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Sample records for juvenile intact male

  1. School-Related Characteristics of Male Juveniles.

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    Sapp, Gary L.; Abbott, Gypsy A.

    School-related characteristics of 256 male juveniles under the jurisdiction of a Family Court system were examined by perusing court records and conducting individual interviews with the juveniles. Results indicated that most juveniles last attended eighth grade, more than 81% had failed at least once, and more than half had fought frequently at…

  2. The effect of ovary implants on juvenile hormone production by corpora allata of male Diploptera punctata

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    J.K. Hass

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available In the cockroach Diploptera punctata, vitellogenic basal oocytes stimulate juvenile hormone production by the corpora allata. Experiments with males were designed to determine whether oocytes must grow vitellogenically in order to stimulate juvenile hormone production. Two ovarioles with vitellogenic basal oocytes were implanted into unoperated and sham-operated males that do not produce vitellogenin, and males with denervated corpora allata, that produce more juvenile hormone, and sometimes more vitellogenin. Males with corpora allata in similar conditions were injected with saline as controls. In males with denervated corpora allata compared to sham-operated and unoperated males, the implanted basal oocytes showed a greater increase in length, protein, and vitellin content. Juvenile hormone synthesis by denervated corpora allata in males with ovariole implants was greater than in controls. In 10 of 50 males with denervated corpora allata in which one or no ovarioles grew, juvenile hormone production was not higher than in controls. This suggests that if sufficient juvenile hormone is not present to produce vitellogenin, or oocytes do not take vitellogenin up, juvenile hormone production is not stimulated. In sham-operated males implanted with ovarioles, no difference was detected in juvenile hormone synthesis compared to controls. However, when unoperated males were used, a significant increase was detected. This suggests that intact nerves from the brain to the corpora allata restrained juvenile hormone production so that ovarioles could elicit only slight stimulation of the corpora allata, and oocytes continued vitellogenesis but more slowly than in denervated males. Thus the extent of vitellogenesis appears to determine the ability of ovaries to stimulate juvenile hormone production.

  3. Adult male coatis play with a band of juveniles.

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    Logan, C J; Longino, J T

    2013-05-01

    This study examined the play behaviour in one group of coatis (Nasua narica) at La Selva Biological Station in Costa Rica. We incidentally found adult males playing with juvenile coatis, and conducted post-hoc analyses to investigate this interaction. Coati groups consist of adult females and juveniles of both sexes until male juveniles reach two years of age and leave the band to become solitary. Adult males only tolerate juveniles for a brief period during breeding season when the males court females to mate. Outside of the breeding season, adult males are known to prey on juveniles. In this study, when adult males were present with the band, play occurred more than was expected by chance, and adult males engaged in many of these play bouts. Because the mechanisms driving infanticidal behaviour are not well understood, and adult male coatis show a range of behaviours from infanticide to highly affiliative interactions with juveniles, using coatis as a model system may elucidate mechanisms underlying infanticide.

  4. Psychopathology and offense types in detained male juveniles.

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    Plattner, Belinda; Giger, Joël; Bachmann, Friedel; Brühwiler, Karl; Steiner, Hans; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Bessler, Cornelia; Aebi, Marcel

    2012-07-30

    A substantial proportion of violent crime is committed by juveniles. In detained juveniles, high rates of psychopathology have been found. The objective of this study was to determine psychopathology associated with offense characteristics in detained male adolescents. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview was used to assess juvenile detainees. The final sample included 275 males (mean age=16.45, S.D.=1.27 years). Multivariate logistic regressions yielded significant associations between psychopathology and specific offense types: The presence of substance use disorders (without alcohol) (SUD) was found to predict drug-related crimes, and the presence of alcohol use disorders (AUD) without further SUD were a predictor of violent crime, especially in older juveniles. The absence of anxiety disorder, especially in younger juveniles, was found to be relevant for the prediction of robbery. The results of the study suggest that the use and abuse of legal and illegal substances might be a trigger for serious violent and drug-related crimes in juveniles. In particular, the presence of AUD is presumed to have a pivotal role in the development of impulsive aggression. These findings are important when considering the serious social impact of violent behaviors in adolescents.

  5. Comparing Male and Female Juveniles Charged with Homicide: Child Maltreatment, Substance Abuse, and Crime Details

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    Roe-Sepowitz, Dominique Eve

    2009-01-01

    This study examines a sample of 136 male and female juveniles charged with attempted homicide or homicide. The purpose of this study is to explore the differences between nondirect file male and female juvenile homicide offenders regarding individual, family, and crime circumstances. Findings suggest that compared to male juvenile offenders,…

  6. Urinary felinine excretion in intact male cats is increased by dietary cystine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, W.H.; Rutherfurd-Markwick, K.J.; Weidgraaf, K.; Morton, R.H.; Rogers, Q.R.

    2008-01-01

    Felinine is a branched-chain sulfur amino acid present in the urine of certain Felidae, including domestic cats. The objective of the present study was to determine if additional cystine and/or dietary N would increase felinine and N-acetylfelinine excretion by intact male cats fed a low-protein (LP

  7. Urinary felinine excretion in intact male cats is increased by dietary cystine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, W.H.; Rutherfurd-Markwick, K.J.; Weidgraaf, K.; Morton, R.H.; Rogers, Q.R.

    2008-01-01

    Felinine is a branched-chain sulfur amino acid present in the urine of certain Felidae, including domestic cats. The objective of the present study was to determine if additional cystine and/or dietary N would increase felinine and N-acetylfelinine excretion by intact male cats fed a low-protein

  8. Profile of Incarcerated Juveniles: Comparison of Male and Female Offenders

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    Martin, Don; Martin, Magy; Dell, Rex; Davis, Candice; Guerrieri, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Effective methods of identifying potential juvenile offenders are critical when developing prevention programs within both state and national juvenile justice systems. The characteristics of juvenile offenders in a large juvenile justice system are examined in this study. Participants live in a Midwestern city with a high rate of crime as…

  9. Juvenile hormone regulates extreme mandible growth in male stag beetles.

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    Hiroki Gotoh

    Full Text Available The morphological diversity of insects is one of the most striking phenomena in biology. Evolutionary modifications to the relative sizes of body parts, including the evolution of traits with exaggerated proportions, are responsible for a vast range of body forms. Remarkable examples of an insect trait with exaggerated proportions are the mandibular weapons of stag beetles. Male stag beetles possess extremely enlarged mandibles which they use in combat with rival males over females. As with other sexually selected traits, stag beetle mandibles vary widely in size among males, and this variable growth results from differential larval nutrition. However, the mechanisms responsible for coupling nutrition with growth of stag beetle mandibles (or indeed any insect structure remain largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that during the development of male stag beetles (Cyclommatus metallifer, juvenile hormone (JH titers are correlated with the extreme growth of an exaggerated weapon of sexual selection. We then investigate the putative role of JH in the development of the nutritionally-dependent, phenotypically plastic mandibles, by increasing hemolymph titers of JH with application of the JH analog fenoxycarb during larval and prepupal developmental periods. Increased JH signaling during the early prepupal period increased the proportional size of body parts, and this was especially pronounced in male mandibles, enhancing the exaggerated size of this trait. The direction of this response is consistent with the measured JH titers during this same period. Combined, our results support a role for JH in the nutrition-dependent regulation of extreme mandible growth in this species. In addition, they illuminate mechanisms underlying the evolution of trait proportion, the most salient feature of the evolutionary diversification of the insects.

  10. Differences between Male and Female Juvenile Offenders as Measured by the BASC.

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    Calhoun, Georgia B.

    2001-01-01

    This study is an initial examination of behavioral and emotional differences between male and female juvenile offenders using an omnibus self-report personality inventory. Differences between male and female juvenile offenders were found on 6 of 14 comparisons. Findings provide support for differential treatment planning in addressing the needs of…

  11. Paternity alone does not predict long-term investment in juveniles by male baboons.

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    Moscovice, Liza R; Heesen, Marlies; Di Fiore, Anthony; Seyfarth, Robert M; Cheney, Dorothy L

    2009-08-01

    Adult male chacma baboons (Papio hamadryas ursinus) form preferential associations, or friendships, with particular lactating females. Males exhibit high levels of affiliative contact with their friends' infants and defend them from potentially infanticidal attacks (Palombit et al. 1997). Little is known about males' associations with juveniles once they have passed the period of infanticidal risk. We conducted an observational, experimental, and genetic study of adult male and juvenile chacma baboons in the Moremi Reserve, Botswana. We identified preferential associations between males and juveniles and used behavioral data and a playback experiment to explore whether those associations have potential fitness benefits for juveniles. We determined whether males preferentially invest in care of their own offspring. We also determined how often males invest in care of their former friends' offspring. The majority of juveniles exhibited preferential associations with one or two males, who had almost always been their mother's friend during infancy. However, in only a subset of these relationships was the male the actual father, in part because many fathers died or disappeared before their offspring were weaned. Male caretakers intervened on behalf of their juvenile associates in social conflicts more often than they intervened on behalf of unconnected juveniles, and they did not appear to differentiate between genetic offspring and unrelated associates. Playbacks of juveniles' distress calls elicited a stronger response from their caretakers than from control males. Chacma males may provide care to unrelated offspring of former friends because the costs associated with such care are low compared with the potentially high fitness costs of refusing aid to a juvenile who is a possible offspring.

  12. Behavioral and neuroendocrine consequences of juvenile stress combined with adult immobilization in male rats.

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    Fuentes, Silvia; Carrasco, Javier; Armario, Antonio; Nadal, Roser

    2014-08-01

    Exposure to stress during childhood and adolescence increases vulnerability to developing several psychopathologies in adulthood and alters the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the prototypical stress system. Rodent models of juvenile stress appear to support this hypothesis because juvenile stress can result in reduced activity/exploration and enhanced anxiety, although results are not always consistent. Moreover, an in-depth characterization of changes in the HPA axis is lacking. In the present study, the long-lasting effects of juvenile stress on adult behavior and HPA function were evaluated in male rats. The juvenile stress consisted of a combination of stressors (cat odor, forced swim and footshock) during postnatal days 23-28. Juvenile stress reduced the maximum amplitude of the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels (reduced peak at lights off), without affecting the circadian corticosterone rhythm, but other aspects of the HPA function (negative glucocorticoid feedback, responsiveness to further stressors and brain gene expression of corticotrophin-releasing hormone and corticosteroid receptors) remained unaltered. The behavioral effects of juvenile stress itself at adulthood were modest (decreased activity in the circular corridor) with no evidence of enhanced anxiety. Imposition of an acute severe stressor (immobilization on boards, IMO) did not increase anxiety in control animals, as evaluated one week later in the elevated-plus maze (EPM), but it potentiated the acoustic startle response (ASR). However, acute IMO did enhance anxiety in the EPM, in juvenile stressed rats, thereby suggesting that juvenile stress sensitizes rats to the effects of additional stressors.

  13. Juvenile papillomatosis of the breast in young male: a case report.

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    Sanguinetti, A; Fioriti, L; Brugia, M; Roila, F; Farabi, R; Sidoni, A; Avenia, N

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile papillomatosis of the breast ("Swiss cheese disease'') is a benign localized proliferative condition of the breast which occurs almost exclusively in young adult women. Patients with this lesion often have a family history of breast carcinoma, but rarely carcinoma may coexist with the lesion at the time of diagnosis. We present a case of a young male with juvenile papillomatosis of the breast. The pathology and clinical management of this rare lesion is discussed.

  14. Plasma concentrations of testosterone and nandrolone in racing and nonracing intact male horses.

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    Soma, L R; Uboh, C E; You, Y; Guan, F; McDonnell, S

    2012-04-01

    Pennsylvania (PA) State Racing Commissions regulate the endogenous androgenic steroid, testosterone (TES), in racing intact males (RIM) by quantification of TES in post-race samples. Post-race plasma samples (2209) collected between March 2008 and November 2010 were analyzed for TES, nandrolone (NAN), and other anabolic steroids (ABS). Of the 2209 plasma samples, 2098 had quantifiable TES ≥ 25 pg/mL. Plasma (mean ± SD) concentrations of TES and NAN in RIM were 329.2 ± 266.4 and 96.0 ± 67.8 pg/mL, respectively. Only 64.6% of RIM had quantifiable concentration of NAN, and there was no relationship between TES and NAN. Plasma TES concentrations were significantly (P horses. Based on quantile distribution of TES in the RIM and BS populations, 99.5% were at or below 1546.1 and 1778.0 pg/mL, respectively. Based on this population of RIM, the suggested upper threshold plasma concentration of endogenous TES in horses competing in PA should remain at 2000 pg/mL. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. The DSM-5 Limited Prosocial Emotions subtype of Conduct Disorder in incarcerated male and female juvenile delinquents

    OpenAIRE

    Pechorro, Pedro; Jiménez García, Lucía; Hidalgo García, María Victoria; Nunes,Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the relevance of the DSM-5's Conduct Disorder new Limited Prosocial Emotions (CD LPE) specifier in incarcerated juvenile delinquents. A sample of 201 males and 98 females from the Juvenile Detention Centers managed by the Portuguese Ministry of Justice diagnosed with Conduct Disorder (CD) was used. Results showed that male juvenile delinquents with the CD LPE specifier scored higher on callous-unemotional traits (CU), general psychopathic traits, ps...

  16. Exploration, aggressive behavior and dominance in pair-wise confrontations of juvenile male great tits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, M.E.M.; Boon, A.; Drent, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    In the development of social dominance, constitutional behavioural characteristics may play an important role apart from morphological traits. Previous work has shown that juvenile male great tits Parus major differ consistently in their early exploratory behaviour and can be classified as fast and

  17. Hate Speech in a Juvenile Male Prison School and in US Schooling

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    Vaught, Sabina E.

    2012-01-01

    This article theoretically examines the meaning and function of hate speech in a high-security juvenile male prison school. Specifically, the article draws on data from an ethnographic study of this prison school site in order to map the institutional mechanisms of hate speech. Additionally, the article suggests these mechanisms are not anomalous…

  18. Hate Speech in a Juvenile Male Prison School and in US Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaught, Sabina E.

    2012-01-01

    This article theoretically examines the meaning and function of hate speech in a high-security juvenile male prison school. Specifically, the article draws on data from an ethnographic study of this prison school site in order to map the institutional mechanisms of hate speech. Additionally, the article suggests these mechanisms are not anomalous…

  19. Appropriate Benefits for Outdoor Programs Targeting Juvenile Male Offenders.

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    Bruyere, Brett L.

    2002-01-01

    A benefits-based management approach will enable outdoor adventure therapy programs for male adolescent offenders to be built around desired outcomes such as building connections to community, enhancing self-esteem, and establishing intergenerational relationships. Outdoor programs must maintain informal environments, involve participants in…

  20. Lipopolysaccharide sensitized male and female juvenile brains to ionizing radiation.

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    Kalm, M; Roughton, K; Blomgren, K

    2013-12-12

    Radiotherapy is an effective tool in the treatment of pediatric malignancies but it is associated with adverse side effects, both short- and long-term. One common long-term side effect after cranial radiotherapy is cognitive impairment and this is, at least partly, thought to be caused by reduced hippocampal neurogenesis. Neuroinflammation and a perturbed microenvironment are thought to be important in the dysregulation of neurogenesis seen after irradiation (IR). We investigated the effects of a pre-existing, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced systemic inflammation at the time of IR in both males and females. A single dose of 8 Gy to the brain of postnatal day 14 mice caused an upregulation of cytokines/chemokines (IL-1β, MIP-1β, IL-12, GM-CSF, MIP-1α, IL-17, CCL2 and KC) 6 h after IR, more so in females. Caspase-3 activity, reflecting apoptosis and possibly microglia activation, was elevated 6 h after IR. Females treated with LPS before IR showed a higher caspase-3 activity compared with males. During the chronic phase (3 months post IR), we found that LPS-induced inflammation at the time of IR aggravated the IR-induced injury in both male and female mice, as judged by reduced bromodeoxyuridine incorporation and neurogenesis (doublecortin-positive cells) in the hippocampus. At this late time point, the microglia density was increased by IR, more so in females, indicating long-term effects on the microenvironment. IR increased anxiety-related behavior in vehicle-, but not LPS-, treated animals. However, exploratory behavior was affected by IR in both vehicle- and LPS-treated mice. In conclusion, we found that LPS administration before IR of the young mouse brain aggravated the injury, as judged by reduced hippocampal neurogenesis. This supports the clinical practice to postpone radiotherapy if the patient shows signs of infection. Systemic inflammation is not always obvious, though, for example because of concurrent corticosteroid treatment, so careful

  1. 2-Methoxyestradiol Reduces Angiotensin II-Induced Hypertension and Renal Dysfunction in Ovariectomized Female and Intact Male Mice.

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    Pingili, Ajeeth K; Davidge, Karen N; Thirunavukkarasu, Shyamala; Khan, Nayaab S; Katsurada, Akemi; Majid, Dewan S A; Gonzalez, Frank J; Navar, L Gabriel; Malik, Kafait U

    2017-06-01

    Cytochrome P450 1B1 protects against angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertension and associated cardiovascular changes in female mice, most likely via production of 2-methoxyestradiol. This study was conducted to determine whether 2-methoxyestradiol ameliorates Ang II-induced hypertension, renal dysfunction, and end-organ damage in intact Cyp1b1(-/-), ovariectomized female, and Cyp1b1(+/+) male mice. Ang II or vehicle was infused for 2 weeks and administered concurrently with 2-methoxyestradiol. Mice were placed in metabolic cages on day 12 of Ang II infusion for urine collection for 24 hours. 2-Methoxyestradiol reduced Ang II-induced increases in systolic blood pressure, water consumption, urine output, and proteinuria in intact female Cyp1b1(-/-) and ovariectomized mice. 2-Methoxyestradiol also reduced Ang II-induced increase in blood pressure, water intake, urine output, and proteinuria in Cyp1b1(+/+) male mice. Treatment with 2-methoxyestradiol attenuated Ang II-induced end-organ damage in intact Cyp1b1(-/-) and ovariectomized Cyp1b1(+/+) and Cyp1b1(-/-) female mice and Cyp1b1(+/+) male mice. 2-Methoxyestradiol mitigated Ang II-induced increase in urinary excretion of angiotensinogen in intact Cyp1b1(-/-) and ovariectomized Cyp1b1(+/+) and Cyp1b1(-/-) female mice but not in Cyp1b1(+/+) male mice. The G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 antagonist G-15 failed to alter Ang II-induced increases in blood pressure and renal function in Cyp1b1(+/+) female mice. These data suggest that 2-methoxyestradiol reduces Ang II-induced hypertension and associated end-organ damage in intact Cyp1b1(-/-), ovariectomized Cyp1b1(+/+) and Cyp1b1(-/-) female mice, and Cyp1b1(+/+) male mice independent of G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1. Therefore, 2-methoxyestradiol could serve as a therapeutic agent for treating hypertension and associated pathogenesis in postmenopausal females, and in males. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Self-perceptions and their Prediction of Aggression in Male Juvenile Offenders.

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    Smith, Stephanie D; Lynch, Rebecca J; Stephens, Haley F; Kistner, Janet A

    2015-08-01

    This study evaluated multiple facets of self-perceptions that have been theorized and shown to play a contributory role in the development of aggression for less clinically severe populations in a sample of youths from the juvenile justice system. Independent and unique associations of low self-esteem and inflated self-perceptions with aggression were examined in a sample of male juvenile offenders (N = 119; Mean age = 16.74 years) using a longitudinal study design. Latent growth curve modeling analyses revealed that self-esteem, adaptive and maladaptive narcissism independently predicted juvenile offenders' initial levels of aggression. It was also found that perceptual bias independently predicted changes in aggression over time. With the inclusion of all variables in the same model, self-esteem was no longer associated with aggression; however, all other relationships remained significant. The implications of these findings as well as the importance of interventions targeting self-perceptions to decrease aggression among high-risk youths are discussed.

  3. Juvenile stress potentiates aversive 22-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations and freezing during auditory fear conditioning in adult male rats.

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    Yee, Nicole; Schwarting, Rainer K W; Fuchs, Eberhard; Wöhr, Markus

    2012-09-01

    Traumatic experiences that occur during adolescence can render individuals vulnerable to mood and anxiety disorders. A model in juvenile rats (age: 27-29 days) was developed previously to study the long-term effects of adolescent stress exposure on behaviour and physiology. This paradigm, termed juvenile stress, involves subjecting juvenile rats to different stressors on consecutive days over a 3-day period. Here, we investigated the effects of the juvenile stress paradigm on freezing behaviour and aversive 22-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) during auditory fear conditioning in adult male rats (age: 68-90 days). We found that rats previously subjected to juvenile stress increased aversive 22-kHz USVs (total calls and time spent calling) compared with controls during fear-conditioning training. The acoustic USV parameters between control and juvenile stress rats were largely equivalent, including duration, peak frequency and amplitude. While rats did not differ in freezing behaviour during fear conditioning, juvenile stress rats exhibited greater cue-conditioned freezing upon testing 24 h later. Our results show that juvenile stress elicited different long-term changes in freezing and aversive USVs during fear conditioning. Furthermore, they highlight the importance of assessing USVs to detect experience-dependent differences between control and stress-exposed animals which are not detectable by measuring visible behaviour.

  4. Rapid estrogen receptor alpha signaling mediated by ERK activation regulates vascular tone in male and ovary-intact female mice.

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    Kim, Seong Chul; Boese, Austin C; Moore, Matthew H; Cleland, Rea M; Chang, Lin; Delafontaine, Patrice; Yin, Ke-Jie; Lee, Jean-Pyo; Hamblin, Milton H

    2017-09-08

    Estrogen has been shown to affect vascular reactivity. Here, we assessed estrogen receptor-alpha (ERα) dependency of estrogenic effects on vasorelaxation via a rapid nongenomic pathway in both male and ovary-intact female mice. We compared the effect of a primary estrogen, 17 beta-estradiol (E2) or 4,4',4"-(4-propyl-[1H]pyrazole-1,3,5-triyl)tris-phenol (PPT) (selective ERα agonist). We found that E2 and PPT induced greater aortic relaxation in females than males, indicating ERα mediation, which is further validated by employing ERα antagonism. Treatment with 1,3-Bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4-methyl-5-[4-(2-piperidinylethoxy)phenol]-1H-pyrazole dihydrochloride (MPP dihydrochloride) (ERα antagonist) attenuated PPT-mediated vessel relaxation in both sexes. ERα-mediated vessel relaxation is further validated by the absence of significant PPT-mediated relaxation in aortas isolated from ERα knockout mice. Treatment with a specific extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor, PD98059 reduced E2-induced vessel relaxation in both sexes, but to a lesser extent in females. Further, PD98059 prevented PPT-induced vessel relaxation in both sexes. Both E2 and PPT treatment activated ERK as early as 5-10 min, which was attenuated by PD98059 in aortic tissue, cultured primary vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), and endothelial cells (ECs). Aortic rings denuded of endothelium showed no differences in vessel relaxation following E2 or PPT treatment, implicating a role of ECs in the observed sex differences. Here, our results are unique to show estrogen-stimulated rapid ERα signaling mediated by ERK activation in aortic tissue, as well as VSMCs and ECs in vitro, in regulating vascular function by employing side-by-side comparisons in male and ovary-intact female mice in response to E2 or PPT. Copyright © 2017, American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology.

  5. Neuropeptides affecting the transfer of juvenile hormones from males to females during mating in Spodoptera frugiperda.

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    Hassanien, Intisar T E; Grötzner, Manuela; Meyering-Vos, Martina; Hoffmann, Klaus H

    2014-07-01

    In the polyandric moth, Spodopterafrugiperda, juvenile hormone (JH) is transferred from the male accessory reproductive glands (AG) to the female bursa copulatrix (BC) during copulation (see Hassanien et al., 2014). Here we used the RNA interference technique to study the role of allatoregulating neuropeptides in controlling the synthesis and transfer of JH during mating. Knockdown of S. frugiperda allatostatin C (Spofr-AS type C) in freshly emerged males leads to an accumulation of JH in the AG beyond that in the control and mating results in a higher transport of JH I and JH II into the female BC. Knockdown of S. frugiperda allatotropin 2 (Spofr-AT2) significantly reduces the amount of JH in the AG as well as its transfer into the female BC during copulation. Knockdown of S. frugiperda allatostatin A (Spofr-AS type A) and S. frugiperda allatotropin (Spofr-AT; Hassanien et al., 2014) only slightly affects the accumulation of JH in the AG and its transfer from the male to the female. We conclude that Spofr-AS type C and Spofr-AT2 act as true allatostatin and true allatotropin, respectively, on the synthesis of JH I and JH II in the male AG. Moreover, both peptides seem to control the synthesis of JH III in the corpora allata of adult males and its release into the hemolymph.

  6. Intraduodenal administration of intact pea protein effectively reduces food intake in both lean and obese male subjects.

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    Geraedts, Maartje C P; Troost, Freddy J; Munsters, Marjet J M; Stegen, Jos H C H; de Ridder, Rogier J; Conchillo, Jose M; Kruimel, Joanna W; Masclee, Ad A M; Saris, Wim H M

    2011-01-01

    Human duodenal mucosa secretes increased levels of satiety signals upon exposure to intact protein. However, after oral protein ingestion, gastric digestion leaves little intact proteins to enter the duodenum. This study investigated whether bypassing the stomach, through intraduodenal administration, affects hormone release and food-intake to a larger extent than orally administered protein in both lean and obese subjects. Ten lean (BMI:23.0±0.7 kg/m²) and ten obese (BMI:33.4±1.4 kg/m²) healthy male subjects were included. All subjects randomly received either pea protein solutions (250 mg/kg bodyweight in 0.4 ml/kg bodyweight of water) or placebo (0.4 ml/kg bodyweight of water), either orally or intraduodenally via a naso-duodenal tube. Appetite-profile, plasma GLP-1, CCK, and PYY concentrations were determined over a 2 h period. After 2 h, subjects received an ad-libitum meal and food-intake was recorded. CCK levels were increased at 10(pobese subjects, compared to lean subjects, but also compared to oral protein administration (OPA)(pobese subjects after 90(pFood-intake was reduced after IPA both in lean and obese subjects (-168.9±40 kcal (pobese subjects, food-intake was decreased after IPA (-132.6±42 kcal; pfood intake, and seems to affect obese subjects to a greater extent than lean subjects. Enteric coating of intact protein supplements may provide an effective dietary strategy in the prevention/treatment of obesity.

  7. Blood lipids and fatty acid composition of abdominal fat in castrated and intact male common pheasant (Colchicus colchicus

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    Petar Džaja

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken to examine the effects of castration on plasma lipids and on the fatty acid profile of abdominal fat in male pheasants. Thirty pheasants reared in a commercial pheasantry were included in the experiment. Half the pheasants were castrated at 8 weeks of age and the other half underwent sham surgery at the same age. Plasma levels of triglycerides and high density lipoproteins (HDL were significantly higher in the castrated pheasants. Values for cholesterol tended to be higher in castrated pheasants although without statistical significance. The fatty acid content of the abdominal fat from castrated and intact pheasants were primarily composed of oleic acid (42.58%-40.33%, followed by palmitic acid (25.25%-27.33%, linoleic (14.05%-12.65% and stearic acid (8.95%-9.40%. Castration also significantly influenced the fatty acid composition of abdominal fat. Compared to the intact pheasants, the fatty acid content of abdominal fat from castrated pheasants contained higher values for saturated fatty acids (SFA and lower values for unsaturated fatty acids (UFA, unsaturated to saturated fatty acids ratio (UFA/SFA and polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids ratio (PUFA/SFA.

  8. Sensory properties and instrumental texture analysis of chevon patties from intact male Boer and Kiko goats harvested at four endpoints.

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    Leick, C M; Behrends, J M; Solaiman, S G; Broadway, P R; Min, B R; Mikel, W B; Williams, J B; Schilling, M W

    2012-07-01

    Intact male Boer and Kiko goats (n=48) were harvested after 0, 4, 8, or 12 weeks on a 16% crude protein concentrate diet. Boneless goat carcass left sides were ground and formed into patties to evaluate cook loss, texture profile analysis, and descriptive sensory characteristics. Increasing feeding duration increased percent fat and decreased moisture in raw ground meat (PKiko meat (P0.05). Increased feeding duration increased aroma intensity and goaty, bloody, musty, and liver/organy aromas; salty, bitter, umami, grassy, goaty, fat, liver/organy, metallic, earthy, and chemical flavors; and juiciness and oiliness, while decreasing chewiness and crumbliness (PKiko patties had similar sensory properties after 0 and 4weeks on feed, but breeds were more distinguishable after 8 or 12 weeks on feed.

  9. Anti-diabetic effects of hydroalcohlic juglans regia male flower extract on blood glucose level and on liver enzymes activity in intact and diabetogenized adult male rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Ebrahim Hosseini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Diabetes is a metabolic disorder resulting from defects in insulin secretion or function. Walnut is a nutrient used in traditional medicine to treat diabetes. In the current study, anti-diabetic effects of the Hydroalcoholic extract of walnut male flowers on diabetogenized rats by using Streptozocin were evaluated.   Materials and Methods: Seventy two adult male Wistar rats weighing 200-225 g each were randomly selected and divided into three main groups, i.e. control, diabetic, and non-diabetic(intact The control group included 8 rats (n=8. The diabetic and non-diabetic groups covered 32 rats each. Each of these groups were divided into four 8 rats including the control, diabetic, experimental 1, 2, and 3 which received 2, 4, or 6 g/kg of the extract per day for 15 days ,respectively. The three diabetic groups were each treated with the above doses of the extract, and the fourth group received no treatment. Diabetes was induced in diabetic rats through intraperitoneal injection of 60 mg/kg of Streptozotocin. At the end, blood samples were taken from the experimental and control groups and the serum levels of insulin and glucose were measured.   Results: A significant reduction in blood sugar and increase of insulin in diabetics receiving Hydroalcoholic extract of male flowers walnut was observed compared with non-diabetic ones.   Conclusion: Hydroalcoholic extract of male Walnut flowers, due to increasing insulin, causes reduction of blood sugar.

  10. Reproductive hacking. A male seminal protein acts through intact reproductive pathways in female Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, C Dustin; Wolfner, Mariana F

    2014-01-01

    Seminal proteins are critical for reproductive success in all animals that have been studied. Although seminal proteins have been identified in many taxa, and female reproductive responses to receipt of these proteins have been documented in several, little is understood about the mechanisms by which seminal proteins affect female reproductive physiology. To explore this topic, we investigated how a Drosophila seminal protein, ovulin, increases ovulation rate in mated females. Ovulation is a relatively simple physiological process, with known female regulators: previous studies have shown that ovulation rate is promoted by the neuromodulator octopamine (OA) in D. melanogaster and other insects. We found that ovulin stimulates ovulation by increasing OA signaling in the female. This finding supports a model in which a male seminal protein acts through "hacking" a well-conserved, regulatory system females use to adjust reproductive output, rather than acting downstream of female mechanisms of control or in parallel pathways altogether. We also discuss similarities between 2 forms of intersexual control of behavior through chemical communication: seminal proteins and pheromones.

  11. Moral Disengagement as Mediator and Moderator of the Relation Between Empathy and Aggression Among Chinese Male Juvenile Delinquents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingchao; Lei, Li; Yang, Jiping; Gao, Ling; Zhao, Fengqing

    2017-04-01

    The link between empathy and aggression is well documented; yet, studies examining potential mechanisms that explain this association are limited. In the present study, we tested the relation between empathy and aggression and examined both the mediating and moderating effects of moral disengagement on this relation among Chinese male juvenile delinquents. Three hundred and fifty-seven male juvenile delinquents from one Chinese juvenile correctional facility completed the interpersonal reactivity index, the moral disengagement scale and the aggression questionnaire. The results indicated that moral disengagement partially mediated the influence of empathy on aggression. Moreover, moral disengagement moderated the relation between empathy and aggression. Specifically, there was a significant negative relation between empathy and aggression at low levels of moral disengagement. However, at high levels of moral disengagement, the relation between empathy and aggression was non-significant. The significance and limitations of the results are discussed.

  12. Intraduodenal administration of intact pea protein effectively reduces food intake in both lean and obese male subjects.

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    Maartje C P Geraedts

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human duodenal mucosa secretes increased levels of satiety signals upon exposure to intact protein. However, after oral protein ingestion, gastric digestion leaves little intact proteins to enter the duodenum. This study investigated whether bypassing the stomach, through intraduodenal administration, affects hormone release and food-intake to a larger extent than orally administered protein in both lean and obese subjects. METHODS: Ten lean (BMI:23.0±0.7 kg/m² and ten obese (BMI:33.4±1.4 kg/m² healthy male subjects were included. All subjects randomly received either pea protein solutions (250 mg/kg bodyweight in 0.4 ml/kg bodyweight of water or placebo (0.4 ml/kg bodyweight of water, either orally or intraduodenally via a naso-duodenal tube. Appetite-profile, plasma GLP-1, CCK, and PYY concentrations were determined over a 2 h period. After 2 h, subjects received an ad-libitum meal and food-intake was recorded. RESULTS: CCK levels were increased at 10(p<0.02 and 20(p<0.01 minutes after intraduodenal protein administration (IPA, in obese subjects, compared to lean subjects, but also compared to oral protein administration (OPA(p<0.04. GLP-1 levels increased after IPA in obese subjects after 90(p<0.02 to 120(p<0.01 minutes, compared to OPA. Food-intake was reduced after IPA both in lean and obese subjects (-168.9±40 kcal (p<0.01 and -298.2±44 kcal (p<0.01, respectively, compared to placebo. Also, in obese subjects, food-intake was decreased after IPA (-132.6±42 kcal; p<0.01, compared to OPA. CONCLUSIONS: Prevention of gastric proteolysis through bypassing the stomach effectively reduces food intake, and seems to affect obese subjects to a greater extent than lean subjects. Enteric coating of intact protein supplements may provide an effective dietary strategy in the prevention/treatment of obesity.

  13. Minor sperm abnormalities in young male post-pubertal patients with juvenile dermatomyositis

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    A.J.P. Moraes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to identify sperm abnormalities in young male patients with juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM. In 2005, 18 male JDM patients, diagnosed according to the criteria of Bohan and Peter, were followed at the Pediatric Rheumatology Unit and Rheumatology Division, of our Institution. Of the 18 males, 11 were pre-pubertal and 7 were post-pubertal. Two of 7 post-pubertal JDM male patients were excluded: one for orchidopexy for cryptorchidism and the other for testicular ectopia in the left testis. The remaining 5 post-pubertal JDM patients were prospectively evaluated on the basis of two semen analyses, according to the World Health Organization (WHO, urologic evaluation, testicular Doppler ultrasound hormone profile. The data of the JDM patients were compared with those of 5 age-matched healthy controls. The median age 18, was similar in JDM patients and controls. All JDM patients had teratozoospermia (abnormal sperm morphology, as did 4 (80% of the controls. One of JDM patients had previous oligoasthenoteratozoospermia treated with intravenous cyclophosphamide with normalization of the number and concentration of the sperm after 5 years. All sperm parameters (sperm concentration, total sperm count and total motile sperm count by WHO, and sperm morphology by Kruger strict criteria, testicular volumes by Prader orchidometer and ultrasound, and hormones were similar in JDM patients compared with controls. The frequency of anti-sperm antibodies was similar in both groups. All JDM patients had minor sperm abnormalities in the head, midpiece, and/or tail of spermatozoids. Serial semen analyses in larger study populations are necessary to identify the extent and duration of sperm abnormalities in male patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies.

  14. Extinction and reinstatement to cocaine-associated cues in male and female juvenile rats and the role of D1 dopamine receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenhouse, Heather C; Thompson, Britta S; Sonntag, Kai C; Andersen, Susan L

    2015-08-01

    Extinction of behaviors in response to drug-associated cues and prevention of reinstatement are integral for addiction treatment, and can reverse or ameliorate the harmful consequences of drug use. The mechanisms controlling extinction and reinstatement involve prefrontal cortical dopamine receptors, which change in expression and activity during the juvenile and adolescent transitions until they mature in adulthood. Little is known about the role that PFC D1 dopamine receptors play in extinction of drug-paired associations early in life. We used extinction of place preferences for cocaine in juvenile male and female rats following genetic, cell-specific overexpression of D1 on glutamatergic cells in the PFC. All subjects needed to demonstrate cocaine preferences for inclusion in the extinction studies. Here, male juveniles with a preference to 10 mg/kg cocaine took longer to extinguish preferences compared to both male adults and female juveniles. Female juveniles extinguished more rapidly than male juveniles at 20 mg/kg cocaine. Overexpression of D1 in juvenile males significantly facilitated extinction relative to juvenile male controls, whereas D1 prolonged expression of extinction in adults overexpressing D1 and adolescents who naturally have elevated D1 expression. These data suggest that an immature D1 profile in juveniles prevented the learning of new associations, and D1 overexpression may provide sufficient activity to facilitate extinction learning. D1 overexpression reduced reinstatement to a priming dose of cocaine in juvenile males. Together, these data show D1 expression may re-program motivational circuitry to facilitate extinction learning during juvenility that is normally unavailable to juveniles and that sex differences exist.

  15. Learning and memory deficits in male adult mice treated with a benzodiazepine sleep-inducing drug during the juvenile period

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    Yusuke Furukawa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system, is also known to be important for brain development. Therefore, disturbances of GABA receptor (GABA-R mediated signaling (GABA-R signal during brain development may influence normal brain maturation and cause late-onset brain malfunctions. In this study, we examined whether the temporal stimulation of the GABA-R signal during brain development induces late-onset adverse effects on the brain in adult male mice. To stimulate the GABA-R signal, we used either the benzodiazepine sleep-inducing drug triazolam (TZ or the non-benzodiazepine drug zolpidem (ZP. We detected deficits in learning and memory in mice treated with TZ during the juvenile period, as seen in the fear conditioning test. On the other hand, ZP administration during the juvenile period had little effect. In addition, decreased protein expression of GluR1 and GluR4, which are excitatory neurotransmitter receptors, was detected in the hippocampi of mice treated with TZ during the juvenile period. We measured mRNA expression of the immediate early genes (IEGs, which are neuronal activity markers, in the hippocampus shortly after the administration of TZ or ZP to juvenile mice. Decreased IEG expression was detected in mice with juvenile TZ administration, but not in mice with juvenile ZP administration. Our findings demonstrate that TZ administration during the juvenile period can induce irreversible brain dysfunction in adult mice. It may need to take an extra care for the prescription of benzodiazepine sleep-inducing drugs to juveniles because it might cause late onset learning and memory defects.

  16. Preliminary data on the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in Brazilian male and female juvenile delinquents

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    Andrade R.C.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present investigation was to study the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in a sample of delinquent adolescents of both genders and to compare the prevalence between genders. A total of 116 adolescents (99 males and 17 females aged 12 to 19 on parole in the State of Rio de Janeiro were interviewed using the screening interview based on the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children - Present and Lifetime (KSADS-PL. Data were collected between May 2002 and January 2003. Of 373 male and 58 female adolescents present in May 2002 in the largest institution that gives assistance to adolescents on parole in the city of Rio de Janeiro, 119 subjects were assessed (three of them refused to participate. Their average age was 16.5 years with no difference between genders. The screening interview was positive for psychopathology for most of the sample, with the frequencies of the suggested more prevalent psychiatric disorders being 54% for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, 77% for conduct disorder, 41% for oppositional defiant disorder, 57% for anxiety disorder 57, 60% for depressive disorder 60, 63% for illicit drug abuse, and 58% for regular alcohol use. Internalizing disorders (depressive disorders, anxiety disorders and phobias were more prevalent in the female subsample. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of illicit drug abuse between genders. There were more male than female adolescents on parole and failure to comply with the sentence was significantly more frequent in females. The high prevalence of psychopathology suggested by this study indicates the need for psychiatric treatment as part of the prevention of juvenile delinquency or as part of the sentence. However, treatment had never been available for 93% of the sample in this study.

  17. Intrahippocampal administration of an androgen receptor antagonist, flutamide, can increase anxiety-like behavior in intact and DHT-replaced male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edinger, Kassandra L; Frye, Cheryl A

    2006-08-01

    Testosterone (T) and its 5alpha-reduced metabolite, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), can decrease anxiety-like behavior; however, the mechanisms underlying these effects have not been established. First, we hypothesized that if T reduces anxiety-like behavior through actions of its 5alpha-reduced metabolite, DHT, then gonadectomy (GDX) would increase anxiety-like behavior, an effect which would be reversed by systemic administration of DHT. Second, we hypothesized that if T and DHT reduce anxiety-like behavior in part through actions at intracellular androgen receptors in the hippocampus, then administration of an androgen receptor antagonist, flutamide, directly to the hippocampus should increase anxiety-like behavior of intact and DHT-replaced, but not GDX, male rats. Inserts that were empty or contained flutamide were applied directly to the dorsal hippocampus of intact, GDX, or GDX and DHT-replaced rats 2 h prior to testing in the open field, elevated plus maze, or defensive freezing tasks. GDX rats exhibited significantly more anxiety-like behaviors than intact or DHT-replaced rats. Intact and DHT-replaced rats administered flutamide to the hippocampus showed significantly more anxiety-like behavior than did intact and DHT-replaced controls. However, flutamide alone did not increase anxiety-like behavior of GDX rats. Together, these findings suggest that androgens can decrease anxiety-like behavior of male rats in part through DHT's actions at androgen receptors in the hippocampus.

  18. Remating behavior in Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) females is affected by male juvenile hormone analog treatment but not by male sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, S; Liendo, M C; Devescovi, F; Peralta, P A; Yusef, V; Ruiz, J; Cladera, J L; Vera, M T; Segura, D F

    2013-06-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) has been proposed as an area-wide method to control the South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann). This technique requires sterilization, a procedure that affects, along with other factors, the ability of males to modulate female sexual receptivity after copulation. Numerous pre-release treatments have been proposed to counteract the detrimental effects of irradiation, rearing and handling and increase SIT effectiveness. These include treating newly emerged males with a juvenile hormone mimic (methoprene) or supplying protein to the male's diet to accelerate sexual maturation prior to release. Here, we examine how male irradiation, methoprene treatment and protein intake affect remating behavior and the amount of sperm stored in inseminated females. In field cage experiments, we found that irradiated laboratory males were equally able to modulate female remating behavior as fertile wild males. However, females mated with 6-day-old, methoprene-treated males remated more and sooner than females mated with naturally matured males, either sterile or wild. Protein intake by males was not sufficient to overcome reduced ability of methoprene-treated males to induce refractory periods in females as lengthy as those induced by wild and naturally matured males. The amount of sperm stored by females was not affected by male irradiation, methoprene treatment or protein intake. This finding revealed that factors in addition to sperm volume intervene in regulating female receptivity after copulation. Implications for SIT are discussed.

  19. Male and female juveniles arrested for murder: a comprehensive analysis of U.S. data by offender gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heide, Kathleen M; Roe-Sepowitz, Dominique; Solomon, Eldra P; Chan, Heng Choon Oliver

    2012-05-01

    Murders committed by juveniles remain a serious concern in the United States. Most studies on juvenile homicide offenders (JHOs) have used small samples and have concentrated on male offenders. As a result, little is known about female JHOs and how they differ from their male counterparts on a national level. This study utilized the Supplementary Homicide Report (SHR) database to examine more than 40,000 murders committed by male and female juvenile offenders from 1976 to 2005. This research effort, the most expansive to date, replicated previous findings with respect to gender differences using bivariate and multivariate analyses. As predicted, six variables used to test eight hypotheses with respect to male and female JHOs in single-victim incidents were significant (victim age, victim-offender relationship, murder weapon, offender count, victim gender, and homicide circumstance). Regression analysis revealed that all variables remained significant when entered into the model. This article concludes with a discussion of our findings and directions for future research.

  20. Energy Requirement and Food Intake Behaviour in Young Adult Intact Male Cats with and without Predisposition to Overweight

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    Brigitta Wichert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a common problem in cats. In the experimental cat family of the institute of animal nutrition besides a “normal” lean phenotype, cats with predisposition to an overweight phenotype are present. To investigate energy requirements and food intake behaviour of intact male cats of different phenotypes, six “normal” lean cats (GL and six cats disposed to overweight (GO were used. At the beginning of the experiment, all cats had an ideal body condition score of 5. To reach this the GO cats had to pass a weight-loss program. Energy requirements of the cats were determined using respiration chambers, whereas the amount and frequency of food intake was measured with a feeding station recording the data automatically. Energy requirement at weight constancy of the GO cats was even on fat-free mass (FFM significantly (P=0.02 lower (162.6 kJ/kg FFM/d than that of the “normal” lean cats (246 kJ/kg FFM/d. The GO cats also showed a higher food intake 34.5±1.5 g dry matter/kg body weight0.67 compared to the GL cats (24.0±2.1 g dry matter/kg body weight0.67(P=0.001. In conclusion quantifiable differences in food intake and behaviour in cats predisposed to overweight compared to “normal” lean cats were found.

  1. The Lived Experiences of Single Hispanic Mothers Raising Gang-Affiliated Male Youth Released from Texas Juvenile Justice Department State Facilities: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Almendarez, Ruby

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: The purpose of this transcendental phenomenological study (Moustakas, 1994) was to describe the experiences that single Hispanic mothers of gang-affiliated male juveniles face during their sons' reentry process after being released from a Texas Juvenile Justice Department state facility. Methods: After an extensive…

  2. The Lived Experiences of Single Hispanic Mothers Raising Gang-Affiliated Male Youth Released from Texas Juvenile Justice Department State Facilities: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Almendarez, Ruby

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: The purpose of this transcendental phenomenological study (Moustakas, 1994) was to describe the experiences that single Hispanic mothers of gang-affiliated male juveniles face during their sons' reentry process after being released from a Texas Juvenile Justice Department state facility. Methods: After an extensive review of…

  3. Novel molecular events associated with altered steroidogenesis induced by exposure to atrazine in the intact and castrate male rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxicology is increasingly focused on molecular events comprising adverse outcome pathways. Atrazine activates the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis, but relationships to gonadal alterations are unknown. We characterized hormone profiles and adrenal (intact and castrate) and te...

  4. Novel molecular events associated with altered steroidogenesis induced by exposure to atrazine in the intact and castrate male rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxicology is increasingly focused on molecular events comprising adverse outcome pathways. Atrazine activates the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis, but relationships to gonadal alterations are unknown. We characterized hormone profiles and adrenal (intact and castrate) and te...

  5. An intact F1ATPase alpha-subunit gene and a pseudogene with differing genomic organization are detected in both male-fertile and CMS petunia mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesodi, V; Hauschner, H; Tabib, Y; Firon, N

    1997-11-01

    The gene copies for the alpha-subunit of the mitochondrial F1ATPase (atpA) were isolated and characterized in both male-fertile and cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) petunia. Two copies, an intact gene and a truncated gene, were detected in both cytoplasms. The accumulated data, based upon a comparison of the sequences (the open reading frames as well as the 5' and 3' flanking regions) of the two atpA copies, both in male-fertile and CMS Petunia, indicate that: (1) they differ in their genomic organization and (2) a common progenitor cytoplasm, containing two copies of an intact atpA sequence, served as the origin for the atpA copies of the fertility and CMS-inducing cytoplasms. Homologous recombination through the progenitor intact atpA sequences is assumed to have caused the rearrangement in the 3' portion of the atpA open reading frame and the generation of the truncated atpA gene. It is thus suggested that the atpA pseudogenes, in both male-fertile and CMS cytoplasms, originated from a common progenitor atpA pseudogene sequence.

  6. Relative sensitivity of developmental and immune parameters in juvenile versus adult male rats after exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonk, Elisa C.M., E-mail: ilse.tonk@rivm.nl [Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, Maastricht (Netherlands); Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Verhoef, Aart; Gremmer, Eric R. [Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Loveren, Henk van [Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, Maastricht (Netherlands); Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Piersma, Aldert H. [Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Veterinary Faculty, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-04-01

    The developing immune system displays a relatively high sensitivity as compared to both general toxicity parameters and to the adult immune system. In this study we have performed such comparisons using di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) as a model compound. DEHP is the most abundant phthalate in the environment and perinatal exposure to DEHP has been shown to disrupt male sexual differentiation. In addition, phthalate exposure has been associated with immune dysfunction as evidenced by effects on the expression of allergy. Male wistar rats were dosed with corn oil or DEHP by gavage from postnatal day (PND) 10–50 or PND 50–90 at doses between 1 and 1000 mg/kg/day. Androgen-dependent organ weights showed effects at lower dose levels in juvenile versus adult animals. Immune parameters affected included TDAR parameters in both age groups, NK activity in juvenile animals and TNF-α production by adherent splenocytes in adult animals. Immune parameters were affected at lower dose levels compared to developmental parameters. Overall, more immune parameters were affected in juvenile animals compared to adult animals and effects were observed at lower dose levels. The results of this study show a relatively higher sensitivity of juvenile versus adult rats. Furthermore, they illustrate the relative sensitivity of the developing immune system in juvenile animals as compared to general toxicity and developmental parameters. This study therefore provides further argumentation for performing dedicated developmental immune toxicity testing as a default in regulatory toxicology. -- Highlights: ► In this study we evaluate the relative sensitivities for DEHP induced effects. ► Results of this study demonstrate the age-dependency of DEHP toxicity. ► Functional immune parameters were more sensitive than structural immune parameters. ► Immune parameters were affected at lower dose levels than developmental parameters. ► Findings demonstrate the susceptibility of the

  7. Psychosocial adversity, delinquent pathway and internalizing psychopathology in juvenile male offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Ida; Faísca, Luis

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of a set of risk factors relating to childhood life events and other psychosocial factors that may be associated with criminal indicators and with the prevalence of internalizing psychopathology in a sample of adolescent offenders. Fifty male adolescents in the custody of the Portuguese Juvenile Justice System participated in the study (M=15.8 years of age). The Adolescent Psychopathology Scale - Short Form (APS-SF) was administered in a structured interview format, and the sociodemographic, family and criminal data questionnaire was filled in by the justice professional after consulting the adolescent's file. Forty-six percent of all subjects had previous delinquent behavior. About 32% of the boys had committed violent offenses and 88% acted with peers. Also, the persistence of the delinquent behavior (50% of the offenders), coupled with the increase in the severity of the crimes committed (38% of the sample), suggests that these adolescents were at risk for serious and chronic delinquency at the time of the intervention. About 32% of the participants reported posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, 20% had suicide ideation, and a lower percentage reported other internalizing problems. Institutionalization, maltreatment and conduct problems in childhood, and family risk factors (parental conflict, absence of a father figure, lack of parental control and family substance addiction) were related with the report of internalizing problems. Moreover, the increase in the severity of criminal offenses and living in a correctional facility were associated with higher levels of posttraumatic stress, interpersonal problems, anxiety and depression. This study draws attention to the importance of assessing indicators of psychopathology and of psychosocial risk in intervention programs with young offenders, but also to the need of family focused interventions in order to help prevent recidivism.

  8. Photoperiod regulates growth of male accessory glands through juvenile hormone signaling in the linden bug, Pyrrhocoris apterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanová, Veronika; Bazalová, Olga; Vaněčková, Hanka; Dolezel, David

    2016-03-01

    Adult reproductive diapause is characterized by lower behavioral activity, ceased reproduction and absence of juvenile hormone (JH). The role of JH receptor Methoprene-tolerant (Met) in female reproduction is well established; however, its function in male reproductive development and behavior is unclear. In the bean bug, Riptortus pedestris, circadian genes are essential for mediating photoperiodically-dependent growth of the male accessory glands (MAGs). The present study explores the role of circadian genes and JH receptor in male diapause in the linden bug, Pyrrhocoris apterus. These data indicate that circadian factors Clock, Cycle and Cry2 are responsible for photoperiod measurement, whereas Met and its partner protein Taiman participate in JH reception. Surprisingly, knockdown of the JH receptor neither lowered locomotor activity nor reduced mating behavior of males. These data suggest existence of a parallel, JH-independent or JH-upstream photoperiodic regulation of reproductive behavior.

  9. Juvenile hormone-dopamine systems for the promotion of flight activity in males of the large carpenter bee Xylocopa appendiculata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Ken; Nagao, Takashi

    2013-12-01

    The reproductive roles of dopamine and dopamine regulation systems are known in social hymenopterans, but the knowledge on the regulation systems in solitary species is still needed. To test the possibility that juvenile hormone (JH) and brain dopamine interact to trigger territorial flight behavior in males of a solitary bee species, the effects on biogenic amines of JH analog treatments and behavioral assays with dopamine injections in males of the large carpenter bee Xylocopa appendiculata were quantified. Brain dopamine levels were significantly higher in methoprene-treated males than in control males 4 days after treatment, but were not significantly different after 7 days. Brain octopamine and serotonin levels did not differ between methoprene-treated and control males at 4 and 7 days after treatment. Injection of dopamine caused significantly higher locomotor activities and a shorter duration for flight initiation in experimental versus control males. These results suggest that brain dopamine can be regulated by JH and enhances flight activities in males. The JH-dopamine system in males of this solitary bee species is similar to that of males of the highly eusocial honeybee Apis mellifera.

  10. Comorbidities and correlates of conduct disorder among male juvenile detainees in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bum-Sung; Kim, Johanna Inhyang; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Kim, Bongseog

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the rate and distribution of comorbidities, severity of childhood maltreatment, and clinical characteristics of adolescents with conduct disorder detained in a juvenile detention center in South Korea. In total, 173 juvenile detainees were recruited. We analyzed the distribution of psychiatric disorders among the sample and compared the rate of comorbidities between groups with and without conduct disorder. We compared the two groups in terms of demographic and clinical characteristics, as well as severity of childhood maltreatment and psychiatric problems, using the Young Self Report (YSR) scale. A total of 95 (55%) of the detainees were diagnosed with conduct disorder, and 93 (96.9%) of them had at least one comorbid axis I psychiatric disorder. Detainees with conduct disorder had a higher number of comorbid psychiatric disorders; a higher rate of violent crime perpetration; had suffered more physical, emotional, and sexual abuse; and showed higher total YSR scores and externalizing behavior, somatic complaints, rule-breaking behavior, and aggressive behavior YSR subscale scores. Conduct disorder is a common psychiatric disorder among juvenile detainees in South Korea, who tend to commit more violent crimes and show more psychopathology than detainees who do not have conduct disorder. These findings highlight the importance of diagnosing and intervening in conduct disorder within the juvenile detention system.

  11. Precocious sexual signalling and mating in Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) sterile males achieved through juvenile hormone treatment and protein supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liendo, M C; Devescovi, F; Bachmann, G E; Utgés, M E; Abraham, S; Vera, M T; Lanzavecchia, S B; Bouvet, J P; Gómez-Cendra, P; Hendrichs, J; Teal, P E A; Cladera, J L; Segura, D F

    2013-02-01

    Sexual maturation of Anastrepha fraterculus is a long process. Methoprene (a mimic of juvenile hormone) considerably reduces the time for sexual maturation in males. However, in other Anastrepha species, this effect depends on protein intake at the adult stage. Here, we evaluated the mating competitiveness of sterile laboratory males and females that were treated with methoprene (either the pupal or adult stage) and were kept under different regimes of adult food, which varied in the protein source and the sugar:protein ratio. Experiments were carried out under semi-natural conditions, where laboratory flies competed over copulations with sexually mature wild flies. Sterile, methoprene-treated males that reached sexual maturity earlier (six days old), displayed the same lekking behaviour, attractiveness to females and mating competitiveness as mature wild males. This effect depended on protein intake. Diets containing sugar and hydrolyzed yeast allowed sterile males to compete with wild males (even at a low concentration of protein), while brewer´s yeast failed to do so even at a higher concentration. Sugar only fed males were unable to achieve significant numbers of copulations. Methoprene did not increase the readiness to mate of six-day-old sterile females. Long pre-copulatory periods create an additional cost to the management of fruit fly pests through the sterile insect technique (SIT). Our findings suggest that methoprene treatment will increase SIT effectiveness against A. fraterculus when coupled with a diet fortified with protein. Additionally, methoprene acts as a physiological sexing method, allowing the release of mature males and immature females and hence increasing SIT efficiency.

  12. Juvenile Delinquency: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Carolyn A.

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile Delinquency is a term which is often inaccurately used. This article clarifies definitions, looks at prevalence, and explores the relationship between juvenile delinquency and mental health. Throughout, differences between males and females are explored. (Contains 1 table.)

