flounder larvae in Tokyo Bay. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Optimization of In Vitro Techniques for Distinguishing between Live and Dead Second Stage Juveniles of Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne incognita.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Xiang

    Full Text Available Heterodera glycines (Soybean Cyst nematode, or SCN and Meloidogyne incognita (Root-Knot nematode, or RKN are two damaging plant-parasitic nematodes on important field crops. Developing a quick method to distinguish between live and dead SCN and RKN second stage juveniles (J2 is vital for high throughput screening of pesticides or biological compounds against SCN and RKN. The in vitro assays were conducted in 96-well plates to determine the optimum chemical stimulus to distinguish between live and dead SCN and RKN J2. Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3, sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, and sodium hydroxide (NaOH were evaluated for the nematode response to see if these compounds can help distinguish between viable from the dead J2. Results indicated that live SCN J2 responded equally (P ≤ 0.05 to 1 μl Na2CO3 and 10 μl NaHCO3 in 100 μl of water at pH = 10. Live SCN J2 responded by twisting their bodies in a curling shape and increasing rate of movements within 2 minutes of exposure. The twisting activity continued for up to 30 minutes. Live RKN J2 responded by increasing activity with the application of 1 μl NaOH in 100 μl of water at pH = 10 also in the 2 minutes to 30 minutes time frame. Furthermore, in growth chamber tests to confirm the infectivity of live SCN. The live SCN as determined by exposure to 1 μl of Na2CO3 indicated 60.5% of the SCN J2 were alive and of those, 29.5% were infective and entered the soybean roots. The 1 μl of NaOH stimulus revealed that 75.2% RKN J2 were alive and of those, 14.9% were infective and entered soybean roots. These results confirmed that 1 μl of Na2CO3 added to 100 μl suspension of SCN J2 and 1 μl of NaOH added to 100 μl suspension of RKN J2 are the effective stimuli for rapidly distinguishing between live and dead SCN and RKN J2 in vitro. SCN and RKN J2 responded differently to different compounds.

  17. Primary Life Stage Boron Isotope and Trace Elements Incorporation in Aposymbiotic Acropora millepora Coral under Ocean Acidification and Warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry C. Wu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Early-life stages of reef-building corals are vital to coral existence and reef maintenance. It is therefore crucial to study juvenile coral response to future climate change pressures. Moreover, corals are known to be reliable recorders of environmental conditions in their skeletal materials. Aposymbiotic Acropora millepora larvae were cultured in different seawater temperature (27 and 29°C and pCO2 (390 and 750 μatm conditions to understand the impacts of “end of century” ocean acidification (OA and ocean warming (OW conditions on skeletal morphology and geochemistry. The experimental conditions impacted primary polyp juvenile coral skeletal morphology and growth resulting in asymmetric translucent appearances with brittle skeleton features. The impact of OA resulted in microstructure differences with decreased precipitation or lengthening of fasciculi and disorganized aragonite crystals that led to more concentrations of centers of calcifications. The coral skeletal δ11B composition measured by laser ablation MC-ICP-MS was significantly affected by pCO2 (p = 0.0024 and water temperature (p = 1.46 × 10−5. Reconstructed pH of the primary polyp skeleton using the δ11B proxy suggests a difference in coral calcification site and seawater pH consistent with previously observed coral pH up-regulation. Similarly, trace element results measured by laser ablation ICP-MS indicate the impact of pCO2. Primary polyp juvenile Sr/Ca ratio indicates a bias in reconstructed sea surface temperature (SST under higher pCO2 conditions. Coral microstructure content changes (center of calcification and fasciculi due to OA possibly contributed to the variability in B/Ca ratios. Our results imply that increasing OA and OW may lead to coral acclimation issues and species-specific inaccuracies of the commonly used Sr/Ca-SST proxy.

  18. The effects of waterborne uranium on the hatching success, development, and survival of early life stages of zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourrachot, Stephanie; Simon, Olivier; Gilbin, Rodolphe

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of the radioactive metal uranium (U) on the embryonic development, hatching success, growth rate, and survival of juvenile zebrafish (Danio rerio). We studied the effects of depleted uranium (20-500 μg L -1 of DU), inducing mainly chemical toxicity due to its low specific activity, and the combined effects of chemical and radiological toxicity by using a higher specific activity uranium isotope (20 and 100 μg L -1 of 233 U). Results showed that early life stages are significantly affected by uranium exposure through both chemical and combined (chemical and radiological) toxicity. Experiments showed significant effects of U on hatching success starting at the concentration of 250 μg L -1 of DU, causing a 42% delay in median hatching times relative to control. Furthermore, a reduction of growth (decrease in body length and weight) was observed followed by a high mortality of pro-larvae stage (up to 100% at DU concentrations of 250 μg L -1 upon a 15 day exposure). Bioaccumulation measurements highlighted that U was mainly localised in the chorion but penetrated in the embryo inside eggs at a higher concentration. The effects differed depending on the isotopic composition of the uranium: sublethal defects in the tail detachment process were more pronounced for 233 U than DU exposure, while the presence of 233 U specifically affected embryo development and led to higher mortality rates of the prolarvae. The results from this study showed that the early life stages of zebrafish seems to be more sensitive to uranium contamination than more mature stages, and underline the importance of including pro-larval stages into toxicity tests in order to improve the relevancy for environmental risk assessments

  19. Climate-induced trends in predator–prey synchrony differ across life-history stages of an anadromous salmonid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Donovan A.; Kovach, Ryan; Vulstek, Scott C.; Joyce, John E.; Tallmon, David A.

    2017-01-01

    Differential climate-induced shifts in phenology can create mismatches between predators and prey, but few studies have examined predator–prey mismatch across multiple life-history stages. We used long-term data from a warming stream with shifting salmonid migration timings to quantify intra-annual migration synchrony between predatory Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma) and Pacific salmon prey and examined how predator–prey synchrony has been influenced by climate change. We demonstrate that Dolly Varden have become increasingly mismatched with spring downstream migrations of abundant pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) juveniles. However, Dolly Varden have remained matched with fall upstream migrations of spawning Pacific salmon, including coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch), sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka), and pink salmon. Downstream predator–prey migration synchrony decreased over time and with higher temperatures, particularly with pink salmon. In contrast, upstream migration synchrony was temporally stable and increased with rising temperatures. Differing trends in Dolly Varden predator–prey synchrony may be explained by the direct use of salmon to cue upstream migration, but not downstream migration. Overall, we show that climate change can have differing impacts on predator–prey synchrony across life-history stages.

  20. ASSESSMENT OF THE QUALITY OF LIFE OF PATIENTS WITH THE JUVENILE IDIOPATHIC ARTHRITIS TREATED BY THE ETANERCEPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Fetisova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the influence of the genetically engineered biologic drug etanercept on the quality of life of patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA. Patients and methods: The research included 85 children with poly-and oligoarticular variant of the JIA at the age of 5 (2; 17 years. The assessment of the quality of life of patients was carried out by means of the parental version of a special questionnaireCHAQ (Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire, Health Utilities Index Mark 3 (HUI3 questionnaire. The doctor and parents of the patient also assessed the global activity of the illness by the 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS before the etanercept prescription and in 1, 6 and 12 months. All patients before the etanercept prescription received immunodepressants. Results: Fast dynamics of the increase of an average point of the quality of life (the response in 1 month after the therapy beginning was noted by the attributes of a questionnaire of HUI3 «emotions» — from 0.82 (± 0.18 to 0.90 (± 0.13, p =0.001, «cognitive abilities» — from 0.85 (± 0.17 to 0.91 (± 0.18, p =0.006, and «pain» — from 0.78 (± 0.23 to 0.91 (± 0.1, p < 0.001. In 12 months of the treatment the average point of the quality of life raised also by such attributes as «locomotivity» — from 0.85 (± 0.3 to 0.99 (± 0.06, p < 0.0001, and «fine motor skills» — from 0.9 (± 0.19 to 0.98 (± 0.05, p < 0.001. Conclusion: Treatment with the etanercept provided the improvement of the quality of life of children with the JIA and their families, improvement of physical activity and emotional state of patients.Key words: children, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, etanercept, quality of life, Health Utilities Index Mark 3.

  1. Juvenile angiofibroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasal tumor; Angiofibroma - juvenile; Benign nasal tumor; Juvenile nasal angiofibroma; JNA ... Juvenile angiofibroma is not very common. It is most often found in adolescent boys. The tumor contains many blood ...

  2. Life-Stage Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) Model Applications to Screen Environmental Hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation discusses methods used to extrapolate from in vitro high-throughput screening (HTS) toxicity data for an endocrine pathway to in vivo for early life stages in humans, and the use of a life stage PBPK model to address rapidly changing physiological parameters. A...

  3. Influence of sports on human mental and physical development in various stages of life

    OpenAIRE

    SLÁDKOVÁ, Jitka

    2011-01-01

    The thesis deals with the impact of sports and physical activity on human physical and mental development in various developmental stages of life. It contains a brief description of the stages of life and presents the possibilities, nature and influence of sports and physical activity on human physical and mental state.

  4. Association of insect life stages using DNA sequences : the larvae of Philodytes umbrinus (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera : Dytiscidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, KB; Alarie, Y; Wolfe, GW; Whiting, MF

    2005-01-01

    Insect life stages are known imperfectly in many cases, and classifications are based often on only one or a few semaphoronts of a species. This is unfortunate as information in alternative life stages often is useful for scientific study. Although recent examples of DNA in taxonomy have emphasized

  5. The Stage Life: Promoting the Inclusion of Young People through Participatory Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, Theodore; Crosbie, Brian; Hui, Ada

    2012-01-01

    The Stage Life was a participatory arts programme for people attending a day services provision in Nottinghamshire. The uniqueness of this programme was that it was provided in a local disused cinema acquired by the local authority for community-based activities amongst disadvantaged groups. The Stage Life aimed to build the community arts…

  6. Fitness Consequences of Boldness in Juvenile and Adult Largemouth Bass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballew, Nicholas G; Mittelbach, Gary G; Scribner, Kim T

    2017-04-01

    To date, most studies investigating the relationship between personality traits and fitness have focused on a single measure of fitness (such as survival) at a specific life stage. However, many personality traits likely have multiple effects on fitness, potentially operating across different functional contexts and stages of development. Here, we address the fitness consequences of boldness, under seminatural conditions, across life stages and functional contexts in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Specifically, we report the effect of boldness on (1) juvenile survivorship in an outdoor pond containing natural prey and predators and (2) adult reproductive success in three outdoor ponds across three reproductive seasons (years). Juvenile survival was negatively affected by boldness, with bolder juveniles having a lower probability of survival than shyer juveniles. In contrast, bolder adult male bass had greater reproductive success than their shyer male counterparts. Female reproductive success was not affected by boldness. These findings demonstrate that boldness can affect fitness differently across life stages. Further, boldness was highly consistent across years and significantly heritable, which suggests that boldness has a genetic component. Thus, our results support theory suggesting that fitness trade-offs across life stages may contribute to the maintenance of personality variation within populations.

  7. Health-related quality of life across all stages of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Daniel; Karlsson, Linda; Eklund, Oskar

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A limited number of studies have assessed health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Results to date have been conflicting and studies have generally focused on patients with later stages of the disease. This study aimed to assess...... stages 4-5 and patients on dialysis. Progressive disease predominately had an impact on physical health, whereas mental health showed less variation between stages of the disease. A substantial loss in quality of life was observed as patients progressed to CKD stages 4-5. CONCLUSIONS: Later stages...

  8. Temporomandibular Joint Involvement in Association With Quality of Life, Disability, and High Disease Activity in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frid, Paula; Nordal, Ellen; Bovis, Francesca; Giancane, Gabriella; Larheim, Tore A; Rygg, Marite; Pires Marafon, Denise; De Angelis, Donato; Palmisani, Elena; Murray, Kevin J; Oliveira, Sheila; Simonini, Gabriele; Corona, Fabrizia; Davidson, Joyce; Foster, Helen; Steenks, Michel H; Flato, Berit; Zulian, Francesco; Baildam, Eileen; Saurenmann, Rotraud K; Lahdenne, Pekka; Ravelli, Angelo; Martini, Alberto; Pistorio, Angela; Ruperto, Nicolino

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the demographic, disease activity, disability, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) differences between children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and their healthy peers, and between children with JIA with and without clinical temporomandibular joint (TMJ) involvement and its determinants. This study is based on a cross-sectional cohort of 3,343 children with JIA and 3,409 healthy peers, enrolled in the Pediatric Rheumatology International Trials Organisation HRQOL study or in the methotrexate trial. Potential determinants of TMJ involvement included demographic, disease activity, disability, and HRQOL measures selected through univariate and multivariable logistic regression. Clinical TMJ involvement was observed in 387 of 3,343 children with JIA (11.6%). Children with TMJ involvement, compared to those without, more often had polyarticular disease course (95% versus 70%), higher Juvenile Arthritis Disease Activity Score (odds ratio [OR] 4.6), more disability, and lower HRQOL. Children with TMJ involvement experienced clearly more disability and lower HRQOL compared to their healthy peers. The multivariable analysis showed that cervical spine involvement (OR 4.6), disease duration >4.4 years (OR 2.8), and having more disability (Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index >0.625) (OR 1.6) were the most important determinants for TMJ involvement. Clinical TMJ involvement in JIA is associated with higher disease activity, higher disability, and impaired HRQOL. Our findings indicate the need for dedicated clinical and imaging evaluation of TMJ arthritis, especially in children with cervical spine involvement, polyarticular course, and longer disease duration. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  9. Assessment of Dual Life Stage Antiplasmodial Activity of British Seaweeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Tasdemir

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial plants have proven to be a prolific producer of clinically effective antimalarial drugs, but the antimalarial potential of seaweeds has been little explored. The main aim of this study was to assess the in vitro chemotherapeutical and prophylactic potential of the extracts of twenty-three seaweeds collected from the south coast of England against blood stage (BS and liver stage (LS Plasmodium parasites. The majority (14 of the extracts were active against BS of P. falciparum, with brown seaweeds Cystoseira tamariscifolia, C. baccata and the green seaweed Ulva lactuca being the most active (IC50s around 3 μg/mL. The extracts generally had high selectivity indices (>10. Eight seaweed extracts inhibited the growth of LS parasites of P. berghei without any obvious effect on the viability of the human hepatoma (Huh7 cells, and the highest potential was exerted by U. lactuca and red seaweeds Ceramium virgatum and Halopitys incurvus (IC50 values 14.9 to 28.8 μg/mL. The LS-active extracts inhibited one or more key enzymes of the malarial type-II fatty acid biosynthesis (FAS-II pathway, a drug target specific for LS. Except for the red seaweed Halopitys incurvus, all LS-active extracts showed dual activity versus both malarial intracellular stage parasites. This is the first report of LS antiplasmodial activity and dual stage inhibitory potential of seaweeds.

  10. The elemental composition of purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) calcite and potential effects of pCO2 during early life stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaVigne, M.; Hill, T. M.; Sanford, E.; Gaylord, B.; Russell, A. D.; Lenz, E. A.; Hosfelt, J. D.; Young, M. K.

    2013-06-01

    Ocean acidification will likely have negative impacts on invertebrates producing skeletons composed of calcium carbonate. Skeletal solubility is partly controlled by the incorporation of "foreign" ions (e.g. magnesium) into the crystal lattice of these skeletal structures, a process that is sensitive to a variety of biological and environmental factors. Here we explore effects of life stage, oceanographic region of origin, and changes in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in seawater (pCO2) on trace elemental composition in the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus). We show that, similar to other urchin taxa, adult purple sea urchins have the ability to precipitate skeleton composed of a range of biominerals spanning low- to high-Mg calcites. Mg / Ca and Sr / Ca ratios were substantially lower in adult spines compared to adult tests. On the other hand, trace elemental composition was invariant among adults collected from four oceanographically distinct regions spanning a range of carbonate chemistry conditions (Oregon, Northern California, Central California, and Southern California). Skeletons of newly settled juvenile urchins that originated from adults from the four regions exhibited intermediate Mg / Ca and Sr / Ca between adult spine and test endmembers, indicating that skeleton precipitated during early life stages is more soluble than adult spines and less soluble than adult tests. Mean skeletal Mg / Ca or Sr / Ca of juvenile skeleton did not vary with source region when larvae were reared under present-day, global-average seawater carbonate conditions (400 μatm; pHT = 8.02 ± 0.03 1 SD; Ωcalcite = 3.3 ± 0.2 1 SD). However, when reared under elevated pCO2 (900 μatm; pHT = 7.73 ± 0.03; Ωcalcite = 1.8 ± 0.1), skeletal Sr / Ca in juveniles exhibited increased variance across the four regions. Although larvae from the northern populations (Oregon, Northern California, Central California) did not exhibit differences in Mg or Sr

  11. The elemental composition of purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus calcite and potential effects of pCO2 during early life stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. LaVigne

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification will likely have negative impacts on invertebrates producing skeletons composed of calcium carbonate. Skeletal solubility is partly controlled by the incorporation of "foreign" ions (e.g. magnesium into the crystal lattice of these skeletal structures, a process that is sensitive to a variety of biological and environmental factors. Here we explore effects of life stage, oceanographic region of origin, and changes in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in seawater (pCO2 on trace elemental composition in the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. We show that, similar to other urchin taxa, adult purple sea urchins have the ability to precipitate skeleton composed of a range of biominerals spanning low- to high-Mg calcites. Mg / Ca and Sr / Ca ratios were substantially lower in adult spines compared to adult tests. On the other hand, trace elemental composition was invariant among adults collected from four oceanographically distinct regions spanning a range of carbonate chemistry conditions (Oregon, Northern California, Central California, and Southern California. Skeletons of newly settled juvenile urchins that originated from adults from the four regions exhibited intermediate Mg / Ca and Sr / Ca between adult spine and test endmembers, indicating that skeleton precipitated during early life stages is more soluble than adult spines and less soluble than adult tests. Mean skeletal Mg / Ca or Sr / Ca of juvenile skeleton did not vary with source region when larvae were reared under present-day, global-average seawater carbonate conditions (400 μatm; pHT = 8.02 ± 0.03 1 SD; Ωcalcite = 3.3 ± 0.2 1 SD. However, when reared under elevated pCO2 (900 μatm; pHT = 7.73 ± 0.03; Ωcalcite = 1.8 ± 0.1, skeletal Sr / Ca in juveniles exhibited increased variance across the four regions. Although larvae from the northern populations (Oregon, Northern California, Central California did not exhibit differences in Mg or Sr

  12. Antigen Uptake during Different Life Stages of Zebrafish (Danio rerio Using a GFP-Tagged Yersinia ruckeri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozalia Korbut

    Full Text Available Immersion-vaccines (bacterins are routinely used for aquacultured rainbow trout to protect against Yersinia ruckeri (Yr. During immersion vaccination, rainbow trout take up and process the antigens, which induce protection. The zebrafish was used as a model organism to study uptake mechanisms and subsequent antigen transport in fish. A genetically modified Yr was developed to constitutively express green fluorescent protein (GFP and was used for bacterin production. Larval, juvenile and adult transparent zebrafish (tra:nac mutant received a bath in the bacterin for up to 30 minutes. Samples were taken after 1 min, 15 min, 30 min, 2 h, 12 h and 24 h. At each sampling point fish were used for live imaging of the uptake using a fluorescence stereomicroscope and for immunohistochemistry (IHC. In adult fish, the bacterin could be traced within 30 min in scale pockets, skin, oesophagus, intestine and fins. Within two hours post bath (pb Yr-antigens were visible in the spleen and at 24 h in liver and kidney. Bacteria were associated with the gills, but uptake at this location was limited. Antigens were rarely detected in the blood and never in the nares. In juvenile fish uptake of the bacterin was seen in the intestine 30 min pb and in the nares 2 hpb but never in scale pockets. Antigens were detected in the spleen 12 hpb. Zebrafish larvae exhibited major Yr uptake only in the mid-intestine enterocytes 24 hpb. The different life stages of zebrafish varied with regard to uptake locations, however the gut was consistently a major uptake site. Zebrafish and rainbow trout tend to have similar uptake mechanisms following immersion or bath vaccination, which points towards zebrafish as a suitable model organism for this aquacultured species.

  13. Comparison of transcript profiles in different life stages of the nematode Globodera pallida under different host potato genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomares-Rius, Juan E; Hedley, Pete E; Cock, Peter J A; Morris, Jenny A; Jones, John T; Vovlas, Nikos; Blok, Vivian

    2012-12-01

    The potato cyst nematodes (PCNs) Globodera pallida and Globodera rostochiensis are important parasites of potato. PCNs undergo complex biotrophic interactions with their hosts that involve gene expression changes in both the nematode and the host plant. The aim of this study was to determine key genes that are differentially expressed in Globodera pallida life cycle stages and during the initiation of the feeding site in susceptible and partially resistant potato genotypes. For this purpose, two microarray experiments were designed: (i) a comparison of eggs, infective second-stage juveniles (J2s) and sedentary parasitic-stage J2s (SJ2); (ii) a comparison of SJ2s at 8 days after inoculation (DAI) in the susceptible cultivar (Desirée) and two partially resistant lines. The results showed differential expression of G. pallida genes during the stages studied, including previously characterized effectors. In addition, a large number of genes changed their expression between SJ2s in the susceptible cultivar and those infecting partially resistant lines; the number of genes with modified expression was lower when the two partially resistant lines were compared. Moreover, a histopathological study was performed at several time points (7, 14 and 30 DAI) and showed the similarities between both partially resistant lines with a delay and degeneration in the formation of the syncytia in comparison with the susceptible cultivar. Females at 30 DAI in partially resistant lines showed a delay in their development in comparison with those in the susceptible cultivar. © 2012 THE AUTHORS. MOLECULAR PLANT PATHOLOGY © 2012 BSPP AND BLACKWELL PUBLISHING LTD.

  14. Classifying stages of cirrus life-cycle evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanek, Benedikt; Groß, Silke; Schäfler, Andreas; Wirth, Martin

    2018-04-01

    Airborne lidar backscatter data is used to determine in- and out-of-cloud regions. Lidar measurements of water vapor together with model temperature fields are used to calculate relative humidity over ice (RHi). Based on temperature and RHi we identify different stages of cirrus evolution: homogeneous and heterogeneous freezing, depositional growth, ice sublimation and sedimentation. We will present our classification scheme and first applications on mid-latitude cirrus clouds.

  15. Snake River fall Chinook reproductive success - Juvenile life history changes in Snake River fall Chinook salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This population historically migrated as subyearling smolts, but in recent years, the yearling life history has become more common. Environmental conditions...

  16. A description of the life stages of Echinoparyphium elegans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The life cycle of Echinoparyphium elegans Looss 1899 is described from the Free State, South Africa.The freshwater snail Bulinus tropicus (Krauss 1848), the intermediate host of Calicophorort microbothrium (Paramphistomum microbothrium Fischoeder, 1901) in this area, serves as first intermediate host. The same snail ...

  17. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Coral Demography (Adult and Juvenile Corals) across the Pacific Remote Island Areas since 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic coral demographic surveys for two life stages (juveniles, adults) across the Pacific Remote Island Areas since 2014....

  18. Human dental age estimation using third molar developmental stages: does a Bayesian approach outperform regression models to discriminate between juveniles and adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevissen, P W; Fieuws, S; Willems, G

    2010-01-01

    Dental age estimation methods based on the radiologically detected third molar developmental stages are implemented in forensic age assessments to discriminate between juveniles and adults considering the judgment of young unaccompanied asylum seekers. Accurate and unbiased age estimates combined with appropriate quantified uncertainties are the required properties for accurate forensic reporting. In this study, a subset of 910 individuals uniformly distributed in age between 16 and 22 years was selected from an existing dataset collected by Gunst et al. containing 2,513 panoramic radiographs with known third molar developmental stages of Belgian Caucasian men and women. This subset was randomly split in a training set to develop a classical regression analysis and a Bayesian model for the multivariate distribution of the third molar developmental stages conditional on age and in a test set to assess the performance of both models. The aim of this study was to verify if the Bayesian approach differentiates the age of maturity more precisely and removes the bias, which disadvantages the systematically overestimated young individuals. The Bayesian model offers the discrimination of subjects being older than 18 years more appropriate and produces more meaningful prediction intervals but does not strongly outperform the classical approaches.

  19. Disturbance of recruitment success of mantis shrimp in Tokyo Bay associated with effects of hypoxia on the early life history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Keita; Tajima, Yoshihiro; Shimizu, Takamichi; Ohata, Satoshi; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Horiguchi, Toshihiro

    2014-08-30

    We investigated effects of severe hypoxia (dissolved oxygen shrimp Oratosquilla oratoria in Tokyo Bay. Ten-year field surveys were conducted to examine quantitative relationships in annual mean densities of larvae and juveniles, and spatial distribution of juveniles and severe hypoxia. There was no significant correlation between annual mean densities of larvae and juveniles, suggesting that mortality during larval or juvenile stages varies among years, which might have regulated abundance of young-of-the-year juveniles. Juvenile density was low in the severely hypoxic area, implying that hypoxia could affect survivals and spatial distribution of juveniles. Meanwhile, there are yearly fluctuations in juvenile density in normoxic areas of both northern and southern part of the bay. This evidence suggests that abundance of post-settled juveniles might have been determined by not only effects of hypoxia, but also other factors influencing mortality during the early life stages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A Treatment Stage Specific Approach to Improving Quality of Life for Women with Ovarian Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Avis, Nancy E; Miller, Brigitte

    2005-01-01

    This study focuses on quality of life among women with ovarian cancer. The primary objective of the study is to identify the issues that are of greatest concern to women in each of three treatment stages...

  1. Comparative responses to endocrine disrupting compounds in early life stages of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Tara A.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; McCormick, Stephen D.

    2014-01-01

    Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are endangered anadromous fish that may be exposed to feminizing endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) during early development, potentially altering physiological capacities, survival and fitness. To assess differential life stage sensitivity to common EDCs, we carried out short-term (four day) exposures using three doses each of 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), 17β-estradiol (E2), and nonylphenol (NP) on four early life stages; embryos, yolk-sac larvae, feeding fry and one year old smolts. Differential response was compared using vitellogenin (Vtg, a precursor egg protein) gene transcription. Smolts were also examined for impacts on plasma Vtg, cortisol, thyroid hormones (T4/T3) and hepatosomatic index (HSI). Compound-related mortality was not observed in any life stage, but Vtg mRNA was elevated in a dose-dependent manner in yolk-sac larvae, fry and smolts but not in embyos. The estrogens EE2 and E2 were consistently stronger inducers of Vtg than NP. Embryos responded significantly to the highest concentration of EE2 only, while older life stages responded to the highest doses of all three compounds, as well as intermediate doses of EE2 and E2. Maximal transcription was greater for fry among the three earliest life stages, suggesting fry may be the most responsive life stage in early development. Smolt plasma Vtg was also significantly increased, and this response was observed at lower doses of each compound than was detected by gene transcription suggesting this is a more sensitive indicator at this life stage. HSI was increased at the highest doses of EE2 and E2 and plasma T3 decreased at the highest dose of EE2. Our results indicate that all life stages after hatching are potentially sensitive to endocrine disruption by estrogenic compounds and that physiological responses were altered over a short window of exposure, indicating the potential for these compounds to impact fish in the wild.

  2. Columbia River White Sturgeon Genetics and Early Life History: Population Segregation and Juvenile Feeding Behavior, 1987 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brannon, Ernest L.

    1988-06-01

    The geographic area of the genetics study broadly covered the distribution range of sturgeon in the Columbia from below Bonneville Dam at Ilwaco at Lake Roosevelt, the Upper Snake River, and the Kootenai River. The two remote river sections provided data important for enhancement considerations. There was little electrophoretic variation seen among individuals from the Kootenai River. Upper Snake river sturgeon showed a higher percentage of polymorphic loci than the Kootenai fish, but lower than the other areas in the Columbia River we sampled. Sample size was increased in both Lake Roosevelt and at Electrophoretic variation was specific to an individual sampling area in several cases and this shaped our conclusions. The 1987 early life history studies concentrated on the feeding behavior of juvenile sturgeon. The chemostimulant components in prey attractive to sturgeon were examined, and the sensory systems utilized by foraging sturgeon were determined under different environmental conditions. These results were discussed with regard to the environmental changes that have occurred in the Columbia River. Under present river conditions, the feeding mechanism of sturgeon is more restricted to certain prey types, and their feeding range may be limited. In these situations, enhancement measures cannot be undertaken without consideration given to the introduction of food resources that will be readily available under present conditions. 89 refs., 7 figs., 11 tabs.

  3. Developmental rate and behavior of early life stages of bighead carp and silver carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Duane C.; George, Amy E.

    2011-01-01

    The early life stages of Asian carp are well described by Yi and others (1988), but since these descriptions are represented by line drawings based only on live individuals and lacked temperature controls, further information on developmental time and stages is of use to expand understanding of early life stages of these species. Bighead carp and silver carp were cultured under two different temperature treatments to the one-chamber gas bladder stage, and a photographic guide is provided for bighead carp and silver carp embryonic and larval development, including notes about egg morphology and larval swimming behavior. Preliminary information on developmental time and hourly thermal units for each stage is also provided. Both carp species developed faster under warmer conditions. Developmental stages and behaviors are generally consistent with earlier works with the exception that strong vertical swimming immediately after hatching was documented in this report.

  4. Long-Term Health-Related Quality of Life in German Patients with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis in Comparison to German General Population

    OpenAIRE

    Barth, Swaantje; Haas, Johannes-Peter; Schlichtiger, Jenny; Molz, Johannes; Bisdorff, Betty; Michels, Hartmut; Hügle, Boris; Radon, Katja

    2016-01-01

    Objective Aims of the study were to investigate health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in adult patients with former diagnosis of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA), to compare their HRQOL with the general population and to identify factors related to a poor outcome. Methods In 2012, a cross-sectional survey was performed by mailing a questionnaire to a large cohort of former and current patients of the German Centre for Rheumatology in Children and Adolescents. Only adult patients (?18 year...

  5. Vitamin D nutrient intake for all life stages.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McKenna, M

    2011-04-01

    Vitamin D, unlike other nutrients, is a conditionally required nutrient being obtained from two sources – predominantly by skin production upon exposure to natural ultraviolet (UV) solar radiation, and to a lesser extent by oral intake. Being a fat soluble vitamin it has a long half-life of about two weeks and is stored in fat tissues.1 For nearly six months of the year from October to March in Ireland, skin production is absent and the population is dependent on oral intake from natural foodstuffs, (which are consumed in small quantities only), fortified foodstuffs (most notably some milk products for the past 25 years) and vitamin D supplements, either in multivitamin tablets or in combination with calcium tablets.

  6. Health-related quality of life across all stages of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Daniel; Karlsson, Linda; Eklund, Oskar; Dieperink, Hans; Honkanen, Eero; Melin, Jan; Selvig, Kristian; Lundberg, Johan

    2017-12-01

    A limited number of studies have assessed health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Results to date have been conflicting and studies have generally focused on patients with later stages of the disease. This study aimed to assess HRQoL in ADPKD across all stages of the disease, from patients with early chronic kidney disease (CKD) to patients with end-stage renal disease. A study involving cross-sectional patient-reported outcomes and retrospective clinical data was undertaken April-December 2014 in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Patients were enrolled into four mutually exclusive stages of the disease: CKD stages 1-3; CKD stages 4-5; transplant recipients; and dialysis patients. Overall HRQoL was generally highest in patients with CKD stages 1-3, followed by transplant recipients, patients with CKD stages 4-5 and patients on dialysis. Progressive disease predominately had an impact on physical health, whereas mental health showed less variation between stages of the disease. A substantial loss in quality of life was observed as patients progressed to CKD stages 4-5. Later stages of ADPKD are associated with reduced physical health. The value of early treatment interventions that can delay progression of the disease should be considered. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA.

  7. Impact of Life-Cycle Stage and Gender on the Ability to Balance Work and Family Responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Christopher; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined impact of gender and life-cycle stage on three components of work-family conflict using sample of 3,616 respondents. For men, levels of work-family conflict were moderately lower in each successive life-cycle stage. For women, levels were similar in two early life-cycle stages but were significantly lower in later life-cycle stage.…

  8. Effects of obesity on health-related quality of life in juvenile-onset systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, R; Klein-Gitelman, M S; Nelson, S; Eberhard, B A; Higgins, G; Singer, N G; Onel, K; Tucker, L; O'Neil, K M; Punaro, M; Levy, D M; Haines, K; Ying, J; Brunner, H I

    2015-02-01

    This study evaluated the effects of obesity on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) measures in juvenile-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (jSLE). Obesity was defined as a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 95 th percentile according to the Sex-specific Center for Disease Control BMI-For-Age Charts and determined in a multicenter cohort of jSLE patients. In this secondary analysis, the domain and summary scores of the Pediatric Quality of Life (PedsQL) Inventory and the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ) of obese jSLE patients were compared to those of non-obese jSLE patients as well as historical obese and non-obese healthy controls. Mixed-effects modeling was performed to evaluate the relationship between obesity and HRQOL measures. Among the 202 jSLE patients, 25% (n = 51) were obese. Obesity had a significant negative impact on HRQOL in jSLE, even after adjusting for differences in current corticosteroid use, disease activity, disease damage, gender and race between groups. Obese jSLE patients had lower physical functioning compared to non-obese jSLE patients, and to non-obese and obese healthy controls. Compared to their non-obese counterparts, obese jSLE patients also had worse school functioning, more pain, worse social functioning and emotional functioning. Parents of obese jSLE patients worry more. The CHQ scores for obese jSLE patients were also worse compared to non-obese jSLE patients in several other domains. Our study demonstrates the detrimental effects of obesity on patient-reported outcomes in jSLE. This supports the importance of weight management for the therapeutic plan of jSLE. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  9. Adaptive responses to salinity stress across multiple life stages in anuran amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albecker, Molly A; McCoy, Michael W

    2017-01-01

    In many regions, freshwater wetlands are increasing in salinity at rates exceeding historic levels. Some freshwater organisms, like amphibians, may be able to adapt and persist in salt-contaminated wetlands by developing salt tolerance. Yet adaptive responses may be more challenging for organisms with complex life histories, because the same environmental stressor can require responses across different ontogenetic stages. Here we investigated responses to salinity in anuran amphibians: a common, freshwater taxon with a complex life cycle. We conducted a meta-analysis to define how the lethality of saltwater exposure changes across multiple life stages, surveyed wetlands in a coastal region experiencing progressive salinization for the presence of anurans, and used common garden experiments to investigate whether chronic salt exposure alters responses in three sequential life stages (reproductive, egg, and tadpole life stages) in Hyla cinerea , a species repeatedly observed in saline wetlands. Meta-analysis revealed differential vulnerability to salt stress across life stages with the egg stage as the most salt-sensitive. Field surveys revealed that 25% of the species known to occur in the focal region were detected in salt-intruded habitats. Remarkably, Hyla cinerea was found in large abundances in multiple wetlands with salinity concentrations 450% higher than the tadpole-stage LC 50 . Common garden experiments showed that coastal (chronically salt exposed) populations of H. cinerea lay more eggs, have higher hatching success, and greater tadpole survival in higher salinities compared to inland (salt naïve) populations. Collectively, our data suggest that some species of anuran amphibians have divergent and adaptive responses to salt exposure across populations and across different life stages. We propose that anuran amphibians may be a novel and amenable natural model system for empirical explorations of adaptive responses to environmental change.

  10. "Life Stage-Specific" Variations in Performance in Response to Age Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehman, Jessica A.; Bugental, Daphne Blunt

    2013-01-01

    In a test of life stage-specific responses to age-based stigma, older (n = 54, ages 62-92) and younger (n = 81, ages 17-22) adults were told that a task (Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale-III block design) required either (a) speed/contemporary knowledge (YA; "youth advantage") or (b) life experience/wisdom (OA; "age…

  11. Leap frog in slow motion: Divergent responses of tree species and life stages to climatic warming in Great Basin subalpine forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithers, Brian V; North, Malcolm P; Millar, Constance I; Latimer, Andrew M

    2018-02-01

    In response to climate warming, subalpine treelines are expected to move up in elevation since treelines are generally controlled by growing season temperature. Where treeline is advancing, dispersal differences and early life stage environmental tolerances are likely to affect how species expand their ranges. Species with an establishment advantage will colonize newly available habitat first, potentially excluding species that have slower establishment rates. Using a network of plots across five mountain ranges, we described patterns of upslope elevational range shift for the two dominant Great Basin subalpine species, limber pine and Great Basin bristlecone pine. We found that the Great Basin treeline for these species is expanding upslope with a mean vertical elevation shift of 19.1 m since 1950, which is lower than what we might expect based on temperature increases alone. The largest advances were on limber pine-dominated granitic soils, on west aspects, and at lower latitudes. Bristlecone pine juveniles establishing above treeline share some environmental associations with bristlecone adults. Limber pine above-treeline juveniles, in contrast, are prevalent across environmental conditions and share few environmental associations with limber pine adults. Strikingly, limber pine is establishing above treeline throughout the region without regard to site characteristic such as soil type, slope, aspect, or soil texture. Although limber pine is often rare at treeline where it coexists with bristlecone pine, limber pine juveniles dominate above treeline even on calcareous soils that are core bristlecone pine habitat. Limber pine is successfully "leap-frogging" over bristlecone pine, probably because of its strong dispersal advantage and broader tolerances for establishment. This early-stage dominance indicates the potential for the species composition of treeline to change in response to climate change. More broadly, it shows how species differences in dispersal

  12. ANALYSIS OF RISK FACTORS AT THE STAGE OF THE PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Skopenko

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines and summarizes the risks of enterprises at different stages of product life cycle. A diagnose and assess of risks according to the main stages of the product development are offered. Groups of factors that shape the economic risks at different stages of the product life cycle, by the possible negative consequences of their impact are formulated. To reduce the probable losses of the company and a reasonable assortment portfolio formation generalized classification of risks that are typical for any company is proposed.

  13. Organizational Life Cycle and the Growth of Information Technology Stage Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamshid Nazemi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available : Organizations have the different patterns of behaviors on management practice and the use of systems during their life cycle and due to rapid growth of information technology, the application of appropriate technologies is becoming an essential part of business, as well. The adaptation of appropriate management systems on different stages of organizational life period will affect on sustainability of the firms and success to move to next stage and alignment and collaboration schema of IS/IT and business requirement affects on management effectiveness at every stage. This research investigated the significance of relationship between management behavior and IS/IT usage and the generic approach selected by companies. The results showed that organizations have chosen different approach during their life cycle and as they faced with unique challenges on each stage, a common practice on using information technology and applications became part of organizational life cycle. A generic model for information technology usage on organization life cycle was also developed that will assist organizations to select and develop IS/IT plans which addresses the requirements for each stage of life cycle.

  14. Immigration and early life stages recruitment of the European flounder (Platichthys flesus) to an estuarine nursery: The influence of environmental factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Eva; Ramos, Sandra; Elliott, Michael; Bordalo, Adriano A.

    2016-01-01

    Connectivity between coastal spawning grounds and estuarine nurseries is a critical step in the life cycle of many fish species. Larval immigration and transport-associated physical-biological processes are determinants of recruitment success to nursery areas. The recruitment of the European flounder, Platichthys flesus, to estuarine nurseries located at the southern edge of the species distribution range, has been usually investigated during its juvenile stages, while estuarine recruitment during the earlier planktonic life stage remains largely unstudied. The present study investigated the patterns of flounder larval recruitment and the influence of environmental factors on the immigration of the early life stages to the Lima estuary (NW Portugal), integrating data on fish larvae and post-settlement individuals (< 50 mm length), collected over 7 years. Late-stage larvae arrived at the estuary between February and July and peak abundances were observed in April. Post-settlement individuals (< 50 mm) occurred later between April and October, whereas newly-settled ones (< 20 mm) were found only in May and June. Variables associated with the spawning, survival and growth of larvae in the ocean (sea surface temperature, chlorophyll a and inland hydrological variables) were the major drivers of flounder occurrence in the estuarine nursery. Although the adjacent coastal area is characterized by a current system with strong seasonality and mesoscale variability, we did not identify any influence of variables related with physical processes (currents and upwelling) on the occurrence of early life stages in the estuary. A wider knowledge on the influence of the coastal circulation variability and its associated effects upon ocean-estuarine connectivity is required to improve our understanding of the population dynamics of marine spawning fish that use estuarine nurseries.

  15. Acute oral toxicity of chemicals in terrestrial life stages of amphibians: Comparisons to birds and mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Mark; Finnegan, Meaghean; Weltje, Lennart; Kosmala-Grzechnik, Sylwia; Gross, Melanie; Wheeler, James R

    2016-10-01

    Amphibians are currently the most threatened and rapidly declining group of vertebrates and this has raised concerns about their potential sensitivity and exposure to plant protection products and other chemicals. Current environmental risk assessment procedures rely on surrogate species (e.g. fish and birds) to cover the risk to aquatic and terrestrial life stages of amphibians, respectively. Whilst a recent meta-analysis has shown that in most cases amphibian aquatic life stages are less sensitive to chemicals than fish, little research has been conducted on the comparative sensitivity of terrestrial amphibian life stages. Therefore, in this paper we address the questions "What is the relative sensitivity of terrestrial amphibian life stages to acute chemical oral exposure when compared with mammals and birds?" and "Are there correlations between oral toxicity data for amphibians and data for mammals or birds?" Identifying a relationship between these data may help to avoid additional vertebrate testing. Acute oral amphibian toxicity data collected from the scientific literature and ecotoxicological databases were compared with toxicity data for mammals and birds. Toxicity data for terrestrial amphibian life stages are generally sparse, as noted in previous reviews. Single-dose oral toxicity data for terrestrial amphibian life stages were available for 26 chemicals and these were positively correlated with LD50 values for mammals, while no correlation was found for birds. Further, the data suggest that oral toxicity to terrestrial amphibian life stages is similar to or lower than that for mammals and birds, with a few exceptions. Thus, mammals or birds are considered adequate toxicity surrogates for use in the assessment of the oral exposure route in amphibians. However, there is a need for further data on a wider range of chemicals to explore the wider applicability of the current analyses and recommendations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The enactment stage of end-of-life decision-making for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Jane Elizabeth; Gillam, Lynn Heather; Monagle, Paul Terence

    2018-01-11

    Typically pediatric end-of-life decision-making studies have examined the decision-making process, factors, and doctors' and parents' roles. Less attention has focussed on what happens after an end-of-life decision is made; that is, decision enactment and its outcome. This study explored the views and experiences of bereaved parents in end-of-life decision-making for their child. Findings reported relate to parents' experiences of acting on their decision. It is argued that this is one significant stage of the decision-making process. A qualitative methodology was used. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with bereaved parents, who had discussed end-of-life decisions for their child who had a life-limiting condition and who had died. Data were thematically analysed. Twenty-five bereaved parents participated. Findings indicate that, despite differences in context, including the child's condition and age, end-of-life decision-making did not end when an end-of-life decision was made. Enacting the decision was the next stage in a process. Time intervals between stages and enactment pathways varied, but the enactment was always distinguishable as a separate stage. Decision enactment involved making further decisions - parents needed to discern the appropriate time to implement their decision to withdraw or withhold life-sustaining medical treatment. Unexpected events, including other people's actions, impacted on parents enacting their decision in the way they had planned. Several parents had to re-implement decisions when their child recovered from serious health issues without medical intervention. Significance of results A novel, critical finding was that parents experienced end-of-life decision-making as a sequence of interconnected stages, the final stage being enactment. The enactment stage involved further decision-making. End-of-life decision-making is better understood as a process rather than a discrete once-off event. The enactment stage has particular

  17. Monoclonal Antibodies to Intracellular Stages of Cryptosporidium parvum Define Life Cycle Progression In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Georgia; Ravindran, Soumya; Funkhouser-Jones, Lisa; Barks, Jennifer; Wang, Qiuling; VanDussen, Kelli L; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S; Kuhlenschmidt, Theresa B; Kuhlenschmidt, Mark S; Sibley, L David

    2018-06-27

    Among the obstacles hindering Cryptosporidium research is the lack of an in vitro culture system that supports complete life development and propagation. This major barrier has led to a shortage of widely available anti- Cryptosporidium antibodies and a lack of markers for staging developmental progression. Previously developed antibodies against Cryptosporidium were raised against extracellular stages or recombinant proteins, leading to antibodies with limited reactivity across the parasite life cycle. Here we sought to create antibodies that recognize novel epitopes that could be used to define intracellular development. We identified a mouse epithelial cell line that supported C. parvum growth, enabling immunization of mice with infected cells to create a bank of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against intracellular parasite stages while avoiding the development of host-specific antibodies. From this bank, we identified 12 antibodies with a range of reactivities across the parasite life cycle. Importantly, we identified specific MAbs that can distinguish different life cycle stages, such as trophozoites, merozoites, type I versus II meronts, and macrogamonts. These MAbs provide valuable tools for the Cryptosporidium research community and will facilitate future investigation into parasite biology. IMPORTANCE Cryptosporidium is a protozoan parasite that causes gastrointestinal disease in humans and animals. Currently, there is a limited array of antibodies available against the parasite, which hinders imaging studies and makes it difficult to visualize the parasite life cycle in different culture systems. In order to alleviate this reagent gap, we created a library of novel antibodies against the intracellular life cycle stages of Cryptosporidium We identified antibodies that recognize specific life cycle stages in distinctive ways, enabling unambiguous description of the parasite life cycle. These MAbs will aid future investigation into Cryptosporidium biology and

  18. Life stage-specific effects of the fungicide pyrimethanil and temperature on the snail Physella acuta (Draparnaud, 1805) disclose the pitfalls for the aquatic risk assessment under global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeland, Anne; Albrand, Jennifer; Oehlmann, Jörg; Müller, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    It can be suggested that the combined stress of pesticide pollution and suboptimal temperature influences the sensitivity of life stages of aquatic invertebrates differently. The embryo, juvenile, half- and full-life-cycle toxicity tests performed with the snail Physella acuta at different concentrations (0.06–0.5 or 1.0 mg L −1 ) of the model fungicide pyrimethanil at 15, 20 and 25 °C revealed, that pyrimethanil caused concentration-dependent effects at all test temperatures. Interestingly, the ecotoxicity of pyrimethanil was higher at lower (suboptimal) temperature for embryo hatching and F 1 reproduction, but its ecotoxicity for juvenile growth and F 0 reproduction increased with increasing temperature. The life-stage specific temperature-dependent ecotoxicity of pyrimethanil and the high fungicide susceptibility of the invasive snail clearly demonstrate the complexity of pesticide–temperature interactions and the challenge to draw conclusions for the risk of pesticides under the impact of global climate change. -- Highlights: ► Physella acuta reacts highly sensitively to exposure to pyrimethanil. ► The ecotoxicity of pyrimethanil is life-stage specific. ► Pyrimethanil and temperature stress influenced the development interactively. -- The aquatic risk of pesticides under climate change cannot be adequately assessed by recent strategies for the regular risk assessment of agrochemicals

  19. Life-stages, exploitation status and habitat use of Lutjanus goreensis (Perciformes: Lutjanidae in coastal marine environments of Lagos, SW Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kafayat A. Fakoya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Gorean snapper, Lutjanus goreensis is an important component of artisanal fisheries and trawl landings in the Gulf of Guinea. Despite its economic importance, there is a dearth of information on size structure and life history strategies of the species. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to provide baseline data on the life stages, exploitation status and habitat use for the species in Nigeria. Monthly samples were obtained from artisanal and trawl catches in Five Cowrie Creek and Lagos coastal waters between December 2008 and December 2010, respectively. Length-frequency distributions of the fishes caught were analysed to provide preliminary information on mean and modal lengths at capture and life - history strategies based on habitat use and estuarine-dependency for L. goreensis. A total of 822 specimens of L. goreensis were collected from Five Cowrie Creek while 377 specimens were collected from Lagos coastal waters. Total length varied between 7.90-34.90cm for creek samples and from 21.90-56.10cm for marine samples. Length-frequency histograms showed polymodal size distributions in creek and marine samples. Length-frequency distributions of L. goreensis showed a high abundance of juveniles (<20cm and sub-adults (20-35cm which accounted for 84.1% and 68.4% of creek and marine samples examined, respectively. For the creek samples, fish in modal length class of 13.00-13.99cm were the most exploited while in the marine samples, length classes of 29.00-30.99cm and 31.00-32.99cm constituted the most frequently exploited fishes. Increase in total lengths from the creek (mean±SD; 16.19±3.73cm to the marine habitat samples (32.89±6.14cm indicated ontogenetic shift in habitat use. Occurrence of a predominant juvenile population in Five Cowrie Creek by L. goreensis suggests estuarine-dependency and is indicative of a temporary juvenile habitat or a migratory corridor. In conclusion, data from the presently reported study and previous

