WorldWideScience

Sample records for juvenile justice crime

  1. Juvenile Crime and Criminal Justice: Resolving Border Disputes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Rising juvenile crime rates during the 1970s and 1980s spurred state legislatures across the country to exclude or transfer a significant share of offenders under the age of eighteen to the jurisdiction of the criminal court, essentially redrawing the boundary between the juvenile and adult justice systems. Jeffrey Fagan examines the legal…

  2. Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice. Panel on Juvenile Crime: Prevention, Treatment, and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCord, Joan, Ed.; Widom, Cathy Spatz, Ed.; Crowell, Nancy A., Ed.

    This book discusses patterns and trends in crimes committed by children and adolescents, analyzing youth crime as a subset of general crime and studying the impact of race and gender. It evaluates different approaches to forecasting future crime rates. Data come from a national panel that examined what is known about juvenile crime and its…

  3. Mobilizing Communities To Prevent Juvenile Crime. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bownes, Donna; Ingersoll, Sarah

    Through Title V Incentive Grants for Local Delinquency Prevention Programs (Community Prevention Grants), the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) allocated $20 million in fiscal year 1997 to states to complement law enforcement and justice system efforts by helping local communities foster strong families and nurture…

  4. Los Angeles County Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act: Fiscal Year 2003-2004. Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Susan; Fain, Terry; Sehgal, Amber

    2005-01-01

    In 2000, the California Legislature passed the Schiff-Cardenas Crime Prevention Act, which authorized funding for county juvenile justice programs and designated the Board of Corrections (BOC) as the administrator of funding. A 2001 Senate Bill extended the funding and changed the program's name to the Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act…

  5. Los Angeles County Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act. Fiscal Year 2009-2010 Report. Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fain, Terry; Turner, Susan; Ridgeway, Greg

    2012-01-01

    In 2000, the California State Legislature passed what is now known as the Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act (JJCPA). This effort was designed to provide a stable funding source to counties for juvenile programs that have been proven effective in curbing crime among juvenile probationers and young at-risk offenders. The Corrections Standards…

  6. Los Angeles County Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act: Fiscal Year 2003-2004 Report Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Susan; Fain, Terry; Sehgal, Amber

    2005-01-01

    This document summarizes a report focusing on California counties receiving funds from Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act (JJCPA) programs. This effort was designed to provide a stable funding source to counties for juvenile programs that have been proven effective in curbing crime among at-risk and young offenders. The Board of Corrections…

  7. Los Angeles County Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act: Fiscal Year 2005-2006 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Susan; Fain, Terry; Sehgal, Amber

    2007-01-01

    In 2000, the California State Legislature passed the Schiff-Cardenas Crime Prevention Act, which authorized funding for county juvenile justice programs and designated the Corrections Standards Authority (CSA), formerly named the Board of Corrections, the administrator of funding. California counties receiving state funds for Juvenile Justice…

  8. Los Angeles County Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act. RAND Quarterly Report, October 2008. TR-621-LACPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fain, Terry; Turner, Susan; Ridgeway, Greg

    2008-01-01

    In July 2008, RAND Corporation staff conducted Correctional Program Checklist (CPC) assessments of five home-based programs (Asian Youth Center, Communities in Schools, Inter-Agency Drug Abuse Recovery Programs, Soledad Enrichment Action, and Stars Behavioral Health Group) as part of its ongoing evaluation of Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act…

  9. Los Angeles County Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act. RAND Quarterly Report, October 2008. Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fain, Terry; Turner, Susan; Ridgeway, Greg

    2009-01-01

    This document is the second quarterly progress report for the evaluation of Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act (JJCPA) programs for the Los Angeles County Probation Department. The report covers the period from July 1, 2008, through September 30, 2008. The intent of the report is to provide Probation and the community-based organizations (CBOs)…

  10. Los Angeles County Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act: Fiscal Year 2007-2008 Report. Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fain, Terry; Turner, Susan; Ridgeway, Greg

    2010-01-01

    In 2000, the California State Legislature passed the Schiff-Cardenas Crime Prevention Act, which authorized funding for county juvenile-justice programs and designated the Corrections Standards Authority (CSA) (formerly named the Board of Corrections) the administrator of funding. A 2001 California Senate bill extended the funding and changed the…

  11. Los Angeles County Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act: Fiscal Year 2004-2005 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Susan; Fain, Terry; MacDonald, John; Sehgal, Amber

    2007-01-01

    California counties receiving funds from Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act (JJCPA) programs are required to report six outcome measures to the California State Legislature on an annual basis to measure the success of the program. These outcome measures are (1) successful completion of probation, (2) arrests, (3) probation violations, (4)…

  12. Los Angeles County Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act: Fiscal Year 2004-2005. Report Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Susan; Fain, Terry; MacDonald, John; Sehgal, Amber

    2007-01-01

    This document summarizes a report focusing on California counties receiving funds from Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act (JJCPA) programs. These counties are required to report six outcome measures to the California State Legislature on an annual basis to measure the success of the program. These outcome measures are (1) successful completion…

  13. Los Angeles County Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act: Fiscal Year 2005-2006. Report Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Susan; Fain, Terry; Sehgal, Amber

    2007-01-01

    This document summarizes a study relating to California counties receiving state funds for Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act (JJCPA) programs. These counties are required to report six outcome measures to the California State Legislature on an annual basis to measure the success of the program. These outcome measures are (1) successful…

  14. Being (almost invisible: Victims of crime in the Italian juvenile criminal justice system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vezzadini Susanna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available From 2008 to 2013 the author has been a Special Judge in the Juvenile Criminal Court of the Emilia Romagna Region. From that privileged perspective, it was possible to observe the dynamics of how victims of underage offenders were considered before the law, no differences if they are adults or minors, too. The reflections presented will first consider EU and UN provision on victims of crime; then, the normative framework supporting the Italian criminal juvenile justice system will be considered by an examining of the difficulties victims meet in that peculiar context. The implementation of juvenile criminal law shows the paradox victims of crime have to cope with. The Juvenile Criminal Court in Bologna recently started to promote a wide use of restorative justice measures as an attempt to correct the unfair consequences in the application of law, with judicial discretion interpreted as an instrument to favour victims’ harm recognition and to protect their dignity as persons.

  15. Juvenile Arrests, 2007. Juvenile Justice Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puzzanchera, Charles

    2009-01-01

    This Bulletin summarizes 2007 juvenile crime and arrest data reported by local law enforcement agencies across the country and cited in the FBI report, "Crime in the United States 2007." The Bulletin describes the extent and nature of juvenile crime that comes to the attention of the justice system. It serves as a baseline for comparison for…

  16. Juvenile Justice in Milwaukee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gary L.; Greer, Lanetta

    2010-01-01

    Historically, there have been several attempts made to address issues surrounding juvenile delinquency. The Wisconsin Legislature outlines the objectives of the juvenile justice system in the Juvenile Justice Code in s. 939.01, ?to promote a juvenile justice system capable of dealing with the problem of juvenile delinquency, a system which will…

  17. Renewing Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macallair, Daniel; Males, Mike; Enty, Dinky Manek; Vinakor, Natasha

    2011-01-01

    The Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice (CJCJ) was commissioned by Sierra Health Foundation to critically examine California's juvenile justice system and consider the potential role of foundations in promoting systemic reform. The information gathered by CJCJ researchers for this report suggests that foundations can perform a key leadership…

  18. Changes in Juvenile Justice in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Dennis S. W.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses rising juvenile and youth crime in China, highlighting the essence of Chinese Marxist criminological thought and changing conceptions of delinquency from the postrevolutionary period to the present; examining official responses to delinquency and the recent development of juvenile justice; and suggesting that current delinquency control…

  19. Juvenile Justice in Rural America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankovic, Joanne, Ed.; And Others

    Producing a much-needed organized body of literature about rural juvenile justice, 14 papers (largely from the 1979 National Symposium on Rural Justice) are organized to identify current issues, identify forces causing changes in current systems, review programs responding to rural juvenile justice problems, and provide planning models to aid…

  20. On the Prevention of Juvenile Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelekov, V. A.; Kosheleva, E. V.

    2008-01-01

    Crimes committed by juveniles are among the most urgent social problems. Juvenile crime is as prevalent as crime itself is, and it has not been solved completely in any society and cannot be solved through law enforcement measures alone. In this article, the authors discuss the dynamics and structure of juvenile crime in Russia and present data…

  1. Juvenile Justice in Australia 2009-10. Juvenile Justice Series. Number 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalders, Rachel; Morgan, Kirsten

    2011-01-01

    In Australia, the state and territory governments are responsible for dealing with young people who are involved in crime. One major aspect of the juvenile justice system is the supervision of children and young people who have committed or are alleged to have committed an offence. This report presents information on the young people under…

  2. Crime and Justice: Taking a Futuristic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Gene; Tafoya, William L.

    1985-01-01

    How to apply futuristic approaches to crime and justice in an effort to prevent crime and deal more effectively with offenders is described. Planning, brainstorming, using the Delphi method, and opinion polling are discussed. (Author/RM)

  3. Juvenile justice mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Christopher R; Penn, Joseph V

    2002-10-01

    As the second century of partnership begins, child psychiatry and juvenile justice face continuing challenges in meeting the mental health needs of delinquents. The modern juvenile justice system is marked by a significantly higher volume of cases, with increasingly complicated multiproblem youths and families with comorbid medical, psychiatric, substance abuse disorders, multiple family and psychosocial adversities, and shrinking community resources and alternatives to confinement. The family court is faced with shrinking financial resources to support court-ordered placement and treatment programs in efforts to treat and rehabilitate youths. The recognition of high rates of mental disorders for incarcerated youth has prompted several recommendations for improvement and calls for reform [56,57]. In their 2000 annual report, the Coalition for Juvenile Justice advocated increased access to mental health services that provide a continuum of care tailored to the specific problems of incarcerated youth [58]. The specific recommendations of the report for mental health providers include the need for wraparound services, improved planning and coordination between agencies, and further research. The Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention has set three priorities in dealing with the mental health needs of delinquents: further research on the prevalence of mental illness among juvenile offenders, development of mental health screening assessment protocols, and improved mental health services [59]. Other programs have called for earlier detection and diversion of troubled youth from juvenile justice to mental health systems [31,56]. Most recently, many juvenile and family courts have developed innovative programs to address specific problems such as truancy or substance use and diversionary or alternative sentencing programs to deal with first-time or nonviolent delinquents. All youths who come in contact with the juvenile justice system

  4. Juvenile Justice Bulletin: Aftercare Services. Juvenile Justice Practices Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gies, Steve V.

    This bulletin examines aftercare services that provide youth with comprehensive health, education, family, and vocational services upon their release from the juvenile justice system. Aftercare can be defined as reintegrative services that prepare out-of-home placed juveniles for reentry into the community by reestablishing the necessary…

  5. Juvenile Justice and Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassin, Laurie

    2008-01-01

    Laurie Chassin focuses on the elevated prevalence of substance use disorders among young offenders in the juvenile justice system and on efforts by the justice system to provide treatment for these disorders. She emphasizes the importance of diagnosing and treating these disorders, which are linked both with continued offending and with a broad…

  6. Reforming Our Expectations about Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Pamela F.; Baille, Daphne M.

    2010-01-01

    Typing the term "juvenile justice reform" into a Google[TM] search will result in 60 pages of entries. But what is meant by juvenile justice reform? What does it look like? How will one know when it is achieved? This article defines juvenile justice reform, discusses the principles of effective reform, and describes the practice of juvenile…

  7. International Crimes and Transitional Justice: where does organised crime fit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmentier Stephan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The last twenty years, since the fall of the Berlin wall in 1989, more than 120 violent conflicts waged across the globe and hundreds of thousands of people killed, disappeared, handicapped or left in distress.Violent conflicts involve frequent human rights violations as well as many crimes. These kinds of crimes are usually very serious and tend to involve many victims, and have attracted attention from a variety of disciplines, including social and political scientists and (criminal lawyers. Therefore, the author argues that criminology as an academic discipline has until recently hardly been interested in studying international crimes.In order to understand this, the author is firstly interested in sketching the background of the concept of international crimes and comparing it with the notion of political crimes and also with that of serious human rights violations. Secondly, international crimes will be situated in their political context of transitional justice and its links with organized crime will be explored.

  8. Race, crime, and criminal justice in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, Manuela Ivone P. da

    2010-01-01

    How is ‘difference’ reflected on crime and the criminal justice system in Portugal? The answers obtained depend on which notions we can translate ‘difference’ into: ‘race’, ‘ethnicity’, ‘foreigners’, ‘immigrants’, ‘minorities’. This, in turn, depends also on whether we focus on statistics, rates, or, from another angle, experiences of crime and of the criminal justice system. Quantitative and qualitative data highlight different but complementary aspects of a same landscape. This paper focus...

  9. Age of crime onset and psychopathic traits in female juvenile delinquents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechorro, Pedro; Gonçalves, Rui Abrunhosa; Marôco, João; Nunes, Cristina; Jesus, Saul Neves

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the role of psychopathic traits in the age of crime onset of female juvenile delinquents. Using a sample of 132 young females from the Juvenile Detention Centers of the Portuguese Ministry of Justice and from schools in the Lisbon region, a group of early crime onset (n = 44), a group of late crime onset (n = 44), and a nondelinquent school group (n = 44) were formed. Results showed that early crime onset participants score higher on psychopathy measures, self-reported delinquency, and crime seriousness than late crime onset participants and school participants. Psychopathic-traits scores were significantly associated with age of crime onset, age at first trouble with the law, and frequency and seriousness of crime.

  10. Crime, In/Security and Mob Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orock, Rogers Tabe Egbe

    2014-01-01

    from violent crime. The widespread sense of anxiety over various forms of violent crime and state failure to guarantee protection for citizens generates a quest for alternative practices of safety-making that, in turn, evoke serious concerns over state power and sovereignty in Africa. Focusing on mob...... justice in Cameroon, this article argues that the political contextualisation of sovereignty must pay attention not only to the sovereign’s right to kill and let live, but also its responsibility to guarantee safety for those citizens it chooses to let live. The paper demonstrates that in Cameroon mob...

  11. Crime, In/Security and Mob Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orock, Rogers Tabe Egbe

    2014-01-01

    Violent crime poses important challenges for quotidian concerns over security and safety by ordinary citizens in several Africa states. This is especially so in contexts where state security agents are perceived as highly corrupt and/or where African states seem unable to “protect” their citizens...... justice is an insurgent mode of social control or securitisation as well as a contextual expression of contested sovereignty directed at the state’s unwillingness or incapacity to contain dangerous forms of violent crime.......Violent crime poses important challenges for quotidian concerns over security and safety by ordinary citizens in several Africa states. This is especially so in contexts where state security agents are perceived as highly corrupt and/or where African states seem unable to “protect” their citizens...... from violent crime. The widespread sense of anxiety over various forms of violent crime and state failure to guarantee protection for citizens generates a quest for alternative practices of safety-making that, in turn, evoke serious concerns over state power and sovereignty in Africa. Focusing on mob...

  12. Ethnic disparities in Dutch juvenile justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komen, M.; van Schooten, E.

    2009-01-01

    In the Netherlands, ethnic minority boys are heavily overrepresented in prisons and secure judicial institutions for juveniles. In a sample of 324 juveniles of both native Dutch and ethnic minority origin who have come into contact with the Dutch criminal justice authorities, we compared the number

  13. Juvenile delinquency, welfare, justice and therapeutic interventions: a global perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Susan; Greer, Ben; Church, Richard

    2017-01-01

    This review considers juvenile delinquency and justice from an international perspective. Youth crime is a growing concern. Many young offenders are also victims with complex needs, leading to a public health approach that requires a balance of welfare and justice models. However, around the world there are variable and inadequate legal frameworks and a lack of a specialist workforce. The UK and other high-income countries worldwide have established forensic child and adolescent psychiatry, a multifaceted discipline incorporating legal, psychiatric and developmental fields. Its adoption of an evidence-based therapeutic intervention philosophy has been associated with greater reductions in recidivism compared with punitive approaches prevalent in some countries worldwide, and it is therefore a superior approach to dealing with the problem of juvenile delinquency. PMID:28184313

  14. Crime victims in the criminal justice system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćopić Sanja M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Negative social reaction and inadequate reaction of the agencies of the formal control on the primary victimization is leading to the so called secondary victimization that can be a source of trauma and frustration as much as the primary victimization. Due to that, relation of the police and the judiciary towards the crime victims is of a great importance regarding victims’ willingness to report the victimization, their confidence in these agencies, and cooperation during clearing up the crime. In order to realize the victim’s position in the criminal justice system, this paper contains an overview of how the police, prosecutor’s office and courts are functioning. The paper is based on the interviews made with the representatives of these state agencies, as well as on the previous knowledge and realized surveys concerning this topic. The aim of the paper is to emphasize the position and the role of the victim support service in the system of the state intervention, based upon the obtained data, as well as to give some basic information on how victims could report the crime, what are their rights and duties, what can they expect from the competent agencies.

  15. African American teens and the neo-juvenile justice system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozie-Battle, Judith L

    2002-01-01

    African American youth continue to be overrepresented in the juvenile justice system. As a result of the current political environment and the perceived increase in crime among young people, the nation has moved away from rehabilitation and toward harsher treatment of delinquents. The African American community must encourage policy makers and community leaders to continue to address the disproportionate representation of African American youth in the system. Current policing and prosecutorial policies must also be examined and challenged to end the perception of an unjust system.

  16. Compilation of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974 as Amended through September 30, 1985. Prepared for Use by the Committee on Education and Labor. House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    This document contains a compilation reflecting amendments made to the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974 by the Fiscal Year Adjustment Act; the Crime Control Act of 1976; the Juvenile Justice Amendments of 1977 and 1980; and the Juvenile Justice, Runaway Youth, and Missing Children's Act Amendments of 1984. Title I of this…

  17. A Critical Appraisal of the Juvenile Justice System under Cameroon's 2005 Criminal Procedure Code: Emerging Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Tabe

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to examine the changes introduced by the 2005 Cameroonian Criminal Procedure Code on matters of juvenile justice, considering that before this Code, juvenile justice in Cameroon was governed by extra-national laws. In undertaking this analysis, the article highlights the evolution of the administration of juvenile justice 50 years after independence of Cameroon. It also points out the various difficulties and shortcomings in the treatment of juvenile offenders in Cameroon since the enactment of the new Criminal Procedure Code. The article reveals that the 2005 Code is an amalgamation of all hitherto existing laws in the country that pertained to juvenile justice, and that despite the considerable amount of criticism it has received, the Code is clearly an improvement of the system of juvenile justice in Cameroon, since it represents a balance of the due process rights of young people, the protection of society and the special needs of young offenders. This is so because the drafters of the Code took a broad view of the old laws on juvenile justice. Also a wide range of groups were consulted, including criminal justice professionals, children’s service organisations, victims, parents, young offenders, educators, advocacy groups and social-policy analysts. However, to address the challenges that beset the juvenile justice system of Cameroon, the strategy of the government should be focussed on three areas: the prevention of youth crime, the provision of meaningful consequences for the actions of young people, and the rehabilitation and reintegration of young offenders. Cameroonian law should seek educative solutions rather than to impose prison sentences or other repressive measures on young offenders. Special courts to deal with young offenders should be established outside the regular penal system and should be provided with resources that are adequate for and appropriate to fostering their understanding of

  18. Watching the detectives: crime programming, fear of crime, and attitudes about the criminal justice system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kort-Butler, Lisa A; Sittner Hartshorn, Kelley J

    2011-01-01

    Research demonstrates a complex relationship between television viewing and fear of crime. Social critics assert that media depictions perpetuate the dominant cultural ideology about crime and criminal justice. This article examines whether program type differentially affects fear of crime and perceptions of the crime rate. Next, it tests whether such programming differentially affects viewers' attitudes about the criminal justice system, and if these relationships are mediated by fear. Results indicated that fear mediated the relationship between viewing nonfictional shows and lack of support for the justice system. Viewing crime dramas predicted support for the death penalty, but this relationship was not mediated by fear. News viewership was unrelated to either fear or attitudes. The results support the idea that program type matters when it comes to understanding people's fear of crime and their attitudes about criminal justice.

  19. Washington State Juvenile Justice Code: An Experiment in Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Univ., Champaign. Community Research Center.

    In the Washington State juvenile justice system, serious or repeat offenders receive the full panoply of due process rights and procedures, with the exception of jury trials; minor offenders are diverted to community boards that require community service or victim restitution; and status offenders are removed from the courts' jurisdiction and…

  20. The Law and Juvenile Justice for People of Color in Elementary and Secondary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Frank; Russo, Charles J.; Hunter, Richard C.

    2002-01-01

    Recent crime control laws have negatively impacted children of color, imposing a form of social control. Increased laws and punishments have not deterred juvenile delinquents but rather increased the number of criminals. Recommends teaching children about the justice system through education on the Constitution, thus encouraging them to obey the…

  1. Immunization Coverage Among Juvenile Justice Detainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin, Gregory L; Glanz, Jason M; Binswanger, Ingrid A; Anoshiravani, Arash

    2015-07-01

    This study sought to (1) quantify the baseline immunization coverage of adolescents entering the juvenile justice system and (2) assess the effect of detention-based care on immunization coverage in youth. A cross-sectional retrospective chart review was performed of 279 adolescents detained at a large juvenile detention facility. Only 3% of adolescents had received all study immunizations prior to detention. Before detention, immunization coverage was significantly lower than that for the general adolescent population for all vaccines except the first doses of hepatitis A and varicella-zoster virus vaccines. Subsequent to detention, most individual immunization coverage levels increased and were significantly higher than in the general adolescent population. The routine administration of immunizations in the juvenile justice setting can help detained youth achieve levels of immunization coverage similar to their nondetained peers.

  2. Juvenile Delinquency and Justice in Lagos State, Nigeria: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Juvenile Delinquency and Justice in Lagos State, Nigeria: A Sociological Appraisal. ... This paper discussed the emergence of the Child's Right act in Nigeria in ... of children and young persons who found themselves on the justice corridor.

  3. 75 FR 17956 - Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention; Agency Information Collection Activities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... of Justice Programs Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention; Agency Information... collection under review; (Extension, without change, of a currently approved collection). Juvenile Residential Facility Census The Department of Justice (DOJ), Office of Justice Programs, Office of...

  4. New solutions in the juvenile criminal law in the light of the restorative justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovašević Dragan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available New criminal legislation got into force in Serbia at the beginning of 2006. In that way, Serbia got unique Criminal Code which includes all provisions of material criminal law except provisions related to the criminal position of juveniles. System of criminal sanctions for juvenile off enders, procedure for their imposition and the way, procedure and terms for their execution are regulated by the provisions of the separate law - the Law on juvenile off enders and criminal protection of juveniles. Some of the most important novelties introduced by new juvenile criminal law are system of diversion, i.e. system of diversion orders, which aim at excluding the imposition of criminal sanctions in the cases when criminal sanction is not necessary from the perspective of crime suppression. Bearing that in mind, this paper is dedicated to forms of diversion orders as a form of measures that lead to more efficient system of restorative justice within our new juvenile criminal legislation. .

  5. 75 FR 70293 - Meeting of the Federal Advisory Committee on Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... of Justice Programs Meeting of the Federal Advisory Committee on Juvenile Justice AGENCY: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, Justice. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY: The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) announces the Fall meeting...

  6. 76 FR 53965 - Meeting of the Federal Advisory Committee on Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... of Justice Programs Meeting of the Federal Advisory Committee on Juvenile Justice AGENCY: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, U. S. Department of Justice. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention...

  7. 77 FR 39511 - Meeting (Webinar) of the Federal Advisory Committee on Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... Office of Justice Programs Meeting (Webinar) of the Federal Advisory Committee on Juvenile Justice AGENCY: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice. ACTION: Notice of Webinar Meeting. SUMMARY: The Office of Juvenile Justice and...

  8. 78 FR 69876 - Meeting of the Federal Advisory Committee on Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-21

    ... of Justice Programs Meeting of the Federal Advisory Committee on Juvenile Justice AGENCY: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) announces...

  9. 78 FR 43920 - Meeting (Webinar) of the Federal Advisory Committee on Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ... of Justice Programs Meeting (Webinar) of the Federal Advisory Committee on Juvenile Justice AGENCY: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice. ACTION: Notice of Webinar Meeting. SUMMARY: The Office of Juvenile Justice and...

  10. 77 FR 61641 - Meeting of the Federal Advisory Committee on Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    ... of Justice Programs Meeting of the Federal Advisory Committee on Juvenile Justice AGENCY: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) announces...

  11. 75 FR 22163 - Meeting of the Federal Advisory Committee on Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... of Justice Programs Meeting of the Federal Advisory Committee on Juvenile Justice AGENCY: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, Justice ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) announces the Spring meeting...

  12. 78 FR 9070 - Meeting (Webinar) of the Federal Advisory Committee on Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... of Justice Programs Meeting (Webinar) of the Federal Advisory Committee on Juvenile Justice AGENCY: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice. ACTION: Notice of Webinar meeting. SUMMARY: The Office of Juvenile Justice and...

  13. 77 FR 20649 - Meeting (Webinar) of the Federal Advisory Committee on Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... of Justice Programs Meeting (Webinar) of the Federal Advisory Committee on Juvenile Justice AGENCY: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency...

  14. Dating Violence and Girls in the Juvenile Justice System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Patricia J.; Cheng, An-Lin; Peralez-Dieckmann, Esther; Martinez, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the prevalence and associated behaviors of dating violence among a population of girls in the juvenile justice system. A sample of 590 girls from an urban juvenile justice system completed a questionnaire assessing attitudes and self-efficacy about and occurrence of dating violence. The analysis developed a…

  15. Family and Community Perceptions of Quality in Juvenile Justice Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selber, Katherine; Streeter, Calvin

    2004-01-01

    The conceptualization and empirical assessment of service quality in juvenile justice remains limited. There are few reports on programmatic attempts to assess satisfaction in juvenile justice programs or attempts to include what constitutes quality of service from multiple customer perspectives. This article describes a potential model, the Gap…

  16. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 1991 Annual Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digital Systems Research Inc., Arlington, VA.

    This report fulfills the annual reporting requirements of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (JJDP) Act of 1974 as amended, and describes the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention's (OJJDP) efforts to carry out the broad mandates of the JJDP Act during fiscal year 1991. The report begins with an explanation of the…

  17. Practitioner Views of Priorities, Policies, and Practices in Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mears, Daniel P.; Shollenberger, Tracey L.; Willison, Janeen B.; Owens, Colleen E.; Butts, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    Dramatic changes in juvenile justice have occurred in recent decades. One result has been the emergence of new policies and practices, many of which remain largely unexamined. One avenue for gaining insight into whether such policies and practices are needed or effective, as well as into how the juvenile justice system might be improved, is to tap…

  18. Dating Violence and Girls in the Juvenile Justice System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Patricia J.; Cheng, An-Lin; Peralez-Dieckmann, Esther; Martinez, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the prevalence and associated behaviors of dating violence among a population of girls in the juvenile justice system. A sample of 590 girls from an urban juvenile justice system completed a questionnaire assessing attitudes and self-efficacy about and occurrence of dating violence. The analysis developed a…

  19. Immigration, Crime and Criminal Justice Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leun, van der J.P.; Herzog-Evans, M.

    2010-01-01

    In a three volume collection Wolf Legal Publishers presents The Transnational Criminology Manual. We are happy with contributions from more than 100 eminent specialists from the field including scholars from, among others, France (Reims University, Department of Justice) Canada (Montreal

  20. Setting a minimum age for juvenile justice jurisdiction in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S Barnert, Elizabeth; S Abrams, Laura; Maxson, Cheryl; Gase, Lauren; Soung, Patricia; Carroll, Paul; Bath, Eraka

    2017-03-13

    Purpose Despite the existence of minimum age laws for juvenile justice jurisdiction in 18 US states, California has no explicit law that protects children (i.e. youth less than 12 years old) from being processed in the juvenile justice system. In the absence of a minimum age law, California lags behind other states and international practice and standards. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach In this policy brief, academics across the University of California campuses examine current evidence, theory, and policy related to the minimum age of juvenile justice jurisdiction. Findings Existing evidence suggests that children lack the cognitive maturity to comprehend or benefit from formal juvenile justice processing, and diverting children from the system altogether is likely to be more beneficial for the child and for public safety. Research limitations/implications Based on current evidence and theory, the authors argue that minimum age legislation that protects children from contact with the juvenile justice system and treats them as children in need of services and support, rather than as delinquents or criminals, is an important policy goal for California and for other national and international jurisdictions lacking a minimum age law. Originality/value California has no law specifying a minimum age for juvenile justice jurisdiction, meaning that young children of any age can be processed in the juvenile justice system. This policy brief provides a rationale for a minimum age law in California and other states and jurisdictions without one.

  1. Immigration, Crime and Criminal Justice Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leun, van der J.P.; Herzog-Evans, M.

    2010-01-01

    In a three volume collection Wolf Legal Publishers presents The Transnational Criminology Manual. We are happy with contributions from more than 100 eminent specialists from the field including scholars from, among others, France (Reims University, Department of Justice) Canada (Montreal University)

  2. Immigration, Crime and Criminal Justice Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leun, van der J.P.; Herzog-Evans, M.

    2010-01-01

    In a three volume collection Wolf Legal Publishers presents The Transnational Criminology Manual. We are happy with contributions from more than 100 eminent specialists from the field including scholars from, among others, France (Reims University, Department of Justice) Canada (Montreal University)

  3. 28 CFR 0.94 - Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Office of Juvenile Justice and... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 1-Office of Justice Programs and Related Agencies § 0.94 Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention is headed by...

  4. THE STUDY OF FEATURES OF GUILT OF JUVENILE OFFENDERS IN THE CONTEXT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalija Vladimirovna Galkina

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the results of empirical studies of the experiences of guilt of juvenile offenders in the context of juvenile justice where a minor appears as the subject of legal relations. Restorative approach of juvenile justice is based on an admission of guilt to the victim. In connection with it, the research of features of the guilt of minors who have committed an offence and the conditions for the development of the subjectivity will enhance understanding of the possibilities of restorative juvenile justice system in the prevention of juvenile delinquency.Thus, the results of empirical research presented in the article are important for determining of the psychological bases of realization of rehabilitation programs in the context of juvenile justice. In particular, the results are important for the organization and conduct of psychological work to overcome the psychological barriers in the behavior of juveniles having inherently maladaptive guilt and destructive psychological defense mechanisms.

  5. 77 FR 70473 - Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention; Agency Information Collection Activities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention; Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested; Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement (Revision of a Currently..., Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, will be submitting the following...

  6. A Comparison of Four Restorative Conferencing Models. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazemore, Gordon; Umbreit, Mark

    This bulletin focuses on four restorative conferencing models within the juvenile justice system: victim-offender mediation; community reparative boards; family group conferencing; and circle sentencing. The bulletin first describes each of the four restorative justice models, presenting information on background, concept, procedures and goals,…

  7. Social and psychological aspects of criminal juvenile justice in the world practice (Anglo-Saxon model of juvenile justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.S. Oshevsky

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is the final part of the review of existing foreign models of juvenile criminal justice system. We analyze the principles of juvenile justice in the criminal trial: protective orientation, personalization and social richness of the trial, the emphasis on educational influences. We present the foreign experience of incorporating social, psychological and clinical special knowledge into specialized justice concerning juvenile offenders. We analyze modern trends in the development of juvenile justice in the United States and Canada. We present material related to methods of risk assessment of re-offending among adolescents. We highlight approaches to complex long-term follow-up of juvenile offenders in Anglo-Saxon juvenile justice. We describe some aspects of the probation service using the method of case management. In the context of the accepted “National Strategy for Action for the Benefit of Children for 2012-2017”, the prospects for the development of specialized criminal justice for young offenders in the Russian Federation are discussed

  8. American juvenile justice system: history in the making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Aaron; Segal, Roland; Boden, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The original theory behind separating juvenile offenders from adult offenders was to provide care and direction for youngsters instead of isolation and punishment. This idea took hold in the 19th century and became mainstream by the early 20th century. In the 1950s and 1960s, public concern grew because of a perceived lack of effectiveness and lack of rights. The Supreme Court made a series of rulings solidifying juvenile rights including the right to receive notice of charges, the right to have an attorney and the right to have charges proven beyond a reasonable doubt. In the 1980s, the public view was that the juvenile court system was too lenient and that juvenile crimes were on the rise. In the 1990s, many states passed punitive laws, including mandatory sentencing and blanket transfers to adult courts for certain crimes. As a result, the pendulum is now swinging back toward the middle from rehabilitation toward punishment.

  9. Needs and Achievements of the Juvenile Justice System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basto-Pereira, Miguel; Ribeiro, Sofia; Maia, Ângela

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decade, studies have evaluated the effectiveness of interventions for juvenile offenders; nonetheless, those studies were more focused on recidivism than on the mechanisms associated with criminal perpetration. The current study explores the role of juvenile justice involvement and detention measures in a set of psychological, social, and criminal behavior characteristics in early adulthood. Seventy-five young adults with official records of juvenile delinquency in 2010-2011 and 240 young adults from the community filled out our protocol in 2014-2015. Young adults with juvenile justice involvement showed worse psychological, social, and criminal outcomes than those from community. Detention appears to be related to the number of deviant friends, delinquency, and school achievement in early adulthood. Our findings are in line with the labeling and deviant peer contagion theories and establish the main areas of interventions that affect the identified needs. A set of policy implications is provided.

  10. Second Chances: Giving Kids a Chance To Make a Better Choice. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

    In commemoration of the juvenile court's centennial, the Justice Policy Institute of the Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice and the Children and Family Justice Center of Northwestern University School of Law profiled 25 individuals who were petitioned into juvenile court as serious delinquents when they were young and then turned their lives…

  11. Growing up with adversity: From juvenile justice involvement to criminal persistence and psychosocial problems in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basto-Pereira, Miguel; Miranda, Ana; Ribeiro, Sofia; Maia, Ângela

    2016-12-01

    Several studies have been carried out to investigate the effect of child maltreatment on juvenile justice involvement and future criminal life. However, little is known about the impact of other forms of adversity, beyond abuse and neglect, on juvenile delinquency and criminal persistence. The effect of early adversity on psychosocial problems is underexplored, particularly in juvenile delinquents. This study, using the Childhood Adverse Experiences (ACE) questionnaire, a tool accessing the exposure to different types of abuse, neglect and serious household dysfunction, explored the role of each adverse experience on juvenile justice involvement, persistence in crime and psychosocial problems during young adulthood. A Portuguese sample of 75 young adults with official records of juvenile delinquency in 2010/2011, and 240 young adults from a community sample completed ACE questionnaire and measures of psychosocial adjustment. Seven out of ten adverse experiences were significantly more prevalent in young adults with juvenile justice involvement than in the community sample, after matching the main demographic variables. The strongest predictor of juvenile justice involvement and criminal persistence during early adulthood was sexual abuse. Dimensions of child/adolescent emotional maltreatment and a mental illness in the household predicted a set of psychosocial problems in young adulthood. This study indicates that early adversity is significantly related to juvenile justice involvement, criminal persistence and psychosocial problems. This study also suggests that each experience has a different role in this process. There is an urgent need to screen, prevent and stop serious adversity. Future scientific directions and recommendations for policies are provided. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Implementation of the Juvenile Justice and Welfare Act of 2006 (RA 9344: Inputs to Policy Amendments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR. FREDDY E. BILOG

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to assess the status of implementation of RA 9433 or Juvenile Justice and Welfare Act of 2006 with respect to the various sectors namely: police; city social welfare and development and family court.. It also determine the problems encountered by the three groups of respondents and test the difference among the responses of the three groups: to determine the implication of implementation of RA 9344 to the community as perceived by three groups of respondents and based on the findings to propose inputs to policy amendments. It was found out that majority of the juvenile offenders in Batangas City are 15-17 years old, single, males, finished elementary education with crime of theft committed in 2012 and under the custody of their parents or legal guardians. Objectives, compliance, evaluation and monitoring as status of RA 9344 were implemented as a new approach in criminal justice system with juvenile offenders. Each sector experiences problems in implementing RA 9344 especially when it comes to insufficient knowledge of the child, and the parents regarding the child’s severity of crime and constitutional rights. The study found a significant relationship between the status of implementation of RA 9344 and the problems encountered. Further, there are differences between the responses of the three groups of respondents. Exemption of youth offenders in criminal responsibility has an impact on the community since the youth may repeat the crime or they could commit crime that is more severe than the previous crime committed. Additionally, compliance, evaluation and monitoring were found to be significantly related to the impact of exemption of youth offenders in criminal responsibility. Based on the findings, the study identified inputs for possible amendments of policies that govern RA 9344 towards a more efficient and effective implementation. These intervention programs such as child management training and rehabilitative program

  13. Building on Strength: Positive Youth Development in Juvenile Justice Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton William H.; Butts, Jeffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the results of an exploratory study of juvenile justice programs where managers and practitioners are attempting to build youth interventions with strength-based, positive youth development principles. Previous researchers have not adequately documented how such reforms take place, let alone whether they produce effective…

  14. A Critical Appraisal of the Juvenile Justice System under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AZERTY

    of procedural law in juvenile justice matters was the Criminal Procedure Ordinance. 2 ..... He may in particular order a social investigation into the material and .... shall be carried out in conformity with the rules of ordinary law. 47. The place of ...

  15. 83 CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS OF THE JUVENILE JUSTICE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    As has been stated, the juvenile justice administration in South East Nigeria, like in other .... (3) of the Criminal Procedure Act, if the evidence on record shows that at the time .... introduction of Islamic or Shariah law in parts of Northern Nigeria.

  16. Dare To Dream--Juvenile Justice. A Guide to Planning Your Future for Students in the Juvenile Justice System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repetto, Jeanne; Webb, Kristine; Beutel, Adory; Perkins, Dollean; Bailey, Mary

    This workbook is designed to help Florida students in the juvenile justice system plan for their desired postschool outcomes. It includes activities to help students make good decisions that will affect their entry into adult life. "Dare to Know" boxes are found throughout the workbook and provide important information to students to…

  17. Juvenile delinquency in Russia: Ccriminal justice, trends, key issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Milica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the literature, as well as in international statistical surveys, we can rarely find more detailed information on juvenile delinquency in the Russian Federation, as well as on the criminal reaction towards juvenile offenders. Due to the turbulent conditions and great social turmoil which took place in the last few decades in this country, there should be a greater interest in the problem of juvenile delinquency. For Serbia, the experience of the Russian Federation could be especially important if one bears in mind that our country is still going through a transition, population stratification and through economic crisis, and also that Serbia and the Russian Federation share some cultural and religious similarities. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to present, in the summary way, the basic features of juvenile delinquency and the criminal justice system, and thereby build a basis for future research and comparison.

  18. Family Disruption and Delinquency. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornberry, Terence P.; Smith, Carolyn A.; Rivera, Craig; Huizinga, David; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda

    At study sites in Rochester (New York), Denver (Colorado) and Pittsburgh (Pennsylvania), three research teams studying the impact of family disruption on juvenile delinquency have interviewed approximately 4,000 participants at regular intervals for a decade, recording their lives in detail. Findings to date indicate that preventing delinquency…

  19. Comparing Male and Female Juveniles Charged with Homicide: Child Maltreatment, Substance Abuse, and Crime Details

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe-Sepowitz, Dominique Eve

    2009-01-01

    This study examines a sample of 136 male and female juveniles charged with attempted homicide or homicide. The purpose of this study is to explore the differences between nondirect file male and female juvenile homicide offenders regarding individual, family, and crime circumstances. Findings suggest that compared to male juvenile offenders,…

  20. Justice for All? A Report on Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgendered Youth in the New York Juvenile Justice System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Randi; Greenblatt, Andrea; Hass, Lauren; Kohn, Sally; Rana, Julianne

    The first-ever study of its kind, this report chronicles the experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgendered (LGBT) youth in the New York juvenile justice system. This report combines existing social science research and personal interviews with juvenile justice professionals and LGBT youth and reveals that the system is plagued by…

  1. Corrections and Juvenile Justice: Current Education Practice for Youth with Learning and Other Disabilities. Monograph Series on Education, Disability and Juvenile Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Kenneth W.; Wolford, Bruce I.