  13. Differential miRNA expression profiles in the longissimus dorsi muscle between intact and castrated male pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhaowei; Zhang, Lifan; Jiang, Xiaoling; Sheng, Yifei; Xu, Ningying

    2015-04-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important modulators of skeletal muscle development in multiple mammalian species, but their role in skeletal muscle growth in castrated male pigs has not been well studied. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of miRNAs in longissimus dorsi muscle under castration. Our results showed that castration caused a significant decrease in serum testosterone levels as well as carcass lean mass, but led to an increase in carcass fat mass. Moreover, miRNA expression profiles in skeletal muscle were significantly altered by castration, and seven differentially expressed miRNAs were discovered. More importantly, functional analysis suggested that these differentially expressed miRNAs and their targets are involved in the regulation of skeletal muscle contractile function and fat metabolism. Taken together, these results demonstrate altered miRNA expression in skeletal muscle of castrated male pigs, and suggest a potential mechanism underlying the effects of castration on porcine skeletal muscle growth.

  14. Comorbidity and Behavior Characteristics of Russian Male Juvenile Delinquents With ADHD and Conduct Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblad, Frank; Isaksson, Johan; Heiskala, Viktor; Koposov, Roman; Ruchkin, Vladislav

    2015-04-29

    To test the previously suggested hypothesis that those with comorbid ADHD and Conduct Disorder (CD) diagnoses differ from other antisocially involved youth in terms of higher rates of violent behavior, impulsiveness, and psychopathic traits. Three hundred eighty juvenile incarcerated delinquents from Northern Russia were assessed by means of semi-structured psychiatric interview and by student and teacher self-reports. The study has demonstrated higher rates of psychiatric disorders and of comorbidity, as well as more complicated substance abuse and disruptive behaviors in those with combined ADHD-CD diagnosis, as compared with CD only, ADHD only, and no CD no ADHD groups. The results regarding psychopathic traits were inconclusive. The group with combined ADHD-CD diagnosis is more severely disturbed, both as concerns psychiatric comorbidity and more severe aggressive and disruptive behaviors. However, there is only limited evidence supporting a higher prevalence of psychopathic traits in this group. © 2015 SAGE Publications.

  15. Two unusual cases of canine prostatitis: prostatitis in a castrated dog and preputial oedema in an intact male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, J; Macías-García, B; Tapia, P Ruíz; Ferrusola, C Ortega; Zaragoza, C; Barrera, R; Peña, Fj

    2010-10-01

    In this study, two unusual presentations of canine prostatitis are described; in the first case a 10-years-old neutered Boxer dog was presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of the University of Extremadura with a complaint of anorexia, apathy and preputial discharge. In the second case, a local veterinarian referred an 8-years-old male Labrador to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of the University of Extremadura. The dog had a history of pain in the caudal abdomen and preputial oedema. The final diagnosis in both cases was acute prostatitis. It is concluded that although canine prostatitis is a common disease, sometimes can have presentations that may differ from those classically described in the literature. © 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Enhancing male sexual success in a lekking fly (Ananstrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae) through a juvenile hormone analog has no effect on adult mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    While defending lek-territories, male Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) produce chemical, acoustic and visual courtship signals. In the laboratory and under semi-natural conditions, topical application of the juvenile hormone analog methoprene doubles pheromone production and subsequently doubles sexual su...

  17. Reliability and Construct Validity of the Dutch Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version--Findings from a Sample of Male Adolescents in a Juvenile Justice Treatment Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Jacqueline; de Ruiter, Corine; Doreleijers, Theo; Hillege, Sanne

    2009-01-01

    The present study examines the reliability and construct validity of the Dutch version of the Psychopathy Check List: Youth Version (PCL:YV) in a sample of male adolescents admitted to a secure juvenile justice treatment institution (N = 98). Hare's four-factor model is used to examine reliability and validity of the separate dimensions of…

  18. Reliability and construct validity of the Dutch psychopathy checklist: youth version: findings from a sample of male adolescents in a juvenile justice treatment institution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, J.; Ruiter, de C.; Doreleijers, T.A.H.; Hillege, S.

    2009-01-01

    The present study examines the reliability and construct validity of the Dutch version of the Psychopathy Check List: Youth Version (PCL:YV) in a sample of male adolescents admitted to a secure juvenile justice treatment institution (N = 98). Hare's four-factor model is used to examine reliability a

  19. Growth traits and composition of two- and three-way-cross intact male progeny of Bos taurus and Bos indicus X Bos taurus dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ornum, K M; Bailey, C M; Ringkob, T P; Koh, Y O

    1987-07-01

    Feedlot traits, carcass traits and distribution of commercial cuts of crossbred intact male progeny (n = 556) from young and mature Hereford, Red Poll, Hereford X Red Poll, Red Poll X Hereford, Angus X Hereford, Angus X Charolais, Brahman X Hereford and Brahman X Angus dams were evaluated. First-calf heifers were bred to Red Angus bulls; Santa Gertrudis sires were used for each cow's second and third breeding seasons. Calves from these young dams were slaughtered at 13 mo. Calves of mature dams were all sired by Limousin bulls and slaughtered at 12 mo. Dam breed was a major source of variation in most bull traits. Progeny of Brahman-cross dams were inferior (P less than .01) in daily gain, final weight, carcass weight and in edible cuts/day of age compared with progeny from Bos taurus dams. Intact male progeny of Angus X Charolais dams ranked highest in longissimus area, cutability, and edible cuts/day of age. The range of dam breed means in percentage of steak, roast, bone-in cuts (chuck short ribs and back ribs), short plate and thin cuts, and lean trim was just over 1%. Greater variation among dam breeds existed in fat measurements. Analyses in which Hereford-Red Poll diallel data for young dams and mature dams were combined showed positive maternal heterosis for dressing percentage (P less than .05), carcass weight (P less than .05), carcass weight/day of age (P less than .05), estimated carcass fat (P less than .05), fat thickness (P less than .01) and marbling score (P less than .01). Reciprocal effects were inconsequential. Results illustrate the importance of dam breed-type effects in formulating breeding strategies for commercial beef herds.

  20. Pubertal Development and Thyroid Function in Intact Juvenile Rats Exposed to 3-Nitro-1,2,4-Trazol-5-One (NTO), February-June 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Subacute and subchronic oral studies in rats demonstrated limited hematological effects (slight anemia) and liver hyperplasia only at the highest doses...for the males based on the presence of abnormal clinical chemistry/ hematology and liver histopathology at 1000 mg/kg-day. The pattern of changes in...Function in Neonatal and Adult Rats: The Neglected Endocrine Mode of Action. Pure and Applied Chemistry 75 (11-12):2055-2068. Creasy, D.M. 1997. Evaluation

  1. Predicting Reoffending Using the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY): A 5-Year Follow-Up Study of Male Juvenile Offenders in Hunan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiansong; Witt, Katrina; Cao, Xia; Chen, Chen; Wang, Xiaoping

    2017-01-01

    Background Juvenile violent offending is a serious worldwide public health issue. Objective The study examined whether the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY) can be used to predict violent reoffending in Chinese male juvenile offenders, and to determine which risk/protective domains (items) are associated with violent recidivism. Methods A total of 246 male juvenile offenders were recruited. SAVRY domains were scored by trained raters based on file review and interviews with participants and their legal guardians. Information on further arrests, charges, or convictions for violent offences were collected from police records over a five year follow-up. Results Over the course of the five year follow-up periods, 63 (25.6%) juvenile offenders were re-arrested for a further violent reoffence. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analyses showed Areas Under the Curve (AUCs) ranging from 0.60 to 0.68 for the SAVRY total, risk and protective score domains. Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that 7 of the 30 SAVRY items were significantly associated with reoffending; explaining 36.2% of the variance. Backward stepwise multiple logistic regression analysis showed the independently predictive items were items 2 (‘history of non-violent offending’), 17 (‘negative attitudes’), 18 (‘risk-taking/impulsivity’), and 20 (‘anger management problems’). Together these four items explained 25.0% of the variance in reoffending. Conclusions The results suggested that the SAVRY can be meaningfully used to inform the development and evaluation of effective violence risk assessment and management approaches for male juvenile offenders detained in a Youth Detention Center in Hunan province, China. PMID:28076443

  2. Exercise is More Effective at Altering Gut Microbial Composition and Producing Stable Changes in Lean Mass in Juvenile versus Adult Male F344 Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Mika

    Full Text Available The mammalian intestine harbors a complex microbial ecosystem that influences many aspects of host physiology. Exposure to specific microbes early in development affects host metabolism, immune function, and behavior across the lifespan. Just as the physiology of the developing organism undergoes a period of plasticity, the developing microbial ecosystem is characterized by instability and may also be more sensitive to change. Early life thus presents a window of opportunity for manipulations that produce adaptive changes in microbial composition. Recent insights have revealed that increasing physical activity can increase the abundance of beneficial microbial species. We therefore investigated whether six weeks of wheel running initiated in the juvenile period (postnatal day 24 would produce more robust and stable changes in microbial communities versus exercise initiated in adulthood (postnatal day 70 in male F344 rats. 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to characterize the microbial composition of juvenile versus adult runners and their sedentary counterparts across multiple time points during exercise and following exercise cessation. Alpha diversity measures revealed that the microbial communities of young runners were less even and diverse, a community structure that reflects volatility and malleability. Juvenile onset exercise altered several phyla and, notably, increased Bacteroidetes and decreased Firmicutes, a configuration associated with leanness. At the genus level of taxonomy, exercise altered more genera in juveniles than in the adults and produced patterns associated with adaptive metabolic consequences. Given the potential of these changes to contribute to a lean phenotype, we examined body composition in juvenile versus adult runners. Interestingly, exercise produced persistent increases in lean body mass in juvenile but not adult runners. Taken together, these results indicate that the impact of exercise on gut microbiota

  3. Enhancing male sexual success in a lekking fly (Anastrepha suspensa Diptera: Tephritidae) through a juvenile hormone analog has no effect on adult mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Rui; Sivinski, John; Teal, Peter; Brockmann, Jane

    2010-11-01

    While defending lek-territories, male Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) produce chemical, acoustic and visual courtship signals. In the laboratory and under semi-natural conditions, topical application of the juvenile hormone analog methoprene doubles pheromone production and subsequently doubles sexual success. However, sexual signals and interactions are likely to be physiologically expensive and so result in higher male mortality. Comparison of males kept in isolation for 35 days, but provided daily with a potential mate or a rival male, revealed that both male- and female-interactors shortened focal-male lifespan. In addition, focal males were either treated with methoprene or not, then either provided with protein in their sucrose-based diet or not. Protein proved to similarly double sexual success and also resulted in longer male life spans in all of the interactor-categories. However, there was no evidence that methoprene induced hypersexuality resulted in higher rates of mortality, i.e., the longevity of males treated with methoprene did not significantly differ from untreated males in the same interactor/diet categories. This apparent lack of costs to a putatively sexually selected signal is unexpected but presents an opportunity to increase the sexual competence of sterile flies with few consequences to their survival following mass-release. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Genetic associations between daily BW gain and live fleshiness of station-tested young bulls and carcass and meat quality traits of commercial intact males in Piemontese cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfatti, V; Albera, A; Carnier, P

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate genetic relationships between beef traits of station-tested young bulls and carcass and meat quality traits (MQ) of commercial intact males in Piemontese cattle. Phenotypes for daily gain (DG) and live fleshiness traits (width at withers: WW; shoulder muscularity: SM; loin width: LW; loin thickness: LT; thigh muscularity: TM; thigh profile: TP) and thinness of the shin bone (BT) were available for 3,109 and 2,183 performance-tested young bulls, respectively. Carcass daily gain (CDG), carcass conformation (SEUS), pH at 24 h (pH24h) and 8 d after slaughter (pH8d), lightness (L*), redness (a*), yellowness (b*), hue angle (HA), saturation index (SI), drip loss (DL), cooking loss (CL), and shear force (SF) were assessed for 1,208 commercial intact males. (Co) variance components were estimated in a set of twelve 9-traits analyses using REML and linear animal models including all performance-test traits and 1 carcass or MQ trait at a time. Heritabilities ± SE of beef traits ranged from 0.26 ± 0.03 (LW) to 0.47 ± 0.01 (DG), whereas those of carcass traits and MQ from 0.06 ± 0.03 (CL) to 0.63 ± 0.04 (HA). The genetic correlation (rg) between DG and CDG was 0.75 ± 0.10, indicating that DG, as measured at the test station, is a good indicator of the carcass gain achieved by commercial animals under farms conditions. Daily BW gain of station-tested bulls correlated positively with color traits (from 0.11 ± 0.12 to 0.54 ± 0.09), ph8d (rg ± SE = 0.31 ± 0.11), DL (rg ± SE = 0.29 ± 0.17), and CL (rg ± SE = 0.27 ± 0.18). Live fleshiness of station-tested bulls exhibited genetic correlations with MQ of commercial animals that were positive for L* and b* (from 0.13 ± 0.08 to 0.65 ± 0.14) and negative for pH (from -0.27 ± 0.15 to -0.57 ± 0.11), CL (from -0.16 ± 0.23 to -0.43 ± 0.22), and SF (TM: rg ± SE = -0.31 ± 0.15; TP: rg ± SE = -0.41 ± 0.17). The thinness of the shin bone correlated unfavorably with CDG (rg ± SE

  5. Lasofoxifene (CP-336,156) protects against the age-related changes in bone mass, bone strength, and total serum cholesterol in intact aged male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, H Z; Qi, H; Chidsey-Frink, K L; Crawford, D T; Thompson, D D

    2001-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate if long-term (6 months) treatment with lasofoxifene (LAS), a new selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), can protect against age-related changes in bone mass and bone strength in intact aged male rats. Sprague-Dawley male rats at 15 months of age were treated (daily oral gavage) with either vehicle (n = 12) or LAS at 0.01 mg/kg per day (n = 12) or 0.1 mg/kg per day (n = 11) for 6 months. A group of 15 rats was necropsied at 15 months of age and served as basal controls. No significant change was found in body weight between basal and vehicle controls. However, an age-related increase in fat body mass (+42%) and decrease in lean body mass (-8.5%) was observed in controls. Compared with vehicle controls, LAS at both doses significantly decreased body weight and fat body mass but did not affect lean body mass. No significant difference was found in prostate wet weight among all groups. Total serum cholesterol was significantly decreased in all LAS-treated rats compared with both the basal and the vehicle controls. Both doses of LAS treatment completely prevented the age-related increase in serum osteocalcin. Peripheral quantitative computerized tomography (pQCT) analysis at the distal femoral metaphysis indicated that the age-related decrease in total density, trabecular density, and cortical thickness was completely prevented by treatment with LAS at 0.01 mg/kg per day or 0.1 mg/kg per day. Histomorphometric analysis of proximal tibial cancellous bone showed an age-related decrease in trabecular bone volume (TBV; -46%), trabecular number (Tb.N), wall thickness (W.Th), mineral apposition rate, and bone formation rate-tissue area referent. Moreover, an age-related increase in trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) and eroded surface was observed. LAS at 0.01 mg/kg per day or 0.1 mg/kg per day completely prevented these age-related changes in bone mass, bone structure, and bone turnover. Similarly, the age-related decrease in TBV

  6. Sex Differences in Attributions of Juvenile Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagatun, Inger J.

    This paper is an application of attribution theory to the processing of juvenile delinquents in an attempt to understand the differential treatment of female and male offenders within the juvenile justice system. The paper explores the attributions of juvenile delinquency both by male and female minors, by male and female parents, and by male and…

  7. Juvenile angiofibroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasal tumor; Angiofibroma - juvenile; Benign nasal tumor; Juvenile nasal angiofibroma; JNA ... Juvenile angiofibroma is not very common. It is most often found in adolescent boys. The tumor contains ...

  8. Study of the Stroop test in male juvenile delinquents%男性犯罪青少年Stroop特点研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢海岩; 母代斌

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨男性犯罪青少年一般情况及犯罪冲动组与非冲动组Stroop特点及差异性.方法 对乌鲁木齐市少年管教所123例及乌鲁木齐市普通中学128例男性青少年进行一般情况问卷、攻击行为评估(BIS-11)、Stroop测试及面谈,再对数据进行统计分析.结果 正常组与犯罪青少年组比较受教育年限有统计学意义;两组均在各卡改正数方面有统计学意义,卡2、卡5两组在正确数上有统计学意义,其余各项在两组间均不具有统计学差异;犯罪青少年中冲动组与非冲动组在卡2、卡5的改正数方面具有统计学差异.结论 犯罪男性青少年存在认知尤其在执行功能方面的缺陷,而又以冲动组明显.%Objective To explore the characteristics of the Stroop test in male juvenile delinquents divided into ihe impulse group and the nan—impulse group. Methods 123 male juvenile delinquents ancl 128 male adolescents of Urumuqi city middle schools were assessed with general behavior assessment questionnaire.attack (BIS — 11), Stroop test and interview, and the data were statistically analyzed. Results The years of education and numbers of adaptation in normal group and criminal youth group were statistically different. The numbers of righr of Card 2 and Card 5 were significant different between the two groups, there was a significant difference in numbers of adaptation between the impulse group and the non—impulse group. Conclusions The male juvenile delinquents have defects of cognitive, especially in executive function,and it is more severe in the impulse group.

  9. Analysis of the personality of male juvenile with aggressive behavior%具有攻击行为的男性青少年人格特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路翰娜; 王俊杰; 孙星海; 沈雪春; 肖卫良

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the personality features of the male juvenile with aggressive behaviors. Methods 79 male juvenile criminals were divided into aggressive group ( n = 59 ) and non-aggressive group ( n = 20) by psychiatrists using structured interview for juvenile with mental disorder and the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY). All subjects were assessed with the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ). Results There were no significant differences in age, years of education, the situation of care-givers, health status, family type, family economic status, type of crime between the two groups (P >0.05). Scores of each item of EPQ in the two groups were higher than those of the national norms. There were significant differences in scores of 4 items of EPQ between the aggressive group and norms (P < 0. 01). There was significant difference in score of E subscale of EPQ between the non-aggressive group and norms (t =3.21, P <0. 05). Conclusion The male delinquent juvenile have some common features including low education level, poor family economy and lack of parental custody etc. The male juvenile with aggressive behaviors have more personality deviation than normals, especially impulse and lack of stability of emotion.%目的 探讨男性违法青少年的个人情况特点及其人格特点.方法 根据一般情况问卷调查、违法性质、面谈及SAVRY评估,将男性服教人员分为有攻击行为组(n=59)和无攻击行为组(n=20)分别进行EpQ测试.结果 有攻击行为组与无攻击行为组比较,在年龄、受教育年限、扶养人情况、个人健康状况、家庭类型、经济状况及犯罪类型方面的差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).两组青少年违法者的EPQ各项得分均高于全国常模,其中攻击行为组与全国常模在EPQ四项指标上的差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01).无攻击行为组与全国常模在E量表得分上的差异具有统计学意义(t =3.21,P<0.05).结论 男性违

  10. Eyewitness Testimony for a Simulated Juvenile Crime by Male and Female Criminals with Consistent or Inconsistent Gender-Role Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Lauren R.

    2009-01-01

    Eyewitness recall by 60 adolescents and 60 young adults in Experiment 1 and by 64 children and 63 preadolescents in Experiment 2 for a simulated theft in which gender-role characteristics and sex of criminal were manipulated (i.e., masculine male, feminine male, feminine female, masculine female) was investigated. Gender-role flexibility impacted…

  11. Eyewitness Testimony for a Simulated Juvenile Crime by Male and Female Criminals with Consistent or Inconsistent Gender-Role Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Lauren R.

    2009-01-01

    Eyewitness recall by 60 adolescents and 60 young adults in Experiment 1 and by 64 children and 63 preadolescents in Experiment 2 for a simulated theft in which gender-role characteristics and sex of criminal were manipulated (i.e., masculine male, feminine male, feminine female, masculine female) was investigated. Gender-role flexibility impacted…

  12. Allometric variation among juvenile, adult male and female eastern bearded dragons Pogona barbata (Cuvier, 1829), with comments on the behavioural implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotherspoon, Danny; Burgin, Shelley

    2011-02-01

    The functional significance of allometric change in reptiles has received limited attention and the reason for such changes has been regarded as 'obscure'. In this paper we report data on the Australian Pogona barbata, the eastern bearded dragon, from across their range and review changes in allometric growth among juveniles, and adult males and females and consider the functional relevance of these changes. There were significant differences in the population for mass, tail length, tail width, rear leg length and jaw length. These differences were consistent with differences required in locomotor performance and thus habitat use, together with access to different preferred dietary components. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Dermatomyositis (Juvenile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Am A Patient / Caregiver Diseases & Conditions Dermatomyositis (Juvenile) Dermatomyositis (Juvenile) Fast Facts Patients with JDM have varying ... What are common signs and symptoms of juvenile dermatomyositis? The most common signs and symptoms of JDM ...

  14. Retinoschisis (Juvenile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... here Home › Eye Conditions Listen Retinoschisis What is Juvenile Retinoschisis? Juvenile retinoschisis is an inherited disease diagnosed in childhood ... degeneration of the retina. What are the symptoms? Juvenile retinoschisis, also known as X-linked retinoschisis, occurs ...

  15. Do Juveniles Bully More than Young Offenders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Jane L.

    2002-01-01

    Study compares bullying behavior among juvenile and young offenders. Ninety-five male juvenile and 196 male young offenders completed two questionnaires, measuring bullying directly and behaviors indicative of "being bullied" or of "bullying others". Juveniles perceived a higher extent of bullying and reported significantly…

  16. Sex differences in adrenocortical structure and function. XVI. Stereological and karyometric studies on the cortex of the suprarenal gland of intact adult male and female Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malendowicz, L K

    1984-10-01

    The histological structure of intact adult male and female Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) suprarenal cortex has been described, and quantitative stereological and karyometric studies were performed. The weight of the gland relative to body weight was higher in female than in male gerbils, but the volume of the gland was similar in both sexes. The relative volume of the zona reticularis was higher in the female, while no sex difference was observed in the absolute volume of all suprarenal components (expressed in mm3). In all cortical zones, average cell volume was higher in the female; the nuclear volume of the zona glomerulosa and zona reticularis were also higher in the female. In the zona fasciculata, some large cells with large nuclei (greater than 210 micrometers 3) were observed. These are probably polyploid cells and have not been described in other species. The suprarenal cortex of the male gerbil contained more parenchymal cells than that of the female, the difference being dependent upon variation in the number of cells in the zona fasciculata and zona reticularis. Despite these structural differences, gland homogenates from male and female animals secreted similar amounts of cortisol and the plasma levels in the two sexes were the same.

  17. Social-psychological factors contributing to male juvenile delinquency%男性青少年犯罪的社会心理因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏宏萍; 杨放如

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the major social-psychological factors contributing to male juvenile delinquency. Methods One hundred and thirty-seven cases of male juvenile delinquents ( delinquent group) and 145 aged-matched male students (control group) were enrolled in this case-control study. A questionnaire survey was conducted using the Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Check List, the Coping Style Questionnaire, the Family Environment Scale-Chinese version, and the Social Support Rating Scale. Results The monovariate analysis showed that the total score and the scores of some factors of negative life events, the scores of immature coping styles and family conflicts, and the proportion of broken families in the delinquent group were significantly higher than those in the control group. In contrast, the scores of educational levels, study stress factor in the negative life events, mature coping styles, family environments and social supports were significantly lower in the delinquent group than those in the control group. The multivariate factors analysis showed that 7 variables were enrolled into the discriminatory equations, including negative life events ( interpersonal relationship and healthy adaptation), self-condemn styles, family conflicts, subjective supports, objective supports, and utilization of social supports. The total accuracy of this equation was 92. 2%. Conclusions Negative life events in the interpersonal relationship and healthy adaptation, self-condemn styles, family conflicts, and weak social support system may be major social-psychological factors contributing to male juvenile delinquency.%目的 探讨影响男性青少年犯罪的社会心理因素.方法 采用青少年生活事件量表、应付方式量表、家庭环境量表、社会支持量表对137例男性少年犯及145例正常对照进行问卷调查.结果 单因素分析显示犯罪青少年负性生活事件总分及部分因子得分、不成熟的应付方式、家庭的矛盾

  18. Repeated, Intermittent Social Defeat across the Entire Juvenile Period Resulted in Behavioral, Physiological, Hormonal, Immunological, and Neurochemical Alterations in Young Adult Male Golden Hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wei-Chun; Liu, Ching-Yi; Lai, Wen-Sung

    2016-01-01

    The developing brain is vulnerable to social defeat during the juvenile period. As complements of human studies, animal models of social defeat provide a straightforward approach to investigating the functional and neurobiological consequences of social defeats. Taking advantage of agonist behavior and social defeat in male golden hamster, a set of 6 experiments was conducted to investigate the consequences at multiple levels in young adulthood resulting from repeated, intermittent social defeats or "social threats" across the entire juvenile period. Male hamsters at postnatal day 28 (P28) were randomly assigned to either the social defeat, "social threat", or arena control group, and they correspondingly received a series of nine social interaction trials (i.e., either social defeat, "social threat", or arena control conditions) from P33 to P66. At the behavioral level (Experiment 1), we found that repeated social defeats (but not "social threats") significantly impacted locomotor activity in the familiar context and social interaction in the familiar/unfamiliar social contexts. At the physiological and hormonal levels (Experiments 2 and 3), repeated social defeat significantly enhanced the cortisol and norepinephrine concentrations in blood. Enlargement of the spleen was also found in the social defeat and "social threat" groups. At the immunological level (Experiment 4), the social defeat group showed lower levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the hypothalamus and hippocampus but higher concentration of IL-6 in the striatum compared to the other two groups. At the neurochemical level (Experiment 5), the socially defeated hamsters mainly displayed reductions of dopamine, dopamine metabolites, and 5-HT levels in the striatum and decreased level of 5-HT in the hippocampus. In Experiment 6, an increase in the spine density of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons was specifically observed in the "social threat" group. Collectively, our findings indicate that repeated

  19. Differences in social skills performance between institutionalized juvenile male offenders and a comparable group of boys without offence records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, S H

    1981-09-01

    Eighteen institutionalized young male offenders and 18 boys without criminal records, comparable in terms of age, academic performance and social background, were videotaped during a five-minute standardized interview with a previously unknown adult. The videotapes were then subjected to a behavioural analysis of 13 responses which had previously been suggested to be important social skill components. The tapes were also shown to six independent judges who rated each tape in terms of social skills performance, social anxiety, friendliness, and employability. The offender group was found to differ significantly from the non-offender group in terms of the level of eye-contact, head movements, amount spoken, fiddling movements, and gross body movements. The offender group was also rated in significantly less favourably terms on the scales of social skills performance, social anxiety, and employability, compared to the non-offender groups. No significant difference was found in terms of friendliness ratings. Correlation analyses between the specific behavioural measures and the subjective rating scales revealed statistically significant associations between six of the 13 behavioural measures and one or more of the subjective rating scales. The provides some indication of the type of responses important in determining the impression made by adolescent male in an interview situation.

  20. Intact regulation of the AMPK signaling network in response to exercise and insulin in skeletal muscle of male patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjøbsted, Rasmus; Pedersen, Andreas J T; Hingst, Janne R

    2016-01-01

    Current evidence on exercise-mediated AMPK regulation in skeletal muscle of type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients is inconclusive. This may relate to inadequate segregation of trimer complexes in the investigation of AMPK activity. We examined the regulation of AMPK and downstream targets ACCβ, TBC1D1...... and TBC1D4 in muscle biopsies obtained from thirteen overweight/obese T2D and fourteen weight-matched control male subjects before, immediately after and 3 h after exercise. Exercise increased AMPK α2β2γ3 activity and phosphorylation of ACCβ Ser(221), TBC1D1 Ser(237)/Thr(596) and TBC1D4 Ser(704......). Conversely, exercise decreased AMPK α1β2γ1 activity and TBC1D4 Ser(318)/Thr(642) phosphorylation. Interestingly, compared to pre-exercise, 3 h into exercise recovery AMPK α2β2γ1 and α1β2γ1 activity were increased concomitant with increased TBC1D4 Ser(318)/Ser(341)/Ser(704) phosphorylation. No differences...

  1. Gestational exposure to variable stressors produces decrements in cognitive and neural development of juvenile male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Jason J; Frye, Cheryl A

    2011-01-01

    Gestational stress may have lasting deleterious effects on neuro-cognitive development of offspring. Progesterone (P), and its 5α-reduced metabolites, dihydroprogesterone (DHP) and 5α-pregnan-3α-ol-20-one (3α,5α-THP), maintain pregnancy, and can have effects on cognitive performance and/or neuronal integrity. However, whether some of the deleterious effects of gestational stress on cognitive and neural processes may be related to progestogen formation is not known. Pregnant rat dams were exposed to a regimen of variable stressors (including forced swim, restraint, fasting, social stress, and exposure to cold and light) on gestational days 17-21 or were minimally-handled controls. Male and female offspring were cross-fostered to non-manipulated dams and assessed for motor and cognitive performance between post-natal days 28 and 30. Although the motor behavior of gestationally-stressed offspring did not differ significantly from control offspring, their cognitive performance in an object recognition task was poorer. Irrespective of sex, dendritic spine density was reduced in dorsal hippocampus of stress-exposed offspring compared to control offspring. Formation of DHP was reduced in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and increased in hippocampus of stressed, compared to control offspring. Notably, there were sex differences wherein estradiol in mPFC, as well as P and DHP in diencephalon, were increased with stress among females but decreased with stress among males. These data suggest that exposure to variable stress during gestation can perturb cognitive performance, concomitant with dendrite development in hippocampus, and P's 5α-reduction in hippocampus and mPFC. Some sex differences in stress effects on progestogen formation may occur in diencephalon.

  2. Early High-Fat Feeding Induces Alteration of Trace Element Content in Tissues of Juvenile Male Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinkov, Alexey A; Gatiatulina, Eugenia R; Popova, Elizaveta V; Polyakova, Valentina S; Skalnaya, Anastasia A; Agletdinov, Eduard F; Nikonorov, Alexandr A; Skalny, Anatoly V

    2017-02-01

    The primary objective of the current study was to assess the influence of early high-fat feeding on tissue trace element content in young male Wistar rats. Twenty weanling male Wistar rats were divided into two groups fed standard (STD) or high-fat diet (HFD) containing 10 and 31.6 % of total calories from fat, respectively, for 1 month. Serum lipid spectrum, apolipoproteins, glucose, insulin, adiponectin, and leptin levels were assessed. The level of trace elements was estimated using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. High-fat feeding significantly increased epidydimal (EDAT) and retroperitoneal adipose tissue (RPAT), as well as total adipose tissue mass by 34, 103, and 59 %, respectively. Serum leptin levels in HFD animals were twofold higher than those in the control rats. No significant difference in serum lipid spectrum, apolipoproteins, glucose, adiponectin, and insulin was detected between the groups. HFD significantly altered tissue trace element content. In particular, HFD-fed animals were characterized by significantly lower levels of Cu, I, Mn, Se, and Zn in the liver; Cr, V, Co, Cu, Fe, and I content of EDAT; Co, Cu, I, Cr, V, Fe, and Zn concentration in RPAT samples. At the same time, only serum Cu was significantly depressed in HFD-fed animals as compared to the control ones. Hair Co, Mn, Si, and V levels were significantly increased in comparison to the control values, whereas Se and I content was decreased. HFD feeding induced excessive adiposity and altered tissue trace element content in rats without insulin resistance, adiponectin deficiency, and proatherogenic state. Hypothetically, trace element disbalance may precede obesity-associated metabolic disturbances.

  3. Juvenile Scleroderma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile Scleroderma INTRODUCTION Every parent will experience a moment of panic when told their child has scleroderma. ... in all their family members as well. CONCLUSION Juvenile scleroderma can be unsettling for the child and ...

  4. Juvenile Judge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    SHANG Xiuyun was among the first sitting judges when the juvenile court was set up in Beijing 10 years ago. With enriched experience she has altered the way judges ask questions in court. She began the practice of inviting juvenile offenders, their parents, relatives, friends and teachers to the juvenile court to work hand in hand in dealing with cases: Facing their relatives and friends and hearing their heartfelt words, juvenile offenders would often be touched, thus bringing forth a positive attitude toward life.

  5. Growth of juvenile shrimp Metapenaeus monoceros fed with squid and mussel

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Achuthankutty, C.T.; Nair, S.R.S.; Krishnakumari, L.

    Small juveniles of both sexes and females of large juveniles of Metapenaeus monoceros attained faster growth with squid diet. Males of large juveniles registered better growth with mussel diet. No significant difference was observed in moult weights...

  6. Moral Development of Solo Juvenile Sex Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Vugt, Eveline; Stams, Geert Jan; Dekovic, Maja; Brugman, Daan; Rutten, Esther; Hendriks, Jan

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the moral development of solo juvenile male sex offenders (n = 20) and juvenile male non-offenders (n = 76), aged 13-19 years, from lower socioeconomic and educational backgrounds. The Moral Orientation Measure (MOM) was used to assess punishment- and victim-based moral orientation in sexual and non-sexual situations. Moral…

  7. Relação saque, recepção e ataque no voleibol juvenil masculino Relation service, reception and attack in male junior volleyball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo De Conti Teixeira Costa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste texto, O objetivo do presente estudo consistiu em analisar a relação do saque e da recepção com o efeito do ataque em seleções nacionais de voleibol juvenil masculino. Recorreu-se à observação e análise de onze jogos, totalizando 781 ações de ataque. Os resultados demonstraram que o ponto no ataque ocorreu mais do que o esperado após o saque suspensão colocado e após a recepção que permitiu todas as opções de ataque. Contrariamente, este ocorreu menos do que o esperado após o saque suspensão potente e a recepção que não permitiu ataque organizado. O presente estudo permitiu inferir que o saque potente e a recepção com baixos níveis de eficácia reduzem as possibilidades de pontuar no ataque. O fato do saque potente adversário induzir menor ocorrência de ponto no ataque, pode sugerir alguma debilidade na organização ofensiva da equipa perante as dificuldades acrescidas colocadas por este tipo de saque.Tal sugere a necessidade de, desde as categorias de base, ser dada maior atenção no treinamento à capacidade das equipas organizarem as manobras ofensivas em resposta a saques agressivos como é o caso do saque suspensão potente.The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between serve and serve reception on the effect of the offensive system in the national junior male volleyball teams. Eleven games were analyzes, totaling 781 attack actions. The results showed that the attack point occurred more than expected after the top spin placed jump serve from the opponent and after the reception that allowed all the attack options. In contrast, to this one and the reception that did not allowed an organized attack occurred less than expected after the power jump service. This study made it possible to infer that powerful service and the reception with low levels of efficiency reduce the chances of scoring in the attack. The fact that the opponent's powerful service results lesser occurrences of the

  8. 长沙、成都男性犯罪青少年精神障碍患病率调查%Prevalence of Mental Disorders in the Male Juvenile Delinquents, Changsha and Chengdu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周建松; 陈琛; 王红; 张四美; 罗宇鹏; 邱昌建; 蔡伟雄; 王小平

    2012-01-01

    目的:比较长沙、成都两地男性青少年犯罪者及不同犯罪类型间精神障碍患病率差异.方法:抽取长沙某未成年管教所100例暴力犯罪青少年、65例非暴力犯罪青少年,成都某未成年管教所90例暴力犯罪青少年,抽取长沙某中学40名、成都某中学50名高中学生为对照.以儿童少年精神障碍调查表及半定式诊断检查表,调查精神障碍的患病状况.结果:长沙暴力犯罪组品行障碍(CD)(86.6%)、物质滥用(17.6%)和物质依赖(9.9%)的患病率,长沙非暴力犯罪组CD (75.0%)和物质滥用(11.7%)的患病率均显著高于长沙对照组;成都暴力犯罪组注意缺陷障碍(17.3%)、对抗性障碍(18.5%)、CD(69.1%)和物质滥用(22.2%)的患病率均显著高于成都对照组.长沙暴力组与成都暴力组的注意缺陷患病率(5.0%vs.20.8%)与CD患病率(90.0% vs 73.6%)差异显著.结论:青少年犯罪者精神健康问题严重,迫切需要制定和实施针对青少年犯罪精神状况有效的评估和治疗方法.%Objective: To investigate and compare the mental health of the juvenile delinquents, in Changsha and Chengdu. Methods: 100 male violent juvenile offenders and 65 male non-violent juvenile offenders in a Juvenile Correctional Facility of Changsha, and 90 male violence juvenile offenders in a Juvenile Correctional Facility of Chengdu, 40 high school students from a middle school of Changsha and 50 high school students from a middle school of Chengdu were investigated with the Investigation Screening Inventory for Child Mental Disorder (self-made) and the Kiddy Schedule for Affective Diseases and Schizophrenia (K-SADS-PL). Results: In the Changsha violent group, 86.6% of the juvenile offenders met the criteria for Conduct Disorder (CD), 17.6% met the criteria for the Substance Abuse, 9.9% met the criteria for the Substance Dependence, these were all significantly higher than those of the Changsha control group. In the

  9. Juvenile Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile arthritis (JA) is arthritis that happens in children. It causes joint swelling, pain, stiffness, and loss of motion. It can affect any joint, but ... of JA that children get is juvenile idiopathic arthritis. There are several other forms of arthritis affecting ...

  10. A Study of the Personality Traits of Five-factor Model of Male Juvenile Delinquents%男性青少年犯大五人格特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈利君; 孟红

    2012-01-01

    To explore the personality traits of five-factor model of male juvenile delinquents and its related factors, so as to provide reference" for anficrime in juvenile. 217 male juvenile Delinquents and 263 middle school students were investigated with Big Five Inventory and general state questionnaire. The findings revealed that male juvenile delinquents have significant differences from the school students in five-factor model of personality like agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism and openness; Agreeableness and openness can effectively distinguish male juvenile criminals from the school students; All the factors of family atmosphere, parents' marital status, residential quarter, whether there is the love experience, the frequency of using the web, whether the parents are at home in his childhood and the life status before imprison had some influence on agreeableness; the factors of family atmosphere and the frequency of using the web had some influence on openness. In a certain extent, agreeableness and openness can predict juvenile crime. Many family factors may have an impact on juvenile delinquents' personality.%采用大五人格问卷(BFI)和自编调查问卷对217名狱中男性青少年犯和263名在校中学生进行问卷调查。研究男性青少年犯大五人格特征及其影响因素,为有效预防青少年犯罪提供理论依据。调查发现青少年犯与正常同龄男生在宜人性、责任心、神经质和开放性等四个维度上有显著差异;宜人性与开放性在区分青少年犯与正常同龄男生有一定的鉴别力:家庭关系、父母是否离异、农村或城市户口、有无恋爱经历、上网频率、小时候父母是否在家、入监前生活状态等因素影响青少年宜人性人格因子的形成;家庭关系、上网频率等因素影响青少年开放性人格因子形成。本研究表明宜人性与开放性对青少年犯罪有一定预测力;家庭诸多因素对青少年犯罪人格特征有影响作用。

  11. [Juvenile scleroderma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mâcedo, Patrícia Andrade; Shinjo, Samuel Katsuyuki; Goldenstein-Schainberg, Cláudia

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile scleroderma is a rare childhood condition characterized by fibrosis of the skin and internal organs. Clinical manifestations of childhood scleroderma are different from adult disease and early recognition, correct classification and treatment can improve long-term outcome. This review explores the most recent actualizations on clinical manifestations, classification criteria, treatment options and prognosis of juvenile scleroderma. There are two main forms of the disease: localized scleroderma and systemic sclerosis. Localized scleroderma is the most common form in children and mostly restricted to the skin. Juvenile diffuse systemic sclerosis is related to visceral involvement and cardiac disease which is the main cause of death in these patients. The outcome of juvenile systemic sclerosis is better compared with the adult form. Treatment remains a medical challenge and the EULAR task force proposed an approach to juvenile scleroderma treatment based on expert's opinion and guidelines used for the treatment of adults. Larger studies on childhood scleroderma are warranted.

  12. Juvenile Prostitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csapo, Marg

    1986-01-01

    Recent research and Canadian government committee reports concerning juvenile prostitution are reviewed. Proposals are made in the realms of law and social policy; and existing programs are described. (DB)

  13. Juvenile Prostitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csapo, Marg

    1986-01-01

    Recent research and Canadian government committee reports concerning juvenile prostitution are reviewed. Proposals are made in the realms of law and social policy; and existing programs are described. (DB)

  14. Juvenile myasthenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević-Pogančev Marija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Juvenile myasthenia is a chronic autoimmune neuromuscular disease characterized by varying degrees of fluctuating, painless muscle weakness and rapid fatigue of any muscles under voluntary control. Juvenile myasthenia is a form of myasthenia appearing in adolescent age, representing 10% to 15% of all cases of myasthenia gravis. Juvenile myasthenia is presented by a defect in the transmission of nerve impulses to muscles, resulting from a breakdown in the normal communication between nerves and muscles. In myasthenia, antibodies produced by the body’s own immune system block, alter, or destroy the receptors for acetylcholine. Juvenile myasthenia is neither directly inherited nor is it contagious. Signs and Symptoms. The first noticeable symptoms may be eye muscle weakness, difficulty in swallowing, or slurred speech. Juvenile myasthenia usually affects muscles innervated by the cranial nerves (face, lips, tongue, neck and throat, but it can affect any muscle group. Symptoms vary in type and severity with typical periods of exacerbation interspersed with periods of remission. When the muscles necessary for breathing are affected, a patient is said to be in a myasthenic crisis, which is a life-threatening situation. Disease Outcome and Treatment. Juvenile myasthenia produces sporadic but progressive weakness and abnormal fatigability of striated (skeletal muscles, exacerbated by exercise and repeated movement, but improved by rest and anticholinesterase drugs. Juvenile myasthenia follows an unpredictable course of recurring exacerbations and periodic remissions. With current therapies, however, most cases of juvenile myasthenia are not as serious as the name implies. Although there is no known cure, drug treatment has improved prognosis and allows patients to lead relatively normal lives, except during exacerbations.

  15. MRI of intact plants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    As, H. van; Scheenen, T.W.J.; Vergeldt, F.J.

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-destructive and non-invasive technique that can be used to acquire two- or even three-dimensional images of intact plants. The information within the images can be manipulated and used to study the dynamics of plant water relations and water transpor

  16. MRI of intact plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    As, van H.; Scheenen, T.; Vergeldt, F.J.

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-destructive and non-invasive technique that can be used to acquire two- or even three-dimensional images of intact plants. The information within the images can be manipulated and used to study the dynamics of plant water relations and water transpor

  17. [Intact cervical pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habek, D; Bobic, M V; Dosen, L

    2003-01-01

    The authors describe a case of intact cervical pregnancy in a 24-year-old secundigravida. The patient was treated successfully with Methotrexate. Conservative treatment is the first choice in the therapy of uncomplicated cervical pregnancy. Conservative and operative therapeutic procedures are discussed.

  18. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA); Juvenile chronic polyarthritis; Still disease; Juvenile spondyloarthritis ... The cause of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is not known. It ... illness . This means the body attacks and destroys healthy body ...

  19. Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types of Cancer > Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome Request Permissions Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 12/2015 What is juvenile polyposis syndrome? Juvenile polyposis syndrome (JPS) is a ...

  20. Family transitions and juvenile delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Ryan D; Osgood, Aurea K; Oghia, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    There is a large body of research that shows children from non-intact homes show higher rates of juvenile delinquency than children from intact homes, partially due to weaker parental control and supervision in non-intact homes. What has not been adequately addressed in the research is the influence of changes in family structure among individual adolescents over time on delinquent offending. Using the first and third waves of the National Youth Study, we assess the effect of family structure changes on changes in delinquent offending between waves through the intermediate process of changes in family time and parental attachment. Although prior research has documented adolescents in broken homes are more delinquent than youth in intact homes, the process of family dissolution is not associated with concurrent increases in offending. In contrast, family formation through marriage or cohabitation is associated with simultaneous increases in offending. Changes in family time and parental attachment account for a portion of the family formation effect on delinquency, and prior parental attachment and juvenile offending significantly condition the effect of family formation on offending.

  1. Juvenile psammomatoid ossifying fibroma. Case report

    OpenAIRE

    Vahtsevanos, Konstantinos; Persephone XIROU; Giorgos BALLIS; Tsekos, Antonis; Ntomouchtsis, Aris; Alexandros VALASIDIS; Doxa MAGGOUDI

    2012-01-01

    Ossifying fibroma (OS) represents a slow growing, benign neoplasm that belongs to the greater group of fibro-osseous lesions. Based on its histological features, ossifying fibroma is divided into: a) juvenile trabecular OS and b) juvenile psammomatoid OS which affects mainly the paranasal sinuses of children and teenagers aging from 5 to 15 years.A rare case of juvenile psammomatoid ossifying fibroma in a 30 year old male patient located in the left mandibular ramus is presented. Treatment pl...

  2. Sexually dimorphic body plumage in juvenile crossbills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelaar, P; Phillips, RE; Knops, P

    2005-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism in color and pattern of contour feathers is rare in juvenile songbirds. We describe how captive-bred juvenile males of Scottish Crossbill (Loxia scotica) and nominate Red Crossbill (L. curvirostra curvirostra) can be differentiated from females prior to prebasic molt by an unstreak

  3. Bilateral, independent juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkenborg, Marie-Louise; Frendø, M; Stavngaard, T;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a benign, vascular tumour that primarily occurs in adolescent males. Despite its benign nature, aggressive growth patterns can cause potential life-threatening complications. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is normally unilateral, originating...... from the sphenopalatine artery, but bilateral symptoms can occur if a large tumour extends to the contralateral side of the nasopharynx. This paper presents the first reported case of true bilateral extensive juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma involving clinically challenging pre-surgical planning...... embolisation. Radical removal performed as one-step, computer-assisted functional endoscopic sinus surgery was performed. The follow-up period was uncomplicated. CONCLUSION: This case illustrates the importance of suspecting bilateral juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma in patients presenting with bilateral...

  4. Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents: Profiles of Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowder, Melissa H.; Cummings, Jack A.; McKinney, Robert

    2010-01-01

    An exploratory study of resiliency profiles of male and female juvenile offenders committed to a juvenile correctional facility was conducted. The goal of the present study was to examine juvenile offenders' positive characteristics (e.g., adaptability, optimism, self-efficacy, tolerance of differences). To assess positive characteristics and…

  5. Juvenile Spondyloarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmuca, Sabrina; Weiss, Pamela F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review To provide a comprehensive update of the pathogenesis, diagnostic imaging, treatments, and disease activity measurements of juvenile spondyloarthritis (JSpA). Recent findings Genetic and microbiome studies have provided new information regarding possible pathogenesis of JSpA. Recent work suggests that children with JSpA have decreased thresholds for pain in comparison to healthy children. Additionally, pain on physical examination and abnormalities on ultrasound of the entheses are not well correlated. Treatment guidelines for juvenile arthritis, including JSpA, were published by the American College of Rheumatology and are based on active joint count and presence of sacroiliitis. Recent studies have established the efficacy of tumor necrosis factor inhibitors in the symptomatic treatment of axial disease, though their efficacy for halting progression of structural damage is less clear. Newly developed disease activity measures for JSpA include the Juvenile Arthritis Disease Activity Score and the JSpA Disease Activity index. In comparison to other categories of juvenile arthritis, children with JSpA are less likely to attain and sustain inactive disease. Summary Further microbiome and genetic research may help elucidate JSpA pathogenesis. More randomized therapeutic trials are needed and the advent of new composite disease activity measurement tools will hopefully allow for the design of these greatly needed trials. PMID:26002028

  6. (Photosynthesis in intact plants)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    Progress in the two years since the last renewal application has been excellent. We have made substantial contributions on both main fronts of the projects, and are particularly happy with the progress of our research on intact plants. The approach of basing our field work on a sound foundation of laboratory studies has enabled is to use methods which provide unambiguous assays of well characterized reactions. We have also made excellent progress in several laboratory studies which will have direct applications in future field work, and have introduced to the laboratory a range of molecular genetics techniques which will allow us to explore new options in the attempt to understand function at the level of molecular structure.

  7. Juvenile Justice in Milwaukee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gary L.; Greer, Lanetta

    2010-01-01

    Historically, there have been several attempts made to address issues surrounding juvenile delinquency. The Wisconsin Legislature outlines the objectives of the juvenile justice system in the Juvenile Justice Code in s. 939.01, ?to promote a juvenile justice system capable of dealing with the problem of juvenile delinquency, a system which will…

  8. Juvenile xanthogranuloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R; Ghazali, W

    1992-05-01

    Juvenile xanthogranuloma is a benign cutaneous growth presenting as papules or nodules. It is characterized by an intradermal collection of lipid-laden macrophages and varying degrees of fibroblastic proliferation. We have recently observed two patients with xanthogranulomas: one was found to have a papular type and the second patient had multiple nodular growths. We present these cases, which should be considered in the differential diagnosis of skin nodules.

  9. Control study of Stroop test of male juvenile delinquents with aggressive behaviors%男性犯罪青少年攻击行为Stroop测试对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢海岩; 母代斌; 伊其忠

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the characteristic and difference of the executive function of the premeditated group and attack group of male juvenile delinquents by the Stroop test.Methods 123 male juvenile delinquents and 128 normal controls were examined by a general information questionnaire,the Stroop test of the Chinese version and impulsive premeditated aggression scale (IPAS).SPSS17.0 statistical software used to analysis the survey results.Results ( 1 ) By Stroop test the premeditated group and impulsive group of juvenile delinquents was found that correct number of test 3( 109.97 ± 1.87),errors number of test 4(4.45 ±4.84),amend number of test 1 and test 4 ( 1.18 ± 1.50 ; 1.50 ± 1.59 ),and completion time of test 4 ( 143.74 ± 28.36) had statistically significant (P < 0.05 ),the others had no significant difference between the two groups.(2) The premeditated group of juvenile delinquents and normal adolescents in Stroop test comparison was statistically significant in completion time of test 1,test 2 (56.49 ± 14.90 ;88.31 ± 20.02)(P < 0.05 ).The impulse group of the juvenile delinquents and normal adolescents was statistically significant in the correct number of test 2 to test 4( 107.20 ± 3.39 ; 109.97± 1.87 ; 102.47 ± 5.62 ),errors number of test 2 ( 1.86 ± 2.27 ),amends number of test 3 ( 1.50 ± 1.59 ),and completion time of test 1 to test 4 (59.96 ± 11.08 ;92.03 ± 20.87 ;62.77 ± 12.31 ; 143.74 ± 28.36) (P < 0.05 ).The others of two groups were no significant difference.Conclusion It is found that juvenile delinquents exist defects of executive function,and perform functional defects in the attack group of juvenile delinquents is more obviously.%目的 采用Stroop测试探讨有预谋性攻击或冲动性攻击男性犯罪青少年执行功能特点及差异性.方法 研究对未成年犯管教所内的123名男性犯罪青少年和2所普通中学及1所中等职业学校的128名男生进行一般资料问卷、中文版Stroop测试和

  10. Diabetes and Insulin Injection Modalities: Effects on Hepatic and Hippocampal Expression of 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1 in Juvenile Diabetic Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rougeon, Véronica; Moisan, Marie-Pierre; Barthe, Nicole; Beauvieux, Marie-Christine; Helbling, Jean-Christophe; Pallet, Véronique; Marissal-Arvy, Nathalie; Barat, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is often encountered in diabetes, leading to several clinical complications. Our recent results showing an elevated tetrahydrocortisol/tetrahydrocorticosterone ratio in morning urine of diabetic children compared to that of controls suggest an increased nocturnal activity of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) in the former. We hypothesized that these observations could be explained by a reduced inhibition of hepatic 11β-HSD1 activity by exogenous insulin owing to its subcutaneous (SC) administration and absence of first hepatic passage. Additionally, we hypothesized that hippocampal 11β-HSD1 activity might also be impaired by diabetes. We therefore measured HPA axis activity and 11β-HSD1 expression and activity in liver and hippocampus in streptozotocin-induced diabetic juvenile rats treated with SC or intraperitoneal (IP) insulin. Plasma corticosterone levels were elevated in untreated diabetic rats during the resting phase and restored by both types of insulin treatment. The mRNA expression and activity of 11β-HSD1 were increased in the untreated diabetic group in liver. Although diabetes was controlled equally whatever the route of insulin administration, liver 11β-HSD1 gene expression and activity was decreased only in the IP group, suggesting that a first hepatic pass is needed for 11β-HSD1 hepatic inhibition. In hippocampus, 11β-HSD1 activity was elevated in the untreated diabetic group but restored by both types of insulin treatment. Thus, these data extend our findings in diabetic children by showing impairment of hippocampal 11β-HSD1 in diabetes and by demonstrating that IP is preferable to SC insulin administration to restore 11β-HSD1 activity in liver.

  11. Dermatomiositis juvenil

    OpenAIRE

    Goldaracena, Pablo; Pérez, Federico

    2008-01-01

    La dermatomiositis juvenil (DMJ) es una enfermedad multi sistémica de etiología desconocida, caracterizada por una vasculitis que ocasiona una inflamación no supurativa del músculo estriado y lesiones cutáneas distintivas. La cobertura de los criterios de Bohan y Peter establece el diagnóstico: exantema patognomónico junto a debilidad muscular proximal simétrica, elevación sérica de enzimas musculares, s...

  12. Criminal history and future offending of juveniles convicted of the possession of child pornography

    OpenAIRE

    Aebi, Marcel; Plattner, Belinda; Ernest, Melanie; Kaszynski, Katie; Bessler, Cornelia

    2014-01-01

    Most child pornography is distributed online. It is estimated that 3% to 15% of child pornography consumers are juveniles. The present study analyzed a consecutive sample of 54 male juveniles convicted of the possession of child pornography. Demographic characteristics, criminal history, and subsequent offending were assessed from criminal files and official reports. Juvenile possessors of child pornography were compared to three different groups of juveniles: Juvenile possessors of other ill...

  13. 湖南、四川部分男性青少年犯罪者精神障碍患病情况调查%Prevalence of mental disorders in the male juvenile detention centers of Hunan and Sichuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周建松; 蔡伟雄; 陈琛; 王红; 张四美; 罗宇鹏; 邱昌建; 王小平

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of mental health problems in male violent offenders of Hunan and Sichuan Provinces; and to compare the types and severity of problems between the violent and nonviolent offenders.Methods:Ninety-one violent juvenile offenders and 64 nonviolent juvenile offenders in the juvenile detention centers of Hunan,and 81 violent juvenile offenders in the juvenile detention centers of Sichuan; 39 high school students from a middle school of Hunan Province and 49 from a middle school of Sichuan Province were investigated using the Investigation Screening Inventory for Child Mental Disorder and the Kiddy Schedule for Affective Diseases and Schizophrenia (K-SADS-PL),and classified according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.Results:In the Hunan violent group,86.6% met the criterion of conduct disorder (CD),17.6% of substance abuse,9.9% of substance dependence,while in the Hunan nonviolent group,75.0% met the criterion of CD,and 11.7% of substance abuse; these were all significantly higher than those of the control group (P<0.05).In the Sichuan violent group,17.3% met the criterion of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD),18.5% of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD),69.1%of CD,and 22.2% of substance abuse; these were all significantly higher than those of the Sichuan control group.Moreover,63.7% of Hunan-violent,55.6% of Sichuan-violent,and 45.0% of Hunannonviolent offenders had a previous offence records.Conclusion:Mental and behavioral disorders among delinquent youth is becoming a serious problem,and there is an urgent need to develop and implement effective assessment and treatment approaches for juvenile offenders with the aim of reducing offence and recidivism in this population.%目的:调查湖南、四川两省男性青少年暴力犯罪者的精神健康状况,比较湖南省暴力犯罪与非暴力犯罪青少年间精神障碍患病率的差异.方法:在湖南某

  14. Juvenile psammomatoid ossifying fibroma. Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos VAHTSEVANOS

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Ossifying fibroma (OS represents a slow growing, benign neoplasm that belongs to the greater group of fibro-osseous lesions. Based on its histological features, ossifying fibroma is divided into: a juvenile trabecular OS and b juvenile psammomatoid OS which affects mainly the paranasal sinuses of children and teenagers aging from 5 to 15 years.A rare case of juvenile psammomatoid ossifying fibroma in a 30 year old male patient located in the left mandibular ramus is presented. Treatment plan included radical surgical excision of the lesion and restoration with autologous osteochondral graft from the 6th rib of the ipsilateral side.

