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Sample records for juvenile hormone analogues

  1. Effects of juvenile hormone analogue on ecdysis prevention induced by precocene in Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae

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    Patricia de Azambuja

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Precocene II, added to the meal of fourth-instar larvae of Rhodnius prolixus (25 mug/ml of blood, induced an in crease in the duration of the molting cycle. This effect was related to the decrease of both the nuclear area of the prothoracic gland cells and the mitotic activity in epidermal cellS. juvenile hormone analogue applied topically (60 mug/insect together with Precocene II treatment avoided atrophy of the prothoracic glands and induced a higher number of epidermal mitosis accelerating the time of subsequent ecdysis. A possible relationship between juvenile hormone and production of ecdysone is discussed.Adicionado ao sangue alimentar na dose de 25 mug/ml o precoceno II causou um aumento no período de intermuda em ninfas de 4o. estadio de Rhodnius prolixus. Este atraso da muda foi relacionado com a diminuição da área dos núcleos das celulas das glandulas protoracicas e com a queda da atividade mitotica das células da epiderme do inseto. Um análogo de hormônio juvenil aplicado topicamente (60 mug/inseto junto com o tratamento oral com precoceno II preveniu a atrofia das glândulas protorácicas e induziu um aumento no número de mitoses nas células da epiderme, diminuindo o período de intermuda nestes insetos.A possivel relação entre a ação do hormônio juvenil e a producao de ecdisona pelas glândulas protorácicas e discutida.

  2. Juvenile Hormone Analogues, Methoprene and Fenoxycarb Dose-Dependently Enhance Certain Enzyme Activities in the Silkworm Bombyx Mori (L

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    M. Rajeswara Rao

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Use of Juvenile Hormone Analogues (JHA in sericulture practices has been shown to boost good cocoon yield; their effect has been determined to be dose-dependent. We studied the impact of low doses of JHA compounds such as methoprene and fenoxycarb on selected key enzymatic activities of the silkworm Bombyx mori. Methoprene and fenoxycarb at doses of 1.0 μg and 3.0fg/larvae/48 hours showed enhancement of the 5th instar B. mori larval muscle and silkgland protease, aspartate aminotransaminase (AAT and alanine aminotransaminase (ALAT, adenosine triphosphate synthase (ATPase and cytochrome-c-oxidase (CCO activity levels, indicating an upsurge in the overall oxidative metabolism of the B.mori larval tissues.

  3. Effects of the juvenile hormone analogue methoprene on rate of behavioural development, foraging performance and navigation in honey bees (Apis mellifera).

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    Chang, Lun-Hsien; Barron, Andrew B; Cheng, Ken

    2015-06-01

    Worker honey bees change roles as they age as part of a hormonally regulated process of behavioural development that ends with a specialised foraging phase. The rate of behavioural development is highly plastic and responsive to changes in colony condition such that forager losses, disease or nutritional stresses accelerate behavioural development and cause an early onset of foraging in workers. It is not clear to what degree the behavioural development of workers can be accelerated without there being a cost in terms of reduced foraging performance. Here, we compared the foraging performance of bees induced to accelerate their behavioural development by treatment with the juvenile hormone analogue methoprene with that of controls that developed at a normal rate. Methoprene treatment accelerated the onset of both flight and foraging behaviour in workers, but it also reduced foraging span, the total time spent foraging and the number of completed foraging trips. Methoprene treatment did not alter performance in a short-range navigation task, however. These data indicate a limitation to the physiological plasticity of bees, and a trade off between forager performance and the speed at which bees begin foraging. Chronic stressors will be expected to reduce the mean age of the foraging force, and therefore also reduce the efficiency of the foraging force. This interaction may explain why honey bee colonies react to sustained stressors with non-linear population decline.

  4. Highly potent metallopeptide analogues of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajusz, S.; Janaky, T.; Csernus, V.J.; Bokser, L.; Fekete, M.; Srkalovic, G.; Redding, T.W.; Schally, A.V. (Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (USA))

    1989-08-01

    Metal complexes related to the cytotoxic complexes cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II)) and transbis(salicylaldoximato)copper(II) were incorporated into suitably modified luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) analogues containing D-lysine at position 6. Some of the metallopeptides thus obtained proved to be highly active LH-RH agonists or antagonists. Most metallopeptide analogues of LH-RH showed high affinities for the membrane receptors of rat pituitary and human breast cancer cells. Some of these metallopeptides had cytotoxic activity against human breast cancer and prostate cancer and prostate cancer cell lines in vitro. Such cytostatic metallopeptides could be envisioned as targeted chemotherapeutic agents in cancers that contain receptors for LH-RH-like peptides.

  5. Aedes aegypti juvenile hormone acid methyl transferase, the ultimate enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of juvenile hormone III, exhibits substrate control

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    We report on the cloning, sequencing, characterization, 3D modeling and docking of Aedes aegypti juvenile hormone acid methyl transferase (AeaJHAMT), the enzyme that converts juvenile hormone acid (JHA) into juvenile hormone (JH). Purified recombinant AeaJHAMT was extensively characterized for enzym...

  6. Growth hormone producing prolactinoma in juvenile cystinosis: a simple coincidence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besouw, M.T.; Levtchenko, E.N.; Willemsen, M.A.A.P.; Noordam, K.

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile cystinosis was diagnosed in a patient who presented with severe headache attacks and photophobia. Treatment with oral cysteamine and topical cysteamine eye drops was started. One-and-a-half years later, he developed unilateral gynecomastia and elevated prolactin and growth hormone levels. A

  7. Hormonal mechanisms underlying termination of larval diapause by juvenile hormone in the bamboo borer, Omphisa fuscidentalis.

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    Singtripop, Tippawan; Manaboon, Manaporn; Tatun, Nujira; Kaneko, Yu; Sakurai, Sho

    2008-01-01

    Topical application of methoprene, a juvenile hormone analogue (JHA), induces pupation by activating the prothoracic glands (PGs) in diapausing larvae of the bamboo borer, Omphisa fuscidentalis. To determine the minimum stimulation period for PG activation, we transplanted PGs of JHA-treated larvae (donors) into non-treated larvae (recipients) on successive days after JHA treatment and observed the recipients for pupation. JHA stimulation for 1 day was sufficient to induce pupation. In recipient larvae, the hemolymph ecdysteroid titer increased transiently on day 18 after transplantation and significantly on days 24-28, prior to pupation. Secretory activity of recipient PGs increased transiently on day 16 and days 22-28. Because the recipient PG activity was too low to account for an increased ecdysteroid titer, the JHA-stimulated donor PGs must produce the major part of hemolymph ecdysteroids. In addition, the ecdysteroid produced by the donor PGs might have stimulated the recipient PGs. We examined the possible involvement of two ecdysone receptor (EcR) isoforms, OfEcR-A and OfEcR-B1, in PG activation by JHA, and found that although both isoforms were up-regulated, accompanied by an increased ecdysteroid titer in the hemolymph, the isoform mRNA levels were not altered at all before the increase in PG secretory activity. Thus, EcR expression might not be involved in feedback activation of PGs.

  8. The effects of juvenile hormone on Lasius niger reproduction.

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    Pamminger, T; Buttstedt, A; Norman, V; Schierhorn, A; Botías, C; Jones, J C; Basley, K; Hughes, W O H

    2016-12-01

    Reproduction has been shown to be costly for survival in a wide diversity of taxa. The resulting trade-off, termed the reproduction-survival trade-off, is thought to be one of the most fundamental forces of life-history evolution. In insects the pleiotropic effect of juvenile hormone (JH), antagonistically regulating reproduction and pathogen resistance, is suggested to underlie this phenomenon. In contrast to the majority of insects, reproductive individuals in many eusocial insects defy this trade-off and live both long and prosper. By remodelling the gonadotropic effects of JH in reproductive regulation, the queens of the long-lived black garden ant Lasius niger (living up to 27 years), have circumvented the reproduction-survival trade off enabling them to maximize both reproduction and pathogen resistance simultaneously. In this study we measure fertility, vitellogenin gene expression and protein levels after experimental manipulation of hormone levels. We use these measurements to investigate the mechanistic basis of endocrinological role remodelling in reproduction and determine how JH suppresses reproduction in this species, rather then stimulating it, like in the majority of insects. We find that JH likely inhibits three key aspects of reproduction both during vitellogenesis and oogenesis, including two previously unknown mechanisms. In addition, we document that juvenile hormone, as in the majority of insects, has retained some stimulatory function in regulating vitellogenin expression. We discuss the evolutionary consequences of this complex regulatory architecture of reproduction in L. niger, which might enable the evolution of similar reproductive phenotypes by alternate regulatory pathways, and the surprising flexibility regulatory role of juvenile hormone in this process.

  9. Hormonal pleiotropy and the juvenile hormone regulation of Drosophila development and life history.

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    Flatt, Thomas; Tu, Meng-Ping; Tatar, Marc

    2005-10-01

    Understanding how traits are integrated at the organismal level remains a fundamental problem at the interface of developmental and evolutionary biology. Hormones, regulatory signaling molecules that coordinate multiple developmental and physiological processes, are major determinants underlying phenotypic integration. The probably best example for this is the lipid-like juvenile hormone (JH) in insects. Here we review the manifold effects of JH, the most versatile animal hormone, with an emphasis on the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, an organism amenable to both genetics and endocrinology. JH affects a remarkable number of processes and traits in Drosophila development and life history, including metamorphosis, behavior, reproduction, diapause, stress resistance and aging. While many molecular details underlying JH signaling remain unknown, we argue that studying "hormonal pleiotropy" offers intriguing insights into phenotypic integration and the mechanisms underlying life history evolution. In particular, we illustrate the role of JH as a key mediator of life history trade-offs.

  10. The effect of ovary implants on juvenile hormone production by corpora allata of male Diploptera punctata

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    J.K. Hass

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available In the cockroach Diploptera punctata, vitellogenic basal oocytes stimulate juvenile hormone production by the corpora allata. Experiments with males were designed to determine whether oocytes must grow vitellogenically in order to stimulate juvenile hormone production. Two ovarioles with vitellogenic basal oocytes were implanted into unoperated and sham-operated males that do not produce vitellogenin, and males with denervated corpora allata, that produce more juvenile hormone, and sometimes more vitellogenin. Males with corpora allata in similar conditions were injected with saline as controls. In males with denervated corpora allata compared to sham-operated and unoperated males, the implanted basal oocytes showed a greater increase in length, protein, and vitellin content. Juvenile hormone synthesis by denervated corpora allata in males with ovariole implants was greater than in controls. In 10 of 50 males with denervated corpora allata in which one or no ovarioles grew, juvenile hormone production was not higher than in controls. This suggests that if sufficient juvenile hormone is not present to produce vitellogenin, or oocytes do not take vitellogenin up, juvenile hormone production is not stimulated. In sham-operated males implanted with ovarioles, no difference was detected in juvenile hormone synthesis compared to controls. However, when unoperated males were used, a significant increase was detected. This suggests that intact nerves from the brain to the corpora allata restrained juvenile hormone production so that ovarioles could elicit only slight stimulation of the corpora allata, and oocytes continued vitellogenesis but more slowly than in denervated males. Thus the extent of vitellogenesis appears to determine the ability of ovaries to stimulate juvenile hormone production.

  11. effect of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogue on the sexual behavior of sacalia quadriocellata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (lhrh) is known to influence sexual behavior in many vertebrate taxa,but there have been no systematic studies on the role of lhrh in sexual behavior of turtles.we tested the hypotheses that exogenous lhrh analogues would induce sexual behavior of male four-eyed turtle,sacalia quadriocellata.we examined this by challenging males with intramuscular injections of mammalian luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogue (lhrh-a),human chorionic gonadotropin (hcg),or a combination of the two,and subsequently exposing them to sexually receptive females for behavioral observation.our data show that the injection of only hcg could not,while that of only lhrh-a could,facilitate sexual behavior along with testicular recrudescence and spermatogenesis in s.quadriocellata.the injection of both lhrh-a and hcg would induce more drastic sexual behavior of the animals than that of lhrh-a alone,indicating hcg enhances the effects of lhrh-a induced sexual behavior.however,different pharmacological dosages of lhrh-a (0.5 μg,1 μg,2 μg per 100 g bodyweight) did not correspond to different activity levels.though the mechanism of lhrh effect was not determined,this study may support that the sexual behavior ofs.quadriocellata which occurs at the beginning of the injection despite regression of the gonads.this is the first report on the exogenous lhrh-a induced sexual behavior for this species.

  12. Differential Juvenile Hormone Variations in Scale Insect Extreme Sexual Dimorphism.

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    Isabelle Mifom Vea

    Full Text Available Scale insects have evolved extreme sexual dimorphism, as demonstrated by sedentary juvenile-like females and ephemeral winged males. This dimorphism is established during the post-embryonic development; however, the underlying regulatory mechanisms have not yet been examined. We herein assessed the role of juvenile hormone (JH on the diverging developmental pathways occurring in the male and female Japanese mealybug Planococcus kraunhiae (Kuwana. We provide, for the first time, detailed gene expression profiles related to JH signaling in scale insects. Prior to adult emergence, the transcript levels of JH acid O-methyltransferase, encoding a rate-limiting enzyme in JH biosynthesis, were higher in males than in females, suggesting that JH levels are higher in males. Furthermore, male quiescent pupal-like stages were associated with higher transcript levels of the JH receptor gene, Methoprene-tolerant and its co-activator taiman, as well as the JH early-response genes, Krüppel homolog 1 and broad. The exposure of male juveniles to an ectopic JH mimic prolonged the expression of Krüppel homolog 1 and broad, and delayed adult emergence by producing a supernumeral pupal stage. We propose that male wing development is first induced by up-regulated JH signaling compared to female expression pattern, but a decrease at the end of the prepupal stage is necessary for adult emergence, as evidenced by the JH mimic treatments. Furthermore, wing development seems linked to JH titers as JHM treatments on the pupal stage led to wing deformation. The female pedomorphic appearance was not reflected by the maintenance of high levels of JH. The results in this study suggest that differential variations in JH signaling may be responsible for sex-specific and radically different modes of metamorphosis.

  13. Differential Juvenile Hormone Variations in Scale Insect Extreme Sexual Dimorphism.

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    Vea, Isabelle Mifom; Tanaka, Sayumi; Shiotsuki, Takahiro; Jouraku, Akiya; Tanaka, Toshiharu; Minakuchi, Chieka

    2016-01-01

    Scale insects have evolved extreme sexual dimorphism, as demonstrated by sedentary juvenile-like females and ephemeral winged males. This dimorphism is established during the post-embryonic development; however, the underlying regulatory mechanisms have not yet been examined. We herein assessed the role of juvenile hormone (JH) on the diverging developmental pathways occurring in the male and female Japanese mealybug Planococcus kraunhiae (Kuwana). We provide, for the first time, detailed gene expression profiles related to JH signaling in scale insects. Prior to adult emergence, the transcript levels of JH acid O-methyltransferase, encoding a rate-limiting enzyme in JH biosynthesis, were higher in males than in females, suggesting that JH levels are higher in males. Furthermore, male quiescent pupal-like stages were associated with higher transcript levels of the JH receptor gene, Methoprene-tolerant and its co-activator taiman, as well as the JH early-response genes, Krüppel homolog 1 and broad. The exposure of male juveniles to an ectopic JH mimic prolonged the expression of Krüppel homolog 1 and broad, and delayed adult emergence by producing a supernumeral pupal stage. We propose that male wing development is first induced by up-regulated JH signaling compared to female expression pattern, but a decrease at the end of the prepupal stage is necessary for adult emergence, as evidenced by the JH mimic treatments. Furthermore, wing development seems linked to JH titers as JHM treatments on the pupal stage led to wing deformation. The female pedomorphic appearance was not reflected by the maintenance of high levels of JH. The results in this study suggest that differential variations in JH signaling may be responsible for sex-specific and radically different modes of metamorphosis.

  14. Synthesis and binding affinity of an iodinated juvenile hormone

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    Prestwich, G.D.; Eng, W.S.; Robles, S.; Vogt, R.G.; Wisniewski, J.R.; Wawrzenczyk, C.

    1988-01-25

    The synthesis of the first iodinated juvenile hormone (JH) in enantiomerically enriched form is reported. This chiral compound, 12-iodo-JH I, has an iodine atom replacing a methyl group of the natural insect juvenile hormone, JH I, which is important in regulating morphogenesis and reproduction in the Lepidoptera. The unlabeled compound shows approximately 10% of the relative binding affinity for the larval hemolymph JH binding protein (JHBP) of Manduca sexta, which specifically binds natural /sup 3/H-10R,11S-JH I (labeled at 58 Ci/mmol) with a KD of 8 X 10(-8) M. It is also approximately one-tenth as biologically active as JH I in the black Manduca and epidermal commitment assays. The 12-hydroxy and 12-oxo compounds are poor competitors and are also biologically inactive. The radioiodinated (/sup 125/I)12-iodo-JH I can be prepared in low yield at greater than 2500 Ci/mmol by nucleophilic displacement using no-carrier-added /sup 125/I-labeled sodium iodide in acetone; however, synthesis using sodium iodide carrier to give the approximately 50 Ci/mmol radioiodinated ligand proceeds in higher radiochemical yield with fewer by-products and provides a radioligand which is more readily handled in binding assays. The KD of (/sup 125/I)12-iodo-JH I was determined for hemolymph JHBP of three insects: M. sexta, 795 nM; Galleria mellonella, 47 nM; Locusta migratoria, 77 nM. The selectivity of 12-iodo-JH I for the 32-kDa JHBP of M. sexta was demonstrated by direct autoradiography of a native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gel of larval hemolymph incubated with the radioiodinated ligand. Thus, the in vitro and in vivo activity of 12-iodo-JH I indicate that it can serve as an important new gamma-emitting probe in the search for JH receptor proteins in target tissues.

  15. Regulation of the juvenile hormone titre in the Colorado potato beetle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, S.J.

    1978-01-01

    Three main topics were investigated in regulation of the titre of juvenile hormone in haemolymph of the Colorado potato beetle ( Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say): enzymic breakdown of the hormone; binding and protection of the hormone by carrier proteins; the synthetic capacity of the corpora allata.J

  16. Highly potent analogues of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone containing D-phenylalanine nitrogen mustard in position 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajusz, S.; Janaky, T.; Csernus, V.J.; Bokser, L.; Fekete, M.; Srkalovic, G.; Redding, T.W.; Schally, A.V. (Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (USA))

    1989-08-01

    The nitrogen mustard derivatives of 4-phenylbutyric acid and L-phenylalanine, called chlorambucil (Chl) and melphalan (Mel), respectively, have been incorporated into several peptide hormones, including luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH). The alkylating analogues of LH-RH were prepared by linking Chl, as an N-acyl moiety, to the complete amino acid sequence of agonistic and antagonistic analogues. These compounds, in particular the antagonistic analogues, showed much lower potency than their congeners carrying other acyl groups. To obtain highly potent alkylating analogues of LH-RH, the D enantiomer of Mel was incorporated into position 6 of the native hormone and some of its antagonistic analogues. Of the peptides prepared, (D-Mel{sup 6})LH-RH (SB-05) and (Ac-D-Nal(2){sup 1},D-Phe(pCl){sup 2},D-Pal(3){sup 3},Arg{sup 5},D-Mel{sup 6},D-Ala{sup 10})LH-RH (SB-86, where Nal(2) is 3-(2-naphthyl)alanine and Pal(3) is 3-(3-pyridyl)alanine) possessed the expected high agonistic and antagonistic activities, respectively, and also showed high affinities for the membrane receptors of rat pituitary cells, human breast cancer cells, human prostate cancer cells, and rat Dunning R-3327 prostate tumor cells. These two analogues exerted cytotoxic effects on human and rat mammary cancer cells in vitro. Thus these two D-Mel{sup 6} analogues seem to be particularly suitable for the study of how alkylating analogues of LH-RH could interfere with intracellular events in certain cancer cells.

  17. Sex-specific developmental profiles of juvenile hormone synthesis in honey bee larvae.

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    Hartfelder, Klaus; de Oliveira Tozetto, Sibele; Rachinsky, Anna

    1993-02-01

    Juvenile hormone synthesis in drone larvae of the honey bee was measured by an in vitro radiochemical assay. The developmental profile of corpora allata activity in male larvae showed considerable differences from queen larvae, the presumptive reproductive females, and was comparable to workers, the sterile female morph. Drone and worker larvae, however, differed drastically in the regulation of juvenile hormone biosynthesis, as revealed by the addition of farnesoic acid to the culture medium. This precursor stimulated juvenile hormone synthesis of drone glands nearly eightfold, whereas in worker larvae it is known to lead to an accumulation of methyl farnesoate. The sex-specific differences in endocrine activity indicate a role for juvenile hormone in the expression of genetically determined sexually dimorphic characters during metamorphosis, a role not currently accounted for in models describing endocrine regulation of insect development.

  18. THE INFLUENCE OF INSECT JUVENILE HORMONE AGONISTTS ON METAMORPHOSIS AND REPRODUCTION IN ESTUARINE CRUSTACEANS

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    Comparative developmental and reproductive studies were performed on several species of estuarine crustaceans in response to three juvenile hormone agonists (JHAs) (methoprene, fenoxycarb, and pyriproxyfen). Larval development of the grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, was greater ...

  19. Identification and regulation of the juvenile hormone esterase gene in the Colorado potato beetle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermunt, A.M.W.

    1999-01-01

    A number of important physiological processes in insects is controlled by the titer of juvenile hormone (JH). The juvenile (larval) stage is maintained at a high JH titer, whereas the onset of metamorphosis is induced by a low JH titer. Reproduction by adults requires often a high JH titer. Through

  20. Insect juvenile hormone: from "status quo" to high society

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    K. Hartfelder

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile hormone (JH exerts pleiotropic functions during insect life cycles. The regulation of JH biosynthesis by neuropeptides and biogenic amines, as well as the transport of JH by specific binding proteins is now well understood. In contrast, comprehending its mode of action on target organs is still hampered by the difficulties in isolating specific receptors. In concert with ecdysteroids, JH orchestrates molting and metamorphosis, and its modulatory function in molting processes has gained it the attribute "status quo" hormone. Whereas the metamorphic role of JH appears to have been widely conserved, its role in reproduction has been subject to many modifications. In many species, JH stimulates vitellogenin synthesis and uptake. In mosquitoes, however, this function has been transferred to ecdysteroids, and JH primes the ecdysteroid response of developing follicles. As reproduction includes a variety of specific behaviors, including migration and diapause, JH has come to function as a master regulator in insect reproduction. The peak of pleiotropy was definitely reached in insects exhibiting facultative polymorphisms. In wing-dimorphic crickets, differential activation of JH esterase determines wing length. The evolution of sociality in Isoptera and Hymenoptera has also extensively relied on JH. In primitively social wasps and bumble bees, JH integrates dominance position with reproductive status. In highly social insects, such as the honey bee, JH has lost its gonadotropic role and now regulates division of labor in the worker caste. Its metamorphic role has been extensively explored in the morphological differentiation of queens and workers, and in the generation of worker polymorphism, such as observed in ants.

  1. Ecdysis triggering hormone ensures proper timing of juvenile hormone biosynthesis in pharate adult mosquitoes

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    Areiza, Maria; Nouzova, Marcela; Rivera-Perez, Crisalejandra; Noriega, Fernando G.

    2014-01-01

    Juvenile hormones (JHs) are synthesized by the corpora allata (CA) and play a key role in insect development. A decrease of JH titer in the last instar larvae allows pupation and metamorphosis to proceed. As the anti-metamorphic role of JH comes to an end, the CA of the late pupa (or pharate adult) becomes again “competent” to synthesize JH, which would play an essential role orchestrating reproductive maturation. In the present study, we provide evidence that ecdysis triggering hormone (ETH), a key endocrine factor involved in ecdysis control, acts as an allatotropic regulator of JH biosynthesis, controlling the exact timing of CA activation in the pharate adult mosquito. Analysis of the expression of Aedes aegypti ETH receptors (AeaETHRs) revealed that they are present in the CA and the corpora cardiaca (CC), and their expression peaks 4 h before eclosion. In vitro stimulation of the pupal CA glands with ETH resulted in an increase in JH synthesis. Consistent with this finding, silencing AeaETHRs by RNA interference (RNAi) in pupa resulted in reduced JH synthesis by the CA of one day-old adult females. Stimulation with ETH resulted in increases in the activity of juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase (JHAMT), a key JH biosynthetic enzyme. Furthermore, inhibition of IP3R-operated mobilization of endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ stores prevented the ETH-dependent increases of JH biosynthesis and JHAMT activity. All together these findings provide compelling evidence that ETH acts as a regulatory peptide that ensures proper developmental timing of JH synthesis in pharate adult mosquitoes. PMID:25257939

  2. Overnight Levels of Luteinizing Hormone, Follicle-Stimulating Hormone and Growth Hormone before and during Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Analogue Treatment in Short Boys Born Small for Gestational Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kaay, Danielle C. M.; de Jong, Frank H.; Rose, Susan R.; Odink, Roelof J. H.; Bakker-van Waarde, Willie M.; Sulkers, Eric J.; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C. S.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate if 3 months of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue (GnRHa) treatment results in sufficient suppression of pubertal luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) profile patterns in short pubertal small for gestational age (SGA) boys. To compare growth hormone

  3. Premenstrual Exacerbation of Life-Threatening Asthma: Effect of Gonadotrophin Releasing Hormone Analogue Therapy

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    Alun L Edwards

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Variability in the severity of asthma during various phases of the menstrual cycle has been frequently suspected. However, the hormonal changes that might affect mediators of bronchospasm have yet to be elucidated. The case of a 41-year-old woman suffering from longstanding asthma with life-threatening exacerbations is reported. The patient was treated with buserelin, a gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH analogue, which created a temporary chemical menopause and thus permitted diagnosis of a premenstrual exacerbation of asthma and offered insight into potential therapy. GnRH analogues may therefore be of value in assessing women with severe asthma suspected to vary with the menstrual cycle. The addition of estrogens and progestins at the same time as treatment with GnRH analogue may be of value in determining the role of these hormones in the pathogenesis of menstrually related exacerbations of asthma.

  4. Microarray Analysis of Juvenile Hormone Response in Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells

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    A microchip array encompassing probes for 14,010 genes of Drosophila melanogaster was used to analyze the effect of juvenile hormone (JH) on genome-wide gene expression. JH is a member of a key group of insect hormones involved in regulating larval development and adult reproductive processes. Altho...

  5. Evolutionary Endocrinology of Hormonal Rhythms: Juvenile Hormone Titer Circadian Polymorphism in Gryllus firmus.

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    Zera, Anthony J

    2016-08-01

    Daily rhythms for hormonal traits are likely widespread and important aspects of organismal (e.g., life history) adaptation. Yet they remain substantially understudied, especially with respect to variable rhythms within species. The cricket, Gryllus firmus, exhibits a genetically polymorphic circadian rhythm for the blood titer of the key hormone, juvenile hormone (JH). Gryllus firmus is also wing-polymorphic, consisting of a dispersing morph that delays reproduction and a flightless morph with substantially enhanced egg production. JH circadian phenotype strongly covaries with morph type: The blood JH titer is strongly rhythmic in multiple populations artificially-selected for the dispersing morph (LW(f) = long wings with functional flight muscles) and is essentially arrhythmic in populations selected for the SW (short-winged) morph. Association between JH titer cycle and LW(f) morph is also found in natural populations of G. firmus and in several related species in the field. This is one of the very few studies of endocrine titer variation in natural populations of an insect. The morph-specific cycle is underlain by a circadian rhythm in hormone biosynthesis, which in turn is underlain by a rhythm in a brain neuropeptide regulator of JH biosynthesis. The morph-specific JH titer circadian cycle is also strongly correlated with a morph-specific daily rhythm in global gene expression. This is currently the only example of a genetically-variable hormone circadian rhythm in both the laboratory and field that is strongly associated with an ecologically important polymorphism. The extensive information on the underlying causes of the morph-specific JH titer rhythm, coupled with the strong association between the JH circadian rhythm and wing polymorphism makes this system in G. firmus an exceptional experimental model to investigate the mechanisms underlying circadian hormonal adaptations. Genetic polymorphism for the JH titer circadian rhythm in G. firmus is discussed

  6. Juvenile hormone-mediated termination of larval diapause in the bamboo borer, Omphisa fuscidentalis.

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    Singtripop, T; Wanichacheewa, S; Sakurai, S

    2000-01-01

    Larvae of the bamboo borer, Omphisa fuscidentalis are in diapause for more than nine months (Singtripop, T., Wanichaneewa, S., Tsuzuki, S., Sakurai, S. 1999. Larval growth and diapause in a tropical moth, Omphisa fuscidentalis Hampson. Zool. Sci. 16, 725-733). To examine the endocrine mechanisms underlying this larval diapause, we assayed the responsiveness of the diapausing larvae to 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and a juvenile hormone analogue (JHA: S-methoprene). 20E injection caused the larvae to halt movement, followed by deposition of a pupal cuticle. Topical application of JHA induced pupation in a dose-dependent manner. JHA also induced pupation of the larvae whose brains were removed before JHA application. In those larvae, the prothoracic glands became active and competent to respond to brain extracts within seven days after JHA treatment, and the hemolymph ecdysteroid concentration began to increase 12 days after JHA application. These results indicate that JHA stimulates the prothoracic glands of diapausing Omphisa larvae, terminating larval diapause, in contrast with previous findings that JH inhibits the brain-prothoracic gland axis and thus maintains the larval diapause. Current results therefore suggest a novel regulatory mechanism for larval diapause in this species.

  7. Development of radiolabeling method for natural juvenile hormones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuda, Takashi; Shiotsuki, Takahiro; Kotaki, Toyomi [National Inst. of Sericultural and Entomological Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-02-01

    This study aimed to develop a new assay method for accurate determination of juvenile hormone (JH) using radioisotope. A new measuring method for JH was designed based on the principle of molecular competition. Namely, JH-binding protein in the insect was used to form a selective binding to JH. At first, corpus allatum was cultured in a medium containing {sup 3}H or {sup 14}C epoxyfarnesyldiazoacetate (EFDA), which is a photoaffinity labeling reagent and JH binding protein (JHBP) was purified using {sup 3}H or {sup 14}C labeled EFDA. Since several kinds of JH homologues different in the molecular structure have been known, it was needed to establish each labeling method appropriate to those homologues. Then, an assay method for micro-quantitative measurement of JH was established utilizing the competition between labeled natural JH and JHBP. Thus, the authors succeeded in the overexpression of the blood JHBA of kind of tabaco moth, H.virescens and also in cloning and overexpression of JHBP in the silk worm. It was confirmed that these JHBPs specifically bind to {sup 3}H labeled JH3, leading to stable supply of blood JHBP. Thus, accurate assay for JH concentration became possible by the use of the labeled JH with natural configuration and the blood JHBP. In the course of this study, several findings were obtained as follows: The JHBP of a sting bug was different from the previously reported ones. The regulation of JH synthesis in the corpus allatum was closely related to the control of diapause in several insects. The JHBP isolated from the cytosol of silk gland was a new protein in respect of amino acid sequence. (M.N.)

  8. Juvenile hormone regulates extreme mandible growth in male stag beetles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Gotoh

    Full Text Available The morphological diversity of insects is one of the most striking phenomena in biology. Evolutionary modifications to the relative sizes of body parts, including the evolution of traits with exaggerated proportions, are responsible for a vast range of body forms. Remarkable examples of an insect trait with exaggerated proportions are the mandibular weapons of stag beetles. Male stag beetles possess extremely enlarged mandibles which they use in combat with rival males over females. As with other sexually selected traits, stag beetle mandibles vary widely in size among males, and this variable growth results from differential larval nutrition. However, the mechanisms responsible for coupling nutrition with growth of stag beetle mandibles (or indeed any insect structure remain largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that during the development of male stag beetles (Cyclommatus metallifer, juvenile hormone (JH titers are correlated with the extreme growth of an exaggerated weapon of sexual selection. We then investigate the putative role of JH in the development of the nutritionally-dependent, phenotypically plastic mandibles, by increasing hemolymph titers of JH with application of the JH analog fenoxycarb during larval and prepupal developmental periods. Increased JH signaling during the early prepupal period increased the proportional size of body parts, and this was especially pronounced in male mandibles, enhancing the exaggerated size of this trait. The direction of this response is consistent with the measured JH titers during this same period. Combined, our results support a role for JH in the nutrition-dependent regulation of extreme mandible growth in this species. In addition, they illuminate mechanisms underlying the evolution of trait proportion, the most salient feature of the evolutionary diversification of the insects.

  9. Overnight levels of luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone and growth hormone before and during gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue treatment in short boys born small for gestational age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.C.M. van der Kaay (Danielle); F.H. de Jong (Frank); S.R. Rose (Susan); R.J.H. Odink (Roelof); W.M. Bakker-Van Waarde (Willie); E.J. Sulkers (Eric); A.C.S. Hokken-Koelega (Anita)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractAims: To evaluate if 3 months of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue (GnRHa) treatment results in sufficient suppression of pubertal luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) profile patterns in short pubertal small for gestational age (SGA) boys. To compare gro

  10. ISOLATION OF JUVENILE HORMONES ESTERASE AND ITS PARTIAL CDNA CLONE FROM THE BEETLE, TENEBRIO MOLITOR. (R825433)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile hormone esterase (JHE) plays an essential role in insect development. It is partially responsible for the clearance of juvenile hormone (JH) which regulates various aspects of insect development and reproduction. Because of its role in regulating JH titer, this enzyme...

  11. Endocrine disrupting effects of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane analogues on gonadotropin hormones in pituitary gonadotrope cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jinghua; Yang, Ye; Xiong, Kang; Liu, Jing

    2014-05-01

    It has been shown that exposure to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) analogues leads to disharmony of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). However, the effects and mechanisms of DDT analogues on the expression of gonadotropin genes (FSHβ, LHβ and Cgα), which is the rate-limiting step of FSH and LH biosynthesis, remain unknown. In this study, we assessed the effects of p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and methoxychlor (MXC) on gonadotropin genes expression and hormones synthesis in gonadotrope cells. p,p'-DDT and MXC at test concentrations ranging from 10(-9) to 10(-7)mol/L, stimulated gonadotropin genes expression and hormones synthesis in a dose-dependent manner. The activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) was required for the induction of gonadotropin genes expression and hormones synthesis by p,p'-DDT or MXC exposure. This study showed for the first time that p,p'-DDT and MXC regulated gonadotropin genes expression and hormones synthesis through ERK pathway in gonadotrope cells.

  12. Cardiovascular, hormonal and metabolic responses to graded exercise in juvenile diabetics with and without autonomic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Galbo, H; Christensen, N J

    1980-01-01

    Thirteen juvenile diabetics were studied in order to determine if decreased beat-to-beat variation during deep respiration, indicating abnormal autonomic nerve function, imply that cardiovascular, hormonal and metabolic responses are impaired. Patients with decreased beat-to-beat variation had to...... to be more heavily stressed during exercise to reach a certain heart rate or catecholamine level. The relation between other metabolic and hormonal response is discussed....

  13. Hormonal changes during GnRH analogue therapy in children with central precocious puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, J; Juul, A; Andersson, A M

    2000-01-01

    Gonadotropin releasing hormone analogues (GnRHa) have been used for treatment of central precocious puberty (CPP) for more than 15 years. They are generally considered safe although data on potential long-term side effects are scarce. However, GnRHa therapy has profound effects on both the hypoth......Gonadotropin releasing hormone analogues (GnRHa) have been used for treatment of central precocious puberty (CPP) for more than 15 years. They are generally considered safe although data on potential long-term side effects are scarce. However, GnRHa therapy has profound effects on both...... the hypothalamopituitary-gonadal axis as well as on growth hormone (GH) secretion. Gonadal activity is increased in children with CPP; during GnRHa therapy secretion of gonadal hormones is suppressed as reflected by measurements of LH, FSH, and estradiol/testosterone. More recently, studies of levels of inhibin A and B...... as well as markers of androgen action such as SHBG and prostate specific antigen have demonstrated marked suppression of gonadal function possibly to infra-physiological levels. The possible long-term consequences of these observations have yet to be determined. Detailed analyses of the GH-IGF-I axis have...

  14. [Juvenile hormone activity in healthy and parasitized adult Anacridium aegyptium (Insecta, Orthoptera) during and after experimental termination of diapause].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardie, J; Joly, L

    1975-09-15

    The content of juvenile hormone in the haemolymph of Anacridium, normal and infected by Metacemyia (Diptera Tachinidae), has been evaluated by the Galleria bioassay. In all the diapausing locusts, the level of juvenile hormone is very low. It is slightly increased in the males and the parasited animals. In all the locusts,, activated by electrostimulations of the pars intercerebralis, the level of juvenile hormone is high. It is the highest in the infected females with an inhibited vitellogenesis. The allata system cannot therefore be implicated in parasitic castration.

  15. Characterization of the juvenile hormone pathway in the viviparous cockroach, Diploptera punctata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Huang

    Full Text Available Juvenile hormones (JHs are key regulators of insect development and reproduction. The JH biosynthetic pathway is known to involve 13 discrete enzymatic steps. In the present study, we have characterized the JH biosynthetic pathway in the cockroach Diploptera punctata. The effect of exogenous JH precursors on JH biosynthesis was also determined. Based on sequence similarity, orthologs for the genes directly involved in the pathway were cloned, and their spatial and temporal transcript profiles were determined. The effect of shutting down the JH pathway in adult female cockroaches was studied by knocking down genes encoding HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR and Juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase (JHAMT. As a result, oocyte development slowed as a consequence of reduction in JH biosynthesis. Oocyte length, fat body transcription of Vg and ovarian vitellin content significantly decreased. In addition, silencing HMGR and JHAMT resulted in a decrease in the transcript levels of other genes in the pathway.

  16. Laboratory assessment of indigenous plant extracts for anti-juvenile hormone activity in Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, R C; Dixit, O P; Sukumaran, P

    1992-07-01

    Of 15 plants tested, five plant extracts showed anti-juvenile hormone-like activity against laboratory colonised late fourth instar larvae and adult female mosquitoes. Petroleum ether extract of Eichhornia crassipes and acetone extracts of Ageratum conyzoides, Cleome icosandra, Tagetes erectes and Tridax procumbens showed growth inhibitory (P less than 0.001) and juvenile hormone mimicing activity to the treated larvae of C. quinquefasciatus.. Larval pupal intermediates, demalanised pupae, defective egg rafts and adult with deformed flight muscles were few noticeable changes. Biting behaviour was observed to be affected only in Ageratum, Cleome and Tridax extracts (P less than 0.001). Loss of fecundity was observed in the treated mosquitoes but no sterilant effects could be seen. Adults, obtained from larvae exposed to the plant extracts produced significantly shorter egg-rafts (P less than 0.005) than in control.

  17. In vivo pharmacological evaluation of a lactose-conjugated luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Shayli Varasteh; Varamini, Pegah; Steyn, Frederik; Toth, Istvan

    2015-11-10

    In the current study, the efficacy and pharmacokinetic profile of lactose-conjugated luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) was examined following oral administration in male rats. A rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry technique was developed and applied for measuring the concentration of lactose[Q(1)][w(6)]LHRH (compound 1) in rat plasma in order to allow measurement of pharmacokinetic parameters. LH release was evaluated using a sandwich ELISA. Maximum serum concentration (Cmax = 0.11 μg/ml) was reached at 2h (Tmax) following oral administration of the compound at 10mg/kg. The half-life was determined to be 2.6h. The absolute bioavailability of the orally administered compound was found to be 14%, which was a remarkable improvement compared to zero-to-low oral bioavailability of the native peptide. Compound 1 was effective in stimulating LH release at 20mg/kg after oral administration. The method was validated at a linear range of 0.01-20.0 μg/ml and a correlation coefficient of r(2) ≥ 0.999. The accuracy and precision values showed the reliability and reproducibility of the method for evaluation of the pharmacokinetic parameters. These findings showed that the lactose derivative of LHRH has a therapeutic potential to be further developed as an orally active therapeutics for the treatment of hormone-dependent diseases.

  18. Molecular characterization and gene expression of juvenile hormone binding protein in the bamboo borer, Omphisa fuscidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritdachyeng, Eakartit; Manaboon, Manaporn; Tobe, Stephen S; Singtripop, Tippawan

    2012-11-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) plays an important role in many physiological processes in insect development, diapause and reproduction. An appropriate JH titer in hemolymph is essential for normal development in insects. Information concerning its carrier partner protein, juvenile hormone binding protein (JHBP), provides an alternative approach to understanding how JH regulates metamorphosis. In this study, we cloned and sequenced the Omphisa juvenile hormone binding protein (OfJHBP). The full-length OfJHBP cDNA sequence is comprised of 849 nucleotides with an open reading frame of 726bp encoding 242 amino acids. The molecular mass of the protein was estimated to be 26.94kDa. The deduced protein sequence of OfJHBP showed moderate homology with the lepidopteran, Heliothis virescens JHBP (52% amino acid identity) and lower homology with the Bombyx mori JHBP (45%) and the Manduca sexta JHBP (44%). The OfJHBP was expressed mainly in the fat body. OfJHBP transcripts in the fat body was moderately high during 3rd, 4th and 5th instars, then rapidly increased, reaching a peak during early diapause. The expression remained high in mid-diapause, then decreased in late-diapause until the pupal stage. Both juvenile hormone analog (JHA), methoprene, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) exhibited a similar stimulatory pattern in OfJHBP expression of diapausing larvae. OfJHBP mRNA levels gradually increased and showed a peak of gene expression on the penultimate, then declined to low levels in the pupal stage. For in vitro gene expression, both of JHA and 20E induced OfJHBP mRNA expression in fat body. Fat body maintenance in vitro in the presence of 0.1μg/50μl JHA induced OfJHBP mRNA expression to high levels within the first 30min whereas 0.1μg/50μl 20E induced gene expression at 120min. To study the synergistic effect of these two hormones, fat body was incubated in vitro with 0.1μg/50μl JHA or 0.1μg/50μl 20E or a combination of both hormone for 30min. Induction of OfJHBP expression by

  19. The pattern of female genital hormonal disease in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Anisimova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to reveal and investigate hormonal characteristics in women of childbearing age in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME.Patients and methods. The concentrations of sex steroid and tropic hormones were analyzed in 48 women of childbearing age who suffered from JME and received monotherapy or bitherapy with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs for more than a year. For comparison of their values, a control group included 15 healthy women who did not take AEDs. Results and discussion. 66.7% of the patients were found to have ovarian hormonal dysfunction characterized by a significant increase in the level of luteinizing hormone and testosterone in the follicular phase of the cycle and a decrease in that of progesterone in the luteal phase compared with the control group. The hormonal deviations were influenced by disease duration and age-related onset in JME. Generalized tonicclonic seizures concurrent with myoclonic ones, bitherapy, and disease onset before menarche and in the period of the menstrual cycle favored the  development of hormonal deviations to a greater extent than myoclonic seizures only, monotherapy, and disease onset after the establishment of the cycle. Valproates were most commonly used in the therapy of JME; however, there were no significant differences in the hormonal deficiencies when different chemical groups of AEDs were administered.

  20. Role of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues in metastatic male breast cancer: results from a pooled analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lauro, Luigi; Pizzuti, Laura; Barba, Maddalena; Sergi, Domenico; Sperduti, Isabella; Mottolese, Marcella; Amoreo, Carla Azzurra; Belli, Franca; Vici, Patrizia; Speirs, Valerie; Santini, Daniele; De Maria, Ruggero; Maugeri-Saccà, Marcello

    2015-05-17

    Male breast cancer is a rare malignancy. Despite the lack of prospectively generated data from trials in either the adjuvant or metastatic setting, patients are commonly treated with hormone therapies. Much controversy exists over the use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues in metastatic male breast cancer patients. We conducted this study to provide more concrete ground on the use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues in this setting. We herein present results from a pooled analysis including 60 metastatic male breast cancer patients treated with either an aromatase inhibitor or cyproterone acetate as a monotherapy (23 patients) or combined with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue (37 patients). Overall response rate was 43.5% in patients treated with monotherapy and 51.3% with combination therapy (p = 0.6). Survival outcomes favored combination therapy in terms of median progression-free survival (11.6 months versus 6 months; p = 0.05), 1-year progression-free survival rate (43.2% versus 21.7%; p = 0.05), median overall survival (29.7 months versus 22 months; p = 0.05), and 2-year survival rate (64.9% versus 43.5%; p = 0.05). In metastatic male breast cancer patients, the combined use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues and aromatase inhibitors or antiandrogens seems to be associated with greater efficacy, particularly in terms of survival outcomes, compared with monotherapy. Collectively, these results encourage considering these agents in the metastatic setting.

  1. Blockade of LH release and ovulation in the rabbit with inhibitory analogues of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, C P; Coy, D H; Schally, A V; Sawyer, C H

    1977-06-01

    Plasma LH levels and ovulation were studied in female rabbits following administration of several inhibitory analogues of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) before and after mating with experienced males. Administration of (D-Phe2, D-Leu6)-LHRH (1.5 mg/kg sc) to does 30 min before mating did not prevent either LH release or ovulation. However, a single sc injection of (D-Phe2, L-Phe3, D-Phe6y-LHRH (6 mg/kg) given 30 min before mating in 4 rabbits resulted in a 30-60 min delay in the coitus-induced release of LH when compared with post-coital changes in the same animals injected with vehicle; however, all of the does ovulated. When multiple dosages of 4 mg/kg (D-Phe2, L-Phe3, D-Phe6)-LHRH were administered 3-5 times at half-hourly intervals beginning 30 min prior to mating there was a considerable reduction in plasma LH elevations at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 h after mating and 3/5 treated rabbits showed partial or complete blockade of ovulation. Quite similar results were obtained with the same dosage of (D-Phe2, D-Trp3, D-Phe6)-LHRH. An early sharp peak in LH release and full ovulation were stimulated in 6 out of 6 does by a single iv injection of synthetic LHRH (500 ng/kg). However, in another experiment, three half-hourly sc injections (4 mg/kg) of (D-Phe2, L-Phe3, D-Phe6)-LHRH beginning 30 min before administering LHRH markedly reduced the rise in plasma LH (P less than 0.01) and completely blocked ovulation in all of the same 6 animals. An unsuccessful attempt was made to provide a test animal for LHRH analogue investigations by implanting 4 cm of silastic tubing filled with crystalline estradiol (E2) sc in ovariectomized (OVX) AND INTACT DOES. In OVX does the silastic E2 implants resulted in a progressive decline in the ability to release LH in response to mating at 6 and at 20 days after implantation. With ovaries present, the E2 implant permitted post-coital LH release and ovulation at 4 d but not at 30 d post-implantation. At 30 d after removal of

  2. A cytochrome P450 terpenoid hydroxylase linked to the suppression of insect juvenile hormone synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Sutherland, T. D.; Unnithan, G.C.; Andersen, J. F.; Evans, P H; Murataliev, M. B.; Szabo, L. Z.; Mash, E. A.; Bowers, W. S.; Feyereisen, R.

    1998-01-01

    A cDNA encoding a cytochrome P450 enzyme was isolated from a cDNA library of the corpora allata (CA) from reproductively active Diploptera punctata cockroaches. This P450 from the endocrine glands that produce the insect juvenile hormone (JH) is most closely related to P450 proteins of family 4 and was named CYP4C7. The CYP4C7 gene is expressed selectively in the CA; its message could not be detected in the fat body, corpora cardiaca, or brain, but trace levels of expression were found in the...

  3. High Population Density of Juvenile Chum Salmon Decreased the Number and Sizes of Growth Hormone Cells in the Pituitary

    OpenAIRE

    Salam, Md. Abdus; Ota, Yuki; Ando, Hironori; Fukuwaka, Masa-aki; Kaeriyama, Masahide; Urano, Akihisa

    1999-01-01

    Juveniles of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) held at high population density were apparently smaller than those held at medium and low population densities. The effects of high population density on pituitary growth hormone (GH) cells in juvenile chum salmon were examined using immunocytochemical and in situ hybridization techniques. The ratio of GH-immunoreactive (ir) area to the whole pituitary was almost constant in all of the high, medium and low population density groups, although the nu...

  4. Molecular cloning and characterization of a juvenile hormone esterase gene from brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuhua; Yang, Baojun; Gu, Jianhua; Yao, Xiangmei; Zhang, Yixi; Song, Feng; Liu, Zewen

    2008-12-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) plays key roles in the regulation of growth, development, diapause and reproduction in insects, and juvenile hormone esterase (JHE) plays an important role in regulating JH titers. We obtained a full-length cDNA encoding JHE in Nilaparvata lugens (NlJHE), the first JHE gene cloned from the hemipteran insects. The deduced protein sequence of Nljhe contains the five conserved motifs identified in JHEs of other insect species, including a consensus GQSAG motif that is required for the enzymatic activity of JHE proteins. Nljhe showed high amino acid similarities with Athalia rosae JHE (40%) and Apis mellifera JHE (39%). Recombinant NlJHE protein expressed in the baculovirus expression system hydrolyzed [3H] JH III at high activity and yielded the specificity constants (kcat/KM=4.28x10(6) M(-1) s(-1)) close to those of the validated JHEs from other insect species, indicating that Nljhe cDNA encodes a functional JH esterase. The Nljhe transcript was expressed mainly in the fat body and the expression level reached a peak at 48 h after ecdysis of the 5th instar nymphs. In the 5th instar, macropterous insects showed significantly higher Nljhe mRNA levels and JHE activities, but much lower JH III levels, than those detected in the brachypterous insects soon after ecdysis and at 48 h after ecdysis. These data suggest that NlJHE might play important roles in regulation of JH levels and wing form differentiation.

  5. Juvenile hormone and insulin regulate trehalose homeostasis in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Xu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS has been well studied for its role in the control of life span extension and resistance to a variety of stresses. The Drosophila melanogaster insulin-like receptor (InR mutant showed extended life span due to reduced juvenile hormone (JH levels. However, little is known about the mechanism of cross talk between IIS and JH in regulation of life span extension and resistance to starvation. In the current study, we investigated the role of IIS and JH signaling in regulation of resistance to starvation. Reduction in JH biosynthesis, JH action, or insulin-like peptide 2 (ILP2 syntheses by RNA interference (RNAi-aided knockdown in the expression of genes coding for juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase (JHAMT, methoprene-tolerant (Met, or ILP2 respectively decreased lipid and carbohydrate metabolism and extended the survival of starved beetles. Interestingly, the extension of life span could be restored by injection of bovine insulin into JHAMT RNAi beetles but not by application of JH III to ILP2 RNAi beetles. These data suggest that JH controls starvation resistance by regulating synthesis of ILP2. More importantly, JH regulates trehalose homeostasis, including trehalose transport and metabolism, and controls utilization of stored nutrients in starved adults.

  6. Effects of bisphenol analogues on steroidogenic gene expression and hormone synthesis in H295R cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yixing; Jiao, Zhihao; Shi, Jiachen; Li, Ming; Guo, Qiaozhen; Shao, Bing

    2016-03-01

    The use of Bisphenol A (BPA) has been regulated in many countries because of its potential adverse effects on human health. As a result of the restriction, structural anologues such as bisphenol S (BPS) and bisphenol F (BPF) have already been used for industrial applications as alternatives to BPA. Bisphenol AF (BPAF) is mainly used as a crosslinker in the synthesis of specialty fluoroelastomers. These compounds have been detected in various environmental matrices and human samples. Previous studies have shown that these compounds have potential endocrine disrupting effects on wildlife and mammals in general. However, the effects on adrenocortical function and the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In the present study, the H295R cell line was used as a model to compare the cell toxicity and to investigate the potential endocrine disrupting action of four BPs (including BPA, BPS, BPF, and BPAF). The half lethal concentration (LC50) values at 72 h exposure indicated that the rank order of toxicities of the chemicals was BPAF > BPA > BPS > BPF. The hormone results demonstrated that BPA analogues, such as BPF, BPS and BPAF were capable of altering steroidogenesis in H295R cells. BPA and BPS exhibited inhibition of hormone production, BPF predominantly led to increased progesterone and 17β-estradiol levels and BPAF showed induction of progesterone and reduction of testosterone. Inhibition effects of BPA and BPAF on hormone production were probably mediated by down-regulation of steroidogenic genes in H295R cells. However, the mechanisms of the endocrine interrupting action of BPF and BPS are still unclear, which may have additional mechanisms that have not been detected with BPA.

  7. EFFECTS OF JINLU, AN ANTI-JUVENILE HORMONE ON THE GROWTH, ULTRA-STRUCTURE OF THE CORPORA ALLATA AND PROTHORACIC GLAND OF SILKWORM, BOMBYX MORI L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The 4th instar larvae of the silkworm, Bombyx mori L, when treated with anti-juvenile hormone (Jinlu) had its larval period extended by 2 days and the total larval period shortened by about 4 days. The conversion ratio of tetramolters into trimolters was 100%. But anti-juvenile hormone administration to the 5th instar larvae lengthened the silkworm age by one day. When anti-juvenile hormone was administered, we could find many neurosecretory granules of the brain transferred to the cells of the corpora allata, but there was little endoplasmic reticulum. In the prothoracic gland, the micropile edge was clear and there were large nucleoli, mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. This study was carried out to show that anti-JH compound inhibits the secretion of Juvenile hormone in silkworm Bombyx mori L. The investigation revealed that the anti-juvenile hormone inhibited the secretion of corpora allata and initiated the activity of the prothoracic gland.

  8. Identification of two juvenile hormone inducible transcription factors from the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Hitoshi; Ueno, Chihiro; Nakamura, Yuki; Kinjoh, Terunori; Ito, Yuka; Shimura, Sachiko; Noda, Hiroaki; Imanishi, Shigeo; Mita, Kazuei; Fujiwara, Haruhiko; Hiruma, Kiyoshi; Shinoda, Tetsuro; Kamimura, Manabu

    2015-09-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) regulates many physiological processes in insects. However, the signal cascades in which JH is active have not yet been fully elucidated, particularly in comparison to another major hormone ecdysteroid. Here we identified two JH inducible transcription factors as candidate components of JH signaling pathways in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. DNA microarray analysis showed that expression of two transcription factor genes, E75 and Enhancer of split mβ (E(spl)mβ), was induced by juvenile hormone I (JH I) in NIAS-Bm-aff3 cells. Real time RT-PCR analysis confirmed that expression of four E75 isoforms (E75A, E75B, E75C and E75D) and E(spl)mβ was 3-8 times greater after JH I addition. Addition of the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide did not suppress JH-induced expression of the genes, indicating that they were directly induced by JH. JH-induced expression of E75 and E(spl)mβ was also observed in four other B. mori cell lines and in larval hemocytes of final instar larvae. Notably, E75A expression was induced very strongly in larval hemocytes by topical application of the JH analog fenoxycarb; the level of induced expression was comparable to that produced by feeding larvae with 20-hydroxyecdysone. These results suggest that E75 and E(spl)mβ are general and direct target genes of JH and that the transcription factors encoded by these genes play important roles in JH signaling.

  9. Effects of PBDE-47 on thyroid and steroid hormone status in juvenile turbot (Schophtalamus maximus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenssen, G.; Tyrhaug, I.B.; Sormo, E.G. [Dept. of Biology, Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway); Andersen, O.K. [Rogaland Research Akvamiljo, Mekjarvik (Norway)

    2004-09-15

    Many of the brominated flame retardant (BFR) chemicals, and particularly polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), has become of increasing concern to scientists over the past decade. Many of the PBDEs are persistent and lipophilic and have been shown to bioaccumulate. The levels of PBDEs in biota seem to be increasing, and several trends, including in humans, indicate that this increase may be rapid1. In general, BFRs have a low acute toxicity, but there is concern about their long-term toxic effects. Exposure studies have revealed a range of subtle biochemical, cellular and physiological effects following low-dose exposure, and many BFRs have been reported to have endocrine disruptive properties. Thus, there is concern about their potential to affect organisms and populations. Thyroid hormones (THs) play an important role in organism's development, metabolism, growth and behavior. Polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs) including BFRs may affect the thyroid system through several mechanisms. They may directly affect the thyroid gland function, the peripheral metabolism of THs and/or the binding of THs to plasma transport proteins. Effects of PHAHs on TH homeostasis have been documented in a number of species, including fish. Du to its persistence against degradation PBDE-47 is among the most abundant PBDE congener in biota, and there is a great concern about its ecotoxicological effects on organisms and populations. The aim of the present study was to examine if PBDE-47 may affect levels of circulating steroid and thyroid hormones in juvenile turbot (Scophtalamus maximus). The turbot is a benthic living flatfish that can be exposed to PHAHs via the sediment living organisms. Thus, plasma levels of T, E, and the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) were determined in juvenile turbot that had been continuously exposed to PBDE-47 via water for 3 weeks.

  10. Aromatase inhibitors with or without gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue in metastatic male breast cancer: a case series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagouri, F; Sergentanis, T N; Koutoulidis, V; Sparber, C; Steger, G G; Dubsky, P; Zografos, G C; Psaltopoulou, T; Gnant, M; Dimopoulos, M-A; Bartsch, R

    2013-01-01

    Background: Data regarding the safety and effectiveness of aromatase inhibitors (AIs) as monotherapy or combined with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue in male breast cancer are scarce. Methods: In this retrospective chart review, cases of male breast cancer patients treated with AIs with or without a GnRH analogue were evaluated. Results: Twenty-three men were included into this case series. Aromatase inhibitors in combination with or without a GnRH analogue were given as first-line therapy in 60.9% and as second-line therapy in 39.1% of patients, respectively. All patients had visceral metastases, whereas in five of them bone lesions coexisted. In all cases AIs were tolerated well, and no case of grade 3 and 4 adverse events was reported. A partial response was observed in 26.1% of patients and stable disease in 56.5%. Median overall survival (OS) was 39 months and median progression-free survival (PFS) was 13 months. Regarding OS and PFS, no significant effects of GnRH analogue co-administration or type of AI were noted. Conclusion: Our study shows that AIs with or without GnRH analogues may represent an effective and safe treatment option for hormone-receptor positive, pretreated, metastatic, male breast cancer patients. PMID:23722469

  11. DOTA alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone analogues for imaging metastatic melanoma lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froidevaux, Sylvie; Calame-Christe, Martine; Sumanovski, Lazar; Tanner, Heidi; Eberle, Alex N

    2003-06-01

    Scintigraphic imaging of metastatic melanoma lesions requires highly tumor-specific radiopharmaceuticals. Because both melanotic and amelanotic melanomas overexpress melanocortin-1 receptors (MC1R), radiolabeled analogues of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) are potential candidates for melanoma diagnosis. Here, we report the in vivo performance of a newly designed octapeptide analogue, [betaAla(3), Nle(4), Asp(5), D-Phe(7), Lys(10)]-alpha-MSH(3-10) (MSH(OCT)), which was conjugated through its N-terminal amino group to the metal chelator 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) to enable incorporation of radiometals (e.g., indium-111) into the peptide. DOTA-MSH(OCT) displayed high in vitro MC1R affinity (IC(50) 9.21 nM). In vivo [(111)In]DOTA-MSH(OCT) exhibited a favorable biodistribution profile after injection in B16-F1 tumorbearing mice. The radiopeptide was rapidly cleared from blood through the kidneys and, most importantly, accumulated preferentially in the melanoma lesions. Lung and liver melanoma metastases could be clearly imaged on tissue section autoradiographs 4 h after injection of [(111)In]DOTA-MSH(OCT). A comparative study of [(111)In]DOTA-MSH(OCT) with [(111)In]DOTA-[Nle(4), D-Phe(7)]-alpha-MSH ([(111)In]-DOTA-NDP-MSH) demonstrated the superiority of the DOTA-MSH(OCT) peptide, particularly for the amount of radioactivity taken up by nonmalignant organs, including bone, the most radiosensitive tissue. These results demonstrate that [(111)In]DOTA-MSH(OCT) is a promising melanoma imaging agent.