    This monograph, one of a series on youth with disabilities and the juvenile justice system, focuses on the educational services provided to youth with behavioral and cognitive disabilities placed in the juvenile justice system. It reports on a review of correctional system monitoring reports, materials from enforcement actions taken against…

  2. THE JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEM IN SPAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JosA Luis de la Cuesta

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available 1. Relevant legal framework regulating criminal proceedings against juvenile offenders. 2. Age thresholds of criminal responsibility and liability to prosecution. 3. Specialized agencies. 3.1. Judges specialization. 3.2. Prosecutor\\'s specialization. 3.3. Specialization required for any, other figure acting in the proceedings. 3.4. Social services (or similar agencies involved in the proceedings. 4. Early definition of the proceedings. 5. Personality assessment procedures. 6. Mediation. 7. Personal liberty. 8. Safeguards for the protection of minors. 8.1. Affective and/or psychological assistance. 8.2. Preventing the disclosure of the juvenile offender\\'s identity. 8.3. Other measures. 9. Final remarks.

  3. The Characteristics of Youth Referred for Mental Health Evaluation in the Juvenile Justice System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Kenneth M.; Powell, Elaine; Strock, Melissa

    This study examined the demographic, service use, and juvenile justice history associated with clinical variables in a juvenile justice population. Records of 3,283 youth (ages 10 to 18) admitted to a juvenile corrections facility in a six-month period were reviewed. Of this group, 244 (8 percent) had been referred for mental health evaluation.…

  4. Addressing Trauma and Psychosocial Development in Juvenile Justice-Involved Youth: A Synthesis of the Developmental Neuroscience, Juvenile Justice and Trauma Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Evans-Chase

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Youth incarcerated in the juvenile justice system are disproportionately exposed to traumas both in and outside of custody that are associated with poor social, behavioral, and developmental outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to describe one pathway through which trauma can impact a myriad of outcomes, including delinquency, violence, substance use, and other behaviors that are self-regulatory in nature. Relevant research from the developmental neuroscience, juvenile justice, and trauma literatures are drawn upon and synthesized to describe this pathway. Using a multi-disciplinary approach to understanding the role that brain development and neural activity play in the relationship between trauma and associated behavioral outcomes could serve to inform juvenile justice policy decisions and intervention practice. Such application could increase the effectiveness with which juvenile justice systems work with one of the most vulnerable and traumatized populations of youth in today’s society: those incarcerated in our juvenile justice system.

  5. Criminal Justice Profile--Statewide, 1984. Supplement to "Crime and Delinquency in California."

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Justice, Sacramento. Bureau of Criminal Statistics and Special Services.

    This California annual Criminal Justice Statewide Profile presents data which supplements the Bureau of Criminal Statistics' (BCS) annual Crime and Delinquency publication. This monograph summarizes and combines data pertaining to California's justice system. The profile consists of two sections. The first section consists of 12 tables displaying…

  6. Profile of Incarcerated Juveniles: Comparison of Male and Female Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Don; Martin, Magy; Dell, Rex; Davis, Candice; Guerrieri, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Effective methods of identifying potential juvenile offenders are critical when developing prevention programs within both state and national juvenile justice systems. The characteristics of juvenile offenders in a large juvenile justice system are examined in this study. Participants live in a Midwestern city with a high rate of crime as…

  7. Rethinking Restorative Justice: When the Geographies of Crime and of Healing Justice Matter

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jarem Sawatsky

    2007-01-01

    .... Despite the rhetoric that restorative justice is an alternative to the criminal justice system, this article demonstrates that restorative justice does not sufficiently challenge the underlying logic...

  8. 76 FR 26280 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... Governments on their statewide analysis of Texas school records and the relationship between school discipline and juvenile justice; (b) presentations from Child Trends on effective approaches to school...

  9. Households Touched by Crime, 1987. Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Michael R.; And Others

    For the year 1987, 24.4 % of American households were touched by crime. A household is considered touched by crime if during the year it was affected by a burglarly, auto theft, or household theft or if a household member was raped, robbed, or assaulted or was a victim of personal theft, no matter where the crime occurred. These offenses, which…

  10. Health care for youth in the juvenile justice system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Youth in the juvenile correctional system are a high-risk population who, in many cases, have unmet physical, developmental, and mental health needs. Multiple studies have found that some of these health issues occur at higher rates than in the general adolescent population. Although some youth in the juvenile justice system have interfaced with health care providers in their community on a regular basis, others have had inconsistent or nonexistent care. The health needs of these youth are commonly identified when they are admitted to a juvenile custodial facility. Pediatricians and other health care providers play an important role in the care of these youth, and continuity between the community and the correctional facility is crucial. This policy statement provides an overview of the health needs of youth in the juvenile correctional system, including existing resources and standards for care, financing of health care within correctional facilities, and evidence-based interventions. Recommendations are provided for the provision of health care services to youth in the juvenile correctional system as well as specific areas for advocacy efforts.

  11. Juvenile penalty or leniency: Sentencing of juveniles in the criminal justice system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Kareem L; McNeal, Brittani A

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of being juvenile on sentencing in the criminal justice system. More specifically, youth transferred to criminal court are compared to adults in terms of likelihood of incarceration, jail length, and prison length. In this study, 2 national data sets are merged. The juvenile sample includes 3,381 convicted offenders, and the adult sample is comprised of 6,529 convicted offenders. The final sample is 9,910 offenders across 36 U.S. counties. The key independent variable is juvenile status, and the dependent variables are incarceration, jail length, and prison length. Because of the multilevel nature of the data, hierarchical linear modeling is used across all models. Juveniles are punished less severely in the jail incarceration decision. However, when youth are actually sentenced to incarceration (either jail or prison), they are given longer confinement time than adults. (PsycINFO Database Record

  12. JUVENILE CRIMES CONNECTED WITH NARCOTICS AND PSYCHOTROPIC SUBSTANCES TRAFFICKING: CRIMINOLOGICAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Irina V. Tseveleva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with criminological aspects of juvenile crime in the narcotics and psychotropic substances trafficking. The authors analyzed the main reasons of committing these crimes by teenagers. The proposals for the prevention of minors’ criminal behavior in drug trafficking are drafted.

  13. Best Implementation Practices: Disseminating New Assessment Technologies in a Juvenile Justice Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Douglas; Moline, Karl; Farrell, Jill; Bierie, David

    2006-01-01

    Much has been written in recent years about advances in assessment technologies designed to aid decision making in the juvenile justice system. Adoption and implementation of this latest generation of actuarial tools, however, have lagged behind their development. Assessment in juvenile justice exemplifies the "science-practice gap" that…

  14. Best Implementation Practices: Disseminating New Assessment Technologies in a Juvenile Justice Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Douglas; Moline, Karl; Farrell, Jill; Bierie, David

    2006-01-01

    Much has been written in recent years about advances in assessment technologies designed to aid decision making in the juvenile justice system. Adoption and implementation of this latest generation of actuarial tools, however, have lagged behind their development. Assessment in juvenile justice exemplifies the "science-practice gap" that…

  15. Juvenile Justice Teachers' Job Satisfaction: A Comparison of Teachers in Three States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houchins, David E.; Shippen, Margaret E.; McKeand, Kim; Viel-Ruma, Kim; Jolivete, Kristine; Guarino, Anthony J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in the perceptions of juvenile justice teachers in Georgia, Louisiana, and Ohio. Juvenile justice teachers (n = 542) completed an extensive attrition and retention survey with a 98% response rate. Comparisons were made between states, type of facility (short or long-term), gender, and…

  16. Crime Victims Support System and Restorative Justice: Possible Implementation in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azlinda Azman, PhD

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Victims’ position is increasingly acknowledged in the criminal justice system across the world. Because of that, criminal justice systems in various countries slowly transform from focusing too much on the relationship between offenders and the legal system and to between the offenders and their victims. Several programs are highlighted such as victim-offender mediation, family group conferences, reparative orders and referral orders in this article. Findings from several studies support the effectiveness of the programs on both the victims and the offenders in terms of several measurements such as satisfaction and recidivism. Looking at this revolution, Malaysian academicians and professionals are beginning to recognize restorative justice as a possible revolution to its criminal justice system, but Malaysian criminal justice system first needs to strengthen or build components that support victims of crime, as this is one of the main principles of restorative justice. Currently, Malaysia still focuses on offenders and their relationship with legal system, but not much with their own victims (physical, emotional, and psychological consequences of the crime. Several possible issues before formal implementation of restorative justice are discussed. The issues (culture, training, and attitude of Malaysian people, including the victims, offenders, and those who work with them can influence the efficiency of restorative justice programs if not identified systematically. These issues can also be the possible research areas to be ventured in the future as these researches can help in implementation.

  17. The justice system for the juveniles Juveniles adjudicated for the criminal act of “theft” in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Etilda Gjonaj Saliu

    2016-01-01

    The juvenile justice system in Albania has improved from year to year but slow movements are done in improving the whole system for the implementation of the guarantees prescribed in international acts and Albanian legislation. This article, is aiming to offer some opinions related to the justice system for the juveniles based on the statistical and qualitative data regarding the criminal policy that is used and the precautionary measures given through court decisions. This article, aims in i...

  18. Arresting Children: Examining Recent Trends in Preteen Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butts, Jeffrey A.; Snyder, Howard N.

    2008-01-01

    The public believes that today's juvenile offenders are younger than those of 20 or 25 years ago, and this common perception influences juvenile justice policy. To assess whether the age profile of juvenile delinquents has in fact changed, juvenile crime patterns from 1980 through 2006 were tracked by examining data collected by law enforcement…

  19. Juvenile Justice Reform Initiatives in the States: 1994-1996. Program Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Criminal Justice Association, Washington, DC.

    This overview of recent state juvenile justice reform measures and identifies issues and trends associated with state juvenile reform initiatives. The report explains some of the more punitive measures, such as new criminal court transfer authority and expanded juvenile court sentencing options. Many states have balanced these steps with enhanced…

  20. How Do Youth with Mental Disorders Fare in the Juvenile Justice System?

    OpenAIRE

    Pinka Chatterji; Alison Cuellar

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between mental health problems and justice outcomes. Several studies have documented that individuals with a variety of mental disorders are overrepresented in the justice system. This pattern could result if persons with mental disorders are more likely to commit crimes, or more likely to commit serious crimes, than persons without disorders. In addition, individuals with mental disorders may be more likely than those without disorders...

  1. Race, crime and criminal justice in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bosilong, KP

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This chapter begins with a brief tour of South Africa's justice and political systems, demographics and discourses of race. The brief narrative, which will also allude to situations in Apartheid South Africa, is meant to aid understanding...

  2. Youth, Crime and Community Development: A Guide for Collaborative Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendel, Richard

    This report is designed to help community-based organizations, youth-serving agencies, and the criminal justice and juvenile justice systems recognize their common stake in supporting healthy and positive youth development, both to revitalize their neighborhoods and to control crime. It focuses on: "The Basics: Youth, Crime and Community…

  3. Substance abuse, conduct disorder and crime: assessment in a juvenile detention house in Istanbul, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copur, Mazlum; Turkcan, Ahmet; Erdogmus, Meral

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the rate of substance abuse in the juvenile detention house and to determine the relationship between crime and substance abuse and conduct disorder. Two hundred and thirty cases in the biggest juvenile detention house in Istanbul, Turkey were assessed according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edn; DSM-IV) criteria. Law files and data of crime were examined. A total of 80 out of 230 juvenile detainees (34.8%) were found to have substance abuse excluding nicotine and alcohol. The substances abused in preferential order were cannabis (72.5%), volatile substances (21.3% bally and 3.7% thinner; 25%) and sedative hypnotic drugs and biperidents (2.5%). The rate of conduct disorder was 46.3% in substance abusers and 25.3% in the others (odds ratio: 2.536). The rate of substance abuse was 48.5% in the juveniles who had committed multiple crimes and 14.1% in the others (odds ratio: 5.735). The study shows that conduct disorder was very high in juvenile detainees. Conduct disorder was higher in substance-abusing than in non-abusing juvenile detainees. Substance-abusing juvenile detainees were found to have a higher detention rate than non-abusing juvenile detainees. There was a close relation between conduct disorder and substance abuse and multiple crimes. In the light of these results, diagnosis and treatment for conduct disorder in juvenile detainees are of great importance.

  4. European Sourcebook of Crime and Criminal Justice Statistics : 2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WODC

    2003-01-01

    How do the police deal with crime throughout Europe? How do prosecutorial systems compare with each other? How many offenders get convicted? What sentences are imposed in different countries, and, in the case of custodial sentences, for how long? How many police officers are there in any given count

  5. International Crime Rates. Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalish, Carol B.

    This study compared crime rates of the United States with those of other countries for whom statistics were available: European countries, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. Statistics were provided by the United Nations for homicide, rape, robbery, burglary, and theft; the International Police Organization (Interpol) for homicide, rape, robbery,…

  6. Social information processing, subtypes of violence, and a progressive construction of culpability and punishment in juvenile justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Reid Griffith

    2008-01-01

    Consistent with core principles of liberal theories of punishment (including humane treatment of offenders, respecting offender rights, parsimony, penal proportionality, and rehabilitation), progressive frameworks have sought to expand doctrines of mitigation and excuse in order to reduce culpability and punishment. With respect to juvenile justice, scholars have proposed that doctrinal mitigation be broadened, and that adolescents, due to aspects of developmental immaturity (such as decision-making capacity), be punished less severely than adults who commit the same crimes. One model of adolescent antisocial behavior that may be useful to a progressive theory of punishment in juvenile justice distinguishes between instrumental violence, by which the actor behaves thoughtfully and calmly to achieve personal gain, and reactive violence, which is characterized as impulsive, emotional retaliation toward a perceived threat or injustice. In particular, social cognitive differences between instrumental and reactive violence have implications for responsibility, length and structure of incarceration, rehabilitation, and other issues that are central to a progressive theory of juvenile culpability and punishment.

  7. The Influence of Direct and Indirect Juvenile Victimization Experiences on Adult Victimization and Fear of Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubb, Jonathan A; Bouffard, Leana A

    2015-11-01

    Research has identified that juvenile victimization can play a detrimental role for individuals later in life. While this literature has focused on direct and indirect forms of victimization at different stages of life, the influence of juvenile victimization on fear of crime and violent victimization as an adult has been limited. To expand this body of literature, the present research examines the effects of direct (sexual victimization) and indirect (witnessing parental intimate partner violence) juvenile victimization on fear of crime as well as the prevalence of victimization as an adult. Using telephone survey data collected from randomly selected Texas adults, this study demonstrates that both juvenile sexual victimization and indirect victimization increase the likelihood of adult victimization, whereas juvenile sexual victimization increases the likelihood of adult sexual victimization. In contrast, fear of crime as an adult was not significantly influenced by either juvenile sexual victimization or indirect victimization. A discussion of how these findings relate to previous research, limitations, and implications are also provided.

  8. Collecting informed consent with juvenile justice populations: issues and implications for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolbransky, Melinda; Goldstein, Naomi E S; Giallella, Christy; Heilbrun, Kirk

    2013-01-01

    Researchers must provide participants with opportunities to make informed decisions about whether to participate in research studies. Investigators conducting research with youth in the juvenile justice system face unique ethical, legal, and practical challenges to obtaining informed consent. Juvenile justice researchers must navigate multiple legal and ethical standards for collecting informed consent, take into account youths' dual vulnerabilities as children and prisoners, and overcome practical limitations to obtaining parental/guardian permission. Given the challenges and complexity of obtaining standard informed consent of youth in juvenile justice facilities, this paper provides suggestions for overcoming obstacles to recruiting these youth for research participation. It offers guidance for fostering the enrollment of juvenile justice youth in research studies using procedures that comply with ethical and legal standards for research with this dually vulnerable population. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Service referral for juvenile justice youths: associations with psychiatric disorder and recidivism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, M.; McReynolds, L.S.; Wasserman, G.A.

    2014-01-01

    Secondary multiple regression analyses related disorder profile, probation officers' mental health/substance use service referrals, and recidivism in 361 juvenile justice youths. Those with externalizing (disruptive behavior or substance use) disorder or substance offenses were most likely to receiv

  10. Development of the contemporary concept of restorative justice: Towards increased visibility of crime victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćopić Sanja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary concept of restorative justice emerged at the end of 1960s and the beginning of 1970s, at the time when repression and social exclusion stared to show their lacks. Restorative justice has emerged on the critics of the conventional criminal justice response to crime, which denies the power to both the victim and the offender, and particularly neglecting a victim and minimizing his/her role in the procedure. While the accent of the repressive discourse is on the crime and punishment, restorative discourse is focused on the relationship between parities involved in a criminal case, who should actively participate in the process of finding out adequate solution of the problem arose from the criminal offence. Keeping that in mind, it is quite obvious that theoretical knowledge, concepts and movements that are focused on victims, their rights, legal and overall position had the strongest impact on the development of restorative justice. Taking that as a departure point, the impact of the “conflict as property” concept, victimology, movement for the restitution, movement for victim’s rights, and feminist movement, on the development of a contemporary concept of restorative justice is analyzed in this paper, and vice versa.

  11. An Evaluation of a Group Treatment Program with Youth Referred to the Juvenile Probation Service because of Violent Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury-Kassabri, Mona; Sharvet, Rachel; Braver, Efi; Livneh, Chaim

    2010-01-01

    This study assesses the outcomes of group intervention program with violent juveniles. The intervention is based on the ecological approach of Edleson and Tolman (1992). Forty-eight juveniles referred to the juvenile probation service because of violent crime completed the 16 sessions of the intervention. Participants completed questionnaires…

  12. Being Young and Black: What Are Their Effects on Juvenile Justice Decision Making?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiber, Michael J.; Johnson, Joseph D.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which race and age individually and jointly determined juvenile justice case outcomes at intake and judicial disposition among males in one county juvenile court in the state of Iowa. Using an interpretation of the symbolic threat thesis and the emphasis on stereotyping as the theoretical framework, we discovered…

  13. Disabling Juvenile Justice: Engaging the Stories of Incarcerated Young Women of Color with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annamma, Subini Ancy

    2014-01-01

    One of the field's most enduring problems is the overrepresentation of students of color in special education. A less acknowledged challenge is the overrepresentation of students with disabilities in juvenile incarceration. Quantitative studies have documented the overrepresentation of students with disabilities in juvenile justice. Yet,…

  14. Personality characteristics and parent-child relationships juveniles who commit violent crimes of a sexual nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vartanyan G.A.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies of aggressive behavior of teenagers and sexual aggression in particular in the last time are particularly relevant and valuable in modern society. This is confirmed by the data of criminological statistics, according to which the rate of minor crime in the Russian Federation in recent years has virtually the same range. A comprehensive study of the person of a minor convicted of violent crimes of a sexual nature (personal characteristics, characteristics of sexual identity and parent-child relationship on the basis of comparative analysis with a group of teenagers convicted of the crime of mercenary-violent type, and a group of students emerging in socially favourable environment, enabled them to identify some distinctive features. The obtained results allow to suggest a possible mutual influence of personal characteristics and characteristics of sexual identity with the peculiarities of child-parent relationships in a group of juveniles convicted for violent crimes of a sexual nature.

  15. The Challenge and Opportunity of Parental Involvement in Juvenile Justice Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Jeffrey D; Mulvey, Edward P; Schubert, Carol A; Garbin, Sara R

    2014-04-01

    The active involvement of parents - whether as recipients, extenders, or managers of services - during their youth's experience with the juvenile justice system is widely assumed to be crucial. Parents and family advocacy groups note persisting concerns with the degree to which successful parental involvement is achieved. Justice system providers are highly motivated and actively working to make improvements. These coalescing interests provide a strong motivation for innovation and improvement regarding family involvement, but the likely success of these efforts is severely limited by the absence of any detailed definition of parental involvement or validated measure of this construct. Determining whether and how parental involvement works in juvenile justice services depends on the development of clear models and sound measurement. Efforts in other child serving systems offer guidance to achieve this goal. A multidimensional working model developed with parents involved in child protective services is presented as a template for developing a model for parental involvement in juvenile justice. Features of the model requiring changes to make it more adaptable to juvenile justice are identified. A systematic research agenda for developing methods and measures to meet the present demands for enhanced parental involvement in juvenile justice services is presented.

  16. From arrest to sentencing: A comparative analysis of the criminal justice system processing for rape crimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Domingues Vargas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The current article is intended to demonstrate the advantages of prioritizing an analysis of court caseload processing for a given type of crime and proceeding to a comparison of the results obtained from empirical studies in different countries. The article draws on a study I performed on rape cases tried by the court system in Campinas, São Paulo State, and the study by Gary LaFree on rape cases in the United States, based on data in Indianapolis, Indiana. The comparative analysis of determinants of victims' and law enforcement agencies' decisions concerning the pursuit of legal action proved to be productive, even when comparing two different systems of justice. This allowed greater knowledge of how the Brazilian criminal justice system operates, both in its capacity to identify, try, and punish sex offenders, and in terms of the importance it ascribes to formal legal rules in trying rape cases, in comparison to the American criminal justice system.

  17. Steps towards improving the system of records, collection and monitoring of data relevant to statistics within the system of juvenile justice in the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Ivana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper emphasises the importance of „good statistics of juvenile justice“ as one of the basis for a clearer overview of the juvenile crime situation, in order to create unique policies at local and national levels for the suppression and prevention of this phenomenon, and to create appropriate areas for action in terms of improving the system reform. The author particularly gives a review of the „Global Indicators in Juvenile Justice“ which present the basic set of data and comparative tool that provides a basis for the assessment and evaluation of services and policies in the field of juvenile justice, and highlights the importance of compatibility of „national indicators“ with them. Particular attention in the paper has been devoted to the overview and analysis of the necessary measures to improve this field, that were prepared and delivered to the relevant ministries and institutions by the Council for Monitoring and Promoting the work of Bodies Engaged in Criminal Proceeding and Enforcement of Juvenile Criminal Sanctions Involving Juveniles - Juvenile Justice Council (hereinafter: the Council. It was pointed, first of all, at the suggestions made by the Council to the Ministry of Justice with the aim to improve the Program for automated record keeping, at the necessary changes of the Court rules, and certain amendments to Forms SK- 3 and SK- 4 of the Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia were presented. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47011: Kriminal u Srbiji - fenomenologija, rizici i mogućnosti socijalne intervencije

  18. The justice system for the juveniles Juveniles adjudicated for the criminal act of “theft” in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etilda Gjonaj Saliu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The juvenile justice system in Albania has improved from year to year but slow movements are done in improving the whole system for the implementation of the guarantees prescribed in international acts and Albanian legislation. This article, is aiming to offer some opinions related to the justice system for the juveniles based on the statistical and qualitative data regarding the criminal policy that is used and the precautionary measures given through court decisions. This article, aims in identifying the issues and provide recommendations, with the main goal of improvement of the legislation and its best implementation in practice by the criminal justice instances, particularly by the prosecution and the court. Through the conclusions derived by this article is intended to exert the right pressure towards state authorities, to improve and better orient criminal policy and to increase the use of alternatives to the precautionary measure of “jail arrest” and imprisonment.

  19. A Research Framework for Understanding the Practical Impact of Family Involvement in the Juvenile Justice System: The Juvenile Justice Family Involvement Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Sarah Cusworth; Bishop, Asia S; Pullmann, Michael D; Bauer, Grace

    2015-12-01

    Family involvement is recognized as a critical element of service planning for children's mental health, welfare and education. For the juvenile justice system, however, parents' roles in this system are complex due to youths' legal rights, public safety, a process which can legally position parents as plaintiffs, and a historical legacy of blaming parents for youth indiscretions. Three recent national surveys of juvenile justice-involved parents reveal that the current paradigm elicits feelings of stress, shame and distrust among parents and is likely leading to worse outcomes for youth, families and communities. While research on the impact of family involvement in the justice system is starting to emerge, the field currently has no organizing framework to guide a research agenda, interpret outcomes or translate findings for practitioners. We propose a research framework for family involvement that is informed by a comprehensive review and content analysis of current, published arguments for family involvement in juvenile justice along with a synthesis of family involvement efforts in other child-serving systems. In this model, family involvement is presented as an ascending, ordinal concept beginning with (1) exclusion, and moving toward climates characterized by (2) information-giving, (3) information-eliciting and (4) full, decision-making partnerships. Specific examples of how courts and facilities might align with these levels are described. Further, the model makes predictions for how involvement will impact outcomes at multiple levels with applications for other child-serving systems.

  20. Youth Gangs in Schools. Youth Gang Series. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, James C.; Lynch, James P.

    A report issued by the U.S. Department of Education (Chandler et al., 1998) analyzed the findings of the 1989 and 1995 School Crime Supplements to the National Crime Victim Survey, each of which was distributed to approximately 10,000 students. Findings of these surveys and other data sources show that gangs are very prevalent in schools, with 37%…

  1. Suicidal Ideation and Behavior in Youth in the Juvenile Justice System: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Marquita L; McCoy, Kathleen P; Abram, Karen M; Byck, Gayle R; Teplin, Linda A

    2015-07-01

    Suicide is prevalent among youth, especially those involved in the juvenile justice system. Although many studies have examined suicidal ideation and behavior in delinquent youth, prevalence rates vary widely. This article reviews studies of suicidal ideation and behavior in youth in the juvenile justice system, focusing on the point of contact: incarceration status and stage of judicial processing. Suicidal ideation and behavior are prevalent and increase with greater involvement in the juvenile justice system. Depression, sexual abuse, and trauma were the most commonly identified predictors of suicidal ideation and behavior. Prevalence rates of suicidal ideation and behavior vary by gender and race/ethnicity, indicating the need for gender-specific and culturally relevant interventions.

  2. Females in the Juvenile Justice System: Who Are They and How Do They Fare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Kohl, Patricia L; Jonson-Reid, Melissa

    2014-02-01

    Increasing numbers of female youth involved in the juvenile justice system highlight the need to examine this population. This study enumerates distinct profiles of risk and protection among juvenile court-involved females, examining young adult outcomes associated with these profiles. Administrative data on 700 participants were drawn from multiple service sectors in a Midwest metropolitan region. Latent class and Pearson chi-square analyses were used. Five unique classes were identified; these classes were associated with young adult outcomes. One class of impoverished African American females was most likely to experience problematic young adult outcomes but least likely to have received juvenile justice services. Findings highlight the heterogeneity in the female juvenile court population and discrepancies between service needs and service receipt.

  3. Child Welfare and Juvenile Justice: Federal Agencies Could Play a Stronger Role in Helping States Reduce the Number of Children Placed Solely To Obtain Mental Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    Child welfare directors in 19 states and juvenile justice officials in 30 counties estimated that in fiscal year 2001 parents placed over 12,700 children into the child welfare or juvenile justice systems so that these children could receive mental health services. Neither the child welfare nor the juvenile justice system was designed to serve…

  4. Minority Overrepresentation in the Juvenile Justice System. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Juvenile Justice of the Committee on the Judiciary. United States Senate, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session on the Status of the Juvenile Justice System in America, Focusing on the Causes of Minority Overrepresentation and the Plight of Minority Youth in Inner Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on the Judiciary.

    The United States Senate's Subcommittee on Juvenile Justice heard testimony on minority overrepresentation in the juvenile justice system and the sentencing of minorities within that system. In particular, the Subcommittee heard testimony from eight witnesses who suggested short- and long-term approaches for helping to eliminate racial bias in the…

  5. Accountability in Teenage Dating Violence: A Comparative Examination of Adult Domestic Violence and Juvenile Justice Systems Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zosky, Diane L.

    2010-01-01

    Unlike in the adult criminal justice system, where domestic violence policies hold perpetrators accountable for their violence, the juvenile justice system rarely addresses teenage dating violence. Although the adult criminal justice system has pursued policies toward intimate partner violence grounded on a "zero tolerance" ideology, the juvenile…

  6. The Future for Social Work in Juvenile and Adult Criminal Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary C. Sarri

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Critical contemporary issues in juvenile and adult criminal justice are identified followed by an examination of particular issues for social workers, including the increase in incarceration, the over representation of people of color, and the numerous negative effects on children. The various roles for social workers in the criminal justice systems are presented and discussed. The paper also addresses the decline of social work professionals in the criminal justice systems and why it is imperative that the pattern be reversed now that there is growing interest in the rehabilitation and reintegration of offenders.

  7. Psychiatric Disorders of Youth in Detention. Juvenile Justice Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teplin, Linda A.; Abram, Karen M.; McClelland, Gary M.; Mericle, Amy A.; Dulcan, Mina K.; Washburn, Jason J.

    2006-01-01

    This bulletin examines the prevalence of alcohol, drug, and mental disorders among youth at the Cook County (Illinois) Juvenile Temporary Detention Center, by gender, race/ethnicity, and age. Drawing on research conducted by the Northwestern Juvenile Project, this bulletin finds that nearly two-thirds of males and three-quarters of females studied…

  8. Pregnancy Rates among Juvenile Justice Girls in Two Randomized Controlled Trials of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, David C. R.; Leve, Leslie D.; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Preventing adolescent pregnancy is a national research priority that has had limited success. In the present study, the authors examined whether Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC) relative to intervention services as usual (group care [GC]) decreased pregnancy rates among juvenile justice girls mandated to out-of-home care. Girls (13-17…

  9. 76 FR 2135 - Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Proposed Plan for Fiscal Year 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... mentoring programs that provide general guidance and support; promote personal and social responsibility... period. OJJDP posts on its Web site ( http://www.ojjdp.gov ) solicitations of grant or cooperative...) communities,\\1\\ and other localities retain primary responsibility for administering juvenile justice and...

  10. Special Education Advocacy in the Juvenile Justice System: Perspectives from Probation Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Meghan M.; Dalmage, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Although students with disabilities are over-represented in the juvenile justice system and frequently receive poor educational services, few studies have examined strategies to increase compliance with student needs and individualized education programs. In this study, we conducted interviews with eight probation officers in the Advocacy Unit of…

  11. Juvenile Residential Facility Census, 2010: Selected Findings. Juvenile Offenders and Victims: National Report Series. Bulletin NCJ 241134

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockenberry, Sarah; Sickmund, Melissa; Sladky, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    This bulletin is part of the "Juvenile Offenders and Victims National Report Series." The "National Report" offers a comprehensive statistical overview of the problems of juvenile crime, violence, and victimization and the response of the juvenile justice system. During each interim year, the bulletins in the "National…

  12. The Youth Gangs, Drugs, and Violence Connection. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, James C.; Decker, Scott H.

    This bulletin addresses questions about the interrelatedness of youth gangs, drugs, and violent crime, discussing whether drug trafficking is a main cause of violence in youth gangs or only a correlate, and noting whether there are other important sources of gang violence. Section 1 presents a historical overview of gang drug use and trafficking,…

  13. The relationship of victim injury to the progression of sexual crimes through the criminal justice system.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kennedy, Kieran M

    2012-08-01

    A number of factors are known to influence the progression of sexual crimes through the criminal justice system. The role of victim injury in influencing decision-making at pivotal stages has been addressed by a number of separate research projects. This article consolidates existing research evidence in order to highlight the important role that victim injury plays at each step of the legal process. The importance of accurate diagnosis and recording of victim injury is highlighted. Furthermore, by describing the significant impact that the presence of victim injury can have on the legal outcome, the importance of ensuring that cases without victim injury are correctly interpreted by the police, legal professionals, judiciary and the jury is heavily emphasised.

  14. The effect of restorative juvenile justice on future educational outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Rud; C. van Klaveren; W. Groot; H. Maassen van den Brink

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we study the effects of a Dutch restorative justice program for adolescent first-time offenders on early school leaving and years of education attained. Causal statistical estimates are presented using data from a randomized experiment, in which 944 adolescent offenders are randomly

  15. Development of the Juvenile Justice Anger Management Treatment for Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Naomi E. S.; Serico, Jennifer M.; Riggs Romaine, Christina L.; Zelechoski, Amanda D.; Kalbeitzer, Rachel; Kemp, Kathleen; Lane, Christy

    2013-01-01

    Female juvenile offenders exhibit high levels of anger, relational aggression, and physical aggression, but the population has long been ignored in research and practice. No anger management treatments have been developed specifically for this population, and no established anger management treatments are empirically supported for use with…

  16. Development of the Juvenile Justice Anger Management Treatment for Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Naomi E. S.; Serico, Jennifer M.; Riggs Romaine, Christina L.; Zelechoski, Amanda D.; Kalbeitzer, Rachel; Kemp, Kathleen; Lane, Christy

    2013-01-01

    Female juvenile offenders exhibit high levels of anger, relational aggression, and physical aggression, but the population has long been ignored in research and practice. No anger management treatments have been developed specifically for this population, and no established anger management treatments are empirically supported for use with…

  17. Young People's Crimes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许爱平

    2002-01-01

    Crime is a very serious problem in Britain. One sort of crime which particularly worries people is juvenile crimes-that is, crimes committed (犯罪) by young. people.For some years juvenile crimes have been increasing.There are two main sorts of juvenile crimes:stealing and violence(暴力).

  18. "Children of the city": juvenile justice, property, and place in England and Scotland, 1945-60.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Louise A; Bartie, Angela

    2011-01-01

    This article uses cases studies of Dundee and Manchester to explain juvenile property-offending in terms of young people's use of objects and spaces in the period 1945-60. A composite picture is assembled of objects stolen, which reflects growth of the specifically "teenage" consumer market as well as continued significance of young people's contribution to family economies. Concerns about youth, property, and space were reported in newspapers in terms of vandalism and hooliganism. "Play" and "nuisance" were overlapping and contested categories; re-education of young people in the correct use of place, space, and property was a key aim of the postwar juvenile justice system.

  19. Pregnancy Rates Among Juvenile Justice Girls in Two RCTs of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, David C. R.; Leve, Leslie D.; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Preventing adolescent pregnancy is a national research priority that has had limited success. The present study examined whether Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC) relative to intervention services as usual (group care [GC]) decreased pregnancy rates among juvenile justice girls mandated to out-of-home care. Girls (ages 13–17) with histories of criminal referrals (Mdn = 10) were randomly assigned to MTFC (n = 81) or GC (n = 85) as part of two randomized controlled trials. Pregnancy...

  20. Explaining Ethnic Inequality in the Juvenile Justice System, an analysis of the outcomes of Dutch Prosecutorial Decision Making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weenink, D.

    2009-01-01

    Most studies of the treatment of minorities in criminal justice systems show that ethnic minorities are punished more harshly. This paper aims to explain ethnic inequality in prosecutorial decision making in the Dutch juvenile justice system. Based on statistical analyses of 409 case files, it emerg

  1. Reactions to youth crime: perceptions of accountability and competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghetti, S; Redlich, A D

    2001-01-01

    Recent changes in juvenile justice policies have stimulated debate among legal professionals and social scientists. As such, public opinion concerning juvenile offenders is an important and timely topic for empirical study. In the present study, respondents read a scenario about a juvenile who committed a crime, and then decided on a sentence and rated perceptions of the juvenile's accountability and legal competence. Four between-subject factors were manipulated: age of the defendant (11 versus 14 versus 17 years), type of crime (shooting versus arson), crime outcome (victim injured versus died), and time delay between the instigating incident and the crime (immediately versus one day). The type and outcome of the crime were major motivating factors in sentencing decisions and perceptions of legal competence, and, although younger offenders were seen as less accountable and less competent than older offenders, sentence allocation and attitudes towards punishment were not significantly affected by offender age.

  2. The color of juvenile justice: racial disparities in dispositional decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fader, Jamie J; Kurlychek, Megan C; Morgan, Kirstin A

    2014-03-01

    Existing research on dispositional decisions typically models the outcome as merely placed or not placed. However, this does not accurately reflect the wide variation in residential options available to juvenile court actors. In this research, we combine data from ProDES, which tracks adjudicated youth in Philadelphia, with data from the Program Design Inventory, which describes over 100 intervention programs, to further examine the factors that influence court actors' decision making in selecting an appropriate program for a juvenile offender. We find that even after controlling for legal and needs-based factors, race continues to exert a significant influence, with decision makers being significantly more likely to commit minority youth to facilities using physical regimen as their primary modality and reserving smaller, therapeutic facilities for their white counterparts. Using focal concerns theory as an explanatory lens, we suggest that court actors in this jurisdiction employ a racialized perceptual shorthand of youthful offenders that attributes both higher levels of blame and lower evaluations of reformability to minority youth.

  3. Protection to the legal rights and intersts of juvenile victims of sexual crime%我国性犯罪未成年被害人的司法权益保护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王燕

    2014-01-01

    近年来,以未成年人为犯罪对象的性犯罪呈现愈演愈烈之势,案件的频发及被害未成年人的低龄化让人触目惊心。为了打击此类犯罪,落实对未成年人保护的原则,2013年10月23日最高人民法院、最高人民检察院、公安部、司法部四部门联合出台《关于依法惩治性侵害未成年人犯罪的意见》,意见明确要依法惩治性侵害未成年人犯罪,还规定了对性侵未成年人的相关保护条款,使我国对性犯罪未成年被害人的司法保护进一步完善。但相对先进国家和地区而言,还有部分不足,需从制度构建和实践操作中进一步完善。%In recent years,sexual crimes targeted at juveniles tend to be active.The frequency of such sex-ual crimes and the age of victims are both very shocking.In order to reduce these crimes and carry out the protective principle for juvenile,Supreme People’s Court,Supreme People’s Procuratorate,Ministry of Public Security and Ministry of Justice jointly issued the Opinions on Legally Punishing Sexual Crime against Juveniles on Oct.23 2013, including relative clauses about protecting juveniles and punishing sexual crimes against juveniles,which largely im-proved the judicial protection to juvenile victims of sexual crimes.However,compared to advanced countries and re-gions,these clauses are still imperfect and needs continuous improvement during the practice.

  4. The impact of training interventions on organizational readiness to support innovations in juvenile justice offices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taxman, Faye S; Henderson, Craig; Young, Doug; Farrell, Jill

    2014-03-01

    Clinical trials on technology transfer models are rare, even with the interest in advancing the uptake of evidence-based practices in social service agencies. This article presents the results from a trial examining different transfer strategies to assist juvenile justice caseworkers in using screening, assessment, and case planning practices to address mental health and substance use needs. Study findings examine factors that promote organizational readiness. A clinical trial was conducted examining the impact of three post-training strategies: an external coach to build the social network of the justice office (build social climate), an external coach to educate staff (build skills and knowledge), and a control condition consisting of traditional management directives (directives to staff of agency priorities). All groups were exposed to a 1 day refresher course in motivational interviewing. The social network and skill building groups also attended an intensive 3-day training followed by three on-site booster sessions over a 12 month period of time. Twelve juvenile justice offices (with their 231 juvenile justice staff) were assigned to one of three conditions. The study examined the impact of different transfer conditions on organizational readiness to implement the innovation of screening, assessment, and referral strategies. External coaching targeting the social climate of the justice office to support innovations improved organizational readiness to change, regardless of office size. Coaching that targeted either the social climate or staff knowledge and skills both improved organizational readiness for change compared to management directives, but social climate coaching resulted in greater improvements in receptivity to change. No individual level features of case workers (e.g., age, gender, years of experience) significantly predicted organizational readiness to change. Unexpectedly, the skill and knowledge building approach did not perform any better

  5. Key figures on the Dutch criminal justice system

    OpenAIRE

    Berghuis, A.C.; Hooff, P. van

    1991-01-01

    This note contains statistical information on victimization rates, rates of reporting to the police, number of registered crimes and clearance rate, number of known suspects and known juvenile suspects, sentencing and dismissal rates, prison sentences, juvenile detention, state expenditure on police and justice, and number of employed people.

