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Sample records for juvenile delinquency remains

  1. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, Machteld

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted.

  2. Juvenile Delinquency: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Carolyn A.

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile Delinquency is a term which is often inaccurately used. This article clarifies definitions, looks at prevalence, and explores the relationship between juvenile delinquency and mental health. Throughout, differences between males and females are explored. (Contains 1 table.)

  3. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, Machteld

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted. Th

  4. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, Machteld

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted. Th

  5. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    OpenAIRE

    Hoeve, Machteld

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted. The first study addressed a meta-analysis on parenting characteristics and styles in relation to delinquency. In this meta-analysis, previous manuscripts were systematically analyzed, computing mean ...

  6. Juvenile Victimization and Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbensen, Finn-Aage; Huizinga, David

    1991-01-01

    Demographic characteristics of juvenile victims of crime and a potential relationship between victimization and self-reported delinquency are examined for 877 adolescents from a large midwestern city. Lifetime victimization rates (LVRs) are higher for those involved in delinquency, and LVRs rise with age and higher levels of delinquent behavior.…

  7. Family transitions and juvenile delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Ryan D; Osgood, Aurea K; Oghia, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    There is a large body of research that shows children from non-intact homes show higher rates of juvenile delinquency than children from intact homes, partially due to weaker parental control and supervision in non-intact homes. What has not been adequately addressed in the research is the influence of changes in family structure among individual adolescents over time on delinquent offending. Using the first and third waves of the National Youth Study, we assess the effect of family structure changes on changes in delinquent offending between waves through the intermediate process of changes in family time and parental attachment. Although prior research has documented adolescents in broken homes are more delinquent than youth in intact homes, the process of family dissolution is not associated with concurrent increases in offending. In contrast, family formation through marriage or cohabitation is associated with simultaneous increases in offending. Changes in family time and parental attachment account for a portion of the family formation effect on delinquency, and prior parental attachment and juvenile offending significantly condition the effect of family formation on offending.

  8. Sex Differences in Attributions of Juvenile Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagatun, Inger J.

    This paper is an application of attribution theory to the processing of juvenile delinquents in an attempt to understand the differential treatment of female and male offenders within the juvenile justice system. The paper explores the attributions of juvenile delinquency both by male and female minors, by male and female parents, and by male and…

  9. A social work study on juvenile delinquency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We present an empirical study to study the effects of different factors on juvenile delinquency. The investigation distributes 100 questionnaires among people who are involved with crime and analyzes their feedbacks. There are five hypotheses in our survey and we look to see whether family conditions, religion, economical conditions, media and physical and psychological characteristics play important role on juvenile delinquency in Iranian society. The results shows that while family conditions, physical and psychological characteristics play important role on juvenile delinquency, other factors do not statistically have any impact on juvenile delinquency. The study suggests that a better family condition could help reduce juvenile delinquency and people could guide their children through better consultations.

  10. Pendidikan Agama Islam Sebagai Pencegah Juvenile Delinquency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Choirul Umah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The challenges of Islamic education in the era of globalization are getting stronger now. It’s visible clearly changes happening so fast. The rapid of globalization is not only affect for adults, but also children, adolescents. A problem that often arises in the community revolves around the problems of Juvenile (teenagers, education and social community. Because adolescence is known as self-identity searching, so teens that can fulfill their role will have a positive impact, such as children understand their responsibilities better, and if they cannot, then there will emerge the exact opposite behavior that occurs an aberration or delinquency (juvenile delinquency. The existence of juvenile delinquency at this time also affect increasing in crime or criminal behavior in community. Juvenile delinquency can destroy moral values, the noble values ​​of religion, and the various aspects of the subject matter contained therein. Understanding, deepening, and adherence to the teachings of religion, especially Islamic education is required by the juvenile. Because Islamic education is a systematic effort by educators and adults to students both physical and spiritual by Islamic law to led the formation of personality according to the standard of Islam. Because in fact the children or adolescents who commit delinquency or crime mostly less understand the norms of Islam, perhaps they are negligent in fulfill the commandments of religion.

  11. PENDIDIKAN AGAMA ISLAM SEBAGAI PENCEGAH JUVENILE DELINQUENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Choirul Umah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The challenges of Islamic education in the era of globalization are getting stronger now. It’s visible clearly changes happening so fast. The rapid of globalization is not only affect for adults, but also children, adolescents. A problem that often arises in the community revolves around the problems of Juvenile (teenagers, education and social community. Because adolescence is known as self-identity searching, so teens that can fulfill their role will have a positive impact, such as children understand their responsibilities better, and if they cannot, then there will emerge the exact opposite behavior that occurs an aberration or delinquency (juvenile delinquency. The existence of juvenile delinquency at this time also affect increasing in crime or criminal behavior in community. Juvenile delinquency can destroy moral values, the noble values of religion, and the various aspects of the subject matter contained therein. Understanding, deepening, and adherence to the teachings of religion, especially Islamic education is required by the juvenile. Because Islamic education is a systematic effort by educators and adults to students both physical and spiritual by Islamic law to led the formation of personality according to the standard of Islam. Because in fact the children or adolescents who commit delinquency or crime mostly less understand the norms of Islam, perhaps they are negligent in fulfill the commandments of religion.

  12. Family Disruption and Delinquency. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornberry, Terence P.; Smith, Carolyn A.; Rivera, Craig; Huizinga, David; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda

    At study sites in Rochester (New York), Denver (Colorado) and Pittsburgh (Pennsylvania), three research teams studying the impact of family disruption on juvenile delinquency have interviewed approximately 4,000 participants at regular intervals for a decade, recording their lives in detail. Findings to date indicate that preventing delinquency…

  13. Parenting Styles and Family Communication as Correlates of Juvenile Delinquency

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine parenting styles and family communication as correlates of juvenile delinquency. A review of the literature was completed in the areas of parenting styles, family communication, and juvenile delinquency. The literature that was reviewed for this study was examined mainly from juvenile perceptions. This study was approached from a general systems theory perspective. A sample of juveniles (N = 78) from Weber County, Utah, involved in the juvenile justice...

  14. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 1991 Annual Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digital Systems Research Inc., Arlington, VA.

    This report fulfills the annual reporting requirements of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (JJDP) Act of 1974 as amended, and describes the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention's (OJJDP) efforts to carry out the broad mandates of the JJDP Act during fiscal year 1991. The report begins with an explanation of the…

  15. Understanding Child Maltreatment: Juvenile Delinquency. From Research to Effective Program, Practice, and Systemic Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiig, Janet; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    This monograph details the growing body of research showing the connection between child maltreatment and juvenile delinquency. In 2000, nearly 879,000 children were victims of child abuse and neglect. Although juvenile crime has declined recently, the level of crime committed by youth remains high. This monograph describes an array of program,…

  16. 77 FR 70473 - Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention; Agency Information Collection Activities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention; Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested; Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement (Revision of a Currently..., Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, will be submitting the following...

  17. Chronic Juvenile Delinquency and the "Suppression Effect": An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Mark; Norman, Michael

    1988-01-01

    Notes that fear of apprehension and punishment have been reported to suppress juvenile crime. Discusses suppression effect in regard to the correlates of chronic juvenile delinquency and exploratory evidence that youth who commit large volume of crime do not fear sanctions imposed by juvenile court any more than youth who commit only one offense…

  18. Juvenile Delinquency and Justice in Lagos State, Nigeria: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Juvenile Delinquency and Justice in Lagos State, Nigeria: A Sociological Appraisal. ... This paper discussed the emergence of the Child's Right act in Nigeria in ... of children and young persons who found themselves on the justice corridor.

  19. The Relationship between Family Functions and Juvenile Delinquency

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Vol 3, No 5 (2009) > ... Most of the studies done on Juvenile delinquency have paid little or no attention to ... This study was carried out in Nakuru town Municipality on former street children on rehabilitation in three homes.

  20. Sex Stereotypes and Responses to Juvenile Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemsen, Tineke M.; van Schie, Els C. M.

    1989-01-01

    Describes two studies to test the following hypotheses: (1) delinquent behavior that corresponds to sex stereotypes will be punished more severely; and (2) delinquent behavior that deviates will be evaluated more negatively. Presents model illustrating how sex stereotypes about delinquent behavior lead to sex-related differences in attribution and…

  1. A Structural Equation Modeling Analysis of Influences on Juvenile Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, David E.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Zhang, Dalun; Zhang, Dake

    2014-01-01

    This study examined influences on delinquency and recidivism using structural equation modeling. The sample comprised 199,204 individuals: 99,602 youth whose cases had been processed by the South Carolina Department of Juvenile Justice and a matched control group of 99,602 youth without juvenile records. Structural equation modeling for the…

  2. Social Skills Training for Juvenile Delinquents: Post-Treatment Changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Stouwe, Trudy; Asscher, J.J.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Hoeve, M.; van der Laan, Peter H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the post-treatment effectiveness of an outpatient, individual social skills training for juvenile delinquents in the Netherlands and to conduct moderator tests for age, gender, ethnicity, and risk of reoffending. Methods: The sample consisted of juveniles who received Tools4U,

  3. Social skills training for juvenile delinquents : Post-treatment changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Stouwe, T.; Asscher, J.J.; Hoeve, M.; van der Laan, P.H.; Stams, G.J.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the post-treatment effectiveness of an outpatient, individual social skills training for juvenile delinquents in the Netherlands and to conduct moderator tests for age, gender, ethnicity, and risk of reoffending. Methods The sample consisted of juveniles who received Tools4U, a

  4. Juvenile delinquency in Russia: Ccriminal justice, trends, key issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Milica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the literature, as well as in international statistical surveys, we can rarely find more detailed information on juvenile delinquency in the Russian Federation, as well as on the criminal reaction towards juvenile offenders. Due to the turbulent conditions and great social turmoil which took place in the last few decades in this country, there should be a greater interest in the problem of juvenile delinquency. For Serbia, the experience of the Russian Federation could be especially important if one bears in mind that our country is still going through a transition, population stratification and through economic crisis, and also that Serbia and the Russian Federation share some cultural and religious similarities. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to present, in the summary way, the basic features of juvenile delinquency and the criminal justice system, and thereby build a basis for future research and comparison.