  12. STIMULASI PERTUMBUHAN JUVENIL ABALON, Haliotis squamata DENGAN PEMBERIAN HORMON REKOMBINAN IKAN rElGH

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    Fitriyah Husnul Khotimah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Masalah yang paling utama dalam budidaya abalon tropis adalah pertumbuhan yang lambat. Penggunaan rElGH (recombinant giant grouper, Epinephelus lanceolatus growth hormone untuk menstimulasi pertumbuhan beberapa spesies ikan sudah dilakukan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji akselerasi pertumbuhan juvenil abalon tropis, Haliotis squamata setelah diberi perlakuan perendaman hormon rekombinan ikan kerapu kertang, Epinephelus lanceolatus pada frekuensi yang berbeda. Ada empat perlakuan frekuensi perendaman rElGH yaitu 4, 9, 16 kali, dan tanpa perendaman (kontrol. Masing-masing perlakuan diulang tiga kali. Perendaman dilakukan selama tiga jam, dengan interval waktu empat hari. Kepadatan abalon tropis 100 ekor/L air laut yang mengandung 30 mg rElGH. Wadah untuk perendaman berupa beaker glass yang dilengkapi dengan aerasi. Penelitian dilakukan selama tujuh bulan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa abalon tropis yang direndam rElGH dengan frekuensi empat kali menghasilkan pertumbuhan bobot tubuh dan panjang cangkang tertinggi dan berbeda nyata dengan perlakuan lainnya (P<0,05. Sintasan abalon tropis yang diberi perlakuan perendaman hormon rElGH lebih tinggi dibandingkan perlakuan kontrol. The most crucial problem in tropical abalone aquaculture is the slow growth of the species. Studies investigating the use of rElGH (recombinant giant grouper, Epinephelus lanceolatus growth hormone for promoting growth have been performed in various species. This research aimed to examine the growth acceleration of tropical abalone, Haliotis squamata juvenile after being treated in different immersion frequencies of recombinant giant grouper, Epinephelus lanceolatus growth hormone (rElGH. There were four treatments of rElGH immersion frequency: 4, 9, 16 times and without rElGH immersion (control. Each treatment was performed in triplicates. Immersion was performed for 3 hours, at 4-day intervals and a density of 100 tropical abalones in 1 L seawater containing 30

  13. Comparative ovarian microarray analysis of juvenile hormone-responsive genes in water flea Daphnia magna: potential targets for toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, Kenji; Williams, Timothy D; Sato, Tomomi; Tatarazako, Norihisa; Iguchi, Taisen

    2017-03-01

    The freshwater zooplankton Daphnia magna has been extensively employed in chemical toxicity tests such as OECD Test Guidelines 202 and 211. Previously, it has been demonstrated that the treatment of juvenile hormones (JHs) or their analogues to female daphnids can induce male offspring production. Based on this finding, a rapid screening method for detection of chemicals with JH-activity was recently developed using adult D. magna. This screening system determines whether a chemical has JH-activity by investigating the male offspring inducibility. Although this is an efficient high-throughput short-term screening system, much remains to be discovered about JH-responsive pathways in the ovary, and whether different JH-activators act via the same mechanism. JH-responsive genes in the ovary including developing oocytes are still largely undescribed. Here, we conducted comparative microarray analyses using ovaries from Daphnia magna treated with fenoxycarb (Fx; artificial JH agonist) or methyl farnesoate (MF; a putative innate JH in daphnids) to elucidate responses to JH agonists in the ovary, including developing oocytes, at a JH-sensitive period for male sex determination. We demonstrate that induction of hemoglobin genes is a well-conserved response to JH even in the ovary, and a potential adverse effect of JH agonist is suppression of vitellogenin gene expression, that might cause reduction of offspring number. This is the first report demonstrating different transcriptomics profiles from MF and an artificial JH agonist in D. magna ovary, improving understanding the tissue-specific mode-of-action of JH. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Aromatic hexamerin subunit from adult female cockroaches (Blaberus discoidalis) : Molecular cloning, suppression by juvenile hormone, and evolutionary perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamroz, RC; Beintema, JJ; Stam, WT; Bradfield, JY

    1996-01-01

    In an effort to identify several polypeptides that are strongly suppressed by juvenile hormone (JH) in fat body of adult female Blaberus discoidalis cockroaches, we have cloned a cDNA representing a polypeptide member of the hexamerin family of arthropod serum proteins. The deduced primary translati

  15. Control of larval and egg development in Aedes aegypti with Ribonucleic acid interference (RNAi) against juvenile hormone acid methyl transferase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribonucleic acid interference (RNAi) is a powerful approach for elucidating gene functions in a variety of organisms, including mosquitoes and many other insects. Little has been done, however, to harness this approach in order to control adult and larval mosquitoes. Juvenile hormone (JH) plays a pi...

  16. A quantitative assay for the juvenile hormones and their precursors using fluorescent tags.

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    Crisalejandra Rivera-Perez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The juvenile hormones (JHs are sesquiterpenoid compounds that play a central role in insect reproduction, development and behavior. The lipophilic nature of JHs and their precursors, in conjunction with their low concentration in tissues and susceptibility to degradation had made their quantification difficult. A variety of methods exist for JH quantification but few can quantify on the femtomole range. Currently applied methods are expensive and time consuming. In the present study we sought to develop a novel method for accurate detection and quantification of JHs and their precursors. METHODS: A sensitive and robust method was developed to quantify the precursor, farnesoic acid (FA and juvenile hormone III (JH III in biological samples. The assay is based on the derivatization of analytes with fluorescent tags, with subsequent analysis by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography coupled to a fluorescent detector (HPLC-FD. The carboxyl group of FA was derivatized with 4-Acetamido-7-mercapto-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole (AABD-SH. Tagging the epoxide group of JH III required a two-step reaction: the opening of the epoxide ring with sodium sulfide and derivatization with the fluorescent tag 4-(N,N-Dimethylaminosulfonyl-7-(N-chloroformylmethyl-N-methylamino-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole (DBD-COCl. CONCLUSIONS: The method developed in the present study showed high sensitivity, accuracy and reproducibility. Linear responses were obtained over the range of 10-20 to 1000 fmols. Recovery efficiencies were over 90% for JH III and 98% for FA with excellent reproducibility. SIGNIFICANCE: The proposed method is applicable when sensitive detection and accurate quantification of limited amount of sample is needed. Examples include corpora allata, hemolymph and whole body of female adult Aedes aegypti and whole body Drosophila melanogaster. A variety of additional functional groups can be targeted to add fluorescent tags to the remaining JH III

  17. Characterization of an Isopentenyl Diphosphate Isomerase involved in the Juvenile Hormone pathway in Aedes aegypti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Miguel; Mayoral, Jaime G.; Priestap, Horacio; Nouzova, Marcela; Rivera-Perez, Crisalejandra; Noriega, Fernando G.

    2012-01-01

    Isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase (IPPI) is an enzyme involved in the synthesis of juvenile hormone (JH) in the corpora allata (CA) of insects. IPPI catalyzes the conversion of isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) to dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP); afterwards IPP and DMAPP condense in a head-to-tail manner to produce geranyl diphosphate (GPP), this head-to-tail condensation can be repeated, by the further reaction of GPP with IPP, yielding the JH precursor farnesyl diphosphate. An IPPI expressed sequence tag (EST) was obtained from an Aedes aegypti corpora-allata + corpora cardiaca library. Its full-length cDNA encodes a 244-aa protein that shows a high degree of similarity with type I IPPIs from other organisms, particularly for those residues that have important roles in catalysis, metal coordination and interaction with the diphosphate moiety of the IPP. Heterologous expression produced a recombinant protein that metabolized IPP into DMAPP; treatment of DMAPP with phosphoric acid produced isoprene, a volatile compound that was measured with an assay based on a solid-phase micro extraction protocol and direct analysis by gas chromatography. A. aegypti IPPI (AaIPPI) required Mg2+ or Mn2+ but not Zn2+ for full activity and it was entirely inhibited by iodoacetamide. Real time PCR experiments showed that AaIPPI is highly expressed in the CA. Changes in AaIPPI mRNA levels in the CA in the pupal and adult female mosquito corresponded well with changes in JH synthesis (Li et al., 2003). This is the first molecular and functional characterization of an isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase involved in the production of juvenile hormone in the CA of an insect. PMID:22782071

  18. Identification of the growth hormone-releasing hormone analogue [Pro1, Val14]-hGHRH with an incomplete C-term amidation in a confiscated product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Simone; Deventer, Koen; Van Eenoo, Peter

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a modified version of the 44 amino acid human growth hormone-releasing hormone (hGHRH(1-44)) containing an N-terminal proline extension, a valine residue in position 14, and a C-terminus amidation (sequence: PYADAIFTNSYRKVVLGQLSARKLLQDIMSRQQGESNQERGARARL-NH2 ) has been identified in a confiscated product by liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). Investigation of the product suggests also an incomplete C-term amidation. Similarly to other hGHRH analogues, available in black markets, this peptide can potentially be used as performance-enhancing drug due to its growth hormone releasing activity and therefore it should be considered as a prohibited substance in sport. Additionally, the presence of partially amidated molecule reveals the poor pharmaceutical quality of the preparation, an aspect which represents a big concern for public health as well.

  19. Evolution of Ecdysis and Metamorphosis in Arthropods: The Rise of Regulation of Juvenile Hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Sam P S; Huang, Juan; Bendena, William G; Tobe, Stephen S; Hui, Jerome H L

    2015-11-01

    Arthropods are the most successful group of animals, and are found in diverse habitats; they account for more than 80% of described animal species. A rigid exoskeleton is a common feature that is shared across the different groups of arthropods. The exoskeleton offers protection and is shed between developmental stages via a unique evolutionarily conserved process known as molting/ecdysis. Molting is triggered by steroid hormones, the ecdysteroids, and the regulation of their biosynthesis has long been proposed as a contributor to the success of arthropods during evolution. Nevertheless, how novelties arose that contributed to the diversifications of arthropods remain unclear. Juvenile hormones (JHs) are sequiterpenoids that were thought to be unique to insects, modulating the timing of metamorphosis in conjunction with the actions of ecdysteroids. Here, we revisit the old question of "the role that the sesquiterpenoids play in arthropod evolution" with a focus on the neglected non-insect arthropods. We hypothesize that the sesquiterpenoid, methyl farnesoate (MF), had already established regulatory functions in the last common ancestor of arthropods, and the difference in the regulation of biosynthesis and degradation of sesquiterpenoids, such as MF and JH, was another major driving force in the successful radiation of insects. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Autonomous regulation of the insect gut by circadian genes acting downstream of juvenile hormone signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajgar, Adam; Jindra, Marek; Dolezel, David

    2013-03-12

    In temperate regions, the shortening day length informs many insect species to prepare for winter by inducing diapause. The adult diapause of the linden bug, Pyrrhocoris apterus, involves a reproductive arrest accompanied by energy storage, reduction of metabolic needs, and preparation to withstand low temperatures. By contrast, nondiapause animals direct nutrient energy to muscle activity and reproduction. The photoperiod-dependent switch from diapause to reproduction is systemically transmitted throughout the organism by juvenile hormone (JH). Here, we show that, at the organ-autonomous level of the insect gut, the decision between reproduction and diapause relies on an interaction between JH signaling and circadian clock genes acting independently of the daily cycle. The JH receptor Methoprene-tolerant and the circadian proteins Clock and Cycle are all required in the gut to activate the Par domain protein 1 gene during reproduction and to simultaneously suppress a mammalian-type cryptochrome 2 gene that promotes the diapause program. A nonperiodic, organ-autonomous feedback between Par domain protein 1 and Cryptochrome 2 then orchestrates expression of downstream genes that mark the diapause vs. reproductive states of the gut. These results show that hormonal signaling through Methoprene-tolerant and circadian proteins controls gut-specific gene activity that is independent of circadian oscillations but differs between reproductive and diapausing animals.

  1. Juvenile hormone regulation of female reproduction in the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gujar, Hemant; Palli, Subba Reddy

    2016-01-01

    To begin studies on reproduction in common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, we identified three genes coding for vitellogenin (Vg, a protein required for the reproductive success of insects) and studied their hormonal regulation. RNA interference studied showed that expression of Vg3 gene in the adult females is a prerequisite for successful completion of embryogenesis in the eggs laid by them. Juvenile hormone (JH) receptor, Methoprene-tolerant (Met), steroid receptor coactivator (SRC) and GATAa but not ecdysone receptor (EcR) or its partner, ultraspiracle (USP) are required for expression of Vg genes. Feeding and mating working through Vg, Met, SRC, EcR, and GATAa regulate oocyte development. Knockdown of the expression of Met, SRC, EcR, USP, BR-C (Broad-Complex), TOR (target of rapamycin), and GATAa in female adults resulted in a reduction in the number eggs laid by them. Interestingly, Kruppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1) knockdown in the adult females did not reduce their fecundity but affected the development of embryos in the eggs laid by females injected with Kr-h1 double-stranded RNA. These data suggest that JH functioning through Met and SRC regulate both vitellogenesis and oogenesis in C. lectularius. However, JH does not work through Kr-h1 but may work through transcription factors not yet identified. PMID:27762340

  2. Argonaute 1 is indispensable for juvenile hormone mediated oogenesis in the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jiasheng; Guo, Wei; Jiang, Feng; Kang, Le; Zhou, Shutang

    2013-09-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) is the primary hormone controlling vitellogenesis and oocyte maturation in the migratory locust Locusta migratoria, an evolutionarily primitive insect species with panoistic ovaries. However, molecular mechanisms of locust oogenesis remain unclear and the role of microRNA (miRNA) in JH mediated locust vitellogenesis and oocyte maturation has not been explored. Using miRNA sequencing and quantification with small RNA libraries derived from fat bodies of JH-deprived versus JH analog-exposed female adult locusts, we have identified 83 JH up-regulated and 60 JH down-regulated miRNAs. QRT-PCR validation has confirmed that transcription of selected miRNAs responded to JH administration and correlated with changes in endogenous hemolymph JH titers. Depletion of Argonaute 1 (Ago1), a key regulator of miRNA biogenesis and function by RNAi in female adult locusts dramatically decreased the expression of vitellogenin (Vg) and severely impaired follicular epithelium development, terminal oocyte maturation and ovarian growth. Our data indicate that Ago1 and Ago1-dependent miRNAs play a crucial role in locust vitellogenesis and egg production.

  3. Molecular determinants of juvenile hormone action as revealed by 3D QSAR analysis in Drosophila.

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    Denisa Liszeková

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Postembryonic development, including metamorphosis, of many animals is under control of hormones. In Drosophila and other insects these developmental transitions are regulated by the coordinate action of two principal hormones, the steroid ecdysone and the sesquiterpenoid juvenile hormone (JH. While the mode of ecdysone action is relatively well understood, the molecular mode of JH action remains elusive. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To gain more insights into the molecular mechanism of JH action, we have tested the biological activity of 86 structurally diverse JH agonists in Drosophila melanogaster. The results were evaluated using 3D QSAR analyses involving CoMFA and CoMSIA procedures. Using this approach we have generated both computer-aided and species-specific pharmacophore fingerprints of JH and its agonists, which revealed that the most active compounds must possess an electronegative atom (oxygen or nitrogen at both ends of the molecule. When either of these electronegative atoms are replaced by carbon or the distance between them is shorter than 11.5 A or longer than 13.5 A, their biological activity is dramatically decreased. The presence of an electron-deficient moiety in the middle of the JH agonist is also essential for high activity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The information from 3D QSAR provides guidelines and mechanistic scope for identification of steric and electrostatic properties as well as donor and acceptor hydrogen-bonding that are important features of the ligand-binding cavity of a JH target protein. In order to refine the pharmacophore analysis and evaluate the outcomes of the CoMFA and CoMSIA study we used pseudoreceptor modeling software PrGen to generate a putative binding site surrogate that is composed of eight amino acid residues corresponding to the defined molecular interactions.

  4. Precocious metamorphosis in the juvenile hormone-deficient mutant of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

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    Takaaki Daimon

    Full Text Available Insect molting and metamorphosis are intricately governed by two hormones, ecdysteroids and juvenile hormones (JHs. JHs prevent precocious metamorphosis and allow the larva to undergo multiple rounds of molting until it attains the proper size for metamorphosis. In the silkworm, Bombyx mori, several "moltinism" mutations have been identified that exhibit variations in the number of larval molts; however, none of them have been characterized molecularly. Here we report the identification and characterization of the gene responsible for the dimolting (mod mutant that undergoes precocious metamorphosis with fewer larval-larval molts. We show that the mod mutation results in complete loss of JHs in the larval hemolymph and that the mutant phenotype can be rescued by topical application of a JH analog. We performed positional cloning of mod and found a null mutation in the cytochrome P450 gene CYP15C1 in the mod allele. We also demonstrated that CYP15C1 is specifically expressed in the corpus allatum, an endocrine organ that synthesizes and secretes JHs. Furthermore, a biochemical experiment showed that CYP15C1 epoxidizes farnesoic acid to JH acid in a highly stereospecific manner. Precocious metamorphosis of mod larvae was rescued when the wild-type allele of CYP15C1 was expressed in transgenic mod larvae using the GAL4/UAS system. Our data therefore reveal that CYP15C1 is the gene responsible for the mod mutation and is essential for JH biosynthesis. Remarkably, precocious larval-pupal transition in mod larvae does not occur in the first or second instar, suggesting that authentic epoxidized JHs are not essential in very young larvae of B. mori. Our identification of a JH-deficient mutant in this model insect will lead to a greater understanding of the molecular basis of the hormonal control of development and metamorphosis.

  5. Efficacy of native and hyperglycosylated follicle stimulating hormone analogues for promoting fertility in female mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trousdale, Rhonda K.; Yu, Bo; Pollak, Susan V.; Husami, Nabil; Vidali, Andrea; Lustbader, Joyce W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To compare the efficacy of recombinant human follicle stimulating hormone (rhFSH), to rhFSH with 4 additional O-linked carbohydrates (rhFSH-CTP), rhFSH with 4 additional N-linked carbohydrates (rhFSH-N4) and the current gold-standard for rodent ovarian stimulation, pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG), on fertility parameters in mice. Design Animal Study Setting Academic Research Center Subjects Adult C57Bl/6J female mice Interventions Ovarian stimulation with 5IUof rhFSH, rhFSH-CTP, rhFSH-N4 or PMSG. 46 hours later 5IU of hCG was injected to promote ovulation then females were mated overnight. Main Outcome Measures Eggs retrieved following ovulation, in vitro embryo development, delivery rate, litter size Results Hyperglycosylated FSH analogues, rhFSH-CTP and rhFSH-N4, enhanced egg ovulation and embryo maturation significantly better than rhFSH. RhFSH-N4 produced more eggs (28.5±1.9 per mouse) and embryos (17.8±1.6) compared to rhFSH-CTP (18.3±1.2 and 9.0±1.0, respectively). Treatment with rhFSH, rhFSH-N4 and PMSG produced statistically equivalent delivery rates and litter sizes. The delivery rate was surprisingly lower with rhFSH-CTP (14%) compared to PMSG (33%). Conclusions Compared to rhFSH, treatment with hyperglycosylated rhFSH-CTP and rhFSH-N4 led to superior rates of ovulated eggs and subsequent in vitro embryo development. RhFSH-N4 was equivalent to PMSG while rhFSH-CTP was significantly lower than PMSG therapy for all fertility parameters studied. PMID:18249396

  6. Common and distinct roles of juvenile hormone signaling genes in metamorphosis of holometabolous and hemimetabolous insects.

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    Barbora Konopova

    Full Text Available Insect larvae metamorphose to winged and reproductive adults either directly (hemimetaboly or through an intermediary pupal stage (holometaboly. In either case juvenile hormone (JH prevents metamorphosis until a larva has attained an appropriate phase of development. In holometabolous insects, JH acts through its putative receptor Methoprene-tolerant (Met to regulate Krüppel-homolog 1 (Kr-h1 and Broad-Complex (BR-C genes. While Met and Kr-h1 prevent precocious metamorphosis in pre-final larval instars, BR-C specifies the pupal stage. How JH signaling operates in hemimetabolous insects is poorly understood. Here, we compare the function of Met, Kr-h1 and BR-C genes in the two types of insects. Using systemic RNAi in the hemimetabolous true bug, Pyrrhocoris apterus, we show that Met conveys the JH signal to prevent premature metamorphosis by maintaining high expression of Kr-h1. Knockdown of either Met or Kr-h1 (but not of BR-C in penultimate-instar Pyrrhocoris larvae causes precocious development of adult color pattern, wings and genitalia. A natural fall of Kr-h1 expression in the last larval instar normally permits adult development, and treatment with an exogenous JH mimic methoprene at this time requires both Met and Kr-h1 to block the adult program and induce an extra larval instar. Met and Kr-h1 therefore serve as JH-dependent repressors of deleterious precocious metamorphic changes in both hemimetabolous and holometabolous juveniles, whereas BR-C has been recruited for a new role in specifying the holometabolous pupa. These results show that despite considerable evolutionary distance, insects with diverse developmental strategies employ a common-core JH signaling pathway to commit to adult morphogenesis.

  7. Common and distinct roles of juvenile hormone signaling genes in metamorphosis of holometabolous and hemimetabolous insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopova, Barbora; Smykal, Vlastimil; Jindra, Marek

    2011-01-01

    Insect larvae metamorphose to winged and reproductive adults either directly (hemimetaboly) or through an intermediary pupal stage (holometaboly). In either case juvenile hormone (JH) prevents metamorphosis until a larva has attained an appropriate phase of development. In holometabolous insects, JH acts through its putative receptor Methoprene-tolerant (Met) to regulate Krüppel-homolog 1 (Kr-h1) and Broad-Complex (BR-C) genes. While Met and Kr-h1 prevent precocious metamorphosis in pre-final larval instars, BR-C specifies the pupal stage. How JH signaling operates in hemimetabolous insects is poorly understood. Here, we compare the function of Met, Kr-h1 and BR-C genes in the two types of insects. Using systemic RNAi in the hemimetabolous true bug, Pyrrhocoris apterus, we show that Met conveys the JH signal to prevent premature metamorphosis by maintaining high expression of Kr-h1. Knockdown of either Met or Kr-h1 (but not of BR-C) in penultimate-instar Pyrrhocoris larvae causes precocious development of adult color pattern, wings and genitalia. A natural fall of Kr-h1 expression in the last larval instar normally permits adult development, and treatment with an exogenous JH mimic methoprene at this time requires both Met and Kr-h1 to block the adult program and induce an extra larval instar. Met and Kr-h1 therefore serve as JH-dependent repressors of deleterious precocious metamorphic changes in both hemimetabolous and holometabolous juveniles, whereas BR-C has been recruited for a new role in specifying the holometabolous pupa. These results show that despite considerable evolutionary distance, insects with diverse developmental strategies employ a common-core JH signaling pathway to commit to adult morphogenesis.

  8. Wolbachia-induced paternal defect in Drosophila is likely by interaction with the juvenile hormone pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chen; Wang, Jia-Lin; Zheng, Ya; Xiong, En-Juan; Li, Jing-Jing; Yuan, Lin-Ling; Yu, Xiao-Qiang; Wang, Yu-Feng

    2014-06-01

    Wolbachia are endosymbionts that infect many insect species. They can manipulate the host's reproduction to increase their own maternal transmission. Cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) is one such manipulation, which is expressed as embryonic lethality when Wolbachia-infected males mate with uninfected females. However, matings between males and females carrying the same Wolbachia strain result in viable progeny. The molecular mechanisms of CI are currently not clear. We have previously reported that the gene Juvenile hormone-inducible protein 26 (JhI-26) exhibited the highest upregulation in the 3rd instar larval testes of Drosophila melanogaster when infected by Wolbachia. This is reminiscent of an interaction between Wolbachia and juvenile hormone (JH) pathway in flies. Considering that Jhamt gene encodes JH acid methyltransferase, a key regulatory enzyme of JH biosynthesis, and that methoprene-tolerant (Met) has been regarded as the best JH receptor candidate, we first compared the expression of Jhamt and Met between Wolbachia-infected and uninfected fly testes to investigate whether Wolbachia infection influence the JH signaling pathway. We found that the expressions of Jhamt and Met were significantly increased in the presence of Wolbachia, suggesting an interaction of Wolbachia with the JH signaling pathway. Then, we found that overexpression of JhI-26 in Wolbachia-free transgenic male flies caused paternal-effect lethality that mimics the defects associated with CI. JhI-26 overexpressing males resulted in significantly decrease in hatch rate. Surprisingly, Wolbachia-infected females could rescue the egg hatch. In addition, we showed that overexpression of JhI-26 caused upregulation of the male accessory gland protein (Acp) gene CG10433, but not vice versa. This result suggests that JhI-26 may function at the upstream of CG10433. Likewise, overexpression of CG10433 also resulted in paternal-effect lethality. Both JhI-26 and CG10433 overexpressing males

  9. Waterborne exposure to microcystin-LR causes thyroid hormone metabolism disturbances in juvenile Chinese rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zidong; Li, Dapeng; Wang, Ying; Guo, Wei; Gao, Yu; Tang, Rong

    2015-09-01

    Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) has the potential to disturb thyroid hormone homeostasis, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms of MC-LR in fish. In the present study, juvenile Chinese rare minnows (Gobiocypris rarus) were exposed to various concentrations of MC-LR (0 µg/L, 50 µg/L, 100 µg/L, and 500 µg/L) for 7 d. The whole-body thyroid hormone content, the histology of thyroid follicle epithelial cells, the activities of hepatic iodothyronine deiodinases, and the transcription of selected genes associated with thyroid hormone synthesis, transport, and metabolism were analyzed. Following exposure to MC-LR, whole-body concentrations of both thyroxine (T4 ) and triiodothyronine (T3 ) were significantly decreased. The levels of messenger RNA for sodium/iodide symporter, transthyretin, thyroid hormone receptor-α, iodothyronine deiodinase2, and iodothyronine deiodinase3 were significantly down-regulated after exposure to 500 µg/L MC-LR. A significant decrease in ID2 activity was also observed in the 500-µg/L MC-LR exposure group. Moreover, hypertrophy of thyroid follicle epithelial cells was observed after exposure to MC-LR. The results indicate that acute MC-LR exposure has the potential to disturb the homeostasis of thyroid hormone metabolism, leading to a hypothyroidism state in the juvenile Chinese rare minnow.

  10. Human insulin analogues modified at the B26 site reveal a hormone conformation that is undetected in the receptor complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Žáková, Lenka; Kletvíková, Emília; Lepšík, Martin; Collinsová, Michaela [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Flemingovo nám. 2, 166 10 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Watson, Christopher J.; Turkenburg, Johan P. [The University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Jiráček, Jiří [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Flemingovo nám. 2, 166 10 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Brzozowski, Andrzej M., E-mail: marek.brzozowski@york.ac.uk [The University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Flemingovo nám. 2, 166 10 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2014-10-01

    [AsnB26]- and [GlyB26]-insulin mutants attain a B26-turn like fold without assistance of chemical modifications. Their structures match the insulin receptor interface and expand the spectrum of insulin conformations. The structural characterization of the insulin–insulin receptor (IR) interaction still lacks the conformation of the crucial B21–B30 insulin region, which must be different from that in its storage forms to ensure effective receptor binding. Here, it is shown that insulin analogues modified by natural amino acids at the TyrB26 site can represent an active form of this hormone. In particular, [AsnB26]-insulin and [GlyB26]-insulin attain a B26-turn-like conformation that differs from that in all known structures of the native hormone. It also matches the receptor interface, avoiding substantial steric clashes. This indicates that insulin may attain a B26-turn-like conformation upon IR binding. Moreover, there is an unexpected, but significant, binding specificity of the AsnB26 mutant for predominantly the metabolic B isoform of the receptor. As it is correlated with the B26 bend of the B-chain of the hormone, the structures of AsnB26 analogues may provide the first structural insight into the structural origins of differential insulin signalling through insulin receptor A and B isoforms.

  11. Hormone profile in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus with previous or current amenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Clovis A; Deen, Maria E J; Febrônio, Marilia V; Oliveira, Sheila K; Terreri, Maria T; Sacchetti, Silvana B; Sztajnbok, Flavio R; Marini, Roberto; Quintero, Maria V; Bica, Blanca E; Pereira, Rosa M; Bonfá, Eloisa; Ferriani, Virginia P; Robazzi, Teresa C; Magalhães, Claudia S; Hilário, Maria O

    2011-08-01

    To identify the underlying mechanism of amenorrhea in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE) patients, thirty-five (11.7%) JSLE patients with current or previous amenorrhea were consecutively selected among the 298 post-menarche patients followed in 12 Brazilian pediatric rheumatology centers. Pituitary gonadotrophins [follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH)] and estradiol were evaluated in 32/35 patients, and prolactin and total testosterone in 29/35 patients. Patient's medical records were carefully reviewed according to demographic, clinical and therapeutic findings. The mean duration of amenorrhea was 7.2 ± 3.6 months. Low FSH or LH was observed in 7/32 (22%) JSLE patients and normal FSH or LH in 25 (78%). Remarkably, low levels of FSH or LH were associated with higher frequency of current amenorrhea (57% vs. 0%, P = 0.001), higher median disease activity (SLEDAI) and damage (SLICC/ACR-DI) (18 vs. 4, P = 0.011; 2 vs. 0, P = 0.037, respectively) and higher median current dose of prednisone (60 vs. 10 mg/day, P = 0.0001) compared to normal FSH or LH JSLE patients. None of them had decreased ovarian reserve and premature ovarian failure. Six of 29 (21%) patients had high levels of prolactin, and none had current amenorrhea. No correlations were observed between levels of prolactin and SLEDAI, and levels of prolactin and SLICC/ACR-DI scores (Spearman's coefficient). We have identified that amenorrhea in JSLE is associated with high dose of corticosteroids indicated for active disease due to hypothalamic-pituitary-ovary axis suppression.

  12. Ecdysteroids and juvenile hormones of whiteflies, important insect vectors for plant viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelman, Dale B; Pszczolkowski, Maciej A; Blackburn, Michael B; Ramaswamy, Sonny B

    2007-03-01

    Ecdysteroids and juvenile hormones (JHs) regulate many physiological events throughout the insect life cycle, including molting, metamorphosis, ecdysis, diapause, reproduction, and behavior. Fluctuation of whitefly ecdysteroid levels and the identity of the whitefly molting hormone (20-hydroxyecdysone) have only been reported within the last few years. An ecdysteroid commitment peak that is associated with the reprogramming of tissues for a metamorphic molt in many holometabolous and some hemimetabolous insect species was not observed in last nymphal instars of either the sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Biotype B), or the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum. Ecdysteroids reach peak levels 1-2 days prior to the initiation of the nymphal-adult metamorphic molt. Adult eye and wing differentiation which signal the onset of this molt begin earlier in 4th instar T. vaporariorum (Stages 4 and 5, respectively) than in B. tabaci (Stage 6), and the premolt peak is 3-4 times greater in B. tabaci ( approximately 400 fg/microg protein) than in T. vaporariorum ( approximately 120 fg/microg protein). The JH of B. tabaci nymphs and eggs was found to be JH III, supporting the view that JHs I and II are, with rare exception, only present in lepidopteran insects. In B. tabaci eggs, JH levels were approximately 10 times greater on day 2/3 (0.44 fg/egg or 0.54 ng/g) than on day 5 (0.04 fg/egg or 0.054 ng/g) post-oviposition. Approximately, 1.4 fg/2nd-3rd instar nymph (0.36 ng/g) was detected. It is probable that the relatively high level of JH in day 2/3 eggs is associated with the differentiation of various whitefly tissues during embryonic development.

  13. Effects of juvenile hormone and ecdysone on the timing of vitellogenin appearance in hemolymph of queen and worker pupae of Apis mellifera

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    Angel Roberto Barchuk

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The caste-specific regulation of vitellogenin synthesis in the honeybee represents a problem with many yet unresolved details. We carried out experiments to determine when levels of vitellogenin are first detected in hemolymph of female castes of Apis mellifera, and whether juvenile hormone and ecdysteroids modulate this process. Vitellogenin levels were measured in hemolymph using immunological techniques. We show that in both castes the appearance of vitellogenin in the hemolymph occurs during the pupal period, but the timing was different in the queen and worker. Vitellogenin appears in queens during an early phase of cuticle pigmentation approximately 60h before eclosion, while in workers the appearance of vitellogenin is more delayed, initiating in the pharate adult stage, approximately 10h before eclosion. The timing of vitellogenin appearance in both castes coincides with a slight increase in endogenous levels of juvenile hormone that occurs at the end of pupal development. The correlation between these events was corroborated by topical application of juvenile hormone. Exogenous juvenile hormone advanced the timing of vitellogenin appearance in both castes, but caste-specific differences in timing were maintained. Injection of actinomycin D prevented the response to juvenile hormone. In contrast, queen and worker pupae that were treated with ecdysone showed a delay in the appearance of vitellogenin. These data suggest that queens and workers share a common control mechanism for the timing of vitellogenin synthesis, involving an increase in juvenile hormone titers in the presence of low levels of ecdysteroids.

  14. Neuropeptides affecting the transfer of juvenile hormones from males to females during mating in Spodoptera frugiperda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanien, Intisar T E; Grötzner, Manuela; Meyering-Vos, Martina; Hoffmann, Klaus H

    2014-07-01

    In the polyandric moth, Spodopterafrugiperda, juvenile hormone (JH) is transferred from the male accessory reproductive glands (AG) to the female bursa copulatrix (BC) during copulation (see Hassanien et al., 2014). Here we used the RNA interference technique to study the role of allatoregulating neuropeptides in controlling the synthesis and transfer of JH during mating. Knockdown of S. frugiperda allatostatin C (Spofr-AS type C) in freshly emerged males leads to an accumulation of JH in the AG beyond that in the control and mating results in a higher transport of JH I and JH II into the female BC. Knockdown of S. frugiperda allatotropin 2 (Spofr-AT2) significantly reduces the amount of JH in the AG as well as its transfer into the female BC during copulation. Knockdown of S. frugiperda allatostatin A (Spofr-AS type A) and S. frugiperda allatotropin (Spofr-AT; Hassanien et al., 2014) only slightly affects the accumulation of JH in the AG and its transfer from the male to the female. We conclude that Spofr-AS type C and Spofr-AT2 act as true allatostatin and true allatotropin, respectively, on the synthesis of JH I and JH II in the male AG. Moreover, both peptides seem to control the synthesis of JH III in the corpora allata of adult males and its release into the hemolymph.

  15. Fast, ultra-trace detection of juvenile hormone III from mosquitoes using mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Cesar E; Nouzova, Marcela; Benigni, Paolo; Quirke, J Martin E; Noriega, Fernando G; Fernandez-Lima, Francisco

    2016-10-01

    In the present work, a new protocol for fast separation and quantification of JH III from biological samples using liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray tandem mass spectrometry is described. In particular, the proposed protocol improves existing methodologies by combining a limited number of sample preparation steps with fast LC-MS/MS detection, providing lower limits of detection and demonstrated matrix effect control, together with high inter and intraday reproducibility. A limit of detection of 8pg/mL (0.32pg on column) was achieved, representing a 15-fold gain in sensitivity with respect to previous LC-MS based protocols. The performance of the LC-MS/MS protocol is comparable to previously described JH III quantitation protocol based on fluorescence detection, with the added advantage that quantification is independent of the availability of fluorescent tags that are often unavailable or show quite diverse responses on a batch-to-batch basis. Additionally, a detailed description of the JH III fragmentation pathway is provided for the first time, based on isolation of the molecular ion and their intermediate fragments using in-source MS/MS, MS/MS(n) and FT-ICR MS/MS measurements. The JH III workflow was evaluated as a function of developmental changes, sugar feeding and farnesoic acid stimulation in mosquitoes and can be applied to the detection of other juvenile hormones.

  16. Behavioral Deficits in Juveniles Mediated by Maternal Stress Hormones in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Maguire

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maternal depression has been shown to negatively impact offspring development. Investigation into the impact of maternal depression and offspring behavior has relied on correlative studies in humans. Further investigation into the underlying mechanisms has been hindered by the lack of useful animal models. We previously characterized a mouse model which exhibits depression-like behaviors restricted to the postpartum period and abnormal/fragmented maternal care (Gabrd−/− mice. Here we utilized this unique mouse model to investigate the mechanism(s through which maternal depression-like behaviors adversely impact offspring development. Cross-fostering experiments reveal increased anxiety-like and depression-like behaviors in mice reared by Gabrd−/− mothers. Wild type and Gabrd−/− mice subjected to unpredictable stress during late pregnancy exhibit decreased pup survival and depression-like behavior in the postpartum period. Exogenous corticosterone treatment in wild type mice during late pregnancy is sufficient to decrease pup survival and induce anxiety-like and depression-like behaviors in the offspring. Further, the abnormal behaviors in juvenile mice reared by Gabrd−/− mice are alleviated by treatment of the mothers with the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH antagonist, Antalarmin. These studies suggest that hyperresponsiveness of the HPA axis is associated with postpartum depression and may mediate the adverse effects of maternal depression on offspring behavior.

  17. Role of juvenile hormone and allatotropin on nutrient allocation, ovarian development and survivorship in mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Martínez, Salvador; Mayoral, Jaime G; Li, Yiping; Noriega, Fernando G

    2007-03-01

    Teneral reserves are utilized to initiate previtellogenic ovarian development in mosquitoes. Females having emerged with low teneral reserves have reduced juvenile hormone (JH) synthesis and previtellogenic development. We investigated what role JH, allatotropin (AT) and other head-factors play in the regulation of previtellogenic ovarian development and adult survivorship. Factors from the head are essential for corpora allata (CA) activation and reproductive maturation. We have shown that decapitation of females within 9-12h after adult ecdysis prevented normal development of the previtellogenic follicles; however maximum previtellogenic ovarian development could be induced in decapitated females by topically applying a JH analog. When females were decapitated 12 or more hours after emergence nutritional resources had been committed to ovarian development and survivorship was significantly reduced. To study if allatotropin levels correlated with teneral reserves, we measured AT titers in the heads of two adult phenotypes (large and small females) generated by raising larvae under different nutritional diets. In large mosquitoes AT levels increased to a maximum of 45 fmol in day 4; in contrast, the levels of allatotropin in the heads of small mosquitoes remained below 9 fmol during the 7 days evaluated. These results suggest that only when nutrients are appropriate, factors released from the brain induce the CA to synthesize enough JH to activate reproductive maturation.

  18. Homeodomain Protein Scr Regulates the Transcription of Genes Involved in Juvenile Hormone Biosynthesis in the Silkworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Meng; Liu, Chun; Peng, Jian; Qian, Wenliang; Qian, Heying; Tian, Ling; Li, Jiarui; Dai, Dandan; Xu, Anying; Li, Sheng; Xia, Qingyou; Cheng, Daojun

    2015-11-02

    The silkworm Dominant trimolting (Moltinism, M³) mutant undergoes three larval molts and exhibits precocious metamorphosis. In this study, we found that compared with the wild-type (WT) that undergoes four larval molts, both the juvenile hormone (JH) concentration and the expression of the JH-responsive gene Krüppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1) began to be greater in the second instar of the M³ mutant. A positional cloning analysis revealed that only the homeodomain transcription factor gene Sex combs reduced (Scr) is located in the genomic region that is tightly linked to the M³ locus. The expression level of the Scr gene in the brain-corpora cardiaca-corpora allata (Br-CC-CA) complex, which controls the synthesis of JH, was very low in the final larval instar of both the M³ and WT larvae, and exhibited a positive correlation with JH titer changes. Importantly, luciferase reporter analysis and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) demonstrated that the Scr protein could promote the transcription of genes involved in JH biosynthesis by directly binding to the cis-regulatory elements (CREs) of homeodomain protein on their promoters. These results conclude that the homeodomain protein Scr is transcriptionally involved in the regulation of JH biosynthesis in the silkworm.

  19. Effects of juvenile hormone analogs and 20-hydroxyecdysone on diapause termination in eggs of Locusta migratoria and Oxya yezoensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidokoro, Kurako; Iwata, Ken-Ichi; Fujiwara, Yoshihiro; Takeda, Makio

    2006-05-01

    To understand the hormonal control of embryonic diapause, juvenile hormone analogs (JHAs), methoprene and hydroprene, and 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) were applied onto diapause eggs of Locusta migratoria and Oxya yezoensis. These insects enter diapause at the mid-stage of embryogenesis prior to blastokinesis. Topical application of JHAs significantly facilitated diapause termination in both species but JHA-treated embryos underwent abnormal morphogenesis, pigmentation and sclerotization without dorsal closure. The Locusta eggs immersed in the 20E solution for 24h terminated diapause in a dose-dependent manner. We also investigated phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), a member of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), during diapause-terminating process of Locusta migratoria and found that ERK was activated either by cold exposure or JHA treatment. The possible involvement of the hormones and ERK in embryonic diapause and the possibility of ecdysteroids synthesis by prothoracic glands of diapause embryo were proposed.

  20. Predicting the effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue treatment on uterine leiomyomas based on MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuno, Y.; Yamashita, Y.; Takahashi, M. [Dept. of Radiology, Kumamoto Univ. School of Medicine, Kumamoto (Japan); Katabuchi, H.; Okamura, H. [Dept. of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Kumamoto Univ. School of Medicine, Kumamoto (Japan); Kitano, Y.; Shimamura, T. [Dept. of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Amakusa Chuou General Hospital, Hondo (Japan)

    1999-11-01

    Purpose: To test the hypothesis that the simple assessment of signal intensity on T2-weighted MR images is predictive of the effect of hormonal treatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue. Material and methods: The correlation between T2-weighted MR imaging of uterine leiomyomas and histologic findings was evaluated using 85 leiomyomas from 62 females who underwent myomectomy or hysterectomy. We also correlated the pretreatment MR images features obtained in 110 women with 143 leiomyomas with the effect of GnRH analogue treatment. The size (length x width x depth) of the leiomyoma was evaluated before and at 6 months after treatment by ultrasound. Results: The proportion of leiomyoma cell fascicles and that of extracellular matrix affected signal intensities of uterine leiomyomas on T2-weighted MR images. The amount of extracellular matrix was predominant in hypointense leiomyomas on T2-weighted images, while diffuse intermediate signal leiomyomas were predominantly composed of leiomyoma cell fascicles. Marked degenerative changes were noted in leiomyomas with heterogenous hyperintensity. The homogeneously intermediate signal intensity leiomyomas showed significant size reduction after treatment (size ratio; posttreatment volume/pretreatment volume 0.29{+-}0.11). The size ratio for the hypointense tumors was 0.82{+-}0.14, and 0.82{+-}0.18 for the heterogeneously hyperintense tumors. There was a significant difference in the response to treatment between the homogeneously intermediate signal intensity leiomyomas and the hypointense or heterogeneously hyperintense leiomyomas (both p<0.01). Conclusion: Signal intensity on T2-weighted MR images depends on the amount of leiomyoma cell fascicles and extracellular matrix. Simple assessment of the MR signal intensity is useful in predicting the effect of GnRH analogue on uterine leiomyomas. (orig.)

  1. TGF-β signaling in insects regulates metamorphosis via juvenile hormone biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimaru, Yoshiyasu; Tomonari, Sayuri; Matsuoka, Yuji; Watanabe, Takahito; Miyawaki, Katsuyuki; Bando, Tetsuya; Tomioka, Kenji; Ohuchi, Hideyo; Noji, Sumihare; Mito, Taro

    2016-05-17

    Although butterflies undergo a dramatic morphological transformation from larva to adult via a pupal stage (holometamorphosis), crickets undergo a metamorphosis from nymph to adult without formation of a pupa (hemimetamorphosis). Despite these differences, both processes are regulated by common mechanisms that involve 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and juvenile hormone (JH). JH regulates many aspects of insect physiology, such as development, reproduction, diapause, and metamorphosis. Consequently, strict regulation of JH levels is crucial throughout an insect's life cycle. However, it remains unclear how JH synthesis is regulated. Here, we report that in the corpora allata of the cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus, Myoglianin (Gb'Myo), a homolog of Drosophila Myoglianin/vertebrate GDF8/11, is involved in the down-regulation of JH production by suppressing the expression of a gene encoding JH acid O-methyltransferase, Gb'jhamt In contrast, JH production is up-regulated by Decapentaplegic (Gb'Dpp) and Glass-bottom boat/60A (Gb'Gbb) signaling that occurs as part of the transcriptional activation of Gb'jhamt Gb'Myo defines the nature of each developmental transition by regulating JH titer and the interactions between JH and 20E. When Gb'myo expression is suppressed, the activation of Gb'jhamt expression and secretion of 20E induce molting, thereby leading to the next instar before the last nymphal instar. Conversely, high Gb'myo expression induces metamorphosis during the last nymphal instar through the cessation of JH synthesis. Gb'myo also regulates final insect size. Because Myo/GDF8/11 and Dpp/bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)2/4-Gbb/BMP5-8 are conserved in both invertebrates and vertebrates, the present findings provide common regulatory mechanisms for endocrine control of animal development.

  2. Programmed cell death of larval tissues induced by juvenile hormone in the bamboo borer, Omphisa fuscidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaboon, Manaporn; Yasanga, Tippawan; Sakurai, Sho; Singtripop, Tippawan

    2012-09-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) plays a critical role during animal development through the destruction of unneeded cells and tissues. In some insects, the prothoracic glands (PGs) and anterior silk glands (ASGs) are larval-specific tissues that are normally eliminated by PCD after pupation. Previous studies report that juvenile hormone analog (JHA) terminates the larval diapause of Omphisa fuscidentalis by increasing the hemolymph ecdysteroids that trigger PCD. Because JHA may indirectly induce the PCD of the PGs and ASGs of Omphisa diapausing larvae, the effects of JHA on the induction of PCD were determined. The application of 1μg JHA induced PCD in the PGs and ASGs of larvae identified as stage G0 (prior to pupation). The injection of 1μg 20E triggered the PCD of the ASGs when the larvae expressed a G0-G1 morphology, whereas PCD occurred in the PGs on day 1 post-injection. Histological studies revealed similar patterns of morphological changes during the PG and ASG PCD in the JHA- and 20E-treated larvae. Furthermore, to confirm that PCD was induced by a high ecdysteroid level that increases after JHA application, the expression profiles of EcR-A and EcR-B1 in the PGs and ASGs from the JHA-treated larvae were examined, and the results showed that the expression levels of EcR-A and EcR-B1 mRNA increased during the G0 stage. These results suggest that JHA may be involved in PCD by increasing the ecdysteroid titer, leading to termination of the larval diapause period in Omphisa fuscidentalis.

  3. Juvenile hormone signaling during reproduction and development of the linden bug, Pyrrhocoris apterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smykal, Vlastimil; Bajgar, Adam; Provaznik, Jan; Fexova, Silvie; Buricova, Marcela; Takaki, Keiko; Hodkova, Magdalena; Jindra, Marek; Dolezel, David

    2014-02-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH), a sesquiterpenoid produced by the insect corpus allatum gland (CA), prevents metamorphosis in larvae and stimulates vitellogenesis in adult females. Whether the same JH signaling pathway regulates both processes is presently unknown. Here, we employ the robust JH response during reproduction and development of the linden bug, Pyrrhocoris apterus, to compare the function of key JH-signaling genes encoding the JH receptor, Methoprene-tolerant (Met), its binding partner Taiman (Tai), and a JH-inducible protein, Krüppel-homolog 1 (Kr-h1). RNA interference (RNAi) with Met or Tai, but not Kr-h1, blocked ovarian development and suppressed vitellogenin gene expression in the fat body of females raised under reproduction-inducing conditions. Loss of Met and Tai matched the effects of CA ablation or the natural absence of JH during reproductive diapause. Stimulation of vitellogenesis by treatment of diapausing females with a JH mimic methoprene also required both Met and Tai in the fat body, whereas Kr-h1 RNAi had no effect. Therefore, the Met-Tai complex likely functions as a JH receptor during vitellogenesis. In contrast to Met and Kr-h1 that are both required for JH to prevent precocious metamorphosis in P. apterus larvae, removal of Tai disrupted larval ecdysis without causing premature adult development. Our results show that while Met operates during metamorphosis in larvae and reproduction in adult females, its partner Tai is only required for the latter. The diverse functions of JH thus likely rely on a common receptor whose actions are modulated by distinct components.

  4. A cytochrome P450 terpenoid hydroxylase linked to the suppression of insect juvenile hormone synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, T D; Unnithan, G C; Andersen, J F; Evans, P H; Murataliev, M B; Szabo, L Z; Mash, E A; Bowers, W S; Feyereisen, R

    1998-10-27

    A cDNA encoding a cytochrome P450 enzyme was isolated from a cDNA library of the corpora allata (CA) from reproductively active Diploptera punctata cockroaches. This P450 from the endocrine glands that produce the insect juvenile hormone (JH) is most closely related to P450 proteins of family 4 and was named CYP4C7. The CYP4C7 gene is expressed selectively in the CA; its message could not be detected in the fat body, corpora cardiaca, or brain, but trace levels of expression were found in the midgut and caeca. The levels of CYP4C7 mRNA in the CA, measured by ribonuclease protection assays, were linked to the activity cycle of the glands. In adult females, CYP4C7 expression increased immediately after the peak of JH synthesis, reaching a maximum on day 7, just before oviposition. mRNA levels then declined after oviposition and during pregnancy. The CYP4C7 protein was produced in Escherichia coli as a C-terminal His-tagged recombinant protein. In a reconstituted system with insect NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase, cytochrome b5, and NADPH, the purified CYP4C7 metabolized (2E,6E)-farnesol to a more polar product that was identified by GC-MS and by NMR as (10E)-12-hydroxyfarnesol. CYP4C7 converted JH III to 12-trans-hydroxy JH III and metabolized other JH-like sesquiterpenoids as well. This omega-hydroxylation of sesquiterpenoids appears to be a metabolic pathway in the corpora allata that may play a role in the suppression of JH biosynthesis at the end of the gonotrophic cycle.

  5. Juvenile hormone, reproduction, and worker behavior in the neotropical social wasp Polistes canadensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giray, Tugrul; Giovanetti, Manuela; West-Eberhard, Mary Jane

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies of the division of labor in colonies of eusocial Hymenoptera (wasps and bees) have led to two hypotheses regarding the evolution of juvenile hormone (JH) involvement. The novel- or single-function hypothesis proposes that the role of JH has changed from an exclusively reproductive function in primitively eusocial species (those lacking morphologically distinct queen and worker castes), to an exclusively behavioral function in highly eusocial societies (those containing morphologically distinct castes). In contrast, the split-function hypothesis proposes that JH originally functioned in the regulation of both reproduction and behavior in ancestral solitary species. Then, when reproductive and brood-care tasks came to be divided between queens and workers, the effects of JH were divided as well, with JH involved in regulation of reproductive maturation of egg-laying queens, and behavioral maturation, manifested as age-correlated changes in worker tasks, of workers. We report experiments designed to test these hypotheses. After documenting age-correlated changes in worker behavior (age polyethism) in the neotropical primitively eusocial wasp Polistes canadensis, we demonstrate that experimental application of the JH analog methoprene accelerates the onset of guarding behavior, an age-correlated task, and increases the number of foraging females; and we demonstrate that JH titers correlate with both ovarian development of queens and task differentiation in workers, as predicted by the split-function hypothesis. These findings support a view of social insect evolution that sees the contrasting worker and queen phenotypes as derived via decoupling of reproductive and brood-care components of the ancestral solitary reproductive physiology. PMID:15728373

  6. Effect of a long-acting somatostatin analogue (SMS 201-995 on a growth hormone and thyroid stimulating hormone-producing pituitary tumor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirasawa,Ryoto

    1991-04-01

    Full Text Available A 46-year-old woman with acromegaly and hyperthyroidism due to a pituitary adenoma. She had high serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels and very high serum growth hormone (GH levels. Transsphenoidal removal of the tumor, post-operative irradiation, frontal craniotomy for removal of residual tumor and large-dose bromocriptine therapy were carried out consecutively. After therapy, serum GH levels gradually decreased, but not to the normal range, and serum TSH levels remained at inappropriately normal levels. Using immunoperoxidase techniques, GH-, TSH- and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH-containing cells were demonstrated in the adenoma. A long-acting somatostatin analogue (SMS 201-995, 600 micrograms/day suppressed the serum GH level to the normal range with a concomitant suppression of TSH. Furthermore, the paradoxical serum GH responses to TRH and LH-RH were slightly improved. No important subjective side-effects were noted. Therefore, SMS 201-995 appeared to be a very effective drug in this patient with a GH- and TSH-producing pituitary tumor.

  7. Age-dependent plasticity of sex pheromone response in the moth, Agrotis ipsilon: combined effects of octopamine and juvenile hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarriault, David; Barrozo, Romina B; de Carvalho Pinto, Carlos J

    2009-01-01

    Male moths use sex pheromones to find their mating partners. In the moth, Agrotis ipsilon, the behavioral response and the neuron sensitivity within the primary olfactory centre, the antennal lobe (AL), to sex pheromone increase with age and juvenile hormone (JH) biosynthesis. By manipulating...... the effects of OA and an OA receptor antagonist, mianserin, on behavioral and AL neuron responses of mature and immature males during stimulation with sex pheromone. Our results indicate that, although OA injections enhanced the behavioral pheromone response in mature males, OA had no significant effect...... a behavioral response of A. ipsilon males to sex pheromone....

  8. Cyclic AMP in female mouse brain is altered by the adrenocorticotropic hormone(4-9) analogue organon 2766.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, D R; Felt, B T; Murphy, S; Goldman, H

    1981-09-01

    Cyclic AMP content was determined in 12 brain regions of young adult female mice at 30 min and at 24 h following an intraperitoneal injection of the tri-substituted adrenocorticotropic hormone(4-9) [ACTH(4-9)] analogue Organon 2766 [ORG 2766]. Animals were killed by focused 3.5 kW microwave radiation applied for 350 ms. Unlike previously reported responses in male mice, at 30 min post-injection there were no detectable differences in cyclic AMP content between the placebo and ORG 2766-treated animals. By contrast, 24 h after injection, the content of cyclic AMP was changed significantly in 8 of the 12 brain regions examined: medulla-pons, septal area, thalamus, hypothalamus, hippocampus, olfactory bulb, and parietal and occipital cortices. In most of the regions examined, differences consisted of 50% or greater reductions of tissue cyclic AMP content. The changes were unrelated to the estrus cycle of these animals.

  9. Body image and depression in girls with idiopathic precocious puberty treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Min-Seon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Precocious puberty (PP) is associated with psychological and behavioral problems. This study aimed to evaluate the perception of body image and depression in girls with PP receiving gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue therapy. Methods From March to August 2013, 82 girls with PP receiving GnRH analogue therapy were enrolled. Height, weight, body mass index, and stages of pubertal development were assessed. Participants completed a series of questionnaires on their body image perception and pubertal self-assessment. The depression score was calculated using the Korean Kovacs' Children's Depression Inventory. Results The patients perceived their body to be more obese than the controls did. The mean depression score did not differ between the patients and controls. The mean depression scores according to Tanner stages (1: prepubertal, 2: early pubertal, and 3–5: mid to late pubertal stage) by self-assessment were 5.2±3.6, 6.8±4.9, and 11.4±10.1 (Pperception of overall body build and figure (%) and the mean depression scores in patients were: dissatisfied (25.6%, 9.7±7.8) and satisfied (74.4%, 5.5±3.4) (Pperception of pubertal status and satisfaction about height or weight are unrelated to objective physical findings. Patients with PP are prone to distorted perception about their body image and breast development. Such incorrect body image seems to contribute to depression score. PMID:27777908

  10. Body mass, spleen mass and level of thyroid hormones in juvenile hypothyroid rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roksandić Dragutin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effect of hypothyroidism on body mass and spleen mass of rats was examined during the prenatal and early juvenile periods. Hypothyroidism was induced by the application of propylthiouracil (PTU in drinking water to the mothers from the first day of gravidity and during lactation, and the offspring were sacrificed on the 14th and 21st days after birth. The body mass of the juvenile rats was measured just before they were sacrificed. The concentrations of triiodothyronine (T3 and thyroxine (T4 in blood serum were determined in control and treated juvenile rats. The results indicate that PTU leads to a reduction in T3 and T4 serum concentrations in treated juvenile rats. Treated juvenile rats had a bigger body mass and spleen mass in comparison with control animals. These data indicate that hypothyroidism induced in the prenatal and early juvenile period leads to an increase in the body mass and spleen mass and disrupts the normal development of the spleen in the course of the examined period. .

  11. TOR Pathway-Mediated Juvenile Hormone Synthesis Regulates Nutrient-Dependent Female Reproduction in Nilaparvata lugens (Stål).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kai; Chen, Xia; Liu, Wen-Ting; Zhou, Qiang

    2016-03-28

    The "target of rapamycin" (TOR) nutritional signaling pathway and juvenile hormone (JH) regulation of vitellogenesis has been known for a long time. However, the interplay between these two pathways regulating vitellogenin (Vg) expression remains obscure. Here, we first demonstrated the key role of amino acids (AAs) in activation of Vg synthesis and egg development in Nilaparvata lugens using chemically defined artificial diets. AAs induced the expression of TOR and S6K (S6 kinase), whereas RNAi-mediated silencing of these two TOR pathway genes and rapamycin application strongly inhibited the AAs-induced Vg synthesis. Furthermore, knockdown of Rheb (Ras homologue enriched in brain), TOR, S6K and application of rapamycin resulted in a dramatic reduction in the mRNA levels of jmtN (juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase, JHAMT). Application of JH III on the RNAi (Rheb and TOR) and rapamycin-treated females partially rescued the Vg expression. Conversely, knockdown of either jmtN or met (methoprene-tolerant, JH receptor) and application of JH III had no effects on mRNA levels of Rheb, TOR and S6K and phosphorylation of S6K. In summary, our results demonstrate that the TOR pathway induces JH biosynthesis that in turn regulates AAs-mediated Vg synthesis in N. lugens.

  12. 腹腔注射LHRH-A对黑鲷生长激素及其受体的影响%Effects of Luteinizing Hormone-releasing Hormone Analogue Injection on Growth Hormone and Its Receptor in Black Seabream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓利; 林浩然

    2003-01-01

    以海水硬骨鱼类黑鲷为研究对象,腹腔注射溶于生理盐水的促性腺激素,释放激素(gonadotropin-releasing hormone,GnRH)的类似物(analogue of luteinizing hormone- releasing hormone,LHRH-A),对照组注射生理盐水.24 h后注射LHRH-A组黑鲷血清生长激素(growth hormone,GH)水平显著高于对照组(p<0.05),于36 h又恢复到对照组水平.注射LHRH-A组肝脏生长激素受体(growth hormone receptor,GHR)及GHR mRNA均与对照组无显著差异.结果表明,腹腔注射LHRH-A刺激了处于性腺成熟期黑鲷GH的分泌,但对黑鲷肝脏GHR及其基因表达无明显影响.

  13. Adult height in girls with central precocious puberty treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues and growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquino, A M; Pucarelli, I; Segni, M; Matrunola, M; Cerroni, F; Cerrone, F

    1999-02-01

    GnRH analogues (GnRHa) represent the treatment of choice in central precocious puberty (CPP), because arresting pubertal development and reducing either growth velocity (GV) or bone maturation (BA) should improve adult height. However, in some patients, GV decrease is so remarkable that it impairs predicted adult height (PAH); and therefore, the addition of GH is suggested. Out of twenty subjects with idiopathic CPP (treated with GnRHa depot-triptorelin, at a dose of 100 microg/kg im every 21 days, for at least 2-3 yr), whose GV fall below the 25th percentile for chronological age, 10 received, in addition to GnRHa, GH at a dose of 0.3 mg/kg x week s.c., 6 days weekly, for 2-4 yr; and 10 matched for BA, chronological age, and duration of GnRHa treatment, who showed the same growth pattern but refused GH treatment, served to evaluate the efficacy of GH addition. No patient showed classical GH deficiency. Both groups discontinued treatment at a comparable BA (mean +/- SEM): 13.2 +/- 0.2 in GnRHa plus GH vs. 13.0 +/- 0.1 yr in the control group. At the conclusion of the study, all the patients had achieved adult height. Adult height was considered to be attained when the growth during the preceding year was less than 1 cm, with a BA of over 15 yr. Patients of the group treated with GH plus GnRHa showed an adult height significantly higher (P < 0.001) than pretreatment PAH (160.6 +/- 1.3 vs. 152.7 +/- 1.7 cm). Target height (TH) was significantly exceeded. The group treated with GnRH alone reached an adult height not significantly higher than pretreatment PAH (157.1 +/- 2.5 vs. 155.5 +/- 1.9 cm). TH was just reached but not significantly exceeded. The gain in centimeters obtained, calculated between pretreatment PAH and final height, was 7.9 +/- 1.1 cm in patients treated with GH combined with GnRHa; whereas in patients treated with GnRHa alone, the gain was just 1.6 +/- 1.2 cm (P = 0.001). Furthermore, no side effects have been observed either on bone age progression

  14. Relationship between an increase of juvenile hormone titer in early instars and the induction of diapause in fully grown larvae of Sesamia nonagrioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eizaguirre, Matilde; Schafellner, Christa; López, Carmen; Sehnal, Frantisek

    2005-10-01

    The larvae of Sesamia nonagrioides (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) grown at 25 degrees C and long photoperiod (16:8h light:dark) pupate in the 5th or 6th (mostly) larval instar, while the larvae reared under a short photoperiod (12:12h) enter diapause during which they consume some food and undergo up to 12 (usually 3-4) stationary larval molts. Diapause programming includes an increase of juvenile hormone (JH) titer in the hemolymph from about 20 to 50 nM in the 4th and 5th instar larvae (titer in earlier instars was not measured). JH I, II, and III are present in approximate ratio 1-2:10:1. The JH titer drops to zero before pupation but remains around 20 nM during diapause. Perfect extra larval molts associated with a body weight increase can be induced in the non-diapausing larvae with a JH analogue (JHA). The weight rise is due to accumulation of reserves and not to a general body growth. The timing of extra molts is similar to the molting pattern of the diapausing larvae only when JHA is present since early larval instars. In the diapausing larvae, JHA application affects neither molting periodicity nor the body weight. It is concluded that (1) Increased JH titer in early larval instars is a part of diapause programming; (2) The extension of larval stage in the diapausing larvae, but not the timing pattern of extra molts, is due to continuously high JH titer; (3) The diapause program includes low food intake, maintenance of a certain body weight, and periodic larval molts.