  15. Juvenile homosexual homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Wade C; Chan, Heng Choon Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Limited information exists on juvenile homosexual homicide (JHH), that is, youths who perpetrate sexual homicides against same-sex victims. Only a handful of cases from the United States and internationally have been described in the literature. This study, the first of its kind, examines the epidemiology, victimology, victim-offender relationship, and weapon-use patterns in JHH offenders using a large U.S. database on homicide spanning three decades. The data for this study were derived from the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Supplementary Homicide Reports (SHRs) for the years 1976 through 2005. A total of 93 cases of JHH were identified. On average, three of these crimes occurred annually in the U.S., and there was a marked decline in its incidence over the study period. Ninety-five percent were male offender-male victim cases and 5% were female offender-female victim cases. JHH offenders were over-represented amongst all juvenile sexual murderers, similar to their adult counterparts. The majority of these boys were aged 16 or 17 and killed adult victims. They were significantly more likely to kill adult victims than other age groups, to be friends or acquaintances of the victims, and to use contact/edged weapons or firearms. Most offenders killed same-race victims, although Black offenders were significantly more likely than White offenders to kill interracially. A case report is provided to illustrate JHH. Further research is needed to promote our understanding of the pathogenesis, etiology, and associated risk factors for this aberrant form of murder by children.

  16. Continuous human metastin 45-54 infusion desensitizes G protein-coupled receptor 54-induced gonadotropin-releasing hormone release monitored indirectly in the juvenile male Rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta): a finding with therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seminara, Stephanie B; Dipietro, Meloni J; Ramaswamy, Suresh; Crowley, William F; Plant, Tony M

    2006-05-01

    The effect of continuous administration of the C-terminal fragment of metastin, the ligand for the G protein-coupled receptor, GPR54, on GnRH-induced LH secretion was examined in three agonadal, juvenile male monkeys whose responsiveness to GnRH was heightened by pretreatment with a chronic pulsatile iv infusion of synthetic GnRH. After bolus injection of 10 microg human (hu) metastin 45-54 (equivalent to kisspeptin 112-121), the GPR54 agonist was infused continuously at a dose of 100 microg/h and elicited a brisk LH response for approximately 3 h. This rise was then followed by a precipitous drop in LH despite continuous exposure of GPR54 to metastin 45-54. On d 4, during the final 3 h of the infusion, single boluses of hu metastin 45-54 (10 microg), N-methyl-DL-aspartic acid (NMDA) (10 mg/kg) and GnRH (0.3 microg) were administered to interrogate each element of the metastin-GPR54-GnRH-GnRH receptor cascade. Although the NMDA and GnRH boluses were able to elicit LH pulses, that of hu metastin 45-54 was not, demonstrating functional integrity of GnRH neurons (NMDA) and GnRH receptors (NMDA and GnRH) but desensitization of GPR54. The desensitization of GPR54 by continuous hu metastin 45-54 administration has therapeutic implications for a variety of conditions currently being treated by GnRH and its analogs, including restoration of fertility in patients with abnormal GnRH secretion (i.e. idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and hypothalamic amenorrhea) and selective, reversible suppression of the pituitary-gonadal axis to achieve suppression of gonadal steroids (i.e. precocious puberty, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and prostate cancer).

  17. 优秀青少年男子篮球运动员腰腹屈伸肌群生物力学特征%Biomechanical characteristics of waist flexor and extensor muscles in outstanding juvenile male basketball athletes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖冰; 叶展红; 庞杰

    2015-01-01

    背景:目前,等速测试系统在评定各专项运动员肌肉功能的应用越来越受到重视,但运用等速肌力测试技术研究优秀青少年男子篮球运动员腰腹肌力特征的报道较少。目的:研究优秀青少年男子篮球运动员腰腹屈伸肌群生物力学特征,为篮球项目的腰腹力量训练、科学选材和预防腰腹损伤提供依据。方法:采用Cybex-Norm等速肌力测试系统,对广州男子篮球队运动员18人测定腰腹屈伸肌群在慢速60(°)/s和快速180(°)/s的肌力和做功情况。结果与结论:受试者腰腹屈伸肌群的峰力矩和相对峰力矩在同一测试速度下,伸肌群大于屈肌群(P<0.01);腰腹屈伸肌群的峰力矩、相对峰力矩、总功均随着测试速度的增加呈减小趋势(P<0.05),伸肌群的峰力矩和相对峰力矩减少更显著(P <0.01);腰腹屈伸肌群的相对功率随着测试速度的增加而呈上升趋势(P <0.01);外线球员腰腹屈伸肌群各测试指标成绩优于内线球员;在等速向心收缩时,随测试速度加快,腰腹屈伸肌群的峰力矩屈伸比呈递减趋势,躯干稳定性减弱。结果提示,优秀青少年男子篮球运动员腰腹伸肌群肌力大于屈肌群;外线球员腰腹屈伸肌群的肌力优于内线球员;等速快速运动时,腰腹屈伸肌群力量减小,腰腹关节屈伸肌力平衡性减弱,应加强青少年男子篮球运动员腰腹核心肌群快速力量训练。%BACKGROUND:At present, isokinetic testing system has attracted more and more attentions in the evaluation of athlete muscle function, but its application in the detection of waist and abdomen muscle strength characteristics in juvenile male basketbal athletes is rarely reported. OBJECTIVE:To study the biomechanical characteristics of waist flexor and extensor muscles inoutstanding juvenile male basketbal athletes in order to provide the basis for waist and abdominal strength training

  18. What Is Juvenile Arthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Analgesics for Osteoarthritis (Report from AHRQ) Joint Replacement Surgery: Health Information Basics for You and Your Family NIH Pediatric Rheumatology Clinic Health Information Juvenile Arthritis Find a Clinical Trial Journal Articles Juvenile Arthritis PDF Version Size: 123 KB ...

  19. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, Machteld

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted.

  20. Juvenile Arrests, 2007. Juvenile Justice Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puzzanchera, Charles

    2009-01-01

    This Bulletin summarizes 2007 juvenile crime and arrest data reported by local law enforcement agencies across the country and cited in the FBI report, "Crime in the United States 2007." The Bulletin describes the extent and nature of juvenile crime that comes to the attention of the justice system. It serves as a baseline for comparison for…

  1. Psychiatric Disorders of Youth in Detention. Juvenile Justice Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teplin, Linda A.; Abram, Karen M.; McClelland, Gary M.; Mericle, Amy A.; Dulcan, Mina K.; Washburn, Jason J.

    2006-01-01

    This bulletin examines the prevalence of alcohol, drug, and mental disorders among youth at the Cook County (Illinois) Juvenile Temporary Detention Center, by gender, race/ethnicity, and age. Drawing on research conducted by the Northwestern Juvenile Project, this bulletin finds that nearly two-thirds of males and three-quarters of females studied…

  2. Juvenile female sex offenders: Offender and offence characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijkman, M.; Bijleveld, C.; Hendriks, J.

    2014-01-01

    Almost all research on juvenile sex offending pertains to adolescent males. This study comprises all female juveniles convicted for sexual offences in the Netherlands between 1993 and 2008 (N = 66). From analysis of their court files and their criminal records, these female offenders are described i

  3. Juvenile polyposis syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.A.A. Brosens; D. Langeveld; W.A. van Hattem; F.M. Giardiello; G.J.A. Offerhaus

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile polyposis syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by multiple distinct juvenile polyps in the gastrointestinal tract and an increased risk of colorectal cancer. The cumulative life-time risk of colorectal cancer is 39% and the relative risk is 34. Juvenile polyps have a

  4. Isokinetic muscle strength characteristics of the main joints in juvenile male gymnasts%青少年男子体操运动员主要关节的等速肌力特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鞠秀奎

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND:The gymnastic skil training of juveniles tends to be scientific and systematic, such as confirming the strength characteristics of joints and muscles and implementing training program pertinently based on the scientific diagnostic method. OBJECTIVE:To explore the isokinetic muscle strength characteristics of the trunk, hips and knees in juvenile male gymnasts. METHODS:Sixteen juvenile male gymnasts who were active athletes in Liaoning province were enrol ed. ISOMED2000 isokinetic muscle strength test system was used to detect the muscle strength, and the test speed of trunk set as 30, 60 and 180 (°)/s, while 60, 180 and 300 (°)/s for the hips and knees. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:At 30, 60 and 180 (°)/s, the hamstring/quadriceps ratio of trunk were 91.36±1.25, 87.77±3.74 and 78.20±4.70, respectively. At 60, 180 and 300 (°)/s, the hamstring/quadriceps ratio of the left hip was 65.55±4.38, 66.92±3.22 and 68.18±2.82, while that of the right hip were 57.40±4.43, 65.73±1.07 and 64.15±5.55. Additional y, the left flexor strength was significantly higher than that of the right, while the right extensor strength was significantly higher than that of the left at 60 (°)/s (P0.05). These results indicate that the rapid strength of the back especial y of the flexor is insufficient markedly, and the basic strength of the extensor is weak. The basic strength of the left flexor in the hip is large, the same as the right extensor;the rapid strength of flexor is weak, and imbalance in the muscle strength between two sides appears. Fortunately, the muscle strength of the knee between two sides achieves balance, but there is stil a certain deficiency in the rapid strength of the left flexor and the basic strength of the extensor on both sides.%背景:青少年体操动作技术训练越来越趋于科学化、系统化。利用科学的诊断方法来确定运动员的关节肌肉力量特征并针对性地实施训练方案,目前已成为青少年体操

  5. Composição tecidual e qualidade da gordura na carne de cordeiros castrados e não castrados confinados sob dois fotoperíodos Tissue composition and fat quality of meat of intact or castrated male lambs confined under two photoperiods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Klein Júnior

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos do fotoperíodo e da castração sobre a composição dos tecidos da paleta e características de qualidade da gordura do lombo e da paleta, de 20 cordeiros mestiços Ideal, distribuídos em esquema fatorial 2 x 2 (dois fotoperíodos - curto (FC, com 12 horas de luz, e longo (FL, com 18 horas de luz, e duas condições sexuais - não castrados (NC e castrados (C, com cinco repetições. Os animais foram abatidos aos 37kg de peso corporal. Maior quantidade de gordura total ocorreu nos cordeiros C e mais tecido conjuntivo nos animais NC. A castração influenciou o resíduo mineral fixo (RMF, o extrato etéreo (EE e a proteína da gordura subcutânea. O efeito da interação entre fotoperíodo longo e castração resultou em aumento do teor de umidade na gordura intermuscular da paleta. A castração elevou o teor de EE e diminuiu o percentual de RMF. Não foi evidenciado efeito do fotoperíodo no EE dos músculos da paleta, e os animais castrados apresentaram gordura intramuscular mais elevada. Os níveis de colesterol da paleta foram mais elevados que os do lombo. Na carne de animais C, verificou-se maior quantidade de ácidos graxos saturados.The effects of photoperiod and castration on tissue muscle composition, fat physical-chemical composition, and cholesterol was determined for two muscles of 20 Ideal crossbred lambs. The animals were divided into four treatments: five intact males and five castrate during a short photoperiod of 12 light hours, and five intact males and five castrated during a long photoperiod of 18 light hours. The animals were allocated in individual pens, in two identical rooms, with light intensity of 300 lux, (intact and castrated animals x short and long photoperiod. The animals were slaughtered as they reached 37kg of body weight. Castrated lambs showed a significantly higher amount of total fat tissues while intact animals showed higher connective tissue for the shoulder tissue composition

  6. Juveniles on trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Kathleen M

    2002-10-01

    This article describes common forensic evaluations requested of juvenile court mental health evaluators. There has been a legal shift toward criminalization of juvenile court, with a greater emphasis on rights, abandonment of the rehabilitative model, and greater movement of adolescents into the adult criminal court. A resulting shift has been the redefinition of juvenile court forensic evaluations toward the specificity of adult forensic work. The challenge for evaluators is to refine their knowledge of the forensic standards and bring knowledge of development, assessment, and diagnosis in juveniles and interview techniques appropriate to juveniles to improve the evaluation and forensic reports.

  7. Juvenile polyposis syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lodewijk AA Brosens; Danielle Langeveld; W Arnout van Hattem; Francis M Giardiello; G Johan A Offerhaus

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile polyposis syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by multiple distinct juvenile polyps in the gastrointestinal tract and an increased risk of colorectal cancer.The cumulative life-time risk of colorectal cancer is 39% and the relative risk is 34.Juvenile polyps have a distinctive histology characterized by an abundance of edematous lamina propria with inflammatory cells and cystically dilated glands lined by cuboidal to columnar epithelium with reactive changes.Clinically, juvenile polyposis syndrome is defined by the presence of 5 or more juvenile polyps in the colorectum,juvenile polyps throughout the gastrointestinal tract or any number of juvenile polyps and a positive family history of juvenile polyposis.In about 50%-60% of patients diagnosed with juvenile polyposis syndrome a germline mutation in the SMAD4 or BMPR1A gene is found.Both genes play a role in the BMP/TGF-beta signalling pathway.It has been suggested that cancer in juvenile polyposis may develop through the so-alled "landscaper mechanism" where an abnormal stromal environment leads to neoplastic transformation of the adjacent epithelium and in the end invasive carcinoma.Recognition of this rare disorder is important for patients and their families with regard to treatment,follow-up and screening of at risk individuals.Each clinician confronted with the diagnosis of a juvenile polyp should therefore consider the possibility of juvenile polyposis syndrome.In addition, juvenile polyposis syndrome provides a unique model to study colorectal cancer pathogenesis in general and gives insight in the molecular genetic basis of cancer. This review discusses clinical manifestations, genetics, pathogenesis and management of juvenile polyposis syndrome.

  8. Mineral Oil Aspiration Related Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Andrew D.; Fischer, Philip R.; Reed, Ann M.; Wylam, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    We describe the development of rheumatoid factor-positive migratory polyarthritis in a 5-year-old male who had been administered bidaily oral mineral oil as a laxative since birth. Minor respiratory symptoms, radiographic and bronchoscopic findings were consistent with chronic lipoid pneumonia. We speculate that immune sensitization to mineral oil promoted the clinical syndrome of juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

  9. Maternal touch moderates sex differences in juvenile social play behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle N Edelmann

    Full Text Available Additional somatosensory contact of preterm human infants improves a variety of developmental assessment scores, but less is known about its lasting consequences. In rodents, maternal contact may influence the programming of juvenile social play behavior. Therefore, we used a paradigm where we can control the levels of somatosensory contact associated with maternal care. We find that additional somatosensory contact of offspring can have lasting consequences on juvenile social play behavior in a sex-dependent manner. Specifically, additional somatosensory stimuli reduced male social play behavior, but did not change female play behavior. We then examined if this additional infant contact altered some neurobiological substrates associated with play within the juvenile amygdala. Control males had lower levels of 5HT2a receptor mRNA levels contrasted to females; however, similar to its sex-dependent effect on juvenile social play, males that received additional somatosensory contact had higher serotonin 5HT2a receptor mRNA levels than control males. No difference was found in females. As serotonin signaling typically opposes juvenile play behavior, these data suggest that maternal touch can program lasting differences in juvenile social play and 5HT2a receptors mRNA levels within the juvenile amygdala.

  10. Maternal touch moderates sex differences in juvenile social play behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelmann, Michelle N; Demers, Catherine H; Auger, Anthony P

    2013-01-01

    Additional somatosensory contact of preterm human infants improves a variety of developmental assessment scores, but less is known about its lasting consequences. In rodents, maternal contact may influence the programming of juvenile social play behavior. Therefore, we used a paradigm where we can control the levels of somatosensory contact associated with maternal care. We find that additional somatosensory contact of offspring can have lasting consequences on juvenile social play behavior in a sex-dependent manner. Specifically, additional somatosensory stimuli reduced male social play behavior, but did not change female play behavior. We then examined if this additional infant contact altered some neurobiological substrates associated with play within the juvenile amygdala. Control males had lower levels of 5HT2a receptor mRNA levels contrasted to females; however, similar to its sex-dependent effect on juvenile social play, males that received additional somatosensory contact had higher serotonin 5HT2a receptor mRNA levels than control males. No difference was found in females. As serotonin signaling typically opposes juvenile play behavior, these data suggest that maternal touch can program lasting differences in juvenile social play and 5HT2a receptors mRNA levels within the juvenile amygdala.

  11. Juvenile giant fibroadenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipul Yagnik

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Fibroadenomas are benign solid tumor associated with aberration of normal lobular development. Juvenile giant fibroadenoma is usually single and >5 cm in size /or >500 gms in weight. Important differential diagnoses are: phyllodes tumor and juvenile gigantomastia. Simple excision is the treatment of choice.

  12. Renewing Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macallair, Daniel; Males, Mike; Enty, Dinky Manek; Vinakor, Natasha

    2011-01-01

    The Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice (CJCJ) was commissioned by Sierra Health Foundation to critically examine California's juvenile justice system and consider the potential role of foundations in promoting systemic reform. The information gathered by CJCJ researchers for this report suggests that foundations can perform a key leadership…

  13. Philanthropist in Juvenile Reformatory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN NIU

    2007-01-01

    @@ On the afternoon of February 1, 2007, Chen Guangbiao, a noted philanthropist, found himself in the Jiangsu Provincial Juvenile Reformatory in Jurong City for a ceremony to donate two buses, 100 computers, and 100 desks and 100 chairs for the juvenile offenders to use in their study.

  14. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, Machteld

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted. Th

  15. Juvenile Confinement in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendel, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    For more than a century, the predominant strategy for the treatment and punishment of serious and sometimes not-so-serious juvenile offenders in the United States has been placement into large juvenile corrections institutions, alternatively known as training schools, reformatories, or youth corrections centers. America's heavy reliance on…

  16. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, Machteld

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted. Th

  17. Juvenile mammary papillomatosis; Papilomatosis juvenil mamaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, M.; Jimenez, A. V. [Hospital Reina Sofia. Cordoba (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    Juvenile mammary papillomatosis is a benign proliferative disease of young patients, generally under 30 years of age. The most frequent clinical presentation is the existence of an elastic and mobile lymph node of the breast. Anatomopathologically, it is characterized because it presents ductal epithelial hyperplasia, sometimes with marked atypia, and there are numerous cysts having different sizes among the findings. It has been associated with an increase in the incidence of breast cancer, both in the patient herself as well as her family. We review the literature on the subject and present the mammographic and ultrasonographic findings of a 22 year old woman diagnosed of juvenile mammary papillomatosis. (Author) 12 refs.

  18. Criminal history and future offending of juveniles convicted of the possession of child pornography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aebi, Marcel; Plattner, Belinda; Ernest, Melanie; Kaszynski, Katie; Bessler, Cornelia

    2014-08-01

    Most child pornography is distributed online. It is estimated that 3% to 15% of child pornography consumers are juveniles. The present study analyzed a consecutive sample of 54 male juveniles convicted of the possession of child pornography. Demographic characteristics, criminal history, and subsequent offending were assessed from criminal files and official reports. Juvenile possessors of child pornography were compared to three different groups of juveniles: Juvenile possessors of other illegal pornography (n = 42), juveniles who committed a sexual contact offense against a child (n = 64), and juveniles who committed a sexual contact offense against a peer or adult (n = 104). Juvenile possessors of child pornography were found to have downloaded the illegal material more frequently and over a longer time period than juvenile possessors of other illegal pornography. Furthermore, juvenile possessors of child pornography differed from juveniles who had committed a sexual contact offense in terms of demographics and showed fewer previous and subsequent offending than juveniles who sexually offended against a peer or adult. We conclude that juvenile possessors of child pornography need a specific target intervention focusing on dysfunctional Internet use and sexually deviant arousal. © The Author(s) 2013.

  19. Gender differences in juvenile gang members: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, R Anna; Honegger, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Over the past two decades, gang membership within the United States has continued to rise and has spread from urban centers to suburban and rural areas. Juvenile gang membership is of particular concern because of the relationship between early gang involvement and later adolescent and adult criminal behavior and incarceration. Female gang membership and affiliation are receiving increased attention as female crime and incarceration rates outpace those of their male counterparts. This study explores gender differences between male and female juveniles who have verified gang membership in one suburban jurisdiction. Findings suggest important differences between males and females, and implications for research and practice are discussed.

  20. Cryopyrin-Associated Autoinflammatory Syndromes (CAPS) - Juvenile

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cryopyrin-Associated Autoinflammatory Syndrome (CAPS) (Juvenile) Dermatomyositis (Juvenile) Familial Mediterranean Fever (Juvenile) Fibromyalgia Giant Cell Arteritis Glucocorticoid-induced Osteoperosis ...

  1. Juvenil idiopatisk arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlin, Troels

    2002-01-01

    The new classification of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is described in this review. Clinical characteristics divide JIA in to subtypes: systemic, oligoarticular (persistent and extended type), RF-positive and--negative polyarticular, enthesitis-related arthritis and psoriatic arthritis...

  2. Juvenile Rockfish Recruitment Cruise

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 1983, the groundfish analysis project began a series of yearly cruises designed to assess the annual abundance of juvenile rockfish along the central California...

  3. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physical Therapy Regular Exercise en español Artritis idiopática juvenil It may begin with a swollen knuckle, a ... may suddenly appear and disappear, developing in one area and then another. High fevers that tend to ...

  4. Juvenile Sex Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Eileen P; Otonichar, Joseph M

    2016-07-01

    Sexual offending by juveniles accounts for a sizable percentage of sexual offenses, especially against young children. In this article, recent research on female juvenile sex offenders (JSOs), risk factors for offending in juveniles, treatment, and the ways in which these youth may differ from general delinquents will be reviewed. Most JSOs do not go on to develop paraphilic disorders or to commit sex offenses during adulthood, and as a group, they are more similar to nonsexual offending juvenile delinquents than to adult sex offenders. Recent research has elucidated some differences between youth who commit sex offenses and general delinquents in the areas of atypical sexual interests, the use of pornography, and early sexual victimization during childhood.

  5. Intact Transition Epitope Mapping (ITEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yefremova, Yelena; Opuni, Kwabena F. M.; Danquah, Bright D.; Thiesen, Hans-Juergen; Glocker, Michael O.

    2017-08-01

    Intact transition epitope mapping (ITEM) enables rapid and accurate determination of protein antigen-derived epitopes by either epitope extraction or epitope excision. Upon formation of the antigen peptide-containing immune complex in solution, the entire mixture is electrosprayed to translate all constituents as protonated ions into the gas phase. There, ions from antibody-peptide complexes are separated from unbound peptide ions according to their masses, charges, and shapes either by ion mobility drift or by quadrupole ion filtering. Subsequently, immune complexes are dissociated by collision induced fragmentation and the ion signals of the "complex-released peptides," which in effect are the epitope peptides, are recorded in the time-of-flight analyzer of the mass spectrometer. Mixing of an antibody solution with a solution in which antigens or antigen-derived peptides are dissolved is, together with antigen proteolysis, the only required in-solution handling step. Simplicity of sample handling and speed of analysis together with very low sample consumption makes ITEM faster and easier to perform than other experimental epitope mapping methods.

  6. Juvenile Spondyloarthritis Treatment Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Tse, Shirley; Burgos-Vargas, Ruben; Colbert, Robert A

    2012-01-01

    No specific recommendations for the treatment of juvenile spondyloarthritis have been established. Important differences exist in how spondyloarthritis begins and progresses in children and adults, supporting the need for pediatric-specific recommendations. Recently published recommendations for the treatment of juvenile arthritis consider children with sacroiliitis in a separate group, and allow for more accelerated institution of a TNF inhibitor depending on disease activity and prognostic ...

  7. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    OpenAIRE

    Hoeve, Machteld

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted. The first study addressed a meta-analysis on parenting characteristics and styles in relation to delinquency. In this meta-analysis, previous manuscripts were systematically analyzed, computing mean ...

  8. Avaliação muscular isocinética da articulação do joelho em atletas das seleções brasileiras infanto e juvenil de voleibol masculino Evaluación muscular isocinetica de la articulación de la rodilla en atletas de las selecciones brasileras infanto y juveniles de voleibol masculino Isokinetic muscle evaluation of the knee joint in athletes of the Under-19 and Under-21 Male Brazilian National Volleyball Team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Franco N. Bittencourt

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O salto vertical é inerente à prática do voleibol e demanda grande capacidade de geração de força e trabalho da musculatura envolvida, principalmente do músculo quadríceps. Devido a esta demanda, desequilíbrios entre os músculos extensores e flexores podem estar presentes, levando à sobrecarga das estruturas musculotendíneas da articulação do joelho. Sendo assim, torna-se necessário o estabelecimento de parâmetros de função muscular relacionados a esta articulação em atletas de voleibol. Portanto o objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar, através de dinamometria isocinética, torque máximo, trabalho máximo, razão agonista/antagonista e índice de fadiga de flexores e extensores de joelho em duas categorias do voleibol. Os testes isocinéticos de flexão e extensão do joelho foram realizados no modo concêntrico-concêntrico, na posição sentada, nas velocidades de 60 e 300º/s em 36 atletas (20 da categoria Infanto-Juvenil e 16 da Juvenil. Os dados possibilitaram estabelecer parâmetros de função muscular da articulação do joelho em atletas das Seleções Brasileiras Infanto-Juvenil e Juvenil de Voleibol Masculino do ano de 2003. Estes atletas apresentaram valores de torque máximo e trabalho máximo normalizados pela massa corporal para quadríceps superiores às médias da população de atletas e não-atletas. Quando comparadas as categorias, os atletas juvenis apresentaram significativamente valores maiores de razão agonista/antagonista e trabalho máximo de flexores de joelhos na velocidade de 60°/s. Além disso, a razão agonista/antagonista foi inferior ao valor de referência esperado em ambas as categorias, caracterizando a predominância da musculatura extensora sobre a flexora. O índice de fadiga encontra-se próximo ao esperado para a maior parte dos atletas. O presente estudo pode servir de base para comparações em futuros estudos que avaliem a função muscular isocinética de atletas de voleibol

  9. Juvenile social experience affects pairing success at adulthood: congruence with the loser effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariette, Mylene M; Cathaud, Charlène; Chambon, Rémi; Vignal, Clémentine

    2013-09-22

    Social interactions with adults are often critical for the development of mating behaviours. However, the potential role of other primary social partners such as juvenile counterparts is rarely considered. Most interestingly, it is not known whether interactions with juvenile females improve males' courtship and whether, similar to the winner and loser effects in a fighting context--outcome of these interactions shapes males' behaviour in future encounters. We investigated the combined effects of male quality and juvenile social experience on pairing success at adulthood in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). We manipulated brood size to alter male quality and then placed males in either same- or mixed-sex juvenile dyads until adulthood. We found that males from reduced broods obtained more copulations and males from mixed-sex dyads had more complete courtships. Furthermore, independent of their quality, males that failed to pair with juvenile females, but not juvenile males, had a lower pairing success at adulthood. Our study shows that negative social experience with peers during adolescence may be a potent determinant of pairing success that can override the effects of early environmental conditions on male attractiveness and thereby supports the occurrence of an analogous process to the loser effect in a mating context.

  10. Juvenile age estimation from facial images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Eilidh; Wilkinson, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    Age determination from images can be of vital importance, particularly in cases involving suspected child sexual abuse (CSA). It is imperative to determine if an individual depicted in such an image is indeed a child, with a more concise age often sought, as this may affect the severity of offender sentencing. The aims of this study were to establish the accuracy of visual age estimation of the juvenile face in children aged between 0 and 16years and to determine if varying levels of exposure to children affected an individual's ability to assess age from the face. An online questionnaire consisting of 30 juvenile face images was created using SurveyMonkey®. The overall results suggested poor accuracy for visual age estimation of juvenile faces. The age, sex, occupation and number of children of the participants did not affect the ability to estimate age from facial images. Similarly, the sex and age of the juvenile faces did not appear to affect the accuracy of age estimation. When specific age groups are considered, sex may have an influence on age estimation, with female faces being aged more accurately in the younger age groups and male faces more accurate after the age of 11years, however this is based on a small sample. This study suggests that the accuracy of juvenile age estimation from the face alone is poor using simple visual assessment of images. Further research is required to determine exactly how age is assessed from a facial image, if there are indicators, or features in particular that lead to over- or under-estimation of juvenile age.

  11. Juvenile eye growth, when completed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fledelius, Hans C; Christensen, Anders S; Fledelius, Christian

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To test Sorsby's classical statement of axial eye growth as completed at the age of 13 years, with a view also to differentiating between basic eye growth and juvenile elongation associated with eventual refractive change towards myopia. METHODS: (i) A total of 160 healthy eyes close...... was preferred for conventional ultrasound oculometry due to its extreme repeatability of measuring values, thus making it well fitted for evaluating very small differences. In particular, this had bearing for the decelerating end phase of growth in the longitudinal investigation. RESULTS: Sorby's statement...... about age 13 as general limit found support from the cross-sectional data, which suggested stable emmetropic eye size from about 11-12 years, with an average apparently outgrown male emmetropic value of 23.5 mm versus females' 22.9 mm. The longitudinal data, however, showed emmetropic growth also beyond...

  12. Vocational Teachers' Role in Serving Juvenile Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meers, Gary D.

    1983-01-01

    Educators need to understand the juvenile justice system to understand what juvenile offenders go through while completing their sentences. This article reviews cases and juvenile charge classifications, and presents a model for alternative sentencing options for juveniles. (JOW)

  13. Trunk asymmetry in juveniles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triantafyllopoulos Georgios

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trunk asymmetry (TA is a common phenomenon in children, but its incidence in juveniles is not known. The present cross sectional study reports TA in normal juveniles and provides data which describe the evolution of TA from early childhood to adolescence. Materials and methods The scoliometer readings in both standing and sitting forward bending position (FBP of 3301 children, (1645 boys, and 1656 girls aged from 3 to 9 years old were studied. TA was quantified by measuring angle of trunk rotation (ATR and children were categorized as symmetric (ATR = 0°, mild asymmetric (ATR 1° – 6° and severely asymmetric (ATR ≥ 7°. The difference of TA between standing and sitting FBP as well as differences between boys and girls in frequency of TA were also calculated. The scoliometer readings were analyzed by age to reveal at which age the juvenile pattern of TA changes into the adolescent one. Results 74.2% of boys and 77% of girls were symmetric (ATR = 0° in the thoracic region in standing FBP, while 82.7% of boys and 84.1% of girls were symmetric in the thoracic region in sitting FBP. Juvenile girls are more symmetric than boys but severe TA was found almost the same between the two genders. A significant reduction in the frequency of mild TA from standing into sitting FBP, in all the examined regions in both boys and girls was found, but in severe TA this reduction is very small. Analysing scoliometer readings by age it appears that significant TA changes take place between 8–9 years of age for boys and between 6–7 and 8–9 years for girls. TA in boys is changing into the adolescent pattern at a later age than in girls. Conclusion Juveniles were found more symmetric than adolescents, who were studied previously in a different study. Furthermore, juvenile girls were found more symmetric than boys. Juvenile TA pattern seems to be in accordance with the higher incidence of juvenile idiopathic scoliosis in boys. Furthermore

  14. Juvenile Incarceration and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnert, Elizabeth S; Perry, Raymond; Morris, Robert E

    2016-03-01

    Addressing the health status and needs of incarcerated youth represents an issue at the nexus of juvenile justice reform and health care reform. Incarcerated youth face disproportionately higher morbidity and higher mortality compared to the general adolescent population. Dental health, reproductive health, and mental health needs are particularly high, likely as a result of lower access to care, engagement in high-risk behaviors, and underlying health disparities. Violence exposure and injury also contribute to the health disparities seen in this population. Further, juvenile incarceration itself is an important determinant of health. Juvenile incarceration likely correlates with worse health and social functioning across the life course. Correctional health care facilities allow time for providers to address the unmet physical and mental health needs seen in this population. Yet substantial challenges to care delivery in detention facilities exist and quality of care in detention facilities varies widely. Community-based pediatricians can serve a vital role in ensuring continuity of care in the postdetention period and linking youth to services that can potentially prevent juvenile offending. Pediatricians who succeed in understanding and addressing the underlying social contexts of their patients' lives can have tremendous impact in improving the life trajectories of these vulnerable youth. Opportunities exist in clinical care, research, medical education, policy, and advocacy for pediatricians to lead change and improve the health status of youth involved in the juvenile justice system.

  15. Extending juvenility in grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaeppler, Shawn; de Leon Gatti, Natalia; Foerster, Jillian

    2017-04-11

    The present invention relates to compositions and methods for modulating the juvenile to adult developmental growth transition in plants, such as grasses (e.g. maize). In particular, the invention provides methods for enhancing agronomic properties in plants by modulating expression of GRMZM2G362718, GRMZM2G096016, or homologs thereof. Modulation of expression of one or more additional genes which affect juvenile to adult developmental growth transition such as Glossy15 or Cg1, in conjunction with such modulation of expression is also contemplated. Nucleic acid constructs for down-regulation of GRMZM2G362718 and/or GRMZM2G096016 are also contemplated, as are transgenic plants and products produced there from, that demonstrate altered, such as extended juvenile growth, and display associated phenotypes such as enhanced yield, improved digestibility, and increased disease resistance. Plants described herein may be used, for example, as improved forage or feed crops or in biofuel production.

  16. Being Young and Black: What Are Their Effects on Juvenile Justice Decision Making?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiber, Michael J.; Johnson, Joseph D.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which race and age individually and jointly determined juvenile justice case outcomes at intake and judicial disposition among males in one county juvenile court in the state of Iowa. Using an interpretation of the symbolic threat thesis and the emphasis on stereotyping as the theoretical framework, we discovered…

  17. Coping Style and Psychological Health among Adolescent Prisoners: A Study of Young and Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, J.L.; Boustead, R.; Ireland, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    The current study explores the role of coping styles as a predictor of poor psychological health among adolescent offenders. It presents the first study to compare young and juvenile offenders. Two hundred and three male offenders took part: 108 young (18-21 years) and 95 juvenile (15-17 years) offenders. All completed the General Health…

  18. Collaboration between Correctional and Public School Systems for Juvenile Offenders: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellriegel, Kimberly L.; Yates, James R.

    The educational processes for youth who participated in a county-run correctional facility for juvenile offenders were studied. The county's Leadership Academy, a 48-bed correctional treatment center where juveniles are placed when ordered into direct care, is designed to divert repeat male offenders from the state-run correctional system. The…

  19. Juvenile criminal recidivism : relations with personality and post release environmental risk and protective factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, C. van

    2005-01-01

    The general aim of the present dissertation is to get more insight in the contribution of personality traits and post release environmental risk and protective factors on juvenile criminal recidivism. One year after their release from a juvenile detention centre, a sample of 60 adolescent male offen

  20. Intacting Integrity in coping with health issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Stine Leegaard; Bastrup Jørgensen, Lene; Fridlund, Bengt

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a formal substantive theory (FST) on the multidimensional behavioral process of coping with health issues. Intacting integrity while coping with health issues emerged as the core category of this FST. People facing health issues strive to safeguard and keep...... intact their integrity not only on an individual level but also as members of a group or a system. This intacting process is executed by attunement, continuously minimizing the discrepancy between personal values, personal health, self-expectations and external conditions as health- and cultural...

  1. DERMATOMIOSITIS JUVENIL Y EMBARAZO

    OpenAIRE

    Evans M,Gregorio; Poulsen R,Ronald; Blanco R,Romiely; Luna V,Viviana

    2002-01-01

    La dermatomiositis juvenil es un desorden inflamatorio crónico multisistémico del tejido conectivo. Tiene una incidencia de 2-3/100.000/año. Con la disminución en la mortalidad experimentada en los últimos decenios, la atención está cifrada en la morbilidad a largo plazo y en las alteraciones funcionales. Con un tratamiento agresivo los niños con dermatomiositis juvenil generalmente tienen un futuro promisorio, sin incapacidad o con incapacidad mínima. La mortalidad actualmente se estima cerc...

  2. Juvenile idiopatiske inflammatoriske myopatier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helga Sanner

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (JIIM is a group of rare autoimmune systemic diseases in children and adolescents, characterized by chronic skeletal muscle inflammation. Unlike in adults, dermatomyositis (JDM is by far the most common of the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies in children and adolescents. The hallmark of JDM is calcinosis, lipodystrophy and vasculitis, findings that differs the juvenile form of dermatomyosits from the adult form. JDM is still diagnosed and classified by Bohan and Peter’s criteria from 1975. There are limited data on long time outcome of this disease

  3. Juvenile Battens Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayton, Romayne

    1987-01-01

    Ten children diagnosed with juvenile Battens disease were tested over a three-year period in general intelligence, memory, listening and speech, motor skills, and general learning. Results showed that the patients followed a predetermined pattern but that the time span for development of memory, communication, and behavior problems varied greatly.…

  4. Juvenile Victimization and Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbensen, Finn-Aage; Huizinga, David

    1991-01-01

    Demographic characteristics of juvenile victims of crime and a potential relationship between victimization and self-reported delinquency are examined for 877 adolescents from a large midwestern city. Lifetime victimization rates (LVRs) are higher for those involved in delinquency, and LVRs rise with age and higher levels of delinquent behavior.…

  5. Juvenile Battens Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayton, Romayne

    1987-01-01

    Ten children diagnosed with juvenile Battens disease were tested over a three-year period in general intelligence, memory, listening and speech, motor skills, and general learning. Results showed that the patients followed a predetermined pattern but that the time span for development of memory, communication, and behavior problems varied greatly.…

  6. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prakken, Berent; Albani, Salvatore; Martini, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is a heterogeneous group of diseases characterised by arthritis of unknown origin with onset before age of 16 years. Pivotal studies in the past 5 years have led to substantial progress in various areas, ranging from disease classification to new treatments. Gene expres

  7. The relation research on resilience, personality and family environment of male juvenile delinquents with high traumatic experiences%高创伤经历的男性犯罪青少年心理韧性与人格、家庭环境的相关研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海芳; 张秀娟

    2014-01-01

    目的 探究高创伤经历的男性犯罪青少年心理韧性的特点以及与人格、家庭环境的关系.方法 采用自编创伤经历调查表筛选出高创伤经历的男性犯罪青少年147人,用心理韧性量表、艾森克人格问卷、家庭环境量表进行问卷调查,采用Pearson相关分析、逐步回归分析对数据进行统计分析.结果 高创伤经历的男性犯罪青少年心理韧性总分为(75.98± 14.03)分,除了目标专注[(3.47±4.23)分]以外,情绪控制[(1.94±2.85)分]、积极认知[(2.31±3.47)分]、家庭支持[(1.89±3.84)分]、人际协助[(2.92±3.38)分]得分均在3分以下,其目标专注、积极认知和家庭支持维度在文化程度、家庭住地、是否独生子女、是否单亲家庭方面差异有统计学意义.高创伤经历的男性犯罪青少年心理韧性各维度与人格(r=-0.357 ~0.175)、家庭环境(-0.185~ 0.272)各维度存在相关关系(P<0.05),神经质、家庭矛盾性、精神质对心理韧性有负向预测作用(β=-2.354,-0.135,-0.194,P<0.05),家庭亲密度对心理韧性有正向预测作用(β=1.389,P<0.001).结论 高创伤经历的男性犯罪青少年心理韧性较差,人格、家庭环境对其心理韧性有显著影响.%Objective To explore the resilience traits of male juvenile delinquents with high traumatic experiences and the relationship on resilience and personality,family environment.Methods 147 male juvenile delinquents selected by self-made traumatic experience questionnaire were surveyed with the Resilience Scale for Chinese Adolescent,Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and Family Environment Scale.The data were statistically analyzed by Pearson correlation analysis and stepwise Regression Analysis.Results The total scores of resilience in male juvenile delinquents with high trauma experiences were (75.98 ± 14.03).Besides the scores of goal planning (3.47±4.23),the scores of affect control(1.94±2.85),positive thinking(2.31±3

  8. Prospective Prediction of Juvenile Homicide/Attempted Homicide among Early-Onset Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglivio, Michael T.; Wolff, Kevin T.

    2017-01-01

    While homicide perpetrated by juveniles is a relatively rare occurrence, between 2010 and 2014, approximately 7%–8% of all murders involved a juvenile offender. Unfortunately, few studies have prospectively examined the predictors of homicide offending, with none examining first-time murder among a sample of adjudicated male and female youth. The current study employed data on 5908 juvenile offenders (70% male, 45% Black) first arrested at the age of 12 or younger to prospectively examine predictors of an arrest for homicide/attempted homicide by the age of 18. Among these early-onset offenders, males, Black youth, those living in households with family members with a history of mental illness, those engaging in self-mutilation, and those with elevated levels of anger/aggression (all measured by age 13) were more likely to be arrested for homicide/attempted homicide by age 18. These findings add to the scant scientific literature on the predictors of homicide, and illustrate potential avenues for intervention. PMID:28212340

  9. Prospective Prediction of Juvenile Homicide/Attempted Homicide among Early-Onset Juvenile Offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T. Baglivio

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available While homicide perpetrated by juveniles is a relatively rare occurrence, between 2010 and 2014, approximately 7%–8% of all murders involved a juvenile offender. Unfortunately, few studies have prospectively examined the predictors of homicide offending, with none examining first-time murder among a sample of adjudicated male and female youth. The current study employed data on 5908 juvenile offenders (70% male, 45% Black first arrested at the age of 12 or younger to prospectively examine predictors of an arrest for homicide/attempted homicide by the age of 18. Among these early-onset offenders, males, Black youth, those living in households with family members with a history of mental illness, those engaging in self-mutilation, and those with elevated levels of anger/aggression (all measured by age 13 were more likely to be arrested for homicide/attempted homicide by age 18. These findings add to the scant scientific literature on the predictors of homicide, and illustrate potential avenues for intervention.

  10. Exploring Emotion Regulation in Juveniles Who Have Sexually Offended: An fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sara; Joyal, Christian C; Cisler, Josh M; Bai, Shasha

    2017-01-01

    This exploratory study compared juveniles who sexually offend to nonoffending juveniles in their capacities to behaviorally and neurologically regulate, or reappraise, negative emotions. Participants were 39 juvenile males, including 10 healthy, nonoffending control subjects and 29 juveniles who sexually offend, comprising 12 juveniles who sexually offend with history of child sexual abuse. Participants completed a clinical assessment and a reappraisal task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Difficulties in Emotional Regulation Scale results showed significantly less difficulties in emotion regulation among controls compared to juveniles who sexually offend, but when self-rating reappraisal abilities during the functional magnetic resonance imaging, all groups obtained comparable results. The imaging results showed no significant differences in fronto-temporal regions between controls and juveniles who sexually offend. Differences were found in other regions indicated in cognitive control, working memory, and emotional processing between controls and juveniles who sexually offend as well as between juveniles who sexually offend and those without history of child sexual abuse. Findings suggest that juveniles who sexually offend are capable of emotion regulation.

  11. 野生川金丝猴一个全雄青年猴群的同性爬背行为%Homosexual mounting within one all-male juvenile unit in wild Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys(Rhinopithecus roxellana)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕九全; 赵大鹏; 李保国

    2007-01-01

    This paper is the first report of wild male Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) engaging in homosexual mounting within an all-male juvenile unit in the Qinling Mountains of China. Twenty-one cases of homosexual mounting were observed in this unit (range:1-16 s, mean=5.53±3.11s). The result showed that 47.62% of the male homosexual mounting occurs while playing and 42.85% of them occur in the forms of three different imitated solicitations. Such as mounting were often accompanied by allogrooming (47.62%) and playing (23.81%). These results when compared with previous published data on behavior during infancy, suggests that this behavior is a component of the species,sexual developmental progression. In terms of the social organization of wild R. roxellana, juvenile male mounting in all-male unit may serve an important social bonding function between male peers. Furthermore, the phenomenon that 76.19% of homosexual mountings happened within the first hour after their "afternoon rest period", especially the initial fifteen minutes, may be caused by the reversal effect of "sleep-wake cycle" on sexual hormone regulation.%本研究采用行为取样方法,首次对秦岭野生川金丝猴全雄青年群中的同性爬跨行为进行报道.研究中我们共观察到21次同性爬背行为,其平均持续时间为5.53±3.11s;雄性同性爬背发生前的行为中以玩耍行为(47.62%)和3种不同姿势的邀配模仿行为(42.85%)为主;而同性爬背行为发生后则主要为彼此间的相互理毛行为(47.62%)和玩耍行为(23.81%).对比先前婴幼猴时期的相关研究结果,青年猴同性爬背行为前邀配模仿资势的多样化在一定程度上体现了野生状态下雄性川金丝猴个体青少年阶段的性行为发育进程.考虑到川金丝猴全雄群的社会结构,青年猴同性爬背行为具有巩固社群稳定和加强个体关系的功能.此外,研究中观察到76.19%的同性爬背行为发生在昼间休息期

  12. Bad Boys or Poor Parents: Relations to Female Juvenile Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauffman, Elizabeth; Farruggia, Susan P.; Goldweber, Asha

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the interrelations between parental relationships, romantic relationships, and antisocial behavior among female and male juvenile delinquents. Participants from a diverse sample of 1,354 adolescents (14-17 years) adjudicated of a serious (i.e. felony) offense were matched based on age, race, and committing offense, yielding a…

  13. Juvenile Offender Recidivism: An Examination of Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calley, Nancy G.

    2012-01-01

    One hundred and seventy three male juvenile offenders were followed two years postrelease from a residential treatment facility to assess recidivism and factors related to recidivism. The overall recidivism rate was 23.9%. Logistic regression with stepwise and backward variable selection methods was used to examine the relationship between…

  14. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibromas in Denmark 1981-2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glad, H; Vainer, B; Buchwald, C;

    2007-01-01

    CONCLUSIONS: Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) is a rare tumor in young males, with a non-negligible potential for recurrence. Preoperative embolization is a safe procedure that diminishes the peroperative blood loss and the need for blood transfusion. The endoscopic approach was used...

  15. Late Onset Juvenile Xanthogranuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punithwavathy K

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A 19 year old female was seen with multiple skin coloured and hyperpigmented macules, discrete as well as grouped papules and nodules of varying sizes distributed over the face, neck, extensor and flexor aspects of both upper and lower extremities including joints. The trunk was spared. Some of the lesions showed features of spontaneous regression. Investigations confirmed the diagnosis of juvenile xanthogranuloma. Lesions regressed satisfactorily with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy.

  16. Juvenile Incarceration and Health

    OpenAIRE

    Barnert, ES; R Perry; Morris, RE

    2015-01-01

    © 2015. Addressing the health status and needs of incarcerated youth represents an issue at the nexus of juvenile justice reform and health care reform. Incarcerated youth face disproportionately higher morbidity and higher mortality compared to the general adolescent population. Dental health, reproductive health, and mental health needs are particularly high, likely as a result of lower access to care, engagement in high-risk behaviors, and underlying health disparities. Violence exposure a...

  17. Juvenile Ultracool Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Rice, Emily L; Cruz, Kelle; Barman, Travis; Looper, Dagny; Malo, Lison; Mamajek, Eric E; Metchev, Stanimir; Shkolnik, Evgenya L

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile ultracool dwarfs are late spectral type objects (later than ~M6) with ages between 10 Myr and several 100 Myr. Their age-related properties lie intermediate between very low mass objects in nearby star-forming regions (ages 1-5 Myr) and field stars and brown dwarfs that are members of the disk population (ages 1-5 Gyr). Kinematic associations of nearby young stars with ages from ~10-100 Myr provide sources for juvenile ultracool dwarfs. The lowest mass confirmed members of these groups are late-M dwarfs. Several apparently young L dwarfs and a few T dwarfs are known, but they have not been kinematically associated with any groups. Normalizing the field IMF to the high mass population of these groups suggests that more low mass (mainly late-M and possibly L dwarf) members have yet to be found. The lowest mass members of these groups, along with low mass companions to known young stars, provide benchmark objects with which spectroscopic age indicators for juvenile ultracool dwarfs can be calibrated and...

  18. Autism Spectrum Disorder and intact executive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, R; Ansermet, F; Massoni, F; Petrone, L; Onofri, E; Ricci, P; Archer, T; Ricci, S

    2016-01-01

    Earliest notions concerning autism (Autism Spectrum Disorders, ASD) describe the disturbance in executive functioning. Despite altered definition, executive functioning, expressed as higher cognitive skills required complex behaviors linked to the prefrontal cortex, are defective in autism. Specific difficulties in children presenting autism or verbal disabilities at executive functioning levels have been identified. Nevertheless, the developmental deficit of executive functioning in autism is highly diversified with huge individual variation and may even be absent. The aim of the present study to examine the current standing of intact executive functioning intact in ASD.

  19. Massive juvenile angiomatosis of maxilla and mandible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Singh Chauhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiomatosis is a complex vascular malformation of infancy and childhood consisting of proliferating blood vessels with accompanying mature fat, fibrous tissue, lymphatic′s and nerves, which may involve skin, subcutaneous tissue, skeletal muscle and occasionally bone. It is extremely rare and benign, but a clinically extensive vascular lesion of soft-tissue, which usually becomes symptomatic during childhood or adolescence. We report a rare case of massive juvenile angiomatosis of maxilla and mandible in a 15-year-old male patient.

  20. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions juvenile idiopathic arthritis juvenile idiopathic arthritis Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Juvenile idiopathic arthritis refers to a group of conditions involving joint ...

  1. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile primary osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions juvenile primary osteoporosis juvenile primary osteoporosis Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... PDF Open All Close All Description Juvenile primary osteoporosis is a skeletal disorder characterized by thinning of ...

  2. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile myoclonic epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions juvenile myoclonic epilepsy juvenile myoclonic epilepsy Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... PDF Open All Close All Description Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy is a condition characterized by recurrent seizures (epilepsy). ...

  3. Juvenile Justice Bulletin: Aftercare Services. Juvenile Justice Practices Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gies, Steve V.

    This bulletin examines aftercare services that provide youth with comprehensive health, education, family, and vocational services upon their release from the juvenile justice system. Aftercare can be defined as reintegrative services that prepare out-of-home placed juveniles for reentry into the community by reestablishing the necessary…

  4. Cognitive and academic functioning of juvenile detainees: Implications for correctional populations and public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansing, Amy E.; Washburn, Jason J.; Abram, Karen M.; Thomas, Ursula C.; Welty, Leah J.; Teplin, Linda A.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive functioning affects health. This study assessed cognitive functioning among participants in the Northwestern Juvenile Project, a stratified random sample of 1,829 newly detained juveniles (10-18 years old) from Cook County, Illinois. We examined receptive vocabulary, oral reading, arithmetic computation skills, and general intellectual abilities. Our sample exhibited impaired overall intellectual functioning and deficits in all areas. Males performed more poorly than females overall. More than three-quarters of males showed below average overall intellectual functioning, and nine in ten males had below average receptive vocabulary skills. Hispanic and African American males performed more poorly than non-Hispanic white males; The multiple systems that serve delinquent youth—correctional, health, legal, and rehabilitative—must collaborate to tailor needed services to the cognitive level of youth in the juvenile justice system. PMID:24352405

  5. Miastenia gravis juvenil Juvenile myasthenia gravis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Papazian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La miastenia gravis juvenil (MGJ es un trastorno crónico auto inmune en el cual existen anticuerpos séricos que al unirse a los receptores de acetilcolin nicotínicos de la membrana muscular de la placa motora alteran la transmisión neuromuscular. El resultado es fatiga muscular precoz con progresión a la parálisis durante estados de contracción muscular iterativos (movimientos o sostenidos (posturas y más raramente parálisis permanente durante el reposo. Los músculos inervados por los nervios craneales, especialmente los extraoculares y elevadores de los párpados, tienen más tendencia a la debilidad muscular persistente que los inervados por otros pares craneales y las extremidades. Las formas clínicas de presentación son generalizadas, oculares y respiratorias. El diagnóstico se sospecha mediante la anamnesia, la fatiga anormal se comprueba mediante el examen físico y la estimulación eléctrica iterativa del nervio que inerva al músculo afectado pero no paralizado. Se corrobora mediante la administración de inhibidores de la acetilcolin esterasa (IACE que al aumentar la cantidad de acetilcolin en la hendidura sináptica, corrigen la fatiga o la debilidad muscular transitoriamente. Se hace el diagnóstico de certeza mediante la demostración sérica de anticuerpos contra los receptores de acetilcolin (ACRA. El tratamiento es a largo plazo sintomático con IACE y etiopatogénico con inmunosupresores, plasmaféresis, gamma globulina endovenosa y timectomía. El curso es crónico. La remisión espontánea o después de tratamiento sintomático o etiopatogénico ocurre entre 1-10 años respectivamente. La mortalidad es prácticamente nula aun durantes las crisis miastenias gracias a la educación de padres, pacientes y público en general sobre el tema, al desarrollo del sistema de respuesta rápida de auxilio domiciliario y las unidades de cuidados intensivos y el empleo de la ventilación asistida profiláctica, plasmaféresis y

  6. Juvenile Dermatomyositis in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Emeka Madu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile dermatomyositis has variable clinical presentations both in and outside of pregnancy. A literature review indicated that optimal maternal and fetal outcomes can be anticipated when the pregnancy is undertaken while the disease is in remission. Poorer outcomes are associated with flare-up of the disease in early pregnancy compared with exacerbation in the second or third trimester, when fetal prognosis is usually good. We present a case of JDM in pregnancy with disease exacerbation late in pregnancy and review of the relevant literature.

  7. Juvenile dermatomyositis in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madu, Anthony Emeka; Omih, Edwin; Baguley, Elaine; Lindow, Stephen W

    2013-01-01

    Juvenile dermatomyositis has variable clinical presentations both in and outside of pregnancy. A literature review indicated that optimal maternal and fetal outcomes can be anticipated when the pregnancy is undertaken while the disease is in remission. Poorer outcomes are associated with flare-up of the disease in early pregnancy compared with exacerbation in the second or third trimester, when fetal prognosis is usually good. We present a case of JDM in pregnancy with disease exacerbation late in pregnancy and review of the relevant literature.

  8. Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larralde, M; Santos-Muñoz, A; Calb, I; Magariños, C

    2001-01-01

    Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis (JHF) is a rare autosomal recessive disease with onset in infancy or early childhood. It is characterized by papulonodular skin lesions, soft tissue masses, gingival hypertrophy, and flexion contractures of the large joints. The light and electron microscopic features are very distinctive. Here we report an 8-month-old boy with characteristic stiffness of the knees and elbows and pink confluent papules on the paranasal folds, and periauricular and perianal regions. He also had hard nodules all over the scalp and around the mouth, and severe gingival hypertrophy. Histologic and ultrastructural features were typical of JHF. Clinical features, pathology, and physiology are discussed.

  9. A radiological study on lumbar spondylolisthesis with intact neural arch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Myung Ju; Suh, Young Jun; Joe, Seong Jeh; Yoon, Jong Sup [Han-Gang Sung-Shim Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1980-12-15

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate and analyze the radiological findings of 13 cases of lumbar spondylolisthesis with intact neural arch at Han-Gang Sung- Shim Hospital during period from Jan. 1975 to June 1980. 1. The age distribution of the patients varied from 31 to 83 years old. The average of the age was 53 years old. 12 patients were female and only one patient was male. 2. All cases revealed anterior slipping of the L4 body on the L5 body, of which degree was classified by Meyerding's method, first degree in 12 patients and second degree in one patient. 3. The angle between the pedicle and inferior articular facet of affected vertebra was measured by Junghann's method. The average of angle was 123 degree. 4. Of 13 cases, 2 cases who had neural compression caused by dislocation of the vertebral bodies and intrusion of lamina and arthritic facets into stenotic spinal canal treated by laminar decompression including foraminotomy. Good results were obtained. 5. The secondary degenerative change of the vertebra was considered to be the cause of the spondylolisthesis with intact neural arch.

  10. Juvenile Justice in Rural America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankovic, Joanne, Ed.; And Others

    Producing a much-needed organized body of literature about rural juvenile justice, 14 papers (largely from the 1979 National Symposium on Rural Justice) are organized to identify current issues, identify forces causing changes in current systems, review programs responding to rural juvenile justice problems, and provide planning models to aid…

  11. A Multimethod Assessment of Juvenile Psychopathy: Comparing the Predictive Utility of the PCL:YV, YPI, and NEO PRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauffman, Elizabeth; Kimonis, Eva R.; Dmitrieva, Julia; Monahan, Kathryn C.

    2009-01-01

    The current study compares 3 distinct approaches for measuring juvenile psychopathy and their utility for predicting short- and long-term recidivism among a sample of 1,170 serious male juvenile offenders. The assessment approaches compared a clinical interview method (the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version [PCL:YV]; Forth, Kosson, & Hare,…

  12. Oral Language Competence, Social Skills and High-Risk Boys: What Are Juvenile Offenders Trying to Tell Us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Pamela C.; Powell, Martine B.