  5. Parental Low Self-Control, Family Environments, and Juvenile Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldrum, Ryan C; Connolly, George M; Flexon, Jamie; Guerette, Rob T

    2016-10-01

    Research consistently finds that low self-control is significantly correlated with delinquency. Only recently, however, have researchers started to examine associations between parental low self-control, family environments, and child antisocial behavior. Adding to this emerging area of research, the current study examines associations between parental low self-control, aspects of the family environment, and officially recoded juvenile delinquency among a sample (N = 101) of juveniles processed through a juvenile justice assessment facility located in the Southeastern United States. Furthermore, it considers whether aspects of family environments, particularly family cohesion, family conflict, and parental efficacy, mediate the influence of parental low self-control on delinquency. The results of a series of analyses indicate that parental low self-control is correlated with various aspects of family environments and juvenile delinquency, and that the association between parental low self-control and juvenile delinquency is mediated by family environments. Supplementary analyses also suggest that the association between parental low self-control and the family environment may be reciprocal.

  6. The Juvenile Delinquency Portrayed In Nicholas Sparks’ Novel The Last Song

    OpenAIRE

    Evelyn, Zean

    2015-01-01

    The thesis entitled The Juvenile Delinquency in Nicholas Sparks’ Novel The Last Songis discuss about juvenile delinquencies through the characters in the novel. novel is an extended work of prose fiction, longer than a short story or a medium-length fiction, called a novelette or novella. The writer chooses to analyze the juvenile delinquencies in this novel because there are some juvenile delinquencies that happened these days. This novel tells a story about Ronnie Miller, a grumpy girl who ...

  7. Eliminating the Competency Presumption in Juvenile Delinquency Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katner, David R

    2015-01-01

    The legal presumption used in virtually all juvenile delinquency cases in the U.S. is that all juveniles are competent to stand trial. This Article calls for the elimination of that legal presumption, which is historically based on the Dusky v. United States decision and in the adult criminal justice system. The recent decisions of the U.S. Supreme Court recognize the developmental and organic brain differences between adults and juveniles. Current research demonstrates a higher frequency rate of incompetence based on intellectual deficiencies among children when compared with adults found to be not legally competent to stand trial. By eliminating the competency presumption for juveniles in both delinquency and adult criminal proceedings, the party seeking an adjudication would be responsible for establishing that the accused juvenile is in fact, competent to stand trial. Foreign jurisdictions in Europe, Asia, Africa, and South America have long required higher thresholds--at least fourteen years of age--for holding juveniles accountable for criminal misconduct, none of them presuming that juveniles are competent to go to trial. In the alternative, by expanding the factors currently in use for determination of juvenile competency by adding developmental immaturity and mental illness, juvenile justice systems could identify the reduction of recidivist offending as the primary systemic objective.

  8. Juvenile delinquency among students of an approved sheltered girls ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Juvenile delinquency among students of an approved sheltered girls' school in Lagos, ... 65.6% did so from financial problems, 6.3% as a result of poor performance ... Mother's educational level (p=0.0245), maternal alcohol consumption ...

  9. Bad Boys or Poor Parents: Relations to Female Juvenile Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauffman, Elizabeth; Farruggia, Susan P.; Goldweber, Asha

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the interrelations between parental relationships, romantic relationships, and antisocial behavior among female and male juvenile delinquents. Participants from a diverse sample of 1,354 adolescents (14-17 years) adjudicated of a serious (i.e. felony) offense were matched based on age, race, and committing offense, yielding a…

  10. Sports Participation and Juvenile Delinquency: A Meta-Analytic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Spruit; E. van Vugt; C. van der Put; T. van der Stouwe; G.J. Stams

    2015-01-01

    Participation in sports activities is very popular among adolescents, and is frequently encouraged among youth. Many psychosocial health benefits in youth are attributed to sports participation, but to what extent this positive influence holds for juvenile delinquency is still not clear on both the

  11. THE ISSUES OF COMBATING OF JUVENILE DELINQUENCY OF TEENAGERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Tarchokov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reveals the problem of juvenile delinquency: a condition, the dynamics of crime; the main risk factors affecting juvenile delinquency, as well as the measures undertaken for the prevention of juvenile delinquency offenses The study, which was always urgent, now acquired a special significance. Adolescence is traditionally considered problematic period in the formation and development of personality. You should also take into account the fact that exacerbated existing internal contradictions in their teens. Numerous studies and centuries of history show that the crime, in fact, is deep-rooted and deal with it, known to date, methods can not be, because it is as natural as the human nature. The phenomenon, which is now troubling modern society, juvenile delinquency, its scope and the criminalization of teenage environment. Of course, we will not cover all background and factors influencing the crime, but will discuss the social side of the problem and the measures that may have a positive effect. One of reasons is the imperfection of the legislative framework in this sphere. This is not, as such, the possibility of setting on the register persons engaged in vagrancy, begging, difficult adolescents, persons who evade education. A consequence of the lack of a unified preventive system is its low efficiency. According to various reports in the country of about 3 million homeless children living at railway stations, in the cellars, in the streets.

  12. Juveniles' Motivations for Remaining in Prostitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Shu-Ling; Bedford, Olwen

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were collected in 1990-1991, 1992, and 2000 with 49 prostituted juveniles remanded to two rehabilitation centers in Taiwan. These data are analyzed to explore Taiwanese prostituted juveniles' feelings about themselves and their work, their motivations for remaining in prostitution, and their difficulties…

  13. Juveniles' Motivations for Remaining in Prostitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Shu-Ling; Bedford, Olwen

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were collected in 1990-1991, 1992, and 2000 with 49 prostituted juveniles remanded to two rehabilitation centers in Taiwan. These data are analyzed to explore Taiwanese prostituted juveniles' feelings about themselves and their work, their motivations for remaining in prostitution, and their difficulties…

  14. 28 CFR 0.94 - Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Office of Juvenile Justice and... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 1-Office of Justice Programs and Related Agencies § 0.94 Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention is headed by...

  15. 28 CFR 2.4 - Same: Youth offenders and juvenile delinquents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Same: Youth offenders and juvenile... RECOMMITMENT OF PRISONERS, YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees § 2.4 Same: Youth offenders and juvenile delinquents. Committed youth offenders and...

  16. Juvenile delinquency, welfare, justice and therapeutic interventions: a global perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Susan; Greer, Ben; Church, Richard

    2017-01-01

    This review considers juvenile delinquency and justice from an international perspective. Youth crime is a growing concern. Many young offenders are also victims with complex needs, leading to a public health approach that requires a balance of welfare and justice models. However, around the world there are variable and inadequate legal frameworks and a lack of a specialist workforce. The UK and other high-income countries worldwide have established forensic child and adolescent psychiatry, a multifaceted discipline incorporating legal, psychiatric and developmental fields. Its adoption of an evidence-based therapeutic intervention philosophy has been associated with greater reductions in recidivism compared with punitive approaches prevalent in some countries worldwide, and it is therefore a superior approach to dealing with the problem of juvenile delinquency. PMID:28184313

  17. Familial Religiosity, Family Processes, and Juvenile Delinquency in a National Sample of Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Spencer D.

    2014-01-01

    Personal religiosity has been identified as a protective factor against juvenile delinquency. However, the influence of familial religiosity on delinquent behavior is less known. This study addresses this gap by investigating how family participation in organizational religious activities is related to delinquent involvement in early adolescence.…

  18. 75 FR 17956 - Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention; Agency Information Collection Activities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... of Justice Programs Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention; Agency Information... collection under review; (Extension, without change, of a currently approved collection). Juvenile Residential Facility Census The Department of Justice (DOJ), Office of Justice Programs, Office of...

