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Sample records for juvenile fasciola gigantica

  1. Monoclonal antibody against recombinant Fasciola gigantica cathepsin L1H could detect juvenile and adult cathepsin Ls of Fasciola gigantica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongwairot, Sirima; Kueakhai, Pornanan; Changklungmoa, Narin; Jaikua, Wipaphorn; Sansri, Veerawat; Meemon, Krai; Songkoomkrong, Sineenart; Riengrojpitak, Suda; Sobhon, Prasert

    2015-01-01

    Cathepsin Ls (CatLs), the major cysteine protease secreted by Fasciola spp., are important for parasite digestion and tissue invasion. Fasciola gigantica cathepsin L1H (FgCatL1H) is the isotype expressed in the early stages for migration and invasion. In the present study, a monoclonal antibody (MoAb) against recombinant F. gigantica cathepsin L1H (rFgCatL1H) was produced by hybridoma technique using spleen cells from BALB/c mice immunized with recombinant proFgCatL1H (rproFgCatL1H). This MoAb is an immunoglobulin (Ig)G1 with κ light chain isotype. The MoAb reacted specifically with rproFgCatL1H, the native FgCatL1H at a molecular weight (MW) 38 to 48 kDa in the extract of whole body (WB) of metacercariae and newly excysted juvenile (NEJ) and cross-reacted with rFgCatL1 and native FgCatLs at MW 25 to 28 kDa in WB of 2- and 4-week-old juveniles, adult, and adult excretory-secretory (ES) fractions by immunoblotting and indirect ELISA. It did not cross-react with antigens in WB fractions from other parasites, including Gigantocotyle explanatum, Paramphistomum cervi, Gastrothylax crumenifer, Eurytrema pancreaticum, Setaria labiato-papillosa, and Fischoederius cobboldi. By immunolocalization, MoAb against rFgCatL1H reacted with the native protein in the gut of metacercariae and NEJ and also cross-reacted with CatL1 in 2- and 4-week-old juveniles and adult F. gigantica. Therefore, FgCatL1H and its MoAb may be used for immunodiagnosis of both early and late fasciolosis in ruminants and humans.

  2. DETEKSI Fasciola hepatica DAN Fasciola gigantica PADA KERBAU PERAH ( DETEKSI Fasciola hepatica DAN Fasciola gigantica PADA KERBAU PERAH ( DETEKSI Fasciola hepatica DAN Fasciola gigantica PADA KERBAU PERAH (

    OpenAIRE

    -, YAUMIL NI???MAH YAUMIL NI???MAH YAUMIL NI???MAH

    2016-01-01

    2015 ABSTRAK YAUMIL NI???MAH O11111101.Deteksi Fasciola hepatica dan Fasciola gigantica pada Kerbau Perah Fasciola hepatica dan Fasciola gigantica merupakan cacing kelas trematoda.Telur cacing ini berbentuk oval dan dilengkapi dengan operculum yang berfungsi sebagai jalan keluar larva mirasidium pada saat telur menetas.Ukuran telur Fasciola gigantica lebih besar dibandingkan ukuran telur Fasciola hepatica.Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeteksi telur cacing Fasciola...

  3. DETEKSI Fasciola hepatica DAN Fasciola gigantica PADA KERBAU PERAH ( DETEKSI Fasciola hepatica DAN Fasciola gigantica PADA KERBAU PERAH ( DETEKSI Fasciola hepatica DAN Fasciola gigantica PADA KERBAU PERAH (

    OpenAIRE

    -, YAUMIL NI???MAH YAUMIL NI???MAH YAUMIL NI???MAH

    2016-01-01

    2015 ABSTRAK YAUMIL NI???MAH O11111101.Deteksi Fasciola hepatica dan Fasciola gigantica pada Kerbau Perah Fasciola hepatica dan Fasciola gigantica merupakan cacing kelas trematoda.Telur cacing ini berbentuk oval dan dilengkapi dengan operculum yang berfungsi sebagai jalan keluar larva mirasidium pada saat telur menetas.Ukuran telur Fasciola gigantica lebih besar dibandingkan ukuran telur Fasciola hepatica.Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeteksi telur cacing Fasciola...

  4. Peritoneal lavage cells of Indonesian thin-tail sheep mediate antibody-dependent superoxide radical cytotoxicity in vitro against newly excysted juvenile Fasciola gigantica but not juvenile Fasciola hepatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piedrafita, David; Estuningsih, Endah; Pleasance, Jill; Prowse, Rhoda; Raadsma, Herman W; Meeusen, Els N T; Spithill, Terry W

    2007-04-01

    Indonesian thin-tail (ITT) sheep resist infection by Fasciola gigantica by an immunological mechanism within 2 to 4 weeks of infection yet are susceptible to F. hepatica infection. Studies of ITT sheep show that little liver damage occurs following F. gigantica infection, suggesting that the invading parasites are killed within the peritoneum or shortly after reaching the liver. We investigated whether cells isolated from the peritoneums of ITT sheep could kill newly excysted juvenile F. gigantica in vitro and act as a potential mechanism of resistance against F. gigantica infection. Peritoneal cells from F. gigantica-infected sheep, rich in macrophages and eosinophils, mediated antibody-dependent cytotoxicity against juvenile F. gigantica in vitro. Cytotoxicity was dependent on contact between the parasite and effector cells. Isolated mammary gland eosinophils of F. gigantica-infected sheep, or resident peritoneal monocytes/macrophages from uninfected sheep, also killed the juvenile parasites in vitro. By using inhibitors, we show that the molecular mechanism of killing in these assays was dependent on the production of superoxide radicals by macrophages and eosinophils. In contrast, this cytotoxic mechanism was ineffective against juvenile F. hepatica parasites in vitro. Analysis of superoxide dismutase activity and mRNA levels showed that activity and gene expression were higher in F. hepatica than in F. gigantica, suggesting a possible role for this enzyme in the resistance of F. hepatica to superoxide-mediated killing. We suggest that ovine macrophages and eosinophils, acting in concert with a specific antibody, may be important effector cells involved in the resistance of ITT sheep to F. gigantica.

  5. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of Fasciola gigantica from Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa-Seki, Madoka; Tokashiki, Minami; Opara, Maxwell Nwachukwu; Iroh, Gabriel; Hayashi, Kei; Kumar, Uday Mohanta; Itagaki, Tadashi

    2017-02-01

    Fasciola gigantica is considered the major pathogen causing fasciolosis in Africa; however, molecular characterization of this fluke has not been adequately elucidated. It is important to scientifically elucidate the dispersal history of F. gigantica by analyzing its genetic diversity. Fasciola flukes from Nigeria were analyzed using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers. A total of 172 Fasciola flukes collected from cattle were identified as F. gigantica because they displayed the F. gigantica fragment pattern in multiplex PCR for the nuclear marker, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (pepck). In total, 70 haplotypes were detected from Nigerian F. gigantica on the basis of the concatenated sequence of mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) and cytochrome c oxidase 1 (cox1). The index of neutrality (Fu's Fs) suggests rapid expansion of the Nigerian F. gigantica population. Although four haplogroups, Nigeria 1A, 1B, 2A, and 2B, were detected from Nigerian F. gigantica, a climate-specific genetic structure was not observed among F. gigantica populations from three agro-climatic regions (Sahel, Savannah, and Forest). This is probably because of the frequent transportation of livestock from one part of the country to the other. Nigeria 1A and 1B had close relationships with the Egyptian population of F. gigantica, whereas Nigeria 2A and 2B were comparatively related to the Zambian population. No haplotype was shared among the three countries, and it therefore is difficult to estimate the dispersal route of F. gigantica within the African continent. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  6. Hybridization experiments indicate incomplete reproductive isolating mechanism between Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itagaki, T; Ichinomiya, M; Fukuda, K; Fusyuku, S; Carmona, C

    2011-09-01

    Experiments on hybridization between Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica were carried out to clarify whether a reproductive isolating mechanism appears between the two Fasciola species. Molecular evidence for hybridization was based on the DNA sequence of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region in nuclear ribosomal DNA, which differs between the species. The results suggested that there were not pre-mating but post-mating isolating mechanisms between the two species. However, viable adults of the hybrids F1 and F2 were produced from both parental F. hepatica and F. gigantica. The hybrids inherited phenotypic characteristics such as ratio of body length and width and infectivity to rats from parental Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica. These findings suggest that reproductive isolation is incomplete between Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica. Adults of the hybrids F1 and F2 were completely different in mode of reproduction from aspermic Fasciola forms that occur in Asia and seem to be offspring originated from hybridization between F. hepatica and F. gigantica and to reproduce parthenogenetically.

  7. Molecular characterization of Fasciola hepatica, Fasciola gigantica, and aspermic Fasciola sp. in China based on nuclear and mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Mao; Ichinomiya, Mie; Ohtori, Maiko; Ichikawa, Madoka; Shibahara, Toshiyuki; Itagaki, Tadashi

    2009-09-01

    Parthenogenic Fasciola forms as well as bisexual Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica in mainland China have been identified on the basis of their spermatogenesis and genotypes in nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase I (NDI). The Chinese aspermic Fasciola would include forms originating in interspecific hybrids between F. hepatica and F. gigantica, since they showed the genotype of ITS1-Fh/Fg that had mixed sequences of the two Fasciola species or heterogeneous genotypes in ITS1 and NDI. Additionally, there were Chinese aspermic flukes in which the sequences of ITS1 and NDI genotypes completely coincided with those in aspermic forms from Japan, Korea, and Vietnam, suggesting that the aspermic forms from these four countries are offspring with a common provenance. The Fh-C4 haplotype in NDI was detected in both aspermic specimens and F. hepatica, indicating that aspermic forms showing the haplotype might come into existence in China. The ratio of body length and width in aspermic Fasciola specimens showed intermediate values between those of F. hepatica and F. gigantica.

  8. Biological control of Fasciola gigantica with Echinostoma revolutum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhardono; Roberts, J A; Copeman, D B

    2006-08-31

    A field trial was carried out in West Java to investigate the potential for control of fasciolosis of antagonism between larvae of Fasciola gigantica and Echinostoma revolutum in Lymnaea rubiginosa. The trial was undertaken in 26 farmers' irrigated rice fields, each chosen because it was adjacent to a cattle pen the effluent from which flowed into or was used as fertiliser in the rice field. Fourteen of the fields chosen at random were retained as controls and received no treatment while in 12, faeces from 5 to 15 ducks containing eggs of E. revolutum were introduced to the rice from a duck pen located over the effluent drain from the cattle pen before it emptied into the adjacent rice field, or at the site bovine faeces was added to the field as fertiliser. After harvest significantly fewer L. rubiginosa were found infected with F. gigantica in fields where duck and cattle dung entered the field together than in control fields, supporting a conclusion that this method of biological control would reduce the infectivity of rice fields fertilised with bovine dung (which are those with the highest potential for being a source of infection with F. gigantica). Positive features of using dung from ducks infected with E. revolutum to control F. gigantica are the minimum additional work and disruption to existing farming practices required to implement the scheme, the common natural infection with E. revolutum in village ducks, and effectiveness of dung from 5 to 15 ducks, a number commonly kept by farmers.

  9. Estrogen-Related Fecundity Reduction of Lymnaea ollula Following Fasciola gigantica Infection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Supeecha Kumkate; Nuttajit Onmek; Bongkoj Boonburapong; Sombut Singhakaew; Vijittra Leardkamolkarn

    2009-01-01

    .... Reduction in life expectancy and reproductive capacity have previously been documented in Fasciola gigantica-infected Lymnaea ollula, but the influence of the endocrine system on this specific host...

  10. Twenty six cases of human Fasciola gigantica infection in Dali,Yunnan province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈木新

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the epidemic situation,clinical symptom,diagnosis and epidemiological characteristics of human Fasciola gigantica infection in Dali,Yunnan province. It will also provide a scientific basis for fasciolosis control and prevention. Methods Epidemic

  11. Anthelmintic Potential of Thymoquinone and Curcumin on Fasciola gigantica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Rizwan; Rehman, Abdur; Zafeer, Mohd Faraz; Rehman, Lubna; Khan, Yasir A.; Khan, M. A. Hannan; Khan, Shahper N.; Khan, Asad U.; Abidi, S. M. A.

    2017-01-01

    Fasciolosis an economically important global disease of ruminants in the temperate and tropical regions, caused by Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica, respectively, also poses a potential zoonotic threat. In India alone it causes huge losses to stakeholders. Anthelmintics including triclabendazole have been used to control this menace but the emerging resistance against the available compounds necessitates identification of novel and alternative therapeutic measures involving plant derived natural compounds for their anthelmintic potential. Thymoquinone (T) and curcumin (C), the active ingredients of Nigella sativa and Curcuma longa respectively have been used as antiparasitic agents but the information on their flukicidal effect is very limited. Adult flukes of F. gigantica were in vitro exposed to different concentrations of thymoquinone and curcumin separately for 3h at 37+ 1°C. A significant (p<0.05) reduction in the worm motility at 60 μM concentration of both T and C was observed though all the worms remained alive after 3h exposure, whereas the effect on egg shedding was statistically insignificant. Pronounced tegumental disruptions and erosion of spines in the posterior region and around the acetabulum was evident. A significant (p<0.05) decrease in glutathione-S-transferase and superoxide dismutase activity and reduced glutathione (GSH) level was observed, while protein carbonylation increased differentially. A significant inhibition of CathepsinL (CatL) gene expression in thymoquinone treated worms was also evident. Further, in silico molecular docking of T and C with CatL revealed a stronger interaction of curcumin with the involvement of higher number of amino acids as compared to thymoquinone that could be more effective in inhibiting the antioxidant enzymes of F. gigantica. It is concluded that both the compounds understudy will decrease the detoxification ability of F. gigantica, while inhibition of CatL will significantly affect their virulence

  12. Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA analysis reveals that hybridization between Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica occurred in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa-Seki, Madoka; Peng, Mao; Hayashi, Kei; Shoriki, Takuya; Mohanta, Uday Kumar; Shibahara, Toshiyuki; Itagaki, Tadashi

    2017-02-01

    The well-known pathogens of fasciolosis, Fasciola hepatica (Fh) and Fasciola Gigantica (Fg), possess abundant mature sperms in their seminal vesicles, and thus, they reproduce bisexually. On the other hand, aspermic Fasciola flukes reported from Asian countries, which have no sperm in their seminal vesicles, probably reproduce parthenogenetically. The aim of this study was to reveal the origin of aspermic Fasciola flukes. The nuclear single copy markers, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and DNA polymerase delta, were employed for analysis of Fasciola species from China. The hybrid origin of aspermic Fasciola flukes was strongly suggested by the presence of the Fh/Fg type, which includes DNA fragments of both F. hepatica and F. gigantica. China can be regarded as the cradle of the interspecific hybridization because F. hepatica and F. gigantica were detected in the northern and southern parts of China, respectively, and hybrids flukes were distributed between the habitats of the two species. The Chinese origin was supported by the fact that a larger number of mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) haplotypes was detected in Chinese aspermic Fasciola populations than in aspermic populations from the neighbouring countries. Hereafter, 'aspermic' Fasciola flukes should be termed as 'hybrid' Fasciola flukes.

  13. Experimental life history and biological characteristics of Fasciola gigantica (Digenea: Fasciolidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phalee, Anawat; Wongsawad, Chalobol; Rojanapaibul, Amnat; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2015-02-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the life history, morphology, and maturation of larval stages and adult worms of Fasciola gigantica in experimental mice. Lymnaea auricularia rubiginosa was used as the intermediate host, and Oryza sativa was used for encystment of the metacercariae, while Mus musculus was used as the definitive host for maturation study. Fresh eggs from the gall bladder of water buffaloes fully developed into embryonated ones and hatched out at days 11-12 after incubation at about 29ºC. Free-swimming miracidia rapidly penetrated into the snail host, and gradually developed into the next larval stages; sporocyst, redia, and daughter redia with cercariae. Fully-developed cercariae were separated from the redia and shed from the snails on day 39 post-infection (PI). Free-swimming cercariae were immediately allowed to adhere to rice plants, and capsules were constructed to protect metacercariae on rice plants. Juvenile worms were detected in intestines of mice at days 3 and 6 PI, but they were found in the bile duct from day 9 PI. Juvenile and adult flukes were recovered from 16 mice experimentally infected with metacercariae, with the average recovery rate of 35.8%. Sexually mature adult flukes were recovered from day 42 PI. It could be confirmed that experimentally encysted metacercariae could infect and develop to maturity in the experimental host. The present study reports for the first time the complete life history of F. gigantica by an experimental study in Thailand. The obtained information can be used as a guide for prevention, elimination, and treatment of F. gigantica at environment and in other hosts.

  14. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of Fasciola gigantica from western Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kei; Ichikawa-Seki, Madoka; Allamanda, Puttik; Wibowo, Putut Eko; Mohanta, Uday Kumar; Sodirun; Guswanto, Azirwan; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi

    2016-10-01

    Fasciola gigantica and aspermic (hybrid) Fasciola flukes are thought to be distributed in Southeast Asian countries. The objectives of this study were to investigate the distribution of these flukes from unidentified ruminants in western Java, Indonesia, and to determine their distribution history into the area. Sixty Fasciola flukes from western Java were identified as F. gigantica based on the nucleotide sequences of the nuclear phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (pepck) and DNA polymerase delta (pold) genes. The flukes were then analyzed phylogenetically based on the nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) gene, together with Fasciola flukes from other Asian countries. All but one F. gigantica fluke were classified in F. gigantica haplogroup C, which mainly contains nad1 haplotypes detected in flukes from Thailand, Vietnam, and China. A population genetic analysis suggested that haplogroup C spread from Thailand to the neighboring countries including Indonesia together with domestic ruminants, such as the swamp buffalo, Bubalus bubalis. The swamp buffalo is one of the important definitive hosts of Fasciola flukes in Indonesia, and is considered to have been domesticated in the north of Thailand. The remaining one fluke displayed a novel nad1 haplotype that has never been detected in the reference countries. Therefore, the origin of the fluke could not be established. No hybrid Fasciola flukes were detected in this study, in contrast to neighboring Asian countries. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  15. Complete mitochondrial genomes of the 'intermediate form' of Fasciola and Fasciola gigantica, and their comparison with F. hepatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guo-Hua; Gasser, Robin B; Young, Neil D; Song, Hui-Qun; Ai, Lin; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2014-03-31

    Fascioliasis is an important and neglected disease of humans and other mammals, caused by trematodes of the genus Fasciola. Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica are valid species that infect humans and animals, but the specific status of Fasciola sp. ('intermediate form') is unclear. Single specimens inferred to represent Fasciola sp. ('intermediate form'; Heilongjiang) and F. gigantica (Guangxi) from China were genetically identified and characterized using PCR-based sequencing of the first and second internal transcribed spacer regions of nuclear ribosomal DNA. The complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes of these representative specimens were then sequenced. The relationships of these specimens with selected members of the Trematoda were assessed by phylogenetic analysis of concatenated amino acid sequence datasets by Bayesian inference (BI). The complete mt genomes of representatives of Fasciola sp. and F. gigantica were 14,453 bp and 14,478 bp in size, respectively. Both mt genomes contain 12 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and two ribosomal RNA genes, but lack an atp8 gene. All protein-coding genes are transcribed in the same direction, and the gene order in both mt genomes is the same as that published for F. hepatica. Phylogenetic analysis of the concatenated amino acid sequence data for all 12 protein-coding genes showed that the specimen of Fasciola sp. was more closely related to F. gigantica than to F. hepatica. The mt genomes characterized here provide a rich source of markers, which can be used in combination with nuclear markers and imaging techniques, for future comparative studies of the biology of Fasciola sp. from China and other countries.

  16. Complete mitochondrial genomes of the ‘intermediate form’ of Fasciola and Fasciola gigantica, and their comparison with F. hepatica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Fascioliasis is an important and neglected disease of humans and other mammals, caused by trematodes of the genus Fasciola. Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica are valid species that infect humans and animals, but the specific status of Fasciola sp. (‘intermediate form’) is unclear. Methods Single specimens inferred to represent Fasciola sp. (‘intermediate form’; Heilongjiang) and F. gigantica (Guangxi) from China were genetically identified and characterized using PCR-based sequencing of the first and second internal transcribed spacer regions of nuclear ribosomal DNA. The complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes of these representative specimens were then sequenced. The relationships of these specimens with selected members of the Trematoda were assessed by phylogenetic analysis of concatenated amino acid sequence datasets by Bayesian inference (BI). Results The complete mt genomes of representatives of Fasciola sp. and F. gigantica were 14,453 bp and 14,478 bp in size, respectively. Both mt genomes contain 12 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and two ribosomal RNA genes, but lack an atp8 gene. All protein-coding genes are transcribed in the same direction, and the gene order in both mt genomes is the same as that published for F. hepatica. Phylogenetic analysis of the concatenated amino acid sequence data for all 12 protein-coding genes showed that the specimen of Fasciola sp. was more closely related to F. gigantica than to F. hepatica. Conclusions The mt genomes characterized here provide a rich source of markers, which can be used in combination with nuclear markers and imaging techniques, for future comparative studies of the biology of Fasciola sp. from China and other countries. PMID:24685294

  17. Efficient inhibition of cathepsin B by a secreted type 1 cystatin of Fasciola gigantica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siricoon, Sinee; Grams, Suksiri Vichasri; Grams, Rudi

    2012-12-01

    Cysteine proteases are important antigens in the liver fluke genus Fasciola, essential for infection, protection and nutrition. While their biochemistry, biological roles and application as vaccines have been thoroughly studied there is a lack of data concerning their regulation. In the present study we have continued our investigation of cysteine protease inhibitors in Fasciola gigantica and demonstrate, in comparison with FgStefin-1 and human cystatin C, that a second type 1 cystatin of the parasite, FgStefin-2, has been evolutionary adapted to block cathepsin B. The protein, which unusually for a type 1 cystatin carries a signal peptide, is expressed from the metacercarial to adult stage and located in the epithelial cells of the intestinal tract in all stages and in the prostate gland cells in adults. Both cell types may contribute to the released FgStefin-2 observed in the ES product of the parasite. Distinct isoforms of cathepsin B are essential for host tissue penetration during the early infection process and FgStefin-2 may act as key regulator, required to protect the minute juvenile from autoproteolysis. Expression in the prostate gland in the adult stage suggests an additional regulative role of cysteine protease activity in the reproductive system.

  18. Immunodiagnosis as an aid for early detection of Fasciola gigantica by glutathione S-transferase (GST)

    OpenAIRE

    Mandal, S.; Mukhopadhayay, S. K.; Ganguly, S.; Jana, S.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, effort to isolate purified GST from Fasciola gigantica homogenate and its early detection for confirmation of infection has been successful. In this study, immunoprotection studies with GST and antibody titer post-infection has revealed GST to be an immunogenic protein with high sensitivity to detect anti-Fasciola antibody as early as two weeks post-infection in large ruminants.

  19. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase and cytochrome oxidase activity in Fasciola gigantica cercaria by phytoconstituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunita, Kumari; Habib, Maria; Kumar, P; Singh, Vinay Kumar; Husain, Syed Akhtar; Singh, D K

    2016-02-01

    Fasciolosis is an important cattle and human disease caused by Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. One of the possible methods to control this problem is to interrupt the life cycle of Fasciola by killing its larva (redia and cercaria) in host snail. Molecular identification of cercaria larva of F. gigantica was done by comparing the nucleotide sequencing with adult F. gigantica. It was noted that nucleotide sequencing of cercaria larva and adult F. gigantica were 99% same. Every month during the year 2011-2012, in vivo treatment with 60% of 4 h LC50 of phyto cercaricides citral, ferulic acid, umbelliferone, azadirachtin and allicin caused significant inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and cytochrome oxidase activity in the treated cercaria larva of F. gigantica. Whereas, activity of both enzymes were not significantly altered in the nervous tissues of vector snail Lymnaea acuminata exposed to same treatments. Maximum reduction in AChE (1.35% of control in month of June) and cytochrome oxidase (3.71% of control in the month of July) activity were noted in the cercaria exposed to 60% of 4 h LC50 of azadirachtin and allicin, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Molecular characterization of Fasciola gigantica in Delhi, India and its phylogenetic relation to the species from South Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kei; Mohanta, Uday K; Neeraja, Tambireddy; Itagaki, Tadashi

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to phylogenetically analyze Fasciola gigantica (F. gigantica) from mainland India and to reveal the expansion history of F. gigantica in the Indian subcontinent. We analyzed 40 Fasciola flukes that were collected from Delhi, in the Indian mainland, and identified them as F. gigantica by using nucleotide analyses of the nuclear phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (pepck) and DNA polymerase delta (pold) genes. Based on the nucleotide sequence of mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) gene, the flukes had 18 haplotypes. The haplotypes were classified under haplogroup A, which is predominant in the F. gigantica of South Asia. The population genetics of haplogroup A revealed that Delhi population showed higher π value than eastern India population. These results suggest that F. gigantica of haplogroup A might have spread from the west to the east in India along with the artificial migration of the domestic Zebu cattle, Bos indicus.

  1. Characterization of Fasciola samples by ITS of rDNA sequences revealed the existence of Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica in Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Fan-Fan; Lv, Rui-Qing; Zhang, Yi-Fang; Duan, Gang; Wu, Ding-Yu; Li, Bi-Feng; Yang, Jian-Fa; Zou, Feng-Cai

    2012-08-01

    On mainland China, liver flukes of Fasciola spp. (Digenea: Fasciolidae) can cause serious acute and chronic morbidity in numerous species of mammals such as sheep, goats, cattle, and humans. The objective of the present study was to examine the taxonomic identity of Fasciola species in Yunnan province by sequences of the first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA). The ITS rDNA was amplified from 10 samples representing Fasciola species in cattle from 2 geographical locations in Yunnan Province, by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the products were sequenced directly. The lengths of the ITS-1 and ITS-2 sequences were 422 and 361-362 base pairs, respectively, for all samples sequenced. Using ITS sequences, 2 Fasciola species were revealed, namely Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. This is the first demonstration of F. gigantica in cattle in Yunnan Province, China using a molecular approach; our findings have implications for studying the population genetic characterization of the Chinese Fasciola species and for the prevention and control of Fasciola spp. in this province.

  2. Photomediated Larvicidal Activity of Pheophorbide a against Cercaria Larvae of Fasciola gigantica

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    Divya Jyoti Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fasciolosis is a parasitic disease caused by Fasciola gigantica. The freshwater snail Lymnaea acuminata is the intermediate host of F. gigantica which cause endemic fasciolosis in the northern part of India. To investigate larvicidal activity of pure and laboratory extracted pheophorbide a (Pa against cercaria larvae of F. gigantica, data were analyzed in different spectra of visible light, sunlight, and laboratory conditions. Photostimulation of chlorophyll derivative pheophorbide a (Pa caused time and concentration dependent larvicidal activity against cercaria larvae of F. gigantica. Larvicidal activity of pure Pa under 650 nm and 400–650 nm (8 h LC50 0.006 mg/10 mL was more pronounced than extracted Pa under same irradiations (650 nm LC50 0.12 mg/10 mL, 400–650 nm LC50 0.14 mg/10 mL. Lowest toxicity of pure (8 h LC50 0.14 mg/10 mL and extracted Pa (8 h LC50 1.25 mg/10 mL was noted under 400 nm. Pa was found to be toxic in laboratory conditions also. The results presented in this paper indicate that pheophorbide a possess potential larvicidal activity against Fasciola gigantica larvae in different wavelengths of visible light, sunlight, and laboratory conditions.

  3. Photomediated Larvicidal Activity of Pheophorbide a against Cercaria Larvae of Fasciola gigantica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Divya Jyoti; Singh, Vinay Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Fasciolosis is a parasitic disease caused by Fasciola gigantica. The freshwater snail Lymnaea acuminata is the intermediate host of F. gigantica which cause endemic fasciolosis in the northern part of India. To investigate larvicidal activity of pure and laboratory extracted pheophorbide a (Pa) against cercaria larvae of F. gigantica, data were analyzed in different spectra of visible light, sunlight, and laboratory conditions. Photostimulation of chlorophyll derivative pheophorbide a (Pa) caused time and concentration dependent larvicidal activity against cercaria larvae of F. gigantica. Larvicidal activity of pure Pa under 650 nm and 400–650 nm (8 h LC50 0.006 mg/10 mL) was more pronounced than extracted Pa under same irradiations (650 nm LC50 0.12 mg/10 mL, 400–650 nm LC50 0.14 mg/10 mL). Lowest toxicity of pure (8 h LC50 0.14 mg/10 mL) and extracted Pa (8 h LC50 1.25 mg/10 mL) was noted under 400 nm. Pa was found to be toxic in laboratory conditions also. The results presented in this paper indicate that pheophorbide a possess potential larvicidal activity against Fasciola gigantica larvae in different wavelengths of visible light, sunlight, and laboratory conditions. PMID:28127494

  4. Crude antigens of Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica using ELISA test: a comparative study

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    Gaur S.N.S

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fasciolosis is a worldwide disease with major economic and public health consequences. Early detection of the infection is important for the prevention and control of the disease. ELISA allows for early detection of fasciolosis in man and animals. Fasciolosis is caused by Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica in man and domestic animals respectively. These two species have many similar morphological characteristics. In this study, the crude antigens of these two species are investigated by ELISA test. Methods: The excretory-secretory and somatic antigens of two species were prepared from adult flukes collected from the bile ducts of sheep and stored at -20oC. For the preparation of the antisera, the antigens were injected to laboratory-bred rabbits. Each rabbit received five injections at intervals of seven days, starting with 0.5 ml and ending with 2.5 ml. Ten days after the last injection, the rabbits were bled, and serum samples separated and stored at -20oC. The reaction between homologous and heterologous antigens and antisera was tested by ELISA and optical densities were recorded.Results: Excretory- secretory and somatic antigens of each species showed a strong positive reaction with the antisera of the other species. In a homologous combination of antigens and antisera, a stronger reaction was observed compared to the heterologous combination, therefore many antigenic materials of both species are the same.Conclusion: The differences of these crude antigenic materials of F. hepatica and F. gigantica are insufficient to prevent cross reaction of two species by ELISA. Further investigations are recommended for the identification, detection and purification of antigenic material of each species to improve the specificity of this assay.

  5. Tegumental histological effects of Mirazid® and myrrh volatile oil on adult Fasciola gigantica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmad Mohamed Massoud; Hatem Abdel Mawgoud Shalaby; Rabab Mohamed El Khateeb; Mona Said Mahmoud; Mohamed Abdel Aziz Kutkat

    2013-01-01

    To evaluated the histological changes within the tegument of adult Fasciola gigantica (F. gigantica) that led to the gross changes that were visible externally. Methods: The effects of oleoresin extract of myrrh (Mirazid ® ), myrrh volatile oil and triclabendazole sulphoxide (reference drug) on the tegumental structure of adult F. gigantica following treatment in vitro had been determined by light microscopy. Results: The internal changes in the tegument observed in this study were compatible with surface changes seen in the previous scanning electron microscopy study, using the same drugs. The swelling of tegumental syncytium was a particular feature of their action, but its level was much greater with myrrh volatile oil, in which vacuolization of the tegument and loss of spines were observed. Conclusions: The present study demonstrated the fasciocidal properties of Mirazid ® oleoresin extract, and it might be possible to reinforce its fasciocidal activity by increasing its content of myrrh volatile oil.

  6. Detection of Fasciola gigantica infection in snails by polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velusamy, R; Singh, B P; Raina, O K

    2004-02-26

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect Fasciola gigantica infection in the snail intermediate host. Fasciola specific primers amplified a 124 bp fragment in PCR when the genomic DNA isolated from F. gigantica infected Lymnaea auricularia snails was used as template. In addition to the 124 bp amplicon, a ladder of DNA fragments representing amplification of the 124 bp repetitive sequences was observed. Genomic DNA of the parasite was used as a positive control, which also gave an amplification of the 124 bp fragment. DNA isolated from non-infected snails was used as a negative control and no amplification of this sequence was observed. This technique is highly specific and sensitive and possesses fairly good prospects of its utility as an epidemiological tool for ascertaining the infectivity status in ubiquitous snail populations.

  7. ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF CHLOROPHYLLIN AGAINST DIFFERENT LARVAL STAGES OF Fasciola gigantica

    OpenAIRE

    Divya Jyoti SINGH; Singh, Dinesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Fasciolosis is a food borne zoonosis, caused by the digenetic trematode Fasciola. Freshwater lymnaeid snails are the intermediate host of the trematodes. Chlorophyllin, a semi-synthetic derivative of chlorophyll and its formulations obtained from freeze dried cow urine (FCU) had their toxicity tested against redia and cercaria larvae of F. gigantica. The larvicidal activity of chlorophyllin and its formulations were found to depend on both, time and concentration used against the larvae. Toxi...

  8. Phenotypes of intermediate forms of Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica in buffaloes from Central Punjab, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshan, K; Valero, M A; Qayyum, M; Peixoto, R V; Magraner, A; Mas-Coma, S

    2014-12-01

    Fascioliasis is an important food-borne parasitic disease caused by the two trematode species, Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. The phenotypic features of fasciolid adults and eggs infecting buffaloes inhabiting the Central Punjab area, Pakistan, have been studied to characterize fasciolid populations involved. Morphometric analyses were made with a computer image analysis system (CIAS) applied on the basis of standardized measurements. Since it is the first study of this kind undertaken in Pakistan, the results are compared to pure fasciolid populations: (a) F. hepatica from the European Mediterranean area; and (b) F. gigantica from Burkina Faso; i.e. geographical areas where both species do not co-exist. Only parasites obtained from bovines were used. The multivariate analysis showed that the characteristics, including egg morphometrics, of fasciolids from Central Punjab, Pakistan, are between F. hepatica and F. gigantica standard populations. Similarly, the morphometric measurements of fasciolid eggs from Central Punjab are also between F. hepatica and F. gigantica standard populations. These results demonstrate the existence of fasciolid intermediate forms in endemic areas in Pakistan.

  9. Perubahan Patologi Anatomi Hati dan Saluran Empedu Sapi Aceh Yang Terinfeksi Fasciola gigantica

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    Ummu Balqis

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pathology anatomy changes in liver and bile duct of Aceh cattle infected with fasciola gigantic ABSTRACT. This study was conducted in Banda Aceh Municipality, Aceh Province to report the pathological changes in liver of Aceh cattle infected with Fasciola gigantica. In this study, livers of male aceh cattles were collected from slaughter area when Qurban in Idul Adha during two years (2011 to 2012. A total of 15 aceh cattle livers were examined. Establishment of F. gigantica were observed, and pathological changes of liver were identified. The result showed that out of 15 male Aceh cattle livers 6 (40% were found infected with F. gigantica. The common pathological changes found in this study were the hepatic damage, and the bile ducts were changes in size and shape with the dilated lumen. The bile ducts were found filled with blackish brown exudate, which contained adult F. gigantica. In conclusion, fascioliasis is greatly responsible for hepatic damage, and currently expanding as an important veterinary public health problem.

  10. CIAS detection of Fasciola hepatica/F. gigantica intermediate forms in bovines from Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahasan, Syed Ali; Valero, M Adela; Chowdhury, Emdadul Haque; Islam, Mohammad Taohidul; Islam, Mohammad Rafiqul; Hussain Mondal, Mohammad Motahar; Peixoto, Raquel V; Berinde, Lavinia; Panova, Miroslava; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2016-03-01

    Fascioliasis is an important food-borne parasitic zoonosis caused by two trematode species, Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. The characterisation and differentiation of Fasciola populations is crucial to control the disease, given the different transmission, epidemiology and pathology characteristics of the two species. Lineal biometric features of adult liver flukes infecting livestock have been studied to characterise and discriminate fasciolids from Bangladesh. An accurate analysis was conducted to phenotypically discriminate between fasciolids from naturally infected bovines (cattle, buffaloes) throughout the country. Morphometric analyses were made with a computer image analysis system (CIAS) applied on the basis of standardised measurements and the logistic model of the body growth and development of fasciolids in the different host groups. Since it is the first ever comprehensive study of this kind undertaken in Bangladesh, the results are compared to pure fasciolid populations of F. hepatica from the European Mediterranean area and F. gigantica from Burkina Faso, geographical areas where both species do not co-exist. Principal component analysis showed that the biometric characteristics of fasciolids from Bangladesh are situated between F. hepatica and F. gigantica standard populations, indicating the presence of phenotypes of intermediate forms in Bangladesh. These results are analysed by considering the present emergence of animal fascioliasis, the local lymnaeid fauna, the impact of climate change, and the risk of human infection in the country.

  11. The distribution of Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica within southern Tanzania--constraints associated with the intermediate host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, S M; Makundi, A E; Namuba, F V; Kassuku, A A; Keyyu, J; Hoey, E M; Prödohl, P; Stothard, J R; Trudgett, A

    2008-04-01

    In East Africa, Fasciola gigantica is generally the causative agent of fasciolosis but there have been reports of F. hepatica in cattle from highland regions of Kenya, Ethiopia, Uganda and Zaire. The topography of the Southern Highlands of Tanzania provides an environment where the climatic conditions exist for the sustenance of lymnaeid species capable of supporting both Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica. Theoretically this would allow interaction between fasciolid species and the possible creation of hybrids. In this report we present molecular data confirming the existence of the snail, Lymnaea truncatula, at high altitude on the Kitulo Plateau of the Southern Highlands, Tanzania, along with morphometric and molecular data confirming the presence of F. hepatica in the corresponding area. At lower altitudes, where climatic conditions were unfavourable for the existence of L. truncatula, the presence of its sister species L. natalensis was confirmed by molecular data along with its preferred fasciolid parasite, F. gigantica. Analysis based on a 618 bp sequence of the 28S rRNA gene did not reveal the presence of hybrid fasciolids in our fluke samples.

  12. Identification and differentiation of Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica using a simple PCR-restriction enzyme method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokni, Mohammad Bagher; Mirhendi, Hossein; Mizani, Azadeh; Mohebali, Mehdi; Sharbatkhori, Mitra; Kia, Eshrat Beigom; Abdoli, Hamid; Izadi, Shahrokh

    2010-02-01

    Accurate morphological differentiation between the liver fluke species Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica is difficult. We evaluated PCR-restriction enzyme profiles of internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) that could aid in their identification. Fifty F. hepatica and 30 F. gigantica specimens were collected from different hosts in three provinces of Iran. For DNA extraction, we crushed fragments of the worms between two glass slides as a new method to break down the cells. DNA from the crushed materials was then extracted with a conventional phenol-chloroform method and with the newly developed technique, commercial FTA cards. A primer pair was selected to amplify a 463-bp region of the ITS1 sequence. After sequencing 14 samples and in silico analysis, cutting sites of all known enzymes were predicted and TasI was selected as the enzyme that yielded the most informative profile. Crushing produced enough DNA for PCR amplification with both the phenol-chloroform and commercial FTA card method. The DNA extracted from all samples was successfully amplified and yielded a single sharp band of the expected size. Digestion of PCR products with TasI allowed us to distinguish the two species. In all samples, molecular identification was consistent with morphological identification. Our PCR-restriction enzyme profile is a simple, rapid and reliable method for differentiating F. hepatica and F. gigantica, and can be used for diagnostic and epidemiological purposes.

  13. A portrait of the transcriptome of the neglected trematode, Fasciola gigantica--biological and biotechnological implications.

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    Neil D Young

    Full Text Available Fasciola gigantica (Digenea is an important foodborne trematode that causes liver fluke disease (fascioliasis in mammals, including ungulates and humans, mainly in tropical climatic zones of the world. Despite its socioeconomic impact, almost nothing is known about the molecular biology of this parasite, its interplay with its hosts, and the pathogenesis of fascioliasis. Modern genomic technologies now provide unique opportunities to rapidly tackle these exciting areas. The present study reports the first transcriptome representing the adult stage of F. gigantica (of bovid origin, defined using a massively parallel sequencing-coupled bioinformatic approach. From >20 million raw sequence reads, >30,000 contiguous sequences were assembled, of which most were novel. Relative levels of transcription were determined for individual molecules, which were also characterized (at the inferred amino acid level based on homology, gene ontology, and/or pathway mapping. Comparisons of the transcriptome of F. gigantica with those of other trematodes, including F. hepatica, revealed similarities in transcription for molecules inferred to have key roles in parasite-host interactions. Overall, the present dataset should provide a solid foundation for future fundamental genomic, proteomic, and metabolomic explorations of F. gigantica, as well as a basis for applied outcomes such as the development of novel methods of intervention against this neglected parasite.

  14. Fasciola gigantica: the growth and larval productivity of redial generations in the snail Lymnaea truncatula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Y; Vignoles, P; Rondelaud, D; Dreyfuss, G

    2002-04-01

    Bimiracidial infections of French Lymnaea truncatula with a Madagascan isolate of Fasciola gigantica were carried out under laboratory conditions to study the growth of rediae and their larval productivity in relation to the different redial generations. The total numbers of rediae and their mean lengths significantly increased with the duration of infection until day 49 post-exposure (p.e.). Significant differences in the lengths between the different redial generations were noted. At day 49 p.e. (at 20 degrees C), the cercariae were produced by the first redial generation, while the productivity of other redial groups was delayed. This last finding shows a slow larval development of this Madagascan isolate of F. gigantica in this French population of L. truncatula.

  15. Comparison of humoral response in sheep to Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica experimental infection

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    Zhang W.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Humoral response of sheep to F. gigantica was compared with the well known humoral response to F. hepatica, in order to explain the difference of susceptibility of sheep to these two parasites. In this work, a lesser susceptibility of sheep to F. gigantica than to F. hepatica infection was confirmed. Humoral response to F. hepatica infection is similar to that previously described by several authors. IgG level of F. gigantica infected sheep increased from week 2 post-infection (2WPI and displayed a peak at 13WPI. F. gigantica excretory-secretory products (FgESP analyzed by SDS-PAGE showed at least 31 bands from 12.0 to 127.6 kDa in FgESP. Western blot indicated that F. gigantica infected sheep sera recognized, in FgESP, at least 30 antigens from 7.8 to 119.2 kDa of which 12 major bands recognized after OWPI. In FhESP and FgESP, F. hepatica infected sheep serum reacted only with the lower molecular mass antigens, while F. gigantica infected sheep serum reacted with the lower and the higher molecular mass antigens. These differences of antigenic recognition might be associated with the difference of susceptibility of sheep. Further investigation must be done to study the mechanism of resistance between the sheep infected with F. hepatica or F. gigantica.

  16. Studies on the use ofEchinostoma revolutum larvae as an agent for biological control of Fasciola gigantica

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    Sarwitri Endah Estuningsih

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of Echinostoma revolutum larvae as an agent for biological control of Fasciola gigantica has been studied in the laboratory of Parasitology, Balitvet. Infection of Lymnaea rubiginosa with Echinostoma revolutum increased the growth and mortality rates of the snails and completely suppressed their egg production . These effects were attributed to a destruction of gonads and other organs of the snails by echinostome rediae, production of which commenced during the second week after the infection. From laboratory studies with L. rubiginosa, there was an evidence of strong antagonism between larvae of E. revolutum and larvae of F. gigantica. Concurrent infection of L. rubiginosa with miracidia of F. gigantica and E. Revolutum resulted in that all snails were infected with E. revolutum only, when they were dissected 30 days later. In contrast, 94% of the snails which were exposed to miracidia of F. gigantica only, were infected with larvae of this species after 30 days . When L. rubiginosa were infected with F. gigantica 20 days previously were exposed to infection with E. revolutum and examined 30 days later, it was found that 77% of the snails had a single infection with E. revolutum, 16 % were infected with F. Gigantica only, and the remaining 7% had common infection. It was concluded that the dominant antagonism of E. revolutum over F. gigantica in L. rubiginosa and the reduction of fecundity and longevity ofsnails infected with E. revolutum could be useful for biological control of F. gigantica.

  17. First phenotypic description of Fasciola hepatica/Fasciola gigantica intermediate forms from the human endemic area of the Nile Delta, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periago, M V; Valero, M A; El Sayed, M; Ashrafi, K; El Wakeel, A; Mohamed, M Y; Desquesnes, M; Curtale, F; Mas-Coma, S

    2008-01-01

    Fasciola gigantica is the main fasciolid species in Africa; however, F. hepatica and F. gigantica overlap in some countries. Egypt deserves mentioning because of the emerging situation of human fascioliasis in the Nile Delta area. The morphometric characteristics of fasciolid adults infecting the main livestock species present in the Nile Delta human endemic area are analyzed through a computer image analysis system (CIAS) on the basis of standardized measurements known to be useful for the differentiation of both fasciolid species. This is the first time that such a study is performed in an African country and, therefore, the results are compared to (i) F. hepatica (European Mediterranean area) and F. gigantica (Burkina Faso) standard populations, i.e. geographical areas where both species do not co-exist, and (ii) F. hepatica and F. gigantica populations from geographical areas where both species do co-exist, including the presence of intermediate forms (Iran). Results indicate the presence of F. hepatica, F. gigantica and intermediate forms (Fasciola sp.) in Egypt for the first time, and demonstrate the usefulness of CIAS for the phenotypic characterization of liver fluke adults from a concrete fascioliasis endemic area. Body roundness, body length over body width, and distance between the ventral sucker and the posterior end of the body provide useful tools for studying inter- and intraspecific morphological diversity in Fasciola adults. The application of these markers to specimens from geographical areas where F. hepatica and F. gigantica co-exist, such as in Egypt and Iran, suggest a strong population-level variation in Fasciola adult morphology.

  18. Influence of photon beam irradiation on Lymnaea natalensis snails infected with Fasciola gigantica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Doaa E; Rostom, Yousry A

    2006-04-01

    Lymnaea natalensis is the intermediate host of Fasciola gigantica in Egypt. The effect of photon beam irradiation on the ability of the laboratory reared L. natalensis to support the larval development of F. gigantica has been studied. 120 snails were divided into two groups: The control infected non irradiated group (GI) and the experimental infected irradiated group (GII). The later group was subdivided into two subgroups: GIIa: snails irradiated before infection and GIIb: snails irradiated after infection. Photon beam irradiation had non significant effect on the survival rate between the all groups at the 30th day post infection. The life span, the number of infected snails and the length of the shedding period were significantly decreased in the two irradiated subgroups than the control group. The effect was more obvious on GIIb without significant difference. The number of metacercariae significantly decreased in the 2 irradiated subgroups than the control one. Also, it was significantly decreased in GIIb when compared with GIIa. So, photon beam irradiation has a great role on retarding larval development of F. gigantica inside the snail. This opens the way to a new strategy for fascioliasis control of in Egypt.

  19. Estrogen-related fecundity reduction of Lymnaea ollula following Fasciola gigantica infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumkate, Supeecha; Onmek, Nuttajit; Boonburapong, Bongkoj; Singhakaew, Sombut; Leardkamolkarn, Vijittra

    2009-12-01

    Infection by trematode parasites generally affects life history traits of their intermediate hosts. Reduction in life expectancy and reproductive capacity have previously been documented in Fasciola gigantica-infected Lymnaea ollula, but the influence of the endocrine system on this specific host–parasite interaction has not been previously examined. In the present study, we observed survival, growth pattern, and reproductive output of L. ollula following exposure to F. gigantica. Both the survival and the growth pattern of infected snails were similar to those of the non-infected control group. However, a significant difference was apparent in fecundity, as infected snails consistently showed lower levels of egg and embryo production throughout a 7-wk observation period. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR also revealed down-regulation of estrogen receptor expression in infected snails during the first 4 wk of infection. Nonetheless, the inhibition of estrogen signaling was transient, as they regained expression in the later phase of infection. It is, therefore, suggested that other hormones of the complex endocrine system may be involved in the reduced fecundity of L. ollula following F. gigantica infection.

  20. Immunological responses of sheep against adult worm extract antigen of Fasciola gigantica

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    S Widjajanti

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Immunological responses of sheep against adult worm extract antigen of Fasciola gigantica were evaluated in an effort to identify the protein antigen for the candidate of vaccine. In this study the protein antigen from adult worms was extracted, and the extract antigen was then intramuscularly injected into 4 groups of 5 sheep. Two groups received one injection, these included one group injected only with extract antigen and the other group injected with extract antigen emulsified in Quil A adjuvant. The other two groups received two injections with a two week interval, these included one group injected only with extract antigen and the other group injected with extract antigen emulsified in Quil A adjuvant. Three weeks later all of the sheep were challenged with 300 metacercariae of F. gigantica. The antibody titer was monitored every two weeks by using ELISA and the protein profile from each group was compared by using western blotting. Fifteen weeks after challenged all of the sheep were killed and the liver flukes were collected from the liver and counted. The results showed that the antibody titer was higher in the group which received two injections, and the additional of Quil A adjuvant gave much better protection from the infection of F. gigantica (57% and could avoid the death of the sheep than twice injection of antigen without Quil A adjuvant (37%.

  1. Epidemiological studies of Fasciola gigantica infections in cattle in the highveld and lowveld communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe

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    D.M. Pfukenyi

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available During the period between January 1999 and December 2000, the distribution and seasonal patterns of Fasciola gigantica infections in cattle in the highveld and lowveld communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe were determined through monthly coprological examination. Cattle faecal samples were collected from 12 and nine dipping sites in the highveld and lowveld communal grazing areas respectively. Patterns of distribution and seasonal fluctuations of the intermediate host-snail populations and the climatic factors influencing the distribution were also determined by sampling at monthly intervals for a period of 24 months (November 1998 to October 2000 in six dams and six streams in the highveld and in nine dams in the lowveld communal grazing areas. Each site was sampled for relative snail density and the vegetation cover and type, physical and chemical properties of water, and mean monthly rainfall and temperature were recorded. Aquatic vegetation and grass samples 0-1 m from the edges of the snail habitats were collected monthly to determine the presence or absence of F. gigantica metacercariae. Snails collected at the same time were individually checked for the emergence of larval stages of F. gigantica. A total of 16 264 (calves 5 418; weaners 5 461 and adults 5 385 faecal samples were collected during the entire period of the study and 2 500 (15.4 % of the samples were positive for F. gigantica eggs. Significantly higher prevalences were found in the highveld compared to the lowveld (P < 0.001, for adult cattle than calves ( P < 0.01 and in the wet season over the dry season (P < 0.01. Faecal egg output peaked from August / September to March / April for both years of the study. Lymnaea natalensis, the snail intermediate host of F. gigantica was recorded from the study sites with the highveld having a significantly higher abundance of the snail species than the lowveld (P < 0.01. The snail population was low between December and March and started

  2. In vitro killing assays of antisera antibody sheep post-infected with Fasciola gigantica with the presence of macrophages cells against homologous and heterologous liver flukes

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    S.E Estuningsih

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available The previous artificial infection known that the Indonesian Thin Tail (ITT sheep was resistance against the liver fluke of Fasciola gigantica, the resistances occurred in the early infection. In order to observe the immune resistance, some in vitro studies were undertaken in the laboratory, to assay the ability of the antisera antibody of ITT sheep post-infected with F. gigantica, with the presence of macrophages cells in killing the homologous and heterologous liver flukes. The viability of liver flukes were observed within 24-72 hours of incubation period by observing their motility (motile flukes were designated live and non-motile once were death. The results showed that after 72 hours incubation, the motilities of the Newly Excysted Juvenile (NEJ of F. gigantica incubated with the presence of post-infected sera and macrophages cells solution were significantly lower (P0.05. It seems that the occurrence of homologous antibody to the antigens is very important in the development of killing mechanism. The absence of homologous antibody did not reduce the number of flukes or the ability of macrophages cells in killing F. hepatica was not apparent.

  3. An analysis of the calcium-binding protein 1 of Fasciola gigantica with a comparison to its homologs in the phylum Platyhelminthes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vichasri-Grams, Suksiri; Subpipattana, Pornpimol; Sobhon, Prasert; Viyanant, Vithoon; Grams, Rudi

    2006-03-01

    A full-length cDNA encoding the Fasciola gigantica calcium-binding protein 1 (FgCaBP1) was cloned from an adult stage cDNA expression library in an immunoscreen using rabbit immune serum against the parasite's excretion/secretion antigens. The deduced amino acid sequence showed 96.3% identity to Fh22CBP of Fasciola hepatica. During development in the mammalian host FgCaBP1 RNA was detected in metacercariae, juveniles and adults and was exclusively localized to the tegumental cell bodies. Immune serum of a rabbit infected with F. gigantica detected recombinant FgCaBP1 starting from the sixth week of infection. Immune sera of mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma mekongi cross-reacted with recombinant FgCaBP1 in immunoblots. Recombinant FgCaBP1 showed calcium and magnesium-binding activity by a mobility shift during non-denaturing PAGE in the presence of Ca2+ or Mg2+, respectively. A polyclonal mouse anti-rFgCaBP1 antiserum detected the native protein as a major component of the parasite's tegumental antigens in immunoblots and as a strictly tegumental antigen in tissue cross-sections of adult and juvenile parasites. Comparative sequence analysis of homologs from Fasciola and Schistosoma present in the GenBank database revealed sequence signatures specific to these trematode proteins and thereby indicates their origin from a single ancestor. FgCaBP1 contains two adjacent, N-terminal located EF-hands and a C-terminal located domain similar to dynein light chain type 1. Independent structure predictions of the two domains suggest that they will fold according to the already determined structures of the EF-hand motif and the dynein light chain type 1 proteins.

  4. Development and Evaluation of a Single-Step Duplex PCR for Simultaneous Detection of Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica (Family Fasciolidae, Class Trematoda, Phylum Platyhelminthes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Khue Thi; Nguyen, Nga Thi Bich; Doan, Huong Thi Thanh; Le, Xuyen Thi Kim; Hoang, Chau Thi Minh; De, Nguyen Van

    2012-01-01

    A single-step multiplex PCR (here referred to as a duplex PCR) has been developed for simultaneous detection and diagnosis of Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica. These species overlap in distribution in many countries of North and East Africa and Central and Southeast Asia and are similar in egg morphology, making identification from fecal samples difficult. Based on a comparative alignment of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) spanning the region of cox1-trnT-rrnL, two species-specific forward primers were designed, FHF (for F. hepatica) and FGF (for F. gigantica), and a single reverse primer, FHGR (common for both species). Conventional PCR followed by sequencing was applied using species-specific primer pairs to verify the specificity of primers and the identity of Fasciola DNA templates. Duplex PCR (using three primers) was used for testing with the DNA extracted from adult worms, miracidia, and eggs, producing amplicons of 1,031 bp for F. hepatica and 615 bp for F. gigantica. The duplex PCR failed to amplify from DNA of other common liver and intestinal trematodes, including two opisthorchiids, three heterophyids, an echinostomid, another fasciolid, and a taeniid cestode. The sensitivity assay showed that the duplex PCR limit of detection for each Fasciola species was between 0.012 ng and 0.006 ng DNA. Evaluation using DNA templates from 32 Fasciola samples (28 adults and 4 eggs) and from 25 field-collected stools of ruminants and humans revealed specific bands of the correct size and the presence of Fasciola species. This novel mtDNA duplex PCR is a sensitive and fast tool for accurate identification of Fasciola species in areas of distributional and zonal overlap. PMID:22692744

  5. Development and evaluation of a single-step duplex PCR for simultaneous detection of Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica (family Fasciolidae, class Trematoda, phylum Platyhelminthes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thanh Hoa; Nguyen, Khue Thi; Nguyen, Nga Thi Bich; Doan, Huong Thi Thanh; Le, Xuyen Thi Kim; Hoang, Chau Thi Minh; De, Nguyen Van

    2012-08-01

    A single-step multiplex PCR (here referred to as a duplex PCR) has been developed for simultaneous detection and diagnosis of Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica. These species overlap in distribution in many countries of North and East Africa and Central and Southeast Asia and are similar in egg morphology, making identification from fecal samples difficult. Based on a comparative alignment of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) spanning the region of cox1-trnT-rrnL, two species-specific forward primers were designed, FHF (for F. hepatica) and FGF (for F. gigantica), and a single reverse primer, FHGR (common for both species). Conventional PCR followed by sequencing was applied using species-specific primer pairs to verify the specificity of primers and the identity of Fasciola DNA templates. Duplex PCR (using three primers) was used for testing with the DNA extracted from adult worms, miracidia, and eggs, producing amplicons of 1,031 bp for F. hepatica and 615 bp for F. gigantica. The duplex PCR failed to amplify from DNA of other common liver and intestinal trematodes, including two opisthorchiids, three heterophyids, an echinostomid, another fasciolid, and a taeniid cestode. The sensitivity assay showed that the duplex PCR limit of detection for each Fasciola species was between 0.012 ng and 0.006 ng DNA. Evaluation using DNA templates from 32 Fasciola samples (28 adults and 4 eggs) and from 25 field-collected stools of ruminants and humans revealed specific bands of the correct size and the presence of Fasciola species. This novel mtDNA duplex PCR is a sensitive and fast tool for accurate identification of Fasciola species in areas of distributional and zonal overlap.

  6. Protective role of purified cysteine proteinases against Fasciola gigantica infection in experimental animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ahwany, Eman; Rabia, Ibrahim; Nagy, Faten; Zoheiry, Mona; Diab, Tarek; Zada, Suher

    2012-03-01

    Fascioliasis is one of the public health problems in the world. Cysteine proteinases (CP) released by Fasciola gigantica play a key role in parasite feeding, migration through host tissues, and in immune evasion. There has been some evidence from several parasite systems that proteinases might have potential as protective antigens against parasitic infections. Cysteine proteinases were purified and tested in vaccine trials of sheep infected with the liver fluke. Multiple doses (2 mg of CP in Freund's adjuvant followed by 3 booster doses 1 mg each at 4 week intervals) were injected intramuscularly into sheep 1 week prior to infect orally with 300 F. gigantica metacercariae. All the sheep were humanely slaughtered 12 weeks after the first immunization. Changes in the worm burden, ova count, and humoral and cellular responses were evaluated. Significant reduction was observed in the worm burden (56.9%), bile egg count (70.7%), and fecel egg count (75.2%). Immunization with CP was also found to be associated with increases of total IgG, IgG(1), and IgG(2) (P<0.05). Data showed that the serum cytokine levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-12, IFN-γ, and TNF-α, revealed significant decreases (P<0.05). However, the anti-inflammatory cytokine levels, IL-10, TGF-β, and IL-6, showed significant increases (P<0.05). In conclusion, it has been found that CP released by F. gigantica are highly important candidates for a vaccine antigen because of their role in the fluke biology and host-parasite relationships.

  7. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of Fasciola gigantica infection in cattle and buffaloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna Murthy, C M; Souza, Placid E D

    2015-12-01

    The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was evaluated for the diagnosis of Fasciola gigantica infection in cattle and buffaloes. The excretory-secretory (E-S Ag) antigen of F. gigantica adult flukes obtained after invitro incubation was used as an antigen. The test was conducted with 276 sera collected from cattle and buffaloes which included 22 sera each from naturally infected cattle and buffaloes (known positive serum) and with similar number of samples with healthy cattle and buffaloes (known negative serum). The positive results were observed in 18 and 19 of the sera from naturally infected cattle and buffaloes with sensitivity of 81.8 and 86.3 % respectively. Out of 188 serum samples which were found negative on faecal examination 32 (34 %) sera of cattle and 40 (42.5 %) sera of buffaloes were found positive by ELISA respectively. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 91.6 and 95.6 % in cattle and buffaloes respectively.

  8. Fasciola gigantica: larval productivity of three different miracidial isolates in the snail Lymnaea truncatula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Y; Vignoles, P; Rondelaud, D; Dreyfuss, G

    2003-03-01

    Bimiracidial infections of Lymnaea truncatula with three isolates of Fasciola gigantica, originating from China, Egypt and Madagascar, were carried out to determine the effect of geographic origin of the parasite on the larval productivity of redial generations. The prevalences of experimental infections in snails exposed to strains from Madagascar, China and Egypt were 20.8%, 60.0% and 80.0%, respectively. At day 49 post-exposure (p.e.), the total number of free rediae in snails infected with the Egyptian isolate was significantly higher than that recorded in the Madagascan group. On the other hand, at day 49 p.e., the majority of cercariae in the Chinese and Egyptian groups were produced by R2a rediae (70.6% and 66.6% of cercariae produced by all live rediae), while, in the Madagascan group, the cercariae were produced mainly by the first redial generation. Snails infected with the Egyptian isolate of miracidia developed more live rediae and, consequently, could produce a higher number of cercariae. As a result, L. truncatula snails were highly adapted to infections with the Egyptian and Chinese isolates of F. gigantica.

  9. Evidence Suggesting that Fasciola gigantica Might be the Most Prevalent Causal Agent of Fascioliasis in Northern Iran

    OpenAIRE

    K Ashrafi; Massoud, J.; K Holakouei; M Mahmoodi; MA Joafshani; MA Valero; MV Fuentes; M Khoubbane; P Artigas; MD Bargues; S Mas-Coma

    2004-01-01

    Following the occurrence of two large outbreaks in Gilan province, northern Iran, the public health importance of human fascioliasis has increased significantly. The mixed infections of Fasciola gigantica and F. hepatica within a given domestic animal individual suggest a very complicate picture of possible circulation ways of the parasite and the possibility for humans to be infected with both species. Elucidating these circulation ways is very critical for understanding the epidemiology and...

  10. Genetic characterisation of Fasciola samples from different host species and geographical localities revealed the existence of F. hepatica and F. gigantica in Niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, H; Ai, L; Song, H Q; Ali, S; Lin, R Q; Seyni, B; Issa, G; Zhu, X Q

    2008-04-01

    In the present study, 16 samples representing Fasciola (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda: Digenea) from sheep and cattle from seven geographical locations in Niger were characterized genetically by sequences of the first (ITS-1) and second (ITS-2) internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA). The ITS rDNA was amplified from individual liver flukes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the amplicons were sequenced directly. The lengths of the ITS-1 and ITS-2 sequences were 422 and 361/362 bp, respectively, for all liver fluke samples sequenced. Comparison of the ITS sequences of the Niger Fasciola samples examined in the present study with that of Fasciola hepatica, Fasciola gigantica, and the "intermediate Fasciola" from elsewhere revealed that the Niger Fasciola samples examined represent two species, namely F. hepatica and F. gigantica. This is the first demonstration of the existence of both F. hepatica and F. gigantica in Niger by a genetic approach, which provides foundation for further studies on F. hepatica and F. gigantica in Niger and has implications for studying the population genetic structure of the Niger Fasciola and for the diagnosis and control of the disease they cause.

  11. Detection of Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica common and uncommon antigens, using rabbit hyper immune serum raised against their excretory-secretory and somatic antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolahi Khabisi, S; Sarkari, B

    2016-12-01

    Fasciolosis is an important neglected helminth disease caused by two liver flukes, Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. The two species of Fasciola are usually different in their morphological and molecular features. They have also common and uncommon antigens in both their somatic and excretory secretory metabolites. In this study, we compared somatic and excretory-secretory (ES) antigens of F. hepatica and F. gigantica, by using rabbit hyper immune serum raised against these antigens. Adult worms were collected from bile ducts of infected animals and species of the fluke was confirmed by RFLP-PCR. ES and somatic antigens of both species were prepared. Rabbits were subcutaneously immunized with either ES or somatic antigens to produce antibodies against these antigens. SDS-PAGE pattern of F. hepatica and F. gigantica somatic antigens was similar and both of them revealed 30 protein bands, ranging from 18 to 180 kDa. In contrast, SDS-PAGE pattern of ES antigen of the two species was different. While protein bands with molecular weight of 18, 27, 29, 48, and 62 kDa were common in both species, bands of 19, 45, 55 and 58 kDa were only noticed in F. hepatica ES antigen. Rabbit polyclonal antibodies, raised against F. hepatica and F. gigantica ES antigen, reacted with main five protein bands, 25, 27, 29, 62 and 67 kDa and polyclonal antibodies raised against somatic antigens of both species reacted with three protein bands, 25, 27 and 72 kDa. Thus, the 25, 27 and 29 kDa protein bands may serve as immunodominant antigens, which might be considered for serodiagnosis of fasciolosis. Moreover, bands of 62 and 67 kDa in ES antigen and 72 kDa in somatic antigens of both species were immunodominant and might be suitable candidate for development of serological assays for diagnosis of fasciolosis.

  12. Verspreiding en habitats van Lymnaea natalensis, tussengasheerslak van die lewerbot Fasciola gigantica, in Suid-Afrika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. N. de Kock

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Hierdie artikel fokus op die geografiese verspreiding en die habitats van Lymnaea natalensis, die slaktussengasheer van die lewerbot, Fasciola gigantica, soos gereflekteer deur die vindplekke van sy 4 552 monsters wat tans in die Nasionale Varswaterslakversameling (NVV van Suid-Afrika op rekord is. Alhoewel hierdie spesie in’n verskeidenheid van waterliggame aangetref is, was die meerderheid van die monsters (±70% afkomstig vanuit riviere, spruite en damme en is die water in 70.8% van die gevalle as standhoudend en in 71.8% van die gevalle as stadigvloeiend, of staande beskryf.  Die resultate van lewenstabeleksperimente deur verskeie outeurs het daarop gedui dat temperatuur ’n minder belangrike bepalende faktor in sy geografiese verspreiding blyk te wees, maar dat die beskikbaarheid van standhoudende water deurslaggewend vir sy voorkoms in ’n gegewe habitat mag wees. Hierdie resultate strook met die bevinding dat slegs 7.5% van die monsters van hierdie spesie in die NVV in habitats wat as seisoenaal beskryf is, versamel is. Verder bied dit’n logiese verklaring vir die sporadiese voorkoms, of totale afwesigheid van hierdie spesie in die droër streke van Suid-Afrika.  Opgaardamme en besproeiingsnetwerke dra grootliks by tot die skepping van permanente habitats wat geskik sou wees vir L. natalensis.  As tussengasheer vir een van die lewerbotspesies wat reeds ’n ekonomiese faktor in Suid-Afrika is, is dit ’n aspek waarmee beslis rekening gehou behoort te word in die beplanning en konstruksie van nuwe besproeiingsprojekte.AbstractDistribution and habitats of Lymnaea natalensis, snail intermediate host of the liver fluke Fasciola gigantica, in South Africa This paper focuses on the geographical distribution and the habitats of Lymnaea natalensis, the snail intermediate host of the liver fluke, Fasciola gigantica, as reflected by the collection sites of its 4 552 samples currently on record in the National Freshwater Snail Collection

  13. Fasciola gigantica transmission in the zoonotic fascioliasis endemic lowlands of Guilan, Iran: experimental assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafi, Keyhan; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2014-09-15

    The lowland flatlands around the city of Bandar-Anzali, at the Caspian Sea shore, Guilan province, are an endemic area where Fasciola gigantica appears to be the fasciolid species involved and past outbreaks affecting around 15,000 people and the highest human infection rates in Iran have been reported. Fascioliasis transmission in that area has been experimentally analysed for the first time, by means of assays of monomiracidial (Group A: 120 snails) and pentamiracidial (Group B: 96 snails) infections of local Radix lymnaeid snails with a local cattle F. gigantica isolate. Ribosomal DNA ITS-2 sequencing proved that Lymnaea (Radix) gedrosiana should henceforth be considered a synonym of Radix auricularia, the haplotype found in Bandar-Anzali being identical to that found in many European countries. Survival rates at day 30 postinfection and metacercarial productivity (both higher in Group A) and longevity of the shedding snails (higher in Group B), were affected by the miracidial dose, whereas prepatent period, patent period, infection rate, and the percentages of shedding and infected non-shedding snails did not. The higher percentage of shedding snails in Group A (51.0% versus 37.7%) counteracts the higher number of metacercariae produced in Group B (243.9 ± 259.2 versus 157.2 ± 153.2). High numbers of shedding snails in both experimental groups passed less than 100 cercariae, and 16% in Group A and 35% in Group B produced more than 300 metacercariae, while only four snails (8%) in Group A and two snails (10%) in Group B shed more than 500 metacercariae. Most metacercariae (94.7% in Group A and 85.1% in Group B) were recorded during the first 15 days of patent period. The comparison with results from other fasciolid/lymnaeid systems indicates that the F. gigantica/R. auricularia system of Guilan is highly susceptible and compatible. Results obtained suggest that increased lymnaeid vector populations and not polymiracidial snail infections most probably underlay

  14. Pathology and clinicopathology of buffalo against trickle infection with Fasciola gigantica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ening Wiedosari

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Eleven male buffalo calves were divided into infected group of 7 animals and non-infected control group of 4 animals. The infected group was then inoculated with trickle doses of 15 Inetacercariae of Fasciola gigantica twice weekly for 32 weeks and killed 36 weeks after first infection. There were no clinical symptoms observed . Infected and non-infected buffaloes, had similar values of packed cell volume, haemoglobin and red blood cell counts . In infected buffaloes, plasma glutamate dehydrogenase enzyme activity increased in proportion to the dregree of hepatocyte destruction level and evidence of necrosis caused by the migrating of immature flukes through the parenchyma prior to their entry into the bile ducts. While the values of plasma glutamyl transpeptidase showed only a minimal rise with a small peak in week 20 as evidenced by histological observation that infected caused limited damage to epithelial surface of the bile duct . These results indicates that, the resistance mechaninisms of buffalo against fasciolosis infection occurred in the liver or before flukes entering into the bile ducts. These results seem to indicate that, in buffalo, resistance mechanisms to fasciolosis infection occured in the liver or before flukes entry into the bile ducts.