  15. Halogen bonding controls the regioselectivity of the deiodination of thyroid hormones and their sulfate analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Debasish; Mondal, Santanu; Mugesh, Govindasamy

    2015-02-02

    The type 1 iodothyronine deiodinase (1D-1) in liver and kidney converts the L-thyroxine (T4), a prohormone, by outer-ring (5') deiodination to biologically active 3,3',5-triiodothyronine (T3) or by inner-ring (5) deiodination to inactive 3,3',5'-triiodothronine (rT3). Sulfate conjugation is an important step in the irreversible inactivation of thyroid hormones. While sulfate conjugation of the phenolic hydroxyl group stimulates the 5-deiodination of T4 and T3, it blocks the 5'-deiodination of T4. We show that thyroxine sulfate (T4S) undergoes faster deiodination as compared to the parent thyroid hormone T4 by synthetic selenium compounds. It is also shown that ID-3 mimics, which are remarkably selective to the inner-ring deiodination of T4 and T3, changes the selectivity completely when T4S is used as a substrate. From the theoretical investigations, it is observed that the strength of halogen bonding increases upon sulfate conjugation, which leads to a change in the regioselectivity of ID-3 mimics towards the deiodination of T4S. It has been shown that these mimics perform both the 5'- and 5-ring deiodinations by an identical mechanism. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Hormone profile in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus with previous or current amenorrhea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, Clovis A.; Deen, Maria E. J.; Febronio, Marilia V.; Oliveira, Sheila K.; Terreri, Maria T.; Sacchetti, Silvana B.; Sztajnbok, Flavio R.; Marini, Roberto; Quintero, Maria V.; Bica, Blanca E.; Pereira, Rosa M.; Bonfa, Eloisa; Ferriani, Virginia P.; Robazzi, Teresa C.; Magalhaes, Claudia S.; Hilario, Maria O.

    2011-01-01

    To identify the underlying mechanism of amenorrhea in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE) patients, thirty-five (11.7%) JSLE patients with current or previous amenorrhea were consecutively selected among the 298 post-menarche patients followed in 12 Brazilian pediatric rheumatology centers.

  17. Quantitative determination of the juvenile hormones in the haemolymph of Locusta migratoria during normal development and after implantation of corpora allata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huibregtse-Minderhoud, L.; Hondel-Franken, M.A.M. van; Kerk-Van Hoof, A.C. van der; Biessels, H.W.A.; Salemink, C.A.; Horst, D.J. van der; Beenakkers, A.M.Th.

    1980-01-01

    Simultaneous quantitative determination of the three naturally occurring juvenile hormones in insects (JH-I, JH-II and JH-III) was performed on haemolymph samples of both normally developing locusts and locusts implanted with active corpora allata, using capillary gas chromatography with electron ca

  18. Enhancing male sexual success in a lekking fly (Ananstrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae) through a juvenile hormone analog has no effect on adult mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    While defending lek-territories, male Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) produce chemical, acoustic and visual courtship signals. In the laboratory and under semi-natural conditions, topical application of the juvenile hormone analog methoprene doubles pheromone production and subsequently doubles sexual su...

  19. Photoperiod regulates growth of male accessory glands through juvenile hormone signaling in the linden bug, Pyrrhocoris apterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanová, Veronika; Bazalová, Olga; Vaněčková, Hanka; Dolezel, David

    2016-03-01

    Adult reproductive diapause is characterized by lower behavioral activity, ceased reproduction and absence of juvenile hormone (JH). The role of JH receptor Methoprene-tolerant (Met) in female reproduction is well established; however, its function in male reproductive development and behavior is unclear. In the bean bug, Riptortus pedestris, circadian genes are essential for mediating photoperiodically-dependent growth of the male accessory glands (MAGs). The present study explores the role of circadian genes and JH receptor in male diapause in the linden bug, Pyrrhocoris apterus. These data indicate that circadian factors Clock, Cycle and Cry2 are responsible for photoperiod measurement, whereas Met and its partner protein Taiman participate in JH reception. Surprisingly, knockdown of the JH receptor neither lowered locomotor activity nor reduced mating behavior of males. These data suggest existence of a parallel, JH-independent or JH-upstream photoperiodic regulation of reproductive behavior.

  20. Juvenile hormone III and nutrition effects on spermatogenesis in the 4th instar nymphs of Panstrongylus megistus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Costa Schuetz

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available When 4th instar nymphs of Panstrongylus megistus are fed with a saturant blood meal, there is an intense proliferation of the spermatogonia. At the end of the intermoult, the older spermatogonial cysts differentiate into 1st primary spermatocyte cysts. In the nymphs deprived of the blood meal this evolution is not observed, but a small growth of the testicular follicles occurs, due to a few mitotic divisions. This growth is observed at least, until 25 days after ecdysis. Since day 15, an autolytic process starts in the older spermatogonial cysts. The presence of exogenous juvenile hormone III (JH III does not promote the development of the germ cells in the fasting insects. There is only a small growth of the testicular follicles and the autolytic process is also observed. In the precocious adults obtained by allatectomy or precocene II treatment, germ cells are observed in all development stages, except packed and elongated spermatozoa bundels.

  1. Behavioural effects of juvenile hormone and their influence on division of labour in leaf-cutting ant societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Victoria C; Hughes, William O H

    2016-01-01

    Division of labour in social insects represents a major evolutionary transition, but the physiological mechanisms that regulate this are still little understood. Experimental work with honey bees, and correlational analyses in other social insects, have implicated juvenile hormone (JH) as a regulatory factor, but direct experimental evidence of behavioural effects of JH in social insects is generally lacking. Here, we used experimental manipulation of JH to show that raised JH levels in leaf-cutting ants results in workers becoming more active, phototactic and threat responsive, and engaging in more extranidal activity - behavioural changes that we show are all characteristic of the transition from intranidal work to foraging. These behavioural effects on division of labour suggest that the JH mediation of behaviour occurs across multiple independent evolutions of eusociality, and may be a key endocrine regulator of the division of labour which has produced the remarkable ecological and evolutionary success of social insects. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. The POU factor ventral veins lacking/Drifter directs the timing of metamorphosis through ecdysteroid and juvenile hormone signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CeCe Cheng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Although endocrine changes are known to modulate the timing of major developmental transitions, the genetic mechanisms underlying these changes remain poorly understood. In insects, two developmental hormones, juvenile hormone (JH and ecdysteroids, are coordinated with each other to induce developmental changes associated with metamorphosis. However, the regulation underlying the coordination of JH and ecdysteroid synthesis remains elusive. Here, we examined the function of a homolog of the vertebrate POU domain protein, Ventral veins lacking (Vvl/Drifter, in regulating both of these hormonal pathways in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Tenebrionidae. RNA interference-mediated silencing of vvl expression led to both precocious metamorphosis and inhibition of molting in the larva. Ectopic application of a JH analog on vvl knockdown larvae delayed the onset of metamorphosis and led to a prolonged larval stage, indicating that Vvl acts upstream of JH signaling. Accordingly, vvl knockdown also reduced the expression of a JH biosynthesis gene, JH acid methyltransferase 3 (jhamt3. In addition, ecdysone titer and the expression of the ecdysone response gene, hormone receptor 3 (HR3, were reduced in vvl knockdown larvae. The expression of the ecdysone biosynthesis gene phantom (phm and spook (spo were reduced in vvl knockdown larvae in the anterior and posterior halves, respectively, indicating that Vvl might influence ecdysone biosynthesis in both the prothoracic gland and additional endocrine sources. Injection of 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E into vvl knockdown larvae could restore the expression of HR3 although molting was never restored. These findings suggest that Vvl coordinates both JH and ecdysteroid biosynthesis as well as molting behavior to influence molting and the timing of metamorphosis. Thus, in both vertebrates and insects, POU factors modulate the production of major neuroendocrine regulators during sexual maturation.

  3. Tyrosol and Its Analogues Inhibit Alpha-Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone Induced Melanogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Ching Wen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Melanin is responsible for skin color and plays a major role in defending against harmful external factors such as ultraviolet (UV irradiation. Tyrosinase is responsible for the critical steps of melanogenesis, including the rate-limiting step of tyrosine hydroxylation. The mechanisms of action of skin hypopigmenting agents are thought to be based on the ability of a given agent to inhibit the activity of tyrosinase and, hence, down regulate melanin synthesis. Tyrosol and its glycoside, salidroside, are active components of Rhodiola rosea, and in our preliminary study we found that Rhodiola rosea extract inhibited melanogenesis. In this study, we examined the effects of tyrosol and its analogues on melanin synthesis. We found that treatment of B16F0 cells to tyrosol (1, 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (5, 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (6, 2-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (7, or salidroside (11 resulted in a reduction in melanin content and inhibition of tyrosinase activity as well as its expression. Tyrosol (1, 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (5 and 2-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (7 suppressed MC1R expression. Tyrosol (1, 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (5, 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (6, and 2-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (7 inhibited α-MSH induced TRP-1 expression, but salidroside (11 did not. All the compounds did not affect MITF and TRP-2 expression. Furthermore, we found that the cell viability of tyrosol (1, 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (5, 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (6, and 2-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (7 at concentrations below 4 mM and salidroside (11 at concentrations below 0.5 mM were higher than 90%. The compounds exhibited metal-coordinating interactions with copper ion in molecular docking with tyrosinase. Our results suggest that tyrosol, 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, 2-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, and salidroside are potential hypopigmenting agents.

  4. Tyrosol and its analogues inhibit alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone induced melanogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Kuo-Ching; Chang, Chih-Shiang; Chien, Yin-Chih; Wang, Hsiao-Wen; Wu, Wan-Chen; Wu, Chin-Sheng; Chiang, Hsiu-Mei

    2013-11-28

    Melanin is responsible for skin color and plays a major role in defending against harmful external factors such as ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Tyrosinase is responsible for the critical steps of melanogenesis, including the rate-limiting step of tyrosine hydroxylation. The mechanisms of action of skin hypopigmenting agents are thought to be based on the ability of a given agent to inhibit the activity of tyrosinase and, hence, down regulate melanin synthesis. Tyrosol and its glycoside, salidroside, are active components of Rhodiola rosea, and in our preliminary study we found that Rhodiola rosea extract inhibited melanogenesis. In this study, we examined the effects of tyrosol and its analogues on melanin synthesis. We found that treatment of B16F0 cells to tyrosol (1), 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (5), 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (6), 2-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (7), or salidroside (11) resulted in a reduction in melanin content and inhibition of tyrosinase activity as well as its expression. Tyrosol (1), 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (5) and 2-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (7) suppressed MC1R expression. Tyrosol (1), 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (5), 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (6), and 2-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (7) inhibited α-MSH induced TRP-1 expression, but salidroside (11) did not. All the compounds did not affect MITF and TRP-2 expression. Furthermore, we found that the cell viability of tyrosol (1), 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (5), 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (6), and 2-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (7) at concentrations below 4 mM and salidroside (11) at concentrations below 0.5 mM were higher than 90%. The compounds exhibited metal-coordinating interactions with copper ion in molecular docking with tyrosinase. Our results suggest that tyrosol, 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, 2-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, and salidroside are potential hypopigmenting agents.

  5. GROWTH RESPONSE OF CLOWN LOACH (Chromobotia macracanthus Bleeker 1852 JUVENILES IMMERSED IN WATER CONTAINING RECOMBINANT GROWTH HORMONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asep Permana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main problem in the culture of clown loach (Chromobotia macracanthus is the slow growth rate, which takes about six months to reach its market size (two inches total body length. Slow growth eventually cause a long production time and increase the production costs. An alternative solution can be proposed in order to enhance the growth is by using recombinant growth hormone. The aim of this study was to determine the immersion dose of recombinant Epinephelus lanceolatus growth hormone (rElGH which can generate the highest growth in clown loach. Larvae at seven day after hatching were hyperosmotic treated with NaCl 2.0% for one minute, then immersed for one hour in water containing 0.3% NaCl, 0.01% bovine serum albumin (BSA, and different doses of rElGH, namely: 0.12 (treatment A, 1.2 (B, 12 (C, and 120 mg/L (D. As control, fish were immersed in water without rElGH and NaCl (control-1, water containing 0.3% NaCl and 0.01% BSA (control-2, and 0.3% NaCl water (control-3. Each treatment was replicated three times. The results showed that clown loach juveniles in treatment B, C, and D had longer total body length (P0.05. In addition, the percentage of large size juveniles increased approximately 5% in treatment B, almost the same as in the medium size, while the small size were decrease compared to the control-1. Thus, the best immersion dose of rElGH was 1.2 mg/L water.

  6. Molecular mechanisms of juvenile hormone action%保幼激素的分子作用机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周树堂; 郭伟; 宋佳晟

    2012-01-01

    Insect development, metamorphosis and reproduction are coordinated and regulated by juvenile hormone (JH) and ecdysone (20-hydroxyecdysone, 20E). However, the molecular mechanisms of JH are poorly understood compared with those of 20E. There has been much research undertaken to identify the bona fide JH nuclear receptor, to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of JH in insect metamorphosis and reproduction, and to elucidate the crosstalk between JH and 20E, using the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta and other insects as model systems. This review highlights the most recent progress in these areas.%保幼激素( juvenile hormone,JH)和蜕皮激素(20-hydroxyecdysone,20E)是协同调控昆虫发育、变态与生殖的两个重要激素.由于20E的主要分子作用机制已经比较明了,揭示JH的分子作用机制成为过去20多年来昆虫学领域研究的一个重点和难点.国内外多个研究团队利用赤拟谷盗Tribolium castaneum、果蝇Drosophila melanogaster、烟草天蛾 Manduca sexta 等为模式,在JH受体的鉴定、JH在昆虫发育变态和生殖中的分子调控机制以及JH与20E在分子水平上的交互作用等方面开展了大量的研究工作,本文就近几年在这些方面取得的主要研究进展作一个综述.

  7. IRS and TOR nutrient-signaling pathways act via juvenile hormone to influence honey bee caste fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutti, Navdeep S; Dolezal, Adam G; Wolschin, Florian; Mutti, Jasdeep S; Gill, Kulvinder S; Amdam, Gro V

    2011-12-01

    Regardless of genetic makeup, a female honey bee becomes a queen or worker depending on the food she receives as a larva. For decades, it has been known that nutrition and juvenile hormone (JH) signaling determine the caste fate of the individual bee. However, it is still largely unclear how these factors are connected. To address this question, we suppressed nutrient sensing by RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated gene knockdown of IRS (insulin receptor substrate) and TOR (target of rapamycin) in larvae reared on queen diet. The treatments affected several layers of organismal organization that could play a role in the response to differential nutrition between castes. These include transcript profiles, proteomic patterns, lipid levels, DNA methylation response and morphological features. Most importantly, gene knockdown abolished a JH peak that signals queen development and resulted in a worker phenotype. Application of JH rescued the queen phenotype in either knockdown, which demonstrates that the larval response to JH remains intact and can drive normal developmental plasticity even when IRS or TOR transcript levels are reduced. We discuss our results in the context of other recent findings on honey bee caste and development and propose that IRS is an alternative substrate for the Egfr (epidermal growth factor receptor) in honey bees. Overall, our study describes how the interplay of nutritional and hormonal signals affects many levels of organismal organization to build different phenotypes from identical genotypes.

  8. Aspergillus nidulans Synthesize Insect Juvenile Hormones upon Expression of a Heterologous Regulatory Protein and in Response to Grazing by Drosophila melanogaster Larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Thrane; Klejnstrup, Marie Louise; Rohlfs, Marko;

    2013-01-01

    Secondary metabolites are known to serve a wide range of specialized functions including communication, developmental control and defense. Genome sequencing of several fungal model species revealed that the majority of predicted secondary metabolite related genes are silent in laboratory strains......, indicating that fungal secondary metabolites remain an underexplored resource of bioactive molecules. In this study, we combine heterologous expression of regulatory proteins in Aspergillus nidulans with systematic variation of growth conditions and observe induced synthesis of insect juvenile hormone...... induced synthesis of juvenile hormone in A. nidulans indicating a possible role of juvenile hormone biosynthesis in affecting fungal-insect antagonisms....

  9. Gustatory perception and fat body energy metabolism are jointly affected by vitellogenin and juvenile hormone in honey bees.

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    Ying Wang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Honey bees (Apis mellifera provide a system for studying social and food-related behavior. A caste of workers performs age-related tasks: young bees (nurses usually feed the brood and other adult bees inside the nest, while older bees (foragers forage outside for pollen, a protein/lipid source, or nectar, a carbohydrate source. The workers' transition from nursing to foraging and their foraging preferences correlate with differences in gustatory perception, metabolic gene expression, and endocrine physiology including the endocrine factors vitellogenin (Vg and juvenile hormone (JH. However, the understanding of connections among social behavior, energy metabolism, and endocrine factors is incomplete. We used RNA interference (RNAi to perturb the gene network of Vg and JH to learn more about these connections through effects on gustation, gene transcripts, and physiology. The RNAi perturbation was achieved by single and double knockdown of the genes ultraspiracle (usp and vg, which encode a putative JH receptor and Vg, respectively. The double knockdown enhanced gustatory perception and elevated hemolymph glucose, trehalose, and JH. We also observed transcriptional responses in insulin like peptide 1 (ilp1, the adipokinetic hormone receptor (AKHR, and cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG, or "foraging gene" Amfor. Our study demonstrates that the Vg-JH regulatory module controls changes in carbohydrate metabolism, but not lipid metabolism, when worker bees shift from nursing to foraging. The module is also placed upstream of ilp1, AKHR, and PKG for the first time. As insulin, adipokinetic hormone (AKH, and PKG pathways influence metabolism and gustation in many animals, we propose that honey bees have conserved pathways in carbohydrate metabolism and conserved connections between energy metabolism and gustatory perception. Thus, perhaps the bee can make general contributions to the understanding of food-related behavior and metabolic disorders.

  10. The FOXO transcription factor controls insect growth and development by regulating juvenile hormone degradation in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

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    Zeng, Baosheng; Huang, Yuping; Xu, Jun; Shiotsuki, Takahiro; Bai, Hua; Palli, Subba Reddy; Huang, Yongping; Tan, Anjiang

    2017-07-14

    Forkhead box O (FOXO) functions as the terminal transcription factor of the insulin signaling pathway and regulates multiple physiological processes in many organisms, including lifespan in insects. However, how FOXO interacts with hormone signaling to modulate insect growth and development is largely unknown. Here, using the transgene-based CRISPR/Cas9 system, we generated and characterized mutants of the silkworm Bombyx mori FOXO (BmFOXO) to elucidate its physiological functions during development of this lepidopteran insect. The BmFOXO mutant (FOXO-M) exhibited growth delays from the first larval stage and showed precocious metamorphosis, pupating at the end of the fourth instar (trimolter) rather than at the end of the fifth instar as in the wild-type (WT) animals. However, different from previous reports on precocious metamorphosis caused by juvenile hormone (JH) deficiency in silkworm mutants, the total developmental time of the larval period in the FOXO-M was comparable with that of the WT. Exogenous application of 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) or of the JH analog rescued the trimolter phenotype. RNA-seq and gene expression analyses indicated that genes involved in JH degradation but not in JH biosynthesis were up-regulated in the FOXO-M compared with the WT animals. Moreover, we identified several FOXO-binding sites in the promoter of genes coding for JH-degradation enzymes. These results suggest that FOXO regulates JH degradation rather than its biosynthesis, which further modulates hormone homeostasis to control growth and development in B. mori In conclusion, we have uncovered a pivotal role for FOXO in regulating JH signaling to control insect development. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Identification and in vivo and in vitro characterization of long acting and melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4-R) selective α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) analogues.

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    Conde-Frieboes, Kilian; Thøgersen, Henning; Lau, Jesper F; Sensfuss, Ulrich; Hansen, Thomas K; Christensen, Leif; Spetzler, Jane; Olsen, Helle B; Nilsson, Cecilia; Raun, Kirsten; Dahl, Kirsten; Hansen, Birgit S; Wulff, Birgitte S

    2012-03-08

    We report in vitro and in vivo data of new α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) analogues which are N-terminal modified with a long chain fatty acid derivative. While keeping the pharmacophoric motif (d-Phe-Arg-Trp) fixed, we tried to improve selectivity and physicochemical parameters like solubility and stability of these analogues by replacing amino acids further away from the motif. Receptor specific changes in binding affinity to the melanocortin receptors were observed between the acetyl derivatives and the fatty acid analogues. Furthermore, amino acids at the N-terminal of α-MSH (Ser-Tyr-Ser) not considered to be part of the pharmacophore were found to have an influence on the MC4/MC1 receptor selectivity. While the acetyl analogues have an in vivo effect for around 7 h, the long chain fatty acid analogues have an effect up to 48 h in an acute feeding study in male Sprague-Dawley rats after a single subcutaneous administration.

  12. Ecdysteroids, juvenile hormone and insect neuropeptides: Recent successes and remaining major challenges.

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    De Loof, Arnold

    2008-01-01

    In the recent decade, tremendous progress has been realized in insect endocrinology as the result of the application of a variety of advanced methods in neuropeptidome- and receptor research. Hormones of which the existence had been shown by bioassays four decades ago, e.g. bursicon (a member of the glycoprotein hormone family) and pupariation factor (Neb-pyrokinin 2, a myotropin), could be identified, along with their respective receptors. In control of diurnal rhythms, clock genes got company from the neuropeptide Pigment Dispersing Factor (PDF), of which the receptor could also be identified. The discovery of Inka cells and their function in metamorphosis was a true hallmark. Analysis of the genomes of Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster and Apis mellifera yielded about 75, 100 and 200 genes coding for putative signaling peptides, respectively, corresponding to approximately 57, 100 and 100 peptides of which the expression could already be proven by means of mass spectrometry. The comparative approach invertebrates-vertebrates recently yielded indications for the existence of counterparts in insects for prolactin, atrial natriuretic hormone and Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone (GRH). Substantial progress has been realized in identifying the Halloween genes, a membrane receptor(s) for ecdysteroids, a nuclear receptor for methylfarnesoate, and dozens of GPCRs for insect neuropeptides. The major remaining challenges concern the making match numerous orphan GPCRs with orphan peptidic ligands, and elucidating their functions. Furthermore, the endocrine control of growth, feeding-digestion, and of sexual differentiation, in particular of males, is still poorly understood. The finding that the prothoracic glands produce an autocrine factor with growth factor-like properties and secrete proteins necessitates a reevaluation of their role in development.

  13. The participation of calponin in the cross talk between 20-hydroxyecdysone and juvenile hormone signaling pathways by phosphorylation variation.

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    Peng-Cheng Liu

    Full Text Available 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E and juvenile hormone (JH signaling pathways interact to mediate insect development, but the mechanism of this interaction is poorly understood. Here, a calponin homologue domain (Chd containing protein (HaCal is reported to play a key role in the cross talk between 20E and JH signaling by varying its phosphorylation. Chd is known as an actin binding domain present in many proteins including some signaling proteins. Using an epidermal cell line (HaEpi, HaCal was found to be up-regulated by either 20E or the JH analog methoprene (JHA. 20E induced rapid phosphorylation of HaCal whereas no phosphorylation occurred with JHA. HaCal could be quickly translocated into the nuclei through 20E or JH signaling but interacted with USP1 only under the mediation of JHA. Knockdown of HaCal by RNAi blocked the 20E inducibility of USP1, PKC and HR3, and also blocked the JHA inducibility of USP1, PKC and JHi. After gene silencing of HaCal by ingestion of dsHaCal expressed by Escherichia coli, the larval development was arrested and the gene expression of USP1, PKC, HR3 and JHi were blocked. These composite data suggest that HaCal plays roles in hormonal signaling by quickly transferring into nucleus to function as a phosphorylated form in the 20E pathway and as a non-phosphorylated form interacting with USP1 in the JH pathway to facilitate 20E or JH signaling cascade, in short, by switching its phosphorylation status to regulate insect development.

  14. Juvenile hormone changes associated with diapause induction, maintenance, and termination in the beet webworm, Loxostege sticticalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

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    Jiang, Xingfu; Huang, Shaohong; Luo, Lizhi

    2011-07-01

    At 22°C and under a long-day photoperiod of L:D 16:8, all the last fifth instar Loxostege sticticalis larvae undergo prepupal stage and pupate without diapause. Under a short-day photoperiod of L:D 12:12, in contrast, they all enter diapause with approximately 36 days diapause maintenance and then terminate diapause spontaneously, although only 44% of the larvae terminated diapause successfully. Changes in hemolymph juvenile hormone (JH I) titers of diapause-destined larvae across diapause induction, maintenance and termination were examined using HPLC, and were compared with those of non-diapause-destined larvae from the fifth instar through pupation. JH I titer of the earliest fifth instar diapause-destined larvae remained at a high level with a peak of 220.4 ng/ml, though it decreased continuously to a minimum of 69.0 ng/ml on day 5 in the fifth instar when the larvae stopped feeding to enter diapause. During the diapause maintenance, JH I titer of the mature larvae increased significantly and maintained a high level until day 31 in prepupae. JH I titer declined and fluctuated at low level from 5 days before pupation. In contrast, JH I titer of both the fifth instar non-diapause-destined larvae and prepupae remained and fluctuated at low level consistently, as well as decreased before pupation. These results indicate that diapause induction and maintenance in this species might be a consequence of high JH, whereas diapause termination can be attributed to low JH titer, which was in agreement with the hormonal regulation observed in many other larval-diapausing insects.

  15. Control of larval-pupal-adult molt in the moth Sesamia nonagrioides by juvenile hormone and ecdysteroids.

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    Pérez-Hedo, Meritxell; Goodman, Walter G; Schafellner, Christa; Martini, Antonio; Sehnal, Frantisek; Eizaguirre, Matilde

    2011-05-01

    Sesamia nonagrioides (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae reared under long day (LD; 16L:8D) conditions pupate after 5 or 6 larval instars, whereas under short day (SD; 12L:12D) conditions they undergo up to 12 additional molts before pupating. This extended period of repeated molting is maintained by high levels of juvenile hormone (JH). Previous work demonstrated that both LD and SD larvae decapitated in the 6th instar pupate but further development is halted. By contrast, about one-third of SD larvae from which only the brain has been removed, undergo first a larval molt, then pupate and subsequently developed to the adult stage. Debrained LD larvae molt to larvae exceptionally but regularly pupate and produce adults. Implanted brains may induce several larval molts in debrained recipient larvae irrespectively of the photoperiodic conditions. The results of present work demonstrate that the prothoracic glands (PGs) and the corpora allata (CA) of debrained larvae continue to produce ecdysteroids and JHs, respectively. PGs are active also in the decapitated larvae that lack JH, consistent with the paradigm that CA, which are absent in the decapitated larvae, are the only source of this hormone. Completion of the pupal-adult transformation in both LD and SD debrained insects demonstrates that brain is not crucial for the development of S. nonagrioides but is required for diapause maintenance. Application of JH to headless pupae induces molting, presumably by activating their PGs. It is likely that JH plays this role also in the induction of pupal-adult transformation in debrained insects. Application of the ecdysteroid agonist RH 2485 (methoxyfenozide) to headless pupae also elicits molting: newly secreted cuticle is in some cases thin and indifferent, in other cases it bears distinct pupal or adult features.

  16. Genetic Evidence for Function of the bHLH-PAS Protein Gce/Met As a Juvenile Hormone Receptor.

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    Marek Jindra

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile hormones (JHs play a major role in controlling development and reproduction in insects and other arthropods. Synthetic JH-mimicking compounds such as methoprene are employed as potent insecticides against significant agricultural, household and disease vector pests. However, a receptor mediating effects of JH and its insecticidal mimics has long been the subject of controversy. The bHLH-PAS protein Methoprene-tolerant (Met, along with its Drosophila melanogaster paralog germ cell-expressed (Gce, has emerged as a prime JH receptor candidate, but critical evidence that this protein must bind JH to fulfill its role in normal insect development has been missing. Here, we show that Gce binds a native D. melanogaster JH, its precursor methyl farnesoate, and some synthetic JH mimics. Conditional on this ligand binding, Gce mediates JH-dependent gene expression and the hormone's vital role during development of the fly. Any one of three different single amino acid mutations in the ligand-binding pocket that prevent binding of JH to the protein block these functions. Only transgenic Gce capable of binding JH can restore sensitivity to JH mimics in D. melanogaster Met-null mutants and rescue viability in flies lacking both Gce and Met that would otherwise die at pupation. Similarly, the absence of Gce and Met can be compensated by expression of wild-type but not mutated transgenic D. melanogaster Met protein. This genetic evidence definitively establishes Gce/Met in a JH receptor role, thus resolving a long-standing question in arthropod biology.

  17. Thyroid hormone-regulated gene expression in juvenile mouse liver: identification of thyroid response elements using microarray profiling and in silico analyses

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    Paquette Martin A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disruption of thyroid hormone signalling can alter growth, development and energy metabolism. Thyroid hormones exert their effects through interactions with thyroid receptors that directly bind thyroid response elements and can alter transcriptional activity of target genes. The effects of short-term thyroid hormone perturbation on hepatic mRNA transcription in juvenile mice were evaluated, with the goal of identifying genes containing active thyroid response elements. Thyroid hormone disruption was induced from postnatal day 12 to 15 by adding goitrogens to dams' drinking water (hypothyroid. A subgroup of thyroid hormone-disrupted pups received intraperitoneal injections of replacement thyroid hormones four hours prior to sacrifice (replacement. An additional group received only thyroid hormones four hours prior to sacrifice (hyperthyroid. Hepatic mRNA was extracted and hybridized to Agilent mouse microarrays. Results Transcriptional profiling enabled the identification of 28 genes that appeared to be under direct thyroid hormone-regulation. The regulatory regions of the genome adjacent to these genes were examined for half-site sequences that resemble known thyroid response elements. A bioinformatics search identified 33 thyroid response elements in the promoter regions of 13 different genes thought to be directly regulated by thyroid hormones. Thyroid response elements found in the promoter regions of Tor1a, 2310003H01Rik, Hect3d and Slc25a45 were further validated by confirming that the thyroid receptor is associated with these sequences in vivo and that it can bind directly to these sequences in vitro. Three different arrangements of thyroid response elements were identified. Some of these thyroid response elements were located far up-stream (> 7 kb of the transcription start site of the regulated gene. Conclusions Transcriptional profiling of thyroid hormone disrupted animals coupled with a novel bioinformatics search

  18. Juvenile hormone analog technology: effects on larval cannibalism and the production of Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) nucleopolyhedrovirus.

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    Elvira, Sonia; Williams, Trevor; Caballero, Primitivo

    2010-06-01

    The production of a multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV) of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), has been markedly increased by using juvenile hormone analog (JHA) technology to generate a supernumerary sixth instar in the species. In the current study we compared the incidence of cannibalism in S. exigua fifth and sixth instars reared at low (two larvae per dish) and a high density (10 larvae per dish). The incidence of cannibalism was significantly higher in fifth instars compared with sixth instars and increased with rearing density on both instars. Infected larvae were more prone to become victims of cannibalism than healthy individuals in mixed groups comprising 50% healthy + 50% infected larvae in both instars reared at high density. Instar had a marked effect on occlusion body (OB) production because JHA-treated insects produced between 4.8- and 5.6-fold increase in OB production per dish compared with fifth instars at high and low densities, respectively. The insecticidal characteristics of OBs produced in JHA-treated insects, as indicated by LD50 values, were similar to those produced in untreated fourth or fifth instars. Because JHA technology did not increase the prevalence of cannibalism and had no adverse effect on the insecticidal properties of SeMNPV OBs, we conclude that the use of JHAs to generate a supernumerary instar is likely to be compatible with mass production systems that involve gregarious rearing of infected insects.

  19. Characterization of a juvenile hormone-regulated chymotrypsin-like serine protease gene in Aedes aegypti mosquito.

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    Bian, Guowu; Raikhel, Alexander S; Zhu, Jinsong

    2008-02-01

    After female mosquitoes ingest blood from vertebrate hosts, exopeptidases and endopeptidases are required for digesting blood proteins in the midgut into amino acids, which female mosquitoes use to build yolk proteins. These proteases are not always present in the midgut, and their diverse expression patterns suggest that production of these enzymes is highly regulated in order to meet specific physiological demands at various stages. Here we report identification of a serine-type protease, JHA15, in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. This protein shares high sequence homology with chymotrypsins, and indeed exhibits specific chymotrypsin enzymatic activity. The JHA15 gene is expressed primarily in the midgut of adult female mosquitoes. Our results indicate that its transcription is activated by juvenile hormone in the newly emerged female adults. Although its mRNA profile is similar to that of the early trypsin gene, we found that JHA15 proteins were readily detected in the midgut epithelium cells of both non-blood-fed and blood-fed mosquitoes. Analysis of polysomal RNA further substantiated that synthesis of JHA15 occurs before and shortly after blood feeding. Knocking down expression of JHA15 resulted in no evident phenotypic changes, implying that functional redundancy exists among those proteolytic enzymes.

  20. Juvenile hormone-dopamine systems for the promotion of flight activity in males of the large carpenter bee Xylocopa appendiculata

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    Sasaki, Ken; Nagao, Takashi

    2013-12-01

    The reproductive roles of dopamine and dopamine regulation systems are known in social hymenopterans, but the knowledge on the regulation systems in solitary species is still needed. To test the possibility that juvenile hormone (JH) and brain dopamine interact to trigger territorial flight behavior in males of a solitary bee species, the effects on biogenic amines of JH analog treatments and behavioral assays with dopamine injections in males of the large carpenter bee Xylocopa appendiculata were quantified. Brain dopamine levels were significantly higher in methoprene-treated males than in control males 4 days after treatment, but were not significantly different after 7 days. Brain octopamine and serotonin levels did not differ between methoprene-treated and control males at 4 and 7 days after treatment. Injection of dopamine caused significantly higher locomotor activities and a shorter duration for flight initiation in experimental versus control males. These results suggest that brain dopamine can be regulated by JH and enhances flight activities in males. The JH-dopamine system in males of this solitary bee species is similar to that of males of the highly eusocial honeybee Apis mellifera.

  1. Juvenile hormone biosynthesis gene expression in the corpora allata of honey bee (Apis mellifera L. female castes.

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    Ana Durvalina Bomtorin

    Full Text Available Juvenile hormone (JH controls key events in the honey bee life cycle, viz. caste development and age polyethism. We quantified transcript abundance of 24 genes involved in the JH biosynthetic pathway in the corpora allata-corpora cardiaca (CA-CC complex. The expression of six of these genes showing relatively high transcript abundance was contrasted with CA size, hemolymph JH titer, as well as JH degradation rates and JH esterase (jhe transcript levels. Gene expression did not match the contrasting JH titers in queen and worker fourth instar larvae, but jhe transcript abundance and JH degradation rates were significantly lower in queen larvae. Consequently, transcriptional control of JHE is of importance in regulating larval JH titers and caste development. In contrast, the same analyses applied to adult worker bees allowed us inferring that the high JH levels in foragers are due to increased JH synthesis. Upon RNAi-mediated silencing of the methyl farnesoate epoxidase gene (mfe encoding the enzyme that catalyzes methyl farnesoate-to-JH conversion, the JH titer was decreased, thus corroborating that JH titer regulation in adult honey bees depends on this final JH biosynthesis step. The molecular pathway differences underlying JH titer regulation in larval caste development versus adult age polyethism lead us to propose that mfe and jhe genes be assayed when addressing questions on the role(s of JH in social evolution.

  2. Juvenile hormone analog enhances calling behavior, mating success, and quantity of volatiles released by Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae).

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    Chacón-Benavente, Roxana; López-Guillen, Guillermo; Hernández, Emilio; Rojas, Julio C; Malo, Edi A

    2013-04-01

    The application of a juvenile hormone analog, methoprene, to newly emerged adult males reduced the time required for sexual maturation and enhanced mating success in several species of tephritid fruit flies. In this work, we investigated the effect of topical methoprene application on West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), male calling, mating, and volatile release. Males treated with topical methoprene exhibited sexual maturation and reproductive behavior 2 d earlier when compared with control males treated with acetone. Methoprene-treated males began calling and mating at 4 d old, whereas control males did not call and mate until 6 d old. The gas chromotography-mass spectrometry analysis of volatiles showed that during calling A. obliqua males consistently released four compounds; three of them were identified as (Z)-3-nonenol, (Z,E)-α-farnesene, (E,E)-α-farnesene, and a fourth compound with the appearance of a farnesene isomer. Both treated and control males released the same compounds, although treated males started to release volatiles before that control males. The results are discussed in view of possible methoprene application with the aim of reducing costs in fly emergence and release facilities before eventual release of A. obliqua in the field, thus improving the sterile insect technique.

  3. Control of larval and egg development in Aedes aegypti with RNA interference against juvenile hormone acid methyl transferase.

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    Van Ekert, Evelien; Powell, Charles A; Shatters, Robert G; Borovsky, Dov

    2014-11-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful approach for elucidating gene functions in a variety of organisms, including mosquitoes and many other insects. Little has been done, however, to harness this approach in order to control adult and larval mosquitoes. Juvenile hormone (JH) plays a pivotal role in the control of reproduction in adults and metamorphism in larval mosquitoes. This report describes an approach to control Aedes aegypti using RNAi against JH acid methyl transferase (AeaJHAMT), the ultimate enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of JH III that converts JH acid III (JHA III) into JH III. In female A. aegypti that were injected or fed jmtA dsRNA targeting the AeaJHAMT gene (jmtA) transcript, egg development was inhibited in 50% of the treated females. In mosquito larvae that were fed transgenic Pichia pastoris cells expressing long hair pin (LHP) RNA, adult eclosion was delayed by 3 weeks causing high mortality. Northern blot analyses and qPCR studies show that jmtA dsRNA causes inhibition of jmtA transcript in adults and larvae, which is consistent with the observed inhibition of egg maturation and larval development. Taken together, these results suggest that jmtA LHP RNA expressed in heat inactivated genetically modified P. pastoris cells could be used to control mosquito populations in the marsh.

  4. Juvenile Hormone Biosynthesis Gene Expression in the corpora allata of Honey Bee (Apis mellifera L.) Female Castes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Gustavo Conrado Couto; Moda, Livia Maria; Martins, Juliana Ramos; Bitondi, Márcia Maria Gentile; Hartfelder, Klaus; Simões, Zilá Luz Paulino

    2014-01-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) controls key events in the honey bee life cycle, viz. caste development and age polyethism. We quantified transcript abundance of 24 genes involved in the JH biosynthetic pathway in the corpora allata-corpora cardiaca (CA-CC) complex. The expression of six of these genes showing relatively high transcript abundance was contrasted with CA size, hemolymph JH titer, as well as JH degradation rates and JH esterase (jhe) transcript levels. Gene expression did not match the contrasting JH titers in queen and worker fourth instar larvae, but jhe transcript abundance and JH degradation rates were significantly lower in queen larvae. Consequently, transcriptional control of JHE is of importance in regulating larval JH titers and caste development. In contrast, the same analyses applied to adult worker bees allowed us inferring that the high JH levels in foragers are due to increased JH synthesis. Upon RNAi-mediated silencing of the methyl farnesoate epoxidase gene (mfe) encoding the enzyme that catalyzes methyl farnesoate-to-JH conversion, the JH titer was decreased, thus corroborating that JH titer regulation in adult honey bees depends on this final JH biosynthesis step. The molecular pathway differences underlying JH titer regulation in larval caste development versus adult age polyethism lead us to propose that mfe and jhe genes be assayed when addressing questions on the role(s) of JH in social evolution. PMID:24489805

  5. Fast induction of vitellogenin gene expression by juvenile hormone III in the cockroach Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera, Blattellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comas, D; Piulachs, M D; Bellés, X

    1999-09-01

    The present paper describes the effect of juvenile hormone III (JH III) upon vitellogenin (Vg) gene expression in cardioallatectomized females of Blattella germanica. Northern blot analyses of time course studies showed that Vg mRNA can be detected 2 h after the treatment with 1 microgram of JH III. Western blot analyses revealed that Vg protein is detectable 4 h after the same treatment. The study of the influence of the age showed that 48-h-old females seem more sensitive than 24-h-old females, whereas differences were less apparent between 48- and 72-h-old females. Dose-response studies indicated that 0.01 microgram of JH III is ineffective, whereas the doses of 0.1, 1 and 10 micrograms induced the synthesis of Vg in a dose-dependent fashion. Finally, the administration of three successive doses, of 0.01 microgram of JH III each, did not result in detectable Vg production, whereas two doses of 0.01 microgram followed by one of 1 microgram of JH III induced a greater response than that resulting from a sole dose of 1 microgram of JH III, which suggests that sub-effective doses of JH III elicit a priming effect on Vg production.

  6. Larval Exposure to the Juvenile Hormone Analog Pyriproxyfen Disrupts Acceptance of and Social Behavior Performance in Adult Honeybees.

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    Julie Fourrier

    Full Text Available Juvenile hormone (JH plays an important role in honeybee development and the regulation of age-related division of labor. However, honeybees can be exposed to insect growth regulators (IGRs, such as JH analogs developed for insect pest and vector control. Although their side effects as endocrine disruptors on honeybee larval or adult stages have been studied, little is known about the subsequent effects on adults of a sublethal larval exposure. We therefore studied the impact of the JH analog pyriproxyfen on larvae and resulting adults within a colony under semi-field conditions by combining recent laboratory larval tests with chemical analysis and behavioral observations. Oral and chronic larval exposure at cumulative doses of 23 or 57 ng per larva were tested.Pyriproxyfen-treated bees emerged earlier than control bees and the highest dose led to a significant rate of malformed adults (atrophied wings. Young pyriproxyfen-treated bees were more frequently rejected by nestmates from the colony, inducing a shorter life span. This could be linked to differences in cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC profiles between control and pyriproxyfen-treated bees. Finally, pyriproxyfen-treated bees exhibited fewer social behaviors (ventilation, brood care, contacts with nestmates or food stocks than control bees.Larval exposure to sublethal doses of pyriproxyfen affected several life history traits of the honeybees. Our results especially showed changes in social integration (acceptance by nestmates and social behaviors performance that could potentially affect population growth and balance of the colony.

  7. Juvenile hormone (JH esterase of the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus is not a target of the JH analog insecticide methoprene.

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    Shizuo G Kamita

    Full Text Available Juvenile hormones (JHs are essential sesquiterpenes that control insect development and reproduction. JH analog (JHA insecticides such as methoprene are compounds that mimic the structure and/or biological activity of JH. In this study we obtained a full-length cDNA, cqjhe, from the southern house mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus that encodes CqJHE, an esterase that selectively metabolizes JH. Unlike other recombinant esterases that have been identified from dipteran insects, CqJHE hydrolyzed JH with specificity constant (k(cat/K(M ratio and V(max values that are common among JH esterases (JHEs. CqJHE showed picomolar sensitivity to OTFP, a JHE-selective inhibitor, but more than 1000-fold lower sensitivity to DFP, a general esterase inhibitor. To our surprise, CqJHE did not metabolize the isopropyl ester of methoprene even when 25 pmol of methoprene was incubated with an amount of CqJHE that was sufficient to hydrolyze 7,200 pmol of JH to JH acid under the same assay conditions. In competition assays in which both JH and methoprene were available to CqJHE, methoprene did not show any inhibitory effects on the JH hydrolysis rate even when methoprene was present in the assay at a 10-fold higher concentration relative to JH. Our findings indicated that JHE is not a molecular target of methoprene. Our findings also do not support the hypothesis that methoprene functions in part by inhibiting the action of JHE.

  8. Juvenile hormone biosynthesis gene expression in the corpora allata of honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) female castes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomtorin, Ana Durvalina; Mackert, Aline; Rosa, Gustavo Conrado Couto; Moda, Livia Maria; Martins, Juliana Ramos; Bitondi, Márcia Maria Gentile; Hartfelder, Klaus; Simões, Zilá Luz Paulino

    2014-01-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) controls key events in the honey bee life cycle, viz. caste development and age polyethism. We quantified transcript abundance of 24 genes involved in the JH biosynthetic pathway in the corpora allata-corpora cardiaca (CA-CC) complex. The expression of six of these genes showing relatively high transcript abundance was contrasted with CA size, hemolymph JH titer, as well as JH degradation rates and JH esterase (jhe) transcript levels. Gene expression did not match the contrasting JH titers in queen and worker fourth instar larvae, but jhe transcript abundance and JH degradation rates were significantly lower in queen larvae. Consequently, transcriptional control of JHE is of importance in regulating larval JH titers and caste development. In contrast, the same analyses applied to adult worker bees allowed us inferring that the high JH levels in foragers are due to increased JH synthesis. Upon RNAi-mediated silencing of the methyl farnesoate epoxidase gene (mfe) encoding the enzyme that catalyzes methyl farnesoate-to-JH conversion, the JH titer was decreased, thus corroborating that JH titer regulation in adult honey bees depends on this final JH biosynthesis step. The molecular pathway differences underlying JH titer regulation in larval caste development versus adult age polyethism lead us to propose that mfe and jhe genes be assayed when addressing questions on the role(s) of JH in social evolution.

  9. Evaluation of Juvenile Hormone Analogues as Rodent Feed-Through Insecticides for Control of Immature Phlebotomine Sandflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    fever Naples virus. Most importantly, sandflies are the vectors of the protozoan parasites that cause leishmaniasis. Worldwide, two million new cases of...Leishmania major. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology , 80, 501–507. Karapet’ian, A.B., Dzhabarov, L.N., Mamigonova, R.I. & Sabatov, E.A. (1983) Use

  10. Toxicokinetics of tetrabromoethylcyclohexane (TBECH) in juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta) and effects on plasma sex hormones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gemmill, Bonnie [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Arctic Aquatic Research Division, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N6 (Canada); Department of Environment and Geography, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada); Pleskach, Kerri [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Arctic Aquatic Research Division, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N6 (Canada); Peters, Lisa [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Arctic Aquatic Research Division, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N6 (Canada); Department of Environment and Geography, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada); Palace, Vince [Department of Environment and Geography, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada); Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Environmental Science Division, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N6 (Canada); Wautier, Kerry; Park, Brad [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Environmental Science Division, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N6 (Canada); Darling, Colin; Rosenberg, Bruno [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Arctic Aquatic Research Division, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N6 (Canada); McCrindle, Robert [Wellington Laboratories Incorporated, Research Division, Guelph, ON N1G 3M5 (Canada); Tomy, Gregg T., E-mail: gregg.tomy@dfo-mpo.gc.ca [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Arctic Aquatic Research Division, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N6 (Canada); Department of Environment and Geography, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada)

    2011-01-25

    Technical 1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2 dibromoethyl)cyclohexane or tetrabromoethylcyclohexane (TBECH) used primarily as an additive flame retardant in polystyrene foams, contains two diastereoisomers, {alpha}- and {beta}- present in equimolar amounts. At temperatures in excess of 125 {sup o}C, isomerization to two other isoforms, {delta}- and {gamma}- is possible. The recent detection of TBECH in the environment and studies suggesting that isomers are androgenic prompted us to examine the toxicokinetics and biochemical effects of one of the isomers, {beta}-, in a controlled laboratory environment. Juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta) were exposed to three different amounts of the {beta}-isomer (low, medium and high) via the food followed by a period in which they were exposed to unfortified food. A fourth group of fish was exposed to unfortified food for the duration of the experiment. On days 0, 7, 14, 21, 35, 49, 56, 63, 77, 91, 105, and 133, eight fish from each treatment group were euthanized and liver, plasma, lower jaw (i.e., thyroid tissue) and gonad were collected and the remaining tissue ('whole-fish') was retained. {beta}-Isomer content was measured in whole-fish and in liver while estradiol (E2), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and testosterone (T) were measured in plasma. Based on liver and gonad somatic indices, no apparent effects on liver or gonad development in fish from any of the treatment groups were observed. The bioaccumulation of {beta}-isomer was similar in fish from all treatment groups with steady-state occurring before the end of the uptake phase. Depuration of the {beta}-isomer from fish obeyed first order kinetics and there were no statistically significant differences in the depuration half life (t{sub 1/2}) among the treatment groups: 22.5 {+-} 10.4 (low), 13.5 {+-} 5.9 (med) and 13.8 {+-} 2.2 (high) days. Steady-state biomagnification factors were much smaller than 1 for fish in all treatment groups. Debrominated metabolites were not

  11. Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormones are your body's chemical messengers. They travel in your bloodstream to tissues or organs. They work ... glands, which are special groups of cells, make hormones. The major endocrine glands are the pituitary, pineal, ...

  12. Hormonal crises following receptor radionuclide therapy with the radiolabeled somatostatin analogue [{sup 177}Lu-DOTA{sup 0},Tyr{sup 3}]octreotate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keizer, Bart de; Kam, Boen L.R.; Essen, Martijn van; Krenning, Eric P.; Kwekkeboom, Dik J. [Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rotterdam, P.O. Box 2040 (Netherlands); Aken, Maarten O. van; Feelders, Richard A.; Herder, Wouter W. de [Erasmus Medical Center, Section of Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2008-04-15

    Receptor radionuclide therapy is a promising treatment modality for patients with neuroendocrine tumors for whom alternative treatments are limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of hormonal crises after therapy with the radiolabeled somatostatin analogue [{sup 177}Lu-DOTA{sup 0},Tyr{sup 3}]octreotate ({sup 177}Lu-octreotate). All {sup 177}Lu-octreotate treatments between January 2000 and January 2007 were investigated. Four hundred seventy-six patients with gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors and three patients with metastatic pheochromocytoma were included for analysis. Four hundred seventy-nine patients received a total of 1,693 administrations of {sup 177}Lu-octreotate. Six of 479 patients (1%) developed severe symptoms because of massive release of bioactive substances after the first cycle of {sup 177}Lu-octreotate. One patient had a metastatic hormone-producing small intestinal carcinoid; two patients had metastatic, hormone-producing bronchial carcinoids; two patients had vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-producing pancreatic endocrine tumors (VIPomas); and one patient had a metastatic pheochromocytoma. With adequate treatment, all patients eventually recovered. Hormonal crises after {sup 177}Lu-octreotate therapy occur in 1% of patients. Generally, {sup 177}Lu-octreotate therapy is well tolerated. (orig.)

  13. Somatic growth effects of intramuscular injection of growth hormone in androgen-treated juvenile Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes: Cichlidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. Liñán-Cabello

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the effects of the interaction of growth hormone (GH with 17 a-methyltestosterone (17-MT during fish growth. We evaluated this in the present study to assess the effect on fish growth. Fish in two batches of juvenile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus (approximately 5.0cm in length were randomly assigned in triplicate to three treatments and a control group, distributed among 12 fiberglass tanks of 1 000L capacity (50 fish per tank in an experiment covering a period of six weeks. The experimental groups were: a fish treated with 17-MT and GH in mineral oil (RGH; b fish treated with 17-MT and mineral oil without the addition of GH (R; c fish treated with GH in mineral oil but not 17-MT (NGH; and d fish of the control group, which were treated with mineral oil but not 17-MT or GH (N. The GH was injected into the fish at a rate of 0.625mg/g body weight. Morphometric data were recorded at the beginning of the experiment (T and at 15, 30 and 45 days (T, T and T, and various indicators of growth were assessed: condition factor (K; survival percentage (S, feed conversion rate (FCR, percentage weight gain (WG and (v daily weight gain. The optimum dietary level was calculated assuming 5% food conversion to total weight in each group. During the experiment, the fish were provided with a commercial food containing 45% protein. The data showed that GH injection resulted in a greater weight gain in fish treated with 17-MT (the RGH treatment group, being particularly significant increase in weight during T and T (p<0.05. High values of K were found in the R and RGH treatments during the initial days of the experiment, which may have been a consequence of the better nutritional status affecting both weight gain and growth in body length, as a result of the additive effects of 17-MT and GH. The fish in groups not treated with 17-MT and treated with 17-MT and added GH showed greater increases in WG per day, higher K values and lower FCRs than

  14. Developmental link between sex and nutrition; doublesex regulates sex-specific mandible growth via juvenile hormone signaling in stag beetles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Gotoh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexual dimorphisms in trait expression are widespread among animals and are especially pronounced in ornaments and weapons of sexual selection, which can attain exaggerated sizes. Expression of exaggerated traits is usually male-specific and nutrition sensitive. Consequently, the developmental mechanisms generating sexually dimorphic growth and nutrition-dependent phenotypic plasticity are each likely to regulate the expression of extreme structures. Yet we know little about how either of these mechanisms work, much less how they might interact with each other. We investigated the developmental mechanisms of sex-specific mandible growth in the stag beetle Cyclommatus metallifer, focusing on doublesex gene function and its interaction with juvenile hormone (JH signaling. doublesex genes encode transcription factors that orchestrate male and female specific trait development, and JH acts as a mediator between nutrition and mandible growth. We found that the Cmdsx gene regulates sex differentiation in the stag beetle. Knockdown of Cmdsx by RNA-interference in both males and females produced intersex phenotypes, indicating a role for Cmdsx in sex-specific trait growth. By combining knockdown of Cmdsx with JH treatment, we showed that female-specific splice variants of Cmdsx contribute to the insensitivity of female mandibles to JH: knockdown of Cmdsx reversed this pattern, so that mandibles in knockdown females were stimulated to grow by JH treatment. In contrast, mandibles in knockdown males retained some sensitivity to JH, though mandibles in these individuals did not attain the full sizes of wild type males. We suggest that moderate JH sensitivity of mandibular cells may be the default developmental state for both sexes, with sex-specific Dsx protein decreasing sensitivity in females, and increasing it in males. This study is the first to demonstrate a causal link between the sex determination and JH signaling pathways, which clearly interact to

  15. Modeling the flux of metabolites in the juvenile hormone biosynthesis pathway using generalized additive models and ordinary differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Rincón, Raúl O; Rivera-Pérez, Crisalejandra; Diambra, Luis; Noriega, Fernando G

    2017-01-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) regulates development and reproductive maturation in insects. The corpora allata (CA) from female adult mosquitoes synthesize fluctuating levels of JH, which have been linked to the ovarian development and are influenced by nutritional signals. The rate of JH biosynthesis is controlled by the rate of flux of isoprenoids in the pathway, which is the outcome of a complex interplay of changes in precursor pools and enzyme levels. A comprehensive study of the changes in enzymatic activities and precursor pool sizes have been previously reported for the mosquito Aedes aegypti JH biosynthesis pathway. In the present studies, we used two different quantitative approaches to describe and predict how changes in the individual metabolic reactions in the pathway affect JH synthesis. First, we constructed generalized additive models (GAMs) that described the association between changes in specific metabolite concentrations with changes in enzymatic activities and substrate concentrations. Changes in substrate concentrations explained 50% or more of the model deviances in 7 of the 13 metabolic steps analyzed. Addition of information on enzymatic activities almost always improved the fitness of GAMs built solely based on substrate concentrations. GAMs were validated using experimental data that were not included when the model was built. In addition, a system of ordinary differential equations (ODE) was developed to describe the instantaneous changes in metabolites as a function of the levels of enzymatic catalytic activities. The results demonstrated the ability of the models to predict changes in the flux of metabolites in the JH pathway, and can be used in the future to design and validate experimental manipulations of JH synthesis.

  16. Precocious sexual signalling and mating in Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) sterile males achieved through juvenile hormone treatment and protein supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liendo, M C; Devescovi, F; Bachmann, G E; Utgés, M E; Abraham, S; Vera, M T; Lanzavecchia, S B; Bouvet, J P; Gómez-Cendra, P; Hendrichs, J; Teal, P E A; Cladera, J L; Segura, D F

    2013-02-01

    Sexual maturation of Anastrepha fraterculus is a long process. Methoprene (a mimic of juvenile hormone) considerably reduces the time for sexual maturation in males. However, in other Anastrepha species, this effect depends on protein intake at the adult stage. Here, we evaluated the mating competitiveness of sterile laboratory males and females that were treated with methoprene (either the pupal or adult stage) and were kept under different regimes of adult food, which varied in the protein source and the sugar:protein ratio. Experiments were carried out under semi-natural conditions, where laboratory flies competed over copulations with sexually mature wild flies. Sterile, methoprene-treated males that reached sexual maturity earlier (six days old), displayed the same lekking behaviour, attractiveness to females and mating competitiveness as mature wild males. This effect depended on protein intake. Diets containing sugar and hydrolyzed yeast allowed sterile males to compete with wild males (even at a low concentration of protein), while brewer´s yeast failed to do so even at a higher concentration. Sugar only fed males were unable to achieve significant numbers of copulations. Methoprene did not increase the readiness to mate of six-day-old sterile females. Long pre-copulatory periods create an additional cost to the management of fruit fly pests through the sterile insect technique (SIT). Our findings suggest that methoprene treatment will increase SIT effectiveness against A. fraterculus when coupled with a diet fortified with protein. Additionally, methoprene acts as a physiological sexing method, allowing the release of mature males and immature females and hence increasing SIT efficiency.

  17. Krüppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1) mediates juvenile hormone action during metamorphosis of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minakuchi, Chieka; Zhou, Xiaofeng; Riddiford, Lynn M

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) given at pupariation inhibits bristle formation and causes pupal cuticle formation in the abdomen of Drosophila melanogaster due to its prolongation of expression of the transcription factor Broad (BR). In a microarray analysis of JH-induced gene expression in abdominal integument, we found that Krüppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1) was up-regulated during most of adult development. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses showed that Kr-h1 up-regulation began at 10h after puparium formation (APF), and Kr-h1 up-regulation occurred in imaginal epidermal cells, persisting larval muscles, and larval oenocytes. Ectopic expression of Kr-h1 in abdominal epidermis using T155-Gal4 to drive UAS-Kr-h1 resulted in missing or short bristles in the dorsal midline. This phenotype was similar to that seen after a low dose of JH or after misexpression of br between 21 and 30 h APF. Ectopic expression of Kr-h1 prolonged the expression of BR protein in the pleura and the dorsal tergite. No Kr-h1 was seen after misexpression of br. Thus, Kr-h1 mediates some of the JH signaling in the adult abdominal epidermis and is upstream of br in this pathway. We also show for the first time that the JH-mediated maintenance of br expression in this epidermis is patterned and that JH delays the fusion of the imaginal cells and the disappearance of Dpp in the dorsal midline.

  18. Modeling the flux of metabolites in the juvenile hormone biosynthesis pathway using generalized additive models and ordinary differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Rincón, Raúl O.; Rivera-Pérez, Crisalejandra; Diambra, Luis; Noriega, Fernando G.

    2017-01-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) regulates development and reproductive maturation in insects. The corpora allata (CA) from female adult mosquitoes synthesize fluctuating levels of JH, which have been linked to the ovarian development and are influenced by nutritional signals. The rate of JH biosynthesis is controlled by the rate of flux of isoprenoids in the pathway, which is the outcome of a complex interplay of changes in precursor pools and enzyme levels. A comprehensive study of the changes in enzymatic activities and precursor pool sizes have been previously reported for the mosquito Aedes aegypti JH biosynthesis pathway. In the present studies, we used two different quantitative approaches to describe and predict how changes in the individual metabolic reactions in the pathway affect JH synthesis. First, we constructed generalized additive models (GAMs) that described the association between changes in specific metabolite concentrations with changes in enzymatic activities and substrate concentrations. Changes in substrate concentrations explained 50% or more of the model deviances in 7 of the 13 metabolic steps analyzed. Addition of information on enzymatic activities almost always improved the fitness of GAMs built solely based on substrate concentrations. GAMs were validated using experimental data that were not included when the model was built. In addition, a system of ordinary differential equations (ODE) was developed to describe the instantaneous changes in metabolites as a function of the levels of enzymatic catalytic activities. The results demonstrated the ability of the models to predict changes in the flux of metabolites in the JH pathway, and can be used in the future to design and validate experimental manipulations of JH synthesis. PMID:28158248

  19. Expressional and functional analysis of CYP15A1, a juvenile hormone epoxidase, in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minakuchi, Chieka; Ishii, Fumika; Washidu, Yumiko; Ichikawa, Akio; Tanaka, Toshiharu; Miura, Ken; Shinoda, Tetsuro

    2015-09-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) is synthesized and secreted by the corpora allata. In the final two steps of JH biosynthesis, farnesoic acid (FA) is converted to JH through methylation by JH acid O-methyltransferase (JHAMT) and epoxidation by the cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP15. In the present study, we identified a homolog of CYP15 from the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (TcCYP15A1), and analyzed its expression as well as its role in JH biosynthesis. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that the level of TcCYP15A1 mRNA was high in the embryonic stage as well as in the middle of the final larval instar. In the embryonic stage, the transcript level of TcCYP15A1 started to increase 30h after egg laying (AEL), peaked 54-60h AEL, and was followed by an increase of TcJHAMT mRNA, suggesting that JH biosynthesis started at this time point. TcCYP15A1 mRNA was present, but not exclusively so in the larval corpora allata. The recombinant TcCYP15A1 protein epoxidized both FA and methyl farnesoate (MF) in highly stereo-specific manners. These results confirmed that TcCYP15A1 is involved in JH biosynthesis. The RNAi-mediated knockdown of TcCYP15A1 in the pre-final larval instar did not result in precocious metamorphosis to pupa, indicating that MF may exhibit JH-like activity in order to maintain the larval status. The double knockdown of TcJHAMT and TcCYP15A1 resulted in pupae and adults with shorter wings, suggesting that the precursors of JH, JH acid and MF, may be essential for wing expansion.