  6. 论未成年人恢复性司法的合理性与局限性%On the Rationality and Limitation of Juvenile Restorative Justice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵桂芬

    2011-01-01

    恢复性司法是一种通过恢复性程序实现恢复性后果的非正式犯罪处理方法。为考察司法人员与公众对待确定未成年人恢复性司法制度态度,对法官、公众等不同群体作问卷调查,结果表明,法官和公众对未成年人司法制度的诸项改革基本认可。该制度的合理性表现在可减少刑事污点对未成年人的消极影响,有利于恢复受损的社会关系,对违法犯罪的未成年人有积极的矫正作用;其局限性体现在难以满足同罪同罚的刑法原则,难以避免替代性的承担责任的现象等。避免局限性的关键在于要解决恢复性司法与正式司法程序的关系问题。%Restorative justice is a means of informal treatment of crime via restorative procedures to realize the restorative results. In order to determine the attitude of judicial officials and the public to juvenile restorative justice, this paper conducts a series of questionnaires. The results show that judges and the public held a positive attitude towards the system of juvenile restorative justice. Its rationality lies in the fact that it can reduce the negative influence of criminal stains on juveniles and can help them restore the damaged social relations. As a result, it plays a positive role in the correction of juvenile criminals. Its limitation lies in the fact that it can not meet the principle of same crime same punishment prescribed in criminal laws and the phenomenon of alternatively undertaking responsibility is unavoidable.

  7. Public Attitudes toward Juveniles Who Commit Crimes: The Relationship between Assessments of Adolescent Development and Attitudes toward Severity of Punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Terrence T.; Trzcinski, Eileen; Kubiak, Sheryl Pimlott

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors used a statewide survey to investigate the extent to which beliefs regarding the age at which youth reach maturity, the role of peer influences, and other factors, such as abuse during childhood, are associated with measures of how harshly juveniles should be treated by the justice system. The results of this study…

  8. Sexuality knowledge, attitudes, and practices of young women in the juvenile justice system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Patricia J; Morgan-Kidd, Jayne; Champion, Jane Dimmitt; Wood, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Adolescents in the juvenile justice system have many risk behaviors that endanger their immediate and future health. They are a vulnerable and often overlooked population for whom pediatric nurses working in community settings can provide important prevention services. To develop an intervention targeted to the specific sexual risk behaviors of young women in a juvenile detention center, this study was designed to assess baseline levels of knowledge, values, and behaviors. The study used a cross-sectional survey design. A convenience sample of 100 adolescent girls (ages 13-17 years, mean 14.8) largely from Hispanic backgrounds (74%) who were detained in the juvenile justice system completed a simplified version of the Mathtech sexuality questionnaire. Correct answers and a brief educational program were provided at the completion of the questionnaire. Results suggest that the overwhelming majority of this population is sexually active (94%) and has inadequate knowledge of basic information on sexuality (mean knowledge score, 10.9 out of possible 18 points). While many young women indicated a belief in the importance of contraception (91%), fewer were comfortable going to a clinic for birth control (46%) or had used a reliable method in the past month (37%). Work that will help to increase knowledge, clarify values, and shape healthy behaviors is essential for this high-risk, vulnerable population.

  9. Crime

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — Updated daily postings on Montgomery County’s open data website, dataMontgomery, provide the public with direct access to crime statistic databases - including raw...

  10. A Cure for Crime: Can Mental Health Treatment Diversion Reduce Crime among Youth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar, Alison Evans; McReynolds, Larkin S.; Wasserman, Gail A.

    2006-01-01

    Youth crime is a serious social problem, as is the high proportion of young offenders in the juvenile justice system who have mental disorders. A recent policy innovation applies the theory of therapeutic jurisprudence and diverts youth with mental disorders to treatment in lieu of further court processing. The expansion of mental health diversion…

  11. Attitudes of juvenile justice staff towards intellectual, psychiatric, and physical disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Ann Cameron

    2007-04-01

    Juvenile justice employees' attitudes towards diverse impairments and their ideological and demographic predictors were examined. Supporting theories are that attitudes are comprised of ideological constructs and demographic variables and that there is a hierarchy of disability present in attitudes towards diverse disabilities. A cross-sectional design with quantitative measures was used. Results indicate that attitudes towards different types of disabilities vary considerably and are hierarchical in nature and that independent variables of demographics, social desirability in responding, and ideological constructs of social dominance orientation, normativism, and humanism have some effects on attitude outcomes, but not universally.

  12. A Leadership Opportunity for School Social Workers: Bridging the Gaps in School Reentry for Juvenile Justice System Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldkind, Lauri

    2011-01-01

    Social work is frequently missing when policy and practice conversations turn to juvenile justice system youths. However, school social workers are well positioned to have a vital role in the readmission and reentry process for these young people. Formerly incarcerated youths present unique challenges for themselves, their families, and…

  13. Sex and Race Differences in Mental Health Symptoms in Juvenile Justice: The MAYSI-2 National Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Gina M.; Grisso, Thomas; Terry, Anna; Banks, Steven

    2008-01-01

    The study uses the MAYSI-2 gathered data from multiple US juvenile justice systems to examine whether mental health symptoms were connected to consistent sex and ethnicity/race-related differences. Results concluded a greater proportion of girls having serious mental health problems and though whites had problems with alcohol and drugs, they were…

  14. NDTAC Practice Guide: Quality Education Services Are Critical for Youth Involved with the Juvenile Justice and Child Welfare Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsoulin, Simon; Clark, Heather Griller; Rankin, Victoria E.

    2015-01-01

    This National Evaluation and Technical Assistance Center for the Education of Children and Youth Who are Neglected, Delinquent, or At-Risk (NDTAC) practice guide examines the principle that quality education services are critical for youth involved with the juvenile justice and child welfare systems. This principle asserts that, to address the…

  15. Sexual Orientation-Based Disparities in School and Juvenile Justice Discipline: A Multiple Group Comparison of Contributing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, V. Paul; Scheer, Jillian R.; Chong, Eddie S. K.

    2016-01-01

    There is little data on whether school discipline or juvenile justice sanctions are directed disproportionately toward sexual minority youth (e.g., lesbian, gay, bisexual, or questioning; LGBQ) compared with heterosexual youth and even less on factors that may relate to such disparities. We tested for sexual orientation-based disparities in school…

  16. Special Education and Juvenile Justice: An Overview and Analysis of Prevention and Intervention Policy and Program Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio Coalition for the Education of Children with Disabilities, 2006

    2006-01-01

    There is a serious overpopulation of special needs youth in Ohio's juvenile justice system. This study raises policy questions relating to gaining a deeper understanding of the reasons why there is an overpopulation of children with disabilities in youth correctional facilities and what can be done to reduce the need for future incarcerations.…

  17. Special Education and Juvenile Justice: An Overview and Analysis of Prevention and Intervention Policy and Program Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio Coalition for the Education of Children with Disabilities, 2006

    2006-01-01

    There is a serious overpopulation of special needs youth in Ohio's juvenile justice system. This study raises policy questions relating to gaining a deeper understanding of the reasons why there is an overpopulation of children with disabilities in youth correctional facilities and what can be done to reduce the need for future incarcerations.…

  18. After Foster Care and Juvenile Justice: A Preview of the Youth Villages Transitional Living Evaluation. Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller-Ravett, Sara; Jacobs, Erin

    2012-01-01

    Young people who are leaving the foster care and juvenile justice systems often experience a difficult transition to adulthood that is characterized by a number of troubling outcomes, including poverty, low levels of education and employment, and housing instability. While some services are available for these populations, there is little evidence…

  19. Addressing the Needs of Youth with Disabilities in the Juvenile Justice System: The Current Status of Evidence-Based Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mears, Daniel P.; Aron, Laudan; Bernstein, Jenny

    This report summarizes the state of knowledge about children and youth with disabilities at risk of delinquency or already involved with the juvenile justice system. It reviews the existing research as well as perspectives of service providers, administrators, policy makers, and advocates. Following an executive summary and introductory chapter,…

  20. Sexual Orientation-Based Disparities in School and Juvenile Justice Discipline: A Multiple Group Comparison of Contributing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, V. Paul; Scheer, Jillian R.; Chong, Eddie S. K.

    2016-01-01

    There is little data on whether school discipline or juvenile justice sanctions are directed disproportionately toward sexual minority youth (e.g., lesbian, gay, bisexual, or questioning; LGBQ) compared with heterosexual youth and even less on factors that may relate to such disparities. We tested for sexual orientation-based disparities in school…

  1. Preventing Juvenile Justice Involvement for Young Women: An Introduction to an Evaluation of the PACE Center for Girls. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millenky, Megan; Mage, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Involvement in the juvenile justice system has tremendous costs for the individuals within it, as well as for society. Such involvement may damage a child's relationships with friends and family, negatively affect mental health, and interrupt the academic progress and work experience that should accumulate during adolescence. On the societal…

  2. A Randomized Evaluation of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care: Effects on School Attendance and Homework Completion in Juvenile Justice Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leve, Leslie D; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2007-11-01

    Despite growing evidence that child welfare youth are at increased risk for juvenile delinquency, little is known about gender-specific processes and effective treatment programs for girls. Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC), an empirically validated intervention for child welfare and juvenile justice populations, has demonstrated efficacy in reducing arrest rates in delinquent boys and girls. In this study, the efficacy of MTFC on school attendance and homework completion was examined in juvenile justice girls who were referred to out-of-home care (N = 81). Results from this randomized intervention trial suggest that MTFC was more effective than group care in increasing girls' school attendance and homework completion while in treatment and at 12 months postbaseline. In addition, the previously reported effect of MTFC on reducing girls' days in locked settings was mediated by homework completion while girls were enrolled in the intervention setting. Implications for policy and practice are described.

  3. Family-Centered Care in Juvenile Justice Institutions: A Mixed Methods Study Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Eva; Rigter, Henk; Breuk, René; van der Vaart, Wander; Vermeiren, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Background Treatment and rehabilitation interventions in juvenile justice institutions aim to prevent criminal reoffending by adolescents and to enhance their prospects of successful social reintegration. There is evidence that these goals are best achieved when the institution adopts a family-centered approach, involving the parents of the adolescents. The Academic Workplace Forensic Care for Youth has developed two programs for family-centered care for youth detained in groups for short-term and long-term stay, respectively. Objective The overall aim of our study is to evaluate the family-centered care program in the first two years after the first steps of its implementation in short-term stay groups of two juvenile justice institutions in the Netherlands. The current paper discusses our study design. Methods Based on a quantitative pilot study, we opted for a study with an explanatory sequential mixed methods design. This pilot is considered the first stage of our study. The second stage of our study includes concurrent quantitative and qualitative approaches. The quantitative part of our study is a pre-post quasi-experimental comparison of family-centered care with usual care in short-term stay groups. The qualitative part of our study involves in-depth interviews with adolescents, parents, and group workers to elaborate on the preceding quantitative pilot study and to help interpret the outcomes of the quasi-experimental quantitative part of the study. Results We believe that our study will result in the following findings. In the quantitative comparison of usual care with family-centered care, we assume that in the latter group, parents will be more involved with their child and with the institution, and that parents and adolescents will be more motivated to take part in therapy. In addition, we expect family-centered care to improve family interactions, to decrease parenting stress, and to reduce problem behavior among the adolescents. Finally, we assume

  4. Child Welfare, Juvenile Justice, Mental Health, and Education Providers' Conceptualizations of Trauma-Informed Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donisch, Katelyn; Bray, Chris; Gewirtz, Abigail

    2016-05-01

    This study systematically examined child-service providers' conceptualizations of trauma-informed practice (TIP) across service systems, including child welfare, juvenile justice, mental health, and education. Eleven focus groups and nine individual interviews were conducted, totaling 126 child-service providers. Conventional content analysis was used to analyze the qualitative data with interrater reliability analyses indicating near perfect agreement between coders. Qualitative analysis revealed that child-service providers identified traumatic stress as an important common theme among children and families served as well as the interest in TIP in their service systems. At the same time, child-service providers generally felt knowledgeable about what they define TIP to be, although they articulated wide variations in the degree to which they are taught skills and strategies to respond to their traumatized clients. The results of this study suggest a need for a common lexicon and metric with which to advance TIP within and across child-service systems.

  5. Presentación: Psicología y Justicia Juvenil / Presentation: Psychology and Juvenile Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pérez-Luco

    2012-12-01

    delictivas en esta etapa; y a la vez nos ofrece una gran posibilidad para actuar mejorando las oportunidades de crecimiento humano integral en los jóvenes.Esto ya ha sido asumido en muchas sociedades de occidente, generando legislaciones especiales para los menores de 18 años que infringen la ley, marcos legales que traducen los principios de la Convención de Derechos del Niño en la actuación de la justicia, buscando como objetivos por sobre el castigo la reparación e integración social.La mirada de “principios” que se sitúa en la política pública hacia los jóvenes, interpela nuevamente a la Psicología, demandando conocimientos especializados que permitan ponderar en decisiones particulares el daño de la sociedad a sus individuos más vulnerables y el de éstos a la comunidad. Esta interpelación es sin duda un llamado ético a hacernos responsables por el valor que nuestro saber tiene a la hora de decidir sobre la idoneidad de la sanción que se debe aplicar a un joven, es una invitación a nuestra disciplina a participar responsablemente de un ámbito de toma de decisiones sociales fundamentales para las personas, y en particular para quienes comienzan a construir su vida en sociedad, es por tanto un llamado a participar de la construcción de sociedades más justas.Grande es el aporte que la Psicología puede hacer a la justicia juvenil. Primero, profundizando en la comprensión de la dinámica delictiva adolescente, distinguiendo entre comportamientos esperables y no esperables y entre trayectorias adaptativas y desadaptativas; segundo, desarrollando tecnología para una observación y seguimiento preciso y profundo del comportamiento delictivo y de los resultados de la intervención orientada a producir un cambio; tercero, brindando una formación especializada a los operadores sociales que se desempeñan en este ámbito; cuarto, generando estrategias preventivas en los entornos sociocomunitarios en que se reproduce sistémica y transgeneracionalmente

  6. Manipulating Public Opinion about Trying Juveniles as Adults: An Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Laurence; Piquero, Alex R.

    2010-01-01

    Public attitudes about juvenile crime play a significant role in fashioning juvenile justice policy; variations in the wording of public opinion surveys can produce very different responses and can result in inaccurate and unreliable assessments of public sentiment. Surveys that ask about policy alternatives in vague terms are especially…

  7. Hispanics in the Criminal Justice System--the "Nonexistent" Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Jerry

    1979-01-01

    Though hidden from view by being considered "non-existent", the meager evidence indicates that Hispanics have an unusually high arrest and incarceration rate. Hispanic background is rarely asked on the six major sources of criminal justice statistics--statistics of arrests, courts, prisoners, juvenile delinquency, crime victimization, and public…

  8. The Lived Experiences of Single Hispanic Mothers Raising Gang-Affiliated Male Youth Released from Texas Juvenile Justice Department State Facilities: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Almendarez, Ruby

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: The purpose of this transcendental phenomenological study (Moustakas, 1994) was to describe the experiences that single Hispanic mothers of gang-affiliated male juveniles face during their sons' reentry process after being released from a Texas Juvenile Justice Department state facility. Methods: After an extensive…

  9. The Lived Experiences of Single Hispanic Mothers Raising Gang-Affiliated Male Youth Released from Texas Juvenile Justice Department State Facilities: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Almendarez, Ruby

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: The purpose of this transcendental phenomenological study (Moustakas, 1994) was to describe the experiences that single Hispanic mothers of gang-affiliated male juveniles face during their sons' reentry process after being released from a Texas Juvenile Justice Department state facility. Methods: After an extensive review of…

  10. Crime and Control: Syllabi and Instructional Materials for Criminology and Criminal Justice. Resource Materials for Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutschmann, Linda B., Ed.; Wright, Richard A., Ed.

    One of a series of resources for teaching sociology at the postsecondary level, this volume contains syllabi and instructional materials for courses in criminology and criminal justice. Material is divided into four sections. Section 1, innovative approaches to the teaching of criminology, contains four papers which discuss a corrections practicum…

  11. Crime and Control: Syllabi and Instructional Materials for Criminology and Criminal Justice. Resource Materials for Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutschmann, Linda B., Ed.; Wright, Richard A., Ed.

    One of a series of resources for teaching sociology at the postsecondary level, this volume contains syllabi and instructional materials for courses in criminology and criminal justice. Material is divided into four sections. Section 1, innovative approaches to the teaching of criminology, contains four papers which discuss a corrections practicum…

  12. Children's perspectives on crime and the criminal justice system: main findings

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Badenhorst, C

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available that they have not. Seventy-nine percent (79%) of the children who participated in this pilot study clearly stated a need for training with regard to the criminal justice system (policing, the court proceedings, and the prison system). The rationale for training...

  13. Criminal Justice System Involvement and Continuity of Youth Crime: A Longitudinal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lee Michael; Simons, Ronald L.; Conger, Rand D.

    2004-01-01

    Studies of criminal careers reveal several possible factors associated with persistent offending. This analysis examines the part that criminal justice system involvement plays in persistent offending. Seven waves of data collected on 153 boys as part of the Iowa Youth and Families Project were used to test a structural equation model…

  14. Pregnancy Rates Among Juvenile Justice Girls in Two RCTs of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, David C. R.; Leve, Leslie D.; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Preventing adolescent pregnancy is a national research priority that has had limited success. The present study examined whether Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC) relative to intervention services as usual (group care [GC]) decreased pregnancy rates among juvenile justice girls mandated to out-of-home care. Girls (ages 13–17) with histories of criminal referrals (Mdn = 10) were randomly assigned to MTFC (n = 81) or GC (n = 85) as part of two randomized controlled trials. Pregnancy histories were assessed from baseline through 24 months. Fewer postbaseline pregnancies were reported for MTFC girls (26.9%) than for GC girls (46.9%), an effect that remained significant after controlling for baseline criminal referrals, pregnancy history, and sexual activity. MTFC has previously been shown to decrease arrest and lock-up rates. The present findings support the long-term preventive effects of MTFC on adolescent girls’ pregnancy rates. Findings are consistent with the notion that programs that target delinquency by impacting general risk behavior pathways and contexts may more successfully prevent teen pregnancy than those that directly target sexual behaviors. PMID:19485598

  15. 关于对未成年人犯罪适用附加刑问题的探讨%Discussion of Accessory Punishment Application of Juvenile Crime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨跃进; 许婧

    2012-01-01

    刑法并没有规定对未成年人犯罪禁止适用附加刑,所以,在我国附加刑中的罚金、剥夺政治权利、没收财产、驱逐出境都可适用于未成年人犯罪。未成年人犯罪与成年人犯罪相比,有许多不同的特点,人民法院在附加刑的适用上,必须对二者有所区别。即使都适用相同种类的附加刑,也要比照成年犯依法从轻、减轻、免除处罚,真正做到依法处罚,罚当其罪并努力追求取得教育、感化、挽救的良好效果,力争实现未成年人刑事案件审判法律效果、政治效果、社会效果的有机统一。%The criminal law doesn't forbid the accessory punishment application of juvenile crime,so the fine,deprivation of political rights,confiscation of property,and deportation in China can be used in juvenile crime.With adult,the juvenile has its characteristics,so there must be differences when the court applies the accessory punishment.Even the same type of accessory punishment,the juvenile crime should be given a lighter or mitigated punishment or be exempted from punishment in comparison with adult,and punishment should be equal with its crime so that the education,reforming and remedy can be reached,and on the basis of it,the legal,political and social effects of juvenile crime case can be organically united.

  16. 新疆未成年人犯罪特点与趋势分析%Analysis on Features and Trends of Juveniles Crimes in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚宁

    2015-01-01

    现阶段,新疆未成年人犯罪主体、犯罪生活区域、犯罪类型呈现出新特点,以财产型犯罪为主,由个人犯罪向家族型犯罪转变,少数民族未成年犯参与恐怖活动犯罪增多,犯罪手段有向成人化、暴力化、智能化、团伙化、专业化转变的趋势,需要全社会群策群力、齐抓共管,有针对性地调整预防新疆未成年人犯罪和教育转化的对策,做到标本兼治,尽最大可能降低新疆未成年人的犯罪率。%At present, the bodies, living areas, criminal types in juveniles' crimes in Xinjiang show new characteristics, diversification and focus on property crimes. And they also turn to clan crime from personal crime. A number of minori⁃ty juvenile starts to hold obvious political purposes, participate in terrorist crimes increasingly, and change to lured crimes from compelled crimes. The criminal means have turned to the ripeness, violence, intelligence, organization and profession. We need the whole society's support and suggestion, work together, adjust the education and conversion poli⁃cy accordingly, cure the surface and radical problems, and do best to reduce the criminal rate of juveniles in Xinjiang.

  17. Juvenile Crime Prevention: Play by the Rules--A New Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowin, Janice A.; Stewart, John C.

    2002-01-01

    Play by the Rules is a law-related education program that teaches youth about citizens' responsibility to abide by laws. The seventh-grade curriculum is adaptable for juvenile corrections and youth services settings. (SK)

  18. The Effect of Rehabilitative Punishments on Juvenile Crime and Labor Market Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Huttunen, Kristiina; Mälkönen, Ville

    2014-01-01

    This paper estimates the effect of a rehabilitative punishment on the post-release outcomes of juvenile criminals using a unique Finnish data set on sentences and punishments merged with the longitudinal population census for 1990-2007. The rehabilitative program was aimed at improving the social skills and labor market attachment of young offenders aged 15 to 17. A variety of research designs are used to isolate the effect of the juvenile punishment and to control for observable characterist...

  19. Restorative and retributive justice in the context of war and war crimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Christie

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the author is dealing with the relationship between restorative and retributive responses to war and war crimes. Starting from labeling theory and critical criminology, the author argues that the crime does not exist and what exist are behaviors which may be terrible, but, which depending on the context may be considered punishable or not. In the basis of punishment is dealing with consequences, not with causes, which makes that retributive approach has considerable limitations. Regarding this, the author argues for restrictive use of punishment and emphasis the need of creating social systems in which ordinary people would be able to come together and jointly discuss the problems they have and the way of solving them. It is important to give an opportunity to victims to tell what have happened to them, what are their pains; but also to the offenders to express what and why they did what they had done. This is the only way of having an impact on the causes, i. e. on repairmen of the disturbed social relations and reconciliation between parties in conflict.

  20. Ecclesiastical justice and social control in Burgos during de fifteenth century: the punishment of offenses and crimes among the clergy in late medieval Castile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Guijarro González

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article studies the relationship between the extensive regulation regarding behavior and acts, adopted by the Bishops and the Cathedral Chapter of Burgos, and its reflection on the justice system of penance during the Fifteenth century. To this end, 282 cases of offenses and crimes, obtained from the Cathedral Chapter Acts of Burgos, are analysed. Firstly, a typology of the registered offenses and crimes is established, along with the terminology which is used in the sources to define them. Secondly, the punishments applied to the different wrong doigs are classified according to their frequency and variability, and also to their relationship with the cathedral statutes and the rules of the synods. Finally, the degree of involvement that clergy and laity had in the prosecuted crimes is examined. All of this aims at determining whether or not there is a discrepancy between the norm and its implementation.

  1. When Getting Tough Means Getting Tougher: Historical and Conceptual Understandings of Juveniles of Color Sentenced as Adults in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopson, Rodney K.; Obidah, Jennifer E.

    2002-01-01

    Examines problems with juvenile crime and justice for juveniles of color, suggesting patterns in the failing notions of rehabilitation on this marginalized population. Highlights where getting tough means getting tougher, examining dominant explanations regarding disparity in incarceration rates. Asserts that conceptions of race deserve more…

  2. Do Resources, Justice Administration Practices And Federalism Have An Impact On Registered And Sentenced Crime Prevalence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Koller

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This contribution, based on a statistical approach, undertakes to link data on resources (personnel and financial means and the working of the administration of penal justice (prosecution, sentencing taking into account the nationality of those prosecuted. In order to be able to distinguish prosecution and sentencing practices of judicial authorities and possible processes of discrimination, diverse sources have been used such as data from court administrations, public finances and police forces, collected by the Swiss Federal Statistical Office and the Swiss Federal administration of finances. The authors discuss discrimination in prosecution and sentencing between Swiss residents and foreigners taking into account localization and resources regarding personnel and public finances.

  3. Juvenile Justice Girls’ Depressive Symptoms and Suicidal Ideation Nine Years After Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, David C. R.; DeGarmo, David S.; Leve, Leslie D.; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Objective Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC) has been found to reduce delinquency among girls in juvenile justice through 2-year follow-up. Given that such girls are at elevated risk for suicide and depression into adulthood, we tested MTFC effects on long term trajectories of suicidal ideation and depressive symptoms. Method Girls [n =166; mean (SD) age = 15.3 (1.2) years; 68 % Caucasian] with a recent criminal referral who were mandated to out-of-home care were enrolled in two sequential cohorts. Girls were randomized to receive MTFC (n =81) or group care (GC) treatment as usual (TAU; n =85); the second MTFC cohort also received modules targeting substance use and risky sexual behavior. Depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation were assessed repeatedly through early adulthood [mean (SD) follow-up = 8.8 (2.9) years]. Suicide attempt history was assessed in early adulthood. Results Girls assigned to MTFC showed significantly greater decreases in depressive symptoms across the long-term follow-up than GC girls (π = −.86, p < .05). Decreases in suicidal ideation rates were slightly stronger in MTFC than in GC as indicated by a marginal main effect [odds ratio (OR) = .92, p < .10] and a significant interaction that favored MTFC in the second cohort relative to the first [OR = .88, p < .01]. There were no significant MTFC effects on suicide attempt. Conclusions MTFC decreased depressive symptoms and suicidal thinking beyond the decreases attributable to time and TAU. Thus, MTFC has further impact on girls’ lives than originally anticipated. PMID:24731234

  4. 78 FR 42109 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Juvenile...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    ...: Juvenile Justice Reform and Reinvestment Initiative Stakeholder Survey Under OMB's Partnership Fund ACTION: 60 Day Notice. The Department of Justice (DOJ), Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile...-3649, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs,...

  5. 78 FR 66383 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Juvenile...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ... of Justice Programs Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Juvenile Justice Reform and Reinvestment... (DOJ), Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, will...

  6. Exploring racial/ethnic differences in substance use: a preliminary theory-based investigation with juvenile justice-involved youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mead Hilary K

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Racial/ethnic differences in representation, substance use, and its correlates may be linked to differential long-term health outcomes for justice-involved youth. Determining the nature of these differences is critical to informing more efficacious health prevention and intervention efforts. In this study, we employed a theory-based approach to evaluate the nature of these potential differences. Specifically, we hypothesized that (1 racial/ethnic minority youth would be comparatively overrepresented in the juvenile justice system, (2 the rates of substance use would be different across racial/ethnic groups, and (3 individual-level risk factors would be better predictors of substance use for Caucasian youth than for youth of other racial/ethnic groups. Methods To evaluate these hypotheses, we recruited a large, diverse sample of justice-involved youth in the southwest (N = 651; M age = 15.7, SD = 1.05, range = 14-18 years; 66% male; 41% Hispanic, 24% African American, 15% Caucasian, 11% American Indian/Alaska Native. All youth were queried about their substance use behavior (alcohol, marijuana, tobacco, illicit hard drug use and individual-level risk factors (school involvement, employment, self-esteem, level of externalizing behaviors. Results As predicted, racial/ethnic minority youth were significantly overrepresented in the juvenile justice system. Additionally, Caucasian youth reported the greatest rates of substance use and substance-related individual-level risk factors. In contrast, African American youth showed the lowest rates for substance use and individual risk factors. Contrary to predictions, a racial/ethnic group by risk factor finding emerged for only one risk factor and one substance use category. Conclusions This research highlights the importance of more closely examining racial/ethnic differences in justice populations, as there are likely to be differing health needs, and subsequent treatment approaches

  7. Exploring racial/ethnic differences in substance use: a preliminary theory-based investigation with juvenile justice-involved youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Racial/ethnic differences in representation, substance use, and its correlates may be linked to differential long-term health outcomes for justice-involved youth. Determining the nature of these differences is critical to informing more efficacious health prevention and intervention efforts. In this study, we employed a theory-based approach to evaluate the nature of these potential differences. Specifically, we hypothesized that (1) racial/ethnic minority youth would be comparatively overrepresented in the juvenile justice system, (2) the rates of substance use would be different across racial/ethnic groups, and (3) individual-level risk factors would be better predictors of substance use for Caucasian youth than for youth of other racial/ethnic groups. Methods To evaluate these hypotheses, we recruited a large, diverse sample of justice-involved youth in the southwest (N = 651; M age = 15.7, SD = 1.05, range = 14-18 years); 66% male; 41% Hispanic, 24% African American, 15% Caucasian, 11% American Indian/Alaska Native). All youth were queried about their substance use behavior (alcohol, marijuana, tobacco, illicit hard drug use) and individual-level risk factors (school involvement, employment, self-esteem, level of externalizing behaviors). Results As predicted, racial/ethnic minority youth were significantly overrepresented in the juvenile justice system. Additionally, Caucasian youth reported the greatest rates of substance use and substance-related individual-level risk factors. In contrast, African American youth showed the lowest rates for substance use and individual risk factors. Contrary to predictions, a racial/ethnic group by risk factor finding emerged for only one risk factor and one substance use category. Conclusions This research highlights the importance of more closely examining racial/ethnic differences in justice populations, as there are likely to be differing health needs, and subsequent treatment approaches, by racial/ethnic group

  8. Children in Custody: Public Juvenile Facilities, 1985. Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sickmund, Melissa; Baunach, Phyllis Jo

    A total of 1,040 publicly operated state and local juvenile detention, correction, and shelter facilities held 49,322 juvenile residents on February 1, 1985, an increase of 1% from the previous year. About 93% of the juveniles were accused of, or had been convicted for, acts which would be criminal offenses if committed by adults. Most of the rest…

  9. 暴力犯罪青少年与普通青少年家庭教养方式比较%A Comparison Between Juveniles with Violent Crimes and Ordinary Juveniles in Terms of Parenting Ways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成广海; 杨新焕

    2012-01-01

      This study selected a typical group of juvenile violent crimes and made a multi-dimensional contrastive study with the ordinary juveniles in terms of the parenting ways so that a scientific knowledge of the parental factors that affect juvenile violent crimes can be achieved. Some corresponding intervention strategies were proposed. The results show that, compared with ordinary teenage parents, parents of juvenile violent crimes are lack of emotional empathy, and in education some bad measures such as severe punishment and refusal to admit their own faults are adopted.%  该研究选取暴力犯罪青少年这一典型群体,并将其与普通青少年父母教养方式进行多维度对比调研,以期科学了解其家庭内在影响因素并据此提出有针对性的干预措施。研究结果表明,与普通青少年父母相比,暴力犯罪青少年的父母缺乏情感温暖理解,更多采用严厉惩罚、拒绝否认的不良教养方式

  10. The Verdict Is In: The Impact of Crime on Public Trust in Central American Justice Systems El impacto de delincuencia sobre la confianza pública en el sistema de justicia en Centroamérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Fran T. Malone

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two decades, the countries of Central America have confronted soaring crime rates. Justice systems of dubious quality provide thin shields against this crime crisis, despite substantial international and domestic investment in justice reform. Indeed, there is growing concern that crime will undermine justice reform efforts. Scholars and practitioners have pointed out that public frustration with crime, coupled with dissatisfaction with justice institutions, can lead citizens to reject reform efforts. Still, the micro-level relationships between crime and public support of the justice system have been understudied. Using public opinion data from the Latin American Public Opinion Project (LAPOP, this study aims to add to the literature by examining the effects of victimization and fear of crime on public trust in the justice system. The results indicate that crime can erode public support for the justice system, but the mechanics of this relationship vary according to national context. Durante las últimas dos décadas, los países de América Central se ven enfrentados con altos niveles de delincuencia. La capacidad de los gobiernos para contrarrestar esta crisis es comprometida por las debilidades severas de los sistemas de justicia, a pesar de la inversión internacional y domestica en reformas de la justicia. De hecho, existe la preocupación que la delincuencia frustrará los esfuerzos de reforma judicial. Gente cansada de altos niveles de delincuencia y frustrada con las instituciones de justicia puede rechazar esfuerzos de reforma. No obstante, las relaciones individuales entre delincuencia y apoyo público para el sistema de justicia no han sido estudiadas de forma suficiente. Por lo cual, este estudio usa los datos del Latin American Public Opinion Project (LAPOP para examinar las reacciones públicas a la delincuencia. Los resultados indican que la delincuencia puede erosionar el apoyo para el sistema de justicia, pero los

  11. Labeling and intergenerational transmission of crime: The interaction between criminal justice intervention and a convicted parent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrington, David P.; Bijleveld, Catrien C. J. H.

    2017-01-01

    Labeling theory suggests that criminal justice interventions amplify offending behavior. Theories of intergenerational transmission suggest why children of convicted parents have a higher risk of offending. This paper combines these two perspectives and investigates whether labeling effects might be stronger for children of convicted parents. We first investigated labeling effects within the individual: we examined the impact of a conviction between ages 19–26 on self-reported offending behavior between 27–32 while controlling for self-reported behavior between 15–18. Our results show that a conviction predicted someone’s later self-reported offending behavior, even when previous offending behavior was taken into account. Second, we investigated whether having a convicted parent influenced this association. When we added this interaction to the analysis, a labeling effect was only visible among people with convicted parents. This supports the idea of cumulative disadvantage: Labeling seems stronger for people who are already in a disadvantaged situation having a convicted parent. PMID:28273104

  12. The participation of juvenile defendants in the youth court. A comparative study of juvenile justice procedures in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rap, S.E.

    2013-01-01

    This study revolves around the issue of the participation of juvenile defendants in the youth court. The European Court of Human Rights has put forward the notion that defendants should be able to participate effectively in a court hearing. Moreover, in international children’s rights law it is stip

  13. Sentencing Juveniles to Life in Prison: The Reproduction of Juvenile Justice for Young Adolescents Charged with Murder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Simon I.

    2011-01-01

    In "Roper v. Simmons," the U.S. Supreme Court determined that the sentencing of juveniles to death violated the constitutional amendment against cruel and unusual punishment. Similarly, the Court most recently decided that life without parole for non-homicide offenses is also unconstitutional ("Graham v. Florida," 2010). Part of the reason for the…

  14. The legal rights of LGBT youth in state custody: what child welfare and juvenile justice professionals need to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Rudy; Marksamer, Jody

    2006-01-01

    Youth in state custody, regardless of their sexual orientation or gender identity, have federal and state constitutional and statutory rights. These rights guarantee a young person safety in their placement as well as freedom from deprivation of their liberty interest. Many lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth have these rights violated on a regular basis. Many cases in both the child welfare and juvenile justice contexts have resulted in extensive and time-consuming consent decrees as well as sizable damages awards. Knowledge of a youth's legal rights can help providers avoid legal liability while creating a safer and healthier environment for LGBT youth. This article provides a general overview of the successful federal legal claims that youth in the child welfare and juvenile justice systems have made, discussion of the rights generated as a result, particle application of these rights to the experiences of LGBT youth with hypothetical scenarios, a focus on specific rights that emanate from certain state laws, and a focus on specific concerns of transgender youth.

  15. Implementing and sustaining evidence-based practice in juvenile justice: a case study of a rural state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocque, Michael; Welsh, Brandon C; Greenwood, Peter W; King, Erica

    2014-09-01

    US juvenile justice is at the forefront of experimentation with the evidence-based paradigm, whereby the best available research is utilized to help inform more rational and effective practice. Increasingly, state governments are playing a major role in this endeavor. Maine is one of these states and is the focus of this article. Using a case-study design, we set out to develop a fuller understanding of the events and processes that have contributed to the development, implementation, and sustainment of evidence-based practice in juvenile justice in the state. Four major themes emerged. First, Maine has benefited from strong and lasting leadership within its corrections department. These leaders paved the way for the implementation and sustainment of programs, including finding innovative ways to use existing resources. Second, the adoption of the Risk-Need-Responsivity model was important in laying the groundwork for the use of evidence-based programming. Third, collaborations within and among state agencies and public and private groups were essential. Finally, buy-in and support from multiple stakeholders was and continues to be essential to Maine's work. Ongoing problems remain with respect to ensuring agencies prioritize fidelity to the model and locating increasingly scarce funding. Implications for other states are discussed. © The Author(s) 2013.

  16. IMPACT Youth Crime Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrington, Georgina; Wright, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Four models of crime prevention are discussed that arise from differing views of the causes of crime: criminal justice, situational, developmental, and social development models. Two activity-based youth crime prevention projects in Queensland (Australia) use developmental and social development models and expand local youth service…

  17. Cristina Dâmboeanu, Assessments of the efficient implementation of restorative justice in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin M. Rădulescu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last years, the juvenile justice system in Romania has faced many difficulties which have determined, experimentally at least, the change of the emphasis laid upon the model of retributive (official justice and the adoption of a new model based upon the increasing role played by community in the justice act and, complementarily, in the activities meant to re-socialize and re-insert juvenile offenders. In this context, more and more specialists of this field have got aware of the necessity of change with respect to criminal law policies meant for the punishment and treatment of juvenile offenders in Romania, by diversifying the intervention and prevention modalities of action conducted by the institutions meant to socialize and control youth from a social point of view, and especially by introducing principles and practices of restorative justice within the criminal law. The latter are meant to lead to the implication of community in the criminal law system and to an increasing number of juvenile offenders who should profit by punishments which are non-liberty-privative. The experience of many countries has demonstrated that the introduction of restorative justice practices within juvenile legislation may become on long term a living alternative to retributive justice. Both systems can function in parallell, thus offering much more efficient solutions to the problems concerning juvenile crime and punishments meant for juvenile offenders.

  18. Interrupting the Silence: An Action Research Study to Transform a Juvenile Justice Culture for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Questioning & Intersex (LGBTQI) Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Dawn N.

    2015-01-01

    This action research (AR) study explored practitioners' knowledge of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Questioning, and Intersex (LGBTQI) youth issues in a juvenile justice setting. A research and service approach was employed to develop a LGBTQI policy and training. This study was motivated by three research questions. Does sensitivity…

  19. Key Considerations in Providing a Free Appropriate Public Education for Youth with Disabilities in Juvenile Justice Secure Care Facilities. Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Joseph C.; Read, Nicholas W.; Gonsoulin, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Access to high-quality education for youth is critical to their long-term success as adults. Youth in juvenile justice secure care facilities, however, too often do not have access to the high-quality education and related supports and services that they need, particularly youth with disabilities residing in such facilities. This brief discusses…

  20. Children and Young People at Risk of Social Exclusion: Links between Homelessness, Child Protection and Juvenile Justice. Data Linkage Series. Number 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalders, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Current research demonstrates relationships between child abuse and neglect, homelessness and criminal activity. This report presents key findings from analysis of a data set linking three community-sector data collections: Supported Accommodation Assistance Program (SAAP), juvenile justice supervision, and child protection notifications and…

  1. Reliability and Construct Validity of the Dutch Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version--Findings from a Sample of Male Adolescents in a Juvenile Justice Treatment Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Jacqueline; de Ruiter, Corine; Doreleijers, Theo; Hillege, Sanne

    2009-01-01

    The present study examines the reliability and construct validity of the Dutch version of the Psychopathy Check List: Youth Version (PCL:YV) in a sample of male adolescents admitted to a secure juvenile justice treatment institution (N = 98). Hare's four-factor model is used to examine reliability and validity of the separate dimensions of…

  2. Reliability and construct validity of the Dutch psychopathy checklist: youth version: findings from a sample of male adolescents in a juvenile justice treatment institution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, J.; Ruiter, de C.; Doreleijers, T.A.H.; Hillege, S.