  15. Effects of Fasciola gigantica experimental infection on some inorganic elements in the snail host Lymnaea natalensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Osama Mohammad Sayed

    2008-04-01

    Flame atomic absorption spectrometry was performed to determine the alteration in the concentrations of metallic ion Pb, Zn, K, Na, Fe, Cu and Co in the soft parts of the Lymnaea natalensis snails shedding Fasciola gigantica cercariae and to determine the alteration in the concentration of Ca in the soft parts and shells of the same snails. The Co was found to be present at concentration level below the detection limits of the analytical method used. Regarding detected elements, three elements Zn, K and Cu were found to be present at significantly higher concentrations in cercariae-shedding snails compared with uninfected snails. Two elements, Pb and Na, showed significant decrease in cercariae-shedding snails compared to uninfected ones. The concentration of Fe showed non-significant increase. The results showed significant lowering in the calcium content of the shells and soft parts of cercariae-shedding snails relative to the calcium content in the uninfected ones. The obtained results and the hypothesis of hypercalcification in shells of infected snails were discussed.

  16. Effect of non target snails on some biological of Lymnaea natalensis snails and their infection to Fasciola gigantica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakry, Fayez A; Hamdi, Salwa A H

    2006-12-01

    The influence of non-target freshwater snails (Melanoides tuberculata and Planorbis planorbis) on the capacity of Fasciola egg production F. gigantica miracidia to infect Lymnaea natalensis and their effect on mortality and growth rates showed that the snails exhibited a competitive ability against L. natalensis. The mortality rate existed in mixed cultures with snails was greatly increased, and increased with increase of snails number. The egg production and growth rate were negatively affected by the presence of M. tuberculata and P. planorbis which was more pronounced when snails were at higher ratio lL: 10D. Also, the snails showed significant degree of reduction in infection rate of L. natalensis with F. gigantica miracidia.

  17. Evidence Suggesting that Fasciola gigantica Might be the Most Prevalent Causal Agent of Fascioliasis in Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ashrafi

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Following the occurrence of two large outbreaks in Gilan province, northern Iran, the public health importance of human fascioliasis has increased significantly. The mixed infections of Fasciola gigantica and F. hepatica within a given domestic animal individual suggest a very complicate picture of possible circulation ways of the parasite and the possibility for humans to be infected with both species. Elucidating these circulation ways is very critical for understanding the epidemiology and transmission of the disease and being ascertain how animals and humans enter the different liver fluke circulations in this endemic zone. The main objective of the present study was to investigate the distribution and natural infections of local lymnaeids, environmental characteristics related to the disease transmission and determining the most prevalent fasciolids and definitive hosts in human endemic areas of Gilan province. Bandar-Anzali and Rasht are the most important endemic areas with most of the cases of human disease during the epidemics and inter-epidemic periods. Sheep raising is not normal in these regions, while cattle is the most common definitive host. According to the data obtained from slaughterhouse observations in Bandar-Anzali and Rasht, the main fasciolid in local cattle is F. gigantica. Of 928 adult liver flukes collected from 13 infected livers of cattle, in Rasht and Bandar-Anzali slaughterhouses, 91.1% were diagnosed as F. gigantica and 8.9% as F. hepatica. L. gedrosiana and L. palustris were the most prevalent lymnaeid snails in this endemic zone. It appears that L. truncatula is not prevalent in Bandar-Anzali and Rasht and surroundings of these endemic cities. Of 4830 different snails studied, only seven L. gedrosiana were found to be infected with larval stages (rediae and cercariae of Fasciola sp. Experimental infections of 15 common laboratory mice by metacercariae, obtained from those naturally infected snails, were carried

  18. Molecular Differentiation of Fasciola Species and Characterization of Genetic Diversity of F. gigantica Using NADH Dehydrogenase I (ND1 Gene in the Endemic Areas of Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabnam Tadayon

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica are the causative agents of fasciolosis in domestic animals and humans. Based on the morphometric criteria, differential diagnosis between them is problematic. In addition, intermediate forms of Fasciola have been found in Iran, which makes the differentiation more difficult. The aim of the present study was to provide molecular evidence for the existence of F. gigantica in Iran using sequencing analysis of ND1 and PCR-RFLP analysis of ITS2 regions and to study the intraspecies variations of F. gigantica based on mitochondrial ND1 gene polymorphism.Forty Fasciola spp. samples collected from four distinct provinces (Fars, Khuzestan, Gilan, Khorasan Razavi in Iran were collected for morphological and molecular characterization. In molecular method, PCR-RFLP analysis of ITS2 using pagI restriction enzyme was used as a screening approach for F. gigantica differentiation. Then mitochondrial DNA sequence variations in the ND1 gene were used for phylogenetic analysis.Based on the morphometric criteria and RFLP analysis, 14 parasitic samples were initially identified to be F. gigantica. Phylogenetic results showed that there are at least 10 different genotypes of F. gigantica in Iran, which are different from those existing in the GenBank. Twenty-six points out of 410 base pairs of sequenced ND1 gene in 10 varieties of F. gigantica were diagnosed to be polymorphic. From 26 points of polymorphism, only eight resulted in the post-translational amino acid changes in ND1 gene product structure.Data revealed noticeable genetic diversity (up to 4.63% between different varieties of F. gigantica in Iran.

  19. Effectiveness of strategic anthelmintic treaments in the control of gastrointestinal nematodes and Fasciola gigantica in cattle in Iringa region, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keyyu, J.D.; Kyvsgaard, Niels Christian; Monrad, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    Fasciola eggs in faeces by 30.6% and 51.7% (P¿management system had a significant effect on packed cell volume......A longitudinal field trial was conducted to determine the effectiveness of strategic anthelmintic treatments in the control of gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes and Fasciola gigantica in cattle. A total of 167 cattle (6-18 months) from three large-scale dairy farms, four traditional farms and nine....../early rainy season). Group T2 was treated with albendazole 10% drench at 10 mg/kg two times a year (mid rainy and late dry/early rainy season). Group UT remained as untreated control. Faecal, blood and pasture samples were taken every month for 13 months. In addition, individual body weight (BWT) was measured...

  20. DNA sequence analyses reveal co-occurrence of novel haplotypes of Fasciola gigantica with F. hepatica in South Africa and Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucheka, Vimbai T; Lamb, Jennifer M; Pfukenyi, Davies M; Mukaratirwa, Samson

    2015-11-30

    The aim of this study was to identify and determine the genetic diversity of Fasciola species in cattle from Zimbabwe, the KwaZulu-Natal and Mpumalanga provinces of South Africa and selected wildlife hosts from Zimbabwe. This was based on analysis of DNA sequences of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS1 and 2) and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 (CO1) regions. The sample of 120 flukes was collected from livers of 57 cattle at 4 abattoirs in Zimbabwe and 47 cattle at 6 abattoirs in South Africa; it also included three alcohol-preserved duiker, antelope and eland samples from Zimbabwe. Aligned sequences (ITS 506 base pairs and CO1 381 base pairs) were analyzed by neighbour-joining, maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference methods. Phylogenetic trees revealed the presence of Fasciola gigantica in cattle from Zimbabwe and F. gigantica and Fasciola hepatica in the samples from South Africa. F. hepatica was more prevalent (64%) in South Africa than F. gigantica. In Zimbabwe, F. gigantica was present in 99% of the samples; F. hepatica was found in only one cattle sample, an antelope (Hippotragus niger) and a duiker (Sylvicapra grimmia). This is the first molecular confirmation of the identity Fasciola species in Zimbabwe and South Africa. Knowledge on the identity and distribution of these liver flukes at molecular level will allow disease surveillance and control in the studied areas.

  1. PCR-RFLP Analysis of 28 SrDNA for Specification of Fasciola gigantica (Cobbold, 1855) in the Infected Lymnaea auricularia (Linnaeus, 1785) Snails from Northwestern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakhchali, Mohammad; Malekzadeh-Viayeh, Reza; Imani-Baran, Abass

    2014-09-01

    Fasciolosis in livestock is a crucial concern in the globe, mainly due to its impact on human health. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of infection with Fasciola gigantica (Cobbold, 1855) larvae in the field-collected snails of Lymnaea auricularia (Linnaeus, 1785) from northwestern Iran using a molecular approach. A total of 6,759 pond snails were collected from 28 freshwater bodies in West Azarbaijan. PCR was performed to amplify a 618-bp fragment of the nuclear 28 SrRNA gene of Fasciola. The PCR products were digested by AvaII restriction enzyme to create restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns specific for the detection of F. gigantica. Of the total collected snails 496 (7.34 %) were L. auricularia, among which 4.64% (23 out of 496) were infected with a Fasciola species according to the PCR analysis. Only 2.22% (11 out of 496) of the infected snails were from the mountainous areas. The highest Fasciola infection rate recorded in the snails of a single site was 1.81% (9 out of 496 snails). Based on the RFLP pattern, F. gigantica accounted for 2.42% of the infection rates in the study sites. Application of PCR-RFLP was proven to be a useful approach for valid and robust detection of the infection with F. gigantica in its intermediate host snails. These findings may therefore be applicable for establishment of the control programs against dissemination of the infection in different regions.

  2. ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF CHLOROPHYLLIN AGAINST DIFFERENT LARVAL STAGES OF Fasciola gigantica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Divya Jyoti; Singh, Dinesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Fasciolosis is a food borne zoonosis, caused by the digenetic trematode Fasciola. Freshwater lymnaeid snails are the intermediate host of the trematodes. Chlorophyllin, a semi-synthetic derivative of chlorophyll and its formulations obtained from freeze dried cow urine (FCU) had their toxicity tested against redia and cercaria larvae of F. gigantica. The larvicidal activity of chlorophyllin and its formulations were found to depend on both, time and concentration used against the larvae. Toxicity of chlorophyllin + FCU (1:1 ratio) in sunlight against redia larva (8 h LC50: 0.03 mg/mL) was more pronounced than using just chlorophyllin (8 h LC50: 0.06 mg/mL). Toxicity of chlorophyllin + FCU in sunlight against redia (8 h LC50: 0.03 mg/mL) was higher than against cercaria (8 h LC50: 0.06 mg/mL). The larvicidal activity of chlorophyllin in sunlight (redia/cercaria larvae: 8 h LC50: 0.06 mg/mL) was more pronounced than under laboratory conditions (redia: 8 h LC50: 22.21 mg/mL/, cercaria 8 h LC50: 96.21 mg/mL). Toxicity of FCU against both larvae was lower than that of chlorophyllin and chlorophyllin + FCU. Chlorophyllin and its formulations + FCU were 357.4 to 1603.5 times more effective against redia/cercaria larvae in sunlight than under laboratory conditions. The present study has shown that chlorophyllin formulations may be used as potent larvicides against fasciolosis.

  3. Toxicity of chlorophyllin in different wavelengths of visible light against Fasciola gigantica larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Divya Jyoti; Singh, D K

    2015-03-01

    Toxicity of chlorophyllin against redia and cercaria larvae of Fasciola gigantica was studied under irradiation of visible light. Highest and lowest toxicity of chlorophyllin against both larvae was noted under red (redia - 8 h LC₅₀ 7.88 mg/10 mL and cercaria - 11.99 mg/10 mL) and green (redia - 8 h LC₅₀ 32.12 mg/10 mL and cercaria - 8 h LC₅₀ 43.80 mg/10 mL) light irradiation respectively. The highest toxicity of chlorophyllin under red light irradiation against redia (8h LC₅₀ 7.88 mg/10 mL)/cercaria (8h LC₅₀ 11.99 mg/10 mL) was followed by white (8 h LC₅₀ redia - 20.48 mg/10 mL, 8 h LC₅₀ cercaria - 18.0 3mg/10 mL), blue (8 h LC₅₀ redia - 33.10 mg/10 mL/ 8 h LC₅₀ cercaria - 19.98 mg/10 mL) and yellow (8 h LC₅₀ redia - 23.87 mg/10 mL/ 8 h LC₅₀ cercaria - 23.48 mg/10 mL). Chlorophyllin treatment in darkness (control I) and without treatment of chlorophyllin, while all other conditions were same as treatment group (control II) caused no mortality of redia/cercaria larva. Chlorophyllin might be a promising new safe strategy to replace synthetic larvicide in fasciolosis control programme.

  4. ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF CHLOROPHYLLIN AGAINST DIFFERENT LARVAL STAGES OF Fasciola gigantica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Jyoti SINGH

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fasciolosis is a food borne zoonosis, caused by the digenetic trematode Fasciola. Freshwater lymnaeid snails are the intermediate host of the trematodes. Chlorophyllin, a semi-synthetic derivative of chlorophyll and its formulations obtained from freeze dried cow urine (FCU had their toxicity tested against redia and cercaria larvae of F. gigantica. The larvicidal activity of chlorophyllin and its formulations were found to depend on both, time and concentration used against the larvae. Toxicity of chlorophyllin + FCU (1:1 ratio in sunlight against redia larva (8 h LC50: 0.03 mg/mL was more pronounced than using just chlorophyllin (8 h LC50: 0.06 mg/mL. Toxicity of chlorophyllin + FCU in sunlight against redia (8 h LC50: 0.03 mg/mL was higher than against cercaria (8 h LC50: 0.06 mg/mL. The larvicidal activity of chlorophyllin in sunlight (redia/cercaria larvae: 8 h LC50: 0.06 mg/mL was more pronounced than under laboratory conditions (redia: 8 h LC50: 22.21 mg/mL/, cercaria 8 h LC50: 96.21 mg/mL. Toxicity of FCU against both larvae was lower than that of chlorophyllin and chlorophyllin + FCU. Chlorophyllin and its formulations + FCU were 357.4 to 1603.5 times more effective against redia/cercaria larvae in sunlight than under laboratory conditions. The present study has shown that chlorophyllin formulations may be used as potent larvicides against fasciolosis.

  5. Morphological and ecological studies on Lymnaea natalensis the snail vector of Fasciola gigantica in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Dafrawy, Shadia M

    2002-08-01

    Lymnaea natalensis were collected from several localities in Giza Governorate (El-Mansouria, Kafr Hakim and The Nile). The collected snails were examined for cercarial shedding and measurement of shell was carried out using a virner caliper. A total of 217 Lymnaea was collected from all habitats and 24 snails were found to shed Fasciola gigantica cercariae with infection rate 11.1%. The ratio of shell height to shell width (H/W) ranged 1.7-2.1. The ratio between length of aperture to shell height (A/H) was almost constant ranged 0.7-0.8. While the ratio between length of aperture and shell width (A/W) ranged from to 1.8. There was a significant positive correlation between shell height and both shell width and length of aperture (p<0.001). The same relation was clearly indicated between shell width and length of aperture. Also, when the aperture length increased the ratio between height and width increased (p<0.05). While, the following ratios (H/W), (A/H) and (A/W) remained somewhat constant irrespective to the number of whorls. There was a positive correlation between number of whorls and each of aperture length, shell length and shell height. On maintaining L. natalensis in different pH values, the results showed that at pH 3 and pH 11, all snails maintained at these pH values died after one day of maintenance. While snails survived and laid eggs in the range of pH 5-9.

  6. ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF CHLOROPHYLLIN AGAINST DIFFERENT LARVAL STAGES OF Fasciola gigantica

    Science.gov (United States)

    SINGH, Divya Jyoti; SINGH, Dinesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Fasciolosis is a food borne zoonosis, caused by the digenetic trematode Fasciola. Freshwater lymnaeid snails are the intermediate host of the trematodes. Chlorophyllin, a semi-synthetic derivative of chlorophyll and its formulations obtained from freeze dried cow urine (FCU) had their toxicity tested against redia and cercaria larvae of F. gigantica. The larvicidal activity of chlorophyllin and its formulations were found to depend on both, time and concentration used against the larvae. Toxicity of chlorophyllin + FCU (1:1 ratio) in sunlight against redia larva (8 h LC50: 0.03 mg/mL) was more pronounced than using just chlorophyllin (8 h LC50: 0.06 mg/mL). Toxicity of chlorophyllin + FCU in sunlight against redia (8 h LC50: 0.03 mg/mL) was higher than against cercaria (8 h LC50: 0.06 mg/mL). The larvicidal activity of chlorophyllin in sunlight (redia/cercaria larvae: 8 h LC50: 0.06 mg/mL) was more pronounced than under laboratory conditions (redia: 8 h LC50: 22.21 mg/mL/, cercaria 8 h LC50: 96.21 mg/mL). Toxicity of FCU against both larvae was lower than that of chlorophyllin and chlorophyllin + FCU. Chlorophyllin and its formulations + FCU were 357.4 to 1603.5 times more effective against redia/cercaria larvae in sunlight than under laboratory conditions. The present study has shown that chlorophyllin formulations may be used as potent larvicides against fasciolosis. PMID:27253741

  7. Study of Triclabendazole (TCBZ Effect on Aspartate Transaminase (AST Activity of Fasciola gigantica Parasite and Liver Enzyme Activity Assay

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    Shima Shafaei

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available  Background: Aspartate transaminase (AST is an important enzyme in parasite and liver tissue. The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate triclabendazole (TCBZ effect on AST activity of Fasciola gigantica parasite. To compare of enzyme level of parasite and its host tissue, enzyme activity of F. gigantica parasite and liver tissues were also determined. Method:The livers were collected from sheep slaughtered in local slaughterhouse and living F. gigantica parasites were isolated. The washed parasites were cultured in buffe rmedia with or without Triclabendazole (Egaten®; 15μg/mL in an incubator at 37° C. Extractions of collected parasites and liver tissues were prepared by homogenizing buffer in a Mortar and pestle. Extraction samples were examined for protein measurement, AST activity assay and protein recognition. Results:The results of AST assay revealed, enzyme activity for treated and untreated is not significant. Healthy liver tissue shows significantly higher enzyme activity than parasite. Enzyme activity for healthy and infected liver tissues was significant. Enzymatic proteins including Cathepsin L & B (Protease were recognized in parasite samples. Conclusion:Although AST could not be concerned as an indicator for efficiency treatment, however may be involved as a biomarker for biochemical comparison of parasite and host tissue.

  8. Epidemiological studies of Fasciola gigantica infections in cattle in the highveld and lowveld communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfukenyi, D M; Mukaratirwa, S; Willingham, A L; Monrad, J

    2006-03-01

    During the period between January 1999 and December 2000, the distribution and seasonal patterns of Fasciola gigantica infections in cattle in the highveld and lowveld communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe were determined through monthly coprological examination. Cattle faecal samples were collected from 12 and nine dipping sites in the highveld and lowveld communal grazing areas respectively. Patterns of distribution and seasonal fluctuations of the intermediate host-snail populations and the climatic factors influencing the distribution were also determined by sampling at monthly intervals for a period of 24 months (November 1998 to October 2000) in six dams and six streams in the highveld and in nine dams in the lowveld communal grazing areas. Each site was sampled for relative snail density and the vegetation cover and type, physical and chemical properties of water, and mean monthly rainfall and temperature were recorded. Aquatic vegetation and grass samples 0-1 m from the edges of the snail habitats were collected monthly to determine the presence or absence of F. gigantica metacercariae. Snails collected at the same time were individually checked for the emergence of larval stages of F. gigantica. A total of 16264 (calves 5418; weaners 5461 and adults 5385) faecal samples were collected during the entire period of the study and 2500 (15.4%) of the samples were positive for F. gigantica eggs. Significantly higher prevalences were found in the highveld compared to the lowveld (P Lymnaea natalensis, the snail intermediate host of F. gigantica was recorded from the study sites with the highveld having a significantly higher abundance of the snail species than the lowveld (P Fasciola cercariae. Metacercariae were found on herbage from the fringes of the snail habitats between February and August for both years, with most of the metacercariae concentrated on herbage 0-1 m from the banks of the habitats. Based on the findings of this study, anthelmintic treatment

  9. Morphology and viability of adult Fasciola gigantica(giant liver flukes) from Philippine carabaos(Bubalus bubalis) upon in vitro exposure to lead

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aimee; Caye; G.; Chang; Mary; Jane; C.; Flores

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of lead in the morphology and viability of Fasciola gigantica(F. gigantica)(giant liver fluke) isolated from infected livers of carabaos in vitro using the following concentrations of lead: 0, 100, 150 and 200 mg/L. Methods: In vitro viability and motility assay was conducted to evaluate the ef ects of lead using 1% methylene blue as the vital dye for assessment of the l ukes’ viability. Results: Results indicate that F. gigantica can tolerate lead exposure as high as 200 mg/L with visible morphological variations. Upon exposure to lead, liver l ukes tend to curl and excrete black precipitates as a sign of physiological stress response. Furthermore, the lethal concentration(LC50) of lead against F. gigantica in vitro was 160 mg/L. Conclusions: In conclusion, tolerance of liver flukes to high levels of lead suggests its potential as a possible biomarker of environmental pollution.

  10. Development and application of a fecal antigen diagnostic sandwich ELISA for estimating prevalence of Fasciola gigantica in cattle in central Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estuningsih, Endah; Spithill, Terry; Raadsma, Herman; Law, Ruby; Adiwinata, G; Meeusen, Els; Piedrafita, David

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of an ELISA test to detect Fasciola gigantica antigens (coproantigens) in bovine feces, with fecal egg counting and an ELISA for detecting anti-F. gigantica antibodies in serum. Monoclonal antibodies to cathepsin L were generated and used to capture this antigen in feces of infected cattle. Blood, feces, and livers were collected from 150 cattle at an abattoir in Jakarta, Indonesia, for anti-Fasciola antibodies, coproantigen detection, and F. gigantica egg and worm counts. Fluke recovery varied from 1 to 426 per host, with a mean of 32 flukes. The results showed that the sensitivity and specificity of coproantigen detecting ELISA (95 and 91%, respectively) was better than the anti-F. gigantica antibody ELISA (91 and 88%, respectively) and to fecal egg counting (87 and 100%, respectively). The coproantigen ELISA was able to detect 100% of the cattle with >15 flukes. A survey of 305 cattle in central Java over a 10-mo period validated this test in the field, demonstrating a high prevalence of fascioliasis and establishing the test as a useful diagnostic method to determine patent F. gigantica infections in cattle.

  11. Fluke egg characteristics for the diagnosis of human and animal fascioliasis by Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, M Adela; Perez-Crespo, Ignacio; Periago, M Victoria; Khoubbane, Messaoud; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2009-08-01

    In trematodiases, shape and size of the fluke eggs shed with faeces are crucial diagnostic features because of their typically reduced intraspecific variability. In fascioliasis, the usual diagnosis during the biliary stage of infection is based on the classification of eggs found in stools, duodenal contents or bile. The aim of the present study is to validate the identification of Fasciola species based on the shape and size of eggs shed by humans, characterizing their morphometric traits using a computer image analysis system (CIAS). The influence of both the geographical location and of the host (human and livestock) has been analysed. Coprological studies were carried out in fascioliasis human endemic areas, where only F. hepatica is present (the northern Bolivian Altiplano and the Cajamarca valley in Peru), and where F. hepatica and F. gigantica coexist (the Kutaisi region of Georgia, the Nile Delta in Egypt, and the Quy Nhon province in Vietnam). Classically, it is considered that at the abopercular end of the shell of Fasciola eggs there is often a roughened or irregular area. Nevertheless, results show that the frequency of the presence of this feature in F. hepatica is population-dependent, and therefore is not a pathognomonic criterion in diagnosis. The study reveals that eggs shed by humans show morphological traits different from eggs shed by animals. In humans, F. hepatica eggs are bigger and F. gigantica eggs are smaller than reported to date from livestock, and their measurements overlap when compared. The material analysed in this study shows that the size of eggs shed by humans from Georgia and Egypt corresponds to the F. hepatica morph, while the size of eggs shed by humans from Vietnam corresponds to the F. gigantica morph. Measurements of F. hepatica and F. gigantica eggs originating from humans and animals from sympatric areas overlap, and, therefore, they do not allow differential diagnosis when within this overlapping range. In this sense

  12. Comparative characterization of microRNAs from the liver flukes Fasciola gigantica and F. hepatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Min-Jun; Ai, Lin; Fu, Jing-Hua; Nisbet, Alasdair J; Liu, Qing-You; Chen, Mu-Xin; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key regulators of gene expression at the post-transcription level. The present study specifically explored and compared the miRNA expression profiles of F. gigantica and F. hepatica using an integrated sequencing and bioinformatics platform and quantitative real-time PCR. Nineteen and 16 miRNA candidates were identified from F. gigantica and F. hepatica, respectively. The two parasites shared 11 miRNAs, with 8 also showing similarity to miRNAs of Schistosoma japonicum. Another 8 miRNAs were identified as F. gigantica-specific and 5 as F. hepatica-specific, most of which were novel. Predicted target analysis with 11465 mRNA and EST sequences of F. hepatica and F. gigantica revealed that all of the miRNAs had more than one target, ranging from 2 to 398 with an average of 51 targets. Some functions of the predicted targets were only found in F. gigantica, such as "transcription regulator", while some others were only found in F. hepatica, such as "reproduction" and "response to stimulus", indicating the different metabolism and gene regulation patterns of the two parasites. The present study represents the first global comparative characterization of miRNA expression profiles of F. gigantica and F. hepatica, which has provided novel valuable resources for a better understanding of the two zoonotic trematodes.

  13. Fasciola gigantica: cercarial shedding pattern from Lymnaea natalensis after long-term exposure to cadmium at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Maha F M

    2009-04-01

    Little is known about the response of Fasciola spp., inside its snail host to pollutant toxicity. The effect of long-term exposure of Lymnaea natalensis to 0.1 microg/l, 10 microg/l, or 100 microg/l cadmium (Cd) on the infection rates with F. gigantica, percentage of cercariae-shedding snails and cercariae shedding pattern was investigated. The snails were exposed to Cd for 7 days either pre-infection with single Fasciola miracidium or during the late pre-patent period of the infection. The possible interaction between metal exposure and acclimatization temperature was also studied in three ranges; 16-18 degrees C, 23-25 degrees C and 30-32 degrees C. Results clearly showed that host exposure to 100 microg/l Cd significantly affected the pattern of Fasciola development inside its snail host, and that the acclimatization temperature was a key factor affecting the role played by Cd. Pre-infection exposure to Cd caused a significant reduction in the infection rates where the effect was temperature-dependent. Post-infection exposure to Cd significantly increased the percentage of cercariae-shedding snails; the effect was temperature-independent. Interestingly, post-infection exposure significantly altered the differential cercarial output pattern, while no clear impact on the total was found. The alteration in the differential cercarial output was represented as a significantly higher proportion of floating metacercaria as compared to fixed ones and also higher proportion of dead cercariae which may directly reduce the transmission of Fasciola to the final host. The mechanisms of cadmium impact are briefly discussed.

  14. A comparative study of haemocytes from resistant and susceptible Lymnaea natalensis snails exposed to Fasciola gigantica miracidia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Kamelia A; El-Din, Abdel-hakim saad; Gad EL-KAarim, Rasha M

    2014-12-01

    Effect ot infection with Fasciola gigantica on total and differential haemocytes count of resistant and susceptible Lymnaea natalensis snails were studied. Exposure of L. natalensis resistant and susceptible strains to F. gigantica on miracidia caused gradual increase in the number of circulating haemocytes at the same time of exposure. In susceptible strain, the increase in the number of circulating haemocytes became significant at the second week post exposure being 2560 cell/ml (p

  15. Higher physiopathogenicity by Fasciola gigantica than by the genetically close F. hepatica: experimental long-term follow-up of biochemical markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, M Adela; Bargues, M Dolores; Khoubbane, Messaoud; Artigas, Patricio; Quesada, Carla; Berinde, Lavinia; Ubeira, Florencio M; Mezo, Mercedes; Hernandez, Jose L; Agramunt, Veronica H; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    Fascioliasis is caused by Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica. The latter, always considered secondary in human infection, nowadays appears increasingly involved in Africa and Asia. Unfortunately, little is known about its pathogenicity, mainly due to difficulties in assessing the moment a patient first becomes infected and the differential diagnosis with F. hepatica. A long-term, 24-week, experimental study comparing F. hepatica and F. gigantica was made for the first time in the same animal model host, Guirra sheep. Serum biochemical parameters of liver damage, serum electrolytes, protein metabolism, plasma proteins, carbohydrate metabolism, hepatic lipid metabolism and inflammation were analysed on a biweekly basis as morbidity indicators. Serum anti-Fasciola IgG, coproantigen and egg shedding were simultaneously followed up. rDNA and mtDNA sequencing and the morphometric study by computer image analysis system (CIAS) showed that fasciolids used fitted standard species characteristics. Results demonstrated that F. gigantica is more pathogenic, given its bigger size and biomass but not due to genetic differences which are few. Fasciola gigantica shows a delayed development of 1-2 weeks regarding both the biliary phase and the beginning of egg shedding, with respective consequences for biochemical modifications in the acute and chronic periods. The higher F. gigantica pathogenicity contrasts with previous studies which only reflected the faster development of F. hepatica observed in short-term experiments. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. PCR-RFLP Analysis of 28 SrDNA for Specification of Fasciola gigantica (Cobbold, 1855 in the Infected Lymnaea auricularia (Linnaeus, 1785 Snails from Northwestern Iran.

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    Mohammad Yakhchali

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fasciolosis in livestock is a crucial concern in the globe, mainly due to its impact on human health. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of infection with Fasciola gigantica (Cobbold, 1855 larvae in the field-collected snails of Lymnaea auricularia (Linnaeus, 1785 from northwestern Iran using a molecular approach.A total of 6,759 pond snails were collected from 28 freshwater bodies in West Azarbaijan. PCR was performed to amplify a 618-bp fragment of the nuclear 28 SrRNA gene of Fasciola. The PCR products were digested by AvaII restriction enzyme to create restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP patterns specific for the detection of F. gigantica.Of the total collected snails 496 (7.34 % were L. auricularia, among which 4.64% (23 out of 496 were infected with a Fasciola species according to the PCR analysis. Only 2.22% (11 out of 496 of the infected snails were from the mountainous areas. The highest Fasciola infection rate recorded in the snails of a single site was 1.81% (9 out of 496 snails. Based on the RFLP pattern, F. gigantica accounted for 2.42% of the infection rates in the study sites.Application of PCR-RFLP was proven to be a useful approach for valid and robust detection of the infection with F. gigantica in its intermediate host snails. These findings may therefore be applicable for establishment of the control programs against dissemination of the infection in different regions.

  17. Prevalence of infection and molecular confirmation by using ITS-2 region of Fasciola gigantica found in domestic cattle from Chiang Mai province, Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anawat Phalee; Chalobol Wongsawad

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the infection ofFasciola gigantica(F. gigantica) in domestic cattle from ChiangMai province and molecular confirmation usingITS-2 region.Methods:The liver and gall bladder ofBubalus bubalis(B. bubalis) andBos taurus(B. taurus) from slaughterhouses were examined adult worms and prevalence investigation.The species confirmation with phylogenetic analysis usingITS-2 sequences was performed by maximum likelihood andUPGMA methods. Results:The total prevalences of infection inB. bubalis andBubalus taurus(B. taurus) were 67.27% and52.94% respectively.The respective prevalence in bothB. bubalis andB. taurus were acquired fromDoi-Saket,Muang, andSanpatong districts, with81.25%,62.50% and60.00% for B. bubalis and62.50%,50.00% and47.06% forBos taurus respectively.The species confirmation ofF. gigantica and some related species by basing on maximum likelihood andUPGMA methods used,4 groups of trematodes weregenerated, firstF. gigantica group including specimen ofChiang Mai, second2 samples of F. hepatica, third group of3 rumen flukes;Orthocoelium streptocoelium, F. elongatus andParamphistomum epliclitum and fourth group of3 minute intestinal flukes;Haplorchis taichui, Stellantchasmu falcatus,Haplorchoides sp. and liver fluke;Opisthorchis viverrini respectively.Conclusions:These results can be confirmed theGiant liver fluke which mainly caused fascioliasis inChiangMai was identified asF. gigantica and specimens were the same as those ofF. gigantica recorded in other different countries.Nucleotide sequence of ITS-2 region has been proven as effective diagnostic tool for the identification ofF. gigantica.

  18. Diagnostic efficacy of monoclonal antibody based sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for detection of Fasciola gigantica excretory/secretory antigens in both serum and stool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoheiry Mona K

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This research was carried out to develop a reliable monoclonal antibody (MoAb-based sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for the diagnosis of active Fasciola gigantica infection in both serum and stool for comparative purposes. Methods From a panel of MoAbs raised against F. gigantica excretory/secretory antigens (ES Ags, a pair (12B/11D/3F and 10A/9D/10G was chosen due to its high reactivity and strict specificity to F. gigantica antigen by indirect ELISA. Results The two MoAbs were of the IgG1 and IgG2a subclasses, respectively. Using SDS-PAGE and EITB, the selected MoAbs recognized 83, 64, 45 and 26 kDa bands of ES Ags. The lower detection limit of ELISA assay was 3 ng/ml. In stool, the sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic efficacy of ELISA was 96%, 98.2 and 97.1%; while in serum they were 94%, 94.6% and 94.3%, respectively. Moreover, a positive correlation was found between ova count in stool of F. gigantica infected patients and the OD readings of ELISA in both stool and serum samples (r = 0.730, p Conclusions These data showed that the use of MoAb-based sandwich ELISA for the detection of F. gigantica coproantigens in stool specimens was superior to serum samples; it provides a highly efficient, non-invasive technique for the diagnosis of active F. gigantica infection.

  19. Invasion biology meets parasitology: a case study of parasite spill-back with Egyptian Fasciola gigantica in the invasive snail Pseudosuccinea columella.

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    Daniel S Grabner

    Full Text Available The liver fluke Fasciola gigantica is a trematode parasite of ruminants and humans that occurs naturally in Africa and Asia. Cases of human fascioliasis, attributable at least in part to F. gigantica, are significantly increasing in the last decades. The introduced snail species Galba truncatula was already identified to be an important intermediate host for this parasite and the efficient invader Pseudosuccinea columella is another suspect in this case. Therefore, we investigated snails collected in irrigation canals in Fayoum governorate in Egypt for prevalence of trematodes with focus on P. columella and its role for the transmission of F. gigantica. Species were identified morphologically and by partial sequencing of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (COI. Among all 689 snails found at the 21 sampling sites, P. columella was the most abundant snail with 296 individuals (42.96% and it was also the most dominant species at 10 sites. It was not found at 8 sites. Molecular detection by PCR and sequencing of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA revealed infections with F. gigantica (3.38%, Echinostoma caproni (2.36% and another echinostome (7.09% that could not be identified further according to its sequence. No dependency of snail size and trematode infection was found. Both high abundance of P. columella in the Fayoum irrigation system and common infection with F. gigantica might be a case of parasite spill-back (increased prevalence in local final hosts due to highly susceptible introduced intermediate host species from the introduced P. columella to the human population, explaining at least partly the observed increase of reported fascioliasis-cases in Egypt. Eichhornia crassipes, the invasive water hyacinth, which covers huge areas of the irrigation canals, offers safe refuges for the amphibious P. columella during molluscicide application. As a consequence, this snail dominates snail communities and efficiently transmits

  20. MM3-ELISA evaluation of coproantigen release and serum antibody production in sheep experimentally infected with Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, M Adela; Ubeira, Florencio M; Khoubbane, Messaoud; Artigas, Patricio; Muiño, Laura; Mezo, Mercedes; Pérez-Crespo, Ignacio; Periago, M Victoria; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2009-01-22

    During an experimental infection of sheep with Fasciola hepatica or F. gigantica, MM3-SERO and MM3-COPRO ELISA tests were applied to compare the kinetics of antibody production and coproantigen release between the 2nd and 32nd week post-infection (wpi). The Kato-Katz technique was used to measure the kinetics of egg shedding by both Fasciola species (eggs per gram of feces, epg). The kinetics of IgG antibodies for all sheep infected with F. hepatica and F. gigantica followed a similar pattern. Optical density (OD) increased rapidly between the 4th until the 12th wpi, when the highest values were reached and then decreased slowly until the 32nd wpi. Coproantigen levels increased above the cut-off value between 6 and 9 wpi in the F. hepatica group, and between 9 and 11wpi in the F. gigantica group. The comparison between coproantigen levels and epg indicated that F. hepatica-infected sheep had detectable amounts of coproantigens 4-7 weeks before patency (egg shedding), while F. gigantica-infected sheep had detectable amounts of coproantigens 3-6 weeks before patency. When comparing the kinetics of coproantigen release vs the kinetics of epg, a similar pattern emerged, but with a two-week time-lag in epg, for both F. hepatica and F. gigantica infections. The amount of coproantigen release by each adult was not burden dependent for F. hepatica infection (burden of 33-66 adults), while it was for F. gigantica infection (burden of 17-69 adults). The results demonstrate the usefulness of the MM3-SERO and MM3-COPRO ELISAs as tools for the diagnosis of early as well as long-term fascioliasis infections, and suggest that they can potentially be applied to human fascioliasis even in countries where F. hepatica and F. gigantica co-exist. These tests can be employed not only in the diagnosis, but also in studies on epidemiology as well as pathogenesis and treatment in animals and humans since they allow post-treatment infection monitoring.

  1. Distribution and habitats of Lymnaea natalensis, snail intermediate host of the liver fluke Fasciola gigantica, in South Africa

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    Editorial Office

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the geographical distribution and the habitats of Lymnaea natalensis, the snail intermediate host of the liver fluke, Fasciola gigantica, as reflected by the collection sites of its 4 552 samples currently on record in the National Freshwater Snail Collection (NFSC of South Africa. Although this species was represented in a variety of waterbodies, the majority of samples(±70%came from rivers, brooks and dams and in 70.8% of the cases the water was described as permanent and in 71.8% as slow flowing or standing. The results of life-table studies conducted by various authors indicated that temperature should be a relatively unimportant factor in determining its geographical distribution, but that the availability of permanent water should be decisive for its presence in a given habitat. These results are in agreement with the finding that only 7.5% of the samples of this species in the NFSC were collected in habitats which were described as seasonal. Furthermore, it gives a logical explanation for the sporadic occurrence, or total absence of this species in the more arid regions of South Africa. Water impoundments and irrigation networks contribute to a large extent towards creating perennial habitats which would be suitable for L. natalensis. As intermediate host for one of the liver fluke species which already is an economic factor in South Africa, this certainly is an aspect which ought to be reckoned within the planning and construction of new irrigation schemes.

  2. A 170kDa multi-domain cystatin of Fasciola gigantica is active in the male reproductive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geadkaew, Amornrat; Kosa, Nanthawat; Siricoon, Sinee; Grams, Suksiri Vichasri; Grams, Rudi

    2014-09-01

    Cystatins are functional as intra- and extracellular inhibitors of cysteine proteases and are expressed as single or multi-domain proteins. We have previously described two single domain type 1 cystatins in the trematode Fasciola gigantica that are released into the parasite's intestinal tract and exhibit inhibitory activity against endogenous and host cathepsin L and B proteases. In contrast, the here presented 170kDa multi-domain cystatin (FgMDC) comprises signal peptide and 12 tandem repeated cystatin-like domains with similarity to type 2 single domain cystatins. The domains show high sequence divergence with identity values often cystatins. Domain-specific antisera detected multiple forms of FgMDC ranging from 120kDa molecular mass in immunoblots of parasite crude extracts and ES product with different banding patterns for each antiserum demonstrating complex processing of the proprotein. The four domains with the highest conserved QVVAG motifs were expressed in Escherichia coli and the refolded recombinant proteins blocked cysteine protease activity in the parasite's ES product. Strikingly, immunohistochemical analysis using seven domain-specific antisera localized FgMDC in testis lobes and sperm. It is speculated that the processed cystatin-like domains have function analogous to the mammalian group of male reproductive tissue-specific type 2 cystatins and are functional in spermiogenesis and fertilization.

  3. RNAi dynamics in Juvenile Fasciola spp. Liver flukes reveals the persistence of gene silencing in vitro.

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    Paul McVeigh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fasciola spp. liver fluke cause pernicious disease in humans and animals. Whilst current control is unsustainable due to anthelmintic resistance, gene silencing (RNA interference, RNAi has the potential to contribute to functional validation of new therapeutic targets. The susceptibility of juvenile Fasciola hepatica to double stranded (dsRNA-induced RNAi has been reported. To exploit this we probe RNAi dynamics, penetrance and persistence with the aim of building a robust platform for reverse genetics in liver fluke. We describe development of standardised RNAi protocols for a commercially-available liver fluke strain (the US Pacific North West Wild Strain, validated via robust transcriptional silencing of seven virulence genes, with in-depth experimental optimisation of three: cathepsin L (FheCatL and B (FheCatB cysteine proteases, and a σ-class glutathione transferase (FheσGST.Robust transcriptional silencing of targets in both F. hepatica and Fasciola gigantica juveniles is achievable following exposure to long (200-320 nt dsRNAs or 27 nt short interfering (siRNAs. Although juveniles are highly RNAi-susceptible, they display slower transcript and protein knockdown dynamics than those reported previously. Knockdown was detectable following as little as 4h exposure to trigger (target-dependent and in all cases silencing persisted for ≥25 days following long dsRNA exposure. Combinatorial silencing of three targets by mixing multiple long dsRNAs was similarly efficient. Despite profound transcriptional suppression, we found a significant time-lag before the occurrence of protein suppression; FheσGST and FheCatL protein suppression were only detectable after 9 and 21 days, respectively.In spite of marked variation in knockdown dynamics, we find that a transient exposure to long dsRNA or siRNA triggers robust RNAi penetrance and persistence in liver fluke NEJs supporting the development of multiple-throughput phenotypic screens for control

  4. "Comparison of Adult Somatic and Cysteine Proteinas Antigens of Fasciola gigantica in Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Serodiagnosis of Human Fasciolosis"

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    MB Rokni

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Fasciolosis caused by Fasciola hepatica and F.gigantica is one of the major public health problems in the world and in Iran. Considering that stool examination for Fasciola eggs is not a sensitive method and only 25% of infected patients pass the eggs in the faeces , and immunodiagnosis methods are more applicable for this purpose, the present study was conducted to compare the somatic (S and cysteine proteinase (CP antigens of F.gigantica in IgG-ELISA to diagnose human fasciolosis. This has been the first report on this case so far in Iran. Serum samples obtained from 178 individuals collected during the fasciolosis outbreak in 1999 in the Gilan province, northern Iran, that were coprologically positive for fasciolosis, were analyzed by IgG-ELISA for total antibody responses against (S and CP antigens from Fasciola gigantica. The cut-off points for (S and CP were 0.38 and 0.33, respectively. All cases that showed clinical manifestations of fasciolosis, were also seropositive using both (S and CP antigens whereas all 25 non-infected controls were seronegative. Therefore, the sensitivity of the test was 100% for both antigens. On the other hand the specificity of (S and CP antigens were calculated as 96.4% and 98.1%, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values of the test regarding (S antigen were 97.8% and 100%, whereas these values as for CP antigen were 98.9% and 100% correspondingly. Two individuals with hydatidosis and two with toxocariasis had antibodies against (S antigen whereas concerning CP antigen, one individual with hydatidosis and another with toxocariasis showed cross reactivity against it. We have demonstrated that altogether CP antigen provide a more conclusive diagnosis as possessing lower cut-off and enabling better to discriminate between seronegative and seropositive subpopulations.This study may be useful to implement a reliable test to diagnose human fasciolosis and for seroepidmiological objectives.

  5. Ingestion of Fasciola gigantica metacercariae by the intermediate host snail, Lymnaea ollula, and infectivity of discharged metacercariae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihara, Shinobu; Ueno, Hakaru

    2004-09-01

    The rate of ingestion of Fasciola normal metacercariae (NMc) encysted on plants by Lymnaea ollula was examined, and the infectivity of the ingested metacercariae (IMc) in the feces of the host snail to mice was studied. As a result of ingestion by snails, the metacercarial outer cyst disappeared in about 50% of IMc in feces. There was no significant difference in the liver juvenile recovery at autopsy between mice inoculated with NMc and IMc kinds of metacercariae. Compared with NMc, the number of IMc could more easily be counted, because the separation of IMc from fecal contents under a microscope was not laborious.

  6. Molecular study for detecting the prevalence of Fasciola gigantica in field-collected snails of Radix gedrosiana (Pulmonata: Lymnaeidae) in northwestern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imani-Baran, Abbas; Yakhchali, Mohammad; Malekzadeh Viayeh, Reza; Paktarmani, Razieh

    2012-10-26

    Fasciolosis is an important disease in veterinary medicine worldwide, and is a cause of great economic loss in livestock husbandry in Iran. This study was aimed to determine prevalence of Fasciola gigantica infection in field-collected snails of Radix gedrosiana in northwestern Iran. The snails were collected from 28 perennial and seasonal freshwater habitats from May to December 2010 and identified. A fragment of 618 bp of 28s rRNA gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The PCR products were subjected to restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) using DraII and AvaII enzymes. PCR-RFLP patterns revealed that 3.12% of the snails were infected with F. gigantica. It was also found that the infected snails had a limited distribution over the water bodies located in the central part of the region. It was concluded that PCR-RFLP was a reliable approach to detect Fasciola infection in pond snails and may be useful to establish control measures for livestock and humans' fasciolosis in the region.

  7. High prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum and Fasciola gigantica in bovines from Northern Samar, the Philippines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A Gordon

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The cause of zoonotic schistosomiasis in the Philippines is Schistosoma japonicum, which infects up to 46 mammalian hosts, including humans and bovines. In China, water buffaloes have been identified as major reservoir hosts for schistosomiasis japonica, contributing up to 75% of human transmission. In the Philippines, water buffaloes (carabao; Bubalus bubalis carabanesis have, historically, been considered unimportant reservoirs. We therefore revisited the possible role of bovines in schistosome transmission in the Philippines, using the recently described formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation (FEA-SD technique and a qPCR assay to examine fecal samples from 153 bovines (both carabao and cattle from six barangays in Northern Samar. A high prevalence of S. japonicum was found using qPCR and FEA-SD in both cattle (87.50% and 77.08%, respectively and carabao (80.00% and 55.24%, respectively. The average daily egg output for each bovine was calculated at 195,000. High prevalence and infection intensity of F. gigantica was also found in the bovines by qPCR and FEA-SD (95.33% and 96.00%, respectively. The identification of bovines as major reservoir hosts for S. japonicum transmission suggests that bovine treatment and/or vaccination, as one becomes available, should be included in any future control program that aims to reduce the disease burden due to schistosomiasis in the Philippines.

  8. Differences in intermediary energy metabolism between juvenile and adult Fasciola hepatica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielens, A.G.M.; Heuvel, J.M. van den; Bergh, S.G. van den

    1987-01-01

    A comparison of glucose catabolism by juvenile and adult liver flukes, Fasciola hepatica, showed that in the adult the cytosolic degradation of glucose via phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) was the most important route, whereas in the freshly excysted juvenile a large part was degraded via p

  9. Changes in energy metabolism of the juvenile Fasciola hepatica during its development in the liver parenchyma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielens, A.G.M.; Heuvel, J.M. van den; Bergh, S.G. van den

    1982-01-01

    Juvenile Fasciola hepatica at different stages of development were isolated from the liver parenchyma of experimentally infected rats. Their energy metabolism was studied by incubation with D-[16-14C]glucose and compared with that of juveniles isolated immediately after in vitro emergence from the m

  10. Differences in intermediary energy metabolism between juvenile and adult Fasciola hepatica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielens, A.G.M.; Heuvel, J.M. van den; Bergh, S.G. van den

    A comparison of glucose catabolism by juvenile and adult liver flukes, Fasciola hepatica, showed that in the adult the cytosolic degradation of glucose via phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) was the most important route, whereas in the freshly excysted juvenile a large part was degraded via

  11. Changes in energy metabolism of the juvenile Fasciola hepatica during its development in the liver parenchyma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielens, A.G.M.; Heuvel, J.M. van den; Bergh, S.G. van den

    Juvenile Fasciola hepatica at different stages of development were isolated from the liver parenchyma of experimentally infected rats. Their energy metabolism was studied by incubation with D-[16-14C]glucose and compared with that of juveniles isolated immediately after in vitro emergence from the

  12. Changes in energy metabolism of the juvenile Fasciola hepatica during its development in the liver parenchyma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielens, A.G.M.; Heuvel, J.M. van den; Bergh, S.G. van den

    1982-01-01

    Juvenile Fasciola hepatica at different stages of development were isolated from the liver parenchyma of experimentally infected rats. Their energy metabolism was studied by incubation with D-[16-14C]glucose and compared with that of juveniles isolated immediately after in vitro emergence from the m

  13. Differences in intermediary energy metabolism between juvenile and adult Fasciola hepatica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielens, A.G.M.; Heuvel, J.M. van den; Bergh, S.G. van den

    1987-01-01

    A comparison of glucose catabolism by juvenile and adult liver flukes, Fasciola hepatica, showed that in the adult the cytosolic degradation of glucose via phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) was the most important route, whereas in the freshly excysted juvenile a large part was degraded via p

  14. Distribution of Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica in the endemic area of Guilan, Iran: Relationships between zonal overlap and phenotypic traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafi, Keyhan; Valero, M Adela; Peixoto, Raquel V; Artigas, Patricio; Panova, Miroslava; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2015-04-01

    Fascioliasis is a zoonotic disease emerging in numerous parts of the world. In any endemic area, the characterisation of scenarios and patterns of infection must always be considered the starting point before implementing any control measure. Fascioliasis is a parasitic disease of different epidemiological, pathological and control characteristics depending on the endemic area and the causal agent, Fasciola hepatica and Fasciolagigantica. Classically it has been accepted that F. hepatica is present worldwide, while the distribution of the two species overlaps in many areas of Africa and Asia. Fascioliasis caused by F. hepatica, F. gigantica and intermediate forms is present in Guilan province, a complicated epidemiological situation where the highest human infection rates have been described in Iran. Morphometric tools were used to analyse the possible relationship between liver-fluke metric traits and geographical and altitudinal distribution. This is the first study in which a detailed distribution of both Fasciola species is analysed in a human fascioliasis endemic area with a zonal overlap transmission pattern. An accurate analysis was conducted to phenotypically discriminate between fasciolids from naturally infected livestock (cattle, buffaloes, sheep and goats). The distribution of the % F. hepatica-like (F.h.) and F. gigantica-like (F.g.) flukes detected in each liver versus altitude (m) in each group was analysed. The presence of F.g. specimens mainly in locations below sea level (average: 11.23% F.h., 88.77% F.g.), the presence of both species with similar intensity at 1-99m (average: 56.95% F.h., 43.05% F.g.) and the presence of F.h. specimens mainly from 100 to 999m (average: 71.69% F.h., 28.31% F.g.) as well as in locations with an altitude above 1000m (average: 97.48% F.h., 2.52% F.g.) are noteworthy. A significant positive correlation was obtained between altitude and % F.h., and a significant negative correlation was obtained between altitude and

  15. Impact of various salts on biology, physiology and tissue soluble proteins (SDS-PAGE) of Lymnaea natalensis and their infection with Fasciola gigantica miracidia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Moamena Bayoumi

    2006-08-01

    The effect of sublethal concentrations of magnesium sulphate (MgSo4), sodium chloride (NaCl), potassium chloride (KCl), calcium sulphate (CaSo4) and sodium carbonate (Na2Co3) on survival, fecundity, Lymnaea natalensis infection with Fasciola gigantica miracidia and the activities of certain enzymes in tissue homogenate of these snails were evaluated. Tissue soluble proteins of the snails were analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The results indicated that Na2Co3 was more toxic to L. natalensis than the other salts. Egg laying capacity was declined after two weeks of continuous exposure to Na2Co3 (0.38 eggs/snail/week) compared to (13.85 eggs/snail/week) for controls. The lowest infection rate was among snails exposed to MgSo4 (31.25%) with a significant variation from controls (64.28%). The salts supperssed cercarial production of infected snails (14.6 metacercariae/ snail/stimulant) at MgSo4 compared to (59.3 metacercariae/ snail/stimulant) for controls. The maintenance of L. natalensis in the salts solutions for four successive weeks reduced the total protein content in their tissues (13.2 mg/g) at Na2Co3 (100 ppm) compared to (21.47 mg/g) for controls. The activity of alkaline phosphatase was significantly reduced in treated snails than controls. The electrophoretic data revealed a common band between controls and treated snails with a molecular weight of 79.42 to 80.55 kDa. There were bands in treated snails but not in controls (41.2 & 45 kDa). A band was detected for snails treated with each salt but not with controls or the other treated groups (28.68 kDa at NaCl, 100.75 kDa at CaSo4 & 205 Kda at KCl).

  16. PCR Amplification,Cloning and Sequencing of ITS rDNA of Fasciola Gigantica from Longyan%羊大片吸虫龙岩分离株ITS基因的克隆及序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢宝明; 陈永锋; 陈仁锋; 黄翠琴

    2012-01-01

    In the paper,the samples of Fasciola(Platyhelminthes: Trematoda: Digenea) from sheep host in Longyan,Fujian,China were characterized genetically by sequences of the first(ITS-1) and second(ITS-2) internal transcribed spacers(ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA(rDNA).The ITS rDNA was amplified by polymerase chain reaction(PCR),and the amplification was cloned and then sequenced.The lengths of the ITS-1 and ITS-2 sequences were 421 bp and 361 bp respectively.Comparison of the ITS sequences of Longyan Fasciola sample with that of Fasciola hepatica,Fasciola gigantica and the "intermediate Fasciola" revealed that Longyan Fasciola samples examined represent F.gigantica(named FgLY).The genetic relationship of FgLY is closest to the samples from Yunnan,China by phylogenetic analysis.The result has laid foundation for studying the population genetic structure of F.gigantica and for the diagnosis and control of the disease it causes.%应用PCR方法扩增龙岩地区羊片形吸虫分离株ITS序列,经克隆、测序后获得ITS全长序列944bp,其中ITS-1为421bp,ITS-2为361bp;通过在肝片吸虫和大片吸虫ITS种间鉴别位点上的序列分析表明,从龙岩地区羊体内分离的片形吸虫虫种属大片吸虫(命名为FgLY)。与国内外大片吸虫的进化分析表明,FgLY与中国云南的2个分离株处在一个小分支,亲缘关系最近。该结果为羊大片吸虫的进一步生物学研究和片形吸虫病的预防奠定了基础。

  17. 云南省大理州大片形吸虫群体感染26例分析%Twenty six cases of human Fasciola gigantica infection in Dali, Yunnan province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈木新; 罗家军; 陈家旭; 艾琳; 许学年; 吕山; 焦建明; 苏慧勇; 臧伟; 诸廷俊; 蔡玉春

    2012-01-01

    预防控制部门应加强对当地居民健康教育,了解生食水生植物的潜在危害,预防本病的发生.%Objective The aim of the study was to investigate the epidemic situation,clinical symptom,diagnosis and epidemiological characteristics of human Fasciola gigantica infection in Dali,Yunnan province.It will also provide a scientific basis for fasciolosis control and prevention.Methods Epidemic data were collected and patient's clinical signs and symptoms were studied.Serum soluble antigen of Fasciola gigantica of patients and part of family members and health people in the same village was detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the eggs of Fasciola gigantica in stool were observed under microscope.Sequencing and PCR amplification of Fasciola gigantica eggs had been done.Sequencing results were analyzed using basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) program of the U.S.National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and the similarity of the two in the sequence of nucleic acid was compared.Furthermore,patients were experimentally given orally therapeutic doses of Triclabendazole 10 mg·kg-1·d-1 daily for 2 days,and kept in the hospital for observation for one week.Moreover,host and vector were investigated in the surrounding ditches of Dali prefecture and Limnaea peregra snail samples were collected.All the snails were squashed by glass sheet in order to detect the cercarie.Cow dung and sheep manure was collected in the Limnaea peregra distribution environment,and the eggs in the feces were checked by microscope after washing and precipitation.Results All the 26 patients had a continued hyperpyrexia with distinct alimentary system symptoms of nausea,vomiting,stomachache,abdominal distension as well as hepatomegaly,sensitive to percussion,different levels of liver damage detected by CT.All the patients had an eaten history of raw Herba Houttuyniae and other aquatic plants,and the course of the disease was similar,with the

  18. Potential of Hemianax ephippiger (Odonata-Aeshnidae) nymph as predator of Fasciola intermediate host, Lymnaea natalensis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aly Younes Hanaa El-Sherif Fathia Gawish Marwa Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the predatory capacity of the Odonata, Hemianax ephippiger nymph as a biocontrol agent for the freshwater snail Lymnaea natalensis, intermediate host of Fasciola gigantica. Methods...

  19. Experimental infections with Fasciola in snails, mice and rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Abdel-Nasser A; Khalifa, R M A

    2008-05-01

    Experimental infection trails of Lymnaea (cailliaudi) natalensis snails with miracidia of Fasciola hepatica revealed neither cercariae nor larval stages shed. Infection of white mice with metacercariae from field-collected snails proved to be negative for Fasciola eggs and immature juveniles or adults after 84 days post infection. The infection of eight rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) has succeeded; two rabbits were infected, with a very low infection rate. Faeces of rabbits were negative for eggs. The worm burden was one and three worms from 40 fed metacercariae. The obtained fluke measures 23 mm in length by 4 mm in width. The tegument is covered with sharp-ending spines. The uterus contains few eggs. The intrauterine eggs measured 158 microm x 80 microm. According to the morphological characters of these flukes, they belong to F. gigantica.

  20. Survey of transcripts expressed by the invasive juvenile stage of the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarez-Valín Fernando

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The common liver fluke Fasciola hepatica is the agent of a zoonosis with significant economic consequences in livestock production worldwide, and increasing relevance to human health in developing countries. Although flukicidal drugs are available, re-infection and emerging resistance are demanding new efficient and inexpensive control strategies. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the host-parasite interaction provide relevant clues in this search, while enlightening the physiological adaptations to parasitism. Genomics and transcriptomics are still in their infancy in F. hepatica, with very scarce information available from the invasive newly excysted juveniles (NEJ. Here we provide an initial glimpse to the transcriptomics of the NEJ, the first stage to interact with the mammalian host. Results We catalogued more than 500 clusters generated from the analysis of F. hepatica juvenile expressed sequence tags (EST, several of them not detected in the adult stage. A set of putative F. hepatica specific transcripts, and a group of sequences conserved exclusively in flatworms were identified. These novel sequences along with a set of parasite transcripts absent in the host genomes are putative new targets for future anti-parasitic drugs or vaccine development. Comparisons of the F. hepatica sequences with other metazoans genomes or EST databases were consistent with the basal positioning of flatworms in the bilaterian phylogeny. Notably, GC content, codon usage and amino acid frequencies are remarkably different in Schistosomes to F. hepatica and other trematodes. Functional annotation of predicted proteins showed a general representation of diverse biological functions. Besides proteases and antioxidant enzymes expected to participate in the early interaction with the host, various proteins involved in gene expression, protein synthesis, cell signaling and mitochondrial enzymes were identified. Differential

  1. Vaccine potential of recombinant saposin-like protein 2 against Fasciolosis gigantica in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueakhai, Pornanan; Changklungmoa, Narin; Riengrojpitak, Suda; Chaichanasak, Pannigan; Meemon, Krai; Chaithirayanon, Kulathida; Chantree, Pathanin; Sansri, Veerawat; Itagaki, Tadashi; Sobhon, Prasert

    2013-11-12

    Saposin-like protein 2 (SAP-2) is a protein that adult of Fasciola spp. use to lyse plasma membrane of red blood cells, so that their contents can be digested by proteases for the parasites' nutrients. Thus SAP-2 is a plausible target for vaccination against these parasites. Recombinant Fasciola gigantica saposin-like protein 2 (rFgSAP-2) was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). A vaccination was performed in ICR mice (n=10) by subcutaneous injection with 50μg of rFgSAP-2 combined with Freund's adjuvant. At 2 weeks after the second boost, mice were infected with 30 F. gigantica metacercariae by oral route. The percentages of protection of rFgSAP-2 vaccine against F. gigantica were estimated to be 76.4-78.5% when compared with non vaccinated-infected and adjuvant-infected controls, respectively. The antibodies in immune sera of vaccinated mice were shown by immuno-blotting to react with native FgSAP-2 in the extract of 2- and 4-week-old juvenile parasites. By determining the levels of IgG1 and IgG2a in the immune sera, which are indicative of Th2 and Th1 immune responses, it was found that both Th1 and Th2 humoral immune response were significantly increased in rFgSAP-2 immunized group compared with the control groups, with higher levels of Th2 (IgG1) than Th1 (IgG2a). The levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) in rFgSAP-2-immunized group showed no significant difference from those of the non-immunized and infected group, indicating that early juvenile parasites induced liver parenchyma damage, even though the numbers of worm recoveries were significantly different. This study indicates that rFgSAP-2 has a high potential as a vaccine candidate against F. gigantica in mice, and this potential will be tested in larger economic animals.

  2. Stimulating Neoblast-Like Cell Proliferation in Juvenile Fasciola hepatica Supports Growth and Progression towards the Adult Phenotype In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathinasamy, Vignesh; Toet, Hayley; McCammick, Erin; O’Connor, Anna; Marks, Nikki J.; Mousley, Angela; Brennan, Gerard P.; Halton, David W.; Spithill, Terry W.; Maule, Aaron G.

    2016-01-01

    Fascioliasis (or fasciolosis) is a socioeconomically important parasitic disease caused by liver flukes of the genus Fasciola. Flukicide resistance has exposed the need for new drugs and/or a vaccine for liver fluke control. A rapidly improving ‘molecular toolbox’ for liver fluke encompasses quality genomic/transcriptomic datasets and an RNA interference platform that facilitates functional genomics approaches to drug/vaccine target validation. The exploitation of these resources is undermined by the absence of effective culture/maintenance systems that would support in vitro studies on juvenile fluke development/biology. Here we report markedly improved in vitro maintenance methods for Fasciola hepatica that achieved 65% survival of juvenile fluke after 6 months in standard cell culture medium supplemented with 50% chicken serum. We discovered that this long-term maintenance was dependent upon fluke growth, which was supported by increased proliferation of cells resembling the “neoblast” stem cells described in other flatworms. Growth led to dramatic morphological changes in juveniles, including the development of the digestive tract, reproductive organs and the tegument, towards more adult-like forms. The inhibition of DNA synthesis prevented neoblast-like cell proliferation and inhibited growth/development. Supporting our assertion that we have triggered the development of juveniles towards adult-like fluke, mass spectrometric analyses showed that growing fluke have an excretory/secretory protein profile that is distinct from that of newly-excysted juveniles and more closely resembles that of ex vivo immature and adult fluke. Further, in vitro maintained fluke displayed a transition in their movement from the probing behaviour associated with migrating stage worms to a slower wave-like motility seen in adults. Our ability to stimulate neoblast-like cell proliferation and growth in F. hepatica underpins the first simple platform for their long-term in

  3. Stimulating Neoblast-Like Cell Proliferation in Juvenile Fasciola hepatica Supports Growth and Progression towards the Adult Phenotype In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCusker, Paul; McVeigh, Paul; Rathinasamy, Vignesh; Toet, Hayley; McCammick, Erin; O'Connor, Anna; Marks, Nikki J; Mousley, Angela; Brennan, Gerard P; Halton, David W; Spithill, Terry W; Maule, Aaron G

    2016-09-01

    Fascioliasis (or fasciolosis) is a socioeconomically important parasitic disease caused by liver flukes of the genus Fasciola. Flukicide resistance has exposed the need for new drugs and/or a vaccine for liver fluke control. A rapidly improving 'molecular toolbox' for liver fluke encompasses quality genomic/transcriptomic datasets and an RNA interference platform that facilitates functional genomics approaches to drug/vaccine target validation. The exploitation of these resources is undermined by the absence of effective culture/maintenance systems that would support in vitro studies on juvenile fluke development/biology. Here we report markedly improved in vitro maintenance methods for Fasciola hepatica that achieved 65% survival of juvenile fluke after 6 months in standard cell culture medium supplemented with 50% chicken serum. We discovered that this long-term maintenance was dependent upon fluke growth, which was supported by increased proliferation of cells resembling the "neoblast" stem cells described in other flatworms. Growth led to dramatic morphological changes in juveniles, including the development of the digestive tract, reproductive organs and the tegument, towards more adult-like forms. The inhibition of DNA synthesis prevented neoblast-like cell proliferation and inhibited growth/development. Supporting our assertion that we have triggered the development of juveniles towards adult-like fluke, mass spectrometric analyses showed that growing fluke have an excretory/secretory protein profile that is distinct from that of newly-excysted juveniles and more closely resembles that of ex vivo immature and adult fluke. Further, in vitro maintained fluke displayed a transition in their movement from the probing behaviour associated with migrating stage worms to a slower wave-like motility seen in adults. Our ability to stimulate neoblast-like cell proliferation and growth in F. hepatica underpins the first simple platform for their long-term in vitro study

  4. Novel methods for the molecular discrimination of Fasciola spp. on the basis of nuclear protein-coding genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoriki, Takuya; Ichikawa-Seki, Madoka; Suganuma, Keisuke; Naito, Ikunori; Hayashi, Kei; Nakao, Minoru; Aita, Junya; Mohanta, Uday Kumar; Inoue, Noboru; Murakami, Kenji; Itagaki, Tadashi

    2016-06-01

    Fasciolosis is an economically important disease of livestock caused by Fasciola hepatica, Fasciola gigantica, and aspermic Fasciola flukes. The aspermic Fasciola flukes have been discriminated morphologically from the two other species by the absence of sperm in their seminal vesicles. To date, the molecular discrimination of F. hepatica and F. gigantica has relied on the nucleotide sequences of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region. However, ITS1 genotypes of aspermic Fasciola flukes cannot be clearly differentiated from those of F. hepatica and F. gigantica. Therefore, more precise and robust methods are required to discriminate Fasciola spp. In this study, we developed PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism and multiplex PCR methods to discriminate F. hepatica, F. gigantica, and aspermic Fasciola flukes on the basis of the nuclear protein-coding genes, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and DNA polymerase delta, which are single locus genes in most eukaryotes. All aspermic Fasciola flukes used in this study had mixed fragment pattern of F. hepatica and F. gigantica for both of these genes, suggesting that the flukes are descended through hybridization between the two species. These molecular methods will facilitate the identification of F. hepatica, F. gigantica, and aspermic Fasciola flukes, and will also prove useful in etiological studies of fasciolosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Development of a versatile in vitro method for understanding the migration of Fasciola hepatica newly excysted juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Campos, Andres; Baird, Alan W; Mulcahy, Grace

    2016-01-01

    Fasciola hepatica is a parasitic trematode that causes serious losses to livestock producers, and also zoonotic disease. The limitations of chemotherapy for the control of fasciolosis have led to significant interest in the development of vaccines to protect cattle and sheep from infection. However, relatively few studies have concentrated on the mechanisms of invasion of the gut by newly excysted juvenile liver flukes (NEJ) and the host response triggered by this event. The aim of this work was to develop an in vitro model to study invasion by NEJ, while also reducing the requirement for challenge infections of experimental animals. Fasciola hepatica metacercariae were excysted in vitro and placed into compartments containing rat distal jejunal sheets. Variations in incubation medium, chamber size and incubation temperature were used to identify optimal conditions for NEJ migration across the gut. Histological examination showed increased migration until 120 min post-incubation. The use of RPMI, without gassing at 39 °C, as the incubation medium was found to be optimal, with 40·5% of NEJ migrating after 150 min. This study describes a readily-reproducible method for studying the migration of F. hepatica NEJ within the definitive host. It will be useful for identifying potential drug and vaccine targets.