  20. Family-specific differences in growth rate and hepatic gene expression in juvenile triploid growth hormone (GH) transgenic Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qingheng; Feng, Charles Y; Hori, Tiago S; Plouffe, Debbie A; Buchanan, John T; Rise, Matthew L

    2013-12-01

    Growth hormone transgenic (GHTg) Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) have enhanced growth when compared to their non-transgenic counterparts, and this trait can be beneficial for aquaculture production. Biological confinement of GHTg Atlantic salmon may be achieved through the induction of triploidy (3N). The growth rates of triploid GH transgenic (3NGHTg) Atlantic salmon juveniles were found to significantly vary between families in the AquaBounty breeding program. In order to characterize gene expression associated with enhanced growth in juvenile 3NGHTg Atlantic salmon, a functional genomics approach (32K cDNA microarray hybridizations followed by QPCR) was used to identify and validate liver transcripts that were differentially expressed between two fast-growing 3NGHTg Atlantic salmon families (AS11, AS26) and a slow-growing 3NGHTg Atlantic salmon family (AS25); juvenile growth rate was evaluated over a 45-day period. Of 687 microarray-identified differentially expressed features, 143 (116 more highly expressed in fast-growing and 27 more highly expressed in slow-growing juveniles) were identified in the AS11 vs. AS25 microarray study, while 544 (442 more highly expressed in fast-growing and 102 more highly expressed in slow-growing juveniles) were identified in the AS26 vs. AS25 microarray study. Forty microarray features (39 putatively associated with fast growth and 1 putatively associated with slow growth) were present in both microarray experiment gene lists. The expression levels of 15 microarray-identified transcripts were studied using QPCR with individual RNA samples to validate microarray results and to study biological variability of transcript expression. The QPCR results agreed with the microarray results for 12 of 13 putative fast-growth associated transcripts, but QPCR did not validate the microarray results for 2 putative slow-growth associated transcripts. Many of the 39 microarray-identified genes putatively associated at the transcript expression

  1. Synthesis of analogs of juvenile hormone on the basis of the telomerization reaction of piperylene with sulfones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolstikov, G.A.; Rozentsvet, O.A.; Pantukh, B.I.; Khalilov, L.M.

    1986-10-20

    In continuing the work on the study of the telomerization of 1,3-dienes with sulfones containing an active H atom, and also with the aim of synthesizing analogs of juvenile hormone (JH) based on the telomers obtained, they studied the catalytic telomerization of 1,3-pentadiene (piperylene) with ..beta..-substituted sulfonates. It was established that trans-piperlyene participates in the telomerization reaction with sulfones in the presence of the catalytic system PdCl/sub 2/(Ph/sub 3/P)/sub 2/-PhONa. Methyl 2-phenylsulfonyl-3,7-dimethyl-4(E), 9-decadienecarboxylate (II) is formed in a yield of 65% by the reaction of methyl phenylsulfonylacetate (I) with piperylene in the course of 20 h at 85/sup 0/C. The presence of absorption bands at 920 (CH/sub 2/=C) and 980 cm/sup -1/ (E-CH=CH) in the IR spectrum of compound (II) and the presence of a group of multiplet signals at delta 4.8-5.3 ppm in the PMR spectrum, corresponding to five protons of double bonds, indicate the addition of two molecules of piperylene to the molecule of the sulfone (I). The oxidation with oxygen on a Pd/Cu-catalyst proceeds smoothly to the methyl ketone (III); this clearly confirms the presence of the terminal C=C bond in the telomer (II). In the PMR spectrum of (II), notice is taken of the group of signals in the region of 3.30-3.53 ppm corresponding to three methoxy protons. There are three pairs of doublets (J = 7 Hz) in the region of 0.1-1.3 ppm which correspond to the methyl group. The complexity of the PMR spectrum is probably explained by the fact that the reaction leads to the formation of a complex mixture of diastereoisomers. As was to be expected, methyl 3,7-dimethyl-4,9-decadienoate (IV) is formed as the sole product with a yield of 70% in the desulfonation of the telomer (II) using Na/Hg in methanol according to the method of (5); the structure of (IV) was established with the aid of /sup 13/C NMR spectroscopy.

  2. SEX-STEROID AND THYROID HORMONE CONCENTRATIONS IN JUVENILE ALLIGATORS (ALLIGATOR MISSISSIPPIENSIS) FROM CONTAMINATED AND REFERENCE LAKES IN FLORIDA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sex-steroid and thyroid hormones are critical regulators of growth and reproduction in all vertebrates, and several recent studies suggest that environmental chemicals can alter circulating concentrations of these hormones. This study examines plasma concentrations of estradiol-...

  3. Effect of subcutaneous injection of a long-acting analogue of somatostatin (SMS 201-995) on plasma thyroid-stimulating hormone in normal human subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, S.; Tanaka, K.; Kumagae, M.; Takeda, F.; Morio, K.; Kogure, M.; Hasegawa, M.; Horiuchi, T.; Watabe, T.; Miyabe, S.

    1988-01-01

    SMS 201-995 (SMS), a synthetic analogue of somatostatin (SRIF) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of the hypersecretion of hormones such as in acromegaly. However, little is known about the effects of SMS on the secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in normal subjects. In this study, plasma TSH was determined with a highly sensitive immunoradiometric assay, in addition to the concentration of SMS in plasma and urine with a radioimmunoassay, following subcutaneous injection of 25, 50, 100 ..mu..g of SMS or a placebo to normal male subjects, at 0900 h after an overnight fast. The plasma concentrations of SMS were dose-responsive and the peak levels were 1.61 +/- 0.09, 4.91 +/- 0.30 and 8.52 +/- 1.18 ng/ml, which were observed at 30, 15 and 45 min after the injection of 25, 50, and 100 ..mu..g of SMS, respectively. Mean plasma disappearance half-time of SMS was estimated to be 110 +/- 3 min. Plasma TSH was suppressed in a dose dependent manner and the suppression lasted for at least 8 hours. At 8 hours after the injection of 25, 50, and 100 ..mu..g of SMS, the plasma TSH levels were 43.8 +/- 19.4, 33.9 +/- 9.4 and 24.9 +/- 3.2%, respectively, of the basal values.

  4. Exposure of juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) to silver nanoparticles and 17α-ethinylestradiol mixtures: Implications for contaminant uptake and plasma steroid hormone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Julia; Salaberria, Iurgi; Styrishave, Bjarne; Staňková, Radka; Ciesielski, Tomasz M; Olsen, Anders J; Posch, Wilfried; Flaten, Trond P; Krøkje, Åse; Salvenmoser, Willi; Jenssen, Bjørn M

    2017-01-01

    Combined exposure to engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) and anthropogenic contaminants can lead to changes in bioavailability, uptake and thus effects of both groups of contaminants. In this study we investigated effects of single and combined exposures of silver (Ag) nanoparticles (AgNPs) and the synthetic hormone 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) on tissue uptake of both contaminants in juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). Silver uptake and tissue distribution (gills, liver, kidney, stomach, muscle and bile) were analyzed following a 14-day, 2-h daily pulsed exposure to AgNPs (2 μg L(-1) and 200 μg L(-1)), Ag(+) (50 μg L(-1)), EE2 (50 ng L(-1)) and AgNP + EE2 (2 or 200 μg L(-1)+50 ng L(-1)). Effects of the exposures on plasma vitellogenin (Vtg) levels, EE2 and steroid hormone concentrations were investigated. The AgNP and AgNP + EE2 exposures resulted in similar Ag concentrations in the tissues, indicating that combined exposure did not influence Ag uptake in tissues. The highest Ag concentrations were found in gills. For the Ag(+) exposed fish, the highest Ag concentrations were measured in the liver. Our results show dissolution processes of AgNPs in seawater, indicating that the tissue concentrations of Ag may partly originate from ionic release. Plasma EE2 concentrations and Vtg induction were similar in fish exposed to the single contaminants and the mixed contaminants, indicating that the presence of AgNPs did not significantly alter EE2 uptake. Similarly, concentrations of most steroid hormones were not significantly altered due to exposures to the combined contaminants versus the single compound exposures. However, high concentrations of AgNPs in combination with EE2 caused a drop of estrone (E1) (female fish) and androstenedione (AN) (male and female fish) levels in plasma below quantification limits. Our results indicate that the interactive effects between AgNPs and EE2 are limited, with only high concentrations of AgNPs triggering

  5. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of two juvenile hormone esterase-like carboxylesterase cDNAs in Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yu; Zhao, Muzi; Deng, Yanfei; Yang, Yuanjie; Li, Xuguang; Lu, Quanping; Ge, Jiachun; Pan, Jianlin; Xu, Zhiqiang

    2017-03-01

    Precise regulation of methyl farnesoate (MF) titer is of prime importance throughout the crustacean life-cycle. Although the synthetic pathway of MF is well-documented, little is known about its degradation and recycling in crustaceans. Juvenile hormone esterase-like (JHE-like) carboxylesterase (CXE) is a key enzyme in MF degradation, thus playing a significant role in regulating the MF titer. We identified and characterized two cDNAs, Es-CXE1 and Es-CXE2, encoding JHE-like CXEs in Chinese mitten crab. Full-length cDNAs of Es-CXE1 and Es-CXE2 encode proteins composed of 584 and 597 amino acids, respectively, both of which contain a typical carboxylesterase domain. Alignment and phylogenetic analyses revealed that the Es-CXEs are highly similar to those of other crustaceans. To further validate their functions, we evaluated the mRNA expression patterns of the Es-CXEs in various tissues and in different physiological conditions. Tissue-specific expression analysis showed that the two Es-CXEs were predominantly expressed in the hepatopancreas and ovaries, which are the major tissues for MF metabolism. Es-CXE2 expression levels in the hepatopancreas and ovaries were about 100 and 25-fold higher, than the respective Es-CXE1 expressions. During ovarian rapid development stage, the global expressions of Es-CXEs were up-regulated in the hepatopancreas and down-regulated in the ovaries. After eyestalk ablation (ESA), the mRNA expressions of the two Es-CXEs were up-regulated in the hepatopancreas, further indicating their potential in degrading MF. Taken together, our results suggest that Es-CXEs, the key component of the juvenile hormone degradation pathway, may play vital roles in the development and reproduction of the Chinese mitten crab.

  6. A juvenile hormone-repressible transferrin-like protein from the bean bug, Riptortus clavatus: cDNA sequence analysis and protein identification during diapause and vitellogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, M; Watanabe, D; Chinzei, Y

    2000-05-01

    We found several juvenile hormone-responsive cDNAs in the bean bug, Riptortus clavatus, by using mRNA differential display (Hirai et al., 1998). One of them, a juvenile hormone-repressible cDNA, JR-3, was cloned, sequenced, characterized and identified as a transferrin (RcTf). RcTf cDNA encoded 652 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 71,453 Da. The deduced amino acid sequence showed significant homology with the transferin genes of several insects, Manduca sexta (43% identity), Blaberus discoidalis (43%), Aedes aegypti (43%), Drosophila melanogaster (36%), Sarcophaga peregrina (36%) and the human (25%). Antiserum was prepared by using recombinant RcTf protein expressed in Escherichia coli as an antigen. The antiserum reacted specifically with both the recombinant protein and the native protein from the bugs, with sizes of 70 and 75 kDa, respectively. The 75 kDa protein was partially purified from hemolymph of diapausing female bugs and the first ten amino acids were found to be identical to that of RcTf cDNA, indicating that the 75 kDa protein is RcTf. The tissue distribution of RcTf in the bug was examined by Western blot analysis. In diapausing animals, RcTf was detected in the fat body, hemolymph and ovary but not in the gut. In the post-diapause stage, RcTf was also detected in eggs, in addition to the fat body and ovary. These results indicate that RcTf is incorporated into the oocytes during vitellogenesis, and suggest that it may provide iron for the developing embryos.

  7. Somatic growth effects of intramuscular injection of growth hormone in androgen-treated juvenile Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes: Cichlidae

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    Marco A. Liñán-Cabello

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the effects of the interaction of growth hormone (GH with 17 a-methyltestosterone (17-MT during fish growth. We evaluated this in the present study to assess the effect on fish growth. Fish in two batches of juvenile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus (approximately 5.0cm in length were randomly assigned in triplicate to three treatments and a control group, distributed among 12 fiberglass tanks of 1 000L capacity (50 fish per tank in an experiment covering a period of six weeks. The experimental groups were: a fish treated with 17-MT and GH in mineral oil (RGH; b fish treated with 17-MT and mineral oil without the addition of GH (R; c fish treated with GH in mineral oil but not 17-MT (NGH; and d fish of the control group, which were treated with mineral oil but not 17-MT or GH (N. The GH was injected into the fish at a rate of 0.625mg/g body weight. Morphometric data were recorded at the beginning of the experiment (T and at 15, 30 and 45 days (T, T and T, and various indicators of growth were assessed: condition factor (K; survival percentage (S, feed conversion rate (FCR, percentage weight gain (WG and (v daily weight gain. The optimum dietary level was calculated assuming 5% food conversion to total weight in each group. During the experiment, the fish were provided with a commercial food containing 45% protein. The data showed that GH injection resulted in a greater weight gain in fish treated with 17-MT (the RGH treatment group, being particularly significant increase in weight during T and T (pActualmente, durante el crecimiento de los peces existe poco conocimiento sobre los efectos de la interacción de la hormona del crecimiento (HC con 17 α-metiltestosterona (17-MT. En el presente estudio los peces en dos lotes de tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus (5.0cm de longitud, fueron asignados al azar por triplicado a tres tratamientos y un grupo control, distribuidos en 12 tanques de fibra de vidrio de 1 000 litros (50 peces

  8. A juvenile hormone transcription factor Bmdimm-fibroin H chain pathway is involved in the synthesis of silk protein in silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiao-Ming; Liu, Chun; Jiang, Li-Jun; Li, Qiong-Yan; Zhou, Meng-Ting; Cheng, Ting-Cai; Mita, Kazuei; Xia, Qing-You

    2015-01-09

    The genes responsible for silk biosynthesis are switched on and off at particular times in the silk glands of Bombyx mori. This switch appears to be under the control of endogenous and exogenous hormones. However, the molecular mechanisms by which silk protein synthesis is regulated by the juvenile hormone (JH) are largely unknown. Here, we report a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, Bmdimm, its silk gland-specific expression, and its direct involvement in the regulation of fibroin H-chain (fib-H) by binding to an E-box (CAAATG) element of the fib-H gene promoter. Far-Western blots, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and co-immunoprecipitation assays revealed that Bmdimm protein interacted with another basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, Bmsage. Immunostaining revealed that Bmdimm and Bmsage proteins are co-localized in nuclei. Bmdimm expression was induced in larval silk glands in vivo, in silk glands cultured in vitro, and in B. mori cell lines after treatment with a JH analog. The JH effect on Bmdimm was mediated by the JH-Met-Kr-h1 signaling pathway, and Bmdimm expression did not respond to JH by RNA interference with double-stranded BmKr-h1 RNA. These data suggest that the JH regulatory pathway, the transcription factor Bmdimm, and the targeted fib-H gene contribute to the synthesis of fibroin H-chain protein in B. mori.

  9. Juvenile angiofibroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasal tumor; Angiofibroma - juvenile; Benign nasal tumor; Juvenile nasal angiofibroma; JNA ... Juvenile angiofibroma is not very common. It is most often found in adolescent boys. The tumor contains ...

  10. Efeitos da aplicação tópica de hormônio juvenil sobre o desenvolvimento dos ovários de larvas de operárias de Apis mellifera Linnaeus (Hymenoptera, Apidae Effect of topic application of juvenile hormone on the ovarian development of worker larvae of Apis mellifera Linnaeus (Hymenoptera, Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Fernando Antonialli-Junior

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A influência do hormônio juvenil sobre o desenvolvimento do ovário de larvas de operárias de Apis mellifera foi analisada levando em conta a determinação trófica das castas, segundo a qual a alimentação larval é controlada pelas operárias de maneira a promover uma diferenciação de castas controlada pela produção e disponibilidade desse hormônio. A hipótese testada é que a ação do hormônio juvenil seja capaz de proteger ou prevenir a degeneração nos ovários das larvas de operárias. Foi feita aplicação tópica de 1 ml de hormônio dissolvido em hexano na concentração de 1 mg/ml do segundo até o quinto dia de vida larval, e a morfologia dos ovários avaliada nos dias subseqüentes à aplicação até ao sexto dia de vida larval. Como controles foram utilizadas larvas nas quais se aplicou 1 ml de hexano e larvas que não receberam nenhum tratamento. Constatou-se que o efeito do hormônio juvenil varia conforme a idade larval em que é aplicado e que este efeito foi maior quando a aplicação foi feita no terceiro dia de vida larval.The influence of juvenile hormone (JH on the ovarian development of worker larvae of Apis mellifera was analyzed, taking into account the trophic determination of the castes. The workers control the larval feeding in order to promote caste differentiation, which is regulated by the production and availability of this hormone. The hypothesis tested was that the action of juvenile hormone is capable of protecting or preventing the degeneration of the ovaries in worker larvae. A preparation of 1 ml of juvenile hormone dissolved in hexane at a concentration of 1 mg/ml was applied topically to 2- to 5-day-old larvae. The morphology of the ovaries was evaluated on the days following the application, until the larvae were 6 days old. The controls consisted of larvae to which 1 ml of hexane was applied, and larvae that received no treatment. The effect of juvenile hormone varied according to the age

  11. Phosphorylation substrates for protein kinase C in intact pituitary cells: characterization of a receptor-mediated event using novel gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strulovici, B.; Tahilramani, R.; Nestor, J.J. Jr.

    1987-09-22

    The involvement of protein kinase C in the signal transduction of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) action was investigated with a GnRH superagonist, partial agonists, and antagonists in intact rat pituitary cells. Exposure of /sup 32/P-labeled cells to GnRH or to the superagonist (D-Nal(2)/sup 6/)GnRH induced the enhanced phosphorylation of 42-, 34-, 11-, and 10-kDa proteins and the dephosphorylation of a 15-kDa protein as assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis/autoradiography. This effect was blocked in a dose-dependent manner by potent GnRG antagonists. Downregulation of protein kinase C by prolonged incubation of the pituitary cells with high concentrations of active phorbol esters abolished protein kinase C activity and also prevented the phosphorylation induced by GnRN, or (D-Nal(2)/sup 6/)GnRH. The same effect was obtained by preincubating the cells with the protein kinase C inhibitor H-7. In this study the authors identify for the first time physiological substrates for protein kinase C in intact pituitary cells. They demonstrate a close quantitative correlation between the extent of translocation of protein kinase C, levels of phosphorylation of specific substrates in the intact cells, and the biological activity of the GnRH analogues with varying affinity for the GnRH receptor. These data strengthen the contention that the physiological effects of GnRH are primarily mediated via the phosphatidylinositol/Ca/sup 2 +/ signal transfer system and represent a first step toward defining the physiological substrates of protein kinase C and their role in the cascade of events that starts upon binding of GnRH to its receptor.

  12. Inhibition of insect juvenile hormone epoxide hydrolase: asymmetric synthesis and assay of glycidol-ester and epoxy-ester inhibitors of trichoplusia ni epoxide hydrolase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linderman, R J; Roe, R M; Harris, S V; Thompson, D M

    2000-01-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) undergoes metabolic degradation by two major pathways involving JH esterase and JH epoxide hydrolase (EH). While considerable effort has been focussed on the study of JH esterase and the development of inhibitors for this enzyme, much less has been reported on the study of JH-EH. In this work, the asymmetric synthesis of two classes of inhibitors of recombinant JH-EH from Trichoplusia ni, a glycidol-ester series and an epoxy-ester series is reported. The most effective glycidol-ester inhibitor, compound 1, exhibited an I(50) of 1.2x10(-8) M, and the most effective epoxy-ester inhibitor, compound 11, exhibited an I(50) of 9.4x10(-8) M. The potency of the inhibitors was found to be dependent on the absolute configuration of the epoxide. In both series of inhibitors, the C-10 R-configuration was found to be significantly more potent that the corresponding C-10 S-configuration. A mechanism for epoxide hydration catalyzed by insect EH is also presented.

  13. No effect of juvenile hormone on task performance in a bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) supports an evolutionary link between endocrine signaling and social complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpigler, Hagai Y; Siegel, Adam J; Huang, Zachary Y; Bloch, Guy

    2016-09-01

    A hallmark of insect societies is a division of labor among workers specializing in different tasks. In bumblebees the division of labor is related to body size; relatively small workers are more likely to stay inside the nest and tend ("nurse") brood, whereas their larger sisters are more likely to forage. Despite their ecological and economic importance, very little is known about the endocrine regulation of division of labor in bumblebees. We studied the influence of juvenile hormone (JH) on task performance in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris. We first used a radioimmunoassay to measure circulating JH titers in workers specializing in nursing and foraging activities. Next, we developed new protocols for manipulating JH titers by combining a size-adjusted topical treatment with the allatotoxin Precocene-I and replacement therapy with JH-III. Finally, we used this protocol to test the influence of JH on task performance. JH levels were either similar for nurses and foragers (three colonies), or higher in nurses (two colonies). Nurses had better developed ovaries and JH levels were typically positively correlated with ovarian state. Manipulation of JH titers influenced ovarian development and wax secretion, consistent with earlier allatectomy studies. These manipulations however, did not affect nursing or foraging activity, or the likelihood to specialize in nursing or foraging activity. These findings contrast with honeybees in which JH influences age-related division of labor but not adult female fertility. Thus, the evolution of complex societies in bees was associated with modifications in the way JH influences social behavior.

  14. Genome-wide comparison of genes involved in the biosynthesis, metabolism, and signaling of juvenile hormone between silkworm and other insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daojun Cheng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile hormone (JH contributes to the regulation of larval molting and metamorphosis in insects. Herein, we comprehensively identified 55 genes involved in JH biosynthesis, metabolism and signaling in the silkworm (Bombyx mori as well as 35 in Drosophila melanogaster, 35 in Anopheles gambiae, 36 in Apis mellifera, 47 in Tribolium castaneum, and 44 in Danaus plexippus. Comparative analysis showed that each gene involved in the early steps of the mevalonate (MVA pathway, in the neuropeptide regulation of JH biosynthesis, or in JH signaling is a single copy in B. mori and other surveyed insects, indicating that these JH-related pathways or steps are likely conserved in all surveyed insects. However, each gene participating in the isoprenoid branch of JH biosynthesis and JH metabolism, together with the FPPS genes for catalyzing the final step of the MVA pathway of JH biosynthesis, exhibited an obvious duplication in Lepidoptera, including B. mori and D. plexippus. Microarray and real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that different copies of several JH-related genes presented expression changes that correlated with the dynamics of JH titer during larval growth and metamorphosis. Taken together, the findings suggest that duplication-derived copy variation of JH-related genes might be evolutionarily associated with the variation of JH types between Lepidoptera and other insect orders. In conclusion, our results provide useful clues for further functional analysis of JH-related genes in B. mori and other insects.

  15. Remating behavior in Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) females is affected by male juvenile hormone analog treatment but not by male sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, S; Liendo, M C; Devescovi, F; Peralta, P A; Yusef, V; Ruiz, J; Cladera, J L; Vera, M T; Segura, D F

    2013-06-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) has been proposed as an area-wide method to control the South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann). This technique requires sterilization, a procedure that affects, along with other factors, the ability of males to modulate female sexual receptivity after copulation. Numerous pre-release treatments have been proposed to counteract the detrimental effects of irradiation, rearing and handling and increase SIT effectiveness. These include treating newly emerged males with a juvenile hormone mimic (methoprene) or supplying protein to the male's diet to accelerate sexual maturation prior to release. Here, we examine how male irradiation, methoprene treatment and protein intake affect remating behavior and the amount of sperm stored in inseminated females. In field cage experiments, we found that irradiated laboratory males were equally able to modulate female remating behavior as fertile wild males. However, females mated with 6-day-old, methoprene-treated males remated more and sooner than females mated with naturally matured males, either sterile or wild. Protein intake by males was not sufficient to overcome reduced ability of methoprene-treated males to induce refractory periods in females as lengthy as those induced by wild and naturally matured males. The amount of sperm stored by females was not affected by male irradiation, methoprene treatment or protein intake. This finding revealed that factors in addition to sperm volume intervene in regulating female receptivity after copulation. Implications for SIT are discussed.

  16. Enhancing male sexual success in a lekking fly (Anastrepha suspensa Diptera: Tephritidae) through a juvenile hormone analog has no effect on adult mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Rui; Sivinski, John; Teal, Peter; Brockmann, Jane

    2010-11-01

    While defending lek-territories, male Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) produce chemical, acoustic and visual courtship signals. In the laboratory and under semi-natural conditions, topical application of the juvenile hormone analog methoprene doubles pheromone production and subsequently doubles sexual success. However, sexual signals and interactions are likely to be physiologically expensive and so result in higher male mortality. Comparison of males kept in isolation for 35 days, but provided daily with a potential mate or a rival male, revealed that both male- and female-interactors shortened focal-male lifespan. In addition, focal males were either treated with methoprene or not, then either provided with protein in their sucrose-based diet or not. Protein proved to similarly double sexual success and also resulted in longer male life spans in all of the interactor-categories. However, there was no evidence that methoprene induced hypersexuality resulted in higher rates of mortality, i.e., the longevity of males treated with methoprene did not significantly differ from untreated males in the same interactor/diet categories. This apparent lack of costs to a putatively sexually selected signal is unexpected but presents an opportunity to increase the sexual competence of sterile flies with few consequences to their survival following mass-release. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Krüppel homolog 1 and E93 mediate Juvenile hormone regulation of metamorphosis in the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gujar, Hemant; Palli, Subba Reddy

    2016-01-01

    The common bed bug is an obligate hematophagous parasite of humans. We studied the regulation of molting and metamorphosis in bed bugs with a goal to identify key players involved. qRT-PCR studies on the expression of genes known to be involved in molting and metamorphosis showed high levels of Krüppel homolog 1 [Kr-h1, a transcription factor that plays key roles in juvenile hormone (JH) action] mRNA in the penultimate nymphal stage (N4). However, low levels of Kr-h1 mRNA were detected in the fifth and last nymphal stage (N5). Knockdown of Kr-h1 in N4 resulted in a precocious development of adult structures. Kr-h1 maintains the immature stage by suppressing E93 (early ecdysone response gene) in N4. E93 expression increases during the N5 in the absence of Kr-h1 and promotes the development of adult structures. Knockdown of E93 in N5 results in the formation of supernumerary nymphs. The role of JH in the suppression of adult structures through interaction with Kr-h1 and E93 was also studied by the topical application of JH analog, methoprene, to N5. Methoprene induced Kr-h1 and suppressed E93 and induced formation of the supernumerary nymph. These data show interactions between Kr-h1, E93 and JH in the regulation of metamorphosis in the bed bugs. PMID:27185064

  18. Juvenile hormone enhances aversive learning performance in 2-day old worker honey bees while reducing their attraction to queen mandibular pheromone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuillan, H James; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Mercer, Alison R

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that exposing young worker bees (Apis mellifera) to queen mandibular pheromone (QMP) reduces their aversive learning performance, while enhancing their attraction to QMP. As QMP has been found to reduce the rate of juvenile hormone (JH) synthesis in worker bees, we examined whether aversive learning in 2-day old workers exposed to QMP from the time of adult emergence could be improved by injecting JH (10 µg in a 2 µl volume) into the haemolymph. We examined in addition, the effects of JH treatment on worker attraction to QMP, and on the levels of expression of amine receptor genes in the antennae, as well as in the mushroom bodies of the brain. We found that memory acquisition and 1-hour memory recall were enhanced by JH. In contrast, JH treatment reduced the bees' attraction towards a synthetic strip impregnated with QMP (Bee Boost). Levels of expression of the dopamine receptor gene Amdop1 were significantly lower in the mushroom bodies of JH-treated bees than in bees treated with vehicle alone (acetone diluted with bee ringer). Expression of the octopamine receptor gene, Amoa1, in this brain region was also affected by JH treatment, and in the antennae, Amoa1 transcript levels were significantly lower in JH-treated bees compared to controls. The results of this study suggest that QMP's effects on JH synthesis may contribute to reducing aversive learning performance and enhancing attraction to QMP in young worker bees.

  19. An isoform of Taiman that contains a PRD-repeat motif is indispensable for transducing the vitellogenic juvenile hormone signal in Locusta migratoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiming; Yang, Libin; Song, Jiasheng; Kang, Le; Zhou, Shutang

    2017-03-01

    Taiman (Tai) has been recently identified as the dimerizing partner of juvenile hormone (JH) receptor, Methoprene-tolerant (Met). However, the role of Tai isoforms in transducing vitellogenic signal of JH has not been determined. In this study, we show that the migratory locust Locusta migratoria has two Tai isoforms, which differ in an INDEL-1 domain with the PRD-repeat motif rich in histidine and proline at the C-terminus. Tai-A with the INDEL-1 is expressed at levels about 50-fold higher than Tai-B without the INDEL-1 in the fat body of vitellogenic adult females. Knockdown of Tai-A but not Tai-B results in a substantial reduction of vitellogenin expression in the fat body accompanied by the arrest of ovarian development and oocyte maturation, similar to that caused by depletion of both Tai isoforms. Either Tai-A or Tai-B combined with Met can induce target gene transcription in response to JH, but Tai-A appears to mediate a significantly higher transactivation. Our data suggest that the INDEL-1 domain plays a critical role in Tai function during reproduction as Tai-A appears be more active than Tai-B in transducing the vitellogenic JH signal in L. migratoria.

  20. Green tea proanthocyanidins cause impairment of hormone-regulated larval development and reproductive fitness via repression of juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase, insulin-like peptide and cytochrome P450 genes in Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyanjom, Steven G.; Mutunga, James M.; Njeru, Sospeter N.; Bargul, Joel L.

    2017-01-01

    Successful optimization of plant-derived compounds into control of nuisance insects would benefit from scientifically validated targets. However, the close association between the genotypic responses and physiological toxicity effects mediated by these compounds remains underexplored. In this study, we evaluated the sublethal dose effects of proanthocyanidins (PAs) sourced from green tea (Camellia sinensis) on life history traits of Anopheles gambiae (sensu stricto) mosquitoes with an aim to unravel the probable molecular targets. Based on the induced phenotypic effects, genes selected for study targeted juvenile hormone (JH) biosynthesis, signal transduction, oxidative stress response and xenobiotic detoxification in addition to vitellogenesis in females. Our findings suggest that chronic exposure of larval stages (L3/L4) to sublethal dose of 5 ppm dramatically extended larval developmental period for up to 12 days, slowed down pupation rates, induced abnormal larval-pupal intermediates and caused 100% inhibition of adult emergence. Further, females exhibited significant interference of fecundity and egg hatchability relative to controls (p reproductive fitness thus could be potentially used for controlling populations of malaria vectors. PMID:28301607

  1. Repeated, Intermittent Social Defeat across the Entire Juvenile Period Resulted in Behavioral, Physiological, Hormonal, Immunological, and Neurochemical Alterations in Young Adult Male Golden Hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wei-Chun; Liu, Ching-Yi; Lai, Wen-Sung

    2016-01-01

    The developing brain is vulnerable to social defeat during the juvenile period. As complements of human studies, animal models of social defeat provide a straightforward approach to investigating the functional and neurobiological consequences of social defeats. Taking advantage of agonist behavior and social defeat in male golden hamster, a set of 6 experiments was conducted to investigate the consequences at multiple levels in young adulthood resulting from repeated, intermittent social defeats or "social threats" across the entire juvenile period. Male hamsters at postnatal day 28 (P28) were randomly assigned to either the social defeat, "social threat", or arena control group, and they correspondingly received a series of nine social interaction trials (i.e., either social defeat, "social threat", or arena control conditions) from P33 to P66. At the behavioral level (Experiment 1), we found that repeated social defeats (but not "social threats") significantly impacted locomotor activity in the familiar context and social interaction in the familiar/unfamiliar social contexts. At the physiological and hormonal levels (Experiments 2 and 3), repeated social defeat significantly enhanced the cortisol and norepinephrine concentrations in blood. Enlargement of the spleen was also found in the social defeat and "social threat" groups. At the immunological level (Experiment 4), the social defeat group showed lower levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the hypothalamus and hippocampus but higher concentration of IL-6 in the striatum compared to the other two groups. At the neurochemical level (Experiment 5), the socially defeated hamsters mainly displayed reductions of dopamine, dopamine metabolites, and 5-HT levels in the striatum and decreased level of 5-HT in the hippocampus. In Experiment 6, an increase in the spine density of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons was specifically observed in the "social threat" group. Collectively, our findings indicate that repeated

  2. Dermatomyositis (Juvenile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Am A Patient / Caregiver Diseases & Conditions Dermatomyositis (Juvenile) Dermatomyositis (Juvenile) Fast Facts Patients with JDM have varying ... What are common signs and symptoms of juvenile dermatomyositis? The most common signs and symptoms of JDM ...

  3. Retinoschisis (Juvenile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... here Home › Eye Conditions Listen Retinoschisis What is Juvenile Retinoschisis? Juvenile retinoschisis is an inherited disease diagnosed in childhood ... degeneration of the retina. What are the symptoms? Juvenile retinoschisis, also known as X-linked retinoschisis, occurs ...

  4. Hypermetabolic Conversion of Plant Oil into Water: Endothermic Biochemical Process Stimulated by Juvenile Hormone in the European Firebug, Pyrrhocoris apterus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sláma, Karel; Lukáš, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The physiological and biochemical mechanisms that enable insects to feed on dry food to secure enough water for larval growth were investigated. The study was carried out with a plethora of physiological methods, ranging from the simple volumetric determination of O2 consumption and water intake to more advanced methods such as scanning microrespirography and thermovision imaging of insect’s body temperature. The experiments were done on the European firebug, Pyrrhocoris apterus, which feeds exclusively on dry linden seeds. In order to survive, it needs to drink water or suck a sap from plants occasionally. It was found that the young larval instars compensate the occasional water deficiency by the increased production of metabolic water. The juvenile hormone (JH)-dependent production of metabolic water, which was previously found in other species consuming dry food, was achieved in P. apterus by total metabolic combustion of the dietary lipid (neutral seed oil). The water-producing, hypermetabolic larvae were heated from inside by endothermic energy released from the uncoupling of oxidation from oxidative phosphorylation. The “warm”, hypermetabolic larvae burning the dietary oil into CO2 and water showed the increased rates of respiratory metabolism. Microrespirographic recording of these larvae revealed the ratio of the respiratory quotient (RQ, CO2/O2) of 0.7, which indicated the breakdown of a pure triglyceride. The warm hypermetabolic larvae could be easily spotted and distinguished from the “cold” larvae on the screen of a thermovision camera. The last instar larvae lacking the JH were always only cold. They metabolized a carbohydrate substrate exclusively (RQ = 1.0), while the dietary lipid was stored in the fat body. In comparison with the hypermetabolic larvae of some other species fed on dry food, which exhibited the highest rates of O2 consumption ever recorded in a living organism (10–20 mL O2/g per hour), the metabolic difference between

  5. Comparative metabolism of branched-chain amino acids to precursors of juvenile hormone biogenesis in corpora allata of lepidopterous versus nonlepidopterous insects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brindle, P.A.; Schooley, D.A.; Tsai, L.W.; Baker, F.C.

    1988-08-05

    Comparative studies were performed on the role of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) in juvenile hormone (JH) biosynthesis using several lepidopterous and nonlepidopterous insects. Corpora cardiaca-corpora allata complexes (CC-CA, the corpora allata being the organ of JH biogenesis) were maintained in culture medium containing a uniformly /sup 14/C-labeled BCAA, together with (methyl-/sup 3/H)methionine as mass marker for JH quantification. BCAA catabolism was quantified by directly analyzing the medium for the presence of /sup 14/C-labeled propionate and/or acetate, while JHs were extracted, purified by liquid chromatography, and subjected to double-label liquid scintillation counting. Our results indicate that active BCAA catabolism occurs within the CC-CA of lepidopterans, and this efficiently provides propionyl-CoA (from isoleucine or valine) for the biosynthesis of the ethyl branches of JH I and II. Acetyl-CoA, formed from isoleucine or leucine catabolism, is also utilized by lepidopteran CC-CA for biosynthesizing JH III and the acetate-derived portions of the ethyl-branched JHs. In contrast, CC-CA of nonlepidopterans fail to catabolize BCAA. Consequently, exogenous isoleucine or leucine does not serve as a carbon source for the biosynthesis of JH III by these glands, and no propionyl-CoA is produced for genesis of ethyl-branched JHs. This is the first observation of a tissue-specific metabolic difference which in part explains why these novel homosesquiterpenoids exist in lepidopterans, but not in nonlepidopterans.

  6. The effects of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues on breast cancer and ovarian function protection%GnRH类似物在乳腺癌治疗中的应用和卵巢功能保护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范嘉躜; 杨振宇; 曾涛

    2012-01-01

      促性腺激素释放激素(gonadotropin-releasing hormone,GnRH)类似物治疗绝经前乳腺癌具有疗效好、停药后卵巢功能可恢复的特点,已取代手术和放疗成为治疗绝经前乳腺癌的一种主要治疗手段,现主要介绍GnRH类似物在乳腺癌内分泌治疗中的应用及其卵巢功能保护作用。%  The gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogues for the treatment of breast cancer has the characteristic of efficacy and menstruation recovery after treatment, which has replaced surgery and radiotherapy as a main treatment approach in the treatment of patients with premenopausal breast cancer. The effects of GnRH analogues on both the endocrine treatment of breast cancer and the protection of ovarian function are reviewed.

  7. Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors: hormonal profile after dynamic test with GnRH analogue: triptorelin represents a useful tool to evaluate tumoral hyperandrogenism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turra, J; Granzotto, M; Gallea, M; Faggian, D; Conte, L; Litta, P; Vettor, R; Mioni, R

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a 15-year-old woman with signs of hyperandrogenism affected by a Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor (SLCT). In our patient, blood analysis showed a high testosterone (T) level (T: 8.53 nmol/L; nv analogue test demonstrated an exaggerated secretion of 17-hydroxyprogesterone (OHP), T, and androstenedione (A) by the ovary after stimulation. We compared the GnRH-analogue test of our patient with that obtained in a group of normal and healthy women (no. 8 subjects, 16-26 years old), men (no. 4 subjects, 18-28 years old), and in a group of PCOS patients with age and body weight compared. We found in our patient a value of OHP, 17-beta estradiol (E2) and T, from 2 to 18 times higher than healthy women. When we compared our patient with healthy men, we differently observed a comparable response of T. The response of our patient was also comparable with that observed in the PCOS group for E2. During the post-surgical follow up, the GnRH-analogue test of our patient showed a response of OHP, T, and E2 comparable with that of the PCOS group. The GnRH-analogue test is a useful tool to characterize steroidogenesis in SLCT.

  8. EFFECT OF ACUTE STRESS ON PLASMA CONCENTRATIONS OF SEX AND STRESS HORMONES IN JUVENILE ALLIGATORS LIVING IN CONTROL AND CONTAMINATED LAKES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental contaminants can act as stressors, inducing elevated circulating concentrations of stress hormones such as corticosterone and cortisol. Development in contaminated eggs has been reported to modify circulating sex steroid hormone concentrations in alligators (Alligat...

  9. Juvenile Scleroderma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile Scleroderma INTRODUCTION Every parent will experience a moment of panic when told their child has scleroderma. ... in all their family members as well. CONCLUSION Juvenile scleroderma can be unsettling for the child and ...

  10. Effects of Insect Ecdysone and Juvenile Hormone on Reproduction of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus%昆虫蜕皮激素和保幼激素对松材线虫繁殖的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林峰; 袁冬菊; 赵博光; 王华光

    2014-01-01

    研究了外源昆虫蜕皮激素和保幼激素对松材线虫( Bursaphelenchus xylophilus)繁殖的影响。用10-6 g/mL到10-9 g/mL的7个连续几何级数浓度的保幼激素或蜕皮激素处理线虫。保幼激素处理6 d及以后的松材线虫繁殖数量显著高于空白对照和仅提供灰葡萄孢为营养的对照( P<0.05)。在观察时间内,保幼激素浓度以5×10-7 g/mL为线虫繁殖量的最高峰值,其线虫繁殖数量显著高于其他浓度( P<0.05)。蜕皮激素对松材线虫的繁殖同样具有明显的促进作用,激素处理6 d及以后的松材线虫繁殖数量显著高于两组对照( P<0.05)。在观察时间内,蜕皮激素浓度以5×10-7 g/mL为线虫繁殖量的最高峰值,且明显高于其他浓度的处理(P<0.05)。此外还发现保幼激素和蜕皮激素在浓度为5×10-9 g/mL处存在线虫繁殖的次高峰。%The effects of the insect 20-hydroxyecdysone and juvenile hormoneⅢ on reproduction of pine wood nematode,Bursaphelenchus xylophilus,were investigated.The nematodes were treated with 7 continuous geometric concentration series of 20-hydroxyecdysone or juvenile hormone Ⅲ.The numbers of the nematodes treated with 20-hydroxyecdysone or juvenile hormone Ⅲfrom the 6th day to the 9th were significantly higher than those of the blank control and the control treated with only the nematode food ,Botrytis cinerea ( P<0.05) . During the observing period the peak of the reproduction was at 5 ×10-7 g/mL of the ecdysone and the peak value was significantly higher than those in the other concentrations .During the observing period the peak of the number of the nematodes was at 5×10-7 g/mL of the two hormones and it was significantly higher than those in the other concentrations of the hormones .The second peak of the nematode number was also found at 5 ×10-9 g/mL in both the ecdysone and the juvenile hormone .

  11. Hormones and pheromones in regulation of insect behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both pheromones and hormones are well recognized regulators of insect biology. However, the interactions between hormones and pheromones in coordinating insect biology are less well understood. We have studied the interactions between juvenile hormone, its precursor methyl farnesoate, and pheromon...

  12. [Impact of microsporidia on hormonal balance in insect hosts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issi, I V; Tokarev, Iu S

    2002-01-01

    Microsporidia (M) is a phylum of protists parasitizing obligatory in animal cells. Long way of adaptation of M to intracellular parasitism resulted in establishment of quite close relationships between the parasite and its host. Different species of M induce in their hosts symptoms similar to those caused by misbalance of juvenile hormone (JH) and ecdysone. M infection leads to pathology of different hormone-dependent functions such as cell differentiation and specialization, molting, metamorphosis, diapause and reproduction of insects. The signs of hormonal dysfunction evidence for elevated titer of JH in M-infected insects. Two possible explanation of this could be offered: JH secretion by M or specific influence of the parasites on the insect endocrine systems. Impact on insect endogenous JH titer by M could be mediated by affection of secretory activity of corpora allata or by suppression of enzymatic degradation of JH. According to different hypotheses, insect hormonal status during microsporidiosis could be modified by a) insect host stress-reaction, b) exhaustion of insect host reserves, characteristic for acute phase of the disease, c) destruction of infected insect cells and tissues during mass sporogenesis of M. Data found in literature and provided by our experiments evidence for presence of JH analogues or juvenilizing substance in the extracts of M spores. From detailed examination of pathological process it is also seen that juvenilizing effect of M infection is usually restricted to the invaded regions of tissues (i.e. expressed locally) but not a systemic one. Ability of M to modify morpho-functional features of infected tissues at the level of hormonal regulation is undoubtfully a prominent adaptation for stabilizing "microsporidia-insect" parasite-host systems.

  13. The sensitivity of growth hormone and prolactin secretion to the somatostatin analogue SMS 201-995 in patients with prolactinomas and acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberts, S W; Zweens, M; Klijn, J G; van Vroonhoven, C C; Stefanko, S Z; Del Pozo, E

    1986-08-01

    The somatostatin analogue SMS 201-995 has recently been shown to be effective in suppressing GH secretion in most acromegalic patients. In the present study it was investigated whether PRL release in prolactinoma and acromegalic patients might also be sensitive to SMS 201-995 and whether co-secretion of PRL in acromegaly plays a role in determining the sensitivity of GH secretion to SMS 201-995. The s.c. administration of 50 micrograms SMS 201-995 did not affect high plasma PRL levels in four microprolactinoma patients. Therapy of one of these patients for 3 d with 50 micrograms three times a day also did not affect PRL levels. The single administration of 50 micrograms SMS 201-995 in 22 acromegalic patients lowered plasma GH levels for 2-6 h to less than 5 micrograms/l in 14 patients and to less than 50% of control values in 16 patients. In 18 of these 22 patients the immunohistochemical picture of the pituitary tumour was known. Eleven patients had pure GH-containing tumours and in seven patients there were mixed GH/PRL-containing tumours. In two of these latter patients there was evidence for GH and PRL being secreted by the same tumour cells. The sensitivity of GH secretion to SMS 201-995 did not differ between the patients with pure GH or mixed GH/PRL-containing adenomas. Plasma PRL levels were not affected by SMS 201-995 in the patients with pure GH-secreting tumours, but were significantly suppressed in four of the seven patients with mixed GH/PRL containing tumours. Chronic treatment for 16 weeks of one patient with a mixed GH/PRL-containing tumour with SMS 201-995 (100 micrograms three times a day) resulted in normalization of both the increased GH and PRL levels. It is concluded that SMS 201-995 does not affect tumorous PRL secretion in patients with pure prolactinomas. In acromegalic patients with mixed GH/PRL-containing tumours PRL secretion in some patients is sensitive to SMS 201-995, making these patients good candidates for chronic treatment with

  14. Juvenile Judge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    SHANG Xiuyun was among the first sitting judges when the juvenile court was set up in Beijing 10 years ago. With enriched experience she has altered the way judges ask questions in court. She began the practice of inviting juvenile offenders, their parents, relatives, friends and teachers to the juvenile court to work hand in hand in dealing with cases: Facing their relatives and friends and hearing their heartfelt words, juvenile offenders would often be touched, thus bringing forth a positive attitude toward life.

  15. A review of spawning induction, larviculture, and juvenile rearing of the fat snook, Centropomus parallelus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira, V R; Tsuzuki, M Y

    2009-03-01

    The fat snook, Centropomus parallelus, is a commercially valuable marine fish species with potential for aquaculture. This paper describes the development of technology for mass production of fat snook juveniles at the Experimental Fish Hatchery of the Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, focusing on research about reproduction, larviculture, and juvenile rearing. Induced spawning of wild fat snook was first achieved in 1991 with a single injection of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). There was a substantial increase in egg quality when broodstock was conditioned in maturation rooms and induced to spawn. Different dosages of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogue (LHRHa) with saline injection and colesterol implant were also tested. As fat snook exhibits group-synchronous oocyte development, females could be induced to spawn (with 35-50 mug kg(-1) of LHRHa) once a month, resulting in up to four consecutive spawnings. Results of larval culture were highly variable at the beginning; survival rates were frequently around 1% until the juvenile stage. Several experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of environmental factors and feeding quality on survival and growth. With the improvement of the spawning induction technique and better larviculture practices, survival rates increased to 10-30%. Studies on the particular requirements of juveniles in terms of stocking density, feeding, nutrition, and environmental factors were also performed in order to improve growth rates and feed utilization. The present study demonstrates the feasibility of mass production of fat snook juveniles. However, further research is needed to develop cost-effective grow-out technology.

  16. INDUCTION OF GONADAL MATURATION OF POND CULTURED MALE TIGER SHRIMP, Penaeus monodon WITH DIFFERENT DOSAGES OF GONADOTROPIN RELEASING HORMONE ANALOGUE AGAINST EYE STALK ABLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asda Laining

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Very low naturally mating rate of pond-reared tiger shrimp broodstock is probably due to the slow maturation of the male stock. The aim of this study was to evaluate the salmon gonadotrophin releasing hormone analoque (sGnRHa in stimulating the gonadal maturation of male stock of pond-reared tiger shrimp. The treatments were three dosages of sGnRHa at 0.1 (OV-1, 0.2 (OV-2, and 0.3 (OV-3 mL/kg of shrimp weight and control was eye stalk ablation (AB. The sGnRHa was administered via injection three times with one week interval. Male stocks with average initial body weight of 82.1 g were randomly distributed into four of 10 m3 concrete tanks, 26 males for each tank. Variables observed were performances of spermatophores and profiles of amino acid and fatty acid of muscle of the male stocks. After induction, number of male maturing indicated by spermatophores releasing from terminal ampullas was higher in shrimp induced with OV-1 (80.8% compared to control which was only 46.1%. Furthermore, shrimp treated OV-2 had the highest spermatophore weight of 0.16 g compared to control (0.11 g and other two groups. Amino acid profiles improved as the dose of sGnRHa increased up to 0.2 mL/kg from 61.23% for ablated male becoming 71.27% for OV-2. Total fatty acid also tended to improve by increasing the dose of hormone injection, however, the ablated male had higher total fatty acid content than that of OV-1. The present finding demonstrated that the dose of sGnRHa to stimulate the gonadal maturation of pond-reared male tiger shrimp could be applied at range between 0.1-0.2 mL/kg of shrimp weight.

  17. Juvenile Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile arthritis (JA) is arthritis that happens in children. It causes joint swelling, pain, stiffness, and loss of motion. It can affect any joint, but ... of JA that children get is juvenile idiopathic arthritis. There are several other forms of arthritis affecting ...

  18. [Juvenile scleroderma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mâcedo, Patrícia Andrade; Shinjo, Samuel Katsuyuki; Goldenstein-Schainberg, Cláudia

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile scleroderma is a rare childhood condition characterized by fibrosis of the skin and internal organs. Clinical manifestations of childhood scleroderma are different from adult disease and early recognition, correct classification and treatment can improve long-term outcome. This review explores the most recent actualizations on clinical manifestations, classification criteria, treatment options and prognosis of juvenile scleroderma. There are two main forms of the disease: localized scleroderma and systemic sclerosis. Localized scleroderma is the most common form in children and mostly restricted to the skin. Juvenile diffuse systemic sclerosis is related to visceral involvement and cardiac disease which is the main cause of death in these patients. The outcome of juvenile systemic sclerosis is better compared with the adult form. Treatment remains a medical challenge and the EULAR task force proposed an approach to juvenile scleroderma treatment based on expert's opinion and guidelines used for the treatment of adults. Larger studies on childhood scleroderma are warranted.

  19. Faillure in the effect of the analogue (hCG of luteinizing hormone on the luteal angiogenesis in rats (Rattus novergicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Gonçalves Silva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the mechanisms that affect the control of the ovarian activity is essential for the success of reproduction biotechnologies. Although a number of studies have been carried out in which the luteinizing hormone (LH was used to control the ovarian activity, little is known about its influence in the morphology and vascular formation of the corpus luteum, aiming to increase the local blood flow. Thus, the objective of the present experiment was the quantification of the vascular density of corpora lutea (Cls in animals treated with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG just after ovulation. Therefore, eighteen wistar rats were used in this experiment. Eight rats in the treated group and ten rats in the control group. Corpora lutea were divided into two groups: group (A treated with hCG in the following morning after copulation, and group (B control animals which received an injection of 0.9% sodium chloride solution. Ovaries from each group were used for preparation of histological sections for vascular density qualification. No statistical significance was found between the two groups tested.

  20. Male Central Precocious Puberty: Serum Profile of Anti-Müllerian Hormone and Inhibin B before, during, and after Treatment with GnRH Analogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina P. Grinspon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to describe the functional changes of Sertoli cells, based on the measurement of serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH and inhibin B during treatment with GnRHa and after its withdrawal in boys with central precocious puberty. Six boys aged 0.8 to 5.5 yr were included. AMH was low at diagnosis in patients >1 yr but within the normal range in younger patients. AMH increased to normal prepubertal levels during treatment. After GnRHa withdrawal, AMH declined concomitantly with the rise in serum testosterone. At diagnosis, inhibin B was elevated and decreased throughout therapy, remaining in the upper normal prepubertal range. In patients with testicular volume above 4 mL AMH remained higher in spite of suppressed FSH. After treatment withdrawal, inhibin B rose towards normal pubertal levels. In conclusion, AMH did not decrease in patients <1 yr reflecting the lack of androgen receptor expression in Sertoli cells in early infancy. Serum inhibin B might result from the contribution of two sources: the mass of Sertoli cells and the stimulation exerted by FSH. Sertoli cell markers might provide additional tools for the diagnosis and treatment followup of boys with central precocious puberty.

  1. BALANOL ANALOGUES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to a solid phase methodology for the preparation of a combinatorial library of structural analogues of the natural product balanol (ophiocordin, azepinostatin), which is a protein kinase C (PKC) and protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor. The method comprises solid-phase s...... be immobilised to the polymer support either as the monoallyl ester or as the internal anhydride. The libraries produced by the method are especially suited for high throughput screening of potential drug candidates for the treatment of mammals, especially humans....

  2. Computer simulation of the free energy of peptides with the local states method: analogues of gonadotropin releasing hormone in the random coil and stable states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meirovitch, H; Koerber, S C; Rivier, J E; Hagler, A T

    1994-07-01

    The Helmholtz free energy F (rather than the energy) is the correct criterion for stability; therefore, calculation of F is important for peptides and proteins that can populate a large number of metastable states. The local states (LS) method proposed by H. Meirovitch [(1977) Chemical Physics Letters, Vol. 45, p. 389] enables one to obtain upper and lower bounds of the conformational free energy, FB (b,l) and FA (b,l), respectively, from molecular dynamics (MD) or Monte Carlo samples. The correlation parameter b is the number of consecutive dihedral or valence angles along the chain that are taken into account explicitly. The continuum angles are approximated by a discretization parameter l; the larger are b and l, the better the approximations; while FA can be estimated efficiently, it is more difficult to estimate FB. The method is further developed here by applying it to MD trajectories of a relatively large molecule (188 atoms), the potent "Asp4-Dpr10" antagonist [cyclo(4/10)-(Ac-delta 3Pro1-D-pFPhe2-D-Trp3-Asp4-Tyr5-D-Nal6-Leu7-Arg8 -Pro9- Dpr10-NH2)] of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH). The molecule was simulated in vacuo at T = 300 K in two conformational states, previously investigated [J. Rizo et al. Journal of the American Chemical Society, (1992) Vol. 114, p. 2860], which differ by the orientation of the N-terminal tail, above (tail up, TU) and below (tail down, TD) the cyclic heptapeptide ring. As in previous applications of the LS method, we have found the following: (1) While FA is a crude approximation for the correct F, results for the difference, delta FA = FA (TD)-FA (TU) converge rapidly to 5.6 (1) kcal/mole as the approximation is improved (i.e., as b and l are increased), which suggests that this is the correct value for delta F; therefore TD is more stable than TU. (The corresponding difference in entropy, T delta SA = 1.3(2) kcal/mole, is equal to the value obtained by the harmonic approximation.) (2) The lowest approximation, which has

  3. Juvenile Prostitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csapo, Marg

    1986-01-01

    Recent research and Canadian government committee reports concerning juvenile prostitution are reviewed. Proposals are made in the realms of law and social policy; and existing programs are described. (DB)

  4. Juvenile Prostitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csapo, Marg

    1986-01-01

    Recent research and Canadian government committee reports concerning juvenile prostitution are reviewed. Proposals are made in the realms of law and social policy; and existing programs are described. (DB)

  5. Juvenile myasthenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević-Pogančev Marija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Juvenile myasthenia is a chronic autoimmune neuromuscular disease characterized by varying degrees of fluctuating, painless muscle weakness and rapid fatigue of any muscles under voluntary control. Juvenile myasthenia is a form of myasthenia appearing in adolescent age, representing 10% to 15% of all cases of myasthenia gravis. Juvenile myasthenia is presented by a defect in the transmission of nerve impulses to muscles, resulting from a breakdown in the normal communication between nerves and muscles. In myasthenia, antibodies produced by the body’s own immune system block, alter, or destroy the receptors for acetylcholine. Juvenile myasthenia is neither directly inherited nor is it contagious. Signs and Symptoms. The first noticeable symptoms may be eye muscle weakness, difficulty in swallowing, or slurred speech. Juvenile myasthenia usually affects muscles innervated by the cranial nerves (face, lips, tongue, neck and throat, but it can affect any muscle group. Symptoms vary in type and severity with typical periods of exacerbation interspersed with periods of remission. When the muscles necessary for breathing are affected, a patient is said to be in a myasthenic crisis, which is a life-threatening situation. Disease Outcome and Treatment. Juvenile myasthenia produces sporadic but progressive weakness and abnormal fatigability of striated (skeletal muscles, exacerbated by exercise and repeated movement, but improved by rest and anticholinesterase drugs. Juvenile myasthenia follows an unpredictable course of recurring exacerbations and periodic remissions. With current therapies, however, most cases of juvenile myasthenia are not as serious as the name implies. Although there is no known cure, drug treatment has improved prognosis and allows patients to lead relatively normal lives, except during exacerbations.

  6. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA); Juvenile chronic polyarthritis; Still disease; Juvenile spondyloarthritis ... The cause of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is not known. It ... illness . This means the body attacks and destroys healthy body ...

  7. Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types of Cancer > Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome Request Permissions Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 12/2015 What is juvenile polyposis syndrome? Juvenile polyposis syndrome (JPS) is a ...

  8. Quantitative determination of juvenile hormone III and 20-hydroxyecdysone in queen larvae and drone pupae of Apis mellifera by ultrasonic-assisted extraction and liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jinhui; Qi, Yitao; Hou, Yali; Zhao, Jing; Li, Yi; Xue, Xiaofeng; Wu, Liming; Zhang, Jinzhen; Chen, Fang

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, a method for the rapid and sensitive analysis of juvenile hormone III (JH III) and 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) in queen larvae and drone pupae samples was presented. Ultrasound-assisted extraction provided a significant shortening of the leaching time for the extraction of JH III and 20E and satisfactory sensitivity as compared to the conventional shake extraction procedure. After extraction, determination was carried out by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) operating in electrospray ionization positive ion mode via multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) without any clean-up step prior to analysis. A linear gradient consisting of (A) water containing 0.1% formic acid and (B) acetonitrile containing 0.1% formic acid, and a ZORBAX SB-Aq column (100 mm × 2.1 mm, 3.5 μm) were employed to obtain the best resolution of the target analytes. The method was validated for linearity, limit of quantification, recovery, matrix effects, precision and stability. Drone pupae samples were found to contain 20E at concentrations of 18.0 ± 0.1 ng/g (mean ± SD) and JH III was detected at concentrations of 0.20 ± 0.06 ng/g (mean ± SD) in queen larvae samples. This validated method provided some practical information for the actual content of JH III and 20E in queen larvae and drone pupae samples.

  9. Juvenile Spondyloarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmuca, Sabrina; Weiss, Pamela F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review To provide a comprehensive update of the pathogenesis, diagnostic imaging, treatments, and disease activity measurements of juvenile spondyloarthritis (JSpA). Recent findings Genetic and microbiome studies have provided new information regarding possible pathogenesis of JSpA. Recent work suggests that children with JSpA have decreased thresholds for pain in comparison to healthy children. Additionally, pain on physical examination and abnormalities on ultrasound of the entheses are not well correlated. Treatment guidelines for juvenile arthritis, including JSpA, were published by the American College of Rheumatology and are based on active joint count and presence of sacroiliitis. Recent studies have established the efficacy of tumor necrosis factor inhibitors in the symptomatic treatment of axial disease, though their efficacy for halting progression of structural damage is less clear. Newly developed disease activity measures for JSpA include the Juvenile Arthritis Disease Activity Score and the JSpA Disease Activity index. In comparison to other categories of juvenile arthritis, children with JSpA are less likely to attain and sustain inactive disease. Summary Further microbiome and genetic research may help elucidate JSpA pathogenesis. More randomized therapeutic trials are needed and the advent of new composite disease activity measurement tools will hopefully allow for the design of these greatly needed trials. PMID:26002028

  10. Juvenile hormone biosynthesis and secretion by the female Corpora allata of the larval gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L. ) utilizing in vitro organ culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    Junvenile hormone synthesis and secretion in the female larval gypsy moth was investigated. In vitro culturing methods were developed including: incubating 2 pair of CC-CA gland complexes in 50 ul of osmotically balanced Grace's insect medium containing 1 uCi /sup 3/H-methyl-methionine for 6 hr. JH homologues were identified and quantified using TLC and HPLC. In vitro methods were employed to investigate trends of JH secretion in 4th and ultimate female larval instar CA. Fourth instar CA produced JH peaks of 0.15 pmole/pr/hr between days 2 and 3, but the rate declined to half by day 4. Ultimate instar larvae began secreting 0.48 pmole/pr/hr, but by day 10, had decreased JH output to negligible levels which continued until pupation. Effects upon in vitro JH secretion produced by precocene II and caffeine were examined. Feulgen staining techniques revealed an equal number of cells (30) in 4th and last instar CA. Last instar Ca were 3 times larger than 4th in volume but their actual in vitro JH secretion at peak levels was only 20% greater. In vitro methods demonstrated that JH secretory trends differ in younger versus mature larval instars. Glandular volume increased in last instars but JH secretion was only 20% greater than in 4th's when compared on the basis of volume. Precocene II elicited a negative response on in vivo JH secretion at levels 10 times less than caffeine. Caffeine was judged not to significantly alter JH secretion.