  20. Life stages of an aphid living under similar thermal conditions differ in thermal performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fei; Hoffmann, Ary A; Xing, Kun; Ma, Chun-Sen

    2017-05-01

    Heat responses can vary ontogenetically in many insects with complex life cycles, reflecting differences in thermal environments they experience. Such variation has rarely been considered in insects that develop incrementally and experience common microclimates across stages. To test if there is a low level of ontogenetic variation for heat responses in one such species, the English grain aphid Sitobion avenae, basal tolerance [upper lethal temperature (ULT 50 ) and maximum critical temperature (CT max )], hardening capacity (CT max ) and hardening costs (adult longevity and fecundity) were measured across five stages (1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th-instar nymphs and newly moulted adults). We found large tolerance differences among stages of this global pest species, and a tendency for the stage with lower heat tolerance to show a stronger hardening response. There were also substantial reproductive costs of hardening responses, with the level of stress experienced, and not the proximity of the exposed stage to the reproductive adult stage, influencing the magnitude of this cost. Hence hardening in this aphid may counter inherently low tolerance levels of some life stages but at a cost to adult longevity and fecundity. Our findings highlight the significance of ontogenetic variation in predicting responses of a species to climate change, even in species without a complex life cycle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Life histories of microalgal species causing harmful blooms: Haploids, diploids and the relevance of benthic stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Rosa Isabel; Estrada, Marta; Garcés, Esther

    2018-03-01

    In coastal and offshore waters, Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) currently threaten the well-being of coastal countries. These events, which can be localized or involve wide-ranging areas, pose risks to human health, marine ecosystems, and economic resources, such as tourism, fisheries, and aquaculture. Dynamics of HABs vary from one site to another, depending on the hydrographic and ecological conditions. The challenge in investigating HABs is that they are caused by organisms from multiple algal classes, each with its own unique features, including different life histories. The complete algal life cycle has been determined in life cycles of bloom-forming species is essential in developing preventative measures. The knowledge obtained thus far has confirmed the complexity of the algal life cycle, which is composed of discrete life stages whose morphology, ecological niche (plankton/benthos), function, and lifespan vary. The factors that trigger transitions between the different stages in nature are mostly unknown, but it is clear that an understanding of this process provides the key to effectively forecasting bloom recurrence, maintenance, and decline. Planktonic stages constitute an ephemeral phase of the life cycle of most species whereas resistant, benthic stages enable a species to withstand adverse conditions for prolonged periods, thus providing dormant reservoirs for eventual blooms and facilitating organismal dispersal. Here we review current knowledge of the life cycle strategies of major groups of HAB producers in marine and brackish waters. Rather than providing a comprehensive discussion, the objective was to highlight several of the research milestones that have changed our understanding of the plasticity and frequency of the different life cycle stages as well as the transitions between them. We also discuss the relevance of benthic and planktonic forms and their implications for HAB dynamics. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. High-Resolution Lipidomics of the Early Life Stages of the Red Seaweed Porphyra dioica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Elisabete; Azevedo, Vitor; Melo, Tânia; Rego, Andreia M; V Evtuguin, Dmitry; Domingues, Pedro; Calado, Ricardo; Pereira, Rui; Abreu, Maria H; Domingues, Maria R

    2018-01-17

    Porphyra dioica is a commercial seaweed consumed all over the world, mostly in the shape of nori sheets used for "sushi" preparation. It is a well-known part of the Asian diet with health benefits, which have been associated, among others, to the high levels of n -3 and n- 6 fatty acids in this red alga. However, other highly valued lipids of Porphyra are polar lipids that remain largely undescribed and can have both nutritional value and bioactivity, thus could contribute to the valorization of this seaweed. In this context, the present work aims to identify the lipidome of two life cycle stages of the Atlantic species Porphyra dioica : the early life stage conchocelis produced in an indoor-nursery, and young blades produced outdoors using an integrated multitrophic aquaculture (IMTA) framework. Both the blades (gametophyte) and conchocelis (sporophyte) are commercialized in the food and cosmetics sectors. Liquid chromatography coupled to Q-Exactive high resolution-mass spectrometry (MS) platform was used to gain insight into the lipidome of these species. Our results allowed the identification of 110 and 100 lipid molecular species in the lipidome of the blade and conchocelis, respectively. These lipid molecular species were distributed as follows (blade/conchocelis): 14/15 glycolipids (GLs), 93/79 phospholipids (PLs), and 3/6 betaine lipids. Both life stages displayed a similar profile of GLs and comprised 20:4( n -6) and 20:5( n -3) fatty acids that contribute to n -3 and n -6 fatty acid pool recorded and rank among the molecular species with higher potential bioactivity. PLs' profile was different between the two life stages surveyed, mainly due to the number and relative abundance of molecular species. This finding suggests that differences between both life stages were more likely related with shifts in the lipids of extraplastidial membranes rather than in plastidial membranes. PLs contained n -6 and n -3 precursors and in both life stages of Porphyra

  3. High-Resolution Lipidomics of the Early Life Stages of the Red Seaweed Porphyra dioica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete da Costa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Porphyra dioica is a commercial seaweed consumed all over the world, mostly in the shape of nori sheets used for “sushi” preparation. It is a well-known part of the Asian diet with health benefits, which have been associated, among others, to the high levels of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids in this red alga. However, other highly valued lipids of Porphyra are polar lipids that remain largely undescribed and can have both nutritional value and bioactivity, thus could contribute to the valorization of this seaweed. In this context, the present work aims to identify the lipidome of two life cycle stages of the Atlantic species Porphyra dioica: the early life stage conchocelis produced in an indoor-nursery, and young blades produced outdoors using an integrated multitrophic aquaculture (IMTA framework. Both the blades (gametophyte and conchocelis (sporophyte are commercialized in the food and cosmetics sectors. Liquid chromatography coupled to Q–Exactive high resolution-mass spectrometry (MS platform was used to gain insight into the lipidome of these species. Our results allowed the identification of 110 and 100 lipid molecular species in the lipidome of the blade and conchocelis, respectively. These lipid molecular species were distributed as follows (blade/conchocelis: 14/15 glycolipids (GLs, 93/79 phospholipids (PLs, and 3/6 betaine lipids. Both life stages displayed a similar profile of GLs and comprised 20:4(n-6 and 20:5(n-3 fatty acids that contribute to n-3 and n-6 fatty acid pool recorded and rank among the molecular species with higher potential bioactivity. PLs’ profile was different between the two life stages surveyed, mainly due to the number and relative abundance of molecular species. This finding suggests that differences between both life stages were more likely related with shifts in the lipids of extraplastidial membranes rather than in plastidial membranes. PLs contained n-6 and n-3 precursors and in both life stages of

  4. Opposite Effects of Early-Life Competition and Developmental Telomere Attrition on Cognitive Biases in Juvenile European Starlings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Bateson

    Full Text Available Moods are enduring affective states that we hypothesise should be affected by an individual's developmental experience and its current somatic state. We tested whether early-life adversity, induced by manipulating brood size, subsequently altered juvenile European starlings' (Sturnus vulgaris decisions in a judgment bias task designed to provide a cognitive measure of mood. We predicted that starlings from larger broods, specifically those that had experienced more nest competitors larger than themselves would exhibit reduced expectation of reward, indicative of a 'pessimistic', depression-like mood. We used a go/no-go task, in which 30 starlings were trained to probe a grey card disc associated with a palatable mealworm hidden underneath and avoid a different shade of grey card disc associated with a noxious quinine-injected mealworm hidden underneath. Birds' response latencies to the trained stimuli and also to novel, ambiguous stimuli intermediate between these were subsequently tested. Birds that had experienced greater competition in the nest were faster to probe trained stimuli, and it was therefore necessary to control statistically for this difference in subsequent analyses of the birds' responses to the ambiguous stimuli. As predicted, birds with more, larger nest competitors showed relatively longer latencies to probe ambiguous stimuli, suggesting reduced expectation of reward and a 'pessimistic', depression-like mood. However, birds with greater developmental telomere attrition--a measure of cellular aging associated with increased morbidity and reduced life-expectancy that we argue could be used as a measure of somatic state--showed shorter latencies to probe ambiguous stimuli. This would usually be interpreted as evidence for a more positive or 'optimistic' affective state. Thus, increased competition in the nest and poor current somatic state appear to have opposite effects on cognitive biases. Our results lead us to question

  5. In vitro uptake of 140 kDa Bacillus thuringiensis nematicidal crystal proteins by the second stage juvenile of Meloidogyne hapla.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengjuan Zhang

    Full Text Available Plant-parasitic nematodes (PPNs are piercing/sucking pests, which cause severe damage to crops worldwide, and are difficult to control. The cyst and root-knot nematodes (RKN are sedentary endoparasites that develop specialized multinucleate feeding structures from the plant cells called syncytia or giant cells respectively. Within these structures the nematodes produce feeding tubes, which act as molecular sieves with exclusion limits. For example, Heterodera schachtii is reportedly unable to ingest proteins larger than 28 kDa. However, it is unknown yet what is the molecular exclusion limit of the Meloidogyne hapla. Several types of Bacillus thuringiensis crystal proteins showed toxicity to M. hapla. To monitor the entry pathway of crystal proteins into M. hapla, second-stage juveniles (J2 were treated with NHS-rhodamine labeled nematicidal crystal proteins (Cry55Aa, Cry6Aa, and Cry5Ba. Confocal microscopic observation showed that these crystal proteins were initially detected in the stylet and esophageal lumen, and subsequently in the gut. Western blot analysis revealed that these crystal proteins were modified to different molecular sizes after being ingested. The uptake efficiency of the crystal proteins by the M. hapla J2 decreased with increasing of protein molecular mass, based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis. Our discovery revealed 140 kDa nematicidal crystal proteins entered M. hapla J2 via the stylet, and it has important implications in designing a transgenic resistance approach to control RKN.

  6. Effects of methoprene, a juvenile hormone analog, on survival of various developmental stages, adult emergence, reproduction and behavior of Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brar, Gurpreet S; Meyer, Wendy; Stelinski, Lukasz L

    2015-12-01

    The Asian citrus citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, transmits a bacterium that causes huanglongbing in citrus. Frequent and repeated use of neurotoxic insecticides against D. citri has resulted in the development of insecticide resistance. We evaluated the effects of the juvenile hormone analog methoprene on egg hatch, nymphal development, adult emergence, reproduction and behavior of D. citri. Methoprene significantly reduced the viability of eggs that were between 0 and 4 days old. Egg hatch of 0-48-h-old and 49-96-h-old eggs was 8 and 9%, respectively, when treated with 320 µg mL(-1) of methoprene. Methoprene caused significant mortality of first-, third- and fifth-instar D. citri nymphs and reduced adult emergence as compared with controls. Methoprene caused less than 5% adult emergence when first- and third-instar stages were treated, respectively, and less than 40% adult emergence when fifth instars were treated. Reduced fertility of females was observed when they emerged from methoprene-treated fifth instars. Methoprene was effective in reducing egg hatch, suppressing nymphal development and decreasing adult emergence of D. citri under laboratory conditions. Treatment of fifth instars reduced the fertility of females. Methoprene might be a possible tool for integrated management of D. citri. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Coral Demography (Adult and Juvenile Corals) across the Pacific Remote Island Areas from 2017-04-02 to 2017-04-23 (NCEI Accession 0163743)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic coral demographic surveys for two life stages (juveniles, adults) across Wake, Baker, Howland and Jarvis in 2017....

  8. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Coral Demography (Adult and Juvenile Corals) across the Pacific Remote Island Areas from 2015-0126 to 2015-04-28 (NCEI Accession 0159161)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic coral demographic surveys for two life stages (juveniles, adults) across the Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2015....

  9. Differences in pigmentation between life cycle stages in Scrippsiella lachrymosa (dinophyceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Agneta; Smith, Barry C; Cyronak, Tyler; Cooper, Emily; DiTullio, Giacomo R

    2016-02-01

    Various life cycle stages of cyst-producing dinoflagellates often appear differently colored under the microscope; gametes appear paler while zygotes are darker in comparison to vegetative cells. To compare physiological and photochemical competency, the pigment composition of discrete life cycle stages was determined for the common resting cyst-producing dinoflagellate Scrippsiella lachrymosa. Vegetative cells had the highest cellular pigment content (25.2 ± 0.5 pg · cell(-1) ), whereas gamete pigment content was 22% lower. The pigment content of zygotes was 82% lower than vegetative cells, even though they appeared darker under the microscope. Zygotes of S. lachrymosa contained significantly higher cellular concentrations of β-carotene (0.65 ± 0.15 pg · cell(-1) ) than all other life stages. Photoprotective pigments and the de-epoxidation ratio of xanthophylls-cycle pigments in S. lachrymosa were significantly elevated in zygotes and cysts compared to other stages. This suggests a role for accessory pigments in combating intracellular oxidative stress during sexual reproduction or encystment. Resting cysts contained some pigments even though chloroplasts were not visible, suggesting that the brightly colored accumulation body contained photosynthetic pigments. The differences in pigmentation between life stages have implications for interpretation of pigment data from field samples when sampled during dinoflagellate blooms. © 2015 Phycological Society of America.

  10. Integrating life stages into ecological niche models: a case study on tiger beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taboada, Angela; von Wehrden, Henrik; Assmann, Thorsten

    2013-01-01

    Detailed understanding of a species' natural history and environmental needs across spatial scales is a primary requisite for effective conservation planning, particularly for species with complex life cycles in which different life stages occupy different niches and respond to the environment at different scales. However, niche models applied to conservation often neglect early life stages and are mostly performed at broad spatial scales. Using the endangered heath tiger beetle (Cicindela sylvatica) as a model species, we relate presence/absence and abundance data of locally dispersing adults and sedentary larvae to abiotic and biotic variables measured in a multiscale approach within the geographic extent relevant to active conservation management. At the scale of hundreds of meters, fine-grained abiotic conditions (i.e., vegetation structure) are fundamental determinants of the occurrence of both life stages, whereas the effect of biotic factors is mostly contained in the abiotic signature. The combination of dense heath vegetation and bare ground areas is thus the first requirement for the species' preservation, provided that accessibility to the suitable habitat is ensured. At a smaller scale (centimetres), the influence of abiotic factors on larval occurrence becomes negligible, suggesting the existence of important additional variables acting within larval proximity. Sustained significant correlations between neighbouring larvae in the models provide an indication of the potential impact of neighbourhood crowding on the larval niche within a few centimetres. Since the species spends the majority of its life cycle in the larval stage, it is essential to consider the hierarchical abiotic and biotic processes affecting the larvae when designing practical conservation guidelines for the species. This underlines the necessity for a more critical evaluation of the consequences of disregarding niche variation between life stages when estimating niches and

  11. Sensitivity of UK butterflies to local climatic extremes: which life stages are most at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott Long, Osgur; Warren, Rachel; Price, Jeff; Brereton, Tom M; Botham, Marc S; Franco, Aldina M A

    2017-01-01

    There is growing recognition as to the importance of extreme climatic events (ECEs) in determining changes in species populations. In fact, it is often the extent of climate variability that determines a population's ability to persist at a given site. This study examined the impact of ECEs on the resident UK butterfly species (n = 41) over a 37-year period. The study investigated the sensitivity of butterflies to four extremes (drought, extreme precipitation, extreme heat and extreme cold), identified at the site level, across each species' life stages. Variations in the vulnerability of butterflies at the site level were also compared based on three life-history traits (voltinism, habitat requirement and range). This is the first study to examine the effects of ECEs at the site level across all life stages of a butterfly, identifying sensitive life stages and unravelling the role life-history traits play in species sensitivity to ECEs. Butterfly population changes were found to be primarily driven by temperature extremes. Extreme heat was detrimental during overwintering periods and beneficial during adult periods and extreme cold had opposite impacts on both of these life stages. Previously undocumented detrimental effects were identified for extreme precipitation during the pupal life stage for univoltine species. Generalists were found to have significantly more negative associations with ECEs than specialists. With future projections of warmer, wetter winters and more severe weather events, UK butterflies could come under severe pressure given the findings of this study. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2016 British Ecological Society.

  12. Cost Accounting of Venture Company Depending on the Stage of Its Life Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Olha Usatenko

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to identify groups of costs that are inherent in life-cycle stages of venture companies and which directly are the objects of accounting. The author distinguishes stages of the life cycle of the venture company with an indication of the degree of risk and the need for venture capital, which determine the accounting tasks required to reflect it. The model of lifecycle accounting of venture company is grounded. The conventional range of expected return on the inves...

  13. Comparative responses to endocrine disrupting compounds in early life stages of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, T A; Iwanowicz, L R; McCormick, S D

    2014-07-01

    Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are endangered anadromous fish that may be exposed to feminizing endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) during early development, potentially altering physiological capacities, survival and fitness. To assess differential life stage sensitivity to common EDCs, we carried out short-term (4 day) exposures using three doses each of 17 α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), 17 β-estradiol (E2), and nonylphenol (NP) on four early life stages; embryos, yolk-sac larvae, feeding fry and 1 year old smolts. Differential response was compared using vitellogenin (Vtg, a precursor egg protein) gene transcription. Smolts were also examined for impacts on plasma Vtg, cortisol, thyroid hormones (T4/T3) and hepatosomatic index (HSI). Compound-related mortality was not observed in any life stage, but Vtg mRNA was elevated in a dose-dependent manner in yolk-sac larvae, fry and smolts but not in embryos. The estrogens EE2 and E2 were consistently stronger inducers of Vtg than NP. Embryos responded significantly to the highest concentration of EE2 only, while older life stages responded to the highest doses of all three compounds, as well as intermediate doses of EE2 and E2. Maximal transcription was greater for fry among the three earliest life stages, suggesting fry may be the most responsive life stage in early development. Smolt plasma Vtg was also significantly increased, and this response was observed at lower doses of each compound than was detected by gene transcription suggesting plasma Vtg is a more sensitive indicator at this life stage. HSI was increased at the highest doses of EE2 and E2, and plasma T3 was decreased at the highest dose of EE2. Our results indicate that all life stages are potentially sensitive to endocrine disruption by estrogenic compounds and that physiological responses were altered over a short window of exposure, indicating the potential for these compounds to impact fish in the wild. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  14. Risk assessment considerations for plant protection products and terrestrial life-stages of amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltje, Lennart; Ufer, Andreas; Hamer, Mick; Sowig, Peter; Demmig, Sandra; Dechet, Friedrich

    2018-04-28

    Some amphibians occur in agricultural landscapes during certain periods of their life cycle and consequently might be exposed to plant protection products (PPPs). While the sensitivity of aquatic life-stages is considered to be covered by the standard assessment for aquatic organisms (especially fish), the situation is less clear for terrestrial amphibian life-stages. In this paper, considerations are presented on how a risk assessment for PPPs and terrestrial life-stages of amphibians could be conducted. It discusses available information concerning the toxicity of PPPs to terrestrial amphibians, and their potential exposure to PPPs in consideration of aspects of amphibian biology. The emphasis is on avoiding additional vertebrate testing as much as possible by using exposure-driven approaches and by making use of existing vertebrate toxicity data, where appropriate. Options for toxicity testing and risk assessment are presented in a flowchart as a tiered approach, progressing from a non-testing approach, to simple worst-case laboratory testing, to extended laboratory testing, to semi-field enclosure tests and ultimately to full-scale field testing and monitoring. Suggestions are made for triggers to progress to higher tiers. Also, mitigation options to reduce the potential for exposure of terrestrial life-stages of amphibians to PPPs, if a risk were identified, are discussed. Finally, remaining uncertainties and research needs are considered by proposing a way forward (road map) for generating additional information to inform terrestrial amphibian risk assessment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Environmental exposure of Atlantic horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) early life stages to essential trace elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Aaron K; Dutton, Jessica; Sclafani, Matthew; Santangelo, Nicholas

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated the accumulation Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Se, and Zn in Atlantic horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) early life stages (egg, embryo and larvae) and compared the concentrations to the concentration of each element in sediment, pore water and overlying water for 5 sites across Long Island, NY. For the majority of the sites, all essential trace elements accumulated in the embryos and larvae. However, many of the embryos and larvae at specific sites presented different concentration patterns which had no apparent relationship with the local habitat sediment and water values. Generally, Cu, Fe, and Se sequentially increased from egg stage through larval stages for the majority of sites, while Co, Mn, and Ni only did for a few sites. Zinc also showed an increase across sites from embryo to larval stage, however was the only one to show a decrease in concentration from egg to embryo stage at all sites. Interestingly, Mn at Manhasset Bay presented embryo and larval stages to be 50 fold greater than all other sites while the egg stage showed similar values to other sites; this high degree of uptake could be due to a high concentration in the overlying water. All essential trace elements can be accumulated from the environment but greater concentrations may be influenced by abiotic factors and the predominant uptake route (aqueous versus diet) at each life stage. Future laboratory experiments are required to investigate factors that influence essential trace element accumulation and loss in horseshoe crab early life stages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Quality of life in Parkinson's disease patients: progression markers of mild to moderate stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Raissa Carla; Zonta, Marise Bueno; Araújo, Ana Paula Serra de; Israel, Vera Lúcia; Teive, Hélio A G

    2017-08-01

    To investigate which factors are associated with the quality of life decline in Parkinson's disease patients from mild to moderate stages. The Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale and Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire-39 were used to evaluate clinical/functional data and the quality of life. The markers of clinical/functional worsening were drooling (p life was related to stigma (p = 0.043), greater impairment in cognition (p = 0.002), mobility (p = 0.013) and for daily living activities (p = 0.05), and was considered more significant in men, married, older individuals, and those with a longer time of disease. The quality of life worsening markers at the moderate stage were related to stigma, worsening of cognition, and to greater impairment in mobility and daily living activities.

  17. Life history traits influence the strength of distance- and density-dependence at different life stages of two Amazonian palms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Juanita; Carasco, Cecilia; Alvarez-Loayza, Patricia; Simpson, Beryl B; Economo, Evan P

    2017-07-01

    Natural enemies are known to be important in regulating plant populations and contributing to species coexistence (Janzen-Connell effects). The strength of Janzen-Connell effects (both distance- and density-effects) varies across species, but the life history traits that may mediate such a variation are not well understood. This study examined Janzen-Connell effects across the life stages (seed through adult stages) of two sympatric palm species with distinct phenologies and shade tolerances, two traits that may mediate the strength and timing of Janzen-Connell effects. Populations of two common palm species, Attalea phalerata and Astrocaryum murumuru , were studied in Manu National Park, Peru. Seed predation experiments were conducted to assess Janzen-Connell effects at the seed stage. In the post-seed stages, spatial point pattern analyses of the distributions of individuals and biomass were used to infer the strength of distance- and density-effects. Seed predation was both negative distance- and density-dependent consistent with the Janzen-Connell effects. However, only seedling recruitment for asynchronously fruiting Attalea phalerata was depressed near adults while recruitment remained high for synchronously fruiting Astrocaryum murumuru , consistent with weak distance-effects. Negative density-effects were strong in the early stages for shade-intolerant Attalea phalerata but weak or absent in shade-tolerant Astrocaryum murumuru. Distance- and density-effects varied among the life stages of the two palm species in a manner that corresponded to their contrasting phenology and shade tolerance. Generalizing such connections across many species would provide a route to understanding how trait-mediated Janzen-Connell effects scale up to whole communities of species. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  18. Evaluation of the short term 12 hour toxicity of 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) to multiple life stages of Venustaconcha ellipsiformis and Epioblasma triquetra and its host fish (Percina caprodes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boogaard, Michael A; Newton, Teresa J; Hubert, Terrance D; Kaye, Cheryl A; Barnhart, M Christopher

    2015-07-01

    The present study evaluated the risk of 12-h exposures of the lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) to multiple life stages of the federally endangered snuffbox (Epioblasma triquetra) and its primary host fish the common logperch (Percina caprodes) as well as a surrogate to the snuffbox, the ellipse (Venustaconcha ellipsiformis). Life stages examined included free glochidia, 1-wk juveniles, and adults of the ellipse; free glochidia, glochidia on host fish, and 1-wk juveniles of the snuffbox; and adult logperch. Larval sea lampreys were also tested alongside adult ellipse and logperch for direct comparison. Survival exceeded 82% among all life stages in both mussel species at levels up to 1.8 times what would be applied during treatments, suggesting that routine sea lamprey control operations would not adversely affect mussels. However, substantial mortality of adult logperch was observed at TFM concentrations typically applied to streams, and loss of host fish could adversely affect snuffbox reproduction. In addition, TFM had no significant effect on the number of glochidia that metamorphosed on adult logperch. Although the snuffbox is not likely to be acutely affected from sea lamprey control operations, mitigation efforts to minimize impacts to the host fish should be considered. © 2015 SETAC.

  19. Acute paretic syndrome in juvenile White Leghorn chickens resembles late stages of acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathies in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preisinger Rudolf

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sudden limb paresis is a common problem in White Leghorn flocks, affecting about 1% of the chicken population before achievement of sexual maturity. Previously, a similar clinical syndrome has been reported as being caused by inflammatory demyelination of peripheral nerve fibres. Here, we investigated in detail the immunopathology of this paretic syndrome and its possible resemblance to human neuropathies. Methods Neurologically affected chickens and control animals from one single flock underwent clinical and neuropathological examination. Peripheral nervous system (PNS alterations were characterised using standard morphological techniques, including nerve fibre teasing and transmission electron microscopy. Infiltrating cells were phenotyped immunohistologically and quantified by flow cytometry. The cytokine expression pattern was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. These investigations were accomplished by MHC genotyping and a PCR screen for Marek's disease virus (MDV. Results Spontaneous paresis of White Leghorns is caused by cell-mediated, inflammatory demyelination affecting multiple cranial and spinal nerves and nerve roots with a proximodistal tapering. Clinical manifestation coincides with the employment of humoral immune mechanisms, enrolling plasma cell recruitment, deposition of myelin-bound IgG and antibody-dependent macrophageal myelin-stripping. Disease development was significantly linked to a 539 bp microsatellite in MHC locus LEI0258. An aetiological role for MDV was excluded. Conclusions The paretic phase of avian inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuritis immunobiologically resembles the late-acute disease stages of human acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, and is characterised by a Th1-to-Th2 shift.

  20. Planning Costs in Certain Stage of the Life Cycle of Investment Activity of Construction Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Iakymchuk Iryna M.

    2017-01-01

    The article discusses the issues related to planning costs in certain stages of the life-cycle of investment activity of construction organization. It has been specified that cost management based on the life-cycle model of the investment project, which is being implemented by a construction organization, allows for a consistent improvement in the efficiency of the innovation process on the basis of a clear planning, as well as cost forecasting. This approach allows for the long-term effectiv...

  1. Cognitive adaptation theory and quality of life in late-stage cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianson, Heidi Fowell; Weis, Jo M; Fouad, Nadya A

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the question of whether using slightly illusionary, positive attributions of self, control, and meaning (e.g., cognitive adaptation theory), in the face of disconfirmatory evidence, facilitates quality of life in late-stage cancer patients was examined. Eighty late-stage cancer patients (Mean age = 59.7, SD = 12.5; 48.8% male, 51.2% female; varying cancer diagnoses) who recently failed or refused first line anti-neoplastic treatment completed questionnaires assessing meaning, control, self-esteem, and optimism, as well as physical and psychological quality of life. Findings suggest that greater self-esteem, control, and meaning predicted physical and psychological quality of life, with physical quality of life being influenced by control beliefs and psychological quality of life influenced by self-esteem. Optimism independently predicted physical quality of life and neither mediated nor moderated the relationship between cognitive adaptation and quality of life. Findings suggest that slightly positive, illusionary beliefs of self, control, and meaning predicted quality of life even in the presence of clear, disconfirmatory environmental evidence.

  2. Kinetics of element profile pattern during life cycle stage of morning-glory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, T.M.; Tamada, M.

    1999-01-01

    The kinetics of seven element profiles, macroscopic elements, Na, Mg, Cl, K and Ca, as well as Al and Br, in every tissue of morning-glory (Ipomoea nil L. c.v. Murasaki), from seedling to flowering stage are presented. Barriers for the elements were formed even in the same tissue during different growing phases. Most of Na and Al remained in root tissue, showing the first barrier to the upper part of the plant. During the juvenile phase, the tissues lower than cotyledon stored the elements, especially Ca and Mg. The barrier at cotyledon did not disappear completely until seed ripening stage, except for K. Generally, late developing stem showed lower accumulation of the elements, which seemed to regulate the inflow of Mg, Ca, Cl and Br into flowering tissue. The concentrations of K, Ca, Cl and Br in leaf were kept constant in spite of twice or three times higher concentration of these elements in leaf petiole. After flowering, selective element accumulation was observed during seed development, where most of the elements were accumulated into seed wall, not in seed. Higher concentration of the elements in elder leaf, which falls into ground and will be reused as plant nutrient, might reflect the recycling system of the elements in plants. (author)

  3. Life-crossroads on stage: integrating life review and drama therapy for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keisari, Shoshi; Palgi, Yuval

    2017-10-01

    This paper examines the contribution of a new group of therapeutic interventions for older adults, based on a rudimentary life-review intervention. The intervention includes narrative elements together with drama therapy. The current study examines the influence of this therapeutic intervention on key indicators of mental health and psychological well-being among older adults. Fifty-five people (n = 55), ranging in age from 62 to 93, participated in a before-after study design. The following indices - meaning in life, self-acceptance, relationships with others, depressive symptoms, and experience of successful aging - were compared between an intervention group (n = 27) and a care-as-usual control group (n = 28). Repeated measures analyses of variance showed a significant improvement over time in the experimental group. In addition, results also showed time-group interaction regarding the treatment's effectiveness for self-acceptance, relationships with others, sense of meaning in life, sense of successful aging, and depressive symptoms. Our findings confirm that the new therapeutic intervention, which integrates life-review with drama therapy, increases self-acceptance, relationships with others, sense of meaning in life, and sense of successful aging; in turn, it also decreases depressive symptoms among older adults. The contribution of this research is based on the development of a therapeutic intervention that combines narrative together with drama therapy tools, which can be used in focused and short-term group treatments with the elderly.

  4. Crecimiento somático y relación ARN/ADN en estadios juveniles de Eucinostomus argenteus (Pisces: Gerreidae en dos localidades del Caribe de Venezuela Somatic growth and RNA/DNA rate of Eucinostomus argenteus (Pisces: Gerreidae juveniles stages at two localities of the Venezuelan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Teresa Herrera-Reveles

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Con la finalidad de evaluar la asociación de índices de crecimiento en estadios tempranos de peces marinos, se estimó la tasa de crecimiento somático y las condiciones fisiológicas de Eucinostomus argenteus en dos zonas del nor-oriente venezolano: Bahía de Mochima y Golfo de Cariaco. La edad y el crecimiento fueron estimados basados en análisis de otolitos sagitta. Las condiciones fisiológicas fueron evaluadas por medio de las concentraciones de proteínas y la relación ARN/ADN, empleando técnicas espectofotométricas y fluorométricas sobre tejido muscular. Las relaciones entre tallas con la edad y el diámetro de los otolitos resultaron positivas, significativas y ajustadas a un modelo de regresión lineal. Los valores de la tasa de crecimiento reciente oscilaron entre 0.178 y 0.418mm día-1, la tasa de crecimiento retrocalculado varió entre 0.295 y 0.393mm día-1, y la tasa ARN/ADN osciló entre 1.65 y 6.97. No se registraron diferencias entre las zonas de estudio, sin embargo se reportaron diferencias entre localidades. A pesar de no encontrarse correlación entre la tasa de crecimiento y la relación ARN/ADN, los valores reportados sugieren crecimiento positivo de los individuos silvestres en las localidades evaluadas. No obstante, ciertas localidades mostraron valores que indican pobres condiciones nutricionales, pudiendo afectarse a futuro otras tasas vitales.Somatic growth and RNA/DNA rate of Eucinostomus argenteus (Pisces: Gerreidae juveniles stages at two localities of the Venezuelan Caribbean. In order to evaluate the association among growth indices of marine fishes at early life stages, the somatic growth rate and physiological conditions of Eucinostomus argenteus were estimated at two Venezuelan North-East zones: Mochima Bay and Cariaco Gulf. The age and somatic growth rate were estimated based on daily growth increments in sagitta otoliths. The physiological conditions were evaluated with proteins concentrations and RNA

  5. Massage therapy during early postnatal life promotes greater lean mass and bone growth, mineralization, and strength in juvenile and young adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H; Miller, S; Shaw, J; Moyer-Mileur, L

    2009-01-01

    The objects of this study were to investigate the effects of massage therapy during early life on postnatal growth, body composition, and skeletal development in juvenile and young adult rats. Massage therapy was performed for 10 minutes daily from D6 to D10 of postnatal life in rat pups (MT, n=24). Body composition, bone area, mineral content, and bone mineral density were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA); bone strength and intrinsic stiffness on femur shaft were tested by three-point bending; cortical and cancellous bone histomorphometric measurements were performed at D21 and D60. Results were compared to age- and gender-matched controls (C, n=24). D21 body weight, body length, lean mass, and bone area were significantly greater in the MT cohort. Greater bone mineral content was found in male MT rats; bone strength and intrinsic stiffness were greater in D60 MT groups. At D60 MT treatment promoted bone mineralization by increasing trabecular mineral apposition rate in male and endosteal mineral surface in females, and also improved micro-architecture by greater trabeculae width in males and decreasing trabecular separation in females. In summary, massage therapy during early life elicited immediate and prolonged anabolic effects on postnatal growth, lean mass and skeletal developmental in a gender-specific manner in juvenile and young adult rats.

  6. Differential Editosome Protein Function between Life Cycle Stages of Trypanosoma brucei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Suzanne M; Guo, Xuemin; Carnes, Jason; Stuart, Kenneth

    2015-10-09

    Uridine insertion and deletion RNA editing generates functional mitochondrial mRNAs in Trypanosoma brucei. The mRNAs are differentially edited in bloodstream form (BF) and procyclic form (PF) life cycle stages, and this correlates with the differential utilization of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation between the stages. The mechanism that controls this differential editing is unknown. Editing is catalyzed by multiprotein ∼20S editosomes that contain endonuclease, 3'-terminal uridylyltransferase, exonuclease, and ligase activities. These editosomes also contain KREPB5 and KREPA3 proteins, which have no functional catalytic motifs, but they are essential for parasite viability, editing, and editosome integrity in BF cells. We show here that repression of KREPB5 or KREPA3 is also lethal in PF, but the effects on editosome structure differ from those in BF. In addition, we found that point mutations in KREPB5 or KREPA3 differentially affect cell growth, editosome integrity, and RNA editing between BF and PF stages. These results indicate that the functions of KREPB5 and KREPA3 editosome proteins are adjusted between the life cycle stages. This implies that these proteins are involved in the processes that control differential editing and that the 20S editosomes differ between the life cycle stages. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Seed and seedling traits affecting critical life stage transitions and recruitment outcomes in dryland grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. Seeding native plants is a key management practice to counter land degradation across the globe, yet the majority of seeding efforts fail, limiting the ability of this tool to accelerate ecosystem recovery. 2. Seedling recruitment requires transitions through several life stages, some of which ma...

  8. Evaluation of hypothesized adverse outcome pathway linking thyroid peroxidase inhibition to fish early life stage toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is an interest in developing alternatives to the fish early-life stage (FELS) test (OECD test guideline 210), for predicting adverse outcomes (e.g., impacts on growth and survival) using less resource-intensive methods. Development and characterization of adverse outcome pa...

  9. Evaluating Managerial Styles for System Development Life Cycle Stages to Ensure Software Project Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocherla, Showry

    2012-01-01

    Information technology (IT) projects are considered successful if they are completed on time, within budget, and within scope. Even though, the required tools and methodologies are in place, IT projects continue to fail at a higher rate. Current literature lacks explanation for success within the stages of system development life-cycle (SDLC) such…

  10. Fish early life stage: Developing AOPs to support targeted reduction and replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is an interest in developing alternatives to the fish early-life stage (FELS) test (OECD test guideline 210), for predicting adverse chronic toxicity outcomes (e.g., impacts on growth and survival). Development and characterization of adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) related...

  11. Phototoxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles to zebrafish (Danio rerio) is dependent on life stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo has been increasingly used as a model to evaluate toxicity of manufactured nanomaterials. Many studies indicate that the embryo chorion may protect animals from toxic effects of nanomaterials, suggesting that post-hatch life stages may be more s...

  12. Influence of Life Cycle Stage on Family Social Climate and Attitudes Toward the Residential Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inman, Marjorie

    The existing physical forms of housing are not always compatible with prevalent social patterns. To investigate the relationship between family system characteristics and attitudes about residential space, 64 Indiana families in 4 stages of the family life cycle (early years with no children, crowded years with at least one preschool child, peak…

  13. Using Five Stage Model to Design of Collaborative Learning Environments in Second Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Sevil; Karaman, M. Kemal

    2014-01-01

    Specifically Second Life (SL) among virtual worlds draws attention of researchers to form collaborative learning environments (Sutcliffe & Alrayes, 2012) since it could be used as a rich platform to simulate a real environment containing many collaborative learning characteristics and interaction tools within itself. Five Stage Model (FSM)…

  14. Patient-reported quality of life after stereotactic ablative radiotherapy for early-stage lung cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagerwaard, F.J.; Aaronson, N.K.; Gundy, C.M.; Haasbeek, C.J.A.; Slotman, B.J.; Senan, S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Deterioration in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is frequently observed after surgery for stage I non-small-cell lung cancer. As stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) can result in local control percentages exceeding 90%, we studied baseline and post-treatment HRQOL in SABR

  15. Sexual Maturity and Life Stage Influences Toxic Metal Accumulation in Croatian Brown Bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Maja; Sekovanić, Ankica; Orct, Tatjana; Reljić, Slaven; Jurasović, Jasna; Huber, Đuro

    2018-02-01

    The influence of reproductive and (early) life stages on toxic metal levels was investigated in the brown bear (Ursus arctos), the largest mammalian predator species in Croatia. The purpose was to examine critical clusters in a population that might be at a higher risk of adverse health effects caused by metals as environmental contaminants. Levels of cadmium, mercury and lead in muscle, liver and kidney cortex of 325 male and 139 female bears, quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, were analysed according to distinct bear life stages (young: cub, yearling, subadult; mature: adult). Metal levels did not differ among sexes in young animals (< 4 years), except for mercury in muscles (higher in females), and adult females had higher cadmium and mercury. A trend of renal cadmium accumulation with age in immature male animals disappeared once they reached maturity, whereas for females this trend has only slowly declined in mature compared to immature bears. In early life stage (< 1 year), bear cubs had lower cadmium, comparable mercury, and higher lead in the kidneys than the bears of the following age category (yearlings). Due to a higher proportion of renal lead transfer from the mother to the cub compared with cadmium, it may be that the high burden of cadmium found in kidneys of older females has lower toxicological concern for their cubs than the lead content. Sex, reproductive, and life stages of bears were confirmed as important in assessing toxic metal burden.

  16. Susceptibility of different life stage of Tribolium confusum and Oryzaephilus surinamensis to cold treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory tests were carried out to examine the efficacy of different exposure intervals (2 h, 4 h, 8 h, 1 d, 2 d, 3 d and 7 d) on different life stages (adults, pupae, larvae, eggs) of Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), the confused flour beetle, and O. surinamensis (...

  17. Externally driven mortality of cod early life stages in the central Baltic: hydrography vs. predation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Viola; Köster, Fritz; Schaber, Matthias

    pressure by clupeids on the early life stages of cod could have enhanced cod recruitment in recent years. The analyses are based on a large dataset of stomach content of clupeids, cod egg abundances from ichthyoplankton surveys, and hydrographic measurements. We investigate temporal and spatial variability...

  18. Life Course Stage in Young Adulthood and Intergenerational Congruence in Family Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucx, Freek; Raaijmakers, Quinten; van Wel, Frits

    2010-01-01

    We investigated how intergenerational congruence in family-related attitudes depends on life course stage in young adulthood. Recent data from the Netherlands Kinship Panel Study were used; the present sample included 2,041 dyads of young adults and their parents. Findings are discussed in terms of the elasticity in intergenerational attitude…

  19. Organizational design configurations in the early stages of firm’s life cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Mosca, Luigi; Gianecchini, Martina; Campagnolo, Diego

    2017-01-01

    http://ocs.editorial.upv.es/index.php/CARMA/CARMA2016 Mosca, L.; Gianecchini, M.; Campagnolo, D. (2017). Organizational design configurations in the early stages of firm’s life cycle. Editorial Universitat Politècnica de València. doi:10.4995/CARMA2016.2015.3104. OCS

  20. Stages on Life's Way: Adolescents' Implicit Theories of the Life Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, A. L.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    High school and college students (n=160) described their beliefs about the life course and the adulthood transition. College students described older ages of occurrence for leaving home, beginning full-time employment, marriage, and parenthood than did high school students. For both groups, however, marriage and parenthood were thought to occur at…

  1. Constructing stage-structured matrix population models from life tables: comparison of methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masami Fujiwara

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A matrix population model is a convenient tool for summarizing per capita survival and reproduction rates (collectively vital rates of a population and can be used for calculating an asymptotic finite population growth rate (λ and generation time. These two pieces of information can be used for determining the status of a threatened species. The use of stage-structured population models has increased in recent years, and the vital rates in such models are often estimated using a life table analysis. However, potential bias introduced when converting age-structured vital rates estimated from a life table into parameters for a stage-structured population model has not been assessed comprehensively. The objective of this study was to investigate the performance of methods for such conversions using simulated life histories of organisms. The underlying models incorporate various types of life history and true population growth rates of varying levels. The performance was measured by comparing differences in λ and the generation time calculated using the Euler-Lotka equation, age-structured population matrices, and several stage-structured population matrices that were obtained by applying different conversion methods. The results show that the discretization of age introduces only small bias in λ or generation time. Similarly, assuming a fixed age of maturation at the mean age of maturation does not introduce much bias. However, aggregating age-specific survival rates into a stage-specific survival rate and estimating a stage-transition rate can introduce substantial bias depending on the organism’s life history type and the true values of λ. In order to aggregate survival rates, the use of the weighted arithmetic mean was the most robust method for estimating λ. Here, the weights are given by survivorship curve after discounting with λ. To estimate a stage-transition rate, matching the proportion of individuals transitioning, with λ used

  2. Comparative characterization of protease activity in cultured spotted rose snapper juveniles (Lutjanus guttatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emyr Peña

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Partial characterizations of digestive proteases were studied in three life stages of spotted rose snapper: early (EJ, middle (MJ and late juvenile (LJ with corresponding average weights of 21.3 ± 2.6 g (3 months after hatching, MAH, 190 ± 4.4 g (7 MAH, and 400 ± 11.5 g (12 MAH. At sampling points, the digestive tract was dissected into the stomach (St, pyloric caeca (PC, and the intestine in three sections (proximal (PI, middle (MI and distal intestine (DI. The effect of pH and temperature and specific inhibitors were evaluated for acid and alkaline proteases. Total acid and alkaline protease activity showed a tendency to increase with juvenile life stage of fish while trypsin activity decreased. Differences were found in acid and alkaline protease activities at different pH and temperatures during juvenile stages. Pepstatin A inhibited total activity in the stomach extract in all juvenile stages. Activity in total alkaline protease inhibition was significantly higher in EJ using TLCK, PMSF, SBTI, Phen and Ovo than in MJ and LJ, while no significant differences were found with TPCK inhibition. Therefore increases in protease activities with fish growth through juvenile stages in which a substitution or diversification in the type of alkaline enzymes exist. These results lead a better comprehension of changes in digestive potential of Lutjanidae fish.

  3. Discovery of HDAC inhibitors with potent activity against multiple malaria parasite life cycle stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Finn K; Sumanadasa, Subathdrage D M; Stenzel, Katharina; Duffy, Sandra; Meister, Stephan; Marek, Linda; Schmetter, Rebekka; Kuna, Krystina; Hamacher, Alexandra; Mordmüller, Benjamin; Kassack, Matthias U; Winzeler, Elizabeth A; Avery, Vicky M; Andrews, Katherine T; Kurz, Thomas

    2014-07-23

    In this work we investigated the antiplasmodial activity of a series of HDAC inhibitors containing an alkoxyamide connecting-unit linker region. HDAC inhibitor 1a (LMK235), previously shown to be a novel and specific inhibitor of human HDAC4 and 5, was used as a starting point to rapidly construct a mini-library of HDAC inhibitors using a straightforward solid-phase supported synthesis. Several of these novel HDAC inhibitors were found to have potent in vitro activity against asexual stage Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites. Representative compounds were shown to hyperacetylate P. falciparum histones and to inhibit deacetylase activity of recombinant PfHDAC1 and P. falciparum nuclear extracts. All compounds were also screened in vitro for activity against Plasmodium berghei exo-erythrocytic stages and selected compounds were further tested against late stage (IV and V) P. falciparum gametocytes. Of note, some compounds showed nanomolar activity against all three life cycle stages tested (asexual, exo-erythrocytic and gametocyte stages) and several compounds displayed significantly increased parasite selectivity compared to the reference HDAC inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA). These data suggest that it may be possible to develop HDAC inhibitors that target multiple malaria parasite life cycle stages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. The effect of visible light stress on chemical signaling in two life stages of Emiliania huxleyi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentin-Alvarado, L.; Cooney, E.; Bright, K.; Strom, S.

    2016-02-01

    The cosmopolitan marine phytoplankton species Emiliania huxleyi presents a digenetic heteromorphic life cycle, with the non-motile diploid phase bearing coccoliths and the flagellated haploid phase being non-calcified. E. huxleyi contains high concentrations of dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP), the precursor of dimethylsulphide (DMS). DMSP is a multifactorial compound; it acts as a compatible solute in cell metabolism and as a chemical signal influencing bacterial and protist behavior. In the atmosphere DMS enhances cloud formation influencing climate. However, little has been documented on E. huxleyi chemical signal responses to high light stress, and how this relates to the heteromorphic life cycle. To this end, low light acclimated cultures of both haploid and diploid E. huxleyi were exposed to high light for 2 hr and allowed to recover in low light for 2 hr. During and after these treatments, growth, photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm), DMSP (intracellular and released) and cell chlorophyll content were measured. Our preliminary results suggest that presence of high light decreased Fv/Fm to a greater extent in haploid than in diploid (calcified) cells, while recovery of Fv/Fm was rapid in both life stages. The chlorophyll content and intracellular DMSP was not different in both life stages. However, the dissolved DMSP increased after light stress in diploid cells suggesting a possible advantage as antioxidant protection or another cellular function, such as grazing protection in this life stage.

  5. The association between social network factors and mental health at different life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levula, Andrew; Wilson, Andrew; Harré, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Psychosocial factors are important determinants of an individual's health. This study examines the association between health scores and social network factors on mental health across different life stages. Data were drawn from the Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia survey for adolescents (n = 1739), adults (n = 10,309) and seniors (n = 2287). Hierarchical regression modelling was applied to examine effects within and across age groups. All the variables were derived from the self-completion questionnaire. The social network factors were statistically significant predictors of mental health outcomes for all three life stages. For adolescents, the three social network factors were statistically significant with social isolation having the largest impact (β = -.284, p social connection (β = .084, p social trust having a similar effect (β = .073, p social isolation had the highest impact (β = -.203, p social connection (β = .110, p social trust (β = .087, p social isolation (β = -.188, p social connection (β = .147, p social trust (β = .032, p social network factors, the models improved significantly with social isolation playing the most significant role across all life stages, whereas the other social network factors played a differentiated role depending upon the life stage. These findings have practical implications in the design of mental health interventions across different life stages.