    2009-01-01

    The present study examines the reliability and construct validity of the Dutch version of the Psychopathy Check List: Youth Version (PCL:YV) in a sample of male adolescents admitted to a secure juvenile justice treatment institution (N = 98). Hare's four-factor model is used to examine reliability a

  3. On the Crime and Justice Psychology of Theory Meaning and Practice Value%也谈犯罪与司法心理学的理论意义与实践价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹吉明

    2014-01-01

    Crime and justice psychology as crime learn and psychology cross of discipline, it is specifically research and crime and Justice about of psychological activities and revealed, and combat, and correction and prevention crime of Psychology method and technology of a door science, regardless of is in theory research also is in practice application process in the are played with active role, plays with important role, It is important part of public security theory and practice of the administration of Justice. This article from the source and development of crime and criminal justice psychology, and combine the specific case of public security in the administration of Justice, crime and justice, psychology of the subject followed by a brief discussion on the theoretical and practical value.%犯罪与司法心理学作为犯罪学与心理学交叉的学科,它是专门研究与犯罪和司法有关的心理活动以及揭露、打击、矫治和预防犯罪的心理学方法与技术的一门科学,无论是在理论研究还是在实践应用过程中都发挥着积极作用,扮演着重要角色,它是公安司法工作理论与实践中的重要组成部分。本文就犯罪与司法心理学渊源与发展出发,结合实际公安司法工作中的具体案例,对犯罪与司法心理学这门学科的理论意义和实践价值作以简要的探讨。

  4. Preventing Crime: What Works, What Doesn't, What's Promising. Research in Brief. National Institute of Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Lawrence W.; Gottfredson, Denise C.; MacKenzie, Doris L.; Eck, John; Reuter, Peter; Bushway, Shawn D.

    This Research in Brief describes the scientific methodologies used to perform a review of crime prevention programs and then discusses what research has shown to work, what it has shown not to work, and what approaches seem promising for crime prevention. The first step was to identify and review reports evaluating the effectiveness of crime…

  5. Education Policy and Crime

    OpenAIRE

    Lochner, Lance

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the relationship between education and crime from an economic perspective, developing a human capital-based model that sheds light on key ways in which early childhood programs and policies that encourage schooling may affect both juvenile and adult crime. The paper first discusses evidence on the effects of educational attainment, school quality, and school enrollment on crime. Next, the paper discusses evidence on the crime reduction effects of preschool programs like P...

  6. 论未成年人犯罪原因及预防对策%On the causes and its prevention of juvenile crime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨智文

    2013-01-01

    Juvenile crime rate is rising in recent years has become a character and trend of criminal offense in our country, is the major problem that should be solved urgently. In order to more effectively prevent and combat juvenile delinquency, it is necessary to analyze the characteristics of juvenile crime, reason, prevention methods, in order to take effective measures to prevent and combat.%未成年人犯罪率不断上升已是近年来我国刑事犯罪的一个特征和趋势,是当前迫切需要解决的重大问题。为了更有效地预防和打击未成年人犯罪,有必要对未成年人犯罪的特征、原因、预防方法等作出分析,以便更加有针对性地采取切实可行的预防和打击措施。

  7. On the Application of the Probation to Juvenile Crime%浅析未成年犯罪缓刑的适用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵嵩巍

    2011-01-01

    Sentencing juvenile criminal to probation is the implementation of special prevention,also the expression of the community correction in the field of juvenile crime prevention.The application of the probation to juvenile crime must observe requirement of form,substantial requirement and exclusive requirement.According to different stages of the lawsuit,the probation can be divided into probation of suspended prosecution,probation of suspended pronouncement of sentence,suspension of execution.%对未成年犯罪人判处缓刑是特殊预防的贯彻,也是社区矫正在未成年犯罪防控领域的体现。未成年犯罪缓刑的适用需要严格恪守形式要件、实质要件以及排除要件。按照诉讼阶段的不同,未成年犯罪的缓刑可以分为缓起诉缓刑、缓宣告缓刑以及缓执行缓刑。

  8. Toward Good Practice for Diversion: The Development of Minimum Standards in the South African Child Justice System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Merwe, Amelia; Dawes, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    South Africa has alarmingly high crime rates and a significant proportion of offences are committed by juveniles. Recent legislation seeks to protect children by providing for their diversion out of the criminal justice system. The primary objective of this paper is to describe research undertaken to develop minimum standards for diversion…

  9. Criminal Justice System of Children in The Law Number 11 of 2012 (Restorative Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansori Ansori

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The future of the children will determine the future of the nation. The increasing problem of juvenile delinquency in this globalization and information technology era, requires the state to give more attention to the child's future. Application of the criminal justice system for children in Indonesia is as stipulated in Law Number 3 of 1997 potentially detrimental to the child's interests. In practice, the judicial system had many problems, among them is a violation of the rights of children, such as: physical and psychological violence, as well as deprivation of the right to education and welfare. It happened because the juvenile justice system is against to national and international regulations on the protection of children’s rights. Besides that, theory of punishment for the juvenile delinquency still refers to the concept of retribution for the crimes. This concept is not very useful for the development of the child, so the concept need to be repaired with the concept of restorative justice. With this concept, the criminal justice system for the juvenile delinquency, leads to the restoration of the state and the settlement pattern, involving the perpetrator, the victim, their families and engage with the community. This is done with consideration for the protection of children against the law. Whereas in line with this spirit of the restorative justice, it gives birth to the Law No. 11 of 2012 on The Criminal Justice System of Children. How To Cite: Ansori, A. (2014. Criminal Justice System of Children in The Law Number 11 of 2012 (Restorative Justice. Rechtsidee, 1(1, 11-26. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.21070/jihr.v1i1.95

  10. 75 FR 16177 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Visit the Web site for the Coordinating Council at http://www.juvenilecouncil... the Council's Web page, http:// www.JuvenileCouncil.gov., where you may also obtain information on the... Departments of Agriculture, Defense, the Interior, and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services...

  11. Failure after Farrell: Violence and Inadequate Mental Health Care in California's Division of Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajmani, Nisha; Webster, Erica

    2016-01-01

    From its inception in 1891 to present day, California's state youth corrections system has been mired in violence and abuse. In 1914, IQ testing and eugenics at state juvenile facilities resulted in the forced sterilization of poor, primarily non-white youth. In 1939, the suspicious suicide of a 13-year-old boy, the maltreatment of Latino youth,…

  12. Validity of the modified child psychopathy scale for juvenile justice center residents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuere, B.; Candel, I.; van Reenen, L.; Korebrits, A.

    2012-01-01

    Adult psychopathy has proven to be an important clinical and forensic construct, but much less is known about juvenile psychopathy. In the present study, we examined the construct validity of the self report modified Child Psychopathy Scale mCPS; Lynam (Psychological Bulletin 120:(2), 209-234, 1997)

  13. Validity of the modified child psychopathy scale for juvenile justice center residents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuere, B.; Candel, I.; van Reenen, L.; Korebrits, A.

    2012-01-01

    Adult psychopathy has proven to be an important clinical and forensic construct, but much less is known about juvenile psychopathy. In the present study, we examined the construct validity of the self report modified Child Psychopathy Scale mCPS; Lynam (Psychological Bulletin 120:(2), 209-234, 1997)

  14. Developmental Psycho- Neurological Research Trends and Their Importance for Reassessing Key Decision-Making Assumptions for Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults in Juvenile/Youth and Adult Criminal Justice Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Corrado

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the underlying foundations of Western criminal justice is the notion that human behavior is the product of rational choice. The creation of separate justice systems for juveniles and adults is based on the idea that fundamental differences in rationality exist between these two groups. Since its inception, the establishment of upper and lower boundaries demarking the juvenile justice system has been a highly contentious issue, both scientifically and politically. Critically, this debate stems from the largely arbitrary nature of the boundaries. Over the last thirty years a sufficiently large body of psychological and neurological empirical work has examined the development of decision-making and rational choice in late childhood, adolescents, and adulthood. The current article discusses the implications of this research on the establishment of upper and lower age jurisdictions for the juvenile justice system, as well as how adolescent decision-making influences other key aspects of the justice process such as competency to stand trial.

  15. Juvenile Justice, Runaway Youth, and Missing Children's Act Amendments of 1984. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Human Resources of the Committee on Education and Labor. House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session on H.R. 4971 to Amend the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974 to Authorize Appropriations for Fiscal Years 1985 through 1989, and for Other Purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    Provided in this document are the text of H.R. 4971, a record of testimony offered in a congressional hearing, and a wide variety of supplemental materials. H.R. 4971 is a bill to amend the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (JJDP) Act of 1974 to authorize appropriations for fiscal years 1985 through 1989 and for other purposes. Numerous…

  16. Urgent Work: Developing a Gender- Responsive Approach for Girls in the Juvenile Justice System / Trabajo urgente: desarrollando una respuesta con perspectiva de género para niñas en el Sistema de Justicia Juvenil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawanda Ravoira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the prevalence of girls in the U.S. juvenile justice sys- tem, compares national and international incarceration rates, and reviews the profile needs of justice-involved girls. The authors offer their Model as an example of how to develop a gender-responsive approach to girls in the justice system, including a description of how the model was operationalized in a community in the United States. Critical developments and emerg- ing opportunities for each of the Model’s components: advocacy, model programming, public education, training and technical assistance, gender responsive tools, systems accountability, and evaluation are highlighted. Lessons learned are offered as a springboard for conversations about how the international community can individually assess their needs and resources and work together to improve the response to girls. The paper concludes with recommendations for choosing, evaluating, and implementing best- practice approaches for meaningful reform.

  17. Youth Crime Drop. Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butts, Jeffrey A.

    This report examines the recent drop in violent crime in the United States, discussing how much of the decrease seen between 1995-99 is attributable to juveniles (under age 18 years) and older youth (18-24 years). Analysis of current FBI arrest data indicates that not only did America's violent crime drop continue through 1999, but falling youth…

  18. Vocational Teachers' Role in Serving Juvenile Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meers, Gary D.

    1983-01-01

    Educators need to understand the juvenile justice system to understand what juvenile offenders go through while completing their sentences. This article reviews cases and juvenile charge classifications, and presents a model for alternative sentencing options for juveniles. (JOW)

  19. The Enlightenment of Restorative Justice Ideas to Crime Prevention and Control in Urban Communities in China%恢复性司法理念对我国城市社区犯罪防控的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧聪

    2012-01-01

      随着我国城市化进程的推进,大量人口涌入城市造成了城市资源紧张,各种矛盾突出,犯罪发生率居高不下,而传统的单纯依靠国家警察力量打击犯罪的一元化城市犯罪防控模式面对新的犯罪形势已捉襟现肘,也不能满足被犯罪侵害破坏的社会秩序恢复的基本要求。对此,文章在引入介绍国外恢复性司法理念的基础之上,发现恢复性司法理念对于我国城市犯罪防控的启示,进而提出构建基于社区的城市犯罪防控的若干具体设想。%  With the development of our country’s urbanization, a great amount of population flooding into cities has resulted in the scarce city resource, all kinds of prominent contradictions and high crime rate. Meanwhile, in the new reality of crime situations, the centralized mode of urban crime prevention and control by relying on traditional police forces to combat crime has overstretched and can’t meet the basic requirements of restoring social order destroyed by crime violation. Therefore, this article finds the enlightenment of restorative justice ideas to urban community crime prevention and control and further put forward some specific suggestions on constructing urban crime prevention and control system in communities on the basis of bringing in and introducing overseas restorative justice ideas.

  20. Assesment of public policies regarding the Turkish juvenile justice system and inferences for functional systemTürk çocuk ceza adalet sistemi kamu politikalarının değerlendirilmesi ve işlevsel bir sisteme ilişkin çıkarımlar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Kula

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Turkish juvenile justice system constitutes special and important place in justice system due to its focal point to the juvenile and juvenile rights. As it is in the world, the main purpose of the juvenile justice system in Turkey is not only to handle the judicial process, but also to get the juveniles out of the system at lower costs as possible and to make them continue their lives without having any problems. Besides the policies and implications carried out in the juvenile justice system in the name of struggling with juvenile delinquency, this study emphasizes the importance of crime prevention strategies out of the juvenile justice system. Within this frame, it is emphasized the necessity of all related institutions working together in a harmony after analyzing the Turkish juvenile justice system. Another important point that this study tries to emphasize is that policies in the scope of the juvenile justice system were not created based on the idea of preventing crime committing again, rather based on punishment, compensation, and public protection. Therefore, it is recommended to review the policies and to emphasize the necessity of functional and integrated juvenile justice system.   Özet Odak noktasında çocuk ve çocuk haklarının olması sebebiyle Türk Çocuk Adalet Sistemi (TÇAS, adalet sisteminin çok özel ve önemli bir alanını oluşturmaktadır. Tüm dünyada olduğu gibi Türkiye’de de çocuk ceza adalet sisteminin temel amacı sadece çocuğun içinde bulunduğu adli durumla ilgili adil bir işlem tesis etmek değil aynı zamanda çocuğun bu zorlayıcı süreçten en az zararla çıkmasını sağlamak ve yetişkin bir birey olarak olabildiğince sorunsuz hayatlarına devam etmelerini sağlamaktır. Çocuk suçluluğu ile daha etkin mücadele edilmesi noktasında ceza adalet sistemi içerisindeki politika ve uygulamaların yanı sıra bu sistemin dışında ki suç önleme stratejilerinin de mutlaka ele al

  1. Crime and Psychiatric Disorders Among Youth in the US Population: An Analysis of National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Kendell L.; Smith, Philip H.; Westphal, Alexander; Zonana, Howard V.; McKee, Sherry A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Current knowledge regarding psychiatric disorders and crime in youth is limited to juvenile justice and community samples. This study examined relationships between psychiatric disorders and self-reported crime involvement in a sample of youth representative of the US population. Method The National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement (N=10,123; ages 13–17; 2001–2004) was used to examine the relationship between lifetime DSM-IV-based diagnoses, reported crime (property, violent, other), and arrest history. Logistic regression compared the odds of reported crime involvement with specific psychiatric disorders to those without any diagnoses, and examined the odds of crime by psychiatric comorbidity. Results Prevalence of crime was 18.4%. Youth with lifetime psychiatric disorders, compared to no disorders, had significantly greater odds of crime, including violent crime. For violent crime resulting in arrest, conduct disorder (CD; OR=57.5; 95% CI=30.4,108.8), alcohol use disorders (OR=19.5; 95% CI=8.8,43.2), and drug use disorders (OR=16.1; 95% CI=9.3,27.7) had the greatest odds with similar findings for violent crime with no arrest. Psychiatric comorbidity increased the odds of crime. Youth with 3 or more diagnoses (16.0% of population) accounted for 54.1% of those reporting arrest for violent crime. Youth with at least 1 diagnosis committed 85.8% of crime, which was reduced to 67.9% by removing those with CD. Importantly, 88.2% of youth with mental illness report never committing any crime. Conclusion Our findings highlight the importance of improving access to mental health services for youthful offenders in community settings given the substantial associations found between mental illness and crime in this nationally representative epidemiological sample. PMID:25062596

  2. Statistical indicators and trends in juvenile delinquency in modern Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzikhanova E.G.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Statistics of juvenile delinquency in Russia for ten years, allowing to determine its current trends, is presented. It’s noted that earlier the proportion of juveniles among all criminals was about 11-12%. During the period from 2003 to 2013 the proportion of juveniles in the total number of identified offenders decreased to 6%. Despite the reduction in the number of crimes committed by this category of persons, for several years the largest criminal activity is maintained in the age group 16-17 years (70%. Smaller proportion is the age group 14-15 years, there’s a reduction in the number of committed crimes: from 49,300 in 2000 to 19,700 in 2013. Over the same period, the number of reported crimes committed by minors or with their complicity decreased almost three times. With all the ambiguity of attitude to the considered problem, the author defines the role of criminal law policy of the state in response to trends in juvenile crime taking into account its specificity, caused by the complex of interrelated factors related to age, social, psychological characteristics of juveniles as a special social group, the originality of their social status. The legislative novel is considered: the punishment in the form of arrest is not imposed on persons under the age of eighteen by the time of court verdict. It’s summarized that the problems of juvenile delinquency are only partly solved by the humanization of criminal law policy of the state in order to restore social justice, correct the convict and prevent new crimes commission.

  3. Online games and juvenile crime%网络游戏与青少年犯罪

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申志国

    2012-01-01

    Online gaming is the rise in recent years, a new entertainment and emerg ng industries, the phenomenon of Online Game Addiction and more serious, induced by the .online game juvenile delinquency occur frequently. Departure from the characteristics of the network characteristics of the game itself and adolescents, in.depth analysis of online games on juvenile delinquency. Finally, the corresponding measures%网络游戏是近年来兴起的一个新的娱乐方式和新兴产业,青少年网络游戏成瘾的现象越来越严重,而由网络游戏诱发的青少年犯罪也频频发生。本文从网络游戏本身的特点和青少年自身特点出发,深入分析网络游戏对青少年犯罪的影响。最后提出相应的应对措施。

  4. Police reporting and professional help seeking for child crime victims: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelhor, D; Wolak, J; Berliner, L

    2001-02-01

    Most crimes with child victims are not reported to police, nor do child victims access other professional victim services, despite evidence that these yield positive outcomes. This article develops a conceptual framework about the barriers to such access: (a) the reluctance to define the crime episodes or their consequences as serious, criminal, harmful, or warranting intervention; (b) the extra authorities, including parents and schools, who mediate between victims and police or services; (c) developmental issues, such as concerns about autonomy; (d) attitudinal and emotional obstacles; and (e) time and expense factors. This article suggests the need for initiatives to stimulate reporting and help seeking, such as more publicity about the seriousness of juvenile victimization, more justice-system involvement with schools, more child and family friendly police services, and an emphasis on attractive outcomes such as justice and empowerment.

  5. Effect of an injury awareness education program on risk-taking behaviors and injuries in juvenile justice offenders: a retrospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwok M Ho

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Risk-taking behavior is a leading cause of injury and death amongst young people. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This was a retrospective cohort study on the effectiveness of a 1-day youth injury awareness education program (Prevent Alcohol and Risk-related Trauma in Youth, P.A.R.T.Y. program in reducing risk taking behaviors and injuries of juvenille justice offenders in Western Australia. Of the 3659 juvenile justice offenders convicted by the court magistrates between 2006 and 2010, 225 were referred to the P.A.R.T.Y. education program. In a before and after survey of these 225 participants, a significant proportion of them stated that they were more receptive to modifying their risk-taking behavior (21% before vs. 57% after. Using data from the Western Australia Police and Department of Health, the incidence of subsequent offences and injuries of all juvenile justice offenders was assessed. The incidence of subsequent traffic or violence-related offences was significantly lower for those who had attended the program compared to those who did not (3.6% vs. 26.8%; absolute risk reduction [ARR] = 23.2%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 19.9%-25.8%; number needed to benefit = 4.3, 95%CI 3.9-5.1; p = 0.001, as were injuries leading to hospitalization (0% vs. 1.6% including 0.2% fatality; ARR = 1.6%, 95%CI 1.2%-2.1% and alcohol or drug-related offences (0% vs. 2.4%; ARR 2.4%, 95%CI 1.9%-2.9%. In the multivariate analysis, only P.A.R.T.Y. education program attendance (odds ratio [OR] 0.10, 95%CI 0.05-0.21 and a higher socioeconomic background (OR 0.97 per decile increment in Index of Relative Socioeconomic Advantage and Disadvantage, 95%CI 0.93-0.99 were associated with a lower risk of subsequent traffic or violence-related offences. SIGNIFICANCE: Participation in an injury education program involving real-life trauma scenarios was associated with a reduced subsequent risk of committing violence- or traffic

  6. DNA evidence in rape cases and the Debbie Smith Act: forensic practice and criminal justice implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telsavaara, Terhi V T; Arrigo, Bruce A

    2006-10-01

    The Debbie Smith or "Justice for All" Act was passed on November 1, 2004. The act addresses the problem of collecting and analyzing DNA evidence from backlogged rape kits sitting in crime laboratories around the country. Presently, no empirical data exist by which to assess the soundness of the legislation. However, the act clearly affects discrete operations within the forensic and criminal justice systems. This article explores the relative merits of the Debbie Smith law, highlighting changes in Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) programs, law enforcement, court administration, correctional treatment, and juvenile justice practices. Concerns linked to the likely impact of the "Justice for All" Act raise significant questions about its overall programmatic utility and treatment efficacy.

  7. A Need For Correction: Reforming New York's Juvenile Justice System. Child Welfare Watch. Vol. 18, Fall 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Andrew; Hemphill, Clara; Hurley, Kendra

    2009-01-01

    In the wake of a U.S. Justice Department investigation that found widespread use of excessive force by staff at upstate psychiatric care facilities for mentally ill children, this new edition of Child Welfare Watch identifies shortcomings in mental health services and explores possible solutions, including the expansion of alternatives to…

  8. Music making for health, well-being and behaviour change in youth justice settings: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daykin, Norma; de Viggiani, Nick; Pilkington, Paul; Moriarty, Yvonne

    2013-06-01

    Youth justice is an important public health issue. There is growing recognition of the need to adopt effective, evidence-based strategies for working with young offenders. Music interventions may be particularly well suited to addressing risk factors in young people and reducing juvenile crime. This systematic review of international research seeks to contribute to the evidence base on the impact of music making on the health, well-being and behaviour of young offenders and those considered at risk of offending. It examines outcomes of music making identified in quantitative research and discusses theories from qualitative research that might help to understand the impact of music making in youth justice settings.

  9. Attempted crime

    OpenAIRE

    Kalneja, Jolanta

    2013-01-01

    The theme of the bachelor paper is "Attempted Crime." Attempted crime is unfinished criminal offense and the person carrying out an attempted crime threat to the interests protected by the Criminal Law. In the Judicial practice, there are problems of crime attempt qualification, distinguishing between the completed offenses, preparation for a crime. The judicial practice, there are problems of crime attempt qualification, distinguishing between the completed offense, preparation for a crime....

  10. 78 FR 40189 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Juvenile...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Juvenile Residential Facility Census (Extension, Without Change, of a... Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, will be submitting the...

  11. THE MODEL OF LAW ENFORCEMENT FOR JUVENILE DELINQUENT IN THE PROCESS OF INVESTIGATION BASED ON LAW NUMBER 11 YEAR 2012 CONCERNING JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidah Abdurrachman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses the application of law enforcement model on juvenille offender before the law. Especially, in investigations according to Act number 11, 2012 about Juvenille Penal Court system in Central Java. Since the act has been formally implemented, the penal court elements have been given two years time to prepare strategies in handling juvenille offender through Diversion with Restorative Justice approach. However, the implementation of Diversion needs several infrastructures such as Juvenille Investigators, Diversion Standard of Operation (SOP, and a proper place for investigating children and mediation process, including children cells. This is an empirical study with primary and secondary sources, including analysis of Acts, literature review, and expert review. The data analysis will be done qualitatively.

  12. The child protection and juvenile justice nexus in Australia: A longitudinal examination of the relationship between maltreatment and offending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malvaso, Catia G; Delfabbro, Paul H; Day, Andrew

    2017-02-01

    There is convincing evidence that many young people who are in the justice system have had contact with child protection services and that victims of childhood maltreatment are at increased risk of subsequent youth justice involvement. In Australia, however, there have been few longitudinal studies that have examined these associations and relatively less is known in this area. This study examines the overlap between the child protection and youth justice involvement in South Australia, and determines how substantiated maltreatment and variations in these experiences (e.g., the type, timing and recurrence of maltreatment) relate to criminal convictions as a youth. The results show that although the majority of child-protection involved youth do not become convicted offenders, the odds of subsequent convictions are significantly greater both for those with notifications and substantiated maltreatment and for those who had been placed in out-of-home care. Multivariate analyses revealed that the strongest predictors for receiving a conviction among maltreated youth were: male gender, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander ethnicity, experiences of physical abuse and emotional abuse, a greater number of substantiations (recurrence), experiencing maltreatment that commenced in childhood and continued into adolescence, and placement in out-of-home care. The mechanisms through which maltreatment might be linked with behavior are then considered, along with directions for future research in this area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Lifetime suicide attempts in juvenile assessment center youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolen, Scott; McReynolds, Larkin S; DeComo, Robert E; John, Reni; Keating, Joseph M; Wasserman, Gail A

    2008-01-01

    To describe suicide risk in youth seen at a Juvenile Assessment Center (JAC), we examined relationships among self-reported lifetime attempts and demographic, justice, and psychiatric data via logistic regression. Similar to other settings, youth reporting lifetime attempts were more likely to be older, female, not living with both parents and currently arrested for a violent or felony crime. Mood, substance use, and behavior disorder each increased prediction substantially. Anxiety Disorder was associated with elevated attempt rates for boys only. JACs need to develop protocols for identifying suicide risk; further, since suicide history predicts future attempts, Anxiety Disordered boys may be at particular risk.

  14. The Justice Conviction of the Crime of Leaking State Secrets Intentionally%故意泄露国家秘密罪的司法认定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文涛

    2011-01-01

    故意泄露国家秘密罪的违法阻却事由是国家秘密已失去秘密性和泄漏行为事先得到许可。当同一行为既符合间谋罪又符合故意泄露国家秘密罪要件时,应以间谍罪处罚。故意泄露国家秘密罪是结果犯,只有被不应知悉者知悉之前才可认定为未遂犯,否则就构成犯罪既遂。%This Chapter place great emphasis on discussing the standards of committing this crime,the difference between this crime and other relative crimes,the punishment principle as well as the definition of the attempted crime.This Chapter also points out the m

  15. The health needs of imprisoned female juvenile offenders: the views of the young women prisoners and youth justice professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Nicola; Plugge, Emma

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about the health needs of detained juvenile females, yet there is emerging concern regarding substance misuse, mental health problems, poor sexual health and poorer general physical health on a range of indicators. This study sought to identify health needs from the perspective of imprisoned young women themselves and key professionals working with them to inform healthcare provision. We conducted semi-structured interviews and focus groups with detained juvenile women and adult professionals in four specialist female young offender institutions. The study presents new qualitative findings on the profound impact of social exclusion and multiple forms of abuse and victimisation on the health of juvenile women prisoners. Concerns regarding substance misuse, mental health problems, self-harm and poor sexual health are reinforced by this study. Young women tended to focus on their immediate health needs in contrast to the professionals who emphasised longer-term issues. The study identified the need for priority interventions in relation to mental health, substance misuse, self-harm and sexual health and tentatively suggests that 'compensatory care' may offer some scope to redress health inequalities experienced by these young women.

  16. KETERKAITAN WHITE COLLAR CRIME DENGAN CORPORATE CRIME

    OpenAIRE

    R. Dyatmiko Soemodihardjo

    2003-01-01

    White collar crime is a crime that carried out by respected persons, whereas corporate crime is a crime that related to corporation. White collar crime and crime corporate are always related to economic crime. White collar crime can be committed by corporation, that is why a kind of crime emerges namely corporate crime.

  17. 藏区涉罪未成年人异地帮教制度研讨--基于实证的考察和分析%Discussion on Nonlocal Education System of Crime-related Juveniles in Tibetan Areas:based on Empirical Investigation and Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨继文; 胡静; 辛国升; 冯薇

    2016-01-01

    Setting up and improving the juvenile criminal justice system is the important content of judicial reform of the central government. The empirical analysis of nonlocal education of crime-related juveniles in Tibetan areas by A procuratorial organ will help us understand the sources and characteristics of crime-related juveniles criminal cases, understand the difficulties of nonlocal education and provide samples and practical evidence. The education system embodies traditional idea of solicitude for juveniles and the western theory of national parental rights, and it is also difficult to integrate resources and form resultant force effectively, and to solve the juveniles’ contradicting psychological problems caused by single mode. Therefore, the construction of the system requires strengthening nonlocal parental education to urge the legal agent to shoulder responsibility and establish nonlocal eligibility, improving the socialization of nonlocal education mechanism to help the juveniles return to society, refining nonlocal education assistance mechanism, and making use of aiding Tibet word to deepen and practice the nonlocal education.%建立和完善未成年人刑事司法制度,是中央司法改革方案的重要内容。通过对A检察机关藏区涉罪未成年人异地帮教的实证分析,可以深入了解藏区涉罪未成年人刑事案件来源与特点,准确把握异地帮教难题的原因,从而为构建和完善藏区涉罪未成年人异地帮教制度提供现实样本和实践依据。藏区涉罪未成年人异地帮教体现了中国传统的“恤幼”思想及西方国家的“国家亲权”理论。藏区涉罪未成年人异地帮教制度存在难以有效整合资源形成合力和帮教模式单一导致未成年人普遍具有抵触心理等问题。藏区涉罪未成年人异地帮教制度的构建,需要强化异地亲职教育,督促法定代理人肩负起监护职责和建立异地适格被委托人监护模式

  18. Development of Restorative Justice in China: Theory and Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Yinzhi Shen

    2016-01-01

    Restorative justice has become a global social movement for criminal justice reform, with over eighty countries adopting some form of restorative justice program to tackle their crime problems. The theory of restorative justice was introduced to the Chinese academia in 2002. So far, various restorative justice programs have been developed in China. This paper aims to systematically review the development of restorative justice in China by analyzing academic literature on restorative justice a...

  19. Economical Crime Control

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Philip J.; Jens Ludwig

    2010-01-01

    This paper is the introductory chapter for the forthcoming NBER volume Controlling Crime: Strategies and Tradeoffs. The Great Recession has led to cuts in criminal justice expenditures, and the trend towards ever-higher incarceration rates that has been underway since the 1970s in the U.S. appears to have turned the corner. That raises the question of whether the crime drop can be sustained. State and local revenue shortfalls have engendered intense interest in cost-cutting measures that do n...

  20. Split-Half Administration of the 2015 School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey. Methodology Report. NCES 2017-004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessne, Deborah; Cidade, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    This report outlines the development, methodology, and results of the split-half administration of the 2015 School Crime Supplement (SCS) to the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS). The National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS). The National Center for…

  1. Split-Half Administration of the 2015 School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey: Methodology Report. NCES 2017-004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessne, Deborah; Cidade, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    This report outlines the development, methodology, and results of the split-half administration of the 2015 School Crime Supplement (SCS) to the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS). The National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS). The U.S. Census Bureau…

  2. 清代地方法律实践中的现代逻辑--围绕“犯奸”展开%The Modern Logic in Qing's Local Justice Surrounding Sex Crime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李斯特

    2013-01-01

    长期以来,伦理司法被看做中华法系的一大特征。但在清代关于犯奸行为的地方法律实践中,表面上由妇女贞节观的礼教思想主宰着的伦理司法,内里却贯穿着与现代法律实践和理论相一致的逻辑。这一内在的逻辑是由清代法律实践在处理犯奸案件中面临的司法资源不足的条件决定的。而且,正是这一约束条件还决定了这种内在一致性要呈现为与现代法律话语迥异的外在形态,因为在司法资源不足的前提下,压抑法律的专业性程度,利用道德教化手段反而是更有效率的。%The ethical justice has long been seen as one of the characters of Chinese legal system.When we look into Qing's local justice about sex crimes,how-ever,we also find the same logic of modern justice in the ethical justice seemingly dominated by the Chinese Li's conception of women chastity.This internal practical logic is determined by the restraint of scarce judicial resources that Qing's local jus-tice had to face.Furthermore, the same restraint determined that this internal logic, which is as the same of modern justice, had to appear as the external different dis-course, which we call Li, because given the scarcity of judicial resources moral civi-lization is more sufficient than legal professionalization.

  3. When a relationship is imperative, will young women knowingly place their sexual health at risk? A sample of African American adolescent girls in the juvenile justice system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiford, Jerris L; Seth, Puja; Fasula, Amy M; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2017-04-27

    Background: HIV and other sexually transmissible infections (HIV/STIs) are significant contributors to adolescent girls' morbidity in the US. Risks for HIV/STIs are increased among adolescent girls involved in the juvenile justice system, and African American adolescent girls comprise nearly 50% of adolescent girls in detention centres. Although HIV prevention programs focus on HIV/STI knowledge, increased knowledge may not be sufficient to reduce sexual risk. The present study examined the interactive effects of HIV/STI knowledge and the importance of being in a relationship (a relationship imperative) on sexual risk behaviours in a sample of detained African American adolescent girls. Methods: In all, 188 African American adolescent girls, 13-17 years of age, were recruited from a short-term detention facility in Atlanta, Georgia, and completed assessments on sexual risk behaviours, relationship characteristics, HIV/STI knowledge and several psychosocial risk factors. Results: When girls endorsed a relationship imperative, higher HIV/STI knowledge was associated with low partner communication self-efficacy, inconsistent condom use and unprotected sex, when controlling for demographics and self-esteem. Conclusions: Young girls with high HIV/STI knowledge may have placed themselves at risk for HIV/STIs given the importance and value they place on being in a relationship. Contextual factors should be considered when developing interventions.

  4. The impact of neighborhood disadvantage and exposure to violence on self-report of antisocial behavior among girls in the juvenile justice system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Preeti; Reppucci, N Dickon

    2009-03-01

    The current study extended previous research with adults and boys to girls in the juvenile justice system (N = 122; M = 16.7; SD = 1.3). Using a longitudinal research design, neighborhood disadvantage and exposure to violence (i.e., physical abuse by parents, physical abuse by peers, and witnessing violence) were assessed during incarceration. These risk factors were used to predict violent and delinquent behavior post-release. Furthermore, race specific pathways were examined to determine if the impact of these risk factors varied among Black (n = 69) and White girls (n = 53). Results indicated that Black girls were more likely than White girls to live in disadvantaged neighborhoods, but both reported similar levels of exposure to violence and self-report of antisocial behavior. Physical abuse by parents, time at risk, and age were related to violent behavior, while witnessing violence and time at risk were related to delinquent behavior. Multiple group analyses indicated the existence of race specific pathways. Specifically, physical abuse by parents was related to violent behavior for White girls while witnessing violence was related to violent and delinquent behaviors for Black girls. Results suggest that contextual processes play an important role in predicting antisocial behavior for Black girls.

  5. Juveniles, young people, education, drugs and justice / Menores, jóvenes, educación, drogas y justicia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepción Nieto Morales

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Drug consumption has been normalized for young people nowadays. They start consuming hashish in an early age. Some of them keep that consumption with small amounts or quit, and others increase it and even enlarge the range of substances to consume. Those juveniles accumulating school failure can’t reach the rest of students’ level and can’t pass the academic tests, which results in expulsions, leisure time and relationships with other individuals in the same circumstances: they spend most of the time idle, gathering in groups in the same circumstances of idleness and disruptive conducts. Boredom leads them to start consuming hashish and other narcotic substances, which ends sometimes in very serious addictions, and judicial problems.

  6. 78 FR 56940 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Juvenile...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ...: Juvenile Residential Facility Census (Extension, without change, of a currently approved collection) ACTION: 30 Day Notice. The Department of Justice (DOJ), Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile..., Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department...

  7. Hate crimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Milica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There is not much interest for the subject of hate crime in our literature. In the article, the author defines hate crime, based on the facts mainly from the Anglosaxon literature, and tries to explain the origin of prejudice. There is a description of factors which can be the cause for these crimes to occur. The author highlights the importance of preventing bias motivated crime. The article ends with some propositions about how to fight hate crimes.

  8. 76 FR 79219 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Crime Victim...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ...: Crime Victim Compensation State Certification Form Request ACTION: 60-Day notice of information... Victims of Crime (OVC) will be submitting the following information collection request to the Office of...-3612, Office for Victims of Crime, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice, 810...

  9. 77 FR 12079 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Crime Victim...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    ... Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Crime Victim... Department of Justice (DOJ), Office of Justice Programs (OJP), Office for Victims of Crime (OVC) will be... the form/collection: Crime Victim Compensation State Certification Form. (3) Agency form number,...

  10. Crime and psychiatric disorders among youth in the US population: an analysis of the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Kendell L; Smith, Philip H; Westphal, Alexander; Zonana, Howard V; McKee, Sherry A

    2014-08-01

    Current knowledge regarding psychiatric disorders and crime in youth is limited to juvenile justice and community samples. This study examined relationships between psychiatric disorders and self-reported crime involvement in a sample of youth representative of the US population. The National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement (N = 10,123; ages 13-17 years; 2001-2004) was used to examine the relationship between lifetime DSM-IV-based diagnoses, reported crime (property, violent, other), and arrest history. Logistic regression compared the odds of reported crime involvement with specific psychiatric disorders to those without any diagnoses, and examined the odds of crime by psychiatric comorbidity. Prevalence of crime was 18.4%. Youth with lifetime psychiatric disorders, compared to no disorders, had significantly greater odds of crime, including violent crime. For violent crime resulting in arrest, conduct disorder (CD) (odds ratio OR = 57.5; 95% CI = 30.4, 108.8), alcohol use disorders (OR = 19.5; 95% CI = 8.8, 43.2), and drug use disorders (OR = 16.1; 95% CI = 9.3, 27.7) had the greatest odds with similar findings for violent crime with no arrest. Psychiatric comorbidity increased the odds of crime. Youth with 3 or more diagnoses (16.0% of population) accounted for 54.1% of those reporting arrest for violent crime. Youth with at least 1 diagnosis committed 85.8% of crime, which was reduced to 67.9% by removing individuals with CD. Importantly, 88.2% of youth with mental illness reported never having committed any crime. Our findings highlight the importance of improving access to mental health services for youthful offenders in community settings, given the substantial associations found between mental illness and crime in this nationally representative epidemiological sample. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. 28 CFR 0.91 - Office for Victims of Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Office for Victims of Crime. 0.91 Section...-Office of Justice Programs and Related Agencies § 0.91 Office for Victims of Crime. The Office for Victims of Crime is headed by a Director appointed by the Assistant Attorney General, Office of...

  12. Chronic Juvenile Delinquency and the "Suppression Effect": An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Mark; Norman, Michael

    1988-01-01

    Notes that fear of apprehension and punishment have been reported to suppress juvenile crime. Discusses suppression effect in regard to the correlates of chronic juvenile delinquency and exploratory evidence that youth who commit large volume of crime do not fear sanctions imposed by juvenile court any more than youth who commit only one offense…

  13. Analyzing the Violent Crimes Cause of Juveniles from the Perspective of Society%从社会角度分析青少年暴力犯罪的原因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洁; 郭耀峰

    2012-01-01

    导致青少年暴力犯罪的原因有很多,从社会角度分析存在的原因主要有社会政策的影响、传统文化出现断层、法制和道德观念淡漠、传媒暴力和不良文化的影响、网络游戏的负面影响、教育的脱节、预防手段的滞后以及社会环境的影响。%There are many reasons to lead to juvenile violent crimes. From the perspective of society, the main reasons are the influence of social policies, a disruption of traditional culture, legal and moral indifference, the impact of media violence and adverse culture, the negative impact of online games, education gap, the lag means of prevention and social environment.

  14. With or Without You? Contextualizing the Impact of Romantic Relationship Breakup on Crime Among Serious Adolescent Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Matthew; Sweeten, Gary; Piquero, Alex R

    2016-01-01

    The decline and delay of marriage has prolonged adolescence and the transition to adulthood, and consequently fostered greater romantic relationship fluidity during a stage of the life course that is pivotal for both development and offending. Yet, despite a growing literature of the consequences of romantic relationships breakup, little is known about its connection with crime, especially among youth enmeshed in the criminal justice system. This article addresses this gap by examining the effects of relationship breakup on crime among justice-involved youth-a key policy-relevant group. We refer to data from the Pathways to Desistance Study, a longitudinal study of 1354 (14% female) adjudicated youth from the juvenile and adult court systems in Phoenix and Philadelphia, to assess the nature and complexity of this association. In general, our results support prior evidence of breakup's criminogenic influence. Specifically, they suggest that relationship breakup's effect on crime is particularly acute among this at-risk sample, contingent upon post-breakup relationship transitions, and more pronounced for relationships that involve cohabitation. Our results also extend prior work by demonstrating that breakup is attenuated by changes in psychosocial characteristics and peer associations/exposure. We close with a discussion of our findings, their policy implications, and what they mean for research on relationships and crime among serious adolescent offenders moving forward.