  11. 黄曲条跳甲JH诱导蛋白基因的克隆与表达分析%cDNA clone and expression pattern analysis of juvenile hormone-inducible protein in Phyllotreta striolata(Fabricius)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺华良; 宾淑英; 吴仲真; 廖泓之; 林进添

    2012-01-01

    【目的】克隆黄曲条跳甲保幼激素诱导蛋白(Juvenile hormone-inducible protein,Ps-jhip-1)基因,并分析其表达特征。【方法】克隆黄曲条跳甲Ps-jhip-1基因,对其进行系统发育分析,并对其编码蛋白进行生物信息学分析。利用荧光定量PCR方法分析Ps-jhip-1基因在黄曲条跳甲不同组织器官及1个生物钟周期内表达量的变化趋势。【结果】成功克隆了Ps-jhip-1全长cDNA,其长度为1 252bp,开放阅读框为1 230bp,编码409个氨基酸。Ps-jhip-1基因编码蛋白具有典型的类蛋白激酶C超家族的蛋白功能域,不具备保幼激素膜受体分子的特征。系统发育分析结果表明,Ps-jhip-1与同为鞘翅目昆虫赤拟谷盗的8种JH诱导蛋白基因聚为一支。荧光定量PCR结果表明,Ps-jhip-1基因mRNA在黄曲条跳甲雌雄成虫的多种组织器官中都有表达,其中在触角和头部的表达量相对较高,而在中足和后足的表达量相对较低,约为触角表达量的6%;Ps-jhip-1基因mRNA表达水平在1个生物钟周期内存在4个下调表达时段,但并未表现出明显的节律性特征。【结论】成功克隆了黄曲条跳甲Ps-jhip-1基因,并分析了其在不同组织及1个生物钟周期内表达量的变化。%【Objective】 The study was to identify juvenile hormone-inducible protein(Ps-jhip-1) of Phyllotreta striolata and to analyze its gene expression profiles.【Method】 cDNA sequence of Ps-jhip-1 was tested by clone techniques and its phylogenic relationship was analyzed.The putative protein of this cDNA was also analyzed by bioinformatic methods.Gene expression profiles in different tissues and in a circadian cycle were analyzed by real-time PCR.【Result】 A full-length cDNA of juvenile hormone-inducible protein(Ps-jhip-1) was obtained.This cDNA contained 1 230 bp open reading frame(ORF) encoding 409 amino acids.It contains a PKc-like superfamily functional domain,but without any characteristics

  12. Juvenile Justice in Milwaukee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gary L.; Greer, Lanetta

    2010-01-01

    Historically, there have been several attempts made to address issues surrounding juvenile delinquency. The Wisconsin Legislature outlines the objectives of the juvenile justice system in the Juvenile Justice Code in s. 939.01, ?to promote a juvenile justice system capable of dealing with the problem of juvenile delinquency, a system which will…

  13. Juvenile xanthogranuloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R; Ghazali, W

    1992-05-01

    Juvenile xanthogranuloma is a benign cutaneous growth presenting as papules or nodules. It is characterized by an intradermal collection of lipid-laden macrophages and varying degrees of fibroblastic proliferation. We have recently observed two patients with xanthogranulomas: one was found to have a papular type and the second patient had multiple nodular growths. We present these cases, which should be considered in the differential diagnosis of skin nodules.

  14. Analogue computing methods

    CERN Document Server

    Welbourne, D

    1965-01-01

    Analogue Computing Methods presents the field of analogue computation and simulation in a compact and convenient form, providing an outline of models and analogues that have been produced to solve physical problems for the engineer and how to use and program the electronic analogue computer. This book consists of six chapters. The first chapter provides an introduction to analogue computation and discusses certain mathematical techniques. The electronic equipment of an analogue computer is covered in Chapter 2, while its use to solve simple problems, including the method of scaling is elaborat

  15. Dermatomiositis juvenil

    OpenAIRE

    Goldaracena, Pablo; Pérez, Federico

    2008-01-01

    La dermatomiositis juvenil (DMJ) es una enfermedad multi sistémica de etiología desconocida, caracterizada por una vasculitis que ocasiona una inflamación no supurativa del músculo estriado y lesiones cutáneas distintivas. La cobertura de los criterios de Bohan y Peter establece el diagnóstico: exantema patognomónico junto a debilidad muscular proximal simétrica, elevación sérica de enzimas musculares, s...

  16. Analogue MIMO Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNamara Darren

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution we propose an analogue receiver that can perform turbo detection in MIMO systems. We present the case for a receiver that is built from nonlinear analogue devices, which perform detection in a "free-flow" network (no notion of iterations. This contribution can be viewed as an extension of analogue turbo decoder concepts to include MIMO detection. These first analogue implementations report reductions of few orders of magnitude in the number of required transistors and in consumed energy, and the same order of improvement in processing speed. It is anticipated that such analogue MIMO decoder could bring about the same advantages, when compared to traditional digital implementations.

  17. Total body nitrogen and total body carbon as indicators of body protein and body lipids in the melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae: effects of methoprene, a juvenile hormone analogue, and of diet supplementation with hydrolyzed yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ul Haq, Ihsan; Mayr, Leopold; Teal, P E A; Hendrichs, Jorge; Robinson, Alan S; Stauffer, Christian; Hood-Nowotny, Rebecca

    2010-12-01

    The application of methoprene, and providing access to diet including hydrolyzed yeast, are treatments known to enhance mating success in the male melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae), supporting their use in mass rearing protocols for sterile males in the context of sterile insect technique (SIT) programmes. The objective of the present laboratory study was to investigate the effect of methoprene application and diet supplementation with hydrolyzed yeast (protein) on the turnover of body lipids and protein to confirm the feasibility of their application in melon fly SIT mass-rearing programmes. While females had access to a diet that included hydrolyzed yeast (protein), males were exposed to one of the following treatments: (1) topical application of methoprene and access to diet including protein (M+P+); (2) only diet including protein (M-P+); (3) only methoprene (M+P-) and (4) untreated, only sugar-fed, control males (M-P-). Total body carbon (TBC) and total body nitrogen (TBN) of flies were measured at regular intervals from emergence to 35 days of age for each of the different treatments. Nitrogen assimilation and turnover in the flies were measured using stable isotope ((15)N) dilution techniques. Hydrolyzed yeast incorporation into the diet significantly increased male body weight, TBC and TBN as compared to sugar-fed males. Females had significantly higher body weight, TBC and TBN as compared to all males. TBC and TBN showed age-dependent changes, increasing until the age of sexual maturity and decreasing afterwards in both sexes. Methoprene treatment did not significantly affect TBC or TBN. The progressive increase with age of TBC suggests that lipogenesis occurs in adult male B. cucurbitae, as is the case in other tephritids. Stable isotope dilution was shown to be an effective method for determining N uptake in B. cucurbitae. This technique was used to show that sugar-fed males rely solely on larval N reserves and that the N uptake rate in males with access to diet including hydrolyzed yeast was higher shortly after emergence and then stabilized. The implications of the results for SIT applications are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Design, synthesis and characterisation of gurmarin and melanocortin analogues of gurmarin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Rasmus

    to the melanocortin 4 receptor had a binding affinity of 500 nM which is around ten-fold lower affinity than the endogenous agonist a-melanocyte stimulating hormone. Finally, it was demonstrated that it was possible to synthesise melanocortin analogues of the cyclic cystine knotted peptide kalata B1, a plant peptide......, the analogue was less potent than a-melanocortin stimulating hormone at activating the melanocortin 4 receptor. In addition, the analogues were shown to be highly resistant to proteolysis compared to a-melanocyte stimulating hormone. In summary, the possibility of grafting melanocortin binding sequences...

  19. Effects of ultraviolet light stress on juvenile hormone in Helicoverpa armigera adults%紫外胁迫对棉铃虫成虫保幼激素的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张长禹; 孟建玉; 周丽君; 桑文; 雷朝亮

    2012-01-01

    采用高效液相色谱法,测定了紫外(Ultraviolet,UV)胁迫对棉铃虫体内保幼激素JHⅠ、JHⅡ和JHⅢ的影响.结果表明:棉铃虫体内JHⅠ、JHⅡ和JHⅢ的滴度均随着日龄的变化发生了显著的改变,与1日龄相比,CK、1 h/d、5 h/d组在2、3、4日龄时的JHⅠ、JHⅡ和JHⅢ滴度均升高,其中1 h/d和5 h/d组的JHⅠ、JHⅡ和JHⅢ滴度在2日龄时达到最高值,且达到显著水平,然后均随着日龄的增大逐渐下降,9 h/d组JHⅠ、JHⅡ和JHⅢ滴度则随着日龄的增大显著降低;棉铃虫体内JHⅠ、JHⅡ和JHⅢ的滴度随着UV照射时间的延长均发生了显著的变化,当照射时间为5 h/d和9 h/d时,2~5日龄棉铃虫体内的JHⅠ、JHⅡ和JHⅢ滴度显著低于对照水平,不同日龄虫体内的JHⅠ、JHⅡ和JHⅢ滴度均在9 h/d时达到最低;此外,日龄与UV照射的交互作用均达到显著水平.%The effects of ultraviolet (UV) light stress on juvenile hormone in Helicoverpa armigera adults were studied by HPLC. The results showed that JHⅠ, JHⅡ and JHⅢ titres in adults changed significantly with the age. Compared with adults at 1 day of age, JHⅠ, JHⅡ and JHⅢ titres increased in adults at 2 to 4 days of age in the groups of control, 1 h/day and 5 h/day treatments. And the titres reached maximum in adults at 2 days of age with significant differences after exposure for 1 and 5 h/day, and then decreased gradually with the age. When a-dults were exposed to UV for 9 h/day, JHⅠ, JHⅡ and JHⅢ titres decreased significantly with age. JHⅠ, JHⅡ and JHⅢ titres changed significantly with increasing exposure time. Compared to the control, exposure to UV light for 5 h/day and 9 h/day resulted in a significant decline in JHⅠ, JHⅡ and JHⅢ titres in adults at 2 to 5 days of age. JHⅠ, JHⅡ and JHⅢ titres in adults reached the minimum after exposure for 9 h/day. The results also showed that the interaction between the age and the exposure time was

  20. Carcinogenicity of insulin analogues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braak, Sebastiaan Johannes ter

    2015-01-01

    There is epidemiological evidence that the use of some insulin analogues by diabetic patients is correlated with an increased cancer risk. In vitro exposure experiments revealed that insulin glargine (LANTUS) was the only commercial insulin analogue with an increased mitogenic potential. In the huma

  1. Survey of analogue spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Visser, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Analogue spacetimes, (and more boldly, analogue models both of and for gravity), have attracted significant and increasing attention over the last decade and a half. Perhaps the most straightforward physical example, which serves as a template for most of the others, is Bill Unruh's model for a dumb hole, (mute black hole, acoustic black hole), wherein sound is dragged along by a moving fluid --- and can even be trapped behind an acoustic horizon. This and related analogue models for curved spacetimes are useful in many ways: Analogue spacetimes provide general relativists with extremely concrete physical models to help focus their thinking, and conversely the techniques of curved spacetime can sometimes help improve our understanding of condensed matter and/or optical systems by providing an unexpected and countervailing viewpoint. In this introductory chapter, I shall provide a few simple examples of analogue spacetimes as general background for the rest of the contributions.

  2. Effects of intramuscular injections of vitamin E-selenium and a gonadotropin releasing hormone analogue (GnRHa) on reproductive performance and blood metabolites of post-molt male broiler breeders

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Hezarjaribi; Vahid Rezaeipour; Rohullah Abdollahpour

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of intramuscular injection of vitamin E-selenium and a GnRH analogue (GnRHa) on reproductive performance and serum biochemical parameters in post-molt male broiler breeders. Methods: A total of 32 ROSS 308 male broiler breeders (60 weeks of age) were induced to molt and then were randomly distributed into four groups: group 1 (control) without any injection, group 2 subjected to intramuscular of 0.1 mL/kg body weight of vitamin E-selenium, group 3 subj...

  3. What Is Juvenile Arthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Analgesics for Osteoarthritis (Report from AHRQ) Joint Replacement Surgery: Health Information Basics for You and Your Family NIH Pediatric Rheumatology Clinic Health Information Juvenile Arthritis Find a Clinical Trial Journal Articles Juvenile Arthritis PDF Version Size: 123 KB ...

  4. Juvenile Delinquency: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Carolyn A.

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile Delinquency is a term which is often inaccurately used. This article clarifies definitions, looks at prevalence, and explores the relationship between juvenile delinquency and mental health. Throughout, differences between males and females are explored. (Contains 1 table.)

  5. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, Machteld

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted.

  6. Juvenile Arrests, 2007. Juvenile Justice Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puzzanchera, Charles

    2009-01-01

    This Bulletin summarizes 2007 juvenile crime and arrest data reported by local law enforcement agencies across the country and cited in the FBI report, "Crime in the United States 2007." The Bulletin describes the extent and nature of juvenile crime that comes to the attention of the justice system. It serves as a baseline for comparison for…

  7. Growth Hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Growth Hormone Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: GH; Human Growth Hormone; HGH; Somatotropin; Growth Hormone Stimulation Test; Growth ...

  8. Juvenile polyposis syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.A.A. Brosens; D. Langeveld; W.A. van Hattem; F.M. Giardiello; G.J.A. Offerhaus

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile polyposis syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by multiple distinct juvenile polyps in the gastrointestinal tract and an increased risk of colorectal cancer. The cumulative life-time risk of colorectal cancer is 39% and the relative risk is 34. Juvenile polyps have a

  9. Molecular cloning, sequence analysis and developmental expression of cDNA fragment of juvenile hormone esterase from the whitefly Bemisia tabaci MED (Hemiptera : Aleyrodidae)%烟粉虱MED隐种保幼激素酯酶cDNA片段克隆、序列分析及在不同发育阶段的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙楚云; 郭建洋; 万方浩

    2013-01-01

    昆虫卵黄发生及其内分泌调控机理一直是昆虫生殖生理学的研究热点.由保幼激素代谢通路关键分子介导的调控系统是影响昆虫卵黄发生的关键途径.研究激素代谢通路关键调控因子的功能将为明确生殖调控机理提供理论依据.保幼激素酯酶(juvenile hormone esterase,JHE)是降解昆虫体内保幼激素的关键酶之一,具有调控昆虫发育、变态和生殖等功能.本实验以烟粉虱Bemisia tabaci MED隐种为研究对象,采用反转录PCR(reverse transcription PCR,RT-PCR)和cDNA末端快速扩增PCR(rapid amplification of cDNA ends PCR,RACE-PCR)技术克隆获得编码552个氨基酸的烟粉虱MED隐种保幼激素酯酶基因的部分cDNA序列,将其命名为Btjhe(GenBank登录号为KC422259).同源序列比对发现,该基因与菜叶蜂Athalia rosae、西方蜜蜂Apis mellifera的保幼激素酯酶基因推导的氨基酸一致性较高,且具有昆虫保幼激素酯酶共有的5个氨基酸保守模块,其中包括对保幼激素酯酶活性起关键作用的长疏水结合域GxSxG.由此推测,Btjhe为烟粉虱MED隐种的保幼激素酯酶基因,其编码蛋白参与烟粉虱体内保幼激素的特异性降解.实时荧光定量PCR检测结果表明,Btjhe在烟粉虱若虫、成虫阶段都有表达,在成虫阶段表达量较高,且在羽化后11d达到峰值,其表达模式与卵黄原蛋白基因(vg)类似.本研究结果为明确烟粉虱的生殖调控机理奠定基础.%Insect reproduction physiology mainly focuses on the endocrine regulation mechanism of vitellogenesis. Vitellogenesis is regulated by the juvenile hormone metabolic pathway in most insects. Analysis of the function of the key regulation elements in hormone metabolic pathway will illustrate the reproductive regulation mechanism. Juvenile hormone esterase (JHE) plays an important role in insect juvenile hormone degradation, development, metamorphosis and reproduction. We cloned partial cDNA sequence of

  10. Juveniles on trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Kathleen M

    2002-10-01

    This article describes common forensic evaluations requested of juvenile court mental health evaluators. There has been a legal shift toward criminalization of juvenile court, with a greater emphasis on rights, abandonment of the rehabilitative model, and greater movement of adolescents into the adult criminal court. A resulting shift has been the redefinition of juvenile court forensic evaluations toward the specificity of adult forensic work. The challenge for evaluators is to refine their knowledge of the forensic standards and bring knowledge of development, assessment, and diagnosis in juveniles and interview techniques appropriate to juveniles to improve the evaluation and forensic reports.

  11. Synthesis of Tonghaosu Analogues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Hai; LIN Yingjie; WU Yulin; WU Yikang

    2009-01-01

    Several new analogues of natural antifeedant tonghaosu were synthesized via m-CPBA (m-chloroperoxybenzoic acid) oxidation of corresponding 3-(a-furyl)propanols, Luche reduction of the resulting enone, epoxidation, acid-mediated spiroketalization, and radical mediated dehydration.

  12. Ureido-modification of the resin-bound LHRH analogue with N,N'-carbonyldiimidazole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Qing Gao; Ning Zhou; Yu Jian Lv; Mao Sheng Cheng; Ke Liang Liu

    2009-01-01

    The ureido-modification of the resin-bound a luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) analogue was investigated by CDI-activating method. The amino group at the side chain of LHRH analogue could be transformed into various substituted urea moieties in high yields. However, its terminal amino group was partially converted to a hydantoin structure due to the attack of the N atom of the adjacent amide bond.

  13. Juvenile polyposis syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lodewijk AA Brosens; Danielle Langeveld; W Arnout van Hattem; Francis M Giardiello; G Johan A Offerhaus

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile polyposis syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by multiple distinct juvenile polyps in the gastrointestinal tract and an increased risk of colorectal cancer.The cumulative life-time risk of colorectal cancer is 39% and the relative risk is 34.Juvenile polyps have a distinctive histology characterized by an abundance of edematous lamina propria with inflammatory cells and cystically dilated glands lined by cuboidal to columnar epithelium with reactive changes.Clinically, juvenile polyposis syndrome is defined by the presence of 5 or more juvenile polyps in the colorectum,juvenile polyps throughout the gastrointestinal tract or any number of juvenile polyps and a positive family history of juvenile polyposis.In about 50%-60% of patients diagnosed with juvenile polyposis syndrome a germline mutation in the SMAD4 or BMPR1A gene is found.Both genes play a role in the BMP/TGF-beta signalling pathway.It has been suggested that cancer in juvenile polyposis may develop through the so-alled "landscaper mechanism" where an abnormal stromal environment leads to neoplastic transformation of the adjacent epithelium and in the end invasive carcinoma.Recognition of this rare disorder is important for patients and their families with regard to treatment,follow-up and screening of at risk individuals.Each clinician confronted with the diagnosis of a juvenile polyp should therefore consider the possibility of juvenile polyposis syndrome.In addition, juvenile polyposis syndrome provides a unique model to study colorectal cancer pathogenesis in general and gives insight in the molecular genetic basis of cancer. This review discusses clinical manifestations, genetics, pathogenesis and management of juvenile polyposis syndrome.

  14. ALTERED HISTOLOGY OF THE THYMUS AND SPLEEN IN CONTAMINANT-EXPOSED JUVENILE AMERICAN ALLIGATORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morphological difference in spleen and thymus are closely related to functional immune differences. Hormonal regulation of the immune system has been demonstrated in reptilian splenic and thymic tissue. Spleens and thymus were obtained from juvenile alligators at two reference si...

  15. ALTERED HISTOLOGY OF THE THYMUS AND SPLEEN IN CONTAMINANT-EXPOSED JUVENILE AMERICAN ALLIGATORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morphological difference in spleen and thymus are closely related to functional immune differences. Hormonal regulation of the immune system has been demonstrated in reptilian splenic and thymic tissue. Spleens and thymus were obtained from juvenile alligators at two reference si...

  16. Regulation of endometrial cancer cell growth by luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, S.; Bax, C M R; Chatzaki, E; Chard, Tim; Iles, Ray K.

    2000-01-01

    Gonadotrophin releasing hormone analogues (GnRHa) have been used to treat recurrent endometrial cancer. However, the mode of action is uncertain. Our previous studies showed no direct effect of GnRHa on endometrial cancer cell growth in vitro. We have now examined the effect of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) on endometrial cancer cell growth. The aim was to determine whether suppression of pituitary LH and FSH by GnRHa could explain the tumour regression seen ...

  17. The effects of thyroxine or a GnRH analogue on thyroid hormone deiodination in the olfactory epithelium and retina of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plate, E M; Adams, B A; Allison, W T; Martens, G; Hawryshyn, C W; Eales, J G

    2002-06-01

    Using low (0.5nM) substrate levels we determined the activities of thyroxine (T4) outer-ring deiodination (ORD), T4 inner-ring deiodination (T4IRD) and 3,5,3(')-triiodothyronine (T3) IRD activities in the olfactory epithelium (OLF) and retina (RET) of laboratory-held immature 1-year-old rainbow trout and immature 2.5-year-old sockeye salmon. In both species all three deiodination activities were detected in OLF and RET. For OLF, no particular pathway predominated and activities were similar to those of brain. For RET, T3IRD activity was greater than T4ORD activity and in sockeye RET T3IRD activity exceeded that of liver. Trout immersion for 6 weeks in 100ppm T4 increased plasma T4 levels 3-fold and plasma T3 levels by 50% and caused the anticipated autoregulatory responses in brain and liver deiodination ( downward arrow T4ORD, upward arrow T4IRD, and upward arrow T3IRD); OLF deiodination and RET T4ORD activity were unaltered but RET T4IRD and T3IRD activities increased dramatically. Two injections of a GnRH analogue (20 microgkg(-1)) into sockeye increased plasma T3 levels but not T4 levels and decreased RET T4IRD and T3IRD activities without changing liver, brain, or OLF deiodination. We conclude that in salmonids the main TH deiodination pathways occur in OLF but show no regulation by T4 or GnRH. In contrast, T3IRD activity predominates in RET and can be regulated by T4 and GnRH, suggesting that for RET plasma may be the major T3 source. These findings have implications for thyroidal regulation of sensory functions during salmonid diadromous migrations.

  18. ACTINOMYCIN D ANALOGUES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to new compounds being structurally and functionally similar to Actinomycin D and to combinatorial libraries of such compounds. The Actinomycin D analogues according to the present invention comprise two linear or cyclic peptide moieties constituted by $g...

  19. ACTINOMYCIN D ANALOGUES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to new compounds being structurally and functionally similar to Actinomycin D and to combinatorial libraries of such compounds. The Actinomycin D analogues according to the present invention comprise two linear or cyclic peptide moieties constituted by $g...

  20. Alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone analogues and their inducers for the treatment of vitiligo%α黑素细胞刺激素类似物及其诱导剂治疗白癜风的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晨; 张海萍

    2015-01-01

    Alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH),the strongest endogenous immunomodulatory small-molecule neuroendocrine peptide among melanocyte stimulating hormones,is mainly produced in the pituitary gland.α-MSH can promote melanocytes to proliferate and produce melanosomes,regulate the differentiation of melanocytes through the microphthalmia-associated transcription factor,and finally cause skin pigmentation.Many studies have shown that α-MSH levels are decreased in the epidermis and sera in patients with vitiligo.The α-MSH analogue afamelanotide,which can induce the expression of α-MSH by melanocytes,and the sex steroid thyroid hormone metharmon-F,both can be used to treat vitiligo through action on melanocytes,and have been lately recommended for the treatment of vitiligo at clinics.%α黑素细胞刺激素作为黑素细胞刺激素中作用最强的一种内源性小分子神经内分泌免疫调节肽,主要在脑垂体中产生.α黑素细胞刺激素可以促进黑素细胞增殖、产生黑素小体以及通过小眼畸形相关转录因子调节黑素细胞分化,引起皮肤色素沉着.研究发现,白癜风患者表皮及血浆中的α黑素细胞刺激素浓度降低.临床推荐α黑素细胞刺激素的类似物afamelanotide和性类固醇甲状腺激素治疗白癜风,性类固醇甲状腺激素可诱导黑素细胞α黑素细胞刺激素的表达,两者均可利用α黑素细胞刺激素作用于黑素细胞的原理而治疗白癜风.

  1. Juvenile giant fibroadenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipul Yagnik

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Fibroadenomas are benign solid tumor associated with aberration of normal lobular development. Juvenile giant fibroadenoma is usually single and >5 cm in size /or >500 gms in weight. Important differential diagnoses are: phyllodes tumor and juvenile gigantomastia. Simple excision is the treatment of choice.

  2. Renewing Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macallair, Daniel; Males, Mike; Enty, Dinky Manek; Vinakor, Natasha

    2011-01-01

    The Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice (CJCJ) was commissioned by Sierra Health Foundation to critically examine California's juvenile justice system and consider the potential role of foundations in promoting systemic reform. The information gathered by CJCJ researchers for this report suggests that foundations can perform a key leadership…

  3. Philanthropist in Juvenile Reformatory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN NIU

    2007-01-01

    @@ On the afternoon of February 1, 2007, Chen Guangbiao, a noted philanthropist, found himself in the Jiangsu Provincial Juvenile Reformatory in Jurong City for a ceremony to donate two buses, 100 computers, and 100 desks and 100 chairs for the juvenile offenders to use in their study.

  4. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, Machteld

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted. Th

  5. Juvenile Confinement in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendel, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    For more than a century, the predominant strategy for the treatment and punishment of serious and sometimes not-so-serious juvenile offenders in the United States has been placement into large juvenile corrections institutions, alternatively known as training schools, reformatories, or youth corrections centers. America's heavy reliance on…

  6. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, Machteld

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted. Th

  7. Juvenile mammary papillomatosis; Papilomatosis juvenil mamaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, M.; Jimenez, A. V. [Hospital Reina Sofia. Cordoba (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    Juvenile mammary papillomatosis is a benign proliferative disease of young patients, generally under 30 years of age. The most frequent clinical presentation is the existence of an elastic and mobile lymph node of the breast. Anatomopathologically, it is characterized because it presents ductal epithelial hyperplasia, sometimes with marked atypia, and there are numerous cysts having different sizes among the findings. It has been associated with an increase in the incidence of breast cancer, both in the patient herself as well as her family. We review the literature on the subject and present the mammographic and ultrasonographic findings of a 22 year old woman diagnosed of juvenile mammary papillomatosis. (Author) 12 refs.

  8. Gastric inhibitory polypeptide analogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens Juul

    2002-01-01

    of GIP and GLP-1 receptors, the incretin effect is essential for normal glucose tolerance. In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus it turns out that the incretin effect is severely impaired or abolished. The explanation seems to be that both the secretion of GLP-1 and the effect of GIP are impaired...... (whereas both the secretion of GIP and the effect of GLP-1 are near normal). The impaired GLP-1 secretion is probably a consequence of diabetic metabolic disturbances. The known genetic variations in the GIP receptor sequence are not associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus, but a defective insulinotropic...... and its analogues are attractive as therapeutic agents for type 2 diabetes mellitus, analogues of GIP are unlikely to be effective. On the other hand, GIP seems to play an important role in lipid metabolism, promoting the disposal of ingested lipids, and mice with a targeted deletion of the GIP receptor...

  9. Aspartame and Its Analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, L. A.; Komarova, T. V.; Davidovich, Yurii A.; Rogozhin, S. V.

    1981-04-01

    The results of studies on the biochemistry of the sweet taste are briefly reviewed. The methods of synthesis of "aspartame" — a sweet dipeptide — are considered, its structural analogues are described, and quantitative estimates are made of the degree of sweetness relative to sucrose. Attention is concentrated mainly on problems of the relation between the structure of the substance and its taste in the series of aspartyl derivatives. The bibliography includes 118 references.

  10. Quantum analogue computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendon, Vivien M; Nemoto, Kae; Munro, William J

    2010-08-13

    We briefly review what a quantum computer is, what it promises to do for us and why it is so hard to build one. Among the first applications anticipated to bear fruit is the quantum simulation of quantum systems. While most quantum computation is an extension of classical digital computation, quantum simulation differs fundamentally in how the data are encoded in the quantum computer. To perform a quantum simulation, the Hilbert space of the system to be simulated is mapped directly onto the Hilbert space of the (logical) qubits in the quantum computer. This type of direct correspondence is how data are encoded in a classical analogue computer. There is no binary encoding, and increasing precision becomes exponentially costly: an extra bit of precision doubles the size of the computer. This has important consequences for both the precision and error-correction requirements of quantum simulation, and significant open questions remain about its practicality. It also means that the quantum version of analogue computers, continuous-variable quantum computers, becomes an equally efficient architecture for quantum simulation. Lessons from past use of classical analogue computers can help us to build better quantum simulators in future.

  11. Cryopyrin-Associated Autoinflammatory Syndromes (CAPS) - Juvenile

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cryopyrin-Associated Autoinflammatory Syndrome (CAPS) (Juvenile) Dermatomyositis (Juvenile) Familial Mediterranean Fever (Juvenile) Fibromyalgia Giant Cell Arteritis Glucocorticoid-induced Osteoperosis ...

  12. Juvenil idiopatisk arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlin, Troels

    2002-01-01

    The new classification of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is described in this review. Clinical characteristics divide JIA in to subtypes: systemic, oligoarticular (persistent and extended type), RF-positive and--negative polyarticular, enthesitis-related arthritis and psoriatic arthritis...

  13. Juvenile Rockfish Recruitment Cruise

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 1983, the groundfish analysis project began a series of yearly cruises designed to assess the annual abundance of juvenile rockfish along the central California...

  14. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physical Therapy Regular Exercise en español Artritis idiopática juvenil It may begin with a swollen knuckle, a ... may suddenly appear and disappear, developing in one area and then another. High fevers that tend to ...

  15. Juvenile Sex Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Eileen P; Otonichar, Joseph M

    2016-07-01

    Sexual offending by juveniles accounts for a sizable percentage of sexual offenses, especially against young children. In this article, recent research on female juvenile sex offenders (JSOs), risk factors for offending in juveniles, treatment, and the ways in which these youth may differ from general delinquents will be reviewed. Most JSOs do not go on to develop paraphilic disorders or to commit sex offenses during adulthood, and as a group, they are more similar to nonsexual offending juvenile delinquents than to adult sex offenders. Recent research has elucidated some differences between youth who commit sex offenses and general delinquents in the areas of atypical sexual interests, the use of pornography, and early sexual victimization during childhood.

  16. Juvenile Spondyloarthritis Treatment Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Tse, Shirley; Burgos-Vargas, Ruben; Colbert, Robert A

    2012-01-01

    No specific recommendations for the treatment of juvenile spondyloarthritis have been established. Important differences exist in how spondyloarthritis begins and progresses in children and adults, supporting the need for pediatric-specific recommendations. Recently published recommendations for the treatment of juvenile arthritis consider children with sacroiliitis in a separate group, and allow for more accelerated institution of a TNF inhibitor depending on disease activity and prognostic ...

  17. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    OpenAIRE

    Hoeve, Machteld

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted. The first study addressed a meta-analysis on parenting characteristics and styles in relation to delinquency. In this meta-analysis, previous manuscripts were systematically analyzed, computing mean ...

  18. Analogue Methods in Palaeoecology: Using the analogue Package

    OpenAIRE

    Simpson, Gavin L.

    2007-01-01

    Palaeoecology is an important branch of ecology that uses the subfossil remains of organisms preserved in lake, ocean and bog sediments to inform on changes in ecosystems and the environment through time. The analogue package contains functions to perform modern analogue technique (MAT) transfer functions, which can be used to predict past changes in the environment, such as climate or lake-water pH from species data. A related technique is that of analogue matching, which is concerned with i...

  19. Continuous human metastin 45-54 infusion desensitizes G protein-coupled receptor 54-induced gonadotropin-releasing hormone release monitored indirectly in the juvenile male Rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta): a finding with therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seminara, Stephanie B; Dipietro, Meloni J; Ramaswamy, Suresh; Crowley, William F; Plant, Tony M

    2006-05-01

    The effect of continuous administration of the C-terminal fragment of metastin, the ligand for the G protein-coupled receptor, GPR54, on GnRH-induced LH secretion was examined in three agonadal, juvenile male monkeys whose responsiveness to GnRH was heightened by pretreatment with a chronic pulsatile iv infusion of synthetic GnRH. After bolus injection of 10 microg human (hu) metastin 45-54 (equivalent to kisspeptin 112-121), the GPR54 agonist was infused continuously at a dose of 100 microg/h and elicited a brisk LH response for approximately 3 h. This rise was then followed by a precipitous drop in LH despite continuous exposure of GPR54 to metastin 45-54. On d 4, during the final 3 h of the infusion, single boluses of hu metastin 45-54 (10 microg), N-methyl-DL-aspartic acid (NMDA) (10 mg/kg) and GnRH (0.3 microg) were administered to interrogate each element of the metastin-GPR54-GnRH-GnRH receptor cascade. Although the NMDA and GnRH boluses were able to elicit LH pulses, that of hu metastin 45-54 was not, demonstrating functional integrity of GnRH neurons (NMDA) and GnRH receptors (NMDA and GnRH) but desensitization of GPR54. The desensitization of GPR54 by continuous hu metastin 45-54 administration has therapeutic implications for a variety of conditions currently being treated by GnRH and its analogs, including restoration of fertility in patients with abnormal GnRH secretion (i.e. idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and hypothalamic amenorrhea) and selective, reversible suppression of the pituitary-gonadal axis to achieve suppression of gonadal steroids (i.e. precocious puberty, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and prostate cancer).

  20. Erythrocyte-methotrexate and disease activity in children treated with oral methotrexate for juvenile chronic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, K; Nielsen, S; Karup Pedersen, F;

    2000-01-01

    The concentration of methotrexate (MTX) in erythrocytes (E-MTX) was measured twice with three months interval in 21 children suffering from juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA). At the same time joint score, visual analogue scale (VAS), and laboratory parameters (CRP, WBC, PMNs, and ALAT) were obtained...

  1. Depression, anxiety and pain in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margetić, Branimir; Aukst-Margetić, Branka; Bilić, Ernest; Jelusić, Marija; Tambić Bukovac, Lana

    2005-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess relations among depression, anxiety and pain in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Pain was measured with the visual analogue scale (VAS), and depression and anxiety with depression and anxiety subscales from the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (TSC-C). Pain perception was significantly correlated with depression scores.

  2. Análogo de GnRH disminuye la secreción de hormona folículo estimulante (FSH en ovejas prepúberes A gonadotropin releasing hormone analogue decreases follicle stimulating hormone (FSH secretion in prepubertal female sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S E Recabarren

    2006-01-01

    RH on the FSH secretion in prepubertal female sheep. A GnRH agonist analogue in slow release microcapsule preparation was used (Trp6-GnRH, (Decapeptyl® whose blocking effect on the LH release has been previously demonstrated. The analogue was injected intramuscularly every 4 weeks beginning at 20 weeks of age three times in five Suffolk ewe lambs. Another group of five lambs received the vehicle of Decapeptyl. Studies of FSH pulsatility were carried out at 20 (before the analogue agonist administration, 26 and 30 weeks of age. The CLUSTER program was used to identify characteristics of FSH secretion: transversal mean (ng/ml/5h, frequency of pulses (number of pulses/5h, amplitude of pulses (ng/ml and nadir (ng/ml . In the control group, FSH secretion characteristics did not change between 20 and 30 weeks of age. In the experimental group, mean FSH concentrations decreased from 3.4±0.3 ng/ml/5h at 20 weeks of age to 0.36 ±0.1 ng/mL/ 5h at 30 weeks of age (P<0,05, which was also significantly lower than in the control group of the same age. Amplitude of FSH pulses in lambs of 30 weeks of age were significantly lower than in lambs of 20 weeks of age (4.4 ± 0.5 versus 0.5 ± 0.1 ng/mL respectively, P<0.05, and lower than that exhibited by control ewe lambs of 30 weeks of age. FSH pulse frequency did not change between lambs of 20 and 30 weeks of age in either group. Results show that the GnRH analogue is able to block the FSH secretion suggesting that the FSH secretion is dependant on GnRH stimulation in prepubertal female sheep.

  3. Insulin analogues may accelerate progression of diabetic retinopathy after impairment of inner blood-retinal barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Abdullah; Kar, Taner; Aksoy, Yakup; Özalper, Veysel; Başbuğ, Barbaros

    2013-12-01

    Diabetic retinopathy regresses after spontaneous infarction or surgical ablation of pituitary gland. Growth hormone deficiency seems to be a protective factor for development of diabetic retinopathy in dwarfs. Despite the same glycemic control, development of diabetic retinopathy is significantly higher in pubertal subjects than pre-pubertal subjects. These evidences indicate a strong relationship between growth hormone and progression of diabetic retinopathy. Insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is the most important mediator of effects of growth hormone (GH). It stimulates IGF-1 receptor. Insulin analogues also stimulate IGF-1 receptor. Therefore insulin analogues may show similar effects like growth hormone and deteriorate diabetic retinopathy. However we suggest that impairment degree of inner blood-retinal barrier should be considered for this claim. We hypothesize that insulin analogues have dual effects (beneficial and worsening) depending on stage of impairment of inner blood-retinal barrier. Insulin analogues protect pericytes and blood-retinal barrier by decreasing blood glucose level. Analogues may pass into the retinal tissue in very low amounts when inner blood-retinal barrier is intact. Therefore, insulin analogues may not deteriorate diabetic retinopathy but also have beneficial effect by protecting blood-retinal barrier at this stage. However, they may pass into the retinal tissue in much more amounts when inner blood-retinal barrier impairs. Analogues may deteriorate cellular composition of retina through stimulation of IGF-1 receptors. A number of different cell types, including glia, retinal pigment epithelial cells and fibroblast-like cells have been identified in diabetic epiretinal tissues. Insulin analogues may cause proliferation in these cells. A type of glial cell named Non-astrocytic Inner Retinal Glia-like (NIRG) cell was identified to be stimulated and proliferate by IGF-1. IGF has been reported to generate traction force in retinal

  4. Behavioral and neuroendocrine consequences of juvenile stress combined with adult immobilization in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Silvia; Carrasco, Javier; Armario, Antonio; Nadal, Roser

    2014-08-01

    Exposure to stress during childhood and adolescence increases vulnerability to developing several psychopathologies in adulthood and alters the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the prototypical stress system. Rodent models of juvenile stress appear to support this hypothesis because juvenile stress can result in reduced activity/exploration and enhanced anxiety, although results are not always consistent. Moreover, an in-depth characterization of changes in the HPA axis is lacking. In the present study, the long-lasting effects of juvenile stress on adult behavior and HPA function were evaluated in male rats. The juvenile stress consisted of a combination of stressors (cat odor, forced swim and footshock) during postnatal days 23-28. Juvenile stress reduced the maximum amplitude of the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels (reduced peak at lights off), without affecting the circadian corticosterone rhythm, but other aspects of the HPA function (negative glucocorticoid feedback, responsiveness to further stressors and brain gene expression of corticotrophin-releasing hormone and corticosteroid receptors) remained unaltered. The behavioral effects of juvenile stress itself at adulthood were modest (decreased activity in the circular corridor) with no evidence of enhanced anxiety. Imposition of an acute severe stressor (immobilization on boards, IMO) did not increase anxiety in control animals, as evaluated one week later in the elevated-plus maze (EPM), but it potentiated the acoustic startle response (ASR). However, acute IMO did enhance anxiety in the EPM, in juvenile stressed rats, thereby suggesting that juvenile stress sensitizes rats to the effects of additional stressors.

  5. Vocational Teachers' Role in Serving Juvenile Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meers, Gary D.

    1983-01-01

    Educators need to understand the juvenile justice system to understand what juvenile offenders go through while completing their sentences. This article reviews cases and juvenile charge classifications, and presents a model for alternative sentencing options for juveniles. (JOW)

  6. How to recognize the desensitization of pituitary-ovarian axis achieved by gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue-induced down-regulation?%识别促性腺激素释放激素激动剂对垂体-卵巢轴降调节抑制程度及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洁; 刘倍余

    2011-01-01

    本文通过文献复习讨论促性腺激素释放激素激动剂(GnRH-a)联合促性腺激素(Gn)诱导排卵治疗方案对垂体卵巢轴的降调节作用及意义.广义的降调节作用包括:对血清促性腺激素:卵泡刺激素、黄体生成素(FSH、LH)水平、卵泡周期性发育和类固醇激素合成的影响.临床常见的垂体降调节程度包括过度抑制、部分抑制和未能达到抑制.过度抑制被认为是垂体卵巢轴完全静息状态所需要的,适用于性激素依赖性肿瘤或疾病的治疗.体外受精-胚胎移植(IVF-ET)治疗周期中仅需要达到部分垂体卵巢轴降调节,即保留进入周期募集的卵泡对促性腺激素的反应性和类固醇激素合成.未能达到抑制的垂体卵巢轴伴随着卵泡晚期早发LH峰的风险,与无降调节周期相似.GnRH-a对垂体卵巢轴的降调节作用不仅与其类型、半衰期和患者个体差异有关,并且呈现出剂量与使用时间的依赖性.大部分过度抑制效应的患者可以通过降低GnRH-a剂量逆转,恢复卵巢对外源促性腺激素的反应性.极少数妇女存在降调节的延迟反应,与LH受体变异和受体后缺陷有关.%The review is to discuss how to recognize the desensitization of the pituitary-ovarian axis after gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogue (GnRH-a) administration, which includes hormone profile, oocytogenesis and steroidogenesis. The original down-regulation is defined as luteinizing hormone (LH) levels <5 U/L, the thickness of endometrium less than 5 mm and follicular diameter

  7. Clustering of mandibular organ-inhibiting hormone and moult-inhibiting hormone genes in the crab, Cancer pagurus, and implications for regulation of expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, W; Wainwright, G; Webster, S G; Rees, H H; Turner, P C

    2000-08-08

    Development and reproduction of crustaceans is regulated by a combination of neuropeptide hormones, ecdysteroids (moulting hormones) and the isoprenoid, methyl farnesoate (MF), the unepoxidised analogue of insect juvenile hormone-III (JH-III). MF and the ecdysteroids are respectively synthesised under the negative control of the sinus gland-derived mandibular organ-inhibiting hormones (MO-IHs) and moult-inhibiting hormone (MIH) that are produced in eyestalk neural ganglia. Previous work has demonstrated the existence of two isoforms of MO-IH, called MO-IH-1 and -2, that differ by a single amino acid in the mature peptide and one in the putative signal peptide. To study the structural organisation of the crab MIH and MO-IH genes, a genomic DNA library was constructed from DNA of an individual female crab and screened with both MO-IH and MIH probes. The results from genomic Southern blot analysis and library screening indicated that the Cancer pagurus genome contains at least two copies of the MIH gene and three copies of the MO-IH genes. Upon screening, two types of overlapping genomic clone were isolated. Each member of one type of genomic clone contains a single copy of each of the convergently transcribed MO-IH-1 and MIH genes clustered within 6.5kb. The other type contains only the MO-IH-2 gene, which is not closely linked to an MIH gene. There are three exons and two introns in all MIH and MO-IH genes analysed. The exon-intron boundary of the crab MIH and MO-IH genes follows Chambon's rule (GT-AG) for the splice donor and acceptor sites. The first intron occurs within the signal peptide region and the second intron occurs in the coding region of the mature peptide. Sequence analysis of upstream regions of MO-IH and MIH genes showed that they contained promoter elements with characteristics similar to other eukaryotic genes. These included sequences with high degrees of similarity to the arthropod initiator, TATA box and cAMP response element binding protein

  8. Trunk asymmetry in juveniles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triantafyllopoulos Georgios

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trunk asymmetry (TA is a common phenomenon in children, but its incidence in juveniles is not known. The present cross sectional study reports TA in normal juveniles and provides data which describe the evolution of TA from early childhood to adolescence. Materials and methods The scoliometer readings in both standing and sitting forward bending position (FBP of 3301 children, (1645 boys, and 1656 girls aged from 3 to 9 years old were studied. TA was quantified by measuring angle of trunk rotation (ATR and children were categorized as symmetric (ATR = 0°, mild asymmetric (ATR 1° – 6° and severely asymmetric (ATR ≥ 7°. The difference of TA between standing and sitting FBP as well as differences between boys and girls in frequency of TA were also calculated. The scoliometer readings were analyzed by age to reveal at which age the juvenile pattern of TA changes into the adolescent one. Results 74.2% of boys and 77% of girls were symmetric (ATR = 0° in the thoracic region in standing FBP, while 82.7% of boys and 84.1% of girls were symmetric in the thoracic region in sitting FBP. Juvenile girls are more symmetric than boys but severe TA was found almost the same between the two genders. A significant reduction in the frequency of mild TA from standing into sitting FBP, in all the examined regions in both boys and girls was found, but in severe TA this reduction is very small. Analysing scoliometer readings by age it appears that significant TA changes take place between 8–9 years of age for boys and between 6–7 and 8–9 years for girls. TA in boys is changing into the adolescent pattern at a later age than in girls. Conclusion Juveniles were found more symmetric than adolescents, who were studied previously in a different study. Furthermore, juvenile girls were found more symmetric than boys. Juvenile TA pattern seems to be in accordance with the higher incidence of juvenile idiopathic scoliosis in boys. Furthermore

  9. Juvenile Incarceration and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnert, Elizabeth S; Perry, Raymond; Morris, Robert E

    2016-03-01

    Addressing the health status and needs of incarcerated youth represents an issue at the nexus of juvenile justice reform and health care reform. Incarcerated youth face disproportionately higher morbidity and higher mortality compared to the general adolescent population. Dental health, reproductive health, and mental health needs are particularly high, likely as a result of lower access to care, engagement in high-risk behaviors, and underlying health disparities. Violence exposure and injury also contribute to the health disparities seen in this population. Further, juvenile incarceration itself is an important determinant of health. Juvenile incarceration likely correlates with worse health and social functioning across the life course. Correctional health care facilities allow time for providers to address the unmet physical and mental health needs seen in this population. Yet substantial challenges to care delivery in detention facilities exist and quality of care in detention facilities varies widely. Community-based pediatricians can serve a vital role in ensuring continuity of care in the postdetention period and linking youth to services that can potentially prevent juvenile offending. Pediatricians who succeed in understanding and addressing the underlying social contexts of their patients' lives can have tremendous impact in improving the life trajectories of these vulnerable youth. Opportunities exist in clinical care, research, medical education, policy, and advocacy for pediatricians to lead change and improve the health status of youth involved in the juvenile justice system.

  10. Thyroxine modifies the effects of growth hormone in Ames dwarf mice

    OpenAIRE

    Do, Andrew; Menon, Vinal; Zhi, Xu; Gesing, Adam; Wiesenborn, Denise S.; Spong, Adam; Sun, Liou; Bartke, Andrzej; Masternak, Michal M.

    2015-01-01

    Ames dwarf (df/df) mice lack growth hormone (GH), thyroid stimulating hormone and prolactin. Treatment of juvenile df/df mice with GH alone stimulates somatic growth, reduces insulin sensitivity and shortens lifespan. Early‐life treatment with thyroxine (T4) alone produces modest growth stimulation but does not affect longevity. In this study, we examined the effects of treatment of juvenile Ames dwarf mice with a combination of GH + T4 and compared them to the effects of GH alone. Treatment ...

  11. Extending juvenility in grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaeppler, Shawn; de Leon Gatti, Natalia; Foerster, Jillian

    2017-04-11

    The present invention relates to compositions and methods for modulating the juvenile to adult developmental growth transition in plants, such as grasses (e.g. maize). In particular, the invention provides methods for enhancing agronomic properties in plants by modulating expression of GRMZM2G362718, GRMZM2G096016, or homologs thereof. Modulation of expression of one or more additional genes which affect juvenile to adult developmental growth transition such as Glossy15 or Cg1, in conjunction with such modulation of expression is also contemplated. Nucleic acid constructs for down-regulation of GRMZM2G362718 and/or GRMZM2G096016 are also contemplated, as are transgenic plants and products produced there from, that demonstrate altered, such as extended juvenile growth, and display associated phenotypes such as enhanced yield, improved digestibility, and increased disease resistance. Plants described herein may be used, for example, as improved forage or feed crops or in biofuel production.

  12. Hormone Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hormones quantified from marine mammal and sea turtle tissue provide information about the status of each animal sampled, including its sex, reproductive status and...

  13. Vorticity in analogue gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Cropp, Bethan; Turcati, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    In the analogue gravity framework, the acoustic disturbances in a moving fluid can be described by an equation of motion identical to a relativistic scalar massless field propagating in a curved spacetime. This description is possible only when the fluid under consideration is barotropic, inviscid and irrotational. In this case, the propagation of the perturbations is governed by an acoustic metric which depends algebrically on the local speed of sound, density and the background flow velocity, the latter assumed to be vorticity free. In this work we provide an straightforward extension in order to go beyond the irrotational constraint. Using a charged --- relativistic and non-relativistic --- Bose--Einstein condensate as a physical system, we show that in the low momentum limit and performing the eikonal approximation we can derive a d'Alembertian equation of motion for the charged phonons where the emergent acoustic metric depends on a flow velocity in the presence of vorticity.

  14. DERMATOMIOSITIS JUVENIL Y EMBARAZO

    OpenAIRE

    Evans M,Gregorio; Poulsen R,Ronald; Blanco R,Romiely; Luna V,Viviana

    2002-01-01

    La dermatomiositis juvenil es un desorden inflamatorio crónico multisistémico del tejido conectivo. Tiene una incidencia de 2-3/100.000/año. Con la disminución en la mortalidad experimentada en los últimos decenios, la atención está cifrada en la morbilidad a largo plazo y en las alteraciones funcionales. Con un tratamiento agresivo los niños con dermatomiositis juvenil generalmente tienen un futuro promisorio, sin incapacidad o con incapacidad mínima. La mortalidad actualmente se estima cerc...

  15. Juvenile idiopatiske inflammatoriske myopatier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helga Sanner

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (JIIM is a group of rare autoimmune systemic diseases in children and adolescents, characterized by chronic skeletal muscle inflammation. Unlike in adults, dermatomyositis (JDM is by far the most common of the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies in children and adolescents. The hallmark of JDM is calcinosis, lipodystrophy and vasculitis, findings that differs the juvenile form of dermatomyosits from the adult form. JDM is still diagnosed and classified by Bohan and Peter’s criteria from 1975. There are limited data on long time outcome of this disease

  16. GnRH类似物对青春期化疗患者卵巢功能的保护作用及机制%Protective effect and its mechanism on ovarian function by gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogue in adolescents under chemotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏喆; 杜敏联

    2009-01-01

    It is a striking success of modern medicine that more and more children with cancer can survive long term. Gonadotoxicity is the most common endocrine late effect in pediatric cancer survivors who had received chemotherapy. Many methods of fertility preservation are not suitable or available for adoles-cents. It has been proved in experimental and clinical observations that combined treatment of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogue can help to protect ovarian function. The possible mechanisms involved in bloc-king FSH dependent follicle development,decreasing local blood infusion,acting on granulosa cells or germ-l ine stem cells renewal. Hopefully, it might become the first choice for ovarian function protection in adoles-cents under chemotherapy.%儿童肿瘤患者的长期生存率正逐年增高,在接受化疗的患者中,性腺功能损害是最常见的内分泌功能障碍.对于青春期化疗患者,用于成人的一些牛殖保护的措施多不适用或技术尚未成熟.近年通过动物在体实验和临床研究证实,促性腺激素释放激素类似物(GnRHa)对化疗患者卵巢功能有保护作用,其机制包括阻断化疗期间卵泡刺激素依赖性的卵泡发育,减少子宫、卵巢的血流灌注,直接作用于卵母细胞、颗粒细胞以及可能作用于生殖干细胞的更新.其具有经济易行、不良反应小等优点,可望作为青春期化疗患者卵巢功能保护的首选方法.

  17. NASA/ESMD Analogue Mission Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation exploring Earth and its analogues is shown. The topics include: 1) ESMD Goals for the Use of Earth Analogues; 2) Stakeholders Summary; 3) Issues with Current Analogue Situation; 4) Current state of Analogues; 5) External Implementation Plan (Second Step); 6) Recent Progress in Utilizing Analogues; 7) Website Layout Example-Home Page; 8) Website Layout Example-Analogue Site; 9) Website Layout Example-Analogue Mission; 10) Objectives of ARDIG Analog Initiatives; 11) Future Plans; 12) Example: Cold-Trap Sample Return; 13) Example: Site Characterization Matrix; 14) Integrated Analogue Studies-Prerequisites for Human Exploration; and 15) Rating Scale Definitions.

  18. Juvenile Battens Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayton, Romayne

    1987-01-01

    Ten children diagnosed with juvenile Battens disease were tested over a three-year period in general intelligence, memory, listening and speech, motor skills, and general learning. Results showed that the patients followed a predetermined pattern but that the time span for development of memory, communication, and behavior problems varied greatly.…

  19. Juvenile Victimization and Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbensen, Finn-Aage; Huizinga, David

    1991-01-01

    Demographic characteristics of juvenile victims of crime and a potential relationship between victimization and self-reported delinquency are examined for 877 adolescents from a large midwestern city. Lifetime victimization rates (LVRs) are higher for those involved in delinquency, and LVRs rise with age and higher levels of delinquent behavior.…

  20. Juvenile Battens Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayton, Romayne

    1987-01-01

    Ten children diagnosed with juvenile Battens disease were tested over a three-year period in general intelligence, memory, listening and speech, motor skills, and general learning. Results showed that the patients followed a predetermined pattern but that the time span for development of memory, communication, and behavior problems varied greatly.…

  1. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prakken, Berent; Albani, Salvatore; Martini, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is a heterogeneous group of diseases characterised by arthritis of unknown origin with onset before age of 16 years. Pivotal studies in the past 5 years have led to substantial progress in various areas, ranging from disease classification to new treatments. Gene expres

  2. Pharmacologic profiles of investigational kisspeptin/metastin analogues, TAK-448 and TAK-683, in adult male rats in comparison to the GnRH analogue leuprolide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Hisanori; Masaki, Tsuneo; Akinaga, Yumiko; Kiba, Atsushi; Takatsu, Yoshihiro; Nakata, Daisuke; Tanaka, Akira; Ban, Junko; Matsumoto, Shin-ichi; Kumano, Satoshi; Suzuki, Atsuko; Ikeda, Yukihiro; Yamaguchi, Masashi; Watanabe, Tatsuya; Ohtaki, Tetsuya; Kusaka, Masami

    2014-07-15

    Kisspeptin/metastin, a hypothalamic peptide, plays a pivotal role in controlling gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons, and we have shown that continuous subcutaneous administration of kisspeptin analogues suppresses plasma testosterone in male rats. This study examined pharmacologic profiles of investigational kisspeptin analogues, TAK-448 and TAK-683, in male rats. Both analogues showed high receptor-binding affinity and potent and full agonistic activity for rat KISS1R, which were comparable to natural peptide Kp-10. A daily subcutaneous injection of TAK-448 and TAK-683 (0.008-8μmol/kg) for consecutive 7 days initially induced an increase in plasma luteinizing hormone and testosterone levels; however, after day 7, plasma hormone levels and genital organ weights were reduced. Continuous subcutaneous administrations of TAK-448 (≥10pmol/h, ca. 0.7nmol/kg/day) and TAK-683 (≥30pmol/h, ca. 2.1nmol/kg/day) induced a transient increase in plasma testosterone, followed by abrupt reduction of plasma testosterone to castrate levels within 3-7 days. This profound testosterone-lowering effect was sustained throughout 4-week dosing periods. At those dose levels, the weights of the prostate and seminal vesicles were reduced to castrate levels. These suppressive effects of kisspeptin analogues were more rapid and profound than those induced by the GnRH agonist analogue leuprolide treatment. In addition, TAK-683 reduced plasma prostate specific antigen (PSA) in the JDCaP androgen-dependent prostate cancer rat model. Thus, chronic administration of kisspeptin analogues may hold promise as a novel therapeutic approach for suppressing reproductive functions and hormone-related diseases such as prostate cancer. Further studies are warranted to elucidate clinical significance of TAK-448 and TAK-683.

  3. Skeletal manifestations of juvenile hypothyroidism and the impact of treatment on skeletal system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Gutch

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone mediates growth and development of the skeleton through its direct effects and through its permissive effects on growth hormone. The effect of hypothyroidism on bone is well described in congenital hypothyroidism, but the impact of thyroid hormone deficiency on a growing skeleton, as it happens with juvenile hypothyroidism, is less defined. In addition, the extent to which the skeletal defects of juvenile hypothyroidism revert on the replacement of thyroid hormone is not known. A study was undertaken in 29 juvenile autoimmune hypothyroid patients to study the skeletal manifestations of juvenile hypothyroidism and the impact of treatment of hypothyroidism on the skeletal system of juvenile patients. Hypothyroidism has a profound impact on the skeletal system and delayed bone age, dwarfism, and thickened bands at the metaphyseal ends being the most common findings. Post treatment, skeletal findings like delayed bone age and dwarfism improved significantly, but there were no significant changes in enlargement of sella, presence of wormian bones, epihyseal dysgenesis, vertebral changes and thickened band at the metaphyseal ends. With the treatment of hypothyroidism, there is an exuberant advancement of bone age, the catch up of bone age being approximately double of the chronological age advancement.

  4. Effect of combined treatment of minidose estrogen and gonadotropin releasing hormone analogues for children with idiopathic central precocious puberty%小剂量雌激素联合促性腺激素释放素类似物治疗儿童特发性中枢性性早熟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵岫; 张琴; 高晓杰

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察小剂量雌激素联合促性腺激素释放素类似物(GnRHa)治疗特发性中枢性性早熟(ICPP)的效果.方法 45例ICPP伴生长减速患儿分为3组:雌激素联合GnRHa治疗组、重组人生长激素(rhGH)联合GnRHa治疗组、单纯GnRHa治疗组,每组15例.分别于治疗前和治疗6个月后观察3组患儿骨龄(BA)、年生长速率(GV)、体质量、身高(Ht)、骨龄身高(Htba)、成年预测身高(PAH)、血脂、血糖、胰岛素、甲状腺功能、雌二醇(E2)、睾酮(T)、泌乳素(PRL)、血胰岛素样生长因子1(IGF-1)、乳房及子宫卵巢B超等的变化;另行GnRH激发试验监测促黄体生成素(LH)和促卵泡雌激素(FSH)水平.结果 3组患儿治疗前Ht、Htba、骨龄/年龄(BA/CA)、PAH、GV、体质量、IGF-1比较差别均无统计学意义(P>0.05).治疗6个月后,雌激素联合GnRHa治疗组患儿GV、Ht、PAH明显高于治疗前(P<0.05),rhGH联合GnRHa治疗组患儿GV.、Ht、PAH、IGF-1明显高于治疗前(P<0.05);且雌激素联合GnRHa治疗组和rhGH联合GnRHa治疗组患儿GV、Ht、PAH明显高于单纯GnRHa治疗组(P<0.05);rhGH联合GnRHa治疗组患儿IGF-1明显高于雌激素联合GnRHa治疗组和单纯GnRHa治疗组(P<0.05).3组治疗前后E2、T、PRL、乳房及子宫和卵巢B超结果均无明显变化,GnRH激发试验LH、FSH和LH/FSH亦无明显变化(P>0.05).结论 小剂量雌激素联合GnRHa治疗ICPP,能在不加速BA的情况下有效地提高生长速率,且雌激素价格便宜,患者依从性好.%Objective To assess the effect of combined treatment of minidose estrogen and gonadotropin releasing hormone analogues (CnRHa) for children with idiopathic central precocious puberty (ICPP). Methods Forty-five female patients with ICPP and growth deceleration were divided into three groups:estrogen plus GnRHa group,recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) plus GnRHa group and GnRHa group, fifteen patients in each group. The bone age (BA ) , growth

  5. Cobalamin analogues in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hardlei, Tore Forsingdal; Obeid, Rima; Herrmann, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Haptocorrin (HC) carries cobalamin analogues (CorA), but whether CorA are produced in the body is unknown. All cobalamins (Cbl) to the foetus are delivered by the Cbl-specific protein transcobalamin (TC), and therefore analysis of cord serum for CorA may help to clarify the origin...... of CorA. METHODS: HC-CorA were quantified in paired samples of cord serum from newborns and serum from mothers (n = 69). RESULTS: The CorA-concentration was higher in cord serum (median = 380, range: 41-780 pmol/L) than in serum from the mothers (median = 160, range: 64-330 pmol/L), (p...-analysis showed CorA-peaks with retention times of 13.5, 14,5 and 16.5 min in samples from both the mother and cord serum. The peak with retention time 16.5 min constituted 24% (mother) and 45% (cord serum) of the total amount CorA, and eluted as does dicyanocobinamide. CONCLUSION: Our results support that CorA...

  6. Hormone impostors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colborn, T.; Dumanoski, D.; Myers, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses the accumulating evidence that some synthetic chemicals disrupt hormones in one way or another. Some mimic estrogen and others interfere with other parts of the body`s control or endocrine system such as testosterone and thyroid metabolism. Included are PCBs, dioxins, furans, atrazine, DDT. Several short sidebars highlight areas where there are or have been particular problems.

  7. Late Onset Juvenile Xanthogranuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punithwavathy K

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A 19 year old female was seen with multiple skin coloured and hyperpigmented macules, discrete as well as grouped papules and nodules of varying sizes distributed over the face, neck, extensor and flexor aspects of both upper and lower extremities including joints. The trunk was spared. Some of the lesions showed features of spontaneous regression. Investigations confirmed the diagnosis of juvenile xanthogranuloma. Lesions regressed satisfactorily with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy.

  8. Juvenile Incarceration and Health

    OpenAIRE

    Barnert, ES; R Perry; Morris, RE

    2015-01-01

    © 2015. Addressing the health status and needs of incarcerated youth represents an issue at the nexus of juvenile justice reform and health care reform. Incarcerated youth face disproportionately higher morbidity and higher mortality compared to the general adolescent population. Dental health, reproductive health, and mental health needs are particularly high, likely as a result of lower access to care, engagement in high-risk behaviors, and underlying health disparities. Violence exposure a...