  6. Life stage influences the resistance and resilience of black mangrove forests to winter climate extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osland, Michael J.; Day, Richard H.; From, Andrew S.; McCoy, Megan L.; McLeod, Jennie L.; Kelleway, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    In subtropical coastal wetlands on multiple continents, climate change-induced reductions in the frequency and intensity of freezing temperatures are expected to lead to the expansion of woody plants (i.e., mangrove forests) at the expense of tidal grasslands (i.e., salt marshes). Since some ecosystem goods and services would be affected by mangrove range expansion, there is a need to better understand mangrove sensitivity to freezing temperatures as well as the implications of changing winter climate extremes for mangrove-salt marsh interactions. In this study, we investigated the following questions: (1) how does plant life stage (i.e., ontogeny) influence the resistance and resilience of black mangrove (Avicennia germinans) forests to freezing temperatures; and (2) how might differential life stage responses to freeze events affect the rate of mangrove expansion and salt marsh displacement due to climate change? To address these questions, we quantified freeze damage and recovery for different life stages (seedling, short tree, and tall tree) following extreme winter air temperature events that occurred near the northern range limit of A. germinans in North America. We found that life stage affects black mangrove forest resistance and resilience to winter climate extremes in a nonlinear fashion. Resistance to winter climate extremes was high for tall A. germinans trees and seedlings, but lowest for short trees. Resilience was highest for tall A. germinans trees. These results suggest the presence of positive feedbacks and indicate that climate-change induced decreases in the frequency and intensity of extreme minimum air temperatures could lead to a nonlinear increase in mangrove forest resistance and resilience. This feedback could accelerate future mangrove expansion and salt marsh loss at rates beyond what would be predicted from climate change alone. In general terms, our study highlights the importance of accounting for differential life stage responses and

  7. Juvenile Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile arthritis (JA) is arthritis that happens in children. It causes joint swelling, pain, stiffness, and loss of motion. It can affect any joint, but ... of JA that children get is juvenile idiopathic arthritis. There are several other forms of arthritis affecting ...

  8. Development of the Japanese version of the Quality of Life in Late-stage Dementia Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Yuma; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Ishimaru, Daiki; Uematsu, Masayasu; Naito, Yasuo; Nishikawa, Takashi

    2018-03-01

    Until now, there has been no instrument to measure the quality of life (QoL) of patients with severe dementia in Japan. The purpose of this study was to translate the Quality of Life in Late-stage Dementia Scale and to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Japanese version (QUALID-J). We translated the Quality of Life in Late-stage Dementia into Japanese with permission from the original authors. We assessed a total of 70 dementia patients (14 men, 56 women; mean age: 87.4 ± 7.9 years) with the QUALID-J. The test-retest and inter-rater reliability of the QUALID-J was significant. With regard to the criterion-related validity, the correlation coefficient for the total score between the QUALID-J and Quality of Life for Alzheimer's Disease was -0.287 (P quality of life scale for severe dementia. This scale finally enables an adequate assessment of the quality of life of patients with severe dementia in Japan, which has not been possible until now. © 2018 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  9. Stages of Physical Activity Change and Health-Related Quality of Life among Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Mozafar Saadati

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ​Background and objectives : Health-related quality of life encompasses the perception of valued characteristics of health such as well being and a feeling of comfort. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of individuals’ physical activity level on their quality of life. Material and Methods : This was a descriptive-analytic study. The studied sample consisted of 404 high school boys and girls of the district 1 of Qom city. The tools used in the research included self-administered questionnaire regarding quality of life, the process of changing physical activity and demographic variables. SPSS18, ANOVA test and descriptive statistics were applied for analysis. Results: In this study, regarding the stages of change for physical activity, 41.2% of the students were in the pre-contemplation and contemplation stages, in which this variable showed a significant correlation with students’ quality of life. More physically active individuals had a better quality of life (p Conclusion : To make a decision for doing physical activity and to do exercises, have positive and decisive impact on health-related quality of life; therefore, it is recommended that necessary trainings are given to students to modify and strengthen their attitudes toward physical activity. Also, sport facilities should be provided in natural environments through government-organized planning.

  10. Geographic divergence in upper thermal limits across insect life stages: does behavior matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Heidi J; Higgins, Jessica K; Buckley, Lauren B; Kingsolver, Joel G

    2016-05-01

    Insects with complex life cycles vary in size, mobility, and thermal ecology across life stages. We examine how differences in the capacity for thermoregulatory behavior influence geographic differences in physiological heat tolerance among egg and adult Colias butterflies. Colias adults exhibit differences in morphology (wing melanin and thoracic setal length) along spatial gradients, whereas eggs are morphologically indistinguishable. Here we compare Colias eriphyle eggs and adults from two elevations and Colias meadii from a high elevation. Hatching success and egg development time of C. eriphyle eggs did not differ significantly with the elevation of origin. Egg survival declined in response to heat-shock temperatures above 38-40 °C and egg development time was shortest at intermediate heat-shock temperatures of 33-38 °C. Laboratory experiments with adults showed survival in response to heat shock was significantly greater for Colias from higher than from lower elevation sites. Common-garden experiments at the low-elevation field site showed that C. meadii adults initiated heat-avoidance and over-heating behaviors significantly earlier in the day than C. eriphyle. Our study demonstrates the importance of examining thermal tolerances across life stages. Our findings are inconsistent with the hypothesis that thermoregulatory behavior inhibits the geographic divergence of physiological traits in mobile stages, and suggest that sessile stages may evolve similar heat tolerances in different environments due to microclimatic variability or evolutionary constraints.

  11. The role of cold cues at different life stages on germination and flowering phenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Matthew J; Friedman, Jannice

    2018-04-23

    The timing of major phenological transitions is critical to lifetime fitness, and life history theory predicts differences for annual and perennial plants. To correctly time these transitions, many plants rely on environmental cues such as exposure to extended periods of cold, which may occur at different stages throughout their lifetime. We studied the role of cold at different life stages, by jointly exposing seed (stratification) and rosettes (vernalization) to cold. We used 23 populations of Mimulus guttatus, which vary from annuals to perennials, and investigated how cold at one or both stages affected germination, flowering, growth, and biomass. We found that stratification and vernalization interact to affect life cycle transitions, and that cold at either stage could synchronize flowering phenology. For perennials, either stratification or vernalization is necessary for maximum flowering. We also found that germination timing covaried with later traits. Moreover, plants from environments with dissimilar climates displayed different phenological responses to stratification or vernalization. In general, cold is more important for seed germination in annuals and plants from environments with warm temperatures and variable precipitation. In contrast, cold is more important for flowering in perennials: it accelerates flowering in plants from lower precipitation environments, and it increases flowering proportion in plants from cooler, more stable precipitation environments. We discuss our findings in the context of the variable environments plants experience within a population and the variation encountered across the biogeographic native range of the species. © 2018 Botanical Society of America.

  12. Fetal Origins of Life Stage Disease: A Zebrafish Model for the ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the U.S., childhood obesity has more than doubled in children and quadrupled in adolescents in the past 30 years, affects 35% of adults, and costs the U.S. healthcare industry >$200 billion annually. The chemical environment in the womb may cause susceptibility to different life-stage and life-long metabolic diseases including obesity. The challenge is to understand if exposures during developmentally sensitive windows impact life-stage disease, such as obesity, by increasing adipose tissue mass. In vitro models lack the integrated systems approach needed to assess adipose development, while mammalian models are impractical in a screen of thousands of chemicals. Therefore, an obesogen screening method was developed to interrogate bioactivity using a full systems approach, in a vertebrate zebrafish model with complete metabolic activity, at a time when the full signaling repertoire is expressed and active, to optimally examine how chemical dose and duration impact life-stage adipose mass. A time-line for adipose depot formation was mapped in zebrafish 6−14 days post fertilization (dpf) using the lipophilic dye, Nile Red, in combination with fluorescent microscopy. Those time points were then used to investigate the impact of embryonic tributyltin chloride (TBT, a known obesogen) exposure (10nM daily renewal, 0−5dpf) on adipose mass. Fluorescent microscopy revealed adipose depots that were larger and appeared 2 days earlier in TBT treated compared to contro

  13. Quality of life of cancer patients - definition, stages of survival and factors of influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaneva, M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the review is to represent the state of assessment of quality of life of cancer patients in the investigation of different authors. It is important to know the basic ideas of quality of life during the complex treatment of cancer patients, in order to choose such methods that will lead to an improvement of their living. The definition of the concept 'quality of life', the stages that patients pass and the influencing factors should be familiar to the therapists. Today patients live longer after a complex treatment - it is important how and what challenges they are facing together with their relatives and the medical staff. The attempts to define and measure the quality of life of cancer patients date from the last ten years. This is a social demand to get such medical care, which should be at a certain level leading not only to a longer survival but this life to be of a higher quality. The patients' perceptions and preferences concerning quality of life must be given greater emphasis in cancer treatment decision making which will better his state after a competent explanation of therapists. A quality of life of every patient is as an individual problem as a part of the social health. A classification of the problem of quality of life will enlarge the oncological therapeutic concept

  14. Hepatic xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme and transporter gene expression through the life stages of the mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice S Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Differences in responses to environmental chemicals and drugs between life stages are likely due in part to differences in the expression of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and transporters (XMETs. No comprehensive analysis of the mRNA expression of XMETs has been carried out through life stages in any species. RESULTS: Using full-genome arrays, the mRNA expression of all XMETs and their regulatory proteins was examined during fetal (gestation day (GD 19, neonatal (postnatal day (PND 7, prepubescent (PND32, middle age (12 months, and old age (18 and 24 months in the C57BL/6J (C57 mouse liver and compared to adults. Fetal and neonatal life stages exhibited dramatic differences in XMET mRNA expression compared to the relatively minor effects of old age. The total number of XMET probe sets that differed from adults was 636, 500, 84, 5, 43, and 102 for GD19, PND7, PND32, 12 months, 18 months and 24 months, respectively. At all life stages except PND32, under-expressed genes outnumbered over-expressed genes. The altered XMETs included those in all of the major metabolic and transport phases including introduction of reactive or polar groups (Phase I, conjugation (Phase II and excretion (Phase III. In the fetus and neonate, parallel increases in expression were noted in the dioxin receptor, Nrf2 components and their regulated genes while nuclear receptors and regulated genes were generally down-regulated. Suppression of male-specific XMETs was observed at early (GD19, PND7 and to a lesser extent, later life stages (18 and 24 months. A number of female-specific XMETs exhibited a spike in expression centered at PND7. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis revealed dramatic differences in the expression of the XMETs, especially in the fetus and neonate that are partially dependent on gender-dependent factors. XMET expression can be used to predict life stage-specific responses to environmental chemicals and drugs.

  15. ABC transporters and xenobiotic defense systems in early life stages of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropf, Christian; Segner, Helmut; Fent, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Embryos of oviparous fish, in contrast to (ovo) viviparous species, develop in the aquatic environment, and therefore need solute transport systems at their body surfaces for maintaining internal homeostasis and defending against potentially harmful substances. We hypothesized that solute transporters undergo changes in tissue distribution from the embryo to the larval stage. We therefore studied the mRNA profiles of eight ABC transporters (abcb1a, abcb1b, abcc1, abcc2, abcc3, abcc4, abcc5, abcg2) and three solute carriers (oatp1d, putative oatp2 putative, mate1) in different body regions (head, yolk sac epithelium, abdominal viscera, skin/muscles) of developing rainbow trout. Additionally, we investigated mRNA levels of phase I (cyp1a, cyp3a) and phase II (gstp, putative ugt1, putative ugt2) biotransformation enzymes. The study covered the developmental period from the eleuthero-embryo stage to the first-feeding larval stage (1-20days post-hatch, dph). At 1dph, transcripts of abcc2, abcc4, abcg2, cyp3a, gstp, putative mate1, and putative oatp2 occurred primarily in the yolk sac epithelium, whereas at later stages expression of these genes was predominantly observed in the abdominal viscera. The functional activity of ABC transporters in fish early life stages was assessed by rhodamine B accumulation assays. Finally, we investigated the potential impact of xenobiotics (clotrimazole, clofibric acid) on the ABC and biotransformation systems of trout early life stages. While clofibric acid had no effect, clotrimazole lead to an increased rhodamine B accumulation. The results provide evidence that the transition from the eleuthero-embryo to the larval stage is accompanied by a major alteration in tissue expression of ABC transporters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The application of the consecutive-Woehler-curve-concept in computation of the life values for multi-stage creep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schott, G.

    1991-01-01

    It is known that at multi-stage creep load there cannot be calculated any reliable life values by means of linear damage accumulation hypotheses. A practicable non-linear statement was proposed by Pantelakis. Besides the one-stage creep life curve, results from two-stage tests are required for determining the damage exponent. With this exponent, which is a function of temperature and stress in the load stage applied first, the life values can be calculated only for two-stage sequences whose stress stages have to be identical to those of the two-stage tests. For the application of the consecutive Woehler curve concept described in the following there is required the knowledge of the one-stage creep life curve and of the creep function for increasing and decreasing stress sequences derived from two-stage tests. Then, the life values can be calculated for the most different multi-stage loads. The stress stages should lie within the stress range used in the two-stage tests. (orig.) [de

  17. Assessing the toxicity and risk of salt-impacted winter road runoff to the early life stages of freshwater mussels in the Canadian province of Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, R S; Rochfort, Q; McInnis, R; Exall, K; Gillis, P L

    2017-11-01

    In temperate urbanized areas where road salting is used for winter road maintenance, the level of chloride in surface waters has been increasing. While a number of studies have shown that the early-life stages of freshwater mussels are particularly sensitive to salt; few studies have examined the toxicity of salt-impacted winter road runoff to the early-life stages of freshwater mussels to confirm that chloride is the driver of toxicity in this mixture. This study examines the acute toxicity of field-collected winter road runoff to the glochidia of wavy-rayed lampmussels (Lampsilis fasciola) (48 h exposure) and newly released juvenile fatmucket mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea) (road run-off created with moderately hard synthetic water (∼80 mg CaCO 3 /L) were 1177 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1011-1344 mg Cl - /L) and 2276 mg Cl - /L (95% CI: 1698-2854 mg Cl - /L), respectively. These effect concentrations correspond with the toxicity of chloride reported in other studies, indicating that chloride is likely the driver of toxicity in salt-impacted road-runoff, with other contaminants (e.g., metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) playing a de minimis role. Toxicity data from the current study and literature and concentrations of chloride in the surface waters of Ontario were used to conduct a probabilistic risk assessment of chloride to early-life stage freshwater mussels. The assessment indicated that chronic exposure to elevated chloride levels could pose a risk to freshwater mussels; further investigation is warranted to ensure that the most sensitive organisms are protected. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. One- and two-stage Arrhenius models for pharmaceutical shelf life prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhewen; Zhang, Lanju

    2015-01-01

    One of the most challenging aspects of the pharmaceutical development is the demonstration and estimation of chemical stability. It is imperative that pharmaceutical products be stable for two or more years. Long-term stability studies are required to support such shelf life claim at registration. However, during drug development to facilitate formulation and dosage form selection, an accelerated stability study with stressed storage condition is preferred to quickly obtain a good prediction of shelf life under ambient storage conditions. Such a prediction typically uses Arrhenius equation that describes relationship between degradation rate and temperature (and humidity). Existing methods usually rely on the assumption of normality of the errors. In addition, shelf life projection is usually based on confidence band of a regression line. However, the coverage probability of a method is often overlooked or under-reported. In this paper, we introduce two nonparametric bootstrap procedures for shelf life estimation based on accelerated stability testing, and compare them with a one-stage nonlinear Arrhenius prediction model. Our simulation results demonstrate that one-stage nonlinear Arrhenius method has significant lower coverage than nominal levels. Our bootstrap method gave better coverage and led to a shelf life prediction closer to that based on long-term stability data.

  19. Juvenile Firesetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Brittany; Freeman, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile firesetting is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Male gender, substance use, history of maltreatment, interest in fire, and psychiatric illness are commonly reported risk factors. Interventions that have been shown to be effective in juveniles who set fires include cognitive behavior therapy and educational interventions, whereas satiation has not been shown to be an effective intervention. Forensic assessments can assist the legal community in adjudicating youth with effective interventions. Future studies should focus on consistent assessment and outcome measures to create more evidence for directing evaluation and treatment of juvenile firesetters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Emergence, development, and maturity of the gonad of two species of chitons "sea cockroach" (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) through the early life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Poveda, Omar Hernando; Abadia-Chanona, Quetzalli Yasú

    2013-01-01

    This study describes and recognises, using histological and microscopical examinations on a morphometrical basis, several gonad traits through the early life stages of Chiton articulatus and C. albolineatus. Gonadal ontogenesis, gonad development stages, sexual differentiation, onset of the first sexual maturity, and growth sequences or "early life stages" were determined. In addition, allometry between lengths and body weight pooled for both sexes per each chiton were calculated using equation Y = aX(b) . A total of 125 chitons (4≤TL≤40 mm, in total length "TL") were used. All allometric relations showed a strong positive correlation (r), close to 1, with b-values above three, indicating an isometric growth. Gonadal ontogenesis and gonad development stages were categorised into three periods ("Pw" without gonad, "Pe" gonad emergence, and "Pf" gonadal sac formed) and four stages ("S0" gametocytogenesis, "S1" gametogenesis, "S2" mature, and "S3" spawning), respectively. Compound digital images were attained for each process. Periods and stages are overlapped among them and between species, with the following overall confidence intervals in TL: Pw 6.13-14.32 mm, Pe 10.32-16.93 mm, Pf 12.99-25.01 mm, S0 16.08-24.34 mm (females) and 19.51-26.60 mm (males), S1 27.15-35.63 mm (females) and 23.45-32.27 mm (males), S2 24.48-40.24 mm (females) and 25.45-32.87 mm (males). Sexual differentiation (in S0) of both chitons occurs first as a female then as a male; although, males reach the onset of the first sexual maturity earlier than females, thus for C. articulatus males at 17 mm and females at 32 mm, and for C. albolineatus males at 23.5 mm and females at 28 mm, all in TL. Four early life stages (i.e., subjuvenile, juvenile, subadult, and adult) are described and proposed to distinguish growth sequences. Our results may be useful to diverse disciplines, from developmental biology to fisheries management.

  1. Emergence, development, and maturity of the gonad of two species of chitons "sea cockroach" (Mollusca: Polyplacophora through the early life stages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Hernando Avila-Poveda

    Full Text Available This study describes and recognises, using histological and microscopical examinations on a morphometrical basis, several gonad traits through the early life stages of Chiton articulatus and C. albolineatus. Gonadal ontogenesis, gonad development stages, sexual differentiation, onset of the first sexual maturity, and growth sequences or "early life stages" were determined. In addition, allometry between lengths and body weight pooled for both sexes per each chiton were calculated using equation Y = aX(b . A total of 125 chitons (4≤TL≤40 mm, in total length "TL" were used. All allometric relations showed a strong positive correlation (r, close to 1, with b-values above three, indicating an isometric growth. Gonadal ontogenesis and gonad development stages were categorised into three periods ("Pw" without gonad, "Pe" gonad emergence, and "Pf" gonadal sac formed and four stages ("S0" gametocytogenesis, "S1" gametogenesis, "S2" mature, and "S3" spawning, respectively. Compound digital images were attained for each process. Periods and stages are overlapped among them and between species, with the following overall confidence intervals in TL: Pw 6.13-14.32 mm, Pe 10.32-16.93 mm, Pf 12.99-25.01 mm, S0 16.08-24.34 mm (females and 19.51-26.60 mm (males, S1 27.15-35.63 mm (females and 23.45-32.27 mm (males, S2 24.48-40.24 mm (females and 25.45-32.87 mm (males. Sexual differentiation (in S0 of both chitons occurs first as a female then as a male; although, males reach the onset of the first sexual maturity earlier than females, thus for C. articulatus males at 17 mm and females at 32 mm, and for C. albolineatus males at 23.5 mm and females at 28 mm, all in TL. Four early life stages (i.e., subjuvenile, juvenile, subadult, and adult are described and proposed to distinguish growth sequences. Our results may be useful to diverse disciplines, from developmental biology to fisheries management.

  2. Variations in active transport behavior among different neighborhoods and across adult life stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lars Breum; Madsen, Thomas; Schipperijn, Jasper

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Built environment characteristics are closely related to transport behavior, but observed variations could be due to residents own choice of neighborhood called residential self-selection. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in neighborhood walkability and residential...... self-selection across life stages in relation to active transport behavior. METHODS: The IPEN walkability index, which consists of four built environment characteristics, was used to define 16 high and low walkable neighborhoods in Aarhus, Denmark (250.000 inhabitants). Transport behavior was assessed...... using the IPAQ questionnaire. Life stages were categorized in three groups according to age and parental status. A factor analysis was conducted to investigate patterns of self-selection. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were carried out to evaluate the association between walkability...

  3. Analysis of Neurotransmitter Tissue Content of Drosophila melanogaster in Different Life Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster is a widely used model organism for studying neurological diseases with similar neurotransmission to mammals. While both larva and adult Drosophila have central nervous systems, not much is known about how neurotransmitter tissue content changes through development. In this study, we quantified tyramine, serotonin, octopamine, and dopamine in larval, pupal, and adult fly brains using capillary electrophoresis coupled to fast-scan cyclic voltammetry. Tyramine and octopamine content varied between life stages, with almost no octopamine being present in the pupa, while tyramine levels in the pupa were very high. Adult females had significantly higher dopamine content than males, but no other neurotransmitters were dependent on sex in the adult. Understanding the tissue content of different life stages will be beneficial for future work comparing the effects of diseases on tissue content throughout development. PMID:25437353

  4. Planning Costs in Certain Stage of the Life Cycle of Investment Activity of Construction Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iakymchuk Iryna M.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the issues related to planning costs in certain stages of the life-cycle of investment activity of construction organization. It has been specified that cost management based on the life-cycle model of the investment project, which is being implemented by a construction organization, allows for a consistent improvement in the efficiency of the innovation process on the basis of a clear planning, as well as cost forecasting. This approach allows for the long-term effectiveness of innovation project by providing cost-management services at all stages of investment project, identifying opportunities for reducing them, thereby contributing to sustainable development of construction organization over time. It has been concluded that the more specific the program of activities of construction organization, the more accurate the process of identification of costs becomes, the more efficient is the management of costs, targeted at saving resources, reducing the self cost of construction works.

  5. TRIM E3 ligases interfere with early and late stages of the retroviral life cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep D Uchil

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Members of the TRIpartite interaction Motif (TRIM family of E3 ligases have been shown to exhibit antiviral activities. Here we report a near comprehensive screen for antiretroviral activities of 55 TRIM proteins (36 human, 19 mouse. We identified approximately 20 TRIM proteins that, when transiently expressed in HEK293 cells, affect the entry or release of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV, murine leukemia virus (MLV, or avian leukosis virus (ALV. While TRIM11 and 31 inhibited HIV entry, TRIM11 enhanced N-MLV entry by interfering with Ref1 restriction. Strikingly, many TRIM proteins affected late stages of the viral life cycle. Gene silencing of endogenously expressed TRIM 25, 31, and 62 inhibited viral release indicating that they play an important role at late stages of the viral life cycle. In contrast, downregulation of TRIM11 and 15 enhanced virus release suggesting that these proteins contribute to the endogenous restriction of retroviruses in cells.

  6. Proposed changes to the nomenclature of Ichthyophonus sp. life stages and structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocan, R M

    2013-10-01

    Much of the terminology describing Ichthyophonus sp. life stages and structures can be traced to the mistaken classification of this organism as a fungus. This misidentification led early investigators to use mycological terms for the structures they observed; while some terminology is not so easily explained, it appears to have been co-opted from the fields of botany and bacteriology. The purpose of this exercise is to attempt to standardize the terminology associated with Ichthyophonus and to bring it into agreement with terminology currently used to define similar life stages of other protists. The proposed changes are (1) spore/macrospore/mother spore to "schizont," (2) microspore/endospore to "merozoite," and (3) pseudohyphae to "hyphae" or "germ tube."

  7. Hinduism’s Four Stages of Life in Saul Bellow’s Henderson the Rain King

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manimangai Mani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The oldest of Hindu’s philosophical writings, the Rig Veda, which came to being about 4500 BC underlined that, the cause of all misery that befalls  mankind  is his/her desire; or more promptly said, his/her attachment to the desire. In Hinduism, this physical plane is just a stage with life itself is nothing more than a play. The stage is set in such a way to enable the souls which took the human form to evolve and to find the enlightenment and ultimately to become one with the creator. All the material elements including the complex relationship found in this plane is nothing but a mere illusion. This study aims to explore elements of Hindu philosophy in Saul Bellow’s novel, Henderson the Rain King (1976. Eugene Henderson, the main character in this novel is portrayed as drowning in the materialistic world. Being constantly mugged by a desirable voice within him whispering, I want, I want, it is not an irony if he generated a sense of uselessness and emptiness. This study shows how Henderson’s decision to go to Africa to find the meaning of life coincides with the Hindu philosophy of the four stages of life; Brahmacharya (celibacy, Grahasthya (householdership, Vanaprastha (detachment in attachment and Sanyas (seclusion.  Henderson comes to realization in his third stage and proceeds to the fourth stage. Henderson is taught to eradicate fear and to break the cycle of desire. Towards the end, Henderson realises that the voice was actually referring to, “He wants, She wants and They want”. The voice was actually echoing the desires of mankind.

  8. Women's job quality across family life stages: An analysis of female employees across 27 European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Piasna, A.; Plagnol, A.

    2017-01-01

    There is little empirical evidence on how working conditions affect women’s employment and fertility choices, despite a number of studies on the impact of individual-level and institutional factors. The article addresses this gap by examining how family life stages are related to particular aspects of job quality among employed women in 27 European countries. The central argument of the analysis is that high-quality jobs are conducive to both transitions to motherhood and employment after chi...

  9. Hunting billbug (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) life cycle and damaging life stage in North Carolina, with notes on other billbug species abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doskocil, J P; Brandenburg, R L

    2012-12-01

    In the southeastern United States, hunting billbug, Sphenophorus venatus vestitus Chittenden, adults are often observed in turfgrass, but our knowledge of their biology and ecology is limited. Field surveys and experiments were conducted to determine the species composition, life cycle, damaging life stage, and distribution of billbugs within the soil profile in turfgrass in North Carolina. Linear pitfall trapping revealed six species of billbug, with the hunting billbug making up 99.7% of all beetles collected. Data collected from turf plus soil sampling suggest that hunting billbugs have two overlapping generations per year in North Carolina and that they overwinter as both adults and larvae. Field experiments provided evidence that adult hunting billbugs are capable of damaging warm season turfgrasses.

  10. Small-molecule xenomycins inhibit all stages of the Plasmodium life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erath, Jessey; Gallego-Delgado, Julio; Xu, Wenyue; Andriani, Grasiella; Tanghe, Scott; Gurova, Katerina V; Gudkov, Andrei; Purmal, Andrei; Rydkina, Elena; Rodriguez, Ana

    2015-03-01

    Widespread resistance to most antimalaria drugs in use has prompted the search for novel candidate compounds with activity against Plasmodium asexual blood stages to be developed for treatment. In addition, the current malaria eradication programs require the development of drugs that are effective against all stages of the parasite life cycle. We have analyzed the antimalarial properties of xenomycins, a novel subclass of small molecule compounds initially isolated for anticancer activity and similarity to quinacrine in biological effects on mammalian cells. In vitro studies show potent activity of Xenomycins against Plasmodium falciparum. Oral administration of xenomycins in mouse models result in effective clearance of liver and blood asexual and sexual stages, as well as effective inhibition of transmission to mosquitoes. These characteristics position xenomycins as antimalarial candidates with potential activity in prevention, treatment and elimination of this disease. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Ontogeny and growth of early life stages of captive-bred European eel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Sune Riis; Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Munk, Peter

    2016-01-01

    of viable eggs and larvae of European eel, providing the basis for studies on early life stages of this species in captivity. In this study, we describe and illustrate morphological characteristics of eggs, embryos, and larvae from fertilization to termination of the yolk sac stage and provide a comparison...... forms a large perivitelline space, reaching an egg diameter of 1.45 ± 0.12 mm at 3.0 to 3.5 h post fertilization. Embryonic development from fertilization to larval hatch lasted ~46–48 h at 20 °C with the larvae emerging in a relatively undeveloped stage with a protuberant yolk sac. During the period......-sustained aquaculture of this high-value and critically endangered species. Statement of relevance: European eel is a high-value species in aquaculture, however, production is presently hampered by reliance on wild caught fry. Captive production of glass eels will reopen markets in Europe and Asia, benefiting European...

  12. Juvenile Prostitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csapo, Marg

    1986-01-01

    Recent research and Canadian government committee reports concerning juvenile prostitution are reviewed. Proposals are made in the realms of law and social policy; and existing programs are described. (DB)

  13. Disparate patterns of thermal adaptation between life stages in temperate vs. tropical Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, B L; Gupta, T; Scavotto, R

    2018-02-01

    Many terrestrial ectothermic species exhibit limited variation in upper thermal tolerance across latitude. However, these trends may not signify limited adaptive capacity to increase thermal tolerance in the face of climate change. Instead, thermal tolerance may be similar among populations because behavioural thermoregulation by mobile organisms or life stages may buffer natural selection for thermal tolerance. We compared thermal tolerance of adults and embryos among natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster from a broad range of thermal habitats around the globe to assess natural variation of thermal tolerance in mobile vs. immobile life stages. We found no variation among populations in adult thermal tolerance, but embryonic thermal tolerance was higher in tropical strains than in temperate strains. We further report that embryos live closer to their upper thermal limits than adults - that is, thermal safety margins are smaller for embryos than adults. F1 hybrid embryos from crosses between temperate and tropical populations had thermal tolerance that matched that of tropical embryos, suggesting the dominance of heat-tolerant alleles. Together, our findings suggest that thermal selection has led to divergence in embryonic thermal tolerance but that selection for divergent thermal tolerance may be limited in adults. Further, our results suggest that thermal traits should be measured across life stages to better predict adaptive limits. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  14. A human life-stage physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic model for chlorpyrifos: development and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jordan Ned; Hinderliter, Paul M; Timchalk, Charles; Bartels, Michael J; Poet, Torka S

    2014-08-01

    Sensitivity to some chemicals in animals and humans are known to vary with age. Age-related changes in sensitivity to chlorpyrifos have been reported in animal models. A life-stage physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model was developed to predict disposition of chlorpyrifos and its metabolites, chlorpyrifos-oxon (the ultimate toxicant) and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy), as well as B-esterase inhibition by chlorpyrifos-oxon in humans. In this model, previously measured age-dependent metabolism of chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos-oxon were integrated into age-related descriptions of human anatomy and physiology. The life-stage PBPK/PD model was calibrated and tested against controlled adult human exposure studies. Simulations suggest age-dependent pharmacokinetics and response may exist. At oral doses ⩾0.6mg/kg of chlorpyrifos (100- to 1000-fold higher than environmental exposure levels), 6months old children are predicted to have higher levels of chlorpyrifos-oxon in blood and higher levels of red blood cell cholinesterase inhibition compared to adults from equivalent doses. At lower doses more relevant to environmental exposures, simulations predict that adults will have slightly higher levels of chlorpyrifos-oxon in blood and greater cholinesterase inhibition. This model provides a computational framework for age-comparative simulations that can be utilized to predict chlorpyrifos disposition and biological response over various postnatal life stages. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Sanitation, Stress, and Life Stage: A Systematic Data Collection Study among Women in Odisha, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulland, Kristyna R S; Chase, Rachel P; Caruso, Bethany A; Swain, Rojalin; Biswal, Bismita; Sahoo, Krushna Chandra; Panigrahi, Pinaki; Dreibelbis, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence demonstrates how inadequate access to water and sanitation is linked to psychosocial stress, especially among women, forcing them to navigate social and physical barriers during their daily sanitation routines. We examine sanitation-related psychosocial stress (SRPS) across women's reproductive lives in three distinct geographic sites (urban slums, rural villages, and rural tribal villages) in Odisha, India. We explored daily sanitation practices of adolescent, newly married, pregnant, and established adult women (n = 60) and identified stressors encountered during sanitation. Responding to structured data collection methods, women ranked seven sanitation activities (defecation, urination, menstruation, bathing, post-defecation cleaning, carrying water, and changing clothes) based on stress (high to low) and level of freedom (associated with greatest freedom to having the most restrictions). Women then identified common stressors they encountered when practicing sanitation and sorted stressors in constrained piles based on frequency and severity of each issue. The constellation of factors influencing SRPS varies by life stage and location. Overall, sanitation behaviors that were most restricted (i.e., menstruation) were the most stressful. Women in different sites encountered different stressors, and the level of perceived severity varied based on site and life stage. Understanding the influence of place and life stage on SRPS provides a nuanced understanding of sanitation, and may help identify areas for intervention.

  16. Sanitation, Stress, and Life Stage: A Systematic Data Collection Study among Women in Odisha, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristyna R S Hulland

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence demonstrates how inadequate access to water and sanitation is linked to psychosocial stress, especially among women, forcing them to navigate social and physical barriers during their daily sanitation routines. We examine sanitation-related psychosocial stress (SRPS across women's reproductive lives in three distinct geographic sites (urban slums, rural villages, and rural tribal villages in Odisha, India. We explored daily sanitation practices of adolescent, newly married, pregnant, and established adult women (n = 60 and identified stressors encountered during sanitation. Responding to structured data collection methods, women ranked seven sanitation activities (defecation, urination, menstruation, bathing, post-defecation cleaning, carrying water, and changing clothes based on stress (high to low and level of freedom (associated with greatest freedom to having the most restrictions. Women then identified common stressors they encountered when practicing sanitation and sorted stressors in constrained piles based on frequency and severity of each issue. The constellation of factors influencing SRPS varies by life stage and location. Overall, sanitation behaviors that were most restricted (i.e., menstruation were the most stressful. Women in different sites encountered different stressors, and the level of perceived severity varied based on site and life stage. Understanding the influence of place and life stage on SRPS provides a nuanced understanding of sanitation, and may help identify areas for intervention.

  17. Digestive enzyme ratios are good indicators of hatchling yolk reserve and digestive gland maturation in early life stages of cuttlefish Sepia officinalis L.: application of these new tools in ecology and aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safi, Georges; Martinez, A S; Le Pabic, C; Le Bihan, E; Robin, J P; Koueta, N

    2018-01-01

    In Sepia officinalis (Linnaeus, 1758), the digestive gland matures during the first month post-hatching, while a shift from intracellular acid to extracellular alkaline digestion occurs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of using enzymatic ratios for the description of digestive system maturation in early life stages of S. officinalis. Second, it is intended to apply these new tools as eco-physiological indicators for understanding the impact of cuttlefish eggs' life history from different spawning sites of the English Channel on digestive performance of juveniles. An experimental rearing was performed over 35 days after hatching (DAH) on juveniles from wild collected eggs in 2010 and 2011. Four digestive enzyme activities and their ratios [i.e., trypsin, cathepsin, acid (ACP), and alkaline (ALP) phosphatase, ALP/ACP, and trypsin/cathepsin] were studied along with histological features (e.g., internal yolk surface and digestive gland development). The two enzyme ratios were good indicators of digestive system maturation allowing the study of the digestive gland's development. They were highly correlated to juveniles' weight increase and histological features of the gland in early DAH. These ratios described more accurately the shift occurring between the intracellular acid and the extracellular alkaline modes of digestion in S. officinalis and were more specific than separated enzyme activities. Their application as eco-physiological tools revealed that enzyme ratios reflected yolk content and digestive gland development in new hatching juveniles. Finally, ALP/ACP ratio was shown to be a powerful tool to describe growth performance of S. officinalis which is useful for aquaculture optimization.

  18. The Salmon Louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Copepoda: Caligidae life cycle has only two Chalimus stages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars A Hamre

    Full Text Available Each year the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirussalmonis Krøyer, 1838 causes multi-million dollar commercial losses to the salmon farming industry world-wide, and strict lice control regimes have been put in place to reduce the release of salmon louse larvae from aquaculture facilities into the environment. For half a century, the Lepeophtheirus life cycle has been regarded as the only copepod life cycle including 8 post-nauplius instars as confirmed in four different species, including L. salmonis. Here we prove that the accepted life cycle of the salmon louse is wrong. By observations of chalimus larvae molting in incubators and by morphometric cluster analysis, we show that there are only two chalimus instars: chalimus 1 (comprising the former chalimus I and II stages which are not separated by a molt and chalimus 2 (the former chalimus III and IV stages which are not separated by a molt. Consequently the salmon louse life cycle has only six post-nauplius instars, as in other genera of caligid sea lice and copepods in general. These findings are of fundamental importance in experimental studies as well as for interpretation of salmon louse biology and for control and management of this economically important parasite.

  19. Quality of life in Parkinson’s disease patients: progression markers of mild to moderate stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raissa Carla Moreira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To investigate which factors are associated with the quality of life decline in Parkinson’s disease patients from mild to moderate stages. Methods The Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale and Parkinson’s Disease Questionnaire-39 were used to evaluate clinical/functional data and the quality of life. Results The markers of clinical/functional worsening were drooling (p < 0.004, need for assistance with hygiene (p = 0.02, greater freezing frequency (p = 0.042, bradykinesia (p = 0.031, greater intensity of the resting tremor (p = 0.035 and “pill rolling” (p = 0.001. The decline in quality of life was related to stigma (p = 0.043, greater impairment in cognition (p = 0.002, mobility (p = 0.013 and for daily living activities (p = 0.05, and was considered more significant in men, married, older individuals, and those with a longer time of disease. Conclusions The quality of life worsening markers at the moderate stage were related to stigma, worsening of cognition, and to greater impairment in mobility and daily living activities.

  20. Life stage differences in mammary gland gene expression profile in non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stute, Petra; Sielker, Sonja; Wood, Charles E; Register, Thomas C; Lees, Cynthia J; Dewi, Fitriya N; Williams, J Koudy; Wagner, Janice D; Stefenelli, Ulrich; Cline, J Mark

    2012-06-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is the most common malignancy of women in the developed world. To better understand its pathogenesis, knowledge of normal breast development is crucial, as BC is the result of disregulation of physiologic processes. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of reproductive life stages on the transcriptional profile of the mammary gland in a primate model. Comparative transcriptomic analyses were carried out using breast tissues from 28 female cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) at the following life stages: prepubertal (n = 5), adolescent (n = 4), adult luteal (n = 5), pregnant (n = 6), lactating (n = 3), and postmenopausal (n = 5). Mammary gland RNA was hybridized to Affymetrix GeneChip(®) Rhesus Macaque Genome Arrays. Differential gene expression was analyzed using ANOVA and cluster analysis. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed distinct separation of life stage groups. More than 2,225 differentially expressed mRNAs were identified. Gene families or pathways that changed across life stages included those related to estrogen and androgen (ESR1, PGR, TFF1, GREB1, AR, 17HSDB2, 17HSDB7, STS, HSD11B1, AKR1C4), prolactin (PRLR, ELF5, STAT5, CSN1S1), insulin-like growth factor signaling (IGF1, IGFBP1, IGFBP5), extracellular matrix (POSTN, TGFB1, COL5A2, COL12A1, FOXC1, LAMC1, PDGFRA, TGFB2), and differentiation (CD24, CD29, CD44, CD61, ALDH1, BRCA1, FOXA1, POSTN, DICER1, LIG4, KLF4, NOTCH2, RIF1, BMPR1A, TGFB2). Pregnancy and lactation displayed distinct patterns of gene expression. ESR1 and IGF1 were significantly higher in the adolescent compared to the adult animals, whereas differentiation pathways were overrepresented in adult animals and pregnancy-associated life stages. Few individual genes were distinctly different in postmenopausal animals. Our data demonstrate characteristic patterns of gene expression during breast development. Several of the pathways activated during pubertal development have been implicated in cancer

  1. THE EFFICIENCY OF PROMOTIONAL INSTRUMENTS RELATED TO THE PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE STAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAELA MARCU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Regarded as a planning tool, PLC (product life cycle strongly contributes to the identification of the main marketing challenges that may arise throughout the life of a product/service. Thus, the marketing management has the opportunity to develop and implement those solutions designed to optimize each of the 4P of marketing mix: product (quality, price, distribution (placement and promotion. The communication program has an essential role, because the company presents through it its "product" to actual or potential customers in order to convince them of the benefits of purchasing/using it. The efficiency of the promotional instruments involves an appropriate allocation of funds needed to promote the product/service in relation to the stage of its life cycle.

  2. The experience of work-life balance across family-life stages in Switzerland: a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wepfer, Ariane G; Brauchli, Rebecca; Jenny, Gregor J; Hämmig, Oliver; Bauer, Georg F

    2015-12-24

    The division of paid and unpaid labor in families continues to be highly gendered with men doing more paid work and women doing more unpaid care work. This is especially true for life stages with young children. Our study investigates the subjective experience of demands in the work and the private domain and the experience of work-life balance across family-life stages as a consequence of this gendered division of labor. We used data from a survey study on work-life issues and health in four large companies in Switzerland (N = 3664). In line with our hypotheses, subjective work and private demands were predicted by an interaction of family-life stages and gender. Specifically, during the primary child-rearing family-life stages, women experience more private demands than men while men experience more work demands, regardless of level of employment. Furthermore, women who work part time experience more work-life balance than women who work full time and more than men who work part or full time during the primary child-rearing family-life stages. Results are discussed in terms of a gendered work-life experience across the life course and the need for part-time work for both genders. Finally, conclusions are drawn concerning our results' implications for public health considerations.

  3. Corticosterone profiles in northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis): Do levels vary through life history stages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, Benjamin M; Jawor, Jodie M

    2018-04-17

    As animals move through life history stages, energy requirements for each stage will vary. Both daily and annual variation in the glucocoriticoid hormones (specifically corticosterone, or CORT, in birds) helps provide the variable energy needed through life history stages. In many bird species, CORT is higher in the breeding season when energy demands can be quite high and is often lower in the non-breeding season. Additionally, CORT has a role to play in the response to stressful stimuli and the level to which CORT is elevated following stressful events can vary through the annual cycle as well. Here we report on baseline and stress-induced CORT levels in both sexes of northern cardinals, Cardinalis cardinalis, a non-migrating, year-round territorial species across life history stages. Corticosterone is overall higher in the non-breeding season than the breeding season in both sexes. Males tend to have higher levels of stress-induced CORT than females, although the observed patterns are complex. Our findings differ from one of the more common profile reported in songbirds where breeding season CORT tends to be higher than non-breeding levels. A strong influence may be the prolonged breeding season seen in cardinals; lower levels of CORT during breeding may guard against adverse maternal effects, interruptions in breeding behaviors, or egg production. Additional investigation of species with similar ecologies to northern cardinals, and more populations of cardinals, may show that annual glucocorticoid profiles are more labile than previously appreciated. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Husbandry streaa during early life stages affects the stress response and health status of juvenile sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varsamos, S.; Flik, G.; Pepin, S.E.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.; Breuil, G.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract In aquaculture management it is important to establish objective criteria to assess health and welfare of the fish. Here we show that European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) confronted with husbandry-associated stress (tank cleaning, i.e. scrubbing, and water temperature variation) during

  5. [Symptom Distress, Depression, and Quality of Life in Colorectal Cancer Patients at Different Disease Stages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shu-Fen; Ching, Ching-Yun; Lee, Hui-Yen; Tung, Hong-Yi; Juan, Chien-Wei; Chao, Tung-Bo

    2015-12-01

    imply that healthcare professionals must provide appropriate emotional support in order to decrease depression tendency at different stages. Thus, these patients should receive nursing interventions that effectively decrease depression and symptom distress and enhance quality of life at different disease stages.

  6. Feasibility of perpetual pavement stage construction in China: A life cycle cost analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongyin Guo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of pavement design and management is to build sustainable pavement structure with minimum costs during its whole life. There are many uncertainties in the process of pavement design pertaining many of its variables, such as future traffic estimation, long time behavior of materials, future weights and types of traveling vehicles, availability of funds etc. Therefore, it is important to apply pavement stage construction technique during the process of pavement design and management to minimize the risk associated with these uncertainties. From the beginning of 2000, the research and application of perpetual asphalt pavement (PP technology has been deployed in China. The semi rigid base for asphalt pavement has been normally considered as typical component of high class highways in the design according to the Chinese experience since 1997. The research objective is to apply pavement stage construction for the evaluation of life cycle costs of Chinese perpetual and traditional semi rigid pavements using operational pavement management system in addition to examine its suitability for design and construction of more economical and durable flexible pavements. It has been found that the stage construction of asphalt layers in PP over semi rigid pavement foundation will create more sustainable and trusted pavement structures in spite of 2–5% increase in present total cost.

  7. [Transgenerational evolution of age of the main stages of reproductive life in Guadeloupe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadhel, P; Deloumeaux, J; Janky, E

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess changes in the ages at which the main stages of reproductive life, including first sexual intercourse in particular, occur in Guadeloupe (French West Indies). We conducted a transverse study of three generations of men and women over the age of 20 years. We recorded age at first intercourse and at first child for all subjects, plus age at menarche, at first pregnancy and at menopause for the women. We collected information for 803 women and 169 men. For women, median age at menarche and at first intercourse had decreased significantly, reaching 12 and 17 years, respectively. The risk of first intercourse occurring before the median age was linked to the earliness of menarche. Age at first pregnancy, at menopause for women and at first intercourse for men remained roughly stable. A non-significant trend towards increasing age at the birth of the first child was observed in both sexes. Age indicators for the main stages of reproductive life in Guadeloupe follow the trends reported in most Western countries, including mainland France. However, most of the ages recorded for particular stages are below those in mainland France. The link between age at menarche and sexual precocity may justify targeted awareness programs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Quality of Life After Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Stage I Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voort van Zyp, Noelle C. van der; Prevost, Jean-Briac; Holt, Bronno van der; Braat, Cora; Klaveren, Robertus J. van; Pattynama, Peter M.; Levendag, Peter C.; Nuyttens, Joost J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the impact of stereotactic radiotherapy on the quality of life of patients with inoperable early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Overall survival, local tumor control, and toxicity were also evaluated in this prospective study. Methods and Materials: From January 2006 to February 2008, quality of life, overall survival, and local tumor control were assessed in 39 patients with pathologically confirmed T1 to 2N0M0 NSCLC. These patients were treated with stereotactic radiotherapy. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ) C30 and the QLQ LC13 lung cancer-specific questionnaire were used to investigate changes in quality of life. Assessments were done before treatment, at 3 weeks, and at 2, 4, 6, 9, and 12 months after treatment, until death or progressive disease. Toxicity was evaluated using common terminology criteria for adverse events version 3.0. Results: Emotional functioning improved significantly after treatment. Other function scores and QLQ C30 and QLQ LC13 lung symptoms (such as dyspnea and coughing) showed no significant changes. The overall 2-year survival rate was 62%. After a median follow-up of 17 months, 1 patient had a local recurrence (3%). No grade 4 or 5 treatment-related toxicity occurred. Grade 3 toxicity consisted of thoracic pain, which occurred in 1 patient within 4 months of treatment, while it occurred thereafter in 2 patients. Conclusions: Quality of life was maintained, and emotional functioning improved significantly after stereotactic radiotherapy for stage I NSCLC, while survival was acceptable, local tumor control was high, and toxicity was low.

  9. Exposure of juvenile Danio rerio to aged TiO₂ nanomaterial from sunscreen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouqueray, Manuela; Noury, Patrice; Dherret, Lysiane; Chaurand, Perrine; Abbaci, Khedidja; Labille, Jerome; Rose, Jerome; Garric, Jeanne

    2013-05-01

    The toxicity of dietary exposure to artificially aged TiO₂ nanomaterial (T-Lite) used in sunscreen cream was studied on Danio rerio. Embryolarval assays were conducted to assess the effects of TiO₂ residues of nanomaterial (RNM) on fish early life stages. Juvenile fishes were exposed by the trophic route in two experiments. During the first experiment, juvenile fishes were exposed to TiO₂ RNM for 14 days by adding RNM to commercial fish food. The second one consisted in producing a trophic food chain. Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata algae, previously contaminated with TiO₂ RNM in growth medium, was used to feed Daphnia magna neonates over a 48-h period. Daphnia were used next to feed juvenile fishes for 7 days. Accumulation of Ti, life traits (survival and growth) and biochemical parameters such as energy reserves, digestive (trypsin, esterase, cellulose and amylase) and antioxidant (superoxide dismutase and catalase) enzyme activity were measured at the end of exposures. As expected in the receiving aquatic system, TiO2 RNM at low concentrations caused a low impact on juvenile zebrafish. A slight impact on the early life stage of zebrafish with premature hatching was observed, and this effect appeared mainly indirect, due to possible embryo hypoxia. When juvenile fish are exposed to contaminated food, digestive enzyme activity indicated a negative effect of TiO₂ RNM. Digestive physiology was altered after 14 days of exposure and seemed to be an indirect target of TiO₂ RNM when provided by food.