  15. Hate crimes and normative regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Milica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is primarily devoted to issues related to the normative regulation of hate crimes, with special reference to the regulations of the Republic of Serbia, which are indirectly related to this matter. This kind of crimes are characterized by prejudices that perpetrators have towards injured parties, as members of certain, mostly, minority groups, due to which many hate crimes could be also called crimes of prejudice. In comparative law there are two different basic directions when it comes to regulating hate crimes: separation of hate crimes in a separate category on the one hand, and punishment of perpetrators of criminal acts with the detriment of minority groups through the usual charges of a given criminal justice system, on the other. The author finds that, regardless of the formal response forms, real life suggests that hate crimes can be essentially suppressed only by promoting values such as equality, respect for diversity and tolerance, and by continuous education of public about the danger of hate crimes.

  16. Transformation in the Justice System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Carol Cramer; Roush, David

    2014-01-01

    This article describes four waves of juvenile justice reform across the past century that have profoundly impacted how youth are served in community-based, detention, and correctional settings. This first wave of reform began in 1899 as Jane Addams founded the modern juvenile court in Chicago. These progressive reforms soon spread worldwide.…

  17. Transformation in the Justice System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Carol Cramer; Roush, David

    2014-01-01

    This article describes four waves of juvenile justice reform across the past century that have profoundly impacted how youth are served in community-based, detention, and correctional settings. This first wave of reform began in 1899 as Jane Addams founded the modern juvenile court in Chicago. These progressive reforms soon spread worldwide.…

  18. 76 FR 31991 - Meeting of the Office of Justice Programs' Science Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... science and statistics for the purpose of enhancing the overall impact and performance of its programs and activities in criminal and juvenile justice. To this end, the Board has designated five (5) subcommittees: National Institute of Justice (NIJ); Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS); Office of Juvenile Justice...

  19. 76 FR 79220 - Meeting of the Office of Justice Programs' Science Advisory Board; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... science and statistics for the purpose of enhancing the overall impact and performance of its programs and activities in criminal and juvenile justice. To this end, the Board has designated five (5) subcommittees: National Institute of Justice (NIJ); Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS); Office of Juvenile Justice...

  20. 77 FR 32999 - Meeting of the Office of Justice Programs' Science Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... science and statistics for the purpose of enhancing the overall impact and performance of its programs and activities in criminal and juvenile justice. To this end, the Board has designated six (6) subcommittees: National Institute of Justice (NIJ); Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS); Office of Juvenile Justice...

  1. 78 FR 77168 - Meeting of the Office of Justice Programs' Science Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ... science and statistics for the purpose of enhancing the overall impact and performance of its programs and activities in criminal and juvenile justice. To this end, the Board has designated six (6) subcommittees: National Institute of Justice (NIJ); Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS); Office of Juvenile Justice...

  2. 77 FR 73497 - Meeting of the Office of Justice Programs' Science Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... science and statistics for the purpose of enhancing the overall impact and performance of its programs and activities in criminal and juvenile justice. To this end, the Board has designated six (6) subcommittees: National Institute of Justice (NIJ); Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS); Office of Juvenile Justice...

  3. Violence, Crime, and Violent Crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard B. Felson

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available I propose a dual conceptualization of violent crime. Since violent crime is both violence and crime, theories of aggression and deviance are required to understand it. I argue that both harm-doing and rule breaking are instrumental behaviors and that a bounded rational choice approach can account for both behaviors. However, while some of the causes of harm-doing and deviance (and violent and nonviolent crime are the same, some are different. Theories of crime and deviance cannot explain why one only observes individual and group differences in violent crime and theories of aggression and violence cannot explain why one observes differences in all types of crimes. Such theories are “barking up the wrong tree.”

  4. Protecting Children Rights under International Criminal Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erinda Duraj (Male

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Children are a central concern of international criminal justice. International crimes and other forms of violence and the abuse of children are disturbing daily realities in today’s world. Children and young persons are increasingly being targeted for the purposes of murder, rape, abduction, mutilation, recruitment as child soldiers, trafficking, sexual exploitation and other abuses. Sierra Leone, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Rwanda, Colombia, and many others illustrate this. The participation of children in international criminal justice and other accountability mechanisms is now one of the major issues facing criminal justice today. In this sense, this paper presents a short overview on the issue of children and their participation in international criminal justice. The paper thus focuses on giving a definition of “child/children” according to international norms, which are the key principles of children’s rights, their participation in the criminal justice system, the different international crimes committed by them or against them etc. Also, this paper briefly addresses the main contours of the normative framework regarding the criminal responsibility of children for their alleged participation in international crimes. It reviews international norms regarding children who may be accused of having participated in the commission of such crimes themselves (as child soldiers and identifies their criminal responsibility for such acts. Finally, this paper acknowledges the obligations of states under international law to prosecute persons accused of genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity, torture and enforced disappearances, specifically focusing on crimes against children.

  5. Restorative Justice in Juvenile Courts in Brazil: a brief review of Porto Alegre and São Caetano pilot projects / Justicia Restaurativa en Cortes Juveniles en Brasil: breve revisión de los proyectos piloto de Porto Alegre y São Caetano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Achutti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, it is presented the results of the first three years (2005-2007 of the application of Restorative Justice (RJ in the Brazilian juvenile justice system. To this end, it was made a bibliographical and documental researches, so all data used in the paper has not been collected directly by the authors. Good results are verified, despite the almost complete absence of publicity given to the work developed in the country. It was also noticed a considerable lack of dialogue between those who are responsible for the programmes, the legal actors involved, and the local Universities. For even better results, it is suggested that all institutions involved improve the dialogue between them and encourage scientific researches of their own practices.

  6. An essay on crime and justice in the 21st century/Ensayo sobre crimen y justicia en el siglo XXI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Eskridge (Estados Unidos de América

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available There are host of crime and punishment challenges facing the nations of the world at the outset of this new century, and there seem to be few if any answers. In many ways, criminologists today are much akin to physicians 200 years ago; we, like they, have a few ideas, but very little knowledge. Since 1800 however, the field of medicine has seen nearly incommunicable levels of advancement. Of course death, like crime, will never be eliminated, but some diseases have been virtually eliminated and the impact of others significantly reduced, life expectancy has nearly doubled, and the quality of that life greatly enhanced. If the field of criminology wishes to advance, it should adopt the same procedural model as utilized by medicine. That procedural model includes the adoption of cross-national education, the utilization of experimental design and evidence-based evaluation, embracing an inter-disciplinary perspective, and the integration of scientific criminology with political criminology. Multitud de desafíos sobre crimen y castigo enfrentan las naciones del mundo al comienzo de este nuevo siglo y, al parecer, hay pocas o ninguna respuesta. En muchos sentidos, los criminólogos de hoy tienen semejanza con los médicos de hace 200 años; como ellos, tenemos algunas ideas, pero muy poco conocimiento. Desde 1800, sin embargo, en el campo de la Medicina se han visto incomunicables niveles de avance. Por supuesto, la muerte y la delincuencia nunca se eliminarán, pero algunas enfermedades han suprimido virtualmente su impacto de manera significativa, la esperanza de vida casi se ha duplicado y ha mejorado la calidad de vida útil. Si el campo de la Criminología desea avanzar, tendrá que adoptar el mismo modelo de procedimiento utilizado por la Medicina, el cual incluye la adopción de la educación transnacional, la utilización del diseño experimental y la evaluación basada en la evidencia, adoptando una perspectiva interdisciplinaria y la

  7. [Economic crime].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinitz, S

    1976-01-01

    Economic crime, often also referred to as white collar crime, is one of the most incidious and predatory of offenses. Unlike street crime, for which there may well be some protection, the average citizen is completely at the mercy of the perpetrators of economic crimes. The concept of white collar crime was first identified by Edwin H. Sutherland. He dealt with the problem as a violation of trust involving either or both misrepresentation and duplicity. He argued for the use of criminal sanctions rather than civil remedies as a means of dealing with white collar offenses. Sutherland's views were attacked by the legal profession, by sociologists and criminologists and by public opinion specialists. They contended that an act treated in civil court is not a crime; that criminals are those persons who are defined as such and white collar criminals are neither so defined nor do they define themselves as criminals and, finally, that economic crime is universal. Can anyone be criminal, then, ask the critics? A number of studies by Clinard, Quinney, Black, Ball, Cressey, Newman and others have translated the interest in white collar crime into empirical terms. The last thirty-five years have also witnessed the elaboration and alteration of the theory itself. Geis' work has been particularly important in this respect. His "street" versus "suite" crime is a useful dichotomy. Most important, however, have been the monograph and papers by Herbert Edelhertz who has conceptualized the issues on various levels - from consumer fraud to the illegal activities of the multinational corporation. This article is concerned with the exposition of the theory and research in the field. Most significant, the paper raises serious doubts whether the problem of economic crime can be researched and studied; it raises even more difficult issues concerning the legal and sociological implications of economic crime and of its prevention, management and control.

  8. Juvenile Victimization and Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbensen, Finn-Aage; Huizinga, David

    1991-01-01

    Demographic characteristics of juvenile victims of crime and a potential relationship between victimization and self-reported delinquency are examined for 877 adolescents from a large midwestern city. Lifetime victimization rates (LVRs) are higher for those involved in delinquency, and LVRs rise with age and higher levels of delinquent behavior.…

  9. 析流动未成年人的常见犯罪类型和受教育状况及其对策%An Analysis of the Common Types of Juvenile Crime on the Flow and the Educational Condition and Its Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁凯一

    2012-01-01

    2005-2010年间流动未成年人常见犯罪类型有盗窃罪、两抢类犯罪、伤害类犯罪、性犯罪,其中侵犯财产类犯罪占70.4%。该类犯罪人中初中及以下文化程度的占96.2%,反映教育活动中,一是差生个性化教育及针对低龄未成年人的技能教育缺失,二是管教人对流动未成年人教育能力不足。为预防流动未成年人犯罪,可以针对低龄未成年人实施技能型义务教育,保障流动未成年人随父母接受义务教育,强化家长与流动未成年子女的亲情教育,发挥团组织在流动未成年人中的自我教育功能。%In 2005-2010,the common types of juvenile crime include theft,two-rob crime,damage crime,sex crimes,crime against property class which occupies 70.4%.The criminal who is below the middle school takes up 96.2%.One reason reflected in education is the missing of individualized education and low skills education for younger.The second is the low educational capacity to juveniles on the flow.For the prevention of juvenile delinquency,you can implement compulsory education in the skills for a younger minors,make the teenagers to receive compulsory education with their parents,strengthen the affection between parents and children,and the League Organization should play a role in their self-education.

  10. The Ultimum Remedium Principle In The Context Of Criminal Punishment Against Children As An Actor Of Narcotics Crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syachdin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Drug abuse has grown over the days with significant development. Narcotics crime actually not only brings individual actors but tends to be a criminal offense syndicate or covert organization over the worlds. In this case the syndicate allegedly not only brings perpetrators of adults but feared the actors who are categorized as a child in accordance with the applicable laws. On the other side children occupy a special place in the law. Basic philosophy of the treatment of juvenile delinquents is for the best interests of the child but the fact that peoples behavior lately is very alarming how society is so easy to judge people suspected as perpetrators of criminal acts. The objective of this research is to understand the essence of the ultimum remedium principle as the basis for criminal punishment in the Indonesian criminal system in order to understand how the crisis is influencing drug phenomenon and drugs users lives and the extent of their impact on the settlement of narcotics crime against children as an offender. The outcomes of the research indicate that the Law No. 11 of 2012 regarding the Criminal Justice System for Juvenile Delinquency Rules of the Supreme Court of the Republic of Indonesia No. 4 of 2014 on Guidelines for Diversion and Law No. 35 of 2009 regarding Narcotics Crime have been given the freedom and legitimacy to the judge to apply the principle of ultimum remedium in handling cases of children in conflict with the law. As it turns out in practice however the ultimum remedium principle is rarely applied and tends to be overlooked in the process of juvenile justice.

  11. The Problem with Forgiving (But Not Entirely Forgetting the Crimes of Our Nation’s Youth: Exploring the Third Circuit’s Unconstitutional Use of Nonjury Juvenile Adjudication in Armed Career Criminal Sentencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen F. Donahue

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available For better or for worse, our Constitution ensures that the basic rights of fair procedure are guaranteed to all American citizens, including those accused of crime, no matter how much society may disapprove of their actions. The United States Supreme Court has expressly provided that “[d]ue process of law is the primary and indispensable foundation of individual freedom” and effectively serves as the “basic and essential term in the social compact which defines the rights of the individual and delimits the powers which the state may exercise.” Recognizing that the failure to observe fundamental procedural due process guarantees has historically resulted in substantial unfairness to criminal defendants, the Court has worked to establish heightened procedural safeguards in criminal proceedings over the latter half of the past century.6 In this sense, the Court has openly embraced the belief that “the progression of history, and especially the deepening realization of the substance and procedures that justice and the demands of human dignity require” has called for courts to “invest the command of ‘due process of law’ with increasingly greater substance.” Consequently, the Supreme Court has set a clear example that lower courts must move forward “with advancing the conception of human rights in according procedural as well as substantive rights to individuals accused of conflict with the criminal laws.”

  12. Crime Control Act of 1990 [29 November 1990]. [Summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    In the US, the Crime Control Act of 1990 was approved on November 29, 1990. This various titles of this Act include provisions relating to the following: 1) international money laundering; 2) child abuse; 3) child pornography; 4) kidnapping, abducting, or unlawfully restraining a child; 5) the protection of crime victims; 6) funding for local law enforcement agencies; 7) funding for federal law enforcement; 8) rural drug enforcement assistance; 9) mandatory detention for certain criminals; 10) juvenile justice; 11) penalties for use of certain firearms; 12) improvements in miscellaneous criminal law; 13) disability benefits for public safety officers; 14) money laundering; 15) drug-free school zones; 16) miscellaneous amendments to the federal judicial and criminal codes; 17) general provisions; 18) grants for correctional options; 19) control of anabolic steroids; 20) asset forfeiture; 21) student loan cancellation for law enforcement officers; 22) firearms provisions; 23) chemical diversion and trafficking; 24) drug paraphernalia; 25) banking law enforcement; 26) licit opium imports; 27) sentencing for methamphetamine offenses; 28) drug enforcement grants; 29) prisons; 30) shock incarceration (prison boot camps); 31) bankruptcy and restitution; 32) appropriations for law and drug enforcement agencies; 33) anti-drug programs; 34) support of law enforcement; 35) technical and minor substantive amendments to the federal criminal code; 36) federal debt collection; and 37) national child search assistance (for missing children).

  13. Intensive Reading Instruction in Juvenile Correctional Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jacob L.; Wexler, Jade; Roberts, Greg; Carpenter, Clint

    2011-01-01

    Despite 60 years of evidence linking juvenile illiteracy and delinquency, practitioners and policymakers have been painfully slow in the implementation of evidence-based reading interventions for incarcerated juveniles. We will present the Texas Juvenile Justice Tiered Instructional Model, an evidence-based reading program model created…

  14. Sex Differences in Attributions of Juvenile Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagatun, Inger J.

    This paper is an application of attribution theory to the processing of juvenile delinquents in an attempt to understand the differential treatment of female and male offenders within the juvenile justice system. The paper explores the attributions of juvenile delinquency both by male and female minors, by male and female parents, and by male and…

  15. The Juvenile Court: Changes and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feld, Barry C.

    2000-01-01

    Explores the changes in the juvenile court system, in particular, the juvenile waiver and sentencing laws, as it transformed from a social welfare agency into a type of criminal court system for young offenders. Addresses whether states should create an integrated juvenile and criminal justice system. (CMK)

  16. Forty Years of Crime in London (Journal)

    OpenAIRE

    Shoemaker, R.B.

    2015-01-01

    As a contribution to the fortieth anniversary celebrations of the London Journal, this article provides an overview of the twenty-seven articles which it has published about crime and criminal justice since its inception. While few articles were published in its early years, there has been a big increase in articles published in the last decade, pushing the Journal into the forefront of the historiography on these topics. A survey of the recurring themes in articles about crime, policing, jus...

  17. Cyber Crimes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    正With the popularization of Internet,cyber crimes have be-come a serious problem facing us.Nowadays cyber criminalsseem to be everywhere on the Internet.To illustrate,somecommit fraud or lift intellectual property,others snatch pass-words or disrupt e-commerce,and still others unleash virusesto crash computers.As a result,these crimes destroy net-work security greatly and make computer users suffer great losses.However,we shouldn't tolerate these cyber criminals any more.It's high timefor us to take effective measures to fight against cyber crimes.

  18. Development of Restorative Justice in China: Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinzhi Shen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Restorative justice has become a global social movement for criminal justice reform, with over eighty countries adopting some form of restorative justice program to tackle their crime problems. The theory of restorative justice was introduced to the Chinese academia in 2002. So far, various restorative justice programs have been developed in China. This paper aims to systematically review the development of restorative justice in China by analyzing academic literature on restorative justice and key legislative documentations. Major debates in restorative justice among Chinese scholars and a review of the indigenous restorative justice practice, criminal reconciliation (Xingshi Hejie, are provided. The study also analyzes the impetus of this soaring popularity of restorative justice in China, considering the macro social, political and legal background. Last but not least, a review of the major evaluation studies of current programs reveals that little is known about the process of various restorative justice programs from the parties’ own perspective.

  19. Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2009. NCES 2010-012/NCJ 228478

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinkes, Rachel; Kemp, Jana; Baum, Katrina

    2009-01-01

    A joint effort by the Bureau of Justice Statistics and National Center for Education Statistics, this annual report examines crime occurring in school as well as on the way to and from school. It provides the most current detailed statistical information to inform the Nation on the nature of crime in schools. This report presents data on crime at…

  20. Off Balance: Youth, Race & Crime in the News. Building Blocks for Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorfman, Lori; Schiraldi, Vincent

    This report assesses findings from content analyses on crime news, investigating whether news coverage reflects actual crime trends; how news coverage depicts minorities and crime; and whether news coverage disproportionately depicts minority youth as perpetrators. Data came from searches of criminal justice and communications databases, which…

  1. Youth With Disabilities in the Juvenile Justice System: Prevention and Intervention Strategies. Examining Current Challenges in Secondary Education and Transition. Issue Brief. Volume 4, Issue 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenhjem, Pam

    2005-01-01

    How do communities begin to address the issue of youth with disabilities who become involved with correctional systems? This brief provides information on proactive solutions based on restorative justice and wrap-around services, models, and strategies. This topic is receiving more attention as research has begun supporting a critical need for…

  2. Made in America: The Global Youth Justice Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Scott Bernard

    2009-01-01

    For an increasing and record number of communities in America and now in other countries, youth courts are providing a positive alternative to the juvenile justice system with significant and unexpected favorable outcomes. Youth court is most commonly identified as a juvenile justice program, given that the vast majority of youth cases referred…

  3. Education Policy and Crime. NBER Working Paper No. 15894

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochner, Lance

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the relationship between education and crime from an economic perspective, developing a human capital-based model that sheds light on key ways in which early childhood programs and policies that encourage schooling may affect both juvenile and adult crime. The paper first discusses evidence on the effects of educational…

  4. Testing Incapacitation Theory: Youth Crime and Incarceration in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahlkopf, Christina; Males, Mike; Macallair, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Under incapacitation theory, higher incarceration rates are expected to correlate with accelerated reductions in crime. California's contemporary incarceration patterns offer an opportunity to analyze the validity of this theory, particularly as it applies to young people. This study focuses on California's juvenile incarceration and crime trends…

  5. 76 FR 6634 - Notice of Funding Opportunity and Solicitation for Grant Applications (SGA) for Civic Justice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... Justice Corps projects funded through this grant announcement will provide young offenders the opportunity... (SGA) for Civic Justice Corps Grants Serving Juvenile Offenders AGENCY: Employment and Training... Workforce Investment Act for Civic Justice Corps Grants to serve juvenile offenders ages 18 to 24 who...

  6. Structure of Intellect and Learning Style of Incarcerated Youth Assessment: A Means to Providing a Continuum of Educational Service in Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Matthew J.; Steele-Dadzie, Timothy E.

    2005-01-01

    The authors analyzed data on the information processing abilities of incarcerated youth (n = 1480) within a correctional center. The goal was to develop a learning style profile of the juvenile offenders. Based on the current sample, they concluded that the bulk of the students were figural learners in terms of the preferred modality for receiving…

  7. Juvenile angiofibroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasal tumor; Angiofibroma - juvenile; Benign nasal tumor; Juvenile nasal angiofibroma; JNA ... Juvenile angiofibroma is not very common. It is most often found in adolescent boys. The tumor contains ...

  8. Crime scenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waade, Anne Marit

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to illuminate the significance of locations in TV series, in particular in crime series. The author presents different theoretical approaches on settings and landscapes in TV series and crime stories. By analysing both the Swedish and the British versions...... of the Wallander series, the author examines the various types of location used, focusing especially on their dramaturgic and aesthetic roles and on the various ways in which locations are conceptualized in the two series. The analysis also includes extra materials on the DVDs. Finally, the author discusses some...... theoretical and methodological challenges of analysing the significance and impact of locations in TV productions....

  9. Secrecy, Betrayal and Crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Siegel

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years numerous secret transgressions and crimes have been revealed in the media. Whistleblowers reveal clandestine agreements between managers and directors of large companies; criminals (pentiti make deals with criminal justice officials; cyclists and athletes make public confessions about drug use; victims of sexual abuse come forward with their testimonies.  In this paper, I try to analyze why attitudes about secrecy have changed in the last couple of decades and how and why so many secrets have been revealed, either by individuals who are complicit (whistleblowers or cyclists, by victims (of child abuse by the Catholic clergy and by outsiders (WikiLeaks activists. In addition, some suggestions on the methods of criminological research in closed and isolated groups which consider such information leaks a form of betrayal are provided.

  10. True Crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beyer Charlotte

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This poem is a creative response to contemporary true crime narratives about baby farming in Victorian times, namely Alison Rattle and Allison Vale’s The Woman Who Murdered Babies for Money: The Story of Amelia Dyer (London: André Deutsch, 2011; and the TV documentary, “Amelia Dyer: Martina Cole’s Lady Killers.”

  11. Violent Crime, Sociopathy and Love Deprivation among Adolescent Delinquents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Anthony; Beyer, J. Arthur

    1987-01-01

    Examined relationships between performance-verbal (P-V) discrepancy scores on Wechsler Intelligence Quotient Scales, love deprivation, and juvenile delinquency among 131 male juvenile probationers. P-V discrepancy scores were significantly related to love deprivation and violent crimes, supporting assertion that early emotional stresses affect…

  12. The Challenges in Providing Needed Transition Programming to Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, John S.; Bohac, Paul D.; Wade, Wanda

    2015-01-01

    The transition to and from juvenile justice settings is a complex and challenging process. Effectively preparing juvenile justice personnel to address the transition needs of incarcerated students is an essential aspect of reducing the negative effects of the school-to-prison pipeline. This article examines program and professional development…

  13. 28 CFR 0.57 - Criminal prosecutions against juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criminal prosecutions against juveniles. 0.57 Section 0.57 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Criminal Division § 0.57 Criminal prosecutions against juveniles. The Assistant Attorney...

  14. Parenting Styles and Family Communication as Correlates of Juvenile Delinquency

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine parenting styles and family communication as correlates of juvenile delinquency. A review of the literature was completed in the areas of parenting styles, family communication, and juvenile delinquency. The literature that was reviewed for this study was examined mainly from juvenile perceptions. This study was approached from a general systems theory perspective. A sample of juveniles (N = 78) from Weber County, Utah, involved in the juvenile justice...

  15. Separating state dependence, experience, and heterogeneity in a model of youth crime and education

    OpenAIRE

    Mancino, Maria Antonella; Navarro, Salvador; David A. Rivers

    2015-01-01

    We study the determinants of youth crime using a dynamic discrete choice model of crime and education. We allow past education and criminal activities to affect current crime and educational decisions. We take advantage of a rich panel dataset on serious juvenile offenders, the Pathways to Desistance. Using a series of psychometric tests, we estimate a model of cognitive and social/ emotional skills that feeds into the crime and education model. This allows us to separately identify the roles...

  16. Juvenile Incarceration and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnert, Elizabeth S; Perry, Raymond; Morris, Robert E

    2016-03-01

    Addressing the health status and needs of incarcerated youth represents an issue at the nexus of juvenile justice reform and health care reform. Incarcerated youth face disproportionately higher morbidity and higher mortality compared to the general adolescent population. Dental health, reproductive health, and mental health needs are particularly high, likely as a result of lower access to care, engagement in high-risk behaviors, and underlying health disparities. Violence exposure and injury also contribute to the health disparities seen in this population. Further, juvenile incarceration itself is an important determinant of health. Juvenile incarceration likely correlates with worse health and social functioning across the life course. Correctional health care facilities allow time for providers to address the unmet physical and mental health needs seen in this population. Yet substantial challenges to care delivery in detention facilities exist and quality of care in detention facilities varies widely. Community-based pediatricians can serve a vital role in ensuring continuity of care in the postdetention period and linking youth to services that can potentially prevent juvenile offending. Pediatricians who succeed in understanding and addressing the underlying social contexts of their patients' lives can have tremendous impact in improving the life trajectories of these vulnerable youth. Opportunities exist in clinical care, research, medical education, policy, and advocacy for pediatricians to lead change and improve the health status of youth involved in the juvenile justice system.

  17. 78 FR 57177 - Meeting of the Office of Justice Programs' Science Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-17

    ... component of the Department of Justice, with valuable advice in the areas of science and statistics for the purpose of enhancing the overall impact and performance of its programs and activities in criminal and... Justice (NIJ); Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS); Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency...

  18. 未成年罪犯共患注意缺陷多动障碍的父母教养方式调查%Relationship Between Juvenile Crime and Delinquency With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Parental Rearing Patterns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋苏华; 邹小兵; 谭伟棠; 麦智广; 张虹桥; 黄柳开

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore differences of parental rearing patterns between juvenile crime and delinquency with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and common ADHD adolescents.Methods A total of 41 cases of juvenile crime and delinquency with ADHD,male,Han nationality,were selected randomly from the detention center of Foshan during July 1,2006 to July 1,2007,and they were included into research group.In the same period,a total of 38 adolescents,male and Han nationality,which were diagnosed as ADHD for the first time by neural psychiatrist at Foshan First People' s Hospital were administered as control group.There had no significant differences on ages and other diseases between two groups (P>0.05).The study protocol was approved by the Ethical Review Board of Investigation in Human Being of Foshan First People's Hospital.Informed consent was obtained from each participate.ADHD were diagnosed by Vanderbilt ADHD parent Rating Scale (VADPRS).Parental rearing patterns between two groups were investigated by parental rearing patterns scale (EMBU).Results There had significant differences between two groups' father and mother,including warmth of feeling & understanding,punishment,refusal and repudiation,fulsome interference,fulsome protection,partiality (P<0.05).Compared with the rearing style of father and mother of research group,they had statistical differences (P<0.001) on warmth of feeling & understanding,punishment,refusal and repudiation,fulsome interference,fulsome protection,but parents in control group only had the significant differences on punishment and fulsome interference (P<0.001).But there has no significant difference (P> 0.05) on partiality between two groups.It showed that there was more serious divergence about the consistency of parental rearing style in research group.Compared education level of patients between two groups,there were statistics difference (P<0.05) between higher education level and lower education level

  19. Anti-Muslim Violence and the Possibility of Justice

    OpenAIRE

    Kolankiewicz, Marta

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the ways in which justice is dispensed in Swedish courts in cases concerning anti-Muslim violence. Based on material accessed through the Swedish National Board for Crime Prevention and classified as Islamophobic hate crimes, the judicial treatment of cases that may involve racism is analysed. An aim is to explore how different laws against racism in the Swedish legal system, most importantly the penalty enhancement provision for crimes motivated by racism, work ...

  20. CSI Effect of Crime Clarification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aylin Yakupoğlu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This research is aimed to evaluate the impact of CSI series on Criminal Justice Professional’s attitudes and behaviour and how these programs effecting public. From this point of view criminal justice professionals are expected to respond questions about, how this kind of dramas and programs guided potential criminals, reflected the practice of forensic science and directed the public expectation regarding performing their professions. Material and Methods: A survey has been conducted to 266 participants, who are working as crime scene investigation specialists, criminal courts judges, public prosecutors, lawyers, law enforcement personnel and forensic specialists, to reveal their perceptions. Gained data has been analyzed statistically by using SPSS (Version 20.0. Findings: According to some results of the research; 1 out of every 2 participants are following CSI series. only 3 out of every 10 participants expressed that these kind of series have positive effects on their professional practices, more than half of the participants agreed that crime dramas are effecting criminal behaviour and creating trained perpetrators. Also 1 out of every 2 participants believe that the perpetrators are attentive to leave fewer evidence because of these programs. Results: CSI series are not reflecting forensic techniques and methods as what it’s supposed to be in real life. Due to the raise of public interest in forensic sciences because of these dramas people changed their expectation about criminal justice mechanism which can be cause misperceptions on citizens who face with investigation and prosecution processes for the first time Keywords: CSI Effect; Crime Scene Investigation; Forensic Techniques and Methods

  1. An Empirical Evaluation of Juvenile Awareness Programs in the United States: Can Juveniles Be "Scared Straight"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenowski, Paul M.; Bell, Keith J.; Dodson, Kimberly D.

    2010-01-01

    Juvenile awareness programs like Scared Straight became popular crime prevention strategies during the 1970s. Juvenile offenders and at-risk youth who participate in these programs are taken to prisons where inmates use confrontational methods to recount stories about violence, sex, and abuse perpetrated by fellow inmates while living a life…

  2. 城市农二代未成年人犯罪防控研究--以泉州地区为例%The Research on the Juvenile Crime Prevention and the Control of the Newborn Peasant in the City---Samples Taken from Quanzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琴英

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the prolonged rally of juvenile delinquency is under control , but the newborn juveniles from the rural area , are committing more and more crimes .This paper using the data of Quanzhou analyzed the reason , feature of newborn farmer crime and proposed some measures in order to provide some reference to the prevention of newborn peasants .%近年来,未成年人犯罪总的上升势头得到了遏制,但城市农二代未成年人的犯罪率呈现出明显上升的趋势。本文运用泉州地区城市农二代未成年人犯罪的数据,分析这类人群犯罪的成因,探寻其犯罪特点,进而提出相应措施,以期为我国城市农二代未成年人犯罪的预防提供参考。

  3. Juvenile Incarceration and Health

    OpenAIRE

    Barnert, ES; R Perry; Morris, RE

    2015-01-01

    © 2015. Addressing the health status and needs of incarcerated youth represents an issue at the nexus of juvenile justice reform and health care reform. Incarcerated youth face disproportionately higher morbidity and higher mortality compared to the general adolescent population. Dental health, reproductive health, and mental health needs are particularly high, likely as a result of lower access to care, engagement in high-risk behaviors, and underlying health disparities. Violence exposure a...

  4. Psychiatric Disorder in a Juvenile Assessment Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    McReynolds, Larkin S.; Wasserman, Gail A.; DeComo, Robert E.; John, Reni; Keating, Joseph M.; Nolen, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile assessment centers (JACs) were developed to address service fragmentation and promote the sharing of information among agencies providing services to youth involved with the juvenile justice system. To date, there are no reports that describe the diagnostic profiles of the youth served by such centers. The authors hypothesize that the…

  5. Crime and Mental Wellbeing

    OpenAIRE

    Cornaglia, Francesca; Naomi E. Feldman; Leigh, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    We provide empirical evidence of crime's impact on the mental wellbeing of both victims and non-victims. We differentiate between the direct impact to victims and the indirect impact to society due to the fear of crime. The results show a decrease in mental wellbeing after violent crime victimization and that the violent crime rate has a negative impact on mental wellbeing of non-victims. Property crime victimization and property crime rates show no such comparable impact. Finally, we estimat...

  6. Prosecution of International Crimes - a Historical and Empirical Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Rikhof

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article will discuss the manner in which both international institutions as well as domestic courts have dealt with the phenomenon of meeting out justice to persons who have committed the international crimes of genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes. The paper will begin by painting with a broad brush a canvas of the attempts made at the international level in this area followed by a description of some overarching elements of two types of domestic trials. The first concerns trials conducted in countries relying on territorial jurisdiction, i.e. where the crimes had occurred, while the second is relevant in countries using universal jurisdiction, i.e. where the perpetrator was found after having committed the crimes. The article will then move from the general to one specific aspect of international trials, namely the methodologies used to draw the circle of guilty perpetration of persons involved in international crimes.

  7. Conflict Resolution, Restorative Justice Approaches and Bullying in Young People's Residential Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlechild, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Restorative justice has been an increasing feature in the discourses within adult and youth justice criminal justice systems in recent years. This article examines interpersonal conflicts arising from crime, bullying and antisocial behaviour in residential care, and the advantages and disadvantages of utilising such approaches in relation to these…

  8. Beyond the Criminal Arena: The Justice Studies Program at Winston-Salem State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Lynn K.; Mitchell, Alvin D.

    2006-01-01

    The justice studies program at Winston-Salem State University (WSSU) is designed to produce a new breed of justice practitioners whose understanding of justice and its administration is broadened to include the political, social, economic, and cultural conditions within which issues of crime and punishment are pursued and addressed. While it…

  9. Young Black Men and the Criminal Justice System: A Growing National Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauer, Marc

    The impact of the criminal justice system on Black male adults in the 20-to-29 year age group was examined. End results of the large-scale involvement of young Black men in the criminal justice system are considered, and the implications for crime control are discussed. Using data from Bureau of Justice Statistics and the Bureau of the Census…

  10. Dermatomyositis (Juvenile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Am A Patient / Caregiver Diseases & Conditions Dermatomyositis (Juvenile) Dermatomyositis (Juvenile) Fast Facts Patients with JDM have varying ... What are common signs and symptoms of juvenile dermatomyositis? The most common signs and symptoms of JDM ...

  11. Retinoschisis (Juvenile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... here Home › Eye Conditions Listen Retinoschisis What is Juvenile Retinoschisis? Juvenile retinoschisis is an inherited disease diagnosed in childhood ... degeneration of the retina. What are the symptoms? Juvenile retinoschisis, also known as X-linked retinoschisis, occurs ...

  12. Understanding Child Maltreatment: Juvenile Delinquency. From Research to Effective Program, Practice, and Systemic Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiig, Janet; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    This monograph details the growing body of research showing the connection between child maltreatment and juvenile delinquency. In 2000, nearly 879,000 children were victims of child abuse and neglect. Although juvenile crime has declined recently, the level of crime committed by youth remains high. This monograph describes an array of program,…

  13. «…For our happy childhood»: juvenile criminal liability in soviet legislation of 1920–1940

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Еvgeny F. Krinko

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is concerned with the dynamics of juvenile criminal liability in Soviet legislation of 1920–1940 and states tightening penalties for young and juvenile offenders under rise in child crime.

  14. Job Displacement and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; Ouazad, Amine

    We use a detailed employer-employee data set matched with detailed crime information (timing of crime, fines, convictions, crime type) to estimate the impact of job loss on an individual's probability to commit crime. We focus on job losses due to displacement, i.e. job losses in firms losing...

  15. Critical Factors in Mental Health Programming for Juveniles in Corrections Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Lee A.; Phillips, Annie; von Dresner, Kara; Knight, Pamela D.

    2006-01-01

    Juveniles with mental health and other specialized needs are overrepresented in the juvenile justice system, and while juvenile corrections have not historically provided standardized and evidence-based mental health services for its incarcerated youth, the demand is evident. The reality is that juveniles with serious mental illness are committed…

  16. Prabowo and the shortcomings of international justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Nikolas Feith

    2015-01-01

    under the jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court, temporal jurisdiction renders prosecution impossible. This article explores Prabowo’s human rights abuses, and how international criminal law has failed to achieve justice for these crimes. It concludes that Prabowo’s political rise threatens...

  17. Key figures on the Dutch criminal justice system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghuis, A.C.; Hooff, P. van

    1991-01-01

    This note contains statistical information on victimization rates, rates of reporting to the police, number of registered crimes and clearance rate, number of known suspects and known juvenile suspects, sentencing and dismissal rates, prison sentences, juvenile detention, state expenditure on police

  18. Sistema de Justicia Juvenil en la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina y métodos de evaluación / The Juvenile Justice System in the Province of Buenos Aires and evaluation methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Folino

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Los objetivos del presente artículo son describir el sistema de justicia juvenil en la provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina desde las perspectivas jurídica y ejecutiva, y comunicar avances científicos globales en la evaluación de los jóvenes que cometen actos disociales. En la provincia de Buenos Aires el sistema ha sido profundamente modificado en los últimos 15 años siguiendo las premisas de la Convención Internacional sobre los Derechos del Niño y dejando relegado el modelo del Patronato, que había regido previamente. Las instituciones encargadas de la ejecución de la intervención dispuesta por el Poder Judicial dependen actualmente de la Subsecretaria de Niñez y Adolescencia del Ministerio de Desarrollo Social y constan de centros cerrados, centros con régimen de semilibertad y centros de intervención ambulatoria (medidas alternativas a la prisión, tales como suspensión de juicio a prueba o tareas comunitarias. Las ciencias relacionadas con la salud mental y con el comportamiento vienen contribuyendo a la identificación de diversos factores influyentes en la conducta disocial y con el diseño de tipos de intervención para cada nivel de prevención. Sin embargo, hay una distancia importante entre las potencialidades del estado actual delconocimiento y la implementación. En las condiciones expuestas, queda configurado un período de transición que aún requiere optimización de la política de infancia con ajustes legislativos, judiciales y administrativos y con la capitalización de los aportes científicos.

  19. Restitution Programs for Juvenile Offenders. Technical Assistance Bulletin 23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National School Resource Network, Washington, DC.

    Restitution programs have been organized in many areas of the country to make juvenile offenders more accountable for their criminal behavior, more aware of the consequences to themselves, their victims, and the community, and thus, less likely to continue committing crimes. The programs also provide direct compensation for victims of crime.…

  20. The Impact of Juvenile Curfew Laws in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macallair, Dan; Males, Mike

    Data from jurisdictions throughout California were analyzed to determine the impact of juvenile curfew laws on youth crime. It was hypothesized that jurisdictions with strict curfew enforcement would experience lower overall and serious crime arrests than jurisdictions with less strict curfew enforcement. It was also hypothesized that…

  1. The Space for Restorative Justice in the Ethiopian Criminal Justice System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endalew Lijalem Enyew

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Restorative Justice (RJ is an alternative way of apprehending crime and justice which views crime as a violation of a relationship among victims, offenders and community, and which allows the active participation of the crime’s stakeholders. It has the objective of ‘putting right’ the wrong done, to restore the broken relationship and to reintegrate the offender back into society. The Ethiopian criminal justice system views crime primarily as a violation of the state’s criminal laws, either in the form of a commission or omission. It excludes the community from participation, and gives no opportunity to the victim to fully participate in the process. Nor is there a satisfactory legal procedure which enables the public prosecutor to adequately protect the victim’s interest. The focus of the public prosecutor is to have the accused convicted and punished, instead of encouraging them to take responsibility to undo the wrong they have committed. This article thus examines whether restorative justice has a place in the formal legal framework of the existing Ethiopian criminal justice system; and analyses the prospects for, and the challenges that may hinder, the implementation of restorative justice practice in this framework.