  9. Assessable Value of Nighttime Urine Gonadotropins on Function of Plypothalamic - Pituitary - Gonadal Axis in Children Treated by Gonadotropin- Releasing Hormone Analogue%夜间尿促性腺激素对判断儿童促性腺激素释放激素类似物治疗后下丘脑-垂体-性腺轴功能的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林士霞

    2011-01-01

    Objective To monitor the adequacy of hypothalamic - pituitary - gonadal axis( HPGA) suppression after receiving gonado tropin -releasing hormone analogue(GnRHa) therapy,tracking gonadotropin (Gn) concentrations in urine by immunochemiluminometric assay (1CMA). Methods Twelve patients who were diagnosed as central precocious puberty(4 patients,all female;age 7. 3 -9. 8 years) or short predicted adult height(8 patients;3 male,5 female;age 8. 8 - 12. 3 years) ,12 h urinary Gn measured by ICMA were performed before the initiation of GnRHa therapy as well as 3 months after the beginning of therapy. Results HPGA suppression was defined as the absence of significant luteinizing hormone( LH)and follicle - stimulating hormone( FSH) responses to GnRH stimulation. LH determinations in urine was significantly lower after therapy compared to before therapy mean LH/Cr[(43.39 ±36.65) IU ? Mol-1 vs (339. 14 ±264.02) IU ? Mol-1, t=3.727,P=0.003],as well as FSH/Cr[(348.20±165.22) IU ? Mol-1 vs (1 841.59 ±1 287.46) IU ? Mol' ,t =3.968, P =0.002]. The sensitivity and specificity of urinary LH determinations ( LH/Cr> 56.44 IU ? Mol-1) to detect inadequate HPGA suppression were 91.7% and 83.3% .respectively. For urinary FSH determinations( FSH/Cr > 604. 97 IU ? Mol-1 ) , the sensitivity and specificity were 93. 8% and 85. 7% , respectively. For urinary FSH determinations (FSH/Cr > 604.97 IU ? Mol-1) and urinary LH determinations( LH/Cr > 56.44 IU ? Mol-1) ,the sensitivity and specificity were 91.7% and 100.0% .respectively. Conclusion Urine measurements of LH and FSH by ICMA, seemed suitable for monitoring HPGA suppression of GnRHa therapy in individual patients.%目的 探讨免疫化学发光法( ICMA)检测夜间12 h尿促性腺激素对判断儿童促性腺激素释放激素类似物(GnRHa)治疗后下丘脑-垂体-性腺轴(HPGA)功能状态的价值.方法 患儿12例,其中中枢性性早熟4例(女,年龄7.3 ~9.8岁),青春期预测终身高矮小8例(男3例,女5

  10. Juvenile Ultracool Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Rice, Emily L; Cruz, Kelle; Barman, Travis; Looper, Dagny; Malo, Lison; Mamajek, Eric E; Metchev, Stanimir; Shkolnik, Evgenya L

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile ultracool dwarfs are late spectral type objects (later than ~M6) with ages between 10 Myr and several 100 Myr. Their age-related properties lie intermediate between very low mass objects in nearby star-forming regions (ages 1-5 Myr) and field stars and brown dwarfs that are members of the disk population (ages 1-5 Gyr). Kinematic associations of nearby young stars with ages from ~10-100 Myr provide sources for juvenile ultracool dwarfs. The lowest mass confirmed members of these groups are late-M dwarfs. Several apparently young L dwarfs and a few T dwarfs are known, but they have not been kinematically associated with any groups. Normalizing the field IMF to the high mass population of these groups suggests that more low mass (mainly late-M and possibly L dwarf) members have yet to be found. The lowest mass members of these groups, along with low mass companions to known young stars, provide benchmark objects with which spectroscopic age indicators for juvenile ultracool dwarfs can be calibrated and...

  11. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions juvenile idiopathic arthritis juvenile idiopathic arthritis Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Juvenile idiopathic arthritis refers to a group of conditions involving joint ...

  12. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile primary osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions juvenile primary osteoporosis juvenile primary osteoporosis Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... PDF Open All Close All Description Juvenile primary osteoporosis is a skeletal disorder characterized by thinning of ...

  13. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile myoclonic epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions juvenile myoclonic epilepsy juvenile myoclonic epilepsy Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... PDF Open All Close All Description Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy is a condition characterized by recurrent seizures (epilepsy). ...

  14. [Luliberin analogues exhibiting a cytotoxic effect on tumor cells in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burov, S V; Iablokova, T V; Dorosh, M Iu; Shkarubskaia, Z P; Blank, M; Epshteĭn, N; Fridkin, M

    2006-01-01

    Luliberin analogues modified at the N-terminus were synthesized to search for drugs exerting a cytotoxic effect on cells of hormone-dependent tumors. A synthetic scheme effective in the preparation of analogues containing fatty acid residues was proposed. The cytotoxic effect of the peptides was studied on a number of cell lines of human tumors in vitro. The dependence of the antitumor effect on the length of peptide chain, amino acid sequence, and structure of the N-terminal group was demonstrated. Modification with palmitic acid was found to result in highly active compounds in the case of analogues containing more than ten aa, whereas modifications with lauric, caproic, or trimethylacetic acid led to compounds with significantly lower activities. Analogues of luliberin containing a palmitic acid residue and effectively inhibiting the growth of tumor cells in vitro were synthesized.

  15. Juvenile Justice Bulletin: Aftercare Services. Juvenile Justice Practices Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gies, Steve V.

    This bulletin examines aftercare services that provide youth with comprehensive health, education, family, and vocational services upon their release from the juvenile justice system. Aftercare can be defined as reintegrative services that prepare out-of-home placed juveniles for reentry into the community by reestablishing the necessary…

  16. Miastenia gravis juvenil Juvenile myasthenia gravis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Papazian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La miastenia gravis juvenil (MGJ es un trastorno crónico auto inmune en el cual existen anticuerpos séricos que al unirse a los receptores de acetilcolin nicotínicos de la membrana muscular de la placa motora alteran la transmisión neuromuscular. El resultado es fatiga muscular precoz con progresión a la parálisis durante estados de contracción muscular iterativos (movimientos o sostenidos (posturas y más raramente parálisis permanente durante el reposo. Los músculos inervados por los nervios craneales, especialmente los extraoculares y elevadores de los párpados, tienen más tendencia a la debilidad muscular persistente que los inervados por otros pares craneales y las extremidades. Las formas clínicas de presentación son generalizadas, oculares y respiratorias. El diagnóstico se sospecha mediante la anamnesia, la fatiga anormal se comprueba mediante el examen físico y la estimulación eléctrica iterativa del nervio que inerva al músculo afectado pero no paralizado. Se corrobora mediante la administración de inhibidores de la acetilcolin esterasa (IACE que al aumentar la cantidad de acetilcolin en la hendidura sináptica, corrigen la fatiga o la debilidad muscular transitoriamente. Se hace el diagnóstico de certeza mediante la demostración sérica de anticuerpos contra los receptores de acetilcolin (ACRA. El tratamiento es a largo plazo sintomático con IACE y etiopatogénico con inmunosupresores, plasmaféresis, gamma globulina endovenosa y timectomía. El curso es crónico. La remisión espontánea o después de tratamiento sintomático o etiopatogénico ocurre entre 1-10 años respectivamente. La mortalidad es prácticamente nula aun durantes las crisis miastenias gracias a la educación de padres, pacientes y público en general sobre el tema, al desarrollo del sistema de respuesta rápida de auxilio domiciliario y las unidades de cuidados intensivos y el empleo de la ventilación asistida profiláctica, plasmaféresis y

  17. Bioanalogues oj juvenile hormones and intestines mycoflora of some insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Nespiak

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is the influence of JH bioanalogues on the mycoflora of intestines of three species of inscets: Dysdereus cinaulams, Pyrrhocoris apterus and Tenebrio molitor. The results are presented in tables.

  18. Juvenile Dermatomyositis in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Emeka Madu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile dermatomyositis has variable clinical presentations both in and outside of pregnancy. A literature review indicated that optimal maternal and fetal outcomes can be anticipated when the pregnancy is undertaken while the disease is in remission. Poorer outcomes are associated with flare-up of the disease in early pregnancy compared with exacerbation in the second or third trimester, when fetal prognosis is usually good. We present a case of JDM in pregnancy with disease exacerbation late in pregnancy and review of the relevant literature.

  19. Juvenile dermatomyositis in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madu, Anthony Emeka; Omih, Edwin; Baguley, Elaine; Lindow, Stephen W

    2013-01-01

    Juvenile dermatomyositis has variable clinical presentations both in and outside of pregnancy. A literature review indicated that optimal maternal and fetal outcomes can be anticipated when the pregnancy is undertaken while the disease is in remission. Poorer outcomes are associated with flare-up of the disease in early pregnancy compared with exacerbation in the second or third trimester, when fetal prognosis is usually good. We present a case of JDM in pregnancy with disease exacerbation late in pregnancy and review of the relevant literature.

  20. Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larralde, M; Santos-Muñoz, A; Calb, I; Magariños, C

    2001-01-01

    Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis (JHF) is a rare autosomal recessive disease with onset in infancy or early childhood. It is characterized by papulonodular skin lesions, soft tissue masses, gingival hypertrophy, and flexion contractures of the large joints. The light and electron microscopic features are very distinctive. Here we report an 8-month-old boy with characteristic stiffness of the knees and elbows and pink confluent papules on the paranasal folds, and periauricular and perianal regions. He also had hard nodules all over the scalp and around the mouth, and severe gingival hypertrophy. Histologic and ultrastructural features were typical of JHF. Clinical features, pathology, and physiology are discussed.

  1. Introduction to electronic analogue computers

    CERN Document Server

    Wass, C A A

    1965-01-01

    Introduction to Electronic Analogue Computers, Second Revised Edition is based on the ideas and experience of a group of workers at the Royal Aircraft Establishment, Farnborough, Hants. This edition is almost entirely the work of Mr. K. C. Garner, of the College of Aeronautics, Cranfield. As various advances have been made in the technology involving electronic analogue computers, this book presents discussions on the said progress, including some acquaintance with the capabilities of electronic circuits and equipment. This text also provides a mathematical background including simple differen

  2. Menstrual regulation with prostaglandin analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagenfeldt, K; Bygdeman, M

    1981-01-01

    The development of generally applicable, simple non-surgical methods for menstrual regulation has been desired for a long time. Such an approach to fertility control depends on the availability of a suitable therapeutic agent that should be effective, reliable, simple to administer and free from disturbing side effects. The classical prostaglandins have shown the capability but are unsuitable mainly due to high incidence of side effects. Most of these drawbacks seem to be overcome when prostaglandin analogues are used; however, vaginal administration caused appreciable pain in 10-30% of women, and so severely limits self-administration of these analogues.

  3. Analogue Methods in Palaeoecology: Using the analogue Package

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin L. Simpson

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Palaeoecology is an important branch of ecology that uses the subfossil remains of organisms preserved in lake, ocean and bog sediments to inform on changes in ecosystems and the environment through time. The analogue package contains functions to perform modern analogue technique (MAT transfer functions, which can be used to predict past changes in the environment, such as climate or lake-water pH from species data. A related technique is that of analogue matching, which is concerned with identifying modern sites that are floristically and faunistically similar to fossil samples. These techniques, and others, are increasingly being used to inform public policy on environmental pollution and conservation practices. These methods and other functionality in analogue are illustrated using the Surface Waters Acidification Project diatom:pH training set and diatom counts on samples of a sediment core from the Round Loch of Glenhead, Galloway, Scotland. The paper is aimed at palaeoecologists who are familiar with the techniques described but not with R.

  4. Juvenile Justice in Rural America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankovic, Joanne, Ed.; And Others

    Producing a much-needed organized body of literature about rural juvenile justice, 14 papers (largely from the 1979 National Symposium on Rural Justice) are organized to identify current issues, identify forces causing changes in current systems, review programs responding to rural juvenile justice problems, and provide planning models to aid…

  5. Hormonal regulation in insects: facts, gaps, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gäde, G; Hoffmann, K H; Spring, J H

    1997-10-01

    There are two main classes of hormones in insects: 1) the true hormones produced by epithelial glands and belonging to the ecdysteroids or juvenile hormones and 2) the neuropeptide hormones produced by neurosecretory cells. Members of these classes regulate physiological, developmental, and behavioral events in insects. Detailed accounts are given on isolation, identification, structure-activity relationships, mode of action, biological function, biosynthesis, inactivation, metabolism, and feedback for hormones involved in 1) metabolic regulation such as the adipokinetic/hypertrehalosemic peptides and the diuretic and antidiuretic peptides; 2) stimulation or inhibition of muscle activity such as the myotropic peptides; 3) control of reproduction, growth, and development such as allatotropins, allatostatins, juvenile hormones, ecdysteroids, folliculostimulins and folliculostatins, ecdysis-triggering and eclosion hormones, pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptides, and diapause hormones; and 4) regulation of tanning and of color change. Because of the improvements in techniques for isolation and structure elucidation, there has been rapid progress in our knowledge of the chemistry of certain neuropeptide families. With the employment of molecular biological techniques, the genes of some neuropeptides have been successfully characterized. There are, however, areas that are still quite underdeveloped. These are, for example, 1) receptor studies, which are still in their infancy; 2) the hormonal status of certain sequenced peptides is not clarified; and 3) functional studies are lacking even for established hormones. The authors plead for a concerted effort to continue research in this field, which will also advance our knowledge into the use of insect hormones as safer and species-specific molecules for insect pest management.

  6. Juvenile arthritis and uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanski, J J

    1990-01-01

    The association between juvenile arthritis and uveitis is reviewed. Some children with the HLA-B27 related spondyloarthropathies develop anterior uveitis. About 20% of patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) who are negative for IgM rheumatoid factor develop a frequently bilateral, nongranulomatous chronic anterior uveitis. Risk factors for uveitis in JRA patients are: female gender, pauciarticular onset of arthritis, presence of circulating antinuclear antibodies, and the antigens HLA-DW5 and HLA-DPw2. Uveitis is rare after seven years or more have elapsed from the onset of arthritis. The visual prognosis in patients with uveitis is good in 25% and fair in 50%. The remaining 25% develop visual impairment from complicated cataract and/or secondary inflammatory glaucoma. The potential benefit of cytotoxic agents in the treatment of intractable uveitis is outweighed by the risk of serious side effects. The management of secondary inflammatory glaucoma is unsatisfactory, but the results of treatment of complicated cataracts by lensectomy-vitrectomy are good.

  7. Aggressive juvenile mandibular fibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Georgi P; Atanasov, Dimitar T; Anavi, Beniamin L

    2013-01-01

    Aggressive juvenile fibromatosis of the jawbones is a rare tumor presenting as infiltrative mass with unpredictable evolution. We report herein a 17-year-old student with a 6-month history of radiologically proven resorption of a part of the mandible, lingual displacement of tooth 34 and malocclusion. Alveolar ridge resorption and three dark-brown foci in the bone were seen after the tooth was extracted. Histological study showed the tumor tissue to have a bundle-like structure; immunohistochemically it was positive for vimentin, smooth muscle actin, beta-catenin, Ki-67 (5%), and negative for desmin and cytokeratin 34bE12. The golden standard in the diagnostics of desmoid fibromatoses is the nuclear or membrane expression of beta-catenin, which is found in 90% of the cases. Differential diagnosis include mandibular fibroma, well-differentiated fibrosarcoma, fibrosing histiocytoma, and infiltration from adjacent soft-tissue tumor. Aggressive juvenile fibromatosis should be managed by radical excision. Local recurrences are not rare, but metastases do not develop. In rare cases this type of fibromatosis has been known to regress spontaneously. Aggressive fibromatosis is a diagnostic challenge, since it remains in the grey zone between benign and malignant lesions of the oral cavity.

  8. Novel acetylcholine and carbamoylcholine analogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Camilla Petrycer; Jensen, Anders Asbjørn; Christensen, Jeppe K.

    2008-01-01

    A series of carbamoylcholine and acetylcholine analogues were synthesized and characterized pharmacologically at neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Several of the compounds displayed low nanomolar binding affinities to the alpha 4beta 2 nAChR and pronounced selectivity for this ...

  9. Juvenile justice mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Christopher R; Penn, Joseph V

    2002-10-01

    As the second century of partnership begins, child psychiatry and juvenile justice face continuing challenges in meeting the mental health needs of delinquents. The modern juvenile justice system is marked by a significantly higher volume of cases, with increasingly complicated multiproblem youths and families with comorbid medical, psychiatric, substance abuse disorders, multiple family and psychosocial adversities, and shrinking community resources and alternatives to confinement. The family court is faced with shrinking financial resources to support court-ordered placement and treatment programs in efforts to treat and rehabilitate youths. The recognition of high rates of mental disorders for incarcerated youth has prompted several recommendations for improvement and calls for reform [56,57]. In their 2000 annual report, the Coalition for Juvenile Justice advocated increased access to mental health services that provide a continuum of care tailored to the specific problems of incarcerated youth [58]. The specific recommendations of the report for mental health providers include the need for wraparound services, improved planning and coordination between agencies, and further research. The Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention has set three priorities in dealing with the mental health needs of delinquents: further research on the prevalence of mental illness among juvenile offenders, development of mental health screening assessment protocols, and improved mental health services [59]. Other programs have called for earlier detection and diversion of troubled youth from juvenile justice to mental health systems [31,56]. Most recently, many juvenile and family courts have developed innovative programs to address specific problems such as truancy or substance use and diversionary or alternative sentencing programs to deal with first-time or nonviolent delinquents. All youths who come in contact with the juvenile justice system

  10. Hormonal cytoreduction and radiotherapy for carcinoma of the prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shearer, R.J.; Davies, J.H.; Gelister, J.S.K.; Dearnaley, D.P. (Royal Marsden Hospital, London (United Kingdom))

    1992-05-01

    We report the effect on prostatic volume of the administration of the luteinising hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) analogue goserelin in 22 patients with locally advanced carcinoma of the prostrate; 20 achieved a significant reduction in volume, the median volume being 66 ml before treatment and 30 ml after 17 weeks. If used before external beam radiotherapy (RT), volume reduction will permit smaller boost fields and thus potentially reduce adverse radiotherapy effects. In addition, reducing tumour volume before RT may lead to an increase in local control. We discuss the possible role of hormonal volume reduction in the management of prostatic cancer. (Author).

  11. Miranda Rights: Implications for Juveniles with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsiyannis, Antonis; Barrett, David E.; Losinski, Mickey L.

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency in the United States has been a persistent concern for decades. Consequently, because more juveniles have been referred to juvenile court and the arrest rate of preteen offenders has increased to almost three times that of older youth, the persistent and often controversial issue of the capacity of juvenile offenders to waive…

  12. Juvenile prison in parallel legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutovac Mitar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for punishment of juveniles occurred from the time when there was no clear line separating them from the adult criminal population. At the same time, the evolution of the juvenile punishment is not in itself involve substantial changes to their criminal status. On the contrary, the status of minors in society did not show serious differences regarding the status of young adults, as well as the adult elderly. On the other hand, on the ground of their punishment is recorded deviations that go in the direction of application of mild corporal punishment. Closing the minor was performed in a physically separate parts of the general penal institutions with the use of a lower degree of restrictions while serving juvenile prison. Due to the different treatment of minors during the evolution of their criminal status leads to their different treatment in comparative law. That is why we are witnessing the existence of numerous differences in the juvenile punishment in some countries in the world. On the European continent there is a wide range of different legal solutions when it comes to punishing juveniles. There are considerable differences in the procedure pronouncing juvenile prison and in particular penal treatment of juveniles in penitentiary institutions. For these reasons, the author has decided to show the basic statutory provisions in the part that relates to the issue of punishment of minors in the legislation of individual countries.

  13. Update on juvenile myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Wendy K M; Kang, Peter B

    2013-12-01

    Juvenile myasthenia gravis is a relatively rare autoimmune neuromuscular disorder. The pathophysiology of juvenile myasthenia gravis is similar to that of adult myasthenia gravis, though there remain important differences regarding presentation and therapeutic options. We review the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and treatment options for juvenile myasthenia gravis. Randomized clinical studies of myasthenia gravis have been carried out primarily in adult populations. As juvenile myasthenia gravis is rare, it has been difficult to collect prospective randomized controlled data to evaluate treatment outcomes and efficacy. A recent retrospective series suggests that, as in adult myasthenia gravis, thymectomy is a viable therapeutic option for selected cases of generalized juvenile myasthenia gravis. This is corroborated by the clinical experience of the authors in a referral center with a cohort of patients affected by juvenile myasthenia gravis over a number of years. Recent studies illustrate that some, but not all, adult research on myasthenia gravis is applicable to children and adolescents with juvenile myasthenia gravis. Adult research can inform pediatric studies, but should not be regarded as a substitute for dedicated research in those populations.

  14. Measuring Mental Imagery with Visual Analogue Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilter, Shawn M.; Band, Jennie P.; Miller, Gary M.

    1999-01-01

    Investigates some of the psychometric characteristics of the results from visual-analogue scales used to measure mental imagery. Reports that the scores from visual-analogue scales are positively related to scores from longer pencil-and-paper measures of mental imagery. Implications and limitations for the use of visual-analogue scales to measure…

  15. Juvenile chronic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwood, T R; Woo, P

    1995-05-01

    The nomenclature and classification criteria for arthritis in children should be dealt with initially as separate issues, although they are undoubtedly intertwined. The classification criteria should aim to delineate homogeneous patient populations, yet should be flexible enough to incorporate advances in disease knowledge. It should be recognized that arriving at an international consensus for classification criteria will merely provide a set of operational definitions to facilitate research, and not a set of diagnostic criteria. Indeed the only point to obtaining consensus is to begin a process of systematic ongoing review of the criteria. The labels attached to any of these diseases should facilitate accurate communication. In view of the heterogeneous nature of childhood arthritis, consideration should be given to using a broad umbrella term such as juvenile or childhood arthritis only for communicating with the lay public. Medical nomenclature should be formulated to reflect accurately homogeneous subgroups of arthritis, and should not artificially proscribe a relationship between paediatric and adult disease.

  16. [Juvenile idiopathic arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlin, Troels

    2002-08-19

    The new classification of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is described in this review. Clinical characteristics divide JIA in to subtypes: systemic, oligoarticular (persistent and extended type), RF-positive and--negative polyarticular, enthesitis-related arthritis and psoriatic arthritis. In addition to the clinical characteristics, genetic and biochemical differences suggest that JIA could be regarded as a general term covering various diseases. Complications described are uveitis, temporomandibular joint affection and growth disturbances. The therapeutic strategy should be planned individually according to age, subtype and disease activity and carried out as teamwork with several specialties. Drugs showing significant effectiveness in controlled studies are primarily methotrexate and sulphasalazine. An immunomodulating agent, etanercept, a soluble TNF alpha-receptor fusion protein, has shown a promising effect in severe polyarticular JIA refractory to methotrexate treatment.

  17. Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayashree Krishnamurthy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis is a rare, autosomal-recessive disease characterized by papular and nodular skin lesions, gingival hyperplasia, joint contractures and bone involvement in variable degrees. It is a connective tissue disorder with aberrant synthesis of glycosaminoglycans by fibroblasts. We report a 5-year-old female born of first-degree consanguineous marriage who presented with multiple, recurrent, painless, variable-sized nodules. Fine needle aspiration cytology smears and the subsequent histopathological examination from the nodules showed benign spindle cells in a Periodic acid Schiff-positive myxoid background. The disease has a relentlessly progressive course, with most patients surviving only up to the 4 th decade. As of now, there is no specific treatment for this disorder. Genetic counseling is essential to explain to parents about a 25% chance of having a diseased baby in any pregnancy. With the gene being mapped recently, techniques for antenatal diagnosis are likely to be established.

  18. [JUVENILE DERMATOMYOSITIS AND CALCINOSIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhvania, M

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile Dermatomiositis (JD) is autoimmune disease that progresses with time; JD's main differentiated syndromes are rash on the skin, poor function of muscles, and often developing invalidism. If the health practitioners manage to diagnose the JD on an early stage and prescribe the adequate treatment the disease will not progress aggressively. This approach is tangible for practical rheumatology and pediatric. The article aims to present the reasons of the development of the JD and calcinosis. The study based on the description of the patients with JD. There are distinguished the main symptoms of the disease in children: frequent and acute developments of muscles calcinosis, occasionally with diffuse character followed with hypotrophy of the muscles, contractures and invalidism. One of the patient cases that describe the article is the thirteen-year boy with JD indicating repeated sequence of the disease, with diffusive calcinosis, cellulitis followed with secondary infection and impaired vision.

  19. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krupa H Bhatt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA is the most chronic musculoskeletal disease of pediatric population. The chronic course of disease has a great impact on oral health. Temporomandibular joint is involved in JIA causing limited mouth opening with progressive open bite, retrognathia, microgenia and bird like appearance. Joints of upper and lower extremities are also involved. Effect on upper limb function leads to difficulty with fine motor movements required for brushing and flossing. This increases incidence of caries and periodontal disease in children. The cause of JIA is still poorly understood and none of the available drugs for JIA can cure the disease. However, prognosis has improved as a result of progress in disease classification and management. The dental practitioner should be familiar with the symptoms and oral manifestations of JIA to help manage as multidisciplinary management is essential.

  20. Growth hormone suppression test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003376.htm Growth hormone suppression test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The growth hormone suppression test determines whether growth hormone production ...

  1. Growth hormone test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003706.htm Growth hormone test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The growth hormone test measures the amount of growth hormone ...

  2. Hormone Replacement Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... before and during menopause, the levels of female hormones can go up and down. This can cause ... hot flashes and vaginal dryness. Some women take hormone replacement therapy (HRT), also called menopausal hormone therapy, ...

  3. Juvenile homosexual homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Wade C; Chan, Heng Choon Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Limited information exists on juvenile homosexual homicide (JHH), that is, youths who perpetrate sexual homicides against same-sex victims. Only a handful of cases from the United States and internationally have been described in the literature. This study, the first of its kind, examines the epidemiology, victimology, victim-offender relationship, and weapon-use patterns in JHH offenders using a large U.S. database on homicide spanning three decades. The data for this study were derived from the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Supplementary Homicide Reports (SHRs) for the years 1976 through 2005. A total of 93 cases of JHH were identified. On average, three of these crimes occurred annually in the U.S., and there was a marked decline in its incidence over the study period. Ninety-five percent were male offender-male victim cases and 5% were female offender-female victim cases. JHH offenders were over-represented amongst all juvenile sexual murderers, similar to their adult counterparts. The majority of these boys were aged 16 or 17 and killed adult victims. They were significantly more likely to kill adult victims than other age groups, to be friends or acquaintances of the victims, and to use contact/edged weapons or firearms. Most offenders killed same-race victims, although Black offenders were significantly more likely than White offenders to kill interracially. A case report is provided to illustrate JHH. Further research is needed to promote our understanding of the pathogenesis, etiology, and associated risk factors for this aberrant form of murder by children.

  4. Effects of fenoxycarb,a juvenile hormone analog,on various developmental stages of Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera:Coccinellidae)%保幼激素类似物苯氧威对异色瓢虫不同发育阶段的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹素芬; 赵鑫; 王丽晓; 李刚; 李光强; 赵静; 郑方强

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] This study focused on the effects of fenoxycarb, a juvenile hormone analog (JHA), on the ladybird Harmonia axyridis and discussed its mechanisms of action, so as to evaluate the risks of fenoxycarb application and provide theoretical basis for rational use of the JHA. [Methods] Toxicity of fenoxycarb to egg, 2nd instar larva, pupa and adult of H. Axyridis was determined in the laboratory by using the methods of dipping, topical contact and residual film, respectively. [Results] Fenoxycarb significantly disrupted embryonic development of newly-laid eggs at the minimum concentration of 0. 0001 μg/mL, but when the 2 d-old eggs were treated, the larvae could hatch even at the highest concentration of 20 000 μg/mL. The mortality of 2nd instar larvae was very low even at the highest concentration of 4 000 μg/mL. When pupae were treated, fenoxycarb had significant effects on pupal development with adult eclosion blocked, and pupa-adult intermediate and abnormalities of adults emerged at the minimum concentration of 0.0001 μg (a. I.)/larva. The adult vitality was affected significantly at 24 h after contact with fenoxycarb at the concentration of 0. 0125 μg/mL. [Conclusions] Fenoxycarb had an obvious ovicidal action on newly-laid eggs of H. Axyridis, seriously blocked the larval-pupal metamorphosis and affected the survival of the adults. When fenoxycarb is used in fields, the susceptible developmental stages of the ladybird should be avoided.%[目的]本研究旨在明确保幼激素类似物苯氧威对天敌异色瓢虫 Harmonia axyridis 的影响,并探讨其作用机理,以便进行安全性评价并为科学使用提供理论依据.[方法]应用连叶浸渍法、浸渍法、点滴法和药膜法分别处理异色瓢虫卵、2龄幼虫、蛹和成虫,观察苯氧威对4个虫态的影响.[结果]用浓度为0.0001 μg/mL的药液处理初产卵,能抑制胚胎的发育;但用高达20 000 μg/mL的药液处理发育2 d的卵,幼虫仍

  5. A Short Term Analogue Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Peter Jivan

    1992-01-01

    A short term analogue memory is described. It is based on a well-known sample-hold topology in which leakage currents have been minimized partly by circuit design and partly by layout techniques. Measurements on a test chip implemented in a standard 2.4 micron analogue CMOS process show a droop...... rate of 0.075mV per second with a 1pF hold capacitor. This is equivalent to a retention time of approximately 1½ minute with 10 bits accuracy, assuming a full scale of +/-3.5V. It is expected that this can be improved by more than an order of magnitude by improving the layout of the hold capacitor...

  6. Do juvenile Amphiprion ocellaris (Pisces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brolund, Thea Marie; Nielsen, Lis Engdahl; Arvedlund, Michael

    2003-01-01

    . This is contrary to the settling mechanisms of the damselfish D. aruanus and D. reticulatus, and of the temperate herring Clupea harengus. Hence the results emphasize the variation of sensory abilities and behaviours in fish larvae and juveniles. It is not an area prone for generalizations.......Juvenile anemonefish Amphiprion ocellaris were tested in two behavioural laboratory set-ups for their ability to visually or chemically recognize conspecifics. Individuals of two other species of anemonefish, A. clarkii and Dascyllus aruanus, were also used as test specimens for recognition....... The results indicate that juvenile A. ocellaris recognize conspecifics visually rather than by olfaction. This is contrary to their finding mechanism of their host anemone. However, the results also indicate that the juvenile A ocellaris are neither attracted nor deterred by the presence of conspecifics...

  7. Bilateral, independent juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkenborg, Marie-Louise; Frendø, M; Stavngaard, T;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a benign, vascular tumour that primarily occurs in adolescent males. Despite its benign nature, aggressive growth patterns can cause potential life-threatening complications. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is normally unilateral, originating...... from the sphenopalatine artery, but bilateral symptoms can occur if a large tumour extends to the contralateral side of the nasopharynx. This paper presents the first reported case of true bilateral extensive juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma involving clinically challenging pre-surgical planning...... embolisation. Radical removal performed as one-step, computer-assisted functional endoscopic sinus surgery was performed. The follow-up period was uncomplicated. CONCLUSION: This case illustrates the importance of suspecting bilateral juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma in patients presenting with bilateral...

  8. Editor's Shelf: International Juvenile Titles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell-Powell, Brenda

    1994-01-01

    Provides an annotated list of international juvenile picture books and notes those that emphasize text over pictures. The 49 titles present international perspectives for educators, librarians, and parents seeking materials with alternative cultural content. The majority are folk tales. (SLD)

  9. Neuronal Analogues of Conditioning Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-24

    Although the mechanisms of interneuronal communication have been well established, the changes underlying most forms of learning have thus far eluded...stimulating electrodes on one of the connectives was adjusted so as to produce a small excitatory postsynaptic potential ( EPSP ) in the impaled cell...two stimuli would constitute a neuronal analogue of conditioning by producing an increased EPSP in response to the test stimulus alone. If so, then

  10. Substrate analogues for isoprenoid enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stremler, K.E.

    1987-01-01

    Diphosphonate analogues of geranyl diphosphate, resistant to degradation by phosphatases, were found to be alternate substrates for the reaction with farnesyl diphosphate synthetase isolated from avian liver. The difluoromethane analogue was shown to be the better alternate substrate, in agreement with solvolysis results which indicate that the electronegativity of the difluoromethylene unit more closely approximates that of the normal bridging oxygen. The usefulness of the C/sub 10/ difluoro analogue, for detecting low levels of isoprenoid enzymes in the presence of high levels of phosphatase activity, was demonstrated with a cell-free preparation from lemon peel. A series of C/sub 5/ through C/sub 15/ homoallylic and allylic diphosphonates, as well as two 5'-nucleotide diphosphonates, was prepared in high overall yield using the activation-displacement sequence. Radiolabeled samples of several of the allylic diphosphonates were prepared with tritium located at C1. A series of geraniols, stereospecifically deuterated at C1, was prepared. The enantiomeric purities and absolute configurations were determined by derivatization as the mandelate esters for analysis by /sup 1/H NMR. The stereochemistry of the activation-displacement sequence was examined using C1-deuterated substrates.

  11. Analogue of Melanotan II (MTII): A Novel Melanotropin with Superpotent Action on Frog Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Liqian; Yu, Zhiqiang; Meng, Dan; Zheng, Fang; Ong, Yong S; Miao, Peng; Lee, Su S; Wen, Longping

    2015-01-01

    An α-MSH peptide analogue, named MTII (Ac-Nle-c[Asp-His-D-Phe-Arg-Trp-Lys]- NH2), is one of the most important ligands of melanotropic receptors but are relatively nonselective. In order to improve the melanotropic activities of the well-characterized MTII analogues, we report here a new analogue by modifying the core structure as well as the size of the cyclic region of MTII peptide. The analogue peptide, Ac-Nle-c[Asp-His-D-Phe-Lys-Trp-Gly-Lys]-OH (F Peptide), in which we replaced Arg at position 8 with Lys and added a Gly to position 10 of the MTII peptide sequence, was synthesized and used as a new melanotropic hormone in controlling rapid color changes in frogs by its actions on mobilizing pigment granule movements within chromatophores. The in vivo responses of chromatophores to MTII and the related analogue F Peptide were studied in frogs. The results show that the F Peptide was a superpotent agonist with similar melanotropic activity to the MTII peptide according to MTII peptide by in vivo studies. The analogue also exhibited ultraprolonged melanotropic activity. The F peptide can be useful in the study of numerous physiological processes, particularly when superpotent and prolonged melanotropic activity is desired.

  12. GnRH analogue attenuated apoptosis of rat hippocampal neuron after ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chenyu; Xu, Bainan; Huang, Weiquan

    2010-12-01

    The expression and new functions of reproductive hormones in organs beyond hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis have been reported. So far, there is no report about the protective effects of GnRH analogue to hippocampal neurons suffering from ischemia-reperfusion injury. Middle cerebral artery occlusion model together with TUNEL staining were made in vivo and oxygen-glucose deprivation model together with double staining of Annexin V/PI with flow cytometer were made in vitro to observe the anti-apoptotic effects of GnRH analogue to hippocampal neurons after ischemia-reperfusion injury. The results found that the number of TUNEL positive pyramidal neurons in CA1 region in GnRH analogue experiment group was less than that in control group in vivo; the percentage of apoptotic neurons in GnRH analogue experiment group was less than that in control group in vitro. These findings suggested that pretreatment with certain concentration of GnRH analogue could attenuate apoptosis of hippocampal neurons. GnRH analogue has the protective effects to neurons.

  13. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE HORMONAL STIMULATION STERLET (ACIPENSER RUTHENUS, LINNAEUS, 1758 USING CARP HYPOPHYSIS AND ARTIFICIAL HORMONE TYPE NERESTIN 5-5A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. DIMA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the particular sturgeon reproductive biology, propagation of technology through artificial comprises a number of phases required including: selection, parking broodstocks cell maturation and sexual stimulation in order fertilized their conditions provided. To stimulate the process of sexual maturation of the sexual elements for sterlet could be hypophysis and also analogue gonadothropic hormone type Nerestin 5. Literature attesting to the use of sterlet dry hypophysis treated with acetone (Maria Caloianu-Iordăchel, 1973 and employing successful hormone analogue found as LHRHa (N.Patrichi and collaborators, 1989- unpublished data. Advantages and disadvantages of using hypophysis or gonadotropic hormone analogue fdhgghNerestin 5 are very important and decisive for modern aquaculture the century XXI century.

  14. Active postoperative acromegaly: sustained remission after discontinuation of somatostatin analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas-Salas, Jersy

    2016-01-01

    Summary In patients with active acromegaly after pituitary surgery, somatostatin analogues are effective in controlling the disease and can even be curative in some cases. After treatment discontinuation, the likelihood of disease recurrence is high. However, a small subset of patients remains symptom-free after discontinuation, with normalized growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF1) levels. The characteristics of patients most likely to achieve sustained remission after treatment discontinuation are not well understood, although limited evidence suggests that sustained remission is more likely in patients with lower GH and IGF1 levels before treatment withdrawal, in those who respond well to low-dose treatment, in those without evidence of adenoma on an MRI scan and/or in patients who receive long-term treatment. In this report, we describe the case of a 56-year-old female patient treated with lanreotide Autogel for 11 years. Treatment was successfully discontinued, and the patient is currently disease-free on all relevant parameters (clinical, biochemical and tumour status). The successful outcome in this case adds to the small body of literature suggesting that some well-selected patients who receive long-term treatment with somatostatin analogues may achieve sustained remission. Learning points: The probability of disease recurrence is high after discontinuation of treatment with somatostatin analogues. Current data indicate that remission after treatment discontinuation may be more likely in patients with low GH and IGF1 levels before treatment withdrawal, in those who respond well to low-dose treatment, in those without evidence of adenoma on MRI, and/or in patients receiving prolonged treatment. This case report suggests that prolonged treatment with somatostatin analogues can be curative in carefully selected patients. PMID:27933171

  15. Effects of juvenile hormone antagonist KK-42 on temporal and spatial expressions of FAMeT in shrimp Penaeus schmitti%保幼激素拮抗物KK-42对凡纳滨对虾FAMeT时空表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏西超; 王雪参; 李昕; 吕黎; 宁黔冀

    2011-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that the treatment of juvenile hormone antagonist KK-42 can significantly accelerate growth of Penaeus schmitti, which has been applied in P. schmitti aquaculture, but the mechanism of KK-42 is unclear. To provide the theory support involved in KK-42 application, the temporal and spatial expressions of farnesoic acid O-methyltransferase (FAMeT), a key synthesis enzyme of methyl farnesoate (MF) which is the important hormone regulating directly crustacean growth, was assayed and the effect of KK-42 on the enzyme was researched. The shrimps (Penaeus schmitti), 3.5-5.0 cm long, were randomly divided into two groups, soaked in KK-42 solution at a concentration of 1.95×10-4 mol/L or in the solution without KK-42 for 1 min, respectively,and then cultured in normal way. The levels of FAMeT mRNA were determined using real-time PCR and hemolymph MF titer was analyzed by normal phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Results showed that the expression pattern of FAMeT derived from the muscle, eyestalk and mandibular organ (MO) tissues varied in control, of which, the mRNA levels in muscle and eyestalk tissues were not only relatively low but also little various during the experiment. However, an obvious fluctuation of mRNA level occurred in MO during the stage of experiment, more than l-fold of increase in mRNA level was observed on days 2, 6, 7, and 8 comparing to that on day 0. The hemolymph MF content in control shrimps rose during the experiment. Administration of KK-42 resulted in the universal depression on FAMeT expression in three tissues mentioned above; the most significant inhibitory effect occurred in MO where the level of FAMeT mRNA was considerably lower than that in control group from day 1 to day 7; the level even decreased to 50.9% (P<0.01), 63.4% (P<0.01) and 55.7% (P<0.01)on dayl, day 4 and day 6 after KK-42 treatment, respectively. Meanwhile, the amount of hemolymph MF fell in KK-42-treated shrimps compared to

  16. Hormones and absence epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Tolmacheva, E.A.; Budziszewska, B.

    2017-01-01

    Hormones have an extremely large impact on seizures and epilepsy. Stress and stress hormones are known to reinforce seizure expression, and gonadal hormones affect the number of seizures and even the seizure type. Moreover, hormonal concentrations change drastically over an individual's lifetime, es

  17. Hormones and absence epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Budziszewska, B.; Tolmacheva, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    Hormones have an extremely large impact on seizures and epilepsy. Stress and stress hormones are known to reinforce seizure expression, and gonadal hormones affect the number of seizures and even the seizure type. Moreover, hormonal concentrations change drastically over an individual's lifetime, es

  18. Bilateral genu valgum: an unusual presentation of juvenile primary hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shruti; Kumar, Sunil

    2016-07-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism is a generalized disorder of bone and mineral metabolism caused by autonomous secretion of parathyroid hormone. It is primarily seen in adults with typical age of presentation between third and fifth decades of life. Juvenile hyperparathyroidism is a rare disorder. The common presentations in order of incidence are fatigue and lethargy, headache, nephrolithiasis, nausea, abdominal pain, vomiting and polydipsia. Though skeletal symptoms include bone pains and fractures, but the presence of limb deformity is atypical. We report a case of young girl who presented with isolated progressive genu valgum of both lower limbs and pigeon-shaped chest deformity. She was found to have hypercalcemia and hypophosphatemia with raised parathyroid hormone levels. The neck imaging showed a single adenoma in the left inferior parathyroid gland. The surgical removal of parathyroid adenoma was performed.

  19. Safety of gonadotropin releasing hormone analogue combined with Cy-clophosphamide in the treatment of patients with systemic lupus erythe-matosus%促性腺释放激素类似物联合环磷酰胺治疗系统性红斑狼疮的安全性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林琦; 王庆文; 黄倩羽; 蔡月明; 黄星涛; 魏蔚霞

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨促性腺释放激素类似物(GnRHa)联合环磷酰胺(CTX)治疗对系统性红斑狼疮(SLE)患者病情的影响,以及GnRHa作为CTX治疗的SLE患者卵巢保护剂的安全性。方法选取2013年3月~2014年12月在北京大学深圳医院风湿科确诊为SLE的育龄女性24例,根据是否使用GnRHa分为CTX+GnRHa组和CTX组,每组各12例。采用双能X线骨密度仪检测两组患者腰椎(L1~L4正位)骨密度;比较两组患者治疗前后病情、CTX的累积治疗量、骨密度及治疗后副作用。结果①SLE病情:治疗后两组SLE患者临床症状均消失,两组治疗前后系统性红斑狼疮疾病活动指数(SLEDAI)评分组内比较,差异均有高度统计学意义(t=23.534、19.187,均P=0.000);治疗后两组SLEDAI评分比较,差异有高度统计学意义(t=3.425,P=0.002)。②CTX的累积治疗量:CTX+GnRHa组与CTX组的CTX的累积治疗量分别为(6.9±2.0)、(7.0±1.5)g,两组比较差异无统计学意义(t=0.217,均P=0.830)。③骨密度:两组SLE患者治疗前后腰椎(L1~L4正位)骨密度值比较,差异均无统计学意义(t=0.126、0.175,P=0.901、0.863)。④治疗后的副作用、围绝经期症状及月经改变:CTX+GnRHa组在使用第2次GnRHa后均出现闭经,并伴有不同程度的潮热、多汗、睡眠困难等低雌激素症状,而停用GnRHa、月经恢复后上述症状缓解消失。CTX组有7例出现月经不规则,其中3例月经淋漓不尽,4例月经稀发,但均无低雌激素症状。结论 GnRHa联合CTX治疗对SLE患者的病情无明显的负面影响,GnRHa具有保护CTX治疗中SLE患者卵巢的功能,但其作为CTX治疗的SLE患者的卵巢功能保护剂的安全性及有效性仍有待进一步证实。%Objective To study the effect of gonadotropin releasing hormone analogue (GnRHa) combined with Cy-clophosphamide (CTX) for patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and the safety of GnRHa as the

  20. JUVENILE RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I N Sartika

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA is the most common rheumatic condition in children. JRA is defined as persistent arthritis in 1 or more joints for at least 6 weeks, with the onset before age 16 years. The etiology of JRA is unknown. Antigen activated CD4+ T cell stimulate monocytes, macrophages, and synovial fibroblasts to produce the cytokines Interleukin-1 (IL-1, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-? and to secrete matrix metalloproteinases, which lead to chronic inflammation due to infiltration of inflammatory cell, angiogenesis, destruction of cartilage and bone with pannus formation. The 3 major subtypes of JRA are based on the symptoms at disease onset and are designated systemic onset, pauciarticular onset, and polyarticular onset. For all patients, the goals of therapy are to decrease chronic joint pain and suppress the inflammatory process. Poor prognostic have been observed in patients with polyarticular onset, rheumatoid factor, persistent morning stiffness, tenosynovitis, involvement of the small joints, rapid appearance of erosions, active late onset childhood, subcutaneous nodules, or antinuclear antibody.

  1. Antimicrobial evaluation of mangiferin analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The naturally occurring xanthone glycoside mangiferin has been isolated by column chromatography from the ethanol extract of stem bark of Mangifera indica. Mangiferin was further converted to 5-(N-phenylaminomethylenomangiferin, 5-(N-p-chlorophenylaminomethyleno mangiferin, 5-(N-2-methylphenylaminomethyleno mangiferin, 5-(N-p-methoxyphenylaminomethyleno mangiferin, 5-(N,N-diphenylaminomethyleno mangiferin, 5-(N--napthylaminomethyleno mangiferin and 5-(N-4-methylphenylaminomethyleno mangiferin. Mangiferin and its analogues were characterized by melting point and R f value determination and through spectral technique like UV, IR, and NMR spectral analysis. The synthesized compounds were screened for antimicrobial activity.

  2. Antimicrobial Evaluation of Mangiferin Analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S. K.; Kumar, Y.; Kumar, S. Sadish; Sharma, V. K.; Dua, K.; Samad, A.

    2009-01-01

    The naturally occurring xanthone glycoside mangiferin has been isolated by column chromatography from the ethanol extract of stem bark of Mangifera indica. Mangiferin was further converted to 5-(N-phenylaminomethyleno)mangiferin, 5-(N-p-chlorophenylaminomethyleno) mangiferin, 5-(N-2-methylphenylaminomethyleno) mangiferin, 5-(N-p-methoxyphenylaminomethyleno) mangiferin, 5-(N, N-diphenylaminomethyleno) mangiferin, 5-(N--napthylaminomethyleno) mangiferin and 5-(N-4-methylphenylaminomethyleno) mangiferin. Mangiferin and its analogues were characterized by melting point and Rf value determination and through spectral technique like UV, IR, and NMR spectral analysis. The synthesized compounds were screened for antimicrobial activity. PMID:20490307

  3. Ecstasy analogues found in cacti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, Jan G; El-Seedi, Hesham R; Stephanson, Nikolai; Beck, Olof; Shulgin, Alexander T

    2008-06-01

    Human interest in psychoactive phenethylamines is known from the use of mescaline-containing cacti and designer drugs such as Ecstasy. From the alkaloid composition of cacti we hypothesized that substances resembling Ecstasy might occur naturally. In this article we show that lophophine, homopiperonylamine and lobivine are new minor constituents of two cactus species, Lophophora williamsii (peyote) and Trichocereus pachanoi (San Pedro). This is the first report of putatively psychoactive phenethylamines besides mescaline in these cacti. A search for further biosynthetic analogues may provide new insights into the structure-activity relationships of mescaline. An intriguing question is whether the new natural compounds can be called "designer drugs."

  4. Juveniles tried as adults: the age of the juvenile matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Jaclyn K; Woody, William Douglas

    2011-08-01

    Serious juvenile crimes require evaluation of a child as a criminal defendant in adult court. In such cases, it is crucial to understand jurors' attitudes, biases, and ability to follow legal instructions and maintain fairness. 308 undergraduate psychology students served as mock jurors, were randomly separated into four groups, and each group read the same realistic summary of a trial with the defendant's age presented as 13, 15, 17, or 21 years. Participants were asked to render guilty or not guilty verdicts and, if guilty, to suggest sentences. Chi-squared analysis indicated 13- and 15-year-old defendants were convicted less often than 17- and 21-year-old defendants, showing that jurors distinguished between juvenile defendants of different ages, but not minors and adults as defined by law. Additional analysis showed that age did not affect sentencing recommendations. Decision processes jurors use for juveniles tried as adults are discussed.

  5. Forensic aspects of juvenile violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, L H

    2000-10-01

    The juvenile justice system was created because it was recognized that youthful offenders needed to be managed differently from adults. They were to receive habilitation services instead of punishment. It is now more than a century since the creation of the first juvenile court. After 67 years, the US Supreme Court, in Kent v United States stated that the model was not working because juveniles in the criminal justice system received no treatment and they had no rights. Because the issue that had been appealed was the lack of rights (not lack of treatment), the Court mandated that juveniles, like adults, be given certain rights. The following year, in In re Gault, the Court expanded these rights. Subsequent Supreme Court cases have dealt with these kinds of issues--that is, whether juvenile offenders are entitled to the same rights as adults and subject to the same penalties. The Supreme Court has never heard a "right to treatment" case, which is the other part of the juvenile court system. Cases have been brought in lower courts (e.g., Nelson v. Heyne, 1972) alleging inadequate treatment services, but no national impact has resulted. Thus, in general, children in the juvenile court system do not have an enforceable right to treatment and can obtain only what services are available in their jurisdictions. The services often are woefully inadequate. Sentencing a youth to probation, with the requirement that he or she participate in counseling or mental health treatment, is meaningless if services are not available. Community-based, model programs that provide effective treatment do exist. They are, as yet, the rare exception rather than the norm and, therefore, are not available to most youthful offenders. Incarcerated juveniles, obviously, cannot avail themselves of community programs. Litigation to give these youth the same rights as adults in penal institutions is not the answer because incarcerated adults don't have a right to treatment, only a right to be free

  6. Involvement of hormones in olfactory imprinting and homing in chum salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Shingo; Nakamura, Taro; Inada, Kaoru; Okubo, Takashi; Furukawa, Naohiro; Murakami, Reiichi; Tsuchida, Shigeo; Zohar, Yonathan; Konno, Kotaro; Watanabe, Masahiko

    2016-02-16

    The olfactory hypothesis for salmon imprinting and homing to their natal stream is well known, but the endocrine hormonal control mechanisms of olfactory memory formation in juveniles and retrieval in adults remain unclear. In brains of hatchery-reared underyearling juvenile chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta), thyrotropin-releasing hormone gene expression increased immediately after release from a hatchery into the natal stream, and the expression of the essential NR1 subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor increased during downstream migration. Gene expression of salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (sGnRH) and NR1 increased in the adult chum salmon brain during homing from the Bering Sea to the natal hatchery. Thyroid hormone treatment in juveniles enhanced NR1 gene activation, and GnRHa treatment in adults improved stream odour discrimination. Olfactory memory formation during juvenile downstream migration and retrieval during adult homing migration of chum salmon might be controlled by endocrine hormones and could be clarified using NR1 as a molecular marker.

  7. The Heterogeneity of Juvenile Myositis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rider, Lisa G.

    2007-01-01

    Juvenile myositis is a heterogeneous group of systemic autoimmune diseases, in which clinical and serologic subgroups result in subsets of patients with distinct clinical manifestations, disease courses, immunogenetic associations, responses to therapy, and prognoses. A newly identified autoantibody of unknown specificity, anti-p155, is myositis-associated and seen in up to 20 – 30% of juvenile and adult DM patients. HLA DRB1*0301 and its linked allele DQA1*0501 have been identified as the major immunogenetic risk factor for juvenile and adult DM in both European- and African- American patients, and DQA1*0301 is an additional risk factor in European American patients. Several DQA1 alleles also are protective for juvenile DM. Environmental risk factors are poorly understood, but growing evidence suggests a role for infectious agents and ultraviolet radiation. The current therapy of juvenile DM consists of corticosteroids and other immunosuppressive agents, with the adjunctive treatment of cutaneous manifestations and rehabilitation. Therapeutic trials of biologic agents, including anti-TNFα and anti-CD20, may aid in developing promising new therapies for these disorders. PMID:17317616

  8. A graphical approach to analogue behavioural modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Moser, Vincent; Nussbaum, Pascal; Amann, Hans-Peter; Astier, Luc; Pellandini, Fausto

    2007-01-01

    In order to master the growing complexity of analogue electronic systems, modelling and simulation of analogue hardware at various levels is absolutely necessary. This paper presents an original modelling method based on the graphical description of analogue electronic functional blocks. This method is intended to be automated and integrated into a design framework: specialists create behavioural models of existing functional blocks, that can then be used through high-level selection and spec...

  9. What Can We Learn From Analogue Experiments?

    CERN Document Server

    Thebault, Karim P Y

    2016-01-01

    In 1981 Unruh proposed that fluid mechanical experiments could be used to probe key aspects of the quantum phenomenology of black holes. In particular, he claimed that an analogue to Hawking radiation could be created within a fluid mechanical `dumb hole', with the event horizon replaced by a sonic horizon. Since then an entire sub-field of `analogue gravity' has been created. In 2016 Steinhauer reported the experimental observation of quantum Hawking radiation and its entanglement in a Bose-Einstein condensate analogue black hole. What can we learn from such analogue experiments? In particular, in what sense can they provide evidence of novel phenomena such as black hole Hawking radiation?

  10. Juvenile Correctional Institutions Library Services: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlister, Annette M.

    This bibliography lists citations for 14 articles, books, and reports concerned with library services in juvenile correctional institutions. A second section lists 21 additional materials on adult correctional libraries which also contain information relevant to the juvenile library. (KP)

  11. The Valles natural analogue project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stockman, H.; Krumhansl, J.; Ho, C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); McConnell, V. [Alaska Univ., Fairbanks, AK (United States). Geophysical Inst.

    1994-12-01

    The contact between an obsidian flow and a steep-walled tuff canyon was examined as an analogue for a highlevel waste repository. The analogue site is located in the Valles Caldera in New Mexico, where a massive obsidian flow filled a paleocanyon in the Battleship Rock tuff. The obsidian flow provided a heat source, analogous to waste panels or an igneous intrusion in a repository, and caused evaporation and migration of water. The tuff and obsidian samples were analyzed for major and trace elements and mineralogy by INAA, XRF, X-ray diffraction; and scanning electron microscopy and electron microprobe. Samples were also analyzed for D/H and {sup 39}Ar/{sup 4O} isotopic composition. Overall,the effects of the heating event seem to have been slight and limited to the tuff nearest the contact. There is some evidence of devitrification and migration of volatiles in the tuff within 10 meters of the contact, but variations in major and trace element chemistry are small and difficult to distinguish from the natural (pre-heating) variability of the rocks.

  12. Standardization of hormone determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenman, Ulf-Håkan

    2013-12-01

    Standardization of hormone determinations is important because it simplifies interpretation of results and facilitates the use of common reference values for different assays. Progress in standardization has been achieved through the introduction of more homogeneous hormone standards for peptide and protein hormones. However, many automated methods for determinations of steroid hormones do not provide satisfactory result. Isotope dilution-mass spectrometry (ID-MS) has been used to establish reference methods for steroid hormone determinations and is now increasingly used for routine determinations of steroids and other low molecular weight compounds. Reference methods for protein hormones based on MS are being developed and these promise to improve standardization.

  13. Juvenile technologies in foreign publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shpagina E.M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article provides the review of foreign publications, concerning the juvenile technologies used in France, Canada, Germany and Switzerland. The paper presents legal, social and psychotherapeutic aspects of juvenile judiciary in foreign countries. The authors paid special attention to the complexity of approaches to young children and teenagers who found themselves in complicated life circumstances or got into trouble with the law. The article gives examples of using the following techniques: cognitive-behavioral intervention, mediation, family therapy (including family background and family history, relations theory, narrative practices, utilization of «emotional intelligence» resources.

  14. Evolution of Juvenile Ankylosing Spondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye.V. Prohorov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Evolution of juvenile ankylosing spondylitis tend to follow a more frequent involvement in the pathological process of elbow and ankle joints, development of enthesiopathies, changes of intraarticular meniscal horns, forming of Baker’s cysts, cartilage flaps and systemic osteoporosis, and total value of all these signs 13 times exceeds thereof in patients with with the debut of disease in adulthood, but for juvenile ankylosing spondylitis vertebral lesion is less common. Age dimorphism of the use of certain groups of drugs and physiotherapy facilities is observed.

  15. On the Prevention of Juvenile Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelekov, V. A.; Kosheleva, E. V.

    2008-01-01

    Crimes committed by juveniles are among the most urgent social problems. Juvenile crime is as prevalent as crime itself is, and it has not been solved completely in any society and cannot be solved through law enforcement measures alone. In this article, the authors discuss the dynamics and structure of juvenile crime in Russia and present data…

  16. School-Related Characteristics of Male Juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapp, Gary L.; Abbott, Gypsy A.

    School-related characteristics of 256 male juveniles under the jurisdiction of a Family Court system were examined by perusing court records and conducting individual interviews with the juveniles. Results indicated that most juveniles last attended eighth grade, more than 81% had failed at least once, and more than half had fought frequently at…

  17. Intensive Reading Instruction in Juvenile Correctional Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jacob L.; Wexler, Jade; Roberts, Greg; Carpenter, Clint

    2011-01-01

    Despite 60 years of evidence linking juvenile illiteracy and delinquency, practitioners and policymakers have been painfully slow in the implementation of evidence-based reading interventions for incarcerated juveniles. We will present the Texas Juvenile Justice Tiered Instructional Model, an evidence-based reading program model created…

  18. Sex Differences in Attributions of Juvenile Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagatun, Inger J.

    This paper is an application of attribution theory to the processing of juvenile delinquents in an attempt to understand the differential treatment of female and male offenders within the juvenile justice system. The paper explores the attributions of juvenile delinquency both by male and female minors, by male and female parents, and by male and…

  19. Do Juveniles Bully More than Young Offenders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Jane L.

    2002-01-01

    Study compares bullying behavior among juvenile and young offenders. Ninety-five male juvenile and 196 male young offenders completed two questionnaires, measuring bullying directly and behaviors indicative of "being bullied" or of "bullying others". Juveniles perceived a higher extent of bullying and reported significantly…

  20. The Juvenile Court: Changes and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feld, Barry C.

    2000-01-01

    Explores the changes in the juvenile court system, in particular, the juvenile waiver and sentencing laws, as it transformed from a social welfare agency into a type of criminal court system for young offenders. Addresses whether states should create an integrated juvenile and criminal justice system. (CMK)

  1. Reforming Our Expectations about Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Pamela F.; Baille, Daphne M.

    2010-01-01

    Typing the term "juvenile justice reform" into a Google[TM] search will result in 60 pages of entries. But what is meant by juvenile justice reform? What does it look like? How will one know when it is achieved? This article defines juvenile justice reform, discusses the principles of effective reform, and describes the practice of juvenile…

  2. Mobilizing Communities To Prevent Juvenile Crime. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bownes, Donna; Ingersoll, Sarah

    Through Title V Incentive Grants for Local Delinquency Prevention Programs (Community Prevention Grants), the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) allocated $20 million in fiscal year 1997 to states to complement law enforcement and justice system efforts by helping local communities foster strong families and nurture…

  3. CO2 Capture with Enzyme Synthetic Analogue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordatos, Harry

    2010-11-08

    Overview of an ongoing, 2 year research project partially funded by APRA-E to create a novel, synthetic analogue of carbonic anhydrase and incorporate it into a membrane for removal of CO2 from flue gas in coal power plants. Mechanism background, preliminary feasibility study results, molecular modeling of analogue-CO2 interaction, and program timeline are provided.

  4. Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hormones and Menopause Fact Sheet Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause January, 2012 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors Howard ... JoAnn Pinkerton, MD Richard Santen, MD What is menopause? Menopause is the time of life when monthly ...

  5. Growth hormone deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dosage of the medicine. Serious side effects of growth hormone treatment are rare. Common side effects include: Headache Fluid ... years. The rate of growth then slowly decreases. Growth hormone therapy does not work for all children. Left untreated, ...

  6. Hormones and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Balance › Hormones and Obesity Fact Sheet Hormones and Obesity March, 2010 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors Caroline Apovian, MD Judith Korner, MD, PhD What is obesity? Obesity is a chronic (long-term) medical problem ...

  7. Active postoperative acromegaly: sustained remission after discontinuation of somatostatin analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Alvarez-Escola

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In patients with active acromegaly after pituitary surgery, somatostatin analogues are effective in controlling the disease and can even be curative in some cases. After treatment discontinuation, the likelihood of disease recurrence is high. However, a small subset of patients remains symptom-free after discontinuation, with normalized growth hormone (GH and insulin-like growth factor (IGF1 levels. The characteristics of patients most likely to achieve sustained remission after treatment discontinuation are not well understood, although limited evidence suggests that sustained remission is more likely in patients with lower GH and IGF1 levels before treatment withdrawal, in those who respond well to low-dose treatment, in those without evidence of adenoma on an MRI scan and/or in patients who receive long-term treatment. In this report, we describe the case of a 56-year-old female patient treated with lanreotide Autogel for 11 years. Treatment was successfully discontinued, and the patient is currently disease-free on all relevant parameters (clinical, biochemical and tumour status. The successful outcome in this case adds to the small body of literature suggesting that some well-selected patients who receive long-term treatment with somatostatin analogues may achieve sustained remission.