  19. Statistical indicators and trends in juvenile delinquency in modern Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzikhanova E.G.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Statistics of juvenile delinquency in Russia for ten years, allowing to determine its current trends, is presented. It’s noted that earlier the proportion of juveniles among all criminals was about 11-12%. During the period from 2003 to 2013 the proportion of juveniles in the total number of identified offenders decreased to 6%. Despite the reduction in the number of crimes committed by this category of persons, for several years the largest criminal activity is maintained in the age group 16-17 years (70%. Smaller proportion is the age group 14-15 years, there’s a reduction in the number of committed crimes: from 49,300 in 2000 to 19,700 in 2013. Over the same period, the number of reported crimes committed by minors or with their complicity decreased almost three times. With all the ambiguity of attitude to the considered problem, the author defines the role of criminal law policy of the state in response to trends in juvenile crime taking into account its specificity, caused by the complex of interrelated factors related to age, social, psychological characteristics of juveniles as a special social group, the originality of their social status. The legislative novel is considered: the punishment in the form of arrest is not imposed on persons under the age of eighteen by the time of court verdict. It’s summarized that the problems of juvenile delinquency are only partly solved by the humanization of criminal law policy of the state in order to restore social justice, correct the convict and prevent new crimes commission.

  20. Peculiarities of Students of Pedagogical Specialties Training in Preventive Work with Juveniles Delinquents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskalenko, Maxim R.; Dorozhkin, Evgenij M.; Ozhiganova, Maria V.; Murzinova, Yana A.; Syssa, Daria O.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the problem under investigation is due to the high significance of preventive work with juvenile delinquents to society. The article aims to study the problems arising while developing students' competencies in professional activities for the prevention of the infringing behavior of juvenile delinquents, as well as the…

  1. Juvenile Delinquency in Romania: The Indirect Result of the Transition Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Fabian

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The general purpose of the research is to present the evolution of juvenile delinquency in Romania after 1989, with some of its social and psychological aspects. We use a comparative perspective: the general, Romanian framework will be compared with local situation occurred in Cluj county.The presentation is based on an extensive study of 420 delinquent juveniles, whose data on family situation, education, age, etc were analyzed and the youngsters were also tested with psychological tests. Looking at the data of the psychological tests (Nowicki & Strickland's Internal-External Control Scale for Children, McGuire & Priestley's Testing Your Reaction, Zuckerman-Kuhlman's Personality Questionnaire and Tucker's Inmate Dilemma Test and the descriptors of the social situation of juvenile delinquents, it looks like personality factors are associated with low school performance and school drop-out, as important determinants of delinquency. An integrative model was tested, to analyze the social and cognitive determinants of delinquency.

  2. Strengths and Limitations of the Personality Inventory for Youth (PIY in Juvenile Delinquency Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Semel

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article highlights and discusses the usefulness of the Personality Inventory for Youth (PIY in juvenile delinquency assessments. Psychiatric disorders have high prevalence rates among youths in the juvenile justice system. The PIY was developed to evaluate a broad range of behavioral and psychological characteristics, which may make it useful in juvenile delinquency assessment contexts. Practical and psychometric strengths and limitations of the PIY in the juvenile delinquency assessment context are presented, with reference to relevant research literature. The effectiveness of this instrument in detecting response bias, particularly under-reporting, and for identifying problems associated with delinquency is discussed. The issue of item overlap and spurious influences on scale correlations, especially between the PIY Defensiveness and Delinquency scales, is also addressed. A comparison of findings with the PIY and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory–Adolescent (MMPI-A in juvenile justice samples helps to identify broader considerations about how youths in juvenile justice settings respond to self-report psychological inventories. Finally, the author offers some practical considerations for evaluators when using the PIY in juvenile delinquency assessments, and suggestions for future research.

  3. The Impact of Family Violence, Family Functioning, and Parental Partner Dynamics on Korean Juvenile Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Sil; Kim, Hun-Soo

    2008-01-01

    The present study was aimed at determining the family factors related to juvenile delinquency and identifying the effect of family violence, family functioning, parental partner dynamics, and adolescents' personality on delinquent behavior among Korean adolescents. A cross-sectional study was performed using an anonymous, self-reporting…

  4. Special Education Disabilities and Juvenile Delinquency: A Unique Challenge for School Social Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallett, Christopher A.; Stoddard-Dare, Patricia; Workman-Crewnshaw, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    In pursuit of their mission to augment the educational process, school social workers provide service to special education students and to youths at risk for juvenile delinquency. This paper builds on previous literature that has looked at the relationship between special education disabilities and youths offending behaviors and delinquency. In…

  5. The relationship between juvenile psychopathic traits, delinquency and (violent) recidivism: a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asscher, J.J.; van Vugt, E.S.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Deković, M.; Eichelsheim, V.I.; Yousfi, S.

    2011-01-01

    A meta-analysis of k = 53 studies containing 60 non-overlapping samples and 10,073 participants was conducted to investigate whether psychopathy was associated with delinquency and (violent) recidivism in juveniles. The results showed that psychopathy was moderately associated with delinquency,

  6. The Relationship between Juvenile Psychopathic Traits, Delinquency and (Violent) Recidivism: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asscher, Jessica J.; van Vugt, Eveline S.; Stams, Geert Jan J. M.; Dekovic, Maja; Eichelsheim, Veroni I.; Yousfi, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    A meta-analysis of k = 53 studies containing 60 non-overlapping samples and 10,073 participants was conducted to investigate whether psychopathy was associated with delinquency and (violent) recidivism in juveniles. The results showed that psychopathy was moderately associated with delinquency, general recidivism, and violent recidivism. Moderator…

  7. The Role of Gender in Juvenile Delinquency: Personality and Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Amelia; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Three personality questionnaires were completed by 122 delinquent and 421 nondelinquent adolescents in Valencia, Spain. Delinquents scored higher than nondelinquents on factors of dogmatism, neuroticism, and criminal propensity and lower than nondelinquents on intelligence. Neuroticism was the best predictor of delinquency for females. (BC)

  8. Perceived Best Friend Delinquency Moderates the Link between Contextual Risk Factors and Juvenile Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fite, Paula; Preddy, Teresa; Vitulano, Michael; Elkins, Sara; Grassetti, Stevie; Wimsatt, Amber

    2012-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effects of contextual risk factors (i.e., negative life events and neighborhood problems) and perceived best friend delinquency on child self-reported delinquency. More specifically, the present study extended the literature by evaluating whether best friend delinquency moderated the effects of contextual risk…

  9. The Effects of Two Types of Exposure on Attitudes toward Aspects of Juvenile Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeUnes, Arnold; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Tracks the attitude changes of a group of abnormal psychology students following a tour of a juvenile correctional facility and a presentation by four of the inmates. A 25-item semantic differential scale revealed a noticeable improvement in the students' attitudes towards juvenile delinquents after the visit. (MJP)

  10. Movie Portrayals of Juvenile Delinquency: Part 1-Epidemiology and Criminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Scott

    1995-01-01

    Reviews aspects of the epidemiology and criminology of delinquency and how they have been reflected in American films. Analyses show that when movies mimic certain aspects of the viewer's environment, an interactive or "resonating" effect may occur, such that young viewers may be more likely to commit delinquent acts. (RJM)

  11. The DSM-5 Limited Prosocial Emotions subtype of Conduct Disorder in incarcerated male and female juvenile delinquents

    OpenAIRE

    Pechorro, Pedro; Jiménez García, Lucía; Hidalgo García, María Victoria; Nunes,Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the relevance of the DSM-5's Conduct Disorder new Limited Prosocial Emotions (CD LPE) specifier in incarcerated juvenile delinquents. A sample of 201 males and 98 females from the Juvenile Detention Centers managed by the Portuguese Ministry of Justice diagnosed with Conduct Disorder (CD) was used. Results showed that male juvenile delinquents with the CD LPE specifier scored higher on callous-unemotional traits (CU), general psychopathic traits, ps...

  12. Juvenile Delinquents, the Martial Arts, and Behavior Modification: An Experimental Study for Social Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoulin, Donald F.

    Adolescents are particularly open to the influences of interventions that restructure their attitudes and self-concept. This study assesses the influence of martial arts training that incorporates a philosophy of life along with strict discipline. The hypothesis was that such training could positively influence juvenile delinquents and contribute…

  13. An Experiential Learning Approach to the Teaching of Criminology, Juvenile Delinquency, and Social Deviance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Norman

    1989-01-01

    Describes the program Discovery located in western Massachusetts designed to incorporate experiential learning into the teaching of criminology, juvenile delinquency, social deviance, and related subjects. Reports that the program has proven to be useful in providing concrete experiences and has been widely praised by the host agencies. (KO)

  14. Juvenile Delinquents, the Martial Arts, and Behavior Modification: An Experimental Study for Social Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoulin, Donald F.

    Adolescents are particularly open to the influences of interventions that restructure their attitudes and self-concept. This study assesses the influence of martial arts training that incorporates a philosophy of life along with strict discipline. The hypothesis was that such training could positively influence juvenile delinquents and contribute…

  15. Ethnic differences in the relationship between psychopathy and (re) offending in a sample of juvenile delinquents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asscher, Jessica J.; Dekovic, Maja; Wissink, Inge B.; van Vugt, Eveline S.; Stams, Geert Jan J. M.; Manders, Willeke A.