    2008-01-01

    A cross-sectional study examining the oral language abilities and social skills of male juvenile offenders is described. Fifty juvenile offenders and 50 non-offending controls completed measures of language processing and production, and measures of social skill and IQ. Information about type of offending, substance use histories and…

  13. A Multimethod Assessment of Juvenile Psychopathy: Comparing the Predictive Utility of the PCL:YV, YPI, and NEO PRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauffman, Elizabeth; Kimonis, Eva R.; Dmitrieva, Julia; Monahan, Kathryn C.

    2009-01-01

    The current study compares 3 distinct approaches for measuring juvenile psychopathy and their utility for predicting short- and long-term recidivism among a sample of 1,170 serious male juvenile offenders. The assessment approaches compared a clinical interview method (the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version [PCL:YV]; Forth, Kosson, & Hare,…

  14. Comparative analysis of the ankle joints in juvenile male soccer players with imaging%少儿男性足球运动员踝关节影像学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄耀彬; 赵银霞; 肖继杰; 李勉文; 张锐; 李绍林

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the characteristics of children male soccer players' ankle imaging features.Methods From October 2015 to February 2016,a total of 32 male children players of two soccer clubs in Guangzhou were enrolled in this study.The ages of all cases were from 10 to 14 years,average age was (11.3 ± 0.9) years.A total of 15 male children in region ordinary primary and secondary school students were set as control group,ages were from 10 to 14 years,average age was (12.1 ± 1.2) years.All objects' ankle were examined by X-ray for positive and lateral positions;routine CT scanning and then on the workstation restructuring for axial,coronal and sagittal slices;and examined by MR.MR scan was with special surface coil for ankle joint for horizontal axis T2WI;coronal T1WI;coronary proton density weighted imaging (PWI);sagittal T2 WI with fat suppression;sagittal PWI with isotropic and fat suppression sequence of fast field echo.The ankle bone morphological structures were observed on X-ray;the ankle bone mineral density,cortical bone thickness and sesamoid bone quantity was being observed and measured on CT;and the tenosynovitis,Achilles tendinitis,synovitis,and cancellous bone edema signal were observed on MR.Results For study group,a total of 32 cases and 64 ankles joints were completed by X-ray,CT and MR examination.A total of 15 cases and 30 ankles joints were completed by X-ray in control group,26 ankle joints were completed by CT scan and 22 ankle joints were completed by MR examination.X-ray examination showed there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in ankle bone structure.CT showed that navicular bone CT value was (296 ±82) HU in research group and navicular bone CT value was (266 ± 107) HU in control group,the difference was statistically significant (P =0.03).MR showed the incidence of diseases in research group that the tendon sheath peripheral inflammation was 92.2% (59/64),Achilles tendon lesions was 18.8

  15. Juvenile arthritis and uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanski, J J

    1990-01-01

    The association between juvenile arthritis and uveitis is reviewed. Some children with the HLA-B27 related spondyloarthropathies develop anterior uveitis. About 20% of patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) who are negative for IgM rheumatoid factor develop a frequently bilateral, nongranulomatous chronic anterior uveitis. Risk factors for uveitis in JRA patients are: female gender, pauciarticular onset of arthritis, presence of circulating antinuclear antibodies, and the antigens HLA-DW5 and HLA-DPw2. Uveitis is rare after seven years or more have elapsed from the onset of arthritis. The visual prognosis in patients with uveitis is good in 25% and fair in 50%. The remaining 25% develop visual impairment from complicated cataract and/or secondary inflammatory glaucoma. The potential benefit of cytotoxic agents in the treatment of intractable uveitis is outweighed by the risk of serious side effects. The management of secondary inflammatory glaucoma is unsatisfactory, but the results of treatment of complicated cataracts by lensectomy-vitrectomy are good.

  16. Aggressive juvenile mandibular fibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Georgi P; Atanasov, Dimitar T; Anavi, Beniamin L

    2013-01-01

    Aggressive juvenile fibromatosis of the jawbones is a rare tumor presenting as infiltrative mass with unpredictable evolution. We report herein a 17-year-old student with a 6-month history of radiologically proven resorption of a part of the mandible, lingual displacement of tooth 34 and malocclusion. Alveolar ridge resorption and three dark-brown foci in the bone were seen after the tooth was extracted. Histological study showed the tumor tissue to have a bundle-like structure; immunohistochemically it was positive for vimentin, smooth muscle actin, beta-catenin, Ki-67 (5%), and negative for desmin and cytokeratin 34bE12. The golden standard in the diagnostics of desmoid fibromatoses is the nuclear or membrane expression of beta-catenin, which is found in 90% of the cases. Differential diagnosis include mandibular fibroma, well-differentiated fibrosarcoma, fibrosing histiocytoma, and infiltration from adjacent soft-tissue tumor. Aggressive juvenile fibromatosis should be managed by radical excision. Local recurrences are not rare, but metastases do not develop. In rare cases this type of fibromatosis has been known to regress spontaneously. Aggressive fibromatosis is a diagnostic challenge, since it remains in the grey zone between benign and malignant lesions of the oral cavity.

  17. Specificity of Metabolic Syndrome Model Reproduction at Pubertal and Adult Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondarenko Larysa Borysivna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Comparative estimation of metabolic syndrome (MS mediated changes of blood, cardio-vascular system, liver, pancreas and kidneys morphologic structure in adult and pubertal rats. Materials and Methods: Wistar albino male rats of two age categories (young animals of 21 days age (50-70g and adults (160-180g were divided into 4 groups (8 animals in each: 1 - Control 1 (intact young rats; 2 - Control 2 (intact adult rats; 3 - MS3 (young rats with MS and 4 - MS4 (adult rats with MS. The metabolic syndrome model was induced by full replacement of drinking water with 20% fructose solution (200g/l. After 60 days of MS modeling, determination of rat hematological and serum biochemical parameters, glucose tolerance, blood pressure, liver rates of lipid peroxydation and chromatin DNA fragmentation, as well as morphological macroscopic and microscopic studies were carried out. Results: In pubertal rats, glucose tolerance, hypertension, blood clotting disturbances, DNAfragmentation and lipid peroxydation rates were affected more profoundly, while mature rats showed greater Pseudo Pelger-Huet anomaly development, serum cholesterol and lipoproteins increases, liver and kidney morphology changes. Conclusions: Our current data combined with previous results of other authors allow us to conclude that an animal model (Wistar rats of MS is quite easily obtained in a full age range, from juvenile to mature rats.

  18. Xenopus egg cytoplasm with intact actin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Christine M; Nguyen, Phuong A; Ishihara, Keisuke; Groen, Aaron C; Mitchison, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    We report optimized methods for preparing Xenopus egg extracts without cytochalasin D, that we term "actin-intact egg extract." These are undiluted egg cytoplasm that contains abundant organelles, and glycogen which supplies energy, and represents the least perturbed cell-free cytoplasm preparation we know of. We used this system to probe cell cycle regulation of actin and myosin-II dynamics (Field et al., 2011), and to reconstitute the large, interphase asters that organize early Xenopus embryos (Mitchison et al., 2012; Wühr, Tan, Parker, Detrich, & Mitchison, 2010). Actin-intact Xenopus egg extracts are useful for analysis of actin dynamics, and interaction of actin with other cytoplasmic systems, in a cell-free system that closely mimics egg physiology, and more generally for probing the biochemistry and biophysics of the egg, zygote, and early embryo. Detailed protocols are provided along with assays used to check cell cycle state and tips for handling and storing undiluted egg extracts.

  19. The neural correlates of emotion processing in juvenile offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincham, Hannah L; Bryce, Donna; Pasco Fearon, R M

    2015-11-01

    Individuals with severe antisocial behaviour often demonstrate abnormalities or difficulties in emotion processing. Antisocial behaviour typically onsets before adulthood and is reflected in antisocial individuals at the biological level. We therefore conducted a brain-based study of emotion processing in juvenile offenders. Male adolescent offenders and age-matched non-offenders passively viewed emotional images whilst their brain activity was recorded using electroencephalography. The early posterior negativity (EPN) and the late positive potential (LPP) components were used as indices of emotion processing. For both juvenile offenders and non-offenders, the EPN differentiated unpleasant images from other image types, suggesting that early perceptual processing was not impaired in the offender group. In line with normal emotion processing, the LPP was significantly enhanced following unpleasant images for non-offenders. However, for juvenile offenders, the LPP did not differ across image categories, indicative of deficient emotional processing. The findings indicated that this brain-based hypo-reactivity occurred during a late stage of cognitive processing and was not a consequence of atypical early visual attention or perception. This study is the first to show attenuated emotion processing in juvenile offenders at the neural level. Overall, these results have the potential to inform interventions for juvenile offending. © 2014 The Authors. Developmental Science Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Inferring contemporary and historical genetic connectivity from juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feutry, Pierre; Berry, Oliver; Kyne, Peter M; Pillans, Richard D; Hillary, Richard M; Grewe, Peter M; Marthick, James R; Johnson, Grant; Gunasekera, Rasanthi M; Bax, Nicholas J; Bravington, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Measuring population connectivity is a critical task in conservation biology. While genetic markers can provide reliable long-term historical estimates of population connectivity, scientists are still limited in their ability to determine contemporary patterns of gene flow, the most practical time frame for management. Here, we tackled this issue by developing a new approach that only requires juvenile sampling at a single time period. To demonstrate the usefulness of our method, we used the Speartooth shark (Glyphis glyphis), a critically endangered species of river shark found only in tropical northern Australia and southern Papua New Guinea. Contemporary adult and juvenile shark movements, estimated with the spatial distribution of kin pairs across and within three river systems, was contrasted with historical long-term connectivity patterns, estimated from mitogenomes and genome-wide SNP data. We found strong support for river fidelity in juveniles with the within-cohort relationship analysis. Male breeding movements were highlighted with the cross-cohort relationship analysis, and female reproductive philopatry to the river systems was revealed by the mitogenomic analysis. We show that accounting for juvenile river fidelity and female philopatry is important in population structure analysis and that targeted sampling in nurseries and juvenile aggregations should be included in the genomic toolbox of threatened species management.

  1. Juvenile justice mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Christopher R; Penn, Joseph V

    2002-10-01

    As the second century of partnership begins, child psychiatry and juvenile justice face continuing challenges in meeting the mental health needs of delinquents. The modern juvenile justice system is marked by a significantly higher volume of cases, with increasingly complicated multiproblem youths and families with comorbid medical, psychiatric, substance abuse disorders, multiple family and psychosocial adversities, and shrinking community resources and alternatives to confinement. The family court is faced with shrinking financial resources to support court-ordered placement and treatment programs in efforts to treat and rehabilitate youths. The recognition of high rates of mental disorders for incarcerated youth has prompted several recommendations for improvement and calls for reform [56,57]. In their 2000 annual report, the Coalition for Juvenile Justice advocated increased access to mental health services that provide a continuum of care tailored to the specific problems of incarcerated youth [58]. The specific recommendations of the report for mental health providers include the need for wraparound services, improved planning and coordination between agencies, and further research. The Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention has set three priorities in dealing with the mental health needs of delinquents: further research on the prevalence of mental illness among juvenile offenders, development of mental health screening assessment protocols, and improved mental health services [59]. Other programs have called for earlier detection and diversion of troubled youth from juvenile justice to mental health systems [31,56]. Most recently, many juvenile and family courts have developed innovative programs to address specific problems such as truancy or substance use and diversionary or alternative sentencing programs to deal with first-time or nonviolent delinquents. All youths who come in contact with the juvenile justice system

  2. Miranda Rights: Implications for Juveniles with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsiyannis, Antonis; Barrett, David E.; Losinski, Mickey L.

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency in the United States has been a persistent concern for decades. Consequently, because more juveniles have been referred to juvenile court and the arrest rate of preteen offenders has increased to almost three times that of older youth, the persistent and often controversial issue of the capacity of juvenile offenders to waive…

  3. Juvenile prison in parallel legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutovac Mitar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for punishment of juveniles occurred from the time when there was no clear line separating them from the adult criminal population. At the same time, the evolution of the juvenile punishment is not in itself involve substantial changes to their criminal status. On the contrary, the status of minors in society did not show serious differences regarding the status of young adults, as well as the adult elderly. On the other hand, on the ground of their punishment is recorded deviations that go in the direction of application of mild corporal punishment. Closing the minor was performed in a physically separate parts of the general penal institutions with the use of a lower degree of restrictions while serving juvenile prison. Due to the different treatment of minors during the evolution of their criminal status leads to their different treatment in comparative law. That is why we are witnessing the existence of numerous differences in the juvenile punishment in some countries in the world. On the European continent there is a wide range of different legal solutions when it comes to punishing juveniles. There are considerable differences in the procedure pronouncing juvenile prison and in particular penal treatment of juveniles in penitentiary institutions. For these reasons, the author has decided to show the basic statutory provisions in the part that relates to the issue of punishment of minors in the legislation of individual countries.

  4. Update on juvenile myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Wendy K M; Kang, Peter B

    2013-12-01

    Juvenile myasthenia gravis is a relatively rare autoimmune neuromuscular disorder. The pathophysiology of juvenile myasthenia gravis is similar to that of adult myasthenia gravis, though there remain important differences regarding presentation and therapeutic options. We review the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and treatment options for juvenile myasthenia gravis. Randomized clinical studies of myasthenia gravis have been carried out primarily in adult populations. As juvenile myasthenia gravis is rare, it has been difficult to collect prospective randomized controlled data to evaluate treatment outcomes and efficacy. A recent retrospective series suggests that, as in adult myasthenia gravis, thymectomy is a viable therapeutic option for selected cases of generalized juvenile myasthenia gravis. This is corroborated by the clinical experience of the authors in a referral center with a cohort of patients affected by juvenile myasthenia gravis over a number of years. Recent studies illustrate that some, but not all, adult research on myasthenia gravis is applicable to children and adolescents with juvenile myasthenia gravis. Adult research can inform pediatric studies, but should not be regarded as a substitute for dedicated research in those populations.

  5. Self-reported psychopathic traits in sexually offending juveniles compared with generally offending juveniles and general population youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonmann, Cyril; Jansen, Lucres M C; 't Hart-Kerkhoffs, Lisette A; Vahl, Pauline; Hillege, Sanne L; Doreleijers, Theo A H; Vermeiren, Robert R J M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to gain a better insight into the relationship between sexually aggressive behaviour and psychopathy in youths; juveniles who sexually offended (JSOs) were compared with generally offending youths and a general population group. Seventy-one JSOs, 416 detained general offenders, and 331 males from the general population were assessed by means of the Youth Psychopathic traits Inventory (YPI), a self-report instrument. Sexually and generally offending juveniles had significantly lower levels of self-reported psychopathic traits than youths from the general population. Juvenile sexual offenders and generally offending juveniles did not differ in self-reported psychopathic traits. Furthermore, no differences in self-reported psychopathic traits were found between subgroups of JSOs (i.e., child molesters, solo offenders, and group offenders). The finding that self-reported psychopathic traits are less prevalent in offending juveniles than in general population youths raises questions about the usefulness of the YPI when comparing psychopathic traits between clinical samples and general-population samples.

  6. Cognitive and academic functioning of juvenile detainees: implications for correctional populations and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansing, Amy E; Washburn, Jason J; Abram, Karen M; Thomas, Ursula C; Welty, Leah J; Teplin, Linda A

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive functioning affects health. This study assessed cognitive functioning among participants in the Northwestern Juvenile Project, a stratified random sample of 1,829 newly detained juveniles (10 to 18 years old) from Cook County, Illinois. The study examined receptive vocabulary, oral reading, arithmetic computation skills, and general intellectual abilities. The sample exhibited impaired overall intellectual functioning and deficits in all areas. Males performed more poorly than females. More than three quarters of males showed below average overall intellectual functioning, and 9 in 10 had below average receptive vocabulary skills. Hispanic and African American males performed more poorly than non-Hispanic White males. The multiple systems that serve delinquent youth--correctional, health, legal, and rehabilitative--must collaborate to tailor needed services to the cognitive level of youth in the juvenile justice system.

  7. Juvenile chronic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwood, T R; Woo, P

    1995-05-01

    The nomenclature and classification criteria for arthritis in children should be dealt with initially as separate issues, although they are undoubtedly intertwined. The classification criteria should aim to delineate homogeneous patient populations, yet should be flexible enough to incorporate advances in disease knowledge. It should be recognized that arriving at an international consensus for classification criteria will merely provide a set of operational definitions to facilitate research, and not a set of diagnostic criteria. Indeed the only point to obtaining consensus is to begin a process of systematic ongoing review of the criteria. The labels attached to any of these diseases should facilitate accurate communication. In view of the heterogeneous nature of childhood arthritis, consideration should be given to using a broad umbrella term such as juvenile or childhood arthritis only for communicating with the lay public. Medical nomenclature should be formulated to reflect accurately homogeneous subgroups of arthritis, and should not artificially proscribe a relationship between paediatric and adult disease.

  8. [Juvenile idiopathic arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlin, Troels

    2002-08-19

    The new classification of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is described in this review. Clinical characteristics divide JIA in to subtypes: systemic, oligoarticular (persistent and extended type), RF-positive and--negative polyarticular, enthesitis-related arthritis and psoriatic arthritis. In addition to the clinical characteristics, genetic and biochemical differences suggest that JIA could be regarded as a general term covering various diseases. Complications described are uveitis, temporomandibular joint affection and growth disturbances. The therapeutic strategy should be planned individually according to age, subtype and disease activity and carried out as teamwork with several specialties. Drugs showing significant effectiveness in controlled studies are primarily methotrexate and sulphasalazine. An immunomodulating agent, etanercept, a soluble TNF alpha-receptor fusion protein, has shown a promising effect in severe polyarticular JIA refractory to methotrexate treatment.

  9. Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayashree Krishnamurthy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis is a rare, autosomal-recessive disease characterized by papular and nodular skin lesions, gingival hyperplasia, joint contractures and bone involvement in variable degrees. It is a connective tissue disorder with aberrant synthesis of glycosaminoglycans by fibroblasts. We report a 5-year-old female born of first-degree consanguineous marriage who presented with multiple, recurrent, painless, variable-sized nodules. Fine needle aspiration cytology smears and the subsequent histopathological examination from the nodules showed benign spindle cells in a Periodic acid Schiff-positive myxoid background. The disease has a relentlessly progressive course, with most patients surviving only up to the 4 th decade. As of now, there is no specific treatment for this disorder. Genetic counseling is essential to explain to parents about a 25% chance of having a diseased baby in any pregnancy. With the gene being mapped recently, techniques for antenatal diagnosis are likely to be established.

  10. [JUVENILE DERMATOMYOSITIS AND CALCINOSIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhvania, M

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile Dermatomiositis (JD) is autoimmune disease that progresses with time; JD's main differentiated syndromes are rash on the skin, poor function of muscles, and often developing invalidism. If the health practitioners manage to diagnose the JD on an early stage and prescribe the adequate treatment the disease will not progress aggressively. This approach is tangible for practical rheumatology and pediatric. The article aims to present the reasons of the development of the JD and calcinosis. The study based on the description of the patients with JD. There are distinguished the main symptoms of the disease in children: frequent and acute developments of muscles calcinosis, occasionally with diffuse character followed with hypotrophy of the muscles, contractures and invalidism. One of the patient cases that describe the article is the thirteen-year boy with JD indicating repeated sequence of the disease, with diffusive calcinosis, cellulitis followed with secondary infection and impaired vision.

  11. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krupa H Bhatt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA is the most chronic musculoskeletal disease of pediatric population. The chronic course of disease has a great impact on oral health. Temporomandibular joint is involved in JIA causing limited mouth opening with progressive open bite, retrognathia, microgenia and bird like appearance. Joints of upper and lower extremities are also involved. Effect on upper limb function leads to difficulty with fine motor movements required for brushing and flossing. This increases incidence of caries and periodontal disease in children. The cause of JIA is still poorly understood and none of the available drugs for JIA can cure the disease. However, prognosis has improved as a result of progress in disease classification and management. The dental practitioner should be familiar with the symptoms and oral manifestations of JIA to help manage as multidisciplinary management is essential.

  12. Examining Antisocial Behavioral Antecedents of Juvenile Sexual Offenders and Juvenile Non-Sexual Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCuish, Evan C; Lussier, Patrick; Corrado, Raymond R

    2015-08-01

    In prospective longitudinal studies of juvenile offenders, the presence of multiple developmental pathways of antisocial behaviors has consistently been identified. An "antisocial" type of juvenile sex offender (JSO) has also been identified; however, whether antisocial JSOs follow different antisocial pathways has not been examined. In the current study, differences in antisocial pathways within JSOs and between JSOs and juvenile non-sex offenders (JNSOs) were examined. Data on Canadian male incarcerated adolescent offenders were used to identify whether behavioral antecedents differed within JSOs and between JSOs (n = 51) and JNSOs (n = 94). Using latent class analysis (LCA), three behavioral groups were identified. For both JSOs and JNSOs, there was a Low Antisocial, Overt, and Covert group. Overall, there were important within-group differences in the behavioral patterns of JSOs, but these differences resembled differences in the behavioral patterns of their JNSO counterpart. Risk factors including offense history, abuse history, and family history were more strongly associated with the Overt and Covert groups compared with the Low Antisocial group. Implications for JSO assessment practices were discussed.

  13. NPY and sbGnRH gene expression in juvenile and adult male Brazilian flounder Paralichthys orbignyanus Expressão gênica do NPY e do sbGnRH em machos juvenis e adultos de linguado Paralichthys orbignyanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Farias Campos

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate neuropeptide Y (NPY and sea bream gonadotropin-release hormone (sbGnRH gene expression in juvenile and adult males of Brazilian flounder. Hypothalamuses from fish were sampled for total RNA extraction. After cDNA synthesis, real-time PCR was used to measure gene expression. NPY showed approximately 2-fold increases in their mRNA levels while sbGnRH showed 3-fold increases in adult fish. These results suggest that these peptides could be involved on hypothalamic regulation of Brazilian flounder sexual maturation.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a expressão gênica do neuropeptídeo Y (NPY e da variante sea bream do hormônio liberador de gonadotrofinas (sbGnRH em linguados machos juvenis e adultos. O hipotálamo foi isolado para a extração de RNA total. Após a síntese de cDNA, a PCR em tempo real foi usada para avaliar a expressão gênica. Foi observado um aumento de aproximadamente duas vezes nos níveis de NPY e de aproximadamente três vezes nos níveis de sbGnRH nos peixes adultos. Esses resultados demonstram que estes peptídeos podem estar envolvidos na regulação, via hipotálamo, da maturação sexual no linguado.

  14. Cognitive and academic functioning of juvenile detainees: Implications for correctional populations and public health

    OpenAIRE

    Lansing, Amy E.; Washburn, Jason J.; Abram, Karen M.; Thomas, Ursula C.; Welty, Leah J.; Teplin, Linda A.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive functioning affects health. This study assessed cognitive functioning among participants in the Northwestern Juvenile Project, a stratified random sample of 1,829 newly detained juveniles (10-18 years old) from Cook County, Illinois. We examined receptive vocabulary, oral reading, arithmetic computation skills, and general intellectual abilities. Our sample exhibited impaired overall intellectual functioning and deficits in all areas. Males performed more poorly than females overall...

  15. How can we conserve intact tropical peatlands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Ian; Roucoux, Katherine

    2017-04-01

    The scientific community has, for more than three decades, been expressing increasing alarm about the fate of peatlands in parts of Indonesia and Malaysia, where extensive land-use conversion and drainage for rice and oil palm have greatly compromised peatland hydrology, ecology, biological richness, and carbon storage. The discourse in the literature on these peatlands is now moving on from attempts to preserve the last remaining fragments of peat-swamp forest, towards discussion of how best to restore damaged ecosystems, and whether it is possible to manage plantations more 'sustainably'. It is becoming increasingly clear, however, that peatlands occur quite widely in other parts of the lowland tropics, including parts of Amazonia and the Congo Basin, and many of these peatlands can reasonably be described as 'intact': although few if any parts of the tropics are totally unaffected by human actions, the hydrology and functional ecology of these systems appear to be close to a 'natural' state. The question then arises as to what should be done with the knowledge of their existence. Here we analyse the arguments in favour of protecting intact peatlands, and the potential conflicts with other priorities such as economic development and social justice. We evaluate alternative mechanisms for protecting intact peatlands, focusing on the particular issues raised by peatlands as opposed to other kinds of tropical ecosystem. We identify ways in which natural science agendas can help to inform these arguments, using our own contributions in palaeoecology and carbon mapping as examples. Finally, we argue for a radical reconsideration of research agendas in tropical peatlands, highlighting the potential contribution of methodologies borrowed from the social sciences and humanities.

  16. Do juvenile Amphiprion ocellaris (Pisces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brolund, Thea Marie; Nielsen, Lis Engdahl; Arvedlund, Michael

    2003-01-01

    . This is contrary to the settling mechanisms of the damselfish D. aruanus and D. reticulatus, and of the temperate herring Clupea harengus. Hence the results emphasize the variation of sensory abilities and behaviours in fish larvae and juveniles. It is not an area prone for generalizations.......Juvenile anemonefish Amphiprion ocellaris were tested in two behavioural laboratory set-ups for their ability to visually or chemically recognize conspecifics. Individuals of two other species of anemonefish, A. clarkii and Dascyllus aruanus, were also used as test specimens for recognition....... The results indicate that juvenile A. ocellaris recognize conspecifics visually rather than by olfaction. This is contrary to their finding mechanism of their host anemone. However, the results also indicate that the juvenile A ocellaris are neither attracted nor deterred by the presence of conspecifics...

  17. Editor's Shelf: International Juvenile Titles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell-Powell, Brenda

    1994-01-01

    Provides an annotated list of international juvenile picture books and notes those that emphasize text over pictures. The 49 titles present international perspectives for educators, librarians, and parents seeking materials with alternative cultural content. The majority are folk tales. (SLD)

  18. Differential Juvenile Hormone Variations in Scale Insect Extreme Sexual Dimorphism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Mifom Vea

    Full Text Available Scale insects have evolved extreme sexual dimorphism, as demonstrated by sedentary juvenile-like females and ephemeral winged males. This dimorphism is established during the post-embryonic development; however, the underlying regulatory mechanisms have not yet been examined. We herein assessed the role of juvenile hormone (JH on the diverging developmental pathways occurring in the male and female Japanese mealybug Planococcus kraunhiae (Kuwana. We provide, for the first time, detailed gene expression profiles related to JH signaling in scale insects. Prior to adult emergence, the transcript levels of JH acid O-methyltransferase, encoding a rate-limiting enzyme in JH biosynthesis, were higher in males than in females, suggesting that JH levels are higher in males. Furthermore, male quiescent pupal-like stages were associated with higher transcript levels of the JH receptor gene, Methoprene-tolerant and its co-activator taiman, as well as the JH early-response genes, Krüppel homolog 1 and broad. The exposure of male juveniles to an ectopic JH mimic prolonged the expression of Krüppel homolog 1 and broad, and delayed adult emergence by producing a supernumeral pupal stage. We propose that male wing development is first induced by up-regulated JH signaling compared to female expression pattern, but a decrease at the end of the prepupal stage is necessary for adult emergence, as evidenced by the JH mimic treatments. Furthermore, wing development seems linked to JH titers as JHM treatments on the pupal stage led to wing deformation. The female pedomorphic appearance was not reflected by the maintenance of high levels of JH. The results in this study suggest that differential variations in JH signaling may be responsible for sex-specific and radically different modes of metamorphosis.

  19. Differential Juvenile Hormone Variations in Scale Insect Extreme Sexual Dimorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vea, Isabelle Mifom; Tanaka, Sayumi; Shiotsuki, Takahiro; Jouraku, Akiya; Tanaka, Toshiharu; Minakuchi, Chieka

    2016-01-01

    Scale insects have evolved extreme sexual dimorphism, as demonstrated by sedentary juvenile-like females and ephemeral winged males. This dimorphism is established during the post-embryonic development; however, the underlying regulatory mechanisms have not yet been examined. We herein assessed the role of juvenile hormone (JH) on the diverging developmental pathways occurring in the male and female Japanese mealybug Planococcus kraunhiae (Kuwana). We provide, for the first time, detailed gene expression profiles related to JH signaling in scale insects. Prior to adult emergence, the transcript levels of JH acid O-methyltransferase, encoding a rate-limiting enzyme in JH biosynthesis, were higher in males than in females, suggesting that JH levels are higher in males. Furthermore, male quiescent pupal-like stages were associated with higher transcript levels of the JH receptor gene, Methoprene-tolerant and its co-activator taiman, as well as the JH early-response genes, Krüppel homolog 1 and broad. The exposure of male juveniles to an ectopic JH mimic prolonged the expression of Krüppel homolog 1 and broad, and delayed adult emergence by producing a supernumeral pupal stage. We propose that male wing development is first induced by up-regulated JH signaling compared to female expression pattern, but a decrease at the end of the prepupal stage is necessary for adult emergence, as evidenced by the JH mimic treatments. Furthermore, wing development seems linked to JH titers as JHM treatments on the pupal stage led to wing deformation. The female pedomorphic appearance was not reflected by the maintenance of high levels of JH. The results in this study suggest that differential variations in JH signaling may be responsible for sex-specific and radically different modes of metamorphosis.

  20. Alcohol Use and HIV Risk among Juvenile Drug Court Offenders

    OpenAIRE

    Tolou-Shams, Marina; Houck, Christopher D.; Nugent, Nicole; Conrad, Selby M.; REYES, AYANARIS; Brown, Larry K.

    2012-01-01

    Juvenile drug courts (JDC) largely focus on marijuana and other drug use interventions. Yet, JDC offenders engage in other high-risk behaviors, such as alcohol use and sexual risk behaviors, which can compromise their health, safety and drug court success. An examination of alcohol use and sexual risk behaviors among 52 male substance abusing young offenders found that over 50% were using alcohol, 37% reported current marijuana use and one-third of all sexual intercourse episodes were unprote...

  1. Recollections of Parent Characteristics and Attachment Patterns for College Women of Intact vs. Non-Intact Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilmann, Peter R.; Carranza, Laura V.; Vendemia, Jennifer M. C.

    2006-01-01

    This study contrasted offsprings' attachment patterns and recollections of parent characteristics in two college samples: 147 females from intact biological parents and 157 females of parental divorce. Secure females from intact or non-intact families rated parents positively, while insecure females rated parents as absent, distant, and demanding.…

  2. JUVENILE RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I N Sartika

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA is the most common rheumatic condition in children. JRA is defined as persistent arthritis in 1 or more joints for at least 6 weeks, with the onset before age 16 years. The etiology of JRA is unknown. Antigen activated CD4+ T cell stimulate monocytes, macrophages, and synovial fibroblasts to produce the cytokines Interleukin-1 (IL-1, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-? and to secrete matrix metalloproteinases, which lead to chronic inflammation due to infiltration of inflammatory cell, angiogenesis, destruction of cartilage and bone with pannus formation. The 3 major subtypes of JRA are based on the symptoms at disease onset and are designated systemic onset, pauciarticular onset, and polyarticular onset. For all patients, the goals of therapy are to decrease chronic joint pain and suppress the inflammatory process. Poor prognostic have been observed in patients with polyarticular onset, rheumatoid factor, persistent morning stiffness, tenosynovitis, involvement of the small joints, rapid appearance of erosions, active late onset childhood, subcutaneous nodules, or antinuclear antibody.

  3. Effects of acetone and fasting on cytochrome P-450 and xenobiotic metabolism in intact and hypophysectomized rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, M.T.; Simonet, L.

    1987-05-01

    Hypophysectomized and intact male and female rats were fasted for 24-48 hrs or given acetone (5ml/kg body weight) in order to evaluate the effects of these treatments on hepatic microsomal cytochrome P-450 and xenobiotic metabolism. Fasting and acetone treatment resulted in a significant increase (p < 0.05) in total P-450 in intact female rats. However, there was no significant changes in P-450 in microsomes from fasted or acetone-treated hypophysectomized rats. Fasting and acetone treatment resulted in significant increases in nitrosamine metabolism in intact rats. This effect was markedly reduced in the hypophysectomized rat. When intact male rats were fasted or treated with acetone there was a significant increase in P-450 in microsomes from acetone treated rats. Aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity was significantly increased in both intact and hypophysectomized male and female rats treated with acetone. These results suggest that the pituitary gland or some product markedly influences acetone-stimulated nitrosamine metabolism.

  4. Juveniles tried as adults: the age of the juvenile matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Jaclyn K; Woody, William Douglas

    2011-08-01

    Serious juvenile crimes require evaluation of a child as a criminal defendant in adult court. In such cases, it is crucial to understand jurors' attitudes, biases, and ability to follow legal instructions and maintain fairness. 308 undergraduate psychology students served as mock jurors, were randomly separated into four groups, and each group read the same realistic summary of a trial with the defendant's age presented as 13, 15, 17, or 21 years. Participants were asked to render guilty or not guilty verdicts and, if guilty, to suggest sentences. Chi-squared analysis indicated 13- and 15-year-old defendants were convicted less often than 17- and 21-year-old defendants, showing that jurors distinguished between juvenile defendants of different ages, but not minors and adults as defined by law. Additional analysis showed that age did not affect sentencing recommendations. Decision processes jurors use for juveniles tried as adults are discussed.

  5. Forensic aspects of juvenile violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, L H

    2000-10-01

    The juvenile justice system was created because it was recognized that youthful offenders needed to be managed differently from adults. They were to receive habilitation services instead of punishment. It is now more than a century since the creation of the first juvenile court. After 67 years, the US Supreme Court, in Kent v United States stated that the model was not working because juveniles in the criminal justice system received no treatment and they had no rights. Because the issue that had been appealed was the lack of rights (not lack of treatment), the Court mandated that juveniles, like adults, be given certain rights. The following year, in In re Gault, the Court expanded these rights. Subsequent Supreme Court cases have dealt with these kinds of issues--that is, whether juvenile offenders are entitled to the same rights as adults and subject to the same penalties. The Supreme Court has never heard a "right to treatment" case, which is the other part of the juvenile court system. Cases have been brought in lower courts (e.g., Nelson v. Heyne, 1972) alleging inadequate treatment services, but no national impact has resulted. Thus, in general, children in the juvenile court system do not have an enforceable right to treatment and can obtain only what services are available in their jurisdictions. The services often are woefully inadequate. Sentencing a youth to probation, with the requirement that he or she participate in counseling or mental health treatment, is meaningless if services are not available. Community-based, model programs that provide effective treatment do exist. They are, as yet, the rare exception rather than the norm and, therefore, are not available to most youthful offenders. Incarcerated juveniles, obviously, cannot avail themselves of community programs. Litigation to give these youth the same rights as adults in penal institutions is not the answer because incarcerated adults don't have a right to treatment, only a right to be free

  6. The Heterogeneity of Juvenile Myositis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rider, Lisa G.

    2007-01-01

    Juvenile myositis is a heterogeneous group of systemic autoimmune diseases, in which clinical and serologic subgroups result in subsets of patients with distinct clinical manifestations, disease courses, immunogenetic associations, responses to therapy, and prognoses. A newly identified autoantibody of unknown specificity, anti-p155, is myositis-associated and seen in up to 20 – 30% of juvenile and adult DM patients. HLA DRB1*0301 and its linked allele DQA1*0501 have been identified as the major immunogenetic risk factor for juvenile and adult DM in both European- and African- American patients, and DQA1*0301 is an additional risk factor in European American patients. Several DQA1 alleles also are protective for juvenile DM. Environmental risk factors are poorly understood, but growing evidence suggests a role for infectious agents and ultraviolet radiation. The current therapy of juvenile DM consists of corticosteroids and other immunosuppressive agents, with the adjunctive treatment of cutaneous manifestations and rehabilitation. Therapeutic trials of biologic agents, including anti-TNFα and anti-CD20, may aid in developing promising new therapies for these disorders. PMID:17317616

  7. Criminal and behavioral aspects of juvenile sexual homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, W C; Burgess, A W; Nelson, J A

    1998-03-01

    This preliminary research provides a descriptive, systematic study of juvenile sexual homicide. Fourteen incarcerated juveniles, identified through a department of corrections computer search, were assessed using a structured diagnostic interview, an author-designed clinical interview, and a review of correctional files and other available records. Five of the offenders' victims survived the homicidal attack, but their cases were nevertheless included in this study as the offenders' intent was clearly to kill their victim, and the victim's survival was merely by chance. All victims were female and all offenders were male. Their crimes typically occurred in the afternoon, and involved a low-risk victim of the same race who lived in the offender's neighborhood. The sexual component of the crime consisted of vaginal rape in over one-half of the cases. Weapons, typically a knife or bludgeon, were used in all but one case. Thirteen of these youths had a prior history of violence, and twelve had previous arrests. Chaotic, abusive backgrounds and poor adjustment in school were typical for these boys. A conduct disorder diagnosis was present in twelve of the youths, and violent sexual fantasies were experienced by one-half of the sample. The findings in this study suggest that juvenile sexual murderers comprise less than 1% of juvenile murderers, and are likely to be an emotionally and behaviorally disturbed population with serious familial, academic, and environmental vulnerabilities.

  8. Juvenile Correctional Institutions Library Services: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlister, Annette M.

    This bibliography lists citations for 14 articles, books, and reports concerned with library services in juvenile correctional institutions. A second section lists 21 additional materials on adult correctional libraries which also contain information relevant to the juvenile library. (KP)

  9. Predicting Educational Risks among Court-Involved Black Males: Family, Peers, and Mental Health Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavazzi, Stephen M.; Russell, Christiana M.; Khurana, Atika

    2009-01-01

    Disproportionately large numbers of Black youth experience repeated encounters with the juvenile justice system, and often these same youth present with a variety of school-related difficulties. Data from a sample of 842 Black males, assessed in five Ohio juvenile courts using the Global Risk Assessment Device (GRAD), are used to describe the…

  10. Fluorescent-protein stabilization and high-resolution imaging of cleared, intact mouse brains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin K Schwarz

    Full Text Available In order to observe and quantify long-range neuronal connections in intact mouse brain by light microscopy, it is first necessary to clear the brain, thus suppressing refractive-index variations. Here we describe a method that clears the brain and preserves the signal from proteinaceous fluorophores using a pH-adjusted non-aqueous index-matching medium. Successful clearing is enabled through the use of either 1-propanol or tert-butanol during dehydration whilst maintaining a basic pH. We show that high-resolution fluorescence imaging of entire, structurally intact juvenile and adult mouse brains is possible at subcellular resolution, even following many months in clearing solution. We also show that axonal long-range projections that are EGFP-labelled by modified Rabies virus can be imaged throughout the brain using a purpose-built light-sheet fluorescence microscope. To demonstrate the viability of the technique, we determined a detailed map of the monosynaptic projections onto a target cell population in the lateral entorhinal cortex. This example demonstrates that our method permits the quantification of whole-brain connectivity patterns at the subcellular level in the uncut brain.

  11. Effects of hydrolysed casein, intact casein and intact whey protein on energy expenditure and appetite regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Line Quist; Lorenzen, Janne Kunchel; Gomes, Sisse

    2014-01-01

    Casein and whey differ in amino acid composition and in the rate of absorption; however, the absorption rate of casein can be increased to mimic that of whey by exogenous hydrolysis. The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of hydrolysed casein (HC), intact casein (IC......) and intact whey (IW) on energy expenditure (EE) and appetite regulation, and thereby to investigate the influence of amino acid composition and the rate of absorption. In the present randomised cross-over study, twenty-four overweight and moderately obese young men and women consumed three isoenergetic...... dietary treatments that varied in protein source. The study was conducted in a respiration chamber, where EE, substrate oxidation and subjective appetite were measured over 24 h at three independent visits. Moreover, blood and urine samples were collected from the participants. The results showed...

  12. Juvenile technologies in foreign publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shpagina E.M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article provides the review of foreign publications, concerning the juvenile technologies used in France, Canada, Germany and Switzerland. The paper presents legal, social and psychotherapeutic aspects of juvenile judiciary in foreign countries. The authors paid special attention to the complexity of approaches to young children and teenagers who found themselves in complicated life circumstances or got into trouble with the law. The article gives examples of using the following techniques: cognitive-behavioral intervention, mediation, family therapy (including family background and family history, relations theory, narrative practices, utilization of «emotional intelligence» resources.

  13. Evolution of Juvenile Ankylosing Spondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye.V. Prohorov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Evolution of juvenile ankylosing spondylitis tend to follow a more frequent involvement in the pathological process of elbow and ankle joints, development of enthesiopathies, changes of intraarticular meniscal horns, forming of Baker’s cysts, cartilage flaps and systemic osteoporosis, and total value of all these signs 13 times exceeds thereof in patients with with the debut of disease in adulthood, but for juvenile ankylosing spondylitis vertebral lesion is less common. Age dimorphism of the use of certain groups of drugs and physiotherapy facilities is observed.

  14. Sex-specific developmental profiles of juvenile hormone synthesis in honey bee larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartfelder, Klaus; de Oliveira Tozetto, Sibele; Rachinsky, Anna

    1993-02-01

    Juvenile hormone synthesis in drone larvae of the honey bee was measured by an in vitro radiochemical assay. The developmental profile of corpora allata activity in male larvae showed considerable differences from queen larvae, the presumptive reproductive females, and was comparable to workers, the sterile female morph. Drone and worker larvae, however, differed drastically in the regulation of juvenile hormone biosynthesis, as revealed by the addition of farnesoic acid to the culture medium. This precursor stimulated juvenile hormone synthesis of drone glands nearly eightfold, whereas in worker larvae it is known to lead to an accumulation of methyl farnesoate. The sex-specific differences in endocrine activity indicate a role for juvenile hormone in the expression of genetically determined sexually dimorphic characters during metamorphosis, a role not currently accounted for in models describing endocrine regulation of insect development.

  15. On the Prevention of Juvenile Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelekov, V. A.; Kosheleva, E. V.

    2008-01-01

    Crimes committed by juveniles are among the most urgent social problems. Juvenile crime is as prevalent as crime itself is, and it has not been solved completely in any society and cannot be solved through law enforcement measures alone. In this article, the authors discuss the dynamics and structure of juvenile crime in Russia and present data…

  16. Intensive Reading Instruction in Juvenile Correctional Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jacob L.; Wexler, Jade; Roberts, Greg; Carpenter, Clint

    2011-01-01

    Despite 60 years of evidence linking juvenile illiteracy and delinquency, practitioners and policymakers have been painfully slow in the implementation of evidence-based reading interventions for incarcerated juveniles. We will present the Texas Juvenile Justice Tiered Instructional Model, an evidence-based reading program model created…

  17. The Juvenile Court: Changes and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feld, Barry C.

    2000-01-01

    Explores the changes in the juvenile court system, in particular, the juvenile waiver and sentencing laws, as it transformed from a social welfare agency into a type of criminal court system for young offenders. Addresses whether states should create an integrated juvenile and criminal justice system. (CMK)

  18. Reforming Our Expectations about Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Pamela F.; Baille, Daphne M.

    2010-01-01

    Typing the term "juvenile justice reform" into a Google[TM] search will result in 60 pages of entries. But what is meant by juvenile justice reform? What does it look like? How will one know when it is achieved? This article defines juvenile justice reform, discusses the principles of effective reform, and describes the practice of juvenile…

  19. Comparison of Intact PTH and Bio-Intact PTH Assays Among Non-Dialysis Dependent Chronic Kidney Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einbinder, Yael; Benchetrit, Sydney; Golan, Eliezer; Zitman-Gal, Tali

    2017-09-01

    The third-generation bio-intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) (1-84) assay was designed to overcome problems associated with the detection of C-terminal fragments by the second-generation intact PTH assay. The two assays have been compared primarily among dialysis populations. The present study evaluated the correlations and differences between these two PTH assays among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages 3 to 5 not yet on dialysis. Blood samples were collected from 98 patients with CKD stages 3 to 5. PTH concentrations were measured simultaneously by using the second-generation - PTH intact-STAT and third-generation bio-intact 1-84 PTH assays. Other serum biomarkers of bone mineral disorders were also assessed. CKD stage was calculated by using the CKD-Epidemiology Collaboration (EPI) formula. Serum bio-intact PTH concentrations were strongly correlated but significantly lower than the intact PTH concentrations (r=0.963, Pbio-intact PTH) positively correlated with urea (r=0.523, r=0.504; P=0.002, respectively), phosphorus (r=0.532, r=0.521; Pbio-intact PTH assay detected significantly lower PTH concentrations compared with intact PTH assay. Additional studies that correlate the diagnosis and management of CKD mineral and bone disorders with bone histomorphometric findings are needed to determine whether bio-intact PTH assay results are better surrogate markers in these early stages of CKD.

  20. Measurement of tritiated norepinephrine metabolism in intact rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levitt, M.; Kowalik, S.; Barkai, A.I. (New York State Psychiatric Inst., New York (USA))

    1983-06-01

    A procedure for the study of NE metabolism in the intact rat brain is described. The method involves ventriculocisternal perfusion of the adult male rat with artificial CSF containing (/sup 3/H)NE. Radioactivity in the perfusate associated with NE and its metabolites 3,4-dihydroxymandelic acid (DOMA), 3,4-dihydroxphenylethyleneglycol (DHPG), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxymandelic acid (VMA), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol (MHPG), and normetanephrine (NMN) is separated using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). After 80 min the radioactivity in the perfusate reaches an apparent steady-state. Analysis of the steady-state samples shows higher activity in the fractions corresponding to DHPG and MHPG than in those corresponding to DOMA and VMA, confirming glycol formation as the major pathway of NE metabolism in the rat brain. Pretreatment with an MAO inhibitor (tranylcypromine) results in a marked decrease in the deaminated metabolites DHPG and MHPG and a concurrent increase in NMN. The results indicate this to be a sensitive procedure for the in vivo determination of changes in NE metabolism.

  1. Mobilizing Communities To Prevent Juvenile Crime. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bownes, Donna; Ingersoll, Sarah

    Through Title V Incentive Grants for Local Delinquency Prevention Programs (Community Prevention Grants), the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) allocated $20 million in fiscal year 1997 to states to complement law enforcement and justice system efforts by helping local communities foster strong families and nurture…

  2. 我国11~12岁优秀男子体操运动员力量素质的评价与诊断%The evaluation and diagnosis of the strength capacities of excellent juvenile male gymnasts aged 11 and 12 in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂应军; 吕万刚

    2014-01-01

    By applying methods such as Delphi method, Radar analysis, Pareto analysis and target challenge model, and by building an evaluation index system, the authors carried out real-time evaluation and current condition diagnosis on the strength capacities of excellent juvenile male gymnasts aged 11 and 12 in China, and revealed the following findings:1) bent upper arm push proping strength as well as upper limb and torso specific strength are advantageous strength capacities of the male gymnasts in the 11-year old and 12-year old groups;in practical training, the gymnasts in the two age groups should strengthen the training of their weaknesses such as upper limb slow pulling strength, and the gymnasts in the 11-year old group should also enhance their waist and abdomen strength training quality; 2) in terms of training content arrangement, the gymnasts in the 11-year old and 12-year old groups should respectively pay attention to the training of upper limb pulling, quick bending and stretching and push propping strength, as well as up-per limb supporting, push propping and quick pulling strength;3) at the next stage, the gymnasts in the 11-year old group should mainly focus on enhancing their torso strength and lower limb explosive strength training quality, while the gymnasts in the 12-year old group should further strengthen their lower limb explosive strength training.%运用特尔菲法、雷达分析、帕雷托分析和目标挑战模型等方法,通过构建评价指标体系,对我国11~12岁优秀男子体操运动员力量素质进行实时评价与现状诊断。结果表明:1)上肢屈臂推撑力量和上肢与躯干专项力量分别是11岁组和12岁组男子体操运动员力量素质的优势环节;实践训练中两个年龄组应加强上肢慢用性拉引力量等薄弱环节的训练,11岁组还应提高腰腹力量的训练质量;2)训练内容安排方面,11岁组和12岁组应分别注重上肢拉引、快速屈伸与推撑力量

  3. Management of male neurologic patients with infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fode, Mikkel; Sønksen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Many aspects of fertility rely on intact neurologic function and thus neurologic diseases can result in infertility. While research into general female fertility and alterations in male semen quality is limited, we have an abundance of knowledge regarding ejaculatory dysfunction following nerve...

  4. Positive Youth Development, Life Satisfaction and Problem Behaviors of Adolescents in Intact and Non-Intact Families in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Tan Lei Shek

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether Chinese adolescents living in intact and non-intact families differed in their positive development, life satisfaction, and risk behavior. A total of 3,328 Secondary 1 students responded to measures of positive youth development (such as resilience and psychosocial competencies, life satisfaction, and risk behavior (substance abuse, delinquency, Internet addiction, consumption of pornographic materials, self-harm, and behavioral intention to engage in problem behavior. Findings revealed that adolescents growing up in intact families reported higher levels of positive developmental outcomes and life satisfaction as compared with adolescents from non-intact families. Adolescents in non-intact families also reported higher levels of risk behaviors than those growing up in intact families.

  5. Differential effects of androgens on coronary blood flow regulation and arteriolar diameter in intact and castrated swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O’Connor Erin K

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low endogenous testosterone levels have been shown to be a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular benefits associated with testosterone replacement therapy are being advocated; however, the effects of endogenous testosterone levels on acute coronary vasomotor responses to androgen administration are not clear. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of acute androgen administration on in vivo coronary conductance and in vitro coronary microvascular diameter in intact and castrated male swine. Methods Pigs received intracoronary infusions of physiologic levels (1–100 nM of testosterone, the metabolite 5α-dihydrotestosterone, and the epimer epitestosterone while left anterior descending coronary blood flow and mean arterial pressure were continuously monitored. Following sacrifice, coronary arterioles were isolated, cannulated, and exposed to physiologic concentrations (1–100 nM of testosterone, 5α-dihydrotestosterone, and epitestosterone. To evaluate effects of the androgen receptor on acute androgen dilation responses, real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry for androgen receptor were performed on conduit and resistance coronary vessels. Results In vivo, testosterone and 5α-dihydrotestosterone produced greater increases in coronary conductance in the intact compared to the castrated males. In vitro, percent maximal dilation of microvessels was similar between intact and castrated males for testosterone and 5α-dihydrotestosterone. In both studies epitestosterone produced significant increases in conductance and microvessel diameter from baseline in the intact males. Androgen receptor mRNA expression and immunohistochemical staining were similar in intact and castrated males. Conclusions Acute coronary vascular responses to exogenous androgen administration are increased by endogenous testosterone, an effect unrelated to changes in androgen receptor expression.

  6. Psychological characteristics of juvenile offenders with constant integration problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Démuthová Slávka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify the typical psychological, demographic, socio-economical, educational, health, and criminological characteristics of juvenile delinquents who tend to continue in their criminal career to adulthood and therefore obstruct the possibility of successful, non-offending integration to society. Subjects of research were young male prisoners jailed in the Juvenile imprisonment house that completed the test battery. By ex-post analysis after a period of five years, the differences between offenders and non-offenders were identified. Results show significant differences in the age of prisoners, length of imprisonment, presence of violent offence (esp. robbery in the criminal history, number of previous offences recorded, differences in factors i, h, and q1 from the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire, responses within the Hand test characteristic (affection, dependence, and communication, and in several signs of the drawings in a Draw-A-Person test. The importance and influence of listed factors is discussed.

  7. Juvenile Justice and Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassin, Laurie

    2008-01-01

    Laurie Chassin focuses on the elevated prevalence of substance use disorders among young offenders in the juvenile justice system and on efforts by the justice system to provide treatment for these disorders. She emphasizes the importance of diagnosing and treating these disorders, which are linked both with continued offending and with a broad…

  8. Genetics in juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, Heleen Marion

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a non-common disease in children that can persist into adulthood. JIA is considered to be an auto-immune disease. Genetic factors play a role in the pathogenesis. In a new cohort of JIA patients from North-West European descent genetic candidate gene associatio

  9. Juvenile Courts. Creation and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat GONZÁLEZ FERNÁNDEZ

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the creation of Juvenile or Children's Courts in Spain, analysing their reasons and aims, as well as the ethical and political connotations present on their way of acting. Their history and the one of the institutions that complement them is built from the legislation, writings and ideas of their promoters.

  10. Juvenile Diabetes and Rehabilitation Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, J. Blair; Gregg, Charles H.

    1981-01-01

    Severe complications of diabetes are more likely to occur with the juvenile diabetic and problems of psychosocial adjustment are recurring and difficult. Implications for the rehabilitation counselor are discussed in terms of employment considerations, the effects of complications, genetic counseling, and cooperation with other professionals.…

  11. Case Report: Juvenile Tophaceous Gout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyma Gunes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gout is a metabolic disease that manifests as recurrent arthritis. Its incidance increases with age. Clinical findings include recurrent acute arthritis, tophus at joints and tissues, uricacid stones and gouty nephropathy. Tophi is a late period complication of arthritis. In this casereport we presented  a patient with early-onset juvenile tophaceous gout.

  12. Do juvenile Amphiprion ocellaris (Pisces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brolund, Thea Marie; Nielsen, Lis Engdahl; Arvedlund, Michael

    2003-01-01

    . This is contrary to the settling mechanisms of the damselfish D. aruanus and D. reticulatus, and of the temperate herring Clupea harengus. Hence the results emphasize the variation of sensory abilities and behaviours in fish larvae and juveniles. It is not an area prone for generalizations....

  13. [Sex-linked juvenile retinoschisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, P; Turut, P; Soltysik, C; Hache, J C

    1976-02-01

    About 13 observations of sexe linked juvenile retinoschisis, the authors describe the ophthalmoscopic, fluorographic and functional aspects of the disease whose caracteristics are:--its sexe linked recessive heredity; --its clinical characterestics associating: a microcystic macular degeneration, peripheral retinal lesions, vitreous body alterations, --an electroretinogram of the negative type.

  14. Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice. Panel on Juvenile Crime: Prevention, Treatment, and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCord, Joan, Ed.; Widom, Cathy Spatz, Ed.; Crowell, Nancy A., Ed.

    This book discusses patterns and trends in crimes committed by children and adolescents, analyzing youth crime as a subset of general crime and studying the impact of race and gender. It evaluates different approaches to forecasting future crime rates. Data come from a national panel that examined what is known about juvenile crime and its…

  15. 46 CFR 28.570 - Intact righting energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Intact righting energy. 28.570 Section 28.570 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Stability § 28.570 Intact righting energy. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of...

  16. X-ray inspection for boreholes in intact trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, R.M.C.; Hemming, J.

    2010-01-01

    X-ray systems are commonly used for luggage inspection. The size of these systems is sufficient for inspection of intact trees. The first objective of this study is to determine whether such an X-ray system is able to visualise boreholes in intact trees. The present study is partly based on human in

  17. [Juvenile hormone activity in healthy and parasitized adult Anacridium aegyptium (Insecta, Orthoptera) during and after experimental termination of diapause].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardie, J; Joly, L

    1975-09-15

    The content of juvenile hormone in the haemolymph of Anacridium, normal and infected by Metacemyia (Diptera Tachinidae), has been evaluated by the Galleria bioassay. In all the diapausing locusts, the level of juvenile hormone is very low. It is slightly increased in the males and the parasited animals. In all the locusts,, activated by electrostimulations of the pars intercerebralis, the level of juvenile hormone is high. It is the highest in the infected females with an inhibited vitellogenesis. The allata system cannot therefore be implicated in parasitic castration.