  8. The future of somatostatin analogue therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, P M; James, R A

    1999-10-01

    Since its discovery almost 30 years ago, the mode of action and therapeutic applications of somatostatin have been defined. In particular the cloning and characterization of somatostatin receptor subtypes has facilitated the development of high affinity analogues. In the context of pituitary disease, long-acting somatostatin analogues (octreotide, lanreotide) have been used to treat a variety of pituitary tumours but are most efficacious for the treatment of GH and TSH-secreting adenomas. In patients with acromegaly, depot preparations of these analogues are administered intramuscularly every 10-28 days and provide consistent suppression of GH levels to < 5 mU/l in approximately 50-65% of all cases. Even more specific somatostatin receptor analogues are under development. Finally, radiolabelled somatostatin analogue scintigraphy and, in larger doses, therapy, are now established tools in the evaluation and treatment of neuroendocrine tumours.

  9. Strategy and methodology of dynamical analogue prediction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In order to effectively improve numerical prediction level by using current models and data, the strategy and methodology of dynamical analogue prediction (DAP) is deeply studied in the present paper. A new idea to predict the prediction errors of dynamical model on the basis of historical analogue information is put forward so as to transform the dynamical prediction problem into the estimation problem of prediction errors. In terms of such an idea, a new prediction method of final analogue correction of errors (FACE) is developed. Furthermore, the FACE is applied to extra-seasonal prediction experiments on an operational atmosphere-ocean coupled general circulation model. Prediction results of summer mean circulation and total precipitation show that the FACE can to some extent reduce prediction errors, recover prediction variances, and improve prediction skills. Besides, sensitive experiments also show that predictions based on the FACE are evidently influenced by the number of analogues, analogue-selected variables and analogy metric.

  10. Therapy of hypoparathyroidism by replacement with parathyroid hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rejnmark, Lars; Underbjerg, Line; Sikjaer, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Hypoparathyroidism (HypoPT) is a state of hypocalcemia due to inappropriate low levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH). HypoPT is normally treated by calcium supplements and activated vitamin D analogues. Although plasma calcium is normalized in response to conventional therapy, quality of life (Qo......L) seems impaired and patients are at increased risk of renal complications. A number of studies have suggested subcutaneous injections with PTH as an alternative therapy. By replacement with the missing hormone, urinary calcium may be lowered and QoL may improve. PTH replacement therapy (PTH-RT) possesses...

  11. Juvenile Justice and Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassin, Laurie

    2008-01-01

    Laurie Chassin focuses on the elevated prevalence of substance use disorders among young offenders in the juvenile justice system and on efforts by the justice system to provide treatment for these disorders. She emphasizes the importance of diagnosing and treating these disorders, which are linked both with continued offending and with a broad…

  12. Genetics in juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, Heleen Marion

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a non-common disease in children that can persist into adulthood. JIA is considered to be an auto-immune disease. Genetic factors play a role in the pathogenesis. In a new cohort of JIA patients from North-West European descent genetic candidate gene associatio

  13. Juvenile Courts. Creation and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat GONZÁLEZ FERNÁNDEZ

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the creation of Juvenile or Children's Courts in Spain, analysing their reasons and aims, as well as the ethical and political connotations present on their way of acting. Their history and the one of the institutions that complement them is built from the legislation, writings and ideas of their promoters.

  14. Juvenile Diabetes and Rehabilitation Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, J. Blair; Gregg, Charles H.

    1981-01-01

    Severe complications of diabetes are more likely to occur with the juvenile diabetic and problems of psychosocial adjustment are recurring and difficult. Implications for the rehabilitation counselor are discussed in terms of employment considerations, the effects of complications, genetic counseling, and cooperation with other professionals.…

  15. Case Report: Juvenile Tophaceous Gout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyma Gunes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gout is a metabolic disease that manifests as recurrent arthritis. Its incidance increases with age. Clinical findings include recurrent acute arthritis, tophus at joints and tissues, uricacid stones and gouty nephropathy. Tophi is a late period complication of arthritis. In this casereport we presented  a patient with early-onset juvenile tophaceous gout.

  16. Do juvenile Amphiprion ocellaris (Pisces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brolund, Thea Marie; Nielsen, Lis Engdahl; Arvedlund, Michael

    2003-01-01

    . This is contrary to the settling mechanisms of the damselfish D. aruanus and D. reticulatus, and of the temperate herring Clupea harengus. Hence the results emphasize the variation of sensory abilities and behaviours in fish larvae and juveniles. It is not an area prone for generalizations....

  17. [Sex-linked juvenile retinoschisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, P; Turut, P; Soltysik, C; Hache, J C

    1976-02-01

    About 13 observations of sexe linked juvenile retinoschisis, the authors describe the ophthalmoscopic, fluorographic and functional aspects of the disease whose caracteristics are:--its sexe linked recessive heredity; --its clinical characterestics associating: a microcystic macular degeneration, peripheral retinal lesions, vitreous body alterations, --an electroretinogram of the negative type.

  18. Environmental hormones and their impacts on sex differentiation in fathead minnows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runoff from lands fertilized with animal manure from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) is a source of hormones to surface water. To test the hypothesis that juvenile fathead minnows exposed to sex steroids singly and in a “typical” CAFO mixture while undergoing sex...

  19. Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice. Panel on Juvenile Crime: Prevention, Treatment, and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCord, Joan, Ed.; Widom, Cathy Spatz, Ed.; Crowell, Nancy A., Ed.

    This book discusses patterns and trends in crimes committed by children and adolescents, analyzing youth crime as a subset of general crime and studying the impact of race and gender. It evaluates different approaches to forecasting future crime rates. Data come from a national panel that examined what is known about juvenile crime and its…

  20. Effects of neonatal overfeeding on juvenile and adult feeding and energy expenditure in the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Stefanidis

    Full Text Available Overfeeding during perinatal life leads to an overweight phenotype that persists throughout the juvenile stage and into adulthood, however, the mechanism(s underlying this effect are poorly understood. We hypothesized that obesity due to neonatal overfeeding is maintained by changes in energy expenditure and that these changes differ between males and females. We investigated feeding, physical activity, hormonal and metabolic alterations that occur in adult rats made obese by having been nursed in small litters (SL compared with those from control litters (CL. There were no differences in absolute food intake between the groups, and juvenile and adult SL rats ate less chow per gram body weight than the CL did in the dark (active phase. Juvenile, but not adult SL rats did have reduced whole body energy expenditure, but there were no differences between the groups by the time they reached adulthood. Adult SL females (but not males had reduced brown adipose tissue (BAT temperatures compared with CL in the first half of the dark phase. Our results indicate a persistent overweight phenotype in rats overfed as neonates is not associated with hyperphagia at any stage, but is reflected in reduced energy expenditure into the juvenile phase. The reduced dark phase BAT activity in adult SL females is not sufficient to reduce total energy expenditure at this stage of life and there is an apparently compensatory effect that prevents SL and CL from continuing to diverge in weight that appears between the juvenile and adult stages.

  1. Early-Life Stress Triggers Juvenile Zebra Finches to Switch Social Learning Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farine, Damien R; Spencer, Karen A; Boogert, Neeltje J

    2015-08-17

    Stress during early life can cause disease and cognitive impairment in humans and non-humans alike. However, stress and other environmental factors can also program developmental pathways. We investigate whether differential exposure to developmental stress can drive divergent social learning strategies between siblings. In many species, juveniles acquire essential foraging skills by copying others: they can copy peers (horizontal social learning), learn from their parents (vertical social learning), or learn from other adults (oblique social learning). However, whether juveniles' learning strategies are condition dependent largely remains a mystery. We found that juvenile zebra finches living in flocks socially learned novel foraging skills exclusively from adults. By experimentally manipulating developmental stress, we further show that social learning targets are phenotypically plastic. While control juveniles learned foraging skills from their parents, their siblings, exposed as nestlings to experimentally elevated stress hormone levels, learned exclusively from unrelated adults. Thus, early-life conditions triggered individuals to switch strategies from vertical to oblique social learning. This switch could arise from stress-induced differences in developmental rate, cognitive and physical state, or the use of stress as an environmental cue. Acquisition of alternative social learning strategies may impact juveniles' fit to their environment and ultimately change their developmental trajectories.

  2. A Practical Approach to Juvenile Dermatomyositis and Juvenile Scleroderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Liza J; Pain, Clare E

    2016-02-01

    Juvenile dermatomyositis and juvenile scleroderma are rare multisystem autoimmune disorders. Although they share some pathognomonic hallmarks with adult onset myositis or scleroderma, there are significant differences in presentation, characteristics and associated features when the diseases present in childhood. In view of this, and the rarity of the conditions, it is important for care to be led by teams with expertise in pediatric rheumatology conditions. Prognosis has improved significantly in the West; likely due to early diagnosis and aggressive treatment with immunosuppressive medications. However, this trend is not replicated in the developing world. Early recognition of these diseases is crucial to achieve rapid and sustained remission and prevent disease or medication associated complications. This article aims to provide a practical overview for recognition, diagnosis and treatment of these conditions.

  3. Space analogue studies in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugg, D.; Shepanek, M.

    1999-01-01

    Medical research has been carried out on the Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions (ANARE) for 50 years. As an extension of this program collaborative Australian/United States research on immunology, microbiology, psychology and remote medicine has produced important data and insight on how humans adapt to the stress of extreme isolation, confinement and the harsh environment of Antarctica. An outstanding analogue for the isolation and confinement of space missions (especially planetary outposts), ANARE has been used as an international research platform by Australia and the United States since 1993. Collaborative research has demonstrated a lowered responsiveness of the immune system under the isolation and confinement of Antarctic winter-over; a reduction of almost 50% in T cell proliferation to mitogen phytohaemogglutinin, as well as changes in latent herpesvirus states and the expansion of the polyclonal latent Epstein-Barr virus infected B cell populations. Although no clinically significant disease has been found to result from these immune changes, research is currently assessing the effects of psychological factors on the immune system. This and associated research performed to date and its relevance to both organisations is discussed, and comment made on possible extensions to the program in both medical and other fields.

  4. Space analogue studies in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugg, D.; Shepanek, M.

    1999-01-01

    Medical research has been carried out on the Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions (ANARE) for 50 years. As an extension of this program collaborative Australian/United States research on immunology, microbiology, psychology and remote medicine has produced important data and insight on how humans adapt to the stress of extreme isolation, confinement and the harsh environment of Antarctica. An outstanding analogue for the isolation and confinement of space missions (especially planetary outposts), ANARE has been used as an international research platform by Australia and the United States since 1993. Collaborative research has demonstrated a lowered responsiveness of the immune system under the isolation and confinement of Antarctic winter-over; a reduction of almost 50% in T cell proliferation to mitogen phytohaemogglutinin, as well as changes in latent herpesvirus states and the expansion of the polyclonal latent Epstein-Barr virus infected B cell populations. Although no clinically significant disease has been found to result from these immune changes, research is currently assessing the effects of psychological factors on the immune system. This and associated research performed to date and its relevance to both organisations is discussed, and comment made on possible extensions to the program in both medical and other fields.

  5. Condensed matter analogues of cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibble, Tom; Srivastava, Ajit

    2013-10-01

    It is always exciting when developments in one branch of physics turn out to have relevance in a quite different branch. It would be hard to find two branches farther apart in terms of energy scales than early-universe cosmology and low-temperature condensed matter physics. Nevertheless ideas about the formation of topological defects during rapid phase transitions that originated in the context of the very early universe have proved remarkably fruitful when applied to a variety of condensed matter systems. The mathematical frameworks for describing these systems can be very similar. This interconnection has led to a deeper understanding of the phenomena in condensed matter systems utilizing ideas from cosmology. At the same time, one can view these condensed matter analogues as providing, at least in a limited sense, experimental access to the phenomena of the early universe for which no direct probe is possible. As this special issue well illustrates, this remains a dynamic and exciting field. The basic idea is that when a system goes through a rapid symmetry-breaking phase transition from a symmetric phase into one with spontaneously broken symmetry, the order parameter may make different choices in different regions, creating domains that when they meet can trap defects. The scale of those domains, and hence the density of defects, is constrained by the rate at which the system goes through the transition and the speed with which order parameter information propagates. This is what has come to be known as the Kibble-Zurek mechanism. The resultant scaling laws have now been tested in a considerable variety of different systems. The earliest experiments illustrating the analogy between cosmology and condensed matter were in liquid crystals, in particular on the isotropic-to-nematic transition, primarily because it is very easy to induce the phase transition (typically at room temperature) and to image precisely what is going on. This field remains one of the

  6. Antimicrobial Activity of Resveratrol Analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Chalal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Stilbenes, especially resveratrol and its derivatives, have become famous for their positive effects on a wide range of medical disorders, as indicated by a huge number of published studies. A less investigated area of research is their antimicrobial properties. A series of 13 trans-resveratrol analogues was synthesized via Wittig or Heck reactions, and their antimicrobial activity assessed on two different grapevine pathogens responsible for severe diseases in the vineyard. The entire series, together with resveratrol, was first evaluated on the zoospore mobility and sporulation level of Plasmopara viticola (the oomycete responsible for downy mildew. Stilbenes displayed a spectrum of activity ranging from low to high. Six of them, including the most active ones, were subsequently tested on the development of Botrytis cinerea (fungus responsible for grey mold. The results obtained allowed us to identify the most active stilbenes against both grapevine pathogens, to compare the antimicrobial activity of the evaluated series of stilbenes, and to discuss the relationship between their chemical structure (number and position of methoxy and hydroxy groups and antimicrobial activity.

  7. Identification of putative candidate genes for juvenile wood density in Pinus radiata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinguo; Wu, Harry X; Southerton, Simon G

    2012-08-01

    identified candidate genes also included many non-cell-wall genes (transcription factors, environmental-responsive genes, hormone signalling, etc.) and genes with unknown functions, suggesting complex gene pathways in the regulation of juvenile wood density. Interestingly, 19 out of 73 candidate genes for wood density were among the 108 candidate genes previously identified for microfibril angle, and 16 genes appeared to influence both traits in a synergistic manner for wood stiffness.

  8. 8 CFR 236.3 - Detention and release of juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Detention and release of juveniles. 236.3... Aliens Prior to Order of Removal § 236.3 Detention and release of juveniles. (a) Juveniles. A juvenile is defined as an alien under the age of 18 years. (b) Release. Juveniles for whom bond has been posted,...

  9. Uveitis in juvenile chronic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanski, J J

    1990-01-01

    About 20% of patients with juvenile chronic arthritis develop uveitis which is frequently bilateral. Risk factors for uveitis are: female gender, pauciarticular onset of arthritis, presence of circulating antinuclear antibodies, and the antigens HLA-DW5 and HLA-DPw2. The visual prognosis in patients with uveitis is good in 25% and fair in 50%. The remaining 25% develop cataract and/or glaucoma. The management of glaucoma is unsatisfactory, but the results of cataract surgery by lensectomy are good.

  10. [Hormonal factors in etiology of common acne].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergler-Czop, Beata; Brzezińska-Wcisło, Ligia

    2004-05-01

    Common acne is steatorrhoeic chronic disease, to which specific is, among others, the presence of blackheads, papulopustular eruptions, purulent cysts and cicatrices. Such hormonal factors belong to elements inherent in etiology of the affection. Sebaceous glands have cell receptors on their surface for androgens. In etiopathogenesis of common/simple acne, a decisive role is played by a derivative of testosterone, i.e. 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT). However, some experts are of opinion that there is no correlation between the increased intensity of common acne and other symptoms of hyperandrogenism. Numerous authors assume, however, that common acne-affected patients may be sometimes subjected to intense reactions caused by sebaceous glands against physiological androgens concentrations. Naturally, estrogens can inhibit release of such androgens. Under physiological conditions, natural progesterone does not conduct to intensification of the seborrhea, but the activity of sebum secretion may be triggered off by its synthetic counterparts. Hormonal etiology can be very distinctly visible in the steroid, androgenic, premenstrual, menopausal acne, as well as in juvenile acne and acne neonatorum. In case of females affected by acne, hormonal therapy should be persistently supported and consulted with dermatologists, endocrinologists and gynecologists. Antiandrogenic preparations are applied, such as: cyproterone acetate concurrently administered with estrogens and, as well as not so frequently with chlormadinone acetate (independently or during estrogenic therapy).

  11. Total Synthesis of the Analogue of Icogenin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu Jie HOU; Peng XU; Liang ZHOU; De Quan YU; Ping Sheng LEI; Chuan Chun ZOU

    2006-01-01

    One of the analogues of icogenin, a natural furostanol saponin showing strong cytotoxic effect on cancer cell, was first synthesized via convergent strategy by using diosgenin and available monosaccharides as starting materials,

  12. Heterocyclic chalcone analogues as potential anticancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vikas; Kumar, Vipin; Kumar, Pradeep

    2013-03-01

    Chalcones, aromatic ketones and enones acting as the precursor for flavonoids such as Quercetin, are known for their anticancer effects. Although, parent chalcones consist of two aromatic rings joined by a three-carbon α,β-unsaturated carbonyl system, various synthetic compounds possessing heterocyclic rings like pyrazole, indole etc. are well known and proved to be effective anticancer agents. In addition to their use as anticancer agents in cancer cell lines, heterocyclic analogues are reported to be effective even against resistant cell lines. In this connection, we hereby highlight the potential of various heterocyclic chalcone analogues as anticancer agents with a brief summary about therapeutic potential of chalcones, mechanism of anticancer action of various chalcone analogues, and current and future prospects related to the chalcones-derived anticancer research. Furthermore, some key points regarding chalcone analogues have been reviewed by analyzing their medicinal properties.

  13. Second-Generation Fluorescent Quadracyclic Adenine Analogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dumat, Blaise; Bood, Mattias; Wranne, Moa S.;

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescent base analogues comprise a group of increasingly important molecules for the investigation of nucleic acid structure, dynamics, and interactions with other molecules. Herein, we report on the quantum chemical calculation aided design, synthesis, and characterization of four new putativ...

  14. Sulfur analogues of psychotomimetic agents. Monothio analogues of mescaline and isomescaline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, P; Shulgin, A T

    1981-11-01

    Two monothio analogues of mescaline and three monothio analogues of 2,3,4-trimethoxyphenethylamine (isomescaline) have been synthesized and characterized. Only the two mescaline analogues (3-and 4-thiomescaline) were found to be psychotomimetics in man, being 6 and 12 times more potent than mescaline, respectively. All five compounds can serve as substrates for bovine plasma monoamine oxidase in vitro, but no positive correlation is apparent between the extent of enzymatic degradation and human psychotomimetic potency.

  15. Juvenile morphology in baleen whale phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Hsiu; Fordyce, R Ewan

    2014-09-01

    Phylogenetic reconstructions are sensitive to the influence of ontogeny on morphology. Here, we use foetal/neonatal specimens of known species of living baleen whales (Cetacea: Mysticeti) to show how juvenile morphology of extant species affects phylogenetic placement of the species. In one clade (sei whale, Balaenopteridae), the juvenile is distant from the usual phylogenetic position of adults, but in the other clade (pygmy right whale, Cetotheriidae), the juvenile is close to the adult. Different heterochronic processes at work in the studied species have different influences on juvenile morphology and on phylogenetic placement. This study helps to understand the relationship between evolutionary processes and phylogenetic patterns in baleen whale evolution and, more in general, between phylogeny and ontogeny; likewise, this study provides a proxy how to interpret the phylogeny when fossils that are immature individuals are included. Juvenile individuals in the peramorphic acceleration clades would produce misleading phylogenies, whereas juvenile individuals in the paedomorphic neoteny clades should still provide reliable phylogenetic signals.

  16. Juvenile morphology in baleen whale phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Hsiu; Fordyce, R. Ewan

    2014-09-01

    Phylogenetic reconstructions are sensitive to the influence of ontogeny on morphology. Here, we use foetal/neonatal specimens of known species of living baleen whales (Cetacea: Mysticeti) to show how juvenile morphology of extant species affects phylogenetic placement of the species. In one clade (sei whale, Balaenopteridae), the juvenile is distant from the usual phylogenetic position of adults, but in the other clade (pygmy right whale, Cetotheriidae), the juvenile is close to the adult. Different heterochronic processes at work in the studied species have different influences on juvenile morphology and on phylogenetic placement. This study helps to understand the relationship between evolutionary processes and phylogenetic patterns in baleen whale evolution and, more in general, between phylogeny and ontogeny; likewise, this study provides a proxy how to interpret the phylogeny when fossils that are immature individuals are included. Juvenile individuals in the peramorphic acceleration clades would produce misleading phylogenies, whereas juvenile individuals in the paedomorphic neoteny clades should still provide reliable phylogenetic signals.

  17. The structure activity relationship of discodermolide analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Simon J

    2008-03-01

    The marine polyketide discodermolide is a member of a class of natural products that stabilize microtubules. Many analogues have been synthesized suggesting that few changes can be made to the internal carbon backbone. Both ends of the molecule, however, can be modified. The majority of analogues have been generated via modification of the lactone region. This suggests that significant simplifications can be made in this region provided that the lactone moiety is maintained.

  18. Juvenile psammomatoid ossifying fibroma. Case report

    OpenAIRE

    Vahtsevanos, Konstantinos; Persephone XIROU; Giorgos BALLIS; Tsekos, Antonis; Ntomouchtsis, Aris; Alexandros VALASIDIS; Doxa MAGGOUDI

    2012-01-01

    Ossifying fibroma (OS) represents a slow growing, benign neoplasm that belongs to the greater group of fibro-osseous lesions. Based on its histological features, ossifying fibroma is divided into: a) juvenile trabecular OS and b) juvenile psammomatoid OS which affects mainly the paranasal sinuses of children and teenagers aging from 5 to 15 years.A rare case of juvenile psammomatoid ossifying fibroma in a 30 year old male patient located in the left mandibular ramus is presented. Treatment pl...

  19. Nanostructured sensors containing immobilized nuclear receptors for thyroid hormone detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendo, Luana; Casanova, Monise; Figueira, Ana Carolina M; Polikarpov, Igor; Zucolotto, Valtencir

    2014-05-01

    Thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) are members of the nuclear receptors (NRs) superfamily, being encoded by two genes: TRa and TRbeta. In this paper, the ligand-binding domain (LBD) of the TRbeta1 isoform was immobilized on the surface of nanostructured electrodes for TR detection. The platforms containing TRbeta1-LBD were applied to the detection of specific ligand agonists, including the natural hormones T3 (triiodothyronine) and T4 (thyroxine), and the synthetic agonists TRIAC (3,5,3'-triiodothyroacetic acid) and GC-1 [3,5-dimethyl-4-(4'-hydroxy-3'-isopropylbenzyl phenoxy) acetic acid]. Detection was performed via impedance spectroscopy. The biosensors were capable of distinguishing between the thyroid hormones T3 and T4, and/or the analogues TRIAC and GC-1 at concentrations as low as 50 nM. The detection and separation of thyroid hormones and analogue ligands by impedance techniques represents an innovative tool in the field of nanomedicine because it allows the design of inexpensive devices for the rapid and real-time detection of distinct ligand/receptor systems.

  20. Distinct synovial immunopathologic characteristics of juvenile-onset spondylarthritis and other forms of juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Kruithof; V. van den Bossche; L. de Rycke; B. Vandooren; R. Joos; J.D. Canete; P.P. Tak; A.M.H. Boots; E.M. Veys; D. Baeten

    2006-01-01

    Objective. To characterize the synovial immunopathologic features of juvenile-onset spondylarthritis (SpA) in relation to adult SpA and other forms of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Methods. Synovial biopsy samples were obtained from 10 patients with juvenile-onset SpA, 23 with adult SpA, 19 w

  1. Justicia juvenil restaurativa como respuesta alternativa

    OpenAIRE

    Mariño Rojas, Cielo

    2016-01-01

    El artículo explora las posibilidades de la justicia juvenil restaurativa como respuesta alternativa en los sistemas de justicia juvenil en la región. Si bien la justicia restaurativa no aparece explícitamente en los instrumentos internacionales sobre justicia penal juvenil, estos dan la oportunidad para que aquella se desarrolle dentro de los sistemas de justicia juvenil. Inicialmente se aborda su evolución histórica para establecer el origen de sus principales características. A continuació...

  2. Mechanisms for the bone anabolic effect of parathyroid hormone treatment in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslan, Derya; Dahl Andersen, Mille; Gede, Lene Bjerring;

    2012-01-01

    Intermittent low-dose treatment with parathyroid hormone (PTH) analogues has become widely used in the treatment of severe osteoporosis. During normal physiological conditions, PTH stimulates both bone formation and resorption, and in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, bone loss is frequent...

  3. Design of ultra-stable insulin analogues for the developing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Weiss

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The engineering of insulin analogues illustrates the application of structure-based protein design to clinical medicine. Such design has traditionally been based on structures of wild-type insulin hexamers in an effort to optimize the pharmacokinetic (PK and pharmacodynamic properties of the hormone. Rapid-acting insulin analogues (in chronological order of their clinical introduction, Humalog ® [Eli Lilly & Co.], Novolog ® [Novo-Nordisk], and Apidra ® [Sanofi-Aventis] exploit the targeted destabilization of subunit interfaces to facilitate capillary absorption. Conversely, long-acting insulin analogues exploit the stability of the insulin hexamer and its higher-order self-assembly within the subcutaneous depot to enhance basal glycemic control. Current products either operate through isoelectric precipitation (insulin glargine, the active component of Lantus ® ; Sanofi-Aventis or employ an albumin-binding acyl tether (insulin detemir, the active component of Levemir ® ; Novo-Nordisk. Such molecular engineering has often encountered a trade-off between PK goals and product stability. Given the global dimensions of the diabetes pandemic and complexity of an associated cold chain of insulin distribution, we envisage that concurrent engineering of ultra-stable protein analogue formulations would benefit the developing world, especially for patients exposed to high temperatures with inconsistent access to refrigeration. We review the principal mechanisms of insulin degradation above room temperature and novel molecular approaches toward the design of ultra-stable rapid-acting and basal formulations.

  4. Growth hormone in sport: beyond Beijing 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, Jordi; Gutiérrez-Gallego, Ricardo; Ventura, Rosa; Pascual, Josep A; Bosch, Jaume; Such-Sanmartín, Gerard; Nikolovski, Zoran; Pinyot, Armand; Pichini, Simona

    2009-02-01

    Human growth hormone (hGH) is a protein endogenously produced predominantly by the anterior pituitary gland. Native hGH and, especially, its recombinant analogue (rhGH), used to treat patients with hormone deficiency, are supposed to be abused by athletes searching its anabolic and lipolytic effects. Hence, hGH use has been prohibited for a long time by the sport authorities, but until recently, hGH abuse could not be detected. Two approaches have been followed when trying to develop methods for GH abuse detection. The direct method identifies an abnormal ratio between GH isoforms--a result of hGH exogenous administration. The time window to find a cheating athlete by this approach is limited by the excretion time of the hormone. The indirect approach measures serum biomarkers directly affected by GH intake (eg, markers of released liver growth factors and of bone and collagen turnover). In this approach, the retrospective power extends further. Alternative possibilities for cheating related to hGH could be the administration of recombinant growth factors themselves, the administration of hGH metabolic precursors such as ghrelin-like GH secretagogues, or the genetic manipulation of muscle growth-related genes (gene doping). In parallel with the new types of abuse, which will surely emerge in the near future, the research and development for the improvement of the analytical detection of GH itself will continue.

  5. Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis. Radiological diagnosis. Fibromatosis hialina juvenil. Diagnostico radiologico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentes, R.; Sar, V.; Cabrera, J.J.; Diaz, L.; Hernandez, B.; Valeron, P.; Baez, O.; Rodriguez, M.

    1993-10-01

    Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis (JHF) is a rare disorder of unknown etiology, very few cases of which have been reported in the literature. It presents similarities to other fibromatosys, but has its particular radiological features which differentiate it from them. The clinical findings consist of several, slow growing, subcutaneous nodules, flexion contractures of the joints which can lead to disability, gingival hypertrophy and muscular atrophy. The suspected radiological diagnosis is confirmed by electron microscopy study of the nodules, although light microscopy can also reveal suggestive images. Author (9 refs.)

  6. Evaluation of GnRH analogue testing in diagnosis and management of children with pubertal disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemchand K Prasad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH stimulation test is pivotal in the assessment of children with pubertal disorders. However, lack of availability and high cost often result in the test falling into disfavor. We routinely use the GnRH analogue stimulation test as an alternative at our center. Aim: To present the data on children with endocrine disorders who underwent GnRH agonist stimulation test in pediatric endocrine clinic of a tertiary care referral hospital. Setting and Design: Pediatric endocrine clinic of a tertiary care referral hospital. Retrospective analysis of case records. Materials and Methods: The details pertaining to clinical and radiological parameters and hormonal tests were retrieved from case records of 15 children who underwent GnRH agonist stimulation test from May 2010 to April 2011. Results: Indications for testing with GnRH analogue were evaluation of delayed puberty, diagnosis of precocious puberty, assessment of hormonal suppression in treatment of precocious puberty and micropenis in two, nine, three and one cases, respectively. The results of the test and clinical and radiological parameters were in concordance. The test was also crucial in diagnosing the onset of central precocious puberty in two children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Conclusion: GnRH agonist test is a convenient, safe test that can be performed on an out-patient basis and can help the clinicians in the correct diagnosis and appropriate treatment of various puberty-related disorders.

  7. Between Analogue and Digital Diagrams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan Bun

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This essay is about the interstitial. About how the diagram, as a method of design, has lead fromthe analogue deconstruction of the eighties to the digital processes of the turn of the millennium.Specifically, the main topic of the text is the interpretation and the critique of folding (as a diagramin the beginning of the nineties. It is necessary then to unfold its relationship with immediatelypreceding and following architectural trends, that is to say we have to look both backwards andforwards by about a decade. The question is the context of folding, the exchange of the analogueworld for the digital. To understand the process it is easier to investigate from the fields of artand culture, rather than from the intentionally perplicated1 thoughts of Gilles Deleuze. Both fieldsare relevant here because they can similarly be used as the yardstick against which the era itselfit measured. The cultural scene of the eighties and nineties, including performing arts, movies,literature and philosophy, is a wide milieu of architecture. Architecture responds parallel to itsera; it reacts to it, and changes with it and within it. Architecture is a medium, it has always beena medium, yet the relations are transformed. That’s not to say that technical progress, for exampleusing CAD-software and CNC-s, has led to the digital thinking of certain movements ofarchitecture, (it is at most an indirect tool. But the ‘up-to-dateness’ of the discipline, however,a kind of non-servile reading of an ‘applied culture’ or ‘used philosophy’2 could be the key.(We might recall here, parenthetically, the fortunes of the artistic in contemporary mass society.The proliferation of museums, the magnification of the figure of the artist, the existence of amassive consumption of printed and televised artistic images, the widespread appetite for informationabout the arts, all reflect, of course, an increasingly leisured society, but also relateprecisely to the fact

  8. Growth Hormone Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Tarım

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone deficiency is the most promising entity in terms of response to therapy among the treatable causes of growth retardation. It may be due to genetic or acquired causes. It may be isolated or a part of multiple hormone deficiencies. Diagnostic criteria and therefore treatment indications are still disputed. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2010; 8: 36-8

  9. Juvenile ossifying fibroma: Psammamatoid variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivani Aggarwal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile ossifying fibroma is a rare fibro-osseous lesion containing variable amount of calcified masses, which resembles bone or cementum within a fibrocellular connective tissue stroma. It has variable clinical behavior, highly aggressive in nature including invasion and destruction of adjacent anatomic structures with a strong tendency to recur. We reported a 28-year-old female patient with a growth in the upper left vestibule region extending from canine to molar region with clinical, histopathological, and radiological features are presented. Surgical management was done, and regular follow-up was advised.

  10. [Juvenile monomelic amyotrophy: Hirayama disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdowski, W; Baniukiewicz, E; Lewonowska, M

    1998-01-01

    We present three patients with unilateral upper limb weakness (with muscular atrophy)-two of them with distal and one with proximal localization. The disease onset was between 18th end 35-th year of life; the disease course was biphasic (i.e. progressive within first 1 to 3 years, and stabilized during following 4-24 years). The laboratory investigations permitted to diagnose juvenile monomelic amyotrophy, an entity that is very rare outside Japan. Electromyography revealed neurogenic involvement with spinal features also in clinically unaffected muscles. We suggest that these results may support the hypothesis of this disease being a benign variant of spinal muscular atrophy.

  11. Juvenile Competency to Stand Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanyan, Sofia T; Sidhu, Shawn S; Bath, Eraka

    2016-01-01

    Competency to stand trial is interpreted as a protected due process right for all defendants and is defined as a defendant's fundamental knowledge and understanding of the criminal charges being filed, roles and procedures within the courtroom, and a general ability to work with the defense counsel. Questions of competency are most often raised by the judge, defense, or the prosecution, and competency evaluations are most often completed by psychiatrists or psychologists with forensic training or work experience. Mental illness, intellectual disability, developmental disorders, and developmental immaturity are the 4 main factors considered in most juvenile competency evaluations.

  12. Glucocorticoids in juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malattia, Clara; Martini, Alberto

    2014-05-01

    Although the use of corticosteroids in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is now much more limited owing to the availability of methotrexate and biological agents, there are clinical scenarios where it is still indicated. For example, corticosteroids may be indicated for intraarticular injections to prevent joint deformities, as a "bridge" drug to relieve symptoms in polyarticular disease while waiting for methotrexate and biologics to exert their full therapeutic effects, and in the treatment of chronic iridocyclitis, macrophage activation syndrome, and systemic JIA, although the advent of interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-6 blockers has greatly reduced the latter indication.

  13. Imaging of juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Karl [Birmingham Children' s Hospital, Radiology Department, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2006-08-15

    Over the past decade there have been considerable changes in the classification and imaging of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Radiology now has a considerable role in the management of JIA, the differential diagnosis, monitoring disease progression and detecting complications. The different imaging modalities available, their role and limitations are discussed in this article and the various disease features that the radiologist should be aware of are described. An approach to the imaging of the child with joint disease and in the monitoring of disease complications are also discussed. (orig.)

  14. THE STUDY OF FEATURES OF GUILT OF JUVENILE OFFENDERS IN THE CONTEXT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalija Vladimirovna Galkina

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the results of empirical studies of the experiences of guilt of juvenile offenders in the context of juvenile justice where a minor appears as the subject of legal relations. Restorative approach of juvenile justice is based on an admission of guilt to the victim. In connection with it, the research of features of the guilt of minors who have committed an offence and the conditions for the development of the subjectivity will enhance understanding of the possibilities of restorative juvenile justice system in the prevention of juvenile delinquency.Thus, the results of empirical research presented in the article are important for determining of the psychological bases of realization of rehabilitation programs in the context of juvenile justice. In particular, the results are important for the organization and conduct of psychological work to overcome the psychological barriers in the behavior of juveniles having inherently maladaptive guilt and destructive psychological defense mechanisms.

  15. Hormonal Regulators of Appetite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Austin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. There has been a significant worsening of the obesity epidemic mainly due to alterations in dietary intake and energy expenditure. Alternatively, cachexia, or pathologic weight loss, is a significant problem for individuals with chronic disease. Despite their obvious differences, both processes involve hormones that regulate appetite. These hormones act on specific centers in the brain that affect the sensations of hunger and satiety. Mutations in these hormones or their receptors can cause substantial pathology leading to obesity or anorexia. Identification of individuals with specific genetic mutations may ultimately lead to more appropriate therapies targeted at the underlying disease process. Thus far, these hormones have mainly been studied in adults and animal models. This article is aimed at reviewing the hormones involved in hunger and satiety, with a focus on pediatrics.

  16. Hormonal Regulators of Appetite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin Juliana

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. There has been a significant worsening of the obesity epidemic mainly due to alterations in dietary intake and energy expenditure. Alternatively, cachexia, or pathologic weight loss, is a significant problem for individuals with chronic disease. Despite their obvious differences, both processes involve hormones that regulate appetite. These hormones act on specific centers in the brain that affect the sensations of hunger and satiety. Mutations in these hormones or their receptors can cause substantial pathology leading to obesity or anorexia. Identification of individuals with specific genetic mutations may ultimately lead to more appropriate therapies targeted at the underlying disease process. Thus far, these hormones have mainly been studied in adults and animal models. This article is aimed at reviewing the hormones involved in hunger and satiety, with a focus on pediatrics.

  17. Heart, lipids and hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wolf

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in general population. Besides well-known risk factors such as hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance and dyslipidemia, growing evidence suggests that hormonal changes in various endocrine diseases also impact the cardiac morphology and function. Recent studies highlight the importance of ectopic intracellular myocardial and pericardial lipid deposition, since even slight changes of these fat depots are associated with alterations in cardiac performance. In this review, we overview the effects of hormones, including insulin, thyroid hormones, growth hormone and cortisol, on heart function, focusing on their impact on myocardial lipid metabolism, cardiac substrate utilization and ectopic lipid deposition, in order to highlight the important role of even subtle hormonal changes for heart function in various endocrine and metabolic diseases.

  18. Reduced peptide bond pseudopeptide analogues of neurotensin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doulut, S; Rodriguez, M; Lugrin, D; Vecchini, F; Kitabgi, P; Aumelas, A; Martinez, J

    1992-01-01

    Pseudopeptide analogues of the C-terminal hexapeptide of neurotensin (H-Arg-Arg-Pro-Tyr-Ile-Leu-OH) were obtained by replacing each peptide bond by the reduced peptide bond CH2NH. The resulting analogues were then examined for their ability to inhibit binding of labeled neurotensin to new-born mouse brain membranes and for stimulation of guinea pig ileum contraction. Replacement of the Ile12-Leu13, Tyr11-Ile12, Pro10-Tyr11 and Lys9-Pro10 peptide bonds resulted in about 2000-, 3400-, 200- and 3400-fold losses, respectively, in binding affinity and 400-, 750-, 250- and 300-fold losses, respectively, in biological activity. Replacement of both Arg8 and Arg9 by lysine led to an analogue exhibiting the same pharmacological profile as the C-terminal hexapeptide of neurotensin. Interestingly, replacement of the Lys8-Lys9 peptide bond by the CH2NH bond produced an analogue exhibiting the same affinity for neurotensin receptors, but 10 times more potent in stimulating guinea pig ileum contraction. N-terminal protected analogues (by the Boc group) showed decreased potency as compared with their amino-free corresponding compounds.

  19. Changes in Juvenile Justice in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Dennis S. W.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses rising juvenile and youth crime in China, highlighting the essence of Chinese Marxist criminological thought and changing conceptions of delinquency from the postrevolutionary period to the present; examining official responses to delinquency and the recent development of juvenile justice; and suggesting that current delinquency control…

  20. Juvenile Anorexia Nervosa: Family Therapy's Natural Niche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, H. Charles

    2006-01-01

    Juvenile Anorexia Nervosa (AN) is a severe problem both in terms of presenting symptomatology and its tendency toward chronicity. Researchers have consistently shown that family-based approaches are superior to individual approaches for the treatment of juvenile AN. This article addresses the capacity deficit of trained family therapists to treat…

  1. Sexually dimorphic body plumage in juvenile crossbills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelaar, P; Phillips, RE; Knops, P

    2005-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism in color and pattern of contour feathers is rare in juvenile songbirds. We describe how captive-bred juvenile males of Scottish Crossbill (Loxia scotica) and nominate Red Crossbill (L. curvirostra curvirostra) can be differentiated from females prior to prebasic molt by an unstreak

  2. Juveniles' Motivations for Remaining in Prostitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Shu-Ling; Bedford, Olwen

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were collected in 1990-1991, 1992, and 2000 with 49 prostituted juveniles remanded to two rehabilitation centers in Taiwan. These data are analyzed to explore Taiwanese prostituted juveniles' feelings about themselves and their work, their motivations for remaining in prostitution, and their difficulties…

  3. Alternative sanctions for juveniles in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, P.H. van der

    1993-01-01

    In the Netherlands alternative sanctions for juveniles have become very popular. In less than ten years, the alternative sanction has surpassed the fine as the most frequently imposed penal sanction for juveniles. As a result of this popularity, some net widening has occured. In general, alternativl

  4. Psychiatric Disorder in a Juvenile Assessment Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    McReynolds, Larkin S.; Wasserman, Gail A.; DeComo, Robert E.; John, Reni; Keating, Joseph M.; Nolen, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile assessment centers (JACs) were developed to address service fragmentation and promote the sharing of information among agencies providing services to youth involved with the juvenile justice system. To date, there are no reports that describe the diagnostic profiles of the youth served by such centers. The authors hypothesize that the…

  5. Moral Development of Solo Juvenile Sex Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Vugt, Eveline; Stams, Geert Jan; Dekovic, Maja; Brugman, Daan; Rutten, Esther; Hendriks, Jan

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the moral development of solo juvenile male sex offenders (n = 20) and juvenile male non-offenders (n = 76), aged 13-19 years, from lower socioeconomic and educational backgrounds. The Moral Orientation Measure (MOM) was used to assess punishment- and victim-based moral orientation in sexual and non-sexual situations. Moral…

  6. Juveniles' Motivations for Remaining in Prostitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Shu-Ling; Bedford, Olwen

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were collected in 1990-1991, 1992, and 2000 with 49 prostituted juveniles remanded to two rehabilitation centers in Taiwan. These data are analyzed to explore Taiwanese prostituted juveniles' feelings about themselves and their work, their motivations for remaining in prostitution, and their difficulties…

  7. Ethnic disparities in Dutch juvenile justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komen, M.; van Schooten, E.

    2009-01-01

    In the Netherlands, ethnic minority boys are heavily overrepresented in prisons and secure judicial institutions for juveniles. In a sample of 324 juveniles of both native Dutch and ethnic minority origin who have come into contact with the Dutch criminal justice authorities, we compared the number

  8. Group sexual offending by juvenile females

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijkman, M.; Weerman, F.; Bijleveld, C.; Hendriks, J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined all group sexual offending cases in the Netherlands between 1995 and 2009 (n = 26) in which at least one juvenile female offender (n = 35) had been adjudicated. Information from court files showed that the majority of juvenile female group sexual offenders have (inter)personal pr

  9. Aging changes in hormone production

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004000.htm Aging changes in hormone production To use the sharing ... that produce hormones are controlled by other hormones. Aging also changes this process. For example, an endocrine ...

  10. Receptor binding and adenylate cyclase activities of glucagon analogues modified in the N-terminal region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKee, R.L.; Pelton, J.T.; Trivedi, D.; Johnson, D.G.; Coy, D.H.; Sueiras-Diaz, J.; Hruby, V.J.

    1986-04-08

    In this study, we determined the ability of four N-terminally modified derivatives of glucagon, (3-Me-His1,Arg12)-, (Phe1,Arg12)-, (D-Ala4,Arg12)-, and (D-Phe4)glucagon, to compete with 125I-glucagon for binding sites specific for glucagon in hepatic plasma membranes and to activate the hepatic adenylate cyclase system, the second step involved in producing many of the physiological effects of glucagon. Relative to the native hormone, (3-Me-His1,Arg12)glucagon binds approximately twofold greater to hepatic plasma membranes but is fivefold less potent in the adenylate cyclase assay. (Phe1,Arg12)glucagon binds threefold weaker and is also approximately fivefold less potent in adenylate cyclase activity. In addition, both analogues are partial agonists with respect to adenylate cyclase. These results support the critical role of the N-terminal histidine residue in eliciting maximal transduction of the hormonal message. (D-Ala4,Arg12)glucagon and (D-Phe4)glucagon, analogues designed to examine the possible importance of a beta-bend conformation in the N-terminal region of glucagon for binding and biological activities, have binding potencies relative to glucagon of 31% and 69%, respectively. (D-Ala4,Arg12)glucagon is a partial agonist in the adenylate cyclase assay system having a fourfold reduction in potency, while the (D-Phe4) derivative is a full agonist essentially equipotent with the native hormone. These results do not necessarily support the role of an N-terminal beta-bend in glucagon receptor recognition. With respect to in vivo glycogenolysis activities, all of the analogues have previously been reported to be full agonists.

  11. Hormones and female sexuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjelica Artur L.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In contrast to animal species in which linear relationships exist between hormonal status and sexual behaviour sexuality in human population is not determined so simply by the level of sexual steroids. The article analyses female sexuality in the light of hormonal status. Administration of sexual steroids during pregnancy and sexual differentiation High doses of gestagens, especially those with high androgen activity, widely used against miscarriages may lead to tomboys, but without differences in sexual orientation. However, it has been observed that the frequency of bisexual and lesbian women is higher in women with congenital adrenogenital syndrome. Hormones sexual desire and sexuality during menstrual cycle It has been established that sexual desire, autoeroticism and sexual fantasies in women depend on androgen levels. There are a lot of reports claiming that sexual desire varies during the menstrual cycle. Hormonal contraception and sexuality Most patients using birth control pills present with decreased libido. But, there are reports that progestagens with antiandrogenic effect in contraceptive pills do not affect sexual desire. Hormonal changes in peri- and postmenopausal period and sexuality Decreased levels of estrogen and testosterone in older women are associated with decreased libido, sensitivity and erotic stimuli. Sexuality and hormone replacement therapy Hormonal therapy with estrogen is efficient in reference to genital atrophy, but not to sexual desire. Really increased libido is achieved using androgens. Also, therapy with dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA and tibolone have positive effects on female libido. Conclusion Effect of sexual steroids on sexual sphere of women is very complex. The association between hormones and sexuality is multidimensional, as several hormones are important in regulation of sexual behaviour. Still, it should be pointed out that sexuality is in the domain of hormonal, emotional

  12. Physiology and toxicology of hormone-disrupting chemicals in higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couée, Ivan; Serra, Anne-Antonella; Ramel, Fanny; Gouesbet, Gwenola; Sulmon, Cécile

    2013-06-01

    Higher plants are exposed to natural environmental organic chemicals, associated with plant-environment interactions, and xenobiotic environmental organic chemicals, associated with anthropogenic activities. The effects of these chemicals result not only from interaction with metabolic targets, but also from interaction with the complex regulatory networks of hormone signaling. Purpose-designed plant hormone analogues thus show extensive signaling effects on gene regulation and are as such important for understanding plant hormone mechanisms and for manipulating plant growth and development. Some natural environmental chemicals also act on plants through interference with the perception and transduction of endogenous hormone signals. In a number of cases, bioactive xenobiotics, including herbicides that have been designed to affect specific metabolic targets, show extensive gene regulation effects, which are more in accordance with signaling effects than with consequences of metabolic effects. Some of these effects could be due to structural analogies with plant hormones or to interference with hormone metabolism, thus resulting in situations of hormone disruption similar to animal cell endocrine disruption by xenobiotics. These hormone-disrupting effects can be superimposed on parallel metabolic effects, thus indicating that toxicological characterisation of xenobiotics must take into consideration the whole range of signaling and metabolic effects. Hormone-disruptive signaling effects probably predominate when xenobiotic concentrations are low, as occurs in situations of residual low-level pollutions. These hormone-disruptive effects in plants may thus be of importance for understanding cryptic effects of low-dosage xenobiotics, as well as the interactive effects of mixtures of xenobiotic pollutants.

  13. A social work study on juvenile delinquency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We present an empirical study to study the effects of different factors on juvenile delinquency. The investigation distributes 100 questionnaires among people who are involved with crime and analyzes their feedbacks. There are five hypotheses in our survey and we look to see whether family conditions, religion, economical conditions, media and physical and psychological characteristics play important role on juvenile delinquency in Iranian society. The results shows that while family conditions, physical and psychological characteristics play important role on juvenile delinquency, other factors do not statistically have any impact on juvenile delinquency. The study suggests that a better family condition could help reduce juvenile delinquency and people could guide their children through better consultations.

  14. Synthesis and anticancer evaluation of spermatinamine analogues

    KAUST Repository

    Moosa, Basem

    2016-02-04

    Spermatinamine was isolated from an Australian marine sponge, Pseudoceratina sp. as an inhibitor of isoprenylcystiene carboxyl methyltransferase (Icmt), an attractive and novel anticancer target. Herein, we report the synthesis of spermatinamine analogues and their cytotoxic evaluation against three human cancer cell lines i.e. cervix adenocarcinoma (HeLa), breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), and prostate carcinoma (DU145). Analogues 12, 14 and 15 were found to be the most potent against one or more cell lines with the IC50 values in the range of 5 - 10 μM. The obtained results suggested that longer polyamine linker along with aromatic oxime substitution provided the most potent analogue compounds against cancer cell lines.

  15. Synthesis and anticancer evaluation of spermatinamine analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosa, Basem A; Sagar, Sunil; Li, Song; Esau, Luke; Kaur, Mandeep; Khashab, Niveen M

    2016-03-15

    Spermatinamine was isolated from an Australian marine sponge, Pseudoceratina sp. as an inhibitor of isoprenylcysteine carboxyl methyltransferase (Icmt), an attractive and novel anticancer target. Herein, we report the synthesis of spermatinamine analogues and their cytotoxic evaluation against three human cancer cell lines, that is, cervix adenocarcinoma (HeLa), breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), and prostate carcinoma (DU145). Analogues 12, 14 and 15 were found to be the most potent against one or more cell lines with the IC50 values in the range of 5-10 μM. The obtained results suggested that longer polyamine linker along with aromatic oxime substitution provided the most potent analogue compounds against cancer cell lines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Geomagnetic properties of Proxima Centauri b analogues

    CERN Document Server

    Zuluaga, Jorge I

    2016-01-01

    The recent discovery of a planet around the closest star, Proxima Centauri, could represent a quantum leap on the testability of models in exoplanet sciences. Unlike any other discovered exoplanet, models of planetary processes in Proxima b could be contrasted against near future telescopic observations and far future in-situ measurements. In this paper we study the geomagnetic properties of Proxima b analogues, namely, solid planets with masses close but larger than Earth's mass, periods of rotation of several days and habitable surface conditions. Assuming different planetary masses, bulk compositions and periods of rotations, we calculate for each planetary analogue its radius, heat flux, time of inner core formation, dynamo lifetime and minimum dipole magnetic moment. We find that most ($\\gtrsim$70\\%) Proxima b analogues develop intrinsic dynamos that last at least 3 Gyr, although only half of them are older than the present age of the host star ($4-6$ Gyr). Relying in our planetary evolution models, we p...

  17. Family transitions and juvenile delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Ryan D; Osgood, Aurea K; Oghia, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    There is a large body of research that shows children from non-intact homes show higher rates of juvenile delinquency than children from intact homes, partially due to weaker parental control and supervision in non-intact homes. What has not been adequately addressed in the research is the influence of changes in family structure among individual adolescents over time on delinquent offending. Using the first and third waves of the National Youth Study, we assess the effect of family structure changes on changes in delinquent offending between waves through the intermediate process of changes in family time and parental attachment. Although prior research has documented adolescents in broken homes are more delinquent than youth in intact homes, the process of family dissolution is not associated with concurrent increases in offending. In contrast, family formation through marriage or cohabitation is associated with simultaneous increases in offending. Changes in family time and parental attachment account for a portion of the family formation effect on delinquency, and prior parental attachment and juvenile offending significantly condition the effect of family formation on offending.

  18. Atherosclerosis in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Jednacz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the arteries. Clinical consequences of the atherosclerotic process occur in the adult population, however atherosclerotic process begins in childhood. The classic risk factors for atherosclerosis include obesity, dyslipidaemia, age, gender or family history. In recent years, attention has been drawn to the similarity between atherosclerotic inflammatory processes and inflammatory changes in the course of systemic connective tissue disease, in particular systemic lupus etythematosus (SLE or rheumatoid arthritis (RA. There is also observed the similarity of the pathogenetic background of development of atherosclerosis and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA. Elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines are observed in the course of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Also homocysteine concentrations, which may play a significant role in the development of atherosclerotic lesions, are observed higher in patients with JIA. Some studies revealed higher carotid intima-media thickness (IMT index values in children with JIA. In view of the fact that atherosclerotic process begins as early as in childhood, the introduction of appropriate preventive measures in children is a matter of utmost importance.

  19. Selective upregulation of lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle of foraging juvenile king penguins: an integrative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teulier, Loic; Dégletagne, Cyril; Rey, Benjamin; Tornos, Jérémy; Keime, Céline; de Dinechin, Marc; Raccurt, Mireille; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Roussel, Damien; Duchamp, Claude

    2012-06-22

    The passage from shore to marine life of juvenile penguins represents a major energetic challenge to fuel intense and prolonged demands for thermoregulation and locomotion. Some functional changes developed at this crucial step were investigated by comparing pre-fledging king penguins with sea-acclimatized (SA) juveniles (Aptenodytes patagonicus). Transcriptomic analysis of pectoralis muscle biopsies revealed that most genes encoding proteins involved in lipid transport or catabolism were upregulated, while genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism were mostly downregulated in SA birds. Determination of muscle enzymatic activities showed no changes in enzymes involved in the glycolytic pathway, but increased 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, an enzyme of the β-oxidation pathway. The respiratory rates of isolated muscle mitochondria were much higher with a substrate arising from lipid metabolism (palmitoyl-L-carnitine) in SA juveniles than in terrestrial controls, while no difference emerged with a substrate arising from carbohydrate metabolism (pyruvate). In vivo, perfusion of a lipid emulsion induced a fourfold larger thermogenic effect in SA than in control juveniles. The present integrative study shows that fuel selection towards lipid oxidation characterizes penguin acclimatization to marine life. Such acclimatization may involve thyroid hormones through their nuclear beta receptor and nuclear coactivators.

  20. Effects of Parathyroid Hormone on Immune Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah Sassine Geara

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Parathyroid hormone (PTH function as immunologic mediator has become interesting with the recent usage of PTH analogue (teriparatide in the management of osteoporosis. Since the early 1980s, PTH receptors were found on most immunologic cells (neutrophils, B and T cells. The in vitro evaluations for a possible role of PTH as immunomodulator have shown inconsistent results mainly due to methodological heterogeneity of these studies: it used different PTH formulations (rat, bovine, and human, at different dosages and different incubating periods. In some of these studies, the lymphocytes were collected from uremic patients or animals, which renders the interpretation of the results problematic due to the effect of uremic toxins. Parathyroidectomy has been found to reverse the immunologic defect in patients with high PTH levels. Nonetheless, the clinical significance of these findings is unclear. Further studies are needed to define if PTH does have immunomodulatory effects.

  1. Benzoylphenylurea sulfur analogues with potent antitumor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallur, Gurulingappa; Jimeno, Antonio; Dalrymple, Susan; Zhu, Tao; Jung, M Katherine; Hidalgo, Manuel; Isaacs, John T; Sukumar, Saraswati; Hamel, Ernest; Khan, Saeed R

    2006-04-06

    A novel series of BPU analogues were synthesized and evaluated for antitumor activity. In particular, BPU sulfur analogues 6n and 7d were shown to possess up to 10-fold increased potency, when compared to 1 (NSC-639829), against cancer cell lines. 6n was more effective than 1 in causing apoptosis of MCF-7 cells. When compared to other drugs with a similar mechanism of action, 6n retained significant ability to inhibit tubulin assembly, with an IC(50) of 2.1 microM.

  2. Effect of exogenous hormones on transcription levels of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate biosynthetic enzymes in the silkworm (Bombyx mori).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, ShuoHao; Yang, HuanHuan; Yao, LiLi; Zhang, JianYun; Huang, LongQuan

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin B6 includes 6 pyridine derivatives, among which pyridoxal 5'-phosphate is a coenzyme for over 140 enzymes. Animals acquire their vitamin B6 from food. Through a salvage pathway, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate is synthesized from pyridoxal, pyridoxine or pyridoxamine, in a series of reactions catalyzed by pyridoxal kinase and pyridoxine 5'-phosphate oxidase. The regulation of pyridoxal 5'-phospahte biosynthesis and pyridoxal 5'-phospahte homeostasis are at the center of study for vitamin B6 nutrition. How pyridoxal 5'-phosphate biosynthesis is regulated by hormones has not been reported so far. Our previous studies have shown that pyridoxal 5'-phosphate level in silkworm larva displays cyclic developmental changes. In the current study, effects of exogenous juvenile hormone and molting hormone on the transcription level of genes coding for the enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of pyridoxal 5'-phospahte were examined. Results show that pyridoxal kinase and pyridoxine 5'-phosphate oxidase are regulated at the transcription level by development and are responsive to hormones. Molting hormone stimulates the expression of genes coding for pyridoxal kinase and pyridoxine 5'-phosphate oxidase, and juvenile hormone appears to work against molting hormone. Whether pyridoxal 5'-phosphate biosynthesis is regulated by hormones in general is an important issue for further studies.

  3. Migraine and Hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakalnis, Ann

    2016-02-01

    This article discusses the role that hormones play in adolescent girls and young women with headaches, which are very common in adolescent girls, in particular, migraine. In many cases, migraine onset may occur shortly around the time of menarche, prevalence of recurrent migraine in this population approaches 15%, and typically the symptoms continue through adulthood. Hormonal changes associated with puberty and the menstrual cycle may significantly influence migraine in young women. This article reviews the following topics: management of menstrually related headaches, changes in ovarian hormones and their relationship to migraine, and oral contraceptives and pregnancy effects on migraine.

  4. Analogue alternative the electronic analogue computer in Britain and the USA, 1930-1975

    CERN Document Server

    Small, James S

    2013-01-01

    We are in the midst of a digital revolution - until recently, the majority of appliances used in everyday life have been developed with analogue technology. Now, either at home or out and about, we are surrounded by digital technology such as digital 'film', audio systems, computers and telephones. From the late 1940s until the 1970s, analogue technology was a genuine alternative to digital, and the two competing technologies ran parallel with each other. During this period, a community of engineers, scientists, academics and businessmen continued to develop and promote the analogue computer.

  5. Profile of Incarcerated Juveniles: Comparison of Male and Female Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Don; Martin, Magy; Dell, Rex; Davis, Candice; Guerrieri, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Effective methods of identifying potential juvenile offenders are critical when developing prevention programs within both state and national juvenile justice systems. The characteristics of juvenile offenders in a large juvenile justice system are examined in this study. Participants live in a Midwestern city with a high rate of crime as…

  6. 8 CFR 1236.3 - Detention and release of juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Detention and release of juveniles. 1236.3... ORDERED REMOVED Detention of Aliens Prior to Order of Removal § 1236.3 Detention and release of juveniles. (a) Juveniles. A juvenile is defined as an alien under the age of 18 years. (b) Release....

  7. Habitat associations of juvenile versus adult butterflyfishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratchett, M. S.; Berumen, M. L.; Marnane, M. J.; Eagle, J. V.; Pratchett, D. J.

    2008-09-01

    Many coral reef fishes exhibit distinct ontogenetic shifts in habitat use while some species settle directly in adult habitats, but there is not any general explanation to account for these differences in settlement strategies among coral reef fishes. This study compared distribution patterns and habitat associations of juvenile (young of the year) butterflyfishes to those of adult conspecifics. Three species, Chaetodon auriga, Chaetodon melannotus, and Chaetodon vagabundus, all of which have limited reliance on coral for food, exhibited marked differences in habitat association of juvenile versus adult individuals. Juveniles of these species were consistently found in shallow-water habitats, whereas adult conspecifics were widely distributed throughout a range of habitats. Juveniles of seven other species ( Chaetodon aureofasciatus, Chaetodon baronessa, Chaetodon citrinellus, Chaetodon lunulatus, Chaetodon plebeius, Chaetodon rainfordi, and Chaetodon trifascialis), all of which feed predominantly on live corals, settled directly into habitat occupied by adult conspecifics. Butterflyfishes with strong reliance on corals appear to be constrained to settle in habitats that provide access to essential prey resources, precluding their use of distinct juvenile habitats. More generalist butterflyfishes, however, appear to utilize distinct juvenile habitats and exhibit marked differences in the distribution of juveniles versus adults.

  8. LH (Luteinizing Hormone) Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... develop gonads (gonadal agenesis) Chromosomal abnormality, such as Klinefelter syndrome Testicular failure: Viral infection ( mumps ) Trauma Exposure to ... the ovaries or testicles Hormone deficiency Turner syndrome Klinefelter syndrome Chronic infections Cancer Eating disorder (anorexia nervosa) ^ Back ...

  9. Thyroid Hormone Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... need a different dose of thyroid hormone include birth control pills, estrogen, testosterone, some anti-seizure medications (for ... is no evidence that desiccated thyroid has any advantage over synthetic T4. WHAT ABOUT T3? While most ...

  10. Deciding about hormone therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your risk for endometrial cancer. Taking progestin with estrogen seems to protect against this cancer. So if you have a ... menopause without taking hormones. They can also help protect your bones, improve your heart health , and help you stay ...

  11. Menopause and Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the participating organizations that have assisted in its reproduction and distribution. Learn More about Menopause and Hormones ... Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  12. Solanapyrone analogues from a Hawaiian fungicolous fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four new solanayrone analogues (solanapyrones J-M; 1-4) have been isolated from an unidentified fungicolous fungus collected in Hawaii. The structures and relative configurations of these compounds were determined by analysis of ID NMR, 2D NMR, and MS data. Solanapyrone J(1) showed antifungal acti...

  13. Dumb holes: analogues for black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unruh, W G

    2008-08-28

    The use of sonic analogues to black and white holes, called dumb or deaf holes, to understand the particle production by black holes is reviewed. The results suggest that the black hole particle production is a low-frequency and low-wavenumber process.