    2014-01-01

    The present study focused on the relationship between psychopathy and delinquency in a multiethnic sample of juvenile offenders (N=207, n=105 native Dutch, and n=102 immigrants) referred to a treatment program. Aims were (1) to examine the cross-ethnic equivalence of the Antisocial Process Screening

  16. From punishment to education--juvenile delinquency in Romanian criminal law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioan, Beatrice; Damian, Simona; Scripcaru, C; Neagu, M; Chirilă, B

    2015-01-01

    For centuries children were considered "mini-adults". Together with expressing the need to educate children and putting a stop to their integration in the work field from the earliest years the 19th century also displayed a new image of the child, which clearly separates him from the adults. In this paper the authors analyze the Romanian legislation addressing juvenile delinquency in criminal temporal evolution. On the one hand the minority age limits are sought and modulation of legislative provisions according to these, and on the other hand, types of penalties for minors are discussed. The authors conclude that the approach to juvenile delinquency in the current Romanian Criminal Code is the result of a long process of reflection of the legislators on adopting a different system of sanctions for juvenile offenders and on creating special regulations concerning the prosecution, trial and enforcement of the decisions regarding them.

  17. Age of crime onset and psychopathic traits in female juvenile delinquents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechorro, Pedro; Gonçalves, Rui Abrunhosa; Marôco, João; Nunes, Cristina; Jesus, Saul Neves

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the role of psychopathic traits in the age of crime onset of female juvenile delinquents. Using a sample of 132 young females from the Juvenile Detention Centers of the Portuguese Ministry of Justice and from schools in the Lisbon region, a group of early crime onset (n = 44), a group of late crime onset (n = 44), and a nondelinquent school group (n = 44) were formed. Results showed that early crime onset participants score higher on psychopathy measures, self-reported delinquency, and crime seriousness than late crime onset participants and school participants. Psychopathic-traits scores were significantly associated with age of crime onset, age at first trouble with the law, and frequency and seriousness of crime.

  18. ASPECTS OF COMPARATIVE LAW IN THE MATTER OF JUVENILE PRE-DELINQUENCY AND DELINQUENCY WITH TRENDS TOWARDS SANCTIONS AND PREVENTION

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    MONICA POCORA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to be an interdisciplinary, criminal-criminological approach of the minority institution in terms of criminal liability, with an evolutionary dynamic of the pre-offense and post-offense assumptions. The operative criterion is the notion of juvenile pre-delinquency (pre-deviance or potential deviance, because it refers to all the acts violating the norm of moral behaviour, which in certain circumstances may lead a teenager to appear before the court, and in other circumstances not. The deviant conducts of minors do not necessarily have a criminal nature and not under all circumstances. If these different acts of them do not violate the criminal norms, representing only deviations from ethical rules of behaviour, they are not legally sanctioned, but only in moral forms. Thus, this approach is meant to be a criminological transition from the criminological plan to the criminal illegality.

  19. The Delinquencies of Juvenile Law: A Natural Law Analysis

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    Ellis Washington

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is a substantive analysis tracing the legal, philosophical, social, historical, jurisprudence and political backgrounds of juvenile law, which is an outgrowth of the so-calledProgressive movement - a popular social and political movement of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. I also trace how this socio-political cause célèbre became a fixture in Americanculture and society due to existential child labor abuses which progressive intellectuals used as a pretext to codify juvenile law in federal law and in statutory law in all 50 states by 1925. Moreover the dubious social science and Machiavellian political efforts that created the juvenile justice system out of whole cloth has done much more harm to the Constitution and to the children it was mandated to protect than any of the Progressive ideas initially envisioned rooted in Positive Law (separation of law and morals. Finally, I present am impassioned argument for congressional repeal of all juvenile case law and statutes because they are rooted in Positive Law, contrary to Natural Law (integration of law and morals, the original intent of the constitutional Framers and are therefore patently unconstitutional.

  20. Adolescent Neglect, Juvenile Delinquency and the Risk of Recidivism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joseph P.; Williams, Abigail B.; Courtney, Mark E.

    2013-01-01

    Victims of child abuse and neglect are at an increased risk of involvement with the juvenile justice and adult correctional systems. Yet, little is known about the continuation and trajectories of offending beyond initial contact with law enforcement. Neglect likely plays a critical role in continued offending as parental monitoring, parental…

  1. Do adolescent drug users fare the worst? Onset type, juvenile delinquency, and criminal careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLisi, Matt; Angton, Alexia; Behnken, Monic P; Kusow, Abdi M

    2015-02-01

    Although substance abuse often accompanies delinquency and other forms of antisocial behavior, there is less scholarly agreement about the timing of substance use vis-à-vis an individual's antisocial trajectory. Similarly, although there is extraordinary evidence that onset is inversely related to the severity of the criminal career, there is surprisingly little research on the offense type of onset or the type of antisocial behavior that was displayed when an individual initiated his or her offending career. Drawing on data from a sample of serious adult criminal offenders (N = 500), the current study examined 12 forms of juvenile delinquency (murder, rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, larceny, auto theft, arson, weapons, sexual offense, drug sales, and drug use) in addition to age at arrest onset, age, sex, race to explore their association with chronicity (total arrests), extreme chronicity (1 SD above the mean which was equivalent to 90 career arrests), and lambda (offending per year). The only onset offense type that was significantly associated with all criminal career outcomes was juvenile drug use. Additional research on the offense type of delinquent onset is needed to understand launching points of serious antisocial careers.

  2. Juvenile delinquency among students of an approved sheltered girls' school in Lagos, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebuehi, O M; Omogbemi, K B

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is the involvement of a child younger than 18 years in behavior that violates the law. Its cost in terms of human potential, public safety and tax expenditures can be very high. Research that assesses how and why children become delinquent is a sound investment, because it can provide the foundation for effective intervention in its prevention and control. The study is to determine the factors associated with juvenile delinquency. A cross-sectional study was conducted among sixty (60) students of the approved sheltered girls' school, Idi-Araba, Lagos, using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. Findings revealed that the respondents were within the ages of 10-18 years with a mean age of 14.2 +/- 2.0 years, 70% had attained primary school education. Of the 53.3% that dropped out of school, 65.6% did so from financial problems, 6.3% as a result of poor performance and peer pressure accounted for 28.1%. A total of 71.7% of the students were brought to the school by the police; 52.5% on account of roaming while lack of parental control, stealing, robbery and fighting accounted for 16.9%, 11.9%, 10.2%, and 8.5% respectively. Majority (58.6%) of the students had both parents alive while 12.1% had both parents deceased. About 25 (41.7%) of the respondents admitted to committing a crime out of which 88% was stealing, 4% were involved in armed robbery and 8% in house breaking. Of all the socio-demographics characteristics of the respondents explored, only their educational level was found to be significantly associated (p = 0.0197) with criminal behaviour. Mother's educational level (p = 0.0245), maternal alcohol consumption (p = 0.0173) and kind of treatment (0.0245) received from step mums were significantly associated with criminal behaviour. Poor parental supervision, poverty and peer pressure played key roles in delinquency among the juveniles. An effective prevention and control of juvenile delinquency will require collective

  3. Relations Between Neighborhood Factors, Parenting Behaviors, Peer Deviance, and Delinquency Among Serious Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, He Len; Steinberg, Laurence

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined relations among neighborhood structural and social characteristics, parenting practices, peer group affiliations, and delinquency among a group of serious adolescent offenders. The sample of 14–18-year-old boys (N = 488) was composed primarily of economically disadvantaged, ethnic-minority youth living in urban communities. The results indicate that weak neighborhood social organization is indirectly related to delinquency through its associations with parenting behavior and peer deviance and that a focus on just 1 of these microsystems can lead to oversimplified models of risk for juvenile offending. The authors also find that community social ties may confer both pro- and antisocial influences to youth, and they advocate for a broad conceptualization of neighborhood social processes as these relate to developmental risk for youth living in disadvantaged communities. PMID:16569170

  4. Perceptions of school resource officers on juvenile delinquents in schools

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    Serkan Taşğın

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Violence is very common in the schools of the U.S. Therefore, families have suspicions not only about competency of the education but also for safety of their children in the school. While there is a great deal of studies which examined the effectiveness and success of school resource officers in schools, and studies which explore the perceptions of citizens, school administration, and juveniles toward police, fewer studies exploring the perceptions of school resource officers about different issues such as their perceptions toward juvenile justice system, school administration and staff, families of juveniles, and juvenile offenders. Fifteen school resource officers were interviewed in schools in a mid-sized Midwestern city in the U.S.. The researcher was allowed to conduct interview with police officers by Police Department’s approval. The consent forms were delivered to participants which were reviewed and signed by the participants. Purposive sampling method was used by asking Deputy Chief in police department either who has worked or currently working in schools school resource officers. The interviews were digitally recorded. The researcher saved these interviews to the computer and transcribed them into the word processor. Findings revealed that there was no standardized training for school resource officers. Their criterion for using discretion was mostly based on the attitude of the families toward them or toward their children. They perceived minor offenses in schools as ‘gateway’ for future serious offenses. Since the study participants were not randomly selected and the sample size was 15, findings cannot be generalized to all school resource officers in the U.S. However, it is expected that all school resource officers would have common experiences such as use of discretion, problems with school administration, and the prevalence of violence among youth. Thus, this study can provide some insights about the experiences of

  5. Value of information analysis applied to the economic evaluation of interventions aimed at reducing juvenile delinquency: An illustration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eeren, H.V.; Schawo, S.J.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Busschbach, J.J. van; Hakkaart-van Roijen, L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether a value of information analysis, commonly applied in health care evaluations, is feasible and meaningful in the field of crime prevention. Methods Interventions aimed at reducing juvenile delinquency are increasingly being evaluated according to their cost-effective

  6. Value of information analysis applied to the economic evaluation of interventions aimed at reducing juvenile delinquency : An illustration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.V. Eeren (Hester V.); S.J. Schawo (Saskia); R. Scholte (Ron); J.J. van Busschbach (Jan); L. van Hakkaart-van Roijen (Leona)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractObjectives To investigate whether a value of information analysis, commonly applied in health care evaluations, is feasible and meaningful in the field of crime prevention. Methods Interventions aimed at reducing juvenile delinquency are increasingly being evaluated according to their co

  7. Ethnic differences in the relationship between psychopathy and (re)offending in a sample of juvenile delinquents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asscher, J.J.; Deković, M.; Wissink, I.B.; van Vugt, E.S.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Manders, W.A.