  10. Reducing bias in population and landscape genetic inferences: the effects of sampling related individuals and multiple life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, William; Brocato, Emily R; Semlitsch, Raymond D; Eggert, Lori S

    2016-01-01

    In population or landscape genetics studies, an unbiased sampling scheme is essential for generating accurate results, but logistics may lead to deviations from the sample design. Such deviations may come in the form of sampling multiple life stages. Presently, it is largely unknown what effect sampling different life stages can have on population or landscape genetic inference, or how mixing life stages can affect the parameters being measured. Additionally, the removal of siblings from a data set is considered best-practice, but direct comparisons of inferences made with and without siblings are limited. In this study, we sampled embryos, larvae, and adult Ambystoma maculatum from five ponds in Missouri, and analyzed them at 15 microsatellite loci. We calculated allelic richness, heterozygosity and effective population sizes for each life stage at each pond and tested for genetic differentiation (F ST and D C ) and isolation-by-distance (IBD) among ponds. We tested for differences in each of these measures between life stages, and in a pooled population of all life stages. All calculations were done with and without sibling pairs to assess the effect of sibling removal. We also assessed the effect of reducing the number of microsatellites used to make inference. No statistically significant differences were found among ponds or life stages for any of the population genetic measures, but patterns of IBD differed among life stages. There was significant IBD when using adult samples, but tests using embryos, larvae, or a combination of the three life stages were not significant. We found that increasing the ratio of larval or embryo samples in the analysis of genetic distance weakened the IBD relationship, and when using D C , the IBD was no longer significant when larvae and embryos exceeded 60% of the population sample. Further, power to detect an IBD relationship was reduced when fewer microsatellites were used in the analysis.

  11. Reducing bias in population and landscape genetic inferences: the effects of sampling related individuals and multiple life stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Peterman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In population or landscape genetics studies, an unbiased sampling scheme is essential for generating accurate results, but logistics may lead to deviations from the sample design. Such deviations may come in the form of sampling multiple life stages. Presently, it is largely unknown what effect sampling different life stages can have on population or landscape genetic inference, or how mixing life stages can affect the parameters being measured. Additionally, the removal of siblings from a data set is considered best-practice, but direct comparisons of inferences made with and without siblings are limited. In this study, we sampled embryos, larvae, and adult Ambystoma maculatum from five ponds in Missouri, and analyzed them at 15 microsatellite loci. We calculated allelic richness, heterozygosity and effective population sizes for each life stage at each pond and tested for genetic differentiation (FST and DC and isolation-by-distance (IBD among ponds. We tested for differences in each of these measures between life stages, and in a pooled population of all life stages. All calculations were done with and without sibling pairs to assess the effect of sibling removal. We also assessed the effect of reducing the number of microsatellites used to make inference. No statistically significant differences were found among ponds or life stages for any of the population genetic measures, but patterns of IBD differed among life stages. There was significant IBD when using adult samples, but tests using embryos, larvae, or a combination of the three life stages were not significant. We found that increasing the ratio of larval or embryo samples in the analysis of genetic distance weakened the IBD relationship, and when using DC, the IBD was no longer significant when larvae and embryos exceeded 60% of the population sample. Further, power to detect an IBD relationship was reduced when fewer microsatellites were used in the analysis.

  12. Life stage and species identity affect whether habitat subsidies enhance or simply redistribute consumer biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Danielle A; Gittman, Rachel K; Bouchillon, Rachel K; Fodrie, F Joel

    2017-10-01

    Quantifying the response of mobile consumers to changes in habitat availability is essential for determining the degree to which population-level productivity is habitat limited rather than regulated by other, potentially density-independent factors. Over landscape scales, this can be explored by monitoring changes in density and foraging as habitat availability varies. As habitat availability increases, densities may: (1) decrease (unit-area production decreases; weak habitat limitation); (2) remain stable (unit-area production remains stable; habitat limitation) or (3) increase (unit-area production increases; strong habitat limitation). We tested the response of mobile estuarine consumers over 5 months to changes in habitat availability in situ by comparing densities and feeding rates on artificial reefs that were or were not adjacent to neighbouring artificial reefs or nearby natural reefs. Using either constructed or natural reefs to manipulate habitat availability, we documented threefold density decreases among juvenile stone crabs as habitat increased (i.e. weak habitat imitation). However, for adult stone crabs, density remained stable across treatments, demonstrating that habitat limitation presents a bottleneck in this species' later life history. Oyster toadfish densities also did not change with increasing habitat availability (i.e. habitat limitation), but densities of other cryptic fishes decreased as habitat availability increased (i.e. weak limitation). Feeding and abundance data suggested that some mobile fishes experience habitat limitation, or, potentially in one case, strong limitation across our habitat manipulations. These findings of significant, community-level habitat limitation provide insight into how global declines in structurally complex estuarine habitats may have reduced the fishery production of coastal ecosystems. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2017 British Ecological Society.

  13. Spatio-temporal variability in western Baltic cod early life stage survival mediated by egg buoyancy, hydrography and hydrodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinrichsen, H-H.; Hüssy, K.; Huwer, B.

    2012-01-01

    Spatio-temporal variability in western Baltic cod early life stage survival mediated by egg buoyancy, hydrography and hydrodynamics. – ICES Journal of Marine Science, 69: 1744–1752.To disentangle the effects of different drivers on recruitment variability of marine fish, a spatially and temporally...... explicit understanding of both the spawning stock size and the early life stage dynamics is required. The objectives of this study are to assess the transport of western Baltic cod early life stages as well as the variability in environmentally-mediated survival along drift routes in relation to both...

  14. A Human Life-Stage Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Model for Chlorpyrifos: Development and Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Jordan N.; Hinderliter, Paul M.; Timchalk, Charles; Bartels, M. J.; Poet, Torka S.

    2014-08-01

    Sensitivity to chemicals in animals and humans are known to vary with age. Age-related changes in sensitivity to chlorpyrifos have been reported in animal models. A life-stage physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model was developed to computationally predict disposition of CPF and its metabolites, chlorpyrifos-oxon (the ultimate toxicant) and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy), as well as B-esterase inhibition by chlorpyrifos-oxon in humans. In this model, age-dependent body weight was calculated from a generalized Gompertz function, and compartments (liver, brain, fat, blood, diaphragm, rapid, and slow) were scaled based on body weight from polynomial functions on a fractional body weight basis. Blood flows among compartments were calculated as a constant flow per compartment volume. The life-stage PBPK/PD model was calibrated and tested against controlled adult human exposure studies. Model simulations suggest age-dependent pharmacokinetics and response may exist. At oral doses ≥ 0.55 mg/kg of chlorpyrifos (significantly higher than environmental exposure levels), 6 mo old children are predicted to have higher levels of chlorpyrifos-oxon in blood and higher levels of red blood cell cholinesterase inhibition compared to adults from equivalent oral doses of chlorpyrifos. At lower doses that are more relevant to environmental exposures, the model predicts that adults will have slightly higher levels of chlorpyrifos-oxon in blood and greater cholinesterase inhibition. This model provides a computational framework for age-comparative simulations that can be utilized to predict CPF disposition and biological response over various postnatal life-stages.

  15. Effects of maternal exposure to estrogen and PCB on different life stages of Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, Per-Erik; Westerlund, L; Billsson, K; Berg, A H [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Cellular and Developmental Biology; Teh, S J; Hinton, D E [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Anatomy, Physiology and Cell Biology; Tysklind, M [Umeaa Univ., (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry; Nilsson, Jan; Eriksson, Lars-Ove [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Aquaculture

    1999-02-01

    PCBs have been found to impair both reproduction and development in fish. We have investigated the effects of 3 PCB congeners, 2,3,3`,4,4`,5,6-HpCB (PCB-190); 2,3,4,4`-TeCB (PCB-60); and 2,2`,4,6,6`-PeCB (PCB-104), and the estrogenic hormone 17{beta}-estradiol on fecundity, early life-stage mortality, gross morphology and histology of zebrafish (Danio rerio). While none of the studied substances reduced fecundity, they increased embryo and larval mortality. The most severe effects on viability were observed following treatment with 17{beta}-estradiol or the weakly estrogenic PCB-104. Following 17{beta}-estradiol or PCB-104 exposure, mortality continued through the yolksac absorption phase. PCB-60, on the other hand, resulted in mortality between the 30% epiboly stage and 75% epiboly stage. At the same time as embryos started to die, embryo development and hatching were delayed. PCB-190 showed only moderate effects on early-life stage mortality. The fish were reared until sexual maturation where after they were subjected to gross morphological and histological analyses. Changes in morphology were observed following PCB-104 and PCB-190 treatment. Both substances gave rise to craniofacial malformations while PCB-104 also led to lordosis in females and scoliosis in fish of both sexes. From histological analysis it was found that PCB-104 and 17{beta}-estradiol resulted in karyorrhexis and karyolysis in the kidney. Possible signs of bile stasis were observed following 17{beta}-estradiol and PCB-190 treatment. Some effects were observed on the gonads, including areas in the ovary showing atresia and limited failure of testicular spermatogenesis in 17{beta}-estradiol, PCB-104, and PCB-60 treated fish. While all studied substances resulted in effects on offspring, the observation that estrogenic substances are highly embryotoxic, raises concern that endocrine disrupting substances may severely reduce fish populations in polluted areas

  16. Physical body parameters of red-crowned cranes Grus japonensis by sex and life stage in eastern Hokkaido, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Masako; Shimura, Ryoji; Uebayashi, Akiko; Ikoma, Shinobu; Iima, Hiroko; Sumiyoshi, Takashi; Teraoka, Hiroki; Makita, Kohei; Hiraga, Takeo; Momose, Kunikazu; Masatomi, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Red-crowned (or Japanese) cranes Grus japonensis are native to eastern Hokkaido, Japan--the island population, and mainland Asia--the continental population that migrates from breeding grounds along the Amur River Basin to winter in east China and the Korean Peninsula. The island population was reduced to about 50-60 birds in early part of the 20th century. Since 1950s, the population has increased to more than 1,300 as a consequence of human-provided food in winter, resulted in change of their habitats and food resource. From the carcasses of 284 wild cranes from the island population, collected in Hokkaido since 1976 until 2010, we measured six physical parameters (body weight and lengths of body, wing, tarsus, tail and exposed culmen) and divided into groups by sex and three developmental stages (juvenile, yearling and adult). All parameters of males were larger than those of females at the same stage. Total body length of females tends to grow up earlier than males, in contrast to body weight. Obvious time trends were not observed in these all parameters during 34 years for these six categories measured, except total length of male juveniles, which showed a significant increasing trend. These results provide the first extensive data on body size and mass in the wild red-crowned cranes.

  17. Age-related inequalities in health and healthcare: the life stages approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jecker, Nancy S

    2017-05-16

    How should healthcare systems prepare to care for growing numbers and proportions of older people? Older people generally suffer worse health than younger people do. Should societies take steps to reduce age-related health inequalities? Some express concern that doing so would increase age-related inequalities in healthcare. This paper addresses this debate by (1) presenting an argument in support of three principles for distributing scarce resources between age groups; (2) framing these principles of age group justice in terms of life stages; and (3) indicating policy implications that merit further attention in light of rapidly aging societies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Quality of life of patients with end-stage renal disease in Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpha Oumar Bah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This questionnaire-based study included 69 patients from the Republic of Guinea with end-stage renal disease (ESRD and was conducted over 12 months. The factors that affected their quality of life (QoL were determined. The included ESRD patients had an estimated creatinine clearance (CCr of 4, P = 0.01. Good QoL was associated with younger age, fewer comorbidities, less severe physical pain, and fewer physical or social limitations. QoL could be increased by improving comorbidity treatments, giving more effective pain control, and providing more assistance for social and physical limitations.

  19. Recovery in eastern Baltic cod: is increased recruitment caused by decreased predation on early life stages?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Viola; Köster, Fritz; Schaber, M.

    2014-01-01

    Cod (Gadus morhua) recruitment in the eastern Baltic Sea is influenced by predation on early life stages by sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and herring (Clupea harengus), which is considered as one of the mechanisms preventing cod recovery in the 1990s. In the light of improved cod recruitment...... in the second half of the 2000s, new analyses of stomach content of sprat and herring were conducted, to elucidate the contribution of changes in predation pressure on cod recruitment. Comparison of stomach contents of sprat and herring in 2004–2008 with data from the 1990s showed a similar diet composition...

  20. Juvenile angiofibromer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Anne Daugaard; Jakobsen, John; Nepper-Rasmussen, Jørgen

    2005-01-01

    Juvenile angiofibroma is a rare, benign, rich vascular tumor, and approximately one new case is diagnosed in Denmark each year. It sits in the foramen sphenopalatinum and occurs in boys from 14 to 25 years of age. The most frequent initial symptoms are nasal obstruction and epistaxis. Through...... the years, the treatment of juvenile angiofibroma has included many methods, including surgical excision, electrocoagulation, interstitial or external radiation therapy, cryosurgery, hormone administration and chemotherapy. Radiation, chemotherapy and surgery have proven to be the most effective treatments...

  1. Juvenile polyposis syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Yi-Han; Wei, Chin-Hung; Chang, Szu-Wen; Chang, Lung; Fu, Yu-Wei; Lee, Hung-Chang; Liu, Hsuan-Liang; Yeung, Chun-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Juvenile polyposis syndrome, a rare disorder in children, is characterized with multiple hamartomatous polyps in alimentary tract. A variety of manifestations include bleeding, intussusception, or polyp prolapse. In this study, we present an 8-month-old male infant of juvenile polyposis syndrome initially presenting with chronic anemia. To the best of our knowledge, this is the youngest case reported in the literature. Methods: We report a rare case of an 8-month-old male infant who presented with chronic anemia and gastrointestinal bleeding initially. Panendoscopy and abdominal computed tomography showed multiple polyposis throughout the entire alimentary tract leading to intussusception. Technetium-99m-labeled red blood cell (RBC) bleeding scan revealed the possibility of gastrointestinal tract bleeding in the jejunum. Histopathological examination on biopsy samples showed Peutz-Jeghers syndrome was excluded, whereas the diagnosis of juvenile polyposis syndrome was established. Results: Enteroscopic polypectomy is the mainstay of the treatment. However, polyps recurred and occupied the majority of the gastrointestinal tract in 6 months. Supportive management was given. The patient expired for severe sepsis at the age of 18 months. Conclusion: Juvenile polyposis syndrome is an inherited disease, so it is not possible to prevent it. Concerning of its poor outcome and high mortality rate, it is important that we should increase awareness and education of the parents at its earliest stages. PMID:27631205

  2. Consistency in boldness, activity and exploration at different stages of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Animals show consistent individual behavioural patterns over time and over situations. This phenomenon has been referred to as animal personality or behavioural syndromes. Little is known about consistency of animal personalities over entire life times. We investigated the repeatability of behaviour in common voles (Microtus arvalis) at different life stages, with different time intervals, and in different situations. Animals were tested using four behavioural tests in three experimental groups: 1. before and after maturation over three months, 2. twice as adults during one week, and 3. twice as adult animals over three months, which resembles a substantial part of their entire adult life span of several months. Results Different behaviours were correlated within and between tests and a cluster analysis showed three possible behavioural syndrome-axes, which we name boldness, exploration and activity. Activity and exploration behaviour in all tests was highly repeatable in adult animals tested over one week. In animals tested over maturation, exploration behaviour was consistent whereas activity was not. Voles that were tested as adults with a three-month interval showed the opposite pattern with stable activity but unstable exploration behaviour. Conclusions The consistency in behaviour over time suggests that common voles do express stable personality over short time. Over longer periods however, behaviour is more flexible and depending on life stage (i.e. tested before/after maturation or as adults) of the tested individual. Level of boldness or activity does not differ between tested groups and maintenance of variation in behavioural traits can therefore not be explained by expected future assets as reported in other studies. PMID:24314274

  3. Gamma radiation tolerance in different life stages of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paithankar, Jagdish Gopal; Deeksha, K; Patil, Rajashekhar K

    2017-04-01

    Insects are known to have higher levels of radiation tolerance than mammals. The fruit fly Drosophila provides opportunities for genetic analysis of radiation tolerance in insects. A knowledge of stage-specific sensitivity is required to understand the mechanisms and test the existing hypothesis of insect radiation tolerance. Drosophila melanogaster were irradiated using gamma rays at different life stages. Irradiation doses were chosen to start from 100-2200 Gy with increments of 100 Gy, with a dose rate of 12.5 and 25 Gy/min. The threshold of mortality, LD 50 and LD 100 1 h post-irradiation was recorded for larvae and adults and 24 h post-irradiation for eggs and after 2-3 days for early and late pupae. Total antioxidant capacity for all the life stages was measured using the phosphomolybdenum method. Twenty-four hours post-irradiation, 100% mortality was recorded for eggs at 1000 Gy. One hour post irradiation 100% mortality was recorded at 1300 Gy for first instar larvae, 1700 Gy for second instar larvae, 1900 Gy for feeding third instar larvae and 2200 Gy for non-feeding third instar larvae. Post-irradiation complete failure of emergence (100% mortality) was observed at 130 Gy for early pupae and 1500 Gy for late pupae; 100% mortality was observed at 1500 Gy for adults. The values of LD 50 were recorded as 452 Gy for eggs, 1049 Gy for first instar larvae, 1350 Gy for second instar larvae, 1265 Gy for feeding third instar larvae, 1590 Gy for non-feeding third instar larvae, 50 Gy for early pupae, 969 Gy for late pupae, 1228 Gy for adult males and 1250 Gy for adult females. Early pupae were found to be prone to radiation, whereas the non-feeding third instar larvae were most resistant among all stages. The chromosome number being constant and total antioxidant capacity being nearly constant in all stages, we suggest that high rate of cell division during early pupae makes this stage sensitive to radiation.

  4. Detangling the Effects of Environmental Filtering and Dispersal Limitation on Aggregated Distributions of Tree and Shrub Species: Life Stage Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, He-Ming; Wang, Zhang-Hua; Ma, Zun-Ping; Fang, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Xi-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The pervasive pattern of aggregated tree distributions in natural communities is commonly explained by the joint effect of two clustering processes: environmental filtering and dispersal limitation, yet little consensus remains on the relative importance of the two clustering processes on tree aggregations. Different life stages of examined species were thought to be one possible explanation of this disagreement, because the effect of environmental filtering and dispersal limitation are expected to increase and decrease with tree life stages, respectively. However, few studies have explicitly tested these expectations. In this study, we evaluated these expectations by three different methods (species-habitat association test based on Poisson Clustering model and spatial point pattern analyses based on Heterogeneous Poisson model and the jointly modeling approach) using 36 species in a 20-ha subtropical forest plot. Our results showed that the percentage of species with significant habitat association increased with life stages, and there were fewer species affected by dispersal limitation in later life stages compared with those in earlier stages. Percentage of variance explained by the environmental filtering and dispersal limitation also increases and decreases with life stages. These results provided a promising alternative explanation on the existing mixed results about the relative importance of the two clustering processes. These findings also highlighted the importance of plant life stages for fully understanding species distributions and species coexistence. PMID:27227538

  5. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Barut

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is the most common chronic rheumatic disease of unknown aetiology in childhood and predominantly presents with peripheral arthritis. The disease is divided into several subgroups, according to demographic characteristics, clinical features, treatment modalities and disease prognosis. Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis, which is one of the most frequent disease subtypes, is characterized by recurrent fever and rash. Oligoarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis, common among young female patients, is usually accompanied by anti-nuclear antibodie positivity and anterior uveitis. Seropositive polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis, an analogue of adult rheumatoid arthritis, is seen in less than 10% of paediatric patients. Seronegative polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis, an entity more specific for childhood, appears with widespread large- and small-joint involvement. Enthesitis-related arthritis is a separate disease subtype, characterized by enthesitis and asymmetric lower-extremity arthritis. This disease subtype represents the childhood form of adult spondyloarthropathies, with human leukocyte antigen-B27 positivity and uveitis but commonly without axial skeleton involvement. Juvenile psoriatic arthritis is characterized by a psoriatic rash, accompanied by arthritis, nail pitting and dactylitis. Disease complications can vary from growth retardation and osteoporosis secondary to treatment and disease activity, to life-threatening macrophage activation syndrome with multi-organ insufficiency. With the advent of new therapeutics over the past 15 years, there has been a marked improvement in juvenile idiopathic arthritis treatment and long-term outcome, without any sequelae. The treatment of juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients involves teamwork, including an experienced paediatric rheumatologist, an ophthalmologist, an orthopaedist, a paediatric psychiatrist and a physiotherapist. The primary goals

  6. Stages of change and health-related quality of life among employees of an institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liau, Siow Yen; Shafie, Asrul A; Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham Mohamed; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Othman, Ahmad Tajuddin; Mohamed, Mohamad Haniki Nik; Hamdi, Menal A

    2013-06-01

    Transtheoretical Model of change has been used successfully in promoting behaviour change. To examine the relationships between health-related quality of life (HRQoL) scores with the stages of change of adequate physical activity and fruit and vegetables intake. This was a cross-sectional study conducted among employees of the main campus and Engineering campus of Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) during October 2009 and March 2010. Data on physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake was collected using the WHO STEPS instrument for chronic disease risk factors surveillance. The Short Form-12 health survey (SF-12) was used to gather information on participants' HRQoL. The current stages of change are measured using the measures developed by the Pro-Change Behaviour Systems Incorporation. One way ANOVA and its non-parametric equivalent Kruskal-Wallis were used to compare the differences between SF-12 scores with the stages of change. A total of 144 employees were included in this analysis. A large proportion of the participants reported inadequate fruits and vegetable intake (92.3%) and physical activity (84.6%). Mean physical and mental component scores of SF-12 were 50.39 (SD = 7.69) and 49.73 (SD = 8.64) respectively. Overall, there was no statistical significant difference in the SF-12 domains scores with regards to the stages of change for both the risk factors. There were some evidence of positive relationship between stages of change of physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake with SF-12 scores. Further studies need to be conducted to confirm this association. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Stages of change and health‐related quality of life among employees of an institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liau, Siow Yen; Shafie, Asrul A; Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham Mohamed; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Othman, Ahmad Tajuddin; Mohamed, Mohamad Haniki Nik; Hamdi, Menal A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background  Transtheoretical Model of change has been used successfully in promoting behaviour change. Objective  To examine the relationships between health‐related quality of life (HRQoL) scores with the stages of change of adequate physical activity and fruit and vegetables intake. Design  This was a cross‐sectional study conducted among employees of the main campus and Engineering campus of Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) during October 2009 and March 2010. Main variables studied: Data on physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake was collected using the WHO STEPS instrument for chronic disease risk factors surveillance. The Short Form‐12 health survey (SF‐12) was used to gather information on participants’ HRQoL. The current stages of change are measured using the measures developed by the Pro‐Change Behaviour Systems Incorporation. Statistical analysis: One way ANOVA and its non‐parametric equivalent Kruskal‐Wallis were used to compare the differences between SF‐12 scores with the stages of change. Results  A total of 144 employees were included in this analysis. A large proportion of the participants reported inadequate fruits and vegetable intake (92.3%) and physical activity (84.6%). Mean physical and mental component scores of SF‐12 were 50.39 (SD = 7.69) and 49.73 (SD = 8.64) respectively. Overall, there was no statistical significant difference in the SF‐12 domains scores with regards to the stages of change for both the risk factors. Conclusions  There were some evidence of positive relationship between stages of change of physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake with SF‐12 scores. Further studies need to be conducted to confirm this association. PMID:21645189

  8. Description of the immature stages and life history of Euselasia (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae) on Miconia (Melastomataceae) in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. Nishida

    2010-01-01

    The immature stages and life histories of Euselasia chrysippe (Bates, 1866) and E. bettina (Hewitson, 1869) are described, providing the first detailed morphological characters for the subfamily Euselasiinae. The larvae of Euselasia chrysippe and E. bettina ...

  9. Determination of Partition coefficients for a Mixture of Volatile Organic Compounds in Rats and Humans at Different Life Stages

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mahle, Deidre A; Gearhart, Jeffrey M; Godfrey, Richard J; Mattie, David R; Cook, Robert S; Grisby, Claude C

    2004-01-01

    .... Partition coefficients (PCs) are an integral component of pharmacokinetic models and determining differences in tissue partitioning of volatile organic chemicals across life stages can help reduce the uncertainty in risk assessment...

  10. Bioenergetic profiling of Trypanosoma cruzi life stages using Seahorse extracellular flux technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah-Simpson, Sheena; Pereira, Camila F A; Dumoulin, Peter C; Caradonna, Kacey L; Burleigh, Barbara A

    2016-08-01

    Energy metabolism is an attractive target for the development of new therapeutics against protozoan pathogens, including Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of human Chagas disease. Despite emerging evidence that mitochondrial electron transport is essential for the growth of intracellular T. cruzi amastigotes in mammalian cells, fundamental knowledge of mitochondrial energy metabolism in this parasite life stage remains incomplete. The Clark-type electrode, which measures the rate of oxygen consumption, has served as the traditional tool to study mitochondrial energetics and has contributed to our understanding of it in T. cruzi. Here, we evaluate the Seahorse XF(e)24 extracellular flux platform as an alternative method to assess mitochondrial bioenergetics in isolated T. cruzi parasites. We report optimized assay conditions used to perform mitochondrial stress tests with replicative life cycle stages of T. cruzi using the XF(e)24 instrument, and discuss the advantages and potential limitations of this methodology, as applied to T. cruzi and other trypanosomatids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Lethal toxicity of industrial chemicals to early life stages of Tilapia guineensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezemonye, L I N; Ogeleka, D F; Okieimen, F E

    2008-08-30

    The toxic effects of industrial chemicals on three early life stages of an economically important fish, Tilapia guineensis were investigated using the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) # 203 recommended semi-static renewal bioassay. The assessment was necessary for the uncontrollable disposal of Neatex (liquid detergent) and Norust CR 486 (corrosion inhibitor) into the Niger Delta environment of Nigeria. The estimated 96-h LC(50) for 7-, 14- and 28-day-old fish in Norust CR 486 exposure was considered "more toxic" than Neatex in all life stages and was dependent on species age, exposure duration and environment. In the fresh water test, for Neatex and Norust CR 486 exposures for day 7, 14 and 28, the 96-h LC50 were 8.79, 17.10 and 82.42 mg/l and 5.55, 13.58 and 20.21 mg/l, respectively. In the brackish test, 15.42 and 46.52 mg/l, not determined (ND) and 7.35, 13.95 and 24.50mg/l were obtained. Differential toxicity was observed in the fresh and brackish water fish for the two chemicals and controls at pchemicals provides a rationale for regulatory surveillance and monitoring of both chemicals in the fragile Niger Delta environment.

  12. Differences in critical thermal maxima and mortality across life stages of the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorhees, Ashley S; Bradley, Timothy J

    2012-07-01

    Thermal limits to activity profoundly affect the abundance and distribution of ectothermic animals. Upper thermal limits to activity are typically reported as the critical thermal maximum (CT(max)), the temperature at which activity becomes uncontrolled. Thermolimit respirometry is a new technique that allows CT(max) to be quantified in small animals, such as insects, as the point of spiracular failure by measuring CO(2) release from the animal as temperature increases. Although prior studies have reported a characteristic pattern of CO(2) release for insects during thermolimit respirometry trials, no studies have been carried out to determine the universality of this pattern across development, or at what point death occurs along this pattern. Here, we compared the CT(max) and patterns of CO(2) release among three life stages of a beetle species, Tenebrio molitor, and mapped heat death onto these patterns. Our study is the first to report distinct patterns of CO(2) release in different life stages of an insect species during thermolimit respirometry. Our results show that CT(max) was significantly higher in adult beetles than in either larvae or pupae (P<0.001) and, similarly, death occurred at higher temperatures in adults than in larvae and pupae. We also found that death during heating closely follows CT(max) in these animals, which confirms that measuring the loss of spiracular control with thermolimit respirometry successfully identifies the point of physiological limitation during heat stress.

  13. Toxicity of crude oil to early life stages of two fish species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, L.M.; Hodson, P.V. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology; Brown, R.S. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry; King, T.; Lee, K. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Bedford Inst. of Oceanography

    2004-07-01

    Fish exposed to crude oil in their early life stages exhibit signs of dioxin-like toxicity which is linked to the presence of alkyl-substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Exposure is characterized by the presence of blue-sac disease which manifests itself in edema, hemorrhaging, deformities and induction of CYP1A enzymes. In this study, the extent of CYP1A induction and BSD was compared in the early life stages of rainbow trout and Japanese medaka following exposure to two crude oils (Scotian Shelf and Alaskan North Slope Crude). Embryos were exposed to a broad range of concentrations of chemically enhanced water fractions of both oils which have unique PAH composition and chemical characteristics. It was assumed that Alaskan North Slope Crude would be more toxic than Scotian Shelf because it has a higher PAH concentration. The occurrence and severity of BSD was characterized along with the extent of PAH exposure. Preliminary results confirm that PAH exposure is greater for Alaskan North Slope Crude and that the responses of the two fish species were highly correlated.

  14. A comparison of Frost expression among species and life stages of Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing, X; Zhang, J; Sinclair, Brent J

    2012-02-01

    Frost (Fst) is a gene associated with cold exposure in Drosophila melanogaster. We used real-time PCR to assess whether cold exposure induces expression of Fst in 10 different life stages of D. melanogaster, and adults of seven other Drosophila species. We exposed groups of individuals to 0 °C (2 h), followed by 1 h recovery (22 °C). Frost was significantly upregulated in response to cold in eggs, third instar larvae, and 2- and 5-day-old male and female adults in D. melanogaster. Life stages in which cold did not upregulate Fst had high constitutive expression. Frost is located on the opposite strand of an intron of Diuretic hormone (DH), but cold exposure did not upregulate DH. Frost orthologues were identified in six other species within the Melanogaster group (Drosophila sechellia, Drosophila simulans, Drosophila yakuba, Drosophila erecta, Drosophila ananassae and Drosophila mauritiana). Frost orthologues were upregulated in response to cold exposure in both sexes in adults of all of these species. The predicted structure of a putative Frost consensus protein shows highly conserved tandem repeats of motifs involved in cell signalling (PEST and TRAF2), suggesting that Fst might encode an adaptor protein involved in acute stress or apoptosis signalling in vivo. © 2011 The Authors. Insect Molecular Biology © 2011 The Royal Entomological Society.

  15. Acute toxic effects of endosulfan sulfate on three life stages of grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, Peter B; Chung, Katy W; Venturella, John J; Shaddrick, Brian; Fulton, Michael H

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the toxicity of endosulfan sulfate, the primary degradation product of the insecticide endosulfan, was determined in three life stages of the grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio). After 96 h exposure to endosulfan sulfate, the grass shrimp adult LC50 was 0.86 microg/L (95% CI 0.56-1.31), the grass shrimp larvae LC50 was 1.64 microg/L (95% CI 1.09-2.47) and the grass shrimp embryo LC50 was 45.85 microg/L (95% CI 23.72-88.61 microg/L). This was compared to the previously published grass shrimp 96-h LC50s for endosulfan. The toxicity of the two compounds was similar for the grass shrimp life stages with adults more sensitive than larvae and embryos. The presence of sediment in 24h endosulfan sulfate-exposures raised LC50s for both adult and larval grass shrimp but not significantly. The USEPA expected environmental concentrations (EEC) for total endosulfan and endosulfan sulfate and the calculations of risk quotients (RQ) based on the more sensitive adult grass shrimp 96-h LC50 clearly show that environmental concentrations equal to acute EECs would prove detrimental to grass shrimp or other similarly sensitive aquatic organisms. These results indicate that given the persistence and toxicity of endosulfan sulfate, future risk assessments should consider the toxicity potential of the parent compound as well as this degradation product.

  16. Guidelines Determine the Stage of the Life Cycle of the Organizational Culture of Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Gayday Yuliya V.

    2013-01-01

    In the article the guidelines definition stage of the life cycle of the organizational culture of trade is investigated. The main trends of forming the organizational culture of trade is defined. The basic approaches to the formation of the matrix determine the stage of the life cycle of the organizational culture of trade are grounded.В статье рассмотрены методические рекомендации определения стадии жизненного цикла организационной культуры предприятий торговли, выявлены основные тенденции ф...

  17. Relative Influence of Prior Life Stages and Habitat Variables on Dragonfly (Odonata: Gomphidae Densities among Lake Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alysa Remsburg

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Many aquatic species have discrete life stages, making it important to understand relative influences of the different habitats occupied within those populations. Although population demographics in one stage can carry over to spatially separated life stages, most studies of habitat associations have been restricted to a single life stage. Among Gomphidae dragonflies (Odonata: Anisoptera, recruitment via adult oviposition establishes initial population sizes of the aquatic larvae. However, spatial variability in larval survivorship could obscure the relationship between adult and larval densities. This study uses surveys conducted during 2005 and 2006 of Gomphidae larval, emergence, and adult stages from 22 lake sites in northern Wisconsin, USA, to investigate (1 whether the Gomphidae density of each life stage correlated spatially with that of the preceding life stage and (2 what habitat factors help explain variation in densities at each life stage. Results indicated that adult densities from the previous season helped predict densities of early-instar larvae. This finding suggests that oviposition site selection controlled the local larval distribution more than larval survivorship or movement. Late-instar larval densities helped predict densities of emerging Gomphidae later the same season, suggesting that variation in survivorship of final-instar larvae among sites is small relative to the variation in larval recruitment. This study demonstrates that locations with higher densities of odonates in the water also have higher densities of odonates on land. In addition to the densities of Gomphidae in previous life stages, water clarity helped predict larval densities, and riparian wetland vegetation helped predict emergent dragonfly densities.

  18. Influence of essential oils in diet and life-stage on gut microbiota and fillet quality of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceppa, Florencia; Faccenda, Filippo; De Filippo, Carlotta; Albanese, Davide; Pindo, Massimo; Martelli, Roberta; Marconi, Paola; Lunelli, Fernando; Fava, Francesca; Parisi, Giuliana

    2018-05-01

    Developing fish farming to meet the demands of food security and sustainability in the 21st century will require new farming systems and improved feeds. Diet and microbe interactions in the gut is an important variable with the potential to make a significant impact on future fish farming diets and production systems. It was monitored the gut microbiota of farmed rainbow trout using 16S rRNA profiling over 51 weeks during standard rearing conditions and feeding diet with supplementation of an essential oils (MixOil) mixture from plants (at a concentration in diet of 200 mg/kg). Gut microbiota 16S rRNA profiling indicated that the fish gut was dominated by Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. Although the dietary supplementation with MixOil had no impact on either the composition or architecture of gut microbiota, significant changes in alpha and beta diversity and relative abundance of groups of gut bacteria were evident during growth stages on test feeds, especially upon prolonged growth on finishing feed. Fish fillet quality to guarantee palatability and safety for human consumption was also evaluated. Significant differences within the gut microbiota of juvenile and adult trout under the same rearing conditions were observed, The addition of essential oil blend affected some physicochemical characteristics of trout fillets, including their resistance to oxidative damage and their weight loss (as liquid loss and water holding capacity) during the first period of storage, that are two important parameters related to product shelf life and susceptibility to spoilage. The results highlighted the need for further studies concern dietary microbiome modulation at different life stages and its influence on animal health, growth performance and final product quality.

  19. Intrinsic Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzyme Activities in Early Life Stages of Zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otte, Jens C; Schultz, Bernadette; Fruth, Daniela; Fabian, Eric; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Hidding, Björn; Salinas, Edward R

    2017-09-01

    Early life stages of zebrafish (Danio rerio, zf) are gaining attention as an alternative invivo test system for drug discovery, early developmental toxicity screenings and chemical testing in ecotoxicological and toxicological testing strategies. Previous studies have demonstrated transcriptional evidence for xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XME) during early zf development. However, elaborate experiments on XME activities during development are incomplete. In this work, the intrinsic activities of representative phase I and II XME were monitored by transformation of putative zf model substrates analyzed using photometry and high pressure liquid chromatography techniques. Six different defined stages of zf development (between 2.5 h postfertilization (hpf) to 120 hpf) were investigated by preparing a subcellular fraction from whole organism homogenates. We demonstrated that zf embryos as early as 2.5 hpf possess intrinsic metabolic activities for esterase, Aldh, Gst, and Cyp1a above the methodological detection limit. The activities of the enzymes Cyp3a and Nat were measurable during later stages in development. Activities represent dynamic patterns during development. The role of XME activities revealed in this work is relevant for the assessing toxicity in this test system and therefore contributes to a valuable characterization of zf embryos as an alternative testing organism in toxicology. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Health-related quality of life in different stages of chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, H K; Jain, D; Pawar, S; Yadav, R K

    2016-11-01

    Improved survival of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients has led to an increased focus on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) for evaluating treatment effectiveness and assessing health outcomes of these patients. To evaluate HRQoL in patients in different stages of CKD and to explore possible correlating and influencing factors. Cross-sectional design with 200 patients from India in CKD stages 1-5 assessed for HRQoL through 36-item short-form together with biomarkers. Patients were divided into four groups according to their estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR); group A with GFR range > 90 ml/min/1.73 m 2 , group B with GFR range 30-59 ml/min/1.73 m 2 , group C with GFR range 15-29 ml/min/1.73 m 2 and group D with GFR stages. A statistically significant decreasing trend in physical composite summary and mental composite summary scores was found in patients from group A to D (Plife. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Association of Physicians. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Spirocyclic chromanes exhibit antiplasmodial activities and inhibit all intraerythrocytic life cycle stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Bracken F; Iyamu, Iredia D; Lee, Sukjun; Lee, Eunyoung; Ayong, Lawrence; Kyle, Dennis E; Yuan, Yu; Manetsch, Roman; Chakrabarti, Debopam

    2016-04-01

    We screened a collection of synthetic compounds consisting of natural-product-like substructural motifs to identify a spirocyclic chromane as a novel antiplasmodial pharmacophore using an unbiased cell-based assay. The most active spirocyclic compound UCF 201 exhibits a 50% effective concentration (EC50) of 350 nM against the chloroquine-resistant Dd2 strain and a selectivity over 50 using human liver HepG2 cells. Our analyses of physicochemical properties of UCF 201 showed that it is in compliance with Lipinski's parameters and has an acceptable physicochemical profile. We have performed a limited structure-activity-relationship study with commercially available chromanes preserving the spirocyclic motif. Our evaluation of stage specificities of UCF 201 indicated that the compound is early-acting in blocking parasite development at ring, trophozoite and schizont stages of development as well as merozoite invasion. SPC is an attractive lead candidate scaffold because of its ability to act on all stages of parasite's aexual life cycle unlike current antimalarials.

  2. Using the Boston Matrix at Identification of the Corporate Life Cycle Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Konečný

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this article is to develop a new model supporting the identification of the particular corporate life stage within the corporate life cycle. This model will be derived from the Boston matrix. The main reason for using this approach as the base for making new model of the corporate life cycle is the fact, that every quadrant of the Boston matrix can be assigned to one phase of the product life cycle and there is supposed, that the phase, in which are most products, determines the phase of the corporate life cycle. For application the Boston matrix by identification phases of the corporate life cycle is necessary to define low and high values of both its variables using some quantities from the model of corporate- and market life cycle by Reiners (2004. So the interval of low and high sales growth is determined by comparing sales of the company and sales of the market and furthermore, there is considered the rate of inflation to eliminate the impact of price changes. And for determination low and high market shares, there are compared the shares of sales and shares of total assets. After that, there will be possible to identify all the quadrants and thus all the individual phases unequivocally, which is the basic advantage compared to most existing models of the corporate life cycle. The following aim of this article is to compare the occurrence of individual phases, identified by this modified model, depending on the sector sensitivity to the economic cycle, measured by the coefficient of correlation between sales on the market and GDP. There are selected two sectors of the Czech economy, namely one cyclical and one neutral sector. Subsequently there is selected a sample of companies from both these sectors. The data are collected from financial statements of companies and from analytical materials by the Czech Ministry of Industry and Trade and by the Czech Statistical Office. On the basis of this research, there were recorded

  3. MR imaging of the various stages of normal myelination during the first year of life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knaap, M.S. van der; Valk, J.

    1990-01-01

    The normal process of myelination of the brain mainly occurs during the first year of life. This process as known from histology can be visualized by MRI. Because of the very long T1 and T2 of immature brain tissue it is necessary to use adjusted pulse sequences with a long TR in order to obtain sufficient tissue contrast. With long TR SE images five stages can be recognized in the process of normal myelination and brain maturation. During the first month of life long TR short TE SE images show what are believed to be myelinated structures by correlation with published histological studies with a high signal intensity, unmyelinated white matter with a low signal intensity and gray matter with an intermediate signal intensity. The signal intensity of unmyelinated and myelinated white matter is reversed on long TR long TE SE images. In the course of a few weeks the signal intensity of unmyelinated white matter becomes high and the signal intensity of myelinated white matter becomes low also on long TR short TE SE images. These changes are believed to be caused by a loss of water and a change in chemical composition of brain tissue just prior to the onset of a wave of myelination. With progression of myelination the signal intensity of white matter changes from high to intermediate to low. These changes result in stages of isointensity, first in the central parts of the brain, later in the lobar parts. At the end of the first year the adult contrast pattern is reached in all parts of the brain. IR images are also able to depict the progress of myelination, but appear to be less sensitive to subtle changes in the degree of myelination. The precise normal values for the five stages depend on the magnetic field strength and the pulse sequences used. (orig.)

  4. Changes in smoking behaviour among young women over life stage transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Liane; Dobson, Annette; Russell, Anne

    2004-08-01

    To examine changes in smoking behaviour among young women over four life stages: leaving home; employment or attending college or university; marriage; and parenthood. Young women participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health completed postal questionnaires in 1996 and 2000. Unmarried women who moved out of their parents' home between 1996 and 2000 had higher odds of adopting smoking than those who had not lived with their parents at either time (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.2-2.6). Married women had lower odds of resuming smoking after quitting (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.7) than unmarried women. Women who were pregnant in 2000 had higher odds of quitting smoking (OR 3.8, 95% CI 2.5-5.6) and women who were pregnant in 1996 and not in 2000 had higher odds of starting to smoke again (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.6-6.2) than women who were not pregnant. The odds of being a current smoker or adopting smoking were significantly greater for women who binge drank alcohol or used cannabis and other illicit drugs. Adoption, maintenance and cessation of smoking among young women is strongly related to major life stage transitions, illicit drug use and alcohol consumption. Life changes such as marriage and actual or contemplated pregnancy provide opportunities for targeted interventions to help women quit smoking and not relapse after having a baby. Legislation to control smoking on licensed premises would reduce the social pressure on women to smoke.

  5. The Life Cycle Completed. Extended Version with New Chapters on the Ninth Stage of Development by Joan M. Erikson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erikson, Erik H.

    This expanded edition of a 1982 book by Erik Erikson summarizes his work on the stages of the human life cycle, including chapters on psychosexuality and the cycle of generations, major stages in psychosocial development, and ego and ethos. An additional chapter on the ninth stage sets forth his philosophy on old age--i.e. the 80s and 90s--and how…

  6. Activities of daily living and quality of life across different stages of dementia: a UK study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giebel, Clarissa M; Sutcliffe, Caroline; Challis, David

    2015-01-01

    People with dementia (PwD) require an increasing degree of assistance with activities of daily living (ADLs), and dependency may negatively impact on their well-being. However, it remains unclear which activities are impaired at each stage of dementia and to what extent this is associated with variations in quality of life (QoL) across the different stages, which were the two objectives of this study. The sample comprised 122 PwD, and their carers, either living at home or recently admitted to long-term care. Measures of cognition and QoL were completed by the PwD and proxy measures of psychopathology, depression, ADLs and QoL were recorded. Using frequency, correlation and multiple regression analysis, data were analysed for the number of ADL impairments across mild, moderate and severe dementia and for the factors impacting on QoL. ADL performance deteriorates differently for individual activities, with some ADLs showing impairment in mild dementia, including dressing, whereas others only deteriorate later on, including feeding. This decline may be seen in the degree to which carers perceive ADLs to explain the QoL of the PwD, with more ADLs associated with QoL in severe dementia. RESULTS of the regression analysis showed that total ADL performance however was only impacting on QoL in moderate dementia. Knowledge about performance deterioration in different ADLs has implications for designing interventions to address specific activities at different stages of the disease. Furthermore, findings suggest that different factors are important to consider when trying to improve or maintain QoL at different stages.

  7. Evaluating Indicators and Life Cycle Inventories for Processes in Early Stages of Technical Readiness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Eric C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Smith, Raymond [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); Ruiz-Mercado, Gerardo [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

    2017-11-01

    This presentation examines different methods for analyzing manufacturing processes in the early stages of technical readiness. Before developers know much detail about their processes, it is valuable to apply various assessments to evaluate their performance. One type of assessment evaluates performance indicators to describe how closely processes approach desirable objectives. Another type of assessment determines the life cycle inventories (LCI) of inputs and outputs for processes, where for a functional unit of product, the user evaluates the resources used and the releases to the environment. These results can be compared to similar processes or combined with the LCI of other processes to examine up-and down-stream chemicals. The inventory also provides a listing of the up-stream chemicals, which permits study of the whole life cycle. Performance indicators are evaluated in this presentation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's GREENSCOPE (Gauging Reaction Effectiveness for ENvironmental Sustainability with a multi-Objective Process Evaluator) methodology, which evaluates processes in four areas: Environment, Energy, Economics, and Efficiency. The method develops relative scores for indicators that allow comparisons across various technologies. In this contribution, two conversion pathways for producing cellulosic ethanol from biomass, via thermochemical and biochemical routes, are studied. The information developed from the indicators and LCI can be used to inform the process design and the potential life cycle effects of up- and down-stream chemicals.

  8. Teaching basic life support with an automated external defibrillator using the two-stage or the four-stage teaching technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørnshave, Katrine; Krogh, Lise Q; Hansen, Svend B; Nebsbjerg, Mette A; Thim, Troels; Løfgren, Bo

    2018-02-01

    Laypersons often hesitate to perform basic life support (BLS) and use an automated external defibrillator (AED) because of self-perceived lack of knowledge and skills. Training may reduce the barrier to intervene. Reduced training time and costs may allow training of more laypersons. The aim of this study was to compare BLS/AED skills' acquisition and self-evaluated BLS/AED skills after instructor-led training with a two-stage versus a four-stage teaching technique. Laypersons were randomized to either two-stage or four-stage teaching technique courses. Immediately after training, the participants were tested in a simulated cardiac arrest scenario to assess their BLS/AED skills. Skills were assessed using the European Resuscitation Council BLS/AED assessment form. The primary endpoint was passing the test (17 of 17 skills adequately performed). A prespecified noninferiority margin of 20% was used. The two-stage teaching technique (n=72, pass rate 57%) was noninferior to the four-stage technique (n=70, pass rate 59%), with a difference in pass rates of -2%; 95% confidence interval: -18 to 15%. Neither were there significant differences between the two-stage and four-stage groups in the chest compression rate (114±12 vs. 115±14/min), chest compression depth (47±9 vs. 48±9 mm) and number of sufficient rescue breaths between compression cycles (1.7±0.5 vs. 1.6±0.7). In both groups, all participants believed that their training had improved their skills. Teaching laypersons BLS/AED using the two-stage teaching technique was noninferior to the four-stage teaching technique, although the pass rate was -2% (95% confidence interval: -18 to 15%) lower with the two-stage teaching technique.

  9. Terrestrial movements and habitat use of gopher frogs in longleaf pine forests: a comparative study of juveniles and adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth A. Roznik; Steve A. Johnson; Cathryn H. Greenberg; George W. Tanner

    2009-01-01

    Many animals exhibit changes in patterns of movement and habitat use as they age, and understanding such ontogenetic shifts is important for ensuring that habitat management is appropriate for all life stages. We used radiotelemetry to study movements and habitat use of juvenile and adult gopher frogs (Rana capito) as they migrated from the same ponds following...

  10. Bilateral, independent juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkenborg, Marie-Louise; Frendø, M; Stavngaard, T

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a benign, vascular tumour that primarily occurs in adolescent males. Despite its benign nature, aggressive growth patterns can cause potential life-threatening complications. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is normally unilateral, originating...... from the sphenopalatine artery, but bilateral symptoms can occur if a large tumour extends to the contralateral side of the nasopharynx. This paper presents the first reported case of true bilateral extensive juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma involving clinically challenging pre-surgical planning...... embolisation. Radical removal performed as one-step, computer-assisted functional endoscopic sinus surgery was performed. The follow-up period was uncomplicated. CONCLUSION: This case illustrates the importance of suspecting bilateral juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma in patients presenting with bilateral...