  2. Justice Globalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, Erin; Steger, Manfred; Siracusa, Joseph; Battersby, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The pursuit of a global order founded on universal rules extends beyond economics into the normative spheres of law, politics and justice. Justice globalists claim universal principles applicable to all societies irrespective of religion or ideology. This view privileges human rights, democracy and

  3. Justice sociale

    OpenAIRE

    Jacquemain, Marc

    2007-01-01

    At first glance "social justice" cannot be considered as a "new word of power" since all powers have been reluctant to apply social justice. But if it is used to organize the "evaporation" of the reflexion on equality, then it can take a clearly conservative tone

  4. Justice Globalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, Erin; Steger, Manfred; Siracusa, Joseph; Battersby, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The pursuit of a global order founded on universal rules extends beyond economics into the normative spheres of law, politics and justice. Justice globalists claim universal principles applicable to all societies irrespective of religion or ideology. This view privileges human rights, democracy and

  5. Organizational Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Travis

    2013-01-01

    Helping principals understand the importance of organizational justice is the first step in enhancing learning outcomes for all learners, regardless of their social class, race, abilities, sex, or gender. In schools, organizational justice may be defined as teachers' perceptions of fairness, respect, and equity that relate to their interactions…

  6. 75 FR 17161 - Meeting of the Compact Council for the National Crime Prevention and Privacy Compact

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    .... (2) Report on the Bureau of Justice Statistics' Criminal History Record Information Sharing (CHRIS... Federal Bureau of Investigation Meeting of the Compact Council for the National Crime Prevention and... purpose of this notice is to announce a meeting of the National Crime Prevention and Privacy...

  7. The Dynamic Relationship between Crime and Economic Growth in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adekoya Adenuga Fabian

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Crime is a major impediment to economic growth and development in Nigeria despite measures taken to reduce it. There is, however, currently no major statistical analysis of how crime affects economic growth in that country. This study examines the link between crime and growth based on the theory of rational choice and empirical data. Exogenous and endogenous growth models are employed, and include deterrence variables. The period examined is 1970–2013 and estimation is done using the autoregressive distributed lag model. The results of our study show that crime affects economic growth at a 1% and 10% level of significance. In other words, crime imposes the costs of prosecution and punishment on the citizens and country, which influences the growth of the economy. Given our results, we suggest that police and the system of justice should be strengthened. Indeed, this may be necessary if the development target stated in Nigeria vision 20: 2020 is to be reached.

  8. Las medidas de seguridad en materia penal juvenil Security measures in juvenile criminal law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Campos Zuñiga

    2006-03-01

    drug addict has been determined from the conclusions of respective expertise. The question leads up to two possible solutions: first, face it like a health problem and exclude it from criminal law; second, keep the traditional line, in which the criminal law can punish the criminal conduct, imposing a security measure. If we admit the first solution, the laws applicable are the Code of Childhood and Adolescence, contemplating the possibility of applying protection measures towards those who are in a vulnerable situation, in which we would put the cases of the not guilty and the drug addicts; this would imply admitting "security or protection" measures with a juridical nature of administrative sort. Position that would imply not only a weakening of rights, but would also violate what the Constitutional Chamber has said, when studying the scope of Article 39 of the Political Constitution, that the imposition of punishments and security measures have the guarantee of law reserve, which makes its nature jurisdictional and exclusive to when a crime is committed. The only possible solution, in order to respect this law reserve, is to apply, according to Article 9 of the Law of Juvenile Criminal Justice, the legislation applicable to adults and to admit the imposition of security measures in juvenile criminal justice.

  9. Victims and the criminal justice system in India: Need for a paradigm shift in the justice system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan Murugesan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Until 1970s the victims of crime were a forgotten entity in the criminal justice system. The attitude began to change as the discipline of victimology came into its own. The past few decades have witnessed a revolution in the way society deals with victims of crime. Many countries have now recognized the need to provide services to victims to help them recover from the effects of crime and assist them in their dealings with the criminal justice system. But in India, there has not been any significant improvement in the position of victims in the criminal justice system. The present paper has attempted to examine the position of victims of crime in India and the criminal justice system. The paper also emphasizes the need to provide assistance to crime victims. The authors of the present paper have also suggested some of the immediate steps that are to be implemented by the law enforcement agencies in India to improve the position of victims in the criminal justice system. .

  10. [Current Problems Encountered by American Youth: Delinquency, Crime, School Violence, School Discipline, and Related Matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnery, Alfred S.

    This paper presents a broad overview of information about delinquency, crime, and school discipline and violence in relation to U.S. youths. Part 1 compares U.S. and West Germany's crime rates for 1980-1985, while part 2 focuses on U.S. juvenile crime facts and on the contribution of the increasing number of U.S. family breakdowns to juvenile…

  11. Media and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Gunhild; Waade, Anne Marit

    2011-01-01

    Recent developments in the relationship between media and crime are analyzed, taking both fiction and journalism in account......Recent developments in the relationship between media and crime are analyzed, taking both fiction and journalism in account...

  12. The SAPS crime statistics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Every year, the South African Minister of Police releases the crime statistics in ... prove an invaluable source of information for those who seek to better understand and respond to crime ... of Social Development in the JCPS may suggest a.

  13. Integration Researches on the Juvenile Crime Prevention in Our Country and the Rating System of Internet content in the Perspective of Social Learning Theory%我国青少年犯罪预防与互联网内容分级制度的整合研究--以社会学习理论为视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宗辉; 杨智博

    2016-01-01

    明晰青少年犯罪的涵义,以社会学习理论为视角,解构互联网的迅猛但不规范发展极易对青少年产生的不良影响的交互作用机制。以此为基础,提出互联网内容分级制度的建设,旨在减少并阻断互联网对于青少年的不当危害,从而为预防青少年犯罪提供一种可资借鉴的新途径。%the paper discusses the connotation of juvenile crime, and deconstructs the interaction mechanism of the bad influence of the Internet on teenagers in the perspective of social learning theory. And on this basis, it puts forward the rating system building of Internet content in order to reduce and prevent improper harm of Internet on teenagers. It provides a reference for the prevention of juvenile delinquency in a new way.

  14. Juvenile Scleroderma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile Scleroderma INTRODUCTION Every parent will experience a moment of panic when told their child has scleroderma. ... in all their family members as well. CONCLUSION Juvenile scleroderma can be unsettling for the child and ...

  15. Jurors' perceptions of juvenile defendants: the influence of intellectual disability, abuse history, and confession evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najdowski, Cynthia J; Bottoms, Bette L; Vargas, Maria C

    2009-01-01

    Understanding jurors' perceptions of juvenile defendants has become increasingly important as more and more juvenile cases are being tried in adult criminal court rather than family or juvenile court. Intellectual disability and child maltreatment are overrepresented among juvenile delinquents, and juveniles (particularly disabled juveniles) are at heightened risk for falsely confessing to crimes. In two mock trial experiments, we examined the effects of disability, abuse history, and confession evidence on jurors' perceptions of a juvenile defendant across several different crime scenarios. Abused juveniles were treated more leniently than nonabused juveniles only when the juvenile's crime was motivated by self-defense against the abuser. Jurors used disability as a mitigating factor, making more lenient judgments for a disabled than a nondisabled juvenile. Jurors also completely discounted a coerced confession for a disabled juvenile, but not for a nondisabled juvenile. In fact, compared with when it was portrayed as voluntary, jurors generally discounted a juvenile's coerced confession. Implications for public policy and directions for future research are discussed.

  16. Job Displacement and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; Ouazad, Amine

    This paper matches a comprehensive Danish employer-employee data set with individual crime information (timing of offenses, charges, convictions, and prison terms by crime type) to estimate the impact of job displacement on an individual’s propensity to commit crime. We focus on displaced individ...

  17. Crime and Partnerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svarer, Michael

    This paper tests whether being convicted of a crime affects marriage market outcomes. While it is relatively well documented that crime hurts in terms of reduced future income, there has been little systematic analysis on the association between crime and marriage market outcomes. This paper expl...

  18. Recreative sports in preventing child and youth crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Yaman

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to be able to make it clear that recreation serves as a buffer in preventing crime; recreational sports having a special place for young people in juvenile delinuency have an important place; and recreational activities that will be practised in the regions committing intense crime reduce the rate of crimes; but most importantly, sports recreation serves as a buffer for children and young people particularly in preventing the individuals from crime even before they commit.While legally criminal corresponding activities and conradictions to social values are accepted as crime, research shows that criminal tendency mostly centres around youth. When young population over 26 million is regarded, the issue comes out to be such important for Turkey.Juvenile delinquency shows an increasing tendency all over the world; however, Turkey remains at the head of the world with forty percent. Security General Directorate data shows that in 2006 there were 31.761 thinner and baly addicted young; aged 30 and below composed the fifty percent of drug addicted individuals, ranging 57 percent between 15 and 24 aged; smoking start age decreased to the age of 9-10 and alcohol drinking start age fell to the age of 12-14. According to the the report of Substance Research and Treatment Centre, volatile substance start age is 11-12, drug start age is 16-17 and heroin start age is 18-19.When the research is examined, it is admitted that many countries use recreation as a buffer to reduce the rates and also prevent juvenile delinquency in the regions experiencing intense crime and that pretty good results and recoveries ranging to 90 percent are obtained from the applications.Recreational activity in great demand among the young is generally sports. Recreational sports is used as a means of crime prevention. Research suggests that pursuit of recreational sports tends to deter the young from participation in crime. Crime rates decrease in the

  19. Recreative sports in preventing child and youth crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Yaman

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to be able to make it clear that recreation serves as a buffer in preventing crime; recreational sports having a special place for young people in juvenile delinuency have an important place; and recreational activities that will be practised in the regions committing intense crime reduce the rate of crimes; but most importantly, sports recreation serves as a buffer for children and young people particularly in preventing the individuals from crime even before they commit.While legally criminal corresponding activities and conradictions to social values are accepted as crime, research shows that criminal tendency mostly centres around youth. When young population over 26 million is regarded, the issue comes out to be such important for Turkey.Juvenile delinquency shows an increasing tendency all over the world; however, Turkey remains at the head of the world with forty percent. Security General Directorate data shows that in 2006 there were 31.761 thinner and baly addicted young; aged 30 and below composed the fifty percent of drug addicted individuals, ranging 57 percent between 15 and 24 aged; smoking start age decreased to the age of 9-10 and alcohol drinking start age fell to the age of 12-14. According to the the report of Substance Research and Treatment Centre, volatile substance start age is 11-12, drug start age is 16-17 and heroin start age is 18-19. When the research is examined, it is admitted that many countries use recreation as a buffer to reduce the rates and also prevent juvenile delinquency in the regions experiencing intense crime and that pretty good results and recoveries ranging to 90 percent are obtained from the applications.Recreational activity in great demand among the young is generally sports. Recreational sports is used as a means of crime prevention. Research suggests that pursuit of recreational sports tends to deter the young from participation in crime. Crime rates decrease in the

  20. Age and the explanation of crime, revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeten, Gary; Piquero, Alex R; Steinberg, Laurence

    2013-06-01

    Age is one of the most robust correlates of criminal behavior. Yet, explanations for this relationship are varied and conflicting. Developmental theories point to a multitude of sociological, psychological, and biological changes that occur during adolescence and adulthood. One prominent criminological perspective outlined by Gottfredson and Hirschi claims that age has a direct effect on crime, inexplicable from sociological and psychological variables. Despite the attention this claim has received, few direct empirical tests of it have been conducted. We use data from Pathways to Desistance, a longitudinal study of over 1,300 serious youthful offenders (85.8% male, 40.1% African-American, 34.3% Hispanic, 21.0% White), to test this claim. On average, youths were 16.5 years old at the initial interview and were followed for 7 years. We use multilevel longitudinal models to assess the extent to which the direct effects of age are reduced to statistical and substantive non-significance when constructs from a wide range of developmental and criminological theories are controlled. Unlike previous studies, we are able to control for changes across numerous realms emphasized within differing theoretical perspectives including social control (e.g., employment and marriage), procedural justice (e.g., perceptions of the legitimacy and fairness of the legal system), learning (e.g., gang membership and exposure to antisocial peers), strain (e.g., victimization and relationship breakup), psychosocial maturity (e.g., impulse control, self-regulation and moral disengagement), and rational choice (e.g., costs and rewards of crime). Assessed separately, these perspectives explain anywhere from 3% (procedural justice) to 49% (social learning) of the age-crime relationship. Together, changes in these constructs explain 69% of the drop in crime from ages 15 to 25. We conclude that the relationship between age and crime in adolescence and early adulthood is largely explainable, though

  1. Regional Crime Rates and Fear of Crime: WISIND Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Bug, Mathias; Kroh, Martin; Meier, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Many people are afraid of falling prey to crime. The present report investigates the extent to which this fear is in line with the actual regional crime rates. This analysis is based on data from a comprehensive database on the fear of crime, combined with police crime statistics (specifically, adjusted crime statistics which factor in the "dark figure" of unreported crime). No evidence was found to support the (occasionally voiced) contention that the fear of falling prey to crime is irratio...

  2. Regional crime rates and fear of crime: WISIND findings

    OpenAIRE

    Bug, Mathias; Kroh, Martin; Meier, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Many people are afraid of falling prey to crime. The present report investigates the extent to which this fear is in line with the actual regional crime rates. This analysis is based on data from a comprehensive database on the fear of crime, combined with police crime statistics (specifically, adjusted crime statistics which factor in the "dark figure" of unreported crime). No evidence was found to support the (occasionally voiced) contention that the fear of falling prey to crime is irratio...

  3. Crime and German Decadence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft

    subjects are dealt with collectively and in doing so he establishes new grounds for reflection on crime and culture – both factual and fictional representation as such. Approaches to crime fiction often build on an acknowledged history of the genre which, then, reproduces an established concord...... the boundaries of understanding the cultural and historical roots of genre and crime fiction. Nevertheless, the missing link in dealing with crime fiction – even though Nestingen takes certain steps in that direction – is often its connection to criminological and cultural studies. If we approach crime stories...

  4. The Creationof“Juvenile”and Its Demise:A Sociological Inquiryon U.S.and Japan’s Juvenile Justice%“未成年人”的“生”与“死”以美、日为借鉴的社会学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖仕豪

    2016-01-01

    本文尝试以美、日两国的法制史、社会史为基础论述少年司法制度的社会历史生成机理,并指出有关少年司法、“未成年人”的问题意识的形成都是特定社会背景下的产物。书写文化的出现使得儿童与成人之间产生了质的区分,而工业化、城市化和核心家庭则改变了人们看待儿童的方式,由此现代儿童得以发明。未成年人以现代儿童为蓝本被创造,构成了少年司法制度的基本预设和实践基础。随着新的媒介环境和个体化趋势的展开,儿童自身和人们看待儿童的方式都发生了改变,直接导致了未成年人形象的消解,进而促成了两国少年司法的成人化。%This study attempts to expose the socio-historical mechanism that gave birth to the concept of juvenile and the juvenile justice system in America and Japan.It points out that both are social constructs that are historically and culturally specific.The emergence of writing culture began the distinction between child and adult.Industrialization,urbanization and nuclear family structure have brought a new conceptualization of childhood.This modern idea of childhood as a special development stage distinctive from the adult world became the base for the conception of juvenile and the modern juvenile justice system.However,the new social media environment and the increasingly individualistic nature of western societies have transformed yet again not only childhood itself but the idea of childhood as well,leading to the dissolution of“juvenile”and the adultification of the juvenile justice system in America and Japan.The Chinese juvenile justice system is still in its infancy,largely a carbon copy of Western practices.Law makers in China should not blindly copy foreign systems without questioning their validity. Instead, they should reassess the system,give the Chinese reality a thoughtful examination and formulate realistic laws in dealing with

  5. Metamorphosis: How Missouri Rehabilitates Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubin, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Juveniles convicted of serious offenses usually end up in large correctional facilities that focus on punishment--not rehabilitation. The state of Missouri, however, has found a better way to help end the cycle of crime: by creating a network of small facilities that provide therapy and educational opportunities, it has dramatically reduced…

  6. Juveniles tried as adults: the age of the juvenile matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Jaclyn K; Woody, William Douglas

    2011-08-01

    Serious juvenile crimes require evaluation of a child as a criminal defendant in adult court. In such cases, it is crucial to understand jurors' attitudes, biases, and ability to follow legal instructions and maintain fairness. 308 undergraduate psychology students served as mock jurors, were randomly separated into four groups, and each group read the same realistic summary of a trial with the defendant's age presented as 13, 15, 17, or 21 years. Participants were asked to render guilty or not guilty verdicts and, if guilty, to suggest sentences. Chi-squared analysis indicated 13- and 15-year-old defendants were convicted less often than 17- and 21-year-old defendants, showing that jurors distinguished between juvenile defendants of different ages, but not minors and adults as defined by law. Additional analysis showed that age did not affect sentencing recommendations. Decision processes jurors use for juveniles tried as adults are discussed.

  7. Prevention of Crime and the Optimal Standard of Proof in Criminal Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    The standard of proof in criminal law a®ects retributive justice throughthe number of wrong convictions and wrong acquittals. It also a®ects thelevel of crime, since a higher standard of proof implies less deterrence andless incapacitation. This article derives an expression for the optimal...... standardfrom a trade-o® between these e®ects, and applies the expression tothe crime of sexual violation against women. For this crime, social preferencesfor justice versus prevention of crime are elicited through a surveyand inserted into the expression for the optimal standard. The result indicatesthat...... the concern for prevention of crime may have a signi¯cant e®ecton the optimal standard of proof....

  8. Full moon and crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, C P; Sharma, D

    The incidence of crimes reported to three police stations in different towns (one rural, one urban, one industrial) was studied to see if it varied with the day of the lunar cycle. The period of the study covered 1978-82. The incidence of crimes committed on full moon days was much higher than on all other days, new moon days, and seventh days after the full moon and new moon. A small peak in the incidence of crimes was observed on new moon days, but this was not significant when compared with crimes committed on other days. The incidence of crimes on equinox and solstice days did not differ significantly from those on other days, suggesting that the sun probably does not influence the incidence of crime. The increased incidence of crimes on full moon days may be due to "human tidal waves" caused by the gravitational pull of the moon.

  9. L’impossible crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabienne Giuliani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Figure appréciée des romanciers du xixe siècle, l’incestueuse prend tour à tour le visage de Lucrèce, Salomé ou Phèdre. Toujours voluptueuse, cette dernière est une fille, une sœur, mais jamais, elle n’est présentée comme une mère. Est-ce à dire que les mères ne pratiquent pas l’inceste ? La lecture de la littérature médicale, qui ne dialogue pas sur le phénomène, ainsi que celle des procès de Cours d’assises, qui traduisent 92% d’hommes devant les jurés, entérine cette vision masculine du crime. Pourtant, plongé dans une lecture attentive des sources, l’historien croise des histoires de mères, souvent violentes, qui s’attaquent sexuellement à leurs enfants. Comment expliquer ce décalage ?Salome, Phèdre and Lucrezia Borgia were the most appreciated figures of incest in the French literature during the nineteenth-century. Sister or daugther, they were always described as voluptuous women. But concerning the incestuous mother, the writers remained silent. Didn’t she exist? Even the medical literature and the Justice System, which judged 92% of male, agreed with this social imaginary in keeping quiet about incestuous mother. By a careful glance at the sources, the historian can however cross the path of these incestuous mothers, often more violent than the fathers with their children. How can this gap be explained?

  10. A Juvenile Drug Court Model in Southern Arizona: Substance Abuse, Delinquency, and Sexual Risk Outcomes by Gender and Race/Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Bridget S.; Stevens, Sally J.; Fuhriman, Janet; Bogart, John G.; Korchmaros, Josephine D.

    2009-01-01

    Alcohol and drug use related crimes continue to be processed in juvenile courts at high rates. One approach for addressing substance related issues has been the implementation of juvenile drug courts. Juvenile drug courts were established given the wide-spread success of adult drug courts. However, juvenile drug courts require different components…

  11. The Longitudinal Association of Relationship Quality and Reoffending Among First-Time Juvenile Offenders and Their Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Caitlin; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2017-07-01

    To understand how youth desist from crime after their first arrest, it is necessary to investigate their primary support system: their parents. As such, this study examined the reciprocal effects of justice system contact on the mother-child dyad. Interviews with 317 mothers and their sons from Orange County, CA, Jefferson Parish, LA, and Philadelphia, PA were conducted semiannually over two and a half years. At the beginning of the study, the sons were first-time offenders aged 13-17 and mostly non-White (i.e., 19.2 White, 56.5 Latino, 21.5 Black, and 2.8% another race/ethnicity). The results revealed that a high quality initial mother-son relationship reduces youths' re-offending over time. Furthermore, as mothers perceived that their sons were offending more, they reported less warmth in their relationships with their sons two and a half years later. Interestingly, youth's age emerged as a moderator. First, older youth were less likely to engage in reoffending if they had a warm maternal relationship. Second, decreases in relationship warmth associated with re-offending were steeper for younger youth. The findings have implications for juvenile justice policy in terms of improving probationary outcomes for youth offenders, and alleviating the financial and emotional burden on justice system-involved families.

  12. REFORMATIONS IN ZIMBABWE'S JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mugumbate

    1996-05-23

    May 23, 1996 ... National Association of Social Workers-Zimbabwe/Author(s) ... systems, professionals, institutions and treatment specifically applicable to children ..... community involvement in administration and management of child welfare.

  13. IS COMMUNITY JUSTICE A VIABLE ALTERNATIVE TO CRIMINAL JUSTICE AND DOES IT CONTRIBUTE TO THE LOCAL BUSINESS ECONOMY?

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Lewis; Maryam Davodi-Far

    2008-01-01

    Local communities are suffering extreme financial and economic hardships due to falling revenues and increased expenditures and therefore must seek alternate means to balance their budgets. A very large expenditure that must be borne by every community is the administration of the Criminal Justice System. As a result, many communities are trying to develop a more proactive approach to fighting crime by undertaking new and innovative approaches to solving their worsening crime problems and at ...

  14. A social work study on juvenile delinquency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We present an empirical study to study the effects of different factors on juvenile delinquency. The investigation distributes 100 questionnaires among people who are involved with crime and analyzes their feedbacks. There are five hypotheses in our survey and we look to see whether family conditions, religion, economical conditions, media and physical and psychological characteristics play important role on juvenile delinquency in Iranian society. The results shows that while family conditions, physical and psychological characteristics play important role on juvenile delinquency, other factors do not statistically have any impact on juvenile delinquency. The study suggests that a better family condition could help reduce juvenile delinquency and people could guide their children through better consultations.

  15. A Structural Equation Modeling Analysis of Influences on Juvenile Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, David E.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Zhang, Dalun; Zhang, Dake

    2014-01-01

    This study examined influences on delinquency and recidivism using structural equation modeling. The sample comprised 199,204 individuals: 99,602 youth whose cases had been processed by the South Carolina Department of Juvenile Justice and a matched control group of 99,602 youth without juvenile records. Structural equation modeling for the…

  16. IDEA-Related Professional Development in Juvenile Corrections Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Joseph Calvin; Steinberg, Mary Anne; Crockett, Jean; Murphy, Kristin M.; Gaddis, Justin

    2013-01-01

    Incarcerated youth are among the least academically and behaviorally competent students in the United States. In spite of juvenile justice reform efforts, including state and federal guarantees of appropriate education, educational services in juvenile corrections (JC) schools, especially for youth with disabilities, are lacking (Houchins,…

  17. Corporal and capital punishment of juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, H C

    1990-01-01

    There is a previously unobserved connection between corporal punishment of public school children and capital punishment of juveniles. Both are barometers of acceptable levels of violent punishment and their elimination is a hallmark of a maturing and decent society. Within a majority of the eighteen states where school authorities most frequently strike children are housed 25 of the nation's 28 juvenile death row inmates. On average, the homicide rates of these jurisdictions are two and a half times greater than those that have abolished both state-sanctioned corporal and capital punishment or limit death sentences to those age eighteen and older at the time of their crime(s). Most of the eighteen state abolitions of corporal punishment occurred in the 1980's. The US Supreme Court has ruled both corporal and capital punishment of juveniles constitutional. Additional state legislative abolition of both is anticipated in the 1990s.

  18. Overview of criminal justice projects at Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, D.D.

    1995-07-01

    The criminal justice projects at SNL include three projects for the National Institute of Justice (smart gun, restraining foam, aqueous foam, corrections perimeter), a Southwest Border study, and one involving corrections agencies. It is concluded that the national technologies developed to protect nuclear and other high value assets have enormous potential for application to crime and personal safety; the difficulty lies in simplifying the technology transfer and making the new systems affordable.

  19. Patterns and Costs of Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Alan Jay

    1984-01-01

    Presents results of the Library Crime Research Project, a three-year study of crime and disruption patterns in public libraries in all 50 states. Patterns of crime, costs of crime (direct, indirect), losses due to crime, patterns of security use, and effects of victimization are covered. Three references are listed. (EJS)

  20. The Education of Juveniles in Detention: Policy Considerations and Infrastructure Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geib, Catherine Foley; Chapman, John F.; D'Amaddio, Amy H.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a discussion of the state of affairs pertaining to educating juvenile justice-involved youth. It summarizes general observations regarding the schooling of juveniles in pre-trial and post-trial incarceration settings, as well as, juveniles on probation or in community settings. The article selectively presents relevant…

  1. Juvenile Judge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    SHANG Xiuyun was among the first sitting judges when the juvenile court was set up in Beijing 10 years ago. With enriched experience she has altered the way judges ask questions in court. She began the practice of inviting juvenile offenders, their parents, relatives, friends and teachers to the juvenile court to work hand in hand in dealing with cases: Facing their relatives and friends and hearing their heartfelt words, juvenile offenders would often be touched, thus bringing forth a positive attitude toward life.

  2. Crime as tourism externality

    OpenAIRE

    Biagi, Bianca; Detotto, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the linkage between tourism and crime with particular focus on the distortions generated onto criminal activities by the presence of visitors. Controlling for socio-demographic and economic variables, we empirically investigate the contribution of tourist arrivals to different types of crimes for 103 Italian provinces and for the year 2005. Possible spill-over effects of crime are taken into account by testing two spatial models (one spatial lag model and one spatial error...

  3. Crime and immigration

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Immigration is one of the most important policy debates in Western countries. However, one aspect of the debate is often mischaracterized by accusations that higher levels of immigration lead to higher levels of crime. The evidence, based on empirical studies of many countries, indicates that there is no simple link between immigration and crime. Crucially, the evidence points to substantial differences in the impact on property crime, depending on the labor market opportunities of immigrant ...

  4. The Economics of Crime: Investigating the Drugs-Crime Channel

    OpenAIRE

    Entorf, Horst; Winker, Peter

    2002-01-01

    The rising trends both in drug addiction and crime rates are of major public concern in Germany. Surprisingly, the economic theory of crime seems to ignore the drugs-crime nexus, whereas the criminological literature considers illicit drug use a main reason of criminal activities. This paper provides an econometric assessment of the drugs-crime channel within a Becker-Ehrlich model of crime supply. We analyse three different channels from drug abuse to crime: system-related, economic-related ...

  5. The Economics of Crime: Investigating the Drugs-Crime Channel

    OpenAIRE

    Entorf, Horst; Winker, Peter

    2002-01-01

    The rising trends both in drug addiction and crime rates are of major public concern in Germany. Surprisingly, the economic theory of crime seems to ignore the drugs-crime nexus, whereas the criminological literature considers illicit drug use a main reason of criminal activities. This paper provides an econometric assessment of the drugs-crime channel within a Becker-Ehrlich model of crime supply. We analyse three different channels from drug abuse to crime: system-related, economic-related ...

  6. Job Displacement and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; Ouazad, Amine

    individuals, i.e. high-tenure workers with strong attachment to their firm, who lose employment during a mass-layoff event. Pre-displacement data suggests no evidence of endogenous selection of workers for displacement during mass-layoffs: displaced workers’ propensity to commit crime exhibits...... theory of crime. Marital dissolution is more likely post-displacement, and we find small intra-family externalities of adult displacement on younger family members’ crime. The impact of displacement on crime is stronger in municipalities with higher capital and labor income inequalities....

  7. Psychopathology and offense types in detained male juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattner, Belinda; Giger, Joël; Bachmann, Friedel; Brühwiler, Karl; Steiner, Hans; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Bessler, Cornelia; Aebi, Marcel

    2012-07-30

    A substantial proportion of violent crime is committed by juveniles. In detained juveniles, high rates of psychopathology have been found. The objective of this study was to determine psychopathology associated with offense characteristics in detained male adolescents. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview was used to assess juvenile detainees. The final sample included 275 males (mean age=16.45, S.D.=1.27 years). Multivariate logistic regressions yielded significant associations between psychopathology and specific offense types: The presence of substance use disorders (without alcohol) (SUD) was found to predict drug-related crimes, and the presence of alcohol use disorders (AUD) without further SUD were a predictor of violent crime, especially in older juveniles. The absence of anxiety disorder, especially in younger juveniles, was found to be relevant for the prediction of robbery. The results of the study suggest that the use and abuse of legal and illegal substances might be a trigger for serious violent and drug-related crimes in juveniles. In particular, the presence of AUD is presumed to have a pivotal role in the development of impulsive aggression. These findings are important when considering the serious social impact of violent behaviors in adolescents.

  8. Prediction of crime and early interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens

    This paper presents a prospective longitudinal study that attempts to predict juvenile delinquency measured by first contact with the police (arrest, pre-trial detention or charges of crimes) taking a complete cohort of all children born in Denmark in 1984 (N=54,458). The children are followed from...... birth to early adulthood in 2006. The predictors represent the major crime reduction paradigms, such as family circumstance and individual skills. A discrete-time Cox model is used to allow for changing covariates over time. The population had 6,075 first time contacts with the police over the 300......,591 person-years available. More than twenty risk factors were significantly predicting first-time contact with the police. Predictions were substantially more accurate than chance. Results also showed that the proportion of ‘false-positives’ were about 77 % of estimated high-risk subjects when observing...

  9. Historical Memory and Transitional Justice in Spain: the Time as Actor of Criminal Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Tamarit Sumalla

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the political, criminal and legal challenges posed by accountability demands for past crimes by studying the singularities that the Spanish transition from Franco’s dictatorship to democracy has raised. Especially, it is analysed the Historical Memory Law of 2007 and the most problematic points of the criminal justice actions that have emerged due to offenses committed during the dictatorship. Despite the existence of international crimes, the elapsed time has brought difficult to overcome, factual and legal difficulties for effective prosecution. This problem, focusing on the prohibition of retroactivity, prescription and effects of the Amnesty Act of 1977 is examined here.

  10. Using a Creative Intervention to Increase Self-Disclosure among Mandated Juveniles with Co-Occurring Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Faith; Bitar, George W.; Gee, Robert; Graff, Chad; Springer, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Counselors providing treatment within the juvenile justice system encounter numerous challenges that are inherent in working with this population. One of the challenges includes providing treatment to adolescents who are entering the juvenile justice system with co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders. Given the challenges, creative…

  11. JUSTICIA RESTAURATIVA Y PROCESO PENAL GARANTÍAS PROCESALES: LÍMITES Y POSIBILIDADES RESTORATIVE JUSTICE AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE PROCEDURAL SAFEGUARDS: LIMITS AND POSSIBILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Mera González-Ballesteros

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hace ya más de tres décadas que se han venido implementando en diversas jurisdicciones programas de justicia restaurativa en el ámbito de la justicia penal, especialmente en los sistemas de justicia penal juvenil, ofreciendo una alternativa de resolución orientada a la reparación, desjudicialización y el diálogo entre los directamente involucrados en el conflicto. Este vertiginoso desarrollo ha precedido generalmente a la regulación legal y al debate sobre estándares y garantías procesales que deben orientar estos programas. Sin embargo, a medida que los programas de justicia restaurativa han ganado terreno y se han propuesto como mecanismos de resolución en casos de mayor gravedad y de criminalidad adulta, la necesidad de establecer estándares legales se ha hecho urgente. Hasta ahora, a nivel comparado, no existe acuerdo sobre la necesidad o el contenido de las garantías procesales aplicables a los programas de justicia restaurativa. Este trabajo propone que es necesario establecer estándares procesales claros en la implementación de estos programas, pero a su vez, que ellos deben adecuarse a los principios y fines que ésta persigue.Since more than thirty years, many countries have implemented restorative justice programmes to deal with criminal matters, especially with young offenders. This programmes offer different ways to deal with the aftermaths of a crime, through diversion, reparation and the active participation of those involved in the conflict. This dramatic development has occurred, though, without broad legal regulations or deep debates regarding procedural safeguards and standards. Nevertheless, as restorative justice programmes grow and are being used to deal with serious offences and adult offenders, the need for the setting of safeguards is pressing. Until now, there is not agreement in the literature regarding the specific content of procedural safeguards for restorative justice. This paper suggests that

  12. The Problem of Universal Jurisdiction in Curbing International Crimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasanov RAHIM TASHAKKUL

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available There is generally no agreed doctrinal definition of universal jurisdiction in customary and conventional international law. However, this does not preclude any definition, which embodies the essence of the concept as the ability to exercise jurisdiction irrespective of territoriality or nationality. Therefore, the concept of universal jurisdiction applies to a situation where " entitles a State to exercise its jurisdictio territory, has been perpetrated by a non the acts." "Universal jurisdiction" refers to the competence of a national court to try a p suspected of a serious international crime torture-even if neither the suspect nor the victim are nationals of the country where the court is located ("the forum state", and the crime took pla legal principle which has evolved in order to overcome jurisdictional gaps in the international legal order. It is intended to ensure that those responsible for international crimes crimes against humanity, grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions, and torture justice. Universal jurisdiction is primarily enacted when States with a more traditional jurisdictional nexus to the crime (related, inter alia, to the pla prove unable or unwilling to genuinely investigate and prosecute: when their legal system is inadequate, or when it is used to shield the accused from justice.

  13. Juvenile Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile arthritis (JA) is arthritis that happens in children. It causes joint swelling, pain, stiffness, and loss of motion. It can affect any joint, but ... of JA that children get is juvenile idiopathic arthritis. There are several other forms of arthritis affecting ...

  14. Crime Mapping and Geographical Information Systems in Crime Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Dağlar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available As essential apparatus in crime analysis, crime mapping and Geographical Information Systems (GIS are being progressively more accepted by police agencies. Development in technology and the accessibility of geographic data sources make it feasible for police departments to use GIS and crime mapping. GIS and crime mapping can be utilized as devices to discover reasons contributing to crime, and hence let law enforcement agencies proactively take action against the crime problems before they become challenging. The purpose of this study is to conduct a literature review of Geographical Information System and Crime Mapping in Crime Analysis and to propose policy recommendations regarding to implementation of crime mapping and GIS. To achieve this purpose, first a historical evaluation of GIS and crime mapping will be rendered and then the importance of place will be explained in terms of assessing crime problems accurately.

  15. East meets West: Chinese and U.S. college students' views on formal and informal crime control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shanhe; Lambert, Eric; Jenkins, Morris

    2010-04-01

    Both formal and informal crime control are used to deter people from engaging in criminal behavior that is harmful to the well-being of society. Formal criminal justice control uses the law and official government agencies to promote compliance, whereas informal criminal justice control uses morals and social institutions to encourage people to be law abiding. This study examined survey data to determine the importance of each form of social control among Chinese and U.S. college students. Chinese students were more likely to view formal and informal crime control as important mechanisms. Furthermore, Chinese students ranked the blending of formal and informal crime control as being more important.

  16. [Juvenile scleroderma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mâcedo, Patrícia Andrade; Shinjo, Samuel Katsuyuki; Goldenstein-Schainberg, Cláudia

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile scleroderma is a rare childhood condition characterized by fibrosis of the skin and internal organs. Clinical manifestations of childhood scleroderma are different from adult disease and early recognition, correct classification and treatment can improve long-term outcome. This review explores the most recent actualizations on clinical manifestations, classification criteria, treatment options and prognosis of juvenile scleroderma. There are two main forms of the disease: localized scleroderma and systemic sclerosis. Localized scleroderma is the most common form in children and mostly restricted to the skin. Juvenile diffuse systemic sclerosis is related to visceral involvement and cardiac disease which is the main cause of death in these patients. The outcome of juvenile systemic sclerosis is better compared with the adult form. Treatment remains a medical challenge and the EULAR task force proposed an approach to juvenile scleroderma treatment based on expert's opinion and guidelines used for the treatment of adults. Larger studies on childhood scleroderma are warranted.

  17. The notion and basic principles of restorative justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćopić Sanja

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important achievements of the contemporary criminal justice system and criminal policy is development of the concept of restorative justice. Contemporary concept of restorative justice was developed in 1970s on the basis of the criticism of the traditional criminal law and criminal justice system. Since that time, it has been developing through different programs in many countries. Reform of the criminal justice system in Serbia staring from 2002 went into direction of entering elements of restorative justice into existing criminal justice system. In that sense, development of restorative justice is still at the beginning in our country. However, it can be noticed that there is a low level of awareness on the nature and importance of restorative forms of response to crime among our professionals, as well as a lack of understanding of the concept itself. Due to that, the aim of the paper is to enable better understanding of restorative concept in general through defining restorative justice and basic principles it relies on. That may put a basis for further recognition of restorative elements in our criminal justice system, which may provide adequate implementation of relevant provisions of restorative character in practice. .

  18. Miscarriages of justice: the role of homicide review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Dean

    2011-04-01

    Miscarriages of justice within the United Kingdom have received much publicity since the early nineties and served to undermine confidence in the Criminal Justice system. One fairly recent activity on the part of the Association of Chief Police Officers which has served to reduce the likelihood of such miscarriages is the principle of the review of major crime investigations and in particular murder inquiries. This paper reflects upon the possible causes of flawed investigations which have led to miscarriages of justice over the recent past and refers to the major academic work which supports the principle of reviewing murder inquiries.

  19. Job Displacement and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; Ouazad, Amine

    that displaced workers' propensity to commit crime is higher than non-displaced workers before the displacement event; but it is significantly higher afterwards. Displacement impacts crime over and above what is explained by earnings losses and weeks of unemployment following displacement....

  20. Crime and Corruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Deborah; Turner, Robert; Selke, Karl

    Like intergroup violence (Chap. 7) and insurgency (Chap. 8), crime and ­corruption are nearly inevitable companions of an international intervention. Both contribute to the reasons why the intervention occurs, and both may even grow and fester as side-effects of an intervention. Moreover, crime and corruption frequently serve as obstacles to a successful termination of an intervention.

  1. The supreme court and the sentencing of juveniles in the United States: reaffirming the distinctiveness of youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, David M

    2011-07-01

    The US Supreme Court has set 2 key constitutionally based limits to punishment of juveniles; a bar on the imposition of the death penalty for crimes committed by juveniles and of life imprisonment without possibility of parole for juveniles who commit nonhomicide offenses. Both decisions held that these penalties were disproportionate given juveniles' distinctive characteristics. The Court's adoption of a developmental model of culpability may produce future challenges to lengthy juvenile sentences, broad provisions allowing transfer of juveniles for trial as adults, and even possibly to younger juveniles'competence to stand trial.

  2. Pardon in the light of restorative justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladinović Dušica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is to consider pardon in the restorative justice context. Beginning from the basic standpoint that restorative justice imposes request for interests-balancing of different subjects connected by criminal act, the author tries to examine the articulation of the aforementioned standpoint through the pardon concept, accepted in domestic positive law. There is no doubt that the institute is designed in favour of the crime perpetrator, which is confirmed by the analysis of different legal effects produced by its content, while the victim- and society interests remained, at least, insufficiently protected. Therefore, the author points to some positive examples from comparative law and poses certain suggestions, that can be of use for eventual reforming of the institute, in order to achieve values of restorative justice. .