    2014-01-01

    The present study focused on the relationship between psychopathy and delinquency in a multiethnic sample of juvenile offenders (N=207, n=105 native Dutch, and n=102 immigrants) referred to a treatment program. Aims were (1) to examine the cross-ethnic equivalence of the Antisocial Process Screening

  8. Comparison of self-control and metacognition components in normal minors and juvenile delinquents at correction and rehabilitation centers

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    Jafar Bahadorikhosroshahi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Self-control and cognition are among the factors involved in the tendency toward delinquency. The aim of this study was to compare self-control and metacognition components in normal minors and juvenile delinquents at correction and rehabilitation centers. This was a causal-comparative descriptive study. The statistical sample included 70 juvenile delinquents (55 boys and 15 girls, selected via convenience sampling. The boys were at the correction and rehabilitation center of Tabriz and the girls were referred to the detention center of morality police by the intelligence department of police in Tabriz. The normal minors included 70 high-school students (55 boys and 15 girls who were matched with the case group in terms of age, sex, and education. Data collection tools included Tangney’s self-control scale and metacognition scale. Results showed that there were significant differences in the self-control variables between juvenile offenders and normal minors. Moreover, there were significant differences in the metacognition components between the juvenile offenders and normal minors. This means that juvenile offenders had low self-control and metacognition. Adoption of socially accepted behaviors is strictly related to self-control and metacognition. Adolescents with low self-control ability and impaired metacognition are less adaptive to social norm

  9. Moral Disengagement as Mediator and Moderator of the Relation Between Empathy and Aggression Among Chinese Male Juvenile Delinquents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingchao; Lei, Li; Yang, Jiping; Gao, Ling; Zhao, Fengqing

    2017-04-01

    The link between empathy and aggression is well documented; yet, studies examining potential mechanisms that explain this association are limited. In the present study, we tested the relation between empathy and aggression and examined both the mediating and moderating effects of moral disengagement on this relation among Chinese male juvenile delinquents. Three hundred and fifty-seven male juvenile delinquents from one Chinese juvenile correctional facility completed the interpersonal reactivity index, the moral disengagement scale and the aggression questionnaire. The results indicated that moral disengagement partially mediated the influence of empathy on aggression. Moreover, moral disengagement moderated the relation between empathy and aggression. Specifically, there was a significant negative relation between empathy and aggression at low levels of moral disengagement. However, at high levels of moral disengagement, the relation between empathy and aggression was non-significant. The significance and limitations of the results are discussed.

  10. The Association between Physical Activity in Leisure Time and Juvenile Delinquency in Detained Boys in Yazd Prison

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    Jamal Behjati Ardakani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Leisure time is one of the critical issues in the dynamics of the process youth education and training and addressing to it is a solution for bottlenecks and is the key to solve its problems and finally can be consider as a strategy to planning for a desirable and worthy leisure time. Therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between physical activity in Leisure Time and Juvenile Delinquency in Detained Boys in Yazd city (Center of Iran. Materials and Methods In this descriptive correlation study, 254 boys in Yazd prison, were selected randomly according to the Morgan formula for determine the sample size. Demographic characteristics questionnaires, including Bahrami leisure time questionnaire and Bahrami delinquency rate questionnaire (2013 questionnaires were distributed among them. Finally to ensure the normal distribution of data the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was done and for data analysis Pearson correlation, simple linear regression, one sample t-test and ANOVA test were used.   Results A total of 254 boys, in Yazd prison, participated in this study. Our results demonstrated that there was a significant inverse relationship between training and exercise sessions and delinquency rate in imprisoned boys (P≤0.05. Also there was a significant inverse relationship between delinquency rate and the amount of interest to physical activity in imprisoned boys (P≤0.05. Between the satisfaction of spending leisure time with delinquency rate, there was a significant inverse relationship too (P≤0.05. Conclusion This study showed that there was a significant inverse relationship between physical activity and delinquency rate in imprisoned boys; it is suggested to be provided for Juvenile physical activity as the reduced rate of delinquency.

  11. Psychosocial adversity, delinquent pathway and internalizing psychopathology in juvenile male offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Ida; Faísca, Luis

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of a set of risk factors relating to childhood life events and other psychosocial factors that may be associated with criminal indicators and with the prevalence of internalizing psychopathology in a sample of adolescent offenders. Fifty male adolescents in the custody of the Portuguese Juvenile Justice System participated in the study (M=15.8 years of age). The Adolescent Psychopathology Scale - Short Form (APS-SF) was administered in a structured interview format, and the sociodemographic, family and criminal data questionnaire was filled in by the justice professional after consulting the adolescent's file. Forty-six percent of all subjects had previous delinquent behavior. About 32% of the boys had committed violent offenses and 88% acted with peers. Also, the persistence of the delinquent behavior (50% of the offenders), coupled with the increase in the severity of the crimes committed (38% of the sample), suggests that these adolescents were at risk for serious and chronic delinquency at the time of the intervention. About 32% of the participants reported posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, 20% had suicide ideation, and a lower percentage reported other internalizing problems. Institutionalization, maltreatment and conduct problems in childhood, and family risk factors (parental conflict, absence of a father figure, lack of parental control and family substance addiction) were related with the report of internalizing problems. Moreover, the increase in the severity of criminal offenses and living in a correctional facility were associated with higher levels of posttraumatic stress, interpersonal problems, anxiety and depression. This study draws attention to the importance of assessing indicators of psychopathology and of psychosocial risk in intervention programs with young offenders, but also to the need of family focused interventions in order to help prevent recidivism.

  12. Self-image of punk rock and nonpunk rock juvenile delinquents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, B D

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide some understanding of punk rockers. Although they have received media attention in the depiction of their unusual hair and clothing styles, there is limited information about their personalities. In this study a delinquent group of punk rockers was compared with a delinquent group of nonpunk rockers on self-image, a personality factor related to teenagers' mental health and adjustment. Each group consisted of 20 subjects, 15 males and 5 females, aged 14 to 17. Subjects were administered a Screening Questionnaire, the Offer Self-Image Questionnaire (OSIQ), and the California Psychological Inventory (CPI) while detained at a Southern California juvenile hall. Interest in the CPI was focused on the Socialization (So) scale. A one-way analysis of variance was conducted on each of the five OSIQ dimensions. No significant differences were found between the groups. The importance of these findings is that even though punk rockers may look and act unusual, they may actually be similar to other groups. Due to possibly invalid CPI test protocols a t test and content analysis of the CPI So scale was conducted. The t test was significant and the chi-square analyses were significant on two questions of the CPI So scale. This suggests that there may be differences between the groups in terms of family dynamics. Professionals can utilize these findings in their work with this misunderstood segment of society.

  13. Psychological acculturation and juvenile delinquency: comparing Moroccan immigrant families from a general and pretrial detention population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Gonneke W J M; Veen, Violaine C; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    2014-04-01

    Although several theoretical notions have been proposed predicting a relationship between acculturation orientation and juvenile delinquency, the available empirical research is scarce and limited. To extend former research, in this study, we used latent class analyses to compare bidimensional psychological acculturation orientation of Moroccan immigrant boys in pretrial detention with those of Moroccan boys in the general population. We also examined their parents' acculturation orientation. We found that boys in pretrial detention were clearly overrepresented in the integrated psychological acculturation class and underrepresented in the separated psychological acculturation class when we compared them with the boys in the general population. Highly similar results were found for their parents. In contrast, boys in pretrial detention were as likely to be faced with an intergenerational acculturation gap as boys from the general population.

  14. Comorbidity and Behavior Characteristics of Russian Male Juvenile Delinquents With ADHD and Conduct Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblad, Frank; Isaksson, Johan; Heiskala, Viktor; Koposov, Roman; Ruchkin, Vladislav

    2015-04-29

    To test the previously suggested hypothesis that those with comorbid ADHD and Conduct Disorder (CD) diagnoses differ from other antisocially involved youth in terms of higher rates of violent behavior, impulsiveness, and psychopathic traits. Three hundred eighty juvenile incarcerated delinquents from Northern Russia were assessed by means of semi-structured psychiatric interview and by student and teacher self-reports. The study has demonstrated higher rates of psychiatric disorders and of comorbidity, as well as more complicated substance abuse and disruptive behaviors in those with combined ADHD-CD diagnosis, as compared with CD only, ADHD only, and no CD no ADHD groups. The results regarding psychopathic traits were inconclusive. The group with combined ADHD-CD diagnosis is more severely disturbed, both as concerns psychiatric comorbidity and more severe aggressive and disruptive behaviors. However, there is only limited evidence supporting a higher prevalence of psychopathic traits in this group. © 2015 SAGE Publications.