  6. Isothermal microcalorimetry to study the activity of triclabendazole and its metabolites on juvenile and adult Fasciola hepatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiser, Jennifer; Manneck, Theresia; Kirchhofer, Carla; Braissant, Olivier

    2013-03-01

    Isothermal microcalorimetry (IMC) is an analytical tool that continuously measures the heat flow generated by chemical, physical or biological processes. We have demonstrated that IMC is a useful tool to analyze drug effects on helminths, including adult Fasciola hepatica. Here, we used IMC to examine the activity of triclabendazole and its metabolites triclabendazole sulphone and triclabendazole sulphoxide on juvenile and adult F. hepatica. Worms (one adult or 2-3 juveniles) were placed in 4 or 20 ml glass ampoules containing RPMI 1640 and the test compound (25-100 μg/ml) and the heat flow and motility of worms was examined with TAM48 and TAMIII isothermal microcalorimetry instruments. IMC was found to be precisely document drug effects on juvenile F. hepatica and confirmed the pronounced effect of the benzimidazole derivatives on the motor activity of F. hepatica. Juvenile F. hepatica incubated with 100 μg/ml triclabendazole, triclabendazole sulphone and triclabendazole sulphoxide showed no movements 8.3, 35 and 6h post-incubation (all phepatica as only three worms could be measured simultaneously and also control worms showed a considerable decrease in heat flow. Adult F. hepatica exposed to triclabendazole, triclabendazole sulphone and triclabendazole sulphoxide showed no movements after 31 (p=0.009), 49 (p>0.05) and 88 (p>0.05)h. In conclusion, IMC is useful to document drug effects on juvenile F. hepatica and since rapid technological developments in this field are occurring IMC might also hold promise to study adult F. hepatica in the near future.

  7. 吡喹酮、甲苯咪唑、阿苯达唑、三氯苯达唑治疗巨片形吸虫病的临床疗效观察%Observation on the clinical curative effect of praziquantel, mebendazole, albendazole, triclabendazole treatment on Fasciola gigantica disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨汝军; 刘彦才; 杨锡铭; 经晓杰

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the therapeutic effect of praziquantel,mebendazole,albendazole or triclabendazole on Fasciola gigantica disease by clinical comparative method. Methods 18 cases of Fasciola gigantica were treated respectively with mebendazole tablets [ 5 mg/( kg · d),2 times a day orally,for 15 d ],albendazole tablets [ (20 mg/(kg · d),2 times a day orally,for 15 d ],triclabendazole [ 10mg/(kg · d) meal service,two days a course of treatment].3 of the 18 cases were given a total dose of praziquantel 120 ~180 mg/kg,equally divided into 4 d,twice a day.The curative effects were assessed after the completion of treatment,according to the evaluation criteria:( 1 ) after a course of treatment,the clinical symptoms were significantly alleviated,especially the frequency and severity of fever had obviously improved than that before treatment.(2) Count of white blood cells and count or proportion of eosinophils decreased than that before treatment,and erythrocyte sedimentation rate,C-reactive protein and other inflammatory response reduced compared to that before treatment.(3) Liver CT should be re-examined half an month after treatment,low density foci were absorpted compared to that before treatment. (4) Feces discharged was free of eggs of Fasciola gigantica.Significant effect must meet the four standards of (1),(2),( 3 ),(4).Valid'effect must meet the criteria ( 1 ),plus,the arbitrary two of ( 2 ) or ( 3 ) or ( 4 ).Invalid does not meet anyone of ( 1 ),(2),( 3 ),(4).Results Praziquantel,mebendazole,or albendazole treatment on Fasciola gigantica disease was invalid,while triclabendazole treatment of 18 cases of Fasciola hepatica disease was effective.Conclusion Triclabendazole was effective for treatment of Fasciola gigantica disease.%目的 采用临床对照方法,观察吡喹酮、甲苯咪唑、阿苯达唑、三氯苯达唑治疗巨片形吸虫病的效果.方法 18例巨片形吸虫病例依次用甲苯咪唑片[5 mg/(kg·d),2次/d口服,连用15 d

  8. Molecular identification of Fasciola spp. (Digenea: Platyhelminthes in cattle from Vietnam

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    Nguyen S.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Fasciola spp. were collected from naturally infected cattle at a local abattoir of Khanh Hoa province, Vietnam, for morphological and genetic investigations. Microscopic examination detected no sperm cells in the seminal vesicles, suggesting a parthenogenetic reproduction of the flukes. Analyses of sequences from the first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2 of the ribosomal RNA revealed that 13 out of 16 isolates were of Fasciola gigantica type, whereas three isolates presented a hybrid sequence from F. gigantica and Fasciola hepatica. Interestingly, all the mitochondrial sequences (partial COI and NDI were of F. gigantica type, suggesting that the maternal lineage of the hybrid form is from F. gigantica. No intra-sequence variation was detected.

  9. 抗大片吸虫分泌排泄抗原单克隆抗体制备及其生物学特性鉴定%Preparation of monoclonal antibodies against excretory-secretory antigen of Fasciola gigantica and identification of its biological characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓栩; 王华俊; 林贤; 陈汉忠; 曹池; 唐大运; 孟盟; 刘明如

    2012-01-01

    [目的]制备大片吸虫分泌排泄抗原单克隆抗体,为大片吸虫病的免疫诊断、防治等研究奠定基础.[方法]利用杂交瘤技术,以大片吸虫分泌排泄抗原为免疫原制备单克隆抗体,并用ELISA、硫氰酸盐洗脱法等方法鉴定其生物学特性.[结果]通过间接ELISA筛选及3次亚克隆后,共获得5株大片吸虫分泌排泄抗原单克隆抗体杂交瘤细胞株,分别命名为6D3、6B4、7D2、7D1和7D4.经鉴定,发现5株杂交瘤细胞染色体数为90~110条,均大于亲本细胞,其亚类鉴定分别属于IgG2b、IgM、IgM、IgGl和IgM,其轻链均为κ型;5株单克隆抗体(6D3、6B4、7D2、7D1、7D4)的上清效价分别为1∶400、1∶3200、1∶25600、1∶6400和1∶6400,腹水效价分别为1∶104、1∶104、1∶105、1∶107和1∶106;而表位测定结果表明,5株单克隆抗体中,6D3与7D1、7D2以及7D4与7D1、7D2作用于不同表位,6D3与6B4可能识别同一表位或重叠表位,或同一表位有空间位阻,7D4与6D3以及6B4与7D4、7D1、7D2可能具有空间位阻;5株单克隆抗体的相对亲和力为:6B4>7D4>7D1 >6D3>7D2;5株杂交瘤细胞株均能稳定地分泌单克隆抗体.[结论]制备获得的分泌排泄抗原单克隆抗体可用于大片吸虫病的诊断和免疫机理等方面的进一步研究.%[Objective]Fasciola gigantica excretory and secretory antigen monoclonal antibodies were prepared for further study on diagnosis and control of Fasciola gigantica diseases. [ Method ]The monoclonal antibodies of Fasciola gigantica excretory and secretory antigen were made by hybridoma technology and its biological characteristics were identified by ELISA, thiocyanate elution. [ Result ] After indirect ELISA selection and three times of subcloning, five hybridoma ceD lines (6D3, 6B4, 7D2, 7D1, and 7D4) of monoclonal antibodies against excretory-secretory antigen of Fasciola gigantic were obtained. The numbers of chromosome of hybridoma cell lines, ranging

  10. Molecular Characterization of Animal Fasciola spp. Isolates from Kermanshah, Western Iran

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    Arezoo BOZORGOMID

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available  Background: We evaluated the genetic diversity of samples identified morphologically as Fasciola spp. from sheep, cattle and goat from Kermanshah Province, western Iran using PCR-RFLP method.Methods: We used PCR-RFLP analysis of ribosomal ITS1 fragment using RsaI restriction enzyme to investigate the genetic characteristics of Fasciola species obtained from different hosts (16 sheep, 28 cattle, 4 goats. The species of Fasciola were confirmed by sequencing the 700 bp region of ribosomal ITS1 gene.Results: In Kermanshah, F. hepatica was present in 96% of the samples, F. gigantica was found only in two cattle sample. No hybrid forms were detected in the present study. Conclusion: Our results contribute to clarify the dark spots of Fasciola genotyping in different parts of Iran. Keywords: Fasciola hepatica, Fasciola gigantica, Genotype, PCR, Iran

  11. An Outbreak of Human Fascioliasis gigantica in Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia-Xu; Chen, Mu-Xin; Ai, Lin; Xu, Xue-Nian; Jiao, Jian-Ming; Zhu, Ting-Jun; Su, Hui-Yong; Zang, Wei; Luo, Jia-Jun; Guo, Yun-Hai; Lv, Shan; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2013-01-01

    Fascioliasis is a common parasitic disease in livestock in China. However, human fascioliasis is rarely reported in the country. Here we describe an outbreak of human fascioliasis in Yunnan province. We reviewed the complete clinical records of 29 patients and performed an epidemiological investigation on the general human population and animals in the outbreak locality. Our findings support an outbreak due to Fasciola gigantica with a peak in late November, 2011. The most common symptoms were remittent fever, epigastric tenderness, and hepatalgia. Eosinophilia and tunnel-like lesions in ultrasound imaging in the liver were also commonly seen. Significant improvement of patients' condition was achieved by administration of triclabendazole®. Fasciola spp. were discovered in local cattle (28.6%) and goats (26.0%). Molecular evidence showed a coexistence of F. gigantica and F. hepatica. However, all eggs seen in humans were confirmed to be F. gigantica. Herb (Houttuynia cordata) was most likely the source of infections. Our findings indicate that human fascioliasis is a neglected disease in China. The distribution of triclabendazole®, the only efficacious drug against human fascioliasis, should be promoted.

  12. A novel ex vivo immunoproteomic approach characterising Fasciola hepatica tegumental antigens identified using immune antibody from resistant sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Timothy C; Cooke, Ira; Faou, Pierre; Toet, Hayley; Piedrafita, David; Young, Neil; Rathinasamy, Vignesh; Beddoe, Travis; Anderson, Glenn; Dempster, Robert; Spithill, Terry W

    2017-08-01

    A more thorough understanding of the immunological interactions between Fasciola spp. and their hosts is required if we are to develop new immunotherapies to control fasciolosis. Deeper knowledge of the antigens that are the target of the acquired immune responses of definitive hosts against both Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica will potentially identify candidate vaccine antigens. Indonesian Thin Tail sheep express a high level of acquired immunity to infection by F. gigantica within 4weeks of infection and antibodies in Indonesian Thin Tail sera can promote antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity against the surface tegument of juvenile F. gigantica in vitro. Given the high protein sequence similarity between F. hepatica and F. gigantica, we hypothesised that antibody from F. gigantica-infected sheep could be used to identify the orthologous proteins in the tegument of F. hepatica. Purified IgG from the sera of F. gigantica-infected Indonesian Thin Tail sheep collected pre-infection and 4weeks p.i. were incubated with live adult F. hepatica ex vivo and the immunosloughate (immunoprecipitate) formed was isolated and analysed via liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry to identify proteins involved in the immune response. A total of 38 proteins were identified at a significantly higher abundance in the immunosloughate using week 4 IgG, including eight predicted membrane proteins, 20 secreted proteins, nine proteins predicted to be associated with either the lysosomes, the cytoplasm or the cytoskeleton and one protein with an unknown cellular localization. Three of the membrane proteins are transporters including a multidrug resistance protein, an amino acid permease and a glucose transporter. Interestingly, a total of 21 of the 38 proteins matched with proteins recently reported to be associated with the proposed small exosome-like extracellular vesicles of adult F. hepatica, suggesting that the Indonesian Thin Tail week

  13. Fenotipaje de individuos del género fasciola linnaeus, 1758 (trematoda: fasciolidae) de areas endemicas con caracteristicas heterogeneas

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira Peixoto, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    Fascioliasis is a zoonotic disease emerging in numerous parts of the world. Fascioliasis is an important food-borne parasitic disease caused by the two trematode species, Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. The characterisation and di erentiation of Fasciola populations is crucial to control the disease, given the di erent transmission, epidemiology and pathology characteristics of the two species. Furthermore, in any endemic area, the characterisation of scenarios and patterns of infec...

  14. Tegument Glycoproteins and Cathepsins of Newly Excysted Juvenile Fasciola hepatica Carry Mannosidic and Paucimannosidic N-glycans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Campos, Andres; Ravidà, Alessandra; Nguyen, D Linh; Cwiklinski, Krystyna; Dalton, John P; Hokke, Cornelis H; O'Neill, Sandra; Mulcahy, Grace

    2016-05-01

    Recently, the prevalence of Fasciola hepatica in some areas has increased considerably and the availability of a vaccine to protect livestock from infection would represent a major advance in tools available for controlling this disease. To date, most vaccine-target discovery research on this parasite has concentrated on proteomic and transcriptomic approaches whereas little work has been carried out on glycosylation. As the F. hepatica tegument (Teg) may contain glycans potentially relevant to vaccine development and the Newly Excysted Juvenile (NEJ) is the first lifecycle stage in contact with the definitive host, our work has focused on assessing the glycosylation of the NEJTeg and identifying the NEJTeg glycoprotein repertoire. After in vitro excystation, NEJ were fixed and NEJTeg was extracted. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) analysis of released N-glycans revealed that oligomannose and core-fucosylated truncated N-glycans were the most dominant glycan types. By lectin binding studies these glycans were identified mainly on the NEJ surface, together with the oral and ventral suckers. NEJTeg glycoproteins were affinity purified after targeted biotinylation of the glycans and identified using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). From the total set of proteins previously identified in NEJTeg, eighteen were also detected in the glycosylated fraction, including the F. hepatica Cathepsin B3 (FhCB3) and two of the Cathepsin L3 (FhCL3) proteins, among others. To confirm glycosylation of cathepsins, analysis at the glycopeptide level by LC-ESI-ion-trap-MS/MS with collision-induced dissociation (CID) and electron-transfer dissociation (ETD) was carried out. We established that cathepsin B1 (FhCB1) on position N80, and FhCL3 (BN1106_s10139B000014, scaffold10139) on position N153, carry unusual paucimannosidic Man2GlcNAc2 glycans. To our knowledge, this is the first description of F

  15. Tegument Glycoproteins and Cathepsins of Newly Excysted Juvenile Fasciola hepatica Carry Mannosidic and Paucimannosidic N-glycans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Garcia-Campos

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the prevalence of Fasciola hepatica in some areas has increased considerably and the availability of a vaccine to protect livestock from infection would represent a major advance in tools available for controlling this disease. To date, most vaccine-target discovery research on this parasite has concentrated on proteomic and transcriptomic approaches whereas little work has been carried out on glycosylation. As the F. hepatica tegument (Teg may contain glycans potentially relevant to vaccine development and the Newly Excysted Juvenile (NEJ is the first lifecycle stage in contact with the definitive host, our work has focused on assessing the glycosylation of the NEJTeg and identifying the NEJTeg glycoprotein repertoire. After in vitro excystation, NEJ were fixed and NEJTeg was extracted. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS analysis of released N-glycans revealed that oligomannose and core-fucosylated truncated N-glycans were the most dominant glycan types. By lectin binding studies these glycans were identified mainly on the NEJ surface, together with the oral and ventral suckers. NEJTeg glycoproteins were affinity purified after targeted biotinylation of the glycans and identified using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. From the total set of proteins previously identified in NEJTeg, eighteen were also detected in the glycosylated fraction, including the F. hepatica Cathepsin B3 (FhCB3 and two of the Cathepsin L3 (FhCL3 proteins, among others. To confirm glycosylation of cathepsins, analysis at the glycopeptide level by LC-ESI-ion-trap-MS/MS with collision-induced dissociation (CID and electron-transfer dissociation (ETD was carried out. We established that cathepsin B1 (FhCB1 on position N80, and FhCL3 (BN1106_s10139B000014, scaffold10139 on position N153, carry unusual paucimannosidic Man2GlcNAc2 glycans. To our knowledge, this is the first description

  16. Partial Hepatectomy for the Resistant Fasciola Hepatica Infection in a Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belgin, Gülhan; S, Kanık Yüksek; H, Tezer; A, Özkaya Parlakay; B, Dalgıç; A, Dalgıç; G, Yilmaz

    2015-01-01

    Fascioliasis is an emerging and important chronic parasitic disease caused by two trematode liver fluke species: Fasciola hepatica (F. hepatica) and Fasciola gigantica (F. gigantica) infecting several herbivorous mammals including cattle, goats, sheep, and humans. We report a 9-year-old girl who suffered from F. hepatica infection and underwent right hepatectomy because of increasing abdominal pain resistant to anthelmintic chemotherapy. When anthelmintic drug treatment is not effective and abdominal pain persists, surgical resection including hepatectomy should be kept in mind for resistant F. hepatica infection.

  17. Partial Hepatectomy for the Resistant Fasciola Hepatica Infection in a Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    S, Kanık Yüksek; H, Tezer; A, Özkaya Parlakay; B, Dalgıç; A, Dalgıç; G, Yilmaz

    2015-01-01

    Fascioliasis is an emerging and important chronic parasitic disease caused by two trematode liver fluke species: Fasciola hepatica (F. hepatica) and Fasciola gigantica (F. gigantica) infecting several herbivorous mammals including cattle, goats, sheep, and humans. We report a 9-year-old girl who suffered from F. hepatica infection and underwent right hepatectomy because of increasing abdominal pain resistant to anthelmintic chemotherapy. When anthelmintic drug treatment is not effective and abdominal pain persists, surgical resection including hepatectomy should be kept in mind for resistant F. hepatica infection. PMID:26623254

  18. Partial Hepatectomy for the Resistant Fasciola Hepatica Infection in a Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Gülhan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fascioliasis is an emerging and important chronic parasitic disease caused by two trematode liver fluke species: Fasciola hepatica (F. hepatica and Fasciola gigantica (F. gigantica infecting several herbivorous mammals including cattle, goats, sheep, and humans. We report a 9-year-old girl who suffered from F. hepatica infection and underwent right hepatectomy because of increasing abdominal pain resistant to anthelmintic chemotherapy. When anthelmintic drug treatment is not effective and abdominal pain persists, surgical resection including hepatectomy should be kept in mind for resistant F. hepatica infection.

  19. The Role of Antibody Isotypes Against Fasciola Gigantica In Immune Response With An Emphasis On Antibody Dependent Cell Mediated Cytoxicity%抗巨片形吸虫同型抗体在动物巨片形吸虫感染所致的抗体依赖性细胞介导的细胞毒反应( ADCC )免疫应答作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈思礼; 陈强; 周雨丝; 李玲; 陈思义; 吴风娇; 陈思祗; 丁书茂; SPITHILL Terry

    2003-01-01

    The study was carried out in two breeds of sheep, Indonesia Thin Tail (ITT) and Merino, both infected with F. gigantica. Kinetic analysis of Fasciola gigantica specific antibody responses revealed that resistant ITT do not produce a parasite specific IgG2 response; whereas susceptible Merino sheep produce a high parasite specific IgG2 response. The IgG2 produced in Merino sheep might act as a blocking antibody for antibody dependant cell mediated cytotoxicity by macrophages. Whereas, ITT appeared to down regulate IgG2 response, which might enable these sheep to possess an enhanced capacity of killing F. gigantica. The purified IgG1 and IgG2 were used in in vitro killing assays. IgG1 promotes the highest amount of killing compared to immune sera and IgG2 using purified Merino sera antibodies for in vitro killing assays. F. gigantica cultured in increasing amount of IgG1 had a trend of increasing the death rate. Parasites cultured in 10 ug/ml of IgG1 showed the highest amount of death. F. gigantica cultured in eosinophils with immune ITT sera (Day35) was 55% death after 24 hours. It should be that using purified eosinophils with immune ITT serum resulted in a strong trend of killing occurring in those wells which contained a combination of immune sera complement, IL-5 and eosinophils.%以印尼短尾羊(ITT)和美利奴细毛羊( Merino )两种品系的绵羊为实验动物,研究动物感染巨片形吸虫后所产生的抗体依赖性细胞介导的细胞毒反应的免疫应答.结果显示:对巨片形吸虫感染具有抗性的印尼短尾羊不产生特异性的IgG2, 而易感品系的美利奴细毛羊感染巨片形吸虫后体内产生高滴度特异性IgG2抗体.特异性IgG2抗体在免疫应答中起着封闭抗体的作用,抑制巨噬细胞抗体依赖性细胞介导的细胞毒反应.由于印尼短尾羊不产生特异性IgG2抗体,对巨噬细胞抗体依赖性细胞介导的细胞毒反应不产生抑制作用,因此印尼短尾羊对巨片形吸

  20. Identification of Chalcones as Fasciola hepatica Cathepsin L Inhibitors Using a Comprehensive Experimental and Computational Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Florencia; Merlino, Alicia; dell´Oca, Nicolás; Gil, Jorge; Tort, José F.; Gonzalez, Mercedes; Cerecetto, Hugo; Cabrera, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    Background Increased reports of human infections have led fasciolosis, a widespread disease of cattle and sheep caused by the liver flukes Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica, to be considered an emerging zoonotic disease. Chemotherapy is the main control measure available, and triclabendazole is the preferred drug since is effective against both juvenile and mature parasites. However, resistance to triclabendazole has been reported in several countries urging the search of new chemical entities and target molecules to control fluke infections. Methodology/Principle Findings We searched a library of forty flavonoid derivatives for inhibitors of key stage specific Fasciola hepatica cysteine proteases (FhCL3 and FhCL1). Chalcones substituted with phenyl and naphtyl groups emerged as good cathepsin L inhibitors, interacting more frequently with two putative binding sites within the active site cleft of the enzymes. One of the compounds, C34, tightly bounds to juvenile specific FhCL3 with an IC50 of 5.6 μM. We demonstrated that C34 is a slow-reversible inhibitor that interacts with the Cys-His catalytic dyad and key S2 and S3 pocket residues, determinants of the substrate specificity of this family of cysteine proteases. Interestingly, C34 induces a reduction in NEJ ability to migrate through the gut wall and a loss of motility phenotype that leads to NEJ death within a week in vitro, while it is not cytotoxic to bovine cells. Conclusions/Significance Up to date there are no reports of in vitro screening for non-peptidic inhibitors of Fasciola hepatica cathepsins, while in general these are considered as the best strategy for in vivo inhibition. We have identified chalcones as novel inhibitors of the two main Cathepsins secreted by juvenile and adult liver flukes. Interestingly, one compound (C34) is highly active towards the juvenile enzyme reducing larval ability to penetrate the gut wall and decreasing NEJ´s viability in vitro. These findings open new avenues

  1. Identification of Chalcones as Fasciola hepatica Cathepsin L Inhibitors Using a Comprehensive Experimental and Computational Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Florencia; Merlino, Alicia; Dell Oca, Nicolás; Gil, Jorge; Tort, José F; Gonzalez, Mercedes; Cerecetto, Hugo; Cabrera, Mauricio; Corvo, Ileana

    2016-07-01

    Increased reports of human infections have led fasciolosis, a widespread disease of cattle and sheep caused by the liver flukes Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica, to be considered an emerging zoonotic disease. Chemotherapy is the main control measure available, and triclabendazole is the preferred drug since is effective against both juvenile and mature parasites. However, resistance to triclabendazole has been reported in several countries urging the search of new chemical entities and target molecules to control fluke infections. We searched a library of forty flavonoid derivatives for inhibitors of key stage specific Fasciola hepatica cysteine proteases (FhCL3 and FhCL1). Chalcones substituted with phenyl and naphtyl groups emerged as good cathepsin L inhibitors, interacting more frequently with two putative binding sites within the active site cleft of the enzymes. One of the compounds, C34, tightly bounds to juvenile specific FhCL3 with an IC50 of 5.6 μM. We demonstrated that C34 is a slow-reversible inhibitor that interacts with the Cys-His catalytic dyad and key S2 and S3 pocket residues, determinants of the substrate specificity of this family of cysteine proteases. Interestingly, C34 induces a reduction in NEJ ability to migrate through the gut wall and a loss of motility phenotype that leads to NEJ death within a week in vitro, while it is not cytotoxic to bovine cells. Up to date there are no reports of in vitro screening for non-peptidic inhibitors of Fasciola hepatica cathepsins, while in general these are considered as the best strategy for in vivo inhibition. We have identified chalcones as novel inhibitors of the two main Cathepsins secreted by juvenile and adult liver flukes. Interestingly, one compound (C34) is highly active towards the juvenile enzyme reducing larval ability to penetrate the gut wall and decreasing NEJ´s viability in vitro. These findings open new avenues for the development of novel agents to control fluke infection and

  2. Identification of Chalcones as Fasciola hepatica Cathepsin L Inhibitors Using a Comprehensive Experimental and Computational Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia Ferraro

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Increased reports of human infections have led fasciolosis, a widespread disease of cattle and sheep caused by the liver flukes Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica, to be considered an emerging zoonotic disease. Chemotherapy is the main control measure available, and triclabendazole is the preferred drug since is effective against both juvenile and mature parasites. However, resistance to triclabendazole has been reported in several countries urging the search of new chemical entities and target molecules to control fluke infections.We searched a library of forty flavonoid derivatives for inhibitors of key stage specific Fasciola hepatica cysteine proteases (FhCL3 and FhCL1. Chalcones substituted with phenyl and naphtyl groups emerged as good cathepsin L inhibitors, interacting more frequently with two putative binding sites within the active site cleft of the enzymes. One of the compounds, C34, tightly bounds to juvenile specific FhCL3 with an IC50 of 5.6 μM. We demonstrated that C34 is a slow-reversible inhibitor that interacts with the Cys-His catalytic dyad and key S2 and S3 pocket residues, determinants of the substrate specificity of this family of cysteine proteases. Interestingly, C34 induces a reduction in NEJ ability to migrate through the gut wall and a loss of motility phenotype that leads to NEJ death within a week in vitro, while it is not cytotoxic to bovine cells.Up to date there are no reports of in vitro screening for non-peptidic inhibitors of Fasciola hepatica cathepsins, while in general these are considered as the best strategy for in vivo inhibition. We have identified chalcones as novel inhibitors of the two main Cathepsins secreted by juvenile and adult liver flukes. Interestingly, one compound (C34 is highly active towards the juvenile enzyme reducing larval ability to penetrate the gut wall and decreasing NEJ´s viability in vitro. These findings open new avenues for the development of novel agents to control

  3. The miRnome of Fasciola hepatica juveniles endorses the existence of a reduced set of highly divergent micro RNAs in parasitic flatworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenla, Santiago; Dell'Oca, Nicolás; Smircich, Pablo; Tort, José F; Siles-Lucas, Mar

    2015-12-01

    The liver fluke Fasciola hepatica is a foodborne zoonotic parasite affecting livestock worldwide, with increasing relevance in human health. The first developmental stage that the host meets after ingestion of the parasite is the newly excysted juvenile, that actively transverses the gut wall and migrates to its final location in the liver. The regulation of the early developmental events in newly excysted juveniles is still poorly understood and a relevant target for control strategies. Here we investigated the putative involvement of small regulatory RNAs in the invasion process. The small RNA population of the newly excysted juvenile fall into two classes, one represented by micro (mi)RNAs and a secondary group of larger (32-33 nucleotides) tRNA-derived sequences. We identified 40 different miRNAs, most of those belonging to ancient miRNAs conserved in protostomes and metazoans, notably with a highly predominant miR-125b variant. Remarkably, several protostomian and metazoan conserved families were not detected in consonance with previous reports of drastic miRnome reduction in parasitic flatworms. Additionally, a set of five novel miRNAs was identified, probably associated with specific gene regulation expression needs in F. hepatica. While sequence conservation in mature miRNA is high across the metazoan tree, we observed that flatworm miRNAs are more divergent, suggesting that mutation rates in parasitic flatworms could be high. Finally, the distinctive presence of tRNA-derived sequences, mostly 5' tRNA halves of selected tRNAs in the small RNA population of newly excysted juveniles, raises the possibility that both miRNA and tRNA fragments participate in the regulation of gene expression in this parasite.

  4. Comparative Assay of Glutathione S- Transferase (GSTs Activity of Excretory-Secretory Materials and Somatic Extract of Fasciola spp Parasites

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    Heshmatollah Alirahmi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Fascioliasis is a worldwide parasitic disease in human and domestic animals. The causative agents of fascioliasis are Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. In the recent years, fasciola resistance to drugs has been reported in the many of publications. Fasciola spp has detoxification system including GST enzyme which may be responsible for its resistance. Therefore , the aim of the study was to assay of GST enzyme activity in fasciola parasites. Fasciola gigantica and Fasciola hepatica helminths were collected from abattoir as a live and cultured in buffer media for 4 h at 37 °C. Excretory-Secretory products were collected and stored in -80◦C. F. gigantica and Fasciola hepatica were homogenized with homogenizing buffer in a glass homogenizer to prepare of somatic extract. Suspension was then centrifuged and supernatant was stored at -80°C. In order to assay the enzyme activity, excretory-secretory and somatic extracts in the form of cocktails (potassium phosphate buffer, reduced glutathione and 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene substrates were prepared and their absorbance recorded for 5 minutes at 340 nm. The total and specific GST activity of F. gigantica somatic and ES products were obtained as 2916.00, 272.01 micromole/minute and 1.33, 1.70 micromole/minute/mg protein, respectively. Fasciola hepatica also showed 2705.00, 276.86 micromole/minute and 1.33, 1.52 micromole/minute/mg protein, respectively. These results are important for analysis of parasite survival / resistance to drugs which use for treatment of fascioliasis.

  5. Comparative Assay of Glutathione S- Transferase (GSTs Activity of Excretory-Secretory Materials and Somatic Extract of Fasciola spp Parasites

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    Taghi Golmohamadi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Fascioliasis is a worldwide parasitic disease in human and domestic animals. The causative agents of fascioliasis are Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. In the recent years, fasciola resistance to drugs has been reported in the many of publications. Fasciola spp has detoxification system including GST enzyme which may be responsible for its resistance. Therefore , the aim of the study was to assay of GST enzyme activity in fasciola parasites. Fasciola gigantica and Fasciola hepatica helminths were collected from abattoir as a live and cultured in buffer media for 4 h at 37 °C. Excretory-Secretory products were collected and stored in -80◦C. F. gigantica and Fasciola hepatica were homogenized with homogenizing buffer in a glass homogenizer to prepare of somatic extract. Suspension was then centrifuged and supernatant was stored at -80°C. In order to assay the enzyme activity, excretory-secretory and somatic extracts in the form of cocktails (potassium phosphate buffer, reduced glutathione and 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene substrates were prepared and their absorbance recorded for 5 minutes at 340 nm. The total and specific GST activity of F. gigantica somatic and ES products were obtained as 2916.00, 272.01 micromole/minute and 1.33, 1.70 micromole/minute/mg protein, respectively. Fasciola hepatica also showed 2705.00, 276.86 micromole/minute and 1.33, 1.52 micromole/minute/mg protein, respectively. These results are important for analysis of parasite survival / resistance to drugs which use for treatment of fascioliasis.

  6. Specific PCR-based assays for the identification of Fasciola species: their development, evaluation and potential usefulness in prevalence surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, L; Dong, S J; Zhang, W Y; Elsheikha, H M; Mahmmod, Y S; Lin, R Q; Yuan, Z G; Shi, Y L; Huang, W Y; Zhu, X Q

    2010-01-01

    Among the helminths infecting ruminants in China are three taxa belonging to the genus Fasciola: F. hepatica, F. gigantica and the so-called 'intermediate form' that appears to lie between these two species. Based on the sequences of the second internal-transcribed spacers (ITS-2) within the parasites' nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA), a pair of primers (DSJf/DSJ3) specific for F. hepatica and a pair (DSJf/DSJ4) specific for F. gigantica were designed and used to develop PCR-based assays. These assays allowed the identification and differentiation of F. hepatica, F. gigantica and the 'intermediate' Fasciola, with no amplicons produced from heterologous DNA samples. The results of sequencing confirmed the species-specific identity of the amplified products. The assays showed good sensitivity, giving positive results with as little as 0.11 ng of F. hepatica DNA and 0.35 ng of F. gigantica DNA. This meant that the DNA from a single Fasciola egg or a single infected snail was sufficient for identification of the Fasciola taxon. The developed PCR assays could provide useful tools for the detection, identification and epidemiological investigation of Fasciola infection in humans, other mammals and snails.

  7. Superoxide Dismutase (SOD Enzyme Activity Assay in Fasciola spp. Para-sites and Liver Tissue Extract

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    M Assady

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this comparative study was to detect superoxide dismutase (SOD activities in Fasciola hepatica, F. gigantica parasites, infected and healthy liver tissues in order to determine of species effects and liver infection on SODs activity level.Methods: Fasciola spp. parasites and sheep liver tissues (healthy and infected liver tissues, 10 samples for each, were collected, homogenized and investigated for protein measurement, protein detection and SOD enzyme activity assay. Protein concentration was measured by Bradford method and SODs band protein was detected on SDS-PAGE. SODs activity was determined by iodonitrotetrazolium chloride, INT, and xanthine substrates. Independent samples t-test was conducted for analysis of SODs activities difference.Results: Protein concentration means were detected for F. hepatica 1.3 mg/ ml, F. gigantica 2.9 mg/ml, healthy liver tissue 5.5 mg/ml and infected liver tissue 1.6 mg/ml (with similar weight sample mass. Specific enzyme activities in the samples were obtained 0.58, 0.57, 0.51, 1.43 U/mg for F. hepatica, F. gigantica, healthy liver and infected liver respectively. Gel electrophoresis of Fasciola spp. and sheep liver tissue extracts revealed a band protein with MW of 60 kDa. The statistical analysis revealed significant difference between SOD activities of Fasciola species and also between SOD activity of liver tissues (P<.05.Conclusion: Fasciola species and liver infection are effective causes on SOD enzyme activity level.

  8. Pseudosuccinea columella: experimental co-infections of juvenile and pre-adult snails with the digeneans Calicophoron daubneyi and Fasciola hepatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyfuss, G; Vignoles, P; Rondelaud, D

    2016-11-01

    Experimental co-infections of juvenile and pre-adult Pseudosuccinea columella with Calicophoron daubneyi and Fasciola hepatica (five miracidia of each digenean per snail) were carried out to determine the aptitude of this lymnaeid to ensure complete larval development of the former parasite, the latter or both. Snails infected with F. hepatica were found in the two groups of juveniles, i.e. 1 and 2 mm at exposure, and the four groups of pre-adults, i.e. 3-6 mm. The highest frequency of F. hepatica, i.e. 37.3%, was noted in the 4 mm group. Low frequencies were noted for C. daubneyi and co-infections of both digeneans in the 3, 4 and 5 mm groups. Two other groups of P. columella, measuring 3 and 4 mm at exposure, were also constituted to study the characteristics of these co-infections. Compared to controls infected only with F. hepatica, the frequency of this digenean infection and the mean number of metacercariae were significantly lower in co-infected snails, while the patent period was significantly shorter. In snails harbouring C. daubneyi only or both digeneans, lower values were noted for prevalence, the patent period and the number of metacercariae. Pre-adult P. columella (3-5 mm in shell height at exposure) were able to sustain larval development of C. daubneyi if they were co-infected with the sequence C. daubneyi +F. hepatica. Low values noted for the prevalence of C. daubneyi infection and the number of metacercariae would be in favour of a still incomplete adaptation between the snail population and the miracidial isolate.

  9. Monitoring of Fasciola Species Contamination in Water Dropwort by cox1 Mitochondrial and ITS-2 rDNA Sequencing Analysis.

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    Choi, In-Wook; Kim, Hwang-Yong; Quan, Juan-Hua; Ryu, Jae-Gee; Sun, Rubing; Lee, Young-Ha

    2015-10-01

    Fascioliasis, a food-borne trematode zoonosis, is a disease primarily in cattle and sheep and occasionally in humans. Water dropwort (Oenanthe javanica), an aquatic perennial herb, is a common second intermediate host of Fasciola, and the fresh stems and leaves are widely used as a seasoning in the Korean diet. However, no information regarding Fasciola species contamination in water dropwort is available. Here, we collected 500 samples of water dropwort in 3 areas in Korea during February and March 2015, and the water dropwort contamination of Fasciola species was monitored by DNA sequencing analysis of the Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica specific mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS-2). Among the 500 samples assessed, the presence of F. hepatica cox1 and 1TS-2 markers were detected in 2 samples, and F. hepatica contamination was confirmed by sequencing analysis. The nucleotide sequences of cox1 PCR products from the 2 F. hepatica-contaminated samples were 96.5% identical to the F. hepatica cox1 sequences in GenBank, whereas F. gigantica cox1 sequences were 46.8% similar with the sequence detected from the cox1 positive samples. However, F. gigantica cox1 and ITS-2 markers were not detected by PCR in the 500 samples of water dropwort. Collectively, in this survey of the water dropwort contamination with Fasciola species, very low prevalence of F. hepatica contamination was detected in the samples.

  10. Identification of Fasciola flukes in Thailand based on their spermatogenesis and nuclear ribosomal DNA, and their intraspecific relationships based on mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaichanasak, Pannigan; Ichikawa, Madoka; Sobhon, Prasert; Itagaki, Tadashi

    2012-12-01

    We analyzed 147 Fasciola flukes obtained from cattle in Thailand based on their spermatogenetic ability, and nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and mitochondrial nicotiamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1) genes as molecular markers. One hundred twenty-eight flukes, which had abundant sperm in their seminal vesicles (spermic) and showed the PCR-RFLP pattern of F. gigantica in the ITS1, were accurately identified as F. gigantica. The other 19 flukes that had no sperm in their seminal vesicles were aspermic Fasciola sp. with the RFLP patterns identical to that of F. gigantica. Twenty-nine ND1 haplotypes (Fg-ND1-Thai 2-30) were distinguished in the 128 F. gigantica flukes and were divided into haplotypes unique to Thailand and those common to other countries, suggesting the possibility that ancestral haplotypes were introduced into Thailand. Three haplotypes (Fg-ND1-Thai 7, 9 and 27) appeared to be the major haplotypes found in F. gigantica from Thailand. Only one haplotype (Fg-ND1-Thai 1) was found in the 19 aspermic Fasciola sp. flukes obtained from geographical regions, and the nucleotide sequence of Fg-ND1-Thai 1 was identical to that of the aspermic Fasciola sp. from Japan, Korea, China, Vietnam and Myanmar, suggesting that they were descendants with a common provenance and expanded to these countries in the relatively recent past.

  11. Molecular Characterization of Animal Fasciola spp. Isolates from Kermanshah, Western Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    BOZORGOMID, Arezoo; NAZARI, Naser; RAHIMI, Hamzeh; BEIGOM KIA, Eshrat; HAJJARAN, Homa; MOHEBALI, Mehdi; ARYAEIPOUR, Mojgan; HEIDARIAN, Peyman; EZATI, Mohammad Saeid; ROKNI, Mohamad Bagher

    2016-01-01

    Background: We evaluated the genetic diversity of samples identified morphologically as Fasciola spp. from sheep, cattle and goat from Kermanshah Province, western Iran using PCR-RFLP method. Methods: We used PCR-RFLP analysis of ribosomal ITS1 fragment using RsaI restriction enzyme to investigate the genetic characteristics of Fasciola species obtained from different hosts (16 sheep, 28 cattle, 4 goats). The species of Fasciola were confirmed by sequencing the 700 bp region of ribosomal ITS1 gene. Results: In Kermanshah, F. hepatica was present in 96% of the samples, F. gigantica was found only in two cattle sample. No hybrid forms were detected in the present study. Conclusion: Our results contribute to clarify the dark spots of Fasciola genotyping in different parts of Iran. PMID:27957438

  12. Fasciola hepatica infections in cattle and the freshwater snail Galba truncatula from Dakhla Oasis, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arafa, W M; Hassan, A I; Snousi, S A M; El-Dakhly, Kh M; Holman, P J; Craig, T M; Aboelhadid, S M

    2017-02-06

    Infection by Fasciola species was investigated in seven districts of Dakhla Oasis, Egypt, through abattoir inspection of cattle livers for adult worms and sedimentation of faecal samples from local cattle to detect Fasciola eggs. In addition, lymnaeid snails collected from the study area were examined microscopically for developmental stages of Fasciola spp. Abattoir inspection revealed that 51 out of 458 cattle livers (11.1%) contained adult flukes, which were identified morphologically as Fasciola hepatica. Examination of the cattle faecal samples revealed that 142 out of 503 (28.2%) contained Fasciola eggs. The collected snails, identified as Galba truncatula and Radix natalensis, showed larval stages of Fasciola in 71 out of 731 (9.7%) G. truncatula, while R. natalensis showed no infection. Specific duplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the mitochondrial cox1 gene of F. hepatica and Fasciola gigantica was carried out on DNA extracted from pooled infected snails and adult worms. The F. hepatica size amplicon (1031 bp) was obtained from both the infected G. truncatula and the adult worms isolated from cattle livers from different districts. The amplicon sequences were identical to the published sequences of F. hepatica mitochondrial cox1 gene. In conclusion, the zoonotic importance of Fasciola infection and appropriate hygienic measures must be taken into consideration in Dakhla Oasis, Egypt.

  13. "STUDY ON GLUTATHIONE S-TRANSFERASE INHIBITION ASSAY BY TRICLABENDAZOLE ON FASCIOLA spp. "

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    M. Jalali M. R. Esharghian

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Glutathione S-transferase (GST represents the major class of detoxification enzymes from helminth parasites such as Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica and it is a candidate for chemotherapeutic and vaccine design. Therefore, GST enzyme of Fasciola spp. could be a target for evaluation of drugs such as triclabendazole (C14H9Cl3N2OS. For this purpose, GST enzymes were purified from Fasciola spp. and sheep liver tissue by glutathione affinity chromatography using a wash-batch method and subsequently their SDS-PAGE pattern was detected. Afterward, GST specific activity levels were assayed in the whole extract and purified solutions spectrophotometrically at 30°C with reduced glutathione (GSH and 1-chloro-2, 4-dinitrobenzen (CDNB substrate. Finally, GST inhibition assay was investigated in the solutions by powder and bolus forms of triclabendazole. GST fraction as a 26 kDa (MW band was obtained on sodium dodecyl sulfate- polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. The level of GST specific activity in purified solutions was detected 18.14 µmol/min/mg proteins for Fasciola hepatica, 35.04 for F. gigantica and 37.84 µmol/min/mg protein for liver tissue. Comparison of the effect of powder and bolus of triclabendazole in solutions revealed inhibition concentration (IC50 8.36 and 9.05 µg/ml for Fasciola hepatica GSTs and 7.20 and 10.80 for F. gigantica GSTs and 8.65 and 9.70 µg/ml for liver tissue GSTs, respectively. These findings suggest the possibility of selective inhibition of Fasciola spp. GSTs by triclabendazole in vitro and use of these results for understanding of its effect in vivo and qualification of manufacturing bolus form of drug in comparison with original powder.

  14. Protection against Fasciola hepatica in the intestine is highly correlated with eosinophil and IgG1 responses against newly excysted juveniles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milligen, van F.J.; Cornelissen, J.B.W.J.; Bokhout, B.A.

    1999-01-01

    Rats were infected with Fasciola hepatica and challenged at regular intervals up to 38 weeks using an ex vivo gut loop, a technique developed in our laboratory. The kinetics of the observed immune responses against F. hepatica in gut tissue and serum were investigated and correlated to protection. I

  15. Protection against Fasciola hepatica in the intestine is highly correlated with eosinophil and IgG1 responses against newly excysted juveniles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milligen, van F.J.; Cornelissen, J.B.W.J.; Bokhout, B.A.

    1999-01-01

    Rats were infected with Fasciola hepatica and challenged at regular intervals up to 38 weeks using an ex vivo gut loop, a technique developed in our laboratory. The kinetics of the observed immune responses against F. hepatica in gut tissue and serum were investigated and correlated to protection. I

  16. Characterization of Fasciola spp. in Myanmar on the basis of spermatogenesis status and nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Madoka; Bawn, Saw; Maw, Ni Ni; Htun, Lat Lat; Thein, Myint; Gyi, Aung; Sunn, Kyaw; Katakura, Ken; Itagaki, Tadashi

    2011-12-01

    Fasciola spp. in Myanmar were characterized on the basis of spermatogenesis status and DNA markers of nuclear internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1). We collected 88 adult flukes from Yangon, Lashio, and Myitkyina. Spermatogenesis status was analyzed by the presence of sperm in the seminal vesicles, and 8 aspermic and 80 spermic flukes were detected. The flukes were identified on the basis of spermatogenesis status and ITS1 types which were analyzed by a PCR-RFLP method, and 80 spermic flukes were identified as F. gigantica. A very low detection rate of aspermic Fasciola sp. indicated that they are not established in Myanmar. In phylogenetic analyses, the 7 aspermic Fasciola sp. from Myitkyina displayed a haplotype in nad1 sequence, which was identical to that of aspermic Fasciola sp. from other Asian countries including China. Therefore, they were probably introduced from China through an infected domestic ruminant. On the other hand, 17 nad1 haplotypes detected in F. gigantica belonged to 2 clades unique to Myanmar, each with a distinct founder haplotype in a network analysis. This indicated a unique history of F. gigantica introduction into Myanmar involving ancient artificial movements of domestic ruminants.

  17. Molecular Identification and Differentiation of Fasciola Isolates Using PCR- RFLP Method Based on Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS1, 5.8S rDNA, ITS2

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    M Forouzandeh-Moghadam

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this study, we used both ITS1 and ITS2 for molecular identification of Fasciola species.Methods: The region between 18S and 28S of ribosomal DNA was used in PCR-RFLP method for molecular identification of Fasciola species. Ninety trematodes of Fasciola were collected during abattoir inspection from livers of naturally infected sheep and cattle from Khorasan, East Azerbaijan, and Fars provinces in Iran. After DNA extraction, PCR was performed to amplify region ITS1, 5.8S rDNA, ITS2. To select a suitable restriction enzyme, we sequenced and ana-lyzed the PCR products of F. hepatica and F. gigantica samples from sheep and cattle. Tsp509I fast digest restriction enzyme was selected for RFLP method that caused the separation specifi-cally of Fasciola species. Results: The fragment approximately 1000bp in all of the Fasciola samples was amplified and then digested with the Tsp509I restriction endonuclease. Seventy F. hepatica and 20 F. gigantica were identified of total 90 Fasciola isolates.Conclusion: The new PCR-RFLP assay using Tsp509I restriction enzyme provides a simple, practical, fast, low cost, and reliable method for identification and differentiation of Fasciola isolates.

  18. A case of Fasciola hepatica infection mimicking cholangiocarcinoma and ITS-1 sequencing of the worm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Bong Kyun; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Lee, Yoon Suk; Hwang, In Kyeom; Lim, Hyemi; Cho, Jaeeun; Hwang, Jin-Hyeok; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2014-04-01

    Fascioliasis is a zoonotic infection caused by Fasciola hepatica or Fasciola gigantica. We report an 87-year-old Korean male patient with postprandial abdominal pain and discomfort due to F. hepatica infection who was diagnosed and managed by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with extraction of 2 worms. At his first visit to the hospital, a gallbladder stone was suspected. CT and magnetic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) showed an intraductal mass in the common bile duct (CBD) without proximal duct dilatation. Based on radiological findings, the presumed diagnosis was intraductal cholangiocarcinoma. However, in ERCP which was performed for biliary decompression and tissue diagnosis, movable materials were detected in the CBD. Using a basket, 2 living leaf-like parasites were removed. The worms were morphologically compatible with F. hepatica. To rule out the possibility of the worms to be another morphologically close species, in particular F. gigantica, 1 specimen was processed for genetic analysis of its ITS-1 region. The results showed that the present worms were genetically identical (100%) with F. hepatica but different from F. gigantica.

  19. First insight into CD59-like molecules of adult Fasciola hepatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yunliang; Toet, Hayley; Rathinasamy, Vignesh; Young, Neil D; Gasser, Robin B; Beddoe, Travis; Huang, Weiyi; Spithill, Terry W

    2014-09-01

    The present study focussed on investigating CD59-like molecules of Fasciola hepatica. A cDNA encoding a CD59-like protein (termed FhCD59-1) identified previously in the membrane fraction of the F. hepatica tegument was isolated. This homologue was shown to encode a predicted open reading frame (ORF) of 122 amino acids (aa) orthologous to human CD59 with a 25 aa signal peptide, a mature protein containing 10 cysteines and a conserved CD59/Ly-6 family motif "CCXXXXCN". An analysis of cDNAs from two different adult specimens of F. hepatica revealed seven variable types of FhCD59-1 sequences, designated FhCD59-1.1 to FhCD59-1.7, which had 94.3-99.7% amino acid sequence identity upon pairwise comparison. Molecular modeling of FhCD59-1.1 with human CD59 confirmed the presence of the three-finger protein domain found in the CD59 family and predicted three disulphide bonds in the F. hepatica sequence. The interrogation of F. hepatica databases identified two additional sequences, designated FhCD59-2 and FhCD59-3, which had only 23.4-29.5% amino acid identity to FhCD59-1.1. Orthologues of the inferred CD59 protein sequences of F. hepatica were also identified in other flatworms, including Fasciola gigantica, Fascioloides magna, Schistosoma haematobium, Schistosoma japonicum, Schistosoma mansoni, Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini, Taenia solium, Echinococcus granulosus and the free living Schmidtea mediterannea. The results revealed a considerable degree of sequence complexity in the CD59-like sequence families in F. hepatica and flatworms. Phylogenetic analysis of CD59-like aa sequences from F. hepatica and flatworms showed that FhCD59-2 clustered with the known surface-associated protein SmCD59-2 of S. mansoni. Relatively well-supported clades specific to schistosomes, fasciolids and opisthorchiids were identified. The qPCR analysis of gene transcription showed that the relative expression of these 3 FhCD59-like sequences varied by 11-47-fold during fluke

  20. Molecular identification of Fasciola spp. (Digenea: Fasciolidae in Egypt

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    Dar Y.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A total of 134 Egyptian liver flukes were collected from different definitive hosts (cattle, sheep, and buffaloes to identify them via the use of PCR-RFLP and sequence analysis of the first nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS1. Specimens of F. hepatica from France, as well as F. gigantica from Cameroon were included in the study for comparison. PCR products of ITS1 were subjected for digestion by RsaI restriction enzyme and visualized on agarose gel. According to RFLP pattern, Egyptian flukes were allocated into two categories. The first was identical to that of French hepatica flukes to have a pattern of 360, 100, and 60 (bp band size, whereas the second resembled to that of Cameroonian gigantica worms to have a profile of 360, 170, and 60 bp in size. Results of RFLP analysis were confirmed by sequence analysis of representative ITS1 amplicons. No hybrid forms were detected in the present study. Taken together, this study concluded that both species of Fasciola are present in Egypt, whereas the hybrid form may be not very common.

  1. Molecular Characterization of Fasciola Samples Using Sequences of Second Internal Transcribed Spacer-rDNA in Different Geographical Localities of Sistan and Balouchestan Province, Iran

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    Mahsa Shahbakhsh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Fasciola trematodes are the most common liver flukes, living in a range of animals with global distribution and resulting in profound economic loss and public health challenges. Previous studies have indicated that the sequences of the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2 of ribosomal DNA (rDNA provide reliable genetic markers for molecular systemic studies of Fasciola. Objectives: The objective of the present study was to characterize Fasciola samples from different geographical regions of Sistan and Balouchestan province using sequences of second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2 of ribosomal DNA (rDNA. Materials and Methods: Twenty adult trematodes were collected from the livers of slaughtered infected cattle. Total genomic DNA was extracted and ITS-2 rDNA targets were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. All samples were sequenced and investigated using the ClustalW2 sequence alignment tool and MEGA software. The sequences of some Iranian and non-Iranian isolates were used for comparison, in order to evaluate the variation in sequence homology between geographically different trematode populations. Results: The results of comparing the ITS-2 sequences with the BLAST GenBank database showed one type of sequence for F. hepatica and three different types of sequences for F. gigantica in the specimens. Conclusions: The present study demonstrated that Fasciola samples from cattle in two geographical locations in Sistan and Balouchestan province represented no genetic diversity in F. hepatica and high genetic variation in F. gigantica.

  2. Molecular Characterization of Fasciola Samples Using Sequences of Second Internal Transcribed Spacer-rDNA in Different Geographical Localities of Sistan and Balouchestan Province, Iran

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    Shahbakhsh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background The Fasciola trematodes are the most common liver flukes, living in a range of animals with global distribution and resulting in profound economic loss and public health challenges. Previous studies have indicated that the sequences of the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2 of ribosomal DNA (rDNA provide reliable genetic markers for molecular systemic studies of Fasciola. Objectives The objective of the present study was to characterize Fasciola samples from different geographical regions of Sistan and Balouchestan province using sequences of second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2 of ribosomal DNA (rDNA. Materials and Methods Twenty adult trematodes were collected from the livers of slaughtered infected cattle. Total genomic DNA was extracted and ITS-2 rDNA targets were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. All samples were sequenced and investigated using the ClustalW2 sequence alignment tool and MEGA software. The sequences of some Iranian and non-Iranian isolates were used for comparison, in order to evaluate the variation in sequence homology between geographically different trematode populations. Results The results of comparing the ITS-2 sequences with the BLAST GenBank database showed one type of sequence for F. hepatica and three different types of sequences for F. gigantica in the specimens. Conclusions The present study demonstrated that Fasciola samples from cattle in two geographical locations in Sistan and Balouchestan province represented no genetic diversity in F. hepatica and high genetic variation in F. gigantica.

  3. Fasciola hepatica from naturally infected sheep and cattle in Great Britain are diploid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beesley, N J; Cwiklinski, K; Williams, D J L; Hodgkinson, J

    2015-08-01

    Diploid (2n = 2x = 20) and triploid (2n = 3x = 30) Fasciola hepatica have been reported in the UK, and in Asia diploid, triploid and mixoploid (2x/3x) Fasciola spp. exist but there is little information to indicate how common triploidy is, particularly in UK fluke. Here the ploidy of 565 adult F. hepatica from 66 naturally infected British sheep and 150 adult F. hepatica from 35 naturally infected British cattle was determined. All 715 of these parasites were diploid, based on observation of 10 bivalent chromosomes and sperm (n = 335) or, since triploids are aspermic, sperm alone (n = 380). This constitutes the first extensive analysis of the ploidy of F. hepatica field isolates from Great Britain and shows that most F. hepatica isolated from cattle and sheep are diploid and have the capacity to sexually reproduce. These data suggest that triploidy, and by extension parthenogenesis, is rare or non-existent in wild British F. hepatica populations. Given that F. hepatica is the only species of Fasciola present in Britain our results indicate that the parasite is predominantly diploid in areas where F. hepatica exists in isolation and suggests that triploidy may only originate in natural populations where co-infection of F. hepatica and its sister species Fasciola gigantica commonly occurs.

  4. In vitro effects of triclabendazole (TCBZ) on the excretory-secretory products (ESP) of Fasciola spp parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahnak, Ali; Golmohamdi, Taghi; Eshraghian, Mohamadreza

    2012-01-01

    Fascioliasis is an endemic disease in Iran and triclabendazole (TCBZ) is using for treatment of domestic animals and infected people. Excretory-secretory products (ESP) play an important role in the host biochemical defense by means of activities of detoxifying and antioxidant glutathione S-transferase (GST) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes respectively. Therefore, the aim of this comparative study was to evaluate fasciola protection against TCBZ drug by detection of enzymatic activities, GST and SOD, in TCBZ treated Fasciola hepatica / Fasciola gigantica and control ESP samples. F. gigantic and F. hepatica helminthes were collected and cultured within buffer media (TCBZ treated and untreated or control) for 4 h at 37 °C. Three TCBZ treated and 1 control ESP samples for each species were collected, centrifuged and supernatants were stored at -20°C. ESP samples protein concentrations were measured by Bradford method. SOD and GST enzymes activities of ESP samples were estimated photometrically. To determine the statistically significant difference between ESP of treated and control samples, t-test was conducted. ESP protein bands were detected by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Protein concentrations in treated F. hepatica and F. gigantica ESP samples were estimated 204.88, 428, 130.4 and 288.2, 488.2, 308.2 µg/ml respectively. Protein concentrations in control samples were estimated 488.18 and 124.8 ug/ml respectively. SOD enzyme specific activities level in treated F.hepatica and F. gigantica ESP samples were determined 0.14, 0.31, 3.96 and 11.11, 13.54, 19.95 U/mg/protein respectively. SOD activities level in control samples were detected 70.69 and 10.92 U/mg/protein. GST specific activities level in treated F.hepatica and F. gigantica ESP samples were calculated 25.3, 85.5, 37.3 and 1823, 1314.3, 1320.8 U/mg respectively. GST activities levels in control samples were detected 98.6 and 1083.9 U/mg/protein respectively

  5. Fasciola hepatica in capybara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santarém, Vamilton Alvares; Tostes, Raimundo Alberto; Alberti, Haroldo; Sanches, Osimar de Carvalho

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this report was to register the presence of Fasciola hepatica in an adult female capybara (Hydrocherus hydrocheris). The macro and microscopical characteristics of hepatic lesions, together with the finding of F. hepatica in mature forms indicate the possible infection of capybara by the trematode.

  6. Genotypic and Phenotypic Analysis of Fasciola Isolates

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    SN Mosavinasab

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: To identify the fasciolid species by morphometric and molecular methods in Zanjan, north­west of Iran. "nMethods: Adult Fasciola worms (n=584 were obtained from cattle and sheep in Zanjan slaughterhouse in 2007. Living flukes were washed, then worms' images were taken by 3CCD camera and finally apical zone of each worm was obtained. Morphometric values such as body length, body width, body area, body pe­rimeter and the distance between ventral sucker and posterior end of body were obtained using Auto­CAD image analysis software. Total gDNA was extracted from individual flukes by modified phenol-chloroform method. PCR amplification of ITS2 fragment was performed the isolated DNA samples and the amplicons were consequently subjected to RFLP assay and nucleotide sequencing to distinguish be­tween fasciolid species. "nResults: Mean of morphometric values in flukes from sheep was greater than those of cattle. Accordingly, the identified species included 31% F. hepatica-like, 7% F. gigantica-like and 62% intermediate forms. How­ever, ITS2 fragment of 535 amplified specimens, showed no variation at the species-specific nucleo­tide sites 230, 340 and 341. The amplified fragment composed of partial 5.8S sequence (62bp, the com­plete ITS2 sequence (361bp and partial 28S sequence (34bp. The nucleotide contents of ITS2 region were 69 A, 116 T, 81 C and 95 G and the average G+C content was approximately 49%. Comparing of ITS2 sequences with the BLAST GenBank database, also confirmed that all specimens were F. hepatica. "nConclusion: A simple and rapid PCR-RFLP assay can be used for distinguishing between these species.

  7. Molecular and Morphological Characterization of Fasciola spp. Isolated from Different Host Species in a Newly Emerging Focus of Human Fascioliasis in Iran

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    Reza Shafiei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study aimed to find out the morphometric and genotypic divergences of the flukes isolated from different hosts in a newly emerging focus of human fascioliasis in Iran. Adult Fasciola spp. were collected from 34 cattle, 13 sheep, and 11 goats from Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad province, southwest of Iran. Genomic DNA was extracted from the flukes and PCR-RFLP was used to characterize the isolates. The ITS1, ITS2, and mitochondrial genes (mtDNA of NDI and COI from individual liver flukes were amplified and the amplicons were sequenced. Genetic variation within and between the species was evaluated by comparing the sequences. Moreover, morphometric characteristics of flukes were measured through a computer image analysis system. Based on RFLP profile, from the total of 58 isolates, 41 isolates (from cattle, sheep, and goat were identified as Fasciola hepatica, while 17 isolates from cattle were identified as Fasciola gigantica. Comparison of the ITS1 and ITS2 sequences showed six and seven single-base substitutions, resulting in segregation of the specimens into two different genotypes. The sequences of COI markers showed seven DNA polymorphic sites for F. hepatica and 35 DNA polymorphic sites for F. gigantica. Morphological diversity of the two species was observed in linear, ratios, and areas measurements. The findings have implications for studying the population genetics, epidemiology, and control of the disease.

  8. Molecular and Morphological Characterization of Fasciola spp. Isolated from Different Host Species in a Newly Emerging Focus of Human Fascioliasis in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiei, Reza; Sarkari, Bahador; Sadjjadi, Seyed Mahmuod; Mowlavi, Gholam Reza; Moshfe, Abdolali

    2014-01-01

    The current study aimed to find out the morphometric and genotypic divergences of the flukes isolated from different hosts in a newly emerging focus of human fascioliasis in Iran. Adult Fasciola spp. were collected from 34 cattle, 13 sheep, and 11 goats from Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad province, southwest of Iran. Genomic DNA was extracted from the flukes and PCR-RFLP was used to characterize the isolates. The ITS1, ITS2, and mitochondrial genes (mtDNA) of NDI and COI from individual liver flukes were amplified and the amplicons were sequenced. Genetic variation within and between the species was evaluated by comparing the sequences. Moreover, morphometric characteristics of flukes were measured through a computer image analysis system. Based on RFLP profile, from the total of 58 isolates, 41 isolates (from cattle, sheep, and goat) were identified as Fasciola hepatica, while 17 isolates from cattle were identified as Fasciola gigantica. Comparison of the ITS1 and ITS2 sequences showed six and seven single-base substitutions, resulting in segregation of the specimens into two different genotypes. The sequences of COI markers showed seven DNA polymorphic sites for F. hepatica and 35 DNA polymorphic sites for F. gigantica. Morphological diversity of the two species was observed in linear, ratios, and areas measurements. The findings have implications for studying the population genetics, epidemiology, and control of the disease.

  9. Diagnosis of Fasciola infection by SDS–PAGE eluted excretory secretory (ES protein fractions using dot-ELISA

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    M.A. Sabry

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fascioliasis is now recognized as an emerging zoonotic disease in Egypt. Diagnosis in suspected patients still needs some degree of accuracy. In the present study, three Fasciola gigantica execratory secretory (ES protein bands of molecular weight (MW ranging from 14 to 20 kDa, 25 to 32 kDa and 45 to 65 kDa were eluted after fractionation of the parasite antigen using SDS–PAGE. The extracted kDa protein bands were concentrated and evaluated in diagnosis of Fasciola infection. Moreover the level of their cross reaction with other parasitic infections in infected and suspected patients of known parasite eggs/gram stool was evaluated using the dot-ELISA technique. Protein bands in the range of 14–20 kDa and that of 25–32 kDa were markedly specific and sensitive in diagnosis of different levels of anti-Fasciola antibodies (Ab in sera of infected cases. These two groups of bands were able to exclude cross-reaction between anti-Fasciola Ab and other parasites recorded in stool of selected patients suffering from Schistosoma mansoni, Ascaris, and Giardia, either in single or mixed conditions with Fasciola eggs. While that of 45–65 kDa appeared less specific than the other previously mentioned bands. Protein bands in the range of 25–32 kDa appeared more sensitive than the other protein bands in detection of anti-Fasciola Ab at higher serum dilutions. The Dot-ELISA technique was proved to be more economic and easy in application. The dotted very small amount of antigens can be stored in a freezer and used at request in diagnosis of large numbers of samples.

  10. Tegumental histological effects of Mirazid® and myrrh volatile oil on adult Fasciola gigantica

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    Ahmad Mohamed Massoud

    2013-06-01

    Conclusions: The present study demonstrated the fasciocidal properties of Mirazid® oleoresin extract, and it might be possible to reinforce its fasciocidal activity by increasing its content of myrrh volatile oil.

  11. Identification of a novel Fasciola hepatica cathepsin L protease containing protective epitopes within the propeptide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, M.M.; Cornelissen, J.B.W.J.; Buys-Bergen, W.E.C.M.; Boersma, W.J.A.; Jeurissen, S.H.M.; Milligen, F.J.

    2004-01-01

    Cathepsin L (CL)-like proteases are important candidate vaccine antigens for protection against helminth infections. We previously identified an immunogenic 32 kDa protein specifically present in newly excysted juveniles (NEJs) of Fasciola hepatica. Here we show by N-terminal protein sequencing that

  12. Potential of Hemianax ephippiger (Odonata-Aeshnidae) nymph as predator of Fasciola intermediate host, Lymnaea natalensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aly; Younes; Hanaa; El-Sherif; Fathia; Gawish; Marwa; Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the predatory capacity of the Odonata, Hemianax ephippiger nymph as a biocontrol agent for the freshwater snail Lymnaea natalensis, intermediate host of Fasciola gigantica. Methods: Observations on the searching, attacking and devouring of the snails with a series of laboratory-based predation experiments, whose aims were to determine daily predation rate, differential predation on small-, medium- and large-sized snails were carried out. Results: Laboratory evaluation revealed that, the Odonata nymph could kill and consume all three sizes of snails. Searching and handling time of the predator differed depending on snail size and predator vulnerability. The predation rate varied also with respect to snail size and density.Conclusions: Our observations suggested that the predator Hemianax ephippiger may be a suitable bio-control agent of Lymnaea natalensis snail population.