  18. Decorin prevents the development of juvenile communicating hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botfield, Hannah; Gonzalez, Ana Maria; Abdullah, Osama; Skjolding, Anders Dæhli; Berry, Martin; McAllister, James Pat; Logan, Ann

    2013-09-01

    In post-haemorrhagic and other forms of communicating hydrocephalus, cerebrospinal fluid flow and drainage is obstructed by subarachnoid fibrosis in which the potent fibrogenic cytokine transforming growth factor-β has been aetiologically implicated. Here, the hypothesis that the transforming growth factor-β antagonist decorin has therapeutic potential for reducing fibrosis and ventriculomegaly was tested using a rat model of juvenile communicating hydrocephalus. Hydrocephalus was induced by a single basal cistern injection of kaolin in 3-week-old rats, immediately followed by 3 or 14 days of continuous intraventricular infusion of either human recombinant decorin or phosphate-buffered saline (vehicle). Ventricular expansion was measured by magnetic resonance imaging at Day 14. Fibrosis, transforming growth factor-β/Smad2/3 activation and hydrocephalic brain pathology were evaluated at Day 14 and the inflammatory response at Days 3 and 14 by immunohistochemistry and basic histology. Analysis of ventricular size demonstrated the development of hydrocephalus in kaolin-injected rats but also revealed that continuous decorin infusion prevented ventricular enlargement, such that ventricle size remained similar to that in intact control rats. Decorin prevented the increase in transforming growth factor-β1 and phosphorylated Smad2/3 levels throughout the ventricular system after kaolin injection and also inhibited the deposition of the extracellular matrix molecules, laminin and fibronectin in the subarachnoid space. In addition, decorin protected against hydrocephalic brain damage inferred from attenuation of glial and inflammatory reactions. Thus, we conclude that decorin prevented the development of hydrocephalus in juvenile rats by blocking transforming growth factor-β-induced subarachnoid fibrosis and protected against hydrocephalic brain damage. The results suggest that decorin is a potential clinical therapeutic for the treatment of juvenile post

  19. A Practical Approach to Juvenile Dermatomyositis and Juvenile Scleroderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Liza J; Pain, Clare E

    2016-02-01

    Juvenile dermatomyositis and juvenile scleroderma are rare multisystem autoimmune disorders. Although they share some pathognomonic hallmarks with adult onset myositis or scleroderma, there are significant differences in presentation, characteristics and associated features when the diseases present in childhood. In view of this, and the rarity of the conditions, it is important for care to be led by teams with expertise in pediatric rheumatology conditions. Prognosis has improved significantly in the West; likely due to early diagnosis and aggressive treatment with immunosuppressive medications. However, this trend is not replicated in the developing world. Early recognition of these diseases is crucial to achieve rapid and sustained remission and prevent disease or medication associated complications. This article aims to provide a practical overview for recognition, diagnosis and treatment of these conditions.

  20. Male Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the urethra. Chromosome defects. Inherited disorders such as Klinefelter's syndrome — in which a male is born with ... or major abdominal or pelvic surgery Having a history of undescended testicles Being born with a fertility ...

  1. Development of spatial database on intact forest landscapes of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakar Reddy, C.; Singh, Jyoti; Jha, C. S.; Diwakar, P. G.; Dadhwal, V. K.

    2017-01-01

    There is an increased interest in identifying the status of biodiversity in different spatial and temporal scales. The objective of the current research is to prepare a consistent spatial database of intact forest landscapes of India. The intact forest landscapes are located in the Himalayas, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Western Ghats and Sunderbans. At national level 237 forest landscapes and 5.4% of the total natural forest remained as intact in India. Current intact forest landscapes of India consists of blocks larger than 10 km2 covering an area of 34,061 km2. Of the total area under intact forest landscapes, Eastern Himalayas represent 76.7% of the area, followed by Western Himalayas (8.8%), Andaman & Nicobar Islands (6.2%) and Western Ghats (5.7%). The largest intact forest landscape block occupies an area of 3342.9 km2 (9.8%) is found in western Arunachal Pradesh. Temperate forest zone represents the highest intactness (56.6%), followed by subtropical zone (19.2%), tropical zone (18.6%) and alpine zone (5.6%). Himalayan moist temperate forests represent the highest area (39.1%) of intact forest landscapes followed by subtropical broad-leaved hill forests, wet evergreen forests, and montane wet temperate forests. It is estimated that 4.4% of the area of intact forest landscapes fall inside the existing 47 protected areas. The results of the analysis best suited as input for the process of identification of new protected areas. The study recommends fine-scale mapping of biodiversity within the intact forest landscapes and to prepare efficient conservation plans.

  2. Vesta Is Not an Intact Protoplanet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consolmagno, Guy; Turrini, Diego; Golabeck, Gregor; Jutzi, Martin; Sirono, Sin-iti; Svetsov, Vladimir; Tsiganis, Kleomenis

    2014-11-01

    Asteroid 4 Vesta has been identified as the likely source of howardite, eucrite, and diogenite (HED) basaltic achondrite meteorites, whose parent body differentiated and started solidifying within 3 Ma after the condensation of the Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAIs). The formation of Jupiter and the disk-driven migration of the giant planets also occurred during this period; thus it was expected that Vesta could provide an intact record of large-scale early episodes of planetary migration and bombardment as in the proposed Jovian Early Bombardment and the “Grand Tack” scenarios. However, the results of the Dawn mission detailing Vesta’s mass, volume, density, and surface characteristics provide challenges for modeling the structure and evolution of this asteroid. All proposed models for the generation of the HEDs require the presence of a substantial olivine-rich mantle. But recent work on the depth of excavation of the large basins at the south pole of Vesta suggests that because there is not abundant mantle olivine visible on Vesta or in the Vestoid family asteroids, the crust of Vesta must be at least 80 km thick. Such a thick crust is radically at odds with previous models; should it exist, it ought to manifest itself in other ways such as Vesta’s density structure and bulk chemical composition. However, we find that no Vesta model of iron core, olivine-rich mantle, and HED crust can match the joint constraints of (a) Vesta’s density as derived from the gravity field observed by Dawn; (b) the observed depletion of sodium and potassium and trace element enrichments of the HED meteorites; and (c) the absence of exposed olivine on Vesta’s surface, among Vestoid asteroids, or in our collection of basaltic meteorites. Either Vesta was subjected to a radical change in composition, presumably due to the intense collisional environment where and when it formed, or the asteroid we see today is in fact a reaccretion of material formed elsewhere from now

  3. Male sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Terrie B

    2010-05-01

    It should be recognized that sexuality in the aging male is of such import that a complete sexual history must be performed. By taking a complete sexual history, facts can be obtained that will allow for appropriate focus relating to a holistic evaluation and will enable us to dispel antiquated sexual myths pertaining to the aging male. If initiated by the history taker, questions concerning sexuality may be discussed more comfortably by the patient. Erectile dysfunction, male sexual response cycle, testosterone, sexually transmitted diseases, human immunodeficiency virus, long-term illness, along with religion and culture are explored in this article with the aim of improving one's knowledge base, self reflection, and awareness of the importance of male sexuality. A complete understanding and appreciation of the aging male's medical history, surgical history, social history, and emotional history as well as his sexual, cultural, and religious concepts will allow the health care provider to better analyze information, and to recommend and provide appropriate advice and treatment to the aging male patient.

  4. Uveíte na artrite idiopática juvenil Uveitis in juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana M. Roberto

    2002-02-01

    üente na população de pacientes com AIJ associada com uveíte (60% do que naqueles sem uveíte (12% (pObjective: to evaluate the frequency of chronic anterior uveitis in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis and its association with the presence of antinuclear antibodies. Patients and methods: we retrospectively studied 72 patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. All of them were submitted to slit-lamp examination of the anterior chamber at diagnosis. Both antinuclear antibodies and rheumatoid factor were determined. Patients with positive results for antinuclear antibodies were evaluated every three months and those with negative results were assessed every six months.Results: forty patients were male (55.5% and 36 were Caucasoid (50%. The mean age at the onset of juvenile idiopathic arthritis was 6.4 years (range = 1 to 14 years and the mean age at the beginning of the study was 10.4 years (1 to 19 years. According to the type of disease at onset, 32 were pauciarticular (44.4% (17 boys and 15 girls, 30 were polyarticular (41.6% (17 boys and 13 girls and 10 were systemic (14% (6 boys and 4 girls. We observed chronic anterior uveitis in five patients (6.5% (mean age = 11.4 years. Among them, four (80% had pauciarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis at disease onset (three girls with type I juvenile idiopathic arthritis and positive antinuclear antibodies and one boy with type I juvenile idiopathic arthritis and negative antinuclear antibodies and one girl with polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (negative antinuclear antibodies and rheumatoid factor. In this group, the mean age at the onset of juvenile idiopathic arthritis was 5.1 years and the mean age of uveitis onset was 9 years. Antinuclear antibodies were positive in 3/5 patients (60% with uveitis. Antinuclear antibodies were positive in 12% of the patients without uveitis (n = 67. Among the patients with uveitis, three had only one flare and the other two had four flares with cataract. The

  5. The Incidence of Depressive Symptomatology in Juvenile Sex Offenders with a History of Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Judith V.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Depressive symptomatology was assessed in 246 male juvenile sex offenders. Scores on the Beck Depression Inventory indicated 42 percent showed appreciable depressive symptomatology. A history of sexual or physical abuse was related to high Beck scores. Racial differences were not statistically significant. (Author/DB)

  6. Ethnic Identity and Offending Trajectories among Mexican American Juvenile Offenders: Gang Membership and Psychosocial Maturity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, George P.; Losoya, Sandra H.; Cho, Young Il; Chassin, Laurie; Williams, Joanna Lee; Cota-Robles, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    We examined the association of joint trajectories of ethnic identity and criminal offending to psychosocial maturity, gang membership, and Mexican American affiliation among 300 Mexican American male juvenile offenders from ages 14 to 22. There were two low-offending groups: one was the highest in ethnic identity and changing slightly with age and…

  7. 8 CFR 236.3 - Detention and release of juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Detention and release of juveniles. 236.3... Aliens Prior to Order of Removal § 236.3 Detention and release of juveniles. (a) Juveniles. A juvenile is defined as an alien under the age of 18 years. (b) Release. Juveniles for whom bond has been posted,...

  8. Uveitis in juvenile chronic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanski, J J

    1990-01-01

    About 20% of patients with juvenile chronic arthritis develop uveitis which is frequently bilateral. Risk factors for uveitis are: female gender, pauciarticular onset of arthritis, presence of circulating antinuclear antibodies, and the antigens HLA-DW5 and HLA-DPw2. The visual prognosis in patients with uveitis is good in 25% and fair in 50%. The remaining 25% develop cataract and/or glaucoma. The management of glaucoma is unsatisfactory, but the results of cataract surgery by lensectomy are good.

  9. Effects of neonatal overfeeding on juvenile and adult feeding and energy expenditure in the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Stefanidis

    Full Text Available Overfeeding during perinatal life leads to an overweight phenotype that persists throughout the juvenile stage and into adulthood, however, the mechanism(s underlying this effect are poorly understood. We hypothesized that obesity due to neonatal overfeeding is maintained by changes in energy expenditure and that these changes differ between males and females. We investigated feeding, physical activity, hormonal and metabolic alterations that occur in adult rats made obese by having been nursed in small litters (SL compared with those from control litters (CL. There were no differences in absolute food intake between the groups, and juvenile and adult SL rats ate less chow per gram body weight than the CL did in the dark (active phase. Juvenile, but not adult SL rats did have reduced whole body energy expenditure, but there were no differences between the groups by the time they reached adulthood. Adult SL females (but not males had reduced brown adipose tissue (BAT temperatures compared with CL in the first half of the dark phase. Our results indicate a persistent overweight phenotype in rats overfed as neonates is not associated with hyperphagia at any stage, but is reflected in reduced energy expenditure into the juvenile phase. The reduced dark phase BAT activity in adult SL females is not sufficient to reduce total energy expenditure at this stage of life and there is an apparently compensatory effect that prevents SL and CL from continuing to diverge in weight that appears between the juvenile and adult stages.

  10. Disease activity, severity, and damage in the UK Juvenile-Onset Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Louise; Leone, Valentina; Pilkington, Clarissa; Tullus, Kjell; Rangaraj, Satyapal; McDonagh, Janet E; Gardner-Medwin, Janet; Wilkinson, Nick; Riley, Phil; Tizard, Jane; Armon, Kate; Sinha, Manish D; Ioannou, Yiannis; Archer, Neil; Bailey, Kathryn; Davidson, Joyce; Baildam, Eileen M; Cleary, Gavin; McCann, Liza J; Beresford, Michael W

    2012-07-01

    The UK Juvenile-Onset Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (JSLE) Cohort Study is a multicenter collaborative network established with the aim of improving the understanding of juvenile SLE. The present study was undertaken to describe the clinical manifestations and disease course in patients with juvenile SLE from this large, national inception cohort. Detailed data on clinical phenotype were collected at baseline and at regular clinic reviews and annual followup assessments in 232 patients from 14 centers across the UK over 4.5 years. Patients with SLE were identified according to the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) SLE classification criteria. The present cohort comprised children with juvenile SLE (n=198) whose diagnosis fulfilled ≥4 of the ACR criteria for SLE. Among patients with juvenile SLE, the female:male sex distribution was 5.6:1 and the median age at diagnosis was 12.6 years (interquartile range 10.4-14.5 years). Male patients were younger than female patients (PLupus Assessment Group disease activity index demonstrated significantly increased frequencies of musculoskeletal (82%), renal (80%), hematologic (91%), immunologic (54%), and neurologic (26%) involvement among the patients over time. A large proportion of the patients (93%) were taking steroids and 24% of the patients required treatment with cyclophosphamide. Disease damage was common, with 28% of the patients having a Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/ACR damage score of ≥1. The data on these patients from the UK JSLE Cohort Study, comprising one of the largest national inception cohorts of patients with juvenile SLE to date, indicate that severe organ involvement and significant disease activity are primary characteristics in children with juvenile SLE. In addition, accumulation of disease-associated damage could be seen. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  11. The effect of excluding juveniles on apparent adult olive baboons (Papio anubis) social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedurek, Piotr; Lehmann, Julia

    2017-01-01

    In recent years there has been much interest in investigating the social structure of group living animals using social network analysis. Many studies so far have focused on the social networks of adults, often excluding younger, immature group members. This potentially may lead to a biased view of group social structure as multiple recent studies have shown that younger group members can significantly contribute to group structure. As proof of the concept, we address this issue by investigating social network structure with and without juveniles in wild olive baboons (Papio anubis) at Gashaka Gumti National Park, Nigeria. Two social networks including all independently moving individuals (i.e., excluding dependent juveniles) were created based on aggressive and grooming behaviour. We used knockout simulations based on the random removal of individuals from the network in order to investigate to what extent the exclusion of juveniles affects the resulting network structure and our interpretation of age-sex specific social roles. We found that juvenile social patterns differed from those of adults and that the exclusion of juveniles from the network significantly altered the resulting overall network structure. Moreover, the removal of juveniles from the network affected individuals in specific age-sex classes differently: for example, including juveniles in the grooming network increased network centrality of adult females while decreasing centrality of adult males. These results suggest that excluding juveniles from the analysis may not only result in a distorted picture of the overall social structure but also may mask some of the social roles of individuals belonging to different age-sex classes. PMID:28323851

  12. Reflectance Spectra Comparison of Orbital Debris, Intact Spacecraft, and Intact Rocket Bodies in the GEO Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albercromby, Kira J.; Abell, Paul; Barker, Ed

    2009-03-01

    A key objective of NASA's Orbital Debris program office at Johnson Space Center (JSC) is to characterize the debris environment by way of assessing the physical properties (type, mass, density, and size) of objects in orbit. Knowledge of the geosynchronous orbit (GEO) debris environment in particular can be used to determine the hazard probability at specific GEO altitudes and aid predictions of the future environment. To calculate an optical size from an intensity measurement of an object in the GEO regime, a 0.175 albedo is assumed currently. However, identification of specific material type or types could improve albedo accuracy and yield a more accurate size estimate for the debris piece. Using spectroscopy, it is possible to determine the surface materials of space objects. The study described herein used the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) to record spectral data in the ~ 0.65 to 2.5 micron regime on eight catalogued space objects. For comparison, all of the objects observed were in GEO or near-GEO. The eight objects consisted of two intact spacecraft, three rocket bodies, and three catalogued debris pieces. Two of the debris pieces stemmed from Titan 3C transtage breakup and the third is from COSMOS 2054. The reflectance spectra of the Titan 3C pieces share similar slopes (increasing with wavelength) and lack any strong absorption features. The COSMOS debris spectrum has a slight slope and has no absorption features. In contrast, the intact spacecraft show classic absorption features due to solar cells with a strong band gap feature near 1 micron. The two spacecraft were spin-stabilized objects and therefore have solar panels surrounding the outer surface. Two of the three rocket bodies are inertial upper stage (IUS) rocket bodies and have similar looking spectra. The slopes flatten out near 1.5 microns with absorption features in the near-infrared that are similar to that of white paint. The third rocket body has a similar flattening of slope but

  13. Juvenile morphology in baleen whale phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Hsiu; Fordyce, R Ewan

    2014-09-01

    Phylogenetic reconstructions are sensitive to the influence of ontogeny on morphology. Here, we use foetal/neonatal specimens of known species of living baleen whales (Cetacea: Mysticeti) to show how juvenile morphology of extant species affects phylogenetic placement of the species. In one clade (sei whale, Balaenopteridae), the juvenile is distant from the usual phylogenetic position of adults, but in the other clade (pygmy right whale, Cetotheriidae), the juvenile is close to the adult. Different heterochronic processes at work in the studied species have different influences on juvenile morphology and on phylogenetic placement. This study helps to understand the relationship between evolutionary processes and phylogenetic patterns in baleen whale evolution and, more in general, between phylogeny and ontogeny; likewise, this study provides a proxy how to interpret the phylogeny when fossils that are immature individuals are included. Juvenile individuals in the peramorphic acceleration clades would produce misleading phylogenies, whereas juvenile individuals in the paedomorphic neoteny clades should still provide reliable phylogenetic signals.

  14. Juvenile morphology in baleen whale phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Hsiu; Fordyce, R. Ewan

    2014-09-01

    Phylogenetic reconstructions are sensitive to the influence of ontogeny on morphology. Here, we use foetal/neonatal specimens of known species of living baleen whales (Cetacea: Mysticeti) to show how juvenile morphology of extant species affects phylogenetic placement of the species. In one clade (sei whale, Balaenopteridae), the juvenile is distant from the usual phylogenetic position of adults, but in the other clade (pygmy right whale, Cetotheriidae), the juvenile is close to the adult. Different heterochronic processes at work in the studied species have different influences on juvenile morphology and on phylogenetic placement. This study helps to understand the relationship between evolutionary processes and phylogenetic patterns in baleen whale evolution and, more in general, between phylogeny and ontogeny; likewise, this study provides a proxy how to interpret the phylogeny when fossils that are immature individuals are included. Juvenile individuals in the peramorphic acceleration clades would produce misleading phylogenies, whereas juvenile individuals in the paedomorphic neoteny clades should still provide reliable phylogenetic signals.

  15. Treatment for burn blisters: debride or leave intact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Faye; Amblum, Jeshi

    2014-05-01

    This article presents findings from a systematic literature review of whether blisters arising from minor burns should be de-roofed or left intact. It discusses the risks of infection, healing outcomes, discomfort, choice of dressings and costs associated with each method, and reveals that debriding blisters larger than the patient's little fingernail while leaving smaller ones intact is generally agreed to be the best option. The article also explains external factors that influence the choice of whether to debride or leave blisters intact, reviews policy at the trust where one of the authors works in the context of the research and makes recommendations for practice.

  16. Juvenile onset ankylosing spondylitis with ankylosing tarsitis: a rare combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiq, A B; Hasan, S A; Abdullah, A M; Azad, S A; Khan, E H; Khasru, M R

    2012-01-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis is the most common whereas ankylosing tarsitis is the least common subgroup of juvenile onset spondyloarthritides. In our recent study a male presented with ankle joint pain and swelling with limited movements and characteristic radiological changes including; periarticular swelling, thickened heel pad, hyperostosis and reduced ankle, calcaneo-cuboid and talo-navicular joint space for ankylosing tarsitis. He also had persistent inflammatory low back pain with radiological sacroilitis satisfying the clinical features for ankylosing spondylitis. The patient was treated with different anti-inflammatory agents including intra-articular methyl-prednisolone with short-term relief. Associated back pain was improved with spine mobilizing exercise.

  17. Olfactory contribution to Fos expression during mating in inexperienced male hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Fewell, G D; Meredith, M

    1998-06-01

    Male hamsters are very dependent on chemosensory cues for normal mating behavior. We have previously reported that central, vomeronasal pathways are intensely and selectively activated during mating or pheromonal stimulation. The contribution of main olfactory sensory input to the patterns of c-fos activation was investigated in this study. Sexually inexperienced male hamsters were either made anosmic by intranasal infusion of zinc sulfate or remained intact. Fos protein immunoreactivity was analyzed in main olfactory and vomeronasal pathways of the zinc sulfate-treated, anosmic animals after mating with receptive females for 45 min, and compared with Fos patterns seen in intact mating animals, some of which have been described in a previous publication. The zinc sulfate-treated anosmic males described here all mated when given access to receptive females. Whether mated or unstimulated, anosmic males had little or no Fos expression in main olfactory pathways; significantly less even than in unstimulated intact animals. Mating did not increase Fos expression in main olfactory pathways of intact animals over that of unstimulated intact controls. However, Fos expression in central vomeronasal pathways was significantly higher in mating anosmic males, as in intact males, compared with appropriate non-mating controls. Fos expression was significantly different between intact and zinc sulfate-treated anosmic mating males in only one area studied. The rostral anterior medial amygdala, known to receive a small olfactory terminal field, had significantly lower Fos expression in zinc sulfate-treated anosmic males that mated when compared with intact-mating animals. Thus, functional main olfactory input to the rostral vomeronasal amygdala can be demonstrated but does not appear to be critical for mating behavior in previously inexperienced male hamsters with intact vomeronasal organs. Other main olfactory input appears to have a negligible contribution to Fos-patterns in such

  18. Testosterone Modifies Alterations to Detrusor Muscle after Partial Bladder Outlet Obstruction in Juvenile Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew S. Flum

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to posterior urethral valves (PUV arise in boys during adolescence. The reasons for this have previously been attributed to increased urine output as boys experience increased growth. Additionally, there are few choices for clinicians to effectively treat these complications. We formed the new hypothesis that increased androgen levels at this time of childhood development could play a role at the cellular level in obstructed bladders. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the role of testosterone on bladder detrusor muscle following injury from partial bladder outlet obstruction (PO in mice. A PO model was surgically created in juvenile male mice. A group of mice were castrated by bilateral orchiectomy at time of obstruction (CPO. Testosterone cypionate was administered to a group of castrated, obstructed mice (CPOT. Bladder function was assessed by voiding stain on paper (VSOP. Bladders were analyzed at 7 and 28 days by weight and histology. Detrusor collagen to smooth muscle ratio (Col/SM was calculated using Masson’s trichrome stain. All obstructed groups had lower max voided volumes (MVV than sham mice at 1 day. Hormonally intact mice (PO continued to have lower MVV at 7 and 28 days while CPO mice improved to sham levels at both time points. In accordance, PO mice had higher bladder-to-body weight ratios than CPO and sham mice demonstrating greater bladder hypertrophy. Histologically, Col/SM was lower in sham and CPO mice. When testosterone was restored in CPOT mice, MVV remained low at 7 and 28 days compared to CPO and bladder-to-body weight ratios were also greater than CPO. Histologic changes were also seen in CPOT mice with higher Col/SM than sham and CPO mice. In conclusion, our findings support a role for testosterone in the fibrotic changes that occur after obstruction in male mice. This suggests that while other changes may occur in adolescent boys that cause complication in boys

  19. Testosterone Modifies Alterations to Detrusor Muscle after Partial Bladder Outlet Obstruction in Juvenile Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flum, Andrew S; Firmiss, Paula R; Bowen, Diana K; Kukulka, Natalie; Delos Santos, Grace B; Dettman, Robert W; Gong, Edward M

    2017-01-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to posterior urethral valves (PUV) arise in boys during adolescence. The reasons for this have previously been attributed to increased urine output as boys experience increased growth. Additionally, there are few choices for clinicians to effectively treat these complications. We formed the new hypothesis that increased androgen levels at this time of childhood development could play a role at the cellular level in obstructed bladders. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the role of testosterone on bladder detrusor muscle following injury from partial bladder outlet obstruction (PO) in mice. A PO model was surgically created in juvenile male mice. A group of mice were castrated by bilateral orchiectomy at time of obstruction (CPO). Testosterone cypionate was administered to a group of castrated, obstructed mice (CPOT). Bladder function was assessed by voiding stain on paper (VSOP). Bladders were analyzed at 7 and 28 days by weight and histology. Detrusor collagen to smooth muscle ratio (Col/SM) was calculated using Masson's trichrome stain. All obstructed groups had lower max voided volumes (MVV) than sham mice at 1 day. Hormonally intact mice (PO) continued to have lower MVV at 7 and 28 days while CPO mice improved to sham levels at both time points. In accordance, PO mice had higher bladder-to-body weight ratios than CPO and sham mice demonstrating greater bladder hypertrophy. Histologically, Col/SM was lower in sham and CPO mice. When testosterone was restored in CPOT mice, MVV remained low at 7 and 28 days compared to CPO and bladder-to-body weight ratios were also greater than CPO. Histologic changes were also seen in CPOT mice with higher Col/SM than sham and CPO mice. In conclusion, our findings support a role for testosterone in the fibrotic changes that occur after obstruction in male mice. This suggests that while other changes may occur in adolescent boys that cause complication in boys with PUV, the

  20. Distinct synovial immunopathologic characteristics of juvenile-onset spondylarthritis and other forms of juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Kruithof; V. van den Bossche; L. de Rycke; B. Vandooren; R. Joos; J.D. Canete; P.P. Tak; A.M.H. Boots; E.M. Veys; D. Baeten

    2006-01-01

    Objective. To characterize the synovial immunopathologic features of juvenile-onset spondylarthritis (SpA) in relation to adult SpA and other forms of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Methods. Synovial biopsy samples were obtained from 10 patients with juvenile-onset SpA, 23 with adult SpA, 19 w

  1. Justicia juvenil restaurativa como respuesta alternativa

    OpenAIRE

    Mariño Rojas, Cielo

    2016-01-01

    El artículo explora las posibilidades de la justicia juvenil restaurativa como respuesta alternativa en los sistemas de justicia juvenil en la región. Si bien la justicia restaurativa no aparece explícitamente en los instrumentos internacionales sobre justicia penal juvenil, estos dan la oportunidad para que aquella se desarrolle dentro de los sistemas de justicia juvenil. Inicialmente se aborda su evolución histórica para establecer el origen de sus principales características. A continuació...

  2. Male Hypogonadism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... types of male hypogonadism can be treated with testosterone replacement therapy. Symptoms Hypogonadism can begin during fetal development, before puberty or during adulthood. Signs and symptoms depend on when the condition ... enough testosterone during fetal development, the result may be impaired ...

  3. Vesta is not an intact protoplanet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consolmagno, G.; Turrini, D.; Golabek, G.; Svetsov, V.; Sirono, S.; Tsiganis, K.

    2014-07-01

    The Dawn mission was designed to explore ''remnant intact protoplanets from the earliest epoch of solar system formation'' [1]. However, models of Vesta composed of an iron core, olivine mantle, and HED crust in chondritic proportions cannot match the joint constraints from Dawn [1] of Vesta's density, core size, and the extremely limited presence of exposed olivine on its surface. Vesta has a mean density of 3456 kg/m3 and its surface composition is well matched by howardites. The Dawn gravity data suggest a nickel-iron core of radius 110 km and density 7500--7800 kg/m3. The Rheasilvia impact basin, formed within a pre-existing large basin, Veneneia, should have excavated material from a depth of 50 km to 80 km or more below Vesta's surface [2]. If the howardite crust were thinner than 50--80 km, a significant amount of olivine-rich material, derived from depth, would have been exposed within this basin; models suggest that olivine would also be distributed both on Vesta's surface and in space as meteorite-source Vestoids. Such olivine is rare on Vesta, among the Vestoids, or in our meteorite collection. Vesta's density is similar to an L chondrite, but the Na and K abundances in Vesta are strongly depleted compared to chondrites and the average metal content of an L chondrite, 8.4% by mass, would give a core radius less than 90 km. A 110 km radius metallic core, via the Dawn data, represents 15% of Vesta's mass. The Mg/Al ratio in cosmic abundances is about 10:1, but roughly 1:1 within the eucrites; thus if Vesta started with cosmic abundances, the eucrites can only represent 10% of the parent body total mass. Likewise the 10 x chondritic rare earth trace elements (REE) abundance seen in most eucrites demands that, regardless of formation mechanism, these basalts were crystallized from a melt representing 10% of the mass of the source region [3]. Thus the howardite crust of a chondritic HED parent body, mixing all the available eucritic and diogenitic material

  4. Non-intact zona improves development of murine preimplantation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl5

    2012-09-25

    Sep 25, 2012 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 11(77), pp. ... Key words: Mouse, non-intact zona embryos, adenovirus vector with green fluorescent protein (pAd-GFP), embryos ..... informational molecule, could be lysised or its function.

  5. Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis. Radiological diagnosis. Fibromatosis hialina juvenil. Diagnostico radiologico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentes, R.; Sar, V.; Cabrera, J.J.; Diaz, L.; Hernandez, B.; Valeron, P.; Baez, O.; Rodriguez, M.

    1993-10-01

    Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis (JHF) is a rare disorder of unknown etiology, very few cases of which have been reported in the literature. It presents similarities to other fibromatosys, but has its particular radiological features which differentiate it from them. The clinical findings consist of several, slow growing, subcutaneous nodules, flexion contractures of the joints which can lead to disability, gingival hypertrophy and muscular atrophy. The suspected radiological diagnosis is confirmed by electron microscopy study of the nodules, although light microscopy can also reveal suggestive images. Author (9 refs.)

  6. Induction of cytochrome p-450-ia1 in juvenile fish by creosote-contaminated sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoor, W.P.; Williams, D.E.; Takahashi, N.

    1991-01-01

    Intact sediment cores, including their surface layers, were used in simulated field exposure tests of juvenile guppies (Poecilia reticulata) to creosote-contaminated sediments. Mixed-function oxygenase activity was induced in the fish after 43 days of exposure to environmentally realistic, sublethal concentrations of creosote-related compounds. An average 50-fold induction in the cytochrome P-450-IA1 was found in the liver in the absence of any histopathological lesions. The possibility that a threshold level for proliferative liver changes was not reached is discussed in the light of the observed biochemical activation.

  7. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma: A single institution study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mistry Rajesh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA is a rare tumor of adolescent males and there is a paucity of Indian studies on this subject. AIMS : To present the experience of management of JNA at a single institution. SETTING AND DESIGN : This is a retrospective observational study of patients with JNA who presented at the Tata Memorial Hospital between May 1988 and August 2001. MATERIALS AND METHODS : Thirty-two patients with JNA were treated in the study period. Since the time period was prolonged and diagnostic and therapeutic protocols had undergone many changes, the patients were divided into two groups, namely 1988-1996 and 1997-2001. The age distribution, disease patterns, management approaches and treatment outcomes of patients in the two groups were recorded. Statistical analyses were done using students ′t′ test and test for proportion. RESULTS : The mean age at presentation was 16 years and more than 90% of the patients had Stage III or IV disease. Preoperative embolization was carried out in 19 patients. The surgical approaches used were median maxillectomy, infratemporal fossa, transpalatal, maxillary swing and craniofacial approach. The recurrence rate, complete resection rate and cure rates were 12.5%, 41% and 63% respectively. CONCLUSION : Surgery is the mainstay of treatment of JNA. Preoperative embolization and newer surgical approaches result in less blood loss and complete resection. Aggressive re-resection should be done for resectable recurrences reserving radiotherapy for unresectable, recurrent/ residual disease.

  8. Friendship Group Composition and Juvenile Institutional Misconduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Shannon E

    2017-02-01

    The present study examines both the patterns of friendship networks and how these network characteristics relate to the risk factors of institutional misconduct for incarcerated youth. Using friendship networks collected from males incarcerated with California's Division of Juvenile Justice (DJJ), latent profile analysis was utilized to create homogeneous groups of friendship patterns based on alter attributes and network structure. The incarcerated youth provided 144 egocentric networks reporting 558 social network relationships. Latent profile analysis identified three network profiles: expected group (67%), new breed group (20%), and model citizen group (13%). The three network profiles were integrated into a multiple group analysis framework to examine the relative influence of individual-level risk factors on their rate of institutional misconduct. The analysis finds variation in predictors of institutional misconduct across profile types. These findings suggest that the close friendships of incarcerated youth are patterned across the individual characteristics of the youth's friends and that the friendship network can act as a moderator for individual risk factors for institutional misconduct.

  9. [Optic neuritis in juvenile idiopathic arthritis patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Daniela M R; Buscatti, Izabel M; Lourenço, Benito; Monti, Fernanda C; Paz, José Albino; Silva, Clovis A

    2014-01-01

    Optic neuritis (ON) was rarely reported in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients, particularly in those under anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha blockage. However, to our knowledge, the prevalence of ON in JIA population has not been studied. Therefore, 5,793 patients were followed up at our University Hospital and 630 (11%) had JIA. One patient (0.15%) had ON and was reported herein. A 6-year-old male was diagnosed with extended oligoarticular JIA, and received naproxen and methotrexate subsequently replaced by leflunomide. At 11 years old, he was diagnosed with aseptic meningitis, followed by a partial motor seizure with secondary generalization. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and electroencephalogram showed diffuse disorganization of the brain electric activity and leflunomide was suspended. Seven days later, the patient presented acute ocular pain, loss of acuity for color, blurred vision, photophobia, redness and short progressive visual loss in the right eye. A fundoscopic exam detected unilateral papilledema without retinal exudates. Orbital MRI suggested right ON. The anti-aquaporin 4 (anti-AQP4) antibody was negative. Pulse therapy with methylprednisolone was administered for five days, and subsequently with prednisone, he had clinical and laboratory improvement. In conclusion, a low prevalence of ON was observed in our JIA population. The absence of anti-AQP4 antibody and the normal brain MRI do not exclude the possibility of demyelinating disease associated with chronic arthritis. Therefore, rigorous follow up is required.

  10. Does sex influence intraspecific aggression and dominance in Nile tilapia juveniles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho-Neto, Cândido Ferreira; Miyai, Caio Akira; Sanches, Fabio Henrique Carretero; Giaquinto, Percília Cardoso; Delicio, Helton Carlos; Barcellos, Leonardo José Gil; Volpato, Gilson Luiz; Barreto, Rodrigo Egydio

    2014-06-01

    Although sex of mature fish is known to influence aggression, this issue has so far been neglected in juveniles. Here, we tested this sex effect and showed that it does not significantly affect intraspecific aggression in juveniles of the cichlid Nile tilapia. To reach this conclusion, we measured the latency period before onset of confrontation, the frequency and types of aggressive interactions, the duration of a dispute, and the probability of becoming dominant. This was done on pairs of Nile tilapia that varied by sex: females×females, males×males, and females×males. In a double blind approach, after pairing, the sex of each individual was histologically verified and contrasted with behavioral data.

  11. Juvenile ossifying fibroma: Psammamatoid variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivani Aggarwal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile ossifying fibroma is a rare fibro-osseous lesion containing variable amount of calcified masses, which resembles bone or cementum within a fibrocellular connective tissue stroma. It has variable clinical behavior, highly aggressive in nature including invasion and destruction of adjacent anatomic structures with a strong tendency to recur. We reported a 28-year-old female patient with a growth in the upper left vestibule region extending from canine to molar region with clinical, histopathological, and radiological features are presented. Surgical management was done, and regular follow-up was advised.

  12. [Juvenile monomelic amyotrophy: Hirayama disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdowski, W; Baniukiewicz, E; Lewonowska, M

    1998-01-01

    We present three patients with unilateral upper limb weakness (with muscular atrophy)-two of them with distal and one with proximal localization. The disease onset was between 18th end 35-th year of life; the disease course was biphasic (i.e. progressive within first 1 to 3 years, and stabilized during following 4-24 years). The laboratory investigations permitted to diagnose juvenile monomelic amyotrophy, an entity that is very rare outside Japan. Electromyography revealed neurogenic involvement with spinal features also in clinically unaffected muscles. We suggest that these results may support the hypothesis of this disease being a benign variant of spinal muscular atrophy.

  13. Juvenile Competency to Stand Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanyan, Sofia T; Sidhu, Shawn S; Bath, Eraka

    2016-01-01

    Competency to stand trial is interpreted as a protected due process right for all defendants and is defined as a defendant's fundamental knowledge and understanding of the criminal charges being filed, roles and procedures within the courtroom, and a general ability to work with the defense counsel. Questions of competency are most often raised by the judge, defense, or the prosecution, and competency evaluations are most often completed by psychiatrists or psychologists with forensic training or work experience. Mental illness, intellectual disability, developmental disorders, and developmental immaturity are the 4 main factors considered in most juvenile competency evaluations.

  14. Glucocorticoids in juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malattia, Clara; Martini, Alberto

    2014-05-01

    Although the use of corticosteroids in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is now much more limited owing to the availability of methotrexate and biological agents, there are clinical scenarios where it is still indicated. For example, corticosteroids may be indicated for intraarticular injections to prevent joint deformities, as a "bridge" drug to relieve symptoms in polyarticular disease while waiting for methotrexate and biologics to exert their full therapeutic effects, and in the treatment of chronic iridocyclitis, macrophage activation syndrome, and systemic JIA, although the advent of interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-6 blockers has greatly reduced the latter indication.

  15. Imaging of juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Karl [Birmingham Children' s Hospital, Radiology Department, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2006-08-15

    Over the past decade there have been considerable changes in the classification and imaging of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Radiology now has a considerable role in the management of JIA, the differential diagnosis, monitoring disease progression and detecting complications. The different imaging modalities available, their role and limitations are discussed in this article and the various disease features that the radiologist should be aware of are described. An approach to the imaging of the child with joint disease and in the monitoring of disease complications are also discussed. (orig.)

  16. THE STUDY OF FEATURES OF GUILT OF JUVENILE OFFENDERS IN THE CONTEXT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalija Vladimirovna Galkina

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the results of empirical studies of the experiences of guilt of juvenile offenders in the context of juvenile justice where a minor appears as the subject of legal relations. Restorative approach of juvenile justice is based on an admission of guilt to the victim. In connection with it, the research of features of the guilt of minors who have committed an offence and the conditions for the development of the subjectivity will enhance understanding of the possibilities of restorative juvenile justice system in the prevention of juvenile delinquency.Thus, the results of empirical research presented in the article are important for determining of the psychological bases of realization of rehabilitation programs in the context of juvenile justice. In particular, the results are important for the organization and conduct of psychological work to overcome the psychological barriers in the behavior of juveniles having inherently maladaptive guilt and destructive psychological defense mechanisms.

  17. Child Maltreatment and Delinquency Onset among African American Adolescent Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, James Herbert; Van Dorn, Richard A.; Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Nebbitt, Von E.

    2010-01-01

    Child welfare and criminology research have increasingly sought to better understand factors that increase the likelihood that abused and neglected children will become involved in the juvenile justice system. However, few studies have addressed this relationship among African American male adolescents. The current study examines the relationship…

  18. Resiliency in Adolescent Males in a Correctional Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Sheryl; Baartman, Jyl; Buboltz, Michelle; Sonnichsen, Kim; Solomon, Rebekka

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this qualitative study was to establish the existing positive factors in the lives of 18 juvenile males living in a low-security correctional facility in order to determine approaches which foster resiliency. Urie Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Systems Theory, an approach to understanding human development within the context of the…

  19. Opportunities to promote health to vulnerable male teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildbore, Amanda

    Forty years ago an increase in 'juvenile delinquency' led to a large prison-building programme for young offenders. Today, the emphasis is on community sentencing and a reduction in prison places. The secondment of nurses into youth offending teams makes it possible to offer primary health services to a group of mainly male, vulnerable people.

  20. Changes in Juvenile Justice in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Dennis S. W.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses rising juvenile and youth crime in China, highlighting the essence of Chinese Marxist criminological thought and changing conceptions of delinquency from the postrevolutionary period to the present; examining official responses to delinquency and the recent development of juvenile justice; and suggesting that current delinquency control…

  1. Juvenile Anorexia Nervosa: Family Therapy's Natural Niche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, H. Charles

    2006-01-01

    Juvenile Anorexia Nervosa (AN) is a severe problem both in terms of presenting symptomatology and its tendency toward chronicity. Researchers have consistently shown that family-based approaches are superior to individual approaches for the treatment of juvenile AN. This article addresses the capacity deficit of trained family therapists to treat…

  2. Juveniles' Motivations for Remaining in Prostitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Shu-Ling; Bedford, Olwen

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were collected in 1990-1991, 1992, and 2000 with 49 prostituted juveniles remanded to two rehabilitation centers in Taiwan. These data are analyzed to explore Taiwanese prostituted juveniles' feelings about themselves and their work, their motivations for remaining in prostitution, and their difficulties…

  3. Alternative sanctions for juveniles in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, P.H. van der

    1993-01-01

    In the Netherlands alternative sanctions for juveniles have become very popular. In less than ten years, the alternative sanction has surpassed the fine as the most frequently imposed penal sanction for juveniles. As a result of this popularity, some net widening has occured. In general, alternativl

  4. Psychiatric Disorder in a Juvenile Assessment Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    McReynolds, Larkin S.; Wasserman, Gail A.; DeComo, Robert E.; John, Reni; Keating, Joseph M.; Nolen, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile assessment centers (JACs) were developed to address service fragmentation and promote the sharing of information among agencies providing services to youth involved with the juvenile justice system. To date, there are no reports that describe the diagnostic profiles of the youth served by such centers. The authors hypothesize that the…

  5. Juveniles' Motivations for Remaining in Prostitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Shu-Ling; Bedford, Olwen

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were collected in 1990-1991, 1992, and 2000 with 49 prostituted juveniles remanded to two rehabilitation centers in Taiwan. These data are analyzed to explore Taiwanese prostituted juveniles' feelings about themselves and their work, their motivations for remaining in prostitution, and their difficulties…

  6. Ethnic disparities in Dutch juvenile justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komen, M.; van Schooten, E.

    2009-01-01

    In the Netherlands, ethnic minority boys are heavily overrepresented in prisons and secure judicial institutions for juveniles. In a sample of 324 juveniles of both native Dutch and ethnic minority origin who have come into contact with the Dutch criminal justice authorities, we compared the number

  7. Group sexual offending by juvenile females

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijkman, M.; Weerman, F.; Bijleveld, C.; Hendriks, J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined all group sexual offending cases in the Netherlands between 1995 and 2009 (n = 26) in which at least one juvenile female offender (n = 35) had been adjudicated. Information from court files showed that the majority of juvenile female group sexual offenders have (inter)personal pr

  8. Juvenile sterile granulomatous dermatitis (puppy strangle in Pekingese and German shepherd puppies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abbaszadeh Hasiri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile sterile granulomatous dermatitis is an uncommon granulomatous and pustular disorder of the face, pinnae, and submandibular lymph nodes of puppies. A 10-week-old male Pekingese and a 8-week-old female German shepherd presented with submandibular lymphadenomegaly, skin lesions on muzzle and periocular area (Papules, crusts and pustules. The case did not respond to antibiotic therapy. Results of a hemogram, biochemical panel, and urinalysis were normal. Due to skin scraping, cytology examination (impression smear, fungal and bacterial culture and response to therapy puppy strangle (juvenile cellulitis was diagnosed. The puppies made a full recovery on glucocorticoid therapy. The present case report describes the first report of juvenile sterile granulomatous dermatitis in Iran.

  9. A social work study on juvenile delinquency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We present an empirical study to study the effects of different factors on juvenile delinquency. The investigation distributes 100 questionnaires among people who are involved with crime and analyzes their feedbacks. There are five hypotheses in our survey and we look to see whether family conditions, religion, economical conditions, media and physical and psychological characteristics play important role on juvenile delinquency in Iranian society. The results shows that while family conditions, physical and psychological characteristics play important role on juvenile delinquency, other factors do not statistically have any impact on juvenile delinquency. The study suggests that a better family condition could help reduce juvenile delinquency and people could guide their children through better consultations.

  10. Atherosclerosis in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Jednacz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the arteries. Clinical consequences of the atherosclerotic process occur in the adult population, however atherosclerotic process begins in childhood. The classic risk factors for atherosclerosis include obesity, dyslipidaemia, age, gender or family history. In recent years, attention has been drawn to the similarity between atherosclerotic inflammatory processes and inflammatory changes in the course of systemic connective tissue disease, in particular systemic lupus etythematosus (SLE or rheumatoid arthritis (RA. There is also observed the similarity of the pathogenetic background of development of atherosclerosis and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA. Elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines are observed in the course of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Also homocysteine concentrations, which may play a significant role in the development of atherosclerotic lesions, are observed higher in patients with JIA. Some studies revealed higher carotid intima-media thickness (IMT index values in children with JIA. In view of the fact that atherosclerotic process begins as early as in childhood, the introduction of appropriate preventive measures in children is a matter of utmost importance.

  11. Vulnerability of ecosystems to climate change moderated by habitat intactness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigenbrod, Felix; Gonzalez, Patrick; Dash, Jadunandan; Steyl, Ilse

    2015-01-01

    The combined effects of climate change and habitat loss represent a major threat to species and ecosystems around the world. Here, we analyse the vulnerability of ecosystems to climate change based on current levels of habitat intactness and vulnerability to biome shifts, using multiple measures of habitat intactness at two spatial scales. We show that the global extent of refugia depends highly on the definition of habitat intactness and spatial scale of the analysis of intactness. Globally, 28% of terrestrial vegetated area can be considered refugia if all natural vegetated land cover is considered. This, however, drops to 17% if only areas that are at least 50% wilderness at a scale of 48×48 km are considered and to 10% if only areas that are at least 50% wilderness at a scale of 4.8×4.8 km are considered. Our results suggest that, in regions where relatively large, intact wilderness areas remain (e.g. Africa, Australia, boreal regions, South America), conservation of the remaining large-scale refugia is the priority. In human-dominated landscapes, (e.g. most of Europe, much of North America and Southeast Asia), focusing on finer scale refugia is a priority because large-scale wilderness refugia simply no longer exist. Action to conserve such refugia is particularly urgent since only 1 to 2% of global terrestrial vegetated area is classified as refugia and at least 50% covered by the global protected area network. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Treatment of refractory juvenile idiopathic arthritis via pulse therapy using methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Caroline Monteiro de Castro

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Patients with refractory juvenile idiopathic arthritis can benefit from aggressive therapy. CASE REPORT: We followed the clinical course of 4 patients (2 male, 2 female aged 9.1-17.8 years (mean of 14.5 years with polyarticular onset of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis and one 16-year-old boy with juvenile spondyloarthropathy associated with inflammatory bowel disease. All the juvenile rheumatoid arthritis patients fulfilled the diagnostic criteria established by the American College of Rheumatology. All patients had unremitting arthritis despite maximum therapy. All patients began receiving treatment using intravenous cyclophosphamide at 500-750 mg/m² and intravenous methylprednisolone at 30 mg/kg, for 3 days monthly (1 g maximum. The patients received between 3 and 11 monthly treatments, and/or 3-5 treatments every two months for 12 months, according to the severity of the disease and/or response to the therapy. All but one patient were evaluated retrospectively at the start (time 0 and 6 months (time 1, and 12 months (time 2 after the beginning of the treatment. A rapid and clinically significant suppression of systemic and articular manifestations was seen in all patients. Our results showed the favorable effect of this treatment on the clinical and some laboratory manifestations of juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

  13. Scented males and choosy females: does male odor influence female mate choice in the Mediterranean fruit fly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelly, Todd E; Edu, James; Pahio, Elaine; Nishimoto, Jon

    2007-12-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), displays a lek mating system characterized by a high level of female discrimination among potential mates. The basis of female choice is not understood, but recent studies indicate that male exposure to the aroma of certain plant structures or essential oils may increase mating success. In particular, exposure to the aroma of ginger root oil (GRO) enhances male mating frequency, and several sterile-male release programs against C. capitata have incorporated 'aromatherapy' (large-scale exposure of pre-release insects to GRO) to increase the effectiveness of control efforts. We investigated the mechanism underlying female preference for GRO-exposed males. Two sets of experiments were conducted. In the first, we monitored female attraction to (1) freshly killed flies, or (2) paper discs that contained hexane extracts from varying treatments. In these tests, females were sighted more often (1) near GRO-exposed than non-exposed males (even when the males were visually concealed) and (2) near extracts from GRO-exposed than non-exposed males. These findings suggest a 'perfume effect', whereby female mate choice is mediated by olfactory differences. In the second set, we compared (1) mate choice between intact females and females from which both antennae had been surgically removed, and (2) mating success between intact males and males from which both antennae had been surgically removed before GRO exposure. Intact females preferred GRO-exposed males, whereas females lacking both antennae rarely mated and showed no preference between GRO-exposed and non-exposed males. In the opposite treatment (intact females but surgically altered males), GRO-exposed males lacking both antennae mated as frequently as GRO-exposed intact males. These data suggest that female choice was dependent on olfactory perception of male odor but that male mating success did not depend on olfactory perception of GRO aroma, suggesting, in

  14. 8 CFR 1236.3 - Detention and release of juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Detention and release of juveniles. 1236.3... ORDERED REMOVED Detention of Aliens Prior to Order of Removal § 1236.3 Detention and release of juveniles. (a) Juveniles. A juvenile is defined as an alien under the age of 18 years. (b) Release....

  15. Habitat associations of juvenile versus adult butterflyfishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratchett, M. S.; Berumen, M. L.; Marnane, M. J.; Eagle, J. V.; Pratchett, D. J.

    2008-09-01

    Many coral reef fishes exhibit distinct ontogenetic shifts in habitat use while some species settle directly in adult habitats, but there is not any general explanation to account for these differences in settlement strategies among coral reef fishes. This study compared distribution patterns and habitat associations of juvenile (young of the year) butterflyfishes to those of adult conspecifics. Three species, Chaetodon auriga, Chaetodon melannotus, and Chaetodon vagabundus, all of which have limited reliance on coral for food, exhibited marked differences in habitat association of juvenile versus adult individuals. Juveniles of these species were consistently found in shallow-water habitats, whereas adult conspecifics were widely distributed throughout a range of habitats. Juveniles of seven other species ( Chaetodon aureofasciatus, Chaetodon baronessa, Chaetodon citrinellus, Chaetodon lunulatus, Chaetodon plebeius, Chaetodon rainfordi, and Chaetodon trifascialis), all of which feed predominantly on live corals, settled directly into habitat occupied by adult conspecifics. Butterflyfishes with strong reliance on corals appear to be constrained to settle in habitats that provide access to essential prey resources, precluding their use of distinct juvenile habitats. More generalist butterflyfishes, however, appear to utilize distinct juvenile habitats and exhibit marked differences in the distribution of juveniles versus adults.

  16. Persistent truncus arteriosus with intact ventricular septum diagnosed by echocardiography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yu-qi; SHEN Rong; SUN Kun; ZHONG Shu-wen; WU Yu-rong

    2009-01-01

    Persistent truncus arteriosus (PTA) is a rare congenital cardiac anomaly, and has an incidence of about 0.5 to 0.9 per 10 000 live births. Almost all cases described in the literatures had a large ventricular septal defect, only few rare cases were reported with intact ventricular septum. From June 1998 to December 2008, cardiac angiography were performed in 10 880 patients with congenital heart disease in our hospital, 47 patients with PTA were diagnosed, one case with tricuspid atresia,hypoplastic right ventricle, and intact ventricular septum was encountered.

  17. Sex differences in metabolic and adipose tissue responses to juvenile-onset obesity in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloor, Ian D; Sébert, Sylvain P; Saroha, Vivek; Gardner, David S; Keisler, Duane H; Budge, Helen; Symonds, Michael E; Mahajan, Ravi P

    2013-10-01

    Sex is a major factor determining adipose tissue distribution and the subsequent adverse effects of obesity-related disease including type 2 diabetes. The role of gender on juvenile obesity and the accompanying metabolic and inflammatory responses is not well established. Using an ovine model of juvenile onset obesity induced by reduced physical activity, we examined the effect of gender on metabolic, circulatory, and related inflammatory and energy-sensing profiles of the major adipose tissue depots. Despite a similar increase in fat mass with obesity between genders, males demonstrated a higher storage capacity of lipids within perirenal-abdominal adipocytes and exhibited raised insulin. In contrast, obese females became hypercortisolemic, a response that was positively correlated with central fat mass. Analysis of gene expression in perirenal-abdominal adipose tissue demonstrated the stimulation of inflammatory markers in males, but not females, with obesity. Obese females displayed increased expression of genes involved in the glucocorticoid axis and energy sensing in perirenal-abdominal, but not omental, adipose tissue, indicating a depot-specific mechanism that may be protective from the adverse effects of metabolic dysfunction and inflammation. In conclusion, young males are at a greater risk than females to the onset of comorbidities associated with juvenile-onset obesity. These sex-specific differences in cortisol and adipose tissue could explain the earlier onset of the metabolic-related diseases in males compared with females after obesity.

  18. Retinosquisis juvenil y su rehabilitación visual Juvenile retinoschisis and its visual rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn Linares Guerra

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La retinosquisis es una distrofia vitreorretiniana caracterizada por la separación de las capas de la retina y la formación de quistes intrarretinianos. En la retinosquisis juvenil se describen alteraciones oftalmológicas que la distinguen de la retinosquisis adquirida. Con el objetivo de describir las características clínicas de un caso atípico de retinosquisis juvenil se realizó el estudio de un paciente varón de 8 años de edad, quien acudió a consulta por disminución de la visión y la posibilidad de ayuda óptica. Al examen del fondo de ojo se visualizó una esquisis a nivel macular y periférica con edema de ambas máculas. El electrorretinograma presentó una disminución en la amplitud de la onda b. La tomografía de coherencia óptica reveló la separación de la retina interna a nivel de la capa de fibras nerviosas y el edema macular quístico. El tratamiento realizado fue la corrección y la ayuda ópticas para la visión cercana. Se concluye que se trata de una enfermedad infrecuente y, a su vez, de un caso atípico donde se imbricaron diversos signos que orientaban hacia las dos formas clínicas de la enfermedad, pero independientemente de que aparezcan características de retinosquisis adquirida en un paciente joven, el tratamiento de rehabilitación visual con ayuda óptica sigue siendo el más indicado para lograr una mayor calidad visual.The retinoschisis is a vitreoretinal dystrophy characterized by the separation of the retina layers and the formation of intraretinal cysts, In juvenile retinoschisis are described ophthalmologic alterations distinguished of the acquired retinoschisis. The objective of present paper was to conduct a study to describe the clinical features of an atypical case of juvenile retinoschisis of a male patient aged 8 who came to consultation due to a decrease of vision and the possibility of optical help. At eye examination it was visualized a schisis at macular level and peripheral with edema

  19. Castration promotes welfare in group-housed male Swiss outbred mice maintained in educational institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Lewis M; Dawson, Jane S; Porter, Paula R; Whittaker, Alexandra L

    2014-01-01

    Educational institutions maintain group-housed mice of both sexes for training veterinarians and technicians in husbandry, medication, and sampling procedures. Mice kept in all-male groups may experience poor welfare due to fighting. Castrated mice may be used to replace gonadally intact males for such training programs. In this prospective cohort study, 80 castrated and 80 control (intact) male mice were studied over 3 mo to monitor aggression frequency and injury levels. Behavioral observations were performed twice weekly by using an all-occurrences sampling method to quantify behavioral events and the number and severity of bite wounds. Under these housing conditions, group-housed male mice castrated postpubertally exhibited significantly less aggression than did intact male mice. Castration therefore improves welfare in group-housed male mice and thus provides a husbandry alternative to individually housing animals in nonstudy situations.

  20. SUBTYPES OF JUVENILE SYSTEMIC SCLERODERMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M N Slarovoitova

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to allot clinical forms of juvenile systemic scleroderma (JSSD. Material and methods: investigation and dynamic observation of 60 patients aged 14-54 (mean age 25.1 ±7.2 with onset of disease in child's and adolescent’s ages from 1 to 16 years old ( in average 11. 4±3.8 year old and disease duration from 1 to 39 years (in average 13.1 ±7.9. Results: 55% of patients demonstrated JSSD subtype with focal cutaneous lesion of different localization. The possibility of overlap-syndrome development in JSSD patients with onset in adolescent age typical for SSD-rheumatoid arthritis, SSD-polymvositis should be underlined. Conclusion: knowledge of different clinical forms and courses of the disease, modern diagnostics and early beginning of differential JSSD treatment will enable us to improve the prognosis and disease outcome.