  15. Reculer Pour Mieux Sauter: A Review of Attachment and Other Developmental Processes Inherent in Identified Risk Factors for Juvenile Delinquency and Juvenile Offending

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    Dianna T. Kenny

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The task of this paper is to identify the causes of juvenile delinquency and juvenile offending. The French proverb chosen for its title (Step back in order to jump better reflects the inherent challenge in this task; that is, how far back must we step in order to gain a complete understanding of these causes? Do we commence with adolescence, childhood, birth, pregnancy, conception, or the young person’s parents and their life experiences? How wide a net do we cast? Should we focus primarily on intra-individual factors, or the social ecologies in which young delinquents are found? Every story must have a beginning. In this story about young people who fall off the prosocial developmental trajectory, all sign posts point to attachment and the quality of the child’s first attachment experiences. This review will examine, from attachment and other developmental perspectives, how many of the more proximal causes of delinquency and youth offending have their origins in the emotional deficits suffered in early life. We will argue that delinquent and offending behavior represent attempts to redress these deficits. Consequently, interventions that attempt to prevent offending and reduce recidivism that do not address attachment ruptures and other early deficits cannot expect satisfactory outcomes.

  16. 青少年犯罪的影响因素分析%Analysis of Influenting Factors of Juvenile Delinquency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金灿灿; 邹泓

    2012-01-01

    目的:分析和评估影响青少年犯罪的因素.方法:采用社会问题解决技能问卷、亲子冲突问卷、师生关系问卷、友谊质量问卷、青少年生活事件核查表和问题行为问卷对来自上海和昆明的549名犯罪青少年和555名普通青少年进行测量.结果:问题行为、母亲受教育程度、父亲受教育程度、日常生活事件次数能显著预测青少年犯罪的概率,预测力依次降低.结论:干预青少年犯罪需从个体、家庭、学校和社会各方面同时入手.%Objective: To explore the influenting factors of juvenile delinquency. Methods: The demographic question-naire, Social Problem Skill Scale, Parent-child Conflict Scale, Teacher-student Relationship Scale, Friendship Quality Scale, ASLEC, Problem behavior Scale were used to investigate the 548 juvenile delinquents and 555 normal adolescents from Shanghai and Kunming. Results: Problem behavior, parents' educational level and the frequency of ordinary life events could predict observably the probability of juvenile delinquency, the prediction effect of the above factors decreased in turn. Conclusion: It is considered to reduce problem behavior and criminal behavior from the aspects of individual, family, school and society, so as to prevent juvenile delinquents.

  17. Preliminary data on the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in Brazilian male and female juvenile delinquents

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    Andrade R.C.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present investigation was to study the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in a sample of delinquent adolescents of both genders and to compare the prevalence between genders. A total of 116 adolescents (99 males and 17 females aged 12 to 19 on parole in the State of Rio de Janeiro were interviewed using the screening interview based on the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children - Present and Lifetime (KSADS-PL. Data were collected between May 2002 and January 2003. Of 373 male and 58 female adolescents present in May 2002 in the largest institution that gives assistance to adolescents on parole in the city of Rio de Janeiro, 119 subjects were assessed (three of them refused to participate. Their average age was 16.5 years with no difference between genders. The screening interview was positive for psychopathology for most of the sample, with the frequencies of the suggested more prevalent psychiatric disorders being 54% for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, 77% for conduct disorder, 41% for oppositional defiant disorder, 57% for anxiety disorder 57, 60% for depressive disorder 60, 63% for illicit drug abuse, and 58% for regular alcohol use. Internalizing disorders (depressive disorders, anxiety disorders and phobias were more prevalent in the female subsample. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of illicit drug abuse between genders. There were more male than female adolescents on parole and failure to comply with the sentence was significantly more frequent in females. The high prevalence of psychopathology suggested by this study indicates the need for psychiatric treatment as part of the prevention of juvenile delinquency or as part of the sentence. However, treatment had never been available for 93% of the sample in this study.

  18. Criando Caim e Abel: pensando a prevenção da infração juvenil Raising Caim and Abel: thinking on juvenile delinquency prevention

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    Simone Gonçalves de Assis

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo é parte de uma pesquisa que envolveu adolescentes infratores e seus irmãos não infratores, realizada nas cidades do Rio de Janeiro e Recife. O principal objetivo foi o de conhecer os motivos que levam jovens a trilhar caminhos distintos, visando à prevenção da delinqüência juvenil. Foram incluídos casos de homicídio, assalto à mão armada, lesão corporal, estupro e atentado violento ao pudor e tráfico de drogas. A técnica de história de vida foi usada em entrevistas semi-estruturadas que foram aplicadas a 61 infratores e 31 não infratores. Nelas, buscou-se conhecer a sua realidade familiar, comunitária e social. A técnica de análise de conteúdo foi utilizada nas entrevistas. Foi feita ainda uma abordagem quantitativa dos dados (estudo de concordância e de associação de variáveis com o objetivo de identificar os fatores predisponentes à infração. No presente trabalho apresenta-se um modelo teórico explicativo da gênese da delinqüência juvenil e suas formas de prevenção; uma síntese dos achados qualitativos e quantitativos da pesquisa; e um ensaio de proposta para identificação dos fatores envolvidos na rede causal da infração cometida por adolescentes.This article is part of a research with juvenile delinquents and its siblings non delinquents. It was realized in the cities of Rio de Janeiro and Recife. It has the objective of studying the reasons that take young people to choose different roads, seeking the prevention of the juvenile delinquency. Cases of homicide, armed robbery, assault, rape and indecent act using force and drug traffic were included. The technique of life history was used in semi-structured interviews that were applied to 61 offenders and 31 non offenders. It stressed themes like family, community and social reality. The technique of content analysis was used in the interviews. It was still made a quantitative analysis of the data (agreement study and of association of

  19. Co-Occurrence of Delinquency and Other Problem Behaviors. Youth Development Series. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, David; Loeber, Rolf; Thornberry, Terence P.; Cothern, Lynn

    This bulletin presents findings from the Program of Research on Causes and Correlates of Delinquency. The co-occurrence or overlap of serious delinquency with drug use, problems in school, and mental health are discussed using data from the first 3 years of the program. Youth who are seriously delinquent often experience difficulties in other…

  20. Juvenile delinquency and young offender: Bibliographical and bibliometric review of two perspectives of study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Bringas

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, interest in dissocial and criminal behavior among young people keeps high. However, this interest dates back to over 60 years before the inclusion of Juvenile Delinquency (JD in American Psychological Association's Thesaurus. The present review recovers journal articles included in the database PsycINFO and provides a descriptive analysis of the production over a century. An analysis of contents was developed using three different criteria: reviewing articles written by the most prolific authors; using the major descriptors assigned by PsycINFO to these publications; and classificating ad hoc articles by several judges. Comparing the periods 1947-57 and 1997-2007 we confirmed the progression from theoretical approaches to empirical studies as well as the change in focus from social class to contexts of intervention (school, family and community. However, those outcomes showed clearly the need to develop new initiatives which allow the classification of the enormous amount of information related to JD issued each year. We discuss the suitability of the term JD in the Spanish social and legal context, proposing as a possible substitute Menor Infractor (Young Offender.

  1. [With "Beethoven" and juvenile delinquents in the mountains. Report of an experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiemerling, D

    1982-01-01

    The present report describes the work of an American therapist from Nevada who specializes in child and juvenile psychology. He takes groups of young delinquents, five to ten at a time, for expeditions lasting several days - mountain climbing, shooting the rapids, parachute skiing, hiking through snowed-in alpine valleys, etc. - subjecting his charges to psychologically and physically extreme situations. Offering himself as someone to identify with, he enters into a kind of existential communication with these young people as soon as their resistance has melted away, and approaches them individually in joint efforts (e.g. as felling trees). In my opinion his therapy is quite effective and, among other things, leads to a maturation and completion of the precarious ego structures in these youngsters; it raises their frustration tolerance, thereby diminishing their tendency to aggressive reaction; it improves their ability to grasp reality; it leads to a more positive social behaviour and more positive social needs; and finally, it increases their confidence in the possibility of leading a meaningful life.

  2. Substance Abuse among Juvenile Delinquents and Gang Members. Prevention Research Update Number Six, Spring 1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, John A.; Austin, Gregory A.

    There is a strong statistical correlation between delinquency activity level and the level of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use in adolescents. A strong association between drug use, drug trafficking, and youth gangs has also emerged. However, several important questions concerning the relationship of delinquency, gang membership, and AOD use…

  3. Parenting styles, self-control and male juvenile delinquency: The mediating role of self-control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Exter Blokland, E.A.W. den; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Finkenauer, C.