  3. GENDER-BASED RESTORATIVE JUSTICE FOR VICTIMS OF VIOELENCE AGAINST WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahya Wulandari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Positive law is less oriented towards the protection of victims, especially women. Restorative justice appears to protect and resolve problems with the interests of the victim-oriented. This article discuss the form of legal protection for victims of violence against women, gender-based and describe the form of restorative justice for victims of gender-based violence against women. Positive criminal law does not accommodate both the interests of the victim to determine the crime against him self and to restore his suffering. This is caused due to the dominance of retributive justice in the settlement mind set crime through the criminal law. The restorative justice allows for an active role in the completion of a crime victim who happens also allows the imposition of sanctions that are beneficial to the recovery of the suffering of the victims.

  4. Forensic aspects of juvenile violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, L H

    2000-10-01

    The juvenile justice system was created because it was recognized that youthful offenders needed to be managed differently from adults. They were to receive habilitation services instead of punishment. It is now more than a century since the creation of the first juvenile court. After 67 years, the US Supreme Court, in Kent v United States stated that the model was not working because juveniles in the criminal justice system received no treatment and they had no rights. Because the issue that had been appealed was the lack of rights (not lack of treatment), the Court mandated that juveniles, like adults, be given certain rights. The following year, in In re Gault, the Court expanded these rights. Subsequent Supreme Court cases have dealt with these kinds of issues--that is, whether juvenile offenders are entitled to the same rights as adults and subject to the same penalties. The Supreme Court has never heard a "right to treatment" case, which is the other part of the juvenile court system. Cases have been brought in lower courts (e.g., Nelson v. Heyne, 1972) alleging inadequate treatment services, but no national impact has resulted. Thus, in general, children in the juvenile court system do not have an enforceable right to treatment and can obtain only what services are available in their jurisdictions. The services often are woefully inadequate. Sentencing a youth to probation, with the requirement that he or she participate in counseling or mental health treatment, is meaningless if services are not available. Community-based, model programs that provide effective treatment do exist. They are, as yet, the rare exception rather than the norm and, therefore, are not available to most youthful offenders. Incarcerated juveniles, obviously, cannot avail themselves of community programs. Litigation to give these youth the same rights as adults in penal institutions is not the answer because incarcerated adults don't have a right to treatment, only a right to be free

  5. Introducing Restorative Justice: Re-Visioning Responses to Wrongdoing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Avery

    2013-01-01

    Learning about restorative justice involves examining conventional thinking about crime (or wrongdoing generally), values in relation to how people associated with wrongdoing are treated, and best responses when a wrongdoing occurs. In this introductory article, the author highlights key developments in the restorative movement and main…

  6. Crime and Crime Management in Nigeria Tertiary Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebanjo, Margaret Adewunmi

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines crime and its management in Nigerian tertiary institutions. Tertiary institutions today have become arenas for crime activities such as rape, cultism, murder, theft, internet fraud, drug abuse, and examination malpractices. This paper delves into what crime is, and its causes; and the positions of the law on crime management.…

  7. Nationalization of International Criminal Norm of Crime and Punishment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaomeng LI

    2011-01-01

    1.OverviewThe issue for this paper is Korean situation of nationalization of international treaty that contains provisions of crime and punishment,It has come to be a very important issue,in that,through bilateral or multilateral agreement,international criminal norm regarding crime and punishment that often does not correspond to Korean criminal justice system,has been and will be implanted in it.Not every international norm that was introduced in Korean criminal justice system has been great.As everyone knows,because a criminal justice system,if it is abused,can easily violate a citizen's liberty and right,we should pay more attention to what is introduced in Korean criminal justice system,under the name of international cooperation and progressive norm of criminal justice policy.In short,the tactics for the benefit of state power lead to the creation of so-called a new system,to cope with new criminal phenomenon.

  8. Portraits of Dysfunction: Criminal, Education, and Family Profiles of Juvenile Female Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fejes-Mendoza, Kathy; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Interviews with 40 incarcerated juvenile female offenders found they typically reported failing 1 or more grades; more than having serious arrest; using drugs prior to crimes and as part of their lifestyle; and acting intentionally, and most often with others, to commit crimes. Critical factors included academic deficiencies, siblings who were…

  9. The Roles of Dehumanization and Moral Outrage in Retributive Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, Brock; Denson, Thomas F.; Haslam, Nick

    2013-01-01

    When innocents are intentionally harmed, people are motivated to see that offenders get their “just deserts”. The severity of the punishment they seek is driven by the perceived magnitude of the harm and moral outrage. The present research extended this model of retributive justice by incorporating the role of offender dehumanization. In three experiments relying on survey methodology in Australia and the United States, participants read about different crimes that varied by type (child molestation, violent, or white collar – Studies 1 and 2) or severity (Study 3). The findings demonstrated that both moral outrage and dehumanization predicted punishment independently of the effects of crime type or crime severity. Both moral outrage and dehumanization mediated the relationship between perceived harm and severity of punishment. These findings highlight the role of offender dehumanization in punishment decisions and extend our understanding of processes implicated in retributive justice. PMID:23626737

  10. The roles of dehumanization and moral outrage in retributive justice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brock Bastian

    Full Text Available When innocents are intentionally harmed, people are motivated to see that offenders get their "just deserts". The severity of the punishment they seek is driven by the perceived magnitude of the harm and moral outrage. The present research extended this model of retributive justice by incorporating the role of offender dehumanization. In three experiments relying on survey methodology in Australia and the United States, participants read about different crimes that varied by type (child molestation, violent, or white collar - Studies 1 and 2 or severity (Study 3. The findings demonstrated that both moral outrage and dehumanization predicted punishment independently of the effects of crime type or crime severity. Both moral outrage and dehumanization mediated the relationship between perceived harm and severity of punishment. These findings highlight the role of offender dehumanization in punishment decisions and extend our understanding of processes implicated in retributive justice.

  11. The roles of dehumanization and moral outrage in retributive justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, Brock; Denson, Thomas F; Haslam, Nick

    2013-01-01

    When innocents are intentionally harmed, people are motivated to see that offenders get their "just deserts". The severity of the punishment they seek is driven by the perceived magnitude of the harm and moral outrage. The present research extended this model of retributive justice by incorporating the role of offender dehumanization. In three experiments relying on survey methodology in Australia and the United States, participants read about different crimes that varied by type (child molestation, violent, or white collar - Studies 1 and 2) or severity (Study 3). The findings demonstrated that both moral outrage and dehumanization predicted punishment independently of the effects of crime type or crime severity. Both moral outrage and dehumanization mediated the relationship between perceived harm and severity of punishment. These findings highlight the role of offender dehumanization in punishment decisions and extend our understanding of processes implicated in retributive justice.

  12. « Islamic Restorative Traditions and Their Reflections in the Post Revolutionary Criminal Justice System of Iran ». European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice, Vol. 15, N° 2, 2007, pp. 227-248.

    OpenAIRE

    Engeland, Anicée Van

    2010-01-01

    L’A. s’interroge sur l’utilité sociale de punir et sur l’opportunité de « qui punir ». C’est ainsi qu’il approche le droit pénal iranien comme une réparation du criminel envers la société. Il se concentre alors sur la notion de violation du devoir moral. Le crime de qiṣāṣ (réparation pour un homicide ou pour une blessure) a selon lui cette approche du droit pénal : il s’agit de la violation d’un devoir moral et la réparation doit de ce fait être proportionnelle au mal qui a été fait à la soci...

  13. Disclosure of past crimes: an analysis of mental health professionals' attitudes towards breaching confidentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangmo, Tenzin; Handtke, Violet; Elger, Bernice Simone

    2014-09-01

    Ensuring confidentiality is the cornerstone of trust within the doctor-patient relationship. However, health care providers have an obligation to serve not only their patient's interests but also those of potential victims and society, resulting in circumstances where confidentiality must be breached. This article describes the attitudes of mental health professionals (MHPs) when patients disclose past crimes unknown to the justice system. Twenty-four MHPs working in Swiss prisons were interviewed. They shared their experiences concerning confidentiality practices and attitudes towards breaching confidentiality in prison. Qualitative analysis revealed that MHPs study different factors before deciding whether a past crime should be disclosed, including: (1) the type of therapy the prisoner-patient was seeking (i.e., whether it was court-ordered or voluntary), (2) the type of crime that is revealed (e.g., a serious crime, a crime of a similar nature to the original crime, or a minor crime), and (3) the danger posed by the prisoner-patient. Based on this study's findings, risk assessment of dangerousness was one of the most important factors determining disclosures of past crimes, taking into consideration both the type of therapy and the crime involved. Attitudes of MHPs varied with regard to confidentiality rules and when to breach confidentiality, and there was thus a lack of consensus as to when and whether past crimes should be reported. Hence, legal and ethical requirements concerning confidentiality breaches must be made clear and known to physicians in order to guide them with difficult cases.

  14. Mapping crime levels and court efficiency per magisterial district in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schmitz, Peter MU

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available magisterial district. By mapping crime categories such as sexual offences, it is possible to identify magisterial districts with high occurrences of these crimes, and hence districts that need courts specializing in sexual offences. 1... function will be created. This function will assume responsibility for the ongoing monitoring and management of resources within the Department in order to ensure that justice at a local level is dispensed effectively and efficiently, through...

  15. Mapping crime levels and court efficiency per magisterial district in South Africa.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schmitz, Peter MU

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available magisterial district. By mapping crime categories such as sexual offences, it is possible to identify magisterial districts with high occurrences of these crimes, and hence districts that need courts specializing in sexual offences. 1... function will be created. This function will assume responsibility for the ongoing monitoring and management of resources within the Department in order to ensure that justice at a local level is dispensed effectively and efficiently, through...

  16. Youth justice and health: An argument against proposed changes to the Youth Criminal Justice Act

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, April S; Katzman, Debra K.

    2011-01-01

    The Canadian Paediatric Society is deeply concerned about the negative effects on the developmental, psychological and emotional health of young offenders if the Youth Criminal Justice Act is amended as proposed. Changing Canada’s youth crime law to achieve stiffer sentences for youth 14 years of age and older who are convicted of serious violent offences is contrary to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. Treating adolescents as adults puts them at serious health and hum...

  17. Juvenile Prostitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csapo, Marg

    1986-01-01

    Recent research and Canadian government committee reports concerning juvenile prostitution are reviewed. Proposals are made in the realms of law and social policy; and existing programs are described. (DB)

  18. Juvenile Prostitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csapo, Marg

    1986-01-01

    Recent research and Canadian government committee reports concerning juvenile prostitution are reviewed. Proposals are made in the realms of law and social policy; and existing programs are described. (DB)

  19. Crime and the Labor Market

    OpenAIRE

    Freeman, Richard B.

    1982-01-01

    Much work on crime has focused on the effect of criminal sanctions on crime, ignoring (except as a control variable) the effect of labor market conditions on crime. This study reviews studies of time series, cross area, and individual evidence pertaining to the effect of unemployment and other labor market variables on crime and compares the "strength" of the labor market-crime and the sanctions-crime relations. It concludes that there is a labor market-crime link but that this link is not we...

  20. Crime and Partnerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svarer, Michael

    This paper tests whether being convicted of a crime affects marriage market outcomes. While it is relatively well documented that crime hurts in terms of reduced future income, there has been little systematic analysis on the association between crime and marriage market outcomes. This paper...... exploits a detailed Danish register-based data set to fill this gap in the literature. The main findings are that male convicts do not face lower transition rates into partnerships as such, but they face a lower chance of forming partnerships with females from more well-o¤ families. In addition males who...

  1. Juvenile myasthenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević-Pogančev Marija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Juvenile myasthenia is a chronic autoimmune neuromuscular disease characterized by varying degrees of fluctuating, painless muscle weakness and rapid fatigue of any muscles under voluntary control. Juvenile myasthenia is a form of myasthenia appearing in adolescent age, representing 10% to 15% of all cases of myasthenia gravis. Juvenile myasthenia is presented by a defect in the transmission of nerve impulses to muscles, resulting from a breakdown in the normal communication between nerves and muscles. In myasthenia, antibodies produced by the body’s own immune system block, alter, or destroy the receptors for acetylcholine. Juvenile myasthenia is neither directly inherited nor is it contagious. Signs and Symptoms. The first noticeable symptoms may be eye muscle weakness, difficulty in swallowing, or slurred speech. Juvenile myasthenia usually affects muscles innervated by the cranial nerves (face, lips, tongue, neck and throat, but it can affect any muscle group. Symptoms vary in type and severity with typical periods of exacerbation interspersed with periods of remission. When the muscles necessary for breathing are affected, a patient is said to be in a myasthenic crisis, which is a life-threatening situation. Disease Outcome and Treatment. Juvenile myasthenia produces sporadic but progressive weakness and abnormal fatigability of striated (skeletal muscles, exacerbated by exercise and repeated movement, but improved by rest and anticholinesterase drugs. Juvenile myasthenia follows an unpredictable course of recurring exacerbations and periodic remissions. With current therapies, however, most cases of juvenile myasthenia are not as serious as the name implies. Although there is no known cure, drug treatment has improved prognosis and allows patients to lead relatively normal lives, except during exacerbations.

  2. Pendidikan Agama Islam Sebagai Pencegah Juvenile Delinquency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Choirul Umah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The challenges of Islamic education in the era of globalization are getting stronger now. It’s visible clearly changes happening so fast. The rapid of globalization is not only affect for adults, but also children, adolescents. A problem that often arises in the community revolves around the problems of Juvenile (teenagers, education and social community. Because adolescence is known as self-identity searching, so teens that can fulfill their role will have a positive impact, such as children understand their responsibilities better, and if they cannot, then there will emerge the exact opposite behavior that occurs an aberration or delinquency (juvenile delinquency. The existence of juvenile delinquency at this time also affect increasing in crime or criminal behavior in community. Juvenile delinquency can destroy moral values, the noble values ​​of religion, and the various aspects of the subject matter contained therein. Understanding, deepening, and adherence to the teachings of religion, especially Islamic education is required by the juvenile. Because Islamic education is a systematic effort by educators and adults to students both physical and spiritual by Islamic law to led the formation of personality according to the standard of Islam. Because in fact the children or adolescents who commit delinquency or crime mostly less understand the norms of Islam, perhaps they are negligent in fulfill the commandments of religion.

  3. PENDIDIKAN AGAMA ISLAM SEBAGAI PENCEGAH JUVENILE DELINQUENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Choirul Umah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The challenges of Islamic education in the era of globalization are getting stronger now. It’s visible clearly changes happening so fast. The rapid of globalization is not only affect for adults, but also children, adolescents. A problem that often arises in the community revolves around the problems of Juvenile (teenagers, education and social community. Because adolescence is known as self-identity searching, so teens that can fulfill their role will have a positive impact, such as children understand their responsibilities better, and if they cannot, then there will emerge the exact opposite behavior that occurs an aberration or delinquency (juvenile delinquency. The existence of juvenile delinquency at this time also affect increasing in crime or criminal behavior in community. Juvenile delinquency can destroy moral values, the noble values of religion, and the various aspects of the subject matter contained therein. Understanding, deepening, and adherence to the teachings of religion, especially Islamic education is required by the juvenile. Because Islamic education is a systematic effort by educators and adults to students both physical and spiritual by Islamic law to led the formation of personality according to the standard of Islam. Because in fact the children or adolescents who commit delinquency or crime mostly less understand the norms of Islam, perhaps they are negligent in fulfill the commandments of religion.

  4. The Economic Epidemiology of Crime.

    OpenAIRE

    Tomas J. Philipson; Posner, Richard A

    1996-01-01

    Economic analysis of infectious diseases emphasizes the self-correcting character of epidemics, as rising risk of infection causes potential victims to take self-protective measures. We apply the analysis to crime, showing how rational potential victims of crime will take increased self-protective measures in response to rising crime rates, causing those rates to moderate. Victim responses to crime can offset public expenditures on crime control; this implies that there may be a "natural" rat...

  5. Psychopathology, symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and risk factors in juvenile offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margari F

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Francesco Margari,1 Francesco Craig,2 Lucia Margari,2 Emilia Matera,2 Anna Linda Lamanna,2 Paola Alessandra Lecce,2 Donatella La Tegola,3 Felice Carabellese3 1Psychiatry Unit, 2Child Neuropsychiatry Unit, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neurosciences and Sense Organs of the Aldo Moro University of Bari, 3Section of Criminology and Forensic Psychiatry, Department of Internal Medicine and Public Medicine, University of Bari, Bari, Italy Background: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of potential environmental and psychopathological risk factors, with special focus on symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, in a sample of adolescent offenders in relation to the type of crime committed.Methods: The assessment included data collection and administration of clinical standardized scales such as the Youth Self-Report and Conners’ Adolescent Self-Report Scale. A total of 135 juvenile offenders participated in the study. In relation to the type of crime committed, we identified three groups matched for age and sex (crimes against people, property crimes, and alcohol-drug-related crimes.Results: Fifty-two percent of juvenile offenders reported educational achievement problems and 34% reported a family history of psychiatric disorders. We detected a statistically significant difference between the three groups with regard to ADHD (P=0.01 and conduct problems (P=0.034. Juvenile offenders who had committed crimes against people showed more ADHD symptoms (18% and conduct problems (20% than adolescents who had committed property crimes and alcohol-drug-related crimes. Sixty percent of the juvenile offenders who had committed property crimes and 54% of those who had committed alcohol-drug-related crimes showed problems in academic achievement.Conclusion: These findings suggest the need to implement specific interventions for prevention and treatment of specific criminal behavior. Keywords: juvenile offenders

  6. What Drives Juvenile Probation Officers? Relating Organizational Contexts, Status Characteristics, and Personal Convictions to Treatment and Punishment Orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Geoff; Kupchik, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Data from surveys of juvenile court probation officers in four states are analyzed to understand professional orientations toward two seemingly contrasting goals of contemporary juvenile justice systems: punishment and treatment. These self-reported juvenile probation officer orientations are considered in relation to three clusters of variables…

  7. Psychopathy, Sociopathy, and Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykken, David T.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses psychopathology as portrayed in literature, followed by an examination of some theories of psychopathy and the association of sociopathy and crime. Also discusses using parental licensing as a preventive measure against the development of sociopathology in children. (GR)

  8. Theorising Nigerian Crime Problems

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aigbovo & Eidenoje

    1971-09-08

    Sep 8, 1971 ... single theory or definition can be exhaustive on the issue of crime.4 A major .... Postulations of this theory recommend proper town planning, ...... addition to imprisonment, restitution is also to be made to victims.76 Advance.

  9. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA); Juvenile chronic polyarthritis; Still disease; Juvenile spondyloarthritis ... The cause of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is not known. It ... illness . This means the body attacks and destroys healthy body ...

  10. Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types of Cancer > Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome Request Permissions Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 12/2015 What is juvenile polyposis syndrome? Juvenile polyposis syndrome (JPS) is a ...

  11. Cannabis depenalisation, drug consumption and crime - evidence from the 2004 cannabis declassification in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braakmann, Nils; Jones, Simon

    2014-08-01

    This paper investigates the link between cannabis depenalisation and crime using individual-level panel data for England and Wales from 2003 to 2006. We exploit the declassification of cannabis in the UK in 2004 as a natural experiment. Specifically, we use the fact that the declassification changed expected punishments differently in various age groups due to thresholds in British criminal law and employ a difference-in-differences type design using data from the longitudinal version of the Offending, Crime and Justice Survey. Our findings suggest essentially no increases in either cannabis consumption, consumption of other drugs, crime and other forms of risky behaviour.

  12. Can the Bill of Rights Survive the Crisis in Criminal Justice? Myths, Realities and Questions for the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Samuel

    1990-01-01

    Interviewed 800 police chiefs asking whether the Bill of Rights prevented police and prosecutors from protecting citizens against crime and found the answer was no. Urges more equitable funding for the criminal justice system, more public defenders for the poor, and teaching about justice in a free society. (NL)

  13. Screening Incarcerated Juveniles Using the MAYSI-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Amy L; Grande, Todd L; Hallman, Janelle; Underwood, Lee A

    2015-01-01

    The high prevalence of mental health disorders among incarcerated juveniles is a matter of national and global concern. Juvenile justice personnel need accurate screening measures that identify youth requiring immediate mental health services. The purpose of this study was threefold: (a) to examine the utility of the Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument, Version 2 (MAYSI-2) in identifying juveniles with mental health concerns in a large sample of juveniles (N = 4,009), (b) to provide data regarding rates of identified mental health needs in incarcerated youth, and (c) to provide descriptive comparisons to other studies using the MAYSI-2. Mean scores of subscales were compared with the MAYSI-2 normative samples and other recent studies. Results indicated that this population has a high occurrence of mental health symptoms and there is high variability in the severity of the symptoms. In addition, a multivariate analysis of variance test found significant differences in mental health problems across ethnic groups.

  14. Eliminating the Competency Presumption in Juvenile Delinquency Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katner, David R

    2015-01-01

    The legal presumption used in virtually all juvenile delinquency cases in the U.S. is that all juveniles are competent to stand trial. This Article calls for the elimination of that legal presumption, which is historically based on the Dusky v. United States decision and in the adult criminal justice system. The recent decisions of the U.S. Supreme Court recognize the developmental and organic brain differences between adults and juveniles. Current research demonstrates a higher frequency rate of incompetence based on intellectual deficiencies among children when compared with adults found to be not legally competent to stand trial. By eliminating the competency presumption for juveniles in both delinquency and adult criminal proceedings, the party seeking an adjudication would be responsible for establishing that the accused juvenile is in fact, competent to stand trial. Foreign jurisdictions in Europe, Asia, Africa, and South America have long required higher thresholds--at least fourteen years of age--for holding juveniles accountable for criminal misconduct, none of them presuming that juveniles are competent to go to trial. In the alternative, by expanding the factors currently in use for determination of juvenile competency by adding developmental immaturity and mental illness, juvenile justice systems could identify the reduction of recidivist offending as the primary systemic objective.

  15. Los desafíos de un verdadero sistema de justicia juvenil: una visión psicoeducativa / The Challenges of a Real Youth Justice System: A Psychoeducational Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Dionne

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Basándose en la larga experiencia de la provincia de Quebec, Canadá - de seis decenios - y en la literatura científica relativa a las intervenciones de mayor eficacia, los autores analizan desde una perspectiva psicoeducativa los mayores desafíos que enfrentan los sistemas de justicia juvenil cuando se proponen respetar cabalmente los principios básicos de la Convención Internacional de derechos del Niño

  16. GMOs and Global Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Kristian Høyer

    2012-01-01

    claims to justice. This article investigates how GMOs might generate claims to global justice and what type of justice is involved. The paper argues that the debate on GMOs and global justice can be categorized into three views, i.e., the cosmopolitan, the pluralist, and the sceptic. The cosmopolitan...... on the premise that global cooperation on GMO production provides the relevant basis for assessing the use of GMOs by the standard of global distributive justice....

  17. PERSONALITY AND CLINICAL TESTS IN SPANISH FOR ASSESSING JUVENILE OFFENDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Wenger

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The psychological assessment of offenders throughout the different stages in the juvenile justice system is essential. It ensures the adequacy of the legal and educational measures to be applied in the process. This paper reviews the main tests of psychological assessment available in Spanish, suitable for use by psychology professionals who work with young offenders in the juvenile justice services in Spanish-speaking countries. We classify these tools into three groups: a personological, i.e. generic tools, suitable for any professional context in psychology, b clinical, i.e. tools whose initial use has been limited to working with adolescents with mental health needs, and c forensic, tools that have been specially developed for use in the juvenile justice population. This last group is described in the second part of this article (which appears in this same issue. The most important instruments of proven utility are presented and reviewed for each group.

  18. Approaches to Scandinavian Crime Fiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Gunhild

    2010-01-01

    The working paper discusses some of the major approaches to Scandinavian crime fiction in the light of the dominant features of crime culture, e.g. the broad exposure of crime fiction via different platforms and media. In this connection, the concept of mediatization is considered as well...... as the approach of genre typology and the concept of evil – seemingly disparate concepts and approaches, but all related to the complex processes in the borderlands between crime fiction and society. Using examples from Scandinavian crime fiction, I discuss whether the growing proximity to international genres......, ways of production and standards increasingly removes Scandinavian crime fiction from its original attractions or not....

  19. Approaches to Scandinavian Crime Fiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Gunhild

    2010-01-01

    as the approach of genre typology and the concept of evil – seemingly disparate concepts and approaches, but all related to the complex processes in the borderlands between crime fiction and society. Using examples from Scandinavian crime fiction, I discuss whether the growing proximity to international genres......The working paper discusses some of the major approaches to Scandinavian crime fiction in the light of the dominant features of crime culture, e.g. the broad exposure of crime fiction via different platforms and media. In this connection, the concept of mediatization is considered as well......, ways of production and standards increasingly removes Scandinavian crime fiction from its original attractions or not....

  20. Development of restorative justice in the context of domestic violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Annett Cynthia Sáenz López

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Restorative justice has developed in the past few years due to the verifiable benefits of providing an alternative conflict resolution approach which favors remedies, out-ofcourt arrangements and dialogue between the parties directly involved in disputes. Despite being mostly applied within the sphere of criminal justice –especially within the juvenile criminal justice system in force in many countries– the philosophy of restorative justice has affected other areas of social conflict such as domestic violence and violence against women. Analyzing how other countries apply Restorative Justice in cases of domestic violence and of violence against women, provides Uruguay with a framework to streamline the efforts towards providing victims, offenders, and communities with quality law enforcement processes primarily focused on a comprehensive restoration for all those involved.

  1. Juvenile sex-only and sex-plus offenders: an exploratory study on criminal profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, A Ph; Mali, S R F; Bullens, R A R

    2007-08-01

    In this study, research was done on the criminal profiles of a large group of juvenile sex-only and sex-plus (sex and other offenses) delinquents (N = 4,430) in the Netherlands. Use was made of information from police records. Results show that sex-plus offenders start their careers earlier, that more of these offenders are of non-Dutch origin, that they commit more crimes, and will partly continue their criminal career after their adolescence. Juvenile sex-only offenders rarely go on committing crimes. In sex-plus offenders, sexual crimes play only a minor role in their total crime repertory. As time goes by, their criminal career will develop into the direction of property crimes. Finally, the implications and limitations of this study will be discussed.

  2. Understanding the Link between Social Organization and Crime in Rural Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilenski, Sarah M; Syvertsen, Amy K; Greenberg, Mark T

    Rural communities make up much of America's heartland, yet we know little about their social organization, and how elements of their social organization relate to crime rates. The current study sought to remedy this gap by examining the associations between two measures of social organization - collective efficacy and social trust - with a number of structural community characteristics, local crime rates, and perceptions of safety in a sample of 27 rural and small town communities in two states. Measures of collective efficacy, social trust, and perceived safety, were gathered from key community members in 2006; other measures were drawn from the 2000 Census and FBI Uniform Crime Reporting system. A series of competing hypotheses were tested to examine the relative importance of social trust and collective efficacy in predicting local crime rates. Results do not support the full generalization of the social disorganization model. Correlational analyses showed that neither collective efficacy nor social trust had a direct association with community crime, nor did they mediate the associations between community structural characteristics and crime. However, perceived safety mediated the association between community crime and both measures of social organization. Analyses suggest that social trust may be more important than collective efficacy when understanding the effect of crime on a community's culture in rural areas. Understanding these associations in rural settings can aid decision makers in shaping policies to reduce crime and juvenile delinquency.

  3. Youht Crime and Its Relations With Schools

    OpenAIRE

    IŞIK, Halil

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to make a conceptual analysis relation with youth crime, crime - school relations. Under this general purpose, following topics will be presented; (a) theories about youth crime, (b) risk factors for youth crime, school crime relations, and (d) solutions for youth crime. To analyze the issue of youth crime, there are two basic theories. These theories are general strain theory and escape theory. Possible risk factorsmotivating youth crime are related to peer group...

  4. Cyber-crime Science = Crime Science + Information Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartel, Pieter; Junger, Marianne; Wieringa, Roel

    2010-01-01

    Cyber-crime Science is an emerging area of study aiming to prevent cyber-crime by combining security protection techniques from Information Security with empirical research methods used in Crime Science. Information security research has developed techniques for protecting the confidentiality, integ

  5. Planning against crime: preventing crime with people not barriers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Landman, K

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available In SA Crime Quarterly No 8 2004, the argument was made for better use of bylaws by city governments in an effort to prevent crime. Another equally effective tool available to municipalities lies in the area of urban planning. Crime is closely tied...

  6. Cyber-crime Science = Crime Science + Information Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartel, Pieter H.; Junger, Marianne; Wieringa, Roelf J.

    2010-01-01

    Cyber-crime Science is an emerging area of study aiming to prevent cyber-crime by combining security protection techniques from Information Security with empirical research methods used in Crime Science. Information security research has developed techniques for protecting the confidentiality,

  7. Buffalo: Public Attitudes About Crime; A National Crime Survey Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Criminal Justice Information and Statistics Service (Dept. of Justice/LEAA), Washington, DC.

    The National Crime Survey found that about three-fourths of the Buffalo residents perceived national crime as on the upswing, and one-third sensed an increase locally. Fewer than 10% believed crime in either place declined. Most felt their own victimization rate had increased. Fear of criminal attack appeared largely dependent upon the time of day…

  8. Juvenile Spondyloarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmuca, Sabrina; Weiss, Pamela F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review To provide a comprehensive update of the pathogenesis, diagnostic imaging, treatments, and disease activity measurements of juvenile spondyloarthritis (JSpA). Recent findings Genetic and microbiome studies have provided new information regarding possible pathogenesis of JSpA. Recent work suggests that children with JSpA have decreased thresholds for pain in comparison to healthy children. Additionally, pain on physical examination and abnormalities on ultrasound of the entheses are not well correlated. Treatment guidelines for juvenile arthritis, including JSpA, were published by the American College of Rheumatology and are based on active joint count and presence of sacroiliitis. Recent studies have established the efficacy of tumor necrosis factor inhibitors in the symptomatic treatment of axial disease, though their efficacy for halting progression of structural damage is less clear. Newly developed disease activity measures for JSpA include the Juvenile Arthritis Disease Activity Score and the JSpA Disease Activity index. In comparison to other categories of juvenile arthritis, children with JSpA are less likely to attain and sustain inactive disease. Summary Further microbiome and genetic research may help elucidate JSpA pathogenesis. More randomized therapeutic trials are needed and the advent of new composite disease activity measurement tools will hopefully allow for the design of these greatly needed trials. PMID:26002028

  9. Substance abuse and crime: considerations for a comprehensive forensic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbec, Enrique; Echeburúa, Enrique

    2016-03-02

    There is a strong link between drug use and crime, but this relationship is complex. Drug use does not necessarily lead to an increase in crimes, such as theft, rape or assault, even among regular users or addicts. However, in cases of individuals who consume drugs excessively and commit crimes, both factors are linked. Poverty, personality disorders, social and cultural variables, relationships with other users and previous incarceration or drug use are all factors. These issues play an important role in understanding the risk of crime and drug use. Most addicts should be held liable for most criminal behaviour motivated by addiction, but that addiction can, in some cases, affect one's capacity for self-control over one's actions. This paper examines the current response of the Spanish Criminal Justice System to various aspects of drug abuse, focusing on court decisions related with the nature and enforcement of drug laws. It also addresses aspects of criminal responsibility for drug abuse and drug-related crimes and suggests legislation on drugs, sentencing alternatives for drug offenses, and drug treatment options. Expert evidence plays a crucial role in this area in the court.

  10. South African Crime Quarterly 56

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Edited by Chandré Gould and Andrew Faull

    promote evidence-based crime and violence reduction policies and strategies. ... South Africa's high violent crime rates are ... economic deprivation are strongly associated.9 .... To estimate the relative poverty of a precinct compared.

  11. Northern Ireland in Transition: The Role of Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Mailhes

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available All post-conflict societies switching to constitutional liberal democracies have to deal with their past through transitional justice mechanisms that offer to hear the victims, try the perpetrators of all types of abuses, introduce peace and reconciliation schemes. It is time for state and non-state organs to account for past crimes. Several countries have successfully tested such mechanisms. Northern Ireland is the ideal ground for transitional justice to operate but it dispels foreign tailor-made models. However, a number of major reforms and projects have addressed sensitive issues in the wake of the Good Friday Agreement. Two key institutions, the police and the criminal justice system, whose responsibility in the conflict was undeniable, have been reformed. Law and lawyers are concerned with these changes and the introduction of a Human Rights culture in Northern Ireland. A clear break with the past must be achieved for transitional justice mechanisms to work successfully.

  12. The implications of Articles 37 and 40 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child for U.S. juvenile justice and U.S. ratification of the convention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlyniec, Wallace J

    2010-01-01

    The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) guarantees that children accused of crimes will have the right to fair court procedures and humane sentences. Current U.S. laws concerning the child's age when a court has jurisdiction, and others concerning sentencing practices and the place of confinement, contravene the provisions of the CRC. Some U.S. laws are consistent with the treaty but are nonetheless not enforced. Recent developments, including increasing understanding of brain development, U.S. Supreme Court decisions on the constitutionality of punishments for children, and the Committee on the Rights of the Child General Comment 10, will have substantial impacts on U.S. ratification. This article discusses Articles 37 and 40 of the CRC and their effect on U.S. practices if the treaty is ratified.

  13. Periodization and Its Discontents: The Social Construction of Crime and Criminality in Modern Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Buffington, Robert

    2003-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of four phases in the social construction of crime and criminality in Mexico since the Independence era. It argues that these phases follow a pattern in which a criminal justice paradigm is gradually consolidated and eventually superseded. It then examines some of the problems with a paradigm-driven periodization.

  14. Preventing Financial Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen

    This paper investigates the Swedish tax authority’s (Skatteverkets) compliance initiative called Preventing Financial Crime. In Sweden tax evasion related to organised moon-lighting is defined as a major risk to the revenue collection and to the legitimacy of Skatteverket. The traditional approach...... to abating such tax evasion has been reformed and a new mix-method approach adopted. This approach combines a proactive strategy—Preventing Financial Crime—with a reactive inspection strategy. During one a month of intensive fieldwork in Sweden, I studied the daily work in Preventing Financial Crime. Based...

  15. [Crime and psychopathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daligand, Liliane; Gonin, Daniel

    2002-04-01

    Crime does not necessarily involve the existence of a psychopathologic disorder. However, some psychiatric disorders as, for example, delirious psychosis, paranoia, melancholy or obsessional neurosis, might predispose to crime. Violence can lead the victim, by the way of stress or trauma, to develop some psychic trouble as neurosis or traumatic psychosis. Children in particular, while constructing, are very vulnerable victims, especially when their aggressor is also a member of their family. Therapy for the aggressors, as well as for the victims, is based on the assertion that both the aggressors and the victims are subject to law.

  16. Less crime, more punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, Mark; Burt, Callie Harbin

    2008-09-01

    Recasting Durkheim's "community of saints" thesis, the authors argue that the severity of punishment is predicted in part by the prevalence of the deviant behavior of which the deviant stands accused. Although there is some curvilinearity at low levels of prevalence, the relationship is generally negative. Thus, all else equal, where a particular crime is frequent, any punishment applied to it is likely to be mild; conversely, where a crime is infrequent, its punishment ought to be severe. Using hierarchical regression models, the authors support this hypothesis with 1988 homicide conviction and imprisonment decisions in 32 U.S. counties.

  17. The socioeconomic impact of drug-related crimes in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Matías

    2012-11-01

    Illegal drug use and trafficking are closely connected to crime. This article estimates the socioeconomic impact of this connection in Chile. Goldstein's tripartite model was applied quantifying drug-crime connections and then using those estimates to measure the socioeconomic impact of drug-related crimes. This was estimated in terms of both the monetary cost of law enforcement, and lost productivity due to incarceration. This socioeconomic impact can be divided into: (a) the direct costs arising from infractions to Chile's Drug Law, and the indirect costs originated by crimes linked only partially to drug consumption and trafficking; (b) is measured in productivity losses, as well as in costs to the three branches of Chile's criminal justice system (police, judiciary, and prisons); and (c) is attributed to the three illicit drugs most prevalent in Chile: cannabis, cocaine hydrochloride (CH) and cocaine base paste (CBP). The socioeconomic impact of Chile's drug-crime relationship in 2006 is estimated to be USD 268 million. Out of this amount, 36% is spent on national Drug Law enforcement, and the remaining 64% comes from the connection of drug use and trafficking with non-Drug-Law-related crimes. The police bear the largest share of drug enforcement costs (32%), followed by penitentiaries (25%). Productivity losses due to incarceration for drug-related crimes represent 29% of the total impact. 53% of the costs are attributable to CBP, 29% to CH, and the remaining 18% to cannabis. The impact of CBP is greater when indirect costs are taken into account, although direct costs are primarily associated with CH. The majority of costs is attributed to the trafficking and consumption of CBP, a drug with a relatively low prevalence. Based on the results, this study suggests reviewing drug enforcement policies to differentiate them according to the social and individual harm caused by each drug. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation procedures for drug crimes, the Iranian legal system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Hariri

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Today, drug trafficking, transnational organized crime of, comes into account. Distributors and consumers of drugs, distribution and consumption gradually, the traditional process lubricants Battalion (mechanical and chemical, and this would have altered, requires the development of formal and substantial rights.  The law of success in fighting crime, completely dependent on the integrity, transparency and efficiency of criminal procedure, and the amount of punishment that fits the crime apply.  Procedure employed the crime, drugs, procedures, differential forms, these differences can be revolutionary courts, specific regulations regarding the safeguarding arrangements, the provisions relating to the revision survey, and regulations related to solicitors involved, noted.  The strengths of the Criminal Procedure Code on Drugs and Crime (Special Procedure, set a time limit for the detention of the accused to a favorable commutation, the indeterminate nature of the death penalty mandatory intervention of a lawyer, the judge sentences the possibility of objecting to certain provisions  can be. And weaknesses speed and force is the result of both   violations of defendants' rights should be.  Technological advances in science and technology today,,  works in all areas, including tools to detect and prove the crime is revealed, and in an age of scientific evidence, biological and genetic evidence Procedure Drug crucial role of the can be instrumental in the discovery and proof of evidence, but there are deficiencies in the law, the primary purpose of the legislation, is verily justice and prevent crime, faced with serious challenges, in this paper, we regulations address deficiencies and gaps in the existing legislation, serious consideration has been.

  19. Delincuencia y responsabilidad penal juvenil en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Montalvo Velásquez

    2011-01-01

    England in 1815, “Juvenile delinquency is defined as the set of crimes, misdemeanors or socially reprehensible conduct, committed by young people considered by the law”. Each state is subject to its own legal system, for some it is the adolescent juvenile who commits sanctioned by the law regardless of their severity, other states only consider the youth as a juvenile offender who commits a serious criminal act.The phenomenon of juvenile delinquency is something that fits in the space of a society in which its material structure, and its consequent social formation, is in deep crisis. That younger as organized criminal gangs are telling us that result in the same general crime that has gripped society in perspective to survive materially. Capitalism is not only accumulation of wealth, but concentration of the very few hands, and all the legal and institutional system tends to favor this phenomenon because it is the structure above the capitalist mode of production. Just as adults are organized to commit crimes, do children and young people from an age in which they can see that society is not healthy and have no human future on it. Abandoned and subject to the violence that begets the system, they simply respond in a demonstration of conditioned reflexes that sustain survival in an instinctive way, “children do not know about laws but about ways to survive such a situation, the survival instinct does not ages or the regulations is liable to affect the.Key WordsJuvenile Delinquency, Youth Crime, Family Factors, criminal act, criminal liability.