  1. Juvenile Huntington disease in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, Emilia Mabel; Parisi, Virginia; Etcheverry, José Luis; Sanguinetti, Ana; Cordi, Lorena; Binelli, Adrian; Persi, Gabriel; Squitieri, Ferdinando

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed demographic, clinical and genetic characteristics of juvenile Huntington disease (JHD) and it frequency in an Argentinean cohort. Age at onset was defined as the age at which behavioral, cognitive, psychiatric or motor abnormalities suggestive of JHD were first reported. Clinical and genetic data were similar to other international series, however, in this context we identified the highest JHD frequency reported so far (19.72%; 14/71). Age at onset of JHD is challenging and still under discussion. Our findings reinforce the hypothesis that clinical manifestations, other than the typical movement disorder, may anticipate age at onset of even many years. Analyses of JHD cohorts are required to explore it frequency in populations with different backgrounds to avoid an underestimation of this rare phenotype. Moreover, data from selected populations may open new pathways in therapeutic approaches and may explain new potential correlations between HD presentations and environmental or biological factors.

  2. [Physiotherapy for juvenile idiopathic arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spamer, M; Georgi, M; Häfner, R; Händel, H; König, M; Haas, J-P

    2012-07-01

    Control of disease activity and recovery of function are major issues in the treatment of children and adolescents suffering from juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Functional therapies including physiotherapy are important components in the multidisciplinary teamwork and each phase of the disease requires different strategies. While in the active phase of the disease pain alleviation is the main focus, the inactive phase requires strategies for improving motility and function. During remission the aim is to regain general fitness by sports activities. These phase adapted strategies must be individually designed and usually require a combination of different measures including physiotherapy, occupational therapy, massage as well as other physical procedures and sport therapy. There are only few controlled studies investigating the effectiveness of physical therapies in JIA and many strategies are derived from long-standing experience. New results from physiology and sport sciences have contributed to the development in recent years. This report summarizes the basics and main strategies of physical therapy in JIA.

  3. Social influences on the acquisition of sex-typical foraging patterns by juveniles in a group of wild tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus nigritus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, Ilaria; Visalberghi, Elisabetta

    2005-04-01

    Foraging traditions in primates are becoming the subject of increasing debate. Recent evidence for such a phenomenon was recently provided for wild Cebus capucinus [Fragaszy & Perry, 2003]. To better understand the bases of animal traditions, one should examine intrapopulation behavioral variability and the influence of social context on within-group transmission of specific foraging patterns. We studied the variability of foraging patterns across age and sex classes, and the proximity patterns of juveniles to adults of both sexes in a group of wild tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus nigritus) living in the Iguazu National Park, Argentina. Foraging activity was examined for a period of 9 months in terms of proportions of focal samples devoted to foraging on certain food targets, microhabitats, and supports, and using specific foraging patterns. Proximity analyses were performed to reveal patterns of association between juveniles and adults. Sex differences in foraging behavior were present and overrode age differences. Overall, males ate more animal foods, foraged more for invertebrates on woody microhabitats (especially large branches), palms, and epiphytes, and used lower and larger supports than females. Females ate more fruits, foraged more on leaves and bamboo microhabitats, and used smaller supports than males. Juveniles were similar to adults of the same sex in terms of food targets, foraging substrates, and choice of supports, but were less efficient than adults. Proximity patterns indicated that juvenile males stayed in close spatial association with adult males and preferentially focused their "food interest" on them. This phenomenon was less evident in juvenile females. The degree to which juveniles, especially males, showed some of the sex-typical foraging patterns correlated positively with their proximity to adults of the same sex. These findings suggest that the acquisition of foraging behaviors by juvenile males is socially biased by their closeness to

  4. Computed Tomography of the Prostate Gland in Healthy Intact Dogs and Dogs with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasikowska, J; Hebel, M; Niżański, W; Nowak, M

    2015-10-01

    To date, there is only scarce data on the evaluation of the prostate gland in dogs using computed tomography (CT). The aims of our study were to describe CT features of BPH in dogs and to determine the size of the prostate gland in healthy male dogs and dogs with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) through CT. Additionally, we aimed to compare and establish the most useful parameters for CT measurements of the prostate in patients with BPH. The study population consisted of 20 healthy intact male dogs and 20 male intact dogs with confirmed BPH. Pre- and post-contrast CT studies were evaluated. The most common CT features in dogs with recognized BPH were symmetrical prostatomegaly and heterogeneity of the prostatic parenchyma. The mean prostatic density (D) was 56HU (±4.39) in pre-contrast CT images and 84HU (±8) in post-contrast images in dogs with BPH. The mean prostatic length (L) was 43.87 mm (±11), the mean width (W) amounted to 48.95 mm (±8.76) and the mean height (H) reached 44.9 mm (±9.48) in clinically affected patients. The mean ratios were: rL - 2,12 (±0.5); rW - 2.39 (±0.53) and rH - 2.16 (±0.39) in the BPH group. The prostate should be considered to be enlarged when rL exceeds 3.05; rW exceeds 3.38 and rH exceeds 2.94. Our findings indicated that CT is a useful tool in diagnosing prostate disorders, including BPH. The heterogeneity, density and ratios of prostatic length, width and height can be useful parameters in the diagnosis of BPH.

  5. Juvenile prison: Remarks on the specific characteristics of regular sentencing

    OpenAIRE

    Miladinović-Stefanović, Dušica

    2015-01-01

    The system of the juvenile criminal law in the Republic of Serbia includes different mechanisms of social response to juvenile delinquency, including corrective orders, corrective measures and juvenile prison. This paper deals with the issue of determining a relevant sentence for juvenile offenders in trial proceedings. The legislator has provided a number of guidelines for these proceedings: the specific range of the juvenile prison sentence, the purpose of punishment, the degree of maturity...

  6. Parenting Styles and Family Communication as Correlates of Juvenile Delinquency

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine parenting styles and family communication as correlates of juvenile delinquency. A review of the literature was completed in the areas of parenting styles, family communication, and juvenile delinquency. The literature that was reviewed for this study was examined mainly from juvenile perceptions. This study was approached from a general systems theory perspective. A sample of juveniles (N = 78) from Weber County, Utah, involved in the juvenile justice...

  7. Serum steroid levels in intact and endocrine ablated BALB/c nude mice and their intact littermates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brünner, N; Svenstrup, B; Spang-Thomsen, M;

    1986-01-01

    An investigation was made of the serum steroid levels found in intact and endocrine ablated nude mice of both sexes and in their intact homozygous littermates. The results showed that nude mice have a normal steroidogenesis, but with decreased levels of circulating steroids compared to those...... of the littermates. The efficacy of the endocrine ablations was confirmed by the reduction in serum oestrone following oophorectomy, and by the reduction in serum testosterone and progesterone following orchiectomy. The normal steroidogenesis in nude mice, and the similarities between mouse and man with regard...

  8. Are antipredator behaviours of hatchery Salmo salar juveniles similar to wild juveniles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvanes, A G V

    2017-01-27

    This study explores how antipredator behaviour of juvenile Atlantic salmon Salmo salar developed during conventional hatchery rearing of eggs from wild brood stock, compared with the behaviour of wild-caught juveniles from the same population. Juveniles aged 1+ years were tested in two unfamiliar environments; in one S. salar were presented with simulated predator attacks and in the other they were given the opportunity to explore an open-field arena. No difference was found in their spontaneous escape responses or ventilation rate (reflex responses) after simulated predator attacks. Hatchery-reared juveniles were more risk-prone in their behaviours than wild-caught individuals. Hatchery juveniles stayed less time in association with shelter. In the open-field arena, hatchery juveniles were more active than wild juveniles. Hatchery juveniles were also immobile for less time and spent a shorter amount of time than wild juveniles in the fringe of the open-field arena. Salmo salar size had no effect on the observed behaviour. Overall, this study provides empirical evidence that one generation of hatchery rearing does not change reflex responses associated with threats, whereas antipredator behaviour, typically associated with prior experience, was less developed in hatchery-reared than in wild individuals.

  9. Conceptualizing juvenile prostitution as child maltreatment: findings from the National Juvenile Prostitution Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kimberly J; Finkelhor, David; Wolak, Janis

    2010-02-01

    Two studies were conducted to identify the incidence (Study 1) and characteristics (Study 2) of juvenile prostitution cases known to law enforcement agencies in the United States. Study 1 revealed a national estimate of 1,450 arrests or detentions (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1,287-1,614) in cases involving juvenile prostitution during a 1-year period. In Study 2, exploratory data were collected from a subsample of 138 cases from police records in 2005. The cases are broadly categorized into three main types: (a) third-party exploiters, (b) solo prostitution, and (c) conventional child sexual abuse (CSA) with payment. Cases were classified into three initial categories based on police orientation toward the juvenile: (a) juveniles as victims (53%), (b) juveniles as delinquents (31%), and (c) juvenile as both victims and delinquents (16%). When examining the status of the juveniles by case type, the authors found that all the juveniles in CSA with payment cases were treated as victims, 66% in third-party exploiters cases, and 11% in solo cases. Findings indicate law enforcement responses to juvenile prostitution are influential in determining whether such youth are viewed as victims of commercial sexual exploitation or as delinquents.

  10. Perceived parental control processes, parent-child relational qualities and psychological well-being of Chinese adolescents in intact and non-intact families in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L; Lee, Tak Yan

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines whether Chinese adolescents' perceptions (N = 3,017) of parental behavioral control (parental knowledge, expectation, monitoring, discipline, and demandingness as well as parental control based on indigenous Chinese concepts), parental psychological control, parent-child relational qualities (perceived parental trust, child's trust of the parents, child's readiness to communicate with the parents, and child's satisfaction with parental control), and adolescent psychological well-being (hopelessness, mastery, life satisfaction and self-esteem) differed in intact and non-intact families. Results showed that relative to non-intact families, parental behavioral control processes were higher and parent-child relational qualities were better in intact families. In contrast, parental psychological control was higher in non-intact families than in intact families. Finally, the psychological well-being of adolescents in non-intact families was poorer than that of adolescents in intact families.

  11. Bioavailability and in vivo metabolism of intact glucosinolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Christian; Frandsen, Heidi Blok; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2016-01-01

    Health benefits associated with consumption of cruciferous vegetables have received considerable attention with a hitherto focus on the role and bioactivity of glucosinolate degradation products. We investigated the in vivo metabolism of intact glucosinolates by following their fate in digesta an...

  12. Interleukin 6 in intact and injured mouse peripheral nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, F; Levitzky, R; Rotshenker, S

    1996-03-01

    The multifunctional cytokine interleukin 6 (IL-6) has direct growth, survival and differentiation effects on peripheral and central neurons. Furthermore, it can modulate the production by non-neuronal cells of other cytokines and growth factors, and thereby affect nerve cells indirectly. We have studied IL-6 expression and production in intact and injured peripheral nerves of C57/BL/6NHSD mice, which display the normal rapid progression of Wallerian degeneration. The IL-6 mRNA was detected in nerves degenerating in vitro or in vivo, but not in intact nerves. In vitro- and in vivo-degenerating nerve segments and neuroma nerve segments synthesized and secreted IL-6. The onset of IL-6 production was rapid and prolonged. It was detected as early as 2 h after injury and persisted for the entire period of 21 days tested after the injury. Of the non-neuronal cells that reside in intact and injured nerves, macrophages and fibroblasts were the major contributors to IL-6 production. We also studied IL-6 production in intact and injured nerves of mutant C57BL/6-WLD/OLA/NHSD mice, which display very slow progression of Wallerian degeneration. Injured nerves of C57BL/6-WLD/OLA/NHSD mice produced significantly lower amounts of IL-6 than did rapidly degenerating nerves of C57/BL/6NHSD mice.

  13. Fostering Activities of Daily Living by Intact Nursing Home Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Charles E.; Glaister, Judy; Brown, Alston; Phillips, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    We assessed effectiveness of four education programs in providing nursing assistants with ability to produce a therapeutic milieu supportive of intact residents' activities of daily living, positive self-esteem and mood: (1) a combination of Orem's Systems of Nursing Care and Skinner's Applied Behavioral Analysis, (2) Applied Behavioral Analysis,…

  14. Cholesteric carbohydrate liquid crystals incorporating an intact glucopyranose moiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, E; Engberts, J.B.F.N.; Kellogg, R.M; van Doren, H.A.

    1997-01-01

    Recently, the first monosaccharide derivatives containing a fully intact monosaccharide and two vicinal OH-groups which display thermotropic chiral mesophases were synthesized. These liquid crystals have a rigid core, with a trans-decalin-like skeleton incorporating the D-glucopyranose ring, substit

  15. Male Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Esenyel

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis in men is now recognized as an increasingly important public health issue. About 30 % of hip fractures and 20 % of vertebral fractures occur in men. In the present study, we examined 19 men who did not have major risk factors that might affect bone mass. Parathormone(PTH, osteocalcin (marker of bone formation, OC and deoxypyridinoline (marker of bone resorption, DPD were measured. The bone mineral density (BMD measurements in 16 men were performed by dual-energy X-ray absorbtiometry (DXA from lumbar spine (L2-4, and left hip. Bone density at each site was categorized as osteoporosis or osteopenia according to World Health Organization (WHO criteria. In 19 patients with a mean age of 69 years, PTH levels were in the normal range except one patient. OC levels were elevated in %42.1 and DPD levels were elevated in 74 % of patients. L2-4 T score was osteoporotic (25% in 4 patients and osteopenic (25% in 4 patients. Femur Ward’s T score was osteoporotic (37.5% in 7 patients and osteopenic (37.5% in 7 patients. Osteoporosis is a significant problem in older men. Increased awareness for the risk factors of male osteoporosis is an important issue. Early diagnosis and treatment would help to reduce morbidity and mortality resulting from osteoporotic fractures.

  16. Pharmacokinetics of erythropoietin in intact and anephric dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, J.S.; Lertora, J.J.; Brookins, J.; Rice, J.C.; Fisher, J.W.

    1988-06-01

    The present studies were performed to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of erythropoietin in intact and anephric dogs by use of unlabeled crude native erythropoietin (nEp) and iodine 125-labeled purified recombinant erythropoietin (rEp) given by intravenous infusion for 15 minutes. Sephadex G-75 gel filtration was used to confirm that the 125I-rEp molecule remained iodinated in dog plasma during the 24-hour period of these studies. The plasma disappearance of erythropoietin conformed to a biexponential equation for both nEp and 125I-rEp, with the central compartment being larger than the peripheral compartment. The mean distribution half-life of 75.3 +/- 21.2 minutes for nEp was significantly (p less than 0.05) longer than that of 125I-rEp (23.7 +/- 5.0 minutes) in intact dogs. The intercompartmental clearance (CIic) for nEp (0.018 +/- 0.006 L/kg/hr) was significantly smaller than that of 125I-rEp (0.068 +/- 0.018 L/kg/hr) in intact dogs (p less than 0.05). There were no significant differences in apparent volume of distribution, elimination half-life, and elimination clearance (CIe) for nEp and rEp in intact dogs. The mean elimination half-life for 125I-rEp in intact dogs (9.0 +/- 0.6 hours) and anephric dogs (13.8 +/- 1.4 hours) was significantly different (p less than 0.05). The CIe for 125I-rEp in anephric dogs (0.008 +/- 0.001 L/kg/hr) was significantly (p less than 0.05) smaller than that of 125I-rEp in intact dogs (0.011 +/- 0.001 L/kg/hr). There were no significant differences in apparent volume of distribution, distribution half-life, and CIic for 125I-rEp in intact and anephric dogs.

  17. Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy Epilepsia mioclônica juvenil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Alfradique

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile myoclonus epilepsy (JME is a common epileptic syndrome, the etiology of which is genetically determined. Its onset occurs from 6 through 22 years of age, and affected patients present with myoclonic jerks, often associated with generalized tonic-clonic seizures - the most common association - and absence seizures. JME is non-progressive, and there are no abnormalities on clinical examination or intellectual deficits. Psychiatric disorders may coexist. Generalized polyspike-and-waves are the most characteristic electroencephalographic pattern. Usual neuroimaging studies show no abnormalities. Atypical presentations should be entertained, as they are likely to induce misdiagnosis. Prevention of precipitating factors and therapy with valproic acid (VPA are able to control seizures in the great majority of patients. Whenever VPA is judged to be inappropriate, other antiepileptic drugs such as lamotrigine may be considered. Treatment should not be withdrawn, otherwise recurrences are frequent.A epilepsia mioclônica juvenil é uma síndrome epiléptica comum, cuja etiologia é fundamentada na genética. Inicia-se entre 6 e 22 anos e os indivíduos apresentam mioclonias, que podem ser acompanhadas por crises tônico-clônicas generalizadas - associação mais comum - e crises de ausência. A doença não é progressiva, e não há alterações detectáveis no exame físico ou déficits intelectuais. Distúrbios psiquiátricos podem coexistir. Polipontas-ondas lentas generalizadas constituem o padrão eletrencefalográfico ictal típico. Não há anormalidades em exames de imagem convencionais. Apresentações atípicas devem ser consideradas, pois predispõem a erros de diagnóstico. A prevenção de fatores desencadeantes e o uso de ácido valpróico (VPA controlam as crises epilépticas na grande maioria dos casos. Quando o VPA é inapropriado, outras drogas como a lamotrigina podem ser utilizadas. O tratamento não deve ser interrompido

  18. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis and the temporomandibular joint ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... resonance imaging findings of temporomandibular joint inflammation among juvenile ... The mean total MRI score was significantly higher in patients with active ... Clinical signs of TMJ arthritis can be used as filter for MRI examination TMJ is ...

  19. Bilateral giant juvenile fibroadenoma of breasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhopadhyay Madhumita

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An 11-year-old girl with rapidly enlarging bilateral breast lumps is reported. It was diagnosed as a case of juvenile fibroadenoma following fine needle aspiration cytology and confirmed on histopathological examination of the excised specimens.

  20. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile Paget disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information & Resources MedlinePlus (1 link) Health Topic: Bone Diseases Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (1 link) Juvenile ... on PubMed Daroszewska A, Ralston SH. Mechanisms of disease: genetics of Paget's disease of bone and related disorders. ...

  1. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile hyaline fibromatosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Antaya RJ, Cajaiba MM, Madri J, Lopez MA, Ramirez MC, Martignetti JA, Reyes-Múgica M. Juvenile hyaline ... 103. Citation on PubMed Dowling O, Difeo A, Ramirez MC, Tukel T, Narla G, Bonafe L, Kayserili ...

  2. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia presenting as Juvenile Idiopathic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia presenting as Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis in a Nigerian boy. ... lead to delay in commencing appropriate treatment. ... of two months duration, had an elevated Rheumatoid factor and X-ray findings suggestive of ...

  3. Screening Incarcerated Juveniles Using the MAYSI-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Amy L; Grande, Todd L; Hallman, Janelle; Underwood, Lee A

    2015-01-01

    The high prevalence of mental health disorders among incarcerated juveniles is a matter of national and global concern. Juvenile justice personnel need accurate screening measures that identify youth requiring immediate mental health services. The purpose of this study was threefold: (a) to examine the utility of the Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument, Version 2 (MAYSI-2) in identifying juveniles with mental health concerns in a large sample of juveniles (N = 4,009), (b) to provide data regarding rates of identified mental health needs in incarcerated youth, and (c) to provide descriptive comparisons to other studies using the MAYSI-2. Mean scores of subscales were compared with the MAYSI-2 normative samples and other recent studies. Results indicated that this population has a high occurrence of mental health symptoms and there is high variability in the severity of the symptoms. In addition, a multivariate analysis of variance test found significant differences in mental health problems across ethnic groups.

  4. SAB Juvenile Reef Fish (2002-2015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Trawls were made during the summer months in shallow seagrass beds to monitor the number and species of juvenile snapper using the grass as a nursery.

  5. AFSC/ABL: Juvenile rockfish habitat utilization

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Juvenile rockfish were observed amongst coral, sponge, cobble, and gravel habitats. Rockfish utilized coral habitats more than any other, while gravel was the least...

  6. Threats to intact tropical peatlands and opportunities for their conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roucoux, K H; Lawson, I T; Baker, T R; Del Castillo Torres, D; Draper, F C; Lähteenoja, O; Gilmore, M P; Honorio Coronado, E N; Kelly, T J; Mitchard, E T A; Vriesendorp, C F

    2017-03-08

    Large, intact areas of tropical peatland are highly threatened at a global scale by the expansion of commercial agriculture and other forms of economic development. Conserving peatlands on a landscape scale, with their hydrology intact, is of international conservation importance to preserve their distinctive biodiversity and ecosystem services and maintain their resilience to future environmental change. We explored threats to and opportunities for conserving remaining intact tropical peatlands; thus, we excluded peatlands of Indonesia and Malaysia, where extensive deforestation, drainage, and conversion to plantations means conservation in this region can protect only small fragments of the original ecosystem. We focused on a case study, the Pastaza-Marañón Foreland Basin (PMFB) in Peru, which is among the largest known intact tropical peatland landscapes in the world and is representative of peatland vulnerability. Maintenance of the hydrological conditions critical for carbon storage and ecosystem function of peatlands is, in the PMFB, primarily threatened by expansion of commercial agriculture linked to new transport infrastructure that is facilitating access to remote areas. There remain opportunities in the PMFB and elsewhere to develop alternative, more sustainable land-use practices. Although some of the peatlands in the PMFB fall within existing legally protected areas, this protection does not include the most carbon-dense (domed pole forest) areas. New carbon-based conservation instruments (e.g., REDD+, Green Climate Fund), developing markets for sustainable peatland products, transferring land title to local communities, and expanding protected areas offer pathways to increased protection for intact tropical peatlands in Amazonia and elsewhere, such as those in New Guinea and Central Africa which remain, for the moment, broadly beyond the frontier of commercial development. © 2017 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  7. Parent-child communication and adolescent self-esteem in separated, intercountry adoptive and intact non-adoptive families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanz, M; Iafrate, R; Rosnati, R; Scabini, E

    1999-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to verify whether there are some differences in parent-child communication and in adolescent self-esteem among adoptive, separated and intact non-adoptive families and to investigate the extent to which parent-child communication is related to adolescent self-esteem in the three types of families. The study sample was composed of 450 adolescents aged between 11 and 17 years (160 from intact non-adoptive families, 140 from separated or divorced families and 150 from intercountry adoptive families). Subjects completed the Parent-Adolescent Communication Scale by Barnes and Olson, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale and some socio-demographic items. The results show that adolescents from separated families have more difficulties in their relationships with both the mother and the father than their peers, and that adoptive children perceive a more positive communication with their parents than biological children. Moreover, adoptees showed lower self-esteem than the other two groups of adolescents. Lastly, it emerged that male and female adolescents' self-esteem is related to positive communication with both parents in intact non-adoptive families, while no link was significant for male and female children of divorced parents or for adoptees.

  8. The Multilevel Mixed Intact Group Analysis: A Mixed Method to Seek, Detect, Describe, and Explain Differences Among Intact Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonenboom, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Educational innovations often involve intact subgroups, such as school classes or university departments. In small-scale educational evaluation research, typically involving 1 to 20 subgroups, differences among these subgroups are often neglected. This article presents a mixed method from a qualitative perspective, in which differences among…

  9. A Case of Juvenile Ankylosing Spondylitis associated with Familial Mediterranean Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayhan Söğüt

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available An eight year old male who was detected to have homozygous M694V mutation in the examinations for recurrent abdominal pain and familial history of Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF and who was then diagnosed with Juvenile Ankylosing Spondilitis (JAS upon examination for hip joint pain was presented. This case was presented to emphasize the importance of high suspicion for JAS in FMF cases with atypical joint findings.

  10. A dimensional approach to personality disorders in a sample of juvenile offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Cantone

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In a sample of 60 male Italian subjects imprisoned at a juvenile detention institute (JDI, psychopathological aspects of the AXIS II were described and the validity of a psychopathological dimensional approach for describing criminological issues was examined. The data show that the sample has psychopathological characteristics which revolve around ego weakness and poor management of relations and aggression. Statistically these psychopathological characteristics explain 85% of criminal behavior.

  11. Age-dependent plasticity of sex pheromone response in the moth, Agrotis ipsilon: combined effects of octopamine and juvenile hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarriault, David; Barrozo, Romina B; de Carvalho Pinto, Carlos J

    2009-01-01

    Male moths use sex pheromones to find their mating partners. In the moth, Agrotis ipsilon, the behavioral response and the neuron sensitivity within the primary olfactory centre, the antennal lobe (AL), to sex pheromone increase with age and juvenile hormone (JH) biosynthesis. By manipulating...... the effects of OA and an OA receptor antagonist, mianserin, on behavioral and AL neuron responses of mature and immature males during stimulation with sex pheromone. Our results indicate that, although OA injections enhanced the behavioral pheromone response in mature males, OA had no significant effect...... a behavioral response of A. ipsilon males to sex pheromone....

  12. Effects of food restriction across stages of juvenile and early adult development on body weight, survival and adult life history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, J W Y; Kölliker, M

    2014-11-01

    Organisms have to allocate limited resources among multiple life-history traits, which can result in physiological trade-offs, and variation in environmental conditions experienced during ontogeny can influence reproduction later in life. Food restriction may lead to an adaptive reallocation of the limited resources among traits as a phenotypically plastic adjustment, or it can act as an overall constraint with detrimental effects throughout reproductive life. In this study, we investigated experimentally the effects of food restriction during different stages of the juvenile and early adult development on body weight, survival and reproductive success in females and males of the European earwig Forficula auricularia. Individuals either received limited or unlimited access to food across three different stages of development (fully crossed) allowing us to identify sensitive periods during development and to test both additive and interactive effects of food limitation across stages on development and reproduction. Food restriction during the early and late juvenile stage had additive negative effects on juvenile survival and adult body weight. With regard to reproductive success of females which produce up to two clutches in their lifetime, restriction specifically in the late juvenile stage led to smaller first and second clutch size, lower probability of second clutch production and reduced hatching success in the second clutch. Reproductive success of females was not significantly affected when their male mates experienced food restriction during their development. Our findings in general support the 'silver-spoon' hypothesis in that food restriction during juvenile development poses constraints on development and reproduction throughout life.

  13. Cognitive performance of juvenile monkeys after chronic fluoxetine treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari S. Golub

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Potential long term effects on brain development are a concern when drugs are used to treat depression and anxiety in childhood. In this study, male juvenile rhesus monkeys (three-four years of age were dosed with fluoxetine or vehicle (N = 16/group for two years. Histomorphometric examination of cortical dendritic spines conducted after euthanasia at one year postdosing (N = 8/group suggested a trend toward greater dendritic spine synapse density in prefrontal cortex of the fluoxetine-treated monkeys. During dosing, subjects were trained for automated cognitive testing, and evaluated with a test of sustained attention. After dosing was discontinued, sustained attention, recognition memory and cognitive flexibility were evaluated. Sustained attention was affected by fluoxetine, both during and after dosing, as indexed by omission errors. Response accuracy was not affected by fluoxetine in post-dosing recognition memory and cognitive flexibility tests, but formerly fluoxetine-treated monkeys compared to vehicle controls had more missed trial initiations and choices during testing. Drug treatment also interacted with genetic and environmental variables: MAOA genotype (high- and low transcription rate polymorphisms and testing location (upper or lower tier of cages. Altered development of top-down cortical regulation of effortful attention may be relevant to this pattern of cognitive test performance after juvenile fluoxetine treatment.

  14. Clinical Observation on Juvenile Macular Hole without Trauma and Hypermyopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tieying Zhao; Qingshan Chen; Ming Li; Xunqing Gu; Rulong Gao; Feng Wen

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the clinical characteristics of juvenile macular hole without trauma and hypermyopia, and research the mechanism of macular hole.Methods: Sixty-seven patients less than 40 years of age were studied retrospectively from June 1998 to March 2003. Five cases (7 eyes) aged from 22 to 38 years were reported and the clinical characteristics that had macular hole without trauma or hypermyopia were summed up.Results: There was 1 male and 4 females with visual acuity from 0.08 to 0.8. The images of optical coherence tomography (OCT) showed full thickness macular hole in 5 patients (7 eyes), and the diameters were from 87 to 1043 μm. Among them, 2 cases were combined with retina pigmentosa; 1 case with binocular Coat's disease; 1 case had bilateral macular hole combined with Eagles' disease; 1 case was combined with 2-2.5PD old retinochoroidal lesion under middle-peripheral fundus, and 1.5 PD retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) defect on the optical disk.Conclusion: The juvenile macular hole without trauma and hypermyopia combined the different retina vascular damages and the RPE defects.

  15. Dosing celecoxib in pediatric patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaswami, Sriram; Hutmacher, Matt M; Robbins, Jeffery L; Bello, Akintunde; West, Christine; Bloom, Bradley J

    2012-08-01

    The objective was to derive dosing recommendations for the use of celecoxib in patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) using pharmacokinetic (PK) and exposure-response data. PK and efficacy data from a randomized, double-blind, 12-week study of celecoxib dosed at 3 and 6 mg/kg twice a day (bid) as an investigational suspension formulation in 152 JRA patients aged 2 to 17 years, PK data from 36 adult RA patients, and relative bioavailability data in healthy adults comparing suspension or capsule sprinkles with the commercial capsule were analyzed. Typical oral clearance (L/h) values were 40% and 24% lower in patients weighing 10 and 25 kg, respectively, compared with a 70-kg patient. Longitudinal, logistic pharmacodynamic models incorporating linear effects of dose/area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) over 0 to 12 hours (AUC(0-12)) suggested that the percentage of responders increased with celecoxib exposure. Systemic exposures (AUC) were similar for the suspension, capsule sprinkles, and intact capsule. Administration of a 50-mg bid capsule (or sprinkles) for patients weighing 10 to 25 kg and 100 mg bid for patients >25 kg was predicted to yield similar exposures and response rates as those observed in the JRA trial. Doses and dosage forms not studied in the JRA trial were approved based on the results of this analysis.

  16. [Male contraception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoulin, A

    1984-04-01

    Among the reasons why male hormonal contraception has lagged behind female methods are the necessity of preserving virility, the fact that spermatogenesis is a continuous process, the need to control secondary effects and toxicity, and the requirement that modes of administration be acceptable to both partners. Among currently available reversible mehtods, withdrawal is undoubtedly the most ancient. It is still widespread but cannot be recommended because of its limited effectiveness. The condom is used by about 10% of couples worldwide as a principal or temporary method, but its inter-ference with sensation has limited its acceptance. Condoms are nevertheless highly effective when used with a spermicide. Various androgens are currently under investigation. High doses of testosterone can induce azoospermia without affecting libido but their side effects may be serious. The use of combinations of steroids permits doses to be reduced and offers promise for the future. The combination of oral medroxyprogesterone acetate and percutaneous testosterone is one of the better approaches; the combination is effective and nontoxic but has the disadvantage of percutaneous administration. Gossypol, a pigment extracted from the cotton plant, has been used as a contraceptive in China with a reported efficacy of 99.89%, recovery of fertility within 3 months, and no effect on future fertility. However, its toxicity appears to be significant in the animal and its reversibility is uncertain. A search is on for analogs which would preserve the contraceptive effects while eliminating toxic effects. Several gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) analogs under investigation for their interference with spermatogenesis have given promising results. Several chemicals tested for contraceptive effects have had unacceptably high toxicity. Chinese investigators have reported good results with various physical methods of interfering with sperm production, but their reversibility and innocuity

  17. An Empirical Evaluation of Juvenile Awareness Programs in the United States: Can Juveniles Be "Scared Straight"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenowski, Paul M.; Bell, Keith J.; Dodson, Kimberly D.

    2010-01-01

    Juvenile awareness programs like Scared Straight became popular crime prevention strategies during the 1970s. Juvenile offenders and at-risk youth who participate in these programs are taken to prisons where inmates use confrontational methods to recount stories about violence, sex, and abuse perpetrated by fellow inmates while living a life…

  18. Endocrine, morphological and gestational aspects of intact and sliced autogynous or homogynous ovarian orthotopic transplantation without vascular pedicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo de Souza Vasconcellos

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the rate of natural pregnancy and to determinethe endocrine and histological (morphofunctional aspects ofrabbit ovaries after being submitted to bilateral oophorectomyand orthotopic allogeneic or autologous intact and sliced ovariantransplantation without a vascular pedicle. Methods: Fifty-sixfemale New Zealand White and California rabbits were studied. Theovaries were removed and orthotopically transplanted or reimplantedwithout vascular anastomoses: Group 1 (n = 8, sham-operated,only laparotomy and closure; Group 2A (n = 8, with bilateral intactovaries reimplanted; Group 2B (n = 8, with bilateral sliced ovariesorthotopically reimplanted; Group 2C (n = 8, with an intact ovaryreimplanted on one side and a sliced ovary on the other side; Group3A (n = 8, with bilateral orthotopic intact ovaries transplants; Group 3B (n = 8, with bilateral sliced ovaries orthotopically transplanted; and Group 3C (n = 8, with an intact ovary transplanted on one side and a sliced ovary on the other side. Three months later, the animals were paired with males for copulation. The estradiol, progesterone, FSH and LH levels were assessed nine months after surgery. The morphologic aspect of the ovaries was studied, and the number of pregnancies and litters were also determined. Chi-square test compared the number of successful pregnancies and the number of litters between groups. One-way ANOVA and the Tukey-Kramer tests compared the hormonal levels. The significance level adopted was p < 0.05. Results: Pregnancies occurred in seven rabbits (87.5%of Group 1, in 37.5% of rabbits in Groups 2A and 3A, in 50% ofGroups 2B, 2C and 3B and in 62.5% of Group 3C. Hormone levels andhistology confirmed the vitality of all ovaries. Conclusions: Intact or sliced orthotopic allogeneic and autologous ovarian transplantation without a vascular pedicle is efficacious in rabbits, and their fertility and hormonal functions are preserved.

  19. Leucemia mielomonocítica juvenil: relato de caso Juvenile myelomonocytic leukaemia: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela G. Farias

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A leucemia mielomonocítica juvenil (LMMJ é uma doença rara, que representa de 2%a 3% de todas as leucemias pediátricas. É uma doença clonal de células da linhagem mieloide, que apresenta características de mieloproliferação e de displasia. Os sinais e os sintomas são resultantes da infiltração de células monocíticas malignas em órgãos não hematopoéticos. Os sintomas mais comuns são febre, tosse, infecção, fraqueza, palidez, linfadenopatia, hepatoesplenomegalia, lesões cutâneas e manifestações hemorrágicas. Como a LMMJ exibe um curso clínico muito agressivo e responde pobremente à quimioterapia, o transplante de células-tronco hematopoéticas é a única modalidade terapêutica curativa. Neste estudo, relatamos o caso de um paciente do sexo masculino, com um ano e dez meses de idade, que compareceu na emergência do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre por apresentar febre, com diagnóstico prévio de mononucleose feito em outra Instituição. A apresentação clínica, em conjunto com os achados laboratoriais, permitiu o diagnóstico correto. O paciente foi tratado com quimioterapia e submetido a transplante de células-tronco hematopoéticas.Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML is a rare hematopoietic malignancy, which accounts for 2 to 3% of all pediatric leukemia. JMML is a myeloproliferative disorder characterized by monoclonal overproduction of myeloid cells. The signs and symptoms are a result of the infiltration of monocytic cells into non-hematopoietic organs; the most common symptoms are fever, cough, infection, weakness, pallor, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, skin lesions and bleeding. JMML runs an aggressive clinical course and responds poorly to chemotherapy. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the only curative treatment. We describe the case of a 22-month-old male child, who appeared in the emergency room of Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre because of fever and with a previous

  20. The Effects of Family Disruption on Adolescent Males and Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Elisa J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Examined the effects of separation and divorce on adolescents' (N=217) self-image, anxiety, locus of control, and perception of their family. Results indicated males from disrupted homes had better self-concepts and better perceptions of their family environment than those from intact homes. The opposite results were found among females. (JAC)

  1. Asisstance Arthroscopy in Juvenile Tillaux Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mañero, Luciano Martin; Arroquy, Damian; Barrios, Juan Manuel; Botta, Juan Martin; Caceres, Carlos Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Juvenile Tillaux Fracture is an isolated fracture of the lateral portion of the distal tibial epiphysis, considered SALTER-HARRIS fracture type 3, wherein the fragment is moved by the anterolateral ligament anterior inferior tibiofibular. They occur at the beginning of the 2nd decade of life and are caused by a force external rotation. The pattern of injury is considered a result of the closing sequence of the distal tibial physis, which usually closes around 15 years of age in girls and 17 in boys, this process usually takes about 18 months, occurring first in the central area of the physis, extending medially and finally to side, being this epiphyseal portion which is open at the time of the vulnerable to fracture injury in this age group. The curriculum includes RX, and TAC, being more sensitive to detect fragments of 2 or more mm of travel, but may overestimate the true displacement. The non-displaced fracture can be treated with cast immobilization and displaced with closed reduction (plantar flexion external rotation in the pronated foot and direct pressure on the anterolateral epiphysis). An equal displacement or > 2 mm of the articular surface is indication of open reduction and percutaneous fixation, because it may increase the risk of osteoarthritis in the future. Objective: Presentation of a case Juvenile Tillaux Fractures with surgical resolution under arthroscopic assistance. Methods: Male patient 14 years old who suffered indirect trauma left ankle during practice sports (rugby) in September 2015, 48 hours of evolution. After performing X-rays and scans one left Salter Harris type III at the level of distal tibial epiphysis (Tillaux fracture) ankle fracture was diagnosed. It had a greater than 2 mm displacement. As a reduction treatment and percutaneous osteosynthesis with more osteodesis screw with arthroscopic assistance and fluoroscopy was performed. After surgery a long leg cast was placed for three weeks, continuing with three other

  2. Juvenile fibromyalgia: Guidance for management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Shumpei; Kikuchi, Masako; Miyamae, Takako

    2013-08-01

    Juvenile fibromyalgia (JFM) is a disease in which patients complain of acute and chronic severe pain, an overt primary cause for which cannot be found or surmised. Although patients with JFM mainly complain of systemic pain or allodynia in the medical interview and physical examination, the concept of the disease is the total sum of painful illness, chronic fatigue, hypothermia and many other autonomic symptoms and signs. Many issues are interacting including individual traits (personality, temperament, sensitivity, memory of pain; age: early adolescence), individual states (self-esteem, anxiety, developmental level), and external stressors (parent especially mother, school environment). JFM is diagnosed on the combination of disease history, physical examination to determine the 18 tender points and allodynia, pain from gently touching their hair, and negative results of blood tests (inflammatory markers, thyroid function, myogenic enzymes). The goals of treatment are the following: restoration of function and relief of pain. Psychological support is advocated. Although the exact number of patients with JFM is still to be elucidated, it seems to be growing because pediatric rheumatologists in Japan encounter children with a wide variety of musculoskeletal pains. This guideline describes how to diagnose JFM in children and how to treat them appropriately.

  3. Academic Achievement Among Juvenile Detainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorenko, Elena L; Macomber, Donna; Hart, Lesley; Naples, Adam; Chapman, John; Geib, Catherine F; Chart, Hilary; Tan, Mei; Wolhendler, Baruch; Wagner, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The literature has long pointed to heightened frequencies of learning disabilities (LD) within the population of law offenders; however, a systematic appraisal of these observations, careful estimation of these frequencies, and investigation of their correlates and causes have been lacking. Here we present data collected from all youth (1,337 unique admissions, mean age 14.81, 20.3% females) placed in detention in Connecticut (January 1, 2010-July 1, 2011). All youth completed a computerized educational screener designed to test a range of performance in reading (word and text levels) and mathematics. A subsample (n = 410) received the Wide Range Achievement Test, in addition to the educational screener. Quantitative (scale-based) and qualitative (grade-equivalence-based) indicators were then analyzed for both assessments. Results established the range of LD in this sample from 13% to 40%, averaging 24.9%. This work provides a systematic exploration of the type and severity of word and text reading and mathematics skill deficiencies among juvenile detainees and builds the foundation for subsequent efforts that may link these deficiencies to both more formal, structured, and variable definitions and classifications of LD, and to other types of disabilities (e.g., intellectual disability) and developmental disorders (e.g., ADHD) that need to be conducted in future research.

  4. Spelling-stress regularity effects are intact in developmental dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundy, Ian R; Carroll, Julia M

    2013-01-01

    The current experiment investigated conflicting predictions regarding the effects of spelling-stress regularity on the lexical decision performance of skilled adult readers and adults with developmental dyslexia. In both reading groups, lexical decision responses were significantly faster and significantly more accurate when the orthographic structure of a word ending was a reliable as opposed to an unreliable predictor of lexical stress assignment. Furthermore, the magnitude of this spelling-stress regularity effect was found to be equivalent across reading groups. These findings are consistent with intact phoneme-level regularity effects also observed in dyslexia. The paper discusses how findings of intact spelling-sound regularity effects at both prosodic and phonemic levels, as well as other similar results, can be reconciled with the obvious difficulties that people with dyslexia experience in other domains of phonological processing.

  5. Structural determination of intact proteins using mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruppa, Gary; Schoeniger, Joseph S.; Young, Malin M.

    2008-05-06

    The present invention relates to novel methods of determining the sequence and structure of proteins. Specifically, the present invention allows for the analysis of intact proteins within a mass spectrometer. Therefore, preparatory separations need not be performed prior to introducing a protein sample into the mass spectrometer. Also disclosed herein are new instrumental developments for enhancing the signal from the desired modified proteins, methods for producing controlled protein fragments in the mass spectrometer, eliminating complex microseparations, and protein preparatory chemical steps necessary for cross-linking based protein structure determination.Additionally, the preferred method of the present invention involves the determination of protein structures utilizing a top-down analysis of protein structures to search for covalent modifications. In the preferred method, intact proteins are ionized and fragmented within the mass spectrometer.

  6. Gang Reengagement Intentions among Incarcerated Serious Juvenile Offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Boduszek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Research examining the factors that precipitate gang membership has contributed substantially to our understanding of gangs and gang-related activity, yet we know little about the factors influencing intentions to rejoin a gang after having being incarcerated. This study examines the relationship between gang characteristics, number of incarcerated friends, and family characteristics and gang reengagement intentions, while controlling for ethnicity. Participants were 206 male serious juvenile offenders interviewed as part of the Pathways to Desistance Study. The model explained between 35% and 47% of variance in gang reengagement intentions. However, only three variables made a unique statistically significant contribution to the model (punishment if gang rules are broken, importance of gang membership, and moral disengagement, with the strongest predictor being importance of gang membership. The results suggest that challenging young offenders’ perceptions about the importance of gang membership might be particularly effective in reducing gang reengagement intentions after incarceration.

  7. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma: Clinical diagnosis and treatment experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sladoje Radmila

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is an infrequent epi-pharyngeal tumor necessitating particular diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in comparison to other benign epipharyngeal tumors due to its expansive growth tendency. Our retrospective study is aimed at presenting clinical casuistry of the tumor in order to evaluate modern diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities. The study included 13 male patients, aged 13-24 years, who were hospitalized, diagnostically assessed and surgically treated at the Institute of Otorhinolaryngology and Maxillofacial Surgery, Clinical Centre of Serbia over the period 1990 - June 2001. The following parameters were analyzed: sex, age groups, preoperative symptoms of the disease, diagnostic methods, embolization, local tumor spreading, number and time of tumor relapses and surgical approach.

  8. Binding of Clostridium botulinum C3 exoenzyme to intact cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbeck, Astrid; von Elsner, Leonie; Hagemann, Sandra; Just, Ingo

    2014-06-01

    C3 from Clostridium botulinum (C3) specifically modifies Rho GTPases RhoA, RhoB, and RhoC by mono-ADP-ribosylation. The confined substrate profile of C3 is the basis for its use as pharmacological tool in cell biology to study cellular functions of Rho GTPases. Although C3 exoenzyme does not possess a cell-binding/-translocation domain, C3 is taken up by intact cells via an unknown mechanism. In the present work, binding of C3 to the hippocampus-derived HT22 cells and J774A.1 macrophages was characterized. C3 bound concentration-dependent to HT22 and J774A.1 cells. Pronase treatment of intact cells significantly reduced both C3 binding and C3 cell entry. Removal of sugar residues by glycosidase F treatment resulted in an increased binding of C3, but a reduced cell entry. To explore the involvement of phosphorylation in the binding process of C3, intact HT22 and J774A.1 cells were pre-treated with vanadate prior to incubation with C3. Inhibition of de-phosphorylation by vanadate resulted in an increased binding of C3. To differentiate between intracellular and extracellular phosphorylation, intact cells were treated with CIP (calf intestine phosphatase) to remove extracellular phosphate residues. The removal of phosphate residues resulted in a strong reduction in binding of C3 to cells. In sum, the C3 membranous binding partner is proteinaceous, and the glycosylation as well as the phosphorylation state is critical for efficient binding of C3.

  9. Crisscross heart with dextrocardia and intact interventricular septum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Kader Muneer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Crisscross heart is a rare congenital heart disease characterized by a twisted atrioventricular connection, as a result of rotation of the ventricular mass along its long axis. We report an asymptomatic 48-year-old woman referred to us for evaluation of a cardiac murmur. Further evaluation showed situs solitus, dextrocardia with normal atrioventricular and ventriculoarterial connection, and a crisscross relation of the atrioventricular valves. Unlike the usual case of crisscross heart, our patient had an intact ventricular septum.

  10. The intact urokinase receptor is required for efficient vitronectin binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyer-Hansen, G; Behrendt, N; Ploug, M;

    1997-01-01

    The urokinase receptor (uPAR) is a receptor for both urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and the adhesion protein vitronectin. There are two forms of cell surface-bound uPAR; intact uPAR and a cleaved form, uPAR(2+3), which is formed by uPA-catalyzed cleavage of uPAR. In ligand-blotting experim...

  11. Pancreatic exocrine studies in intact animals: historic and current methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebergall-Roth, E; Teyssen, S; Singer, M V

    1997-12-01

    This report presents a review of the historic and current methods for performing pancreatic exocrine studies in intact animals. Special emphasis is given to the various surgical procedures--pancreatic fistulas, duodenal pouches, and duodenal fistulas--and practice of collecting pancreatic secretion in dogs. Procedures in other animal species--rat, cat, pig, rabbit, cattle, sheep, and horse--also are specified. The advantages and disadvantages, as well as the indications and limitations of the distinct methods, are discussed.

  12. Comparison of the stability of split and intact gabapentin tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Donna A; Gupta, Abhay; Ciavarella, Anthony B; Faustino, Patrick J; Sayeed, Vilayat A; Khan, Mansoor A

    2008-02-28

    The purpose of this study was to determine the stability differences between split and intact gabapentin tablets. Gabapentin tablets from three different manufacturers (G1, G2 and G3) were tested for a period of 9 weeks under long-term (25 degrees C/60% RH) and intermediate stability (30 degrees C/60% RH) storage conditions after storage in closed amber pharmacy dispensing containers. Samples were analyzed for dissolution and potency using validated HPLC methods. Potency test also included the quantitation of gabapentin's main degradation product. Tablets from all manufacturers and at all time points had potency >90%. At 9 weeks, a statistically significant decrease (psplit G2 and G3 tablets under the intermediate storage conditions. At the end of 9 weeks, all samples also showed slightly higher levels of degradation product which was statistically significant (psplit and intact tablets. No difference was observed between the potency and dissolution of the intact and the split tablets from the same manufacturer and the three products tested remained stable throughout the study period. The results suggest that splitting of gabapentin tablets did not affect the stability of these particular drug products tested as part of this study when stored under normal storage conditions for a period of up to 9 weeks. However, the results should not be extrapolated to other gabapentin drug products and to other tablet dosage forms.

  13. Does human leukocyte elastase degrade intact skin elastin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelzer, Christian E H; Jung, Michael C; Wohlrab, Johannes; Neubert, Reinhard H H; Heinz, Andrea

    2012-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate the susceptibility of intact fibrillar human elastin to human leukocyte elastase and cathepsin G. Elastin is a vital protein of the extracellular matrix of vertebrates, and provides exceptional properties including elasticity and tensile strength to many tissues and organs, including the aorta, lung, cartilage, elastic ligaments and skin, and is thus critical for their long-term function. Mature elastin is an insoluble and extremely durable protein that undergoes very little turnover, but sustained exposure to proteases may lead to irreversible and severe damage, and thus to functional loss of the elastic fiber network. Hence, it is a key issue to understand which enzymes actually initiate elastolysis under certain pathological conditions or during intrinsic aging. In this paper, we provide a complete workflow for isolation of pure and intact elastin from very small tissue samples to test enzymes for their elastolytic potential. This workflow was applied to skin samples from variously aged individuals, and it was found that strong differences exist in the degradability of the elastins investigated. In summary, human leukocyte elastase was unable to degrade intact elastin fibers but hydrolyzed elastin derived from the skin of old people. However, cathepsin G cleaved all elastin samples, even those derived from younger individuals. These results indicate that human leukocyte elastase is not a driving force for elastolysis, but may nevertheless promote further breakdown of elastic fibers after the action of other enzymes such as cathepsin G. © 2012 The Authors Journal compilation © 2012 FEBS.

  14. Facial lesions in piglets with intact or grinded teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansson Monica

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Piglets are born with eight sharp teeth that during nursing can cause facial lesions on littermates and teat lesions on the sow. Teeth grinding in piglets is therefore often practiced to reduce these lesions. The aim of this study was to assess the consequences of grinding piglet teeth in regard to the occurrence of lesions. In this study the piglets' teeth were grinded in 28 litters, and in 36 litters the piglets' teeth were kept intact. Twice, one time during the first week and one time during the second week after birth facial lesions of the piglets were scored and the teats of the sows were examined for lesions. The facial lesion score accounted for the amount and severity of lesions. The individual observations on piglets in the litter were synthesized in a litter facial lesion score. Findings 69.8% and 43.5% of the piglets had facial lesions in week 1 and week 2 respectively. The effect of treatment was not significant on litter facial lesion score. The litter facial lesion score was higher in week 1 than in week 2 (p p = 0.003 than in small litters. Mortality between week 1 and week 2 was higher in litters with intact teeth (p = 0.02. Sow teat lesions only occurred if litters had intact teeth. Conclusions According to our results teeth grinding is only justifiable in large litters.

  15. Modified Madigan Prostatectomy: A Procedure Preserved Prostatic Urethra Intact

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Jun; YE Zhangqun; HU Weilie

    2005-01-01

    Summary: A total of 92 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) were subjected to modified Madigan prostatectomy (MPC) for a much satisfactory effect in open prostatectomy surgery. Exposing anterior prostatic urethra near the bladder neck and conjunct cystotomy modified the MPC procedure. This modified procedure preserved prostatic urethra intact and could also deal with intracystic lesions at the same time. The intact of prostatic urethra was kept completely or largely in 86 cases. The amount of blood loss during modified procedure was less. The mean operative time was 105 min. Seventy patients had been followed up for 3-24 months. The postoperative average Qmax was 19.2 ml/s. The cystourethrography revealed that the urethra and bladder neck were intact in 10 patients postoperatively. Furthermore, the prostatic urethra was obviously wider after modified MPC. The modified MPC can reduce the occurrence of urethra injury and enlarge the MPC indications. The modified technique is easy to perform with less complications and much satisfactory clinical result.

  16. Juvenile Angiofibroma Embolization: Nine Years of Experience in Damascus University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Joorabian

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile angiofibroma is a benign, highly vascular, fibromatous or angiofibromatous hamartoma that is locally invasive, arises from the nasopharynx, and has a marked tendency to recur. JNAs constitute 0.5% of head and neck tumors and are found almost exclusively in adolescent males."n152 male cases of juvenile angiofibroma (JNA be-tween 13-24 y/o with a mean age of 15 years were embolized during 2001-2009 in Al Assad University Hospital, Damascus, Syria."nAll cases were referred by the ENT department. The procedure was performed in most cases by Vert diagnostic catheter (5F, 120. Until 2003, we used polyvinyl alcohol (PVA and coils for embolization and then only PVA was used, except in five cases tin which we used Tris- acrylgelatin microspheres. The PVA particles tend to group within the vessel and occlude the proximal lumen and cause intraluminal thrombosis with an inflammatory reaction and thrombus organises later."nNo major complications were reported and just a few cases had headache and tooth pain."nTwelve cases were referred again due to relapsing tumor: four cases due to late surgery (re-embolization was performed and eight cases due to co-existing feeding vessels from ECA and ICA through its meningeal territories (no embolization was carried out. By experience, it was found that major difficulties in embolization of JNA are in cases that have feeding vessels from meningeal territories of ICA which are very narrow and it is not easily possible to embolize them.

  17. Pendidikan Agama Islam Sebagai Pencegah Juvenile Delinquency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Choirul Umah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The challenges of Islamic education in the era of globalization are getting stronger now. It’s visible clearly changes happening so fast. The rapid of globalization is not only affect for adults, but also children, adolescents. A problem that often arises in the community revolves around the problems of Juvenile (teenagers, education and social community. Because adolescence is known as self-identity searching, so teens that can fulfill their role will have a positive impact, such as children understand their responsibilities better, and if they cannot, then there will emerge the exact opposite behavior that occurs an aberration or delinquency (juvenile delinquency. The existence of juvenile delinquency at this time also affect increasing in crime or criminal behavior in community. Juvenile delinquency can destroy moral values, the noble values ​​of religion, and the various aspects of the subject matter contained therein. Understanding, deepening, and adherence to the teachings of religion, especially Islamic education is required by the juvenile. Because Islamic education is a systematic effort by educators and adults to students both physical and spiritual by Islamic law to led the formation of personality according to the standard of Islam. Because in fact the children or adolescents who commit delinquency or crime mostly less understand the norms of Islam, perhaps they are negligent in fulfill the commandments of religion.

  18. PENDIDIKAN AGAMA ISLAM SEBAGAI PENCEGAH JUVENILE DELINQUENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Choirul Umah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The challenges of Islamic education in the era of globalization are getting stronger now. It’s visible clearly changes happening so fast. The rapid of globalization is not only affect for adults, but also children, adolescents. A problem that often arises in the community revolves around the problems of Juvenile (teenagers, education and social community. Because adolescence is known as self-identity searching, so teens that can fulfill their role will have a positive impact, such as children understand their responsibilities better, and if they cannot, then there will emerge the exact opposite behavior that occurs an aberration or delinquency (juvenile delinquency. The existence of juvenile delinquency at this time also affect increasing in crime or criminal behavior in community. Juvenile delinquency can destroy moral values, the noble values of religion, and the various aspects of the subject matter contained therein. Understanding, deepening, and adherence to the teachings of religion, especially Islamic education is required by the juvenile. Because Islamic education is a systematic effort by educators and adults to students both physical and spiritual by Islamic law to led the formation of personality according to the standard of Islam. Because in fact the children or adolescents who commit delinquency or crime mostly less understand the norms of Islam, perhaps they are negligent in fulfill the commandments of religion.

  19. Do environmental changes or juvenile competition act as mechanisms of species displacement in crayfishes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westhoff, Jacob T.; DiStefano, R.J.; Magoulick, D.D.

    2012-01-01

    The Big Creek Crayfish, Orconectes peruncus, is native to the St. Francis River drainage in Missouri, USA and is often absent where the introduced Woodland Crayfish, Orconectes hylas, has established. We performed a field experiment to determine whether effects of current abiotic conditions and interspecific competition with O. hylas were responsible for displacement of O. peruncus from parts of their former range. We examined growth and survival of juvenile male O. peruncus exposed to juvenile male O. hylas in enclosures at two sites in the former range of O. peruncus. Enclosures contained 8 (low density) or 16 individuals (high density) and had O. peruncus only (control) or both species (interspecific treatment). Juvenile O. peruncus were able to survive and grow in portions of their former range, implicating biotic versus abiotic factors in the displacement of O. peruncus. Survival rates of O. peruncus did not differ among treatments at either site. Orconectes peruncus showed significant growth in all treatments and interspecific effects were not greater than intraspecific effects on O. peruncus growth rates. High-density treatments showed significantly reduced O. peruncus growth rates compared to low-density treatments, except in Carver Creek interspecific treatments. When considered in the context of previous studies examining the effects of O. hylas on O. peruncus, results suggest that neither direct competition between juvenile males of the two species or abiotic change are responsible for the decreased range of O. peruncus. Additional research is required to determine the mechanism(s) driving the displacement of O. peruncus. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  20. Psychiatric and Medical Health Care Policies in Juvenile Detention Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajer, Kathleen A.; Kelleher, Kelly; Gupta, Ravindra A.; Rolls, Jennifer; Gardner, William

    2007-01-01

    A study aims to examine the existing health care policies in U.S. juvenile detention centres. The results conclude that juvenile detention facilities have many shortfalls in providing care for adolescents, particularly mental health care.