  13. Fasciola hepatica: Infection Status of Freshwater Snails Collected from Gangwon-do (Province), Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Hyung; Quan, Juan-Hua; Choi, In-Wook; Park, Gab-Man; Cha, Guang-Ho; Kim, Hyun-Ju; Yuk, Jae-Min; Lee, Young-Ha

    2017-02-01

    Fasciola hepatica is a trematode that causes zoonosis, mainly in cattle and sheep, and occasionally in humans. Few recent studies have determined the infection status of this fluke in Korea. In August 2015, we collected 402 samples of freshwater snails at Hoenggye-ri (upper stream) and Suha-ri (lower stream) of Song-cheon (stream) in Daegwalnyeong-myeon, Pyeongchang-gun in Gangwon-do (Province) near many large cattle or sheep farms. F. hepatica infection was determined using PCR on the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS-2). Among the 402 samples, F. hepatica 1TS-2 marker was detected in 6 freshwater snails; thus, the overall prevalence in freshwater snails was 1.5%. The prevalence varied between collection areas, ranging from 0.0% at Hoenggye-ri to 2.9% at Suha-ri. However, F. gigantica ITS-2 was not detected in the 6 F. hepatica-positive samples by PCR. The nucleotide sequences of the 6 F. hepatica ITS-2 PCR-positive samples were 99.4% identical to the F. hepatica ITS-2 sequences in GenBank, whereas they were 98.4% similar to F. gigantica ITS-2 sequences. These results indicated that the prevalence of F. hepatica in snail intermediate hosts was 1.5% in Gangwon-do, Korea; however the prevalence varied between collection areas. These results may help us to understand F. hepatica infection status in natural environments.

  14. Genetic Characterization of Fasciola Isolates from West Azerbaijan Province Iran Based on ITS1 and ITS2 Sequence of Ribosomal DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    GALAVANI, Hossein; GHOLIZADEH, Saber; HAZRATI TAPPEH, Khosrow

    2016-01-01

    Background: Fascioliasis, caused by Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica, has medical and economic importance in the world. Molecular approaches comparing traditional methods using for identification and characterization of Fasciola spp. are precise and reliable. The aims of current study were molecular characterization of Fasciola spp. in West Azerbaijan Province, Iran and then comparative analysis of them using GenBank sequences. Methods: A total number of 580 isolates were collected from different hosts in five cities of West Azerbaijan Province, in 2014 from 90 slaughtered cattle (n=50) and sheep (n=40). After morphological identification and DNA extraction, designing specific primer were used to amplification of ITS1, 5.8s and ITS2 regions, 50 samples were conducted to sequence, randomly. Result: Using morphometric characters 99.14% and 0.86% of isolates identified as F. hepatica and F. gigantica, respectively. PCR amplification of 1081 bp fragment and sequencing result showed 100% similarity with F. hepatica in ITS1 (428 bp), 5.8s (158 bp), and ITS2 (366 bp) regions. Sequence comparison among current study sequences and GenBank data showed 98% identity with 11 nucleotide mismatches. However, in phylogenetic tree F. hepatica sequences of West Azerbaijan Province, Iran, were in a close relationship with Iranian, Asian, and African isolates. Conclusions: Only F. hepatica species is distributed among sheep and cattle in West Azerbaijan Province Iran. However, 5 and 6 bp variation in ITS1 and ITS2 regions, respectively, is not enough to separate of Fasciola spp. Therefore, more studies are essential for designing new molecular markers to correct species identification. PMID:27095969

  15. Characterization of Fasciola hepatica genotypes from cattle and sheep in Iran using cytochrome C oxidase gene (CO1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazeni, Mohammad; Sharifiyazdi, Hassan; Izadpanah, Afshin

    2012-06-01

    The present study compared the genetic variation among 19 different isolates of Fasciola hepatica from cattle and sheep in different areas of Iran using sequence data for mitochondrial DNA gene, the subunit 1 of cytochrome C oxidase gene (CO1). Four different CO1 genotypes were detected among F. hepatica isolates that showed five variable nucleotide positions (accession nos.; GQ398051, GQ398052, GQ398053, GQ398054). Nucleotide sequence variation among 19 isolates for CO1 analyzed in this study ranged from 0% to 0.98% in Iran. Among the five polymorphism sites identified in this study, only one (T to G at position 51 in 5'end of GQ175362) resulted in putative amino acid alteration of phenylalanine (TTT) to leucine (TTG) in CO1. A phylogenetic analysis of the sequence data revealed that host associations and geographic location are likely not useful markers for Fasciola genotype classification. In addition, morphological analysis showed that the ratios of body length and body width of some (n = 5) of the 19 examined F. hepatica isolates were intermediate between F. hepatica and Fasciola gigantica, representing the substantial polymorphism of the F. hepatica species and the difficulty in the accurate recognition based on morphological features. In conclusion, Iranian F. hepatica exhibited the presence of considerable genetic diversity at CO1.

  16. Fasciola hepatica procathepsin L3 protein expressed by a baculovirus recombinant can partly protect rats against fasciolosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reszka, N.; Cornelissen, J.B.W.J.; Harmsen, M.M.; Bree, de J.; Boersma, W.J.A.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Fasciola hepatica juveniles express immunodominant cathepsin L proteins, which are mainly found in their immature, procathepsin form. A gene encoding such a procathepsin L (FheCL3) was expressed by a baculovirus recombinant and by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The glycosylated FheCL3 proteins obtained b

  17. Fasciola hepatica procathepsin L3 protein expressed by a baculovirus recombinant can partly protect rats against fasciolosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reszka, N.; Cornelissen, J.B.W.J.; Harmsen, M.M.; Bree, de J.; Boersma, W.J.A.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Fasciola hepatica juveniles express immunodominant cathepsin L proteins, which are mainly found in their immature, procathepsin form. A gene encoding such a procathepsin L (FheCL3) was expressed by a baculovirus recombinant and by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The glycosylated FheCL3 proteins obtained b

  18. A novel ex vivo rat infection model to study protective immunity against Fasciola hepatica at the gut level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milligen, van F.J.; Cornelissen, J.B.W.J.; Gaasenbeek, C.P.H.; Bokhout, B.A.

    1998-01-01

    We describe an ex vivo rat infection model to study protective immunity against Fasciola hepatica at the gut level. An exact number of newly excysted juveniles (NEJs) was injected into a gut segment with an intact blood supply and which was still attached to a live anaesthetized rat. NEJs that penet

  19. Scrambled eggs: A highly sensitive molecular diagnostic workflow for Fasciola species specific detection from faecal samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvani, Nichola Eliza Davies; Windsor, Peter Andrew; Bush, Russell David

    2017-01-01

    Background Fasciolosis, due to Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica, is a re-emerging zoonotic parasitic disease of worldwide importance. Human and animal infections are commonly diagnosed by the traditional sedimentation and faecal egg-counting technique. However, this technique is time-consuming and prone to sensitivity errors when a large number of samples must be processed or if the operator lacks sufficient experience. Additionally, diagnosis can only be made once the 12-week pre-patent period has passed. Recently, a commercially available coprological antigen ELISA has enabled detection of F. hepatica prior to the completion of the pre-patent period, providing earlier diagnosis and increased throughput, although species differentiation is not possible in areas of parasite sympatry. Real-time PCR offers the combined benefits of highly sensitive species differentiation for medium to large sample sizes. However, no molecular diagnostic workflow currently exists for the identification of Fasciola spp. in faecal samples. Methodology/Principal findings A new molecular diagnostic workflow for the highly-sensitive detection and quantification of Fasciola spp. in faecal samples was developed. The technique involves sedimenting and pelleting the samples prior to DNA isolation in order to concentrate the eggs, followed by disruption by bead-beating in a benchtop homogeniser to ensure access to DNA. Although both the new molecular workflow and the traditional sedimentation technique were sensitive and specific, the new molecular workflow enabled faster sample throughput in medium to large epidemiological studies, and provided the additional benefit of speciation. Further, good correlation (R2 = 0.74–0.76) was observed between the real-time PCR values and the faecal egg count (FEC) using the new molecular workflow for all herds and sampling periods. Finally, no effect of storage in 70% ethanol was detected on sedimentation and DNA isolation outcomes; enabling

  20. Fasciola hepatica Immune Regulates CD11c+ Cells by Interacting with the Macrophage Gal/GalNAc Lectin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Ernesto; Carasi, Paula; Frigerio, Sofía; da Costa, Valeria; van Vliet, Sandra; Noya, Verónica; Brossard, Natalie; van Kooyk, Yvette; García-Vallejo, Juan J.; Freire, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    Fasciolosis, caused by Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica, is a trematode zoonosis of interest in public health and livestock production. Like other helminths, F. hepatica modulates the host immune response by inducing potent polarized Th2 and regulatory T cell immune responses and by downregulating the production of Th1 cytokines. In this work, we show that F. hepatica glycans increase Th2 immune responses by immunomodulating TLR-induced maturation and function of dendritic cells (DCs). This process was mediated by the macrophage Gal/GalNAc lectin (MGL) expressed on DCs, which recognizes the Tn antigen (GalNAc-Ser/Thr) on parasite components. More interestingly, we identified MGL-expressing CD11c+ cells in infected animals and showed that these cells are recruited both to the peritoneum and the liver upon F. hepatica infection. These cells express the regulatory cytokines IL-10, TNFα and TGFβ and a variety of regulatory markers. Furthermore, MGL+ CD11c+ cells expand parasite-specific Th2/regulatory cells and suppress Th1 polarization. The results presented here suggest a potential role of MGL in the immunomodulation of DCs induced by F. hepatica and contribute to a better understanding of the molecular and immunoregulatory mechanisms induced by this parasite. PMID:28360908

  1. Fasciola hepatica Immune Regulates CD11c(+) Cells by Interacting with the Macrophage Gal/GalNAc Lectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Ernesto; Carasi, Paula; Frigerio, Sofía; da Costa, Valeria; van Vliet, Sandra; Noya, Verónica; Brossard, Natalie; van Kooyk, Yvette; García-Vallejo, Juan J; Freire, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    Fasciolosis, caused by Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica, is a trematode zoonosis of interest in public health and livestock production. Like other helminths, F. hepatica modulates the host immune response by inducing potent polarized Th2 and regulatory T cell immune responses and by downregulating the production of Th1 cytokines. In this work, we show that F. hepatica glycans increase Th2 immune responses by immunomodulating TLR-induced maturation and function of dendritic cells (DCs). This process was mediated by the macrophage Gal/GalNAc lectin (MGL) expressed on DCs, which recognizes the Tn antigen (GalNAc-Ser/Thr) on parasite components. More interestingly, we identified MGL-expressing CD11c(+) cells in infected animals and showed that these cells are recruited both to the peritoneum and the liver upon F. hepatica infection. These cells express the regulatory cytokines IL-10, TNFα and TGFβ and a variety of regulatory markers. Furthermore, MGL(+) CD11c(+) cells expand parasite-specific Th2/regulatory cells and suppress Th1 polarization. The results presented here suggest a potential role of MGL in the immunomodulation of DCs induced by F. hepatica and contribute to a better understanding of the molecular and immunoregulatory mechanisms induced by this parasite.

  2. Rapid Enhanced MM3-COPRO ELISA for Detection of Fasciola Coproantigens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sernández, Victoria; Orbegozo-Medina, Ricardo A.; González-Warleta, Marta; Mezo, Mercedes; Ubeira, Florencio M.

    2016-01-01

    ELISA-based methods of detecting Fasciola cathepsins in feces are powerful techniques for diagnosing infections by F. hepatica and F. gigantica. In the last decade, the in-house MM3-COPRO ELISA and its commercial version BIO K 201 (BIO X Diagnostics, Belgium) have been recognized as useful tools for detecting early infections by such trematodes and for monitoring the efficacy of anthelmintic treatments in human and animal species, as they provide some advantages over classic fecal egg counts. However, the sensitivity of MM3-COPRO ELISA can sometimes be compromised by the high variability in the concentration of cathepsins in fecal samples throughout the biological cycle of Fasciola (mainly in cattle) and by differences in the between-batch performance of peroxidase-labeled anti-mouse IgG polyclonal antibodies. To prevent such problems, we investigated whether the incorporation of a commercial streptavidin-polymerized horseradish peroxidase conjugate, in order to reveal bound biotinylated monoclonal antibody MM3, can improve the sensitivity of the MM3-COPRO ELISA. We observed that inclusion of this reagent shifted the previous detection limit of the assay from 0.6 ng/mL to 150 pg/mL and that the modified test is able to identify infection in cows harboring only one fluke. Moreover, we demonstrated that maximal OD values can be achieved with short incubations (30 min each step) at RT with shaking, rather than standard incubations, which significantly accelerates the diagnostic procedure. Finally, we did not find a significant correlation between coproantigen concentration and parasite burden in cattle, which may be due to the low parasite burden (1–10 adult flukes) of the animals used in the present study. As the usefulness of the classic MM3-COPRO test for detecting animal and human infections has already been demonstrated, it is expected that the improvements reported in this study will add new insights into the diagnosis and control of fasciolosis. PMID:27438470

  3. Rapid Enhanced MM3-COPRO ELISA for Detection of Fasciola Coproantigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Martínez-Sernández

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ELISA-based methods of detecting Fasciola cathepsins in feces are powerful techniques for diagnosing infections by F. hepatica and F. gigantica. In the last decade, the in-house MM3-COPRO ELISA and its commercial version BIO K 201 (BIO X Diagnostics, Belgium have been recognized as useful tools for detecting early infections by such trematodes and for monitoring the efficacy of anthelmintic treatments in human and animal species, as they provide some advantages over classic fecal egg counts. However, the sensitivity of MM3-COPRO ELISA can sometimes be compromised by the high variability in the concentration of cathepsins in fecal samples throughout the biological cycle of Fasciola (mainly in cattle and by differences in the between-batch performance of peroxidase-labeled anti-mouse IgG polyclonal antibodies. To prevent such problems, we investigated whether the incorporation of a commercial streptavidin-polymerized horseradish peroxidase conjugate, in order to reveal bound biotinylated monoclonal antibody MM3, can improve the sensitivity of the MM3-COPRO ELISA. We observed that inclusion of this reagent shifted the previous detection limit of the assay from 0.6 ng/mL to 150 pg/mL and that the modified test is able to identify infection in cows harboring only one fluke. Moreover, we demonstrated that maximal OD values can be achieved with short incubations (30 min each step at RT with shaking, rather than standard incubations, which significantly accelerates the diagnostic procedure. Finally, we did not find a significant correlation between coproantigen concentration and parasite burden in cattle, which may be due to the low parasite burden (1-10 adult flukes of the animals used in the present study. As the usefulness of the classic MM3-COPRO test for detecting animal and human infections has already been demonstrated, it is expected that the improvements reported in this study will add new insights into the diagnosis and control of fasciolosis.

  4. 片形吸虫DNA随机扩增多态性分析%Detection of Difference Among Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica with RAPD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胥全彬; A.Daugshies

    2001-01-01

    为区别从南京市江宁县采集的片形吸虫作典型形态虫体,应用随机扩增多态性DNA(RAPD)技术,对6株片形吸虫总DNA进行了扩增.结果,10条引物中有8条能产生扩增图谱,电泳图谱经聚类分析,与传统的分类结果一致,并表明来自江宁的片形吸虫既有形态典型的肝片形吸虫,也有形态不典型的大片形吸虫.

  5. Use of sequence motifs as barcodes and secondary structures of Internal Transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2, rDNA) for identification of the Indian liver fluke, Fasciola (Trematoda: Fasciolidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, PK; Tandon, V; Biswal, DK; Goswami, LM; Chatterjee, A

    2009-01-01

    Most phylogenetic studies using current methods have focused on primary DNA sequence information. However, RNA secondary structures are particularly useful in systematics because they include characteristics that give “morphological” information which is not found in the primary sequence. Also DNA sequence motifs from the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the nuclear rRNA repeat are useful for identification of trematodes. The species of liver flukes of the genus Fasciola (Platyhelminthes: Digenea: Fasciolidae) are obligate parasitic trematodes residing in the large biliary ducts of herbivorous mammals. While Fasciola hepatica has a cosmopolitan distribution, the other major species, i.e., F. gigantica is reportedly prevalent in the tropical and subtropical regions of Africa and Asia. To determine the Fasciola sp. of Assam (India) origin based on rDNA molecular data, ribosomal ITS2 region was sequenced (EF027103) and analysed. NCBI databases were used for sequence homology analysis and the phylogenetic trees were constructed based upon the ITS2 using MEGA and a Bayesian analysis of the combined data. The latter approach allowed us to include both primary sequence and RNA molecular morphometrics and revealed a close relationship with isolates of F. gigantica from China, Indonesia and Japan, the isolate from China with significant bootstrap values being the closest. ITS2 sequence motifs allowed an accurate in silico distinction of liver flukes. The data indicate that ITS2 motifs (≤ 50 bp in size) can be considered promising tool for trematode species identification. Using the novel approach of molecular morphometrics that is based on ITS2 secondary structure homologies, phylogenetic relationships of the various isolates of fasciolid species have been discussed. PMID:19294000

  6. Juvenile angiofibroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasal tumor; Angiofibroma - juvenile; Benign nasal tumor; Juvenile nasal angiofibroma; JNA ... Juvenile angiofibroma is not very common. It is most often found in adolescent boys. The tumor contains ...

  7. Elucidating the transcriptome of Fasciola hepatica - a key to fundamental and biotechnological discoveries for a neglected parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Neil D; Hall, Ross S; Jex, Aaron R; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Gasser, Robin B

    2010-01-01

    Liver flukes of animals are parasitic flatworms (Platyhelminthes: Digenea) of major socioeconomic importance in many countries. Key representatives, such as Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica, cause "liver fluke disease" (= fascioliasis), which is of major animal health significance worldwide. In particular, F. hepatica is a leading cause of production losses to the livestock (mainly sheep and cattle) and meat industries due to clinical disease, reduced weight gain and milk production, and deaths. This parasite is also a major food-borne pathogen of humans throughout parts of the Middle East, Asia and South America. Currently, there is a significant focus on the development of new approaches for the prevention and control of fascioliasis in livestock. Recent technological advances in genomics and bioinformatics provide unique opportunities for the identification and prevalidation of drug targets and vaccines through a better understanding of the biology of F. hepatica and related species as well as their relationship with their hosts at the molecular level. Surprisingly, despite the widespread socioeconomic impact of fascioliasis, genomic datasets for F. hepatica are scant, limiting the molecular biological research of this parasite. The present article explores specifically the transcriptome of the adult stage of F. hepatica using an integrated genomic-bioinformatic platform. The analysis of the current data reveals numerous molecules of biological relevance, some of which are inferred to be involved in key biological processes or pathways that could serve as targets for new trematocidal drugs or vaccines. Improved insights into the transcriptome of F. hepatica should pave the way for future, comparative analysis of the transcriptomes of other developmental stages of this and related parasites, such as F. gigantica, cancer-causing flatworms (Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini) and blood flukes (Schistosoma mansoni and S. japonicum). Prediction of the

  8. Comparing an in vivo egg reduction test and in vitro egg hatching assay for different anthelmintics against Fasciola species, in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arafa, Waleed M; Shokeir, Khalid M; Khateib, Abdelrahman M

    2015-11-30

    This study aimed to compare between the efficiency of in vivo fecal egg reduction test (FERT) and in vitro egg hatching assay (EHA) in evaluating of the anti-Fasciola activity of albendazole, triclabendazole, oxyclozanide and praziquantel. A field trial was carried out on fifty naturally Fasciola infected cattle that were divided equally into 5 groups (A-E). On day zero; groups A-D were drenched with albendazole, triclabendazole, oxyclozanide or praziquantel, respectively, while the remaining one, group E, was kept as untreated control. Fecal egg counts of the different groups were conducted weekly over a period of one month post-treatment. In vitro, commercial albendazole and oxyclozanide were diluted to 0.0002, 0.002, 0.02, 0.2 and 2.0 μg/ml, while commercial triclabendazole and praziquantel were diluted to concentrations of 25, 50, 75 and 100 μg/ml with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). In vivo, at the 2nd week post-treatment, triclabendazole and oxyclozanide showed 100% fecal egg reduction (FER), and albendazole had a maximum of 73.7% reduction (P egg counts. In vitro, triclabendazole treated Fasciola gigantica eggs showed early embryonic lysis with zero% hatching at the different concentrations (P egg development and hatching percentage of oxyclozanide or praziquantel treated groups. In conclusion, the efficacy of triclabendazole and albendazole as fasciolicdes could be predicted by Egg Hatching Assay (EHA). Meanwhile fasciolicide activity of oxyclozanide could not be assessed with EHA. Based on in vivo and in vitro findings, paraziquantel did not show any fasciolicide effect.

  9. Dermatomyositis (Juvenile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Am A Patient / Caregiver Diseases & Conditions Dermatomyositis (Juvenile) Dermatomyositis (Juvenile) Fast Facts Patients with JDM have varying ... What are common signs and symptoms of juvenile dermatomyositis? The most common signs and symptoms of JDM ...

  10. Retinoschisis (Juvenile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... here Home › Eye Conditions Listen Retinoschisis What is Juvenile Retinoschisis? Juvenile retinoschisis is an inherited disease diagnosed in childhood ... degeneration of the retina. What are the symptoms? Juvenile retinoschisis, also known as X-linked retinoschisis, occurs ...

  11. [The effect of newer anthelmintics on Fasciola hepatica in experimentally infected rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corba, J

    1976-09-01

    The reports deals with the results of testing seven new antihelminthics for Fasciola hepatica in the experimentally invaded Wistar rat. The greatest influence on juvenile flukes (2 and 4 weeks of age) was exerted by diamphenetid (Coriban) applied in a single dose of 100 mg kg-1. Hexachlorophene applied in the dose of 50 mg kg-1 showed the highest effect on sexually mature flukes. All the tested antihelminthics of the halogenated salicylanilide group were ineffective on juvenile stages and only slightly effective on mature F. hepatica flukes. It follows from the results that the effectiveness of some antifasciolics on laboratory animals need not always be in correlation with their effect in ruminants - hence it is necessary to verify the results obtained in laboratory animals and to check them on natural F. hepatica hosts.

  12. 云南宾川地区牛羊片形吸虫感染调查及分子鉴定%Surveillance and molecular identification of Fasciola spp.from cattle and goats at Binchuan, Yunnan province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾琳; 陈木新; 吕山; 臧伟; 诸廷俊; 许学年; 蔡玉春; 陈韶红; 罗家军

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to investigate and evaluate the situation of infection of cattle and goats with Fasciola spp.in the villages at Binchuan.Methods Parasite eggs from cattle and goats were collected by nylon pocket egg concentration method.The eggs were examined using microscopic examination method.Sequencing and PCR method were used for the amplification of pcox1 gene and species identification.Phylogenetics analysis was performed using MP,NJ,and ML methods.Results 134 (28.63%) cattle and 27 (25.23%) goats were found to have infection.After blast comporation and phylogenetics analysis,it was found that the samples belong to the species of Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica.Conclusion Fasciola spp.infection of cattle and goats is serious at Binchuan.The infection was mainly F.hepatica and F.gigantica.The local government should pay more attention to the prevention and treatment of fascioliasis.%目的 对云南宾川地区爆发人体片形吸虫病的村落进行牛羊的片形吸虫感染调查和检测,为当地片形吸虫病的研究提供数据.方法 采用尼龙袋集卵法收集牛羊粪便中的虫卵,进行镜检.对检出的样本进行PCR扩增和测序;用MP法、NJ法及ML法进行种系发育分析.结果 从134 (28.63%)头牛和27(25.23%)头羊中查到了片形吸虫的虫卵,对所检到的虫卵进行线粒体pcox1基因的扩增和测序,比对后发现所检样本主要为肝片吸虫和大片吸虫两个种.采用MP法、NJ法及ML法进行种系发育分析表明,宾川地区牛羊感染的片形吸虫虫种主要为肝片吸虫和大片吸虫两种.结论 宾川地区牛羊片形吸虫感染严重,云南宾川为肝片形吸虫及大片形吸虫混合感染地区,当地政府应重视该病的防治.

  13. Localization of thioredoxin in Fasciola hepatica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thioredoxin is a member of a group of small redox proteins that may protect parasites from the host immune response. Experiments were designed to localize thioredoxin anatomically within the adult and immature stages of Fasciola hepatica. SDS-PAGE and Western blotting were performed to determine t...

  14. Hepatic Mass Caused by Fasciola Hepatica: A Tricky Differential Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Yılmaz, Bülent; KÖKLÜ, Seyfettin; Gedikoğlu, Gökhan

    2013-01-01

    Fascioliasis is a zoonotic infestation caused by the trematode fasciola hepatica. It presents a wide spectrum of clinical pictures ranging from fever and eosinophilia to ambiguous gastrointestinal symptoms in the acute phase. However, it may often be overlooked, especially in the acute phase, because of uncertain symptoms. Fasciola hepatica can have an initial presentation similar to the presentation of malignancy. Here, we report a case of a hepatic mass caused by fasciola hepatica.

  15. Hepatic Mass Caused by Fasciola Hepatica: A Tricky Differential Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Bülent; Köklü, Seyfettin; Gedikoğlu, Gökhan

    2013-01-01

    Fascioliasis is a zoonotic infestation caused by the trematode fasciola hepatica. It presents a wide spectrum of clinical pictures ranging from fever and eosinophilia to ambiguous gastrointestinal symptoms in the acute phase. However, it may often be overlooked, especially in the acute phase, because of uncertain symptoms. Fasciola hepatica can have an initial presentation similar to the presentation of malignancy. Here, we report a case of a hepatic mass caused by fasciola hepatica. PMID:24080633

  16. Controversial aspects of the life cycle of Fasciola hepatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazeni, Mohammad; Ahmadi, Amin

    2016-10-01

    Fasciola hepatica is a well-known helminth parasite, with significant economic and public health importance all over the world. It has been known since more than 630 years ago and a considerable research work has been carried out on the life cycle of this important parasite. In the hepatic phase of the life cycle of F. hepatica, it is assumed that the young flukes, after about 6-7 weeks of migration in the liver parenchyma, enter into the bile ducts of the definitive hosts and become sexually mature. Even though the secretion of cysteine peptidases including cathepsin L and B proteases by F. hepatica may justify this opinion, because of several scientific reasons and based on the experimental studies conducted in different animals (reviewed in this article), the entry of parasites into the bile ducts, after their migration in the liver parenchyma seems to be doubtful. However, considering all the facts relating to the hepatic and biliary phases of the life cycle of F. hepatica, two alternative ideas are suggested: 1) some of the migrating juvenile flukes may enter into the bile ducts immediately after reaching the liver parenchyma while they are still very small, or 2) when newly excysted juvenile flukes are penetrating into the intestinal wall to reach the liver through the abdominal cavity, a number of these flukes may enter into the choleduct and reach the hepatic bile ducts, where they mature. According to the previously performed natural and experimental studies in different animals and human beings, the supporting and opposing evidences for the current opinion as well as the evidences that might justify the two new ideas are reviewed and discussed briefly. In conclusion, our present knowledge about the time and quality of the entry of F. hepaticas into the bile ducts, seems to be insufficient, therefore, there are still some dark corners and unknown aspects in this field that should be clarified.

  17. Juvenile Scleroderma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile Scleroderma INTRODUCTION Every parent will experience a moment of panic when told their child has scleroderma. ... in all their family members as well. CONCLUSION Juvenile scleroderma can be unsettling for the child and ...

  18. Cloning and Sequence Analysing of GST Gene of Fasciola hepatica Isolated from Sheep%绵羊肝片吸虫谷胱甘肽硫转移酶基因的克隆与序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冉旭华; 闻晓波; 王春仁; 刘娣; 孙中武; 李晓娟; 王密

    2012-01-01

    本研究扩增肝片吸虫(Fasciola hepatica,Fh)谷胱甘肽硫转移酶(GST)基因,并进行同源性分析.根据GenBank发表的部分Fh GST基因序列设计并合成一对特异性引物,利用RT-PCR方法扩增出Fh GST基因完整的开放阅读框(open reading frame,ORF),测定序列,使用分子生物学软件进行同源性分析.获得Fh GST基因全长682 bp,编码218个氨基酸,与澳大利亚分离的肝片吸虫GST同源性较高,与大片吸虫和卫氏并殖吸虫的GST也有较高的同源性.不同虫株GST基因具有较高的同源性,因此Fh GST蛋白不适合用作诊断抗原,但由于其存在交叉反应,GST基因作为分子疫苗的候选基因具有重要意义.肝片吸虫GST基因的克隆,为进一步研究GST蛋白的功能和作用奠定了基础.%The glutathione S-transferase gene of Fasciola he pat tea was amplified and its homology was analyzed. According to the published genomic sequence of Fh GST in GenBank, a pair of primers was designed and the open reading frame of GST gene of Fasciola he pat tea was amplified by RT-PCR. The homology of GST gene was analyzed by molecular biological soft. The PCR analysis results showed that the Fh GST gene was 682 bp, and encoded 218 amino acid. It indicated that the Fh GST gene was highly homologous with Fasciola hepatica isolated from Australia, Fasciola gigantica and Paragonimus xvestermani. Because of the high homology of the GST gene of different parasite, it could not be used in diagnosis assay with Fh GST protein, but could be used in gene vaccine. The clone of Fh GST gene had advantages to investigate the function and effect of GST protein.

  19. Fasciola hepatica phenotypic characterization in Andean human endemic areas: valley versus altiplanic patterns analysed in liver flukes from sheep from Cajamarca and Mantaro, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, M Adela; Perez-Crespo, Ignácio; Khoubbane, Messaoud; Artigas, Patricio; Panova, Miroslava; Ortiz, Pedro; Maco, Vicente; Espinoza, José R; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2012-03-01

    Fascioliasis is a zoonotic parasitic disease caused by Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. Of both species, F. hepatica is the only one described in the Americas, mainly transmitted by lymnaeid snail vectors of the Galba/Fossaria group. Human fascioliasis endemic areas are mainly located in high altitude areas of Andean countries. Given the necessity to characterize F. hepatica populations involved, the phenotypic features of fasciolid adults infecting sheep present in human fascioliasis endemic areas were analysed in the Cajamarca Valley and Mantaro Valley (valley transmission patterns) and the northern Bolivian Altiplano (altiplanic transmission pattern). A computer image analysis system (CIAS) was applied on the basis of standardized measurements. The aforementioned highland populations were compared to standard lowland natural and experimental populations of European origin. Liver fluke size was studied by multivariate analyses. Two phenotypic patterns could be distinguished in F. hepatica adult size: the valley pattern (Cajamarca and Mantaro, Peru) and the altiplanic pattern (northern Altiplano, Bolivia). Results showed that the Andean valley population and European standard populations presented a phenotypic homogeneity. The Altiplano population showed a large size range with a pronouncedly lower minimum size indicating that uterus gravidity is reached at a smaller size than in valley populations. The results of this study demonstrate that there is no apparent relationship between the shape of fasciolid adults with regard to altitudinal difference or geographical origin and that allometry-free shape appears as a more stable trait than size in fasciolid species. Results are analysed in terms of intensity/crowding effect aspects and permanent/seasonal transmission characteristics.

  20. 肝片吸虫蚴虫的形态学及分子学鉴定%Morphological and Molecular Identification of Fasciola hepatica Iarvae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭明佳; 陈刚; 唐洁; 李英

    2016-01-01

    为了找到青海地区肝片吸虫(Fasciola hepatica)的主要中间宿主,并对椎实螺(Lymnaeidae snails)体内的蚴虫进行虫种鉴定.对青海部分地区的椎实螺进行压片镜检,结果发现椭圆萝卜螺(Radix swinhoei)内无肝片吸虫蚴虫感染.狭萝卜螺(Radix lagotis)体内发现雷蚴,雷蚴为肝片吸虫的蚴虫,但是感染率较低为10%.青海萝卜螺(Radix cucnnorica)体内发现了雷蚴和尾蚴,并在养殖青海萝卜螺的水中二青菜叶子上收集到囊蚴,经初步鉴定均为肝片吸虫的蚴虫,感染率较高为41.89%.主要中间宿主螺为青海萝卜螺.提取蚴虫体内DNA,通过PCR扩增18SrRNA片段并测序.将测序用DNAMAN软件进行比对后发现,与GenBank中发布的大片吸虫(Fasciola gigantica)和肝片吸虫的18S rRNA的序列进行比对其相似度分别为99.12%和92.03%.可以进一步确定所收集的蚴虫为肝片吸虫的蚴虫.

  1. Towards delineating functions within the fasciola secreted cathepsin l protease family by integrating in vivo based sub-proteomics and phylogenetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell M Morphew

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available fasciola hepatica, along with Fasciola gigantica, is the causative agent of fasciolosis, a foodborne zoonotic disease affecting grazing animals and humans worldwide. Pathology is directly related to the release of parasite proteins that facilitate establishment within the host. The dominant components of these excretory-secretory (ES products are also the most promising vaccine candidates, the cathepsin L (Cat L protease family.the sub-proteome of Cat L proteases from adult F. hepatica ES products derived from in vitro culture and in vivo from ovine host bile were compared by 2-DE. The individual Cat L proteases were identified by tandem mass spectrometry with the support of an in-house translated liver fluke EST database. The study reveals plasticity within the CL1 clade of Cat L proteases; highlighted by the identification of a novel isoform and CL1 sub-clade, resulting in a new Cat L phylogenetic analysis including representatives from other adult Cat L phylogenetic clades. Additionally, for the first time, mass spectrometry was shown to be sufficiently sensitive to reveal single amino acid polymorphisms in a resolved 2-DE protein spot derived from pooled population samples.we have investigated the sub-proteome at the population level of a vaccine target family using the Cat L proteases from F. hepatica as a case study. We have confirmed that F. hepatica exhibits more plasticity in the expression of the secreted CL1 clade of Cat L proteases at the protein level than previously realised. We recommend that superfamily based vaccine discovery programmes should screen parasite populations from different host populations and, if required, different host species via sub-proteomic assay in order to confirm the relative expression at the protein level prior to the vaccine development phase.

  2. Towards Delineating Functions within the Fasciola Secreted Cathepsin L Protease Family by Integrating In Vivo Based Sub-Proteomics and Phylogenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morphew, Russell M.; Wright, Hazel A.; LaCourse, E. James; Porter, Joanne; Barrett, John; Woods, Debra J.; Brophy, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Fasciola hepatica, along with Fasciola gigantica, is the causative agent of fasciolosis, a foodborne zoonotic disease affecting grazing animals and humans worldwide. Pathology is directly related to the release of parasite proteins that facilitate establishment within the host. The dominant components of these excretory-secretory (ES) products are also the most promising vaccine candidates, the cathepsin L (Cat L) protease family. Methodology/Principal Findings The sub-proteome of Cat L proteases from adult F. hepatica ES products derived from in vitro culture and in vivo from ovine host bile were compared by 2-DE. The individual Cat L proteases were identified by tandem mass spectrometry with the support of an in-house translated liver fluke EST database. The study reveals plasticity within the CL1 clade of Cat L proteases; highlighted by the identification of a novel isoform and CL1 sub-clade, resulting in a new Cat L phylogenetic analysis including representatives from other adult Cat L phylogenetic clades. Additionally, for the first time, mass spectrometry was shown to be sufficiently sensitive to reveal single amino acid polymorphisms in a resolved 2-DE protein spot derived from pooled population samples. Conclusions/Significance We have investigated the sub-proteome at the population level of a vaccine target family using the Cat L proteases from F. hepatica as a case study. We have confirmed that F. hepatica exhibits more plasticity in the expression of the secreted CL1 clade of Cat L proteases at the protein level than previously realised. We recommend that superfamily based vaccine discovery programmes should screen parasite populations from different host populations and, if required, different host species via sub-proteomic assay in order to confirm the relative expression at the protein level prior to the vaccine development phase. PMID:21245911

  3. Juvenile Judge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    SHANG Xiuyun was among the first sitting judges when the juvenile court was set up in Beijing 10 years ago. With enriched experience she has altered the way judges ask questions in court. She began the practice of inviting juvenile offenders, their parents, relatives, friends and teachers to the juvenile court to work hand in hand in dealing with cases: Facing their relatives and friends and hearing their heartfelt words, juvenile offenders would often be touched, thus bringing forth a positive attitude toward life.

  4. Juvenile Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile arthritis (JA) is arthritis that happens in children. It causes joint swelling, pain, stiffness, and loss of motion. It can affect any joint, but ... of JA that children get is juvenile idiopathic arthritis. There are several other forms of arthritis affecting ...

  5. [Juvenile scleroderma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mâcedo, Patrícia Andrade; Shinjo, Samuel Katsuyuki; Goldenstein-Schainberg, Cláudia

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile scleroderma is a rare childhood condition characterized by fibrosis of the skin and internal organs. Clinical manifestations of childhood scleroderma are different from adult disease and early recognition, correct classification and treatment can improve long-term outcome. This review explores the most recent actualizations on clinical manifestations, classification criteria, treatment options and prognosis of juvenile scleroderma. There are two main forms of the disease: localized scleroderma and systemic sclerosis. Localized scleroderma is the most common form in children and mostly restricted to the skin. Juvenile diffuse systemic sclerosis is related to visceral involvement and cardiac disease which is the main cause of death in these patients. The outcome of juvenile systemic sclerosis is better compared with the adult form. Treatment remains a medical challenge and the EULAR task force proposed an approach to juvenile scleroderma treatment based on expert's opinion and guidelines used for the treatment of adults. Larger studies on childhood scleroderma are warranted.

  6. Differential expression and localization of saposin-like protein 2 of Fasciola hepatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabán-Hernández, Kimberly; Espino, Ana M

    2013-12-01

    FhSAP2 is a novel antigen isolated from the adult fluke of Fasciola hepatica. Based on sequence similarity with amoebapores and other related proteins, it belongs to the saposin-like protein (SAPLIP) family. FhSAP2 has been shown to be highly immunogenic and capable of inducing protective immune responses in mice and rabbits challenged with F. hepatica. Moreover, FhSAP2 is also reactive with sera from humans with chronic fascioliasis. In the present study, we investigated the expression of FhSAP2 in various developmental stages of F. hepatica by qPCR and demonstrated that FhSAP2-mRNA species are up-regulated in undeveloped eggs, newly excysted juveniles, and adults, but down-regulated in the miracidium stage. Monoclonal antibodies against FhSAP2 were produced, and two clones that are positive to F. hepatica whole-body extract, but not reactive with extracts from other trematodes, were selected, expanded and used for histolocalization studies. Confocal immunofluorescence revealed the presence of native FhSAP2 in epithelial cells surrounding the gut, toward the outermost part of the tegument, and toward the tegumental cells of both adults and newly excysted juveniles.

  7. Assessment of flukicide efficacy against Fasciola hepatica in sheep in Sweden in the absence of a standardised test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Novobilský

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthelmintic resistance (AR to Fasciola hepatica is emerging worldwide. Recently, AR to the adulticide compound albendazole (ABZ was shown in Argentina and Spain. In Sweden, ABZ treatment failure against F. hepatica was first reported in sheep in 2012. The present study tested the efficacy of ABZ and triclabendazole (TCBZ in sheep naturally infected with F. hepatica using a combination of three different diagnostic methods: faecal egg counts (FEC, coproantigen ELISA (cELISA and Fasciola egg hatch test (FEHT. Two deworming trials, in November 2014 and January 2015, were performed on two sheep farms (farms A and B in south-western Sweden. Except ABZ in November, treatment with ABZ or TCBZ achieved sufficient efficacy (97–100% against adult F. hepatica on farm A. In contrast, ABZ treatment failed in the sheep flock on farm B, despite low initial faecal egg output. On farm B, ABZ efficacy based on FEC was 67% (95% CI: 35–84 and four of eight ewes tested were coproantigen-positive 21 days post-treatment. Ovicidal activity of ABZ against Fasciola eggs in isolates from both farms and one additional bovine isolate were tested by FEHT to exclude the presence of juvenile flukes and other factors such as dosing failure and poor quality of drug product. Irrespective of drug trial, data from FEHT showed significantly lower ovicidal activity of ABZ for the ovine farm B isolate than for the isolate from farm A. This confirms that the low efficacy of ABZ in sheep flock B was associated with ABZ resistance. Overall, the usefulness of three complementary methods for detection of ABZ resistance in the field was demonstrated.

  8. Juvenile Prostitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csapo, Marg

    1986-01-01

    Recent research and Canadian government committee reports concerning juvenile prostitution are reviewed. Proposals are made in the realms of law and social policy; and existing programs are described. (DB)

  9. Juvenile Prostitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csapo, Marg

    1986-01-01

    Recent research and Canadian government committee reports concerning juvenile prostitution are reviewed. Proposals are made in the realms of law and social policy; and existing programs are described. (DB)

  10. Juvenile myasthenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević-Pogančev Marija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Juvenile myasthenia is a chronic autoimmune neuromuscular disease characterized by varying degrees of fluctuating, painless muscle weakness and rapid fatigue of any muscles under voluntary control. Juvenile myasthenia is a form of myasthenia appearing in adolescent age, representing 10% to 15% of all cases of myasthenia gravis. Juvenile myasthenia is presented by a defect in the transmission of nerve impulses to muscles, resulting from a breakdown in the normal communication between nerves and muscles. In myasthenia, antibodies produced by the body’s own immune system block, alter, or destroy the receptors for acetylcholine. Juvenile myasthenia is neither directly inherited nor is it contagious. Signs and Symptoms. The first noticeable symptoms may be eye muscle weakness, difficulty in swallowing, or slurred speech. Juvenile myasthenia usually affects muscles innervated by the cranial nerves (face, lips, tongue, neck and throat, but it can affect any muscle group. Symptoms vary in type and severity with typical periods of exacerbation interspersed with periods of remission. When the muscles necessary for breathing are affected, a patient is said to be in a myasthenic crisis, which is a life-threatening situation. Disease Outcome and Treatment. Juvenile myasthenia produces sporadic but progressive weakness and abnormal fatigability of striated (skeletal muscles, exacerbated by exercise and repeated movement, but improved by rest and anticholinesterase drugs. Juvenile myasthenia follows an unpredictable course of recurring exacerbations and periodic remissions. With current therapies, however, most cases of juvenile myasthenia are not as serious as the name implies. Although there is no known cure, drug treatment has improved prognosis and allows patients to lead relatively normal lives, except during exacerbations.

  11. Chapter 2. Fasciola, lymnaeids and human fascioliasis, with a global overview on disease transmission, epidemiology, evolutionary genetics, molecular epidemiology and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas-Coma, Santiago; Valero, María Adela; Bargues, María Dolores

    2009-01-01

    Fascioliasis, caused by liver fluke species of the genus Fasciola, has always been well recognized because of its high veterinary impact but it has been among the most neglected diseases for decades with regard to human infection. However, the increasing importance of human fascioliasis worldwide has re-launched interest in fascioliasis. From the 1990s, many new concepts have been developed regarding human fascioliasis and these have furnished a new baseline for the human disease that is very different to a simple extrapolation from fascioliasis in livestock. Studies have shown that human fascioliasis presents marked heterogeneity, including different epidemiological situations and transmission patterns in different endemic areas. This heterogeneity, added to the present emergence/re-emergence of the disease both in humans and animals in many regions, confirms a worrying global scenario. The huge negative impact of fascioliasis on human communities demands rapid action. When analyzing how better to define control measures for endemic areas differing at such a level, it would be useful to have genetic markers that could distinguish each type of transmission pattern and epidemiological situation. Accordingly, this chapter covers aspects of aetiology, geographical distribution, epidemiology, transmission and control in order to obtain a solid baseline for the interpretation of future results. The origins and geographical spread of F. hepatica and F. gigantica in both the ruminant pre-domestication times and the livestock post-domestication period are analyzed. Paleontological, archaeological and historical records, as well as genetic data on recent dispersal of livestock species, are taken into account to establish an evolutionary framework for the two fasciolids across all continents. Emphasis is given to the distributional overlap of both species and the roles of transportation, transhumance and trade in the different overlap situations. Areas with only one Fasciola

  12. Time-Course Study of the Transcriptome of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) from Sheep Infected with Fasciola hepatica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheerlinck, Jean-Pierre; Ansell, Brendan R. E.; Hall, Ross S.; Gasser, Robin B.; Jex, Aaron R.

    2016-01-01

    Fasciola hepatica is a parasitic trematode that infects a wide range of mammalian hosts, including livestock and humans, in temperate and tropical regions globally. This trematode causes the disease fascioliasis, which consists of an acute phase (≤ 12 weeks) during which juvenile parasites migrate through the host liver tissues, and a chronic phase (> 12 weeks) following the establishment of adult parasites in the liver bile ducts. Few studies have explored the progression of the host response over the course of Fasciola infection in the same animals. In this study, we characterized transcriptomic changes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) collected from sheep at three time points over the first eight weeks of infection relative to uninfected controls. In total, 183 and 76 genes were found to be differentially transcribed at two and eight weeks post-infection respectively. Functional and pathway analysis of differentially transcribed genes revealed changes related to T-cell activation that may underpin a Th2-biased immune response against this parasite. This first insight into the dynamics of host responses during the early stages of infection improves the understanding of the pathogenesis of acute fascioliasis, informs vaccine development and presents a set of PBMC markers with diagnostic potential. PMID:27438474

  13. Fasciola gigantica and fasciola hepatica-RNA extraction and electrophoretic analysis%片形吸虫总RNA的提取及其L-rRNA的初步分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗洪林; 黄维义; 张为宇

    2005-01-01

    目的为构建大片吸虫cDNA文库,获得目的重组抗原,用以大片吸虫病的诊断及其表达序列标签(EST)的获取,本试验制备了大片吸虫的总RNA.采用Trizol试剂,结合使用饱和酚、氯仿及冰乙醇从大片吸虫成虫提取总RNA,同样方法提取了肝片吸虫总RNA和巴马香猪的总RNA,并作甲醛变性电泳比较.三者的总RNA经1%甲醛变性电泳,观察到2条主要目的带,分别是28S和18S,其中18S明显较28S色深且明亮,28S稍显模糊.本次试验获得纯度较高,完整性较好,无污染的总RNA,并证明大片吸虫和肝片吸虫的L-rRNA中不存在切口现象.

  14. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA); Juvenile chronic polyarthritis; Still disease; Juvenile spondyloarthritis ... The cause of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is not known. It ... illness . This means the body attacks and destroys healthy body ...

  15. Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types of Cancer > Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome Request Permissions Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 12/2015 What is juvenile polyposis syndrome? Juvenile polyposis syndrome (JPS) is a ...

  16. A focus of Fasciola hepatica in Crete without human cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, M; Lionis, C; Tselentis, Y

    1997-01-01

    In Greece, Fasciola hepatica, the sheep liver fluke, is common in sheep but only three human cases of fascioliasis have been reported. An epidemiological study was conducted in central Crete which proved to be a focus of F. hepatica. Sheep and snails were found positive for this parasite, but none of the 205 persons tested serologically.

  17. Cytokines level changes in goats infected with Fasciola hepatica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    To study the changes of IL-2 and TNF-α in serum and the IL-2 secreted by peripheral blood lymphocytes of goats infected with Fasciola hepatica,thirty six clinically healthy white goats were randomly divided into groups coded as Ⅰ,Ⅱ,Ⅲ,every 12 goats.Goats in group Ⅰ and Ⅱ were inoculated with a single oral dose of 200 and 500 encysted Fasciola hepatica metacercaria,respectively,while those in group Ⅲ were untreated controls.Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein once a week for 11 weeks.Changes in the serum levels of IL-2 and TNF-α and the ability of peripheral blood lymphocytes to secrete IL-2 were detected.Serum IL-2 levels decreased in group I,but increased in group Ⅱ.The levels of TNF-α and secreted IL-2 were elevated by varying degrees in both groups Ⅰ and Ⅱ.Lymphocytes displayed reactivity during the first week after infection with a significantly increased response to both specific and non-specific challenges.TNF-α may be involved in the hepatic injury process caused by Fasciola hepatica.The infective dose of Fasciola hepatica greatly influenced IL-2 levels in the host playing a vital role in the initiation of host defense.

  18. Juvenile Spondyloarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmuca, Sabrina; Weiss, Pamela F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review To provide a comprehensive update of the pathogenesis, diagnostic imaging, treatments, and disease activity measurements of juvenile spondyloarthritis (JSpA). Recent findings Genetic and microbiome studies have provided new information regarding possible pathogenesis of JSpA. Recent work suggests that children with JSpA have decreased thresholds for pain in comparison to healthy children. Additionally, pain on physical examination and abnormalities on ultrasound of the entheses are not well correlated. Treatment guidelines for juvenile arthritis, including JSpA, were published by the American College of Rheumatology and are based on active joint count and presence of sacroiliitis. Recent studies have established the efficacy of tumor necrosis factor inhibitors in the symptomatic treatment of axial disease, though their efficacy for halting progression of structural damage is less clear. Newly developed disease activity measures for JSpA include the Juvenile Arthritis Disease Activity Score and the JSpA Disease Activity index. In comparison to other categories of juvenile arthritis, children with JSpA are less likely to attain and sustain inactive disease. Summary Further microbiome and genetic research may help elucidate JSpA pathogenesis. More randomized therapeutic trials are needed and the advent of new composite disease activity measurement tools will hopefully allow for the design of these greatly needed trials. PMID:26002028

  19. Fasciola hepatica Infection in an Indigenous Community of the Peruvian Jungle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabada, Miguel M; Castellanos-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Lopez, Martha; Caravedo, María Alejandra; Arque, Eulogia; White, Arthur Clinton

    2016-06-01

    Fasciola hepatica is a zoonotic infection with a worldwide distribution. Autochthonous cases have not been reported in the Amazon region of Peru. Operculated eggs resembling F. hepatica were identified in the stools of five out of 215 subjects in a remote indigenous community of the Peruvian jungle. Polymerase chain reaction targeting Fasciola hepatica cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene and sequencing of the products confirmed Fasciola infection.

  20. Prevalence of Fasciola in cattle and of its intermediate host Lymnaea snails in central Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Sam Thi; Nguyen, Duc Tan; Van Nguyen, Thoai; Huynh, Vu Vy; Le, Duc Quyet; Fukuda, Yasuhiro; Nakai, Yutaka

    2012-12-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence of natural Fasciola infections in both the definitive hosts (cattle) and the intermediate hosts (Lymnaea snails) in central Vietnam. A total of 1,075 fecal samples, randomly collected from cattle in Binh Dinh, Khanh Hoa, and Phu Yen provinces, were examined for Fasciola eggs by a sedimentation method. The overall prevalence of Fasciola was 45.3 %. A subset of the animals (235) was also screened for antibodies against Fasciola by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, 46.3 % of these animals were shedding Fasciola eggs while 87.2 % were Fasciola seropositive. A lower prevalence of Fasciola was observed in calves ≤ 2 years of age (37.6 %) compared to that in cattle >2 years of age (53.7 %) (p Lymnaea viridis and 1.128 Lymnaea swinhoei examined, 31 (0.95 %) and seven (0.62 %), respectively, were found to be infected with Fasciola. This appears to be the first epidemiological survey of the prevalence of Fasciola in cattle and snails in these three provinces in central Vietnam.

  1. Juvenile Justice in Milwaukee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gary L.; Greer, Lanetta

    2010-01-01

    Historically, there have been several attempts made to address issues surrounding juvenile delinquency. The Wisconsin Legislature outlines the objectives of the juvenile justice system in the Juvenile Justice Code in s. 939.01, ?to promote a juvenile justice system capable of dealing with the problem of juvenile delinquency, a system which will…

  2. Juvenile xanthogranuloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R; Ghazali, W

    1992-05-01

    Juvenile xanthogranuloma is a benign cutaneous growth presenting as papules or nodules. It is characterized by an intradermal collection of lipid-laden macrophages and varying degrees of fibroblastic proliferation. We have recently observed two patients with xanthogranulomas: one was found to have a papular type and the second patient had multiple nodular growths. We present these cases, which should be considered in the differential diagnosis of skin nodules.

  3. Antibody response in cattle, sheep and rats to infection with. gamma. -irradiated metacercariae of Fasciola hepatica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, D.L.; Doy, T.G. (Agricultural Research Council, Compton (UK). Inst. for Research on Animal Diseases); Hanna, R.E.B. (Queen' s Univ., Belfast, Northern Ireland (UK))

    1982-05-01

    Cattle, sheep and rats were infected orally with ..gamma..-irradiated metacercariae of Fasciola hepatica, or with normal metacercariae. The antibody response was monitored in each host to metacercarial tegument (T0), juvenile tegument (T1), adult tegument (T2) and gut antigens. The response was examined at weekly intervals for cattle and sheep throughout 15 weeks of infection and four weeks after infection in rats, using an indirect fluorescent antibody labelling technique. It was found that the irradiated metacercariae engendered a normal humoral response to T0, T1 and gut antigens in all three hosts although the antibody levels were somewhat reduced due to early death or stunting of the flukes. T0 and T1 appeared to be antigenically similar. Antibodies against T2 appeared late in the animals infected with ..gamma..-irradiated metacercariae and the titres attained were considerably lower than in the controls. The T2 antigen stimulus in the animals given ..gamma..-irradiated metacercariae was probably provided by flukes which 'broke through' the developmental barrier imposed by irradiation and which were found alive at autopsy.

  4. PREVALENCE OF FASCIOLA HEPATICA IN GOATS AROUND MULTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. TASAWAR, U. MUNIR, C. S. HAYAT AND M. H. LASHARI

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Faecal Samples of 80 goats belonging to Nachi and Teddy breeds were collected bimonthly from areas around Multan, Pakistan. The overall prevalence of Fasciola hepatica in goats and relationship between body weight, age, breed of the host and also effect of parasite on the litter size of the host were studied. The overall prevalence of F. hepatica was 28.75%. Infection of parasite was more prevalent in Teddy than in Nachi goats (42.10 VS 16.67%; P45 kg, the difference was significant (p36 months. The prevalence was significantly different (P<0.05 in different age groups. It was concluded that the prevalence of Fasciola hepatica in goats was significantly affected by the breed age, and body weight of the animal. However, it had no effects on the litter size.

  5. Dermatomiositis juvenil

    OpenAIRE

    Goldaracena, Pablo; Pérez, Federico

    2008-01-01

    La dermatomiositis juvenil (DMJ) es una enfermedad multi sistémica de etiología desconocida, caracterizada por una vasculitis que ocasiona una inflamación no supurativa del músculo estriado y lesiones cutáneas distintivas. La cobertura de los criterios de Bohan y Peter establece el diagnóstico: exantema patognomónico junto a debilidad muscular proximal simétrica, elevación sérica de enzimas musculares, s...

  6. Genetic characterization, species differentiation and detection of Fasciola spp. by molecular approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Hai-Long

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Liver flukes belonging to the genus Fasciola are among the causes of foodborne diseases of parasitic etiology. These parasites cause significant public health problems and substantial economic losses to the livestock industry. Therefore, it is important to definitively characterize the Fasciola species. Current phenotypic techniques fail to reflect the full extent of the diversity of Fasciola spp. In this respect, the use of molecular techniques to identify and differentiate Fasciola spp. offer considerable advantages. The advent of a variety of molecular genetic techniques also provides a powerful method to elucidate many aspects of Fasciola biology, epidemiology, and genetics. However, the discriminatory power of these molecular methods varies, as does the speed and ease of performance and cost. There is a need for the development of new methods to identify the mechanisms underpinning the origin and maintenance of genetic variation within and among Fasciola populations. The increasing application of the current and new methods will yield a much improved understanding of Fasciola epidemiology and evolution as well as more effective means of parasite control. Herein, we provide an overview of the molecular techniques that are being used for the genetic characterization, detection and genotyping of Fasciola spp..

  7. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of Fasciola hepatica from Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa-Seki, Madoka; Ortiz, Pedro; Cabrera, Maria; Hobán, Cristian; Itagaki, Tadashi

    2016-06-01

    The causative agent of fasciolosis in South America is thought to be Fasciola hepatica. In this study, Fasciola flukes from Peru were analyzed to investigate their genetic structure and phylogenetic relationships with those from other countries. Fasciola flukes were collected from the three definitive host species: cattle, sheep, and pigs. They were identified as F. hepatica because mature sperms were observed in their seminal vesicles, and also they displayed Fh type, which has an identical fragment pattern to F. hepatica in the nuclear internal transcribed spacer 1. Eight haplotypes were obtained from the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) sequences of Peruvian F. hepatica; however, no special difference in genetic structure was observed between the three host species. Its extremely low genetic diversity suggests that the Peruvian population was introduced from other regions. Nad1 haplotypes identical to those of Peruvian F. hepatica were detected in China, Uruguay, Italy, Iran, and Australia. Our results indicate that F. hepatica rapidly expanded its range due to human migration. Future studies are required to elucidate dispersal route of F. hepatica from Europe, its probable origin, to other areas, including Peru.

  8. First report of closantel treatment failure against Fasciola hepatica in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novobilský, Adam; Höglund, Johan

    2015-12-01

    Control of Fasciola hepatica infection in livestock is based on annual treatment using flukicides such as triclabendazole, albendazole and closantel. However, triclabendazole resistant F. hepatica populations are emerging worldwide and resistance is emerging to albendazole, whereas it has until now never been described for closantel. In Sweden, a topical formulation containing a combination of closantel and ivermectin (Closamectin Pour On) has been registered for use in cattle only since 2011. This study evaluated the efficacy of closantel against F. hepatica in naturally infected beef cattle using both coproantigen and faecal egg count reduction tests. Faecal egg counts (FEC) and coproantigen ELISA examinations were conducted in February 2014 in three beef cattle herds (A, B, C) in south-western Sweden. On each farm, 10 F. hepatica coproantigen-positive and F. hepatica egg-positive animals were allocated after 12-16 weeks of housing into groups and treated topically with a minimum of 20 mg closantel per kg body weight. Faecal samples were collected from selected animals on 0, 7 and 21 day post-treatment (PT). Based on FEC, closantel efficacy 21 days PT was 72% (95% CI: 65-77%) and 97% (95% CI: 95-98%) on farms A and B, respectively. No FEC reduction at all was observed on farm C. In total, 4, 1 and 6 animals remained coproantigen-positive at 21 days PT on farms A, B and C, respectively. Closantel treatment failure was confirmed on two of the farms. As the animals were housed 12-16 weeks before treatment and thereafter during the entire study, failure due to the presence of juvenile flukes was excluded. Although the cause of closantel failure currently remains unclear, development of resistance or/and absorption failure of topical administration should be considered. To our knowledge, this is the first report of closantel treatment failure against F. hepatica in cattle.

  9. High energy beta rays and vectors of Bilharzia and Fasciola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, J.J.; Akpa, T.C.; Dim, L.A.; Ogunsusi, R.

    1988-01-01

    Preliminary investigations of the effects of high energy beta rays on Lymnea natalensis, the snail vector of Schistosoma haematobium have been conducted. Results show that in both stream and tap water, about 70% of the snails die when irradiated for up to 18 hours using a 15m Ci Sr-90 beta source. The rest of the snails die without further irradiation in 24 hours. It may then be possible to control the vectors of Bilharzia and Fasciola by using both the direct and indirect effects of high energy betas.

  10. Efficacy of closantel against Fasciola hepatica in Korean native goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C G; Cho, S H; Kim, J T; Lee, C Y

    1996-10-25

    Closantel (Flukiver), a salicylanilide antiparasitic compound, was tested in Korean native goats infected with Fasciola hepatica. The goats were administered closantel once orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight. Efficacy was monitored weekly by fecal examination of all infected animals starting the second week post-treatment and continuing for 3 weeks. Closantel elicited 80.3, 97.8 and 92.7% efficacy in goats with naturally-acquired fasciolosis at the second, third and fourth week post-treatment, respectively. It elicited a 100% efficacy in goats experimentally infected with F. hepatica metacercariae and treated at 18 weeks post-infection.

  11. BACTERIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION ON Fasciola hepatica AND CATTLE BILIARY DUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Panebianco

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the occurrence of bacteria in Fasciola hepatica and into cattle biliary ducts containing the parasite. A total of 24 liver and 58 F. hepatica samples were analysed. In all biliary ducts and in 62,06% of parasite Enterobacteriaceae were isolated. The bacterial specie more frequently isolated from parasite were Citrobacter freundii (34%, Proteus mirabilis (18%, Providencia rettgeri (12%, Staphylococcus spp. (18%, Enterobacter spp. (12%. There doesn’t appear to be a correlation between bacterial specie from parasite and ducts. The Authors conclude with some related inspective consideration.

  12. Retirada de fasciola hepatica da via biliar principal por coledocoscopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Pelegrini Coral

    Full Text Available The authors present a rare case of hepatic fascioliasis in a female patient 53-years-old, coming from the rural zone of Rio Grande do Sul, a southern State from Brazil. She has presented with biliary colic, fluctuant jaundice and eosinophilia. Abdominal ultrasound has shown a dilated biliary tree with inside heterogeneous images. At surgery we have found inside the biliary tree several Fasciola hepatica, which have been pulled out with the choledocoscope. We have proceeded with biliodigestive anastomosis using the small intestine. The patient remains asymptomatic six months after surgical procedure. Small intestine. The patient remains asymptomatic six months after surgical procedure.

  13. Retirada de fasciola hepatica da via biliar principal por coledocoscopia Fasciola hepatica removal from common duct through choledocoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Pelegrini Coral

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The authors present a rare case of hepatic fascioliasis in a female patient 53-years-old, coming from the rural zone of Rio Grande do Sul, a southern State from Brazil. She has presented with biliary colic, fluctuant jaundice and eosinophilia. Abdominal ultrasound has shown a dilated biliary tree with inside heterogeneous images. At surgery we have found inside the biliary tree several Fasciola hepatica, which have been pulled out with the choledocoscope. We have proceeded with biliodigestive anastomosis using the small intestine. The patient remains asymptomatic six months after surgical procedure. Small intestine. The patient remains asymptomatic six months after surgical procedure.

  14. What Is Juvenile Arthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Analgesics for Osteoarthritis (Report from AHRQ) Joint Replacement Surgery: Health Information Basics for You and Your Family NIH Pediatric Rheumatology Clinic Health Information Juvenile Arthritis Find a Clinical Trial Journal Articles Juvenile Arthritis PDF Version Size: 123 KB ...

  15. Juvenile Delinquency: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Carolyn A.

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile Delinquency is a term which is often inaccurately used. This article clarifies definitions, looks at prevalence, and explores the relationship between juvenile delinquency and mental health. Throughout, differences between males and females are explored. (Contains 1 table.)

  16. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, Machteld

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted.

  17. Characterization and differential expression of cathepsin L3 alleles from Fasciola hepatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawistowska-Deniziak, A; Wasyl, K; Norbury, L J; Wesołowska, A; Bień, J; Grodzik, M; Wiśniewski, M; Bąska, P; Wędrychowicz, H

    2013-07-01

    Fasciola hepatica infections cause significant global problems in veterinary and human medicine, including causing huge losses in cattle and sheep production. F. hepatica host infection is a multistage process and flukes express papain-like cysteine proteases, termed cathepsins, which play pivotal roles in virulence through host entry, tissue migration and immune evasion. Expression of these proteases is developmentally regulated. Recent studies indicate that excystment of infective larvae is dependent on cysteine proteases and together FhCL3 and FhCB account for over 80% of total protease activity detectable in newly excysted juvenile (NEJ) fluke. This paper focuses on members of the cathepsin L gene family, specifically those belonging to the CL3 clade. The cDNA of two novel cathepsin L3 proteases--FhCL3-1 and FhCL3-2 were cloned. The mRNA transcript expression levels for these enzymes were significantly different at various time points in life development stages obtained in vitro, from dormant metacercariae to NEJ 24h after excystment. Maximum expression levels were observed in NEJ immediately after excystment. In all stages examined by Real Time PCR, FhCL3-2 was expressed at a higher level compared to FhCL3-1 which was expressed only at very low levels. Western blot and immunohistochemical analysis also indicated higher expression of the FhCL3-2 allele and its secretory nature. The ability of antibody responses from rats and sheep challenged with F. hepatica to recognize recombinant FhCL3-1 and FhCL3-2 was shown to differ. Differences were also confirmed through the use of anti-rFhCL3-1 and anti-rFhCL3-2 sera in Western blot analysis of juvenile excretory/secretory (ES) material separated by 2D electrophoresis. These results indicate analysis of relative expression of parasite virulence factors from different populations is required, as this will likely impact the effectiveness of vaccines based on these antigens.

  18. Lymnaea palustris and Lymnaea fuscus are potential but uncommon intermediate hosts of Fasciola hepatica in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novobilský, Adam; Kašný, Martin; Beran, Luboš; Rondelaud, Daniel; Höglund, Johan

    2013-08-29

    Lymnaea palustris and L. fuscus are members of the European stagnicolines (Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae). The role of stagnicolines in transmission of Fasciola hepatica has been often proposed. To assess the possible relationship between these two stagnicolines and F. hepatica in Sweden, field monitoring in parallel with experimental infections of L. palustris and L. fuscus were conducted. Stagnicoline snails were collected and identified on pastures grazed by either sheep or cattle on four farms suffering from fasciolosis in Sweden during 2011-2012. Field-collected L. palustris and L. fuscus were examined for F. hepatica DNA by PCR. In the laboratory, different age groups of L. palustris, L. fuscus and G. truncatula were each exposed to two F. hepatica miracidia and main infection characteristics were obtained. One field-collected L. palustris (out of n = 668) contained F. hepatica as determined by PCR. On the other hand, stagnicolines artificially exposed to F. hepatica miracidia resulted in successful infection with fully differentiated cercariae, but only in juvenile snails (size, 1-2 mm at exposure) and with a prevalence of 51% and 13% in L. palustris and L. fuscus, respectively. In contrast, 90% of juvenile (size, 1-2 mm) and 92% of preadult G. truncatula (size, ≥ 2-4 mm), respectively, were successfully infected. Delayed, reduced and/or no spontaneous cercarial shedding was observed in the two stagnicolines when compared to G. truncatula. However, at snail dissection most cercariae from L. fuscus and L. palustris were able to encyst similarly to those from G. truncatula. Both L. fuscus and L. palustris can sustain larval development of F. hepatica but with an apparent level of age resistance. The finding of a single F. hepatica positive specimen of L. palustris, together with infection characteristics from the experimental infection, suggest that L. palustris is a more suitable snail vector of F. hepatica than L. fuscus. The reduced growth observed in both

  19. Juvenile Arrests, 2007. Juvenile Justice Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puzzanchera, Charles

    2009-01-01

    This Bulletin summarizes 2007 juvenile crime and arrest data reported by local law enforcement agencies across the country and cited in the FBI report, "Crime in the United States 2007." The Bulletin describes the extent and nature of juvenile crime that comes to the attention of the justice system. It serves as a baseline for comparison for…

  20. Effect of gamma irradiation on different stages of Fasciola hepatica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, J.L.; Chiriboga, J.