  11. Fitness Outcomes Related to Glyphosate Resistance in Kochia (Kochia scoparia: What Life History Stage to Examine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omobolanle Adewale Osipitan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A fast-spreading weed, kochia (Kochia scoparia, has developed resistance to the widely-used herbicide, glyphosate. Understanding the relationship between the occurrence of glyphosate resistance caused by multiple EPSPS gene copies and kochia fitness may suggest a more effective way of controlling kochia. A study was conducted to assess fitness cost of glyphosate resistance compared to susceptibility in kochia populations at different life history stages, that is rate of seed germination, increase in plant height, days to flowering, biomass accumulation at maturity, and fecundity. Six kochia populations from Scott, Finney, Thomas, Phillips, Wallace, and Wichita counties in western Kansas were characterized for resistance to field-use rate of glyphosate and with an in vivo shikimate accumulation assay. Seed germination was determined in growth chambers at three constant temperatures (5, 10, and 15 C while vegetative growth and fecundity responses were evaluated in a field study using a target-neighborhood competition design in 2014 and 2015. One target plant from each of the six kochia populations was surrounded by neighboring kochia densities equivalent to 10 (low, 35 (moderate, or 70 (high kochia plants m−2. In 2015, neighboring corn densities equivalent to 10 and 35 plants m−2 were also evaluated. Treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with at least 7 replications. Three kochia populations were classified as glyphosate-resistant (GR [Scott (SC-R, Finney (FN-R, and Thomas (TH-R] and three populations were classified as glyphosate-susceptible (GS [Phillips (PH-S, Wallace (WA-S and Wichita (WI-S]. Of the life history stages measured, fitness differences between the GR and GS kochia populations were consistently found in their germination characteristics. The GR kochia showed reduced seed longevity, slower germination rate, and less total germination than the GS kochia. In the field, increases in plant height, biomass

  12. Life-stage-specific physiology defines invasion extent of a riverine fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David J.; Beauchamp, David A.; Olden, Julian D.

    2015-01-01

    -history stage that likely sets the distributional limits of all other life-history stages. We anticipate the framework developed here could be employed to identify how similar stage-specific environmental sensitivity determines distribution in many other ectothermic species.

  13. Amphibian Metamorphosis: A Sensitive Life Stage to Chemical and Non-chemical Stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amphibian metamorphosis is a dynamic period of post-embryonic development which transforms the larval anuran into the juvenile. The body structure is remodeled through a variety of processes which may be perturbed by exposure to chemicals as well as other environmental stressors....

  14. End-of-life costs of medical care for advanced stage cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Cancer, one of the leading causes of mortality in the world, imposes a substantial economic burden on each society, including Serbia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the major cancer cost drivers in Serbia. Methods. A retrospective, indepth, bottom-up analysis of two combined databases was performed in order to quantify relevant costs. End-of-life data were obtained from patients with cancer, who deceased within the first year of the established diagnose, including basic demographics, diagnosis, tumour histology, medical resource use and related costs, time and cause of death. All costs were allocated to one of the three categories of cancer health care services: primary care (included home care, hospital outpatient and hospital inpatient care. Results. Exactly 114 patients were analyzed, out of whom a high percent (48.25% had distant metastases at the moment of establishing the diagnosis. Malignant neoplasms of respiratory and intrathoracic organs were leading causes of morbidity. The average costs per patient were significantly different according to the diagnosis, with the highest (13,114.10 EUR and the lowest (4.00 EUR ones observed in the breast cancer and melanoma, respectively. The greatest impact on total costs was observed concerning pharmaceuticals, with 42% of share (monoclonal antibodies amounted to 34% of all medicines and 14% of total costs, followed by oncology medical care (21%, radiation therapy and interventional radiology (11%, surgery (9%, imaging diagnostics (9% and laboratory costs (8%. Conclusion. Cancer treatment incurs high costs, especially for end-of-life pharmaceutical expenses, ensued from medical personnel tendency to improve such patients’ quality of life in spite of nearing the end of life. Reimbursement policy on monoclonal antibodies, in particular at end-stage disease, should rely on cost-effectiveness evidence as well as documented clinical efficiency. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke

  15. Quality of life of early stage colorectal cancer patients in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrabti, Hind; Amziren, Mounia; ElGhissassi, Ibrahim; Bensouda, Youssef; Berrada, Narjiss; Abahssain, Halima; Boutayeb, Saber; El Fakir, Samira; Nejjari, Chakib; Benider, Abdellatif; Mellas, Nawfel; El Mesbahi, Omar; Bennani, Maria; Bekkali, Rachid; Zidouh, Ahmed; Errihani, Hassan

    2016-10-12

    A multicentre cohort study was held in Morocco, designed to evaluate the quality of life of cancer patients. The aim of this paper is to report the assessment of the quality of life of early colorectal cancer patients, before and after cancer treatment, to identify other factors which are related to this quality of life. We used the third version of the QLQ-C30 questionnaire of the European organization for Research and treatment of Cancer (EORTC) after a transcultural validation. The Data collection was done at inclusion and then every twelve weeks to achieve one year of follow up. Overall 294 patients presented with early colorectal cancer, the median age was 56 years (range: 21-88). The male-female sex ratio was 1.17. At inclusion, the global health status was the most affected functional dimension. For symptoms: financial difficulties and fatigue scores were the highest ones. Emotional and social functions were significantly worse in rectal cancer. Most symptoms were more present in rectal cancer. At inclusion, global health status score was significantly worse in stage III. Anorexia was significantly more important among colorectal female patients. For Patients over 70 years-old, the difference was statistically significant for the physical function item which was lower. Overall, Functional dimensions scores were improved after chemotherapy. The symptoms scores did not differ significantly for patients treated by radiotherapy, between inclusion and at one year. Our EORTC QLQ C30 scores are overall comparable to the reference values. Neither chemotherapy, nor radiotherapy worsened the quality of life at one year.

  16. Impacts of ocean acidification on early life-history stages and settlement of the coral-eating sea star Acanthaster planci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthicke, Sven; Pecorino, Danilo; Albright, Rebecca; Negri, Andrew Peter; Cantin, Neal; Liddy, Michelle; Dworjanyn, Symon; Kamya, Pamela; Byrne, Maria; Lamare, Miles

    2013-01-01

    Coral reefs are marine biodiversity hotspots, but their existence is threatened by global change and local pressures such as land-runoff and overfishing. Population explosions of coral-eating crown of thorns sea stars (COTS) are a major contributor to recent decline in coral cover on the Great Barrier Reef. Here, we investigate how projected near-future ocean acidification (OA) conditions can affect early life history stages of COTS, by investigating important milestones including sperm motility, fertilisation rates, and larval development and settlement. OA (increased pCO2 to 900-1200 µatm pCO2) significantly reduced sperm motility and, to a lesser extent, velocity, which strongly reduced fertilization rates at environmentally relevant sperm concentrations. Normal development of 10 d old larvae was significantly lower under elevated pCO2 but larval size was not significantly different between treatments. Settlement of COTS larvae was significantly reduced on crustose coralline algae (known settlement inducers of COTS) that had been exposed to OA conditions for 85 d prior to settlement assays. Effect size analyses illustrated that reduced settlement may be the largest bottleneck for overall juvenile production. Results indicate that reductions in fertilisation and settlement success alone would reduce COTS population replenishment by over 50%. However, it is unlikely that this effect is sufficient to provide respite for corals from other negative anthropogenic impacts and direct stress from OA and warming on corals.

  17. Trypanosoma cruzi alkaline 2-DE: Optimization and application to comparative proteome analysis of flagellate life stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santana Jaime M

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trypanosoma cruzi, a flagellate protozoan, is the etiological agent of Chagas disease, a chronic illness that causes irreversible damage to heart and digestive tract in humans. Previous 2-DE analyses of T. cruzi proteome have not focused on basic proteins, possibly because of inherent difficulties for optimizing 2-DE in the alkaline pH range. However, T. cruzi wide pH range 2-DE gels have shown few visible spots in the alkaline region, indicating that the parasite either did not have an appreciable amount of alkaline proteins or that these proteins were underrepresented in the 2-DE gels. Results Different IEF conditions using 6–11 pH gradient strips were tested for separation of T. cruzi alkaline proteins. The optimized methodology described here was performed using anodic "paper bridge" sample loading supplemented by increased concentration of DTT and Triton X-100 on Multiphor II (GE Healthcare equipment and an electrode pad embedded in DTT- containing solution near the cathode in order to avoid depletion of reducing agent during IEF. Landmark proteins were identified by peptide mass fingerprinting allowing the production of an epimastigote 2-DE map. Most identified proteins corresponded to metabolic enzymes, especially those related to amino acid metabolism. The optimized 2-DE protocol was applied in combination with the "two-in-one gel" method to verify the relative expression of the identified proteins between samples from epimastigote and trypomastigote life stages. Conclusion High resolution 2-DE gels of T. cruzi life forms were achieved using the optimized methodology and a partial epimastigote alkaline 2-DE map was built. Among 700 protein spots detected, 422 were alkaline with a pI above 7.0. The "two-in-one gel" method simplified the comparative analysis between T. cruzi life stages since it minimized variations in spot migration and silver-stained spot volumes. The comparative data were in agreement with

  18. Differential impact of dimethoate on the predatory mite Hypoaspis aculeifer Canestrini (Gamasida: Laelapidae) exposed at different life stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heckmann, Lars-Henrik; Krogh, P. H.

    The acute toxicity of dimethoate was examined on different life stages (larvae, protonymph, deutonymph, male and female) of the predatory mite Hypoaspis aculeifer. The mites were exposed for 7 days in an artificial soil to 0, 2, 4, and 6 mg kg-1. A comparison of LC50 values ranked the sensitivity...... of the life stages to be: Larvae (LC50 = 3.8) > protonymph (LC50 = 5.3) > male (LC50 = 5.6) > deutonymph (LC50 = 7.1) > female (LC50 = 7.6). A life table response analysis may show how the results affect the population dynamics of H. aculeifer....

  19. A study of the impact of disease burden in quality of life of people with pre-End-Stage and End-Stage Renal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Georgiadou

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetes Mellitus (DM is a common chronic disease accompanied by severe complications. It is the leading cause of End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD requiring management either by haemodialysis (HD or peritoneal dialysis (PD. The chronicity of the disease, and its complications, affects the psychological, family and social life of the patients and their Quality of Life (QoL. Aim: of the present study was to estimate the disease burden of patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN during pre-ESRD and during End-Stage Renal Disease. Methods: A sample of 103 patients with DN treated at the General Hospital of Veria were studied during May and June 2016. The study was conducted using the Dialysis Symptoms Index (DSI for the assessment of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD symptom load and the European Quality of Life (EuroQol questionnaire for assessing the QoL of patients in the Renal Outpatient Clinic, Haemodialysis and Peritoneal Dialysis Unit. Results: It was found that the Renal Replacement Method (HD or PD, the presence of DM and CKD’s stage affect significantly the patients’ self-assessment regarding painful symptoms of DN. Furthermore, the above factors have major impact on some aspects of patients’ QoL, such as mobility and self-care. Conclusions: Pre-End Stage patients experience more severe painful symptoms of DN compared to patients on Renal Replacement Therapies.

  20. Feeling connected to younger versus older selves: the asymmetric impact of life stage orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Ed

    2015-01-01

    The concept of life-stage orientation is proposed. Youth is a period of time characterised by strong feelings and emotions, but weak reasoning and cognitive skill. Conversely, adulthood is characterised by strong rationality, but weak emotionality. Two studies revealed that merely bringing these concepts to mind changes real-time feelings and behaviour. Participants who were instructed to act like their "adult" selves exhibited greater self-control in a cold pressor test than control participants and those who acted like their "youth" selves (Experiment 1). However, being induced to feel connected to youth enhanced enjoyment for fun videos (Experiment 2). Hence, the extent to which people are oriented towards youth versus adulthood has asymmetric costs and benefits for the present. Connecting to youth boosts experiential capacities (in this case, enjoying oneself) at the cost of agency, whereas connecting to adulthood boosts agentic capacities (in this case, exerting will-power) at the cost of experience.

  1. 4-Nitro styrylquinoline is an antimalarial inhibiting multiple stages of Plasmodium falciparum asexual life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Bracken F; Zheng, Yongsheng; Cleaveleand, Jacob; Lee, Sukjun; Lee, Eunyoung; Ayong, Lawrence; Yuan, Yu; Chakrabarti, Debopam

    2017-04-01

    Drugs against malaria are losing their effectiveness because of emerging drug resistance. This underscores the need for novel therapeutic options for malaria with mechanism of actions distinct from current antimalarials. To identify novel pharmacophores against malaria we have screened compounds containing structural features of natural products that are pharmacologically relevant. This screening has identified a 4-nitro styrylquinoline (SQ) compound with submicromolar antiplasmodial activity and excellent selectivity. SQ exhibits a cellular action distinct from current antimalarials, acting early on malaria parasite's intraerythrocytic life cycle including merozoite invasion. The compound is a fast-acting parasitocidal agent and also exhibits curative property in the rodent malaria model when administered orally. In this report, we describe the synthesis, preliminary structure-function analysis, and the parasite developmental stage specific action of the SQ scaffold. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparative toxicity of four crude oils to the early life stages of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, L.M.J.; Khan, C.W.; Akhtar, P.; Hodson, P.V.; Short, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Crude oil is a source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in aquatic ecosystems. Fish that are chronically exposed to alkyl PAHs show dioxin-like toxicity characterized by the presence of blue sac disease (BSD) and the induction of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A). This study compared the relative toxicity of four crude oils (Scotian Light Crude, MESA, the synthetic Federated Crude, and Alaska North Slope Crude) to early life stages of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The study examined the influence of the four crudes in causing the disease in rainbow trout embryos living in simulated spawning beds with hydrocarbon-contaminated gravel. Each oil had different chemical characteristics and PAH concentrations. Mortality in the direct exposure experiment increased as the oil concentration increased. The same trend was observed for the BSD prevalence. The study showed that Scotian Light Crude was the least toxic, with BSD increasing only at the highest concentration. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  3. Development of PBPK models for PFOA and PFOS for human pregnancy and lactation life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loccisano, Anne E; Longnecker, Matthew P; Campbell, Jerry L; Andersen, Melvin E; Clewell, Harvey J

    2013-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acid carboxylates and sulfonates (PFAA) have many consumer and industrial applications. Developmental toxicity studies in animals have raised concern about potential reproductive/developmental effects of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS); however, in humans conflicting results have been reported for associations between maternal PFAA levels and these outcomes. Risk assessments and interpretation of available human data during gestation and lactation are hindered due to lack of a framework for understanding and estimating maternal, fetal, and neonatal pharmacokinetics (PK). Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models were developed for PFOA and PFOS for the gestation and lactation life stages in humans to understand how the physiological changes associated with development affect pharmacokinetics of these compounds in the mother, fetus, and infant. These models were derived from PBPK models for PFOA/PFOS that were previously developed for adult humans and rats during gestation and lactation and from existing human pregnancy and lactation models developed for other chemicals. The models simulated PFOA and PFOS concentrations in fetal, infant, and maternal plasma and milk, were compared to available data in humans, and also were used to estimate maternal exposure. The models reported here identified several research needs, which include (1) the identification of transporters involved in renal resorption to explain the multiyear half-lives of these compounds in humans, (2) factors affecting clearance of PFOA/PFOS during gestation and lactation, and (3) data to estimate clearance of PFOA/PFOS in infants. These models may help address concerns regarding possible adverse health effects due to PFOA/PFOS exposure in the fetus and infant and may be useful in comparing pharmacokinetics across life stages.

  4. Health-related quality of life in end-stage COPD and lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habraken, Jolanda M; ter Riet, Gerben; Gore, Justin M; Greenstone, Michael A; Weersink, Els J M; Bindels, Patrick J E; Willems, Dick L

    2009-06-01

    Historically, palliative care has been developed for cancer patients and is not yet generally available for patients suffering from chronic life-limiting illnesses, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). To examine whether COPD patients experience similar or worse disease burden in comparison with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, we compared the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) scores of severe COPD patients with those of advanced NSCLC patients. We also formally updated previous evidence in this area provided by a landmark study published by Gore et al. in 2000. In updating this previous evidence, we addressed the methodological limitations of this study and a number of confounding variables. Eighty-two GOLD IV COPD patients and 19 Stage IIIb or IV NSCLC patients completed generic and disease-specific HRQOL questionnaires. We used an individual patient data meta-analysis to integrate the new and existing evidence (total n=201). Finally, to enhance between-group comparability, we performed a sensitivity analysis using a subgroup of patients with a similar degree of "terminality," namely those who had died within one year after study entry. Considerable differences in HRQOL were found for physical functioning, social functioning, mental health, general health perceptions, dyspnea, activities of daily living, and depression. All differences favored the NSCLC patients. The sensitivity analysis, using only terminal NSCLC and COPD patients, confirmed these findings. In conclusion, end-stage COPD patients experience poor HRQOL comparable to or worse than that of advanced NSCLC patients. We discuss these findings in the light of the notion that these COPD patients may have a similar need for palliative care.

  5. Life-stage-associated remodelling of lipid metabolism regulation in Atlantic salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillard, Gareth; Harvey, Thomas N; Gjuvsland, Arne; Jin, Yang; Thomassen, Magny; Lien, Sigbjørn; Leaver, Michael; Torgersen, Jacob S; Hvidsten, Torgeir R; Vik, Jon Olav; Sandve, Simen R

    2018-03-01

    Atlantic salmon migrates from rivers to sea to feed, grow and develop gonads before returning to spawn in freshwater. The transition to marine habitats is associated with dramatic changes in the environment, including water salinity, exposure to pathogens and shift in dietary lipid availability. Many changes in physiology and metabolism occur across this life-stage transition, but little is known about the molecular nature of these changes. Here, we use a long-term feeding experiment to study transcriptional regulation of lipid metabolism in Atlantic salmon gut and liver in both fresh- and saltwater. We find that lipid metabolism becomes significantly less plastic to differences in dietary lipid composition when salmon transitions to saltwater and experiences increased dietary lipid availability. Expression of genes in liver relating to lipogenesis and lipid transport decreases overall and becomes less responsive to diet, while genes for lipid uptake in gut become more highly expressed. Finally, analyses of evolutionary consequences of the salmonid-specific whole-genome duplication on lipid metabolism reveal several pathways with significantly different (p < .05) duplicate retention or duplicate regulatory conservation. We also find a limited number of cases where the whole-genome duplication has resulted in an increased gene dosage. In conclusion, we find variable and pathway-specific effects of the salmonid genome duplication on lipid metabolism genes. A clear life-stage-associated shift in lipid metabolism regulation is evident, and we hypothesize this to be, at least partly, driven by nondietary factors such as the preparatory remodelling of gene regulation and physiology prior to sea migration. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Thermal Death Kinetics of Conogethes Punctiferalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) as Influenced by Heating Rate and Life Stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Lixia; Du, Yanli; Johnson, Judy A; Wang, Shaojin

    2015-10-01

    Thermal death kinetics of Conogethes punctiferalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) at different life stages, heating rate, and temperature is essential for developing postharvest treatments to control pests in chestnuts. Using a heating block system (HBS), the most heat-tolerant life stage of C. punctiferalis and the effects of heating rate (0.1, 0.5, 1, 5, and 10°C/min) on insect mortality were determined. The thermal death kinetic data of fifth-instar C. punctiferalis were obtained at temperatures between 44 and 50°C at a heating rate of 5°C/min. The results showed that the relative heat tolerance of C. punctiferalis was found to be fifth instars>pupae> third instars> eggs. To avoid the enhanced thermal tolerance of C. punctiferalis at low heating rates (0.1 or 0.5°C/min), a high heating rate of 5°C/min was selected to simulate the fast radio frequency heating in chestnuts and further determine the thermal death kinetic data. Thermal death curves of C. punctiferalis followed a 0th-order kinetic reaction model. The minimum exposure time to achieve 100% mortality was 55, 12, 6, and 3 min at 44, 46, 48, and 50°C, respectively. The activation energy for controlling C. punctiferalis was 482.15 kJ/mol with the z value of 4.09°C obtained from the thermal death-time curve. The information provided by thermal death kinetics for C. punctiferalis is useful in developing effective postharvest thermal treatment protocols for disinfesting chestnuts. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Otolith Sr concentration analyzed by PIXE in Ariake estuary-dependent sea bass juveniles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Taro; Arai, Nobuaki; Tanaka, Masaru; Yoshida, Koji

    1997-01-01

    Japanese sea bass (Lateolabrax japonicus) is a typical euryhaline marine fish and frequently migrates from salt to freshwater environments during early life stages. We hypothesized that strontium concentrations in the otolith could be a useful index to examine freshwater entry because of its lower concentration in freshwater. Otoliths of Japanese sea bass juveniles collected in the Chikugo river and estuary were analyzed by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) to see relationship between strontium concentration and ambient salinity. Strontium concentrations in otoliths of sea bass juveniles are significantly lower in the river samples than in brackish water samples. (author)

  8. Uptake and transformation of arsenic during the vegetative life stage of terrestrial fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nearing, Michelle M.; Koch, Iris; Reimer, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    Many species of terrestrial fungi produce fruiting bodies that contain high proportions of arsenobetaine (AB), an arsenic compound of no known toxicity. It is unknown whether fungi produce or accumulate AB from the surrounding environment. The present study targets the vegetative life stage (mycelium) of fungi, to examine the role of this stage in arsenic transformations and potential formation of AB. The mycelia of three different fungi species were cultured axenically and exposed to AB, arsenate (As(V)) and dimethylarsinoyl acetic acid for 60 days. Agaricus bisporus was additionally exposed to hypothesized precursors for AB and the exposure time to As(V) and dimethlyarsinic acid was also extended to 120 days. The mycelia of all fungi species accumulated all arsenic compounds with two species accumulating significantly more AB than other compounds. Few biotransformations were observed in these experiments indicating that it is unlikely that the mycelium of the fungus is responsible for biosynthesizing AB. - Highlights: • Mycelia of terrestrial fungi were exposed to arsenobetaine (AB) and potential precursors. • Mycelium may be selectively accumulating AB and transporting it to fruiting bodies. • Mycelium did not biosynthesize AB. - Mycelia of edible mushrooms preferentially accumulate arsenobetaine but do not biosynthesize this non-toxic arsenical

  9. Age-stage, two-sex life table of Parapoynx crisonalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi; Li, Ni; Wang, Xing; Ma, Li; Huang, Jian-Bin; Huang, Guo-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Parapoynx crisonalis is an important pest of many aquatic vegetables including water chestnuts. Understanding the relationship between temperature variations and the population growth rates of P. crisonalis is essential to predicting its population dynamics in water chestnuts ponds. These relationships were examined in this study based on the age-stage, two-sex life table of P. crisonalis developed in the laboratory at 21, 24, 27, 30, 33 and 36°C. The results showed that the values of Sxj (age-stage–specific survival rate), fxj (age-stage-specific fecundity), lx (age specific survival rate) and mx (age-specific fecundity) increased as the temperature rose from 21 to 27°C, then decreased from 30 to 36°C. Temperature also had a significant effect on the net reproductive rate (R0), gross reproductive rate (GRR), intrinsic rate of increase (r) and finite rate of increase (λ). The value of these parameters were at low levels at 21, 33, and 36°C. Further, the r value decreased as the temperature rose from 24 to 30°C, while the GRR reached its highest level at 27°C. The results indicated that optimal growth and development of P. crisonalis occurred at temperatures between 24°C to 30°C when compared to the lowest temperature (21°C) and higher temperatures of 33°C and 36°C. PMID:28264022

  10. Psychosocial stressors in inter-human relationships and health at each life stage: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagamimori, Sadanobu; Nasermoaddeli, Ali; Wang, Hongbing

    2004-05-01

    Currently, psychosocial stressors' impacts on health are increasing. Among these stressors, this review focused on inter-human relationships. Since social supports could be protective against ill health, consequences contributing to psychosocial stressors are discussed here in relation to social supports for each stage of childhood, adulthood and elderly status.For childhood, parental divorce/isolation, and child abuse/neglect appeared to be determinants of healthy development at either the initial or later stages. According to prospective studies, such stressors, especially those occurring until around 3 years of age, were associated with later adverse life quality in adulthood. Therefore, nationwide preventive strategies were developed in each country to monitor protective social programs.For adulthood, job strain was focused on Karasek's job strain model, effort-reward imbalance, employment grade and working hours. These psychosocial stressors were shown to affect not only the physical health but also the mental health of working people. These days, since Karoshi and even suicide related to excessive workloads are taking a toll on workplace organization, stress-coping abilities such as a sense of coherence were introduced from the individual-social interaction aspect.For elderly status, retirement, caring for the elderly, and spouse bereavement were discussed as psychosocial stressors. Some evidence indicates that these stressors could be determiants of health. Finally, social supports have been demonstrated to promote health and protect the elderly against diseases and death.

  11. Developmental and physiological challenges of octopus (Octopus vulgaris) early life stages under ocean warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repolho, Tiago; Baptista, Miguel; Pimentel, Marta S; Dionísio, Gisela; Trübenbach, Katja; Lopes, Vanessa M; Lopes, Ana Rita; Calado, Ricardo; Diniz, Mário; Rosa, Rui

    2014-01-01

    The ability to understand and predict the effects of ocean warming (under realistic scenarios) on marine biota is of paramount importance, especially at the most vulnerable early life stages. Here we investigated the impact of predicted environmental warming (+3 °C) on the development, metabolism, heat shock response and antioxidant defense mechanisms of the early stages of the common octopus, Octopus vulgaris. As expected, warming shortened embryonic developmental time by 13 days, from 38 days at 18 °C to 25 days at 21 °C. Concomitantly, survival decreased significantly (~29.9 %). Size at hatching varied inversely with temperature, and the percentage of smaller premature paralarvae increased drastically, from 0 % at 18 °C to 17.8 % at 21 °C. The metabolic costs of the transition from an encapsulated embryo to a free planktonic form increased significantly with warming, and HSP70 concentrations and glutathione S-transferase activity levels were significantly magnified from late embryonic to paralarval stages. Yet, despite the presence of effective antioxidant defense mechanisms, ocean warming led to an augmentation of malondialdehyde levels (an indicative of enhanced ROS action), a process considered to be one of the most frequent cellular injury mechanisms. Thus, the present study provides clues about how the magnitude and rate of ocean warming will challenge the buffering capacities of octopus embryos and hatchlings' physiology. The prediction and understanding of the biochemical and physiological responses to warmer temperatures (under realistic scenarios) is crucial for the management of highly commercial and ecologically important species, such as O. vulgaris.

  12. [The initial (I and II) and advanced (III and IV) stages of juvenile patellar chondromalacia. Its diagnosis by magnetic resonance using a 1.5-T magnet with FLASH sequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macarini, L; Rizzo, A; Martino, F; Zaccheo, N; Angelelli, G; Rotondo, A

    1998-06-01

    Juvenile patellar chondromalacia is a common orthopedic disorder which can mimic other conditions; early diagnosis is mandatory to prevent its evolution into osteoarthrosis. In the early stages of patellar chondromalacia (I and II), the lesions originate in the deep cartilage layer and the joint surface is not affected. Arthroscopy can demonstrate joint surface changes only and give indirect information about deeper lesions. We investigated the yield of 2D FLASH MRI with 30 degrees flip angle and a dedicated coil in the diagnosis of patellar chondromalacia, especially in its early stages. Eighteen patients (mean age: 21 years) with clinically suspected patellar chondromalacia were examined with MRI; 13 of them were also submitted to arthroscopy. A 1.5 T unit with a transmit-and-receive extremity coil was used. We acquired T1 SE sequences (TR/TE: 500-700/15/20) and 2D T2* FLASH sequence (TR/TE/FA: 500-800/18/30 degrees). The field of view was 160-180 mm and the matrix 192 x 256, with 2-3 NEX. The images were obtained on the axial plane. The lesions were classified in 4 stages according to Shahriaree classification. Agreement between MR and arthroscopic findings was good in both early and advanced lesions in 12/13 cases. Early lesions appeared as hyperintense focal thickening of the hyaline cartilage (stage I) or as small cystic lesions within the cartilage and no articular surface involvement (stage II). The medial patellar facet was the most frequent site. Advanced lesions appeared as articular surface ulcerations, thinning and cartilage hypointensity (stage III); stage IV lesions presented as complete erosions of the hyaline cartilage and hypointense underlying bone. 2D FLASH MRI with 30 degrees flip angle can show the differences in water content in the cartilage and thus permit to detect early chondromalacia lesions in the deep cartilage.

  13. Quality of life in patients with juvenile arthritis (according to the data of the SF-36 questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tat'yana Andreevna Shelepina

    2011-01-01

    Subjects and methods. Two groups of patients including 85 adolescents with JA (Group 1 and 34 apparently healthy individuals of their age (Group 2; controls were examined. There were 63% of females among the patients. Systemic, polyarticular, oligoarticular, and juvenile ankylosing spondylosis JA (JAS were diagnosed in 16 (19%, 34 (40%, 24 (28%, and 11 (13% patients, respectively. The examinees' mean age was 15.2±1.1 years (range 14-17 years; the mean disease duration was 6.1±4.6 years (range 1-15 years. The control group comprised 73% of females; the mean age was 15.2+1.1 years (range 14-17 years; the adolescents went to school, they had neither musculoskeletal diseases nor release from physical training classes. The SF-36 questionnaire validated for those older than 14 years was used. Results. In Group 1, physical functions, physical activity, body pain, general health condition, and social functions were significantly worse than those in the controls. At the same time, viability, mental health, and emotional activity proved to be (statistically insignificantly better in Group 1 than in the controls. In Group 1, the boys had better values of functional functions, physical activity, viability, and mental development while the girls had better values of body pain, general health condition, social functions, and emotional activity. In the control group, all these parameters were lower in the girls than in the boys. In Group 1 boys, all the parameters were significantly worse than those in the healthy peers (controls. Group 1 girls with JA had worse physical functions, physical activity, and pain, but better general health and social functions than the controls. Differences were found in the groups of patients with different types of JA: the parameters were significantly worse in those with systemic and oligoarticular types and better in those with JAS. Conclusion. The application of the SF-36 questionnaire could reveal significantly reduced physical functions in

  14. Frontal Cortex Transcriptome Analysis of Mice Exposed to Electronic Cigarettes During Early Life Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauterstein, Dana E; Tijerina, Pamella B; Corbett, Kevin; Akgol Oksuz, Betul; Shen, Steven S; Gordon, Terry; Klein, Catherine B; Zelikoff, Judith T

    2016-04-12

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), battery-powered devices containing nicotine, glycerin, propylene glycol, flavorings, and other substances, are increasing in popularity. They pose a potential threat to the developing brain, as nicotine is a known neurotoxicant. We hypothesized that exposure to e-cigarettes during early life stages induce changes in central nervous system (CNS) transcriptome associated with adverse neurobiological outcomes and long-term disease states. To test the hypothesis, pregnant C57BL/6 mice were exposed daily (via whole body inhalation) throughout gestation (3 h/day; 5 days/week) to aerosols produced from e-cigarettes either with nicotine (13-16 mg/mL) or without nicotine; following birth, pups and dams were exposed together to e-cigarette aerosols throughout lactation beginning at postnatal day (PND) 4-6 and using the same exposure conditions employed during gestational exposure. Following exposure, frontal cortex recovered from ~one-month-old male and female offspring were excised and analyzed for gene expression by RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq). Comparisons between the treatment groups revealed that e-cigarette constituents other than nicotine might be partly responsible for the observed biological effects. Transcriptome alterations in both offspring sexes and treatment groups were all significantly associated with downstream adverse neurobiological outcomes. Results from this study demonstrate that e-cigarette exposure during early life alters CNS development potentially leading to chronic neuropathology.

  15. Frontal Cortex Transcriptome Analysis of Mice Exposed to Electronic Cigarettes During Early Life Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauterstein, Dana E.; Tijerina, Pamella B.; Corbett, Kevin; Akgol Oksuz, Betul; Shen, Steven S.; Gordon, Terry; Klein, Catherine B.; Zelikoff, Judith T.

    2016-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), battery-powered devices containing nicotine, glycerin, propylene glycol, flavorings, and other substances, are increasing in popularity. They pose a potential threat to the developing brain, as nicotine is a known neurotoxicant. We hypothesized that exposure to e-cigarettes during early life stages induce changes in central nervous system (CNS) transcriptome associated with adverse neurobiological outcomes and long-term disease states. To test the hypothesis, pregnant C57BL/6 mice were exposed daily (via whole body inhalation) throughout gestation (3 h/day; 5 days/week) to aerosols produced from e-cigarettes either with nicotine (13–16 mg/mL) or without nicotine; following birth, pups and dams were exposed together to e-cigarette aerosols throughout lactation beginning at postnatal day (PND) 4–6 and using the same exposure conditions employed during gestational exposure. Following exposure, frontal cortex recovered from ~one-month-old male and female offspring were excised and analyzed for gene expression by RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq). Comparisons between the treatment groups revealed that e-cigarette constituents other than nicotine might be partly responsible for the observed biological effects. Transcriptome alterations in both offspring sexes and treatment groups were all significantly associated with downstream adverse neurobiological outcomes. Results from this study demonstrate that e-cigarette exposure during early life alters CNS development potentially leading to chronic neuropathology. PMID:27077873

  16. Frontal Cortex Transcriptome Analysis of Mice Exposed to Electronic Cigarettes During Early Life Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana E. Lauterstein

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes, battery-powered devices containing nicotine, glycerin, propylene glycol, flavorings, and other substances, are increasing in popularity. They pose a potential threat to the developing brain, as nicotine is a known neurotoxicant. We hypothesized that exposure to e-cigarettes during early life stages induce changes in central nervous system (CNS transcriptome associated with adverse neurobiological outcomes and long-term disease states. To test the hypothesis, pregnant C57BL/6 mice were exposed daily (via whole body inhalation throughout gestation (3 h/day; 5 days/week to aerosols produced from e-cigarettes either with nicotine (13–16 mg/mL or without nicotine; following birth, pups and dams were exposed together to e-cigarette aerosols throughout lactation beginning at postnatal day (PND 4–6 and using the same exposure conditions employed during gestational exposure. Following exposure, frontal cortex recovered from ~one-month-old male and female offspring were excised and analyzed for gene expression by RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq. Comparisons between the treatment groups revealed that e-cigarette constituents other than nicotine might be partly responsible for the observed biological effects. Transcriptome alterations in both offspring sexes and treatment groups were all significantly associated with downstream adverse neurobiological outcomes. Results from this study demonstrate that e-cigarette exposure during early life alters CNS development potentially leading to chronic neuropathology.

  17. Amino and fatty acid dynamics of octopus (Octopus vulgaris) early life stages under ocean warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Vanessa M; Faleiro, Filipa; Baptista, Miguel; Pimentel, Marta S; Paula, José R; Couto, Ana; Bandarra, Narcisa; Anacleto, Patrícia; Marques, António; Rosa, Rui

    2016-01-01

    The oceans are becoming warmer, and the higher temperatures are expected to have a major impact on marine life at different levels of biological organization, especially at the most vulnerable early life stages. Thus, we hypothesize that the future warmer scenarios (here +3 °C) will affect the biochemical composition (amino acid - AA, and fatty acid-FA) of octopod (Octopus vulgaris) embryos and recently-hatched pelagic paralarvae. The main essential amino acids found in octopus embryos were arginine, leucine and lysine; while aspartic and glutamic acids, and taurine were the main non-essential amino acids. Palmitic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids were the main FAs found in octopus tissues. Relevant ontogenetic changes were observed, namely a steep decrease in the content of many AAs, and a selective retention of FAs, thus evidencing the protein-based metabolism of these cephalopods. Temperature per si did not elicit significant changes in the overall FA composition, but was responsible for a significant decrease in the content of several AAs, indicating increased embryonic consumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Quality of life after curative radiotherapy in Stage I non-small-cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langendijk, Johannes A.; Aaronson, Neil K.; Jong, Jos M.A. de; Velde, Guul P.M. ten; Muller, Martin J.; Slotman, Ben J.; Wouters, Emiel F.M.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate changes in quality of life (QOL) among medically inoperable Stage I non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with curative radiotherapy. Patients and Methods: The study sample was composed of 46 patients irradiated for Stage I NSCLC. Quality of life was assessed before, during, and after radiotherapy using the European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 and QLQ-LC13. Changes in symptom and QOL scores over time were evaluated with a repeated measurement analysis of variance using the mixed effect modeling procedure, SAS Proc Mixed. Twenty-seven patients were treated only at the primary site, whereas for 19 patients, the regional lymph nodes were included in the target volume as well. Results: The median follow-up time of patients alive was 34 months. The median survival was 19.0 months. None of the locally treated patients developed regional recurrence. A significant, gradual increase over time was observed for dyspnea, fatigue, and appetite loss. A significant, gradual deterioration was observed also for role functioning. No significant changes were noted for the other symptoms or the functioning scales. Significantly higher levels of dysphagia, which persisted up to 12 months, were observed in those in which the regional lymph nodes were treated, as compared to the locally treated patients. Radiation-induced pulmonary changes assessed with chest radiograph were more pronounced in the group treated with locoregional radiotherapy. Conclusions: After curative radiotherapy for Stage I medically inoperable NSCLC, a gradual increase in dyspnea, fatigue, and appetite loss, together with a significant deterioration of role functioning, was observed, possibly because of pre-existing, slowly progressive chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and radiation-induced pulmonary changes. Taking into account the low incidence of regional recurrences after local irradiation, the higher incidence

  19. A multi-stage malaria vaccine candidate targeting both transmission and asexual parasite life-cycle stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theisen, Michael; Roeffen, Will; Singh, Susheel K

    2014-01-01

    that combine antigens from both stages may provide direct protection and indirect benefit by reducing the force of infection. We constructed a chimeric antigen composed of a fragment of the Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) glutamate-rich protein fused in frame to a correctly folded fragment of Pfs48/45. The chimera...... dependent cellular inhibition assay. The combined data provide a strong rationale for entering the next phase of clinical grade production and testing....

  20. Entanglement is a costly life-history stage in large whales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hoop, Julie; Corkeron, Peter; Moore, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Individuals store energy to balance deficits in natural cycles; however, unnatural events can also lead to unbalanced energy budgets. Entanglement in fishing gear is one example of an unnatural but relatively common circumstance that imposes energetic demands of a similar order of magnitude and duration of life-history events such as migration and pregnancy in large whales. We present two complementary bioenergetic approaches to estimate the energy associated with entanglement in North Atlantic right whales, and compare these estimates to the natural energetic life history of individual whales. Differences in measured blubber thicknesses and estimated blubber volumes between normal and entangled, emaciated whales indicate between 7.4 × 10 10  J and 1.2 × 10 11  J of energy are consumed during the course to death of a lethal entanglement. Increased thrust power requirements to overcome drag forces suggest that when entangled, whales require 3.95 × 10 9 to 4.08 × 10 10  J more energy to swim. Individuals who died from their entanglements performed significantly more work (energy expenditure × time) than those that survived; entanglement duration is therefore critical in determining whales' survival. Significant sublethal energetic impacts also occur, especially in reproductive females. Drag from fishing gear contributes up to 8% of the 4-year female reproductive energy budget, delaying time of energetic equilibrium (to restore energy lost by a particular entanglement) for reproduction by months to years. In certain populations, chronic entanglement in fishing gear can be viewed as a costly unnatural life-history stage, rather than a rare or short-term incident.

  1. What Is Juvenile Arthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Initiative Breadcrumb Home Health Topics English Español Juvenile Arthritis Basics In-Depth Download Download EPUB Download PDF What is it? Points To Remember About Juvenile Arthritis Juvenile arthritis is the term used to describe ...

  2. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... joints. This form of JIA may turn into rheumatoid arthritis. It may involve 5 or more large and ... no known prevention for JIA. Alternative Names Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA); Juvenile chronic polyarthritis; Still disease; Juvenile spondyloarthritis ...

  3. HPLC-MS Analysis of Lichen-Derived Metabolites in the Life Stages of Crambidia cephalica (Grote & Robinson).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Timothy J; Wagner, David L; Cooper, Bruce R; McCarty, Megan E; Zaspel, Jennifer M

    2017-01-01

    Tiger moths (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Arctiinae: Arctiini) are notable for their specialized associations with hosts that produce toxic secondary compounds, and are thus an ideal study system for understanding insect-plant interactions and the evolution of antipredatory defense. Likewise, their sister lineage (Arctiinae: Lithosiini) has been documented feeding on algae and lichens, and is known to sequester lichen-derived secondary compounds from the larval to adult stages. Prevalence of lichenivory in this early radiation (ca. 3000 species) may provide clues to the phylogenetic basis for storied chemical sequestration within all tiger moths. Despite the evolutionary significance of this trait, we lack a basic understanding of the extent of lichenivory among lithosiines, and the distribution of sequestered chemicals among life stages. The dynamics of chemical sequestration throughout the lifecycle for the lichen moth Crambidia cephalica were investigated by testing the hypothesis that lichen-derived metabolites are unequally distributed among life stages, and that laboratory-reared C. cephalica have less metabolite diversity than wild-caught individuals. Crambidia cephalica was reared on Physcia, and analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). Several putative lichen-derived metabolites were detected across three life stages, i.e., larval, pupal, and adult, and differences among life stages and lichen host were observed. These results provide evidence that multiple lichen-derived metabolites are sequestered by C. cephalica; some metabolites are retained through adulthood, and others are lost or modified in earlier life stages. The presence of differing lichen-derived metabolites across life stages may indicate functional properties of the metabolites for C. cephalica with regards to chemical protection from antagonists, and other physiological processes.

  4. Social familiarity modulates group living and foraging behaviour of juvenile predatory mites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strodl, Markus A.; Schausberger, Peter

    2012-04-01

    Environmental stressors during early life may have persistent consequences for phenotypic development and fitness. In group-living species, an important stressor during juvenile development is the presence and familiarity status of conspecific individuals. To alleviate intraspecific conflicts during juvenile development, many animals evolved the ability to discriminate familiar and unfamiliar individuals based on prior association and use this ability to preferentially associate with familiar individuals. Assuming that familiar neighbours require less attention than unfamiliar ones, as predicted by limited attention theory, assorting with familiar individuals should increase the efficiency in other tasks. We assessed the influence of social familiarity on within-group association behaviour, development and foraging of juvenile life stages of the group-living, plant-inhabiting predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. The observed groups consisted either of mixed-age familiar and unfamiliar juvenile mites or of age-synchronized familiar or unfamiliar juvenile mites or of pairs of familiar or unfamiliar larvae. Overall, familiar mites preferentially grouped together and foraged more efficiently, i.e. needed less prey at similar developmental speed and body size at maturity, than unfamiliar mites. Preferential association of familiar mites was also apparent in the inter-exuviae distances. Social familiarity was established by imprinting in the larval stage, was not cancelled or overridden by later conspecific contacts and persisted into adulthood. Life stage had an effect on grouping with larvae being closer together than nymphal stages. Ultimately, optimized foraging during the developmental phase may relax within-group competition, enhance current and future food supply needed for optimal development and optimize patch exploitation and leaving under limited food.

  5. Prevalence of juvenile fibromyalgia syndrome in an urban population of Turkish adolescents: impact on depressive symptoms, quality of life and school performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmaz, Yunus; Alayli, Gamze; Canbaz, Sevgi; Zahiroglu, Yeliz; Bilgici, Ayhan; Ilhanli, Ilker; Kuru, Omer

    2013-01-01

    Juvenile Fibromyalgia Syndrome (JFMS) is a chronic health condition characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain and multiple tender points (TP). The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of JFMS in the urban population of Samsun and to determine the impact of JFMS on depression symptoms, school performance and quality of life (QOL). A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1109 children (mean age (14.8 ± 2.0) years old). A questionnaire was applied to the children and a medical examination including TP was performed. Yunus and Masi's criteria were used for diagnosis of JFMS. The children with JFMS were compared with an age and sex matched non-JFMS group. Depression was assessed with Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) and QOL was evaluated with Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 (PedsQL4.0). Sixty-one (5.5%) (13 boys and 48 girls) of 1109 children met the diagnostic criteria of JFMS. While PedsQL scores of children with JFMS were lower than the non-JFMS group for physical, emotional, social, school functioning and total score (P = 0.001), CDI total score was higher in the JFMS group than in the non-JFMS group (P = 0.001). The JFMS group reported more school absences (P = 0.001) and the average school grade was lower in the JFMS group than in the non-JFMS group (P = 0.03). The prevalence of JFMS is high in school age children. Since JFMS is a common problem of childhood, early diagnosis and identification of the disorder and more comprehensive and successful treatment approaches with appropriate psychological assistance may prevent more complex and severe problems in adulthood.

  6. [Evaluation of the quality of life in patients with breast cancer at different TNM stages after standardized treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rong; Huang, Yuan; Tao, Ping; Li, Hui; Wang, Qiong; Li, Hui; Li, Jia-yuan

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the quality of life (QOL) in patients with breast cancer at different TNM stages and to estimate the value of EuroQol Five Dimension Indicator (EQ-5D) in measuring QOL among Chinese breast cancer patients. A survey with Quality of Life Instruments for Cancer Patients-Breast Cancer (QLICP-BR) and EQ-5D was undertaken in breast cancer patients who had completed their standardized treatment (except for the endocrine treatment) six months ago. Chi-square test, one-way ANOVA, and covariance analysis were used to evaluate the possible factors influencing the QOL of breast cancer patients. Simultaneously, with the results of Quality of Life Instruments for Cancer Patients-General Module (QLICP-GM, which is included in QLICP-BR.) and the total scores of QLICP-BR as standard, we conducted Pearson correlation analysis to evaluate the value of EQ-5D. A total of 178 female breast cancer survivors were collected from March 2010 to September 2010. There were 47 cases (26.4%) at stage 0 and I, 81 cases (45.5%) at stage II, and 50 cases (28.1%) at stage III and IV. The total standardized score of QLICP-BR was 72.55 ± 3.10 in patients at stage 0 and I, 64.09 ± 2.69 in patients at stage II and 58.21 ± 3.00 in patients at stage III and IV. The total standardized score of QLICP-BR and social domain of patients at stage 0 and I were higher than patients at stage II (all P stage 0 and I were higher than patients at stage III and IV (all P stages when age, degree of education, birth place (metropolis or rural), occupation, domestic income, and medical insurance were controlled (P = 0.002). Correlation analysis indicated that EQ-5D has a positive correlation with QLICP-GM and QLICP-BR (all P stage breast cancer is better than those at late stage. Early diagnosis and treatment can improve QOL of breast cancer patients. Chinese version of EQ-5D can well detect the differences of QOL among patients with different TNM stages, which can be used for evaluating QOL in Chinese

  7. The trypanosome transcriptome is remodelled during differentiation but displays limited responsiveness within life stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergeenko Tatiana

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trypanosomatids utilise polycistronic transcription for production of the vast majority of protein-coding mRNAs, which operates in the absence of gene-specific promoters. Resolution of nascent transcripts by polyadenylation and trans-splicing, together with specific rates of mRNA turnover, serve to generate steady state transcript levels that can differ in abundance across several orders of magnitude and can be developmentally regulated. We used a targeted oligonucleotide microarray, representing the strongly developmentally-regulated T. brucei membrane trafficking system and ~10% of the Trypanosoma brucei genome, to investigate both between-stage, or differentiation-dependent, transcriptome changes and within-stage flexibility in response to various challenges. Results 6% of the gene cohort are developmentally regulated, including several small GTPases, SNAREs, vesicle coat factors and protein kinases both consistent with and extending previous data. Therefore substantial differentiation-dependent remodeling of the trypanosome transcriptome is associated with membrane transport. Both the microarray and qRT-PCR were then used to analyse transcriptome changes resulting from specific gene over-expression, knockdown, altered culture conditions and chemical stress. Firstly, manipulation of Rab5 expression results in co-ordinate changes to clathrin protein expression levels and endocytotic activity, but no detectable changes to steady-state mRNA levels, which indicates that the effect is mediated post-transcriptionally. Secondly, knockdown of clathrin or the variant surface glycoprotein failed to perturb transcription. Thirdly, exposure to dithiothreitol or tunicamycin revealed no evidence for a classical unfolded protein response, mediated in higher eukaryotes by transcriptional changes. Finally, altered serum levels invoked little transcriptome alteration beyond changes to expression of ESAG6/7, the transferrin receptor

  8. The oxygen consumption rates of different life stages of the endoparasitic nematode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willie van Aardt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The oxygen consumption rates of different life stages of the endoparasitic nematode, Pratylenchus zeae (Nematoda: Tylenchida during non- and post-anhydrobiosisPratylenchus zeae, widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions, is an endoparasite in roots of maize and other crop plants. The nematode is attracted to plant roots by CO2 and root exudates and feeds primarily on cells of the root cortex, making channels and openings where the eggs are deposited, with the result that secondary infection occurs due to bacteria and fungi. Nothing is known about the respiration physiology of this nematode and how it manages to survive during dry seasons. To measure the oxygen consumption rate (VO2 of individual P. zeae (less than half a millimeter long, a special measuring technique namely Cartesian diver micro-respirometry was applied. The Cartesian divers were machined from Perspex, and proved to be more accurate to measure VO2 compared with heavier glass divers used in similar experiments on free living nematodes. An accuracy of better than one nanoliter of oxygen consumed per hour was achieved with a single P. zeae inside the diver. Cartesian diver micro-respirometry measurements are based in principle on the manometric changes that occur in a fl otation tube in a manometer set-up when oxygen is consumed by P. zeae and CO2 from the animal is chemically absorbed. VO2 was measured for eggs (length: < 0.05 mm, larvae (length: 0.36 mm and adults (length: 0.47 mm before induction to anhydrobiosis. P. zeae from infected maize roots were extracted and exposed aseptically to in vitro maize root cultures in a grow cabinet at 50 % to 60% relative humidity at 28 ºC using eggs, larvae and adults. VO2 was also measured for post-anhydrobiotic eggs, larvae and adults by taking 50 individuals, eggs and larvae from the culture and placing them in Petri-dishes with 1% agar/water to dry out for 11 days at 28 ºC and 50% relative humidity. The VO2 was measured

  9. Impacts of triclosan exposure on zebrafish early-life stage: Toxicity and acclimation mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falisse, Elodie; Voisin, Anne-Sophie; Silvestre, Frédéric

    2017-08-01

    Triclosan (TCS) is a broad spectrum antibacterial agent widely used in personal care products and present in most aquatic ecosystems. This study investigated the occurrence of triclosan acclimation and the biological mechanisms underlying the stress response triggered in early-life stage of zebrafish. Zebrafish eggs were first exposed to four different sublethal concentrations of TCS (2, 20, 50 and 100μg/L) for 7days following fertilization and subsequently exposed to a lethal concentration of TCS (1000μg/L). During the time-to-death exposure (TTD), mortality was continuously recorded to evaluate if increased resistance occurred. Overall, larvae exposed to 50μg/L of TCS demonstrated higher sensitivity, with delayed hatching and increased mortality during the sub-lethal exposure and significant lower mean time-to-death (TTD) value compared to the other groups. Interestingly, fish exposed to the highest concentration of TCS (100μg/L) presented a similar mean TTD value as controls and a significantly better survival in comparison with embryos exposed to 50μg/L, suggesting that acclimation process has been triggered at this concentration. Proteomic and enzymatic analyses were conducted on 7days post fertilization (dpf) larvae exposed to 50μg/L and 100μg/L of TCS giving insights into the functional changes triggered at those specific concentrations. TCS seemed to affect proteins involved in cytoskeleton, stress response, eyes and neuronal development. This was endorsed by the enzymatic results, which suggest impairment in glutathione metabolism and acute neurotoxicity. A significant 2.5-fold and 3-fold increase of AChE activity was observed following TCS exposure. Moreover, GPx activity was significantly increased whereas a significant inhibition of GR activity was observed, suggesting that de novo synthesis of reduced GSH might occur in order to maintain the ratio between reduced and oxidized GSH. Proteomic results revealed possible candidate protein involved in

  10. Effect of ectoparasite infestation density and life history stages on the swimming performance of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Bui

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To overcome sustainability obstacles and improve operations, the Atlantic salmon farming industry is testing novel approaches to production. Redistributing farm sites to offshore locations is one such solution; however, tolerance to high-current velocity sites must be considered, particularly if fish health status is compromised by parasites. We tested the effect of parasite density and life-history stage on the swimming performance of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar using a swim flume. Salmon with 3 different salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis densities (0, 0.02 � 0.01 and 0.11 � 0.01 lice cm-2 [mean � SE] were tested across the 4 major life-history stages of lice (copepodid, chalimus, pre-adult and adult for critical swimming performance (Ucrit. Salmon Ucrit declined slightly by a mean of 0.04 to 0.10 body lengths s-1 with high parasite densities compared to uninfested and low densities, across the lice stages, while progression through the parasite life-history stages had little effect on swimming performance. Our results suggest that increasing infestation density of salmon lice incurs negative fitness consequences for farmed Atlantic salmon held in high-current velocity sites, with little difference in costs associated with attachment by different life-history stages of the lice.