  1. AFSC/ABL: Juvenile rockfish DNA species identification

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Many pelagic juvenile rockfish (Sebastes) were collected in juvenile salmonid surveys in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA) from 1998 to 2002. Often species identification of...

  2. A case report of juvenile Huntington disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Choudhary

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Huntington disease (HD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by autosomal dominant inheritance, movement disorder, dementia, and behavioural disturbances. It is caused by a mutation in IT15 gene on chromosome 4p16.3, which leads to unstable CAG trinucleotide repeat expansion. The onset of juvenile HD occurs before the 2nd decade of life and comprises approximately 10% of total HD patients. Juvenile HD differs in symptomatology and is usually transmitted from paternal side with genetic anticipation phenomenon. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the brain shows specific changes of early affection of caudate nucleus and putamen. Multidisciplinary approach with symptomatic treatment of specific symptoms is the current available management. Gene editing and gene silencing treatment are under trial. Hereby, we introduce a case of an 8-year-old boy, who presented with typical symptoms of juvenile HD, positive family history with genetic anticipation phenomenon and characteristic MRI findings.

  3. Corporal and capital punishment of juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, H C

    1990-01-01

    There is a previously unobserved connection between corporal punishment of public school children and capital punishment of juveniles. Both are barometers of acceptable levels of violent punishment and their elimination is a hallmark of a maturing and decent society. Within a majority of the eighteen states where school authorities most frequently strike children are housed 25 of the nation's 28 juvenile death row inmates. On average, the homicide rates of these jurisdictions are two and a half times greater than those that have abolished both state-sanctioned corporal and capital punishment or limit death sentences to those age eighteen and older at the time of their crime(s). Most of the eighteen state abolitions of corporal punishment occurred in the 1980's. The US Supreme Court has ruled both corporal and capital punishment of juveniles constitutional. Additional state legislative abolition of both is anticipated in the 1990s.

  4. Delincuencia y responsabilidad penal juvenil en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Montalvo Velásquez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl término «delincuencia juvenil» fue acuñado en Inglaterra en el año 1815, “Se entiende por delincuencia juvenil el conjunto de delitos, contravenciones o comportamientos socialmente reprochables, que cometen las personas consideradas como jóvenes por la ley”1 . Cada Estado está sujeto a su propio sistema jurídico, para algunos es delincuente juvenil el adolescente que comete acciones sancionadas por la ley sin importar su gravedad, otros Estados sólo consideran como delincuente juvenil al joven que comete un acto delictivo grave.El fenómeno de la delincuencia juvenil es algo que se inscribe en los espacios de una sociedad en la cual su estructura material, y su formación social consecuente, se halla en una profunda crisis. Que jóvenes conformen bandas de delincuencia organizada nos está indicando que son el resultado de la misma criminalidad general que se ha apoderado de la sociedad en la perspectiva de lograr sobrevivir materialmente. El capitalismo no es sólo acumulación de riqueza sino concentración de la misma en muy pocas manos; y todo el sistema institucional y legal tiende a favorecer ese fenómeno porque éste constituye la supra estructura del modo de producción capitalista. Así como los adultos se organizan para delinquir, lo hacen los niños y los jóvenes a partir de una edad en la cual pueden percibir que la sociedad no es sana y no tienen porvenir humano en ella. Abandonados y sujetos a la violencia que engendra el sistema, ellos simplemente responden en una manifestación de reflejos condicionados que sostienen la sobrevivencia en forma instintiva; “los niños no saben de normas legales sino de formas de sobrevivir a semejante situación; el instinto de sobrevivencia no tiene edades ni la normatividad puede incidir en él”.Palabras ClavesDelincuencia juvenil, Jóvenes, Criminalidad, Familia, Factores, Acto delictivo, Responsabilidad Penal.AbstractThe term “juvenile delinquency” was coined in

  5. Immunization Coverage Among Juvenile Justice Detainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin, Gregory L; Glanz, Jason M; Binswanger, Ingrid A; Anoshiravani, Arash

    2015-07-01

    This study sought to (1) quantify the baseline immunization coverage of adolescents entering the juvenile justice system and (2) assess the effect of detention-based care on immunization coverage in youth. A cross-sectional retrospective chart review was performed of 279 adolescents detained at a large juvenile detention facility. Only 3% of adolescents had received all study immunizations prior to detention. Before detention, immunization coverage was significantly lower than that for the general adolescent population for all vaccines except the first doses of hepatitis A and varicella-zoster virus vaccines. Subsequent to detention, most individual immunization coverage levels increased and were significantly higher than in the general adolescent population. The routine administration of immunizations in the juvenile justice setting can help detained youth achieve levels of immunization coverage similar to their nondetained peers.

  6. Effect of TBT on Ruditapes decussatus juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, M R; Langston, W J; Bebianno, M J

    2006-06-01

    The effects of sublethal concentrations of tributyltin (TBT) on growth of juvenile clams Ruditapes decussatus were determined during exposure to TBT concentrations of 50, 100 and 250 ng l(-1) (as Sn) for a period up to two years. Length and weight of clams increased continuously in all treatments throughout the experimental period, and, overall, rates were not significantly influenced by TBT exposure, although final length and weight were inversely related to increasing TBT concentration. Juvenile R. decussatus therefore appear to be less sensitive to TBT than larval stages. Some juveniles exposed to TBT developed abnormal shell growth, laterally, changing the typical flattened shape of clams into a more "rounded" form. This characteristic was more visible in the anterior margins of valves than posteriorly, and mainly observed in clams exposed to TBT at 50 ng l(-1) (as Sn).

  7. Juvenile Fibromyalgia: A Multidisciplinary Approach to Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesher, Melissa S

    2015-06-01

    A 14-year-old boy presented with months of severe widespread musculoskeletal pain. He was profoundly fatigued and unable to attend school. Laboratory evaluation, including complete blood count, comprehensive metabolic panel, inflammatory markers, and thyroid function, was unrevealing. Physical examination was also normal except for multiple tender points. The patient was diagnosed with juvenile primary fibromyalgia syndrome and referred for multidisciplinary treatment including physical therapy, exercise, and counseling, and his daily functioning gradually improves. Juvenile fibromyalgia is a complex syndrome that often severely limits patients' activities and can impede normal adolescent development. Effective treatment requires an understanding of the biologic, psychologic, and social factors contributing to the perpetuation of chronic pain. The author reviews the diagnostic criteria, pathophysiology, and treatment of juvenile fibromyalgia. Medications, particularly antidepressants and anticonvulsants, can be useful adjuncts to therapy. However, multimodal pain management including intensive physical therapy, exercise, counseling, and sleep hygiene is most effective in treating fibromyalgia.

  8. Female vibration discourages male courtship behaviour in the Amarillo fish (Girardinichthys multiradiatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Medina, Lourdes; Macías Garcia, Constantino; Flores Urbina, Amira; Manjarrez, Javier; Moyaho, Alejandro

    2013-11-01

    Amarillo fish females (Girardinichthys multiradiatus) vibrate when conspecific males approach them; the reason behind this behaviour is unclear. Hypotheses are that females vibrate either to avoid aggression from males or to court them. We prevented females from vibrating by temporarily blocking their lateral line organs and eyes, on the assumption that they rely on these senses to detect approaching males. Females with the lateral line organs obstructed vibrated less frequently than females with the lateral line intact, indicating that the mechanosensory lateral line system is necessary for perceiving approaching males. Males displayed more courtship behaviour to sighted females with the lateral line organs obstructed than to sighted females with the lateral line intact. A general tendency indicated that the less the females vibrated the more the males courted them. These findings indicate that female vibration discourages male courtship behaviour.

  9. Regulation of the corpora allata in male larvae of the cockroach Diploptera punctata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulson, C.R.

    1986-01-01

    The regulation of corpora allata was studied in final instar males of Diploptera punctata. The glands were manipulated in vivo and removed to determine the effect by in vitro radiochemical assay for juvenile hormone synthesis. Corpora allata were also treated with putative regulatory factors in vitro. During the final stadium the corpora allata were inhibited both by nerves and by humoral factors. Neural inhibition was shown by an increase in juvenile hormone synthesis following denervation of the corpora allata. This operation elicited an extra larval instar. Humoral inhibition was shown by the decline in juvenile hormone synthesis of adult female corpora allata following transplantation into final instar larval hosts, and conversely the increase in juvenile hormone synthesis by larval corpora allata following implantation into adult females. Humoral inhibition was prevented by decapitation of larvae prior to the head critical period for molting and restored by implantation of a larval brain, showing that the brain is the source of this inhibition.

  10. Juvenile dermatomyositis in a Nigerian girl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelowo, Olufemi; Nwankwo, Madu; Olaosebikan, Hakeem

    2014-01-01

    Juvenile dermatomyositis is an autoimmune connective tissue disease occurring in children less than 16 years old. It is part of a heterogeneous group of muscle diseases called idiopathic Iiflammatory myopathies. It had previously been reported in black Africans resident in UK. However, there is no documented case reported from Africa. The index sign of heliotrope rashes is often difficult to visualise in the black skin. An 11-year-old Nigerian girl presenting with clinical, laboratory and histopathological features of juvenile dermatomyositis is presented here. It is hoped that this case will heighten the index of suspicion of this condition among medical practitioners in Africa. PMID:24706700

  11. Posttraumatic stress among youths in juvenile detention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Derek; Thompson, Sanna J; Sanford, Julia

    2014-01-01

    An estimated 1.8 million juveniles were arrested in the United States for delinquency in 2009. Previous studies indicate high rates of exposure to traumatic events and posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms for these youths. This study examined PTS in a sample of 170 youths in juvenile detention. The results of this study reveal higher rates of PTS symptoms (21%) compared to national rates (6%). The data also suggest youths suffering from more PTS symptoms also report higher depression, anxiety, anger, family relationship worries, thought problems, and attention problems. These factors provide a direction for continued practice targeting these youths.

  12. [HLA antigens in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumba, I V; Sochnev, A M; Kukaĭne, E M; Burshteĭn, A M; Benevolenskaia, L I

    1990-01-01

    Antigens of I class HLA system (locus A and B) were investigated in 67 patients of Latvian nationality suffering from juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA). Associations of HLA antigens with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis partially coincided with the ones revealed earlier. Typing established an increased incidence of antigen B27 (p less than 0.01) and gaplotype A2, B40 (p less than 0.01). Antigen B15 possessed a protective action with respect to JRA. Interlocus combinations demonstrated a closer association with the disease than a single antigen. The authors also revealed markers of various clinico-anatomical variants of JRA.

  13. Metabolic responses to hypoglycemia in juvenile diabetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Madsbad, S; Krarup, T;

    1980-01-01

    Glucagon and metabolic responses to insulin-induced hypoglycemia were studied in seven juvenile diabetics, age 31 +/- 2 years (mean and S.E.M.), duration of diabetes 17 +/- 3 years, with diabetic autonomic neuropathy (decreased beat-to-beat variation in heart rate during hyperventilation and...... in both patient groups. Metabolic responses to hypoglycemia were also similar in the two patient groups. In conclusion, diabetic autonomic neuropathy has no effect on glucagon and metabolic responses to hypoglycemia in juvenile, insulin-treated diabetics....

  14. Juvenil Pityriasis Rubra Pilaris: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Emin YANIK et al.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP is an uncommon skin disease characterized by follicularkeratotic papules, erythemato-squamous plaques and palmoplantar keratoderma. Etyology isunknown. A 8 years-old boy presented with a 15 days history of scaly patches and plaques withfollicular papules involving his scalp and face. However he had palmoplantar keratoderma onhis hands and feet. Based upon clinical and histopatological findings, he was diagnosed asJuvenile PRP. Acitretin was initiated for therapy. We presented our case because of its rarity.

  15. Acupuntura em adolescentes com fibromialgia juvenil

    OpenAIRE

    Dias,Marialda Höfling P.; Amaral,Elisabete; PAI, Hong Jin; Daniela Terumi Y. Tsai; LOTITO, Ana Paola N; Leone,Claudio; Silva, Clovis Artur

    2012-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Descrever a utilização da acupuntura em adolescentes com fibromialgia juvenil. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo realizado em pacientes com fibromialgia juvenil (critérios do Colégio Americano de Reumatologia) submetidos a, pelo menos, 11 sessões semanais de acupuntura. As avaliações antes e após acupuntura incluíram dados demográficos, características da dor musculoesquelética, número de pontos dolorosos (NPD), escala visual analógica (EVA) de dor, algiometria e índice miálgico (IM). D...

  16. Programa Shortstop: A Culturally Focused Juvenile Intervention for Hispanic Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, Richard C.; Ruan, Karen; Duenas, Norma

    2004-01-01

    Culturally sensitive juvenile delinquency and substance abuse interventions are relatively limited and unavailable to many first-time Hispanic juvenile offenders. The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of a culturally focused juvenile and substance abuse intervention program for first time Hispanic youth offenders. The intent of…

  17. Increased Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression in Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.A. van Hattem; L.A.A. Brosens; S.Y. Marks; A.N.A. Milne; S. van Eeden; C.A. Iacobuzio-Donahue; A. Ristimäki; F.M. Giardiello; G.J.A. Offerhaus

    2009-01-01

    Background & Aims: Gastrointestinal juvenile polyps may occur in juvenile polyposis syndrome (JPS) or sporadically. JPS is an autosomal-dominant condition caused by a germline defect in SMAD4 or BMPR1A in 50% to 60% of cases, and is characterized by multiple juvenile polyps, predominantly in the col

  18. Chronic Juvenile Delinquency and the "Suppression Effect": An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Mark; Norman, Michael

    1988-01-01

    Notes that fear of apprehension and punishment have been reported to suppress juvenile crime. Discusses suppression effect in regard to the correlates of chronic juvenile delinquency and exploratory evidence that youth who commit large volume of crime do not fear sanctions imposed by juvenile court any more than youth who commit only one offense…

  19. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis: therapeutic perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikanza, Ian C

    2002-01-01

    Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) is the most common childhood chronic systemic autoimmune inflammatory disease. The therapeutic approach to JRA has, to date, been casual and based on extensions of clinical experiences gained in the management of adult rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The physiology of inflammation has been systemically studied and this has led to the identification of specific therapeutic targets and the development of novel approaches to the management of JRA. The classical treatments of the disease such as methotrexate, sodium aurothiomalate and sulfasalazine, are not always effective in controlling RA and JRA. This has necessitated the development of novel agents for treating RA, most of which are biological in nature and are targeted at specific sites of the inflammatory cascades. These biological therapeutic strategies in RA have proved successful and are being applied in the management of JRA. These developments have been facilitated by the advances in molecular biology which have heralded the advent of biodrugs (recombinant proteins) and gene therapy, in which specific genes can be introduced locally to enhance in vivo gene expression or suppress gene(s) of interest with a view to down-regulating inflammation. Some of these biodrugs, such as anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNFalpha), monoclonal antibodies (infliximab, adalimumab), TNF soluble receptor constructs (etanercept) and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) have been tested and shown to be effective in RA. Etanercept has now been licensed for JRA. Clinical trials of infliximab in JRA are planned. Studies show that the clinical effects are transient, necessitating repeated treatments and the risk of vaccination effects. Anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-4, IL-10, transforming growth factor-beta and interferon-beta (IFN-beta) are undergoing clinical trials. Many of these agents have to be administered parenterally and production costs are very high; thus, there is a need

  20. Feasible pickup from intact ossicular chain with floating piezoelectric microphone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Hou-Yong

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Many microphones have been developed to meet with the implantable requirement of totally implantable cochlear implant (TICI. However, a biocompatible one without destroying the intactness of the ossicular chain still remains under investigation. Such an implantable floating piezoelectric microphone (FPM has been manufactured and shows an efficient electroacoustic performance in vitro test at our lab. We examined whether it pick up sensitively from the intact ossicular chain and postulated whether it be an optimal implantable one. Methods Animal controlled experiment: five adult cats (eight ears were sacrificed as the model to test the electroacoustic performance of the FPM. Three groups were studied: (1 the experiment group (on malleus: the FPM glued onto the handle of the malleus of the intact ossicular chains; (2 negative control group (in vivo: the FPM only hung into the tympanic cavity; (3 positive control group (Hy-M30: a HiFi commercial microphone placed close to the site of the experiment ear. The testing speaker played pure tones orderly ranged from 0.25 to 8.0 kHz. The FPM inside the ear and the HiFi microphone simultaneously picked up acoustic vibration which recorded as .wav files to analyze. Results The FPM transformed acoustic vibration sensitively and flatly as did the in vitro test across the frequencies above 2.0 kHz, whereas inefficiently below 1.0 kHz for its overloading mass. Although the HiFi microphone presented more efficiently than the FPM did, there was no significant difference at 3.0 kHz and 8.0 kHz. Conclusions It is feasible to develop such an implantable FPM for future TICIs and TIHAs system on condition that the improvement of Micro Electromechanical System and piezoelectric ceramic material technology would be applied to reduce its weight and minimize its size.

  1. A case of mixed transcortical aphasia with intact naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilman, K M; Tucker, D M; Valenstein, E

    1976-09-01

    Altholgh Lichtheim recognized that Wernicke's 'reflex arch' (primary auditory area, to Wernicke's area, to Broca's area, to primary motor area) was important for repetition, he recognized that other areas of the brain (for example, area of concepts or semantic area) must be important in comprehension and voluntary speech. He suggested that Wernicke's area (phonemic area) not only projected to Broca's area (as Wernicke suggested) but that it also projected to the area of concepts. A lesion of this latter pathway or in the area of concepts would produce a syndrome where repetition was intact but comprehension was impaired (e.g. transcortical sensory aphasia). Lichtheim also thought that the area of concepts projected directly to Broca's area and that voluntary speech was mediated by this pathway. Although Lichtheim's model could explain the mechanism underlying transcortical aphasia, his schema could not explain anomic aphasia. Unlike Lichtheim's schema, Kussmaul's schema suggested that the area of concepts projects back to Wernicke's area before projecting to Broca's area. With this schema, a patient with a hypothetical lesion which interrupted the pathway from the area of concepts to Wernicke's area (but did not interrupt the pathway from Wernicke's area to the area of concepts) should be anomic, with normal comprehension and repetition. In order for this latter schema to be plausible there should also be a lesion which interrupts the pathway from Wernicke's area to the area of concepts but does not interrupt the pathway which goes from the area of concepts to Wernicke's area. A patient with this hypothetical lesion should comprehend poorly; however, in spite of poor comprehension, naming and repetition should be intact. We report a patient who demonstrates poor comprehension with intact naming and repetition. This patient could also read aloud but could not comprehend written language. Not only could this patient name objects but he could demonstrate their use

  2. The challenges of the first migration: movement and behaviour of juvenile vs. adult white storks with insights regarding juvenile mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotics, Shay; Kaatz, Michael; Resheff, Yehezkel S; Turjeman, Sondra Feldman; Zurell, Damaris; Sapir, Nir; Eggers, Ute; Flack, Andrea; Fiedler, Wolfgang; Jeltsch, Florian; Wikelski, Martin; Nathan, Ran

    2016-07-01

    Migration conveys an immense challenge, especially for juvenile birds coping with enduring and risky journeys shortly after fledging. Accordingly, juveniles exhibit considerably lower survival rates compared to adults, particularly during migration. Juvenile white storks (Ciconia ciconia), which are known to rely on adults during their first fall migration presumably for navigational purposes, also display much lower annual survival than adults. Using detailed GPS and body acceleration data, we examined the patterns and potential causes of age-related differences in fall migration properties of white storks by comparing first-year juveniles and adults. We compared juvenile and adult parameters of movement, behaviour and energy expenditure (estimated from overall dynamic body acceleration) and placed this in the context of the juveniles' lower survival rate. Juveniles used flapping flight vs. soaring flight 23% more than adults and were estimated to expend 14% more energy during flight. Juveniles did not compensate for their higher flight costs by increased refuelling or resting during migration. When juveniles and adults migrated together in the same flock, the juvenile flew mostly behind the adult and was left behind when they separated. Juveniles showed greater improvement in flight efficiency throughout migration compared to adults which appears crucial because juveniles exhibiting higher flight costs suffered increased mortality. Our findings demonstrate the conflict between the juveniles' inferior flight skills and their urge to keep up with mixed adult-juvenile flocks. We suggest that increased flight costs are an important proximate cause of juvenile mortality in white storks and likely in other soaring migrants and that natural selection is operating on juvenile variation in flight efficiency.

  3. Direct detection of radicals in intact soybean nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathieu, C; Moreau, S; Frendo, P

    1998-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy has been employed to examine the nature of the metal ions and radicals present in intact root nodules of soybean plants grown in the absence of nitrate. The spectra obtained from nodules of different ages using this non-invasive technique show dramatic...... of the soybean plants, in a manner analogous to that recently described for Lupinus albus. This Lb-NO complex is present at lower concentrations in older nodules, and is almost completely absent from senescent nodules. Exposure of young and mature nodules to oxidant stress, in the form of hydrogen peroxide...

  4. Rhesus monkey brain imaging through intact skull with thermoacoustic tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Yuan; Wang, Lihong V.

    2006-01-01

    Two-dimensional microwave-induced thermoacoustic tomography (TAT) is applied to imaging the Rhesus monkey brain through the intact skull. To reduce the wavefront distortion caused by the skull, only the low-frequency components of the thermoacoustic signals (< 1 MHz) are used to reconstruct the TAT images. The methods of signal processing and image reconstruction are validated by imaging a lamb kidney. The resolution of the system is found to be 4 mm when we image a 1-month-old monkey head co...

  5. Fast imaging of intact and shattered cryogenic neon pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhehui, E-mail: zwang@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Combs, S. K.; Baylor, L. R.; Foust, C. R.; Lyttle, M. S.; Meitner, S. J.; Rasmussen, D. A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Compact condensed-matter injection technologies are increasingly used in magnetic fusion. One recent application is in disruption mitigation. An imaging system with less-than-100-µm- and sub-µs-resolution is described and used to characterize intact and shattered cryogenic neon pellets. Shattered pellets contain fine particles ranging from tens of µm to about 7 mm. Time-of-flight analyses indicate that pellets could slow down if hitting the wall of the guide tube. Fast high-resolution imaging systems are thus useful to neon and other condensed-matter injector development.

  6. Fast Imaging of Intact and Shattered Cryogenic Neon Pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhehui [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Combs, Stephen Kirk [ORNL; Baylor, Larry R [ORNL; Foust, Charles R [ORNL; Lyttle, Mark S [ORNL; Meitner, Steven J [ORNL; Rasmussen, David A [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Compact condensed-matter injection technologies are increasingly used in magnetic fusion. One recent application is in disruption mitigation. An imaging system with less-than-100- m- and sub- s-resolution is described and used to characterize intact and shattered cryogenic neon pellets. Shattered pellets contain fine particles ranging from tens of m to about 7 mm. Time-of-flight analyses indicate that pellets could slow down if hitting the wall of the guide tube. Fast high-resolution imaging systems are thus useful to neon and other condensed-matter injector development.

  7. Fast imaging of intact and shattered cryogenic neon pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhehui; Combs, S K; Baylor, L R; Foust, C R; Lyttle, M S; Meitner, S J; Rasmussen, D A

    2014-11-01

    Compact condensed-matter injection technologies are increasingly used in magnetic fusion. One recent application is in disruption mitigation. An imaging system with less-than-100-µm- and sub-µs-resolution is described and used to characterize intact and shattered cryogenic neon pellets. Shattered pellets contain fine particles ranging from tens of µm to about 7 mm. Time-of-flight analyses indicate that pellets could slow down if hitting the wall of the guide tube. Fast high-resolution imaging systems are thus useful to neon and other condensed-matter injector development.

  8. Child Maltreatment and Delinquency Onset Among African American Adolescent Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, James Herbert; Van Dorn, Richard A; Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Nebbitt, Von E

    2010-05-01

    Child welfare and criminology research have increasingly sought to better understand factors that increase the likelihood that abused and neglected children will become involved in the juvenile justice system. However, few studies have addressed this relationship among African American male adolescents. The current study examines the relationship between child maltreatment (i.e., neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and other/mixed abuse) and the likelihood of a delinquency petition using a sample of African American males (N = 2,335) born before 1990. Multivariable logistic regression models compared those with a delinquency-based juvenile justice petition to those without. Results indicate that African American males with a history of neglect, physical abuse, or other/mixed abuse were more likely to be involved in the juvenile justice system than those without any child maltreatment. Additionally, multiple maltreatment reports, a prior history of mental health treatment, victimization, and having a parent who did not complete high school also increased the likelihood of a delinquency petition. Implications for intervention and prevention are discussed.

  9. Criminal Profiles of Violent Juvenile Sex and Violent Juvenile Non-Sex Offenders: An Explorative Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Anton Ph.; Mali, Bas R. F.; Bullens, Ruud A. R.; Vermeiren, Robert R.

    2007-01-01

    Few studies have longitudinally investigated the criminal profiles of violent juvenile sex and violent juvenile non-sex offenders. To make up for this lack, this study used police records of juveniles to determine the nature of the criminal profiles of violent sex offenders (n = 226) and violent non-sex offenders (n = 4,130). All offenders…

  10. Juvenile Residential Facility Census, 2010: Selected Findings. Juvenile Offenders and Victims: National Report Series. Bulletin NCJ 241134

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockenberry, Sarah; Sickmund, Melissa; Sladky, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    This bulletin is part of the "Juvenile Offenders and Victims National Report Series." The "National Report" offers a comprehensive statistical overview of the problems of juvenile crime, violence, and victimization and the response of the juvenile justice system. During each interim year, the bulletins in the "National…

  11. Juvenile penalty or leniency: Sentencing of juveniles in the criminal justice system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Kareem L; McNeal, Brittani A

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of being juvenile on sentencing in the criminal justice system. More specifically, youth transferred to criminal court are compared to adults in terms of likelihood of incarceration, jail length, and prison length. In this study, 2 national data sets are merged. The juvenile sample includes 3,381 convicted offenders, and the adult sample is comprised of 6,529 convicted offenders. The final sample is 9,910 offenders across 36 U.S. counties. The key independent variable is juvenile status, and the dependent variables are incarceration, jail length, and prison length. Because of the multilevel nature of the data, hierarchical linear modeling is used across all models. Juveniles are punished less severely in the jail incarceration decision. However, when youth are actually sentenced to incarceration (either jail or prison), they are given longer confinement time than adults. (PsycINFO Database Record

  12. Male pattern baldness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alopecia in men; Baldness - male; Hair loss in men; Androgenetic alopecia ... Male pattern baldness is related to your genes and male sex hormones. It usually follows a pattern of receding hairline and ...

  13. Radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy for distantly metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) in juvenile versus adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammori, Makoto; Fukumori, Tatsuya; Sugishita, Yoshiyuki; Hoshi, Masae; Shimizu, Kazuo; Yamada, Tetsu

    2015-01-01

    In general, juvenile differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) demonstrate indolent characteristics and favorable prognosis are observed in comparison with many other carcinomas. However, recurrence is frequent, necessitating additional treatment, including radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy. In this report, the probability of recurrence, prognostic factors, treatment, and outcomes in both juvenile- and adult-onset DTC were analyzed and compared. At our institution, a total of 1552 DTC patients underwent thyroidectomy and/or lymph node dissection. The patients included 23 in their teens, 118 in their twenties, and 1412 in their thirties or older. The risk factors for distant metastases for DTC were male gender, follicular carcinoma, size of the PTC primary tumor, cervical lymph node metastases from PTC, and the presence of more than two distant metastatic foci. Patients with the highest risk underwent RAI ablation in line with institutional guidelines. Although the overall outcome in our juvenile patients was excellent, during follow-up, 4 (17.4%) of the 23 patients developed recurrent disease: 91.3% achieved complete remission, 4.35% partial remission, and 4.35% stable disease, with no disease-related deaths. Among the 118 patients in their twenties to thirties, 1 (0.8%) experienced progressive disease and disease-related death. A younger age at diagnosis and less radical primary surgery without subsequent RAI ablation are factors strongly predictive of distant metastases in patients with juvenile-onset DTC. To reduce the rate of relapse and improve surveillance for recurrent disease, total thyroidectomy followed by RAI appears to be the most beneficial initial treatment for patients with high- and intermediate-risk juvenile DTC.

  14. Timing of puberty and its relationship with body growth and season in male raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Hokkaido.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuyama, Minami W; Shimozuru, Michito; Abe, Go; Nakai, Mariko; Sashika, Mariko; Shimada, Ken-Ichiro; Takahashi, Nobuhiro; Fukui, Daisuke; Nakamura, Ryohei; Tsubota, Toshio

    2013-01-01

    The raccoon (Procyon lotor), indigenous to North America, has naturalized in Japan as an invasive alien species, having been introduced into the country in the 1970s. In Hokkaido, the northernmost island of Japan, feral raccoons have been increasing in number and spreading throughout the island. The age at the onset of puberty for raccoons is important for estimating individual lifetime reproductive success and population growth. The present study investigated the timing of and potential factors affecting the onset of puberty in male raccoons in Hokkaido. External characteristics and histology of testes were studied in 151 male feral raccoons and in 1 captive juvenile. For the majority of feral yearling raccoons, prepubertal development began in May, and spermatozoa production began in October prior to their second mating season. However, some larger juveniles attained puberty during the juvenile period. The captive juvenile, which was fed throughout the winter, attained puberty only 11 months after birth. These results suggest that if male raccoons can achieve enough body growth before the first mating season, puberty can be attained early. In both juveniles and yearlings, spermatozoa production was only observed after autumn. This timing coincided with the recrudescence of seasonally active spermatogenesis in adult males. Therefore, attaining puberty in male raccoons appears to require both adequate body nutrient development and several environmental factors that control seasonal testicular changes.

  15. Ethnic monitoring and social control: Descriptions from juveniles in juvenile care institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Basic, Goran

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has emphasized the institutional racism in total institutions. Researchers have highlighted the importance of narratives but have not focused on narratives about ethnic monitoring and social control. This article tries to fill this gap by analysing stories related to descriptions of ethnic monitoring and social control as told by juveniles of non-Swedish ethnicity in Swedish juvenile care institutions. A juvenile’s ethnicity was highlighted by drawing attention to the staff’...

  16. Selective ion changes during spontaneous mitochondrial transients in intact astrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Azarias

    Full Text Available The bioenergetic status of cells is tightly regulated by the activity of cytosolic enzymes and mitochondrial ATP production. To adapt their metabolism to cellular energy needs, mitochondria have been shown to exhibit changes in their ionic composition as the result of changes in cytosolic ion concentrations. Individual mitochondria also exhibit spontaneous changes in their electrical potential without altering those of neighboring mitochondria. We recently reported that individual mitochondria of intact astrocytes exhibit spontaneous transient increases in their Na(+ concentration. Here, we investigated whether the concentration of other ionic species were involved during mitochondrial transients. By combining fluorescence imaging methods, we performed a multiparameter study of spontaneous mitochondrial transients in intact resting astrocytes. We show that mitochondria exhibit coincident changes in their Na(+ concentration, electrical potential, matrix pH and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production during a mitochondrial transient without involving detectable changes in their Ca(2+ concentration. Using widefield and total internal reflection fluorescence imaging, we found evidence for localized transient decreases in the free Mg(2+ concentration accompanying mitochondrial Na(+ spikes that could indicate an associated local and transient enrichment in the ATP concentration. Therefore, we propose a sequential model for mitochondrial transients involving a localized ATP microdomain that triggers a Na(+-mediated mitochondrial depolarization, transiently enhancing the activity of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Our work provides a model describing ionic changes that could support a bidirectional cytosol-to-mitochondria ionic communication.

  17. Selective ion changes during spontaneous mitochondrial transients in intact astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarias, Guillaume; Chatton, Jean-Yves

    2011-01-01

    The bioenergetic status of cells is tightly regulated by the activity of cytosolic enzymes and mitochondrial ATP production. To adapt their metabolism to cellular energy needs, mitochondria have been shown to exhibit changes in their ionic composition as the result of changes in cytosolic ion concentrations. Individual mitochondria also exhibit spontaneous changes in their electrical potential without altering those of neighboring mitochondria. We recently reported that individual mitochondria of intact astrocytes exhibit spontaneous transient increases in their Na(+) concentration. Here, we investigated whether the concentration of other ionic species were involved during mitochondrial transients. By combining fluorescence imaging methods, we performed a multiparameter study of spontaneous mitochondrial transients in intact resting astrocytes. We show that mitochondria exhibit coincident changes in their Na(+) concentration, electrical potential, matrix pH and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production during a mitochondrial transient without involving detectable changes in their Ca(2+) concentration. Using widefield and total internal reflection fluorescence imaging, we found evidence for localized transient decreases in the free Mg(2+) concentration accompanying mitochondrial Na(+) spikes that could indicate an associated local and transient enrichment in the ATP concentration. Therefore, we propose a sequential model for mitochondrial transients involving a localized ATP microdomain that triggers a Na(+)-mediated mitochondrial depolarization, transiently enhancing the activity of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Our work provides a model describing ionic changes that could support a bidirectional cytosol-to-mitochondria ionic communication.

  18. Protracted effects of juvenile stressor exposure are mitigated by access to palatable food.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Christine MacKay

    Full Text Available Stressor experiences during the juvenile period may increase vulnerability to anxiety and depressive-like symptoms in adulthood. Stressors may also promote palatable feeding, possibly reflecting a form of self-medication. The current study investigated the short- and long-term consequences of a stressor applied during the juvenile period on anxiety- and depressive-like behavior measured by the elevated plus maze (EPM, social interaction and forced swim test (FST. Furthermore, the effects of stress on caloric intake, preference for a palatable food and indices of metabolic syndrome and obesity were assessed. Male Wistar rats exposed to 3 consecutive days of variable stressors on postnatal days (PD 27-29, displayed elevated anxiety-like behaviors as adults, which could be attenuated by consumption of a palatable high-fat diet. However, consumption of a palatable food in response to a stressor appeared to contribute to increased adiposity.

  19. Understanding the school outcomes of juvenile offenders: an exploration of neighborhood influences and motivational resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, He Len; Mulvey, Edward P; Steinberg, Laurence

    2011-08-01

    As a group, delinquent youth complete less education and show poor academic outcomes compared to their non-delinquent peers. To better understand pathways to school success, this study integrated individual- and neighborhood-level data to examine academic functioning among 833 White, Black, and Hispanic male juvenile offenders (age 14-17) living in two urban communities. A multilevel path analysis confirmed that youth in relatively more affluent communities report greater access to opportunities in the areas of education and employment, and that these opportunities are associated with higher expectations to succeed and better grades. Findings highlight the importance of taking an ecological approach for understanding processes that shape school effort and achievement. Implications are discussed in the context of promoting academic success among juvenile offenders, specifically, and for understanding pathways to healthy adjustment, more generally.

  20. Caracterización del glaucoma juvenil Characterization of juvenile glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Roche Caso

    2011-03-01

    ciega.INTRODUCTION. The glaucoma is infrequent in children but when it is present symptoms are not easily noticeable and produce severe consequences for visual health. The aim of present study was to characterize, from the clinical and epidemiologic point of view, the patients presenting with juvenile glaucoma seen in Ophthalmology services of the "Cerro" and "Pedro Borrás" Children Hospitals in Ciudad de La Habana from January, 2008 to December, 2009. METHODS. A prospective, longitudinal and epidemiologic study was conducted in 176 patients aged between 5 and 18 with a supposed glaucoma. Sample, after applied the inclusion and exclusion criteria, included 38 cases. Variables analyzed were: age at diagnosis, sex, skin color, family backgrounds according the relationship grade, corrected maximal visual acuity, type of refractive defect, characteristics of cell angle, central corneal thickness, the value of intraocular pressure, fundoscopy and campimetry alterations. RESULTS. In most of patients the diagnosis of juvenile glaucoma was a finding. The mean age at diagnosis was of 12,5 years, with slight predominance of males and of white skin color. The history of glaucoma in second grade blood relation relatives was more frequent. Most of cases had an optimal vision, some degree of myopia and open angle without obvious of cell angle where the more frequent was the presence of prominent iridic processes. CONCLUSIONS. There was predominance of a moderate decrease of corneal thickness and mean values of intraocular pressure of 26,91 mm Hg. The more frequent fundoscopy alteration found was the moderate papillary excavation (between 0,4 and 0,5 and as campimetry lesion, it was the increase in the black spot.

  1. Biological agents in polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amarilyo, Gil; Tarp, Simon; Foeldvari, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Although various biological agents are in use for polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (pJIA), head-to-head trials comparing the efficacy and safety among them are lacking. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of biological agents in pJIA using all currently...

  2. Retrocalcaneal bursitis in juvenile chronic arthritis.

    OpenAIRE

    Goldenstein-Schainberg, C; Homsi, C; Rodrigues Pereira, R M; W. Cossermelli

    1992-01-01

    Retrocalcaneal bursitis has been described in various adult rheumatic diseases and septic bursitis unrelated to previous bursal disease has been reported in children. The case is reported here of a girl with juvenile chronic arthritis who developed non-septic retrocalcaneal bursitis; the diagnosis was suggested by a combination of clinical and radiographic studies and was confirmed by ultrasonography.

  3. Family Disruption and Delinquency. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornberry, Terence P.; Smith, Carolyn A.; Rivera, Craig; Huizinga, David; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda

    At study sites in Rochester (New York), Denver (Colorado) and Pittsburgh (Pennsylvania), three research teams studying the impact of family disruption on juvenile delinquency have interviewed approximately 4,000 participants at regular intervals for a decade, recording their lives in detail. Findings to date indicate that preventing delinquency…

  4. Childhood ovarian juvenile granulosa cell tumour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof Ezechukwu

    2012-05-12

    May 12, 2012 ... years old of age. We describe a case ... Juvenile granulosa cell tumour a subtype of ovarian stro- mal cell ... A more serious estrogen effects can occur in various end ... usually behave in a benign manner despite having histo-.

  5. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies in juvenile chronic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, L; Horst, G; Limburg, P; deGraeffMeeder, ER; Kuis, W; Kallenberg, C

    1997-01-01

    Objective, To evaluate the diagnostic significance of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) by assessing the prevalence of ANCA in juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA) (n = 93) of either oligoarticular, polyarticular, or systemic onset. To investigate the prevalence of ANCA in other diseases of c

  6. Biologisk terapi ved juvenil idiopatisk artritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlin, Troels

    2008-01-01

    In recent years the treatment of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) has undergone marked changes. There is substantial evidence that inhibitors of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) like etanercept, infliximab and adalimumab show significant efficacy when standard therapy fails, and long-ter...

  7. Smerte og smertemestring ved juvenil idiopatisk artritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlin, Troels; Thastum, Mikael

    2008-01-01

    Pain is one of the primary symptoms of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). JIA patients have reduced pain tolerance and pain threshold compared to healthy controls. In children with JIA the greater use of coping strategies such as problem-solving, positive self-statements and distraction consist...

  8. Increasing Incidence of Juvenile Thyrotoxicosis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, R. H.; Andersen, M. S.; Hansen, D.

    2015-01-01

    . Additional data were collected on children diagnosed with GD in 2008-2012. Results: In total, 237 patients with juvenile thyrotoxicosis (JT) were identified. The overall IR in 1998-2012 was 1.58/100,000 person-years and has increased significantly from 0.79/100,000 person-years in 1982-1988 (p

  9. Predictors of juveniles' noncompliance with probation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NeMoyer, Amanda; Goldstein, Naomi E S; McKitten, Rhonda L; Prelic, Ana; Ebbecke, Jenna; Foster, Erika; Burkard, Casey

    2014-12-01

    Probation is the most common disposition for adjudicated youth, but little is known about which specific requirements are commonly imposed on juveniles, the requirements with which juveniles most often fail to comply, and how certain youth characteristics and/or imposed requirements might relate to probation noncompliance. An investigation of 120 archived files of youth represented by an urban public defender's office identified 29 probation requirements imposed on youth and 18 requirements with which youth commonly failed to comply. Results revealed that 52% of youth failed to comply with at least one probation requirement; prior probation noncompliance and race were both significantly associated with noncompliance in the examined probation disposition. In addition, the probability of probation noncompliance was significantly higher when youth received either of two substance-related probation requirements: drug tests or drug and alcohol counseling. Such results may prompt further investigation of juvenile probation-related predictors, identify areas of need for clinical service provision to foster successful completion of probation requirements, and help identify areas of potential biases among juvenile court personnel.

  10. Retrocalcaneal bursitis in juvenile chronic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenstein-Schainberg, C; Homsi, C; Rodrigues Pereira, R M; Cossermelli, W

    1992-01-01

    Retrocalcaneal bursitis has been described in various adult rheumatic diseases and septic bursitis unrelated to previous bursal disease has been reported in children. The case is reported here of a girl with juvenile chronic arthritis who developed non-septic retrocalcaneal bursitis; the diagnosis was suggested by a combination of clinical and radiographic studies and was confirmed by ultrasonography. Images PMID:1444631

  11. The human microbiome and juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwoerd, Anouk; ter Haar, Nienke M.; de Roock, Sytze; Vastert, Sebastiaan J.; Bogaert, Debby

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common rheumatic disease in childhood. The pathogenesis of JIA is thought to be the result of a combination of host genetic and environmental triggers. However, the precise factors that determine one's susceptibility to JIA remain to be unravelled. The

  12. Alteracioness cognitivas en familias con Parkinson juvenil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Lopera Restrepo

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available El Grupo de Neurociencias de la Universidad de Antioquia reportó por primera vez en Colombia cuatro familias afecatas por la Enfermedad de Parkinson Familiar Juvenil portadoras de la mutación G736A en el gen Parkin.

  13. Metamorphosis: How Missouri Rehabilitates Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubin, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Juveniles convicted of serious offenses usually end up in large correctional facilities that focus on punishment--not rehabilitation. The state of Missouri, however, has found a better way to help end the cycle of crime: by creating a network of small facilities that provide therapy and educational opportunities, it has dramatically reduced…

  14. The human microbiome and juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwoerd, Anouk; ter Haar, Nienke M.; de Roock, Sytze; Vastert, Sebastiaan J.; Bogaert, Debby

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common rheumatic disease in childhood. The pathogenesis of JIA is thought to be the result of a combination of host genetic and environmental triggers. However, the precise factors that determine one's susceptibility to JIA remain to be unravelled. The

  15. Autoimmune hepatitis and juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deen, M. E. J.; Porta, G.; Fiorot, F. J.; Campos, L. M. A.; Sallum, A. M. E.; Silva, C. A. A.

    2009-01-01

    Juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE) and autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) are both autoimmune disorders that are rare in children and have a widespread clinical manifestation. A few case reports have shown a JSLE-AIH associated disorder. To our knowledge, this is the first study that simultaneousl

  16. JUVENILE RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS (TERMINOLOGICALAND CLASSIFICATION ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N N Kuzmina

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Basing on the data of home and foreign literature and on the long-term experience of pediatric rheumatologists, terminologic and classification aspects of Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA are presented. Approaches to developing of diagnostic and classification of JRA criteria in future are described.

  17. Reduction in penis size and plasma testosterone concentrations in juvenile alligators living in a contaminated environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillette, L J; Pickford, D B; Crain, D A; Rooney, A A; Percival, H F

    1996-01-01

    The development of the male reproductive ducts and external genitalia in vertebrates is dependent on elevated androgen concentrations during embryonic development and the period of postnatal growth. We have observed that a population of juvenile alligators living on Lake Apopka exhibit significantly smaller penis size (24% average decrease) and lower plasma concentrations of testosterone (70% lower concentrations) when compared to animals of similar size on Lake Woodruff. In addition to smaller phalli, no relationship exists between plasma testosterone concentrations and penile size in males from Lake Apopka, whereas a positive relationship exists for males from Lake Woodruff. The alligators on Lake Apopka are known to have elevated concentrations of the antiandrogenic DDT breakdown product p.p'-DDE stored in their fat. We suggest a number of hypotheses that could explain the modification in the phenotype of the juvenile male living in Lake Apopka. These modifications in phenotype include a smaller penis size, lower plasma androgen concentrations, and lack of responsiveness of the penis to the plasma androgens present.

  18. Evaluating juvenile detainees' Miranda misconceptions: The discriminant validity of the Juvenile Miranda Quiz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharf, Allyson J; Rogers, Richard; Williams, Margot M; Drogin, Eric Y

    2017-05-01

    Most juvenile arrestees in custodial settings waive their Miranda rights almost immediately, and many then provide incriminating statements, if not outright confessions. Forensic practitioners are then asked to provide retrospective determinations regarding whether these waivers were effectuated knowingly, voluntarily, and intelligently. At present, the forensic assessment instrument for juvenile Miranda issues consists of the Miranda Rights Comprehension Instruments (MRCI)-which as its name implies-focuses mostly on Miranda comprehension with a de-emphasis of Miranda reasoning. In partially addressing this gap, the current study investigated the clinical utility of the Juvenile Miranda Quiz (JMQ) for evaluating key Miranda misconceptions, a critically important component of Miranda reasoning. Using data from 201 juvenile detainees, we evaluated the JMQ's discriminability with regards to cognitive variables and MRCI scales. Many moderate effect sizes in the predicted direction were found for the JMQ Primary Total and Juvenile Total scores. Finally, these detainees were tested using a mock crime scenario with a representative Miranda warning plus a brief interrogation to evaluate whether they would waive their rights, and if so, whether they would confess. Using Miranda measures to predict problematic outcomes (i.e., impaired waivers followed by confessions), the JMQ Juvenile Total proved the most successful. These findings are discussed within the context of the "intelligent" prong of Miranda waivers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Malnutrition among Cognitively Intact, non-Critically Ill Older Adults in the Emergency Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Greg F.; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Weaver, Mark A.; Holland, Wesley C.; Platts-Mills, Timothy F.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We estimate the prevalence of malnutrition among older patients presenting to an emergency department (ED) in the southeastern United States and identify subgroups at increased risk. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study with random time block sampling of cognitively intact patients aged 65 years and older. Nutrition was assessed using the Mini Nutritional Assessment Short-Form (0–14 scale) with malnutrition defined as a score of 7 or less and at-risk for malnutrition defined as a score of 8–11. The presence of depressive symptoms was defined as a Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression-10 score of 4 or more (0–10 scale). Results Among 138 older adults, 16% (95% Confidence Interval [CI], 10%–22%) were malnourished and 60% (95% CI, 52%–69%) were either malnourished or at-risk for malnutrition. Seventeen of the 22 malnourished patients (77%) denied previously being diagnosed with malnutrition. The prevalence of malnutrition was not appreciably different between males and females, across levels of patient education, or between those living in urban and rural areas. However, the prevalence of malnutrition was higher among patients with depressive symptoms 52%, those residing in assisted living 50%, those with difficulty eating 38%, and those reporting difficulty buying groceries 33%. Conclusion Among a random sample of cognitively intact older ED patients, more than half were malnourished or at-risk for malnutrition, and the majority of malnourished patients had not previously been diagnosed. Higher rates of malnutrition among those with depression, difficulty eating, and difficulty buying groceries suggest the need to explore multifaceted interventions. PMID:25129819

  20. Ladder Treadmill: A Method to Assess Locomotion in Cats with an Intact or Lesioned Spinal Cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalona, Manuel; Delivet-Mongrain, Hugo; Kundu, Aritra; Gossard, Jean-Pierre; Rossignol, Serge

    2017-05-31

    After lesions of the CNS, locomotor abilities of animals (mainly cats) are often assessed on a simple flat treadmill (FTM), which imposes little demands on supraspinal structures as is the case when walking on targets. Therefore, the aims of the present work were as follows: (1) to develop a treadmill allowing the assessment of locomotion of intact cats required to place the paws on the rungs of a moving ladder treadmill (LTM); (2) to assess the capability of cats after a unilateral spinal hemisection at T10 to cope with such a demanding locomotor task; and (3) to regularly train cats for 6 weeks on the LTM to determine whether such regular training improves locomotor recovery on the FTM. A significant improvement would indicate that LTM training maximizes the contribution of spinal locomotor circuits as well as remnant supraspinal inputs. Together, we used 9 cats (7 females, 2 males). Six were used to compare the EMG and kinematic locomotor characteristics during walking on the FTM and LTM. We found that the swing phase during LTM walking was slightly enhanced as well as some specific activity of knee flexor muscles. Fore-hindlimb coupling favored a more stable diagonal coupling. These 6 cats were then hemispinalized and trained for 6 weeks on the LTM, whereas the 3 other cats were hemispinalized and trained solely on the FTM to compare the two training regimens. Intensive LTM training after hemisection was found to change features of locomotion, such as the foot trajectory as well as diminished paw drag often observed after hemisection.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT This paper introduces a method (ladder treadmill [LTM]) to study the locomotor ability of cats with an intact spinal cord or after a unilateral hemisection to walk with a precise foot placement on the rungs fixed to an ordinary flat treadmill (FTM). Because cats are compared in various conditions (intact or hemisected at different time points) in the same enclosure on the FTM and the LTM, the changes in

  1. 摄食水平对不同性别食蚊鱼仔幼鱼生长发育的影响%THE EFFECT OF RATION LEVEL ON GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF MALE AND FEMALE GAMBUSIA AFFINIS DURING LARVAL AND JUVENILE STAGES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾祥玲; 林小涛; 刘毅

    2011-01-01

    在实验室27℃水温下,研究了少食、中食和饱食三个摄食水平对0至25日龄雌雄食蚊鱼(Gambusia affinis)的生长发育特征和饵料利用效率的影响.26d饲养实验结束后,对试验鱼摄食和牛长指标、臀鳍分化、性成熟及饵料转换效率进行分析.结果显示:到臀鳍开始分化时,饱食组雄鱼的累计摄食总能量和生长速度开始小于雌鱼,且随日龄的增加差异加大;随摄食水平的增加,0日龄仔鱼到臀鳍分化和性成熟的时间缩短.至实验结束,各摄食组的雄鱼均形成发育完善的生殖足,性腺都达到成熟状态;而雌鱼性成熟迟于雄鱼,且其性成熟更易受到摄食水平的影响,饱食组只有约50%的个体达到性成熟,少食组的卵母细胞则均处在小生长期.随着摄食水平的增加,雌雄鱼的体长、体重和干物质特定生长率均呈明显上升趋势,而干物质饵料转化效率则呈明显下降趋势;实验结束时,雌鱼的生长指标和干物质饵料转化率均大于雄鱼.以上结果表明,伴随臀鳍的分化,食蚊鱼在摄食、生长、发育、性成熟和应对食物丰度变化上表现出显著的性别差异.%The experiment was conducted at 3 ration levels (low-ration, medium-ration and repletion-ration) to investigate the effect of ration level on growth and feed utilization of male and female Gambusia affinis from 0 to 25 day post-hatch (DPH). For each ration treatment, the experimental larvae born from same Gambusia affeinis were chosen randomly and assigned to three groups (thirty larvae per group). The larvae were respectively reared in beakers (water volume of 200 mL) at (27±0.5)℃. Fish were fed twice daily (at 09:00 and 21:00) and lasted for 26 days at different ration levels. Larvae were sampled at selected intervals and the following parameters were analyzed: food intake, growth,anal fin metamorphosis, sexual maturation and feed conversion efficiency. At the satiation ration, the day of anal

  2. Musculoskeletal MRI findings of juvenile localized scleroderma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eutsler, Eric P. [Nemours Children' s Health System/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Wilmington, DE (United States); Washington University School of Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis, MO (United States); Horton, Daniel B. [Nemours Children' s Health System/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Division of Rheumatology, Department of Pediatrics, Wilmington, DE (United States); Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Department of Pediatrics, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Epelman, Monica [Nemours Children' s Health System/Nemours Children' s Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Orlando, FL (United States); Finkel, Terri [Nemours Children' s Health System/Nemours Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Orlando, FL (United States); Averill, Lauren W. [Nemours Children' s Health System/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Wilmington, DE (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Juvenile localized scleroderma comprises a group of autoimmune conditions often characterized clinically by an area of skin hardening. In addition to superficial changes in the skin and subcutaneous tissues, juvenile localized scleroderma may involve the deep soft tissues, bones and joints, possibly resulting in functional impairment and pain in addition to cosmetic changes. There is literature documenting the spectrum of findings for deep involvement of localized scleroderma (fascia, muscles, tendons, bones and joints) in adults, but there is limited literature for the condition in children. We aimed to document the spectrum of musculoskeletal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of both superficial and deep juvenile localized scleroderma involvement in children and to evaluate the utility of various MRI sequences for detecting those findings. Two radiologists retrospectively evaluated 20 MRI studies of the extremities in 14 children with juvenile localized scleroderma. Each imaging sequence was also given a subjective score of 0 (not useful), 1 (somewhat useful) or 2 (most useful for detecting the findings). Deep tissue involvement was detected in 65% of the imaged extremities. Fascial thickening and enhancement were seen in 50% of imaged extremities. Axial T1, axial T1 fat-suppressed (FS) contrast-enhanced and axial fluid-sensitive sequences were rated most useful. Fascial thickening and enhancement were the most commonly encountered deep tissue findings in extremity MRIs of children with juvenile localized scleroderma. Because abnormalities of the skin, subcutaneous tissues and fascia tend to run longitudinally in an affected limb, axial T1, axial fluid-sensitive and axial T1-FS contrast-enhanced sequences should be included in the imaging protocol. (orig.)

  3. The role of gut microbes in satisfying the nutritional demands of adult and juvenile wild, black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Katherine R; Leigh, Steven R; Kent, Angela; Mackie, Roderick I; Yeoman, Carl J; Stumpf, Rebecca M; Wilson, Brenda A; Nelson, Karen E; White, Bryan A; Garber, Paul A

    2014-12-01

    In all mammals, growth, development, pregnancy, and lactation increase nutritional demands. Although primate field studies tend to focus on shifts in activity and diet as mechanisms to compensate for these demands, differences in digestive efficiency also are likely to be important. Because the gut microbiota can impact host digestive efficiency, we examined differences in activity budget, diet, and the gut microbial community among adult male (N = 4), adult female (N = 4), and juvenile (N = 5) wild black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) across a ten-month period in Palenque National Park, Mexico to determine how adult females and juveniles compensate for increased nutritional demands. Results indicate that adult females and juveniles consumed more protein and energy than adult males. Adult males, adult females, and juveniles also possessed distinct gut microbial communities, unrelated to diet. Juveniles exhibited a gut microbiota characterized by bacteria from the phylum Firmicutes, such as Roseburia and Ruminococcus, and demonstrated high fecal volatile fatty acid content, suggesting increased microbial contributions to host energy balances. Adult females possessed a higher Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio, also suggesting increased energy production, and their gut microbiota was characterized by Lactococcus, which has been associated with folate biosynthesis. On the basis of these patterns, it appears that the gut microbiota differentially contributes to howler monkey nutrition during reproduction and growth. Determining the nutritional and energetic importance of shifts in activity, diet, and the gut microbiota in other nonhuman primate taxa, as well as humans, will transform our understanding of these life history processes and the role of host-microbe relationships in primate evolution. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis in Olmsted County, Minnesota, 1960–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Megan L.; Crowson, Cynthia S.; Michet, C. John; Mason, Thomas; Muskardin, Theresa Wampler; Matteson, Eric L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the incidence and prevalence of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) in Olmsted County, Minnesota in 1994–2013 and trends in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) in 1960–2013. Methods Cases of arthritis in 1994–2013 were identified by diagnosis code with medical chart review to confirm diagnosis separately for JIA and JRA. Overall incidence rates with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were age and sex adjusted to the 2010 US white population. Comparisons were made with an earlier (1960–1993) cohort from this same population. Results Seventy-one incident cases of JIA in 1994–2013 were identified, with an overall age- and sex-adjusted incidence rate of 10.3 per 100,000 (95% CI 7.9–12.7). Forty-two (59%) were female, with an incidence of 12.4 per 100,000 (95% CI 8.6–16.2), as compared to 8.3 per 100,000 (95% CI 5.2–11.3) in males. The most common subtype was oligoarthritis (63%). The mean ± SD age at diagnosis was 8.2 ± 5.3 years. The prevalence of JIA on January 1, 2000 and January 1, 2010 was 51.0 per 100,000 (95% CI 25.2–76.8) and 57.6 per 100,000 (95% CI 31.0–94.5), respectively. When the annual incidence of JRA was compared over time from 1960 to 2013, there was no significant change in incidence overall; however, the incidence decreased among females (P = 0.003). A cyclic pattern of incidence was observed, with peaks approximately every 10 years. Similar to the findings with regard to incidence, prevalence did not change overall, but decreased among females (P = 0.048). There were 4 deaths in the cohort of JRA patients diagnosed in 1960–2013; the standardized mortality ratio was 1.50 (95% CI 0.41–3.83). Conclusion Incidence of juvenile arthritis overall in Olmsted County, Minnesota has not changed significantly in the past 53 years. A consistent cyclic pattern was noted. PMID:26316119

  5. Victim age-based subtypes of juveniles adjudicated for sexual offenses: comparisons across domains in an outpatient sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanniff, Amanda M; Kolko, David J

    2012-06-01

    Adolescents adjudicated for sexual offenses are a heterogeneous group. The identification of more homogeneous subgroups of offenders may enable improved treatment, as the specific risks and needs presented by each group could be more effectively targeted. The current study examines three subgroups derived based on the age of victim(s), a popular method of subtyping that has mixed empirical support, using a sample of 176 males adjudicated for a sexual offense and court-ordered to participate in a community-based collaborative intervention program that integrates treatment and probationary services. Differences expected between groups based on theories regarding victim-age based subtypes are examined, in addition to differences consistently identified in prior research. Results indicate that these three subgroups are more similar than different, although some expected differences were found. Juveniles with child victims were more likely to have male victims and biologically related victims. Juveniles with peer/adult victims were more likely to have poor monitoring by their parents and more likely to have been arrested again. Juveniles with mixed types of victims appeared similar to juveniles with child victims on some variables and similar to those with peer/adult victims on others. Treatment implications and future directions for research are discussed. Typologies based on clinical characteristics of the youth rather than offense characteristics may have more promise for identifying meaningful subgroups.