    1976-04-01

    Fascioliasis or hepatic distomatosis is one of the most widespread liver diseases throughout the world. It is caused by a parasitic worm of the class Trematoda of the phylum Platyhelminthes. This flatworm is commonly known as liver-fluke in the United States and Europe; babosa del higado in Cuba; cucaracha del higado in Puerto Rico; saguaype in Argentina and Chile; pirihuin in Chile; yuta in North Chile, and it is taxonomically classified as Fasciola hepatica. The adult trematode is a common parasite of warm blooded animals especially cattle, sheep, and goats. Alterations in the viability of normal Fasciola hepatica metacercariae as a result of time of storage at 4/sup 0/C were studied by the method of Wikerhauser (1960). A significant decrease in viability was observed only after one hundred days of storage. The in vitro viability of normal metacercariae was compared with that of metacercariae that were exposed to increasing ..gamma.. radiation doses. Two plainly opposite effects observed were: the activation of the excystation process by the lower radiation doses (1.5 and 2.5 Kr), an effect that persisted up to the 14th day post-radiation, and the impairment of the process evidenced on the 14th day in the metacercariae exposed to 3.5 and 5.0 Kr. Correlation between liver damage and the increasing radiation doses to which the metacercariae were exposed was studied up to 34 days after the oral inoculation in rats. (auth)

  1. Seasonal variation in toxicity of citral against Fasciola larva

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kumari Sunita; Pradeep Kumar; Dinesh Kumar Singh

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To test whether the larvicidal activity of citral against Fasciola varies by season. Methods:Mortality of Fasciola larva in different month of year (2011-2012) in in vitro and in vivo condition were observed at 2 h, 4 h, 6 h and 8 h exposure of citral. Results:In vitro toxicity of citral against redia was highest in between the June to August (8 h LC50: 2.58-2.62 mg/L), whereas against cercaria 8 h LC50 was in between 3.44-2.62 mg/L. Highest in vivo toxicity against redia was noted in between June to August (8h LC50: 4.20-5.09 mg/L). The lowest toxicity was observed from November to April. The highest temperature, free carbon dioxide, and lowest pH, dissolved oxygen were observed from June to August. Conclusions:The present study conclusively shows that varying a biotic factor can significantly alter the in vitro and in vivo toxicity of citral against sporocyst redia and cercaria larva.

  2. PATTERNS IN SIZE AND SHEDDING OF FASCIOLA HEPATICA EGGS BY NATURALLY AND EXPERIMENTALLY INFECTED MURID RODENTS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    M. Adela Valero; Miroslava Panova; Ana M. Comes; Roger Fons; Santiago Mas-Coma

    2002-01-01

    Using samples collected on the island of Corsica, a comparative study was done of the morphometry of Fasciola hepatica eggs shed by cattle and by naturally and experimentally infected murid rodents...

  3. Nöropati ile başvuran Fasciola hepatica olgusu

    OpenAIRE

    BOĞA, Salih; KÖKSAL, Ali Rıza; ALTINKAYA, Engin; ÖZDOĞAN, Osman; ERGÜN, Meltem; ALKIM, Canan Alataş

    2012-01-01

    Fascioliazis insanda fasciola türlerinin, özellikle Fasciola hepatica'nın neden olduğu zoonotik bir hastalıktır. Fascioliazis koyun, sığır gibi ot yiyen evcil hayvanlarda yaygın olarak görülmekle beraber insanlar rastlantı sal konaklardır. ‹nsan enfeksiyonu genellikle koyun yetiştirilen yerlerde su teresi tüketilmesiyle alır. Erişkin Fasciola hepatica 2.5–3 cm boyunda 1–1.5 cm çapında yaprak şekilli bir yassı solucandır. Fasciola kistleri asıl konak veya insanlar tarafından ora...

  4. Fasciola hepatica is associated with the failure to detect bovine tuberculosis in dairy cattle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Claridge, Jen; Diggle, Peter; McCann, Catherine M; Mulcahy, Grace; Flynn, Rob; McNair, Jim; Strain, Sam; Welsh, Michael; Baylis, Matthew; Williams, Diana J L

    2012-01-01

    .... Here we show in a study involving 3,026 dairy herds in England and Wales that there is a significant negative association between exposure to the common, ubiquitous helminth parasite, Fasciola...

  5. Juvenile polyposis syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.A.A. Brosens; D. Langeveld; W.A. van Hattem; F.M. Giardiello; G.J.A. Offerhaus

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile polyposis syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by multiple distinct juvenile polyps in the gastrointestinal tract and an increased risk of colorectal cancer. The cumulative life-time risk of colorectal cancer is 39% and the relative risk is 34. Juvenile polyps have a

  6. Fasciola hepatica infestation as a very rare cause of extrahepatic cholestasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmet Dobrucali; Rafet Yigitbasi; Yusuf Erzin; Oguzhan Sunamak; Erdal Polat; Hakan Yakar

    2004-01-01

    Fasciola hepatica, an endemic parasite in Turkey, is still a very rare cause of cholestasis worldwide. Through ingestion of contaminated water plants like watercress, humans can become the definitive host of this parasite. Cholestatic symptoms may be sudden but in some cases they may be preceeded by a long period of fever, eosinophilia and vague gastrointestinal symptoms. We report a woman with cholangitis symptoms of sudden onset which was proved to be due to Fasciola hepatica infestation by an endoscopic retrograde cholangiography.

  7. Juveniles on trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Kathleen M

    2002-10-01

    This article describes common forensic evaluations requested of juvenile court mental health evaluators. There has been a legal shift toward criminalization of juvenile court, with a greater emphasis on rights, abandonment of the rehabilitative model, and greater movement of adolescents into the adult criminal court. A resulting shift has been the redefinition of juvenile court forensic evaluations toward the specificity of adult forensic work. The challenge for evaluators is to refine their knowledge of the forensic standards and bring knowledge of development, assessment, and diagnosis in juveniles and interview techniques appropriate to juveniles to improve the evaluation and forensic reports.

  8. Adaptation of Lymnaea fuscus and Radix balthica to Fasciola hepatica through the experimental infection of several successive snail generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background High prevalence of Fasciola hepatica infection (>70%) was noted during several outbreaks before the 2000s in several French farms where Galba truncatula is lacking. Other lymnaeids such as Lymnaea fuscus, L. glabra and/or Radix balthica are living in meadows around these farms but only juvenile snails can sustain complete larval development of F. hepatica while older snails were resistant. The low prevalence of infection (hepatica infection in snails progressively increased from the F1 (R. balthica) or F2 (L. fuscus) generation. In the second experiment, the prevalence of F. hepatica infection and the number of shed cercariae were significantly lower in L. fuscus and R. balthica (without significant differences between both lymnaeids) than in G. truncatula. Conclusion The F. hepatica infection of several successive snail generations, coming from parents infected with this parasite, resulted in a progressive increase in prevalence and intensity of snail infection. This may explain high prevalence of fasciolosis noted in several cattle-breeding farms when the common snail host of this digenean, G. truncatula, is lacking. PMID:24986589

  9. Life-history traits of Fossaria cubensis (Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae under experimental exposure to Fasciola hepatica (Trematoda: Digenea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutiérrez Alfredo

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of exposing the lymnaeid snail Fossaria cubensis to the trematode Fasciola hepatica on the snail population's life-history traits was studied under laboratory conditions. Exposed individuals showed a lower survival rate than control snails, although from week 7 onward a slower decrease of this parameter in relation to the control group was observed. There were higher values of fecundity rate for the controls compared to the exposed group except during weeks 9, 10, 11 and 12, which was the time that followed the period when almost all of the infected snails died. Both the intrinsic and finite rates of natural increase were significantly higher for the control group, but exposed snails still attained a lower mean generation time. Age-specific trade-offs were found, mainly for the weekly increase in size versus the number of eggs per mass, the weekly increase in size versus the number of viable eggs per mass, the number of masses versus the hatching probability and the number of eggs versus the hatching probability. All these negative associations were significant for juveniles of both control and exposed snails and not for adults; however, exposed young individuals exhibited much higher values of the correlation coefficient than control animals.

  10. Juvenile polyposis syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lodewijk AA Brosens; Danielle Langeveld; W Arnout van Hattem; Francis M Giardiello; G Johan A Offerhaus

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile polyposis syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by multiple distinct juvenile polyps in the gastrointestinal tract and an increased risk of colorectal cancer.The cumulative life-time risk of colorectal cancer is 39% and the relative risk is 34.Juvenile polyps have a distinctive histology characterized by an abundance of edematous lamina propria with inflammatory cells and cystically dilated glands lined by cuboidal to columnar epithelium with reactive changes.Clinically, juvenile polyposis syndrome is defined by the presence of 5 or more juvenile polyps in the colorectum,juvenile polyps throughout the gastrointestinal tract or any number of juvenile polyps and a positive family history of juvenile polyposis.In about 50%-60% of patients diagnosed with juvenile polyposis syndrome a germline mutation in the SMAD4 or BMPR1A gene is found.Both genes play a role in the BMP/TGF-beta signalling pathway.It has been suggested that cancer in juvenile polyposis may develop through the so-alled "landscaper mechanism" where an abnormal stromal environment leads to neoplastic transformation of the adjacent epithelium and in the end invasive carcinoma.Recognition of this rare disorder is important for patients and their families with regard to treatment,follow-up and screening of at risk individuals.Each clinician confronted with the diagnosis of a juvenile polyp should therefore consider the possibility of juvenile polyposis syndrome.In addition, juvenile polyposis syndrome provides a unique model to study colorectal cancer pathogenesis in general and gives insight in the molecular genetic basis of cancer. This review discusses clinical manifestations, genetics, pathogenesis and management of juvenile polyposis syndrome.

  11. Current Threat of Triclabendazole Resistance in Fasciola hepatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Jane M; Elliott, Timothy P; Beddoe, Travis; Anderson, Glenn; Skuce, Philip; Spithill, Terry W

    2016-06-01

    Triclabendazole (TCBZ) is the only chemical that kills early immature and adult Fasciola hepatica (liver fluke) but widespread resistance to the drug greatly compromises fluke control in livestock and humans. The mode of action of TCBZ and mechanism(s) underlying parasite resistance to the drug are not known. Due to the high prevalence of TCBZ resistance (TCBZ-R), effective management of drug resistance is now critical for sustainable livestock production. Here, we discuss the current status of TCBZ-R in F. hepatica, the global distribution of resistance observed in livestock, the possible mechanism(s) of drug action, the proposed mechanisms and genetic basis of resistance, and the prospects for future control of liver fluke infections using an integrated parasite management (IPM) approach.

  12. Experimental infection of liver flukes, Fasciola hepatica and Fascioloides magna, in Bison (Bison bison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreyt, William J; Drew, M L

    2010-01-01

    This experimental study was conducted to evaluate the susceptibility of American bison (Bison bison) to liver flukes, Fascioloides magna and Fasciola hepatica. Six bison were each experimentally inoculated with 600 metacercariae of Fascioloides magna, and three were later treated with triclabendazole suspension at 40 mg/kg of body weight. Four additional bison were each experimentally inoculated with 600 metacercariae of Fasciola hepatica. Five control bison were placebo controls. Two controls and all inoculated bison were euthanized 10 mo (Fascioloides magna) and 7 mo (Fasciola hepatica) after inoculation. None of the control bison or the bison inoculated with Fascioloides magna had flukes or lesions characteristic of fluke infection at necropsy. All four bison inoculated with Fasciola hepatica had characteristic liver fluke lesions at necropsy, and three of four bison contained four, 103, and 111 adult flukes, respectively. Fluke eggs were detected in feces of all Fasciola hepatica-inoculated bison during the experiment, but not from the Fascioloides magna-infected bison or control bison. Clinical signs of infection were not observed during the experiment, but hemoglobin and packed cell volumes were lower in the Fasciola hepatica bison when compared to controls, and eosinophil levels were increased. Triclabendazole at 40 mg/kg of body weight appeared to be safe in bison because no toxic reactions were observed. Results from this study indicated bison are susceptible to infection with Fasciola hepatica and are efficient definitive hosts. Because no Fascioloides magna were recovered, bison may have a decreased susceptibility or innate resistance to Fascioloides magna infection, which may account for a lack of reported infections in this host.

  13. "HISTOPATHOLOGY OF LIVER IN CATTLE SPONTANEOUSLY INFECTED WITH FASCIOLA HEPATICA AND FASCLOLA GLGANTICA IN IRAN"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.Massoud

    1982-08-01

    Full Text Available A total of 1500 infected liver with F. hepatica and F. gigantica from slaughtered cattle in different parts of Iran were studied. Grossly the livers were usually irregular in shape, with prominent bile ducts on the visceral surface as grayish-white, firm-branching streaks. The atrophy of the left lobe due to fibrosis and ischemia were noticed. On the cut surface the main bile ducts wall consisted of hard fibrotic tissue with pipe-stem appearance and calcium deposition on the inner layer of the ducts in F.hepatica infection. In the livers infected with F.gigantica, grossly seemed to be of a more normal consistency with much less calcium deposition in the ducts. In histopathological changes there was evidence of different stages of parenchymal damages, varying from fresh burrow with young flukes inside to old and healed nodules due to migration of the young flukes. A large number of eosinophils, lymphocytes plasma cells, disintegration of hepatocytes and coagulation necrosis were seen. The thickening of the bile ducts wall and the intense fibrous tissue proliferation in the portal areas compressed the adjacent liver cells, causing pressure atrophy of the liver. In very chronic cases glandular hyperplasia of ducts wall which lined by columnar epithelial cells with vacuolated cytoplasm were marked. In some ducts compact aggregation of fibroblasts which gave a smooth appearance to the bile ducts wall were noticed. The monolobular fibrosis in both F.hepatica and F.gigantica infections were a typical feature.

  14. Serological, electrophoretic and biological properties of Fasciola hepatica antigens Propiedades serologicas, electroforeticas y biologicas de antigenos de Fasciola hepatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A. Cervi

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Fasciola hepatica somatic antigen, its partially purified fractions and excretion-secretion products were investigated as to serological, electrophoretic and biological properties. In a Sephadex G-100 column (SG-100, Fasciola hepatica total antigen (FhTA gave 5 fractions, and SDS-PAGE analysis showed they were glycoproteins ranging from 14 to 94 kDa molecular weight (MW. When these fractions were analyzed by enzyme linked immunotransfer blot (EITB and immunodiffusion in gel (ID with serum from immunized rats with FhTA, the presence of different antigenic components was revealed. In the SDS-PAGE of excretor-secretor antigen (ESA, it was possible to observe peptides from 12 to 22 kDa, which were also present in FhTA. When the FhTA, its fractions and the ESA were analyzed by EITB with the immune rat serum (IRS, it was observed that only some fractions of the SG-100 shared antigens with the FhTA and ESA. Moreover, DTH and ITH responses were studied in FhTA immunized rats challenged with these different antigen components, revealing that the protein/carbohydrate ratio is important for inducing DTH response. The ESA was the most active component in the DTH and ITH response.Se realizó la purificación parcial de un antigeno somático de Fasciola hepatica y se obtuveron los productos de excreción-secreción. Por filtración del antigeno total de Fasciola hepatica en Sephadex G-100 (SG-100, se obtuvieron 5 fracciones las que al ser analizadas por electroforesis en geles de poliacrilamida, demostraron estar constituidas por glicoproteínas con un rango de peso molecular (PM entre 14 y 94 kDa. Cuando estas fracciones fueron analizadas por immunoblot e inmunodifusión en geles de agar frente al suero de ratas inmunizadas con el homogenato total se reveló la presencia de diferentes componentes antigénicos. Usando un antígeno excretor-secretor fue posible observar en el perfil electroforético la presencia de péptidos con un PM entre 12 y 22 kDa, los

  15. Vasculitis secundaria a infección por Fasciola hepática Secondary vasculitis to infection by Fasciola hepatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Málaga

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de un paciente varón de 38 años, procedente de una zona endémica para fascioliasis hepática en el Perú. Fue hospitalizado por presentar un cuadro de cuatro semanas de evolución; con fiebre, mialgias intensas, lesiones eritematosas y dolorosas en las regiones de extensión de las extremidades. La electromiografía y la velocidad de conducción nerviosa mostraron una miopatía inflamatoria global. La biopsia de piel evidenció una vasculitis de tipo poliarteritis nodosa. En el proceso de evaluación previa a la terapia inmunosupresora, se hallaron huevos de Fasciola hepática en el examen coproparasitológico. El diagnóstico de fascioliasis se confirmó con fas2-ELISA: 0,46 (VN There is a case of a 38 year-old male patient coming from an area where hepatic fascioliasis is endemic in Peru. He was hospitalized because he showed 4 weeks of symptoms like fever, intense myalgias, erythematous and painful injuries on limb extensions. The electromyography and nerve conduction velocity showed a global inflammatory myopathy. A skin biopsy showed polyarteritis nodosa-type vasculitis. During the evaluation process prior to the immunosuppressive therapy, hepatic Fasciola eggs were found in the parasitological examination of stools. The fascioliasis diagnosis was confirmed by fas2-ELISA: 0.46 (VN <0.20. Clinical symptoms started to subside after treatment with ticlabendazol. Contact with the patient was maintained for a year and there was no evidence of disease recurrence, and he was asymptomatic

  16. Juvenile giant fibroadenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipul Yagnik

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Fibroadenomas are benign solid tumor associated with aberration of normal lobular development. Juvenile giant fibroadenoma is usually single and >5 cm in size /or >500 gms in weight. Important differential diagnoses are: phyllodes tumor and juvenile gigantomastia. Simple excision is the treatment of choice.

  17. Renewing Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macallair, Daniel; Males, Mike; Enty, Dinky Manek; Vinakor, Natasha

    2011-01-01

    The Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice (CJCJ) was commissioned by Sierra Health Foundation to critically examine California's juvenile justice system and consider the potential role of foundations in promoting systemic reform. The information gathered by CJCJ researchers for this report suggests that foundations can perform a key leadership…

  18. Philanthropist in Juvenile Reformatory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN NIU

    2007-01-01

    @@ On the afternoon of February 1, 2007, Chen Guangbiao, a noted philanthropist, found himself in the Jiangsu Provincial Juvenile Reformatory in Jurong City for a ceremony to donate two buses, 100 computers, and 100 desks and 100 chairs for the juvenile offenders to use in their study.

  19. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, Machteld

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted. Th

  20. Juvenile Confinement in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendel, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    For more than a century, the predominant strategy for the treatment and punishment of serious and sometimes not-so-serious juvenile offenders in the United States has been placement into large juvenile corrections institutions, alternatively known as training schools, reformatories, or youth corrections centers. America's heavy reliance on…

  1. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, Machteld

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted. Th

  2. Juvenile mammary papillomatosis; Papilomatosis juvenil mamaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, M.; Jimenez, A. V. [Hospital Reina Sofia. Cordoba (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    Juvenile mammary papillomatosis is a benign proliferative disease of young patients, generally under 30 years of age. The most frequent clinical presentation is the existence of an elastic and mobile lymph node of the breast. Anatomopathologically, it is characterized because it presents ductal epithelial hyperplasia, sometimes with marked atypia, and there are numerous cysts having different sizes among the findings. It has been associated with an increase in the incidence of breast cancer, both in the patient herself as well as her family. We review the literature on the subject and present the mammographic and ultrasonographic findings of a 22 year old woman diagnosed of juvenile mammary papillomatosis. (Author) 12 refs.

  3. [The influence of Fasciola hepatica invasion on the assorted milk quality parameters in cows].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Mirosław

    2002-01-01

    The investigations of the influence of Fasciola hepatica invasion on the assorted parameters of milk quality were performed in cows. Mean protein content in the milk from infected animals ammounted 3.60% and was higher than in the milk from uninfected cows (3.30%). Similar tendency was observed in the case of the fat (5.08% and 3.91%) and lactose (4.36% and 4.34%). The count of somatic cells in milk from infected cows was lower than in milk from uninfected animals (356.07 and 1776.92). It can indicate immunosupressive activity of Fasciola hepatica on the host.

  4. Scintigraphic evaluation of the liver in Fasciola hepatica with radiocolloid and /sup 67/Ga-citrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguirre Errasti, C.; Alberola Gomez-Escolar, I.; Gonzalez de Zarate, P.; Merino Angulo, J.

    1981-02-01

    A group of 23 patients with Fasciola hepatica have been studied in the province of Biscay. The diagnosis was reached after finding parasite eggs in the faeces or duodenal juice. The liver lesion was confirmed by means of macro and microscopic studies. Radiocolloid demonstrated the presence of cold areas in 18 patients; in 13 of them the uptake with /sup 67/Ga was positive. These isotopic findings identified Fasciola hepatica as one of the causes of 'cold areas' in traditional liver scans and positive /sup 67/Ga uptake.

  5. Effectiveness of a community-based strategic anthelmintic treatment programme in the control of gastrointestinal nematodes and Fasciola gigantica in cattle in Kilolo district, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keyyu, J.D.; Kassuku, A.A.; Kyvsgaard, Niels Christian

    2009-01-01

    ) from 10 farms in the village were selected and ear tagged for monthly sampling and weghing. A strategic CBWC programme was instituted whereby all animals in the village (tagged and non-tagged) were treated with albendazole 10% drench at 10 mg/kg four times a year e.g. middle of the rainy season...... (Ilula-Masukanzi) and a village without CBWC (Kilolo-Luganga) were randomly selected in Kilolo district, Iringa region of Tanzania. Animals in both villages were under the traditional management system and used the village communal grazing area. At the village with CBWC, 60 zebu cattle (6-18 months old...... CBWC were allowed to continue with their normal management practices including anthelmintic treatments. Faecal and blood samples from tagged animals and pasture samples from communal grazing areas were collected on monthly basis for 13 months. Results showed that strategic CBWC programme was highly...

  6. The effect of immunosuppressants on experimental infection with Fasciola hepatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corba, J; Spaldonová, R

    1975-01-01

    Results are presented on the effect of immunosuppressive substances such as chlorambucil, cyclophosphamide, azathioprine, amethopterine and a cortizone derivate of betamethasone, on the development of Fasciola hepatica in the rat. The suppression of the immune response of the host to immunosuppressants was reflected in an earlier start of migration of the flukes to the common bile duct, and in an earlier onset of egg production as compared with that in the controls. Of the substances employed, cyclophosphamide and betamethasone were the most effective ones within the period from week 2--6 p.i., which is the time during which the migration of the flukes in the liver parenchyma is highest. Pathological changes in the liver of the animals were less marked than those of the infected controls. Evidence was obtained on an increased pathogenicity of infective larval flukes causing a higher mortality of the hosts in comparison with that of the control animals. On the other hand, the administration of immunosuppressants did neither influence the total number of developed flukes nor the appearance of eosinophilia in the peripheral blood of the treated animals.

  7. Granulomatous hepatitis triggered by liver Fasciola infestation: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ghavidel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Liver Fasciola hepatica (FH infestation is a zoonotic disorder caused by a kind of leaf-like worm. Case Report: In this article the reported patient is a woman who is 54 years old. She had been suffering from stomachaches after every meal from two years ago. Computed tomography (CT, ultrasonography (US and magnetic resonance retrograde cholangiography (MRCP, proved that right lobe ducts are dilated although there was not any filling defects in the common bile duct (CBD. These findings were most similar with the manifestations of localized segmental cholangiocellular carcinoma (CCC or granulomatous hepatitis but at the work up, F. hepatica infection was confirmed. The mentioned disease was diagnosed by means of imaging modalities, laboratory analysis including serology and stool examination and was cured by triclabendazole. Conclusion: Humans are infected by consuming undercooked vegetables, with the adult worms inhabiting and laying metacercariae in the biliary system. These organisms induce a chronic inflammatory state in the proximal biliary tree, presumably leading to malignant transformation of the lining epithelium.

  8. Immunodiagnosis of Fasciola hepatica infection (fascioliasis) in a human population in the Bolivian Altiplano using purified cathepsin L cysteine proteinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, S M; Parkinson, M; Strauss, W; Angles, R; Dalton, J P

    1998-04-01

    Cathepsin L1 (CL1), an immunogenic cysteine proteinase secreted by juvenile and adult Fasciola hepatica, was assessed for its potential as a diagnostic agent for the serologic detection of human fascioliasis. Using ELISAs, we compared the ability of liver fluke homogenates (LFH), excretory/secretory (ES) products, and CL1 to discriminate between seropositive (infected) and seronegative (noninfected) individuals within a population of 95 patients from the Bolivian Altiplano. A high prevalence of human fascioliasis has been reported in this region. The division between the seropositive and seronegative individuals was poorly defined when LFH was used as the antigen. A greater discrimination between these populations was achieved with both ES and CL1. A K-means cluster analysis using the combined ES and CL1 ELISA data identified a cluster of seropositive individuals. Cathepsin L1 detected a subset (20) of these seropositive individuals while ES detected all 26; however, ES detected nine additional individuals that were in the seronegative cluster. The ratio of the mean absorbance readings between seropositive and seronegative individuals was markedly improved by using conjugated second antibodies to IgG4, the predominant isotype elicited by infection. In these IgG4-ELISAs, CL1 again identified fewer individuals as seropositive than did ES, but improved the discrimination between the seropositive and seronegative individuals and thus provided a more conclusive diagnosis. Sera obtained from patients infected with schistosomiasis mansoni, cysticercosis, hydatidosis, and Chagas' disease were negative in these assays, which demonstrated the specificity of the IgG4-ELISA for detecting fascioliasis. Twenty of the 95 patients (21%) were seropositive for fascioliasis by the CL1 IgG4-ELISA, confirming the earlier reports of the high prevalence of disease in this region. A standardized diagnostic test for human fascioliasis, based on an ELISA that detects IgG4 responses to CL1

  9. Fasciola hepatica mucin-encoding gene: expression, variability and its potential relevance in host-parasite relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancela, Martín; Santos, Guilherme B; Carmona, Carlos; Ferreira, Henrique B; Tort, José Francisco; Zaha, Arnaldo

    2015-12-01

    Fasciola hepatica is the causative agent of fasciolosis, a zoonosis with significant impact both in human and animal health. Understanding the basic processes of parasite biology, especially those related to interactions with its host, will contribute to control F. hepatica infections and hence liver pathology. Mucins have been described as important mediators for parasite establishment within its host, due to their key roles in immune evasion. In F. hepatica, mucin expression is upregulated in the mammalian invasive newly excysted juvenile (NEJ) stage in comparison with the adult stage. Here, we performed sequencing of mucin cDNAs prepared from NEJ RNA, resulting in six different cDNAs clusters. The differences are due to the presence of a tandem repeated sequence of 66 bp encoded by different exons. Two groups of apomucins one with three and the other with four repeats, with 459 and 393 bp respectively, were identified. These cDNAs have open reading frames encoding Ser-Thr enriched proteins with an N-terminal signal peptide, characteristic of apomucin backbone. We cloned a 4470 bp gene comprising eight exons and seven introns that encodes all the cDNA variants identified in NEJs. By real time polymerase chain reaction and high-resolution melting approaches of individual flukes we infer that fhemuc-1 is a single-copy gene, with at least two different alleles. Our data suggest that both gene polymorphism and alternative splicing might account for apomucin variability in the fhemuc-1 gene that is upregulated in NEJ invasive stage. The relevance of this variation in host-parasite interplay is discussed.

  10. Cryopyrin-Associated Autoinflammatory Syndromes (CAPS) - Juvenile

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cryopyrin-Associated Autoinflammatory Syndrome (CAPS) (Juvenile) Dermatomyositis (Juvenile) Familial Mediterranean Fever (Juvenile) Fibromyalgia Giant Cell Arteritis Glucocorticoid-induced Osteoperosis ...

  11. Juvenil idiopatisk arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlin, Troels

    2002-01-01

    The new classification of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is described in this review. Clinical characteristics divide JIA in to subtypes: systemic, oligoarticular (persistent and extended type), RF-positive and--negative polyarticular, enthesitis-related arthritis and psoriatic arthritis...

  12. Juvenile Rockfish Recruitment Cruise

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 1983, the groundfish analysis project began a series of yearly cruises designed to assess the annual abundance of juvenile rockfish along the central California...

  13. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physical Therapy Regular Exercise en español Artritis idiopática juvenil It may begin with a swollen knuckle, a ... may suddenly appear and disappear, developing in one area and then another. High fevers that tend to ...

  14. Juvenile Sex Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Eileen P; Otonichar, Joseph M

    2016-07-01

    Sexual offending by juveniles accounts for a sizable percentage of sexual offenses, especially against young children. In this article, recent research on female juvenile sex offenders (JSOs), risk factors for offending in juveniles, treatment, and the ways in which these youth may differ from general delinquents will be reviewed. Most JSOs do not go on to develop paraphilic disorders or to commit sex offenses during adulthood, and as a group, they are more similar to nonsexual offending juvenile delinquents than to adult sex offenders. Recent research has elucidated some differences between youth who commit sex offenses and general delinquents in the areas of atypical sexual interests, the use of pornography, and early sexual victimization during childhood.

  15. Juvenile Spondyloarthritis Treatment Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Tse, Shirley; Burgos-Vargas, Ruben; Colbert, Robert A

    2012-01-01

    No specific recommendations for the treatment of juvenile spondyloarthritis have been established. Important differences exist in how spondyloarthritis begins and progresses in children and adults, supporting the need for pediatric-specific recommendations. Recently published recommendations for the treatment of juvenile arthritis consider children with sacroiliitis in a separate group, and allow for more accelerated institution of a TNF inhibitor depending on disease activity and prognostic ...

  16. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    OpenAIRE

    Hoeve, Machteld

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted. The first study addressed a meta-analysis on parenting characteristics and styles in relation to delinquency. In this meta-analysis, previous manuscripts were systematically analyzed, computing mean ...

  17. Composition and metabolism of phospholipids of Fasciola hepatica, the common liver fluk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenborg, V.; Vugt, F. van; Golde, L.M.G. van

    1975-01-01

    1. 1. The phospholipid composition of Fasciola hepatica, the common liver fluke, was compared to that of the liver of the host animals (rats and cattle). Considerable differences were found: monoacyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine, hardly detectable in the liver, was found in significant amounts in

  18. Inhibition Effect of pH on the Hatchability of Fasciola Miracidia under Laboratory Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad YAKHCHALI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fasciolosis, caused by the liver flukes of the genus Fasciola, is one of the most prevalent diseases of domestic livestock and human throughout the world, imposing considerable economic losses. The present study was aimed to assess the effects of different pH values on hatching rate of Fasciola miracidia.Methods: The flukes were isolated from the infected livers of the slaughtered ruminants at the abattoir of Urmia City, Iran, crushed thoroughly and sieved for isola­tion of the Fasciola eggs. The eggs were washed up several times by PBS (0.01N, pH 7.2. They were incubated at different pH values of 7±0.1 (control and 3-9.5 (treatments at 28°C for 16 days.Results: The maximum hatching rate was observed at pH 7 (14.93±0.65%, while no miracidia were hatched at pH 3 and/or pH 9-9.5. There were significant differences between the hatching rate of the treatments and that of the control group.Conclusion: Water pH is proven to be a crucial factor affecting the life cycle of Fasciola and its epidemiology.

  19. Composition and metabolism of phospholipids of Fasciola hepatica, the common liver fluk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenborg, V.; Vugt, F. van; Golde, L.M.G. van

    1. 1. The phospholipid composition of Fasciola hepatica, the common liver fluke, was compared to that of the liver of the host animals (rats and cattle). Considerable differences were found: monoacyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine, hardly detectable in the liver, was found in significant amounts in

  20. The energy metabolism of Fasciola hepatica during its development in the final host

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielens, A.G.M.; Heuvel, J.M. van den; Bergh, S.G. van den

    1984-01-01

    Mature liver flukes, Fasciola hepatica, of different ages were isolated from the bile ducts of experimentally infected rats. Their energy metabolism was studied during aerobic incubation with [6-14C]glucose. The results showed that the aerobic potentials of the parenchymal liver flukes are not lost

  1. Were natural forms of treatment for fasciola hepatica available to the Etruscans?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Adrian Paul; Turfa, Jean M.

    2010-01-01

    . This paper investigates documentation for the plants known to the Etruscans, focusing particularly on those natural forms of treatment that would have been efficaceous in terms of Fasciola hepatica (Liver fluke) infection. Interestingly, some of the plants in the putative ancient Etruscan herbal remain...

  2. The energy metabolism of Fasciola hepatica during its development in the final host

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielens, A.G.M.; Heuvel, J.M. van den; Bergh, S.G. van den

    1984-01-01

    Mature liver flukes, Fasciola hepatica, of different ages were isolated from the bile ducts of experimentally infected rats. Their energy metabolism was studied during aerobic incubation with [6-14C]glucose. The results showed that the aerobic potentials of the parenchymal liver flukes are not lost

  3. Composition and metabolism of phospholipids of Fasciola hepatica, the common liver fluk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenborg, V.; Vugt, F. van; Golde, L.M.G. van

    1975-01-01

    1. 1. The phospholipid composition of Fasciola hepatica, the common liver fluke, was compared to that of the liver of the host animals (rats and cattle). Considerable differences were found: monoacyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine, hardly detectable in the liver, was found in significant amounts in

  4. Adaptation of Lymnaea fuscus and Radix balthica to Fasciola hepatica through the experimental infection of several successive snail generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondelaud, Daniel; Titi, Amal; Vignoles, Philippe; Mekroud, Abdeslam; Dreyfuss, Gilles

    2014-07-01

    High prevalence of Fasciola hepatica infection (>70%) was noted during several outbreaks before the 2000s in several French farms where Galba truncatula is lacking. Other lymnaeids such as Lymnaea fuscus, L. glabra and/or Radix balthica are living in meadows around these farms but only juvenile snails can sustain complete larval development of F. hepatica while older snails were resistant. The low prevalence of infection (<20%) and limited cercarial production (<50 cercariae per infected snail) noted with these juveniles could not explain the high values noted in these cattle herds. As paramphistomosis due to Calicophoron daubneyi was not still noted in these farms, the existence of another mode of infection was hypothesized. Experimental infection of several successive generations of L. glabra, originating from eggs laid by their parents already infected with this parasite resulted in a progressive increase in prevalence of snail infection and the number of shed cercariae. The aim of this paper was to determine if this mode of snail infection was specific to L. glabra, or it might occur in other lymnaeid species such as L. fuscus and R. balthica. Five successive generations of L. fuscus and R. balthica were subjected to individual bimiracidial infections in the laboratory. Resulting rediae and cercariae in the first four generations were counted after snail dissection at day 50 p.e. (20°C), while the dynamics of cercarial shedding was followed in the F5 generation. In the first experiment, prevalence and intensity of F. hepatica infection in snails progressively increased from the F1 (R. balthica) or F2 (L. fuscus) generation. In the second experiment, the prevalence of F. hepatica infection and the number of shed cercariae were significantly lower in L. fuscus and R. balthica (without significant differences between both lymnaeids) than in G. truncatula. The F. hepatica infection of several successive snail generations, coming from parents infected with this

  5. Transcriptomic Study on Ovine Immune Responses to Fasciola hepatica Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yan; Chryssafidis, Andreas L.; Browne, John A.; O'Sullivan, Jack; McGettigan, Paul A.; Mulcahy, Grace

    2016-01-01

    Background Fasciola hepatica is not only responsible for major economic losses in livestock farming, but is also a major food-borne zoonotic agent, with 180 million people being at risk of infection worldwide. This parasite is sophisticated in manipulating the hosts’ immune system to benefit its own survival. A better understanding of the mechanisms underpinning this immunomodulation is crucial for the development of control strategies such as vaccines. Methodology/principal findings This in vivo study investigated the global gene expression changes of ovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) response to both acute & chronic infection of F. hepatica, and revealed 6490 and 2364 differential expressed genes (DEGS), respectively. Several transcriptional regulators were predicted to be significantly inhibited (e.g. IL12 and IL18) or activated (e.g. miR155-5p) in PBMC during infection. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis highlighted a series of immune-associated pathways involved in the response to infection, including ‘Transforming Growth Factor Beta (TGFβ) signaling’, ‘Production of Nitric Oxide in Macrophages’, ‘Toll-like Receptor (TLRs) Signaling’, ‘Death Receptor Signaling’ and ‘IL17 Signaling’. We hypothesize that activation of pathways relevant to fibrosis in ovine chronic infection, may differ from those seen in cattle. Potential mechanisms behind immunomodulation in F. hepatica infection are a discussed. Significance In conclusion, the present study performed global transcriptomic analysis of ovine PBMC, the primary innate/adaptive immune cells, in response to infection with F. hepatica, using deep-sequencing (RNAseq). This dataset provides novel information pertinent to understanding of the pathological processes in fasciolosis, as well as a base from which to further refine development of vaccines. PMID:27661612

  6. Predicting impacts of climate change on Fasciola hepatica risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi J Fox

    Full Text Available Fasciola hepatica (liver fluke is a physically and economically devastating parasitic trematode whose rise in recent years has been attributed to climate change. Climate has an impact on the free-living stages of the parasite and its intermediate host Lymnaea truncatula, with the interactions between rainfall and temperature having the greatest influence on transmission efficacy. There have been a number of short term climate driven forecasts developed to predict the following season's infection risk, with the Ollerenshaw index being the most widely used. Through the synthesis of a modified Ollerenshaw index with the UKCP09 fine scale climate projection data we have developed long term seasonal risk forecasts up to 2070 at a 25 km square resolution. Additionally UKCIP gridded datasets at 5 km square resolution from 1970-2006 were used to highlight the climate-driven increase to date. The maps show unprecedented levels of future fasciolosis risk in parts of the UK, with risk of serious epidemics in Wales by 2050. The seasonal risk maps demonstrate the possible change in the timing of disease outbreaks due to increased risk from overwintering larvae. Despite an overall long term increase in all regions of the UK, spatio-temporal variation in risk levels is expected. Infection risk will reduce in some areas and fluctuate greatly in others with a predicted decrease in summer infection for parts of the UK due to restricted water availability. This forecast is the first approximation of the potential impacts of climate change on fasciolosis risk in the UK. It can be used as a basis for indicating where active disease surveillance should be targeted and where the development of improved mitigation or adaptation measures is likely to bring the greatest benefits.

  7. Predicting Impacts of Climate Change on Fasciola hepatica Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Naomi J.; White, Piran C. L.; McClean, Colin J.; Marion, Glenn; Evans, Andy; Hutchings, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    Fasciola hepatica (liver fluke) is a physically and economically devastating parasitic trematode whose rise in recent years has been attributed to climate change. Climate has an impact on the free-living stages of the parasite and its intermediate host Lymnaea truncatula, with the interactions between rainfall and temperature having the greatest influence on transmission efficacy. There have been a number of short term climate driven forecasts developed to predict the following season's infection risk, with the Ollerenshaw index being the most widely used. Through the synthesis of a modified Ollerenshaw index with the UKCP09 fine scale climate projection data we have developed long term seasonal risk forecasts up to 2070 at a 25 km square resolution. Additionally UKCIP gridded datasets at 5 km square resolution from 1970-2006 were used to highlight the climate-driven increase to date. The maps show unprecedented levels of future fasciolosis risk in parts of the UK, with risk of serious epidemics in Wales by 2050. The seasonal risk maps demonstrate the possible change in the timing of disease outbreaks due to increased risk from overwintering larvae. Despite an overall long term increase in all regions of the UK, spatio-temporal variation in risk levels is expected. Infection risk will reduce in some areas and fluctuate greatly in others with a predicted decrease in summer infection for parts of the UK due to restricted water availability. This forecast is the first approximation of the potential impacts of climate change on fasciolosis risk in the UK. It can be used as a basis for indicating where active disease surveillance should be targeted and where the development of improved mitigation or adaptation measures is likely to bring the greatest benefits. PMID:21249228

  8. Sheep and Fasciola hepatica in Europe: the GLOWORM experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Rinaldi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fasciola hepatica infection challenges health, welfare and productivity of small ruminants throughout the world. The distribution of F. hepatica in sheep in Europe is usually scattered and studies are generally concerned with a single area making it difficult to compare results from different environments, climates and management regimes. In order to elucidate the current scenario in terms of prevalence and intensity of F. hepatica infection in sheep farms across Europe, a standardized cross-sectional survey was conducted in three pilot areas in Ireland, Switzerland and Italy, all part of the EU funded GLOWORM project. Two consecutive field surveys (in 2012 and 2013 were conducted in the three countries in the same period (August-October in 361 sheep farms in total. Harmonized procedures (from farm to laboratory based on pooled samples and the highly sensitive and accurate, diagnostic FLOTAC technique were used. The georeferenced parasitological results were modelled (at the pilot area level following a Bayesian geostatistical approach with correction for preferential sampling and accounting for climatic and environmental covariates. The observed F. hepatica prevalence rates did not differ between the two study years in any of the three pilot areas, but they did vary between the countries showing high values in Ireland (61.6% compared to Italy (7.9% and Switzerland (4.0%. Spatial patterns of F. hepatica distribution were detected by the Bayesian geostatistical approach in Ireland with a high risk of infection in the south-western part of the pilot area there. The latent factor analysis highlighted the importance of year-to-year variation of mean temperature, rainfall and seasonality within a country, while long-term trends of temperature and rainfall dominated between countries with respect to prevalence of infection.

  9. Transcriptomic Study on Ovine Immune Responses to Fasciola hepatica Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Fu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fasciola hepatica is not only responsible for major economic losses in livestock farming, but is also a major food-borne zoonotic agent, with 180 million people being at risk of infection worldwide. This parasite is sophisticated in manipulating the hosts' immune system to benefit its own survival. A better understanding of the mechanisms underpinning this immunomodulation is crucial for the development of control strategies such as vaccines.This in vivo study investigated the global gene expression changes of ovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC response to both acute & chronic infection of F. hepatica, and revealed 6490 and 2364 differential expressed genes (DEGS, respectively. Several transcriptional regulators were predicted to be significantly inhibited (e.g. IL12 and IL18 or activated (e.g. miR155-5p in PBMC during infection. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis highlighted a series of immune-associated pathways involved in the response to infection, including 'Transforming Growth Factor Beta (TGFβ signaling', 'Production of Nitric Oxide in Macrophages', 'Toll-like Receptor (TLRs Signaling', 'Death Receptor Signaling' and 'IL17 Signaling'. We hypothesize that activation of pathways relevant to fibrosis in ovine chronic infection, may differ from those seen in cattle. Potential mechanisms behind immunomodulation in F. hepatica infection are a discussed.In conclusion, the present study performed global transcriptomic analysis of ovine PBMC, the primary innate/adaptive immune cells, in response to infection with F. hepatica, using deep-sequencing (RNAseq. This dataset provides novel information pertinent to understanding of the pathological processes in fasciolosis, as well as a base from which to further refine development of vaccines.

  10. Climate-based risk models for Fasciola hepatica in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Valencia-López

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A predictive Fasciola hepatica model, based on the growing degree day-water budget (GDD-WB concept and the known biological requirements of the parasite, was developed within a geographical information system (GIS in Colombia. Climate-based forecast index (CFI values were calculated and represented in a national-scale, climate grid (18 x 18 km using ArcGIS 9.3. A mask overlay was used to exclude unsuitable areas where mean annual temperature exceeded 25 °C, the upper threshold for development and propagation of the F. hepatica life cycle. The model was then validated and further developed by studies limited to one department in northwest Colombia. F. hepatica prevalence data was obtained from a 2008-2010 survey in 10 municipalities of 6,016 dairy cattle at 673 herd study sites, for which global positioning system coordinates were recorded. The CFI map results were compared to F. hepatica environmental risk models for the survey data points that had over 5% prevalence (231 of the 673 sites at the 1 km2 scale using two independent approaches: (i a GIS map query based on satellite data parameters including elevation, enhanced vegetation index and land surface temperature day-night difference; and (ii an ecological niche model (MaxEnt, for which geographic point coordinates of F. hepatica survey farms were used with BioClim data as environmental variables to develop a probability map. The predicted risk pattern of both approaches was similar to that seen in the forecast index grid. The temporal risk, evaluated by the monthly CFIs and a daily GDD-WB forecast software for 2007 and 2008, revealed a major July-August to January transmission period with considerable inter-annual differences.

  11. Effect of excretory and secretary antigen of Fasciola gigantic on expression of NO in buffalo peripheral blood monocytes/macrophages%大片吸虫ESP对水牛外周血单核/巨噬细胞NO表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈前程; 林莹; 王树艳; 张为宇; 黄维义; 潘玉红; 罗华

    2011-01-01

    为探讨水牛易感大片吸虫的免疫机理,采用Ficoll-Hypaque密度梯度离心法分离水牛外周血单个核细胞,再经贴壁法纯化单核/巨噬细胞,用Geriss法检测在大片吸虫分泌排泄产物(ESP)或脂多糖(LPS)作用下,水牛外周血单核/巨噬细胞一氧化氮(NO)的表达量.结果显示,大片吸虫ESP或LPS都可单独作用刺激水牛外周血单核/巨噬细胞产生NO.大片吸虫ESP(0.1、1μg/mL)和LPS(0.1μg/mL)联合作用时水牛外周血单核/巨噬细胞产生NO的量低于LPS(0.1μg/mL)单独作用时的量,差异显著(P<0.05).大片吸虫ESP(10μg/mL)和LPS(0.1μg/mL)联合作用时水牛外周血单核/巨噬细胞产生NO的量与LPS(0.1μg/mL)单独作用时差异不显著(P>0.05).结果表明,大片吸虫ESP或其中组分能抑制水牛外周血单核/巨噬细胞产生NO的作用,这可能是水牛易感大片吸虫的一个原因.%In order to study the immune mechanism of the susceptibility to Fasciola gigantica in buffa-lo,mononuclear cells were obtained from buffalo peripheral blood by the method of Ficoll-Hypaque density gradient centrifugation. Macrophages were enriched by adherence. The NO production by excretory and secretory products(ESP) and F. gigantica or lipopolysaccharide(LPS)- stimulated peripheral blood mononu-clear cell(PBMC) / macrophage cell (MC) was evaluated by Geriss method. NO was produced by ESP or LPS-stimulated respectively. The NO production stimulated by ESP(0. 1 and 1 μg/mL) combined with LPS (0. 1 μg/mL) in PBMC/MC was significantly lower than that stimulated by LPS(0. 1 μg/mL)(P<0. 05). The NO production by ESP(10μg /mL)-stimulated PBMC/MC was not significantly different to that LPS (0. 1μg/mL)- stimulated(PX). 05). These results showed that ESP or other component may suppress the NO production by PBMC/MC,and might be partly responsible for buffaloes being highly susceptible to F. gigantica.

  12. Vocational Teachers' Role in Serving Juvenile Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meers, Gary D.

    1983-01-01

    Educators need to understand the juvenile justice system to understand what juvenile offenders go through while completing their sentences. This article reviews cases and juvenile charge classifications, and presents a model for alternative sentencing options for juveniles. (JOW)

  13. Trunk asymmetry in juveniles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triantafyllopoulos Georgios

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trunk asymmetry (TA is a common phenomenon in children, but its incidence in juveniles is not known. The present cross sectional study reports TA in normal juveniles and provides data which describe the evolution of TA from early childhood to adolescence. Materials and methods The scoliometer readings in both standing and sitting forward bending position (FBP of 3301 children, (1645 boys, and 1656 girls aged from 3 to 9 years old were studied. TA was quantified by measuring angle of trunk rotation (ATR and children were categorized as symmetric (ATR = 0°, mild asymmetric (ATR 1° – 6° and severely asymmetric (ATR ≥ 7°. The difference of TA between standing and sitting FBP as well as differences between boys and girls in frequency of TA were also calculated. The scoliometer readings were analyzed by age to reveal at which age the juvenile pattern of TA changes into the adolescent one. Results 74.2% of boys and 77% of girls were symmetric (ATR = 0° in the thoracic region in standing FBP, while 82.7% of boys and 84.1% of girls were symmetric in the thoracic region in sitting FBP. Juvenile girls are more symmetric than boys but severe TA was found almost the same between the two genders. A significant reduction in the frequency of mild TA from standing into sitting FBP, in all the examined regions in both boys and girls was found, but in severe TA this reduction is very small. Analysing scoliometer readings by age it appears that significant TA changes take place between 8–9 years of age for boys and between 6–7 and 8–9 years for girls. TA in boys is changing into the adolescent pattern at a later age than in girls. Conclusion Juveniles were found more symmetric than adolescents, who were studied previously in a different study. Furthermore, juvenile girls were found more symmetric than boys. Juvenile TA pattern seems to be in accordance with the higher incidence of juvenile idiopathic scoliosis in boys. Furthermore

  14. Juvenile Incarceration and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnert, Elizabeth S; Perry, Raymond; Morris, Robert E

    2016-03-01

    Addressing the health status and needs of incarcerated youth represents an issue at the nexus of juvenile justice reform and health care reform. Incarcerated youth face disproportionately higher morbidity and higher mortality compared to the general adolescent population. Dental health, reproductive health, and mental health needs are particularly high, likely as a result of lower access to care, engagement in high-risk behaviors, and underlying health disparities. Violence exposure and injury also contribute to the health disparities seen in this population. Further, juvenile incarceration itself is an important determinant of health. Juvenile incarceration likely correlates with worse health and social functioning across the life course. Correctional health care facilities allow time for providers to address the unmet physical and mental health needs seen in this population. Yet substantial challenges to care delivery in detention facilities exist and quality of care in detention facilities varies widely. Community-based pediatricians can serve a vital role in ensuring continuity of care in the postdetention period and linking youth to services that can potentially prevent juvenile offending. Pediatricians who succeed in understanding and addressing the underlying social contexts of their patients' lives can have tremendous impact in improving the life trajectories of these vulnerable youth. Opportunities exist in clinical care, research, medical education, policy, and advocacy for pediatricians to lead change and improve the health status of youth involved in the juvenile justice system.

  15. Extending juvenility in grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaeppler, Shawn; de Leon Gatti, Natalia; Foerster, Jillian

    2017-04-11

    The present invention relates to compositions and methods for modulating the juvenile to adult developmental growth transition in plants, such as grasses (e.g. maize). In particular, the invention provides methods for enhancing agronomic properties in plants by modulating expression of GRMZM2G362718, GRMZM2G096016, or homologs thereof. Modulation of expression of one or more additional genes which affect juvenile to adult developmental growth transition such as Glossy15 or Cg1, in conjunction with such modulation of expression is also contemplated. Nucleic acid constructs for down-regulation of GRMZM2G362718 and/or GRMZM2G096016 are also contemplated, as are transgenic plants and products produced there from, that demonstrate altered, such as extended juvenile growth, and display associated phenotypes such as enhanced yield, improved digestibility, and increased disease resistance. Plants described herein may be used, for example, as improved forage or feed crops or in biofuel production.

  16. Biochemical Characterization and Differential Expression of a 16.5-Kilodalton Tegument-Associated Antigen from the Liver Fluke Fasciola hepatica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudier, José F.; Cabán-Hernández, Kimberly; Osuna, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    A cDNA encoding a 16.5-kDa protein termed FhTP16.5 was identified by immunoscreening of a cDNA library from Fasciola hepatica adult flukes using pooled sera from rabbits infected with F. hepatica for 4 weeks. Quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qPCR) analysis revealed that FhTP16.5 is not expressed in unembryonated eggs. It is poorly expressed in miracidia and highly expressed at the juvenile and adult stages; however, significant differences were found between the expression levels of FhTP16.5 in juveniles versus adult flukes. Recombinant FhTP16.5 was expressed at high levels in Escherichia coli, purified by affinity chromatography, and used to raise anti-FhTP16.5 polyclonal antibodies in rabbits. Immunoblot analysis using the anti-FhTP16.5 IgG antibody identified FhTP16.5 in crude and tegumental extracts and in excretory-secretory products of F. hepatica. The protein was not detected in crude extracts of Schistosoma mansoni or Schistosoma japonicum. Antibodies to FhTP16.5 were detected in the sera of rabbits at 3 to 12 weeks of F. hepatica infection as well as in the sera of humans with chronic fascioliasis; these findings suggest that FhTP16.5 could be a good antigen for serodiagnosis of fascioliasis. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that FhTP16.5 localizes to the surface of the tegument of various developmental stages and in parenchymal tissues of the adult fluke. Such specific localization makes FhTP16.5 an attractive target for immunoprophylaxis or chemotherapy. PMID:22278327

  17. DERMATOMIOSITIS JUVENIL Y EMBARAZO

    OpenAIRE

    Evans M,Gregorio; Poulsen R,Ronald; Blanco R,Romiely; Luna V,Viviana

    2002-01-01

    La dermatomiositis juvenil es un desorden inflamatorio crónico multisistémico del tejido conectivo. Tiene una incidencia de 2-3/100.000/año. Con la disminución en la mortalidad experimentada en los últimos decenios, la atención está cifrada en la morbilidad a largo plazo y en las alteraciones funcionales. Con un tratamiento agresivo los niños con dermatomiositis juvenil generalmente tienen un futuro promisorio, sin incapacidad o con incapacidad mínima. La mortalidad actualmente se estima cerc...

  18. Juvenile idiopatiske inflammatoriske myopatier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helga Sanner

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (JIIM is a group of rare autoimmune systemic diseases in children and adolescents, characterized by chronic skeletal muscle inflammation. Unlike in adults, dermatomyositis (JDM is by far the most common of the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies in children and adolescents. The hallmark of JDM is calcinosis, lipodystrophy and vasculitis, findings that differs the juvenile form of dermatomyosits from the adult form. JDM is still diagnosed and classified by Bohan and Peter’s criteria from 1975. There are limited data on long time outcome of this disease

  19. Transmission patterns of Fasciola hepatica to ruminants in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novobilský, Adam; Engström, Annie; Sollenberg, Sofia; Gustafsson, Katarina; Morrison, David A; Höglund, Johan

    2014-07-14

    Transmission patterns of Fasciola hepatica were investigated on beef cattle (n=3) and sheep (n=3) farms in Sweden between 2011 and 2012. The dynamics of fluke infection, particularly estimated time of infection, were screened each grazing season by ELISA detection of antibodies in lambs (n=94) and first grazing season calves (n=61). Colostral transfer of F. hepatica antibodies from seropositive ewes was detected in sheep up to 11 weeks of age. In sheep, the estimated time of infection differed significantly between herds and years. Typical 'winter infection' was observed on two sheep farms in 2012, but the most prevalent transmission pattern was found to be 'summer infection', characterised by infection of animals in late summer by F. hepatica originating from overwintered and/or spring-excreted eggs. In contrast, beef calves were infected mainly in September-October ('summer infection'). Furthermore, lymnaeid and succineid snails were collected on the pastures used by these animals both in spring and in the autumn each year. In total, 1726, 588, 138, 130, 93 and 42 specimens of Galba truncatula, Lymnaea palustris, Lymnaea glabra, Lymnaea fuscus, Radix peregra and Succinea putris, respectively, were collected and identified. These were subsequently examined for the presence of F. hepatica DNA by species-specific PCR and the findings compared against mean monthly rainfall and temperature data for each farm. The main intermediate host of the liver fluke was G. truncatula, with a prevalence range of F. hepatica infection from 0% to 82%. Only 1 out of 42 terrestrial S. putris tested positive for F. hepatica, casting doubt on the role of this species in transmission of F. hepatica in Sweden. In conclusion, two main peak periods of infection were observed: May-June (from overwintered infected snails='winter infection') and August-September (from metacercariae developed and produced by snails during summer='summer infection'). The occurrence and frequency of 'winter

  20. Juvenile Battens Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayton, Romayne

    1987-01-01

    Ten children diagnosed with juvenile Battens disease were tested over a three-year period in general intelligence, memory, listening and speech, motor skills, and general learning. Results showed that the patients followed a predetermined pattern but that the time span for development of memory, communication, and behavior problems varied greatly.…

  1. Juvenile Victimization and Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbensen, Finn-Aage; Huizinga, David

    1991-01-01

    Demographic characteristics of juvenile victims of crime and a potential relationship between victimization and self-reported delinquency are examined for 877 adolescents from a large midwestern city. Lifetime victimization rates (LVRs) are higher for those involved in delinquency, and LVRs rise with age and higher levels of delinquent behavior.…

  2. Juvenile Battens Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayton, Romayne

    1987-01-01

    Ten children diagnosed with juvenile Battens disease were tested over a three-year period in general intelligence, memory, listening and speech, motor skills, and general learning. Results showed that the patients followed a predetermined pattern but that the time span for development of memory, communication, and behavior problems varied greatly.…

  3. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prakken, Berent; Albani, Salvatore; Martini, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is a heterogeneous group of diseases characterised by arthritis of unknown origin with onset before age of 16 years. Pivotal studies in the past 5 years have led to substantial progress in various areas, ranging from disease classification to new treatments. Gene expres

  4. Fasciola hepatica (Trematode: Fasciolidae en la zona alta de Mérida, Venezuela (Fasciola hepatica (Trematode: Fasciolidae in zone high of Mérida, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieves, E*

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudió sobre la presencia de Fasciola hepática en la finca “El Joque” vía La Azulita, Estado Mérida, Venezuela. Un foco natural de fasciolasis fue verificado por la presencia de formas larvales en los caracoles hospedadores intermediarios y por examen coprológico en los bovinos de la finca. Detectandose la presencia de moluscos en todas las áreas muestreadas de la finca, de los cuales, el 77% resultó ser del Genero Lymnaea (Pulmonata: Lymnaeidae, se determinó una prevalencia de infección de un 42 % en el bebedero, del 43% en el potrero y del 39% en el manantial. Ademas, se detectó un 39% de infección por F. hepática en los bovinos de la finca. La alta prevalencia de F. hepatica en la zona . In the present study was evaluated the presence of Fasciola hepatica in the farm The Joque Merida State, Venezuela. The installation of the natural focus of fascioliasis was verified through of finding the larval forms in the intermediate snail host and coprologics exams in cattle from the farm. The snails were collected in diferents places of the farm, registering the 77% belongs to the Lymnaea genus (Pulmonata:Lymnaeidae intermediator host infected naturally with Fasciola was 42% in the water fill, 43% in the herder and 39% in the source. The results shows that the region presents one prevalence to fascioliasis in cattle of 39%. The very high prevalence of F. hepatica in area studied, suggest that could act as a potential risk to public health.

  5. The presence of predators modifies the larval development of Fasciola hepatica in surviving Lymnaea truncatula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondelaud, D; Vignoles, P; Dreyfuss, G

    2002-06-01

    Experimental infections of Lymnaea truncatula with Fasciola hepatica were performed to study the consequences of the presence of predators (sciomyzid larvae or zonitid snails) on the characteristics of larval F. hepatica development in surviving snails. Controls consisted of infected snails that were not subjected to predators. Compared to controls, the survival rate at day 30 post-exposure, the duration of cercarial shedding, and the number of cercariae shed by surviving snails were significantly lower when predators were present in snail breeding boxes, whatever the type of predator used. In contrast, the prevalences of Fasciola infections in snails, and the length of time between exposure and the onset of cercarial shedding showed no significant variation. The progressive development of a stress reaction in surviving snails against predators during the first 30 days of experimental exposure to F. hepatica would influence snail survival during the cercarial shedding period and, consequently, the number of cercariae shed by the snails.

  6. Fasciola hepatica (Trematode: Fasciolidae) en la zona alta de Mérida, Venezuela (Fasciola hepatica (Trematode: Fasciolidae) in zone high of Mérida, Venezuela)

    OpenAIRE

    Nieves,E.; Rondon, M.; Zamora, E.; Salazar M

    2005-01-01

    Se realizó un estudió sobre la presencia de Fasciola hepática en la finca “El Joque” vía La Azulita, Estado Mérida, Venezuela. Un foco natural de fasciolasis fue verificado por la presencia de formas larvales en los caracoles hospedadores intermediarios y por examen coprológico en los bovinos de la finca. Detectandose la presencia de moluscos en todas las áreas muestreadas de la finca, de los cuales, el 77% resultó ser del Genero Lymnaea (Pulmonata: Lymnaeidae), se determinó una prevalencia ...

  7. Investigation of Fasciola hepatica Antibodies in Foreign High School Students in Kayseri

    OpenAIRE

    Süleyman YAZAR; Muhittin KAYA; Berna HAMAMCI; Ülfet ÇETİNKAYA; Ozan YAMAN

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Fasciola hepatica is a hepatic trematode which develops fasciolosis mostly in sheep and cattle and occasionally in humans. F. hepatica is an endemic parasite in Turkey and causes major economic losses in livestock industry. Human are infected by contaminated water or ingestion of uncooked aquatic vegetation on which metacercaria are encysted. In the diagnosis of human infection, in addition to investigate for the F. hepatica eggs in stool, various serological methods are also used....

  8. Fasciola hepatica: epidemiology, perspectives in the diagnostic and the use of geoprocessing systems for prevalence studies

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos André Aleixo; Deivid França Freitas; Leonardo Hermes Dutra

    2015-01-01

    Fasciola hepatica is a parasite that is located in the liver of ruminants with the possibility to infect horses, pigs and humans. The parasite belongs to the Trematoda class, and it is the agent causing the disease called fasciolosis. This disease occurs mainly in temperate regions where climate favors the development of the organism. These conditions must facilitate the development of the intermediate host, the snail of the genus Lymnaea. The infection in domestic animals can lead to decreas...

  9. Clinical presentation and management of Fasciola hepatica infection: Single-center experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhsin Kaya; Remzi Be(s)ta(s); Sedat (C)etin

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To identify the characteristic clinical, laboratory and radiological findings and response to treatment in patients with fascioliasis.METHODS: Patients who were diagnosed with Fasciola hepatica infection were included in this prospective study. Initial clinical, laboratory and radiological findings were recorded. All patients were followed until a complete response was achieved or for 6 mo after treatment discontinuation.RESULTS: Fasciola hepatica infection was diagnosed in 30 patients (24 females; mean age: 42.6 years) between January 2008 and February 2011. Twenty-two (73%) patients had hepatic phase fascioliasis, 5 patients had biliary phase, and 3 patients had biliary phase associated with acute pancreatitis. Of the 8 patients with biliary phase fascioliasis, 2 patients displayed features that overlapped with both hepatic and biliary phase. Abdominal pain and right upper abdominal tenderness were the most prominent signs and symptoms in all patients. Eosinophilia was the most prominent laboratory abnormality in both patients with hepatic and biliary phase (100% and 50%, respectively).Multiple nodular lesions like micro-abscesses on abdominal computerized tomography were the main radiological findings in patients with hepatic phase. Small linear filling defects in the distal choledochus were the main endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) findings in patients with biliary phase. Patients with hepatic phase were treated with triclabendazole alone, and patients with biliary phase were treated with triclabendazole and had live Fasciola hepatica extracted from the bile ducts during ERCP.CONCLUSION: Fasciola hepatica infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with hepatic or biliary disease and/or acute pancreatitis associated with eosinophilia.

  10. Fascioliasis of livestock and snail host for Fasciola in the Altiplano Region of Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, H; Arandia, R; Morales, G; Medina, G

    1975-01-01

    Fascioliasis caused by Fasciola hepatica was a serious problem for sheep and alpacas in the Altiplano Region of Bolivia. In some provinces close to Lake Titicaca, the raising of sheep was forced to discontinue, because infection with the fluke made it unprofitable and almost impossible. It was proved that in the Altiplano Region, two species of freshwater snails, Lymnaea viatrix and L. cubensis var., served as intermediate hosts for F. hepatica. In some subtropical areas of Bolivia, these snails could not be found, although other Lymnaea sp. was widely distributed there. As it is possible for Lymnaea sp. to be intermediate host for the fluke, further studies are required on the identification. Acute fascioliasis of sheep occurred in the Altiplano Region principally during a period from May to July, or the dry season. In some areas, the mortality rate of infected sheep was roughly estimated as 15 to 25% annually. Contamination with Fasciola metacercariae of herbage and semi-aquatic plants grown in a swamp in one of these areas was biologically assessed, using guinea pigs. Plants of Compositae and Eleocharis sp. were contaminated most intensely and those of Senicio sp. and Vallisneria sp. carried a fairly large number of cysts, while plants of Scirpus sp. and Ranunclaceae carried only a few cysts. No signs of Fasciola infection were observed in any animal given the plants of Liliaceae.

  11. An optimized DNA extraction and multiplex PCR for the detection of Fasciola sp. in lymnaeid snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Y; Righi, S; Lempereur, L; Saegerman, C; Losson, B

    2011-05-31

    This study deals with the development and validation of an original PCR protocol to assess the presence of Fasciola hepatica in Galba truncatula its main intermediate host in Western Europe. In the present study two DNA extraction techniques are compared and a new multiplex PCR is described. The Chelex(®) DNA extraction technique showed to be more appropriate than the classical Phenol/Chloroform/Proteinase K based method because of the absence of toxic organic solvent, shorter duration and lower cost, and a higher reproducibility regarding DNA concentrations and wavelength ratios. The multiplex PCR was set up to amplify the lymnaeid internal transcribed spacer 2 sequence (500-600 bp) that act as an internal control and a 124 bp Fasciola sp. sequence that is repeated more than 300,000 times in fluke whole genome. Ninety six snails were pooled and 6 snails (6.25%) found positive for Fasciola sp. The limit of detection is lower than the minimal biological infestation unit (one miracidium). DNA extracts from Paramphistomum daubneyi, Dicrocoelium lanceolatum, and Fascioloides magna did not cross react.

  12. Fascioliasis Control: In Vivo and In Vitro Phytotherapy of Vector Snail to Kill Fasciola Larva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunita, Kumari; Singh, D. K.

    2011-01-01

    Snail is one of the important components of an aquatic ecosystem, it acts as intermediate host of Fasciola species. Control of snail population below a certain threshold level is one of the important methods in the campaign to reduce the incidence of fascioliasis. Life cycle of the parasite can be interrupted by killing the snail or Fasciola larva redia and cercaria in the snail body. In vivo and in vitro toxicity of the plant products and their active component such as citral, ferulic acid, umbelliferone, azadirachtin, and allicin against larva of Fasciola in infected snail Lymnaea acuminata were tested. Mortality of larvae were observed at 2 h, 4 h, 6 h, and 8 h, of treatment. In in vivo treatment, azadirachtin caused highest mortality in redia and cercaria larva (8 h, LC50 0.11, and 0.05 mg/L) whereas in in vitro condition allicin was highly toxic against redia and cercaria (8 h, LC50 0.01, and 0.009 mg/L). Toxicity of citral was lowest against redia and cercaria larva. PMID:22132306

  13. Fascioliasis Control: In Vivo and In Vitro Phytotherapy of Vector Snail to Kill Fasciola Larva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumari Sunita

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Snail is one of the important components of an aquatic ecosystem, it acts as intermediate host of Fasciola species. Control of snail population below a certain threshold level is one of the important methods in the campaign to reduce the incidence of fascioliasis. Life cycle of the parasite can be interrupted by killing the snail or Fasciola larva redia and cercaria in the snail body. In vivo and in vitro toxicity of the plant products and their active component such as citral, ferulic acid, umbelliferone, azadirachtin, and allicin against larva of Fasciola in infected snail Lymnaea acuminata were tested. Mortality of larvae were observed at 2 h, 4 h, 6 h, and 8 h, of treatment. In in vivo treatment, azadirachtin caused highest mortality in redia and cercaria larva (8 h, LC50 0.11, and 0.05 mg/L whereas in in vitro condition allicin was highly toxic against redia and cercaria (8 h, LC50 0.01, and 0.009 mg/L. Toxicity of citral was lowest against redia and cercaria larva.

  14. La presencia de Fasciola hepatica en la localidad de Huinco. Comprobación experimental

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    Alina Huiza F.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se determina la presencia de Fasciola hepatica L., en la localidad de Huinco, zona no ganadera de la Provincia de Huarochirí, Departamento de Lima, setiembre 1971 - julio de 1972. Se examinaron caracoles Lymnaea viator y Physa venustula en busco de estadios evolutivos de F. hepatica, así como exámenes de heces de la población humana en busca de huevos del parásito. Se encontraron caracoles L. viator infectados con estadios larvarios de Fasciola, lo cual se comprobó al desarrollarse ejemplares adultos del parásito en las vías biliares de ratones que fueron infectados con metacercarias obtenidas de los caracoles. La infección humana por Fasciola hepatica fue bajo (0.88%. No existiendo ganadería en la localidad, se concluye que la infección del caracol ocurre por lo llegada a Huinco de huevos de F. hepatica por los cursos de agua de localidades ganaderos situadas en zonas más altos que Huinco.