  11. Influence of body size, metabolic rate and life history stage on the uptake and excretion of the lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) by invasive sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessier, Laura R; Long, Tristan A F; Wilkie, Michael P

    2018-01-01

    Invasive sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) are controlled in the Great Lakes using the lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM), which is applied to streams infested with larval lamprey. However, lamprey that survive treatments (residuals) remain a challenge because they may subsequently undergo metamorphosis into parasitic juvenile animals that migrate downstream to the Great Lakes, where they feed on important sport and commercial fishes. The goal of this study was to determine if body size and life stage could potentially influence sea lamprey tolerance to TFM by influencing patterns of TFM uptake and elimination. Because mass specific rates of oxygen consumption (M˙O 2 ) are lower in larger compared to smaller lamprey, we predicted that TFM uptake would be negatively correlated to body size, suggesting that large larvae would be more tolerant to TFM exposure. Accordingly, TFM uptake and M˙O 2 were measured in larvae ranging in size from 0.2-4.2g using radio-labelled TFM ( 14 C-TFM) and static respirometry. Both were inversely proportional to wet mass (M), and could be described usingthe allometric power relationship: Y=aM b , in which M˙O 2 =1.86M 0.53 and TFM Uptake=7.24M 0.34 . We also predicted that body size would extend to rates of TFM elimination, which was measured following the administration of 14 C-TFM (via intraperitoneal injection). However, there were no differences in the half-lives of elimination of TFM (T 1/2 -TFM). There were also no differences in M˙O 2 or TFM uptake amongst size-matched larval, metamorphosing (stages 6-7), or post-metamorphic (juvenile) sea lamprey. However, the T 1/2 -TFM was significantly lower in larval than post-metamorphic lamprey (juvenile), indicating the larval lamprey cleared TFM more efficiently than juvenile lamprey. We conclude that larger larval sea lamprey are more likely to survive TFM treatments suggesting that body size might be an important variable to consider when treating streams with TFM to

  12. Health-related quality of life in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis – child’s and parent’s point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Mańczak

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the quality of life (QoL of children suffering from juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA in Poland, to compare QoL of children with JIA and healthy children, and to compare children’s and parents’ assessments of QoL. Material and methods: The KIDSCREEN-52 questionnaire (children’s and parents’ version was used to assess the quality of life. The QoL in JIA patients and healthy peers from European and Polish reference groups was compared by the t-test. The Bland-Altman method was used to evaluate child and parent assessment agreement. Results : Eighty-nine questionnaires were obtained from children (median age: 14 years; 62% female; JIA history longer than 1 year and 84 questionnaires from parents. The QoL of JIA patients was lower than in healthy peers from the European reference group in terms of physical well-being (p < 0.001, psychological well-being (p = 0.011, autonomy (p < 0.001 and social support and peers (p < 0.001. The QoL of JIA patients compared with the QoL of children from the Polish reference group was lower only in terms of physical well-being (p < 0.001, whereas it was higher in terms of moods and emotions (p = 0.023, parent relations and home life (p = 0.005 and financial resources (p < 0.001. In most terms the assessment performed by the parent was lower than the child’s. The most significant differences were observed for physical well-being (p < 0.001, psychological well-being (p = 0.016, and self-perception (p = 0.013. Conclusions : The present study is the first assessment of QoL of JIA children in Poland. In our study the quality of life in JIA children was lower than in healthy peers. Discrepancies between the assessment of the child’s QoL performed by the child and the parent were found. Both assessments should be taken into account in clinical practice as well as in research studies.

  13. Innovative curriculum: Integrating the bio-behavioral and social science principles across the LifeStages in basic science years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lele Mookerjee, Anuradha; Fischer, Bradford D; Cavanaugh, Susan; Rajput, Vijay

    2018-05-20

    Behavioral and social science integration in clinical practice improves health outcomes across the life stages. The medical school curriculum requires an integration of the behavioral and social science principles in early medical education. We developed and delivered a four-week course entitled "LifeStages" to the first year medical students. The learning objectives of the bio-behavioral and social science principles along with the cultural, economic, political, and ethical parameters were integrated across the lifespan in the curriculum matrix. We focused on the following major domains: Growth and Brain Development; Sexuality, Hormones and Gender; Sleep; Cognitive and Emotional Development; Mobility, Exercise, Injury and Safety; Nutrition, Diet and Lifestyle; Stress and coping skills, Domestic Violence; Substance Use Disorders; Pain, Illness and Suffering; End of Life, Ethics and Death along with Intergenerational issues and Family Dynamics. Collaboration from the clinical and biomedical science departments led to the dynamic delivery of the course learning objectives and content. The faculty developed and led a scholarly discussion, using the case of a multi-racial, multi-generational family during Active Learning Group (ALG) sessions. The assessment in the LifeStages course involved multiple assessment tools: including the holistic assessment by the faculty facilitator inside ALGs, a Team-Based Learning (TBL) exercise, multiple choice questions and Team Work Assessment during which the students had to create a clinical case on a LifeStages domain along with the facilitators guide and learning objectives.

  14. Efficacy of biofeedback on quality of life in stages I and II pelvic organ prolapse: A Pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahadi, Tannaz; Taghvadoost, Neda; Aminimoghaddam, Soheila; Forogh, Bijan; Bazazbehbahani, Roxana; Raissi, Gholam Reza

    2017-08-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is a prevalent disorder which seriously affects the sufferer's quality of life. The main goal of this study was to evaluate biofeedback impact on quality of life in women with mild to moderate POP. 40 females in stages I and II POP were allocated into 2 groups. One group received pelvic floor muscle exercise and lifestyle advice in addition to biofeedback twice a week for 4 weeks, while the other received a lifestyle advice sheet and pelvic floor muscle exercise without biofeedback. A valid Persian version of P-QOL questionnaire was applied to assess the patients̕ quality of life at baseline, 4 weeks and 12 weeks follow up. Pressure biofeedback and Physical examination were also performed in order to determine pelvic floor muscle strength and staging of the prolapse, respectively. Collected data were analyzed by mixed ANOVA test using SPSS 22. Biofeedback improved the quality of life in seven of nine P-QOL domains. However, it had no significant impact either on pelvic floor muscle strength or on the stage of the prolapse. Biofeedback could be considered as a non-invasive treatment leading to quality of life promotion in women with stages I and II POP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Tough Adults, Frail Babies: An Analysis of Stress Sensitivity across Early Life-History Stages of Widely Introduced Marine Invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, M. Carmen; McQuaid, Christopher D.; Turon, Xavier; López-Legentil, Susanna; Ordóñez, Víctor; Rius, Marc

    2012-01-01

    All ontogenetic stages of a life cycle are exposed to environmental conditions so that population persistence depends on the performance of both adults and offspring. Most studies analysing the influence of abiotic conditions on species performance have focussed on adults, while studies covering early life-history stages remain rare. We investigated the responses of early stages of two widely introduced ascidians, Styela plicata and Microcosmus squamiger, to different abiotic conditions. Stressors mimicked conditions in the habitats where both species can be found in their distributional ranges and responses were related to the selection potential of their populations by analysing their genetic diversity. Four developmental stages (egg fertilisation, larval development, settlement, metamorphosis) were studied after exposure to high temperature (30°C), low salinities (26 and 22‰) and high copper concentrations (25, 50 and 100 µg/L). Although most stressors effectively led to failure of complete development (fertilisation through metamorphosis), fertilisation and larval development were the most sensitive stages. All the studied stressors affected the development of both species, though responses differed with stage and stressor. S. plicata was overall more resistant to copper, and some stages of M. squamiger to low salinities. No relationship was found between parental genetic composition and responses to stressors. We conclude that successful development can be prevented at several life-history stages, and therefore, it is essential to consider multiple stages when assessing species' abilities to tolerate stress. Moreover, we found that early development of these species cannot be completed under conditions prevailing where adults live. These populations must therefore recruit from elsewhere or reproduce during temporal windows of more benign conditions. Alternatively, novel strategies or behaviours that increase overall reproductive success might be

  16. Tough adults, frail babies: an analysis of stress sensitivity across early life-history stages of widely introduced marine invertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Carmen Pineda

    Full Text Available All ontogenetic stages of a life cycle are exposed to environmental conditions so that population persistence depends on the performance of both adults and offspring. Most studies analysing the influence of abiotic conditions on species performance have focussed on adults, while studies covering early life-history stages remain rare. We investigated the responses of early stages of two widely introduced ascidians, Styela plicata and Microcosmus squamiger, to different abiotic conditions. Stressors mimicked conditions in the habitats where both species can be found in their distributional ranges and responses were related to the selection potential of their populations by analysing their genetic diversity. Four developmental stages (egg fertilisation, larval development, settlement, metamorphosis were studied after exposure to high temperature (30°C, low salinities (26 and 22‰ and high copper concentrations (25, 50 and 100 µg/L. Although most stressors effectively led to failure of complete development (fertilisation through metamorphosis, fertilisation and larval development were the most sensitive stages. All the studied stressors affected the development of both species, though responses differed with stage and stressor. S. plicata was overall more resistant to copper, and some stages of M. squamiger to low salinities. No relationship was found between parental genetic composition and responses to stressors. We conclude that successful development can be prevented at several life-history stages, and therefore, it is essential to consider multiple stages when assessing species' abilities to tolerate stress. Moreover, we found that early development of these species cannot be completed under conditions prevailing where adults live. These populations must therefore recruit from elsewhere or reproduce during temporal windows of more benign conditions. Alternatively, novel strategies or behaviours that increase overall reproductive success

  17. A real-time PCR approach to detect predation on anchovy and sardine early life stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuende, Elsa; Mendibil, Iñaki; Bachiller, Eneko; Álvarez, Paula; Cotano, Unai; Rodriguez-Ezpeleta, Naiara

    2017-12-01

    Recruitment of sardine (Sardina pilchardus Walbaum, 1792) and anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus Linnaeus, 1758) is thought to be regulated by predation of their eggs and larvae. Predators of sardine and anchovy can be identified by visual taxonomic identification of stomach contents, but this method is time consuming, tedious and may underestimate predation, especially in small predators such as fish larvae. Alternatively, genetic tools may offer a more cost-effective and accurate alternative. Here, we have developed a multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay based on TaqMan probes to simultaneously detect sardine and anchovy remains in gut contents of potential predators. The assay combines previously described and newly generated species-specific primers and probes for anchovy and sardine detection respectively, and allows the detection of 0,001 ng of target DNA (which corresponds to about one hundredth of the total DNA present in a single egg). We applied the method to candidate anchovy and sardine egg predators in the Bay of Biscay, Atlantic Mackerel (Scomber scombrus) larvae. Egg predation observed was limited primarily to those stations where sardine and/or anchovy eggs were present. Our developed assay offers a suitable tool to understand the effects of predation on the survival of anchovy and sardine early life stages.

  18. Sensitivity to UV radiation in early life stages of the Mediterranean sea urchin Sphaerechinus granularis (Lamarck)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nahon, Sarah [UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7621, LOBB, Observatoire Oceanologique, F-66651, Banyuls/mer (France); CNRS, UMR 7621, LOBB, Observatoire Oceanologique, F-66651, Banyuls/mer (France); Castro Porras, Viviana A. [UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7621, LOBB, Observatoire Oceanologique, F-66651, Banyuls/mer (France); Pruski, Audrey M. [UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7621, LOBB, Observatoire Oceanologique, F-66651, Banyuls/mer (France); CNRS, UMR 7621, LOBB, Observatoire Oceanologique, F-66651, Banyuls/mer (France); Charles, Francois [UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7621, LOBB, Observatoire Oceanologique, F-66651, Banyuls/mer (France); CNRS, UMR 7621, LOBB, Observatoire Oceanologique, F-66651, Banyuls/mer (France)], E-mail: charles@obs-banyuls.fr

    2009-03-01

    The sea urchin Sphaerechinus granularis was used to investigate the impact of relevant levels of UV-B radiation on the early life stages of a common Mediterranean free spawning benthic species. Sperm, eggs and embryos were exposed to a range of UV radiation doses. The resulting endpoints were evaluated in terms of fertilisation success, development and survival rates. Above a weighted UV radiation dose of 0.0029 kJ m{sup -2}, fertilisation capability of irradiated sperm decreased rapidly. The exposure of the eggs to 0.0175 kJ m{sup -2} and more led to delayed and inhibited development with ensuing embryonic morphological abnormalities. One-day old larvae remained strongly sensitive to UV radiation as shown by the 50% decrease of the larval survival rate for a dose of 0.025 kJ m{sup -2} UVR. The elevated sensitivity of embryos to experimental UVR went along with a lack of significant amount of sunscreen compounds (e.g., mycosporine-like amino acids) in the eggs. The present results demonstrated that gamete viability and embryonic development may be significantly impaired by solar UV radiation in S. granularis, compromising in this way the reproduction of the species. Unless adaptive behavioural reproductive strategies exist, the influence of ambient UV radiation appears as a selective force for population dynamics of broadcast spawners in the shallow benthic Mediterranean environment.

  19. Sensitivity to UV radiation in early life stages of the Mediterranean sea urchin Sphaerechinus granularis (Lamarck)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahon, Sarah; Castro Porras, Viviana A.; Pruski, Audrey M.; Charles, Francois

    2009-01-01

    The sea urchin Sphaerechinus granularis was used to investigate the impact of relevant levels of UV-B radiation on the early life stages of a common Mediterranean free spawning benthic species. Sperm, eggs and embryos were exposed to a range of UV radiation doses. The resulting endpoints were evaluated in terms of fertilisation success, development and survival rates. Above a weighted UV radiation dose of 0.0029 kJ m -2 , fertilisation capability of irradiated sperm decreased rapidly. The exposure of the eggs to 0.0175 kJ m -2 and more led to delayed and inhibited development with ensuing embryonic morphological abnormalities. One-day old larvae remained strongly sensitive to UV radiation as shown by the 50% decrease of the larval survival rate for a dose of 0.025 kJ m -2 UVR. The elevated sensitivity of embryos to experimental UVR went along with a lack of significant amount of sunscreen compounds (e.g., mycosporine-like amino acids) in the eggs. The present results demonstrated that gamete viability and embryonic development may be significantly impaired by solar UV radiation in S. granularis, compromising in this way the reproduction of the species. Unless adaptive behavioural reproductive strategies exist, the influence of ambient UV radiation appears as a selective force for population dynamics of broadcast spawners in the shallow benthic Mediterranean environment

  20. Adverse effects of the SSRI antidepressant sertraline on early life stages of marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez-Calvar, Noelia; Canesi, Laura; Montagna, Michele; Faimali, Marco; Piazza, Veronica; Garaventa, Francesca

    2017-07-01

    Widespread contamination of coastal environments by emerging compounds includes low concentrations of pharmaceuticals. These pollutants are not currently incorporated in monitoring programs despite their effects on non-target organisms are very little documented. Among the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants, sertraline (SRT) is one of the most prescribed globally. In this work, earlier life stages of Amphibalanus amphitrite, Brachionus plicatilis and Mytilus galloprovincialis were exposed to environmental concentrations of SRT in order to study both sub-lethal and lethal responses in 24/48 h-tests. Low concentrations of SRT altered significantly swimming behavior in A. amphitrite and B. plicatilis giving 48 h-EC 50 (μg/L) of 113.88 and 282.23, respectively whereas higher values were observed for mortality and immobilization. EC 50 embryotoxicity with M. galloprovincialis was 206.80 μg/L. This work add new data about SRT ecotoxicity on marine invertebrates and confirms the applicability of behavioral endpoints to evaluate the environmental impact of antidepressants in marine organisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Sensitivity of early-life-stage golden trout to low pH and elevated aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLonay, A.J.; Little, E.E.; Woodward, F.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; Farag, A.M.; Rabeni, C.F.

    1993-01-01

    Early-life-stage golden trout (Oncorhynchus aguabonita) were exposed to acid and Al to examine the response and determine the sensitivity of a western, alpine salmonid to conditions simulating an episodic pH depression. Freshly fertilized eggs, alevins, and swim-up larvae were exposed for 7 d to one of 12 combinations of pH and Al, and surviving fish were held to 40 d post-hatch to determine the effect of exposure on subsequent survival and recovery. Golden trout are sensitive to conditions simulating episodic acidification events typically observed in the field. Significant mortality occurred when the pH of test waters was below 5.0 in the absence of Al or when pH was 5.5 in the presence of 100 μg/L total Al. Behavioral impairments were sensitive indicators of low pH and Al stress. Impaired locomotory and feeding behavior occurred at pH 5.5 without Al and at Al concentrations ≥ μg/L. In contrast, growth, RNA-to-DNA ratio, and whole-body ion concentration were relatively less sensitive indicators of sublethal acid and Al stress

  2. A Transcriptome Survey Spanning Life Stages and Sexes of the Harlequin Bug, Murgantia histrionica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Sparks

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The harlequin bug, Murgantia histrionica (Hahn, is an agricultural pest in the continental United States, particularly in southern states. Reliable gene sequence data are especially useful to the development of species-specific, environmentally friendly molecular biopesticides and effective biolures for this insect. Here, mRNAs were sampled from whole insects at the 2nd and 4th nymphal instars, as well as sexed adults, and sequenced using Illumina RNA-Seq technology. A global assembly of these data identified 72,540 putative unique transcripts bearing high levels of similarity to transcripts identified in other taxa, with over 99% of conserved single-copy orthologs among insects being detected. Gene ontology and protein family analyses were conducted to explore the functional potential of the harlequin bug’s gene repertoire, and phylogenetic analyses were conducted on gene families germane to xenobiotic detoxification, including glutathione S-transferases, carboxylesterases and cytochrome P450s. Genic content in harlequin bug was compared with that of the closely related invasive pest, the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål. Quantitative analyses of harlequin bug gene expression levels, experimentally validated using quantitative real-time PCR, identified genes differentially expressed between life stages and/or sexes.

  3. Methodology of life cycle cost with risk expenditure for offshore process at conceptual design stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Kiil; Chang, Daejun; Chang, Kwangpil; Rhee, Taejin; Lee, In-Beum

    2011-01-01

    This study proposed a new LCC (life cycle cost) methodology with the risk expenditure taken into account for comparative evaluation of offshore process options at their conceptual design stage. The risk expenditure consisted of the failure risk expenditure and the accident risk expenditure. The former accounted for the production loss and the maintenance expense due to equipment failures while the latter reflected the asset damage and the fatality worth caused by disastrous accidents such as fire and explosion. It was demonstrated that the new LCC methodology was capable of playing the role of a process selection basis in choosing the best of the liquefaction process options including the power generation systems for a floating LNG (Liquefied natural gas) production facility. Without the risk expenditure, a simple economic comparison apparently favored the mixed refrigerant cycle which had the better efficiency. The new methodology with the risk expenditure, however, indicated that the nitrogen expansion cycle driven by steam turbines should be the optimum choice, mainly due to its better availability and safety. -- Highlights: → The study presented the methodology of the LCC with the risk expenditure for the conceptual design of offshore processes. → The proposed methodology demonstrated the applicability of the liquefaction unit with the power generation system of LNG FPSO. → Without the risk expenditure, a simple economic comparison apparently favored the mixed refrigerant cycle which had the better efficiency. → The new methodology indicated that the nitrogen expansion cycle driven by steam turbines is the optimum choice due to its better availability and safety.

  4. End-stage dementia spark of life: reliability and validity of the "GATOS" questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoucalas, Gregory; Bourelia, Stamati; Kalogirou, Vaso; Giatsiou, Styliani; Mavrogiannaki, Eirini; Gatos, Georgios; Galanos, Antonis; Repana, Olga; Iliadou, Eleni; Antoniou, Antonis; Sgantzos, Markos; Gatos, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Fl oor effects are present in most dementia assessment tools as dementia progresses and the in-depth assessment of patients considered more or less on vegetative state is questionable. To develop a questionnaire (the "Gatos Clinical Test-GCT") for the assessment of end-stage demented patients. Five hundred patients with dementia of various causes and an MMSE score between 0 and 2 were enrolled in the study. The GCT consists of 14 closed type questions rated on a Likert scale. The total score is used to evaluate patient's dementia. Various aspects of validity and reliability (including face, content and structural validity as well as test-retest reliability) were examined. Three subscales "Autonomy/Alertness", "Gnosias" and "Somatokinetic function" were defined, with a Cronbach equal to 0.851, 0.756 and 0.598 respectively. The GCT subscales and total score were statistically significant higher in patients with MMSE score 1 or 2 compared with those with MMSE score 0 (pGATOS" questionnaire is a valid and reliable test for patients with severe dementia, aiming at identification of those patients who could sustain some quality of life. It is a relatively short and easy to administer tool. As dementia prevalence is expected to rise further worldwide we believe that GCT could offer valuable services to health professionals, caregivers and patients.

  5. Effects of ultraviolet radiation on life-history stages of anurans from Ontario, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, K.P.; Licht, L.E. [York Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1995-12-01

    The effects of ultraviolet radiation on life-history stages of anurans Bufo americanus, Hyla versicolor, Rana clamitans, and Rana sylvatica were tested. Eggs and larvae were not affected by uv-a at double normal outdoor levels. R. sylvatica embryos exposed to 30 minutes or more of artificially high intensity uv-b levels died. There was no effect on hatching levels for artificially high exposures of uv-b radiation for less than 15 minutes. A greater proportion of abnormal embryos occurred after exposure to 10 or 15 minutes of artificially high intensity treatment at 12 degree Celsius than at 20 degrees Celsius. Only larval R. clamitans showed some level of tolerance of artificially high uv-b levels. Ecologically relevant doses of uv-b had no effect on the developmental period of B. americanus, H. versicolor, and R. sylvatica. Older B. americanus exposed for the same length of time had higher survivorship than younger animals. The role of uv radiation in the presumed decline of amphibian populations was also discussed. 7 tabs., 43 refs.

  6. Effects of the herbicide diuron on the early life history stages of coral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negri, Andrew [Australian Institute of Marine Science, PMB 3 Townsville, QLD 4810 (Australia)]. E-mail: a.negri@aims.gov.au; Vollhardt, Claudia [Australian Institute of Marine Science, PMB 3 Townsville, QLD 4810 (Australia); Humphrey, Craig [Australian Institute of Marine Science, PMB 3 Townsville, QLD 4810 (Australia); Heyward, Andrew [Australian Institute of Marine Science, PMB 3 Townsville, QLD 4810 (Australia); Jones, Ross [Centre for Marine Studies, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072 (Australia); Queensland Health Scientific Services, 39 Kessels Road, Coopers Plains 4108 (Australia); Eaglesham, Geoff [Bermuda Biological Station for Research, Inc, Ferry Reach, St George' s GE 01 (Bermuda); Fabricius, Katharina [Australian Institute of Marine Science, PMB 3 Townsville, QLD 4810 (Australia)

    2005-07-01

    The effects of the herbicide diuron on the early life history stages of broadcast spawning and brooding corals were examined in laboratory experiments. Fertilisation of Acropora millepora and Montipora aequituberculata oocytes were not inhibited at diuron concentrations of up to 1000{mu}gl{sup -1}. Metamorphosis of symbiont-free A. millepora larvae was only significantly inhibited at 300{mu}gl{sup -1} diuron. Pocillopora damicornis larvae, which contain symbiotic dinoflagellates, were able to undergo metamorphosis after 24h exposure to diuron at 1000{mu}gl{sup -1}. Two-week old P. damicornis recruits on the other hand were as susceptible to diuron as adult colonies, with expulsion of symbiotic dinoflagellates (bleaching) evident at 10{mu}gl{sup -1} diuron after 96h exposure. Reversible metamorphosis was observed at high diuron concentrations, with fully bleached polyps escaping from their skeletons. Pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) chlorophyll fluorescence techniques demonstrated a reduction in photosynthetic efficiency ({delta}F/F{sub m}{sup '}) in illuminated P. damicornis recruits after a 2h exposure to 1{mu}gl{sup -1} diuron. The dark-adapted quantum yields (F{sub v}/F{sub m}) also declined, indicating chronic photoinhibition and damage to photosystem II.

  7. Effects of the herbicide diuron on the early life history stages of coral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negri, Andrew; Vollhardt, Claudia; Humphrey, Craig; Heyward, Andrew; Jones, Ross; Eaglesham, Geoff; Fabricius, Katharina

    2005-01-01

    The effects of the herbicide diuron on the early life history stages of broadcast spawning and brooding corals were examined in laboratory experiments. Fertilisation of Acropora millepora and Montipora aequituberculata oocytes were not inhibited at diuron concentrations of up to 1000μgl -1 . Metamorphosis of symbiont-free A. millepora larvae was only significantly inhibited at 300μgl -1 diuron. Pocillopora damicornis larvae, which contain symbiotic dinoflagellates, were able to undergo metamorphosis after 24h exposure to diuron at 1000μgl -1 . Two-week old P. damicornis recruits on the other hand were as susceptible to diuron as adult colonies, with expulsion of symbiotic dinoflagellates (bleaching) evident at 10μgl -1 diuron after 96h exposure. Reversible metamorphosis was observed at high diuron concentrations, with fully bleached polyps escaping from their skeletons. Pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) chlorophyll fluorescence techniques demonstrated a reduction in photosynthetic efficiency (ΔF/F m ' ) in illuminated P. damicornis recruits after a 2h exposure to 1μgl -1 diuron. The dark-adapted quantum yields (F v /F m ) also declined, indicating chronic photoinhibition and damage to photosystem II

  8. Effects of individual pre-fledging traits and environmental conditions on return patterns in juvenile king penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraux, Claire; Viblanc, Vincent A; Hanuise, Nicolas; Le Maho, Yvon; Le Bohec, Céline

    2011-01-01

    Despite the importance of early life stages in individuals' life history and population dynamics, very few studies have focused on the constraints to which these juvenile traits are subjected. Based on 10 years of automatic monitoring of over 2500 individuals, we present the first study on the effects of environmental conditions and individual pre-fledging traits on the post-fledging return of non-banded king penguins to their natal colony. Juvenile king penguins returned exclusively within one of the three austral summers following their departure. A key finding is that return rates (range 68-87%) were much higher than previously assumed for this species, importantly meaning that juvenile survival is very close to that of adults. Such high figures suggest little juvenile dispersal, and selection occurring mostly prior to fledging in king penguins. Pre-fledging conditions had a strong quadratic impact on juvenile return rates. As expected, cohorts reared under very unfavourable years (as inferred by the breeding success of the colony) exhibited low return rates but surprisingly, so did those fledged under very favourable conditions. Juvenile sojourns away from the colony were shorter under warm conditions and subsequent return rates higher, suggesting a positive effect of climate warming. The longer the post-fledging trip (1, 2 or 3 years), the earlier in the summer birds returned to their natal colony and the longer they stayed before leaving for the winter journey. The presence of juveniles in the colony was more than twice the duration required for moulting purposes, yet none attempted breeding in the year of their first return. Juvenile presence in the colony may be important for acquiring knowledge on the social and physical colonial environment and may play an important part in the learning process of mating behaviour. Further studies are required to investigate its potential implications on other life-history traits such as recruitment age.

  9. Work-family interface from a life and career stage perspective: the role of demands and resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demerouti, Evangelia; Peeters, Maria C W; van der Heijden, Beatrice I J M

    2012-01-01

    Work-family conflict and enrichment are experiences that occur daily and have substantial consequences for employees, their families, and the organizations that employ them. The aim of the current review is to make a link between life and career stage, work and family conditions, and the work-family interface. The basic proposition is that life stages partly determine career development, and consequently the specific working conditions (job demands and job resources) and family conditions (family demands and family resources) that individuals are exposed to. As a result, the specific demands and resources in the work and family domains determine to what extent individuals experience that work and family are conflicting or enriching life domains. In this review we suggest that individuals in early adulthood will experience high inter-role conflict and low facilitation due to high demands and low resources in both life domains, while individuals in late adulthood will experience the opposite pattern; that is, low conflict and high facilitation due to low demands and high resources in both domains. Individuals in middle adulthood will experience high work-family conflict but also high family-work facilitation due to the presence of high job demands and resources in both life domains. Integrating life and career stage perspectives and the experience of work-family interface is of notable practical utility because it provides a mechanism to make more informed decisions about the relative need for and corresponding benefits of work-family programs.

  10. Transcriptomic data analysis and differential gene expression of antioxidant pathways in king penguin juveniles (Aptenodytes patagonicus) before and after acclimatization to marine life

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Rey; Cyril Dégletagne; Claude Duchamp

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we present differentially expressed gene profiles in the pectoralis muscle of wild juvenile king penguins that were either naturally acclimated to cold marine environment or experimentally immersed in cold water as compared with penguin juveniles that never experienced cold water immersion. Transcriptomic data were obtained by hybridizing penguins total cDNA on Affymetrix GeneChip Chicken Genome arrays and analyzed using maxRS algorithm, ?Transcriptome analysis in non-model s...

  11. Among-year variation in selection during early life stages and the genetic basis of fitness in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, Froukje M; Ågren, Jon

    2018-04-19

    Incomplete information regarding both selection regimes and the genetic basis of fitness limits our understanding of adaptive evolution. Among-year variation in the genetic basis of fitness is rarely quantified, and estimates of selection are typically based on single components of fitness, thus potentially missing conflicting selection acting during other life-history stages. Here, we examined among-year variation in selection on a key life-history trait and the genetic basis of fitness covering the whole life cycle in the annual plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We planted freshly-matured seeds of >200 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between two locally-adapted populations (Italy and Sweden), and both parental genotypes at the native site of the Swedish population in three consecutive years. We quantified selection against the nonlocal Italian genotype, mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL) for fitness and its components, and quantified selection on timing of germination during different life stages. In all three years, the local Swedish genotype outperformed the non-local Italian genotype. However, both the contribution of early life stages to relative fitness, and the effects of fitness QTL varied among years. Timing of germination was under conflicting selection through seedling establishment vs. adult survival and fecundity, and both the direction and magnitude of net selection varied among years. Our results demonstrate that selection during early life stages and the genetic basis of fitness can vary markedly among years, emphasizing the need for multi-year studies considering the whole life cycle for a full understanding of natural selection and mechanisms maintaining local adaptation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Juvenile technologies in foreign publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shpagina E.M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article provides the review of foreign publications, concerning the juvenile technologies used in France, Canada, Germany and Switzerland. The paper presents legal, social and psychotherapeutic aspects of juvenile judiciary in foreign countries. The authors paid special attention to the complexity of approaches to young children and teenagers who found themselves in complicated life circumstances or got into trouble with the law. The article gives examples of using the following techniques: cognitive-behavioral intervention, mediation, family therapy (including family background and family history, relations theory, narrative practices, utilization of «emotional intelligence» resources.

  13. Developmental toxicity of PAH mixtures in fish early life stages. Part II: adverse effects in Japanese medaka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bihanic, Florane; Clérandeau, Christelle; Le Menach, Karyn; Morin, Bénédicte; Budzinski, Hélène; Cousin, Xavier; Cachot, Jérôme

    2014-12-01

    In aquatic environments, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) mostly occur as complex mixtures, for which risk assessment remains problematic. To better understand the effects of PAH mixture toxicity on fish early life stages, this study compared the developmental toxicity of three PAH complex mixtures. These mixtures were extracted from a PAH-contaminated sediment (Seine estuary, France) and two oils (Arabian Light and Erika). For each fraction, artificial sediment was spiked at three different environmental concentrations roughly equivalent to 0.5, 4, and 10 μg total PAH g(-1) dw. Japanese medaka embryos were incubated on these PAH-spiked sediments throughout their development, right up until hatching. Several endpoints were recorded at different developmental stages, including acute endpoints, morphological abnormalities, larvae locomotion, and genotoxicity (comet and micronucleus assays). The three PAH fractions delayed hatching, induced developmental abnormalities, disrupted larvae swimming activity, and damaged DNA at environmental concentrations. Differences in toxicity levels, likely related to differences in PAH proportions, were highlighted between fractions. The Arabian Light and Erika petrogenic fractions, containing a high proportion of alkylated PAHs and low molecular weight PAHs, were more toxic to Japanese medaka early life stages than the pyrolytic fraction. This was not supported by the toxic equivalency approach, which appeared unsuitable for assessing the toxicity of the three PAH fractions to fish early life stages. This study highlights the potential risks posed by environmental mixtures of alkylated and low molecular weight PAHs to early stages of fish development.

  14. Immunity to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) following DNA vaccination of rainbow trout at an early life-stage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Niels; Lorenzen, Ellen; Einer-Jensen, Katja

    2001-01-01

    -vaccination respectively, revealed that a highly protective and lasting immunity was established shortly after vaccination, in accordance with earlier experiments with larger fish. The defence mechanisms activated by the DNA vaccine are thus functional at an early life-stage in rainbow trout....

  15. Haematobia irritans dataset of raw sequence reads from Illumina-based transcriptome sequencing of specific tissues and life stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illumina HiSeq technology was used to sequence the transcriptome from various dissected tissues and life stages from the horn fly, Haematobia irritans. These samples include eggs (0, 2, 4, and 9 hours post-oviposition), adult fly gut, adult fly legs, adult fly malpighian tubule, adult fly ovary, adu...

  16. The life history and immature stages of the weevil Anthonomus monostigma Champion (Coleoptera: Curculiondidae) on Miconia calvescens DC (Melastomataceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eduardo Chacón-Madrigal; M.Tracy Johnson; Paul. Hanson

    2012-01-01

    We describe and illustrate the life history and immature stages of Anthonomus monostigma Champion (Curculionidae: Curculioninae: Anthonomini). This weevil is a fruit borer in Miconia calvescens DC (Melastomataceae), a Neotropical tree that is invasive in Pacific islands. The larva has three instars, and development from egg to...

  17. Quality of life, urogynecological morbidity, and lymphedema after radical vaginal trachelectomy for early-stage cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøding, Ligita Paskeviciute; Ottosen, Christian; Mosgaard, Berit Jul

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Radical vaginal trachelectomy (RVT) offers a possibility for future childbearing for young women with early-stage cervical cancer. However, the literature on quality of life and self-reported morbidity in patients undergoing RVT is scarce. The aim of this study was to prospectively...

  18. Work-family interface from a life and career stage perspective: The role of demands and resources.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demerouti, E.; Peeters, M.C.W.; van der Heijden, Beatrice

    2012-01-01

    Work–family conflict and enrichment are experiences that occur daily and have substantial consequences for employees, their families, and the organizations that employ them. The aim of the current review is to make a link between life and career stage, work and family conditions, and the work–family

  19. Work-family interface from a life and career stage perspective : the role of demands and resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demerouti, E.; Peeters, M.C.W.; Heijden, van der B.I.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Work–family conflict and enrichment are experiences that occur daily and have substantial consequences for employees, their families, and the organizations that employ them. The aim of the current review is to make a link between life and career stage, work and family conditions, and the work–family

  20. Development of an alternative testing strategy for the fish early life-stage (FELS) test using the AOP framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currently, the fish early life-stage (FELS) test (OECD 210) is the primary guideline used to estimate chronic toxicity of regulated chemicals. Although already more cost-efficient than adult fish tests, the FELS test has some important drawbacks. Both industry and regulatory inst...

  1. An idealized model for tree-grass coexistence in savannas : The role of life stage structure and fire disturbances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baudena, Mara|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/340303867; D'Andrea, Fabio; Provenzale, A.

    2010-01-01

    1. We discuss a simple implicit-space model for the competition of trees and grasses in an idealized savanna environment. The model represents patch occupancy dynamics within the habitat and introduces life stage structure in the tree population, namely adults and seedlings. A tree can be

  2. Patterns of Social Interaction and Concepts of Interpersonal-Relating at Different Life-Stages in the Marquesas Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Mary

    This research report describes a study of Marquesas Islanders and how they interact with each other at different life stages from childhood, through youth and adulthood. Fieldwork for this study was conducted for a 10-month period on the island of 'Ua Pou, Marquesas Islands, French Polynesia. A small community of about 200 people in a valley on…

  3. Discovering and annotating fish early life-stage (FELS) adverse outcome pathways: Putting the research strategy into practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    In May 2012, a HESI-sponsored expert workshop yielded a proposed research strategy for systematically discovering, characterizing, and annotating fish early life-stage (FELS) adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) as well as prioritizing AOP development in light of current restrictions ...

  4. Long-Term Health-Related Quality of Life in German Patients with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis in Comparison to German General Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swaantje Barth

    Full Text Available Aims of the study were to investigate health-related quality of life (HRQOL in adult patients with former diagnosis of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA, to compare their HRQOL with the general population and to identify factors related to a poor outcome.In 2012, a cross-sectional survey was performed by mailing a questionnaire to a large cohort of former and current patients of the German Centre for Rheumatology in Children and Adolescents. Only adult patients (≥18 years with a diagnosis compatible with JIA were included (n = 2592; response 66%. The questionnaire included information about HRQOL (EQ5D, disease-related questions and socio-demographics. Prevalence and 95% confidence intervals (CI of problems with mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain and anxiety/depression were standardized to the German general population. Factors associated with low HRQOL in JIA patients were identified using logistic regression models.Sixty-two percent of the study population was female; age range was 18-73 years. In all dimensions, JIA patients reported statistically significantly more problems than the general population with largest differences in the pain dimension (JIA patients 56%; 95%CI 55-58%; general population 28%; 26-29% and the anxiety/depression dimension (28%; 27-29% vs. 4%; 4-5%. Lower HRQOL in JIA patients was associated with female sex, older age, lower level of education, still being under rheumatic treatment and disability.HRQOL in adult JIA patients is considerably lower than in the general population. As this cohort includes historic patients the new therapeutic schemes available today are expected to improve HRQOL in future.

  5. Long-Term Health-Related Quality of Life in German Patients with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis in Comparison to German General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Swaantje; Haas, Johannes-Peter; Schlichtiger, Jenny; Molz, Johannes; Bisdorff, Betty; Michels, Hartmut; Hügle, Boris; Radon, Katja

    2016-01-01

    Aims of the study were to investigate health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in adult patients with former diagnosis of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA), to compare their HRQOL with the general population and to identify factors related to a poor outcome. In 2012, a cross-sectional survey was performed by mailing a questionnaire to a large cohort of former and current patients of the German Centre for Rheumatology in Children and Adolescents. Only adult patients (≥18 years) with a diagnosis compatible with JIA were included (n = 2592; response 66%). The questionnaire included information about HRQOL (EQ5D), disease-related questions and socio-demographics. Prevalence and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of problems with mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain and anxiety/depression were standardized to the German general population. Factors associated with low HRQOL in JIA patients were identified using logistic regression models. Sixty-two percent of the study population was female; age range was 18-73 years. In all dimensions, JIA patients reported statistically significantly more problems than the general population with largest differences in the pain dimension (JIA patients 56%; 95%CI 55-58%; general population 28%; 26-29%) and the anxiety/depression dimension (28%; 27-29% vs. 4%; 4-5%). Lower HRQOL in JIA patients was associated with female sex, older age, lower level of education, still being under rheumatic treatment and disability. HRQOL in adult JIA patients is considerably lower than in the general population. As this cohort includes historic patients the new therapeutic schemes available today are expected to improve HRQOL in future.

  6. Estimation of Life-Year Loss and Lifetime Costs for Different Stages of Colon Adenocarcinoma in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Chuan; Lee, Jenq-Chang; Wang, Jung-Der

    2015-01-01

    Life-expectancy of colon cancer patients cannot be accurately answered due to the lack of both large datasets and long-term follow-ups, which impedes accurate estimation of lifetime cost to treat colon cancer patients. In this study, we applied a method to estimate life-expectancy of colon cancer patients in Taiwan and calculate the lifetime costs by different stages and age groups. A total of 17,526 cases with pathologically verified colon adenocarcinoma between 2002 and 2009 were extracted from Taiwan Cancer Registry database for analysis. All patients were followed-up until the end of 2011. Life-expectancy, expected-years-of-life-lost and lifetime costs were estimated, using a semi-parametric survival extrapolation method and borrowing information from life tables of vital statistics. Patients with more advanced stages of colon cancer were generally younger and less co-morbid with major chronic diseases than those with stages I and II. The LE of stage I was not significantly different from that of the age- and sex-matched general population, whereas those of stages II, III, and IV colon cancer patients after diagnosis were 16.57 ± 0.07, 13.35 ± 0.07, and 4.05 ± 0.05 years, respectively; the corresponding expected-years-of-life-lost were 1.28 ± 0.07, 5.93 ± 0.07 and 16.42 ± 0.06 years, significantly shorter than the general population after accounting for lead time bias. Besides, the lifetime cost of managing stage II colon cancer patients would be US $8,416 ± 1939, 14,334 ± 1,755, and 21,837 ± 1,698, respectively, indicating a big saving for early diagnosis and treatment after stratification for age and sex. Treating colon cancer at younger age and earlier stage saves more life-years and healthcare costs. Future studies are indicated to apply these quantitative results into the cost-effectiveness evaluation of screening program for colon cancers.

  7. Parent-Teacher Association, Soup Kitchen, Church, or the Local Civic Club? Life Stage Indicators of Volunteer Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Dawn C; King, Katherine; Matz-Costa, Christina

    2015-04-01

    Gaps in existing literature hinder our knowledge of how life stage-related identities (e.g., worker, parent, student, etc.) influence individuals' decisions about whether and how to get involved in community service. Interventions to increase volunteerism throughout the life course require a more nuanced understanding of this relationship. We use multinomial logistic models to analyze how life phase factors relate to involvement in different types of voluntary organizations across the adult life course in the Chicago Community Adult Health Study. Half of the adults did not volunteer. Those who did volunteer were categorized as charitable, youth-oriented, religious, civic, or multidomain volunteers. Age, employment, family structure, demographics, and self-rated health differentially predicted volunteering in specific domains. Findings from this study suggest that recruitment and retention efforts employed by different nonprofit organizations may be more effective if they take into consideration the life phase factors that enhance or detract from likelihood of engagement. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Effects of Ocean Acidification and Warming on Sperm Activity and Early Life Stages of the Mediterranean Mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikko Vihtakari

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Larval stages are among those most vulnerable to ocean acidification (OA. Projected atmospheric CO2 levels for the end of this century may lead to negative impacts on communities dominated by calcifying taxa with planktonic life stages. We exposed Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis sperm and early life stages to pHT levels of 8.0 (current pH and 7.6 (2100 level by manipulating pCO2 level (380 and 1000 ppm. Sperm activity was examined at ambient temperatures (16–17 °C using individual males as replicates. We also assessed the effects of temperature (ambient and ≈20 °C and pH on larval size, survival, respiration and calcification of late trochophore/early D-veliger stages using a cross-factorial design. Increased pCO2 had a negative effect on the percentage of motile sperm (mean response ratio R= 71% and sperm swimming speed (R= 74%, possibly indicating reduced fertilization capacity of sperm in low concentrations. Increased temperature had a more prominent effect on larval stages than pCO2, reducing performance (RSize = 90% and RSurvival = 70% and increasing energy demand (RRespiration = 429%. We observed no significant interactions between pCO2 and temperature. Our results suggest that increasing temperature might have a larger impact on very early larval stages of M. galloprovincialis than OA at levels predicted for the end of the century.

  9. Feeding ecology of juvenile marine fish in a shallow coastal lagoon of southeastern Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Arceo-Carranza; Xavier Chiappa-Carrara

    2015-01-01

    Many species of marine fish use coastal lagoons during early stages of their life cycles due to the protection provided by their turbid waters and complex structure of the environment, such as mangroves and mudflats, and the availability of food derived from the high productivity of these sites. In this study, we analyzed the diet of six species of juvenile marine fishes that use a karstic lagoon system in the northwest portion of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Through stomach contents analys...

  10. Study of the biological effects of uranium exposure on zebra fish (D. rerio). Impact on life stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourrachot, St.