    2001-01-01

    One of the most important environmental factors in explaining adolescent delinquency is the young offender's family It is therefore crucial to examine which aspects of parenting predict delinquent behavior in adolescents. An important study of Feldman and Weinberger on the direct link between

  4. Parenting styles, self-control and male juvenile delinquency: The mediating role of self-control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Exter Blokland, E.A.W. den; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Finkenauer, C.

    2001-01-01

    One of the most important environmental factors in explaining adolescent delinquency is the young offender's family It is therefore crucial to examine which aspects of parenting predict delinquent behavior in adolescents. An important study of Feldman and Weinberger on the direct link between parent

  5. Another Look at the Relationship between the Broken Home and Juvenile Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Free, Marvin D., Jr.

    Inadequate samples, methodological deficiencies, and inadequate measures of delinquency and family structure have contributed to the confusion regarding the relationship between the broken home and delinquency. This investigation, seeking to overcome many of the deficiencies of earlier research, used a large, geographically diverse sample, a…

  6. Self-Image of Punk Rock and Nonpunk Rock Juvenile Delinquents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Brian D.

    1987-01-01

    Compared self-images of 20 delinquent punk rockers and 20 delinquent nonpunk rockers. Results revealed no significant differences between the groups, suggesting that even though punk rockers may look and act unusual, they may actually be similar to other groups. Findings did suggest that there may be differences between groups in terms of family…

  7. Value of Information Analysis Applied to the Economic Evaluation of Interventions Aimed at Reducing Juvenile Delinquency: An Illustration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hester V Eeren

    Full Text Available To investigate whether a value of information analysis, commonly applied in health care evaluations, is feasible and meaningful in the field of crime prevention.Interventions aimed at reducing juvenile delinquency are increasingly being evaluated according to their cost-effectiveness. Results of cost-effectiveness models are subject to uncertainty in their cost and effect estimates. Further research can reduce that parameter uncertainty. The value of such further research can be estimated using a value of information analysis, as illustrated in the current study. We built upon an earlier published cost-effectiveness model that demonstrated the comparison of two interventions aimed at reducing juvenile delinquency. Outcomes were presented as costs per criminal activity free year.At a societal willingness-to-pay of €71,700 per criminal activity free year, further research to eliminate parameter uncertainty was valued at €176 million. Therefore, in this illustrative analysis, the value of information analysis determined that society should be willing to spend a maximum of €176 million in reducing decision uncertainty in the cost-effectiveness of the two interventions. Moreover, the results suggest that reducing uncertainty in some specific model parameters might be more valuable than in others.Using a value of information framework to assess the value of conducting further research in the field of crime prevention proved to be feasible. The results were meaningful and can be interpreted according to health care evaluation studies. This analysis can be helpful in justifying additional research funds to further inform the reimbursement decision in regard to interventions for juvenile delinquents.

  8. Persistence of identifiable remains of white sturgeon juveniles in digestive tracts of northern pikeminnow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadomski, D.M.; Frost, C.N.

    2004-01-01

    Juvenile white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus, have not been commonly identified as prey items in digestive tracts of fishes collected in the wild. In particular, the diet of northern pikeminnow, Ptychocheilus oregonensis, an abundant Pacific Northwest freshwater predator which has been widely studied, has not included juvenile white sturgeon. To aid in interpreting these results and help in planning future feeding studies, we determined the persistence of identifiable remains of white sturgeon juveniles in this predator's digestive tract. Northern pikeminnow (mean total length = 476 mm), were force-fed meals of 2 or 3 juvenile white sturgeon (mean total length = 91 mm). After digestive periods of 4, 8, 16, 24, 28, and 32h at a water temperature of about 17 ??C, fish were sacrificed, digestive tracts removed, and contents examined. Our results indicate that juvenile white sturgeon would be readily discernable in digestive tracts of northern pikeminnow at least a day after feeding, with scutes remaining undigested and identifiable for 28 h.

  9. The development and validation of the Dormitory Observation Report: a behavioral rating instrument for juvenile delinquents in residential care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneziano, Louis; Veneziano, Carol

    2002-09-01

    In order to provide an objective measure of problematic behavioral patterns among juvenile delinquents in residential facilities, the Dormitory Observation Report (DOR) was developed. The DOR assesses 11 dimensions of problematic behavioral patterns (e.g., physical assaultiveness, manipulativeness), as well as three dimensions of desirable behavioral patterns expected in an institutional setting (e.g., independent functioning, personal hygiene, care of surroundings). Empirical study regarding the reliability and validity of the DOR are reported, and the results are discussed in terms of the theoretical and practical implications of this instrument.

  10. Juvenile Delinquency and Attention Deficit Disorder: Boys' Developmental Trajectories from Age 3 to Age 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, Terrie E.

    1990-01-01

    In this study of developmental precursors of adolescent behavior, the developmental trajectories of 435 boys from ages 3 through 15 were traced for selected correlates of delinquency (childhood antisocial behavior, low verbal intelligence, reading difficulty, and family adversity). (PCB)

  11. Relations Between Neighborhood Factors, Parenting Behaviors, Peer Deviance, and Delinquency Among Serious Juvenile Offenders

    OpenAIRE

    CHUNG, HE LEN; Steinberg, Laurence

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined relations among neighborhood structural and social characteristics, parenting practices, peer group affiliations, and delinquency among a group of serious adolescent offenders. The sample of 14–18-year-old boys (N = 488) was composed primarily of economically disadvantaged, ethnic-minority youth living in urban communities. The results indicate that weak neighborhood social organization is indirectly related to delinquency through its associations with parenting beh...

  12. Sports Participation and Juvenile Delinquency: The Role of the Peer Context among Adolescent Boys and Girls with Varied Histories of Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Margo; Roth, Jodie; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    In a study of 1,344 urban adolescents, the authors examined the relation between participation in organized sports and juvenile delinquency. They compared youth who participated in sports to those who only participated in nonathletic activities and to those who did not participate in any organized activities. They also examined the indirect…

  13. The effects of the prevention program 'New Perspectives' (NP) on juvenile delinquency and other life domains: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, L.A.; Hoeve, M.; Asscher, J.J.; Stams, G.J.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: New Perspectives (NP) is a prevention program aiming to prevent that youth at onset of a criminal career will develop a persistent criminal behaviour pattern. The effects of NP on juvenile delinquency and other life domains are investigated, using a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Met

  14. The effects of the prevention program 'New Perspectives' (NP) on juvenile delinquency and other life domains: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, L.A.; Hoeve, M.; Asscher, J.J.; Stams, G.J.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: New Perspectives (NP) is a prevention program aiming to prevent that youth at onset of a criminal career will develop a persistent criminal behaviour pattern. The effects of NP on juvenile delinquency and other life domains are investigated, using a randomized controlled trial (RCT).

  15. Compilation of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974 as Amended through September 30, 1985. Prepared for Use by the Committee on Education and Labor. House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    This document contains a compilation reflecting amendments made to the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974 by the Fiscal Year Adjustment Act; the Crime Control Act of 1976; the Juvenile Justice Amendments of 1977 and 1980; and the Juvenile Justice, Runaway Youth, and Missing Children's Act Amendments of 1984. Title I of this…

  16. Juvenile Delinquency and Teenage Pregnancy: A Comparison of Ecological Risk Profiles among Midwestern White and Black Female Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Atika; Cooksey, Elizabeth C.; Gavazzi, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined ecological risk factors associated with teen pregnancy with a sample of 1,190 court-involved female juvenile offenders between 11 and 18 years of age. Data were obtained from five Midwestern juvenile county courts using a recently developed youth risk assessment instrument called the global risk assessment device (GRAD). In…

  17. Juvenile Delinquency and Teenage Pregnancy: A Comparison of Ecological Risk Profiles among Midwestern White and Black Female Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Atika; Cooksey, Elizabeth C.; Gavazzi, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined ecological risk factors associated with teen pregnancy with a sample of 1,190 court-involved female juvenile offenders between 11 and 18 years of age. Data were obtained from five Midwestern juvenile county courts using a recently developed youth risk assessment instrument called the global risk assessment device (GRAD). In…

  18. Relations between Neighborhood Factors, Parenting Behaviors, Peer Deviance, and Delinquency among Serious Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, He Len; Steinberg, Laurence

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined relations among neighborhood structural and social characteristics, parenting practices, peer group affiliations, and delinquency among a group of serious adolescent offenders. The sample of 14-18-year-old boys (N = 488) was composed primarily of economically disadvantaged, ethnic-minority youth living in urban…

  19. 76 FR 26280 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... Governments on their statewide analysis of Texas school records and the relationship between school discipline and juvenile justice; (b) presentations from Child Trends on effective approaches to school...