  15. Development of indirect sandwich ELISA for determination of excretory-secretory antigens of Fasciola hepatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libertad Alzamora-Gonzales

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fasciolosis is a cosmopolitan parasitosis medical-veterinary importance caused by Fasciola hepatica, which affects sheep, goats and cattle; and it affects man accidentally causing an epidemic-endemic infection difficult to diagnose. The aim was to develop an indirect sandwich ELISA with 3 antibodies for detecting excretory-secretory antigens of Fasciola hepatica (ESFh. For the development of indirect sandwich ELISA were used, as capture antibody, mouse polyclonal antibodies anti ESFh and polyclonal antibodies rabbit anti-ESFh as detection antibody, at the concentrations of 10 and 5 µg/mL respectively. The conjugate used was mouse monoclonal anti- total immunoglobulins rabbit linked to peroxidase (1/1000. Were analized 31 sheep fecal samples, and the results were compared with those obtained by direct coproparasitological examination (DC and counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIEP. The detection limit obtained for indirect sandwich ELISA was 100 ng/mL. The test had a 100% sensitivity, 96.6% specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 50% and 96.6% respectively, in relation to DC test. Comparing with CIEP the specificity obtained for indirect sandwich ELISA was 93.5% and a negative predictive value of 100%. We concluded that indirect sandwich ELISA designed is able to detect metabolic antigens in ovine feces samples and can be used for Fasciola hepatica diagnosis.

  16. The Diterpenoid 7-Keto-Sempervirol, Derived from Lycium chinense, Displays Anthelmintic Activity against both Schistosoma mansoni and Fasciola hepatica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jennifer; Brown, Martha; Peak, Emily; Bartholomew, Barbara; Nash, Robert J.; Hoffmann, Karl F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Two platyhelminths of biomedical and commercial significance are Schistosoma mansoni (blood fluke) and Fasciola hepatica (liver fluke). These related trematodes are responsible for the chronic neglected tropical diseases schistosomiasis and fascioliasis, respectively. As no vaccine is currently available for anti-flukicidal immunoprophylaxis, current treatment is mediated by mono-chemical chemotherapy in the form of mass drug administration (MDA) (praziquantel for schistosomiasis) or drenching (triclabendazole for fascioliasis) programmes. This overreliance on single chemotherapeutic classes has dramatically limited the number of novel chemical entities entering anthelmintic drug discovery pipelines, raising significant concerns for the future of sustainable blood and liver fluke control. Methodology/ Principle Findings Here we demonstrate that 7-keto-sempervirol, a diterpenoid isolated from Lycium chinense, has dual anthelmintic activity against related S. mansoni and F. hepatica trematodes. Using a microtiter plate-based helminth fluorescent bioassay (HFB), this activity is specific (Therapeutic index = 4.2, when compared to HepG2 cell lines) and moderately potent (LD50 = 19.1 μM) against S. mansoni schistosomula cultured in vitro. This anti-schistosomula effect translates into activity against both adult male and female schistosomes cultured in vitro where 7-keto-sempervirol negatively affects motility/behaviour, surface architecture (inducing tegumental holes, tubercle swelling and spine loss/shortening), oviposition rates and egg morphology. As assessed by the HFB and microscopic phenotypic scoring matrices, 7-keto-sempervirol also effectively kills in vitro cultured F. hepatica newly excysted juveniles (NEJs, LD50 = 17.7 μM). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) evaluation of adult F. hepatica liver flukes co-cultured in vitro with 7-keto-sempervirol additionally demonstrates phenotypic abnormalities including breaches in tegumental integrity and

  17. Collagenolytic activities of the major secreted cathepsin L peptidases involved in the virulence of the helminth pathogen, Fasciola hepatica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark W Robinson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The temporal expression and secretion of distinct members of a family of virulence-associated cathepsin L cysteine peptidases (FhCL correlates with the entry and migration of the helminth pathogen Fasciola hepatica in the host. Thus, infective larvae traversing the gut wall secrete cathepsin L3 (FhCL3, liver migrating juvenile parasites secrete both FhCL1 and FhCL2 while the mature bile duct parasites, which are obligate blood feeders, secrete predominantly FhCL1 but also FhCL2. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we show that FhCL1, FhCL2 and FhCL3 exhibit differences in their kinetic parameters towards a range of peptide substrates. Uniquely, FhCL2 and FhCL3 readily cleave substrates with Pro in the P2 position and peptide substrates mimicking the repeating Gly-Pro-Xaa motifs that occur within the primary sequence of collagen. FhCL1, FhCL2 and FhCL3 hydrolysed native type I and II collagen at neutral pH but while FhCL1 cleaved only non-collagenous (NC, non-Gly-X-Y domains FhCL2 and FhCL3 exhibited collagenase activity by cleaving at multiple sites within the α1 and α2 triple helix regions (Col domains. Molecular simulations created for FhCL1, FhCL2 and FhCL3 complexed to various seven-residue peptides supports the idea that Trp67 and Tyr67 in the S2 subsite of the active sites of FhCL3 and FhCL2, respectively, are critical to conferring the unique collagenase-like activity to these enzymes by accommodating either Gly or Pro residues at P2 in the substrate. The data also suggests that FhCL3 accommodates hydroxyproline (Hyp-Gly at P3-P2 better than FhCL2 explaining the observed greater ability of FhCL3 to digest type I and II collagens compared to FhCL2 and why these enzymes cleave at different positions within the Col domains. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These studies further our understanding of how this helminth parasite regulates peptidase expression to ensure infection, migration and establishment in host tissues.

  18. The diterpenoid 7-keto-sempervirol, derived from Lycium chinense, displays anthelmintic activity against both Schistosoma mansoni and Fasciola hepatica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Edwards

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Two platyhelminths of biomedical and commercial significance are Schistosoma mansoni (blood fluke and Fasciola hepatica (liver fluke. These related trematodes are responsible for the chronic neglected tropical diseases schistosomiasis and fascioliasis, respectively. As no vaccine is currently available for anti-flukicidal immunoprophylaxis, current treatment is mediated by mono-chemical chemotherapy in the form of mass drug administration (MDA (praziquantel for schistosomiasis or drenching (triclabendazole for fascioliasis programmes. This overreliance on single chemotherapeutic classes has dramatically limited the number of novel chemical entities entering anthelmintic drug discovery pipelines, raising significant concerns for the future of sustainable blood and liver fluke control. METHODOLOGY/ PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Here we demonstrate that 7-keto-sempervirol, a diterpenoid isolated from Lycium chinense, has dual anthelmintic activity against related S. mansoni and F. hepatica trematodes. Using a microtiter plate-based helminth fluorescent bioassay (HFB, this activity is specific (Therapeutic index = 4.2, when compared to HepG2 cell lines and moderately potent (LD50 = 19.1 μM against S. mansoni schistosomula cultured in vitro. This anti-schistosomula effect translates into activity against both adult male and female schistosomes cultured in vitro where 7-keto-sempervirol negatively affects motility/behaviour, surface architecture (inducing tegumental holes, tubercle swelling and spine loss/shortening, oviposition rates and egg morphology. As assessed by the HFB and microscopic phenotypic scoring matrices, 7-keto-sempervirol also effectively kills in vitro cultured F. hepatica newly excysted juveniles (NEJs, LD50 = 17.7 μM. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM evaluation of adult F. hepatica liver flukes co-cultured in vitro with 7-keto-sempervirol additionally demonstrates phenotypic abnormalities including breaches in tegumental

  19. Development of functional genomic tools in trematodes: RNA interference and luciferase reporter gene activity in Fasciola hepatica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Rinaldi

    Full Text Available The growing availability of sequence information from diverse parasites through genomic and transcriptomic projects offer new opportunities for the identification of key mediators in the parasite-host interaction. Functional genomics approaches and methods for the manipulation of genes are essential tools for deciphering the roles of genes and to identify new intervention targets in parasites. Exciting advances in functional genomics for parasitic helminths are starting to occur, with transgene expression and RNA interference (RNAi reported in several species of nematodes, but the area is still in its infancy in flatworms, with reports in just three species. While advancing in model organisms, there is a need to rapidly extend these technologies to other parasites responsible for several chronic diseases of humans and cattle. In order to extend these approaches to less well studied parasitic worms, we developed a test method for the presence of a viable RNAi pathway by silencing the exogenous reporter gene, firefly luciferase (fLUC. We established the method in the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni and then confirmed its utility in the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica. We transformed newly excysted juveniles of F. hepatica by electroporation with mRNA of fLUC and three hours later were able to detect luciferase enzyme activity, concentrated mainly in the digestive ceca. Subsequently, we tested the presence of an active RNAi pathway in F. hepatica by knocking down the exogenous luciferase activity by introduction into the transformed parasites of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA specific for fLUC. In addition, we tested the RNAi pathway targeting an endogenous F. hepatica gene encoding leucine aminopeptidase (FhLAP, and observed a significant reduction in specific mRNA levels. In summary, these studies demonstrated the utility of RNAi targeting reporter fLUC as a reporter gene assay to establish the presence of an intact RNAi pathway in helminth

  20. Late Onset Juvenile Xanthogranuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punithwavathy K

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A 19 year old female was seen with multiple skin coloured and hyperpigmented macules, discrete as well as grouped papules and nodules of varying sizes distributed over the face, neck, extensor and flexor aspects of both upper and lower extremities including joints. The trunk was spared. Some of the lesions showed features of spontaneous regression. Investigations confirmed the diagnosis of juvenile xanthogranuloma. Lesions regressed satisfactorily with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy.

  1. Juvenile Incarceration and Health

    OpenAIRE

    Barnert, ES; R Perry; Morris, RE

    2015-01-01

    © 2015. Addressing the health status and needs of incarcerated youth represents an issue at the nexus of juvenile justice reform and health care reform. Incarcerated youth face disproportionately higher morbidity and higher mortality compared to the general adolescent population. Dental health, reproductive health, and mental health needs are particularly high, likely as a result of lower access to care, engagement in high-risk behaviors, and underlying health disparities. Violence exposure a...

  2. Juvenile Ultracool Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Rice, Emily L; Cruz, Kelle; Barman, Travis; Looper, Dagny; Malo, Lison; Mamajek, Eric E; Metchev, Stanimir; Shkolnik, Evgenya L

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile ultracool dwarfs are late spectral type objects (later than ~M6) with ages between 10 Myr and several 100 Myr. Their age-related properties lie intermediate between very low mass objects in nearby star-forming regions (ages 1-5 Myr) and field stars and brown dwarfs that are members of the disk population (ages 1-5 Gyr). Kinematic associations of nearby young stars with ages from ~10-100 Myr provide sources for juvenile ultracool dwarfs. The lowest mass confirmed members of these groups are late-M dwarfs. Several apparently young L dwarfs and a few T dwarfs are known, but they have not been kinematically associated with any groups. Normalizing the field IMF to the high mass population of these groups suggests that more low mass (mainly late-M and possibly L dwarf) members have yet to be found. The lowest mass members of these groups, along with low mass companions to known young stars, provide benchmark objects with which spectroscopic age indicators for juvenile ultracool dwarfs can be calibrated and...

  3. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions juvenile idiopathic arthritis juvenile idiopathic arthritis Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Juvenile idiopathic arthritis refers to a group of conditions involving joint ...

  4. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile primary osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions juvenile primary osteoporosis juvenile primary osteoporosis Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... PDF Open All Close All Description Juvenile primary osteoporosis is a skeletal disorder characterized by thinning of ...

  5. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile myoclonic epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions juvenile myoclonic epilepsy juvenile myoclonic epilepsy Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... PDF Open All Close All Description Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy is a condition characterized by recurrent seizures (epilepsy). ...

  6. Juvenile Justice Bulletin: Aftercare Services. Juvenile Justice Practices Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gies, Steve V.

    This bulletin examines aftercare services that provide youth with comprehensive health, education, family, and vocational services upon their release from the juvenile justice system. Aftercare can be defined as reintegrative services that prepare out-of-home placed juveniles for reentry into the community by reestablishing the necessary…

  7. Does Fasciola hepatica infection modify the response of acute hepatitis C virus infection to IFN-α treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Mehmet; Isler, Mehmet; Senol, Altug; Demirci, Mustafa; Aydın, Zeynep Dilek

    2005-01-01

    Immunologic response to acute hepatitis C is mainly a Th1 response, whereas fasciolopsiasis is associated with a diverse T-cell response. Interferon-alpha has immunomodulatory effects and enhances Th1 immune response. Fasciola infection could theoretically interfere with the Th1 immune response, even when acquired after an initial response to interferon-alpha treatment for acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We report here the case of a male patient who acquired Fasciola hepatica infection after an initial response to IFN-alpha therapy with a favorable outcome PMID:16437701

  8. Does Fasciola hepatica infection modify the response of acute hepatitis C virus infection to IFN-α treatment?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mehmet Sahin; Mehmet Isler; Altug Senol; Mustafa Demirci; Zeynep Dilek Aydin

    2005-01-01

    Immunologic response to acute hepatitis C is mainly a Th1 response, whereas fasciolopsiasis is associated with a diverse T-cell response. Interferon-alpha has immunomodulatory effects and enhances Th1 immune response. Fasciola infection could theoretically interfere with the Th1 immune response, even when acquired after an initial response to interferon-alpha treatment for acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We report here the case of a male patient who acquired Fasciola hepatica infection after an initial response to IFN-alpha therapy with a favorable outcome

  9. Miastenia gravis juvenil Juvenile myasthenia gravis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Papazian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La miastenia gravis juvenil (MGJ es un trastorno crónico auto inmune en el cual existen anticuerpos séricos que al unirse a los receptores de acetilcolin nicotínicos de la membrana muscular de la placa motora alteran la transmisión neuromuscular. El resultado es fatiga muscular precoz con progresión a la parálisis durante estados de contracción muscular iterativos (movimientos o sostenidos (posturas y más raramente parálisis permanente durante el reposo. Los músculos inervados por los nervios craneales, especialmente los extraoculares y elevadores de los párpados, tienen más tendencia a la debilidad muscular persistente que los inervados por otros pares craneales y las extremidades. Las formas clínicas de presentación son generalizadas, oculares y respiratorias. El diagnóstico se sospecha mediante la anamnesia, la fatiga anormal se comprueba mediante el examen físico y la estimulación eléctrica iterativa del nervio que inerva al músculo afectado pero no paralizado. Se corrobora mediante la administración de inhibidores de la acetilcolin esterasa (IACE que al aumentar la cantidad de acetilcolin en la hendidura sináptica, corrigen la fatiga o la debilidad muscular transitoriamente. Se hace el diagnóstico de certeza mediante la demostración sérica de anticuerpos contra los receptores de acetilcolin (ACRA. El tratamiento es a largo plazo sintomático con IACE y etiopatogénico con inmunosupresores, plasmaféresis, gamma globulina endovenosa y timectomía. El curso es crónico. La remisión espontánea o después de tratamiento sintomático o etiopatogénico ocurre entre 1-10 años respectivamente. La mortalidad es prácticamente nula aun durantes las crisis miastenias gracias a la educación de padres, pacientes y público en general sobre el tema, al desarrollo del sistema de respuesta rápida de auxilio domiciliario y las unidades de cuidados intensivos y el empleo de la ventilación asistida profiláctica, plasmaféresis y

  10. Juvenile Dermatomyositis in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Emeka Madu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile dermatomyositis has variable clinical presentations both in and outside of pregnancy. A literature review indicated that optimal maternal and fetal outcomes can be anticipated when the pregnancy is undertaken while the disease is in remission. Poorer outcomes are associated with flare-up of the disease in early pregnancy compared with exacerbation in the second or third trimester, when fetal prognosis is usually good. We present a case of JDM in pregnancy with disease exacerbation late in pregnancy and review of the relevant literature.

  11. Juvenile dermatomyositis in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madu, Anthony Emeka; Omih, Edwin; Baguley, Elaine; Lindow, Stephen W

    2013-01-01

    Juvenile dermatomyositis has variable clinical presentations both in and outside of pregnancy. A literature review indicated that optimal maternal and fetal outcomes can be anticipated when the pregnancy is undertaken while the disease is in remission. Poorer outcomes are associated with flare-up of the disease in early pregnancy compared with exacerbation in the second or third trimester, when fetal prognosis is usually good. We present a case of JDM in pregnancy with disease exacerbation late in pregnancy and review of the relevant literature.

  12. Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larralde, M; Santos-Muñoz, A; Calb, I; Magariños, C

    2001-01-01

    Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis (JHF) is a rare autosomal recessive disease with onset in infancy or early childhood. It is characterized by papulonodular skin lesions, soft tissue masses, gingival hypertrophy, and flexion contractures of the large joints. The light and electron microscopic features are very distinctive. Here we report an 8-month-old boy with characteristic stiffness of the knees and elbows and pink confluent papules on the paranasal folds, and periauricular and perianal regions. He also had hard nodules all over the scalp and around the mouth, and severe gingival hypertrophy. Histologic and ultrastructural features were typical of JHF. Clinical features, pathology, and physiology are discussed.

  13. Juvenile Justice in Rural America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankovic, Joanne, Ed.; And Others

    Producing a much-needed organized body of literature about rural juvenile justice, 14 papers (largely from the 1979 National Symposium on Rural Justice) are organized to identify current issues, identify forces causing changes in current systems, review programs responding to rural juvenile justice problems, and provide planning models to aid…

  14. Juvenile arthritis and uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanski, J J

    1990-01-01

    The association between juvenile arthritis and uveitis is reviewed. Some children with the HLA-B27 related spondyloarthropathies develop anterior uveitis. About 20% of patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) who are negative for IgM rheumatoid factor develop a frequently bilateral, nongranulomatous chronic anterior uveitis. Risk factors for uveitis in JRA patients are: female gender, pauciarticular onset of arthritis, presence of circulating antinuclear antibodies, and the antigens HLA-DW5 and HLA-DPw2. Uveitis is rare after seven years or more have elapsed from the onset of arthritis. The visual prognosis in patients with uveitis is good in 25% and fair in 50%. The remaining 25% develop visual impairment from complicated cataract and/or secondary inflammatory glaucoma. The potential benefit of cytotoxic agents in the treatment of intractable uveitis is outweighed by the risk of serious side effects. The management of secondary inflammatory glaucoma is unsatisfactory, but the results of treatment of complicated cataracts by lensectomy-vitrectomy are good.

  15. Aggressive juvenile mandibular fibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Georgi P; Atanasov, Dimitar T; Anavi, Beniamin L

    2013-01-01

    Aggressive juvenile fibromatosis of the jawbones is a rare tumor presenting as infiltrative mass with unpredictable evolution. We report herein a 17-year-old student with a 6-month history of radiologically proven resorption of a part of the mandible, lingual displacement of tooth 34 and malocclusion. Alveolar ridge resorption and three dark-brown foci in the bone were seen after the tooth was extracted. Histological study showed the tumor tissue to have a bundle-like structure; immunohistochemically it was positive for vimentin, smooth muscle actin, beta-catenin, Ki-67 (5%), and negative for desmin and cytokeratin 34bE12. The golden standard in the diagnostics of desmoid fibromatoses is the nuclear or membrane expression of beta-catenin, which is found in 90% of the cases. Differential diagnosis include mandibular fibroma, well-differentiated fibrosarcoma, fibrosing histiocytoma, and infiltration from adjacent soft-tissue tumor. Aggressive juvenile fibromatosis should be managed by radical excision. Local recurrences are not rare, but metastases do not develop. In rare cases this type of fibromatosis has been known to regress spontaneously. Aggressive fibromatosis is a diagnostic challenge, since it remains in the grey zone between benign and malignant lesions of the oral cavity.

  16. Three Living Fasciola Hepatica in the Biliary Tract of a Woman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niknam, Ramin; Kazemi, Mohammad Hassan; Mahmoudi, Laleh

    2015-01-01

    Fasciola hepatica (F. hepatica) as a foodborne trematode can occasionally cause hepatobiliary diseases. We report a 67-year-old woman who was referred to our center because of the diagnosis of cholangitis. She was a resident of mountainous area with the history of unsafe water and contaminated vegetables. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) was performed as a diagnostic and therapeutic modality for her. Three living F. hepatica was removed from biliary tract with a basket via ERCP. Clinical and laboratory condition of the patient improved after therapy of antibiotics and triclabendazole. PMID:26379355

  17. In vitro biomarker discovery in the parasitic flatworm Fasciola hepatica for monitoring chemotherapeutic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell M. Morphew

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The parasitic flatworm Fasciola hepatica is a global food security risk. With no vaccines, the sustainability of triclabendazole (TCBZ is threatened by emerging resistance. F. hepatica excretory/secretory (ES products can be detected in host faeces and used to estimate TCBZ success and failure. However, there are no faecal based molecular diagnostics dedicated to assessing drug failure or resistance to TCBZ in the field. Utilising in vitro maintenance and sub-proteomic approaches two TCBZ stress ES protein response fingerprints were identified: markers of non-killing and lethal doses. This study provides candidate protein/peptide biomarkers to validate for detection of TCBZ failure and resistance.

  18. Development of host resistance to Fasciola hepatica after the elimination of primary infection with diamphenethide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corba, J; Spaldonová, R

    1975-01-01

    We studied the specificity of the individual developmental stages of Fasciola hepatica for evoking immune response of the host to reinfection with this parasite, whereby the primary infection was eliminated by a dose of 150 mg/kg diamphenethide administered in various intervals. In rats we observed a state of hypersensitivity demonstrated by retarded migration and growth of the flukes and the reduction in the number of sexually developed parasites. The changes were most marked, if the elimination of the immunizing infection followed 8-10 weeks after primary infection.

  19. Concordância entre duas técnicas coproparasitológicas para diagnóstico de Fasciola hepatica em bovinos Evaluation of two available methods to detect eggs of Fasciola hepatica in cattle faeces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.N. Faria

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Two different methods to detect Fasciola hepatica in faeces using kappa index were compared with four tamises technics and sequencial fitration in two tamises using Flukefinder® apparatus. High accordance between the two methods was observed. The values showed high sensibility and specificity.

  20. Concordância entre duas técnicas coproparasitológicas para diagnóstico de Fasciola hepatica em bovinos Evaluation of two available methods to detect eggs of Fasciola hepatica in cattle faeces

    OpenAIRE

    FARIA, R.N.; Cury,M.C.; W.S. Lima

    2008-01-01

    Two different methods to detect Fasciola hepatica in faeces using kappa index were compared with four tamises technics and sequencial fitration in two tamises using Flukefinder® apparatus. High accordance between the two methods was observed. The values showed high sensibility and specificity.

  1. Juvenile justice mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Christopher R; Penn, Joseph V

    2002-10-01

    As the second century of partnership begins, child psychiatry and juvenile justice face continuing challenges in meeting the mental health needs of delinquents. The modern juvenile justice system is marked by a significantly higher volume of cases, with increasingly complicated multiproblem youths and families with comorbid medical, psychiatric, substance abuse disorders, multiple family and psychosocial adversities, and shrinking community resources and alternatives to confinement. The family court is faced with shrinking financial resources to support court-ordered placement and treatment programs in efforts to treat and rehabilitate youths. The recognition of high rates of mental disorders for incarcerated youth has prompted several recommendations for improvement and calls for reform [56,57]. In their 2000 annual report, the Coalition for Juvenile Justice advocated increased access to mental health services that provide a continuum of care tailored to the specific problems of incarcerated youth [58]. The specific recommendations of the report for mental health providers include the need for wraparound services, improved planning and coordination between agencies, and further research. The Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention has set three priorities in dealing with the mental health needs of delinquents: further research on the prevalence of mental illness among juvenile offenders, development of mental health screening assessment protocols, and improved mental health services [59]. Other programs have called for earlier detection and diversion of troubled youth from juvenile justice to mental health systems [31,56]. Most recently, many juvenile and family courts have developed innovative programs to address specific problems such as truancy or substance use and diversionary or alternative sentencing programs to deal with first-time or nonviolent delinquents. All youths who come in contact with the juvenile justice system

  2. Miranda Rights: Implications for Juveniles with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsiyannis, Antonis; Barrett, David E.; Losinski, Mickey L.

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency in the United States has been a persistent concern for decades. Consequently, because more juveniles have been referred to juvenile court and the arrest rate of preteen offenders has increased to almost three times that of older youth, the persistent and often controversial issue of the capacity of juvenile offenders to waive…

  3. Juvenile prison in parallel legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutovac Mitar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for punishment of juveniles occurred from the time when there was no clear line separating them from the adult criminal population. At the same time, the evolution of the juvenile punishment is not in itself involve substantial changes to their criminal status. On the contrary, the status of minors in society did not show serious differences regarding the status of young adults, as well as the adult elderly. On the other hand, on the ground of their punishment is recorded deviations that go in the direction of application of mild corporal punishment. Closing the minor was performed in a physically separate parts of the general penal institutions with the use of a lower degree of restrictions while serving juvenile prison. Due to the different treatment of minors during the evolution of their criminal status leads to their different treatment in comparative law. That is why we are witnessing the existence of numerous differences in the juvenile punishment in some countries in the world. On the European continent there is a wide range of different legal solutions when it comes to punishing juveniles. There are considerable differences in the procedure pronouncing juvenile prison and in particular penal treatment of juveniles in penitentiary institutions. For these reasons, the author has decided to show the basic statutory provisions in the part that relates to the issue of punishment of minors in the legislation of individual countries.

  4. Update on juvenile myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Wendy K M; Kang, Peter B

    2013-12-01

    Juvenile myasthenia gravis is a relatively rare autoimmune neuromuscular disorder. The pathophysiology of juvenile myasthenia gravis is similar to that of adult myasthenia gravis, though there remain important differences regarding presentation and therapeutic options. We review the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and treatment options for juvenile myasthenia gravis. Randomized clinical studies of myasthenia gravis have been carried out primarily in adult populations. As juvenile myasthenia gravis is rare, it has been difficult to collect prospective randomized controlled data to evaluate treatment outcomes and efficacy. A recent retrospective series suggests that, as in adult myasthenia gravis, thymectomy is a viable therapeutic option for selected cases of generalized juvenile myasthenia gravis. This is corroborated by the clinical experience of the authors in a referral center with a cohort of patients affected by juvenile myasthenia gravis over a number of years. Recent studies illustrate that some, but not all, adult research on myasthenia gravis is applicable to children and adolescents with juvenile myasthenia gravis. Adult research can inform pediatric studies, but should not be regarded as a substitute for dedicated research in those populations.

  5. Juvenile chronic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwood, T R; Woo, P

    1995-05-01

    The nomenclature and classification criteria for arthritis in children should be dealt with initially as separate issues, although they are undoubtedly intertwined. The classification criteria should aim to delineate homogeneous patient populations, yet should be flexible enough to incorporate advances in disease knowledge. It should be recognized that arriving at an international consensus for classification criteria will merely provide a set of operational definitions to facilitate research, and not a set of diagnostic criteria. Indeed the only point to obtaining consensus is to begin a process of systematic ongoing review of the criteria. The labels attached to any of these diseases should facilitate accurate communication. In view of the heterogeneous nature of childhood arthritis, consideration should be given to using a broad umbrella term such as juvenile or childhood arthritis only for communicating with the lay public. Medical nomenclature should be formulated to reflect accurately homogeneous subgroups of arthritis, and should not artificially proscribe a relationship between paediatric and adult disease.

  6. [Juvenile idiopathic arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlin, Troels

    2002-08-19

    The new classification of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is described in this review. Clinical characteristics divide JIA in to subtypes: systemic, oligoarticular (persistent and extended type), RF-positive and--negative polyarticular, enthesitis-related arthritis and psoriatic arthritis. In addition to the clinical characteristics, genetic and biochemical differences suggest that JIA could be regarded as a general term covering various diseases. Complications described are uveitis, temporomandibular joint affection and growth disturbances. The therapeutic strategy should be planned individually according to age, subtype and disease activity and carried out as teamwork with several specialties. Drugs showing significant effectiveness in controlled studies are primarily methotrexate and sulphasalazine. An immunomodulating agent, etanercept, a soluble TNF alpha-receptor fusion protein, has shown a promising effect in severe polyarticular JIA refractory to methotrexate treatment.

  7. Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayashree Krishnamurthy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis is a rare, autosomal-recessive disease characterized by papular and nodular skin lesions, gingival hyperplasia, joint contractures and bone involvement in variable degrees. It is a connective tissue disorder with aberrant synthesis of glycosaminoglycans by fibroblasts. We report a 5-year-old female born of first-degree consanguineous marriage who presented with multiple, recurrent, painless, variable-sized nodules. Fine needle aspiration cytology smears and the subsequent histopathological examination from the nodules showed benign spindle cells in a Periodic acid Schiff-positive myxoid background. The disease has a relentlessly progressive course, with most patients surviving only up to the 4 th decade. As of now, there is no specific treatment for this disorder. Genetic counseling is essential to explain to parents about a 25% chance of having a diseased baby in any pregnancy. With the gene being mapped recently, techniques for antenatal diagnosis are likely to be established.

  8. [JUVENILE DERMATOMYOSITIS AND CALCINOSIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhvania, M

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile Dermatomiositis (JD) is autoimmune disease that progresses with time; JD's main differentiated syndromes are rash on the skin, poor function of muscles, and often developing invalidism. If the health practitioners manage to diagnose the JD on an early stage and prescribe the adequate treatment the disease will not progress aggressively. This approach is tangible for practical rheumatology and pediatric. The article aims to present the reasons of the development of the JD and calcinosis. The study based on the description of the patients with JD. There are distinguished the main symptoms of the disease in children: frequent and acute developments of muscles calcinosis, occasionally with diffuse character followed with hypotrophy of the muscles, contractures and invalidism. One of the patient cases that describe the article is the thirteen-year boy with JD indicating repeated sequence of the disease, with diffusive calcinosis, cellulitis followed with secondary infection and impaired vision.

  9. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krupa H Bhatt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA is the most chronic musculoskeletal disease of pediatric population. The chronic course of disease has a great impact on oral health. Temporomandibular joint is involved in JIA causing limited mouth opening with progressive open bite, retrognathia, microgenia and bird like appearance. Joints of upper and lower extremities are also involved. Effect on upper limb function leads to difficulty with fine motor movements required for brushing and flossing. This increases incidence of caries and periodontal disease in children. The cause of JIA is still poorly understood and none of the available drugs for JIA can cure the disease. However, prognosis has improved as a result of progress in disease classification and management. The dental practitioner should be familiar with the symptoms and oral manifestations of JIA to help manage as multidisciplinary management is essential.

  10. Juvenile homosexual homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Wade C; Chan, Heng Choon Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Limited information exists on juvenile homosexual homicide (JHH), that is, youths who perpetrate sexual homicides against same-sex victims. Only a handful of cases from the United States and internationally have been described in the literature. This study, the first of its kind, examines the epidemiology, victimology, victim-offender relationship, and weapon-use patterns in JHH offenders using a large U.S. database on homicide spanning three decades. The data for this study were derived from the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Supplementary Homicide Reports (SHRs) for the years 1976 through 2005. A total of 93 cases of JHH were identified. On average, three of these crimes occurred annually in the U.S., and there was a marked decline in its incidence over the study period. Ninety-five percent were male offender-male victim cases and 5% were female offender-female victim cases. JHH offenders were over-represented amongst all juvenile sexual murderers, similar to their adult counterparts. The majority of these boys were aged 16 or 17 and killed adult victims. They were significantly more likely to kill adult victims than other age groups, to be friends or acquaintances of the victims, and to use contact/edged weapons or firearms. Most offenders killed same-race victims, although Black offenders were significantly more likely than White offenders to kill interracially. A case report is provided to illustrate JHH. Further research is needed to promote our understanding of the pathogenesis, etiology, and associated risk factors for this aberrant form of murder by children.

  11. LYMPHO-PROLIFERATIVE RESPONSES TO VARIOUS FASCIOLA HEPATICA WORM'S ANTIGENS: AN IN VITRO STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharaf, Osama F; Amir, Elamir M; Hawash, Yousry A

    2016-04-01

    Fascioliasis is an important zoonotic disease with approximately 2-4 million people infected worldwide and a further 180 million at risk of infection. F. hepatica can survive within the bile ducts for many years through its ability to suppress the host immunity with Fasciola cathepsin L1 cysteine protease and Glutathione S transferase playing an important role. The aim of the present study is to investigate the in vitro lympho-proliferative responses of hepatic hilar lymphocytes (HLN) of infected sheep in response to different F. hepatica antigens. The suppressive effects of Fasciola excretory/secretory (ES) and tegument (TEG) and their fractions were also investigated. Our results showed that both ES and TEG had significant suppressive effects on lympho-proliferation, up to 74% and 92%, respectively. When these antigens were fractionated, fraction 3 (MW of >10000-30000) of both ES (64%) and TEG (59%) in addition to fraction 4 (MW of ≤ 10000) of TEG (38%) inherited the suppressive effects. Identification of the potential molecule(s) with such suppressive effects on lymphocytes in TEG fraction 4 could reveal vaccine candidates.

  12. Antigens evaluation of Fasciola hepática for three inmulogic methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erasmo Colona

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Excretion–secretion antigens (ESA of Fasciola hepatica were evaluated in bovine feces samples from endemic area (Andrés Avelino Cáceres, Central Peruvian Andean. We employed ELISA (Fascidig, Indirect hemagglutination (IHA and Latex agglutination (LA; the results were correlationated with Dennis coproparasitologic method (DC. A number of 106 bovine feces samples were obtained from diferent places of the Region between October and November 1995 (rain time. AES was not detected for LA, the specificity for IHA was 63,6% and the sensibility 35% in relation to DC; the specificity for Elisa (Fascidig was 68,2% and the sensibility was 60% with regard to DC; and in relation to IHA the specificity was 61,7% and the sensibility 50%. The correlation between ELISA (Fascidig and DC was significative, it indicates that ELISA is the best method for the fasciolosis diagnostic in the prepatent and patent phases, while DC only is recommended for the patent phase diagnostic. Diagnostic of infection or prevalence for IHA, ELISA and DC was 35,8%, 42,5% and 37,7% respectively. The results indicate that in the investigated area the prevalence of Fasciola hepatica is high. Thanks to this investigation it was possible to evaluate three immunologic methods and to determine the performance of ELISA-Fascidig for the diagnostic of fasciolosis both prepatent and patent infection phases by means of the demonstration of coproantigens.

  13. A recombinant thioredoxin-glutathione reductase from Fasciola hepatica induces a protective response in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggioli, Gabriela; Silveira, Fernando; Martín-Alonso, José M; Salinas, Gustavo; Carmona, Carlos; Parra, Francisco

    2011-12-01

    Antioxidant systems are fundamental components of host-parasite interactions, and often play a key role in parasite survival. Here, we report the cloning, heterologous expression, and characterization of a thioredoxin glutathione reductase (TGR) from Fasciola hepatica. The deduced polypeptide sequence of the cloned open reading frame (ORF) confirmed the experimental N-terminus previously determined for a native F. hepatica TGR showing thioredoxin reductase (TR) activity. The sequence revealed the presence of a fusion between a glutaredoxin (Grx) and a TR domain, similar to that previously reported in Schistosoma mansoni and Echinococcus granulosus. The F. hepatica TGR sequence included an additional redox active center (ACUG; U being selenocysteine) located at the C-terminus. The addition of a recombinant selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS) element in the Escherichia coli expression vector, or the substitution of the native selenocysteine by a cysteine, indicated the relevance of this unusual amino acid residue for the activity of F. hepatica TGR. Rabbit vaccination with recombinant F. hepatica TGR reduced the worm burden by 96.7% following experimental infection, further supporting the relevance of TGR as a promising target for anti Fasciola treatments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Experimental Infection of Lymnaea ollula in Japan with Fasciola hepatica from the U.S.A.

    OpenAIRE

    Kawano, Junichi; Shimizu, Akira; Uji, Tatsuya; Kimura, Shige

    1987-01-01

    アメリカ産肝蛭(Fasciola hepatica)を日本産ヒメモノアラガイ(Lymnaea ollula)に感染させ, 感染後の発育について検討した。感染ミラシジウムはスポロシスト, レジアに順次発育し, 感染後36日及び62日にセルカリアの遊出が認められた。このことより, 日本産ヒメモノアラガイはアメリカ産肝蛭の中間宿主となり得ることが判明した。 / Snails of Lymnaea ollula in Japan were exposed to the miracidia of Fasciola hepatica obtained from the U.S.A. Larval development of F. hepatica, from the sporocyst to the redia, was observed in the infected snails. Cercariae were emerged from the snails on the 36th and 62nd post infection days. L. ollula in Japan may...

  15. Ocorrência de Lymnaea columella (Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae), hospedeiro intermediário da Fasciola hepatica, para o Estado da Paraíba, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco José Pegado Abílio; Takako Watanabe

    1998-01-01

    Foi registrada a ocorrência de Lymnaea columella (Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae), primeiro hospedeiro intermediário da Fasciola hepatica, para o Estado da Paraíba, Brasil, associado a macrófitas aquáticas.The occurrence of Lymnaea Columella (Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae), first intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica, is recorded for the first time in the state of Paraíba, Brazil, associeted with aquatic macrophytes.

  16. Do juvenile Amphiprion ocellaris (Pisces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brolund, Thea Marie; Nielsen, Lis Engdahl; Arvedlund, Michael

    2003-01-01

    . This is contrary to the settling mechanisms of the damselfish D. aruanus and D. reticulatus, and of the temperate herring Clupea harengus. Hence the results emphasize the variation of sensory abilities and behaviours in fish larvae and juveniles. It is not an area prone for generalizations.......Juvenile anemonefish Amphiprion ocellaris were tested in two behavioural laboratory set-ups for their ability to visually or chemically recognize conspecifics. Individuals of two other species of anemonefish, A. clarkii and Dascyllus aruanus, were also used as test specimens for recognition....... The results indicate that juvenile A. ocellaris recognize conspecifics visually rather than by olfaction. This is contrary to their finding mechanism of their host anemone. However, the results also indicate that the juvenile A ocellaris are neither attracted nor deterred by the presence of conspecifics...

  17. Bilateral, independent juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkenborg, Marie-Louise; Frendø, M; Stavngaard, T;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a benign, vascular tumour that primarily occurs in adolescent males. Despite its benign nature, aggressive growth patterns can cause potential life-threatening complications. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is normally unilateral, originating...... from the sphenopalatine artery, but bilateral symptoms can occur if a large tumour extends to the contralateral side of the nasopharynx. This paper presents the first reported case of true bilateral extensive juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma involving clinically challenging pre-surgical planning...... embolisation. Radical removal performed as one-step, computer-assisted functional endoscopic sinus surgery was performed. The follow-up period was uncomplicated. CONCLUSION: This case illustrates the importance of suspecting bilateral juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma in patients presenting with bilateral...

  18. Editor's Shelf: International Juvenile Titles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell-Powell, Brenda

    1994-01-01

    Provides an annotated list of international juvenile picture books and notes those that emphasize text over pictures. The 49 titles present international perspectives for educators, librarians, and parents seeking materials with alternative cultural content. The majority are folk tales. (SLD)

  19. JUVENILE RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I N Sartika

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA is the most common rheumatic condition in children. JRA is defined as persistent arthritis in 1 or more joints for at least 6 weeks, with the onset before age 16 years. The etiology of JRA is unknown. Antigen activated CD4+ T cell stimulate monocytes, macrophages, and synovial fibroblasts to produce the cytokines Interleukin-1 (IL-1, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-? and to secrete matrix metalloproteinases, which lead to chronic inflammation due to infiltration of inflammatory cell, angiogenesis, destruction of cartilage and bone with pannus formation. The 3 major subtypes of JRA are based on the symptoms at disease onset and are designated systemic onset, pauciarticular onset, and polyarticular onset. For all patients, the goals of therapy are to decrease chronic joint pain and suppress the inflammatory process. Poor prognostic have been observed in patients with polyarticular onset, rheumatoid factor, persistent morning stiffness, tenosynovitis, involvement of the small joints, rapid appearance of erosions, active late onset childhood, subcutaneous nodules, or antinuclear antibody.

  20. Juveniles tried as adults: the age of the juvenile matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Jaclyn K; Woody, William Douglas

    2011-08-01

    Serious juvenile crimes require evaluation of a child as a criminal defendant in adult court. In such cases, it is crucial to understand jurors' attitudes, biases, and ability to follow legal instructions and maintain fairness. 308 undergraduate psychology students served as mock jurors, were randomly separated into four groups, and each group read the same realistic summary of a trial with the defendant's age presented as 13, 15, 17, or 21 years. Participants were asked to render guilty or not guilty verdicts and, if guilty, to suggest sentences. Chi-squared analysis indicated 13- and 15-year-old defendants were convicted less often than 17- and 21-year-old defendants, showing that jurors distinguished between juvenile defendants of different ages, but not minors and adults as defined by law. Additional analysis showed that age did not affect sentencing recommendations. Decision processes jurors use for juveniles tried as adults are discussed.

  1. Forensic aspects of juvenile violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, L H

    2000-10-01

    The juvenile justice system was created because it was recognized that youthful offenders needed to be managed differently from adults. They were to receive habilitation services instead of punishment. It is now more than a century since the creation of the first juvenile court. After 67 years, the US Supreme Court, in Kent v United States stated that the model was not working because juveniles in the criminal justice system received no treatment and they had no rights. Because the issue that had been appealed was the lack of rights (not lack of treatment), the Court mandated that juveniles, like adults, be given certain rights. The following year, in In re Gault, the Court expanded these rights. Subsequent Supreme Court cases have dealt with these kinds of issues--that is, whether juvenile offenders are entitled to the same rights as adults and subject to the same penalties. The Supreme Court has never heard a "right to treatment" case, which is the other part of the juvenile court system. Cases have been brought in lower courts (e.g., Nelson v. Heyne, 1972) alleging inadequate treatment services, but no national impact has resulted. Thus, in general, children in the juvenile court system do not have an enforceable right to treatment and can obtain only what services are available in their jurisdictions. The services often are woefully inadequate. Sentencing a youth to probation, with the requirement that he or she participate in counseling or mental health treatment, is meaningless if services are not available. Community-based, model programs that provide effective treatment do exist. They are, as yet, the rare exception rather than the norm and, therefore, are not available to most youthful offenders. Incarcerated juveniles, obviously, cannot avail themselves of community programs. Litigation to give these youth the same rights as adults in penal institutions is not the answer because incarcerated adults don't have a right to treatment, only a right to be free

  2. Prevalencia de Fasciola hepatica en ganadería de altura en Bailadores Mérida, Venezuela (Prevalence of Fasciola hepatica in dairy cattle of Bailadores, State of Mérida, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gauta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa fasciolosis bovina es una enfermedad de importancia en Venezuela. Por denuncias de productores de la zona sobre numerosos decomisos de hígados y disminución de la producción, el objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la prevalencia de Fasciola hepatica en ganado lechero de Bailadores (Mérida, Venezuela en base a análisis coprológico.SummaryBovine fasciolosis is one of the most important parasitic diseases on Venezuela. Attending to the claim of farmers in the Andean zone about the high levels of infected livers detected at the slaughterhouse and milk production decrease, the aim of this work was to determine prevalence of Fasciola hepatica in dairy cattle of Bailadores, State of Mérida, Venezuela.

  3. Viabilidade de ovos de Fasciola hepatica de bovinos em sistema de biodigestão anaeróbia Viability of bovine's Fasciola hepatica eggs in a system of anaerobic biodigestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.B. Mentz

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Cattle Fasciola hepatica egg-viability was studied in closed system of anaerobic biodigestion. Two thirds of a biodigestor were filled with liquefied manure from eight Hosltein cows, naturally infected. For 10 consecutive weeks of observation, the biodigestor internal temperature ranged from 24ºC to 28ºC, and external temperature from 26ºC to 33ºC. All the effluent samples showed a constant pH of 7. The samples of the effluent were weekly collected, in a total of 10 and submitted to techniques to detect the presence and viability of the trematode eggs. It was detected a 42-day egg viability. Therefore, liquefied cattle manure containing Fasciola hepatica eggs must remain under anaerobic biodigestion for at least 42 days before its safe return to the environment.

  4. The Heterogeneity of Juvenile Myositis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rider, Lisa G.

    2007-01-01

    Juvenile myositis is a heterogeneous group of systemic autoimmune diseases, in which clinical and serologic subgroups result in subsets of patients with distinct clinical manifestations, disease courses, immunogenetic associations, responses to therapy, and prognoses. A newly identified autoantibody of unknown specificity, anti-p155, is myositis-associated and seen in up to 20 – 30% of juvenile and adult DM patients. HLA DRB1*0301 and its linked allele DQA1*0501 have been identified as the major immunogenetic risk factor for juvenile and adult DM in both European- and African- American patients, and DQA1*0301 is an additional risk factor in European American patients. Several DQA1 alleles also are protective for juvenile DM. Environmental risk factors are poorly understood, but growing evidence suggests a role for infectious agents and ultraviolet radiation. The current therapy of juvenile DM consists of corticosteroids and other immunosuppressive agents, with the adjunctive treatment of cutaneous manifestations and rehabilitation. Therapeutic trials of biologic agents, including anti-TNFα and anti-CD20, may aid in developing promising new therapies for these disorders. PMID:17317616

  5. Immunomodulatory molecules of Fasciola hepatica: candidates for both vaccine and immunotherapeutic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, John P; Robinson, Mark W; Mulcahy, Grace; O'Neill, Sandra M; Donnelly, Sheila

    2013-08-01

    The liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, causes fascioliasis in domestic animals (sheep, cattle), a global disease that is also an important infection of humans. As soon as the parasite invades the gut wall its interaction with various host immune cells (e.g. dendritic cells, macrophages and mast cells) is complex. The parasite secretes a myriad of molecules that direct the immune response towards a favourable non-protective Th2-mediate/regulatory environment. These immunomodulatory molecules, such as cathepsin L peptidase (FhCL1), are under development as the first generation of fluke vaccines. However, this peptidase and other molecules, such as peroxiredoxin (FhPrx) and helminth defence molecule (FhHDM-1), exhibit various immunomodulatory properties that could be harnessed to help treat immune-related conditions in humans and animals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Temporal genetic variation of Fasciola hepatica from sheep in Galicia (NW Spain).

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    Vázquez-Prieto, Severo; Vilas, Román; Ubeira, Florencio M; Paniagua, Esperanza

    2015-04-30

    We found low genetic differentiation between two temporal samples of Fasciola hepatica (2006 and 2008) collected from nine sheep of the same flock that shared the same pasture for at least 2 years. However, each sample, represented by four and five infrapopulations respectively, showed strong heterozygote deficits regarding Hardy-Weinberg expectations and a high degree of genetic structure at infrapopulation level. This is an unexpected result since genetic drift should increase temporal variation among years. Our findings are most likely explained by the fact that the parasite can survive many years in the definitive host. Temporal gene flow favored by high longevity probably increases levels of genetic variability of the population but could also contribute to the observed heterozygote deficits within temporal samples and infrapopulations if it favors the Wahlund effect. Despite the homogenizing effect of gene flow, the high genetic divergence observed between infrapopulations is most likely a consequence of strong genetic drift associated to the complexity of the life cycle.

  7. Epidemiological studies on Fasciola hepatica in Gafsa oases (South West of Tunisia

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    Hammami H.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological investigations on Fasciola hepatica fasciolasis were carried out from July 2004 to June 2005 in the Gafsa oases (Tunisia after the detection of a human case. Three habitats were studied: one in El Gsar and two in Ain Soltan. The prevalence of human infection was 6.6 %. The presence of the parasite was detected through serology in 14.3 % of cattle, 35 % of sheep and 68.4 % of goats. The plants Apium nodiflorum, Oxalis cernua and Sonchus maritimus were suspected to be at the origin of animal contamination and Apium nodiflorum was incriminated in human infection. The prevalence of the infection of the intermediate host Galba truncatula (G. truncatula was 19.2 % from July 2004 to June 2005. Gafsa oases constitute a new location for the development of fasciolasis in the southern west of Tunisia.

  8. Epidemiological studies on Fasciola hepatica in Gafsa Oases (south west of Tunisia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammami, H; Hamed, N; Ayadi, A

    2007-09-01

    Epidemiological investigations on Fasciola hepatica fasciolasis were carried out from July 2004 to June 2005 in the Gafsa oases (Tunisia) after the detection of a human case. Three habitats were studied: one in El Gsar and two in Ain Soltan. The prevalence of human infection was 6.6%. The presence of the parasite was detected through serology in 14.3% of cattle, 35% of sheep and 68.4% of goats. The plants Apium nodiflorum, Oxalis cernua and Sonchus maritimus were suspected to be at the origin of animal contamination and Apium nodiflorum was incriminated in human infection. The prevalence of the infection of the intermediate host Galba truncatula (G. truncatula) was 19.2% from July 2004 to June 2005. Gafsa oases constitute a new location for the development of fasciolasis in the southern west of Tunisia.

  9. Molecular detection of Fasciola hepatica in water sources of District Nowshehra Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Imran; Khan, Amir Muhammad; Ayaz, Khan, Sanaullah; Anees, Muhammad; Khan, Shaukat Ali

    2012-12-01

    Fascioliasis is spread through contamination of water sources and cause morbidity throughout the world. In the current study 300 water samples were processed by PCR for detection of Fasciola hepatica. The overall prevalence in different water sources was 9.66 % (29/300). Highest prevalence was recorded in drain water16 % (16/100) followed by tube well water 10% (4/40), open well water 8 % (8/100) and the lowest was recorded in tap water 1.66 %(1/60). The significant difference P < 0.05 was recorded during data analysis. The highest prevalence was recorded in summer. It was concluded from the study that cleaning and filtration should be adopted to avoid the health hazards against water borne zoonotic parasites.

  10. Fasciola Hepatica Mimicking Malignancy on 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sürücü, Erdem; Demir, Yusuf; Dülger, Ahmet C.; Batur, Abdüssamed; Ölmez, Şehmus; Kitapçı, Mehmet T.

    2016-01-01

    A 48-year-old female with complaints of gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain, fatigue, vomiting, nausea, and weight loss was diagnosed with neuroendocrine tumor after removal of a 2 mm lesion from the stomach with endoscopic biopsy. Her magnetic resonance imaging that was performed due to on-going symptoms showed multiple linear hypointense lesions in the liver. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scan was performed for differential diagnosis, which showed high fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in these lesions. Clinical and laboratory findings revealed the final diagnosis as Fasciola hepatica. The imaging features of this case is presented to aid in differentiating this infectious disease from malignancy and avoid misdiagnosis on FDG-PET/CT. PMID:27751978

  11. Ectopic Human Fasciola hepatica Infection by an Adult Worm in the Mesocolon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ah Jin; Choi, Chang Hwan; Choi, Sun Keun; Shin, Yong Woon; Park, Yun-Kyu; Kim, Lucia; Choi, Suk Jin; Han, Jee Young; Kim, Joon Mee; Chu, Young Chae; Park, In Suh

    2015-12-01

    We report here an ectopic case of Fasciola hepatica infection confirmed by recovery of an adult worm in the mesocolon. A 56-year-old female was admitted to our hospital with discomfort and pain in the left lower quadrant of the abdomen. Abdominal CT showed 3 abscesses in the left upper quadrant, mesentery, and pelvic cavity. On surgical exploration, abscess pockets were found in the mesocolon of the sigmoid colon and transverse colon. A leaf-like worm found in the abscess pocket of the mesocolon of the left colon was diagnosed as an adult fluke of F. hepatica. Histologically, numerous eggs of F. hepatica were noted with acute and chronic granulomatous inflammations in the subserosa and pericolic adipose tissues. Conclusively, a rare case of ectopic fascioliasis has been confirmed in this study by the adult worm recovery of F. hepatica in the mesocolon.

  12. Fasciola hepatica saposin-like-2 protein based ELISA for the serodiagnosis of chronic human fascioliasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Santiago, Olgary; Delgado, Bonnibel; Espino, Ana M.

    2011-01-01

    An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed and evaluated for its diagnostic ability to detect human IgG antibodies against Fasciola hepatica saposin-like protein-2. The assay was compared with an indirect ELISA with excretory-secretory products (FhES) from adult F. hepatica. In an analysis of the sera of 37 patients infected with F. hepatica, 40 patients with other parasitic infections, and 50 healthy controls, the sensitivity of both ELISA assays was 100%. However, the FhSAP2-based ELISA was more specific (95.6%) than the FhES-ELISA (91.9%). These results demonstrated that FhSAP2 can be used in the serodiagnosis of chronic human fascioliasis with additional advantage that is relative cheap and easy to produce. Studies are in progress to evaluate this FhSAP2-ELISA assay in a large-scale prevalence surveys in endemic areas. PMID:21683266

  13. Burden of Fasciola hepatica Infection among children from Paucartambo in Cusco, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Martha; White, A Clinton; Cabada, Miguel M

    2012-03-01

    There is a high prevalence of fascioliasis in the Peruvian highlands, but most cases remain undiagnosed. The burden of disease caused by chronic subclinical infection is largely unknown. We studied school-age children from a district in Paucartambo Province in Cusco, Peru to evaluate the burden of disease caused by subclinical fascioliasis. Parasite eggs and/or larvae were identified in 46.2% of subjects, including Fasciola hepatica in 10.3% of subjects. Fascioliasis was independently associated with anemia (adjusted odds ratio = 3.01 [1.10-8.23]). Subclinical fascioliasis was common among children and strongly associated with anemia. Anemia should be recognized as an important component of the burden of disease from fascioliasis.

  14. Influence of shell size of Lymnaea columella on infectivity and development of Fasciola hepatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, L H L; Guimarães, M P; Lima, W S

    2008-03-01

    Experimental infections of Lymnaea columella with Fasciola hepatica were carried out to determine the influence of shell size on the infection rate and on the outcome of rediae and cercariae. Snails were divided into seven groups according to shell size: 2-4 mm, 5-6 mm, 7-8 mm, 9-10 mm, 11-12 mm, 13-14 mm and 15 mm or more. One hundred snails in each group were infected by using four miracidia for each snail. Snails with larger shell size showed a lower infection rate, the groups presenting the highest (79%) and lowest (2%) proportions of positives being those of 5-6 mm and 15 mm or more, respectively. Cercariae were present in 21% of them at 31 days post-infection, and cercarial shedding was observed 61 days post-infection. It was concluded that there is a non-linear negative association between shell size and infection rate.

  15. Detection of Lymnaea columella infection by Fasciola hepatica through Multiplex-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Kelly Grace; Passos, Liana Konovaloff Jannotti; Carvalho, Omar dos Santos

    2004-06-01

    From complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of Fasciola hepatica available in Genbank, specific primers were designed for a conserved and repetitive region of this trematode. A pair of primers was used for diagnosis of infected Lymnaea columella by F. hepatica during the pre-patent period simultaneously with another pair of primers which amplified the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rDNA from L. columella in a single Multiplex-PCR. The amplification generated a ladder band profile specific for F. hepatica. This profile was observed in positive molluscs at different times of infection, including adult worms from the trematode. The Multiplex-PCR technique showed to be a fast and safe tool for fascioliasis diagnosis, enabling the detection of F. hepatica miracidia in L. columella during the pre-patent period and identification of transmission areas.

  16. Fasciola hepatica is associated with failure to detect bovine tuberculosis in dairy cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claridge, Jen; Diggle, Peter; McCann, Catherine M.; Mulcahy, Grace; Flynn, Rob; McNair, Jim; Strain, Sam; Welsh, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is a significant and intractable disease of cattle caused by Mycobacterium bovis. In the UK, despite an aggressive eradication programme, the prevalence of BTB is increasing with an unexplained, exponential rise in cases year on year. Here we show in a study involving 3026 dairy herds in England and Wales that there is a significant negative association between exposure to the common, ubiquitous helminth parasite, Fasciola hepatica and diagnosis of BTB. The magnitude of the single intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin test used to diagnose BTB is reduced in cattle experimentally co-infected with M. bovis and F. hepatica. We estimate an under-ascertainment rate of about one-third (95% Confidence Intervals 27-38%) among our study farms, in the hypothetical situation of no exposure to F. hepatica. This finding may in part explain the continuing spread of BTB and the failure of the current eradication programme in the UK. PMID:22617293

  17. Fasciola Hepatica Mimicking Malignancy on 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography

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    Erdem Sürücü

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A 48-year-old female with complaints of gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain, fatigue, vomiting, nausea, and weight loss was diagnosed with neuroendocrine tumor after removal of a 2 mm lesion from the stomach with endoscopic biopsy. Her magnetic resonance imaging that was performed due to on-going symptoms showed multiple linear hypointense lesions in the liver. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT scan was performed for differential diagnosis, which showed high fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG uptake in these lesions. Clinical and laboratory findings revealed the final diagnosis as Fasciola hepatica. The imaging features of this case is presented to aid in differentiating this infectious disease from malignancy and avoid misdiagnosis on FDG-PET/CT.

  18. Detection of Lymnaea columella infection by Fasciola hepatica through Multiplex-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Grace Magalhães

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available From complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of Fasciola hepatica available in Genbank, specific primers were designed for a conserved and repetitive region of this trematode. A pair of primers was used for diagnosis of infected Lymnaea columella by F. hepatica during the pre-patent period simultaneously with another pair of primers which amplified the internal transcribed spacer (ITS region of rDNA from L. columella in a single Multiplex-PCR. The amplification generated a ladder band profile specific for F. hepatica. This profile was observed in positive molluscs at different times of infection, including adult worms from the trematode. The Multiplex-PCR technique showed to be a fast and safe tool for fascioliasis diagnosis, enabling the detection of F. hepatica miracidia in L. columella during the pre-patent period and identification of transmission areas.

  19. Investigation of Fasciola hepatica Antibodies in Foreign High School Students in Kayseri

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    Süleyman YAZAR

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Fasciola hepatica is a hepatic trematode which develops fasciolosis mostly in sheep and cattle and occasionally in humans. F. hepatica is an endemic parasite in Turkey and causes major economic losses in livestock industry. Human are infected by contaminated water or ingestion of uncooked aquatic vegetation on which metacercaria are encysted. In the diagnosis of human infection, in addition to investigate for the F. hepatica eggs in stool, various serological methods are also used. In this study, it was aimed to investigate the incidence of anti-Fasciola hepatica antibodies in 347 high school students from 28 different countries studying in Kayseri city.Method: In our study, anti-F. hepatica antibodies were investigated in serum samples taken from 347 male students ages ranging between 15 and 21 (average: 17.52 ± 1.36 in a high school in Kayseri by using the IHA method. In seropositive subjects the occurrence of parasite’s eggs was investigated in stool samples using the native-lugol method. For statistical evaluations, Chi-square test was performed by using SPSS (V.11.0 software package for Windows and p <0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results: In the study, 12 (3.5 % of the students were determined as seropositive in the 1/320 dilution, but F. hepatica eggs were not found in their stool samples. Seropositivity rates for F. hepatica among the students coming from Caucasian, European, Asian and African countries were determined as 1.8 %, 3.5 %, 4.8 % and 5.4 % respectively.Conclusion: Fasciolosis, which is a major public health problem in Turkey, was found in the serum of a small part of the group of foreign students studied in a high school in Kayseri. Considering the epidemiology of the disease, people should be informed about the control and prevention methods.

  20. Fasciola hepatica and lymnaeid snails occurring at very high altitude in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas-Coma, S; Funatsu, I R; Bargues, M D

    2001-01-01

    Fascioliasis due to the digenean species Fasciola hepatica has recently proved to be an important public health problem, with human cases reported in countries of the five continents, including severe symptoms and pathology, with singular epidemiological characteristics, and presenting human endemic areas ranging from hypo- to hyperendemic. One of the singular epidemiological characteristics of human fascioliasis is the link of the hyperendemic areas to very high altitude regions, at least in South America. The Northern Bolivian Altiplano, located at very high altitude (3800-4100 m), presents the highest prevalences and intensities of human fascioliasis known. Sequences of the internal transcribed spacers ITS-1 and ITS-2 of the nuclear ribosomal DNA of Altiplanic Fasciola hepatica and the intermediate snail host Lymnaea truncatula suggest that both were recently introduced from Europe. Studies were undertaken to understand how the liver fluke and its lymnaeid snail host adapted to the extreme environmental conditions of the high altitude and succeeded in giving rise to high infection rates. In experimental infections of Altiplanic lymnaeids carried out with liver fluke isolates from Altiplanic sheep and cattle, the following aspects were studied: miracidium development inside the egg, infectivity of miracidia, prepatent period, shedding period, chronobiology of cercarial emergence, number of cercariae shed by individual snails, survival of molluscs at the beginning of the shedding process, survival of infected snails after the end of the shedding period and longevity of shedding and non-shedding snails. When comparing the development characteristics of European F. hepatica and L. truncatula, a longer cercarial shedding period and a higher cercarial production were observed, both aspects related to a greater survival capacity of the infected lymnaeid snails from the Altiplano. These differences would appear to favour transmission and may be interpreted as strategies

  1. Resistance of Fasciola hepatica against triclabendazole in cattle in Patagonia (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaechea, F; Lovera, V; Larroza, M; Raffo, F; Cabrera, R

    2011-06-10

    In the winter of 2008, cattle on a farm in the province of Neuquen, Argentina died from subacute and chronic liver fluke disease despite four previous treatments with Triclabendazole (TCBZ). In the spring of 2009, a preliminary efficacy test revealed good performance using nitroxynil, whereas TCBZ efficacy was only 18% by egg counts of Fasciola eggs in the faeces. Resistance to Fasciola hepatica to TCBZ has never been reported in South America, so in January of 2010 a controlled trial was conducted to confirm and to define the degree of resistance in this herd. In a clinical trial, the fluke egg output was monitored on Days 14 and 21 and serum enzymes gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) on Days 0 and 21 in 36 calves treated with TCBZ or with closantel. The results showed a reduction of 100% in fluke egg output at Days 14 and 21 for closantel. The mean epg in the TCBZ-treated groups did not decrease. Because of the fact that in this study TCBZ treatment in cattle had no effect, even at double the recommended dose, it is highly indicative that resistance of F. hepatica against TCBZ is present on this farm. The GGT and GOT levels decreased in the closantel-treated group as a result of the treatment at 21 days after dosing. To evaluate the importance of TCBZ resistance in F. hepatica in Argentina, a study on more farms from endemic areas is needed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The effects of Fasciola hepatica tegumental antigens on mast cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukman, Krisztina V; Adams, Paul N; Dowling, David; Metz, Martin; Maurer, Marcus; O'Neill, Sandra M

    2013-06-01

    Fasciola hepatica infection is associated with T helper 2/T regulatory immune responses and increased mast cell numbers. The aim of this study was to examine the interaction between F. hepatica tegumental coat antigen and mast cells in vivo and in vitro. Firstly, BALB/C, C57BL/6 or STAT6(-/-) mice were infected with F. hepatica metacercarie or mice were treated with F. hepatica tegumental coat antigen and then mast cells numbers in the peritoneal cavity and/or the liver were quantified. Also, the proliferation, chemotaxis, degranulation and cytokine secretion of mast cells from bone marrow or from peritoneal exudate cells stimulated with F. hepatica tegumental coat antigen were measured. Finally, we tested whether F. hepatica tegumental coat antigen inhibits degranulation of mast cells in vivo in a passive cutaneous and systemic anaphylaxis mouse model. Mast cell numbers increased in the peritoneal cavity and liver of F. hepatica infected mice, and this was mimicked by injection of F. hepatica tegumental coat antigen in a STAT6(-/-) independent manner. The increase in mast cell number was not the result of F. hepatica tegumental coat antigen-induced proliferation; rather F. hepatica tegumental coat antigen indirectly induces mast cell migration by dendritic cell-derived chemokines. Fasciola hepatica tegumental coat antigen interactions with mast cells do not drive T helper 2 or T regulatory immune responses. These studies on mast cell and F. hepatica tegumental coat antigen interaction may help us to understand the function of mast cells in immunity against F. hepatica and the immunomodulatory effect of F. hepatica tegumental coat antigen on these cells.

  3. Is Galba schirazensis (Mollusca, Gastropoda an intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica (Trematoda, Digenea in Ecuador?

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    Caron Yannick

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fasciolosis is a widely distributed disease in livestock in South America but knowledge about the epidemiology and the intermediate hosts is relatively scarce in Ecuador. For three months, lymnaeid snails were sampled (n = 1482 in Pichincha Province at two sites located in a highly endemic area. Snails were identified (based on morphology and ITS-2 sequences and the infection status was established through microscopic dissection and a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based technique. Techniques based on morphology were not useful to accurately name the collected snail species. Comparison with available DNA sequences showed that a single snail species was collected, Galba schirazensis. Live rediae were observed in 1.75% (26/1482 and Fasciola sp. DNA was detected in 6% (89/1482 of collected snails. The COX-1 region permitted identification of the parasite as Fasciola hepatica. The relative sensitivity and specificity of the microscope study, compared to PCR results, were 25.84% and 99.78%, respectively. The mean size of the snails recorded positive for F. hepatica through crushing and microscopy was significantly higher than the mean size of negative snails, but there was no such difference in PCR-positive snails. The role of G. schirazensis as an intermediate host of F. hepatica in Ecuador is discussed and the hypothesis of an adaptation of the parasite to this invasive snail is proposed. For the first time, an epidemiological survey based on molecular biology-based techniques assessed the possible role of lymnaeid snails in the epidemiology of fasciolosis in Ecuador.

  4. Gene Expression Profile in the Liver of BALB/c Mice Infected with Fasciola hepatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Caraballo, Jose; López-Abán, Julio; Fernández-Soto, Pedro; Vicente, Belén; Collía, Francisco; Muro, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Fasciola hepatica infection still remains one of the helminthic neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). It has a huge worldwide distribution, affecting mainly cattle and, sometimes, human beings. In addition to data reported about the immunological response induced by helminthic infections and that induced by Fasciola hepatica, little is known about the gene expression profile in its organ target, the liver, which is where adult worms are established and live for long periods of time, causing its characteristic pathology. In the present work, we study both the early and late gene expression profiles in the livers of mice infected with F. hepatica metacercariae using a microarray-based methodology. A total of 9 female-6-week-old BALB/c mice (Charles River Laboratories, Barcelona, Spain) weighing 20 to 35 g were used for the experiments. Two groups of BALB/c mice were orally infected with seven F. hepatica metacercariae, and the other group remained untreated and served as a control. Mice were humanely euthanized and necropsied for liver recovery, histological assessment of hepatic damage, RNA isolation, microarray design and gene expression analysis on the day of infection (t0), seven days post-infection (t7) and twenty-one days post-infection (t21). We found that F. hepatica infection induces the differential expression of 128 genes in the liver in the early stage of infection and 308 genes in the late stage, and most of them are up-regulated. The Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed significant changes in the pathways related to metabolism, biosynthesis and signaling as well as genes implicated in inducing liver-toxicity, injury and death. The present study provides us insights at the molecular level about the underlying mechanisms used by F. hepatica, leading to liver damage and its subsequent pathophysiology. The expression pattern obtained here could also be used to explain the lack of association between infection with F. hepatica and cholangiocarcinoma. However

  5. Is Galba schirazensis (Mollusca, Gastropoda) an intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica (Trematoda, Digenea) in Ecuador?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Yannick; Celi-Erazo, Maritza; Hurtrez-Boussès, Sylvie; Lounnas, Mannon; Pointier, Jean-Pierre; Saegerman, Claude; Losson, Bertrand; Benítez-Ortíz, Washington

    2017-01-01

    Fasciolosis is a widely distributed disease in livestock in South America but knowledge about the epidemiology and the intermediate hosts is relatively scarce in Ecuador. For three months, lymnaeid snails were sampled (n = 1482) in Pichincha Province at two sites located in a highly endemic area. Snails were identified (based on morphology and ITS-2 sequences) and the infection status was established through microscopic dissection and a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based technique. Techniques based on morphology were not useful to accurately name the collected snail species. Comparison with available DNA sequences showed that a single snail species was collected, Galba schirazensis. Live rediae were observed in 1.75% (26/1482) and Fasciola sp. DNA was detected in 6% (89/1482) of collected snails. The COX-1 region permitted identification of the parasite as Fasciola hepatica. The relative sensitivity and specificity of the microscope study, compared to PCR results, were 25.84% and 99.78%, respectively. The mean size of the snails recorded positive for F. hepatica through crushing and microscopy was significantly higher than the mean size of negative snails, but there was no such difference in PCR-positive snails. The role of G. schirazensis as an intermediate host of F. hepatica in Ecuador is discussed and the hypothesis of an adaptation of the parasite to this invasive snail is proposed. For the first time, an epidemiological survey based on molecular biology-based techniques assessed the possible role of lymnaeid snails in the epidemiology of fasciolosis in Ecuador. © Y. Caron et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2017.