    2009-05-01

    This work is part of an ongoing project (ENVIRHOM) started at IRSN in 2000, which consists in studying the environmental effects of radioactive substances at chronic low level of exposure. In this general frame, our aim was two fold: (i) to identify sensitivity of different critical life stages of zebra fish (fish of fresh water frequently used for tests standards in ecotoxicology) to uranium exposure and (ii) to evaluate underlying mechanisms. Experiments were conducted with eggs, larvae and genitors exposed to uranium at environmentally relevant concentrations (from 20 to 500 μg/L) in order to study survival, hatching of eggs, growth of larvae and reproduction of genitors. Bio-markers of exposure (i.e. U bioaccumulation) and bio-markers of effects at molecular level (i.e. genotoxic effects, reproductive-toxicity) were also measured. Sensitivity of fish to uranium was dependent of the life stage of development with the early life stage being the most sensitive to U either directly or maternally exposed. It underlines the relevance of including pro-larval stages for toxicity assessments in fish. Moreover drastic effects of uranium on reproductive success and DNA damages in the germ cells foretell a strong impact on the population for low concentration of exposure (20 μg/L). As it is increasingly recognized that population-level effects of toxic substances are more relevant in terms of ecological risk assessment, this study points out the need to include different life stages of organisms in eco-toxicological studies, especially the sensitive early stages. Moreover, it appears, through the comparative study of the radiological effects or by another isotope of the uranium of stronger radioactivity ( 233 U or by an irradiation with 137 Cs), that the effects of the uranium are due to its chemo-toxicity. (author)

  11. Hydrological and thermal effects of hydropeaking on early life stages of salmonids: A modelling approach for implementing mitigation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas-Mulet, Roser; Saltveit, Svein Jakob; Alfredsen, Knut Tore

    2016-12-15

    Alterations in hydrological and thermal regimes can potentially affect salmonid early life stages development and survival. The dewatering of salmon spawning redds due to hydropeaking can lead to mortality in early life stages, with higher impact on the alevins as they have lower tolerance to dewatering than the eggs. Flow-related mitigation measures can reduce early life stage mortality. We present a set of modelling tools to assess impacts and mitigation options to minimise the risk of mortality in early life stages in hydropeaking rivers. We successfully modelled long-term hydrological and thermal alterations and consequences for development rates. We estimated the risk of early life stages mortality and assessed the cost-effectiveness of implementing three release-related mitigation options (A,B,C). The economic cost of mitigation was low and ranged between 0.7% and 2.6% of the annual hydropower production. Options reducing the flow during spawning (B and C) in addition to only release minimum flows during development (A) were considered more effective for egg and alevin survival. Options B and C were however constraint by water availability in the system for certain years, and therefore only option A was always feasible. The set of modelling tools used in this study were satisfactory and their applications can be useful especially in systems where little field data is available. Targeted measures built on well-informed modelling tools can be tested on their effectiveness to mitigate dewatering effects vs. the hydropower system capacity to release or conserve water for power production. Environmental flow releases targeting specific ecological objectives can provide better cost-effective options than conventional operational rules complying with general legislation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of body mass index on breast cancer in accordance with the life-stage of women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Reiko [Division of Medical Nutrition, Department of Healthcare, Tokyo Health Care University, Tokyo (Japan); Saji, Shigehira [Department of Target Therapy Oncology, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Toi, Masakazu, E-mail: toi@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Breast Surgery, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan)

    2012-10-04

    A large amount of epidemiological evidence suggests that the impact of body weight on breast cancer risk should be heterogeneous throughout the life-stage of women. At birth, high weight has been positively associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. While, the body mass index (a relative body weight; BMI kg/m{sup 2}) has been inversely associated with breast cancer risk among pre-menopausal women. The inverse trend had been observed in both Western and Asian population, with a relatively lower percentage of obesity and higher percentage of leanness, suggested that the inverse trend could be explained not only by the protective impact due to obesity, but also by the increased risk of breast cancer due to leanness. Among post-menopausal women, however, an elevated BMI has been positively associated with the development of breast cancer, particularly in the cases of estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) and progesterone receptor-positive (PR+) tumors. Currently, the mechanisms underlying the heterogeneous impacts between BMI on breast cancer risk and the life-stage of women remain poorly understood. We reviewed several proposed biological mechanisms that may contribute to the various impacts of relative body weight on breast cancer risk across life-stage. We also discussed the impact of BMI upon the outcome of endocrine therapy, particularly for aromatase inhibitor, in breast cancer patients. To prevent breast cancer incidence and recurrence, the desirable BMI of women may differ throughout their life-stage. To define the underlying mechanism for the various impacts of BMI in the context of breast cancer across various female life stages, further studies will be required.

  13. Impact of body mass index on breast cancer in accordance with the life-stage of women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Reiko; Saji, Shigehira; Toi, Masakazu

    2012-01-01

    A large amount of epidemiological evidence suggests that the impact of body weight on breast cancer risk should be heterogeneous throughout the life-stage of women. At birth, high weight has been positively associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. While, the body mass index (a relative body weight; BMI kg/m 2 ) has been inversely associated with breast cancer risk among pre-menopausal women. The inverse trend had been observed in both Western and Asian population, with a relatively lower percentage of obesity and higher percentage of leanness, suggested that the inverse trend could be explained not only by the protective impact due to obesity, but also by the increased risk of breast cancer due to leanness. Among post-menopausal women, however, an elevated BMI has been positively associated with the development of breast cancer, particularly in the cases of estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) and progesterone receptor-positive (PR+) tumors. Currently, the mechanisms underlying the heterogeneous impacts between BMI on breast cancer risk and the life-stage of women remain poorly understood. We reviewed several proposed biological mechanisms that may contribute to the various impacts of relative body weight on breast cancer risk across life-stage. We also discussed the impact of BMI upon the outcome of endocrine therapy, particularly for aromatase inhibitor, in breast cancer patients. To prevent breast cancer incidence and recurrence, the desirable BMI of women may differ throughout their life-stage. To define the underlying mechanism for the various impacts of BMI in the context of breast cancer across various female life stages, further studies will be required.

  14. Impact of aquatic insect life stage and emergence strategy on sensitivity to esfenvalerate exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmquist, Katherine R; Jepson, Paul C; Jenkins, Jeffrey J

    2008-08-01

    We investigated the impact of aquatic insect life stage and emergence strategy on sensitivity to esfenvalerate, a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide, using field-collected Brachycentrus americanus Banks (Trichoptera: Brachycentridae) and Cinygmula reticulata McDunnough (Ephemeroptera: Heptageniidae) insects. Final-instar C. reticulata emergence was observed for one week following three environmentally relevant, 48-h esfenvalerate exposures (0.005, 0.01, and 0.015 microg/L). Emergence was significantly depressed following exposure to esfenvalerate and resulted from an increase in nymph mortality during the emergence process. This experiment was duplicated for late-instar C. reticulata nymphs, which were similar in size to the final-instar nymphs but were not near emergence. Late-instar C. reticulata mayflies were approximately fivefold less sensitive to esfenvalerate exposures as gauged by one-week mortality rates. Brachycentrus americanus pupal mortality was significantly increased over that in controls following 48-h esfenvalerate exposures of 0.1 and 0.2 microg/L. These response concentrations correlated closely with those for case-abandonment rates of fourth-instar B. americanus larvae (a sublethal effect of esfenvalerate exposure). Pupal mortality rates were approximately 16-fold higher than those observed in larvae. Adult female egg weight as a percentage of total body weight was significantly decreased following pupal esfenvalerate exposures of 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 microg/L. These findings suggest that exposure to esfenvalerate may impair hemimetabolous insect emergence behaviors and may decrease fecundity in holometabolous aquatic insects.

  15. [The university stage does not favor the healthy life style in women students from Granada].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo-Escudero, Alba; Muñoz Alférez, María José; Planells del Pozo, Elena María; López Aliaga, Inmaculada

    2014-11-15

    The university stage involves a series of emotional, physiological and environmental changes that will determine consumer patterns that, in many cases, will be maintained and will affect their health. The aim of this study is to analyze the lifestyle (alcohol and tobacco consumption, and levels of physical activity) of female students at the University of Granada. Several authors have noted that the student population is particularly vulnerable to develop risk customs and habits, since the period of university studies is often the time when students take first responsibility for determining their own styles and customs, which in many cases will be maintained throughout its entire life. This is a cross / descriptive and analytical study in which 55 students participated in two age groups (18-24 and 25-31 years). A lifestyle-questionnaire was applied to evaluate the type and frequency of alcohol consumption, number of cigarettes smoked daily and physical activity levels (sedentary, light, moderate and severe). Alcohol consumption is higher in the older group, and preferably drinks beer and wine; however the younger group shows a pattern of consumption centered on the weekends being preferably consumed distilled beverages. A third of the population smokes with an increase in the number of cigarettes as age increases. There is a positive correlation between snuff and alcohol. A direct positive correlation between tobacco and alcohol was observed. The 88.9% of lesser age group and 52.7% of higher age group show a sedentary-low physical activity. The need to sensitize the college female population on the benefits of no-consumption of alcohol and snuff, and regular physical exercise is suggested. It would also be advisable to develop protocols of educational intervention in universities promoting healthy living habits. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of a homologous series of linear alcohol ethoxylate surfactants on fathead minnow early life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizotte, R E; Wong, D C; Dorn, P B; Rodgers, J H

    1999-11-01

    Effects of a homologous series of three primarily linear alcohol ethoxylate surfactants were studied in laboratory flow-through 28-day early-life-stage tests with fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas Rafinesque). Surfactants were a C(9-11), C(12-13), and C(14-15) with an average of 6, 6.5, and 7 ethylene oxide units per mole of alcohol, respectively. Average measured surfactant recoveries were 103%, 81%, and 79% of nominal concentrations for the C(9-11) EO 6, C(12-13) EO 6.5, and C(14-15) EO 7 studies, respectively. Embryo survival at 48 h was not adversely affected at any of the concentrations tested. Impaired hatching and deformed fry were observed only in the C(12-13) EO 6.5 study. The 28-day LC50 values were 4.87, 2.39, and 1.02 mg/L for the C(9-11) EO 6, C(12-13) EO 6.5, and C(14-15) EO 7 surfactants, respectively. The corresponding NOECs for survival were 1.01, 1.76, and 0.74 mg/L. Posthatch fry growth was more sensitive than survival for the C(12-13) EO 6.5 and C(14-15) EO 7 surfactants. Survival of posthatch fry decreased with increasing surfactant alkyl chain length. Twenty-eight-day laboratory data were compared to 96-h laboratory, 10-day laboratory and 30-day stream mesocosm data for fathead minnow previously determined for these surfactants. Survival endpoints from the different exposures were comparable and only varied within a factor of two. Similarity of results suggests that it is possible to effectively use 96-h, 10-day, or 28-day laboratory data to predict environmental effects concentrations of these surfactants for fish. http://link.springer-ny. com/link/service/journals/00244/bibs/37n4p536.html

  17. Aquatic toxicity of cartap and cypermethrin to different life stages of Daphnia magna and Oryzias latipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Younghee; Jung, Jinyong; Oh, Sorin; Choi, Kyungho

    2008-01-01

    Cartap and cypermethrin, which are among the most widely used pesticides in many countries, are considered safe because of their low mammalian toxicity and their low persistence in the environment. However, recent findings of endocrine-disrupting effects and developmental neurotoxicity have raised concerns about the potential ecological impacts of these pesticides. We evaluated the aquatic toxicity of cartap [S,S'-(2-dimethylaminotrimethylene) bis(thiocarbamate), unspecified hydrochloride] and cypermethrin [(RS)-alpha-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl-(1RS,3RS,1RS,3SR)-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylate], both individually and combined, on different life stages of the freshwater cladoceran Daphnia magna and a freshwater teleost, Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). The 96-hr Daphnia median effective concentrations (EC50s) for cartap and cypermethrin were 91.0 microg/L and 0.00061 microg/L, respectively. Rapid recovery of Daphnia was observed after short-term pulsed exposure to cartap and cypermethrin; there were no adverse effects on reproduction or survival 20 d after a 24 hr exposure to cartap up to 1240 microg/L and cypermethrin up to 1.9 microg/L. Chronic continuous exposure (for 21 d) of 7-d-old Daphnia to cypermethrin significantly reduced the intrinsic population growth rate in a concentration-dependent manner. However, because the intrinsic population growth rates were all above zero, populations did not decrease even at the highest experimental concentration of 200 ng/L. Exposure of Daphnia neonates (cartap or 40 microg/L of cypermethrin. The mixture of both compounds showed no synergistic toxicity. The extremely high acute-to-chronic ratio suggests that the standard acute lethal toxicity assessment might not reflect the true environmental hazards of these frequently used pesticides. Ecological hazard assessments of long-term low dose or pulsed exposures to cartap and cypermethrin may reveal more realistic consequences of these compounds in

  18. Real-life 10-year retention rate of first-line anti-TNF drugs for inflammatory arthritides in adult- and juvenile-onset populations: similarities and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favalli, Ennio Giulio; Pontikaki, Irene; Becciolini, Andrea; Biggioggero, Martina; Ughi, Nicola; Romano, Micol; Crotti, Chiara; Gattinara, Maurizio; Gerloni, Valeria; Marchesoni, Antonio; Meroni, Pier Luigi

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study is to retrospectively analyze 10-year drug survival of first-line TNF inhibitor (TNFi) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS), psoriatic arthritis (PsA), and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients, comparing withdrawal rates and discontinuation pattern between adult- and juvenile-onset populations. RA, AS, PsA, and JIA patients treated with infliximab, etanercept, or adalimumab as first TNFi between 1999 and 2015 were extracted from a local registry. Drug survival up to 10-year follow-up was evaluated by the Kaplan-Meier method and compared according to age (adult vs juvenile onset), TNFi agent, and discontinuation reason by a stratified log-rank test. Three hundred sixty JIA (205 etanercept, 66 adalimumab, and 89 infliximab) and 951 (607 RA, 188 AS, and 156 PsA) adult patients (464 infliximab, 262 adalimumab, and 225 etanercept) were included. After exclusion of systemic-onset JIA (18.5%), overall 10-year retention rate was 31.8%, with no difference between adult- and juvenile-onset patients (32.1 and 30.2%, respectively; HR 0.938 [95% CI 0.782-1.125]). Etanercept showed the highest drug survival in adult-onset population (p adult population (29.75%) with a significantly higher risk of discontinuation than in juvenile-onset subgroup (HR 1.390 [95% CI 1.060-1.824]). Serious infections and malignancies caused TNFi withdrawal only in adult whereas gastrointestinal, neuropsychiatric, and ocular complications quite only in juvenile patients. Despite a similar 10-year drug survival, adult- and juvenile-onset subpopulations showed a significantly different pattern of TNFi reasons for discontinuation.

  19. Labeling surface epitopes to identify Cryptosporidium life stages using a scanning electron microscopy-based immunogold approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Hanna; Thompson, R C Andrew; Koh, Wan H; Clode, Peta L

    2012-02-01

    The Apicomplexan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum is responsible for the widespread disease cryptosporidiosis, in both humans and livestock. The nature of C. parvum infection is far from understood and many questions remain in regard to host-parasite interactions, limiting successful treatment of the disease. To definitively identify a range of C. parvum stages in cell culture and to begin to investigate host cell interactions in some of the lesser known life stages, we have utilized a combined scanning electron microscopy and immunolabeling approach, correlating high resolution microstructural information with definitive immunogold labeling of Cryptosporidium stages. Several life cycle stages, including oocysts, merozoites I, trophozoites, gamonts and microgametocytes, were successfully immunolabeled in an in vitro model system. Developing oocysts were clearly immunolabeled, but this did not persist once excystation had occurred. Immunolabeling visualized on the host cell surface adjacent to invasive merozoites is likely to be indicative of receptor shedding, with merozoites also initiating host responses that manifested as abnormal microvilli on the host cell surface. Small sub-micron stages such as microgametocytes, which were impossible to identify as single entities without immunolabeling, were readily visualized and observed to attach to host cells via novel membranous projections. Epicellular parasites also expressed Cryptosporidium-derived epitopes within their encapsulating membrane. These data have allowed us to confidently identify a variety of C. parvum stages in cell culture at high resolution. With this, we provide new insight into C. parvum - host cell interactions and highlight future opportunities for investigating and targeting receptor-mediated interactions between Cryptosporidium life cycle stages and host cells. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Feasibility of Classifying Life Stages and Searching for the Determinants: Results from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey 1996-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yi-Sheng; Wu, Hau-Tieng; Wu, Chao-Jung

    2017-01-01

    Life stages are not clearly defined and significant determinants for the identification of stages are not discussed. This study aims to test a data-driven approach to define stages and to identify the major determinants. This study analyzed the data on the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey interviewees from 1996 to 2011 in the United States. This study first selected features with the Spearman's correlation to remove redundant variables and to increase computational feasibility. The retained 430 variables were log transformed, if applicable. Sixty-four nominal variables were replaced with 164 binominal variables. This led to 525 variables that were available for principal component analysis (PCA). Life stages were proposed to be periods of ages with significantly different values of principal components (PCs). After retaining subjects followed throughout the panels, 244,089 were eligible for PCA, and the number of civilians was estimated to be 4.6 billion. The age ranged from 0 to 90 years old (mean = 35.88, 95% CI = 35.67-36.09). The values of the first PC were not significant from age of 6 to 13, 30 to 41, 46 to 60, and 76 to 90 years (adjusted p  > 0.5), and the major determinants were related to functional status, employment, and poverty. Important stages and their major determinants, including the status of functionality and cognition, income, and marital status, can be identified. Identifying stages of stability or transition will be important for research that relies on a research population with similar characteristics to draw samples for observation or intervention. This study sets an example of defining stages of transition and stability across ages with social and health data. Among all available variables, cognitive limitations, income, and poverty are important determinants of these stages.

  1. Application of preference selection index method for decision making over the design stage of production system life cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Attri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The life cycle of production system shows the progress of production system from the inception to the termination of the system. During each stage, mainly in the design stage, certain strategic decisions have to be taken. These decisions are more complex as the decision makers have to assess a wide range of alternatives based on a set of conflicting criteria. As the decision making process is found to be unstructured, characterized by domain dependent knowledge, there is a need to apply an efficient multi-criteria decision making (MCDM tool to help the decision makers in making correct decisions. This paper explores the application of a novel MCDM method i.e. Preference selection index (PSI method to solve various decision-making problems that are generally encountered in the design stage of production system life cycle. To prove the potentiality, applicability and accuracy of PSI method in solving decision making problem during the design stage of production system life cycle, five examples are cited from the literature and are compared with the results obtained by the past researchers.

  2. Long-term quality of life after conservative treatment versus surgery for different stages of acute sigmoid diverticulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandlhuber, Martina; Genzinger, Christian; Brandlhuber, Bernhard; Sommer, Wieland H; Müller, Mario H; Kreis, Martin E

    2018-03-01

    It is controversial whether patients fare better with conservative or surgical treatment in certain stages of acute diverticulitis (AD), in particular when phlegmonous inflammation or covered micro- or macro-perforation are present. The aim of this study was to determine long-term quality of life (QoL) for AD patients who received either surgery or conservative treatment in different stages. We included patients treated for AD at the University Hospital Grosshadern, Munich, Germany, between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2010. Patients were classified by the Hansen and Stock (HS) classification, the modified Hinchey classification, and the German classification of diverticular disease (CDD). Pre-therapeutic staging was based on multidetector computed tomography. Long-term QoL was assessed by the Cleveland Global Quality of Life (CGQL) questionnaire, the Short Form 36 (SF-36), and the Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index (GIQLI). Data are mean ± SEM. Patients with phlegmonous AD (HS type 2a, Hinchey Ia and CDD 1b, respectively) had a better long-term QoL on the GIQLI when they were operated (78.5 ± 2.5 vs. 70.7 ± 2.1; p life, patients fare better after elective sigmoid colectomy when abscess size exceeds 1 cm.

  3. Age-Stage, Two-Sex Life Table Characteristics of Aedes albopictus and Aedes Aegypti in Penang Island, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimusa, Hamisu A; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Kassim, Nur Faeza A; Rahim, Junaid

    2016-03-01

    The life table developmental attributes of laboratory colonies of wild strains of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti were analyzed and compared based on the age-stage, two-sex life table. Findings inclusive in this study are: adult preoviposition periods, total preoviposition period, mean intrinsic rate of increase (r), mean finite rate of increase (λ), net reproductive rates (R0), and mean generation time (T). The total preadult development time was 9.47 days for Ae. albopictus and 8.76 days for Ae. aegypti. The life expectancy was 19.01 days for Ae. albopictus and 19.94 days for Ae. aegypti. Mortality occurred mostly during the adult stage. The mean development time for each stage insignificantly correlated with temperature for Ae. albopictus (r  =  -0.208, P > 0.05) and (r  =  -0.312, P > 0.05) for Ae. aegypti. The population parameters suggest that Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti populations are r-strategists characterized by a high r, a large R0, and short T. This present study provides the first report to compare the life parameters of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti strains from Penang island, Malaysia.

  4. The dynamics of patients' life quality indices under the conditions of two-stage knee joint replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shpinyak S.P.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available  The aim: to analyze the changes in the life quality indices of the patients with deep periprosthetic joint infection of the knee under the two-stage surgical treatment. Material and Methods. 57 patients who underwent two-stage revision-ary treatment in Research Institute of Traumatology, Orthopedics and Neurosurgery were interviewed with life quality questionnaire Short Form Medical Outcomes Study (SF 36 v.1. Interview results were compared with standardized population indices of SF-36 scales for males and females. Results. In all groups regardless of sex there was a general tendency for an increase in physical and psychological health component up to mean population values after the first stage of surgery and further growth after the second stage. Rehabilitation potential of psychomotor health was higher in women than in men. The ability to handle stress was lower in direct ratio with the patients' age. Conclusion. Two-stage reendoprosthetic treatment with articulating antimicrobial spacer implantation having high grade of fixation is an effective treatment method for deep periprosthetic infection which increases physical health and improves social functioning of patients.

  5. Microgravity effects on different stages of higher plant life cycle and completion of the seed-to-seed cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Micco, V; De Pascale, S; Paradiso, R; Aronne, G

    2014-01-01

    Human inhabitation of Space requires the efficient realisation of crop cultivation in bioregenerative life-support systems (BLSS). It is well known that plants can grow under Space conditions; however, perturbations of many biological phenomena have been highlighted due to the effect of altered gravity and its possible interactions with other factors. The mechanisms priming plant responses to Space factors, as well as the consequences of such alterations on crop productivity, have not been completely elucidated. These perturbations can occur at different stages of plant life and are potentially responsible for failure of the completion of the seed-to-seed cycle. After brief consideration of the main constraints found in the most recent experiments aiming to produce seeds in Space, we focus on two developmental phases in which the plant life cycle can be interrupted more easily than in others also on Earth. The first regards seedling development and establishment; we discuss reasons for slow development at the seedling stage that often occurs under microgravity conditions and can reduce successful establishment. The second stage comprises gametogenesis and pollination; we focus on male gamete formation, also identifying potential constraints to subsequent fertilisation. We finally highlight how similar alterations at cytological level can not only be common to different processes occurring at different life stages, but can be primed by different stress factors; such alterations can be interpreted within the model of 'stress-induced morphogenic response' (SIMR). We conclude by suggesting that a systematic analysis of all growth and reproductive phases during the plant life cycle is needed to optimise resource use in plant-based BLSS. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  6. Uptake and effects of uranium nanoparticles on early life stage of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleiven, M.; Teien, H.C.; Lind, O.C.; Vaa Johnsen, I.; Oughton, D.; Salbu, B. [Norwegian University of Life Sciences (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    Nanotechnology has been, and still is, a major scientific and economic growth area. Over the last decade, the awareness of nano-material as a potential human and environmental hazard has increased dramatically. Being a naturally occurring radionuclide, as well as the major fuel material used in nuclear energy power plants, many sources of uranium (U) are found in the environment. Uranium nanoparticles (NPs) can occur naturally (i.e., colloidal species), as incidental anthropogenic sources (e.g., debris from depleted U weapons and fuel manufacture and reprocessing), or can be intentionally synthesized for use as catalysts. Studies on environmental aspects of U NPs are rather scarce in literature. Thus, the focus of the present work was to obtain information on uptake and potential effects of U NPs on early life stage of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Eggs of Atlantic salmon were exposed to two types of U NPs, U{sub 3}O{sub 8} and UO{sub 2}, as well as to uranyl ions, in natural soft water (TOC 4.5 mg/L) at pH 7.2. Two U NP exposure experiments during fertilization were performed, both with exposure for 24 h. The exposure period was followed by a depuration period in uncontaminated water (7 and 69 days of depuration, respectively). Exposure solutions were subject to a suite of techniques to characterize the exposure during the experiment. Dissection of eggs was performed prior to the determination of U to distinguish between U associated to the shell and U in the egg fluid. Results showed that U was highest in eggs exposed to uranyl, especially during the stage of swelling, and the uptake into the eggs increased with exposure time. The uptake of U in eggs exposed to U NPs was only minor, and may be due to U ions in exposure solutions or released from U-NPs, rather than an actual U NP uptake. However, on the surface of eggs exposed to U NPs large amounts of U NPs were deposited during the experimental duration period, potentially posing a risk over time. There were no

  7. Heavy rare earth elements affect early life stages in Paracentrotus lividus and Arbacia lixula sea urchins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oral, Rahime; Pagano, Giovanni; Siciliano, Antonietta; Gravina, Maria; Palumbo, Anna; Castellano, Immacolata; Migliaccio, Oriana; Thomas, Philippe J.; Guida, Marco; Tommasi, Franca; Trifuoggi, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Background: Heavy rare earth elements (HREEs) have been scarcely studied for their toxicity, in spite of their applications in several technologies. Thus HREEs require timely investigations for their adverse health effects. Methods: Paracentrotus lividus and Arbacia lixula embryos and sperm were exposed to trichloride salts of five HREEs (Dy, Ho, Er, Yb and Lu) and to Ce(III) as a light REE (LREE) reference to evaluate: 1) developmental defects (% DD) in HREE-exposed larvae or in the offspring of HREE-exposed sperm; 2) mitotic anomalies; 3) fertilization success; and 4) reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, and nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Nominal HREE concentrations were confirmed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results: HREEs induced concentration-related DD increases in P. lividus and A. lixula larvae, ranging from no significant DD increase at 10 −7 M HREEs up to ≅100% DD at 10 −5 M HREE. Larvae exposed to 10 −5 M Ce(III) resulted in less severe DD rates compared to HREEs. Decreased mitotic activity and increased aberration rates were found in HREE-exposed P. lividus embryos. Significant increases in ROS formation and NO levels were found both in HREE-exposed and in Ce(III) embryos, whereas only Ce(III), but not HREEs resulted in significant increase in MDA levels. Sperm exposure to HREEs (10 −5 –10 −4 M) resulted in a concentration-related decrease in fertilization success along with increase in offspring damage. These effects were significantly enhanced for Dy(III), Ho(III), Er(III) and Yb(III), compared to Lu(III) and to Ce(III). Conclusion: HREE-associated toxicity affected embryogenesis, fertilization, cytogenetic and redox endpoints showing different toxicities of tested HREEs. - Highlights: • Different toxicities were exerted by five tested HREEs on sea urchin early life stages. • Sea urchin embryos and sperm were sensitive to HREE levels ranging from 1 to 100 μM, according to

  8. Heavy rare earth elements affect early life stages in Paracentrotus lividus and Arbacia lixula sea urchins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oral, Rahime [Ege University, Faculty of Fisheries, TR-35100 Bornova, İzmir (Turkey); Pagano, Giovanni, E-mail: gbpagano@tin.it [“Federico II” University of Naples, Department of Chemical Sciences, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, 80121 Naples (Italy); Siciliano, Antonietta; Gravina, Maria [“Federico II” University of Naples, Department of Biology, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Palumbo, Anna; Castellano, Immacolata; Migliaccio, Oriana [Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, 80121 Naples (Italy); Thomas, Philippe J. [Environment and Climate Change Canada, Science & Technology Branch, National Wildlife Research Center – Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A 0H3 (Canada); Guida, Marco [“Federico II” University of Naples, Department of Biology, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Tommasi, Franca [University of Bari, Department of Biology, Bari (Italy); Trifuoggi, Marco [“Federico II” University of Naples, Department of Chemical Sciences, I-80126 Naples (Italy)

    2017-04-15

    Background: Heavy rare earth elements (HREEs) have been scarcely studied for their toxicity, in spite of their applications in several technologies. Thus HREEs require timely investigations for their adverse health effects. Methods: Paracentrotus lividus and Arbacia lixula embryos and sperm were exposed to trichloride salts of five HREEs (Dy, Ho, Er, Yb and Lu) and to Ce(III) as a light REE (LREE) reference to evaluate: 1) developmental defects (% DD) in HREE-exposed larvae or in the offspring of HREE-exposed sperm; 2) mitotic anomalies; 3) fertilization success; and 4) reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, and nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Nominal HREE concentrations were confirmed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results: HREEs induced concentration-related DD increases in P. lividus and A. lixula larvae, ranging from no significant DD increase at 10{sup −7} M HREEs up to ≅100% DD at 10{sup −5} M HREE. Larvae exposed to 10{sup −5} M Ce(III) resulted in less severe DD rates compared to HREEs. Decreased mitotic activity and increased aberration rates were found in HREE-exposed P. lividus embryos. Significant increases in ROS formation and NO levels were found both in HREE-exposed and in Ce(III) embryos, whereas only Ce(III), but not HREEs resulted in significant increase in MDA levels. Sperm exposure to HREEs (10{sup −5}–10{sup −4} M) resulted in a concentration-related decrease in fertilization success along with increase in offspring damage. These effects were significantly enhanced for Dy(III), Ho(III), Er(III) and Yb(III), compared to Lu(III) and to Ce(III). Conclusion: HREE-associated toxicity affected embryogenesis, fertilization, cytogenetic and redox endpoints showing different toxicities of tested HREEs. - Highlights: • Different toxicities were exerted by five tested HREEs on sea urchin early life stages. • Sea urchin embryos and sperm were sensitive to HREE levels ranging from 1 to 100

  9. Interactive effects of ocean acidification, elevated temperature, and reduced salinity on early-life stages of the pacific oyster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Ginger W K; Dineshram, R; Campanati, Camilla; Chan, Vera B S; Havenhand, Jon; Thiyagarajan, Vengatesen

    2014-09-02

    Ocean acidification (OA) effects on larvae are partially attributed for the rapidly declining oyster production in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. This OA effect is a serious concern in SE Asia, which produces >80% of the world's oysters. Because climate-related stressors rarely act alone, we need to consider OA effects on oysters in combination with warming and reduced salinity. Here, the interactive effects of these three climate-related stressors on the larval growth of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, were examined. Larvae were cultured in combinations of temperature (24 and 30 °C), pH (8.1 and 7.4), and salinity (15 psu and 25 psu) for 58 days to the early juvenile stage. Decreased pH (pH 7.4), elevated temperature (30 °C), and reduced salinity (15 psu) significantly delayed pre- and post-settlement growth. Elevated temperature lowered the larval lipid index, a proxy for physiological quality, and negated the negative effects of decreased pH on attachment and metamorphosis only in a salinity of 25 psu. The negative effects of multiple stressors on larval metamorphosis were not due to reduced size or depleted lipid reserves at the time of metamorphosis. Our results supported the hypothesis that the C. gigas larvae are vulnerable to the interactions of OA with reduced salinity and warming in Yellow Sea coastal waters now and in the future.

  10. Effect of habitat productivity and exploitation on populations with complex life cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolfshaar, van de K.E.; Hille Ris Lambers, R.; Gardmark, A.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we study the consequences of habitat switching and the corresponding ontogenetic diet shifts between adult and juvenile life stages for harvesting and management of exploited populations using a consumer-resource model with stage-specific mortality. Specifically, we study how

  11. The speech of reality and the speech of the stage: life, science and art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elezović, Slobodan

    2005-06-01

    the expression of the speaker's ideas, attitudes and points of view in the communication process, which reveals the characteristics and the speaker's level in all the named aspects of the word value assessment. In the case of evaluation., of the word through the experience of the on-stage speech, that is, the words in the experience of the theatre art, the approach to the value assessment is contrary to the assessment carried out in an everyday, real experience. In the artistic language the words are already given, the sentences are formulated and all this is determined by the author's will and the act of creation. The actor is the interpreter of the author, his ideas along with the characters of the protagonists and the spirit of the action and, therefore, he must gradually master the word to the extent where it seems spontaneous from the point of view of the impressive and expressive categories. It also has to sound similar to the natural speech and its suggestive influence. With this counter-natural direction of the treatment of the given word it is important to reach the level of spontaneity of the expression to an almost documentary form in the overall verbal-scenic-mimic articulation. In this process the life and the art mesh and the art illustrates and defends the life.

  12. JUVENILE DELINQUENCY: TRENDS (REGIONAL ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Selezneva

    2017-01-01

    psychological portrait” of a juvenile offender, identified the main motives that caused teenagers to commit various crimes, considered in detail the structure of their crimes. The problem of motivation has received considerable attention, as its study brings researchers to the subjective knowledge of the motor components, causing a minor to commit a crime. It is equally important that, given the socio-economic factors in the analysis of human aggression is of great value not only for theoretical analysis through a systemic approach, but also for further improvement of preventive, rehabilitative work with young offenders. The process of modernization of the Russian society have not only brought much positive change, but destroying the traditional way of life, have brought cardinal changes in communication processes of the younger generation. Overall, the article gives some increase of knowledge in the identified scientific fields, contributes to the development of the science and practice of studying of illegal behaviour of minors and promotes the understanding of problems related to social processes in modern society. Having carefully studied the main factors that intensify illegal behavior of adolescents in the period of economic transformation of society, the authors come to the conclusion that the processes of industrialization, urbanization, changing economic structure has had on the structure and activity of deviant behavior of teenagers in the period under review, a significant impact. This is probably due to the fact that these processes at the initial stage of its development has resulted in significant changes in the internal foundations of the structure of society.

  13. Maturity stages affect the postharvest quality and shelf-life of fruits of strawberry genotypes growing in subtropical regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Moshiur Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The postharvest changes of five promising strawberry genotypes viz. Sweet Charlie, Festival, Camarosa, FA 008 and BARI Strawberry-1 at ambient temperature were studied under sub tropical region during the winter season (December–April of 2010–2011 and 2011–2012 in Bangladesh. Irrespective of maturity stages percent fruit decay and weight of fruits were noted minimum in Camarosa and maximum in FA 008 up to day 4 of storage. The shelf life of fruits was maximum in Camarosa and minimum in FA 008 and BARI Strawberry-1 regardless of maturity stage throughout the storage period. The TSS, total sugar and ascorbic acid content of fruits were increased with the increase in maturity stage during the storage period. In 1/3rd and 2/3rd maturity stages, the TSS and total sugar content were found the highest in Festival but at full maturity stage those were recorded higher in Camarosa. The titratable acidity was noticed the highest in 1/3rd matured fruits and gradually decreased with the increase in maturity stage as well as storage duration in all the genotypes. Ascorbic acid content of strawberry gradually decreases during the storage period. Fully matured fresh fruits of Festival contained maximum ascorbic acid content while BARI Strawberry-1 contained minimum ascorbic acid that was reduced after 3 days of storage.

  14. The impact of neighborhood walkability on walking: does it differ across adult life stage and does neighborhood buffer size matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Karen; Knuiman, Matthew; Nathan, Andrea; Giles-Corti, Billie; Christian, Hayley; Foster, Sarah; Bull, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    We explored the impact of neighborhood walkability on young adults, early-middle adults, middle-aged adults, and older adults' walking across different neighborhood buffers. Participants completed the Western Australian Health and Wellbeing Surveillance System Survey (2003-2009) and were allocated a neighborhood walkability score at 200m, 400m, 800m, and 1600m around their home. We found little difference in strength of associations across neighborhood size buffers for all life stages. We conclude that neighborhood walkability supports more walking regardless of adult life stage and is relevant for small (e.g., 200m) and larger (e.g., 1600m) neighborhood buffers. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.

  15. Perceived Risk Influence on the Consumer Attitude to Private Labels in the Product’s Life Cycle Growth Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Horvat

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explore the relationship between purchasing risk associated with private labels and consumer attitudes towards private labels in different product categories in the growth stage of the product life cycle. The first part of the paper is devoted to a brief literature review of the relevant constructs. The second part describes the research and summarizes its results. Descriptive research was conducted on the Croatian market relating to private labels in three different product categories in the growth stage of the product life cycle: liquid soap, chocolate and facial care products. The results confirm negative correlation between perceived risk and attitudes towards private labels in all analysed categories.

  16. Females are the brighter sex: Differences in external fluorescence across sexes and life stages of a crab spider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Erin E; Masta, Susan E

    2017-01-01

    Fluorescence is increasingly recognized to be widespread in nature. In particular, some arachnids fluoresce externally, and in spiders the hemolymph fluoresces. In this study, we examined the external fluorescence and the fluorophores of different sexes and life stages of the crab spider Misumena vatia (Clerk 1757), a sit-and-wait predator that feeds on insects as they visit flowers. We designed novel instrumentation to measure external fluorescence in whole specimens. We found that although males and females possess internal fluorophores with similar properties, the external expression of fluorescence varies across sexes and life stages. Spiders fluoresce brightly as immatures. Females maintain their brightness to adulthood, whereas males become increasingly dim as they mature. We suggest that external fluorescence likely contributes to visual signaling in these animals, and that it differs between the sexes as a result of differences in foraging ecology and behavior.

  17. Females are the brighter sex: Differences in external fluorescence across sexes and life stages of a crab spider.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin E Brandt

    Full Text Available Fluorescence is increasingly recognized to be widespread in nature. In particular, some arachnids fluoresce externally, and in spiders the hemolymph fluoresces. In this study, we examined the external fluorescence and the fluorophores of different sexes and life stages of the crab spider Misumena vatia (Clerk 1757, a sit-and-wait predator that feeds on insects as they visit flowers. We designed novel instrumentation to measure external fluorescence in whole specimens. We found that although males and females possess internal fluorophores with similar properties, the external expression of fluorescence varies across sexes and life stages. Spiders fluoresce brightly as immatures. Females maintain their brightness to adulthood, whereas males become increasingly dim as they mature. We suggest that external fluorescence likely contributes to visual signaling in these animals, and that it differs between the sexes as a result of differences in foraging ecology and behavior.

  18. Relevance of philosophy of life and optimism for psychological distress among individuals in a stage where death is approaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterling, Jeanette; Wasteson, Elisabet; Sidenvall, Birgitta; Sidenvall, Erik; Glimelius, Bengt; Sjödén, Per-Olow; Nordin, Karin

    2006-04-01

    The purpose was to investigate the relevance of philosophy of life as well as optimism for the psychological distress among Swedish individuals in a stage where death is approaching. Sixty-nine persons were included; of these were 42 patients newly diagnosed with advanced gastrointestinal cancer and 26 were partners to these patients. The participants' philosophy of life was studied through a semi-structured interview. The interview statements were subjected to content analysis. Optimism was measured by the Life Orientation Test and psychological distress by the Hospitality and Depression Scale. The results showed that optimistic respondents had less psychological distress. Two aspects of philosophy of life had relevance for such distress. These were wondering about why the cancer had occurred and having a feeling of being able to live a good life having or living near a person with advanced cancer. In conclusion, the above-mentioned aspects of philosophy of life as well as optimism have relevance for psychological distress among these individuals, which stress the importance that health-care staff address both patients' and their partners' concerns about their philosophy of life.

  19. Law & psychiatry: punishing juveniles who kill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, Paul S

    2012-10-01

    Punishment of juvenile murderers forces policy makers to weigh the developmental immaturity of adolescents against the heinousness of their crimes. The U.S. Supreme Court has progressively limited the severity of punishments that can be imposed on juveniles, holding that their impulsivity, susceptibility to peer pressure, and more fluid character render them less culpable for their actions. Having eliminated the death penalty as a punishment, the Court recently struck down mandatory life sentences without prospect of parole. The decision is interesting for its emphasis on rehabilitation, opening the door to further restrictions on punitive sentences for juveniles-and perhaps for adults too.

  20. Ocean Acidification Effects on the Early Life-Stages of Commercially Important Flatfish of the Northeast USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, R. C.; Habeck, E. A.; Candelmo, A. C.; Poach, M.; Wieczorek, D.; Phelan, B.; Caldarone, E.; Cooper, K. R.

    2012-12-01

    The limited available evidence about effects on finfish of high CO2 levels and acidification of our oceans suggests that effects will differ across fish species, be subtle, and interact with other stressors. A carefully planned, experimental framework was developed to cast an extensive yet strategic inferential net. Three key elements of our approach are the use of 1) multiple marine finfish species of relevance to the northeastern USA that differ in their ecologies including spawning season and habitat of early life-stages; 2) a wide yet realistic range of environmental conditions (i.e., concurrent manipulation of CO2 levels and water temperatures), and 3) a diverse set of response variables related to fish sensitivity to elevated CO2 levels, water temperatures, and their interactions. The response variable set reflects fish condition, fitness, and likelihood of recruitment, and includes measures of viability, physiology, histopathology, growth, development, and behavior expressed during fish early life-stages (i.e., gametes, embryos, and larvae). Early life-stages were chosen due to the anticipation of their vulnerability to acid-base challenges in their environment. To date, factorial experiments have been implemented on summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) and winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus). Initial results reveal survival of summer flounder embryos is compromised by pH 790 ppm). These results were similar across offspring groups (i.e., embryos from different parents). Winter flounder are larger at hatching when exposed to high CO2 levels in the coolest environment implemented in our experiments (range 4 to 10 ○C). Further responses of advanced larvae of both flounder species are currently being assessed for evidence of other whole body, component organ, and biochemical impairment. This study will aid researchers and resource managers in identifying species types, life-stages, and biotic responses that are most sensitive to the expected

  1. Evaluation of whole-mount in situ hybridization as a tool for pathway-based toxicological research with early-life stage fathead minnows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early-life stage fish can be more sensitive to chemical exposure than adult fish. Therefore, determining possible adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) for early-life stages is crucial. To determine chemical effects and/or mechanisms of action in exposed fish embryos and larvae, whole-...

  2. Evaluation of whole mount in situ hybridization as a tool for pathway-based toxicological research in early-life stage fathead minnows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early-life stage fish can be more sensitive to chemical exposure than mature, adult fish. Therefore, defining adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) relevant to early-life stages is critical for linking perturbations of key events during fish development to potential adverse outcomes of...

  3. Evaluation of whole mount in situ hybridization as a tool for pathway-based toxicological research in early-life stage fathead minnows (poster)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early-life stage fish can be more sensitive to chemical exposure than mature, adult fish. Therefore, defining adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) relevant to early-life stages is critical for linking perturbations of key events during fish development to potential adverse outcomes of...

  4. Integration of Life-Stage Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Models with Adverse Outcome Pathways and Environmental Exposure Models to Screen for Environmental Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Life-stage Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed to include descriptions of several life-stage events such as pregnancy, fetal development, the neonate and child growth. The overall modeling strategy was used for in vitro to in vivo (IVIVE) extrapolat...

  5. Apoptosis-related genes induced in response to ketamine during early life stages of zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix, Luís M; Serafim, Cindy; Valentim, Ana M; Antunes, Luís M; Matos, Manuela; Coimbra, Ana M

    2017-09-05

    Increasing evidence supports that ketamine, a widely used anaesthetic, potentiates apoptosis during development through the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Defects in the apoptotic machinery can cause or contribute to the developmental abnormalities previously described in ketamine-exposed zebrafish. The involvement of the apoptotic machinery in ketamine-induced teratogenicity was addressed by assessing the apoptotic signals at 8 and 24 hpf following 20min exposure to ketamine at three stages of early zebrafish embryo development (256 cell, 50% epiboly and 1-4 somites stages). Exposure at the 256-cell stage to ketamine induced an up-regulation of casp8 and pcna at 8 hpf while changes in pcna at the mRNA level were observed at 24 hpf. After the 50% epiboly stage exposure, the mRNA levels of casp9 were increased at 8 and 24 hpf while aifm1 was affected at 24 hpf. Both tp53 and pcna expressions were increased at 8 hpf. After exposure during the 1-4 somites stage, no meaningful changes on transcript levels were observed. The distribution of apoptotic cells and the caspase-like enzymatic activities of caspase-3 and -9 were not affected by ketamine exposure. It is proposed that ketamine exposure at the 256-cell stage induced a cooperative mechanism between proliferation and cellular death while following exposure at the 50% epiboly, a p53-dependent and -independent caspase activation may occur. Finally, at the 1-4 somites stage, the defence mechanisms are already fully in place to protect against ketamine-insult. Thus, ketamine teratogenicity seems to be dependent on the functional mechanisms present in each developmental stage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, M.

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted.

  7. Condition-specific Quality of Life Assessment at Each Stage of Class III Surgical Orthodontic Treatment -A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachiki, Chie; Nishii, Yasushi; Takaki, Takashi; Sueishi, Kenji

    2018-01-01

    Surgical orthodontic treatment has been reported to improve oral health-related quality of life (OHRQL). Such treatment comprises three stages: pre-surgical orthodontic treatment; orthognathic surgery; and post-surgical orthodontic treatment. Most studies have focused on change in OHRQL between before and after surgery. However, it is also necessary to evaluate OHRQL at the pre-surgical orthodontic treatment stage, as it may be negatively affected by dental decompensation compared with at pre-treatment. The purpose of this prospective study was to investigate the influence of surgical orthodontic treatment on QOL by assessing change in condition-specific QOL at each stage of treatment in skeletal class III cases. Twenty skeletal class III patients requiring surgical orthodontic treatment were enrolled in the study. Each patient completed the Orthognathic Quality of Life Questionnaire (OQLQ), which was developed for patients with dentofacial deformity. Its items are grouped into 4 domains: "social aspects of dentofacial deformity"; "facial esthetics"; "oral function"; and "awareness of dentofacial esthetics". The questionnaire was completed at the pre-treatment, pre-surgical orthodontic treatment, and post-surgical orthodontic treatment stages. The results revealed a significant worsening in scores between at pre-treatment and pre-surgical orthodontic treatment in the domains of facial esthetics and oral function (ppre-surgical orthodontic and post-surgical orthodontic treatment in all domains except awareness of dentofacial esthetics (ppre-surgical orthodontic treatment stage. Significant correlations were also observed between improvement in upper and lower lip difference, soft tissue pogonion protrusion, and ANB angle and improvement in OQLQ scores at the post-surgical orthodontic treatment stage. These results indicate that morphologic change influences OHRQL in patients undergoing surgical orthodontic treatment not only after surgery, but also during pre

  8. Palliative Care in Improving Quality of Life and Symptoms in Patients With Stage III-IV Pancreatic or Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-18

    Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer; Stage III Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Pancreatic Cancer

  9. Repeatability and consistency of individual behaviour in juvenile and adult Eurasian harvest mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Andrea C.; Carl, Teresa; Foerster, Katharina

    2017-04-01

    Knowledge on animal personality has provided new insights into evolutionary biology and animal ecology, as behavioural types have been shown to affect fitness. Animal personality is characterized by repeatable and consistent between-individual behavioural differences throughout time and across different situations. Behavioural repeatability within life history stages and consistency between life history stages should be checked for the independence of sex and age, as recent data have shown that males and females in some species may differ in the repeatability of behavioural traits, as well as in their consistency. We measured the repeatability and consistency of three behavioural and one cognitive traits in juvenile and adult Eurasian harvest mice ( Micromys minutus). We found that exploration, activity and boldness were repeatable in juveniles and adults. Spatial recognition measured in a Y Maze was only repeatable in adult mice. Exploration, activity and boldness were consistent before and after maturation, as well as before and after first sexual contact. Data on spatial recognition provided little evidence for consistency. Further, we found some evidence for a litter effect on behaviours by comparing different linear mixed models. We concluded that harvest mice express animal personality traits as behaviours were repeatable across sexes and consistent across life history stages. The tested cognitive trait showed low repeatability and was less consistent across life history stages. Given the rising interest in individual variation in cognitive performance, and in its relationship to animal personality, we suggest that it is important to gather more data on the repeatability and consistency of cognitive traits.

  10. Juvenile Court Statistics - 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Youth Development (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    This report is a statistical study of juvenile court cases in 1972. The data demonstrates how the court is frequently utilized in dealing with juvenile delinquency by the police as well as by other community agencies and parents. Excluded from this report are the ordinary traffic cases handled by juvenile court. The data indicate that: (1) in…

  11. Juvenile Court Statistics, 1974.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Jacqueline; Vereb, Thomas S.

    This report presents information on juvenile court processing of youth in the U.S. during 1974. It is based on data gathered under the National Juvenile Court Statistical Reporting System. Findings can be summarized as follows: (1) 1,252,700 juvenile delinquency cases, excluding traffic offenses, were handled by courts in the U.S. in 1974; (2) the…

  12. Evaluation of Therapeutics for Advanced-Stage Heart Failure and Other Severely-Debilitating or Life-Threatening Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, J S; Andrews, P A; Baker, R W; Bogdanffy, M S; Fields, F O; Keller, D A; Lapadula, D M; Mahoney, N M; Paul, D E; Platz, S J; Reese, D M; Stoch, S A; DeGeorge, J J

    2017-08-01

    Severely-debilitating or life-threatening (SDLT) diseases include conditions in which life expectancy is short or quality of life is greatly diminished despite available therapies. As such, the medical context for SDLT diseases is comparable to advanced cancer and the benefit vs. risk assessment and development of SDLT disease therapeutics should be similar to that of advanced cancer therapeutics. A streamlined development approach would allow patients with SDLT conditions earlier access to therapeutics and increase the speed of progression through development. In addition, this will likely increase the SDLT disease therapeutic pipeline, directly benefiting patients and reducing the economic and societal burden of SDLT conditions. Using advanced-stage heart failure (HF) as an example that illustrates the concepts applicable to other SDLT indications, this article proposes a streamlined development paradigm for SDLT disease therapeutics and recommends development of aligned global regulatory guidance. © 2017 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  13. Complex scheme of company image management on the stages of its life cycle

    OpenAIRE

    A.V. Kolodka

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to create a common integrated circuit image management during a life-cycle of enterprise based on internal and external economic conditions. The results of the analysis. In the article the general scheme of image management during a life-cycle of enterprise based on internal and external economic conditions is formed. There is no single view on the question of forming general concepts and approaches to image building. That threatens making ...