  14. Prussian Blue Analogues of Reduced Dimensionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gengler, Regis Y. N.; Toma, Luminita M.; Pardo, Emilio; Lloret, Francesc; Ke, Xiaoxing; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Gournis, Dimitrios; Rudolf, Petra

    2012-01-01

    Mixed-valence polycyanides (Prussian Blue analogues) possess a rich palette of properties spanning from room-temperature ferromagnetism to zero thermal expansion, which can be tuned by chemical modifications or the application of external stimuli (temperature, pressure, light irradiation). While mol

  15. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of squalamine analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H S; Choi, B S; Kwon, K C; Lee, S O; Kwak, H J; Lee, C H

    2000-08-01

    Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of squalamine analogue 2 are reported. The synthesis of 2 was accomplished from bisnoralcohol 3. The spermidine moiety was introduced via reductive amination of an appropriately functionalized 3beta-aminosterol with spermidinyl aldehyde 17 utilizing sodium triacetoxyborohydride as the reducing agent. Compound 2 shows weaker antimicrobial activity than squalamine.

  16. Prussian Blue Analogues of Reduced Dimensionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gengler, Regis Y. N.; Toma, Luminita M.; Pardo, Emilio; Lloret, Francesc; Ke, Xiaoxing; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Gournis, Dimitrios; Rudolf, Petra

    2012-01-01

    Mixed-valence polycyanides (Prussian Blue analogues) possess a rich palette of properties spanning from room-temperature ferromagnetism to zero thermal expansion, which can be tuned by chemical modifications or the application of external stimuli (temperature, pressure, light irradiation). While

  17. Hormones and female sexuality

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Introduction In contrast to animal species in which linear relationships exist between hormonal status and sexual behaviour sexuality in human population is not determined so simply by the level of sexual steroids. The article analyses female sexuality in the light of hormonal status. Administration of sexual steroids during pregnancy and sexual differentiation High doses of gestagens, especially those with high androgen activity, widely used against miscarriages may lead to tomboys, but with...

  18. Hormonal Regulators of Appetite

    OpenAIRE

    Austin Juliana; Marks Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Obesity is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. There has been a significant worsening of the obesity epidemic mainly due to alterations in dietary intake and energy expenditure. Alternatively, cachexia, or pathologic weight loss, is a significant problem for individuals with chronic disease. Despite their obvious differences, both processes involve hormones that regulate appetite. These hormones act on specific centers in the brain that affect the sensations of hunger a...

  19. Protein Hormones and Immunity‡

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Keith W.; Weigent, Douglas A.; Kooijman, Ron

    2007-01-01

    A number of observations and discoveries over the past 20 years support the concept of important physiological interactions between the endocrine and immune systems. The best known pathway for transmission of information from the immune system to the neuroendocrine system is humoral in the form of cytokines, although neural transmission via the afferent vagus is well documented also. In the other direction, efferent signals from the nervous system to the immune system are conveyed by both the neuroendocrine and autonomic nervous systems. Communication is possible because the nervous and immune systems share a common biochemical language involving shared ligands and receptors, including neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, growth factors, neuroendocrine hormones and cytokines. This means that the brain functions as an immune-regulating organ participating in immune responses. A great deal of evidence has accumulated and confirmed that hormones secreted by the neuroendocrine system play an important role in communication and regulation of the cells of the immune system. Among protein hormones, this has been most clearly documented for prolactin (PRL), growth hormone (GH), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I), but significant influences on immunity by thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) have also been demonstrated. Here we review evidence obtained during the past 20 years to clearly demonstrate that neuroendocrine protein hormones influence immunity and that immune processes affect the neuroendocrine system. New findings highlight a previously undiscovered route of communication between the immune and endocrine systems that is now known to occur at the cellular level. This communication system is activated when inflammatory processes induced by proinflammatory cytokines antagonize the function of a variety of hormones, which then causes endocrine resistance in both the periphery and brain. Homeostasis during inflammation is achieved by a balance between cytokines and

  20. Juvenile psammomatoid ossifying fibroma. Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos VAHTSEVANOS

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Ossifying fibroma (OS represents a slow growing, benign neoplasm that belongs to the greater group of fibro-osseous lesions. Based on its histological features, ossifying fibroma is divided into: a juvenile trabecular OS and b juvenile psammomatoid OS which affects mainly the paranasal sinuses of children and teenagers aging from 5 to 15 years.A rare case of juvenile psammomatoid ossifying fibroma in a 30 year old male patient located in the left mandibular ramus is presented. Treatment plan included radical surgical excision of the lesion and restoration with autologous osteochondral graft from the 6th rib of the ipsilateral side.

  1. Juvenile eye growth, when completed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fledelius, Hans C; Christensen, Anders S; Fledelius, Christian

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To test Sorsby's classical statement of axial eye growth as completed at the age of 13 years, with a view also to differentiating between basic eye growth and juvenile elongation associated with eventual refractive change towards myopia. METHODS: (i) A total of 160 healthy eyes close...... was preferred for conventional ultrasound oculometry due to its extreme repeatability of measuring values, thus making it well fitted for evaluating very small differences. In particular, this had bearing for the decelerating end phase of growth in the longitudinal investigation. RESULTS: Sorby's statement...... about age 13 as general limit found support from the cross-sectional data, which suggested stable emmetropic eye size from about 11-12 years, with an average apparently outgrown male emmetropic value of 23.5 mm versus females' 22.9 mm. The longitudinal data, however, showed emmetropic growth also beyond...

  2. SUBTYPES OF JUVENILE SYSTEMIC SCLERODERMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M N Slarovoitova

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to allot clinical forms of juvenile systemic scleroderma (JSSD. Material and methods: investigation and dynamic observation of 60 patients aged 14-54 (mean age 25.1 ±7.2 with onset of disease in child's and adolescent’s ages from 1 to 16 years old ( in average 11. 4±3.8 year old and disease duration from 1 to 39 years (in average 13.1 ±7.9. Results: 55% of patients demonstrated JSSD subtype with focal cutaneous lesion of different localization. The possibility of overlap-syndrome development in JSSD patients with onset in adolescent age typical for SSD-rheumatoid arthritis, SSD-polymvositis should be underlined. Conclusion: knowledge of different clinical forms and courses of the disease, modern diagnostics and early beginning of differential JSSD treatment will enable us to improve the prognosis and disease outcome.

  3. Juvenile Huntington disease in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, Emilia Mabel; Parisi, Virginia; Etcheverry, José Luis; Sanguinetti, Ana; Cordi, Lorena; Binelli, Adrian; Persi, Gabriel; Squitieri, Ferdinando

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed demographic, clinical and genetic characteristics of juvenile Huntington disease (JHD) and it frequency in an Argentinean cohort. Age at onset was defined as the age at which behavioral, cognitive, psychiatric or motor abnormalities suggestive of JHD were first reported. Clinical and genetic data were similar to other international series, however, in this context we identified the highest JHD frequency reported so far (19.72%; 14/71). Age at onset of JHD is challenging and still under discussion. Our findings reinforce the hypothesis that clinical manifestations, other than the typical movement disorder, may anticipate age at onset of even many years. Analyses of JHD cohorts are required to explore it frequency in populations with different backgrounds to avoid an underestimation of this rare phenotype. Moreover, data from selected populations may open new pathways in therapeutic approaches and may explain new potential correlations between HD presentations and environmental or biological factors.

  4. [Physiotherapy for juvenile idiopathic arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spamer, M; Georgi, M; Häfner, R; Händel, H; König, M; Haas, J-P

    2012-07-01

    Control of disease activity and recovery of function are major issues in the treatment of children and adolescents suffering from juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Functional therapies including physiotherapy are important components in the multidisciplinary teamwork and each phase of the disease requires different strategies. While in the active phase of the disease pain alleviation is the main focus, the inactive phase requires strategies for improving motility and function. During remission the aim is to regain general fitness by sports activities. These phase adapted strategies must be individually designed and usually require a combination of different measures including physiotherapy, occupational therapy, massage as well as other physical procedures and sport therapy. There are only few controlled studies investigating the effectiveness of physical therapies in JIA and many strategies are derived from long-standing experience. New results from physiology and sport sciences have contributed to the development in recent years. This report summarizes the basics and main strategies of physical therapy in JIA.

  5. Compliance and persistence with treatment with parathyroid hormone for osteoporosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Anne-Luise; Vestergaard, Peter; Eiken, Pia

    2015-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Medical intervention is important in the treatment of osteoporosis, and compliance with medical treatment is essential for an optimal outcome. Based on Danish national registers, we found that compliance with parathyroid hormone (PTH) treatment is high and associated with marital status......, working status, and type of PTH treatment. PURPOSE: Compliance and persistence are essential for an optimal outcome during medical treatment of osteoporosis. We aimed to evaluate compliance and persistence with treatment with PTH in daily clinical practice in Danish patients and to describe factors...... affecting compliance. METHODS: Register-based nationwide cohort study on all patients in Denmark initiates PTH or analogue treatment for osteoporosis in 2003-2010 (n = 4281). PTH drugs included were the PTH analogue teriparatide(1-34) and recombinant human PTH (rhPTH(1-84)). Compliance with treatment...

  6. Evaluation of bone targeting salmon calcitonin analogues in rats developing osteoporosis and adjuvant arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Krishna H; Asghar, Waheed; Newa, Madhuri; Jamali, Fakhreddin; Doschak, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic analogues of the peptide hormone calcitonin have been used in medicine as biologic drug therapies for decades, to treat pathological conditions of excessive bone turnover, such as osteoporosis, where more bones are removed than replaced during bone remodeling. Osteoporosis and other chronic skeletal diseases, including inflammatory arthritis, exact a substantial and growing toll on aging populations worldwide however they respond poor to synthetic biologic drug therapy, due in part to the rapid half-life of elimination, which for calcitonin is 43 minutes. To address those shortcomings, we have developed and synthesized bone-targeting variants of calcitonin as a targeted drug delivery strategy, by conjugation to bisphosphonate drug bone-seeking functional groups in highly specific reaction conditions. To evaluate their in vivo efficacy, bisphosphonate-mediated bone targeting with PEGylated (polyethylene glycol conjugated) and non-PEGylated salmon calcitonin analogues were synthesized and dose escalation was performed in female rats developing Osteoporosis. The bone-targeting calcitonin analogues were also tested in a separate cohort of male rats developing adjuvant-induced arthritis. Ovariectomized female rats developing Osteoporosis were administered daily sub-cutaneous injection of analogues equivalent to 5, 10 and 20 IU/kg of calcitonin for 3 months. Adjuvant arthritis was developed in male rats by administering Mycobacterium butyricum through tail base injection. Daily sub-cutaneous injection of analogues equivalent to 20 IU/kg of calcitonin was administered and the rats were measured for visible signs of inflammation to a 21 day endpoint. In both studies, the effect of drug intervention upon bone volume and bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed by measuring the trabecular bone volume percentage and BMD at the proximal tibial metaphysis using in vivo micro-computed tomography. With dose escalation studies, only bone targeting analogue dosed groups

  7. Body segments and growth hormone.

    OpenAIRE

    Bundak, R; Hindmarsh, P C; Brook, C. G.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of human growth hormone treatment for five years on sitting height and subischial leg length of 35 prepubertal children with isolated growth hormone deficiency were investigated. Body segments reacted equally to treatment with human growth hormone; this is important when comparing the effect of growth hormone on the growth of children with skeletal dysplasias or after spinal irradiation.

  8. Hypothalamic gene expression rapidly changes in response to photoperiod in juvenile Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herwig, A; Petri, I; Barrett, P

    2012-07-01

    Siberian hamsters are seasonal mammals that survive a winter climate by making adaptations in physiology and behaviour. This includes gonadal atrophy, reduced food intake and body weight. The underlying central mechanisms responsible for the physiological adaptations are not fully established but involve reducing hypothalamic tri-iodthyronine (T3) levels. Juvenile Siberian hamsters born or raised in short days (SD) respond in a similar manner, although with an inhibition of gonadal development and growth instead of reversing an established long day (LD) phenotype. Using juvenile male hamsters, the present study aimed to investigate whether the central mechanisms are similar before the establishment of the mature LD phenotype. By in situ hybridisation, we examined the response of genes involved in thyroid hormone (Dio2 and Dio3, which determine hypothalamic T3 levels) and glucose/glutamate metabolism in the ependymal layer, histamine H3 receptor and VGF as representatives of the highly responsive dorsomedial posterior arcuate nucleus (dmpARC), and somatostatin, a hypothalamic neuropeptide involved in regulating the growth axis. Differential gene expression of type 2 and type 3 deiodinase in the ependymal layer, histamine H3 receptor in the dmpARC and somatostatin in the ARC was established by the eighth day in SD. These changes are followed by alterations in glucose metabolism related genes in the ependymal layer by day 16 and increased secretogranin expression in the dmpARC by day 32. In conclusion, our data demonstrate similar but rapid and highly responsive changes in gene expression in the brain of juvenile Siberian hamsters in response to a switch from LD to SD. The data also provide a temporal definition of gene expression changes relative to physiological adaptations of body weight and testicular development and highlight the likely importance of thyroid hormone availability as an early event in the adaptation of physiology to a winter climate in juvenile

  9. Treatment with thyroid hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, Bernadette; Wartofsky, Leonard

    2014-06-01

    Thyroid hormone deficiency can have important repercussions. Treatment with thyroid hormone in replacement doses is essential in patients with hypothyroidism. In this review, we critically discuss the thyroid hormone formulations that are available and approaches to correct replacement therapy with thyroid hormone in primary and central hypothyroidism in different periods of life such as pregnancy, birth, infancy, childhood, and adolescence as well as in adult patients, the elderly, and in patients with comorbidities. Despite the frequent and long term use of l-T4, several studies have documented frequent under- and overtreatment during replacement therapy in hypothyroid patients. We assess the factors determining l-T4 requirements (sex, age, gender, menstrual status, body weight, and lean body mass), the major causes of failure to achieve optimal serum TSH levels in undertreated patients (poor patient compliance, timing of l-T4 administration, interferences with absorption, gastrointestinal diseases, and drugs), and the adverse consequences of unintentional TSH suppression in overtreated patients. Opinions differ regarding the treatment of mild thyroid hormone deficiency, and we examine the recent evidence favoring treatment of this condition. New data suggesting that combined therapy with T3 and T4 could be indicated in some patients with hypothyroidism are assessed, and the indications for TSH suppression with l-T4 in patients with euthyroid multinodular goiter and in those with differentiated thyroid cancer are reviewed. Lastly, we address the potential use of thyroid hormones or their analogs in obese patients and in severe cardiac diseases, dyslipidemia, and nonthyroidal illnesses.

  10. A great disappearing act: the electronic analogue computer

    OpenAIRE

    Bissell, C.C.

    2004-01-01

    One historian of technology has called the analogue computer 'one of the great disappearing acts of the Twentieth Century'. This paper will look briefly at the origins, development and decline of the electronic analogue computer ..

  11. [Dmt(1)]DALDA analogues modified with tyrosine analogues at position 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yunxin; Lu, Dandan; Chen, Zhen; Ding, Yi; Chung, Nga N; Li, Tingyou; Schiller, Peter W

    2016-08-01

    Analogues of [Dmt(1)]DALDA (H-Dmt-d-Arg-Phe-Lys-NH2; Dmt=2',6'-dimethyltyrosine), a potent μ opioid agonist peptide with mitochondria-targeted antioxidant activity were prepared by replacing Dmt with various 2',6'-dialkylated Tyr analogues, including 2',4',6'-trimethyltyrosine (Tmt), 2'-ethyl-6'-methyltyrosine (Emt), 2'-isopropyl-6'-methyltyrosine (Imt) and 2',6'-diethyltyrosine (Det). All compounds were selective μ opioid agonists and the Tmt(1)-, Emt(1) and Det(1)-analogues showed subnanomolar μ opioid receptor binding affinities. The Tmt(1)- and Emt(1)-analogues showed improved antioxidant activity compared to the Dmt(1)-parent peptide in the DPPH radical-scavenging capacity assay, and thus are of interest as drug candidates for neuropathic pain treatment.

  12. Anti-idiotypic antibody: A new strategy for the development of a growth hormone receptor antagonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Hainan; Zheng, Xin; Khan, Muhammad Akram; Li, Steven

    2015-11-01

    In general, traditional growth hormone receptor antagonist can be divided into two major classes: growth hormone (GH) analogues and anti-growth hormone receptor (GHR) antibodies. Herein, we tried to explore a new class of growth hormone receptor (GHR) antagonist that may have potential advantages over the traditional antagonists. For this, we developed a monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody growth hormone, termed CG-86. A series of experiments were conducted to characterize and evaluate this antibody, and the results from a competitive receptor-binding assay, Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA) and epitope mapping demonstrate that CG-86 behaved as a typical Ab2β. Next, we examined its antagonistic activity using in vitro cell models, and the results showed that CG-86 could effectively inhibit growth hormone receptor-mediated signalling and effectively inhibit growth hormone-induced Ba/F3-GHR638 proliferation. In summary, these studies show that an anti-idiotypic antibody (CG-86) has promise as a novel growth hormone receptor antagonist. Furthermore, the current findings also suggest that anti-idiotypic antibody may represent a novel strategy to produce a new class of growth hormone receptor antagonist, and this strategy may be applied with other cytokines or growth factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Juvenile prison: Remarks on the specific characteristics of regular sentencing

    OpenAIRE

    Miladinović-Stefanović, Dušica

    2015-01-01

    The system of the juvenile criminal law in the Republic of Serbia includes different mechanisms of social response to juvenile delinquency, including corrective orders, corrective measures and juvenile prison. This paper deals with the issue of determining a relevant sentence for juvenile offenders in trial proceedings. The legislator has provided a number of guidelines for these proceedings: the specific range of the juvenile prison sentence, the purpose of punishment, the degree of maturity...

  14. Parenting Styles and Family Communication as Correlates of Juvenile Delinquency

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine parenting styles and family communication as correlates of juvenile delinquency. A review of the literature was completed in the areas of parenting styles, family communication, and juvenile delinquency. The literature that was reviewed for this study was examined mainly from juvenile perceptions. This study was approached from a general systems theory perspective. A sample of juveniles (N = 78) from Weber County, Utah, involved in the juvenile justice...

  15. Thyroid hormone synthesis and anti-thyroid drugs: A bioinorganic chemistry approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gouriprasanna Roy; G Mugesh

    2006-11-01

    Hydrogen peroxide, generated by thyroid oxidase enzymes, is a crucial substrate for the thyroid peroxidase (TPO)-catalysed biosynthesis of thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) in the thyroid gland. It is believed that the H2O2 generation is a limiting step in thyroid hormone synthesis. Therefore, the control of hydrogen peroxide concentration is one of the possible mechanisms for the inhibition of thyroid hormone biosynthesis. The inhibition of thyroid hormone synthesis is required for the treatment of hyperthyroidism and this can be achieved by one or more anti-thyroid drugs. The most widely used anti-thyroid drug methimazole (MMI) inhibits the production of thyroid hormones by irreversibly inactivating the enzyme TPO. Our studies show that the replacement of sulphur in MMI by selenium leads to a selone, which exists predominantly in its zwitterionic form. In contrast to the sulphur drug, the selenium analogue (MSeI) reversibly inhibits the peroxidase-catalysed oxidation and iodination reactions. Theoretical studies on MSeI reveal that the selenium atom in this compound carries a large negative charge. The carbon-selenium bond length in MSeI is found to be close to single-bond length. As the selenium atom exhibits a large nucleophilic character, the selenium analogue of MMI may scavenge the hydrogen peroxide present in the thyroid cells, which may lead to a reversible inhibition of thyroid hormone biosynthesis.

  16. Are antipredator behaviours of hatchery Salmo salar juveniles similar to wild juveniles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvanes, A G V

    2017-01-27

    This study explores how antipredator behaviour of juvenile Atlantic salmon Salmo salar developed during conventional hatchery rearing of eggs from wild brood stock, compared with the behaviour of wild-caught juveniles from the same population. Juveniles aged 1+ years were tested in two unfamiliar environments; in one S. salar were presented with simulated predator attacks and in the other they were given the opportunity to explore an open-field arena. No difference was found in their spontaneous escape responses or ventilation rate (reflex responses) after simulated predator attacks. Hatchery-reared juveniles were more risk-prone in their behaviours than wild-caught individuals. Hatchery juveniles stayed less time in association with shelter. In the open-field arena, hatchery juveniles were more active than wild juveniles. Hatchery juveniles were also immobile for less time and spent a shorter amount of time than wild juveniles in the fringe of the open-field arena. Salmo salar size had no effect on the observed behaviour. Overall, this study provides empirical evidence that one generation of hatchery rearing does not change reflex responses associated with threats, whereas antipredator behaviour, typically associated with prior experience, was less developed in hatchery-reared than in wild individuals.

  17. Conceptualizing juvenile prostitution as child maltreatment: findings from the National Juvenile Prostitution Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kimberly J; Finkelhor, David; Wolak, Janis

    2010-02-01

    Two studies were conducted to identify the incidence (Study 1) and characteristics (Study 2) of juvenile prostitution cases known to law enforcement agencies in the United States. Study 1 revealed a national estimate of 1,450 arrests or detentions (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1,287-1,614) in cases involving juvenile prostitution during a 1-year period. In Study 2, exploratory data were collected from a subsample of 138 cases from police records in 2005. The cases are broadly categorized into three main types: (a) third-party exploiters, (b) solo prostitution, and (c) conventional child sexual abuse (CSA) with payment. Cases were classified into three initial categories based on police orientation toward the juvenile: (a) juveniles as victims (53%), (b) juveniles as delinquents (31%), and (c) juvenile as both victims and delinquents (16%). When examining the status of the juveniles by case type, the authors found that all the juveniles in CSA with payment cases were treated as victims, 66% in third-party exploiters cases, and 11% in solo cases. Findings indicate law enforcement responses to juvenile prostitution are influential in determining whether such youth are viewed as victims of commercial sexual exploitation or as delinquents.

  18. Analogue VLSI for probabilistic networks and spike-time computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, A

    2001-02-01

    The history and some of the methods of analogue neural VLSI are described. The strengths of analogue techniques are described, along with residual problems to be solved. The nature of hardware-friendly and hardware-appropriate algorithms is reviewed and suggestions are offered as to where analogue neural VLSI's future lies.

  19. A q-analogue of the four functions theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Christofides, Demetres

    2009-01-01

    In this article we give a proof of a q-analogue of the celebrated four functions theorem. This analogue was conjectured by Bjorner and includes as special cases both the four functions theorem and also Bjorner's q-analogue of the FKG inequality.

  20. Tryptophan analogues. 1. Synthesis and antihypertensive activity of positional isomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safdy, M E; Kurchacova, E; Schut, R N; Vidrio, H; Hong, E

    1982-06-01

    A series of tryptophan analogues having the carboxyl function at the beta-position was synthesized and tested for antihypertensive activity. The 5-methoxy analogue 46 exhibited antihypertensive activity in the rat via the oral route and was much more potent than the normal tryptophan analogue. The methyl ester was found to be a critical structural feature for activity.

  1. Hypoparathyroidism: Replacement Therapy with Parathyroid Hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Rejnmark

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hypoparathyroidism (HypoPT is characterized by low serum calcium levels caused by an insufficient secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH. Despite normalization of serum calcium levels by treatment with activated vitamin D analogues and calcium supplementation, patients are suffering from impaired quality of life (QoL and are at increased risk of a number of comorbidities. Thus, despite normalization of calcium levels in response to conventional therapy, this should only be considered as an apparent normalization, as patients are suffering from a number of complications and calcium-phosphate homeostasis is not normalized in a physiological manner. In a number of recent studies, replacement therapy with recombinant human PTH (rhPTH(1-84 as well as therapy with the N-terminal PTH fragment (rhPTH(1-34 have been investigated. Both drugs have been shown to normalize serum calcium while reducing needs for activated vitamin D and calcium supplements. However, once a day injections cause large fluctuations in serum calcium. Twice a day injections diminish fluctuations, but don't restore the normal physiology of calcium homeostasis. Recent studies using pump-delivery have shown promising results on maintaining normocalcemia with minimal fluctuations in calcium levels. Further studies are needed to determine whether this may improve QoL and lower risk of complications. Such data are needed before replacement with the missing hormone can be recommended as standard therapy.

  2. Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy Epilepsia mioclônica juvenil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Alfradique

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile myoclonus epilepsy (JME is a common epileptic syndrome, the etiology of which is genetically determined. Its onset occurs from 6 through 22 years of age, and affected patients present with myoclonic jerks, often associated with generalized tonic-clonic seizures - the most common association - and absence seizures. JME is non-progressive, and there are no abnormalities on clinical examination or intellectual deficits. Psychiatric disorders may coexist. Generalized polyspike-and-waves are the most characteristic electroencephalographic pattern. Usual neuroimaging studies show no abnormalities. Atypical presentations should be entertained, as they are likely to induce misdiagnosis. Prevention of precipitating factors and therapy with valproic acid (VPA are able to control seizures in the great majority of patients. Whenever VPA is judged to be inappropriate, other antiepileptic drugs such as lamotrigine may be considered. Treatment should not be withdrawn, otherwise recurrences are frequent.A epilepsia mioclônica juvenil é uma síndrome epiléptica comum, cuja etiologia é fundamentada na genética. Inicia-se entre 6 e 22 anos e os indivíduos apresentam mioclonias, que podem ser acompanhadas por crises tônico-clônicas generalizadas - associação mais comum - e crises de ausência. A doença não é progressiva, e não há alterações detectáveis no exame físico ou déficits intelectuais. Distúrbios psiquiátricos podem coexistir. Polipontas-ondas lentas generalizadas constituem o padrão eletrencefalográfico ictal típico. Não há anormalidades em exames de imagem convencionais. Apresentações atípicas devem ser consideradas, pois predispõem a erros de diagnóstico. A prevenção de fatores desencadeantes e o uso de ácido valpróico (VPA controlam as crises epilépticas na grande maioria dos casos. Quando o VPA é inapropriado, outras drogas como a lamotrigina podem ser utilizadas. O tratamento não deve ser interrompido

  3. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis and the temporomandibular joint ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... resonance imaging findings of temporomandibular joint inflammation among juvenile ... The mean total MRI score was significantly higher in patients with active ... Clinical signs of TMJ arthritis can be used as filter for MRI examination TMJ is ...

  4. Bilateral giant juvenile fibroadenoma of breasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhopadhyay Madhumita

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An 11-year-old girl with rapidly enlarging bilateral breast lumps is reported. It was diagnosed as a case of juvenile fibroadenoma following fine needle aspiration cytology and confirmed on histopathological examination of the excised specimens.

  5. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile Paget disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information & Resources MedlinePlus (1 link) Health Topic: Bone Diseases Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (1 link) Juvenile ... on PubMed Daroszewska A, Ralston SH. Mechanisms of disease: genetics of Paget's disease of bone and related disorders. ...

  6. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile hyaline fibromatosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Antaya RJ, Cajaiba MM, Madri J, Lopez MA, Ramirez MC, Martignetti JA, Reyes-Múgica M. Juvenile hyaline ... 103. Citation on PubMed Dowling O, Difeo A, Ramirez MC, Tukel T, Narla G, Bonafe L, Kayserili ...

  7. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia presenting as Juvenile Idiopathic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia presenting as Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis in a Nigerian boy. ... lead to delay in commencing appropriate treatment. ... of two months duration, had an elevated Rheumatoid factor and X-ray findings suggestive of ...

  8. Screening Incarcerated Juveniles Using the MAYSI-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Amy L; Grande, Todd L; Hallman, Janelle; Underwood, Lee A

    2015-01-01

    The high prevalence of mental health disorders among incarcerated juveniles is a matter of national and global concern. Juvenile justice personnel need accurate screening measures that identify youth requiring immediate mental health services. The purpose of this study was threefold: (a) to examine the utility of the Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument, Version 2 (MAYSI-2) in identifying juveniles with mental health concerns in a large sample of juveniles (N = 4,009), (b) to provide data regarding rates of identified mental health needs in incarcerated youth, and (c) to provide descriptive comparisons to other studies using the MAYSI-2. Mean scores of subscales were compared with the MAYSI-2 normative samples and other recent studies. Results indicated that this population has a high occurrence of mental health symptoms and there is high variability in the severity of the symptoms. In addition, a multivariate analysis of variance test found significant differences in mental health problems across ethnic groups.

  9. SAB Juvenile Reef Fish (2002-2015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Trawls were made during the summer months in shallow seagrass beds to monitor the number and species of juvenile snapper using the grass as a nursery.

  10. AFSC/ABL: Juvenile rockfish habitat utilization

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Juvenile rockfish were observed amongst coral, sponge, cobble, and gravel habitats. Rockfish utilized coral habitats more than any other, while gravel was the least...

  11. Radioimmunoassay of serum follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone in the bottlenosed dolphin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneyer, A; Castro, A; Odell, D

    1985-11-01

    Commercially available radioimmunoassay (RIA) kits for human follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) were adapted for quantitation of these hormones in serum from bottlenosed dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Serum samples from over 160 wild and 70 captive animals were assayed in order to determine basal concentrations of FSH and LH in these animals, as well as to detect possible differences between various groups. Mean FSH and LH levels for all animals were 0.22 +/- 0.08 and 0.37 +/- 0.18 ng/ml, respectively. Although wild animals had higher FSH and LH levels than captive ones, the differences were not statistically significant (P less than 0.07). However, both FSH and LH were significantly (P less than 0.01 and P less than 0.05, respectively) elevated in females when compared to males. Adults and peripubescent animals had significantly (P less than 0.01) higher LH levels than did juveniles. Among wild animals, serum concentrations of FSH and LH reflected seasonal differences. Samples obtained in early summer (Gulf of Mexico population) contained significantly (P less than 0.01) higher concentrations of FSH and LH than samples obtained in the fall (Indian River, Florida population). Both FSH and LH were significantly elevated in samples from confirmed pregnant animals as compared to the overall mean and to a sample from a confirmed nonpregnant female. Our observations indicate that these RIAs can reliably detect serum FSH and LH from bottlenosed dolphins and represent the first quantitation of these hormones in cetaceans.

  12. Synthesis and Biological Activity of 2-Methylene Analogues of Calcitriol and Related Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibilska, Izabela K; Szybinski, Marcin; Sicinski, Rafal R; Plum, Lori A; DeLuca, Hector F

    2015-12-24

    In an attempt to prepare vitamin D analogues that are superagonists, (20R)- and (20S)-isomers of 1α-hydroxy-2-methylenevitamin D3 and 1α,25-dihydroxy-2-methylenevitamin D3 have been synthesized. To prepare the desired A-ring dienyne fragment, two different approaches were used, both starting from the (-)-quinic acid. The obtained derivative was subsequently coupled with the C,D-ring enol triflates derived from the corresponding Grundmann ketones, using the Sonogashira reaction. Moreover, (20R)- and (20S)-1α,25-dihydroxy-2-methylenevitamin D3 compounds with an (5E)-configuration were prepared by iodine catalyzed isomerization. All four 2-methylene analogues of the native hormone were characterized by high in vitro activity. As expected, the 25-desoxy analogues were much less potent. Among the synthesized compounds, two of them, 1α,25-dihydroxy-2-methylenevitamin D3 and its C-20 epimer, were found to be almost as active as 2-methylene-19-nor-(20S)-1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (2MD) on bone but more active in intestine.

  13. Exposure of juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) to silver nanoparticles and 17α-ethinylestradiol mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farkas, Julia; Salaberria, Iurgi; Styrishave, Bjarne

    2017-01-01

    Combined exposure to engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) and anthropogenic contaminants can lead to changes in bioavailability, uptake and thus effects of both groups of contaminants. In this study we investigated effects of single and combined exposures of silver (Ag) nanoparticles (Ag......NPs) and the synthetic hormone 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) on tissue uptake of both contaminants in juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). Silver uptake and tissue distribution (gills, liver, kidney, stomach, muscle and bile) were analyzed following a 14-day, 2-h daily pulsed exposure to AgNPs (2 μg L(-1) and 200 μg L...

  14. Growth hormone response to growth hormone-releasing peptide-2 in growth hormone-deficient Little mice

    OpenAIRE

    PERONI, CIBELE N.; Cesar Y. Hayashida; Nancy Nascimento; LONGUINI, VIVIANE C.; Toledo, Rodrigo A.; Paolo Bartolini; Bowers, Cyril Y.; Toledo,Sergio P. A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate a possible direct, growth hormone-releasing, hormone-independent action of a growth hormone secretagogue, GHRP-2, in pituitary somatotroph cells in the presence of inactive growth hormone-releasing hormone receptors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The responses of serum growth hormone to acutely injected growth hormone-releasing P-2 in lit/litmice, which represent a model of GH deficiency arising frommutated growth hormone-releasing hormone-receptors, were compared to those ...

  15. Headache And Hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukla Rakesh

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many reasons to suggest a link between headache and hormones. Migraine is three times common in women as compared to men after puberty, cyclic as well as non-cyclic fluctuations in sex hormone levels during the entire reproductive life span of a women are associated with changes in frequency or severity of migraine attack, abnormalities in the hypothalamus and pineal gland have been observed in cluster headache, oestrogens are useful in the treatment of menstrual migraine and the use of melatonin has been reported in various types of primary headaches. Headache associated with various endocrinological disorders may help us in a better understanding of the nociceptive mechanisms involved in headache disorders. Prospective studies using headache diaries to record the attacks of headache and menstrual cycle have clarified some of the myths associated with menstrual migraine. Although no change in the absolute levels of sex hormones have been reported, oestrogen withdrawal is the most likely trigger of the attacks. Prostaglandins, melatonin, opioid and serotonergic mechanisms may also have a role in the pathogenesis of menstrual migraine. Guidelines have been published by the IHS recently regarding the use of oral contraceptives by women with migraine and the risk of ischaemic strokes in migraineurs on hormone replacement therapy. The present review includes menstrual migraine, pregnancy and migraine, oral contraceptives and migraine, menopause and migraine as well as the hormonal changes in chronic migraine.

  16. Hormonal control of euryhalinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Yoshio; McCormick, Stephen D.; McCormick, Stephen D.; Farrell, Anthony Peter; Brauner, Colin J.

    2013-01-01

    Hormones play a critical role in maintaining body fluid balance in euryhaline fishes during changes in environmental salinity. The neuroendocrine axis senses osmotic and ionic changes, then signals and coordinates tissue-specific responses to regulate water and ion fluxes. Rapid-acting hormones, e.g. angiotensins, cope with immediate challenges by controlling drinking rate and the activity of ion transporters in the gill, gut, and kidney. Slow-acting hormones, e.g. prolactin and growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1, reorganize the body for long-term acclimation by altering the abundance of ion transporters and through cell proliferation and differentiation of ionocytes and other osmoregulatory cells. Euryhaline species exist in all groups of fish, including cyclostomes, and cartilaginous and teleost fishes. The diverse strategies for responding to changes in salinity have led to differential regulation and tissue-specific effects of hormones. Combining traditional physiological approaches with genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic analyses will elucidate the patterns and diversity of the endocrine control of euryhalinity.

  17. Confirmation via Analogue Simulation: A Bayesian Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Dardashti, Radin; Thebault, Karim P Y; Winsberg, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Analogue simulation is a novel mode of scientific inference found increasingly within modern physics, and yet all but neglected in the philosophical literature. Experiments conducted upon a table-top 'source system' are taken to provide insight into features of an inaccessible 'target system', based upon a syntactic isomorphism between the relevant modelling frameworks. An important example is the use of acoustic 'dumb hole' systems to simulate gravitational black holes. In a recent paper it was argued that there exists circumstances in which confirmation via analogue simulation can obtain; in particular when the robustness of the isomorphism is established via universality arguments. The current paper supports these claims via an analysis in terms of Bayesian confirmation theory.

  18. Spectroscopic study of solar twins and analogues

    CERN Document Server

    Datson, Juliet; Portinari, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Context. Many large stellar surveys have been and are still being carried out, providing huge amounts of data, for which stellar physical parameters will be derived. Solar twins and analogues provide a means to test the calibration of these stellar catalogues because the Sun is the best-studied star and provides precise fundamental parameters. Solar twins should be centred on the solar values. Aims. This spectroscopic study of solar analogues selected from the Geneva-Copenhagen Survey (GCS) at a resolution of 48,000 provides effective temperatures and metallicities for these stars. We test whether our spectroscopic parameters, as well as the previous photometric calibrations, are properly centred on the Sun. In addition, we search for more solar twins in our sample. Methods. The methods used in this work are based on literature methods for solar twin searches and on methods we developed in previous work to distinguish the metallicity-temperature degeneracies in the differential comparison of spectra of solar ...

  19. Optimization of propafenone analogues as antimalarial leads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowes, David J; Guiguemde, W Armand; Connelly, Michele C; Zhu, Fangyi; Sigal, Martina S; Clark, Julie A; Lemoff, Andrew S; Derisi, Joseph L; Wilson, Emily B; Guy, R Kiplin

    2011-11-10

    Propafenone, a class Ic antiarrythmic drug, inhibits growth of cultured Plasmodium falciparum. While the drug's potency is significant, further development of propafenone as an antimalarial would require divorcing the antimalarial and cardiac activities as well as improving the pharmacokinetic profile of the drug. A small array of propafenone analogues was designed and synthesized to address the cardiac ion channel and PK liabilities. Testing of this array revealed potent inhibitors of the 3D7 (drug sensitive) and K1 (drug resistant) strains of P. falciparum that possessed significantly reduced ion channel effects and improved metabolic stability. Propafenone analogues are unusual among antimalarial leads in that they are more potent against the multidrug resistant K1 strain of P. falciparum compared to the 3D7 strain.

  20. Holographic Fluids with Vorticity and Analogue Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Leigh, Robert G; Petropoulos, P Marios

    2012-01-01

    We study holographic three-dimensional fluids with vorticity in local equilibrium and discuss their relevance to analogue gravity systems. The Fefferman-Graham expansion leads to the fluid's description in terms of a comoving and rotating Papapetrou-Randers frame. A suitable Lorentz transformation brings the fluid to the non-inertial Zermelo frame, which clarifies its interpretation as moving media for light/sound propagation. We apply our general results to the Lorentzian Kerr-AdS_4 and Taub-NUT-AdS_4 geometries that describe fluids in cyclonic and vortex flows respectively. In the latter case we associate the appearance of closed timelike curves to analogue optical horizons. In addition, we derive the classical rotational Hall viscosity of three-dimensional fluids with vorticity. Our formula remarkably resembles the corresponding result in magnetized plasmas.

  1. Alkylphenolic contaminants in the diet: Sparus aurata juveniles hepatic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traversi, I; Gioacchini, G; Scorolli, A; Mita, D G; Carnevali, O; Mandich, A

    2014-09-01

    A wide range of endocrine disrupter chemicals can mimic steroid hormones causing adverse health effects. Nonylphenol (NP) and t-octhylphenol (t-OP) are man-made alkylphenolic environmental contaminants possessing controversial endocrine disruption properties. This study has investigated the effects of NP and t-OP enriched diets on hepatic tissue and biotransformation activities in the liver. To this aim, sea bream juveniles were fed with commercial diet enriched with three different doses of NP (NP1: 5mg/kg bw, NP2: 50mg/kg bw and NP3: 100mg/kg bw) or t-OP (t-OP1: 5mg/kg bw, t-OP2: 50mg/kg bw and t-OP3: 100mg/kg bw) for 21 days. A significant increase of the hepatosomatic index was observed in NP1 and t-OP1. Alteration of liver morphology was observed in both NP and t-OP exposed juveniles although the most altered endpoints were observed in t-OP2 with 100% of tissue degeneration. Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity was significantly inhibited by NP and t-OP (p<0.05), while catalase activity was significantly induced, at both doses. A different pattern of protein expression of different isoforms of both vitellogenin and zona radiata protein was evidenced within the treatments. In addition, a significant increase in the abundance of the stress induced heat shock protein 70 gene in the liver of t-OP2 fish and a significant increase in the abundance of the estrogen induced cathepsin D gene in the liver of NP1 and t-OP2 fish, were observed. Finally, estradiol-17β (E2) and testosterone (T) plasma levels and E2/T showed significantly different patterns in NP and t-OP exposed against control fish.

  2. Polyamine analogues targeting epigenetic gene regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi; Marton, Laurence J; Woster, Patrick M; Casero, Robert A

    2009-11-04

    Over the past three decades the metabolism and functions of the polyamines have been actively pursued as targets for antineoplastic therapy. Interactions between cationic polyamines and negatively charged nucleic acids play a pivotal role in DNA stabilization and RNA processing that may affect gene expression, translation and protein activity. Our growing understanding of the unique roles that the polyamines play in chromatin regulation, and the discovery of novel proteins homologous with specific regulatory enzymes in polyamine metabolism, have led to our interest in exploring chromatin remodelling enzymes as potential therapeutic targets for specific polyamine analogues. One of our initial efforts focused on utilizing the strong affinity that the polyamines have for chromatin to create a backbone structure, which could be combined with active-site-directed inhibitor moieties of HDACs (histone deacetylases). Specific PAHAs (polyaminohydroxamic acids) and PABAs (polyaminobenzamides) polyamine analogues have demonstrated potent inhibition of the HDACs, re-expression of p21 and significant inhibition of tumour growth. A second means of targeting the chromatin-remodelling enzymes with polyamine analogues was facilitated by the recent identification of flavin-dependent LSD1 (lysine-specific demethylase 1). The existence of this enzyme demonstrated that histone lysine methylation is a dynamic process similar to other histone post-translational modifications. LSD1 specifically catalyses demethylation of mono- and di-methyl Lys4 of histone 3, key positive chromatin marks associated with transcriptional activation. Structural and catalytic similarities between LSD1 and polyamine oxidases facilitated the identification of biguanide, bisguanidine and oligoamine polyamine analogues that are potent inhibitors of LSD1. Cellular inhibition of LSD1 by these unique compounds led to the re-activation of multiple epigenetically silenced genes important in tumorigenesis. The use of

  3. The Brookhaven electron analogue, 1953--1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotkin, M.

    1991-12-18

    The following topics are discussed on the Brookhaven electron analogue: L.J. Haworth and E.L. VanHorn letters; Original G.K. Green outline for report; General description; Parameter list; Mechanical Assembly; Alignment; Degaussing; Vacuum System; Injection System; The pulsed inflector; RF System; Ferrite Cavity; Pick-up electrodes and preamplifiers; Radio Frequency power amplifier; Lens supply; Controls and Power; and RF acceleration summary.

  4. Synthesis of constrained analogues of tryptophan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Rossi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A Lewis acid-catalysed diastereoselective [4 + 2] cycloaddition of vinylindoles and methyl 2-acetamidoacrylate, leading to methyl 3-acetamido-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrocarbazole-3-carboxylate derivatives, is described. Treatment of the obtained cycloadducts under hydrolytic conditions results in the preparation of a small library of compounds bearing the free amino acid function at C-3 and pertaining to the class of constrained tryptophan analogues.

  5. Electromagnetic wave analogue of electronic diode

    OpenAIRE

    Shadrivov, Ilya V.; Powell, David A.; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Fedotov, Vassili A.; Zheludev, Nikolay I.

    2010-01-01

    An electronic diode is a nonlinear semiconductor circuit component that allows conduction of electrical current in one direction only. A component with similar functionality for electromagnetic waves, an electromagnetic isolator, is based on the Faraday effect of the polarization state rotation and is also a key component of optical and microwave systems. Here we demonstrate a chiral electromagnetic diode, which is a direct analogue of an electronic diode: its functionality is underpinned by ...

  6. Synthesis of a Cyclic Analogue of Galardin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马大为; 吴问根; 钱静; 郎深慧; 叶其壮

    2001-01-01

    A cyclic analogue 4 of galardin,a known MMP inhibitor,is designed to improve its selectivity.The synthesis of 4starts from dimethyl(S)-malate using diaselective alkylation and subsequent cyclization and amide formation as key steps.The compound 4 showed MMP inhibitory activity on all MMPs tested with IC50 ranging from 20.1 μM to 104 μM.

  7. Benchmarking analogue models of brittle thrust wedges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreurs, Guido; Buiter, Susanne J. H.; Boutelier, Jennifer; Burberry, Caroline; Callot, Jean-Paul; Cavozzi, Cristian; Cerca, Mariano; Chen, Jian-Hong; Cristallini, Ernesto; Cruden, Alexander R.; Cruz, Leonardo; Daniel, Jean-Marc; Da Poian, Gabriela; Garcia, Victor H.; Gomes, Caroline J. S.; Grall, Céline; Guillot, Yannick; Guzmán, Cecilia; Hidayah, Triyani Nur; Hilley, George; Klinkmüller, Matthias; Koyi, Hemin A.; Lu, Chia-Yu; Maillot, Bertrand; Meriaux, Catherine; Nilfouroushan, Faramarz; Pan, Chang-Chih; Pillot, Daniel; Portillo, Rodrigo; Rosenau, Matthias; Schellart, Wouter P.; Schlische, Roy W.; Take, Andy; Vendeville, Bruno; Vergnaud, Marine; Vettori, Matteo; Wang, Shih-Hsien; Withjack, Martha O.; Yagupsky, Daniel; Yamada, Yasuhiro

    2016-11-01

    We performed a quantitative comparison of brittle thrust wedge experiments to evaluate the variability among analogue models and to appraise the reproducibility and limits of model interpretation. Fifteen analogue modeling laboratories participated in this benchmark initiative. Each laboratory received a shipment of the same type of quartz and corundum sand and all laboratories adhered to a stringent model building protocol and used the same type of foil to cover base and sidewalls of the sandbox. Sieve structure, sifting height, filling rate, and details on off-scraping of excess sand followed prescribed procedures. Our analogue benchmark shows that even for simple plane-strain experiments with prescribed stringent model construction techniques, quantitative model results show variability, most notably for surface slope, thrust spacing and number of forward and backthrusts. One of the sources of the variability in model results is related to slight variations in how sand is deposited in the sandbox. Small changes in sifting height, sifting rate, and scraping will result in slightly heterogeneous material bulk densities, which will affect the mechanical properties of the sand, and will result in lateral and vertical differences in peak and boundary friction angles, as well as cohesion values once the model is constructed. Initial variations in basal friction are inferred to play the most important role in causing model variability. Our comparison shows that the human factor plays a decisive role, and even when one modeler repeats the same experiment, quantitative model results still show variability. Our observations highlight the limits of up-scaling quantitative analogue model results to nature or for making comparisons with numerical models. The frictional behavior of sand is highly sensitive to small variations in material state or experimental set-up, and hence, it will remain difficult to scale quantitative results such as number of thrusts, thrust spacing

  8. Electromagnetic wave analogue of electronic diode

    OpenAIRE

    Shadrivov, Ilya V.; Powell, David A.; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Fedotov, Vassili A.; Zheludev, Nikolay I.

    2010-01-01

    An electronic diode is a nonlinear semiconductor circuit component that allows conduction of electrical current in one direction only. A component with similar functionality for electromagnetic waves, an electromagnetic isolator, is based on the Faraday effect of the polarization state rotation and is also a key component of optical and microwave systems. Here we demonstrate a chiral electromagnetic diode, which is a direct analogue of an electronic diode: its functionality is underpinned by ...

  9. Thyroid hormones and the cardiovascular system: pathophysiology and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cini, G; Carpi, A; Mechanick, J; Cini, L; Camici, M; Galetta, F; Giardino, R; Russo, M A; Iervasi, G

    2009-12-01

    Thyroid dysfunction, however mild, can significantly affect the cardiovascular (CV) system. The effects of thyroid hormones may be viewed as genomic and non-genomic, with the former occurring over a longer time scale and both affecting structural and functional proteins in CV tissue. As the interplay between thyroid function and the CV system becomes elucidated, particularly in the context of a system biology approach, the heart failure phenotype is better understood. Symptomatology is related to disturbance in inotropic and chronotropic function. Moreover, biochemical changes reflected by thyroid function testing with the non-thyroidal illness syndrome can prognosticate and guide therapy in heart failure. In addition, empiric treatment with thyroid hormone analogues or T3 represent emergent and highly controversial interventions.

  10. An Empirical Evaluation of Juvenile Awareness Programs in the United States: Can Juveniles Be "Scared Straight"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenowski, Paul M.; Bell, Keith J.; Dodson, Kimberly D.

    2010-01-01

    Juvenile awareness programs like Scared Straight became popular crime prevention strategies during the 1970s. Juvenile offenders and at-risk youth who participate in these programs are taken to prisons where inmates use confrontational methods to recount stories about violence, sex, and abuse perpetrated by fellow inmates while living a life…

  11. Thymidine analogues for tracking DNA synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Brenton L; Walker, Tom; Norazit, Anwar; Meedeniya, Adrian C B

    2011-09-15

    Replicating cells undergo DNA synthesis in the highly regulated, S-phase of the cell cycle. Analogues of the pyrimidine deoxynucleoside thymidine may be inserted into replicating DNA, effectively tagging dividing cells allowing their characterisation. Tritiated thymidine, targeted using autoradiography was technically demanding and superseded by 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and related halogenated analogues, detected using antibodies. Their detection required the denaturation of DNA, often constraining the outcome of investigations. Despite these limitations BrdU alone has been used to target newly synthesised DNA in over 20,000 reviewed biomedical studies. A recent breakthrough in "tagging DNA synthesis" is the thymidine analogue 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU). The alkyne group in EdU is readily detected using a fluorescent azide probe and copper catalysis using 'Huisgen's reaction' (1,3-dipolar cycloaddition or 'click chemistry'). This rapid, two-step biolabelling approach allows the tagging and imaging of DNA within cells whilst preserving the structural and molecular integrity of the cells. The bio-orthogonal detection of EdU allows its application in more experimental assays than previously possible with other "unnatural bases". These include physiological, anatomical and molecular biological experimentation in multiple fields including, stem cell research, cancer biology, and parasitology. The full potential of EdU and related molecules in biomedical research remains to be explored.

  12. Thymidine Analogues for Tracking DNA Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenton L. Cavanagh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Replicating cells undergo DNA synthesis in the highly regulated, S-phase of the cell cycle. Analogues of the pyrimidine deoxynucleoside thymidine may be inserted into replicating DNA, effectively tagging dividing cells allowing their characterisation. Tritiated thymidine, targeted using autoradiography was technically demanding and superseded by 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU and related halogenated analogues, detected using antibodies. Their detection required the denaturation of DNA, often constraining the outcome of investigations. Despite these limitations BrdU alone has been used to target newly synthesised DNA in over 20,000 reviewed biomedical studies. A recent breakthrough in “tagging DNA synthesis” is the thymidine analogue 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU. The alkyne group in EdU is readily detected using a fluorescent azide probe and copper catalysis using ‘Huisgen’s reaction’ (1,3-dipolar cycloaddition or ‘click chemistry’. This rapid, two-step biolabelling approach allows the tagging and imaging of DNA within cells whilst preserving the structural and molecular integrity of the cells. The bio-orthogonal detection of EdU allows its application in more experimental assays than previously possible with other “unnatural bases”. These include physiological, anatomical and molecular biological experimentation in multiple fields including, stem cell research, cancer biology, and parasitology. The full potential of EdU and related molecules in biomedical research remains to be explored.

  13. Hormonálně indukovaný umělý výtěr jikernaček sumce velkého (Silurus glanis)

    OpenAIRE

    BORKOVEC, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    The optimalization way of hormonal induction ovulation females European catfish Silurus glanis was the aim of experiment with the help of hormonal preparate on the base functional of the analogue GnRH. Fish with females were fish out in the ponds early in june and injected by hormonal preparates CPE, Dagin and Ovopel. Was monitoring latency time in dependency of water temperature, percent of ovulated females, relative weight of ovulated eggs, fertilization eggs and hatching performance.

  14. Juvenile fibromyalgia: Guidance for management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Shumpei; Kikuchi, Masako; Miyamae, Takako

    2013-08-01

    Juvenile fibromyalgia (JFM) is a disease in which patients complain of acute and chronic severe pain, an overt primary cause for which cannot be found or surmised. Although patients with JFM mainly complain of systemic pain or allodynia in the medical interview and physical examination, the concept of the disease is the total sum of painful illness, chronic fatigue, hypothermia and many other autonomic symptoms and signs. Many issues are interacting including individual traits (personality, temperament, sensitivity, memory of pain; age: early adolescence), individual states (self-esteem, anxiety, developmental level), and external stressors (parent especially mother, school environment). JFM is diagnosed on the combination of disease history, physical examination to determine the 18 tender points and allodynia, pain from gently touching their hair, and negative results of blood tests (inflammatory markers, thyroid function, myogenic enzymes). The goals of treatment are the following: restoration of function and relief of pain. Psychological support is advocated. Although the exact number of patients with JFM is still to be elucidated, it seems to be growing because pediatric rheumatologists in Japan encounter children with a wide variety of musculoskeletal pains. This guideline describes how to diagnose JFM in children and how to treat them appropriately.

  15. Academic Achievement Among Juvenile Detainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorenko, Elena L; Macomber, Donna; Hart, Lesley; Naples, Adam; Chapman, John; Geib, Catherine F; Chart, Hilary; Tan, Mei; Wolhendler, Baruch; Wagner, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The literature has long pointed to heightened frequencies of learning disabilities (LD) within the population of law offenders; however, a systematic appraisal of these observations, careful estimation of these frequencies, and investigation of their correlates and causes have been lacking. Here we present data collected from all youth (1,337 unique admissions, mean age 14.81, 20.3% females) placed in detention in Connecticut (January 1, 2010-July 1, 2011). All youth completed a computerized educational screener designed to test a range of performance in reading (word and text levels) and mathematics. A subsample (n = 410) received the Wide Range Achievement Test, in addition to the educational screener. Quantitative (scale-based) and qualitative (grade-equivalence-based) indicators were then analyzed for both assessments. Results established the range of LD in this sample from 13% to 40%, averaging 24.9%. This work provides a systematic exploration of the type and severity of word and text reading and mathematics skill deficiencies among juvenile detainees and builds the foundation for subsequent efforts that may link these deficiencies to both more formal, structured, and variable definitions and classifications of LD, and to other types of disabilities (e.g., intellectual disability) and developmental disorders (e.g., ADHD) that need to be conducted in future research.

  16. Therapy of neuroendocrine tumors with radiolabeled somatostatin-analogues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Jong, M.; Breeman, A.P.; Bernard, H.F.; Kooij, P.P.M.; Kwekkeboom, D.J.; Valkema, R. [Rotterdam University Hospital and Erasmus University, Rotterdam (Netherlands). Internal Medicine; Van Eijck, C.H.J.; Slooter, G.D. [Basel Surgery, Basel (Switzerland). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Maecke, H.R.; Krenning, E.P. [Basel Kantonspital, Basel (Switzerland). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine

    1999-12-01

    Peptide receptor scintigraphy with the radioactive somatostatin-analogue ({sup 111}In-DTPA{sup 0})octreotide (DTPA=diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) is a sensitive and specific technique to show in vivo the presence and abundance of somatostatin receptors on various tumors. With this technique primary tumors and metastases of neuroendocrine cancers as well as of many other cancer types can be localised. A new application is the use of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy, administrating high doses of {sup 111}In- or {sup 90}Y-labeled octreotide-analogues. In the preclinical situation it was investigated on the radiotherapeutic effect of {sup 90}Y- and {sup 111}In-labeled (DOTA{sup 0}, Tyr{sup 3})octreotide (DOTA=tetraazacyclododecanetetraacetic acid) or ({sup 111}In-DTPA{sup 0})octreotide in Lewis rats bearing the somatostatin receptor-positive rat pancreatic tumor CA20948 in (A) the flank of (B) in the liver. Thirty end-stage patients with mostly neuroendocrine progressing tumors were treated with ({sup 111}In-DTPA{sup 0})octreotide, up to a maximal cumulative patient dose of about 74 GBq, in a phase 1 trial. (A) Flank model: at least two 111MBq injections of ({sup 111}In-DOTA{sup 0}, Tyr{sup 3})octreotide were needed to reach tumor response, in 40% of the animals complete tumor remission was found after a follow-up period of 10 months. One or two injections of ({sup 90}Y-DOTA{sup 0}, Tyr{sup 3})octreotide yielded transient stable disease. (B) Liver model: it was found that peptide receptor radionuclide therapy is only effective if somatostatin receptors are present on the tumors, and is therefore receptor-mediated. High radioactive doses of 370 MBq ({sup 111}In-DTPA{sup 0})octreotide or 93 MBq ({sup 90}Y-DOTA{sup 0}, Tyr{sup 3})octreotide can inhibit the growth of somatostatin receptor-positive metastases. There were no major clinical side effects after up to 2 years treatment, except that a transient decline in platelet counts and lymphocyte subsets can occur

  17. Do GnRH analogues directly affect human endometrial epithelial cell gene expression?

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiaomei

    2010-03-04

    We examined whether Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogues [leuprolide acetate (LA) and ganirelix acetate (GA)] modulate gene expression in Ishikawa cells used as surrogate for human endometrial epithelial cells in vitro. The specific aims were: (i) to study the modulatory effect of GnRH analogues by RT-PCR [in the absence and presence of E2 and P4, and cyclic adenosine monophos-phate (cAMP)] on mRNA expression of genes modulated during the window of implantation in GnRH analogues/rFSH-treated assisted reproductive technology cycles including OPTINEURIN (OPTN), CHROMATIN MODIFYING PROTEIN (CHMP1A), PROSAPOSIN (PSAP), IGFBP-5 and SORTING NEXIN 7 (SNX7), and (ii) to analyze the 5\\'-flanking regions of such genes for the presence of putative steroid-response elements [estrogen-response elements (EREs) and P4-response element (PREs)]. Ishikawa cells were cytokeratin+/vimentin2 and expressed ERa,ERb, PR and GnRH-R proteins. At 6 and 24 h, neither LA nor GA alone had an effect on gene expression. GnRH analogues alone or following E2 and/or P4 co-incubation for 24 h also had no effect on gene expression, but P4 significantly increased expression of CHMP1A.E2 + P4 treatment for 4 days, alone or followed by GA, had no effect, but E2 + P4 treatment followed by LA significantly decreased IGFBP-5 expression. The addition of 8-Br cAMP did not modify gene expression, with the exception of IGFBP-5 that was significantly increased. The GnRH analogues did not modify intracellular cAMP levels. We identified conserved EREs for OPN, CHMP1A, SNX7 and PSAP and PREs for SNX7. We conclude that GnRH analogues appear not to have major direct effects on gene expression of human endo-metrial epithelial cells in vitro. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oxfordjournals.org.

  18. Ovarian hormones and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeners, Brigitte; Geary, Nori; Tobler, Philippe N; Asarian, Lori

    2017-05-01

    Obesity is caused by an imbalance between energy intake, i.e. eating and energy expenditure (EE). Severe obesity is more prevalent in women than men worldwide, and obesity pathophysiology and the resultant obesity-related disease risks differ in women and men. The underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Pre-clinical and clinical research indicate that ovarian hormones may play a major role. We systematically reviewed the clinical and pre-clinical literature on the effects of ovarian hormones on the physiology of adipose tissue (AT) and the regulation of AT mass by energy intake and EE. Articles in English indexed in PubMed through January 2016 were searched using keywords related to: (i) reproductive hormones, (ii) weight regulation and (iii) central nervous system. We sought to identify emerging research foci with clinical translational potential rather than to provide a comprehensive review. We find that estrogens play a leading role in the causes and consequences of female obesity. With respect to adiposity, estrogens synergize with AT genes to increase gluteofemoral subcutaneous AT mass and decrease central AT mass in reproductive-age women, which leads to protective cardiometabolic effects. Loss of estrogens after menopause, independent of aging, increases total AT mass and decreases lean body mass, so that there is little net effect on body weight. Menopause also partially reverses women's protective AT distribution. These effects can be counteracted by estrogen treatment. With respect to eating, increasing estrogen levels progressively decrease eating during the follicular and peri-ovulatory phases of the menstrual cycle. Progestin levels are associated with eating during the luteal phase, but there does not appear to be a causal relationship. Progestins may increase binge eating and eating stimulated by negative emotional states during the luteal phase. Pre-clinical research indicates that one mechanism for the pre-ovulatory decrease in eating is a

  19. Hormones and postpartum cardiomyopathy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clapp, C.; Thebault, S.C.; Martinez de la Escalera, G.M.

    2007-01-01

    Prolactin, a hormone fundamental for lactation, was recently shown to mediate postpartum cardiomyopathy, a life-threatening disease in late-term and lactating mothers. The detrimental effect of prolactin results from myocardial upregulation of cathepsin-D, which in turn cleaves prolactin to a 16 kDa

  20. Hormonal influences on osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, M J; Frame, B

    1987-01-26

    Osteoporosis has recently received increased attention in both the medical and lay literature. It is estimated that there are more than one million osteoporosis-related fractures yearly in the United States, which are responsible for between three and four billion dollars in health care expenditures. A discussion of osteoporosis requires consideration of both the physiology and pathophysiology of bone tissue. In a structural sense, bone exists in two forms, the outer compact cortex accounting for 80 percent of total bone volume, and the more porous inner trabecular bone. Bone-forming osteoblasts and bone-resorbing osteoclasts are responsible for the ongoing, life-long process of formation and resorption of bone. Sex hormone deficiency, as well as chronic illness, malnutrition, and childhood immobilization, has deleterious effects on growth and modeling, ultimately reducing peak bone mass and setting the stage for osteoporosis in later life. Estrogen is known to have a protective effect on the female skeleton. The mechanisms of this effect are unknown, although estrogen may protect against parathyroid hormone-mediated bone loss. There may be a particular subset of postmenopausal women who are particularly susceptible to estrogen deficiency. Calcitonin levels, which decrease postmenopausally, return to normal with estrogen; other hormones may also play important roles. Osteoporosis is not the result of a single hormonal deficiency or excess; it must be considered in relation to other pathogenetic and risk factors.