  6. Study of Zoonotic Tissue Parasites (Hydatid Cyst, Fasciola, Dicrocoelium and Sarcocystis in Hamadan Abattoir

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    M. Fallah

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objectives: Zoonotic parasites are large groups of zoonoses among which the most important are hydatid cyst, liver trematodes and sarcocystis.These zoonoses are of considerable importance regarding both human health and economy. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of tissue zoonotic parasites and their epidemiologic status in Hamadan and to estimate the health and medical burden they impose on the society.Materials & Methods: In this cross sectional study, viscera (including liver, lung, kidney, heart,… and muscles of 2590 sheep, 420 cattle, and 490 goats were macroscopically inspected for hydatid cysts, liver flukes, cysticercus , and microscopically (for Sarcocystis in the Hamadan abattoir. The data were presented by descriptive tables and analyzed by 2 statistical test. Results: The infection rate for hydatid cyst, Fasciola, Dicrocoelium and Sarcocystis were found 12.3%, 4.9%, 6.5%, and 5.5% respectively. The high infection rates for hydatid cyst and Fasciola were found in cattle (16.2% and 9.5% and for Dicrocoelium and Sarcocystis were found in sheep (6.9%. Infection rate of lungs was higher (41.2% than liver (36.6% and liver and lung simultaneously were 22.2% in the infected animals. Infection to Sarcocystis and Cysticercus were not found in the cattle. Conclusion: This study indicated that infection rate of tissue zoonotic parasites are relatively high in the domestic animals of Hamadan , however, the rate is lower in comparison to the previous studies. These parasites had imposed considerable economic burden on the society through reduction in the dairy production and increased the risk of infection in the population as well. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2010;17(3: 5-12

  7. Juvenile Correctional Institutions Library Services: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlister, Annette M.

    This bibliography lists citations for 14 articles, books, and reports concerned with library services in juvenile correctional institutions. A second section lists 21 additional materials on adult correctional libraries which also contain information relevant to the juvenile library. (KP)

  8. Ocorrência de infecção natural de Fasciola hepatica Linnaeus, 1758 em Lymnaea columella Say, 1817 no Vale do Paraíba, SP, Brasil Natural infection by Fasciola hepatica in Lymnaea columella in the Paraíba river valley, S. Paulo, Brazil

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    Marlene Tiduko Ueta

    1980-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram registradas em Piquete, no vale do rio Paraíba do Sul (SP, Brasil, taxas de 1,22% e 0,14% de infecção natural em Lymnaea columella, por Fasciola hepatica. Em um único exemplar de Lymnaea columella dentre os 1.052 examinados, foram observadas rédias com xifidiocercárias, rédias com cercárias de Fasciola hepatica e metacercárias de Echinostomatidae.Infection rates of 1.22% and 0.14% were obtained in Lymnaea columella snails naturally infected by Fasciola hepatica. Samples of the snails were collected in Piquete, a municipality of Paraíba do Sul, a river valley area in the State of S. Paulo. Also observed was one of the 1052 specimen of the Lymnaea columella rediae which had xiphidiocercariae and rediae with Fasciola hepatica cercariae and metacercariae of Echinostomatidae.

  9. Report on a patient infected with Fasciola hepatica%肝片吸虫病1例报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄正美; 邢兰燕; 范波; 赵微; 范芝宏

    2006-01-01

    肝片形吸虫(Fasciola hepatica简称肝片吸虫)是寄生于牛、羊等哺乳动物胆道中最为常见的大型吸虫,人可偶尔感染而得肝片吸虫病,现将2005年6月发现的1例患者情况报告如下。

  10. First report of Lymnaea cousini Jousseaume, 1887 naturally infected with Fasciola hepatica (Linnaeus, 1758) (Trematoda: Digenea) in Machachi, Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villavicencio, Angel; Vasconcellos, Mauricio Carvalho de

    2005-11-01

    We report the first finding of Lymnaea cousini naturally infected with Fasciola hepatica in Ecuador. A sample of 70 snails was collected in April 2005 from a wetland located in a valley at approximately 3000 m a.s.l., near the locality of Machachi, Pichincha Province. The prevalence of natural infection in L. cousini was 31.43%, which is the highest value ever recorded for naturally infected lymnaeid species.

  11. First report of Lymnaea cousini Jousseaume, 1887 naturally infected with Fasciola hepatica (Linnaeus, 1758 (Trematoda: Digenea in Machachi, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ángel Villavicencio

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available We report the first finding of Lymnaea cousini naturally infected with Fasciola hepatica in Ecuador. A sample of 70 snails was collected in April 2005 from a wetland located in a valley at approximately 3000 m a.s.l., near the locality of Machachi, Pichincha Province. The prevalence of natural infection in L. cousini was 31.43%, which is the highest value ever recorded for naturally infected lymnaeid species.

  12. Identification of the major proteins of an immune modulating fraction from adult Fasciola hepatica released by Nonidet P40

    OpenAIRE

    Morphew, R.M.; Hamilton, C M; Wright, H. A.; Dowling, D. J.; O’Neill, S. M.; Brophy, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    Fasciola hepatica NP-40 released antigens (FhTeg) exhibit potent Th1 immunosuppressive properties in vitro and in vivo. However, the protein composition of this active fraction, responsible for Th1 immune modulatory activity, has yet to be resolved. Therefore, FhTeg, a Nonidet P-40 extract, was subjected to a proteomic analysis in order to identify individual protein components. This was performed using an in house F. hepatica EST database following 2D electrophoresis combined with de novo se...

  13. Juvenile technologies in foreign publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shpagina E.M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article provides the review of foreign publications, concerning the juvenile technologies used in France, Canada, Germany and Switzerland. The paper presents legal, social and psychotherapeutic aspects of juvenile judiciary in foreign countries. The authors paid special attention to the complexity of approaches to young children and teenagers who found themselves in complicated life circumstances or got into trouble with the law. The article gives examples of using the following techniques: cognitive-behavioral intervention, mediation, family therapy (including family background and family history, relations theory, narrative practices, utilization of «emotional intelligence» resources.

  14. Evolution of Juvenile Ankylosing Spondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye.V. Prohorov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Evolution of juvenile ankylosing spondylitis tend to follow a more frequent involvement in the pathological process of elbow and ankle joints, development of enthesiopathies, changes of intraarticular meniscal horns, forming of Baker’s cysts, cartilage flaps and systemic osteoporosis, and total value of all these signs 13 times exceeds thereof in patients with with the debut of disease in adulthood, but for juvenile ankylosing spondylitis vertebral lesion is less common. Age dimorphism of the use of certain groups of drugs and physiotherapy facilities is observed.

  15. Ocorrência de Lymnaea columella (Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae, hospedeiro intermediário da Fasciola hepatica, para o Estado da Paraíba, Brasil Occurrence of Lymnaea columella (Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae, first intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica, for the state of Paraíba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Pegado Abílio

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi registrada a ocorrência de Lymnaea columella (Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae, primeiro hospedeiro intermediário da Fasciola hepatica, para o Estado da Paraíba, Brasil, associado a macrófitas aquáticas.The occurrence of Lymnaea Columella (Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae, first intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica, is recorded for the first time in the state of Paraíba, Brazil, associeted with aquatic macrophytes.

  16. On the Prevention of Juvenile Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelekov, V. A.; Kosheleva, E. V.

    2008-01-01

    Crimes committed by juveniles are among the most urgent social problems. Juvenile crime is as prevalent as crime itself is, and it has not been solved completely in any society and cannot be solved through law enforcement measures alone. In this article, the authors discuss the dynamics and structure of juvenile crime in Russia and present data…

  17. School-Related Characteristics of Male Juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapp, Gary L.; Abbott, Gypsy A.

    School-related characteristics of 256 male juveniles under the jurisdiction of a Family Court system were examined by perusing court records and conducting individual interviews with the juveniles. Results indicated that most juveniles last attended eighth grade, more than 81% had failed at least once, and more than half had fought frequently at…

  18. Intensive Reading Instruction in Juvenile Correctional Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jacob L.; Wexler, Jade; Roberts, Greg; Carpenter, Clint

    2011-01-01

    Despite 60 years of evidence linking juvenile illiteracy and delinquency, practitioners and policymakers have been painfully slow in the implementation of evidence-based reading interventions for incarcerated juveniles. We will present the Texas Juvenile Justice Tiered Instructional Model, an evidence-based reading program model created…

  19. Sex Differences in Attributions of Juvenile Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagatun, Inger J.

    This paper is an application of attribution theory to the processing of juvenile delinquents in an attempt to understand the differential treatment of female and male offenders within the juvenile justice system. The paper explores the attributions of juvenile delinquency both by male and female minors, by male and female parents, and by male and…

  20. Do Juveniles Bully More than Young Offenders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Jane L.

    2002-01-01

    Study compares bullying behavior among juvenile and young offenders. Ninety-five male juvenile and 196 male young offenders completed two questionnaires, measuring bullying directly and behaviors indicative of "being bullied" or of "bullying others". Juveniles perceived a higher extent of bullying and reported significantly…

  1. The Juvenile Court: Changes and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feld, Barry C.

    2000-01-01

    Explores the changes in the juvenile court system, in particular, the juvenile waiver and sentencing laws, as it transformed from a social welfare agency into a type of criminal court system for young offenders. Addresses whether states should create an integrated juvenile and criminal justice system. (CMK)

  2. Reforming Our Expectations about Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Pamela F.; Baille, Daphne M.

    2010-01-01

    Typing the term "juvenile justice reform" into a Google[TM] search will result in 60 pages of entries. But what is meant by juvenile justice reform? What does it look like? How will one know when it is achieved? This article defines juvenile justice reform, discusses the principles of effective reform, and describes the practice of juvenile…

  3. Mobilizing Communities To Prevent Juvenile Crime. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bownes, Donna; Ingersoll, Sarah

    Through Title V Incentive Grants for Local Delinquency Prevention Programs (Community Prevention Grants), the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) allocated $20 million in fiscal year 1997 to states to complement law enforcement and justice system efforts by helping local communities foster strong families and nurture…

  4. Fasciola hepatica tegumental coat antigen suppresses MAPK signalling in dendritic cells and up-regulates the expression of SOCS3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukman, K V; Adams, P N; O'Neill, S M

    2013-07-01

    Fasciola hepatica tegumental coat antigen (FhTeg) suppresses dendritic cell maturation and function by inhibiting IL-6, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-10 and IL-12 production and CD80, CD86 and CD40 cell surface marker expression in TLR4-stimulated dendritic cells. Fasciola hepatica also impairs dendritic cell function by inhibiting its phagocytic capacity and its ability to prime T cells. We have shown previously that activation of mast cells with bacterial ligands is also inhibited by FhTeg. Fasciola hepatica suppresses LPS-induced NF-κB and MAPK pathway (ERK) activation in these cells. Previously, we demonstrated that FhTeg induces expression of suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS)3, a negative regulator of the TLR pathway in mast cells. In this study, we show the same inhibitory effect of FhTeg on the activation of the other members of the MAPKs pathway (ERK, p38, JNK) in dendritic cells and demonstrate an enhanced expression of SOCS3, but not SOCS1, SOCS5 or PIAS3 in this process. These studies enhance our understanding of the immunomodulatory effect of helminth molecules on the TLR pathway.

  5. Fasciola hepatica - the pilot study of in vitro assessing immune response against native and recombinant antigens of the fluke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bąska, Piotr; Zawistowska-Deniziak, Anna; Zdziarska, Anna M; Wasyl, Katarzyna; Wiśniewski, Marcin; Cywińska, Anna; Klockiewicz, Maciej; Januszkiewicz, Kamil; Wędrychowicz, Halina

    2013-12-01

    Fasciola hepatica is a liver fluke that infects 2.4 million of people and causes great economical loss in animal production. To date a 100% effective vaccine has not been developed and the disease is controlled by drug therapy. Great efforts are put into development of effective vaccine against parasite what is difficult since Fasciola spp. (like other helmints) during evolutionary process has developed sophisticated and efficient methods to evade immune response. During preliminary experiments it is convenient to use cell lines which are relatively cheap and allow for reproducible comparison of results between laboratories. We stimulated BOMA (bovine monocyte/macrophage cell line) and BOMAC (bovine macrophage cell line) with native or recombinant antigens of Fasciola hepatica and assessed IFN-γ, IL-4 and TNF-α level upon stimulation. We observed diminished secretion of proinflammatory TNF-α in LPS activated BOMA cells stimulated with Excretory/Secretory products of adult fluke (Fh-ES). We also observed greater changes in gene expression in LPS activated BOMA cells than in non activated BOMA cells upon stimulation using Fh-ES. The results show possibility of using cell lines for in vitro research of bovine immune response against liver fluke, although this model still requires validation and further characterization.

  6. Fasciola hepatica en bovinos doble propósito de una finca de Tucacas (Falcón, Venezuela - Fasciola hepatica in a dual-purpose bovine herd from a cattle farm in Tucaras (Falcón, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Mata, Arlett

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa fasciolosis es una enfermedad parasitaria causada por eltrematodo Fasciola hepatica, la cual causa pérdidas económicas pordecomiso de hígados en mataderos y disminución en la producción deleche y carne. Esta investigación tuvo dos objetivos: 1. Determinar laprevalencia de Fasciola hepatica en ganado bovino doble propósitoproveniente de una finca de Tucacas, Municipio Silva, Estado Falcón,Venezuela, 2. Determinar la presencia de los hospedadoresintermediarios del parásito en dicha finca. En el 2006, se realizarondos muestreos en animales adultos en edad productiva: El primero alinicio de la época seca (Época 1 = E1, en el mes de enero,utilizándose el 10 % (n = 30 de la población. El segundo se efectuóen la mitad de esa época (Época 2 = E2, en el mes de abril con el10% (n = 18 de la población. En ambas ocasiones se tomaronmuestras coprológicas individuales que fueron procesadas por laTécnica de Sedimentación. Se tomaron muestras sanguíneas paradeterminar el hematocrito. Los resultados indican una prevalencia deFasciola hepatica del 20% en la E1 y del 11,11% en la E2(p>0,05.Se encontraron caracoles lymnaeidos en 4 potreros inspeccionados enla E1, y sólo en uno de ellos en la E2. Se comprobó la infección porFasciola hepatica sólo en los caracoles de un potrero en la E1. Seconcluye que el parasitismo es endémico en la finca no habiendodiferencias estadísticamente significativas en la prevalencia deltrematodo en sus hospedadores bovinos entre las dos épocas. Lapoblación de caracoles en los potreros disminuyó significativamente(p0,05. Lymnaeid snails were found in alllots searched (n = 4 during S1 and only in one lot during S2.Infection with Fasciola hepatica was detected only in snails from one of the lots, during S1. We conclude that this parasitic disease became endemic in the farm. There were not statistical differences inprevalence in definitive bovine hosts between S1 and S2, but snailpopulation decreased

  7. Juvenile Justice and Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassin, Laurie

    2008-01-01

    Laurie Chassin focuses on the elevated prevalence of substance use disorders among young offenders in the juvenile justice system and on efforts by the justice system to provide treatment for these disorders. She emphasizes the importance of diagnosing and treating these disorders, which are linked both with continued offending and with a broad…

  8. Genetics in juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, Heleen Marion

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a non-common disease in children that can persist into adulthood. JIA is considered to be an auto-immune disease. Genetic factors play a role in the pathogenesis. In a new cohort of JIA patients from North-West European descent genetic candidate gene associatio

  9. Juvenile Courts. Creation and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat GONZÁLEZ FERNÁNDEZ

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the creation of Juvenile or Children's Courts in Spain, analysing their reasons and aims, as well as the ethical and political connotations present on their way of acting. Their history and the one of the institutions that complement them is built from the legislation, writings and ideas of their promoters.

  10. Juvenile Diabetes and Rehabilitation Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, J. Blair; Gregg, Charles H.

    1981-01-01

    Severe complications of diabetes are more likely to occur with the juvenile diabetic and problems of psychosocial adjustment are recurring and difficult. Implications for the rehabilitation counselor are discussed in terms of employment considerations, the effects of complications, genetic counseling, and cooperation with other professionals.…

  11. Case Report: Juvenile Tophaceous Gout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyma Gunes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gout is a metabolic disease that manifests as recurrent arthritis. Its incidance increases with age. Clinical findings include recurrent acute arthritis, tophus at joints and tissues, uricacid stones and gouty nephropathy. Tophi is a late period complication of arthritis. In this casereport we presented  a patient with early-onset juvenile tophaceous gout.

  12. Do juvenile Amphiprion ocellaris (Pisces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brolund, Thea Marie; Nielsen, Lis Engdahl; Arvedlund, Michael

    2003-01-01

    . This is contrary to the settling mechanisms of the damselfish D. aruanus and D. reticulatus, and of the temperate herring Clupea harengus. Hence the results emphasize the variation of sensory abilities and behaviours in fish larvae and juveniles. It is not an area prone for generalizations....

  13. [Sex-linked juvenile retinoschisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, P; Turut, P; Soltysik, C; Hache, J C

    1976-02-01

    About 13 observations of sexe linked juvenile retinoschisis, the authors describe the ophthalmoscopic, fluorographic and functional aspects of the disease whose caracteristics are:--its sexe linked recessive heredity; --its clinical characterestics associating: a microcystic macular degeneration, peripheral retinal lesions, vitreous body alterations, --an electroretinogram of the negative type.

  14. Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice. Panel on Juvenile Crime: Prevention, Treatment, and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCord, Joan, Ed.; Widom, Cathy Spatz, Ed.; Crowell, Nancy A., Ed.

    This book discusses patterns and trends in crimes committed by children and adolescents, analyzing youth crime as a subset of general crime and studying the impact of race and gender. It evaluates different approaches to forecasting future crime rates. Data come from a national panel that examined what is known about juvenile crime and its…

  15. A Practical Approach to Juvenile Dermatomyositis and Juvenile Scleroderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Liza J; Pain, Clare E

    2016-02-01

    Juvenile dermatomyositis and juvenile scleroderma are rare multisystem autoimmune disorders. Although they share some pathognomonic hallmarks with adult onset myositis or scleroderma, there are significant differences in presentation, characteristics and associated features when the diseases present in childhood. In view of this, and the rarity of the conditions, it is important for care to be led by teams with expertise in pediatric rheumatology conditions. Prognosis has improved significantly in the West; likely due to early diagnosis and aggressive treatment with immunosuppressive medications. However, this trend is not replicated in the developing world. Early recognition of these diseases is crucial to achieve rapid and sustained remission and prevent disease or medication associated complications. This article aims to provide a practical overview for recognition, diagnosis and treatment of these conditions.

  16. [The occurrence of fasciola hepatica in chosen regions of Poland based on molecular and serological methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak-Cieszczyk, Monika

    2006-01-01

    Fasciolosis, caused by the liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica) is an important issue for both human and animal health. The disease evokes economic losses which are a consequence of impaired animal productivity leading to higher costs of meat and milk production, as well as liver condemnation. The goals of this thesis were to: (1) elaborate a molecular method--PCR for the detection of F. hepatica DNA in intermediate and definite hosts; (2) estimate the usefulness of a recombinated cysteine proteinase produced in E. coli in the form of inclusive bodies in serological diagnosis of F. hepatica infection in definite hosts, using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); (3) conduct field research on the prevalence of infection among intermediate and definitive hosts (cattle) in chosen regions of Poland, utilizing the elaborated methods. Based on the results obtained in this study, it was established that it is possible to detect F. hepatica DNA in the feces of definite hosts with the elaborated PCR method. The amplification of a 124 base pair tandem repeat allows the detection of fluke larval stages in intermediate hosts within 12 hours of exposure and F. hepatica infection in definite hosts (by the 5th week in rats, 8th week in sheep and 10th week in cattle). Therefore, the PCR test is more sensitive than traditional microscopic methods. Furthermore, it was determined that, the recombinated cysteine proteinase in the form of inclusive bodies, after solubillization exhibits antigenic properties of the native protein and the ELISA method based on this antigen may be useful as a tool for diagnosing fasciolosis in sheep and cattle, in both serum and milk samples. The test achieves a greater sensitivity and specificity than an ELISA based on native excretory-secretory antigens. The results of field research indicate that Fasciola hepatica is a frequent parasite of cattle in central and eastern Poland. The mean prevalence was 34.86% (+/- 16.95) in all studied areas. The

  17. Gene Expression Profile in the Liver of BALB/c Mice Infected with Fasciola hepatica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Rojas-Caraballo

    Full Text Available Fasciola hepatica infection still remains one of the helminthic neglected tropical diseases (NTDs. It has a huge worldwide distribution, affecting mainly cattle and, sometimes, human beings. In addition to data reported about the immunological response induced by helminthic infections and that induced by Fasciola hepatica, little is known about the gene expression profile in its organ target, the liver, which is where adult worms are established and live for long periods of time, causing its characteristic pathology. In the present work, we study both the early and late gene expression profiles in the livers of mice infected with F. hepatica metacercariae using a microarray-based methodology.A total of 9 female-6-week-old BALB/c mice (Charles River Laboratories, Barcelona, Spain weighing 20 to 35 g were used for the experiments. Two groups of BALB/c mice were orally infected with seven F. hepatica metacercariae, and the other group remained untreated and served as a control. Mice were humanely euthanized and necropsied for liver recovery, histological assessment of hepatic damage, RNA isolation, microarray design and gene expression analysis on the day of infection (t0, seven days post-infection (t7 and twenty-one days post-infection (t21.We found that F. hepatica infection induces the differential expression of 128 genes in the liver in the early stage of infection and 308 genes in the late stage, and most of them are up-regulated. The Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed significant changes in the pathways related to metabolism, biosynthesis and signaling as well as genes implicated in inducing liver-toxicity, injury and death.The present study provides us insights at the molecular level about the underlying mechanisms used by F. hepatica, leading to liver damage and its subsequent pathophysiology. The expression pattern obtained here could also be used to explain the lack of association between infection with F. hepatica and cholangiocarcinoma

  18. 8 CFR 236.3 - Detention and release of juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Detention and release of juveniles. 236.3... Aliens Prior to Order of Removal § 236.3 Detention and release of juveniles. (a) Juveniles. A juvenile is defined as an alien under the age of 18 years. (b) Release. Juveniles for whom bond has been posted,...

  19. Uveitis in juvenile chronic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanski, J J

    1990-01-01

    About 20% of patients with juvenile chronic arthritis develop uveitis which is frequently bilateral. Risk factors for uveitis are: female gender, pauciarticular onset of arthritis, presence of circulating antinuclear antibodies, and the antigens HLA-DW5 and HLA-DPw2. The visual prognosis in patients with uveitis is good in 25% and fair in 50%. The remaining 25% develop cataract and/or glaucoma. The management of glaucoma is unsatisfactory, but the results of cataract surgery by lensectomy are good.

  20. Juvenile morphology in baleen whale phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Hsiu; Fordyce, R Ewan

    2014-09-01

    Phylogenetic reconstructions are sensitive to the influence of ontogeny on morphology. Here, we use foetal/neonatal specimens of known species of living baleen whales (Cetacea: Mysticeti) to show how juvenile morphology of extant species affects phylogenetic placement of the species. In one clade (sei whale, Balaenopteridae), the juvenile is distant from the usual phylogenetic position of adults, but in the other clade (pygmy right whale, Cetotheriidae), the juvenile is close to the adult. Different heterochronic processes at work in the studied species have different influences on juvenile morphology and on phylogenetic placement. This study helps to understand the relationship between evolutionary processes and phylogenetic patterns in baleen whale evolution and, more in general, between phylogeny and ontogeny; likewise, this study provides a proxy how to interpret the phylogeny when fossils that are immature individuals are included. Juvenile individuals in the peramorphic acceleration clades would produce misleading phylogenies, whereas juvenile individuals in the paedomorphic neoteny clades should still provide reliable phylogenetic signals.

  1. Juvenile morphology in baleen whale phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Hsiu; Fordyce, R. Ewan

    2014-09-01

    Phylogenetic reconstructions are sensitive to the influence of ontogeny on morphology. Here, we use foetal/neonatal specimens of known species of living baleen whales (Cetacea: Mysticeti) to show how juvenile morphology of extant species affects phylogenetic placement of the species. In one clade (sei whale, Balaenopteridae), the juvenile is distant from the usual phylogenetic position of adults, but in the other clade (pygmy right whale, Cetotheriidae), the juvenile is close to the adult. Different heterochronic processes at work in the studied species have different influences on juvenile morphology and on phylogenetic placement. This study helps to understand the relationship between evolutionary processes and phylogenetic patterns in baleen whale evolution and, more in general, between phylogeny and ontogeny; likewise, this study provides a proxy how to interpret the phylogeny when fossils that are immature individuals are included. Juvenile individuals in the peramorphic acceleration clades would produce misleading phylogenies, whereas juvenile individuals in the paedomorphic neoteny clades should still provide reliable phylogenetic signals.

  2. Epidemiology and diagnostics of human fasciolosis

    OpenAIRE

    Dakić Zorica; Inđić Nikola; Milošević Branko; Poluga Jasmina; Kulišić Zoran; Korać Miloš; Stajković Novica; Ofori-Belić Irena; Pavlović Miloš

    2010-01-01

    Fasciolosis is a zoonotic infection caused by the trematoda Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. Human fasciolosis is endemic in some parts of South America, Africa, Eastern Asia and Europe. High prevalence of human fasciolosis does not necessarily occur in areas where fasciolosis is a major veterinary problem. Infection with Fasciola hepatica has not been reported in humans in Serbia and former Yugoslavia, although a large variety of animals, such as sheep and cattle show infection rate...

  3. Local adaptation of the trematode Fasciola hepatica to the snail Galba truncatula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dreyfuss G.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Experimental infections of six riverbank populations of Galba truncatula with Fasciola hepatica were carried out to determine if the poor susceptibility of these populations to this digenean might be due to the scarcity or the absence of natural encounters between these snails and the parasite. The first three populations originated from banks frequented by cattle in the past (riverbank group whereas the three others were living on islet banks without any known contact with local ruminants (islet group. After their exposure, all snails were placed in their natural habitats from the end of October up to their collection at the beginning of April. Compared to the riverbank group, snails, which died without cercarial shedding clearly predominated in the islet group, while the other infected snails were few in number. Most of these last snails released their cercariae during a single shedding wave. In islet snails dissected after their death, the redial and cercarial burdens were significantly lower than those noted in riverbank G. truncatula. Snails living on these islet banks are thus able to sustain larval development of F. hepatica. The modifications noted in the characteristics of snail infection suggest the existence of an incomplete adaptation between these G. truncatula and the parasite, probably due to the absence of natural contact between host and parasite.

  4. Fasciola hepatica in snails collected from water-dropwort fields using PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hwang-Yong; Choi, In-Wook; Kim, Yeon-Rok; Quan, Juan-Hua; Ismail, Hassan Ahmed Hassan Ahmed; Cha, Guang-Ho; Hong, Sung-Jong; Lee, Young-Ha

    2014-12-01

    Fasciola hepatica is a trematode that causes zoonosis mainly in cattle and sheep and occasionally in humans. Fascioliasis has been reported in Korea; however, determining F. hepatica infection in snails has not been done recently. Thus, using PCR, we evaluated the prevalence of F. hepatica infection in snails at 4 large water-dropwort fields. Among 349 examined snails, F. hepatica-specific internal transcribed space 1 (ITS-1) and/or ITS-2 markers were detected in 12 snails and confirmed using sequence analysis. Morphologically, 213 of 349 collected snails were dextral shelled, which is the same aperture as the lymnaeid snail, the vectorial host for F. hepatica. Among the 12 F. hepatica-infected snails, 6 were known first intermediate hosts in Korea (Lymnaea viridis and L. ollula) and the remaining 6 (Lymnaea sp.) were potentially a new first intermediate host in Korea. It has been shown that the overall prevalence of the snails contaminated with F. hepatica in water-dropwort fields was 3.4%; however, the prevalence varied among the fields. This is the first study to estimate the prevalence of F. hepatica infection using the vectorial capacity of the snails in Korea.

  5. Study of surface carbohydrates in Galba truncatula tissues before and after infection with Fasciola hepatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgieva, Katya; Georgieva, Liliya; Mizinska-Boevska, Yana; Stoitsova, Stoyanka R

    2016-07-01

    The presence and distribution of surface carbohydrates in the tissues of Galba truncatula snails uninfected or after infection with Fasciola hepatica as well as on the surface of the snail-pathogenic larval stages of the parasite were studied by lectin labelling assay. This is an attempt to find similarities that indicate possible mimicry, utilised by the parasite as an evasion strategy in this snail-trematode system. Different binding patterns were identified on head-foot-mantle, hepatopancreas, genital glands, renopericardial complex of the host as well as of the snail-pathogenic larval stages of F. hepatica. The infection with F. hepatica leads to changes of labelling with Glycine max in the head-mantle cells and Arachis hypogaea in the tubular epithelium of the hepatopancreas. The lectin binding on the other snail tissues is not changed by the development of the larvae. Our data clearly demonstrated the similarity in labelling of G. truncatula tissues and the surface of the snail-pathogenic larval stages of F. hepatica. The role of glycosylation of the contact surfaces of both organisms in relation to the host-parasite interactions is also discussed.

  6. Molecular differentiation of sheep and cattle isolates of Fasciola hepatica using RAPD-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khakpour, M.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding genetic structure and status of genetic variation of Fasciola hepatica isolates from different hosts, has important implications on epidemiology and effective control of fasciolosis. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR was used to study the genetic variation of F. hepatica in sheep and cattle. DNA was extracted from adult helminthes removed from livers of each infected animal in slaughterhouse at East-Azerbaijan province, North-West of Iran. DNA template amplified by the polymerase chain reaction, using three oligonucleotide decamers with arbitrary DNA sequences as primers. RAPD patterns showed the specific but different pattern DNA patterns for each primer. The intraspecific similarity coefficient within two isolates of F. hepatica was ranged between 69 to 100%. Present findings showed that the interspecific genetic distance was higher than intraspecific genetic distances (19-47% compares to 0-19%. Pair wise similarity matrices generated from each isolates-primer combination were totaled and the similarity coefficient between strains were calculated both manually (Nei and Li method and software analysis (Free-Tree-Freeware program. The inferred phylogenetic tree on the fingerprinting of these isolates clearly demonstrated the existence of population genetic diversity sub structuring within F. hepatica of sheep and cattle of Iran, raising interesting questions on the host specificity, epidemiology (e.g., zoonotic transmission and ecology of this fluke. RAPD-PCR is useful for both individual identification and epidemiological investigations in endemic regions.

  7. Study of surface carbohydrates in Galba truncatula tissues before and after infection with Fasciola hepatica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgieva, Katya; Georgieva, Liliya; Mizinska-Boevska, Yana; Stoitsova, Stoyanka R

    2016-01-01

    The presence and distribution of surface carbohydrates in the tissues of Galba truncatula snails uninfected or after infection with Fasciola hepatica as well as on the surface of the snail-pathogenic larval stages of the parasite were studied by lectin labelling assay. This is an attempt to find similarities that indicate possible mimicry, utilised by the parasite as an evasion strategy in this snail-trematode system. Different binding patterns were identified on head-foot-mantle, hepatopancreas, genital glands, renopericardial complex of the host as well as of the snail-pathogenic larval stages of F. hepatica. The infection with F. hepatica leads to changes of labelling with Glycine max in the head-mantle cells and Arachis hypogaea in the tubular epithelium of the hepatopancreas. The lectin binding on the other snail tissues is not changed by the development of the larvae. Our data clearly demonstrated the similarity in labelling of G. truncatula tissues and the surface of the snail-pathogenic larval stages of F. hepatica. The role of glycosylation of the contact surfaces of both organisms in relation to the host-parasite interactions is also discussed. PMID:27384082

  8. A multiplex PCR for the detection of Fasciola hepatica in the intermediate snail host Galba cubensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, Annia; Vázquez, Antonio A; Hernández, Hilda; Sánchez, Jorge; Marcet, Ricardo; Figueredo, Mabel; Sarracent, Jorge; Fraga, Jorge

    2015-07-30

    Fasciolosis is a snail-borne trematode infection that has re-emerged as a human disease, and is considered a significant problem for veterinary medicine worldwide. The evaluation of the transmission risk of fasciolosis as well as the efficacy of the strategies for its control could be carried out through epidemiological surveillance of the snails that act as intermediate hosts of the parasites. The present study aimed to develop the first multiplex PCR to detect Fasciola hepatica in Galba cubensis, an important intermediate host of the parasite in the Americas and especially in the Caribbean basin. The multiplex PCR was optimized for the amplification of a 340 bp fragment of the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2) of F. hepatica rDNA, while another set of primers was designed and used to amplify a conserved segment of the nuclear 18S rDNA of the snail (451 bp), as an internal control of the reaction. The assay was able to detect up to 100 pg of the parasite even at high concentrations of snail DNA, an analytical sensitivity that allows the detection of less than a single miracidium, which is the minimal biological infestation unit. A controlled laboratory-reared G. cubensis - F. hepatica system was used for the evaluation of the developed multiplex PCR, and 100% sensitivity and specificity was achieved. This assay constitutes a novel, useful and suitable technique for the survey of fasciolosis transmission through one of the main intermediate hosts in the Western hemisphere.

  9. Influence of Fasciola Hepatica on Serum Biochemical Parameters and Vascular and Biliary System of Sheep Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Hodžić

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional capacity of the liver based on the activity of specific enzymes and bilirubin in serum and also to investigate the influence of mechanical and toxic effects of Fasciola hepatica on the structures of the blood vessels and biliary tract in the sheep liver.Methods: Blood samples and liver of 63 indigenous sheep of Pramenka breed, slaughtered in the period from March to December 2009 were used. Based on parasitological findings in the liver, all animals were divided into two groups: control (n=34 and infected group (n=29. For investigation and description of pathological changes in sheep liver, naturally infected with F. hepatica, corrosion cast technique was used.Results: Biochemical analysis of tested parameters showed a significant elevation (P≤0.05 of serum gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT, total bilirubin (TBIL and direct bilirubin (DBIL in infected sheep group comparing with the control group. No significant differences were observed for activity of aspartate aminotranferase (AST between groups. Vascular and biliary systems of the liver were found to be affected.Conclusion: Results of biochemical analysis are consistent with pathological findings and measuring of tested parameters could be used in early diagnosis of sheep fasciolosis and to test the effectiveness of anthelmintic therapy. Corrosion cast technique is very useful for investigation of pathological changes and neoangiogenesis of vascular and biliary system in sheep liver, caused by mechanical and toxic effects of F. hepatica.

  10. Comparative efficacy of closantel and triclabendazole against Fasciola hepatica in experimentally infected sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, L; Vanparijs, O; Lauwers, H; Deckers, W

    1990-11-03

    The effect of closantel (10 mg/kg orally) and triclabendazole (10 mg/kg orally) on the reappearance of a patent infection of Fasciola hepatica was studied in experimentally infected sheep. The treatments resulted in the interruption of faecal egg output for 11 weeks with triclabendazole and 13 weeks with closantel. Necropsy of untreated control animals revealed a mean burden of 360 flukes with a mean (+/- se) surface area of 171 +/- 64.3 mm2, whereas the fluke burdens in the closantel and triclabendazole-treated animals 14 weeks after treatment were 61 (83 per cent reduction) and 21 (94 per cent reduction), respectively. The surface areas of the flukes in the triclabendazole-group were comparable with the untreated controls (141 +/- 51.8 mm2), but the flukes in the closantel group were markedly smaller (43.1 +/- 26.9 mm2). It is concluded that closantel has, in epidemiological terms, a potency comparable with that of triclabendazole, despite its slightly lower efficacy against the very immature stages.

  11. Genetic and infective diversity of the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica (Trematoda: Digenea) from Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, A A; Lounnas, M; Sánchez, J; Alba, A; Milesi, A; Hurtrez-Boussès, S

    2016-11-01

    In this study we present the first approach to exploration of the genetic diversity of Cuban Fasciola hepatica populations using microsatellite markers, coupled with observed prevalence in slaughterhouses. Nine populations of flukes recovered from cows and buffalos were studied in the central-western region of Cuba. The observed infection rates of definitive hosts (bovines) were 70-100% in most cases. An important amount of polymorphism was found in the four loci explored. However, no apparent genetic differences were found between populations from different provinces or bovine species. The absence of deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium suggests a high rate of cross-fertilization between F. hepatica individuals. This result was confirmed when all multilocus genotypes were tested for clonal reproduction and only four individuals differed statistically (P sex< 0.05). High values of expected heterozygosity coupled with highly probable mixing among strains make the metapopulation genetically diversified but similar in terms of certain alleles (low F ST values). These results suggest a close relationship between parasite diversity and cattle management in Cuba. Our findings should be taken into consideration by veterinary authorities to help mitigate fasciolosis transmission.

  12. Fasciola hepatica in goats from north-western Spain: Risk factor analysis using a capture ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Creo, Ana; Díaz, Pablo; López, Ceferino; Béjar, Juan Pablo; Martínez-Sernández, Victoria; Panadero, Rosario; Díez-Baños, Pablo; Ubeira, Florencio M; Morrondo, Patrocinio

    2016-02-01

    In order to study the seroprevalence of Fasciola hepatica infection in goats from north-western Spain, a total of 603 serum samples from 47 herds were tested using a capture ELISA (MM3-SERO). The identification of risk factors was assessed by a mixed-effects logistic regression analysis. The results showed that F. hepatica is widespread in this area with 57.4% of the herds and 22.7% of the animals testing positive. Breed and age were identified as determining factors for caprine F. hepatica infection. Seroprevalence in cross-bred animals was significantly higher than in the autochthonous Cabra Galega breed. A significantly higher seroprevalence was observed in older animals. The use of locally adapted breeds and the implementation of suitable management practices could provide a substantial improvement over the current F. hepatica control measures carried out in goat herds and should be considered when designing new F. hepatica control programs.

  13. Peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets in Fasciola hepatica infected and immunised goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafra, R; Pérez, J; Buffoni, L; Martínez-Moreno, F J; Acosta, I; Mozos, E; Martínez-Moreno, A

    2013-09-01

    The proportions of CD4(+), CD8(+) and WC1+ T lymphocytes from peripheral blood using flow cytometry were investigated in goats infected with Fasciola hepatica and previously immunised with recombinant Cathepsin-L1 (rCL1) and Glutathione-S-transferase sigma class (GST). The immunisation trial did not induce protective responses, and no significant differences were recorded between immunised and non-immunised groups. However, there was a significant decrease in the proportion of CD4(+) T lymphocytes in the infected groups both at 5 weeks post-infection (wpi), coinciding with the migratory stage of the infection, and at 12 wpi in the biliary stage of the infection. The proportional decrease in this circulating population may be related to the recruitment of CD4(+) T cells in liver and hepatic lymph nodes and also to the immunomodulatory effect of the parasite through the interaction of F. hepatica excretory-secretory products (FhESP) with this cell population. To date, this is the first report about the effect of F. hepatica infection in peripheral lymphocyte subsets in goats.

  14. Generating a detailed protein profile of Fasciola hepatica during the chronic stage of infection in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haçarız, Orçun; Baykal, Ahmet Tarık; Akgün, Mete; Kavak, Pınar; Sağıroğlu, Mahmut Şamil; Sayers, Gearóid Patrick

    2014-06-01

    Fasciola hepatica is a trematode helminth causing a damaging disease, fasciolosis, in ruminants and humans. Comprehensive proteomic studies broaden our knowledge of the parasite's protein profile, and provide new insights into the development of more effective strategies to deal with fasciolosis. The objective of this study was to generate a comprehensive profile of F. hepatica proteins expressed during the chronic stage of infection in cattle by building on previous efforts in this area. The approach included an improved sample preparation procedure for surface and internal layers of the parasite, the application of nano-UPLC-ESI-qTOF-MS (nano-ultra-performance LC and ESI quadrupole TOF MS) integrated with different acquisition methods and in silico database search against various protein databases and a transcript database including a new assembly of publically available EST. Of a total of 776 identified proteins, 206 and 332 were specific to the surface and internal layers of the parasite, respectively. Furthermore, 238 proteins were common to both layers, with comparative differences of 172 proteins detected. Specific proteins not previously identified in F. hepatica, but shown to be immunomodulatory or potential drug targets for other parasites, are discussed.

  15. Across intra-mammalian stages of the liver f luke Fasciola hepatica: a proteomic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Maggio, Lucía Sánchez; Tirloni, Lucas; Pinto, Antonio F. M.; Diedrich, Jolene K.; Yates III, John R.; Benavides, Uruguaysito; Carmona, Carlos; da Silva Vaz Jr., Itabajara; Berasain, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Fasciola hepatica is the agent of fasciolosis, a foodborne zoonosis that affects livestock production and human health. Although flukicidal drugs are available, re-infection and expanding resistance to triclabendazole demand new control strategies. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the complex interaction with the mammalian host could provide relevant clues, aiding the search for novel targets in diagnosis and control of fasciolosis. Parasite survival in the mammalian host is mediated by parasite compounds released during infection, known as excretory/secretory (E/S) products. E/S products are thought to protect parasites from host responses, allowing them to survive for a long period in the vertebrate host. This work provides in-depth proteomic analysis of F. hepatica intra-mammalian stages, and represents the largest number of proteins identified to date for this species. Functional classification revealed the presence of proteins involved in different biological processes, many of which represent original findings for this organism and are important for parasite survival within the host. These results could lead to a better comprehension of host-parasite relationships, and contribute to the development of drugs or vaccines against this parasite. PMID:27600774

  16. Fasciola hepatica tegumental antigens indirectly induce an M2 macrophage-like phenotype in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, P N; Aldridge, A; Vukman, K V; Donnelly, S; O'Neill, S M

    2014-10-01

    The M2 subset of macrophages has a critical role to play in host tissue repair, tissue fibrosis and modulation of adaptive immunity during helminth infection. Infection with the helminth, Fasciola hepatica, is associated with M2 macrophages in its mammalian host, and this response is mimicked by its excretory-secretory products (FhES). The tegumental coat of F. hepatica (FhTeg) is another major source of immune-modulatory molecules; we have previously shown that FhTeg can modulate the activity of both dendritic cells and mast cells inhibiting their ability to prime a Th1 immune response. Here, we report that FhTeg does not induce Th2 immune responses but can induce M2-like phenotype in vivo that modulates cytokine production from CD4(+) cells in response to anti-CD3 stimulation. FhTeg induces a RELMα expressing macrophage population in vitro, while in vivo, the expression of Arg1 and Ym-1/2 but not RELMα in FhTeg-stimulated macrophages was STAT6 dependent. To support this finding, FhTeg induces RELMα expression in vivo prior to the induction of IL-13. FhTeg can induce IL-13-producing peritoneal macrophages following intraperitoneal injection This study highlights the important role of FhTeg as an immune-modulatory source during F. hepatica infection and sheds further light on helminth-macrophage interactions.

  17. Epidemiology and impact of Fasciola hepatica exposure in high-yielding dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Alison; Baylis, Matthew; Smith, Rob; Pinchbeck, Gina; Williams, Diana

    2015-09-01

    The liver fluke Fasciola hepatica is a trematode parasite with a worldwide distribution and is the cause of important production losses in the dairy industry. The aim of this observational study was to assess the prevalence of exposure to F. hepatica in a group of high yielding dairy herds, to determine the risk factors and investigate their associations with production and fertility parameters. Bulk milk tank samples from 606 herds that supply a single retailer with liquid milk were tested with an antibody ELISA for F. hepatica. Multivariable linear regression was used to investigate the effect of farm management and environmental risk factors on F. hepatica exposure. Higher rainfall, grazing boggy pasture, presence of beef cattle on farm, access to a stream or pond and smaller herd size were associated with an increased risk of exposure. Univariable regression was used to look for associations between fluke exposure and production-related variables including milk yield, composition, somatic cell count and calving index. Although causation cannot be assumed, a significant (phepatica exposure and estimated milk yield at the herd level, representing a 15% decrease in yield for an increase in F. hepatica exposure from the 25th to the 75th percentile. This remained significant when fertility, farm management and environmental factors were controlled for. No associations were found between F. hepatica exposure and any of the other production, disease or fertility variables.

  18. Lymnaea glabra: progressive increase in susceptibility to Fasciola hepatica through successive generations of experimentally infected snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondelaud, D; Teukeng, F F Djuikwo; Vignoles, P; Dreyfuss, G

    2015-07-01

    Experimental infections of Lymnaea glabra (two populations) with Fasciola hepatica were carried out during seven successive snail generations, to determine if prevalence and intensity of snail infection increased over time through descendants of snails already infected with F. hepatica. Controls were descendants coming from uninfected parents and infected according to the same protocol. No larval forms were found in the bodies of control snails coming from uninfected parents. In contrast, prevalence and intensity of F. hepatica infection in snails originating from infected parents progressively increased from the F2 or F3 to the F6 generation of L. glabra. In another experiment carried out with the F7 generations of L. glabra and a single generation of Galba truncatula (as controls), the prevalence of F. hepatica infection and the total number of cercariae were lower in L. glabra (without significant differences between both populations). If the number of cercariae shed by infected snails was compared to overall cercarial production noted in snails containing cercariae but dying without emission, the percentage was greater in G. truncatula (69% instead of 52-54% in L. glabra). Even if most characteristics of F. hepatica infection were lower in L. glabra, prevalence and intensity of parasite infection increased with snail generation when tested snails came from infected parents. This mode of snail infection with F. hepatica suggests an explanation for cases of fasciolosis occurring in cattle-breeding farms where paramphistomosis is lacking and G. truncatula is absent.

  19. Fasciola hepatica: comparative metacercarial productions in experimentally-infected Galba truncatula and Pseudosuccinea columella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignoles, Philippe; Dreyfuss, Gilles; Rondelaud, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    As large numbers of metacercariae of Fasciola hepatica are necessary for research, experimental infections of Galba truncatula and Pseudosuccinea columella with this digenean were carried out to determine the better intermediate host for metacercarial production and, consequently, the most profitable snail for decreasing the cost price of these larvae. Pre-adult snails (4 mm in shell height) originating from two populations per lymnaeid species were individually exposed to two or five miracidia, raised at 23 °C and followed for cercarial shedding up to their death. Compared to values noted in G. truncatula, the survival of P. columella on day 30 post-exposure was significantly greater, while the prevalence of F. hepatica infection was significantly lower. In the four P. columella groups, metacercarial production was significantly greater than that noted in the four groups of G. truncatula (347-453 per cercariae-shedding snail versus 163-275, respectively). Apart from one population of G. truncatula, the use of five miracidia per snail at exposure significantly increased the prevalence of F. hepatica in P. columella and the other population of G. truncatula, whereas it did not have any clear effect on the mean number of metacercariae. The use of P. columella for experimental infections with F. hepatica resulted in significantly higher metacercarial production than that noted with G. truncatula, in spite of a lower prevalence for the former lymnaeid. This finding allows for a significant decrease in the cost price of these larvae for commercial production.

  20. Rearing of Lymnaea columella (Say, 1817, intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica (Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Cecília Pereira de

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica, Lymnaea columella, collected in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, was reared in our laboratory. The aim of the current study was to standardize a rearing and maintenance technique. Two kinds of diet were tested: fresh lettuce (A and rodent ration + 10% CaCO3 plus fresh lettuce (B. The age for the beginning of oviposition ranged from 27 to 57 days. Ten days after oviposition at 24.7°C, 100% eclosion occurred. The complete life cycle varied from 37 to 67 days. The average numbers of eggs per egg mass were 26.3 and 31.1 with diets (A and (B, respectively. The lettuce and ration fed snails presented a increased growth although the difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05. The mortality rate varied from 40 to 64% after 90 days. The maximum longevity was 183 days, 21.5 mm length and 11 mm wide. The methodology to mass breed and maintain these snails was found to be suitable in the laboratory

  1. In vivo assessment of closantel ovicidal activity in Fasciola hepatica eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solana, María Victoria; Mera y Sierra, Roberto; Scarcella, Silvana; Neira, Gisela; Solana, Hugo Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Anthelmintic resistance in livestock parasites is currently a worldwide problem. Fasciola hepatica is a cosmopolitan parasite which causes considerable loss in sheep and cattle production systems all over the world. Chemotherapy is currently the main tool available for its control. The intensive use of triclabendazole, the drug of choice for more than 20 years, has resulted in the development of resistant strains. The therapeutic options are adulticides such as closantel (salicylanilide anthelmintic that binds extensively to plasma albumin) to treat chronic fascioliasis in sheep, and cattle. In the present work, an Egg Hatch Assay (EHA) and morphometric studies were used to evaluate in vivo the ovicidal activity and morphology F. hepatica eggs, recovered from closantel treated sheep collected at different time intervals post treatment. Statistically significant differences (p < 0.0001) were observed in egg morphometry between the control and the treated groups in all the parameters studied. Eggs recovered from treated animals tend to be narrower and longer. Significant differences were found in the embryonation and hatching of eggs between 36 h post treatment (32, 5%) vs. approximately 85% in control, 12 h and 24 h post treatment. Our results confirm that closantel affects in vivo the normal development of the eggs. As one of the first effects, this drug affects the performance of the trematode's reproductive physiology. Even though closantel treated animals may still eliminate eggs in the first days post treatment, these are not viable.

  2. Influence of Fasciola hepatica on Serum Biochemical Parameters and Vascular and Biliary System of Sheep Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodžić, A; Zuko, A; Avdić, R; Alić, A; Omeragić, J; Jažić, A

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional capacity of the liver based on the activity of specific enzymes and bilirubin in serum and also to investigate the influence of mechanical and toxic effects of Fasciola hepatica on the structures of the blood vessels and biliary tract in the sheep liver. Methods Blood samples and liver of 63 indigenous sheep of Pramenka breed, slaughtered in the period from March to December 2009 were used. Based on parasitological findings in the liver, all animals were divided into two groups: control (n = 34) and infected group (n = 29). For investigation and description of pathological changes in sheep liver, naturally infected with F. hepatica, corrosion cast technique was used. Results Biochemical analysis of tested parameters showed a significant elevation (P≤0.05) of serum gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), total bilirubin (TBIL) and direct bilirubin (DBIL) in infected sheep group comparing with the control group. No significant differences were observed for activity of aspartate aminotranferase (AST) between groups. Vascular and biliary systems of the liver were found to be affected. Conclusion Results of biochemical analysis are consistent with pathological findings and measuring of tested parameters could be used in early diagnosis of sheep fasciolosis and to test the effectiveness of anthelmintic therapy. Corrosion cast technique is very useful for investigation of pathological changes and neoangiogenesis of vascular and biliary system in sheep liver, caused by mechanical and toxic effects of F. hepatica. PMID:23682266

  3. Autochthonous infection of buffaloes and cattle by Fasciola hepatica in Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Ruth Massote Dracz

    Full Text Available Fasciola hepatica is a digenetic trematode that parasitizes the bile ducts of different species of vertebrate hosts. In Brazil, this parasitosis is expanding and occurrences have been reported in the southern, southeastern, central-western and northeastern regions. This study aimed to report the first case of naturally infection of buffaloes by this parasite in the state of Minas Gerais. A total of 250 stool samples, 176 from cattle and 74 from buffaloes, from the districts of São José da Lapa and Pedro Leopoldo, were examined. Also, 402 snails of the genus Lymnaea were collected on the same farms and the viability of the eggs from naturally infected buffaloes and cattle and the susceptibility of the snails to infection were tested. A total of 54 animals were found to be positive, 33 cattle (18.75% and 21 buffaloes (28.37%, and two molluscs showed immature forms of F. hepatica. In experimental infection of specimens of Lymnaea, cercariae were obtained through spontaneous elimination from the 57th day post-infection onwards. The importance of this first case report can be emphasized because it confirms that this parasite is being dispersed in municipalities in this state that had previously been considered to be unaffected.

  4. Rearing of Lymnaea columella (Say, 1817), intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica (Linnaeus, 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira de Souza, C; Magalhães, K G

    2000-01-01

    The intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica, Lymnaea columella, collected in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, was reared in our laboratory. The aim of the current study was to standardize a rearing and maintenance technique. Two kinds of diet were tested: fresh lettuce (A) and rodent ration + 10% CaCO3 plus fresh lettuce (B). The age for the beginning of oviposition ranged from 27 to 57 days. Ten days after oviposition at 24.7 degrees C, 100% eclosion occurred. The complete life cycle varied from 37 to 67 days. The average numbers of eggs per egg mass were 26.3 and 31.1 with diets (A) and (B), respectively. The lettuce and ration fed snails presented a increased growth although the difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The mortality rate varied from 40 to 64% after 90 days. The maximum longevity was 183 days, 21.5 mm length and 11 mm wide. The methodology to mass breed and maintain these snails was found to be suitable in the laboratory

  5. Cercarial productivity of Fasciola hepatica in Lymnaea truncatula during usual and unusual development of redial generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augot, D; Rondelaud, D

    2001-08-01

    Single-miracidium infections of Lymnaea truncatula by Fasciola hepatica were carried out to determine the cercarial productivity of each redial generation when the first-appearing mother redia (R1a redia) normally developed (usual development of redial generations) or quickly died (unusual development). In both developmental patterns of infection, the number of morulae was significantly higher in the second-appearing mother rediae (R1b group) than in either the daughter rediae from R1a rediae (R2a group) or the rediae from subsequent groups (R2b/R3a). The live R1a group did not produce cercariae. The percentages of cercariae produced by the R1b, R2a, and R2b/R3a groups were 28.2%, 62.8%, and 8.9% when the development of redial generations was usual. In contrast, in an unusual development, they were 69.3%, 20.3%, and 10.2%, respectively. Cercarial production until day 63 post-exposure was essentially provided by the R2a rediae, when the development of redial generations was usual, and by the R1b rediae when it was unusual.

  6. Distribution of Lymnaeidae (Mollusca: Pulmonata), intermediate snail hosts of Fasciola hepatica in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pointier, J P; Noya, O; Alarcón de Noya, B; Théron, A

    2009-08-01

    An extensive malacological survey was carried out between 2005-2009 in order to clarify the exact number of lymnaeid species which may be intermediate hosts of Fasciola hepatica in Venezuela. Four species were discovered during this survey, including two local species: Lymnaea cubensis and Lymnaea cousini and two exotic species: Lymnaea truncatula and Lymnaea columella. The most common local species was L. cubensis which was found at 16 out of the 298 sampling sites. This species has a large distribution area throughout the Northern part of Venezuela and was encountered from sea level to an altitude of 1,802 m in state of Trujillo. The second local species L. cousini was collected at only two sites of the Andean Region at altitudes of 3,550 m and 4,040 m, respectively. The European L. truncatula was found at 24 sites all located in the states of Mérida and Táchira at an altitude varying between 1,540-4,000 m. The respective distribution areas of L. cubensis and L. truncatula do not appear to overlap, but more detailed malacological surveys are needed. The fourth lymnaeid species, L. columella was collected in a canal from Mérida at an altitude of 1,929 m and in an irrigation canal from the state of Guárico, at an altitude of 63 m. The role of these four lymnaeid species in the transmission of fascioliasis in Venezuela is discussed.

  7. Fasciola hepatica: epidemiology, perspectives in the diagnostic and the use of geoprocessing systems for prevalence studies

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    Marcos André Aleixo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fasciola hepatica is a parasite that is located in the liver of ruminants with the possibility to infect horses, pigs and humans. The parasite belongs to the Trematoda class, and it is the agent causing the disease called fasciolosis. This disease occurs mainly in temperate regions where climate favors the development of the organism. These conditions must facilitate the development of the intermediate host, the snail of the genus Lymnaea. The infection in domestic animals can lead to decrease in production and control is made by using triclabendazole. Triclabendazole resistance in F. hepatica has been reported worldwide including in Brazil. Another concern is the increase number of human cases with the consumption of contaminated vegetables in regions where sanitation is inadequate together with the presence of infected animals and the absence of efficient control methods. The knowledge of the epidemiology of animal fasciolosis, including their occurrence, distribution and monitoring with techniques such as PCR and ELISA is reaching a new level with the usage of the Geographic Information System. The objective is to use new technologies for early fasciolosis diagnostic, as well as, to develop geoprocessing technics that could allow the determination of its prevalence and the evolution of clinical cases in animals before hand. This review paper provides an overview of F. hepatica, covering the aspects listed above, including original data.

  8. More efficient allopatric combinations of Fasciola hepatica and Lymnaea truncatula due to modification of redial development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goumghar, M D; Dreyfuss, G; Rondelaud, D; Benlemlih, M; Cabaret, J

    2001-12-01

    Experimental infections of two susceptible French populations of Lymnaea truncatula (Courcelles and Saint Ours) with an allopatric (Fès, Morocco) or a semi-sympatric (Limoges, France) isolate of Fasciola hepatica miracidia were performed to determine the effect of allopatric miracidia on redial and cercarial production. In both populations, cercarial release was significantly greater in allopatric than in semi-sympatric snails. Compared to semi-sympatric snails, the examination of allopatric snails killed from day 14 to day 35 post-exposure demonstrated (1) a significant decrease after day 28 in the number of daughter rediae (R2a group) exiting from the first-appearing mother redia (R1a redia), and (2) the differentiation of numerous daughter rediae (R2b group) in the body of second-appearing mother rediae (R1b group). These experiments demonstrated that the exposure of L. truncatula to an allopatric isolate of miracidia disturbed the usual developmental pattern of redial generations and caused the formation of numerous R2b rediae. The authors hypothesized that the increase in cercarial release noted in allopatric snails would be assured by the rediae from the R2b group after their emergence from the body of R1b mother rediae.

  9. Distribution of Lymnaeidae (Mollusca: Pulmonata, intermediate snail hosts of Fasciola hepatica in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JP Pointier

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available An extensive malacological survey was carried out between 2005-2009 in order to clarify the exact number of lymnaeid species which may be intermediate hosts of Fasciola hepatica in Venezuela. Four species were discovered during this survey, including two local species: Lymnaea cubensis and Lymnaea cousini and two exotic species: Lymnaea truncatula and Lymnaea columella. The most common local species was L. cubensis which was found at 16 out of the 298 sampling sites. This species has a large distribution area throughout the Northern part of Venezuela and was encountered from sea level to an altitude of 1,802 m in state of Trujillo. The second local species L. cousini was collected at only two sites of the Andean Region at altitudes of 3,550 m and 4,040 m, respectively. The European L. truncatula was found at 24 sites all located in the states of Mérida and Táchira at an altitude varying between 1,540-4,000 m. The respective distribution areas of L. cubensis and L. truncatula do not appear to overlap, but more detailed malacological surveys are needed. The fourth lymnaeid species, L. columella was collected in a canal from Mérida at an altitude of 1,929 m and in an irrigation canal from the state of Guárico, at an altitude of 63 m. The role of these four lymnaeid species in the transmission of fascioliasis in Venezuela is discussed.

  10. Larval development of Fasciola hepatica in experimental infections: variations with populations of Lymnaea truncatula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignoles, P; Dreyfuss, G; Rondelaud, D

    2002-06-01

    A retrospective study was undertaken on 70 French populations of Lymnaea truncatula experimentally infected with Fasciola hepatica to determine whether or not susceptibility of snails to infection influenced redial and cercarial production. Results were compared with those obtained from two control populations, known for prevalences higher than 60% when experimentally infected with F. hepatica. In the 70 other populations examined, the prevalences ranged from 2 to 75%. In 55 of these populations, where the prevalence was more than 20%, a high proportion (50.1-56.8%) of snails died after cercarial shedding, whereas in the other groups (non-shedding snails with the most differentiated larvae being free cercariae, rediae containing cercariae, immature rediae, or sporocysts, respectively), snail death was significantly less. In 11 populations, where the prevalence values were 5-19%, only 14% of snails died after cercarial shedding, whereas snails with free cercariae, rediae with cercariae, or immature rediae showed significant increases in snail mortality. In the remaining four snail populations, with prevalences of less than 5%, the most differentiated larval forms were only immature rediae and/or sporocysts. Overall, the number of rediae containing cercariae significantly decreased with decreasing prevalence values. The low prevalence of experimental infection in several populations of snails might be explained by the occurrence of natural infections with miracidia originating from a mammalian host other than cattle, and/or by genetic variability in the susceptibility of snails to infection.

  11. Development of Fasciola hepatica in Lymnaea columella infected with miracidia derived from cattle and marmoset infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, E A; Lima, W S; de Melo, A L

    2008-03-01

    The development of Fasciola hepatica from two species of definitive hosts, i.e. cattle (Bos taurus) and a marmoset (Callithrix penicillata) in the snail Lymnaea columella was determined based on the production of rediae and cercariae and snail survival rate. More rediae and cercariae at 60-74 days post-infection were produced by snails infected by cattle-derived miracidia (cattle group) than by those infected by marmoset-derived miracidia (marmoset group). Among the L. columella parasitized by the marmoset group, the survival rate and the percentage of positive snails were higher than among those parasitized by the cattle group. Eggs of F. hepatica released in cattle faeces were significantly bigger than those released in marmoset faeces. Miracidia originating from parasites that completed their development in cattle were more efficient in infecting the intermediate host. These results suggest that vertebrate-host origin influences the eggs produced by the parasite and the infection rates in the snail host L. columella.

  12. Occurrence of Fasciola hepatica (Linnaeus, 1758 in capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766 in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Massote Dracz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fasciola hepatica is a parasite that affects the hepatic ducts of several species of domestic and wild vertebrates, causing huge economic losses to livestock rearing worldwide. Reports on occurrences of F. hepatica in capybaras are an important epidemiological aspect of this disease, since these rodents can be a source of contamination for other animals and humans. In the present study, conducted in a rural area of the municipality of Confins, Minas Gerais, fresh feces from capybaras were collected from the ground near a lagoon at the edge of the Ribeirão da Mata river. These were examined using the technique of four metal sieves. F. hepatica eggs were recovered. This trematode species was confirmed by observing morphological characteristics and measuring the eggs recovered from the capybara feces, and through experimental infection of Lymnaea columella (Say, 1817 by miracidia from these eggs and subsequent infection of C57/BL06 mice with metacercariae originating from these infected mollusks. The data suggest the occurrence of natural cycle of F. hepatica in this region and provide a warning that expansion of the geographical distribution of this parasite by means of this rodent is possible. It is therefore important to adopting measures for epidemiological control of this helminthiasis.

  13. Occurrence of Fasciola hepatica (Linnaeus, 1758) in capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) (Linnaeus, 1766) in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dracz, Ruth Massote; Ribeiro, Vinicius Marques Antunes; Pereira, Cintia Aparecida de Jesus; Lima, Walter Dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    Fasciola hepatica is a parasite that affects the hepatic ducts of several species of domestic and wild vertebrates, causing huge economic losses to livestock rearing worldwide. Reports on occurrences of F. hepatica in capybaras are an important epidemiological aspect of this disease, since these rodents can be a source of contamination for other animals and humans. In the present study, conducted in a rural area of the municipality of Confins, Minas Gerais, fresh feces from capybaras were collected from the ground near a lagoon at the edge of the Ribeirão da Mata river. These were examined using the technique of four metal sieves. F. hepatica eggs were recovered. This trematode species was confirmed by observing morphological characteristics and measuring the eggs recovered from the capybara feces, and through experimental infection of Lymnaea columella (Say, 1817) by miracidia from these eggs and subsequent infection of C57/BL06 mice with metacercariae originating from these infected mollusks. The data suggest the occurrence of natural cycle of F. hepatica in this region and provide a warning that expansion of the geographical distribution of this parasite by means of this rodent is possible. It is therefore important to adopting measures for epidemiological control of this helminthiasis.

  14. FASCIOLA HEPATICA AND SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI: IDENTIFICATION OF COMMON PROTEINS BY COMPARATIVE PROTEOMIC ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukli, Nawal M.; Delgado, Bonnibel; Ricaurte, Martha; Espino, Ana M.

    2013-01-01

    It is not unusual to find common molecules among parasites of different species, genera, or phyla. When those molecules are antigenic, they may be used for developing drugs or vaccines that simultaneously target different species or genera of parasite. In the present study, we used a proteomic-based approach to identify proteins that are common to adult Fasciola hepatica and Schistosoma mansoni. Whole-worm extracts from each parasite were separated by 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), and digital images of both proteomes were superimposed using imaging software to identify proteins with identical isoelectric points and molecular weights. Protein identities were determined by mass spectrometry. Imaging and immunoblot analyses identified 28 immunoreactive proteins that are common to both parasites. Among these molecules are antioxidant proteins (thioredoxin and glutathione-S-transferase), glycolytic enzymes (glyceraldehyde 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and enolase), proteolytic enzymes (cathepsin-L and -D), inhibitors (Kunitz-type, Stefin-1), proteins with chaperone activity (heat shock protein 70 and fatty acid–binding protein), and structural proteins (calcium-binding protein, actin, and myosin). Some of the identified proteins could be used to develop drugs and vaccines against fascioliasis and schistosomiasis. PMID:21506812

  15. On the presence and immunoregulatory functions of extracellular microRNAs in the trematode Fasciola hepatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromm, B; Ovchinnikov, V; Høye, E; Bernal, D; Hackenberg, M; Marcilla, A

    2017-02-01

    Liver flukes represent a paraphyletic group of endoparasitic flatworms that significantly affect man either indirectly due to economic damage on livestock or directly as pathogens. A range of studies have focussed on how these macroscopic organisms can evade the immune system and live inside a hostile environment such as the mammalian liver and bile ducts. Recently, microRNAs, a class of short noncoding gene regulators, have been proposed as likely candidates to play roles in this scenario. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key players in development and pathogenicity and are highly conserved between metazoans: identical miRNAs can be found in flatworms and mammalians. Interestingly, miRNAs are enriched in extracellular vesicles (EVs) which are secreted by most cells. EVs constitute an important mode of parasite/host interaction, and recent data illustrate that miRNAs play a vital part. We have demonstrated the presence of miRNAs in the EVs of the trematode species Dicrocoelium dendriticum and Fasciola hepatica (Fhe) and identified potential immune-regulatory miRNAs with targets in the host. After our initial identification of miRNAs expressed by F. hepatica, an assembled genome and additional miRNA data became available. This has enabled us to update the known complement of miRNAs in EVs and speculate on potential immune-regulatory functions that we review here. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Evaluation of Fas2-ELISA for the serological detection of Fasciola hepatica infection in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Jose R; Maco, Vicente; Marcos, Luis; Saez, Sandra; Neyra, Victor; Terashima, Angelica; Samalvides, Frine; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Chavarry, Elizabeth; Huaman, Maria Cecilia; Bargues, M Dolores; Valero, M Adela; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2007-05-01

    The performance of Fas2-ELISA for the diagnosis of Fasciola hepatica infection in children living in areas of high endemicity for fascioliasis in the Peruvian Andes is analyzed. Fas2-ELISA is based on the detection of circulating IgG antibodies elicited in infected individuals against a F. hepatica antigen termed Fas2. The study was conducted in three Andean localities, Huertas-Julcan in Junin, Asillo in Puno, and Cajamarca, with a total population of 634 children in an age range 1 to 16 years old. Child fascioliasis prevalence was 21.1% in Huertas-Julcan, 25.4% in Asillo, and 24% in Cajamarca, estimated by coprological inspection. The seroprevalence of F. hepatica infection, determined by Fas2-ELISA, was 27.8% in Huertas-Julcan, 44.6% in Asillo, and 29.1% in Cajamarca. The overall sensitivity of Fas2-ELISA was 92.4%, the specificity 83.6%, and the negative predictive value 97.2%. No association between OD(450) Fas2-ELISA and infection intensity measured by egg counting was observed. Results show that Fas2-ELISA is a highly sensitive immunodiagnostic test for the detection of F. hepatica infection in children living in human fascioliasis endemic areas.