  14. Transcriptome data - Initial stage of dough fermentation - DGBY | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us DGBY Transcriptome data - Initial stage of dough fermentation Data detail Data name Transcri...ptome data - Initial stage of dough fermentation DOI 10.18908/lsdba.nbdc00953-002 Description of data conten...ts Gene expression profiles of baker's yeast during initial dough-fermentation were investigated using liquid fermentation...aptation mechanisms of baker's yeast. Results showed the onset of fermentation caused drastic changes in gen...f baker's yeast during dough-fermentation, and will thus help clarify genomic res

  15. Hypoxia and acidification have additive and synergistic negative effects on the growth, survival, and metamorphosis of early life stage bivalves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobler, Christopher J; DePasquale, Elizabeth L; Griffith, Andrew W; Baumann, Hannes

    2014-01-01

    Low oxygen zones in coastal and open ocean ecosystems have expanded in recent decades, a trend that will accelerate with climatic warming. There is growing recognition that low oxygen regions of the ocean are also acidified, a condition that will intensify with rising levels of atmospheric CO2. Presently, however, the concurrent effects of low oxygen and acidification on marine organisms are largely unknown, as most prior studies of marine hypoxia have not considered pH levels. We experimentally assessed the consequences of hypoxic and acidified water for early life stage bivalves (bay scallops, Argopecten irradians, and hard clams, Mercenaria mercenaria), marine organisms of significant economic and ecological value and sensitive to climate change. In larval scallops, experimental and naturally-occurring acidification (pH, total scale  = 7.4-7.6) reduced survivorship (by >50%), low oxygen (30-50 µM) inhibited growth and metamorphosis (by >50%), and the two stressors combined produced additively negative outcomes. In early life stage clams, however, hypoxic waters led to 30% higher mortality, while acidified waters significantly reduced growth (by 60%). Later stage clams were resistant to hypoxia or acidification separately but experienced significantly (40%) reduced growth rates when exposed to both conditions simultaneously. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that the consequences of low oxygen and acidification for early life stage bivalves, and likely other marine organisms, are more severe than would be predicted by either individual stressor and thus must be considered together when assessing how ocean animals respond to these conditions both today and under future climate change scenarios.

  16. Interactive Gentle Yoga in Improving Quality of Life in Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer Undergoing Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-28

    Anxiety Disorder; Depression; Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Fatigue; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  17. The impact of stress at different life stages on physical health and the buffering effects of maternal sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Allison K; Simpson, Jeffry A; Carlson, Elizabeth A; Englund, Michelle M; Sung, Sooyeon

    2017-01-01

    Many studies indicate that early life stress leads to negative health outcomes in adulthood, and some suggest that high-quality parenting might buffer these effects. Most prior research, however, has relied on cross-sectional retrospective reports of stress and parenting. Our study tests how coder-rated stress and parenting quality assessed at different life stages predict adult health outcomes in a prospective, longitudinal study. Participants were 163 individuals in the Minnesota Longitudinal Study of Risk and Adaptation studied since birth. Physical health was assessed at age 32 with body mass index, self-reports of symptoms and illnesses experienced, and self-ratings of overall physical health. Stress was assessed by coder-rated interviews involving participants or their mothers at 16 time points partitioned into 5 life stages: early childhood, middle childhood, adolescence, young adulthood, and at age 32 (when health was assessed). Parenting quality was measured by coder ratings of each mother's provision of sensitive, responsive support at 7 time points between birth and age 13. Early childhood, adolescent, and concurrent stress predicted adult health outcomes at age 32. Early childhood and adolescent stress, and adolescent and concurrent stress, both showed a "dual-risk" pattern, such that experiencing higher stress at both of these life stages predicted the worst health outcomes. Higher maternal sensitivity, however, buffered these deleterious effects. Our prospective data reveal that early childhood and adolescence are important developmental periods during which stress is influential for adult physical health. However, parenting interventions that promote greater sensitivity may help children in high-stress environments avoid negative adult health outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Coronary heart disease patients transitioning to a normal life: perspectives and stages identified through a grounded theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi Ghezeljeh, Tahereh; Yadavar Nikravesh, Mansoureh; Emami, Azita

    2014-02-01

    To explore how Iranian patients with coronary heart disease experience their lives. Coronary heart disease is a leading cause of death in Iran and worldwide. Understanding qualitatively how patients experience the acute and postacute stages of this chronic condition is essential knowledge for minimising the negative consequences of coronary heart disease. Qualitative study using grounded theory for the data analysis. Data for this study were collected through individual qualitative interviews with 24 patients with coronary heart disease, conducted between January 2009 and January 2011. Patients with angina pectoris were selected for participation through purposive sampling, and sample size was determined by data saturation. Data analysis began with initial coding and continued with focused coding. Categories were determined, and the core category was subsequently developed and finalised. The main categories of the transition from acute phase to a modified or 'new normal' life were: (1) Loss of normal life. Experiencing emotions and consequences of illness; (2) Coming to terms. Using coping strategies; (3) Recreating normal life. Healthcare providers must correctly recognise the stages of transition patients navigate while coping with coronary heart disease to support and educate them appropriately throughout these stages. Patients with coronary heart disease lose their normal lives and must work towards recreating a revised life using coping strategies that enable them to come to terms with their situations. By understanding Iranian patients' experiences, healthcare providers and especially nurses can use the information to support and educate patients with coronary heart disease on how to more effectively deal with their illness and its consequences. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The impact of stress at different life stages on physical health and the buffering effects of maternal sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Allison K.; Simpson, Jeffry A.; Carlson, Elizabeth A.; Englund, Michelle M.; Sung, Sooyeon

    2016-01-01

    Objective Many studies indicate that early life stress leads to negative health outcomes in adulthood, and some suggest that high-quality parenting might buffer these effects. Most prior research, however, has relied on cross-sectional retrospective reports of stress and parenting. Our study tests how coder-rated stress and parenting quality assessed at different life stages predict adult health outcomes in a prospective, longitudinal study. Methods Participants were 163 individuals in the Minnesota Longitudinal Study of Risk and Adaptation (MLSRA) studied since birth. Physical health was assessed at age 32 with BMI, self-reports of symptoms and illnesses experienced, and self-ratings overall physical health. Stress was assessed by coder-rated interviews involving participants or their mothers at 16 time-points partitioned into five life stages: early childhood, middle childhood, adolescence, young adulthood, and at age 32 (when health was assessed). Parenting quality was measured by coder-ratings of each mother's provision of sensitive, responsive support at 7 time-points between birth and age 13. Results Early childhood, adolescent, and concurrent stress predicted adult health outcomes at age 32. Early childhood and adolescent stress, and adolescent and concurrent stress, both showed a “dual-risk” pattern, such that experiencing higher stress at both of these life stages predicted the worst health outcomes. Higher maternal sensitivity, however, buffered these deleterious effects. Conclusions Our prospective data reveals that early childhood and adolescence are important developmental periods during which stress is influential for adult physical health. However, parenting interventions that promote greater sensitivity may help children in high-stress environments avoid negative adult health outcomes. PMID:27669179

  20. Comparative sensitivity of juvenile and adult Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Mollusca: Hydrobiidae) under chronic exposure to cadmium and tributyltin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Katharina; Geiß, Cornelia; Ostermann, Sina; Theis, Christina; Oehlmann, Jörg

    2016-07-28

    To investigate a potential extension of a partial life cycle test protocol to a full life cycle test design, a comparative sensitivity analysis with juvenile and adult Potamopyrgus antipodarum was performed. Neonates and adult snails were exposed to the metal cadmium (Cd) and the endocrine disruptor tributyltin (TBT) at nominal concentrations ranging from 1.56 to 50 μg Cd/L and from 25 to 1,000 ng TBT-Sn/L. The experiments were performed over 28 days at 16°C in a semi-static test design. Mortality was assessed for both life stages. Juvenile snails' specific growth rate and reproduction of adults were investigated as main endpoints. We determined effects on snails' survival, juvenile growth and embryo numbers in the brood pouch of adult snails under exposure to both chemicals. Juvenile control mortality was between 25% and 30% and significantly higher than in the control groups with adult snails. A higher sensitivity of juvenile snails compared to adults was observed for the endpoint mortality. Calculated LC50 in Cd exposed snails was 38.2 μg/L for adults and 15.0 μg/L for juvenile snails. Significant effects on mortality in TBT exposed adult snails occurred at the highest test concentration only with a LC50 of 535 ng Sn/L. Juvenile survival was significantly affected at 50.8 ng Sn/L and higher concentrations. Effect concentrations for the main endpoints reproduction and juvenile growth show comparable sensitivities. For Cd exposed groups, EC50 values were 11.3 μg/L for the endpoint reproduction in adult snails and 3.82 μg/L for juvenile growth with overlapping confidence intervals. TBT also significantly affected juvenile snails' growth (EC50: 178 ng Sn /L). EC50 for embryo numbers was 125 ng TBT-Sn/L. Results indicate the manageability of a FLC test starting with newly hatched snails. Precautions have to be taken to guarantee a sufficient number of surviving snails until adulthood so that reproduction can be assessed. For final decision for the

  1. Cell surface proteome analysis of human-hosted Trypanosoma cruzi life stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Queiroz, Rayner M L; Charneau, Sébastien; Bastos, Izabela M D

    2014-01-01

    Chagas' disease is a neglected infectious illness, caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. It remains a challenging health issue in Latin America, where it is endemic, and so far there is no immunoprophylatic vaccine or satisfactory chemotherapic treatment for its chronic stage. The present work...

  2. Do School Leaders Have a Shelf Life? Career Stages and Headteacher Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earley, Peter; Weindling, Dick

    2007-01-01

    This article explores several issues about school leaders, career stages and performance. It draws upon various pieces of research, including the longitudinal study of secondary headteachers which began in the early 1980s at the National Foundation for Educational Research (NFER), to raise some key issues about headteachers' careers, the various…

  3. Diapause in the Boll Weevil (Coleopetra: Curculionidae) : Life-Stage Sensitivity to Enviromental Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terence L. Wagner; Eric J. Villavaso; Jefferey L. Willers

    1999-01-01

    This study examines the diapause response in naturally occurring boll weevils under field and simulated field environments of north Mississippi. Squares containing early-stage weevils were collected in July, August, and September and subsamples from each group were installed into similar dynamic environments in the laboratory. In this manner, some weevils experienced...

  4. Which is the best environment for the development of the early life stages of fish during the dry season? Qual o melhor ambiente para o desenvolvimento das fases jovens de peixes durante a estação seca?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Henríques Esguícero

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The main objective of this study was to investigate the quality of habitats for early life stages of fish in the Jacaré-Guaçu River, during the dry phase; METHODS: For assessing the quality of the habitats for the development of early life stages, the relative condition factor was applied to the juveniles of five species of fishes, captured in four different habitats (reservoir, floodplain lake, main river, and tributary. The juveniles were caught in macrophytes of the littoral zone by a rectangular sieve, in the dry season of 2008 and 2009; RESULTS: The species Astyanax altiparanae thrived similarly in the four habitats, and A. fasciatus, Hyphessobrycon eques, Hoplias malabaricus and Serrapinnus notomelas, showed higher values of relative condition factors in the reservoir and in the lake. Among the species, A. fasciatus showed the highest values of the relative condition factor in these two habitats; CONCLUSIONS: It is likely that the complexity of the macrophytes' stands and the current velocity were the main factors influencing the development of juveniles. It was found that a lower current velocity can propitiated the establishment of a greater richness of macrophytes, which in turn can influence positively the development of fish juveniles. Moreover, a higher current velocity ends in a higher energy demand for swimming.OBJETIVO: O objetivo principal deste estudo foi investigar a qualidade dos habitats para as primeiras fases de vida dos peixes no Rio Jacaré-Guaçu, durante a estação seca; MÉTODOS: Para avaliar a qualidade dos hábitats para o desenvolvimento das primeiras fases, o fator de condição relativo foi aplicado aos juvenis de cinco espécies de peixes, capturados em quatro habitats diferentes (reservatório, lago de planície de inundação, canal principal e tributário. Os juvenis foram coletados em macrófitas litorâneas com uma peneira retangular, na estação seca de 2008 e 2009; RESULTADOS: Somente Astyanax

  5. Failure to thrive and life-threatening complications due to inherited selective cobalamin malabsorption effectively managed in a juvenile Australian shepherd dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Ashley J.; Scott, Michael A.; Fyfe, John C.

    2015-01-01

    A juvenile Australian shepherd dog exhibited failure to grow, inappetence, weakness, nonregenerative anemia, neutropenia, and cobalamin deficiency. DNA testing confirmed homozygosity of an amnionless mutation (AMN c.3G > A). Clinical signs resolved with supportive care and parenteral cobalamin supplementation. Inherited selective intestinal cobalamin malabsorption requiring lifelong parenteral supplementation should be considered in Australian shepherds, giant schnauzers, border collies, and beagles that fail to thrive. PMID:26483576

  6. Molecular identification of Malaysian Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) using life stage specific mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, R; Tan, T C; Lee, H L; Nazni, W A; Sofian, A M

    2013-06-01

    DNA identification of blow fly species can be a very useful tool in forensic entomology. One of the potential benefits that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has offered in the field of forensic entomology is species determination. Conventional identification methods have limitations for sibling and closely related species of blow fly and stage and quality of the specimen used. This could be overcome by DNA-based identification methods using mitochondrial DNA which does not demand intact or undamaged specimens. Mitochondrial DNA is usually isolated from whole blow fly and legs. Alternate sources for mitochondrial DNA isolation namely, egg, larva, puparium and empty puparium were explored in this study. The sequence of DNA obtained for each sample for every life cycle stage was 100% identical for a particular species, indicating that the egg, 1st instar, 2nd instar, 3rd instar, pupa, empty puparium and adult from the same species and obtained from same generation will exhibit similar DNA sequences. The present study also highlighted the usefulness of collecting all life cycle stages of blow fly during crime scene investigation with proper preservation and subsequent molecular analysis. Molecular identification provides a strong basis for species identification and will prove an invaluable contribution to forensic entomology as an investigative tool in Malaysia.

  7. Species Turnover across Different Life Stages from Seedlings to Canopy Trees in Swamp Forests of Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa G. Fontes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Processes driving the assembly of swamp forest communities have been poorly explored. We analyzed natural regeneration and adult tree communities data of a swamp gallery forest in Central Brazil to discuss the role of ecological filters in shaping plant species turnover in a successional gradient. Species data of 120 plots were used to assess species turnover between natural regeneration and adult tree communities. Our analyses were based on 4995 individuals belonging to 72 species. Community patterns were discerned using ordination analyses. A clear floristic turnover among plant life stages was distinguished. Regeneration community of swamp forests was richer in species composition than the adult community. Tree species commonly found in nonflooded gallery forests were present in the regeneration plots but not in the adult community. Differences in the floristic composition of these two strata suggest that not all species in the seedling stage can stand permanent flooding conditions and only a few tolerant species survive to become adult trees. We propose that natural disturbances play an important role by altering limiting resources, allowing seeds of nonflooded forest species to germinate. This paper elucidates the turnover between plant life stages in swamp forests and suggests mechanisms that may shape these communities.

  8. Sensory shelf life estimation of minimally processed lettuce considering two stages of consumers' decision-making process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ares, Gastón; Giménez, Ana; Gámbaro, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the influence of context, particularly the stage of the decision-making process (purchase vs consumption stage), on sensory shelf life of minimally processed lettuce. Leaves of butterhead lettuce were placed in common polypropylene bags and stored at 5, 10 and 15 degrees C. Periodically, a panel of six assessors evaluated the appearance of the samples, and a panel of 40 consumers evaluated their appearance and answered "yes" or "no" to the questions: "Imagine you are in a supermarket, you want to buy a minimally processed lettuce, and you find a package of lettuce with leaves like this, would you normally buy it?" and "Imagine you have this leaf of lettuce stored in your refrigerator, would you normally consume it?". Survival analysis was used to calculate the shelf lives of minimally processed lettuce, considering both decision-making stages. Shelf lives estimated considering rejection to purchase were significantly lower than those estimated considering rejection to consume. Therefore, in order to be conservative and assure the products' quality, shelf life should be estimated considering consumers' rejection to purchase instead of rejection to consume, as traditionally has been done. On the other hand, results from logistic regressions of consumers' rejection percentage as a function of the evaluated appearance attributes suggested that consumers considered them differently while deciding whether to purchase or to consume minimally processed lettuce.

  9. Midlife Eriksonian Psychosocial Development: Setting the Stage for Cognitive and Emotional Health in Late Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Johanna C.; Liu, Sabrina R.; Vaillant, George E.; Rentz, Dorene M.; Waldinger, Robert J.

    2017-01-01

    Erikson’s (1950) model of adult psychosocial development outlines the significance of successful involvement within one’s relationships, work, and community for healthy aging. He theorized that the consequences of not meeting developmental challenges included stagnation and emotional despair. Drawing on this model, the present study uses prospective longitudinal data to examine how the quality of assessed Eriksonian psychosocial development in midlife relates to late-life cognitive and emotional functioning. In particular we were interested to see whether late-life depression mediated the relationship between Eriksonian development and specific domains of cognitive functioning (i.e., executive functioning and memory). Participants were 159 men from the over 75 year longitudinal Study of Adult Development. The sample was comprised of men from both higher and lower socio-economic strata. Eriksonian psychosocial development was coded from men’s narrative responses to interviews between the ages of 30–47 (Vaillant and Milofsky, 1980). In late life (ages 75–85) men completed a performance - based neuropsychological assessment measuring global cognitive status, executive functioning, and memory. In addition depressive symptomatology was assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale. Our results indicated that higher midlife Eriksonian psychosocial development was associated with stronger global cognitive functioning and executive functioning, and lower levels of depression three to four decades later. There was no significant association between Eriksonian development and late-life memory. Late-life depression mediated the relationship between Eriksonian development and both global cognition and executive functioning. All of these results controlled for highest level of education and adolescent intelligence. Findings have important implications for understanding the lasting benefits of psychosocial engagement in mid-adulthood for late-life cognitive and

  10. Association between Exposure to the Chinese Famine in Different Stages of Early Life and Decline in Cognitive Functioning in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; An, Yu; Yu, Huanling; Feng, Lingli; Liu, Quanri; Lu, Yanhui; Wang, Hui; Xiao, Rong

    2016-01-01

    To investigate whether exposure to the Chinese Famine in different life stages of early life is associated with cognitive functioning decline in adulthood. We recruited 1366 adults born between 1950 and 1964 and divided them into fetal-exposed, early childhood-exposed (1-3 years old during the famine), mid childhood-exposed (4-6 years old during the famine), late childhood-exposed (7-9 years old during the famine), and non-exposed groups. A selection of cognitive tests was administered to assess their cognitive performance. Association between malnutrition in different famine exposure periods and adult cognitive performance was estimated by multivariate logistic and multiple linear regression analyses. There were significant differences in cognitive performance between subjects exposed to famine during different life stages. For the general cognitive tests, fetal-exposed period was associated with decreased scores of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and late childhood-exposed with decreased scores of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). We also found exposure to famine during mid and late childhood was associated with worse performance on the Stroop color and word test. Famine exposure in utero and during childhood is associated with overall and specific cognitive decline, affecting selective attention and response inhibition particularly.

  11. Quality of Life in Women with Stage 1 Stress Urinary Incontinence after Application of Conservative Treatment—A Randomized Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Ptak

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Stress urinary incontinence (SUI influences quality of life in female patients. In this study, we used ICIQ LUTS QoL (The International Consultation Incontinence Questionnaire Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms quality of life to determine the quality of life (QoL in various domains in patients with stage 1 SUI. The study included 140 perimenopausal women subjected to urodynamic tests at the Department of Gynaecology, Endocrinology and Gynaecologic Oncology, Pomeranian Medical University, Police (Poland in 2013–2015. The study subjects were divided into two groups, A and B. Each patient completed two questionnaires, an original survey developed by the authors and the validated ICIQ LUTS QoL. Two exercise programs, each lasting for 3 months and consisting of 4 weekly sessions, were recommended to the study subjects. The program for Group A included exercises for pelvic floor muscles (PFM with simultaneous tension of the transverse abdominal muscle (TrA, and the program for Group B, PFM exercises without TrA tension. After completing the exercise programs, patients with stage 1 SUI, both from Group A and from Group B, showed a significant improvement in most QoL domains measured with ICIQ LUTS QoL. However, more beneficial effects of the training were observed in the group subjected to PFM exercises with TrA tension.

  12. Plasmodium falciparum full life cycle and Plasmodium ovale liver stages in humanized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulard, Valérie; Bosson-Vanga, Henriette; Lorthiois, Audrey; Roucher, Clémentine; Franetich, Jean-François; Zanghi, Gigliola; Bordessoulles, Mallaury; Tefit, Maurel; Thellier, Marc; Morosan, Serban; Le Naour, Gilles; Capron, Frédérique; Suemizu, Hiroshi; Snounou, Georges; Moreno-Sabater, Alicia; Mazier, Dominique

    2015-07-24

    Experimental studies of Plasmodium parasites that infect humans are restricted by their host specificity. Humanized mice offer a means to overcome this and further provide the opportunity to observe the parasites in vivo. Here we improve on previous protocols to achieve efficient double engraftment of TK-NOG mice by human primary hepatocytes and red blood cells. Thus, we obtain the complete hepatic development of P. falciparum, the transition to the erythrocytic stages, their subsequent multiplication, and the appearance of mature gametocytes over an extended period of observation. Furthermore, using sporozoites derived from two P. ovale-infected patients, we show that human hepatocytes engrafted in TK-NOG mice sustain maturation of the liver stages, and the presence of late-developing schizonts indicate the eventual activation of quiescent parasites. Thus, TK-NOG mice are highly suited for in vivo observations on the Plasmodium species of humans.

  13. Fluorescent Beads Are a Versatile Tool for Staging Caenorhabditis elegans in Different Life Histories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liberta Nika

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Precise staging of Caenorhabditis elegans is essential for developmental studies in different environmental conditions. In favorable conditions, larvae develop continuously through four larval stages separated by molting periods. Distinguishing molting from intermolt larvae has been achieved using transgenes with molting reporters, therefore requiring strain constructions, or careful observation of individuals for pharyngeal pumping or behavioral quiescence. In unfavorable conditions, larvae can enter the stress-resistant and developmentally arrested dauer larva stage. Identifying dauer larvae has been based on their ability to withstand detergent selection, precluding identification of recovering animals or of mutants with defects in dauer morphogenesis. Here, we describe a simple method to distinguish molting larvae or dauer larvae from intermolt larvae that bypasses the limitations of current methods. Fluorescent latex beads are mixed with the bacterial food source and ingested by intermolt larvae and adults. Molting and dauer larvae do not feed, and therefore lack beads in their digestive tract. The presence of beads can be determined using a dissecting microscope at magnifications as low as 100 ×, or by using a wormsorter for high-throughput experiments. We find that continuously developing bead-lacking larvae display hallmarks of molting, including expression of the mlt-10::gfp molting marker and a lack of pharyngeal pumping. Furthermore, wild-type and mutant dauer larvae produced by any of three common methods are accurately identified by a lack of beads. Importantly, this method is effective in SDS-sensitive mutant backgrounds and can identify recovering dauer larvae, a stage for which there is no other method of positive selection.

  14. Fluorescent Beads Are a Versatile Tool for Staging Caenorhabditis elegans in Different Life Histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nika, Liberta; Gibson, Taylor; Konkus, Rebecca; Karp, Xantha

    2016-01-01

    Precise staging of Caenorhabditis elegans is essential for developmental studies in different environmental conditions. In favorable conditions, larvae develop continuously through four larval stages separated by molting periods. Distinguishing molting from intermolt larvae has been achieved using transgenes with molting reporters, therefore requiring strain constructions, or careful observation of individuals for pharyngeal pumping or behavioral quiescence. In unfavorable conditions, larvae can enter the stress-resistant and developmentally arrested dauer larva stage. Identifying dauer larvae has been based on their ability to withstand detergent selection, precluding identification of recovering animals or of mutants with defects in dauer morphogenesis. Here, we describe a simple method to distinguish molting larvae or dauer larvae from intermolt larvae that bypasses the limitations of current methods. Fluorescent latex beads are mixed with the bacterial food source and ingested by intermolt larvae and adults. Molting and dauer larvae do not feed, and therefore lack beads in their digestive tract. The presence of beads can be determined using a dissecting microscope at magnifications as low as 100 ×, or by using a wormsorter for high-throughput experiments. We find that continuously developing bead-lacking larvae display hallmarks of molting, including expression of the mlt-10::gfp molting marker and a lack of pharyngeal pumping. Furthermore, wild-type and mutant dauer larvae produced by any of three common methods are accurately identified by a lack of beads. Importantly, this method is effective in SDS-sensitive mutant backgrounds and can identify recovering dauer larvae, a stage for which there is no other method of positive selection. PMID:27172224

  15. Health-Related Quality of Life in End-Stage COPD and Lung Cancer Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habraken, Jolanda M.; ter Riet, Gerben; Gore, Justin M.; Greenstone, Michael A.; Weersink, Els J. M.; Bindels, Patrick J. E.; Willems, Dick L.

    2009-01-01

    Historically, palliative care has been developed for cancer patients and is not yet generally available far patients suffering from chronic life-limiting illnesses, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). To examine whether COPD patients experience similar or worse disease burden in

  16. EARLY LIFE STAGE TOXICITY OF COPPER TO ENDANGERED AND SURROGATE FISH SPECIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water quality criteria (WQC) for the protection of aquatic life have not explicitly considered the degree of protection afforded to aquatic species listed as endangered or threatened under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (listed species) . Most WQCs are based primarily on respon...

  17. Anorectal Function and Quality of Life in Patients With Early Stage Rectal Cancer Treated With Chemoradiation and Local Excision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Patricio B; Renfro, Lindsay A; Carrero, Xiomara W; Shi, Qian; Strombom, Paul L; Chow, Oliver; Garcia-Aguilar, Julio

    2017-05-01

    Little is known about anorectal function and quality of life after chemoradiation followed by local excision, which is an alternative to total mesorectal excision for selected patients with early rectal cancer. The purpose of this study was to prospectively assess anorectal function and health-related quality of life of patients with T2N0 rectal cancer who were treated with an alternative approach. This was a prospective, phase II trial. The study was multicentric (American College of Surgeons Oncology Group trial Z6041). Patients with stage cT2N0 rectal adenocarcinomas were treated with an oxaliplatin/capecitabine-based chemoradiation regimen followed by local excision. Anorectal function and quality of life were assessed at enrollment and 1 year postoperatively with the Fecal Incontinence Severity Index, Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life scale, and Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Colorectal Questionnaire. Results were compared, and multivariable analysis was performed to identify predictors of outcome. Seventy-one patients (98%) were evaluated at enrollment and 66 (92%) at 1 year. Compared with baseline, no significant differences were found on Fecal Incontinence Severity Index scores at 1 year. Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life results were significantly worse in the lifestyle (p Cancer Therapy overall score, but the physical well-being subscale was significantly worse and emotional well-being was improved after surgery. Treatment with the original chemoradiation regimen predicted worse depression/self-perception and embarrassment scores in the Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life, and male sex was predictive of worse scores in the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy overall score and trial outcome index. Small sample size, relatively short follow-up, and absence of information before cancer diagnosis were study limitations. Chemoradiation followed by local excision had minimal impact on anorectal function 1 year after surgery. Overall quality of

  18. Performance Evaluation of Staged Bosch Process for CO2 Reduction to Produce Life Support Consumables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilekar, Saurabh A.; Hawley, Kyle; Junaedi, Christian; Walsh, Dennis; Roychoudhury, Subir; Abney. Morgan B.; Mansell, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Utilizing carbon dioxide to produce water and hence oxygen is critical for sustained manned missions in space, and to support both NASA's cabin Atmosphere Revitalization System (ARS) and In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) concepts. For long term missions beyond low Earth orbit, where resupply is significantly more difficult and costly, open loop ARS, like Sabatier, consume inputs such as hydrogen. The Bosch process, on the other hand, has the potential to achieve complete loop closure and is hence a preferred choice. However, current single stage Bosch reactor designs suffer from a large recycle penalty due to slow reaction rates and the inherent limitation in approaching thermodynamic equilibrium. Developmental efforts are seeking to improve upon the efficiency (hence reducing the recycle penalty) of current single stage Bosch reactors which employ traditional steel wool catalysts. Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI), with support from NASA, has investigated the potential for utilizing catalysts supported over short-contact time Microlith substrates for the Bosch reaction to achieve faster reaction rates, higher conversions, and a reduced recycle flows. Proof-of-concept testing was accomplished for a staged Bosch process by splitting the chemistry in two separate reactors, first being the reverse water-gas-shift (RWGS) and the second being the carbon formation reactor (CFR) via hydrogenation and/or Boudouard. This paper presents the results from this feasibility study at various operating conditions. Additionally, results from two 70 hour durability tests for the RWGS reactor are discussed.

  19. The decline of venture capital investment in early-stage life sciences poses a challenge to continued innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Jonathan J

    2015-02-01

    A key element required for translating new knowledge into effective therapies is early-stage venture capital that finances the work needed to identify a lead molecule or medical device prototype and to develop it to the proof-of-concept stage. This early investment is distinguished by great uncertainty over whether the molecule or prototype is safe and effective, the stability of the regulatory standards to which clinical trials are designed, and the likelihood that large follow-on investments for commercial development can be secured. Regulatory and reimbursement policies have a profound impact on the amount of capital and the types of life science projects that investors pursue. In this article I analyze several recent trends in early-stage venture capital funding, describe how these trends are influenced by regulatory and reimbursement policies, and discuss the role of policy makers in bringing new treatments to market. Policy makers can foster renewed private investment into critically needed early-stage products by increasing Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) funding and public support for clinical trials in targeted areas of interest; creating regulatory pathways to enable early testing of experimental compounds in limited populations; and offering economic incentives for investors and developers in designated therapeutic areas. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  20. Juvenile salmon usage of the Skeena River estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr-Harris, Charmaine; Gottesfeld, Allen S; Moore, Jonathan W

    2015-01-01

    Migratory salmon transit estuary habitats on their way out to the ocean but this phase of their life cycle is more poorly understood than other phases. The estuaries of large river systems in particular may support many populations and several species of salmon that originate from throughout the upstream river. The Skeena River of British Columbia, Canada, is a large river system with high salmon population- and species-level diversity. The estuary of the Skeena River is under pressure from industrial development, with two gas liquefaction terminals and a potash loading facility in various stages of environmental review processes, providing motivation for understanding the usage of the estuary by juvenile salmon. We conducted a juvenile salmonid sampling program throughout the Skeena River estuary in 2007 and 2013 to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of different species and populations of salmon. We captured six species of juvenile anadromous salmonids throughout the estuary in both years, and found that areas proposed for development support some of the highest abundances of some species of salmon. Specifically, the highest abundances of sockeye (both years), Chinook in 2007, and coho salmon in 2013 were captured in areas proposed for development. For example, juvenile sockeye salmon were 2-8 times more abundant in the proposed development areas. Genetic stock assignment demonstrated that the Chinook salmon and most of the sockeye salmon that were captured originated from throughout the Skeena watershed, while some sockeye salmon came from the Nass, Stikine, Southeast Alaska, and coastal systems on the northern and central coasts of British Columbia. These fish support extensive commercial, recreational, and First Nations fisheries throughout the Skeena River and beyond. Our results demonstrate that estuary habitats integrate species and population diversity of salmon, and that if proposed development negatively affects the salmon populations that

  1. Impact of complications and bladder cancer stage on quality of life in patients with different types of urinary diversions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prcic, Alden; Aganovic, Damir; Hadziosmanovic, Osman

    2013-12-01

    Determine correlation between complications and stage of the disease and their impact on quality of life in patients with different types of ileal urinary derivation after radical cystectomy, and upon estimation of acquired results, to suggest the most acceptable type of urinary diversion. In five year period a prospective clinical study was performed on 106 patients, to whom a radical cystectomy was performed due to bladder cancer. Patients were divided into two groups, 66 patients with ileal conduit derivation and 40 patients with orthotopic derivation, whereby in each group a comparison between reflux and anti-reflux technique of orthotopic bladder was made. All patients from both groups filled the Sickness Impact Profile score six months after the operation. All patients had CT urography or Intravenous urography performed, as well as standard laboratory, vitamin B12 blood values, in order to evaluate early (ileus or subileus, wound dehiscence, bladder fistula, rupture of orthotopic bladder, urine extravazation) and late complications (VUR, urethral stricture, ureter stenosis, metabolic acidosis, mineral dis-balance, hypovitaminosis of vitamin B12, increased resorption of bone calcium, urinary infection, kidney damage, relapse of primary disease), so as disease stage and it's impact on quality of life. From gained results we observe that each category of SIP score correlates with different rate of correlation with the type of operation, group, T, N, and R grade, except work category. Average value of SIP score rises depending on the type of operation and T stage. It is notable that there is no difference in T1 stage, no matter the type of operation. So the average value of SIP score in T1 stage for conduit was 20.3, for Abol-Enein and Ghoneim 17.25 and Hautmann 18.75 respectively. Average value of SIP score in T2 stage for conduit was 31, for Abol-Enein and Ghoneim 19.1 and Hautmann 17.8. Average value of SIP score in T3 stage for conduit was 38.03, for Abol

  2. Knocking on Industry’s Door: Needs in Product-Cost Optimization in the Early Product Life Cycle Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Walter

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available While theoretical concepts for product-costing methodologies have evolved over the decades, little emphasis has been placed on their integration into modern information systems. During a co-innovation workshop at SAP SE, we initiated our collaborative research with selected large-scale enterprises from the discrete manufacturing industry. Moreover, we conducted interviews with business experts to gain a sophisticated understanding of the cost-optimization process itself. As a result, we present an exemplary optimization process with an emphasis on the specific characteristics of the product development stage. Based upon this example, we identified associated deficits in information system support. No current software fulfills the enterprises’ requirements regarding cost optimization in the early stages of a product’s life cycle. Thus, the respective processes lack integration in corporate environments. Taking this on, our article compiles detailed problem identification and, moreover, suggests approaches to overcome these hurdles.

  3. Stereotypes of women in different stages of their reproductive life: data from Mexico and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marván, Ma Luisa; Islas, Martha; Vela, Laura; Chrisler, Joan C; Warren, Elyse A

    2008-08-01

    College students from Mexico and the United States (n = 349) were surveyed to explore stereotypes regarding women in different menstrual cycle phases and other stages of reproductive life. Participants from both countries defined a premenstrual or menstrual woman as irritable and moody and a menopausal woman as old and irritable. A woman with a hysterectomy was defined as sad, and only Americans used other words that did not have any negative connotation. Participants used some positive adjectives to describe other stages. For example, a pregnant woman was defined as happy, but only by Mexicans. Finally, a woman with a young baby was defined in both countries as happy; however, Americans implied that having a baby is complicated. The findings are discussed in light of sociocultural differences and similarities.

  4. Ocean Warming Enhances Malformations, Premature Hatching, Metabolic Suppression and Oxidative Stress in the Early Life Stages of a Keystone Squid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Rui; Pimentel, Marta S.; Boavida-Portugal, Joana; Teixeira, Tatiana; Trübenbach, Katja; Diniz, Mário

    2012-01-01

    Background The knowledge about the capacity of organisms’ early life stages to adapt to elevated temperatures is very limited but crucial to understand how marine biota will respond to global warming. Here we provide a comprehensive and integrated view of biological responses to future warming during the early ontogeny of a keystone invertebrate, the squid Loligo vulgaris. Methodology/Principal Findings Recently-spawned egg masses were collected and reared until hatching at present day and projected near future (+2°C) temperatures, to investigate the ability of early stages to undergo thermal acclimation, namely phenotypic altering of morphological, behavioural, biochemical and physiological features. Our findings showed that under the projected near-future warming, the abiotic conditions inside the eggs promoted metabolic suppression, which was followed by premature hatching. Concomitantly, the less developed newborns showed greater incidence of malformations. After hatching, the metabolic burst associated with the transition from an encapsulated embryo to a planktonic stage increased linearly with temperature. However, the greater exposure to environmental stress by the hatchlings seemed to be compensated by physiological mechanisms that reduce the negative effects on fitness. Heat shock proteins (HSP70/HSC70) and antioxidant enzymes activities constituted an integrated stress response to ocean warming in hatchlings (but not in embryos). Conclusions/Significance The stressful abiotic conditions inside eggs are expected to be aggravated under the projected near-future ocean warming, with deleterious effects on embryo survival and growth. Greater feeding challenges and the lower thermal tolerance limits of the hatchlings are strictly connected to high metabolic demands associated with the planktonic life strategy. Yet, we found some evidence that, in the future, the early stages might support higher energy demands by adjusting some cellular functional properties

  5. Health-related quality of life and stages of behavioural change for exercise in overweight/obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romain, A J; Bernard, P; Attalin, V; Gernigon, C; Ninot, G; Avignon, A

    2012-10-01

    Stages of change in exercise behaviour have been shown to be associated with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in overweight/obese adults. However, studies examining this relationship have not used questionnaires specifically designed for such a population. The present study assessed the impact of stages of change (SOC) for exercise, using the transtheoretical model, on the HRQoL, using the quality of life, obesity and dietetics (QOLOD) scale, an obesity-specific QoL questionnaire. Our hypothesis was that the more people are in the advanced stages of behavioural change, the better their HRQoL. A total of 214 consecutive obese individuals (148 women/66 men, mean age 47.4 ± 14.0 years, BMI 37.2 ± 8.4 kg/m2) were included in the cross-sectional study, and all completed SOC and QOLOD questionnaires. Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) established significant effects on the overall composite of the five dimensions of the QOLOD (P food (P = 0.13) or on the dieting experience (P = 0.13), two dimensions evaluating attitudes toward food. In obese/overweight individuals, the HRQoL varies with the SOC, with those in the more advanced behavioural stages reporting better HRQoL. However, dimensions related to food showed no differences according to SOC, confirming the complexity of the relationship between exercise and nutrition, and the need for further studies to acquire a more complete understanding of their underlying mechanisms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Age, Growth and Spatial Distribution of the Life Stages of the Shortfin Mako, Isurus oxyrinchus (Rafinesque, 1810) Caught in the Western and Central Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Rodrigo R; de Farias, Wialla K T; Andrade, Humber; Santana, Francisco M; Lessa, Rosangela

    2016-01-01

    = 309.7[s3] to 441.6[s1]; k = 0.04[s1] to 0.13[s3]; t0 = -7.08[s1] and -3.27[s3]) and males (Linf = 291.5[s3] to 340.2[s1]; k = 0.04[s1] to 0.13[s3]; t0 = -7.08[s1] and -3.27[s3]). To advance the understanding of the use of habitat, the first analysis of the spatial distribution of the life stages of the shortfin mako sharks caught by commercial longline fishing operations in the South Atlantic was performed. The findings indicate that the portion of the population exploited by the fleets is predominantly juvenile and future actions should take the following issues into account: improvements in the efficiency of data collection procedures, the reestablishment of the onboard observer program, emergency investments in studies that can contribute to a better understanding of habitat use and life history theory.

  7. Modelling spatial distribution of Patagonian toothfish through life-stages and sex and its implications for the fishery on the Kerguelen Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péron, Clara; Welsford, Dirk C.; Ziegler, Philippe; Lamb, Timothy D.; Gasco, Nicolas; Chazeau, Charlotte; Sinègre, Romain; Duhamel, Guy

    2016-02-01

    developing hypotheses regarding ecological drivers of Patagonian toothfish habitat-use and movement across different life stages and sex. Such hypotheses are crucial to inform management strategies of this multijurisdictional fishery (France and Australia) at the spatial and temporal scales over which natural processes and fishery extend.

  8. Current stage of fMRI applications in newborns and children during the first year of life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boecker, H.; Scheef, L.; Jankowski, J.; Zimmermann, N.; Born, M.; Heep, A.

    2008-01-01

    Currently, a paradigm shift towards expanded early use of cranial MRI in newborns at risk and infants in the first year of life can be observed in neonatology. Beyond clinical MRI applications, there is progressive use of functional MRI (fMRI) in this age group. On the one hand, fMRI allows monitoring of functional developmental processes depending on maturational stage; on the other hand, this technique may provide the basis for early detection of pathophysiological processes as a prerequisite for functionally guided therapeutic interventions. This article provides a comprehensive review of current fMRI applications in neonates and infants during the first year of life and focuses on the associated methodological issues (e.g. signal physiology, sedation, safety aspects). (orig.)

  9. In vitro activity of wALADin benzimidazoles against different life cycle stages of Plasmodium parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, Christian S; Sattler, Julia M; Fendler, Martina; Gottwalt, Simon; Halls, Victoria S; Strassel, Silke; Arriens, Sandra; Hannam, Jeffrey S; Specht, Sabine; Famulok, Michael; Mueller, Ann-Kristin; Hoerauf, Achim; Pfarr, Kenneth M

    2015-01-01

    wALADin1 benzimidazoles are specific inhibitors of δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase from Wolbachia endobacteria of filarial nematodes. We report that wALADin1 and two derivatives killed blood stage Plasmodium falciparum in vitro (50% inhibitory concentrations, 39, 7.7, and 12.8 μM, respectively). One of these derivatives inhibited gliding motility of Plasmodium berghei ANKA infectious sporozoites with nanomolar affinity and blocked invasion into hepatocytes but did not affect intrahepatocytic replication. Hence, wALADin1 benzimidazoles are tools to study gliding motility and potential antiplasmodial drug candidates. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Structure and dynamics of the gut bacterial microbiota of the bark beetle, Dendroctonus rhizophagus (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) across their life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briones-Roblero, Carlos Iván; Hernández-García, Juan Alfredo; Gonzalez-Escobedo, Roman; Soto-Robles, L Viridiana; Rivera-Orduña, Flor N; Zúñiga, Gerardo

    2017-01-01

    Bark beetles play an important role as agents of natural renovation and regeneration in coniferous forests. Several studies have documented the metabolic capacity of bacteria associated with the gut, body surface, and oral secretions of these insects; however, little is known about how the bacterial community structure changes during the life cycle of the beetles. This study represents the first comprehensive analysis of the bacterial community of the gut of the bark beetle D. rhizophagus during the insect's life cycle using 454 pyrosequencing. A total of 4 bacterial phyla, 7 classes, 15 families and 23 genera were identified. The α-diversity was low, as demonstrated in previous studies. The dominant bacterial taxa belonged to the Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonadaceae families. This low α-diversity can be attributed to the presence of defensive chemical compounds in conifers or due to different morpho-physiological factors in the gut of these insects acting as strong selective factors. Members of the genera Rahnella, Serratia, Pseudomonas and Propionibacterium were found at all life stages, and the first three genera, particularly Rahnella, were predominant suggesting the presence of a core microbiome in the gut. Significant differences in β-diversity were observed, mainly due to bacterial taxa present at low frequencies and only in certain life stages. The predictive functional profiling indicated metabolic pathways related to metabolism of amino acids and carbohydrates, and membrane transport as the most significant in the community. These differences in the community structure might be due to several selective factors, such as gut compartmentalization, physicochemical conditions, and microbial interactions.

  11. Structure and dynamics of the gut bacterial microbiota of the bark beetle, Dendroctonus rhizophagus (Curculionidae: Scolytinae across their life stages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Iván Briones-Roblero

    Full Text Available Bark beetles play an important role as agents of natural renovation and regeneration in coniferous forests. Several studies have documented the metabolic capacity of bacteria associated with the gut, body surface, and oral secretions of these insects; however, little is known about how the bacterial community structure changes during the life cycle of the beetles. This study represents the first comprehensive analysis of the bacterial community of the gut of the bark beetle D. rhizophagus during the insect's life cycle using 454 pyrosequencing. A total of 4 bacterial phyla, 7 classes, 15 families and 23 genera were identified. The α-diversity was low, as demonstrated in previous studies. The dominant bacterial taxa belonged to the Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonadaceae families. This low α-diversity can be attributed to the presence of defensive chemical compounds in conifers or due to different morpho-physiological factors in the gut of these insects acting as strong selective factors. Members of the genera Rahnella, Serratia, Pseudomonas and Propionibacterium were found at all life stages, and the first three genera, particularly Rahnella, were predominant suggesting the presence of a core microbiome in the gut. Significant differences in β-diversity were observed, mainly due to bacterial taxa present at low frequencies and only in certain life stages. The predictive functional profiling indicated metabolic pathways related to metabolism of amino acids and carbohydrates, and membrane transport as the most significant in the community. These differences in the community structure might be due to several selective factors, such as gut compartmentalization, physicochemical conditions, and microbial interactions.

  12. Energy regulation in context: Free-living female arctic ground squirrels modulate the relationship between thyroid hormones and activity among life history stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilsterman, Kathryn; Buck, C Loren; Barnes, Brian M; Williams, Cory T

    2015-09-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs), key regulators of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, are likely modulators of energy allocation within and among animal life history stages. Despite their role in modulating metabolism, few studies have investigated whether THs vary among life history stages in free-living animals or if they exhibit stage-specific relationships to total energy expenditure and activity levels. We measured plasma total triiodothyronine (tT3) and thyroxine (tT4) at four, discrete life history stages of female arctic ground squirrels from two different populations in northern Alaska to test whether plasma THs correlate with life history stage-specific changes in metabolic rate and energy demand. We also tested whether THs explained individual variation in aboveground activity levels within life history stages. T3 peaked during lactation and was lowest during pre-hibernation fattening, consistent with known changes in basal metabolism and core body temperature. In contrast, T4 was elevated shortly after terminating hibernation but remained low and stable across other life-history stages in the active season. THs were consistently higher in the population that spent more time above-ground but the relationship between THs and activity varied among life history stages. T3 was positively correlated with activity only during lactation (r(2)=0.50) whereas T4 was positively correlated with activity immediately following lactation (r(2)=0.48) and during fattening (r(2)=0.53). Our results support the hypothesis that THs are an important modulator of basal metabolism but also suggest that the relationship between THs and activity varies among life history stages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Health-related quality of life in different stages of chronic kidney disease and at initiation of dialysis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagels, Agneta A; Söderkvist, Birgitta Klang; Medin, Charlotte; Hylander, Britta; Heiwe, Susanne

    2012-06-18

    To evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients in different stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) up to initiation of dialysis treatment and to explore possible correlating and influencing factors. Cross-sectional design with 535 patients in CKD stages 2-5 and 55 controls assessed for HRQoL through SF-36 together with biomarkers. All HRQoL dimensions deteriorated significantly with CKD stages with the lowest scores in CKD 5. The largest differences between the patient groups were seen in 'physical functioning', 'role physical', 'general health' and in physical summary scores (PCS). The smallest disparities were seen in mental health and pain. Patients in CKD stages 2-3 showed significantly decreased HRQoL compared to matched controls, with differences of large magnitude - effect size (ES) ≥ .80 - in 'general health' and PCS. Patients in CDK 4 demonstrated deteriorated scores with a large magnitude in 'physical function', 'general health' and PCS compared to the patients in CKD 2-3. Patients in CKD 5 demonstrated deteriorated scores with a medium sized magnitude (ES 0.5 - 0.79) in 'role emotional' and mental summary scores compared to the patients in CKD 4. Glomerular filtration rate stages of the disease. At the time for dialysis initiation HRQoL is substantially deteriorated. Co-existing conditions, such as inflammation and cardiovascular disease seem to be powerful predictors of impaired HRQoL in patients with CKD. Within routine renal care, strategies to improve function and well-being considering the management of co-existing conditions like inflammation and CVD need t