  20. HIV-Risk Reduction with Juvenile Offenders on Probation

    OpenAIRE

    Donenberg, Geri R.; Emerson, Erin; Mackesy-Amiti, Mary Ellen; Udell, Wadiya

    2014-01-01

    Youth involved in the juvenile justice system are at elevated risk for HIV as a result of high rates of sexual risk taking, substance use, mental health problems and sexually transmitted infections. Yet few HIV prevention programs exist for young offenders. This pilot study examined change in juvenile offenders’ sexual activity, drug/alcohol use, HIV testing and counseling, and theoretical mediators of risk taking following participation in PHAT Life, an HIV-prevention progr...

  1. Is Crime News Coverage Excessive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graber, Doris A.

    1979-01-01

    Reports on the frequency and manner in which various crime and noncrime news topics were presented in selected newspapers and television newscasts in 1976. Examines news flow data to determine whether news output was inflexible, and whether crime news coverage distorted the amount of real-life crime. (PD)

  2. CRIME MAPS AND COMPUTER TECNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal KARAKAŞ

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Crime maps show crime density values and locations where crime have accured. For this reason it had been easy to examine the spatial distribution of crime locations with crime maps. There for crime maps have long been part of the process to crime analysis. In this study, the crime of home burglary was mapped with respect to general areal distribution by GIS (Geographic Information System in the city of Elazig The distribution of the crime was handled considering the parameters such as month, day and hour, and related to the land use. As a result, it was determined that there were differences in the distribution and concentration in the crime of theft with respect to the land use inside the city. The methods and findings in this study will provide rapid and accurate analyses for such kinds of studies. In addition, Interrelating the type of the crime with the regions or areas will contribute to preventing crime, and security in urban areas.

  3. Juvenile homosexual homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Wade C; Chan, Heng Choon Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Limited information exists on juvenile homosexual homicide (JHH), that is, youths who perpetrate sexual homicides against same-sex victims. Only a handful of cases from the United States and internationally have been described in the literature. This study, the first of its kind, examines the epidemiology, victimology, victim-offender relationship, and weapon-use patterns in JHH offenders using a large U.S. database on homicide spanning three decades. The data for this study were derived from the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Supplementary Homicide Reports (SHRs) for the years 1976 through 2005. A total of 93 cases of JHH were identified. On average, three of these crimes occurred annually in the U.S., and there was a marked decline in its incidence over the study period. Ninety-five percent were male offender-male victim cases and 5% were female offender-female victim cases. JHH offenders were over-represented amongst all juvenile sexual murderers, similar to their adult counterparts. The majority of these boys were aged 16 or 17 and killed adult victims. They were significantly more likely to kill adult victims than other age groups, to be friends or acquaintances of the victims, and to use contact/edged weapons or firearms. Most offenders killed same-race victims, although Black offenders were significantly more likely than White offenders to kill interracially. A case report is provided to illustrate JHH. Further research is needed to promote our understanding of the pathogenesis, etiology, and associated risk factors for this aberrant form of murder by children.

  4. The Electronic Monitoring Paradigm: A Proposal for Transforming Criminal Justice in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart S. Yeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a change in public policy that promises to greatly reduce major crime in the United States, protect society, eliminate prison overcrowding, and save taxpayer dollars. This policy would employ electronic monitoring (EM technology in a way that discourages individuals who might otherwise be tempted to commit crimes. The approach is arguably more effective, efficient, humane and ethical than any alternative strategy and potentially could revolutionize law enforcement and the American criminal justice system.

  5. Portable generator-based XRF instrument for non-destructive analysis at crime scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, Jeffrey S.; Trombka, Jacob I.; Floyd, Samuel; Selavka, Carl; Zeosky, Gerald; Gahn, Norman; McClanahan, Timothy; Burbine, Thomas

    2005-12-01

    Unattended and remote detection systems find applications in space exploration, telemedicine, teleforensics, homeland security and nuclear non-proliferation programs. The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) have teamed up to explore the use of NASA developed technologies to help criminal justice agencies and professionals investigate crimes. The objective of the program is to produce instruments and communication networks that have application within both NASA's space program and NIJ, together with state and local forensic laboratories. A general-purpose X-ray fluorescence system has been built for non-destructive analyses of trace and invisible material at crime scenes. This portable instrument is based on a generator that can operate to 60 kV and a Schottky CdTe detector. The instrument has been shown to be successful for the analysis of gunshot residue and a number of bodily fluids at crime scenes.

  6. The influence of mental health disorders on severity of reoffending in juveniles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, M.; McReynolds, L.S.; Wasserman, G.A.; McMillan, C.

    2013-01-01

    The authors conducted secondary data analyses on mental health assessment and offense history data for 700 juveniles referred to juvenile justice agencies in Alabama (probation and detention). Multiple regression analysis was applied to predict subsequent offense severity by disorder profile, adjust

  7. Clinical Prediction Making: Examining Influential Factors Related to Clinician Predictions of Recidivism among Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calley, Nancy G.; Richardson, Emily M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined factors influencing clinician predictions of recidivism for juvenile offenders, including youth age at initial juvenile justice system involvement, youth age at discharge, program completion status, clinician perception of strength of the therapeutic relationship, and clinician perception of youth commitment to treatment.…

  8. Collaboration between Correctional and Public School Systems Serving Juvenile Offenders: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellriegel, Kimberly L.; Yates, James R.

    1999-01-01

    This case study examined the relationship between an educational agency and a human service agency in providing services to juvenile offenders in a county-operated correctional facility as they transition to the local public school system. It urges juvenile justice and public school systems to work together to effectively meet the needs of this…

  9. A Cost-Benefit Study of a Breaking the Cycle Program for Juveniles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowell, Alexander J.; Lattimore, Pamela K.; Krebs, Christopher P.

    2010-01-01

    The authors present a cost-benefit analysis of a Juvenile Breaking the Cycle (JBTC) program in Oregon designed to provide juvenile justice system monitoring and coordinated treatment and services to youth who are assessed as at high risk for recidivism and substance use. Detailed cost analyses are presented for youth in the JBTC program and a…

  10. A Cost-Benefit Study of a Breaking the Cycle Program for Juveniles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowell, Alexander J.; Lattimore, Pamela K.; Krebs, Christopher P.

    2010-01-01

    The authors present a cost-benefit analysis of a Juvenile Breaking the Cycle (JBTC) program in Oregon designed to provide juvenile justice system monitoring and coordinated treatment and services to youth who are assessed as at high risk for recidivism and substance use. Detailed cost analyses are presented for youth in the JBTC program and a…

  11. Comprehensive Strategy for Serious, Violent, and Chronic Juvenile Offenders: Program Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquent Prevention (Dept. of Justice), Washington, DC.

    This document presents a comprehensive strategy for dealing with serious, violent, and chronic juvenile offenders developed by the United States Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. It notes that the program described can be implemented at the state, county, or local level. The introduction presents statistics on violent…

  12. Practice Parameter for the Assessment and Treatment of Youth in Juvenile Detention and Correctional Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This practice parameter presents recommendations for the mental health assessment and treatment of youths in juvenile detention and correctional facilities. Mental and substance-related disorders are significant public health problems affecting youths in juvenile justice settings. Sufficient time is necessary to conduct a comprehensive diagnostic…

  13. Collaboration between Correctional and Public School Systems Serving Juvenile Offenders: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellriegel, Kimberly L.; Yates, James R.

    1999-01-01

    This case study examined the relationship between an educational agency and a human service agency in providing services to juvenile offenders in a county-operated correctional facility as they transition to the local public school system. It urges juvenile justice and public school systems to work together to effectively meet the needs of this…

  14. Crippling Sexual Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stormhøj, Christel

    2015-01-01

    . The article develops a normative and analytical framework, encompassing the multiple structural conditions, the virtues of citizens, and the emotional dimension of belonging, which enable or hamper justice. It integrates theories of democratic citizenship, belonging, and social justice, and provides...

  15. Crime and punishment: is "justice" good public policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, George C; Nygaard, Richard L

    2008-01-01

    Dysfunctional features of American penology are mitigated somewhat by the application (though uneven) of modern science. Unfortunately, these advances do not address major flaws in the ideas on which the system is erected. These include retribution, proportional punishment, and all-or-none notions of criminal responsibility. We propose abandoning retribution for its own sake; making punishment proportional to its effectiveness for behavior change rather than to the indignation evoked by the offense; and incorporating punishment into sentences based on the clinical and behavioral characteristics of the offender, including containment as necessary for public safety. Every offender would be held responsible, but the meaning and consequences thereof would change. The proposed changes could only occur incrementally. New systems of oversight and accountability would be required. Legislative bodies could provide guidelines, and courts could oversee, but neither could micromanage. Few are better qualified to work toward these goals than readers of this journal.

  16. Cities, Crowding and Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, Robert J.

    1974-01-01

    This article considers the effects of human crowding in light of recent tests and observations. Factors such as sex, age, culture, socio-economic standing, frustration, and interpersonal physical distance are examined. Results indicate that crowding contributes to social problems and crime. (TK)

  17. On the Crime Object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akutaev, Rasul M.; Magomedov, Guseyn B.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the research of this problem is caused by the theoretical and practical needs of a specific concept of the crime object as one of the corpus delicti signs essentially the determining and defining its object and objective side, thereby--the nature of socially dangerous act. Besides, being a facultative sign of corpus delicti, the…

  18. Crime and Punishment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dostoevsky, Fyodor

    2005-01-01

    Crime and Punishment is the story of a brutal double murder and its aftermath. Raskolnikov, a poor student, kills a pawnbroker and her sister, and then has to face up to the moral consequences of his actions. The novel is compelling and rewarding, full of meaning and symbolism, and raises profound

  19. Social Disadvantage and Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikström, Per-Olof H.; Treiber, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we analyze the relationship between social disadvantage and crime, starting from the paradox that most persistent offenders come from disadvantaged backgrounds, but most people from disadvantaged backgrounds do not become persistent offenders. We argue that despite the fact that social disadvantage has been a key criminological topic for some time, the mechanisms which link it to offending remain poorly specified. Drawing on situational action theory, we suggest social disadvantage is linked to crime because more people from disadvantaged versus affluent backgrounds develop a high crime propensity and are exposed to criminogenic contexts, and the reason for this is that processes of social and self-selection place the former more frequently in (developmental and action) contexts conducive to the development and expression of high crime propensities. This article will explore this hypothesis through a series of analyses using data from the Peterborough Adolescent and Young Adult Development Study (PADS+), a longitudinal study which uses a range of data collection methods to study the interaction between personal characteristics and social environments. It pays particular attention to the macro-to-micro processes behind the intersection of people with certain characteristics and environments with certain features – i.e., their exposure – which leads to their interaction. PMID:27524829

  20. The Crime Lab Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Annamae J.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Crime Lab Project, which takes an economical, hands-on, interdisciplinary approach to studying the career of forensics in the middle or high school classroom. Includes step-by-step student requirements for the investigative procedure, a sample evidence request form, and an assessment rubric. (KHR)

  1. Crime, Race, and Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, James Q.

    1992-01-01

    Fear can produce behavior that is indistinguishable from racism. The best way to reduce real or imagined racism is to reduce the African-American crime rate to equal that of whites. This will require an enormous commitment to the problems of the innercity. (SLD)

  2. Crime and Punishment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dostoevsky, Fyodor

    2005-01-01

    Crime and Punishment is the story of a brutal double murder and its aftermath. Raskolnikov, a poor student, kills a pawnbroker and her sister, and then has to face up to the moral consequences of his actions. The novel is compelling and rewarding, full of meaning and symbolism, and raises profound q

  3. Corporate Crime and Restitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Charles F.

    1985-01-01

    Articulates need, nature, and form of a restitutionary approach to corporate crime. Considers small, in-prison production-oriented programs; residential in-community programs, and nonresidential in-community programs for individual offenders; also considers lump sum and continuous payments for corporations to make restitution. (NRB)

  4. Crime Location Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernasco, Wim; Ruiter, Stijn

    2014-01-01

    Most behavior of interest to social scientists is choice behavior: actions people commit while they could also have done something else. In geographical and environmental criminology, a new framework has emerged for analyzing individual crime location choice. It is based on the principle of random u

  5. The experiences of homicide victims' families with the criminal justice system: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englebrecht, Christine; Mason, Derek T; Adams, Margaret J

    2014-01-01

    Although the crime of homicide has received significant attention from scholars, little research exists that examines the impact of homicide on surviving family members. Because opportunities for victims and family members of victims to participate in the criminal justice system are increasing, it is important to understand the impact of these forms of participation on those who choose to participate. This study uses data from focus groups to examine the experiences of homicide survivors within the criminal justice system, including views about how system involvement and specific outcomes (i.e., sentencing) may help or hinder healing. Findings suggest that many families leave the criminal justice system feeling marginalized and revictimized. This study calls into question the current criminal justice system's ability to meet the needs of crime victim and their families.

  6. Juvenile xanthogranuloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R; Ghazali, W

    1992-05-01

    Juvenile xanthogranuloma is a benign cutaneous growth presenting as papules or nodules. It is characterized by an intradermal collection of lipid-laden macrophages and varying degrees of fibroblastic proliferation. We have recently observed two patients with xanthogranulomas: one was found to have a papular type and the second patient had multiple nodular growths. We present these cases, which should be considered in the differential diagnosis of skin nodules.

  7. Justice and medical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillon, R

    1985-07-20

    Justice, in the sense of fair adjudication between conflicting claims, is held to be relevant to a wide range of issues in medical ethics. Several differing concepts of justice are briefly described, including Aristotle's formal principle of justice, libertarian theories, utilitarian theories, Marxist theories, the theory of John Rawls, and the view--held, for example, by W.D. Ross--that justice is essentially a matter of reward for individual merit.

  8. The Comparative Costs and Benefits of Programs To Reduce Crime. Version 4.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aos, Steve; Phipps, Polly; Barnoski, Robert; Lieb, Roxanne

    This report describes the economics of programs working to reduce crime in Washington State. For a variety of approaches, from prevention programs designed for young children to correctional interventions for juvenile and adult offenders, it systematically analyzes North American research studies from the past 25 years. For this review, the…

  9. Models of distributive justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    Philosophical disagreement about justice rages over at least two questions. The most immediate is a substantial question, concerning the conditions under which particular distributive arrangements can be said to be just or unjust. The second, deeper, question concerns the nature of justice itself. What is justice? Here we can distinguish three views. First, justice as mutual advantage sees justice as essentially a matter of the outcome of a bargain. There are times when two parties can both be better off by making some sort of agreement. Justice, on this view, concerns the distribution of the benefits and burdens of the agreement. Second, justice as reciprocity takes a different approach, looking not at bargaining but at the idea of a fair return or just price, attempting to capture the idea of justice as equal exchange. Finally justice as impartiality sees justice as 'taking the other person's point of view' asking 'how would you like it if it happened to you?' Each model has significantly different consequences for the question of when issues of justice arise and how they should be settled. It is interesting to consider whether any of these models of justice could regulate behaviour between non-human animals.

  10. Improving Negative Emotion Recognition in Young Offenders Reduces Subsequent Crime.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Hubble

    Full Text Available Children with antisocial behaviour show deficits in the perception of emotional expressions in others that may contribute to the development and persistence of antisocial and aggressive behaviour. Current treatments for antisocial youngsters are limited in effectiveness. It has been argued that more attention should be devoted to interventions that target neuropsychological correlates of antisocial behaviour. This study examined the effect of emotion recognition training on criminal behaviour.Emotion recognition and crime levels were studied in 50 juvenile offenders. Whilst all young offenders received their statutory interventions as the study was conducted, a subgroup of twenty-four offenders also took part in a facial affect training aimed at improving emotion recognition. Offenders in the training and control groups were matched for age, SES, IQ and lifetime crime level. All offenders were tested twice for emotion recognition performance, and recent crime data were collected after the testing had been completed.Before the training there were no differences between the groups in emotion recognition, with both groups displaying poor fear, sadness and anger recognition. After the training fear, sadness and anger recognition improved significantly in juvenile offenders in the training group. Although crime rates dropped in all offenders in the 6 months following emotion testing, only the group of offenders who had received the emotion training showed a significant reduction in the severity of the crimes they committed.The study indicates that emotion recognition can be relatively easily improved in youths who engage in serious antisocial and criminal behavior. The results suggest that improved emotion recognition has the potential to reduce the severity of reoffending.

  11. 'One can always say no.' enriching the bioethical debate on antisocial behaviour, neurobiology and prevention: views of juvenile delinquents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstkötter, Dorothee; Berghmans, Ron; Feron, Frans; De Wert, Guido

    2014-06-01

    Genomic and neuro-scientific research into the causes and course of antisocial behaviour triggers bioethical debate. Often, these new developments are met with reservation, and possible drawbacks and negative side-effects are pointed out. This article reflects on these scientific developments and the bioethical debate by means of an exploration of the perspectives of one important stakeholder group: juveniles convicted of a serious crime who stay in a juvenile justice institution. The views of juveniles are particularly interesting, as possible applications of current and future scientific findings are considered to be most effective if applied early in life. Based on their statements we come to the following provisional conclusions. Concerns about labelling and stigmatization are recognized and widely shared. Possible effects on one's identity are acknowledged too. Yet, a possible biological underpinning of one's antisocial behaviour is not considered to result in the development of a criminal identity. Nonetheless, psychopharmacological interventions are experienced as endangering one's current self. Concerns regarding the refusal of responsibility and the blaming of one's genes or brain can be put into perspective. Instead, participants emphasize the motive of own choice as underlying their criminal behaviour. Moreover, bioethical debate should pay attention to the role of parents of children at risk and the parent-child relationship in families at-risk. We argue that the short-term and long-term interests of children at risk, as well as their interests and those of society at large, may conflict. In order to deal appropriately with newly arising dilemmas, a normative framework needs to be developed.

  12. Responding to Identity Crime on the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Holm

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the unique challenges of responding to identity crime. Identity crime involves the use of personal identification information to perpetrate crimes. As such, identity crime involves using personal and private information to for illegal purposes. In this article, the two significant issues that obstruct responses to this crime are considered. These are first, the reporting of crime, and second the issue of jurisdiction. The paper also presents an exploration of some responses to identity crime.

  13. The attitudes of professionals towards implementation of the registry of offenders of sexual abuse of juveniles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petković Nikola

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The sexual victimization of children has always drawn great attention from experts and criminal policy makers due to the nature of the violent behavior and the developmental specific characteristics of the victims which enjoy special criminal law protection in a developed society. The high dark number and sex offender recidivism, as referenced by the frequent media reports about new cases of sexual violence towards the youngest memebers of society, highlight the need to search for the most appropriate social response to this form of sexual offending. The establishment of a register of convicted sex offenders for acts of sexual violence committed against minors, as one approach with a primary special preventive purpose, found its application in criminal law theory and practice of the Republic of Serbia. The aim of the paper is to present the results of an attitudinal survey of professionals employed in the field of justice and social welfare in the Republic of Serbia on the provisions of the special measures to prevent the commission of crimes of sexual abuse against juveniles and the establishment of the register of sex offenders.

  14. Caring for juveniles with mental disorders in adult corrections facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Cheryl D

    2017-02-01

    Although juveniles have developmental, educational, healthcare, and rehabilitation needs that differ from adults, thousands of them have been confined in adult corrections facilities in the past 30 years. This manuscript will review how and why juveniles end up in adult corrections facilities, who they are, their rehabilitative needs, and how they differ from adults in corrections facilities and youths in the juvenile justice system. The importance of providing developmentally-informed mental health services to youths in adult corrections facilities is examined, along with barriers to traditional adolescent psychiatric practice. Recommendations for future directions in adolescent psychiatric care are presented.

  15. Psychosocial adversity, delinquent pathway and internalizing psychopathology in juvenile male offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Ida; Faísca, Luis

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of a set of risk factors relating to childhood life events and other psychosocial factors that may be associated with criminal indicators and with the prevalence of internalizing psychopathology in a sample of adolescent offenders. Fifty male adolescents in the custody of the Portuguese Juvenile Justice System participated in the study (M=15.8 years of age). The Adolescent Psychopathology Scale - Short Form (APS-SF) was administered in a structured interview format, and the sociodemographic, family and criminal data questionnaire was filled in by the justice professional after consulting the adolescent's file. Forty-six percent of all subjects had previous delinquent behavior. About 32% of the boys had committed violent offenses and 88% acted with peers. Also, the persistence of the delinquent behavior (50% of the offenders), coupled with the increase in the severity of the crimes committed (38% of the sample), suggests that these adolescents were at risk for serious and chronic delinquency at the time of the intervention. About 32% of the participants reported posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, 20% had suicide ideation, and a lower percentage reported other internalizing problems. Institutionalization, maltreatment and conduct problems in childhood, and family risk factors (parental conflict, absence of a father figure, lack of parental control and family substance addiction) were related with the report of internalizing problems. Moreover, the increase in the severity of criminal offenses and living in a correctional facility were associated with higher levels of posttraumatic stress, interpersonal problems, anxiety and depression. This study draws attention to the importance of assessing indicators of psychopathology and of psychosocial risk in intervention programs with young offenders, but also to the need of family focused interventions in order to help prevent recidivism.

  16. The Effects of Pacifist Norms of the Japanese Justice System

    OpenAIRE

    Zenn, Andrea J.

    2012-01-01

    The reliance on pacifist norms in Japan may have left irreparable effects on the countrys ability to police organized crime. Japans pacifist culture is due in no small part to its tumultuous history, but to fully understand the impact these and other norms have on domestic police and legal institutions we need study the evolution of this societys criminal element over the last several decades and measure the effectiveness of the justice system in Japan. The major areas of research for this pr...

  17. Victims and contemporary tendencies in crime control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soković Snežana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Victimological dimension of new criminality forms is a specific challenge for contemporary criminal law systems; new time brings new forms of criminality, new victims, but also new ways and opportunities for more efficient protection of victims. At the same time with review and improvement of existing standards of victims` protection, contemporary criminality control systems show strong tendency toward compromising the general position of the victim. Victim’s interests are being instrumentalized because of the justification of changes in criminality control in the direction of significant strengthening of criminal law repression. The crime which is emotionalized with the affective media presentation of the victim justifies stricter penal policy and provides the populist support for repressive criminality control strategies and criminal law expansionism. The aim of the paper is the analysis of the mechanisms of victim “use“ in contemporary criminality control and the examination of its consequences, with special review on domestic circumstances through analysis of the Code on special measures for prevention of crimes against sexual freedom towards juveniles (Marija`s Code.

  18. The Crime Curve of Turkey: Does crime decrease with age?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Akalın

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Age distribution of crime is one of the few issues in criminology that received sufficient attention in the West. Some scholars argued that this age distribution is adequately invariant over time, place and type of crime; whereas, others admit that this distribution differs over place and type of crime. Although age-crime curve looks similar in many ways, in fact, a slight difference has been recognized in most countries. This age-crime curve may also help out to focus more on the causes of criminality of specific age groups. Establishing this age distribution is also important because it may play a guiding role for law enforcement personnel and in constructing preventive programs. This article is written primarily to find out how age-crime curve looks like in Turkey. In doing this, prison statistics used here as the primary source.

  19. Dermatomiositis juvenil

    OpenAIRE

    Goldaracena, Pablo; Pérez, Federico

    2008-01-01

    La dermatomiositis juvenil (DMJ) es una enfermedad multi sistémica de etiología desconocida, caracterizada por una vasculitis que ocasiona una inflamación no supurativa del músculo estriado y lesiones cutáneas distintivas. La cobertura de los criterios de Bohan y Peter establece el diagnóstico: exantema patognomónico junto a debilidad muscular proximal simétrica, elevación sérica de enzimas musculares, s...

  20. [Abortion and crime].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citoni, Guido

    2011-01-01

    In this article we address the issue, with a tentative empirical application to the Italian data, of the relationship, very debated mainly in north America, between abortion legalization and reduction of crime rates of youth. The rationale of this relationship is that there is a causal factor at work: the more unwanted pregnancies aborted, the less unwanted children breeding their criminal attitude in an hostile/deprived family environment. Many methodological and empirical criticisms have been raised against the proof of the existence of such a relationship: our attempt to test if this link is valid for Italy cannot endorse its existence. The data we used made necessary some assumptions and the reliability of official estimates of crime rates was debatable (probably downward biased). We conclude that, at least for Italy, the suggested relationship is unproven: other reasons for the need of legal abortion have been and should be put forward.

  1. Criminal justice processing of sexual assault cases. Highlights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J V

    1994-03-01

    This article discusses the processing of criminal justice on sexual assault cases in Canada. To begin with, in 1983, Bill C-127 abolished the offense of rape and indecent assault and created three new crimes of sexual assault and three parallel offenses of assault. This legislation also introduced a number of important changes to the way crimes of sexual aggression are processed by the criminal justice system. In 1991, the Supreme Court struck down provisions of the sexual assault legislation preventing a defendant from introducing evidence regarding complainant's previous sexual conduct. As a result, Bill C-49 was introduced to provide a test to determine whether a complainant's sexual history could be admitted at trial. This bill also addresses the issue of consent and the defense of mistaken beliefs in consent. The focus of the Juristat is the criminal justice processing of the three levels of sexual assault, which are elaborated in this article. In order to distinguish between the different levels, body harm relates only to physical injury and does not include psychological harm. Drawing on the Uniform Crime Reporting Survey, the Sentence Study, the Adult Criminal Court Survey and the Youth Court Survey, the Juristat summarizes recent trends relating to the processing of sexual assault and assault by the police and the courts. Canada's Violence Against Women Survey provides a profile of sexual assault incidents among adult women in Canada.

  2. Crime Novel or Generic Hybrid? The Intimate Side of Evil in Todo é silencio by Manuel Rivas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Xesús Lama López

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Manuel Rivas’ contribution to crime fiction analyzes drug trafficking and the social and political corruption associated with it from a peculiarly intimate perspective. The justification for the fluctuation in the novel between the bildungsroman and the crime novel is the use of adolescents as main characters, thereby bringing to the fore the way in which organized crime breaks apart both society and individuals, as everyone, including the criminals, is destroyed by their engagement with a corrupt power. The narrative focus reinforces social and moral criticism, and relegates the restoration of order and justice to the plane of utopia.

  3. Clinical Assessment of Psychopathology in Violent and Nonviolent Juvenile Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Linda M.; And Others

    The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and the Rorschach test are frequently used in juvenile justice settings to assess current psychological functioning and to predict future behavior. The Exner Comprehensive System, which standardized the Rorschach, made possible a comparison of the Rorschach and the MMPI in an investigation of…

  4. Adolescent Neglect, Juvenile Delinquency and the Risk of Recidivism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joseph P.; Williams, Abigail B.; Courtney, Mark E.

    2013-01-01

    Victims of child abuse and neglect are at an increased risk of involvement with the juvenile justice and adult correctional systems. Yet, little is known about the continuation and trajectories of offending beyond initial contact with law enforcement. Neglect likely plays a critical role in continued offending as parental monitoring, parental…

  5. Crime Without Borders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    As gangs grow increasingly globalized, organized crime is becoming a problem hindering international economic development In late 2005, Dutch police raided Hells Angels clubhouses around the country. In a coordinated sweep that followed a yearlong investigation, police carried out predawn searches in six towns and cities in the Netherlands, arresting 45 members of the motorcycle club, laying scores of charges and seizing an assortment of weapons. Such large-scale raids were rare in Dutch history, and the...

  6. Sexual disorders and crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taborda, José G V; Michalski-Jaeger, Camila A

    2012-09-01

    Highlighting the relationship between sexual disorders and crime, reviewing and summarizing the articles published throughout 2011 which add to the current knowledge on this subject. Studies on specific populations confirm the association between sexual disorders and crime, particularly between paraphilias and sexual crimes regarding male offenders. Female offenders are less likely to be diagnosed with a sexual disorder. Some case reports focus on unusual paraphilias and lead us to question the vast possibilities of paraphilic contents and sexual arousal patterns. The variations of paraphilic-associated sexual arousal patterns, unconventional sex behaviors or paraphilic disorders are constantly changing. In this sense, the American Psychiatric Association's DSM-5 current proposals for a sexual dysfunction diagnostic category are under intense discussion because of their important clinical and forensic consequences. Sexual violence is a theme not well understood yet. Because of its nature, researching it can raise many ethical problems. There is no possibility of clinical trials and of case-control studies. Even cohort studies may be problematic in themselves. So, most of the research involves biased samples or case reports, or is merely theoretical. Further research is needed to improve our understanding of the subject, so that preventive and rehabilitative measures can be taken.

  7. Investigator Issue in Financial Service Crime in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Wiriadinata

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to address a question of the effectiveness of Financial Service Authority (Otoritas Jasa Keuangan - OJK investigators in eradicating financial service crimes in Indonesia. This question arises because in Law on Financial Service Authority there are OJK’s investigators with an investigatory authority on OJK crimes, including; banking, capital market, insurance, pension fund, financing institutions, and other financial service institution sectors. Meanwhile, there have been other investigators with an authority to investigate, namely, public prosecutor, police, and KPK (Indonesia’s corruption eradicating commission. The theoretical framework of this paper was grounded in the thoughts of Aristotle, who says that the goal of law is to achieve justice, and that of Hans Kelsen’s stuffen theory. The method of writing was juridical-normative, by studying legislations, both contained in laws themselves and in literatures/books of legal science, particularly those related to Financial Service Authority. The result was in a form of juridical aspect and written in a descriptive-analytical form. The conclusion of this paper was as follows: There was an overlapping of authorities between OJK’s investigators and public attorney’s investigators, police, and KPK, be they in the investigation of general crimes and that of special crimes/corruption. As for the effectiveness of OJK’s investigators, it should be proved yet in the future.

  8. Reintegrative shaming: Informal means of formal social control of crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiljević-Prodanović Danica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Social control includes all social processes, institutions and methods that produce conformity or regulate the individual and collective conduct of its members. Most of the authors distinguish between informal and formal means of social control. The informal means of social control grow themselves in society, and are considered very powerful, especialy in primary groups. Both, formal and informal modes of social control are important for deterrence of crime. Some authors argue that interaction of formal and informal modes of social control has much stronger deterrent effect on crime than if considered in isolation. John Braithwaite's theory of reintegrative shaming was presented in this article. Although many argue that reduction of recidivism is not primary aim of reintegrative shaming, results of some research indicate that properly designed and implemented procedures can lower the rate of reoffending. This paper analysis the relationship between informal social control and punishment as a means of formal social control of crime. It was also emphasised the importance and discussed perspective of the use of reintegrative shaming as a informal means in function of formal social control of crime. The author concludes that reintegrative shaming and related restorative processes present very alluring challenge for the criminal justice practice.

  9. Evaluating juvenile detainees' Miranda misconceptions: The discriminant validity of the Juvenile Miranda Quiz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharf, Allyson J; Rogers, Richard; Williams, Margot M; Drogin, Eric Y

    2017-05-01

    Most juvenile arrestees in custodial settings waive their Miranda rights almost immediately, and many then provide incriminating statements, if not outright confessions. Forensic practitioners are then asked to provide retrospective determinations regarding whether these waivers were effectuated knowingly, voluntarily, and intelligently. At present, the forensic assessment instrument for juvenile Miranda issues consists of the Miranda Rights Comprehension Instruments (MRCI)-which as its name implies-focuses mostly on Miranda comprehension with a de-emphasis of Miranda reasoning. In partially addressing this gap, the current study investigated the clinical utility of the Juvenile Miranda Quiz (JMQ) for evaluating key Miranda misconceptions, a critically important component of Miranda reasoning. Using data from 201 juvenile detainees, we evaluated the JMQ's discriminability with regards to cognitive variables and MRCI scales. Many moderate effect sizes in the predicted direction were found for the JMQ Primary Total and Juvenile Total scores. Finally, these detainees were tested using a mock crime scenario with a representative Miranda warning plus a brief interrogation to evaluate whether they would waive their rights, and if so, whether they would confess. Using Miranda measures to predict problematic outcomes (i.e., impaired waivers followed by confessions), the JMQ Juvenile Total proved the most successful. These findings are discussed within the context of the "intelligent" prong of Miranda waivers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Crime fiction and mediatized religion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft

    In recent Scandinavian crime fiction an ongoing discussion on religion and religiosity is taking place. This undercurrent goes historically a long way back, but the past few decades seem to have left room for an altered view on religion in modern crime fiction. Crime fiction has usually been...... connected with modernity, modern society and ensuing secularity, but the question is, then, what happens to crime fiction if modern societies no longer uphold its trust in secular ideals. The thesis is that this leaves modern Scandinavian media open for a religious discussion which then also seeps...... into popular crime fiction. In novels by Arne Dahl, Henning Mortensen, Gunnar Staalesen, A.J. Kazinski, Gretelise Holm and several other Scandinavian writers of crime fiction it is possible to locate an interest in theology and topics of religious philosophy which reflects this current trend in modern...

  11. Religion in Scandinavian Crime Fiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft

    In recent Scandinavian crime fiction an ongoing discussion on religion and religiosity is taking place. This undercurrent goes historically a long way back, but the past few decades seem to have left room for an altered view on religion in modern crime fiction. Crime fiction has usually been...... connected with modernity, modern society and ensuing secularity, but the question is, then, what happens to crime fiction if modern societies no longer uphold its trust in secular ideals. The thesis is that this leaves modern Scandinavian media open for a religious discussion which then also seeps...... into popular crime fiction. In novels by Arne Dahl, Henning Mortensen, Gunnar Staalesen, A.J. Kazinski, Gretelise Holm and several other Scandinavian writers of crime fiction it is possible to locate an interest in theology and topics of religious philosophy which reflects this current trend in modern...

  12. LGBTI Variations in Crime Reporting

    OpenAIRE

    Miles-Johnson, Toby

    2013-01-01

    Research shows that people vary in their willingness to report crime to police depending on the type of crime experienced, their gender, age, and their race or ethnicity. Whether or not lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex (LGBTI) and heterosexual people vary in their willingness to report crime to the police is not well understood in the extant literature. In this article, I examine variations in LGBTI re...

  13. Did Legalized Abortion Lower Crime?

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between the legalization of abortion and subsequent decreases in crime. In a current study, researchers estimate that the legalization of abortion explains over half of the recent decline in national crime rates. The association is identified by correlating changes in crime with changes in the abortion ratio weighted by the proportion of the criminal population exposed to legalized abortion. In this paper, I use an alternative identification strategy. I an...

  14. THE ISSUES OF COMBATING OF JUVENILE DELINQUENCY OF TEENAGERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Tarchokov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reveals the problem of juvenile delinquency: a condition, the dynamics of crime; the main risk factors affecting juvenile delinquency, as well as the measures undertaken for the prevention of juvenile delinquency offenses The study, which was always urgent, now acquired a special significance. Adolescence is traditionally considered problematic period in the formation and development of personality. You should also take into account the fact that exacerbated existing internal contradictions in their teens. Numerous studies and centuries of history show that the crime, in fact, is deep-rooted and deal with it, known to date, methods can not be, because it is as natural as the human nature. The phenomenon, which is now troubling modern society, juvenile delinquency, its scope and the criminalization of teenage environment. Of course, we will not cover all background and factors influencing the crime, but will discuss the social side of the problem and the measures that may have a positive effect. One of reasons is the imperfection of the legislative framework in this sphere. This is not, as such, the possibility of setting on the register persons engaged in vagrancy, begging, difficult adolescents, persons who evade education. A consequence of the lack of a unified preventive system is its low efficiency. According to various reports in the country of about 3 million homeless children living at railway stations, in the cellars, in the streets.

  15. Leadership for Social Justice: Social Justice Pedagogies

    OpenAIRE

    Bogotch, Ira; Reyes-Guerra, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between educational leadership and practices of social justice is now entering its second decade with respect to empirical research studies. There have been three distinct research agendas: the first involves attempts to define the meaning(s) of educational leadership for social justice; the second is the descriptive documentation of school leadership behaviors which address social injustices and inequities within schools; and, the third focuses on the development of leadersh...

  16. Neoteric Explanation of Nature of Crime%犯罪本质观新论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟琦; 柳洁

    2012-01-01

    The concepts and characteristics of crime in our traditional criminal law theory have implications pluralism of the nature of crime.In the field of criminal legislation,the nature of crime is the serious social harmfulness and the due criminal punishment,the former is social attribute of the crime,the latter is sanctions attribute of the crime.In the practice of criminal justice,the nature of crime is criminal transgression and the serious social harmfulness,the due criminal punishment is not the nature of crime.%我国传统刑法理论关于犯罪概念和特征的论述已经蕴涵犯罪本质多元论的思想。在刑事立法领域,犯罪的本质是严重社会危害性和应受刑罚处罚性,前者是犯罪的社会属性,后者是犯罪的制裁属性。在刑事司法实践中,犯罪的本质是刑事违法性和严重的社会危害性,应受刑罚处罚性不是犯罪的本质。

  17. RESTORATIVE JUSTICE UNTUK PERADILAN DI INDONESIA (Perspektif Yuridis Filosofis dalam Penegakan Hukum In Concreto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuat Puji Prayitno

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Restorative justice is a philosophy, a process, an idea, a theory and an intervention, that emphasizes repairing the harm caused or revealed by criminal behaviour. This process is in stark contrast to the established way of addressing crime which are seen as offences committed against the State. Restorative justice finds its footing in the basic philosophy of the four precepts of Pancasila, namely prioritizing deliberation in decision making. Purpose of the settlement with the Victim Offender Mediation is to "humanize" the justice system, that fairness is able to answer what the actual needs of victims, offenders and communities.

  18. Common sense of experts: Social representations of justice amongst professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochira, Alessia

    2014-09-01

    The dialectics between different modes of knowledge is at the very core of social sciences. In particular, the theory of social representations looks at expert and lay modes as they were not peculiar of specific domains but rather as they were mutually interdependent. Based on the conceptual distinction between reified and consensual universes, this article explores the interplay between these two sources of knowledge through the analysis of the social representations of justice produced by justice professionals. In particular, the exploration of the social representations of justice amongst experts offers intriguing clues to overtake the idea that the lay understanding of justice is somehow opposed to the expert viewpoint and to accept the polyphasic understanding of this complex object. The article reports the findings of a qualitative investigation of the social representations of justice amongst professionals. The staff members of the Youth Social Services (YSS) and the Juvenile Classification Home and Residential Community (JCHRC) were interviewed, and transcriptions were content analysed. The findings indicated that professionals generate multiple theories of justice with each presenting a particular articulation of the basic interplay between expert and lay viewpoints. Most important, findings indicate that the context of everyday working practice has a significant symbolic valence that goes beyond the boundaries of the reified context of institutional justice system.

  19. Portable X-ray Fluorescence Unit for Analyzing Crime Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visco, A.

    2003-12-01

    Goddard Space Flight Center and the National Institute of Justice have teamed up to apply NASA technology to the field of forensic science. NASA hardware that is under development for future planetary robotic missions, such as Mars exploration, is being engineered into a rugged, portable, non-destructive X-ray fluorescence system for identifying gunshot residue, blood, and semen at crime scenes. This project establishes the shielding requirements that will ensure that the exposure of a user to ionizing radiation is below the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's allowable limits, and also develops the benchtop model for testing the system in a controlled environment.

  20. Restorative practices and hate crime: Opening up the debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrielides Theo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite recent academic and policy interest worldwide, the concepts of restorative justice and hate crime are relatively new, and the full extent of their implications unknown. This paper aims to encourage further dialogue that will allow a more in-depth understanding of both notions. A review of international case studies was attempted by looking at examples where restorative approaches were successfully applied to address hate incidents. Further research and evaluation is warranted in this grey area before further policies and legislation are reviewed.