  17. Excretory-secretory products (ESP) from Fasciola hepatica induce tolerogenic properties in myeloid dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcón, Cristian; Carranza, Franco; Martínez, Fernando F; Knubel, Carolina P; Masih, Diana T; Motrán, Claudia C; Cervi, Laura

    2010-09-15

    Fasciola hepatica is a helminth trematode that migrates through the host tissues until reaching bile ducts where it becomes an adult. During its migration the parasite releases different excretory-secretory products (ESP), which are in contact with the immune system. In this study, we focused on the effect of ESP on the maturation and function of murine bone marrow derived-dendritic cells (DC). We found that the treatment of DC with ESP failed to induce a classical maturation of these cells, since ESP alone did not activate DC to produce any cytokines, although they impaired the ability of DC to be activated by TLR ligands and also their capacity to stimulate an allospecific response. In addition, using an in vitro ovalbumin peptide-restricted priming assay, ESP-treated DC exhibited a capacity to drive Th2 and regulatory T cell (Treg) polarization of CD4(+) cells from DO11.10 transgenic mice. This was characterized by increased IL-4, IL-5, IL-10 and TGF-beta production and the expansion of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) cells. Our results support the hypothesis that ESP from F. hepatica modulate the maturation and function of DC as part of a generalized immunosuppressive mechanism that involves a bias towards a Th2 response and Treg development.

  18. Radix natalensis (Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae, a potential intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dar Y.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Experimental infections of Egyptian Radix natalensis with French miracidia of Fasciola hepatica were carried out to determine if this snail might act as an intermediate host in the life cycle of this digenean in Egypt. Single exposures of R. natalensis to miracidia (2/snail and two successive exposures (a total of 4 miracidia/snail were performed using lymnaeids measuring 1 to 6 mm in height. Live larval forms of F. hepatica were noted in single- and double-exposed snails. In double exposures, a significant increase of snail survival on day 28 post-exposure (at 24 °C and an decrease in prevalence were noted when the height of snails at exposure was increasing. Cercariae of F. hepatica were shed by these snails (90.7/snail during a mean patent period of 24.3 days. All snails have released these cercariae during 2-13 waves of shedding. According to these results, R. natalensis can be considered a potential intermediate host of F. hepatica in Egypt.

  19. Carbohydrate Detection and Lectin Isolation from Tegumental Tissue of Fasciola hepatica

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    MB Molaei Rad

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Fascioliasis is a chronic hepatic disease and may be resulted from mechani­cal/molecular parasite adhesion to host liver tissue. The aim of this study was to detect surface car­bohydrate and lectin, carbohydrate-binding protein isolation that might be responsible of this molecular binding."nMethods: The present experimental work was conducted in the Department of Medical Parasitol­ogy and Mycology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Te­hran, Iran.  Fasciola hepatica parasites were collected from abattoir (Saman, Tehran, Iran and surface mannose-carbohydrate was detected by fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC conju­gated lectin (Lentil. Lectin of tegumental tissue from F. hepatica was isolated by affinity chroma­tography and detected by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE."nResults: Mannose carbohydrate was observed on the surface of tegumental tissue from para­site under fluorescence microscope. Carbohydrate-binding protein or lectin with MW of 50 kDa also was isolated from homogenized tegument of helminth."nConclusion: These results are important for understanding of molecular pathogenesis of F. hepat­ica at the chronic phase of fascioliasis

  20. Fasciola hepatica IN BOVINES IN BRAZIL: DATA AVAILABILITY AND SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sita C. Bennema

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fasciolosis is a disease of importance for both veterinary and public health. For the first time, georeferenced prevalence data of Fasciola hepatica in bovines were collected and mapped for the Brazilian territory and data availability was discussed. Bovine fasciolosis in Brazil is monitored on a Federal, State and Municipal level, and to improve monitoring it is essential to combine the data collected on these three levels into one dataset. Data were collected for 1032 municipalities where livers were condemned by the Federal Inspection Service (MAPA/SIF because of the presence of F. hepatica. The information was distributed over 11 states: Espírito Santo, Goiás, Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso do Sul, Mato Grosso, Pará, Paraná, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina and São Paulo. The highest prevalence of fasciolosis was observed in the southern states, with disease clusters along the coast of Paraná and Santa Catarina and in Rio Grande do Sul. Also, temporal variation of the prevalence was observed. The observed prevalence and the kriged prevalence maps presented in this paper can assist both animal and human health workers in estimating the risk of infection in their state or municipality.

  1. Fasciola hepatica Kunitz type molecule decreases dendritic cell activation and their ability to induce inflammatory responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian R Falcón

    Full Text Available The complete repertoire of proteins with immunomodulatory activity in Fasciola hepatica (Fh has not yet been fully described. Here, we demonstrated that Fh total extract (TE reduced LPS-induced DC maturation, and the DC ability to induce allogeneic responses. After TE fractionating, a fraction lower than 10 kDa (F<10 kDa was able to maintain the TE properties to modulate the DC pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine production induced by LPS. In addition, TE or F<10 kDa treatment decreased the ability of immature DC to stimulate the allogeneic responses and induced a novo allogeneic CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells. In contrast, treatment of DC with T/L or F<10 kDa plus LPS (F<10/L induced a regulatory IL-27 dependent mechanism that diminished the proliferative and Th1 and Th17 allogeneic responses. Finally, we showed that a Kunitz type molecule (Fh-KTM, present in F<10 kDa, was responsible for suppressing pro-inflammatory cytokine production in LPS-activated DC, by printing tolerogenic features on DC that impaired their ability to induce inflammatory responses. These results suggest a modulatory role for this protein, which may be involved in the immune evasion mechanisms of the parasite.

  2. Fasciola hepatica: comparative metacercarial productions in experimentally-infected Galba truncatula and Pseudosuccinea columella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vignoles Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As large numbers of metacercariae of Fasciola hepatica are necessary for research, experimental infections of Galba truncatula and Pseudosuccinea columella with this digenean were carried out to determine the better intermediate host for metacercarial production and, consequently, the most profitable snail for decreasing the cost price of these larvae. Pre-adult snails (4 mm in shell height originating from two populations per lymnaeid species were individually exposed to two or five miracidia, raised at 23 °C and followed for cercarial shedding up to their death. Compared to values noted in G. truncatula, the survival of P. columella on day 30 post-exposure was significantly greater, while the prevalence of F. hepatica infection was significantly lower. In the four P. columella groups, metacercarial production was significantly greater than that noted in the four groups of G. truncatula (347–453 per cercariae-shedding snail versus 163–275, respectively. Apart from one population of G. truncatula, the use of five miracidia per snail at exposure significantly increased the prevalence of F. hepatica in P. columella and the other population of G. truncatula, whereas it did not have any clear effect on the mean number of metacercariae. The use of P. columella for experimental infections with F. hepatica resulted in significantly higher metacercarial production than that noted with G. truncatula, in spite of a lower prevalence for the former lymnaeid. This finding allows for a significant decrease in the cost price of these larvae for commercial production.

  3. Fasciola hepatica infection and association with gastrointestinal parasites in Creole goats from western Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuervo, Pablo; Sidoti, Laura; Fantozzi, Cecilia; Neira, Gisela; Gerbeno, Leticia; Mera y Sierra, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Goats, called “the cow of the poor”, are the livestock species with the most significant population growth worldwide in recent years. Gastrointestinal parasitism constitutes one of the main constraints to its outdoor and extensive breeding in temperate and tropical countries. Despite a Creole goat population of nearly 4 million heads, local reports on parasitological prevalence are scarce, and while Fasciola hepatica infection is spread all over Argentina, the goat is usually neglected as a reservoir and economic losses are not considered. To evaluate gastrointestinal parasitism prevalence and associations between parasite genera and species, with emphasis on fascioliasis, Creole goats from the plateau and Andean regions from western Argentina were investigated by coprological techniques, and associations were statistically assessed. Eighty-five percent (85%) of the animals harbored one or more parasite types, while 46% showed mixed infections. Significant positive associations between F. hepatica + Strongyle eggs, Eimeria sp. + Nematodirus sp. and Nematodirus sp. + Trichuris ovis were detected. Further studies are required to define the causality of these associations and their relevance in epidemiology. F. hepatica is rarely considered as goat parasite in the country, but a 33% prevalence poses an interrogation on the role goats play on the transmission and dissemination of this zoonotic trematode.

  4. Pochonia chlamydosporia in the biological control of Fasciola hepatica in cattle in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, A S; Araújo, J V; Braga, F R; Puppin, A C; Perboni, W R

    2013-06-01

    Biological control with the use of nematophagous fungi has been described very successfully by many authors and presents itself as a complementary control method, acting on the free-living forms of helminths. The efficacy of a formulation containing the fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia in controlling Fasciola hepatica eggs in faeces was evaluated in an experimental field assay. Two bovine groups (six animals each) were used: A (control) and B (treated with fungus). At 30 days after deworming, the animals were separated into two similar paddocks with flooded areas and were given pellets containing 25 % mycelial mass (group B) or no fungus (group A) at a dose of 1 g/10 kg body weight, twice a week, during 18 months. Faecal samples were harvested fortnightly in the animals of groups A and B and they were submitted at examination of quantitative sedimentation. The mean count of F. hepatica eggs per grams of faeces was significantly higher in group A (1.19) compared with those from group B (0.82) (P control group (A). Every month, faecal samples from paddocks A and B were collected and they were incubated. P. chlamydosporia was identified only in sample source of the paddock B. It can be concluded that the application of this fungical formulation with P. chlamydosporia 25 % mycelial mass was effective in reducing the availability of eggs in the environment and reinfections in calves in natural conditions.

  5. Inmunolocalización de Tubulina en Túbulos testiculares de Fasciola hepatica expuesta a triclabendazole "in vivo" Immunolocalization of Tubulin in testis of fasciola hepatica exposed to triclabendazole "in vivo"

    OpenAIRE

    H Solana; S Scarcella; M. L Gentile; Martínez, A.; Alzola, R.

    2009-01-01

    La fasciolosis es una zoonosis producida por el trematodo Fasciola hepatica afectando a herbívoros rumiantes y el hombre. Ante una fasciolosis generalmente se utiliza triclabendazole, un benzimidazol metilcarbamato halogenado. El mecanismo de acción de los benzimidazoles antihelmínticos se basa en su unión a la β tubulina del helminto con la consecuente despolimerización de sus microtúbulos provocándole la pérdida de función, el desprendimiento y la muerte del parásito. En el caso de tri...

  6. Viabilidade de ovos de Fasciola hepatica de bovinos em sistema de biodigestão anaeróbia Viability of bovine's Fasciola hepatica eggs in a system of anaerobic biodigestion

    OpenAIRE

    Mentz,M.B.; J.M. Wiest; Gonçalves,P.C.

    2004-01-01

    Cattle Fasciola hepatica egg-viability was studied in closed system of anaerobic biodigestion. Two thirds of a biodigestor were filled with liquefied manure from eight Hosltein cows, naturally infected. For 10 consecutive weeks of observation, the biodigestor internal temperature ranged from 24ºC to 28ºC, and external temperature from 26ºC to 33ºC. All the effluent samples showed a constant pH of 7. The samples of the effluent were weekly collected, in a total of 10 and submitted to technique...

  7. Juvenile psammomatoid ossifying fibroma. Case report

    OpenAIRE

    Vahtsevanos, Konstantinos; Persephone XIROU; Giorgos BALLIS; Tsekos, Antonis; Ntomouchtsis, Aris; Alexandros VALASIDIS; Doxa MAGGOUDI

    2012-01-01

    Ossifying fibroma (OS) represents a slow growing, benign neoplasm that belongs to the greater group of fibro-osseous lesions. Based on its histological features, ossifying fibroma is divided into: a) juvenile trabecular OS and b) juvenile psammomatoid OS which affects mainly the paranasal sinuses of children and teenagers aging from 5 to 15 years.A rare case of juvenile psammomatoid ossifying fibroma in a 30 year old male patient located in the left mandibular ramus is presented. Treatment pl...

  8. Distinct synovial immunopathologic characteristics of juvenile-onset spondylarthritis and other forms of juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Kruithof; V. van den Bossche; L. de Rycke; B. Vandooren; R. Joos; J.D. Canete; P.P. Tak; A.M.H. Boots; E.M. Veys; D. Baeten

    2006-01-01

    Objective. To characterize the synovial immunopathologic features of juvenile-onset spondylarthritis (SpA) in relation to adult SpA and other forms of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Methods. Synovial biopsy samples were obtained from 10 patients with juvenile-onset SpA, 23 with adult SpA, 19 w

  9. Justicia juvenil restaurativa como respuesta alternativa

    OpenAIRE

    Mariño Rojas, Cielo

    2016-01-01

    El artículo explora las posibilidades de la justicia juvenil restaurativa como respuesta alternativa en los sistemas de justicia juvenil en la región. Si bien la justicia restaurativa no aparece explícitamente en los instrumentos internacionales sobre justicia penal juvenil, estos dan la oportunidad para que aquella se desarrolle dentro de los sistemas de justicia juvenil. Inicialmente se aborda su evolución histórica para establecer el origen de sus principales características. A continuació...

  10. Alteration in Haematological and Liver Function Indices during Human Infection with Fasciola spp. Post Treatment with Triclabendazole

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    M.I. Edalatzadeh

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Fascioliasis is a zoonotic parasitic disease, caused by the liver fluke, Fasciola spp.. Human is occasional host when ingesting the metacercaria by eating contaminated aquatic vegetable. In the two past decades, human fasciolasis was emerging as a problem of public health in the Guilan province; in Anzali city. Triclabendazole is a novel anti-helmenthic that during recent years has been used for fascioliasis treatment in this region. The aim of the present work is to study alteration in haematological and liver function indices during human infection with Fasciola spp. pre and post treatment with triclabendazoleMaterials & Methods: The present work is a longitudinal clinical trail. In this regard, fifty confirmed fasciolasis patients, were chosen for parasitological, hematological and biochemical examinations pre-therapy as well as 1 and 6 months post-therapy. Formalin-ether and modified Telemann methods were used for stool examination. For Fasciola antibody detection ELISA technique was employed. Hematological and biochemical tests were performed by standard methods. Results: Results indicated that, triclabendazole efficacy was 74% after usage as one dose of 20mg/kg and reached to 88% after repeating in the next month. Before triclabebdazole therapy the Hb and HCT of the patients were slightly found lower than normal ranges, meanwhile the ESR and eosinophil percentages were higher. However following receiving the drug, in the cured individuals, the indices returned to the normal ranges but in the non-cured individuals were not shifted to the normal. On the other hand liver function indices of the patients mostly were at normal ranges before and following drug therapy.Conclusion: In conclusion haematological indices could be valuable indicator for successful therapy of patients treated with triclabendazole.

  11. Ocorrência de infecção natural de Fasciola hepatica Linnaeus, 1758 em Lymnaea columella Say, 1817 no Vale do Paraíba, SP, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Marlene Tiduko Ueta

    1980-01-01

    Foram registradas em Piquete, no vale do rio Paraíba do Sul (SP), Brasil, taxas de 1,22% e 0,14% de infecção natural em Lymnaea columella, por Fasciola hepatica. Em um único exemplar de Lymnaea columella dentre os 1.052 examinados, foram observadas rédias com xifidiocercárias, rédias com cercárias de Fasciola hepatica e metacercárias de Echinostomatidae.Infection rates of 1.22% and 0.14% were obtained in Lymnaea columella snails naturally infected by Fasciola hepatica. Samples of the snails w...

  12. Fasciola immature stages sought in Lymnaea species and Biomphalaria species in the water bodies of Dakahlia Governorate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Shazly, Atef M; Helmy, Moshira M F; Haridy, Fouad M; el-Sharkawy, Eman M A; Morsy, Tosson A

    2002-04-01

    Examination of the five different water bodies in Dakahlia governorate, revealed four species of Lymnaea. These were L. natalensis (68.4%). L. truncatula (16%), L. stagnalis (12.2%) and L. columella (3.4%). Also, two species of Biomphalaria were recovered. These were B. alexandrina (54.7%) and B. glabrata (45.3%). Examination of all these snails showed natural infection with immature stages of Fasciola sp. in 5.5% of L. natalensis (= cailliaudi), 3.1% in L. truncatula and 0.67% in B. alexandrina. The importance of these snails in dissemination and spreading of fascioliasis was discussed.

  13. First report of Lymnaea columella Say, 1817 (Pulmonata: Lymnaeidae) naturally infected with Fasciola hepatica (Linnaeus,1758) (Trematoda: Digenea) in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prepelitchi, Lucila; Kleiman, Florencia; Pietrokovsky, Silvia M; Moriena, Ricardo A; Racioppi, Oscar; Alvarez, José; Wisnivesky-Colli, Cristina

    2003-10-01

    We report the first evidence of natural infection of Lymnaea columella with Fasciola hepatica in Argentina. A sample of 601 snails was collected in May 2003 in northeastern Corrientes, a province bounded on the north by Paraguay, on the east by Brazil and on the southeast by Uruguay. Among 500 examined snails, 44 (8.8%) were exclusively infected with F. hepatica. Parasite identification was based on morphological features of cercariae from snails, and of eggs and adult flukes from Wistar rats. We discuss the events suggesting that an enzootic transmission cycle of F. hepatica has been recently established in northeastern Corrientes.

  14. First report of Lymnaea columella Say, 1817 (Pulmonata: Lymnaeidae naturally infected with Fasciola hepatica (Linnaeus,1758 (Trematoda: Digenea in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prepelitchi Lucila

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the first evidence of natural infection of Lymnaea columella with Fasciola hepatica in Argentina. A sample of 601 snails was collected in May 2003 in northeastern Corrientes, a province bounded on the north by Paraguay, on the east by Brazil and on the southeast by Uruguay. Among 500 examined snails, 44 (8.8% were exclusively infected with F. hepatica. Parasite identification was based on morphological features of cercariae from snails, and of eggs and adult flukes from Wistar rats. We discuss the events suggesting that an enzootic transmission cycle of F. hepatica has been recently established in northeastern Corrientes.

  15. Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis. Radiological diagnosis. Fibromatosis hialina juvenil. Diagnostico radiologico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentes, R.; Sar, V.; Cabrera, J.J.; Diaz, L.; Hernandez, B.; Valeron, P.; Baez, O.; Rodriguez, M.

    1993-10-01

    Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis (JHF) is a rare disorder of unknown etiology, very few cases of which have been reported in the literature. It presents similarities to other fibromatosys, but has its particular radiological features which differentiate it from them. The clinical findings consist of several, slow growing, subcutaneous nodules, flexion contractures of the joints which can lead to disability, gingival hypertrophy and muscular atrophy. The suspected radiological diagnosis is confirmed by electron microscopy study of the nodules, although light microscopy can also reveal suggestive images. Author (9 refs.)

  16. Ocorrência de Lymnaea columella (Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae, hospedeiro intermediário da Fasciola hepatica, para o Estado da Paraíba, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abílio Francisco José Pegado

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi registrada a ocorrência de Lymnaea columella (Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae, primeiro hospedeiro intermediário da Fasciola hepatica, para o Estado da Paraíba, Brasil, associado a macrófitas aquáticas.

  17. Ocorrência de Lymnaea columella (Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae, hospedeiro intermediário da Fasciola hepatica, para o Estado da Paraíba, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Pegado Abílio

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi registrada a ocorrência de Lymnaea columella (Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae, primeiro hospedeiro intermediário da Fasciola hepatica, para o Estado da Paraíba, Brasil, associado a macrófitas aquáticas.

  18. ANALIZAR TRES ESPECIES DE CARACOLES QUE ACTÚEN COMO POSIBLES HOSPEDEROS INTERMEDIARIOS DE LA FASCIOLA HEPÁTICA EN LA REGIÓN AREQUIPA - 2013

    OpenAIRE

    CUADROS MEDINA, SANTIAGO BALTAZAR

    2015-01-01

    CARACOL MELANOIDES TUBERCULATA ORIGEN Y HÁBITAT SINONIMIAS CARACTERÍSTICAS MORFOLÓGICAS MANTENIMIENTO ALIMENTACIÓN COMPORTAMIENTO REPRODUCCIÓN FASCIOLA HEPÁTICA CICLO BIOLÓGICO GÉNERO PHYSA GÉNERO LYMNAEA GÉNERO MALAYSIAN TRUMPET SNAIL ECOLOGÍA HÁBITAT PARÁSITOS LAS PLAGAS AGRÍCOLAS

  19. Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Compared to Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Test for the Detection of Fasciola hepatica in Human Stool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabada, Miguel M; Malaga, Jose L; Castellanos-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Bagwell, Kelli A; Naeger, Patrick A; Rogers, Hayley K; Maharsi, Safa; Mbaka, Maryann; White, A Clinton

    2017-02-08

    Fasciola hepatica is the most widely distributed trematode infection in the world. Control efforts may be hindered by the lack of diagnostic capacity especially in remote endemic areas. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods offer high sensitivity and specificity but require expensive technology. However, the recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) is an efficient isothermal method that eliminates the need for a thermal cycler and has a high deployment potential to resource-limited settings. We report on the characterization of RPA and PCR tests to detect Fasciola infection in clinical stool samples with low egg burdens. The sensitivity of the RPA and PCR were 87% and 66%, respectively. Both tests were 100% specific showing no cross-reactivity with trematode, cestode, or nematode parasites. In addition, RPA and PCR were able to detect 47% and 26% of infections not detected by microscopy, respectively. The RPA adapted to a lateral flow platform was more sensitive than gel-based detection of the reaction products. In conclusion, the Fasciola RPA is a highly sensitive and specific test to diagnose chronic infection using stool samples. The Fasciola RPA lateral flow has the potential for deployment to endemic areas after further characterization. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  20. Concordância entre duas técnicas coproparasitológicas para diagnóstico de Fasciola hepatica em bovinos

    OpenAIRE

    FARIA, R.N.; Cury,M.C.; W.S. Lima

    2008-01-01

    Two different methods to detect Fasciola hepatica in faeces using kappa index were compared with four tamises technics and sequencial fitration in two tamises using Flukefinder® apparatus. High accordance between the two methods was observed. The values showed high sensibility and specificity.

  1. Juvenile ossifying fibroma: Psammamatoid variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivani Aggarwal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile ossifying fibroma is a rare fibro-osseous lesion containing variable amount of calcified masses, which resembles bone or cementum within a fibrocellular connective tissue stroma. It has variable clinical behavior, highly aggressive in nature including invasion and destruction of adjacent anatomic structures with a strong tendency to recur. We reported a 28-year-old female patient with a growth in the upper left vestibule region extending from canine to molar region with clinical, histopathological, and radiological features are presented. Surgical management was done, and regular follow-up was advised.

  2. [Juvenile monomelic amyotrophy: Hirayama disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdowski, W; Baniukiewicz, E; Lewonowska, M

    1998-01-01

    We present three patients with unilateral upper limb weakness (with muscular atrophy)-two of them with distal and one with proximal localization. The disease onset was between 18th end 35-th year of life; the disease course was biphasic (i.e. progressive within first 1 to 3 years, and stabilized during following 4-24 years). The laboratory investigations permitted to diagnose juvenile monomelic amyotrophy, an entity that is very rare outside Japan. Electromyography revealed neurogenic involvement with spinal features also in clinically unaffected muscles. We suggest that these results may support the hypothesis of this disease being a benign variant of spinal muscular atrophy.

  3. Juvenile Competency to Stand Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanyan, Sofia T; Sidhu, Shawn S; Bath, Eraka

    2016-01-01

    Competency to stand trial is interpreted as a protected due process right for all defendants and is defined as a defendant's fundamental knowledge and understanding of the criminal charges being filed, roles and procedures within the courtroom, and a general ability to work with the defense counsel. Questions of competency are most often raised by the judge, defense, or the prosecution, and competency evaluations are most often completed by psychiatrists or psychologists with forensic training or work experience. Mental illness, intellectual disability, developmental disorders, and developmental immaturity are the 4 main factors considered in most juvenile competency evaluations.

  4. Glucocorticoids in juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malattia, Clara; Martini, Alberto

    2014-05-01

    Although the use of corticosteroids in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is now much more limited owing to the availability of methotrexate and biological agents, there are clinical scenarios where it is still indicated. For example, corticosteroids may be indicated for intraarticular injections to prevent joint deformities, as a "bridge" drug to relieve symptoms in polyarticular disease while waiting for methotrexate and biologics to exert their full therapeutic effects, and in the treatment of chronic iridocyclitis, macrophage activation syndrome, and systemic JIA, although the advent of interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-6 blockers has greatly reduced the latter indication.

  5. Imaging of juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Karl [Birmingham Children' s Hospital, Radiology Department, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2006-08-15

    Over the past decade there have been considerable changes in the classification and imaging of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Radiology now has a considerable role in the management of JIA, the differential diagnosis, monitoring disease progression and detecting complications. The different imaging modalities available, their role and limitations are discussed in this article and the various disease features that the radiologist should be aware of are described. An approach to the imaging of the child with joint disease and in the monitoring of disease complications are also discussed. (orig.)

  6. THE STUDY OF FEATURES OF GUILT OF JUVENILE OFFENDERS IN THE CONTEXT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE

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    Natalija Vladimirovna Galkina

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the results of empirical studies of the experiences of guilt of juvenile offenders in the context of juvenile justice where a minor appears as the subject of legal relations. Restorative approach of juvenile justice is based on an admission of guilt to the victim. In connection with it, the research of features of the guilt of minors who have committed an offence and the conditions for the development of the subjectivity will enhance understanding of the possibilities of restorative juvenile justice system in the prevention of juvenile delinquency.Thus, the results of empirical research presented in the article are important for determining of the psychological bases of realization of rehabilitation programs in the context of juvenile justice. In particular, the results are important for the organization and conduct of psychological work to overcome the psychological barriers in the behavior of juveniles having inherently maladaptive guilt and destructive psychological defense mechanisms.

  7. Changes in Juvenile Justice in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Dennis S. W.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses rising juvenile and youth crime in China, highlighting the essence of Chinese Marxist criminological thought and changing conceptions of delinquency from the postrevolutionary period to the present; examining official responses to delinquency and the recent development of juvenile justice; and suggesting that current delinquency control…

  8. Juvenile Anorexia Nervosa: Family Therapy's Natural Niche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, H. Charles

    2006-01-01

    Juvenile Anorexia Nervosa (AN) is a severe problem both in terms of presenting symptomatology and its tendency toward chronicity. Researchers have consistently shown that family-based approaches are superior to individual approaches for the treatment of juvenile AN. This article addresses the capacity deficit of trained family therapists to treat…

  9. Sexually dimorphic body plumage in juvenile crossbills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelaar, P; Phillips, RE; Knops, P

    2005-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism in color and pattern of contour feathers is rare in juvenile songbirds. We describe how captive-bred juvenile males of Scottish Crossbill (Loxia scotica) and nominate Red Crossbill (L. curvirostra curvirostra) can be differentiated from females prior to prebasic molt by an unstreak

  10. Juveniles' Motivations for Remaining in Prostitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Shu-Ling; Bedford, Olwen

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were collected in 1990-1991, 1992, and 2000 with 49 prostituted juveniles remanded to two rehabilitation centers in Taiwan. These data are analyzed to explore Taiwanese prostituted juveniles' feelings about themselves and their work, their motivations for remaining in prostitution, and their difficulties…

  11. Alternative sanctions for juveniles in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, P.H. van der

    1993-01-01

    In the Netherlands alternative sanctions for juveniles have become very popular. In less than ten years, the alternative sanction has surpassed the fine as the most frequently imposed penal sanction for juveniles. As a result of this popularity, some net widening has occured. In general, alternativl

  12. Psychiatric Disorder in a Juvenile Assessment Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    McReynolds, Larkin S.; Wasserman, Gail A.; DeComo, Robert E.; John, Reni; Keating, Joseph M.; Nolen, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile assessment centers (JACs) were developed to address service fragmentation and promote the sharing of information among agencies providing services to youth involved with the juvenile justice system. To date, there are no reports that describe the diagnostic profiles of the youth served by such centers. The authors hypothesize that the…

  13. Moral Development of Solo Juvenile Sex Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Vugt, Eveline; Stams, Geert Jan; Dekovic, Maja; Brugman, Daan; Rutten, Esther; Hendriks, Jan

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the moral development of solo juvenile male sex offenders (n = 20) and juvenile male non-offenders (n = 76), aged 13-19 years, from lower socioeconomic and educational backgrounds. The Moral Orientation Measure (MOM) was used to assess punishment- and victim-based moral orientation in sexual and non-sexual situations. Moral…

  14. Juveniles' Motivations for Remaining in Prostitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Shu-Ling; Bedford, Olwen

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were collected in 1990-1991, 1992, and 2000 with 49 prostituted juveniles remanded to two rehabilitation centers in Taiwan. These data are analyzed to explore Taiwanese prostituted juveniles' feelings about themselves and their work, their motivations for remaining in prostitution, and their difficulties…

  15. Ethnic disparities in Dutch juvenile justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komen, M.; van Schooten, E.

    2009-01-01

    In the Netherlands, ethnic minority boys are heavily overrepresented in prisons and secure judicial institutions for juveniles. In a sample of 324 juveniles of both native Dutch and ethnic minority origin who have come into contact with the Dutch criminal justice authorities, we compared the number

  16. Group sexual offending by juvenile females

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijkman, M.; Weerman, F.; Bijleveld, C.; Hendriks, J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined all group sexual offending cases in the Netherlands between 1995 and 2009 (n = 26) in which at least one juvenile female offender (n = 35) had been adjudicated. Information from court files showed that the majority of juvenile female group sexual offenders have (inter)personal pr

  17. A social work study on juvenile delinquency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We present an empirical study to study the effects of different factors on juvenile delinquency. The investigation distributes 100 questionnaires among people who are involved with crime and analyzes their feedbacks. There are five hypotheses in our survey and we look to see whether family conditions, religion, economical conditions, media and physical and psychological characteristics play important role on juvenile delinquency in Iranian society. The results shows that while family conditions, physical and psychological characteristics play important role on juvenile delinquency, other factors do not statistically have any impact on juvenile delinquency. The study suggests that a better family condition could help reduce juvenile delinquency and people could guide their children through better consultations.

  18. Myocastor coypus as a reservoir host of Fasciola hepatica in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménard, A; Agoulon, A; L'Hostis, M L; Rondelaud, D; Collard, S; Chauvin, A

    2001-01-01

    To clarify the role of the nutria Myocastor coypus in the epidemiology of domestic fasciolosis in Loire-Atlantique (department of western France), 438 nutrias were trapped in 9 humid areas of the department and 304 nutrias were trapped in 3 farms where Fasciola hepatica was present; all animals were necropsied. Liver flukes were found in 160 nutrias: 38 nutrias randomly taken in the department (8.7%) and 122 trapped in fasciolosis areas (40.1%). The average parasitic burden was 5.7 flukes per nutria. Sixty-five percent of the liver flukes measured more than 18 mm (size of sexual maturity). The coproscopic examinations carried out on 144 infected nutrias showed that 90% of the infected nutrias shed fluke eggs. The hatching rate was 39.6%. Two groups of 100 Lymnaea truncatula snails, originating from 2 different populations, were exposed to F. hepatica miracidiae hatched from eggs collected from infected nutrias. The prevalence of the infection was 74% and 58.6% in the 2 groups of snails. The average redial burden was 6.2 rediae per snail. The total number of metacercariae was 72.4 metacercariae per snail producing cercariae. Two groups of 5 sheep were orally infected by 150 metacercariae of nutria or sheep origin, respectively. The installation rates of F. hepatica in sheep were respectively 31.6% and 29.6% for the two groups. Specific antibody kinetics of sheep were similar whether the metacercariae were of nutria or sheep origin. M. coypus allows the complete development of F. hepatica and releases parasitic elements that are infective for domestic ruminants. Because of its eco-ethologic characteristics, the nutria could be a potential wild reservoir of F. hepatica in France.

  19. Fasciola hepatica induces eosinophil apoptosis in the migratory and biliary stages of infection in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escamilla, A; Bautista, M J; Zafra, R; Pacheco, I L; Ruiz, M T; Martínez-Cruz, S; Méndez, A; Martínez-Moreno, A; Molina-Hernández, V; Pérez, J

    2016-01-30

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate the number of apoptotic eosinophils in the livers of sheep experimentally infected with Fasciola hepatica during the migratory and biliary stages of infection. Four groups (n=5) of sheep were used; groups 1-3 were orally infected with 200 metacercariae (mc) and sacrificed at 8 and 28 days post-infection (dpi), and 17 weeks post-infection (wpi), respectively. Group 4 was used as an uninfected control. Apoptosis was detected using immunohistochemistry with a polyclonal antibody against anti-active caspase-3, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Eosinophils were identified using the Hansel stain in serial sections for caspase-3, and by ultrastructural features using TEM. At 8 and 28 dpi, numerous caspase-3(+) eosinophils were mainly found at the periphery of acute hepatic necrotic foci. The percentage of caspase -3(+) apoptotic eosinophils in the periphery of necrotic foci was high (46.1-53.9) at 8 and 28 dpi, respectively, and decreased in granulomas found at 28 dpi (6%). Transmission electron microscopy confirmed the presence of apoptotic eosinophils in hepatic lesions at 8 and 28 dpi. At 17 wpi, apoptotic eosinophils were detected in the infiltrate surrounding some enlarged bile ducts containing adult flukes. This is the first report of apoptosis induced by F. hepatica in sheep and the first study reporting apoptosis in eosinophils in hepatic inflammatory infiltrates in vivo. The high number of apoptotic eosinophils in acute necrotic tracts during the migratory and biliary stages of infection suggests that eosinophil apoptosis may play a role in F. hepatica survival during different stages of infection.

  20. Fasciola hepatica Surface Tegument: Glycoproteins at the Interface of Parasite and Host*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravidà, Alessandra; Cwiklinski, Krystyna; Aldridge, Allison M.; Clarke, Paul; Thompson, Roisin; Gerlach, Jared Q.; Kilcoyne, Michelle; Hokke, Cornelis H.; Dalton, John P.; O'Neill, Sandra M.

    2016-01-01

    Fasciola hepatica, commonly known as liver fluke, is a trematode that causes Fasciolosis in ruminants and humans. The outer tegumental coat of F. hepatica (FhTeg) is a complex metabolically active biological matrix that is continually exposed to the host immune system and therefore makes a good vaccine target. F. hepatica tegumental coat is highly glycosylated and helminth-derived immunogenic oligosaccharide motifs and glycoproteins are currently being investigated as novel vaccine candidates. This report presents the first systematic characterization of FhTeg glycosylation using lectin microarrays to characterize carbohydrates motifs present, and lectin histochemistry to localize these on the F. hepatica tegument. We discovered that FhTeg glycoproteins are predominantly oligomannose oligosaccharides that are expressed on the spines, suckers and tegumental coat of F. hepatica and lectin blot analysis confirmed the abundance of N- glycosylated proteins. Although some oligosaccharides are widely distributed on the fluke surface other subsets are restricted to distinct anatomical regions. We selectively enriched for FhTeg mannosylated glycoprotein subsets using lectin affinity chromatography and identified 369 proteins by mass spectrometric analysis. Among these proteins are a number of potential vaccine candidates with known immune modulatory properties including proteases, protease inhibitors, paramyosin, Venom Allergen-like II, Enolase and two proteins, nardilysin and TRIL, that have not been previously associated with F. hepatica. Furthermore, we provide a comprehensive insight regarding the putative glycosylation of FhTeg components that could highlight the importance of further studies examining glycoconjugates in host-parasite interactions in the context of F. hepatica infection and the development of an effective vaccine. PMID:27466253

  1. Flukicidal action of closantel against immature and mature Fasciola hepatica in experimentally infected rats and sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, L; Lauwers, H; Deckers, W; Vanparijs, O

    1988-03-01

    The relative importance of peak level- and residual level-related flukicidal activity of closantel against immature and mature Fasciola hepatica was evaluated in a comparative efficacy trial using two animal species with a different plasma elimination pattern, that is, the rat and the sheep with an elimination half-life of less than one week and of two to three weeks, respectively. The rats were dosed orally with closantel at 20 mg kg-1 at two, four, six, eight and 10 weeks; the sheep at 10 mg kg-1 at eight, 10 and 12 weeks after artificial infection. Necropsy was performed either one week after treatment or 12 weeks after infection. Efficacy rates and the length of the recovered flukes were evaluated. It was demonstrated that the flukicidal effect of closantel is directly related to its peak plasma levels and less to its residual plasma concentrations. In the rat, a high efficacy (P less than 0.001) could be demonstrated against immature stages of four weeks or older. The two-week immature stages were less markedly affected. No significant differences in efficacy and size of the flukes were noted between the animals autopsied one week after treatment and those autopsied 12 weeks after infection. In the sheep, the efficacy against six-week and eight-week-old immature stages varied between 70.3 and 76.8 per cent and between 92.8 and 96.5 per cent, respectively. As in the rats, no marked differences in efficacy were noted between the animals autopsied one week after treatment and those autopsied 12 weeks after infection.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Hypothetical granulin-like molecule from Fasciola hepatica identified by bioinformatics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machicado, Claudia; Marcos, Luis A; Zimic, Mirko

    2016-01-01

    Fasciola hepatica is considered an emergent human pathogen, causing liver fibrosis or cirrhosis, conditions that are known to be direct causes of cancer. Some parasites have been categorized by WHO as carcinogenic agents such as Opisthorchis viverrini, a relative of F. hepatica. Although these two parasites are from the same class (Trematoda), the role of F. hepatica in carcinogenesis is unclear. We hypothesized that F. hepatica might share some features with O. viverrini and to be responsible to induce proliferation of host cells. We analyzed the recently released genome of F. hepatica looking for a gene coding a granulin-like growth factor, a protein secreted by O. viverrini (Ov-GRN-1), which is a potent stimulator of proliferation of host cells. Using computational biology tools, we identified a granulin-like molecule in F. hepatica, here termed FhGLM, which has high sequence identity level to Ov-GRN-1 and human progranulin. We found evidence of an upstream promoter compatible with the expression of FhGLM. The FhGLM architecture showed to have five granulin domains, one of them, the domain 3, was homologue to Ov-GRN-1 and human GRNC. The structure of the FhGLM granulin domain 3 resulted to have the overall folding of its homologue the human GRNC. Our findings show the presence of a homologue of a potent modulator of cell growth in F. hepatica that might have, as other granulins, a proliferative action on host cells during fascioliasis. Future experimental assays to demonstrate the presence of FhGLM in F. hepatica are needed to confirm our hypothesis.

  3. Comparison of molecular and conventional methods for the diagnosis of Fasciola hepatica infection in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arifin, Maria Immaculata; Höglund, Johan; Novobilský, Adam

    2016-12-15

    The liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, is one of the major parasite threats to livestock industries world-wide. In sheep and cattle, F. hepatica infection is commonly diagnosed using a range of methods. Aside from conventional coprological and serological diagnostic methods, there are also several molecular methods available based on the detection of liver fluke DNA in faeces. In this study, the outcomes of faecal egg count (FEC), serology and coproantigen ELISA (cELISA) were compared with the performance of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) in diagnosis of F. hepatica from naturally infected cattle and sheep. A total of 64 individual faecal and serum samples were collected from four sheep and beef cattle herds with previous histories of F. hepatica infection. FEC and coproantigen levels were measured in faecal samples and anti-F.hepatica antibody levels were measured in serum samples. DNA samples isolated from faeces were examined both by PCR and LAMP, targeting the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region of the F. hepatica genome. Results showed that F. hepatica eggs were present in 28 animals, while coproantigen and specific anti-F. hepatica antibodies were detected in 36 and 53 animals, respectively. Only 3 and 6 samples were positive by PCR and LAMP, respectively. To calculate method specificity and sensitivity, a combination of FEC and cELISA was selected as the composite reference standard (CRS). When compared to the CRS, PCR had a sensitivity of 10.7% and specificity of 100%, whereas LAMP had a sensitivity and specificity of 17.9% and 97.2%, respectively. PCR and LAMP in this field study were highly specific, but both had poor sensitivity compared with FEC and cELISA. Potential reasons for PCR and LAMP failure were inadequate amounts of amplifiable F. hepatica DNA, possibly due to the choice of DNA extraction procedure, amount of faecal material processed, as well as different faeces consistency and

  4. PCR diagnosis of Fasciola hepatica in field-collected Lymnaea columella and Lymnaea viatrix snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucher, Marcela A; Carnevale, Silvana; Prepelitchi, Lucila; Labbé, Jorge H; Wisnivesky-Colli, Cristina

    2006-04-15

    Fasciolosis, caused by the trematode Fasciola hepatica, is a zoonosis of economic importance in livestock that is emerging as a chronic disease in humans. The intermediate hosts are lymnaeid snails, in which diagnosis of infection is traditionally based on cercarial shedding, tissue sectioning and crushing. We developed a PCR assay for the sensitive and specific detection of F. hepatica in field-collected Lymnaea sp. snails. A primer pair was designed to amplify a 405 bp fragment of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene of F. hepatica. The PCR assay showed a limit of detection of 10 pg of genomic F. hepatica DNA. No cross-reactions were observed with samples from other related trematode species or from the snail hosts Lymnaea columella and Lymnaea viatrix. DNA sequencing of the amplicon showed 100% homology with F. hepatica, and 75-89% homology with other trematodes on regions that did not include the entire set of primers. Two samples from Argentina were analysed. For snails in sample 1 (n = 240), identified as L. columella, the infection rate was 17.5 and 51.3% by direct examination and PCR, respectively. For snails in sample 2 (n = 34), identified as L. viatrix, the infection rate was 2.9 and 61.8% by direct examination and PCR, respectively. Differences in infection rates between these diagnosis methods were significant for both samples. Our PCR technique showed to be effective for detecting specific F. hepatica infections of low intensity in the intermediate host, and hence it could be used to study the epidemiological situation in a given area, as well as to assess host suitability for the parasite.

  5. Distribution of Fasciola hepatica in Swedish dairy cattle and associations with pasture management factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Novobilský

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The geographic distribution of Fasciola hepatica infection in relation to management routines was studied in Swedish dairy herds by testing for F. hepatica antibodies with the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. In addition, all farmers were sent a questionnaire asking for information about type of production, management routines and historical record of F. hepatica at slaughter. A total of 176 farmers (41% responded to the questionnaire. A total of 426 bulk tank milk (BTM samples were randomly selected from the period September to October 2012 representing approximately 10% of all herds in Sweden. The overall seroprevalence was 25% (n = 107; 95% confidence interval = 21-29% with a concentration of herds located in south-western Sweden. Among the seropositive herds, 31 (29% had antibody levels indicating production loss. There were no significant differences in seropositivity between organic and conventional herds or due to pasture management routines. The length of grazing period, which increased the risk for heifers, was found to be the most influential factor. A discrepancy was noted between reported F. hepatica presence at meat inspection and herds that were seropositive based on BTM-ELISA results. Although the largest proportion of seropositive BTM samples (80% came from herds where liver fluke presence had been observed at meat inspection after slaughter, seropositive BTM samples were also diagnosed in five herds (17% with no remarks at slaughter. In conclusion, F. hepatica is a common parasite in Swedish dairy herds and the month of heifer turn-out and the grazing period length were the most influential factors observed.

  6. Spatial analysis and risk mapping of Fasciola hepatica infection in dairy herds in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Selemetas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fasciolosis is generally a subclinical infection of dairy cows and can cause marked economic losses. This study investigated the prevalence and spatial distribution of fasciolosis in dairy cow herds in Ireland using an in-house antibodydetection enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay applied to bulk tank milk (BTM samples collected during the autumn of 2012. A total of 5,116 BTM samples were collected from 4,602 different herds, with 514 farmers submitting BTM samples in two consecutive months. Analysis of the BTM samples showed that 82% (n = 3,764 of the dairy herds had been exposed to Fasciola hepatica. A total of 108 variables, including averaged climatic data for the period 1981-2010 and contemporary meteorological data for the year 2012, such as soil, subsoil, land cover and habitat maps, were investigated for a possible role as predictor of fasciolosis. Using mainly climatic variables as the major predictors, a model of the predicted risk of fasciolosis was created by Random Forest modelling that had 95% sensitivity and 100% specificity. The most important predictors in descending order of importance were: average of annual total number of rain-days for the period 1981-2010, total rainfall during September, winter and autumn of 2012, average of annual total number of wet-days for the period 1981- 2010 and annual mean temperature of 2012. The findings of this study confirm the high prevalence of fasciolosis in Irish dairy herds and suggest that specific weather and environmental risk factors support a robust and precise distribution model.

  7. Heme-Oxygenase-1 Expression Contributes to the Immunoregulation Induced by Fasciola hepatica and Promotes Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carasi, Paula; Rodríguez, Ernesto; da Costa, Valeria; Frigerio, Sofía; Brossard, Natalie; Noya, Verónica; Robello, Carlos; Anegón, Ignacio; Freire, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    Fasciola hepatica, also known as the liver fluke, is a trematode that infects livestock and humans causing fasciolosis, a zoonotic disease of increasing importance due to its worldwide distribution and high economic losses. This parasite immunoregulates the host immune system by inducing a strong Th2 and regulatory T immune response by immunomodulating dendritic cell (DC) maturation and alternative activation of macrophages. In this paper, we show that F. hepatica infection in mice induces the upregulation of heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1), the rate-limiting enzyme in the catabolism of free heme that regulates the host inflammatory response. We show and characterize two different populations of antigen presenting cells that express HO-1 during infection in the peritoneum of infected animals. Cells that expressed high levels of HO-1 expressed intermediate levels of F4/80 but high expression of CD11c, CD38, TGFβ, and IL-10 suggesting that they correspond to regulatory DCs. On the other hand, cells expressing intermediate levels of HO-1 expressed high levels of F4/80, CD68, Ly6C, and FIZZ-1, indicating that they might correspond to alternatively activated macrophages. Furthermore, the pharmacological induction of HO-1 with the synthetic metalloporphyrin CoPP promoted F. hepatica infection increasing the clinical signs associated with the disease. In contrast, treatment with the HO-1 inhibitor SnPP protected mice from parasite infection, indicating that HO-1 plays an essential role during F. hepatica infection. Finally, HO-1 expression during F. hepatica infection was associated with TGFβ and IL-10 levels in liver and peritoneum, suggesting that HO-1 controls the expression of these immunoregulatory cytokines during infection favoring parasite survival in the host. These results contribute to the elucidation of the immunoregulatory mechanisms induced by F. hepatica in the host and provide alternative checkpoints to control fasciolosis. PMID:28798750

  8. Fasciola hepatica Surface Tegument: Glycoproteins at the Interface of Parasite and Host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravidà, Alessandra; Cwiklinski, Krystyna; Aldridge, Allison M; Clarke, Paul; Thompson, Roisin; Gerlach, Jared Q; Kilcoyne, Michelle; Hokke, Cornelis H; Dalton, John P; O'Neill, Sandra M

    2016-10-01

    Fasciola hepatica, commonly known as liver fluke, is a trematode that causes Fasciolosis in ruminants and humans. The outer tegumental coat of F. hepatica (FhTeg) is a complex metabolically active biological matrix that is continually exposed to the host immune system and therefore makes a good vaccine target. F. hepatica tegumental coat is highly glycosylated and helminth-derived immunogenic oligosaccharide motifs and glycoproteins are currently being investigated as novel vaccine candidates. This report presents the first systematic characterization of FhTeg glycosylation using lectin microarrays to characterize carbohydrates motifs present, and lectin histochemistry to localize these on the F. hepatica tegument. We discovered that FhTeg glycoproteins are predominantly oligomannose oligosaccharides that are expressed on the spines, suckers and tegumental coat of F. hepatica and lectin blot analysis confirmed the abundance of N- glycosylated proteins. Although some oligosaccharides are widely distributed on the fluke surface other subsets are restricted to distinct anatomical regions. We selectively enriched for FhTeg mannosylated glycoprotein subsets using lectin affinity chromatography and identified 369 proteins by mass spectrometric analysis. Among these proteins are a number of potential vaccine candidates with known immune modulatory properties including proteases, protease inhibitors, paramyosin, Venom Allergen-like II, Enolase and two proteins, nardilysin and TRIL, that have not been previously associated with F. hepatica Furthermore, we provide a comprehensive insight regarding the putative glycosylation of FhTeg components that could highlight the importance of further studies examining glycoconjugates in host-parasite interactions in the context of F. hepatica infection and the development of an effective vaccine. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Immunization with Fasciola hepatica thioredoxin glutathione reductase failed to confer protection against fasciolosis in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggioli, Gabriela; Bottini, Gualberto; Basika, Tatiana; Alonzo, Pablo; Salinas, Gustavo; Carmona, Carlos

    2016-07-15

    The liver fluke Fasciola hepatica remains an important agent of food-borne trematode disease producing great economic losses due to its negative effect on productivity of livestock grazing in temperate areas. The prevailing control strategy based on anthelmintic drugs is unsustainable due to widespread resistance hence vaccination appears as an attractive option to pursue. In this study we evaluate the effect of vaccination in calves with a functional recombinant thioredoxin glutathione reductase (rFhTGR) from liver fluke, a critical antioxidant enzyme at the crossroads of the thioredoxin and glutathione metabolism in flatworms. The recombinant enzyme produced in Escherichia coli was tested in two vaccination experiments; in the first trial rFhTGR was administered in combination with Freund́s Incomplete Adjuvant (FIA) in a three-inoculation scheme on weeks 0, 4 and 8; in the second trial rFhTGR was given mixed with Adyuvac 50 or Alum as adjuvants on weeks 0 and 4. In both cases calves were challenged with metacercariae (400 in the first and 500 in the second trial) 2 weeks after the last inoculation. Our results demonstrate that two or three doses of the vaccine induced a non-significant reduction in worm counts of 8.2% (FIA), 3.8% (Adyuvac 50) and 23.0% (Alum) compared to adjuvant controls indicating that rFhTGR failed to induce a protective immunity in challenged calves. All vaccine formulations induced a mixed IgG1/IgG2 response but no booster was observed after challenge. No correlations between antibody titres and worm burdens were found. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Heme-Oxygenase-1 Expression Contributes to the Immunoregulation Induced by Fasciola hepatica and Promotes Infection

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    Paula Carasi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Fasciola hepatica, also known as the liver fluke, is a trematode that infects livestock and humans causing fasciolosis, a zoonotic disease of increasing importance due to its worldwide distribution and high economic losses. This parasite immunoregulates the host immune system by inducing a strong Th2 and regulatory T immune response by immunomodulating dendritic cell (DC maturation and alternative activation of macrophages. In this paper, we show that F. hepatica infection in mice induces the upregulation of heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1, the rate-limiting enzyme in the catabolism of free heme that regulates the host inflammatory response. We show and characterize two different populations of antigen presenting cells that express HO-1 during infection in the peritoneum of infected animals. Cells that expressed high levels of HO-1 expressed intermediate levels of F4/80 but high expression of CD11c, CD38, TGFβ, and IL-10 suggesting that they correspond to regulatory DCs. On the other hand, cells expressing intermediate levels of HO-1 expressed high levels of F4/80, CD68, Ly6C, and FIZZ-1, indicating that they might correspond to alternatively activated macrophages. Furthermore, the pharmacological induction of HO-1 with the synthetic metalloporphyrin CoPP promoted F. hepatica infection increasing the clinical signs associated with the disease. In contrast, treatment with the HO-1 inhibitor SnPP protected mice from parasite infection, indicating that HO-1 plays an essential role during F. hepatica infection. Finally, HO-1 expression during F. hepatica infection was associated with TGFβ and IL-10 levels in liver and peritoneum, suggesting that HO-1 controls the expression of these immunoregulatory cytokines during infection favoring parasite survival in the host. These results contribute to the elucidation of the immunoregulatory mechanisms induced by F. hepatica in the host and provide alternative checkpoints to control fasciolosis.

  11. Unusual snail species involved in the transmission of Fasciola hepatica in watercress beds in central France

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    Dreyfuss G.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Four freshwater pulmonate species (Lymnaea ovata, L. stagnalis, Physa acuta, Planorbis leucostomawere living in several watercress beds known for their relationships with human cases of fasciolosis, whereas L. truncatula was never found. The aims of these studies were to determine the prevalence of natural infections with Fasciola hepatica in snails and to verify if these species might ensure the full larval development of this trematode (with cercarial shedding] when they were experimentally subjected to F. hepatica only, or to co-infections with an other trematode species. Investigations were so carried out in six snail populations living in watercress beds (including three for P. acuta and in four others originating from three brooks or a pond (as controls. Snails naturally infected with F. hepatica were found in two watercress beds inhabited by L. ovata (prevalence of infection: 1.4 % and P. leucostoma (0.1 %, respectively. The L. ovata from the watercress bed could be infected at a higher size than those from the control population and the prevalence of this infection was greater in the bed population. Similar findings were noted for L. stagnalis. Despite single or dual infections, the results obtained with the four populations of P. acuta were unsuccessful. In contrast, the co-infections of young P. leucostoma with Paramphistomum daubneyi and F. hepatica resulted in the shedding of some F. hepatica cercariae. According to the authors, the occurrence of fasciolosis in these watercress beds would be the consequence of frequent natural encounters between parasite and snails (L. ovata, L. stagnalis, or of co-infections with P. daubneyi and F. hepatica (P. leucostoma. In watercress beds only colonized by P. acuta, a lymnaeid species would have ensured the larval development of F. hepatica but it would have been eliminated by P. acuta, as this last species was known to be invasive and could colonize open drainage ditches on siliceous soil.

  12. Triclabendazole Effect on Protease Enzyme Activity in the Excretory- Secretory Products of Fasciola hepatica in Vitro.

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    Yosef Shrifi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fasciola hepatica is one of the most important helminthes parasites and triclabendazole (TCBZ is routinely used for treatment of infected people and animals. Secreted protease enzymes by the F. hepatica plays a critical role in the invasion, migration, nutrition and the survival of parasite and are key targets for novel drugs and vaccines. The aim of study was to determine the protease activity of excretory- secretory products (ESP of F. hepatica in the presence of TCBZ anthelmintic.F. hepatica helminthes were collected and cultured within RPMI 1640 [TCBZ treated (test and untreated (control] for 6 h at 37 °C. ESP of treated and control were collected, centrifuged and supernatants were stored at -20°C. Protein concentrations were measured according to Bradford method. Protease enzymes activities of ESP samples were estimated by using sigma's non-specific protease activity assay. ESP protein bands were detected by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE.Mean protein concentrations in control and treated of ESP samples were determined 196.1 ±14.52 and 376.4 ±28.20 μg/ml, respectively. Mean protease enzymes activities in control and treated were 0.37 ±0.1 and 0.089 ±0.03 U/ml, respectively. Significant difference between proteins concentrations and protease enzymes activities of two groups was observed (P<0.05. SDS-PAGE showed different patterns of protein bands between treated and control samples.The TCBZ reduced secreted protease enzymes activities and possibly effects on invasion, migration, nutrition and particularly survival of the parasite in the host tissues.

  13. Prevalence and Molecular Diagnosis of Fasciola hepatica in Sheep and Goats in Different Districts of Punjab, Pakistan

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    Waseem Shahzad*, Khalid Mehmood1, Rashid Munir2, Waqar Aslam, Muhammad Ijaz1, Rashid Ahmad, Mohammad Sarwar Khan1 and Ahmad Jawad Sabir1

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the prevalence and molecular diagnosis of fasciolosis in Lohi sheep and Beetal goats in Okara, Sahiwal and Lahore districts of Punjab province. A total of 800 samples including 200 fecal and 200 bile, each from Lohi sheep and Beetal goats were collected and processed for microscopic examination of Fasciola eggs as well as its confirmation through polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Of the fecal samples, 3.5 and 2% samples whereas from bile samples, 6.5 and 4% bile samples from sheep and goats were found microscopically positive for Fasciola hepatica, respectively. By PCR, 4.5 and 3.5% fecal samples and 8.5 and 5% bile samples from sheep and goats, respectively were confirmed for F. hepatica. Statistically sheep and goats species were found equally likely acquiring the F. hepatica diagnosed by either source of material (fecal and bile samples similarly fecal and bile samples were equally likely showing fasciolosis in either of sheep and goats.

  14. "Enzyme-Linked Immunotransfer Blot Analysis of Somatic and Excretory- Secretory Antigens of Fasciola hepatica in Diagnosis of Human Fasciolosis"

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    MB Rokni

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The liver fluke Fasciola hepatica causes fascioliasis, a liver disease in most part of the world and particularly in north of Iran. Diagnosis of the diseases is anchored in coprological manner but serological methods are preferable due to some obscurities. In this study, sera obtained from human patients infected with Fasciola hepatica were tested by the enzymelinked immunotrotransfer blot (EITB technique with the parasite s somatic and excretory-secretory (ES antigens in order to evaluate the diagnostic potential of the assay. The study included sera from 40 patients infected with F. hepatica, 20 infected with hydatidosis, 6 with toxocariasis, 10 with strongyloidiasis, 10 with amoebiasis, 5 with malaria and 30 normal controls. By this assay, most pf the serum samples from humans with fascioliasis recognized two antigenic polypeptides of 27 and 29 kDa using both antigens. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for somatic antigen were 91.0%, 96.2%, 95.2% and 92.7% respectively, while these parameters as for ES antigen were 95.2%, 98.0%, 97.5% and 96.2%, correspondingly. Totally, two cases of reactions for the first antigen and one for the latter were verified. The study suggests that the 27 and 29 kDa bands for two antigens in EITB test could be considered for the immunodiagnosis of human fascioliasis.

  15. Variations in local adaptation of allopatric Fasciola hepatica to French Galba truncatula in relation to parasite origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Y; Lounnas, M; Djuikwo Teukeng, F F; Mouzet, R; Courtioux, B; Hurtrez-Boussès, S; Vignoles, P; Dreyfuss, G; Rondelaud, D

    2013-07-01

    Two French populations of Galba truncatula were subjected to experimental infections with Egyptian and French isolates of Fasciola sp. miracidia, originating from cattle and sheep, to compare characteristics of snail infections in allopatric and sympatric groups. All sampled Egyptian isolates were identified as Fasciola hepatica using microsatellite markers. Compared to snails infected with French miracidia, snail survival at day 30 post-exposure was significantly greater in the Egyptian groups, while prevalence of infection was significantly lower (in an Egyptian group infected with cattle-derived miracidia) or did not show any significant differences in the other three cases. The total number of metacercariae was significantly higher in the four Egyptian groups. However, snail population and the mammalian origin of F. hepatica had also a significant effect on this parameter. The dissection of snail cadavers showed a significantly higher number of free rediae in the Egyptian groups, even if snail population also had a significant effect on the redial burden. Both Egyptian isolates of F. hepatica could easily develop in French snails, causing a low mortality in snails and inducing a metacercarial production higher than that noted in sympatric infections. However, the mammalian origin of F. hepatica eggs and the quality of snail populations as intermediate hosts had to be taken into account for studying local adaptation in reason of their effects on this process.

  16. The Extracellular Vesicles of the Helminth Pathogen, Fasciola hepatica: Biogenesis Pathways and Cargo Molecules Involved in Parasite Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwiklinski, Krystyna; de la Torre-Escudero, Eduardo; Trelis, Maria; Bernal, Dolores; Dufresne, Philippe J; Brennan, Gerard P; O'Neill, Sandra; Tort, Jose; Paterson, Steve; Marcilla, Antonio; Dalton, John P; Robinson, Mark W

    2015-12-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by parasites have important roles in establishing and maintaining infection. Analysis of the soluble and vesicular secretions of adult Fasciola hepatica has established a definitive characterization of the total secretome of this zoonotic parasite. Fasciola secretes at least two subpopulations of EVs that differ according to size, cargo molecules and site of release from the parasite. The larger EVs are released from the specialized cells that line the parasite gastrodermus and contain the zymogen of the 37 kDa cathepsin L peptidase that performs a digestive function. The smaller exosome-like vesicle population originate from multivesicular bodies within the tegumental syncytium and carry many previously described immunomodulatory molecules that could be delivered into host cells. By integrating our proteomics data with recently available transcriptomic data sets we have detailed the pathways involved with EV biogenesis in F. hepatica and propose that the small exosome biogenesis occurs via ESCRT-dependent MVB formation in the tegumental syncytium before being shed from the apical plasma membrane. Furthermore, we found that the molecular "machinery" required for EV biogenesis is constitutively expressed across the intramammalian development stages of the parasite. By contrast, the cargo molecules packaged within the EVs are developmentally regulated, most likely to facilitate the parasites migration through host tissue and to counteract host immune attack.

  17. Role of the lymnaeid snail Pseudosuccinea columella in the transmission of the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Y; Vignoles, P; Rondelaud, D; Dreyfuss, G

    2015-11-01

    Experimental infections of three Egyptian Pseudosuccinea columella populations with sympatric miracidia of Fasciola sp., coming from cattle- or sheep-collected eggs, were carried out to determine the capacity of this lymnaeid to support larval development of the parasite. Using microsatellite markers, the isolates of Egyptian miracidia were identified as Fasciola hepatica. Apart from being independent of snail origin, prevalences ranging from 60.4 to 75.5% in snails infected with five miracidia of F. hepatica were significantly higher than values of 30.4 to 42.2% in snails with bi-miracidial infections. The number of metacercariae ranged from 243 to 472 per cercarial-shedding snail and was independent of snail origin, parasite origin and miracidial dose used for infection. If P. columella was subjected to two successive bi-miracidial infections with F. hepatica, prevalence of infection was 63.3%, with a mean of 311 metacercariae per snail. These values were clearly greater than those already reported for Radix natalensis infected with the same parasite and the same protocol. Successful experimental infection of P. columella with F. hepatica suggests that this lymnaeid snail is an important intermediate host for the transmission of fascioliasis in Egypt.

  18. A mucin-like peptide from Fasciola hepatica induces parasite-specific Th1-type cell immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noya, Verónica; Brossard, Natalie; Berasaín, Patricia; Rodríguez, Ernesto; Chiale, Carolina; Mazal, Daniel; Carmona, Carlos; Freire, Teresa

    2016-03-01

    Fasciolosis, caused by the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica, is a major parasitic disease of livestock that causes significant economic losses worldwide. Although drugs are effective against liver flukes, they do not prevent reinfection, and continuous treatment is costly. Moreover, resistant fluke strains are emerging. In this context, vaccination is a good alternative since it provides a cost-effective long-term prevention strategy to control fasciolosis. In this paper, we evaluate the Fhmuc peptide as a potential vaccine against fasciolosis. This peptide derives from a mucin-like protein highly expressed in the infective stage of Fasciola hepatica. Mucin-like molecules expressed by parasites can contribute to several infection processes by protecting the parasite from host proteases and recognition by the immune system. We show that the Fhmuc peptide induces Th1-like immune responses specific for F. hepatica excretion-secretion products (FhESP) with a high production of IFNγ. We also investigated whether this peptide could protect animals from infection, and present preliminary data indicating that animals treated with Fhmuc exhibited reduced liver damage compared to non-immunised animals and that this protection was associated with a recruitment of B and T lymphocytes in the peritoneum, as well as eosinophils and mature dendritic cells. These results suggest that the mucin-like peptide Fhmuc could constitute a potential vaccine candidate against fasciolosis and pave the way towards the development of vaccines against parasites.

  19. Fascioliasis coledociana por Fasciola hepatica en cirugía de colecistitis crónica calculosa

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    María Beltrán-Fabián

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Se reporta un caso de Fasciola hepatica en una mujer de 50 años de edad, natural de Huaral, procedente de un asentamiento humano del distrito de Ate en Lima, con un tiempo de enfermedad de siete días caracterizado al inicio por dolor abdominal tipo cólico de curso progresivo en el epigastrio, dolor que se irradia a hipocondrio derecho. Luego presentó luego náuseas y vómitos en cuatro oportunidades, de contenido alimenticio y bilioso, por lo que se decide su hospitalización previa atención por emergencia. Al examen físico se encontró conjuntivas oculares levemente ictéricas, abdomen balonado, blando, depresible, no visceromegalia, Murphy positivo, ruidos hidroaéreos presentes, tórax y pulmones sin alteraciones. Posteriormente a los exámenes auxiliares, se diagnosticó colecistitis calculosa aguda y fascioliasis coledociana. En el acto quirúrgico se extrajo tres especímenes identificados como Fasciola hepatica. La paciente después de recibir el triclabendazol, concurrió al Hospital para la evaluación y control, habiendo logrado mejoría y bienestar.

  20. The stress of Lymnaea truncatula just before miracidial exposure with Fasciola hepatica increased the prevalence of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrous, M; Rondelaud, D; Dreyfuss, G

    2001-09-01

    Single-miracidium infections of Lymnaea truncatula with Fasciola hepatica were carried out under laboratory conditions to determine whether the stress of snails just before miracidial exposure had any influence on the prevalence of Fasciola infection, redial burden, and cercarial shedding. Three methods, i.e., the fasting of L. truncatula for 3 days in water filtered through a Millipore membrane, the effect of 6-8 degrees C water for 15 min, or the immersion of L. truncatula in a detergent solution at low concentration for 15 min, were used to stress snails. Enhanced susceptibility of snails to F. hepatica infection was noted in stressed groups (93-96% vs 48-50% in controls). The number of free rediae did not show any variation in controls as well as in stressed groups, except for fasted snails in which free rediae were significantly fewer. No differences in cercarial production between controls and the cold group were noted. Fasting, cold shock, or detergent exposure prior to exposure to F. hepatica miracidia might have weakened the snails so that they were not as efficient in avoiding miracidial penetration, thus leading to higher infection rates. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.