  6. Glutamatergic signaling and low prodynorphin expression are associated with intact memory and reduced anxiety in rat models of healthy aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline eMenard

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The LOU/C/Jall (LOU rat strain is considered a model of healthy aging due to its increased longevity, maintenance of stable body weight (BW throughout life and low incidence of age-related diseases. However, aging LOU rat cognitive and anxiety status has yet to be investigated. In the present study, male and female LOU rat cognitive performances (6-42 months were assessed using novel object recognition and Morris Water Maze tasks. Recognition memory remained intact in all LOU rats up to 42 months of age. As for spatial memory, old LOU rat performed similarly as young animals for learning acquisition, reversal learning and retention. While LOU rat BW remained stable despite aging, 20-month-old ad-libitum-fed (OAL male Sprague Dawley rats become obese. We determined if long-term caloric restriction (LTCR prevents age-related BW increase and cognitive deficits in this rat strain, as observed in the obesity-resistant LOU rats. Compared to young animals, recognition memory was impaired in OAL but intact in 20-month-old calorie-restricted (OCR rats. Similarly, OAL spatial learning acquisition was impaired but LTCR prevented the deficits. Exacerbated stress responses may favor age-related cognitive decline. In the elevated plus maze and open field tasks, LOU and OCR rats exhibited high levels of exploratory activity whereas OAL rats displayed anxious behaviors. Expression of prodynorphin (Pdyn, an endogenous peptide involved in stress-related memory impairments, was increased in the hippocampus of OAL rats. Group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 and immediate early genes Homer 1a and Arc expression, both associated with successful cognitive aging, were unaltered in aging LOU rats but lower in OAL than OCR rats. Altogether, our results, supported by principal component analysis and correlation matrix, suggest that intact memory and low anxiety are associated with glutamatergic signaling and low Pdyn expression in the hippocampus of non obese aging

  7. Orofacial pain, jaw function, and temporomandibular disorders in adult women with a history of juvenile chronic arthritis or persistent juvenile chronic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakke, M.; Zak, M.; Jensen, B.L.;

    2001-01-01

    Orofacial pain, jaw function, temporomandibular disorders, adult women persistent juvenil chronic arthritis......Orofacial pain, jaw function, temporomandibular disorders, adult women persistent juvenil chronic arthritis...

  8. Different familial association patterns of autoimmune diseases between juvenile-onset systemic lupus erythematosus and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Mei; Yang, Yao-Hsu; Chiang, Bor-Luen

    2004-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if the prevalence of autoimmune disorders in the relatives of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is greater than that of relatives of patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA). Interviews were used to obtain histories of the following autoimmune disorders among living or deceased first-, second-, and third-degree relatives of 91 SLE and 110 JRA families: ankylosing spondylitis, SLE, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), JRA, multiple sclerosis, juvenile dermatomyositis, Sjögren's syndrome, myasthenia gravis, psoriasis, and thyroid diseases. There were statistically significant differences between the SLE and JRA probands in mean age and gender ratio (19.1 +/- 4.8 vs 14.0 +/- 5.5 years; M (male)/F (female): 17/74 vs 62/48, pJRA families (11.8%), but not statistically significantly so. The mean age (18.0 +/- 5.3 vs 14.0 +/- 4.3 years), mean age at diagnosis (13.4 +/- 4.3 vs 7.9 +/- 3.9 years) and gender ratio (F/M, 16/3 vs 5/8) of the patients with affected relatives between these 2 groups all had statistically significant differences. A higher prevalence of SLE in relatives was found in SLE families than in JRA cases. Furthermore, this study revealed a higher incidence of autoimmune disorders among second- and third-degree relatives of SLE or JRA probands versus first-degree ones, especially sisters (including 1 pair of twins) and the maternal aunt in SLE families. These data demonstrate that the prevalence of autoimmune disorders in the relatives of patients with SLE is greater than those of relatives of patients with JRA. This suggests that clinically different autoimmune phenotypes may share common susceptibility genes, which may act as risk factors for autoimmunity.

  9. Calcium Activation Profile In Electrically Stimulated Intact Rat Heart Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerts, Hugo; Nuydens, Rony; Ver Donck, Luc; Nuyens, Roger; De Brabander, Marc; Borgers, Marcel

    1988-06-01

    Recent advances in fluorescent probe technology and image processing equipment have made available the measurement of calcium in living systems on a real-time basis. We present the use of the calcium indicator Fura-2 in intact normally stimulated rat heart cells for the spatial and dynamic measurement of the calcium excitation profile. After electric stimulation (1 Hz), the activation proceeds from the center of the myocyte toward the periphery. Within two frame times (80 ms), the whole cell is activated. The activation is slightly faster in the center of the cell than in the periphery. The mean recovery time is 200-400 ms. There is no difference along the cell's long axis. The effect of a beta-agonist and of a calcium antagonist is described.

  10. Complete posterior migration of intact vertebral body in spinal tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridhar Krishnamurthy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal tuberculosis most commonly presents as a paradiscal lesion involving the disc space and adjacent vertebral bodies. Atypical forms of spinal tuberculosis have been described and are most often a result of posterior element involvement. The authors report a patient, who presented with complete posterior migration of an intact vertebral body, a complication of spinal tuberculosis that has not been reported till date. A 12-year-old girl with history of pulmonary tuberculosis presented with progressive paraparesis and back pain. Plain X-rays and MRI revealed that the L2 vertebral body had migrated posteriorly into the spinal canal, without significant movement of the posterior elements. The vertebral body was normal, with no erosion or bone loss. However, bilateral pedicle and facet joint involvement was seen. The neural elements were decompressed through an anterolateral retroperitoneal approach and the spine reconstructed. The authors present this rare manifestation of spinal tuberculosis and discuss the possible mechanisms of this presentation.

  11. In vitro adherence of Moraxella bovis to intact corneal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, S H; Rosenbusch, R F

    1984-09-01

    An in vitro assay is described using radiolabeled Moraxella bovis for studying adherence to intact bovine corneal epithelial surfaces. The assay was optimized for time (45 min) and for the ratio of epithelial cells to bacteria (1:1000) that demonstrated a significant difference in adherence between M. bovis strain 118F, a piliated organism and a nonpiliated variant, strain 118F/4-2. Adherence of these organisms correlated with previous pathogenicity studies involving experimental infection of calves. Scanning electron microscopy of tissues treated in the assay revealed a predilection of M. bovis for dark epithelial cells and for association with depressions in the tissue surface. This assay technique is discussed in comparison with other in vitro adherence assay methods.

  12. Rhesus monkey brain imaging through intact skull with thermoacoustic tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuan; Wang, Lihong V

    2006-03-01

    Two-dimensional microwave-induced thermoacoustic tomography (TAT) is applied to imaging the Rhesus monkey brain through the intact skull. To reduce the wavefront distortion caused by the skull, only the low-frequency components of the thermoacoustic signals (images. The methods of signal processing and image reconstruction are validated by imaging a lamb kidney. The resolution of the system is found to be 4 mm when we image a 1-month-old monkey head containing inserted needles. We also image the coronal and axial sections of a 7-month-old monkey head. Brain features that are 3 cm deep in the head are imaged clearly. Our results demonstrate that TAT has potential for use in portable, cost-effective imagers for pediatric brains.

  13. Label-free volumetric optical imaging of intact murine brains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jian; Choi, Heejin; Chung, Kwanghun; Bouma, Brett E.

    2017-04-01

    A central effort of today’s neuroscience is to study the brain’s ’wiring diagram’. The nervous system is believed to be a network of neurons interacting with each other through synaptic connection between axons and dendrites, therefore the neuronal connectivity map not only depicts the underlying anatomy, but also has important behavioral implications. Different approaches have been utilized to decipher neuronal circuits, including electron microscopy (EM) and light microscopy (LM). However, these approaches typically demand extensive sectioning and reconstruction for a brain sample. Recently, tissue clearing methods have enabled the investigation of a fully assembled biological system with greatly improved light penetration. Yet, most of these implementations, still require either genetic or exogenous contrast labeling for light microscopy. Here we demonstrate a high-speed approach, termed as Clearing Assisted Scattering Tomography (CAST), where intact brains can be imaged at optical resolution without labeling by leveraging tissue clearing and the scattering contrast of optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI).

  14. Chemical Probes for Visualizing Intact Animal and Human Brain Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hei Ming; Ng, Wai-Lung; Gentleman, Steve M; Wu, Wutian

    2017-06-22

    Newly developed tissue clearing techniques can be used to render intact tissues transparent. When combined with fluorescent labeling technologies and optical sectioning microscopy, this allows visualization of fine structure in three dimensions. Gene-transfection techniques have proved very useful in visualizing cellular structures in animal models, but they are not applicable to human brain tissue. Here, we discuss the characteristics of an ideal chemical fluorescent probe for use in brain and other cleared tissues, and offer a comprehensive overview of currently available chemical probes. We describe their working principles and compare their performance with the goal of simplifying probe selection for neuropathologists and stimulating probe development by chemists. We propose several approaches for the development of innovative chemical labeling methods which, when combined with tissue clearing, have the potential to revolutionize how we study the structure and function of the human brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. True navigation in migrating gulls requires intact olfactory nerves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wikelski, Martin; Arriero, Elena; Gagliardo, Anna;

    2015-01-01

    debated. In this experiment we subjected adult lesser black-backed gulls migrating from their Finnish/Russian breeding grounds (from >60°N) to Africa (to systems required for navigation. We translocated birds westward (1080 km) or eastward (885 km......) to simulate natural navigational challenges. When translocated westwards and outside their migratory corridor birds with olfactory nerve section kept a clear directional preference (southerly) but were unable to compensate for the displacement, while intact birds and gulls with the ophthalmic branch...... of the trigeminal nerve sectioned oriented towards their population-specific migratory corridor. Thus, air-borne olfactory information seems to be important for migrating gulls to navigate successfully in some circumstances....

  16. Synthesis of pennogenin utilizing the intact skeleton of diosgenin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN; Weisheng; XU; Qihai; CHEN; Ling; ZHAO; Chunfeng

    2004-01-01

    The first synthesis of pennogenin, an aglycone of bioactive components of Chinese traditional medicine named "Chonglou"(Paris), starting from diosgenin, has been reported, which displays a new strategy of utilizing the resource compounds. According to this new strategy, the full and rational utilization of the intact skeleton and functional groups of starting material has been realized in the conversion of diosgenin to pennogenin. The key step for synthesis of pennogenin is the regioselective transformation of cholest-5-en-16,22-dion-3,26-diol to cholest5,16-dien-22-on-3,26-diol, which can be used to synthesize other bioactive steroids such as cephalostatin and OSW-1.

  17. Simple Genome Editing of Rodent Intact Embryos by Electroporation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehito Kaneko

    Full Text Available The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR/CRISPR-associated (Cas system is a powerful tool for genome editing in animals. Recently, new technology has been developed to genetically modify animals without using highly skilled techniques, such as pronuclear microinjection of endonucleases. Technique for animal knockout system by electroporation (TAKE method is a simple and effective technology that produces knockout rats by introducing endonuclease mRNAs into intact embryos using electroporation. Using TAKE method and CRISPR/Cas system, the present study successfully produced knockout and knock-in mice and rats. The mice and rats derived from embryos electroporated with Cas9 mRNA, gRNA and single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotide (ssODN comprised the edited targeted gene as a knockout (67% of mice and 88% of rats or knock-in (both 33%. The TAKE method could be widely used as a powerful tool to produce genetically modified animals by genome editing.

  18. Calcium sparks in the intact gerbil spiral modiolar artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berge Samantha

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Calcium sparks are ryanodine receptor mediated transient calcium signals that have been shown to hyperpolarize the membrane potential by activating large conductance calcium activated potassium (BK channels in vascular smooth muscle cells. Along with voltage-dependent calcium channels, they form a signaling unit that has a vasodilatory influence on vascular diameter and regulation of myogenic tone. The existence and role of calcium sparks has hitherto been unexplored in the spiral modiolar artery, the end artery that controls blood flow to the cochlea. The goal of the present study was to determine the presence and properties of calcium sparks in the intact gerbil spiral modiolar artery. Results Calcium sparks were recorded from smooth muscle cells of intact arteries loaded with fluo-4 AM. Calcium sparks occurred with a frequency of 2.6 Hz, a rise time of 17 ms and a time to half-decay of 20 ms. Ryanodine reduced spark frequency within 3 min from 2.6 to 0.6 Hz. Caffeine (1 mM increased spark frequency from 2.3 to 3.3 Hz and prolonged rise and half-decay times from 17 to 19 ms and from 20 to 23 ms, respectively. Elevation of potassium (3.6 to 37.5 mM, presumably via depolarization, increased spark frequency from 2.4 to 3.2 Hz. Neither ryanodine nor depolarization changed rise or decay times. Conclusions This is the first characterization of calcium sparks in smooth muscle cells of the spiral modiolar artery. The results suggest that calcium sparks may regulate the diameter of the spiral modiolar artery and cochlear blood flow.

  19. Static cerebrovascular pressure autoregulation remains intact during deep hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Dheeraj; McLeod, Katherine; Leonard, Samantha; Kibler, Kathleen; Easley, Ronald Blaine; Fraser, Charles D; Andropoulos, Dean; Brady, Ken

    2017-09-01

    Clinical studies measuring cerebral blood flow in infants during deep hypothermia have demonstrated diminished cerebrovascular pressure autoregulation. The coexistence of hypotension in these cohorts confounds the conclusion that deep hypothermia impairs cerebrovascular pressure autoregulation. We sought to compare the lower limit of autoregulation and the static rate of autoregulation between normothermic and hypothermic piglets. Twenty anesthetized neonatal piglets (5-7 days old; 10 normothermic and 10 hypothermic to 20°C) had continuous measurements of cortical red cell flux using laser Doppler flowmetry, while hemorrhagic hypotension was induced without cardiopulmonary bypass. Lower limit of autoregulation was determined for each subject using piecewise regression and SRoR was determined above and below each lower limit of autoregulation as (%change cerebrovascular resistance/%change cerebral perfusion pressure). The estimated difference in lower limit of autoregulation was 1.4 mm Hg (lower in the hypothermic piglets; 95% C.I. -10 to 14 mm Hg; P=0.6). The median lower limit of autoregulation in the normothermic group was 39 mm Hg [IQR 38-51] vs 35 mm Hg [31-50] in the hypothermic group. Intact steady-state pressure autoregulation was defined as static rate of autoregulation >0.5 and was demonstrated in all normothermic subjects (static rate of autoregulation=0.72 [0.65-0.87]) and in 9/10 of the hypothermic subjects (static rate of autoregulation=0.65 [0.52-0.87]). This difference in static rate of autoregulation of 0.06 (95% C.I. -0.3 to 0.1) was not significant (P=0.4). Intact steady-state cerebrovascular pressure autoregulation is demonstrated in a swine model of profound hypothermia. Lower limit of autoregulation and static rate of autoregulation were similar in hypothermic and normothermic subjects. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Habitat selection influences sex distribution, morphology, tissue biochemistry, and parasite load of juvenile coho salmon in the West Fork Smith River, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Given the strong influence of water temperature on salmonid physiology and behavior, in the summers of 2004 and 2005 we studied juvenile male and female coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch in two reaches of Oregon’s West Fork Smith River with different thermal profiles. Our goals we...

  1. Acupuntura em adolescentes com fibromialgia juvenil Acupuntura en adolescentes con fibromialgia juvenil Acupuncture in adolescents with juvenile fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marialda Höfling P. Dias

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a utilização da acupuntura em adolescentes com fibromialgia juvenil. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo realizado em pacientes com fibromialgia juvenil (critérios do Colégio Americano de Reumatologia submetidos a, pelo menos, 11 sessões semanais de acupuntura. As avaliações antes e após acupuntura incluíram dados demográficos, características da dor musculoesquelética, número de pontos dolorosos (NPD, escala visual analógica (EVA de dor, algiometria e índice miálgico (IM. Durante o estudo, os pacientes puderam usar analgésicos, amitriptilina e foram orientados a praticar atividade física aeróbica. Os resultados antes e após acupuntura foram comparados pelo teste não paramétrico de Wilcoxon. RESULTADOS: Dos 38 pacientes com fibromialgia juvenil acompanhados em oito anos consecutivos, 13 tinham todas as informações nos prontuários e nas fichas de acupuntura e foram avaliados. Destes 13, sete obtiveram melhora nos três parâmetros analisados (número de pontos dolorosos, EVA de dor e IM. As medianas do número de pontos dolorosos e da EVA de dor foram significativamente maiores antes do tratamento quando comparados ao final do tratamento com as sessões de acupuntura [14 (11-18 versus 10 (0-15, p=0,005; 6 (2-10 versus 3 (0-10, p=0,045; respectivamente]. Em contraste, a mediana do IM foi significativamente menor antes do tratamento [3,4 (2,49-4,39 versus 4,2 (2,71-5,99, p=0,02]. Nenhum dos pacientes com fibromialgia juvenil apresentou eventos adversos associados à acupuntura. CONCLUSÕES: Acupuntura é uma modalidade de Medicina Tradicional Chinesa que pode ser utilizada nos pacientes pediátricos com fibromialgia. Futuros estudos controlados serão necessários.OBJETIVO: Describir el uso de acupuntura en adolescentes con fibromialgia juvenil. MÉTODOS: Estudio retrospectivo realizado en pacientes con fibromialgia juvenil (criterios del Colegio Americano de Reumatología sometidos a al menos 11 sesiones

  2. The impact of schools on juvenile substance initiation and use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina; Mach, Traci; Clapp, John D

    2004-06-01

    We use data from the two rounds of the NLSY97 and the corresponding QED data to examine the effectiveness of school endowments and curricula in targeting juvenile use of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana. Our results support the notion that schools matter in reducing juvenile involvement in substance use. Higher discretionary dollars per pupil are linked to reduced rates of juvenile initiation and repetitive use rates of cigarettes and marijuana. Additionally, school curricula, as indicated by the implementation of year round classes and some innovative and after-school programs--such as gifted and talented, attendance monitoring, homework hotline, international baccalaureate, extended-day, and mentoring, programs, affect both juvenile initiation to tobacco and alcohol use and juvenile repetitive use of tobacco and alcohol. In particular, we find that juvenile initiation to cigarette use is approximately between 2 percentage points and 3 percentage points lower among youths attending schools with gifted and talented and international baccalaureate programs. In addition, juvenile repetitive cigarette use is approximately 54%, 52%, and 48% lower among youths attending schools offering year round classes, international baccalaureate, and twenty-first century programs, respectively. Finally, juvenile initiation to alcohol use and juvenile repetitive use of alcohol are approximately 3% and 20% lower, respectively, among youths in schools offering gifted and talented programs. In sum, while these programs are not implemented to address substance use problems among the student body, we find that the implementation of these programs is often accompanied by a reduction in juvenile initiation and repetitive substance use.

  3. Immune Deficiency Influences Juvenile Social Behavior and Maternal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinnies, Kayla M.; Cox, Kimberly H.; Rissman, Emilie F.

    2017-01-01

    Mice with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) lack functional T and B-lymphocytes, and have impaired cognitive abilities. Here, we assessed social behaviors in male SCID and C57BL/6 (B6) juvenile mice. In a social preference task, SCID mice spent more time than B6 mice investigating a novel adult male mouse. In a social recognition task, SCID mice habituated to a novel ovariectomized mouse, but failed to show dishabituation when presented with an unfamiliar individual. We hypothesized that partial immune restoration could normalize behaviors. SCID pups (postnatal day 7) received either saline or splenocytes from normal donors. Splenocyte-replaced SCID mice spent less time interacting with a novel mouse than saline-injected SCID or B6 control mice. Again, control SCID mice failed to dishabituate to a novel mouse, but splenocyte-replaced SCID mice showed dishabituation. In both of these studies B6 and SCID pairs were used to produce offspring that remained with their dams until weaning. There are no studies of maternal behavior in SCID dams; therefore to investigate the potential role for this factor we quantified maternal behavior in SCID and B6 dams; several significant differences were found. To control for differences in maternal care we mated heterozygous SCIDs to produce offspring. These homozygous SCID and WT offspring reared by dams of the same genotypes displayed similar responses to a novel mouse; however, in the social recognition task SCID males did not display dishabituation to a novel mouse. Taken together, our data indicate that gene by environment interactions influence social interactions in immune deficient mice. PMID:26030431

  4. Impact of gonadectomy on blood pressure regulation in ageing male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijacka, Wioletta; Clifford, Bethan; Walas, Dawid; Tilburgs, Chantal; Joles, Jaap A; McMullen, Sarah; Langley-Evans, Simon C

    2016-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism in blood pressure has been associated with differential expression of the angiotensin II (AII) receptors and with activity of the nervous system. It is generally accepted that ageing affects kidney function as well as autonomic nervous system and hormonal balance. Given that hypertension is more prevalent in men than women until women reach their seventh decade, we hypothesised that females would be relatively protected from adverse effects of ageing compared to males and that this would be mediated by the protective effect of ovarian steroids. Intact and gonadectomised male and female normotensive Wistar rats aged 6, 12 and 18 months were used to study renal function, blood pressure, heart rate, and blood pressure variability. We observed that intact females had lower levels of proteinuria and higher (12.5%) creatinine clearance compared to intact males and that this difference was abolished by castration but not by ovariectomy. Ovariectomy resulted in a change by 9% in heart rate, resulting in similar cardiovascular parameters to those observed in males or gonadectomised males. Spectral analysis of systolic blood pressure revealed that high-frequency power spectra were significantly elevated in the females vs. males and were reduced by ovariectomy. Taken altogether, the results show that females are protected from age-related declining renal function and to a lesser extent from rising blood pressure in comparison to males. Whilst ovariectomy had some deleterious effects in females, the strongest effects were associated with gonadectomy in males, suggesting a damaging effect of male hormones.

  5. Juvenile osteochondritis dissecans: a 5-year review of the natural history using clinical and MRI evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Jacqueline A.; Cook, Jane V.; Warren, Mary E. [Radiology Department, Queen Mary' s Hospital for Children, Epsom and St Helier NHS Trust, Carshalton, Surrey SM5 1AA (United Kingdom); Churchill, Mark A. [Orthopaedic Department, Queen Mary' s Hospital for Children, Epsom and St Helier NHS Trust, Carshalton (United Kingdom)

    2003-06-01

    Although MRI prognostic features for juvenile osteochondritis dissecans (JOCD) have been determined, the natural history of JOCD on serial MRI has not been fully documented. To document the natural history of JOCD on serial MRI and to correlate this with arthroscopy and clinical outcome over a 5-year follow-up. Twenty-one knees in 19 patients (15 boys, 4 girls; age range 5-15 years) with JOCD underwent MRI and clinical follow-up over 5 years. Lesions were classified as stable or unstable on MRI and compared with clinical and arthroscopic data. On 5-year follow-up, 17 of 19 patients were asymptomatic and 2 of 19 had minimal pain. Fourteen arthroscopies were performed on 11/21 knees. One of twenty-one had fragment fixation. On initial MRI, eight knees had marked fragmentation, high signal at the fragment/bone interface and incomplete defects in the hyaline cartilage (MRI stage III-stable), but no tear. Of these, five had arthroscopy, all confirming intact cartilage. One of twenty-one knees was unstable (MRI stage IVb) with a detached osteochondral fragment, requiring surgery. Despite extensive subchondral bone changes on MRI, all cases with intact cartilage (95%) improved with conservative treatment. Early MRI allows prompt diagnosis and institution of conservative treatment. This results in healing and avoidance of surgery in most patients. (orig.)

  6. Differential Effects of Family Structure on Religion and Spirituality of Emerging Adult Males and Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handal, Paul J; Lace, John W

    2016-12-23

    This study examined measures of religion and spirituality in a sample of male and female emerging adult college students whose parents were either divorced or intact using the Personal Religious Inventory, the Duke University Religion Index, the Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale, the Spiritual Transcendence Scale, and the Spiritual Involvement and Beliefs Scale. Data were collected online, and 66% of participants received extra credit for participating. A main effect of sex was found, as females reported significantly higher scores than men on all but one measure of religion and spirituality, and the dataset was separated by sex. No differences were found between males from divorced and intact families. However, females from intact families scored significantly higher on all religion and spirituality measures than females from divorced families. This study suggests that females may respond differently than males to their parents' divorce in the context of religion and spirituality, and discusses possible reasons.

  7. THE JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEM IN SPAIN

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    JosA Luis de la Cuesta

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available 1. Relevant legal framework regulating criminal proceedings against juvenile offenders. 2. Age thresholds of criminal responsibility and liability to prosecution. 3. Specialized agencies. 3.1. Judges specialization. 3.2. Prosecutor\\'s specialization. 3.3. Specialization required for any, other figure acting in the proceedings. 3.4. Social services (or similar agencies involved in the proceedings. 4. Early definition of the proceedings. 5. Personality assessment procedures. 6. Mediation. 7. Personal liberty. 8. Safeguards for the protection of minors. 8.1. Affective and/or psychological assistance. 8.2. Preventing the disclosure of the juvenile offender\\'s identity. 8.3. Other measures. 9. Final remarks.

  8. Sexuality and Autistic-Like Symptoms in Juvenile Sex Offenders: A Follow-Up after 8 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baarsma, M. Ewoud; Boonmann, Cyril; 't Hart-Kerkhoffs, Lisette A.; de Graaf, Hanneke; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.; Vermeiren, Robert R. J. M.; Jansen, Lucres M. C.

    2016-01-01

    Juveniles who have committed a sexual offense (JSOs) are thought to have abnormal sexual development, as well as increased ASD symptoms. In the current study, sexual development and behavior, as well as stability of ASD-like symptoms were assessed in a sample of 44 male JSOs (mean age 24.7 ± 1.5 years) 8 years after their sexual offence. JSOs…

  9. Sexuality and Autistic-Like Symptoms in Juvenile Sex Offenders: A Follow-Up after 8 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baarsma, M. Ewoud; Boonmann, Cyril; 't Hart-Kerkhoffs, Lisette A.; de Graaf, Hanneke; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.; Vermeiren, Robert R. J. M.; Jansen, Lucres M. C.

    2016-01-01

    Juveniles who have committed a sexual offense (JSOs) are thought to have abnormal sexual development, as well as increased ASD symptoms. In the current study, sexual development and behavior, as well as stability of ASD-like symptoms were assessed in a sample of 44 male JSOs (mean age 24.7 ± 1.5 years) 8 years after their sexual offence. JSOs…

  10. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis and lymphoedema: lymphangiographic aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmit, P.; Brunelle, F. [Service de Radiopediatrie, Groupe Hospitalier Necker-Enfants-Malades, Paris (France); Prieur, A.M. [Unite Fonctionnelle de Rhumatologie Infantile, Groupe Hospitalier Necker-Enfants-Malades, Paris (France)

    1999-05-01

    We report a 5{sup 1}/{sub 2}-year-old boy with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) and lower-limb lymphoedema. US, MRI and lymphangiography were performed. Based on the lymphangiographic study, we propose a pathogenesis based on obstruction of normal superficial lymphatic vessels in the affected limb. This is discussed with other pathogenetic factors proposed in the 16 previously reported cases of lymphoedema complicating JRA. (orig.) With 3 figs., 5 refs.

  11. El rock como conformador de identidades juveniles

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    Adrián de Garay

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available El autor analiza la relación entre el rock y las identidades juveniles, a partir del abordaje de cinco “estilos” que se pueden identificar como constitutivos de éstas identidades. Ellos son: la jerga, la estética, las producciones culturales, los no-lugares y el territorio. Finaliza el artículo señalando algunos hitos importantes de la culturarockera en la ciudad de México.

  12. Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy: clinical and EEG features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S B; Petersen, K A

    1998-01-01

    We aimed to characterize the clinical profile and EEG features of 43 patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. In a retrospective design we studied the records of, and re-interviewed, 43 patients diagnosed with JME from the epilepsy clinic data base. Furthermore, available EEGs were re-evaluated...... were sleep deprivation (84%), stress (70%), and alcohol consumption (51%). EEG findings included rapid spike-wave and polyspike-wave....

  13. De las bandas a las culturas juveniles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Feixa

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is an exposition about the processes of elaboration oftheoretical concepts and methodological schemes of five ofthe princi-pal theoretical methodological paradigms thatstudygangsand juveni-le cultures in western contemporary societies. These processes oftheoretical methodological elaboration are derived from the resul-ting empirical data based on participatory observation, analysis andrellection about the conducts displayedby theadolescents as membersof a larger society.

  14. Juvenile ossifying fibroma: CT and MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoury, Nabil J.; Naffaa, Lena N.; Haddad, Maurice C. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, P.O. Box 113-6044, Beirut (Lebanon); Shabb, Nina S. [Department of Pathology, American University of Beirut - Medical Center, P.O. Box 113-6044, Beirut (Lebanon)

    2002-07-01

    We describe the CT findings in four patients and the MR imaging in one patient with juvenile ossifying fibroma. Three lesions involved the maxillary sinus and extended to the surrounding structures; one lesion was confined to the maxillary bone. CT scan revealed well-defined, expansile lesions with variable amount of calcifications. On MRI one lesion had intermediate signal intensity with significant contrast enhancement. (orig.)

  15. Solitary ulcerated congenital giant juvenile xanthogranuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Yuen Ng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 3-month-old female patient with a giant ulcerated nodule over the back since birth was diagnosed as congenital giant juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG based on clinical and histopathological examination. Congenital giant JXG with ulceration at birth is a rare presentation of JXG and commonly misdiagnosed. This case emphasizes the importance of being aware of the myriad presentations of JXG in order to make a correct diagnosis and avoid unnecessary investigations or treatment.

  16. Do Juvenile Curfew Laws Reduce Underage Drinking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Elyse R.; Jernigan, David H.; Miller, Nancy A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Although not originally enacted to deter the problem of underage drinking in the United States, one set of laws that may influence this behavior is juvenile curfew laws. This research asked the following: (a) What is the effect of enacting a juvenile curfew law on youth drinking, and (b) do demographic variables moderate the relation between juvenile curfew law enactment and drinking? This study examined the effect of juvenile curfew laws on underage drinking, using data from 46 U.S. cities from 1991 to 2005. Method: In 2014, we compiled a data set containing alcohol and curfew law data by zip code. It included 63,081 minors (ages 12–17 years) from 1,081 zip codes. We used difference-in-difference regressions to analyze the data. Results: The effect of the enactment of a curfew law on the likelihood of consuming alcohol in the past year or past 30 days or of heavy episodic drinking in the past 2 weeks was not significant when compared with cities without curfew laws during the same periods. Although the likelihood of consuming alcohol over the past year differed depending on an individual’s characteristics (e.g., race/ethnicity, age, and gender), none of the interaction terms between these characteristics and curfew laws were significant. Conclusions: Curfew laws appear to have a non-significant effect on youth drinking, but these results are unclear without more knowledge as to where and when youth are drinking both before and after the enactment of curfew laws and how these laws are being enforced. PMID:27340963

  17. Prophylactic antibiotics for inhibiting preterm labour with intact membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flenady, Vicki; Hawley, Glenda; Stock, Owen M; Kenyon, Sara; Badawi, Nadia

    2013-12-05

    The aetiology of preterm birth is complex and there is evidence that subclinical genital tract infection influences preterm labour in some women but the role of prophylactic antibiotic treatment in the management of preterm labour is controversial. Since rupture of the membranes is an important factor in the progression of preterm labour, it is important to see if the routine administration of antibiotics confers any benefit or causes harm, prior to membrane rupture. To assess the effects of prophylactic antibiotics administered to women in preterm labour with intact membranes, on maternal and neonatal outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 August 2013). Randomised trials that compared antibiotic treatment with placebo or no treatment for women in preterm labour (between 20 and 36 weeks' gestation) with intact membranes. Two review authors independently assessed trial eligibility, and undertook quality assessment and data extraction. We contacted study authors for additional information. Results are presented using risk ratio (RR) for categorical data and mean difference (MD) for data measured on a continuous scale with their respective 95% confidence intervals (CI). The number needed to treat to benefit (NNTB) and the number needed to treat to harm (NNTH) was calculated where appropriate. In this update (2013), with the addition of three trials (305 women), the large ORACLE II 2001 trial continues to dominate the results of this review. This review now includes a total of 14 studies randomising 7837 women. No significant difference was shown in perinatal or infant mortality for infants of women allocated to any prophylactic antibiotics compared with no antibiotics. However, an increase in neonatal deaths was shown for infants of women receiving any prophylactic antibiotics when compared with placebo (RR 1.57, 95% CI 1.03 to 2.40; NNTH 149, 95% CI 2500 to 61). No reduction in preterm birth or other clinically

  18. Clinical presentation of juvenile Huntington disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruocco Heloísa H.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical presentation a group of patients with juvenile onset of Huntington disease. METHOD: All patients were interviewed following a structured clinical questioner. Patients were genotyped for the trinucleotide cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG repeat in the Huntington Disease gene. High resolution brain MRI was performed in all patients. RESULTS: We identified 4 patients with juvenile onset of disease among 50 patients with Huntington disease followed prospectively in our Neurogenetics clinic. Age at onset varied from 3 to 13 years, there were 2 boys, and 3 patients had a paternal inheritance of the disease. Expanded Huntington disease allele sizes varied from 41 to 69 trinucleotide repeats. The early onset patients presented with rigidity, bradykinesia, dystonia, dysarthria, seizures and ataxia. MRI showed severe volume loss of caudate and putamen nuclei (p=0.001 and reduced cerebral and cerebellum volumes (p=0.01. CONCLUSION: 8% of Huntington disease patients seen in our clinic had juvenile onset of the disease. They did not present with typical chorea as seen in adult onset Huntington disease. There was a predominance of rigidity and bradykinesia. Two other important clinical features were seizures and ataxia, which related with the imaging findings of early cortical atrophy and cerebellum volume loss.

  19. JUVENILE IDIOPATHIC ARTHRITIS – A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paresh H

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The prevalence of Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA is 0.86 per 1000 children. Subcutaneous nodules have been reported in 5% to 10% of children with JIA. Approximately 90% of patients with RA and subc utaneous nodules test positive for rheumatoid factor (RF, and approximately 40% o f all RF-seropositive patients with RA have subcutaneous nodules, whereas only 6% in volvement is seen in seronegative cases. We hereby report a case of atypical Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA in a 6 year old, female child with joint pain & myalgia along with subcutaneous nodules over the dorsum of feet, hands and elbows. Joint pain initial ly involving the left ankle, slowly progressed to involve the knee, shoulder, wrist, metacar pophalangeal and interphalangeal joints over a period of one year. Joint involvement was not symmetric. RF was Negative. Fundoscopy examination was normal. Histopathological examinat ion revealed a central zone of Fibrinoid necrosis surrounded by epithelioid h istiocytes and occasional lymphocytes. Differential diagnosis of Rheumatoid Nodule (R N or Subcutaneous Granuloma Annulare (SGA or Necrobiosis Lipoidica Diabeticorum was made. In light of clinicopathological findings, both SGA and NLD were ruled out a nd the diagnosis of Juvenile idiopathic arthritis presenting as RF-negative polyarthritis was made.

  20. Habitat selection by juvenile Mojave Desert tortoises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Brian D; Halstead, Brian J.; Chiquoine, Lindsay P.; Peaden, J. Mark; Buhlmann, Kurt A.; Tuberville, Tracey D.; Nafus, Melia G.

    2016-01-01

    Growing pressure to develop public lands for renewable energy production places several protected species at increased risk of habitat loss. One example is the Mojave desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii), a species often at the center of conflicts over public land development. For this species and others on public lands, a better understanding of their habitat needs can help minimize negative impacts and facilitate protection or restoration of habitat. We used radio-telemetry to track 46 neonate and juvenile tortoises in the Eastern Mojave Desert, California, USA, to quantify habitat at tortoise locations and paired random points to assess habitat selection. Tortoise locations near burrows were more likely to be under canopy cover and had greater coverage of perennial plants (especially creosote [Larrea tridentata]), more coverage by washes, a greater number of small-mammal burrows, and fewer white bursage (Ambrosia dumosa) than random points. Active tortoise locations away from burrows were closer to washes and perennial plants than were random points. Our results can help planners locate juvenile tortoises and avoid impacts to habitat critical for this life stage. Additionally, our results provide targets for habitat protection and restoration and suggest that diverse and abundant small-mammal populations and the availability of creosote bush are vital for juvenile desert tortoises in the Eastern Mojave Desert.

  1. Male contest investment changes with male body size but not female quality in the spider Nephila clavipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constant, Nerine; Valbuena, Diego; Rittschof, Clare C

    2011-06-01

    Animals use rules to adjust their level of investment in a contest. We evaluate male strategies during contests over females in the golden orb-web spider Nephila clavipes. We tested whether male behaviour changes with female value, and found that contests were similar in intensity and outcome whether the female was a juvenile or adult, virgin or non-virgin, or whether one male had invested sperm in the female. We found evidence that males use a self-assessment strategy when deciding to withdraw from a contest. Loser body size and contestant size difference were correlated with a higher frequency of contest escalation, and fights involving two large males were more likely to escalate than a fight in which one male was small. A multiple regression showed that loser body size had a stronger effect on contest escalation than contestant body size difference. More importantly, the size of the winning male had no effect on contest escalation, a key prediction of a self-assessment strategy. In N. clavipes, body size is the primary factor that determines the outcome of male contests, and males do not appear to assess their opponent or the quality of the resource when deciding to withdraw from the fight.

  2. Criminal profiles of violent juvenile sex and violent juvenile non sex offenders: an explorative longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Anton Ph; Mali, Bas R F; Bullens, Ruud A R; Vermeiren, Robert R

    2007-10-01

    Few studies have longitudinally investigated the criminal profiles of violent juvenile sex and violent juvenile non-sex offenders. To make up for this lack, this study used police records of juveniles to determine the nature of the criminal profiles of violent sex offenders (n = 226) and violent non-sex offenders (n = 4,130). All offenders committed their first offense in 1996 and were followed for 7 years. Results showed that violent sex offenders and violent non-sex offenders cannot be considered a homogeneous group because of different background characteristics and criminal profiles. Sex and violent offenses often constitute a small part of a broader criminal pattern. Further research is necessary to reveal in more detail the developmental and criminological patterns of violent and sexual delinquency. Treatment and intervention programs may benefit from this.

  3. Performance of juvenile baboons on neuropsychological tests assessing associative learning, motivation and attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zürcher, Nicole R; Rodriguez, Jesse S; Jenkins, Sue L; Keenan, Kate; Bartlett, Thad Q; McDonald, Thomas J; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Nijland, Mark J

    2010-05-15

    The CANTAB (Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery), a system developed for human neuropsychological testing, has previously been used to assess cognitive function in two species of nonhuman primates, common marmoset monkeys and rhesus macaques. We describe the application of the system to the juvenile baboon, a nonhuman primate species offering specific investigative advantages. Juvenile baboons were trained and tested on a progressive ratio task to assess motivation, simple discrimination and simple reversal tasks to assess associative learning, and intra- and extra-dimensional set-shifting tasks to assess selective attention and attentional set-shifting, respectively. Study subjects were 8 juvenile baboons (Papio sp.), 4 females and 4 males aged 3.0+/-0.1 (mean+SEM) years and weight 8.2+/-0.4 kg. All baboons were easily trained, readily learned the neuropsychological tests and exhibited a stable performance. Applying a method such as the CANTAB has significant implications for expanding on the translational utility of the baboon in studies of neurodevelopment.

  4. The effects of birth weight and maternal care on survival of juvenile Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Maniscalco

    Full Text Available Steller sea lions were listed as endangered following a collapse of the western distinct population beginning in the late 1970s. Low juvenile survival has been implicated as a factor in the decline. I conducted a multistate mark-recapture analysis to estimate juvenile survival in an area of the western population where sea lions are showing signs of recovery. Survival for males and females was 80% between 3 weeks and 1 year of age. Approximately 20% of juveniles continued to be nursed by their mothers between ages 1 and 2 and 10% between ages 2 and 3. Survival for juveniles that suckled beyond 1 year was 88.2% and 89.9% to ages 2 and 3, respectively. In contrast, survival for individuals weaned by age 1 was 40.6% for males and 64.2% for females between ages 1 and 2. Birth mass positively influenced survival for juveniles weaned at age 1 but had little effect on individuals continuing to suckle. Cumulative survival to age 4 was double that estimated during the population decline in this region. Evidence suggests that western Steller sea lions utilize a somewhat different maternal strategy than those in the eastern distinct population. Western adult females generally invest more in their pups during the first year but wean offspring by age 1 more often. This results in better survival to age 1, but greater mortality between ages 1 and 3 compared to the eastern population. Different maternal strategies may reflect density dependent pressures of populations at opposite levels of abundance.

  5. Identification of Intrinsic Axon Growth Modulators for Intact CNS Neurons after Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathren L. Fink

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Functional deficits persist after spinal cord injury (SCI because axons in the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS fail to regenerate. However, modest levels of spontaneous functional recovery are typically observed after trauma and are thought to be mediated by the plasticity of intact circuitry. The mechanisms underlying intact circuit plasticity are not delineated. Here, we characterize the in vivo transcriptome of sprouting intact neurons from Ngr1 null mice after partial SCI. We identify the lysophosphatidic acid signaling modulators LPPR1 and LPAR1 as intrinsic axon growth modulators for intact corticospinal motor neurons after adjacent injury. Furthermore, in vivo LPAR1 inhibition or LPPR1 overexpression enhances sprouting of intact corticospinal tract axons and yields greater functional recovery after unilateral brainstem lesion in wild-type mice. Thus, the transcriptional profile of injury-induced sprouting of intact neurons reveals targets for therapeutic enhancement of axon growth initiation and new synapse formation.

  6. Protection of juveniles: Victims of abuse and neglect in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Ivana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is dedicated to analyses of the protection of juveniles - victims of abuse and neglect in criminal legal system of the Republic of Serbia. Particular attention is paid to of criminal acts against sexual integrity and family life of juveniles. The position of juveniles as witnesses in the criminal procedure has been viewed from the aspect of specify and vulnerability of the child, as well as through terms of secondary and tertiary victimization of minor as a victim.

  7. Giant Bilateral Juvenile Fibroadenoma of the Breast in Prepubescent Girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Salma; Khan, Momna; Rafique, Sadia

    2015-10-01

    Juvenile fibroadenoma accounts for 4% of the total fibroadenomas. Giant juvenile fibroadenoma is found in only 0.5% of all fibroadenomas. The authors report a 10-year girl presenting with progressive enlargement of both breasts for one year. Based on clinical findings and Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC), a diagnosis of bilateral giant juvenile fibroadenomas of breast was made. She underwent bilateral lumpectomy with breast conservation and made uneventful postoperative recovery.

  8. New Ultrasound Biomicroscopy Iris Findings in Juvenile Xanthogranuloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Zeba A; Chen, Teresa C

    2016-08-01

    We report a case of juvenile xanthogranuloma in a 12-month-old girl presenting with heterochromia, hyphema, and elevated intraocular pressure. This case demonstrates new ultrasound biomicroscopy iris findings of a generalized bumpy iris contour, suggesting diffuse heterogeneous involvement. This imaging finding has not been previously described. Untreated, iris juvenile xanthogranuloma may lead to corneal blood staining, glaucoma, and amblyopia. An understanding of the full range of ultrasound features of juvenile xanthogranuloma expands our appreciation for the clinical findings in this condition.

  9. [Male urinary incontinence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, TA de; Heesakkers, J.P.F.A.

    2008-01-01

    *Urinary incontinence in males is gaining increasingly more attention. *Male urinary incontinence can be classified as storage incontinence due to overactive bladder syndrome or stress incontinence due to urethral sphincter dysfunction. *Most patients benefit from the currently available treatment o

  10. Male pattern baldness (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Male pattern baldness is a sex-linked characteristic that is passed from mother to child. A man can more accurately predict his chances of developing male pattern baldness by observing his mother's father than by looking ...

  11. Experimental evidence for sexual selection against inbred males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Trejo, Regina; Head, Megan L; Keogh, J Scott; Jennions, Michael D

    2017-03-01

    The detrimental effects of matings between relatives are well known. However, few studies determine the extent to which inbreeding depression in males is due to natural or sexual selection. Importantly, measuring fitness or key fitness components, rather than phenotypic traits allows more accurate estimation of inbreeding depression. We investigate how differences in inbreeding and juvenile diet (i.e. early stressful environment) influence a key component of male fitness, namely their reproductive success. We experimentally created inbred and outbred male mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) by mating full-sibs (f = 0·25). We show that this led to a 23% reduction in genome-wide heterozygosity based on SNPs. Males were raised on different diets early in life to create high-stress and low-stress rearing environments. We then allowed adult males to compete freely for females to test if inbreeding, early diet and their interaction affect a male's share of paternity. Early diet had no effect on paternity, but outbred males sired almost twice as many offspring as inbred males (n = 628 offspring from 122 potential sires). Using artificial insemination methods we determined that this was unlikely to be due to early embryo mortality of eggs fertilised by inbred males: there was no evidence that male inbreeding status affects the realised fecundity of females (n = 288). Given there was no difference in male mortality in our competitive mating experiment, the lower reproductive success of inbred males can most parsimoniously be attributed to inbreeding negatively affecting sexually selected traits that affect male mating success and/or sperm competitiveness. We discuss which sexually selected traits might be involved. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2016 British Ecological Society.

  12. Mechanisms of the Frank-Starling phenomena studied in intact hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhoff, D; Stennett, R A; Ogino, K

    1995-01-01

    The impact of ventricular volume on the relationship between intracellular calcium and ventricular pressure under steady-state conditions was determined in intact ferret hearts. The results reveal major quantitative differences and minor qualitative differences between these relations and those previously measured in isolated intact and skinned cardiac muscle. The importance of these differences is discussed within the context of developing a comprehensive mechanistic theory to describe load-dependence of the intact ventricle.

  13. Naltrexone does not reverse the inhibitory effect of chronic restraint on gonadotropin secretion in the intact male rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Quijano, M I; Ariznavarreta, C; Martín, A I; Treguerres, J A; López-Calderón, A

    1991-11-01

    There is considerable evidence suggesting that endogenous opioids may play an important role in acute stress-induced decreases in luteinizing hormone (LH) release. Studies were undertaken to analyze the role of endogenous opioids in chronic stress-induced decrease in circulating LH and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Chronic restraint (6 h daily over 4 days) evoked a decrease in circulating LH and FSH. Naltrexone treatment, (2 mg/kg three times daily) during the 4 days of restraint, caused an increase in plasma concentrations of LH and FSH, and antagonized the LH suppressory effect of morphine (10 mg/kg) administration. Despite this, naltrexone treatment was ineffective in preventing the inhibitory effect of chronic restraint stress on circulating LH and FSH. Chronic restraint also induced a decrease in hypothalamic LH-releasing hormone (LHRH) content in saline-treated rats. On the contrary, in naltrexone-treated rats, chronic restraint evoked an increase in hypothalamic LHRH content. Thus endogenous opioids and chronic stress seem to act by different mechanisms on the hypothalamic LHRH neuron. In unstressed orchidectomized rats, naltrexone administration did not modify circulating LH, but increased plasma concentrations of LH in acutely restrained rats. These data suggest that endogenous opioids may mediate gonadotropin secretion during acute stress, but not during chronic stress.

  14. Penalty responsibility of juveniles in the Republic of Srpska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grbić-Pavlović Nikolina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The youngest members of organized society, more intensive than ever enter the circle of those whose behavior is deviant. Juvenile delinquency is a social problem, which recently experienced an expansion in all modern countries, including Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Republic of Srpska. Considering the fact that juvenile delinquency includes lighter criminal conducts, such as, for example misdemeanors, in this paper a position of juveniles when they are a perpetrators of misdemeanors will be analyzed. Also, the paper will statistically show the number of misdemeanors in the field of public peace and order that juveniles conducted in the Republic of Srpska in the period 2004-2009.

  15. Eliminating the Competency Presumption in Juvenile Delinquency Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katner, David R

    2015-01-01

    The legal presumption used in virtually all juvenile delinquency cases in the U.S. is that all juveniles are competent to stand trial. This Article calls for the elimination of that legal presumption, which is historically based on the Dusky v. United States decision and in the adult criminal justice system. The recent decisions of the U.S. Supreme Court recognize the developmental and organic brain differences between adults and juveniles. Current research demonstrates a higher frequency rate of incompetence based on intellectual deficiencies among children when compared with adults found to be not legally competent to stand trial. By eliminating the competency presumption for juveniles in both delinquency and adult criminal proceedings, the party seeking an adjudication would be responsible for establishing that the accused juvenile is in fact, competent to stand trial. Foreign jurisdictions in Europe, Asia, Africa, and South America have long required higher thresholds--at least fourteen years of age--for holding juveniles accountable for criminal misconduct, none of them presuming that juveniles are competent to go to trial. In the alternative, by expanding the factors currently in use for determination of juvenile competency by adding developmental immaturity and mental illness, juvenile justice systems could identify the reduction of recidivist offending as the primary systemic objective.

  16. Food resource utilization by juvenile Baltic cod Gadus morhua : a mechanism potentially influencing recruitment success at the demersal juvenile stage?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin; St. John, Michael; Böttcher, U.

    1997-01-01

    those reported to be consumed by juveniles in other areas. The apparent overlap in food resource utilization among the different size groups of demersal juveniles observed in this study suggests that in years with low prey abundance, or high abundance of pelagic juveniles, strong intra......Pelagic and demersal juvenile Baltic cod Gadus morhua L. were collected during surveys in the Bornholm Basin (Baltic Sea) in autumn 1994. Stomach contents were examined for prey composition in order to evaluate the potential importance of the pelagic and demersal habitats for recruitment success....... Juvenile cod less than 40 mm fed exclusively on pelagic prey such as copepods and cladocerans. Between 40 and 50 mm the juveniles began to consume benthic prey such as mysids and amphipods; however, copepods were still the dominant food organisms. Between 50 and 70 mm the dominant prey items consumed were...

  17. Bryostatins activate protein kinase C in intact human platelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.B.; Tallant, E.A.; Pettit, G.R.; Wallace, R.W.

    1986-05-01

    Bryostatins, macrocyclic lactones isolated from a marine bryozoan, have antineoplastic activity in the P388 lymphocytic leukemia system. These compounds also stimulate growth in Swiss 3T3 cells, induce secretion in leukocytes, inhibit phorbol dibutyrate binding to a high affinity receptor, and activate the C-kinase in vitro. In human platelets, phorbol esters induce aggregation and activate protein kinase C, resulting in phosphorylation of a 47K protein and the 20K myosin light chain. The authors now show that bryostatin 7 (B-7) triggers platelet aggregation to the same rate and extent as phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). B-7 also causes the in vivo activation of the C-kinase, resulting in phosphorylation of both the 47K and the 20K proteins; the time courses and dose-responses of these B-7-induced phosphorylations were similar to those found with PMA. In addition, B-7 increases the level of /sup 32/P-incorporation into the platelet polyphosphoinositides, which also occurs in response to PMA. Bryostatin 3 (B-3), which has been shown to be much less potent than B-7 in mimicking other PMA effects, was much less effective than PMA or B-7 in inducing platelet aggregation and in stimulating /sup 32/P-incorporation into both proteins and the phosphoinositides. These results demonstrate that, intact human platelets, bryostatins mimic the phorbol esters tumor promoters and directly activate protein kinase C.

  18. Rapid isolation of intact, viable fetal cartilage models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, R.R.; Chepenik, K.P.; Paynton, B.V.; Cotler, J.M.

    1982-04-01

    A rapid procedure is described for the isolation of viable, intact, femoral cartilage models (humeri and femora) obtained from pregnant rats on the 18th day of gestation. Viability of these models is demonstrated in an in vitro system where the incorporation of /sup 35/S-sulfate was linear with time of incubation and with numbers of cartilage models utilized. Treatment of cartilage models with ice-cold trichloroacetic acid and a boiling water bath prior to incubation with radiolabel, reduced the amount of radioactivity incorporated to 1.3% of that observed for models incubated by routine procedures. Furthermore, digestion of cartilage model homogenates with protease yielded a supernatant from which 51% to 57% of the radioactivity was precipitated as GAG. This method may also be used to isolate fetal cartilage models as early as the 16th day of gestation. with this system, specific biochemical parameters of mammalian fetal chondrogenesis may be surveyed in normally and abnormally developing fetal cartilage free of surrounding soft tissue.

  19. Compensatory mechanisms underlie intact task-switching performance in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamadar, S; Michie, P; Karayanidis, F

    2010-04-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia tend to perform poorly on many measures of cognitive control. However, recent task-switching studies suggest that they show intact task-switching performance, despite the fact that the regions involved in task-switching are known to be structurally and functionally impaired in the disorder. Behavioral, event-related potential (ERP) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measures were used to compare the temporal and spatial dynamics of task-switching performance in individuals with schizophrenia and controls. Consistent with previous studies, reaction time (RT) switch cost and its reduction with anticipatory preparation did not differ between groups. There were also no group differences on cue-locked ERP components associated with anticipatory preparation processes. However, both stimulus- and response-locked ERPs were significantly disrupted in schizophrenia, suggesting difficulty with task-set implementation. fMRI analyses indicated that individuals with schizophrenia showed hyperactivity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and posterior parietal cortex. RT-fMRI and ERP-fMRI associations suggested that individuals with schizophrenia employ compensatory mechanisms to overcome difficulties in task-set implementation and thereby achieve the same behavioral outcomes as controls.

  20. Spontaneous NA+ transients in individual mitochondria of intact astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarias, Guillaume; Van de Ville, Dimitri; Unser, Michael; Chatton, Jean-Yves

    2008-02-01

    Mitochondria in intact cells maintain low Na(+) levels despite the large electrochemical gradient favoring cation influx into the matrix. In addition, they display individual spontaneous transient depolarizations. The authors report here that individual mitochondria in living astrocytes exhibit spontaneous increases in their Na(+) concentration (Na(mit)(+) spiking), as measured using the mitochondrial probe CoroNa Red. In a field of view with approximately 30 astrocytes, up to 1,400 transients per minute were typically detected under resting conditions. Na(mit)(+) spiking was also observed in neurons, but was scarce in two nonneural cell types tested. Astrocytic Na(mit)(+) spikes averaged 12.2 +/- 0.8 s in duration and 35.5 +/- 3.2 mM in amplitude and coincided with brief mitochondrial depolarizations; they were impaired by mitochondrial depolarization and ruthenium red pointing to the involvement of a cation uniporter. Na(mit)(+) spiking activity was significantly inhibited by mitochondrial Na(+)/H(+) exchanger inhibition and sensitive to cellular pH and Na(+) concentration. Ca(2+) played a permissive role on Na(mit)(+) spiking activity. Finally, the authors present evidence suggesting that Na(mit)(+) spiking frequency was correlated with cellular ATP levels. This study shows that, under physiological conditions, individual mitochondria in living astrocytes exhibit fast Na(+) exchange across their inner membrane, which reveals a new form of highly dynamic and localized functional regulation.