  20. 浅析我国青少年犯罪的成因及对策%On Causes and Countermeasures to Chinese Juvenile Delinquency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭英勇; 刘麦霞; 尹全娇

    2012-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is considered to be the third big social problems following the drug, environmental pollution and it is featured increasingly with younger age, gangs, violence and others. At present, the problem of juvenile delinquency is the big concern in China, and the numbers, forms and means are embodied with the features to be younger, more violent, more gang crimes, crime motive being more sudden and other new features. After study, we leads to the conclusion that the main reason why the juveniles commit crimes, and puts forward the concrete measures of prevention of juvenile delinquency.%青少年犯罪被认为是继毒品、环境污染之后的第三大社会问题,且日益呈现出低龄化、团伙化、暴力化等特征。目前,我国青少年犯罪问题令人担忧,在犯罪数量、犯罪形式、犯罪手段等方面表现出低龄化、暴力性增强、团伙犯罪增加、犯罪动机突发性强等新的特征。经过研究,我们得出了导致青少年犯罪的主要原因,并提出预防青少年犯罪的具体措施。

  1. Factors Perceived to Affect Delinquent Dispositions in Juvenile Court: Putting the Sentencing Decision into Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanborn, Joseph B., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    One hundred workers from rural, urban, and suburban juvenile courts were interviewed to ascertain their perspectives as to factors that should and do influence sentencing decisions. The data demonstrate that the factors perceived to affect these decisions vary among juvenile courts, making it difficult to determine the impact of any single factor.…

  2. Juvenile Delinquency and Special Education Laws: Policy Implementation Issues and Directions for Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Richard J.; Thompson, Kristin C.

    2008-01-01

    The research literature has repeatedly demonstrated that there is an overrepresentation of juveniles with disabilities who are incarcerated in short-term and long-term correctional facilities. Despite these findings, special education programs in many juvenile correctional facilities have been shown to be lacking many of the necessary services…

  3. Prevalence and Development of Child Delinquency. Child Delinquency Bulletin Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Howard N.; Espiritu, Rachele C.; Huizinga, David; Loeber, Rolf; Petechuk, David

    The number of child delinquents entering the juvenile justice system is increasing, as evidenced by rising arrest rates and court caseloads. Compared with adolescents who become involved in delinquency in their teens, child delinquents between the ages of 7 and 12 have a two- to threefold greater risk of becoming serious, violent, and chronic…

  4. Child Delinquency: Early Intervention and Prevention. Child Delinquency Bulletin Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeber, Rolf; Farrington, David P.; Petechuk, David

    Sparked by high-profile cases involving children who commit violent crimes, public concerns regarding child delinquents have escalated. Compared with juveniles who first become involved in delinquency in their teens, child delinquents (offenders younger than age 13) face a much greater risk of becoming serious, violent, and chronic juvenile…

  5. The prevalence of reading and spelling difficulties among inmates of institutions for compulsory care of juvenile delinquents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, I; Lundberg, I; Jacobson, C

    2001-01-01

    Recent studies have focused on reading and writing disabilities among inmates in prisons and at juvenile institutions. Some studies in Sweden have demonstrated that more than half of the delinquents have serious reading difficulties, and for immigrants the situation is even worse. However, these studies have focused on small groups. Furthermore, little attention has been paid to different types of reading and writing difficulties. The main purpose of this investigation was to estimate the prevalence of reading and writing disabilities in juvenile institutions. The study analyses gender differences and differences between immigrants and Swedish pupils. The study included 163 pupils from 22 institutions and used three tests of literacy skills: word identification, spelling and reading comprehension. More than 70% showed some problems in reading and spelling. However, only 11% had serious difficulties. Moreover, the results showed that comprehension ability among immigrant boys was lower than among Swedish boys, despite the same level of word reading skill. The high prevalence of reading and writing disabilities seems primarily to be related to social and cultural factors, home backgrounds, limited school attendance and poor self-esteem rather than to constitutional problems of a dyslexic nature. The implication of this conclusion may be important for the intervention process.

  6. Delinquency Prevention Works. Program Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilchik, Shay

    The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) compiled this summary in order to assist states and jurisdictions in their delinquency prevention efforts. The summary provides a synthesis of current information on a broad range of programs and strategies which seek to prevent delinquency. The theory of risk-focused prevention is…

  7. African American Males in Foster Care and the Risk of Delinquency: The Value of Social Bonds and Permanence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joseph P.; Testa, Mark F.; Zhai, Fuhua

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency remains a significant problem for child welfare systems throughout the United States. Victims of child abuse and neglect are more likely relative to children in the general population to engage in delinquency (Ryan & Testa, 2005; Widom, 1989). Although the magnitude of this relationship is not fully understood (Zingraff,…

  8. Parenting Style Transitions and Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Ryan D.; Mowen, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Parenting style has been extensively analyzed as a contributor to juvenile delinquency in the criminological literature, but no research to date has assessed the prevalence of parenting style changes during adolescence or the influence of such parenting style changes on juvenile delinquency. Drawing from the life course theory, the results show…

  9. Parenting Style Transitions and Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Ryan D.; Mowen, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Parenting style has been extensively analyzed as a contributor to juvenile delinquency in the criminological literature, but no research to date has assessed the prevalence of parenting style changes during adolescence or the influence of such parenting style changes on juvenile delinquency. Drawing from the life course theory, the results show…

  10. Juvenile Justice in Milwaukee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gary L.; Greer, Lanetta

    2010-01-01

    Historically, there have been several attempts made to address issues surrounding juvenile delinquency. The Wisconsin Legislature outlines the objectives of the juvenile justice system in the Juvenile Justice Code in s. 939.01, ?to promote a juvenile justice system capable of dealing with the problem of juvenile delinquency, a system which will…

  11. Chongqing Juvenile Delinquency and Its Countermeasures in the New Period%新时期重庆市青少年犯罪研判与对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常宇刚

    2014-01-01

    Together with drug abuse and environmental pollution,juvenile delinquency has become one of the three major nuisances to the human society.Chongqing is characteristic in its combination of rural areas and big cities,so the delinquency trend is more representative.By taking Chongqing as an example,to get a full understanding of juvenile delinquency and its root causes,to summarize the preventive experience and dilemma and to explore the possible ways of preventing juvenile delinquen-cy are of great significance not only to the social stability in Chongqing itself,but also of sound indica-tive value to other provinces and cities.%青少年犯罪问题已与吸毒和环境污染并列为人类社会的三大公害,重庆市具有大城市与大农村相结合的显著特点,其犯罪形势的变化趋势具有代表性。以重庆市为样本,充分认识青少年犯罪的现实状况,分析其犯罪原因,并在总结当前青少年犯罪预防工作经验和困境的基础上探讨预防青少年犯罪的可行性路径,不仅对于重庆本身的社会稳定有重要意义,同时对其他省市的相关工作也极具参考价值。

  12. Internet Risk Factors and Protective Factors of Juvenile Delinquency%青少年犯罪的网络危险因子与保护性因子

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈思思; 王广新

    2015-01-01

    As the development of network technology,juvenile delinquency has been influenced by many factors on the Internet. Internet addiction,violent cyber games and online deviant behaviors are risk factors. Online social support and Internet altruistic behaviors are protective factors. The effect of Internet risk and protective factors on adolescent’s behaviors,mental health and social development are discussed in the research. Less empirical research provided evidence on direct relationship between the Internet and juvenile delinquency.Future studies should focus on delinquent teenagers. More factors on the Internet which related to juvenile delinquency and the mechanism behind them are urged to be found,and we propose to combine cross-sectional study with longitudinal study.%随着网络技术的发展,网络逐渐成为影响青少年犯罪的重要因素。网络成瘾、暴力网络游戏和网络不良行为等青少年犯罪的危险因子,以及网络社会支持和网络利他行为等青少年犯罪的保护性因子,共同影响着青少年心理、行为和社会性的发展。未来研究可以以犯罪青少年为对象,使用横断研究和纵向研究相结合的研究方法,挖掘更多影响青少年犯罪的网络因素及其作用机制。

  13. Matrushka Immigration Abuse Lack of Education Negative Familial Factors and Juvenile Delinquency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akın Tütüncüler

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The past history of immigration and exposition to abuse has negative effects on childhood crime. Especially immigration due to economical reasons may lead to familial anger and violence and abused child by the other members of the family. In this study a face to face questionnaire was performed to 1163 children who were claimed to commit or participate in a crime and were sent to Antalya Forensic Medicine Office for examination. The questionnaire included questions about age, gender, education, attributed and previous crimes they committed, immigration, physical abuse history, work, family size, number of brother/sister, room number of house in which they are living and size of family member they are sharing the bedroom. The data obtained from results were evaluated in the light of related references. Key words: Immigration, childhood delinquency, child abuse

  14. 75 FR 16177 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Visit the Web site for the Coordinating Council at http://www.juvenilecouncil... the Council's Web page, http:// www.JuvenileCouncil.gov., where you may also obtain information on the... Departments of Agriculture, Defense, the Interior, and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services...

  15. 76 FR 2135 - Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Proposed Plan for Fiscal Year 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... mentoring programs that provide general guidance and support; promote personal and social responsibility... period. OJJDP posts on its Web site ( http://www.ojjdp.gov ) solicitations of grant or cooperative...) communities,\\1\\ and other localities retain primary responsibility for administering juvenile justice and...

  16. Antisocial process screening device: validation on a Russian sample of juvenile delinquents with the emphasis on the role of personality and parental rearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väfors Fritz, Marie; Ruchkin, Vladislav; Koposov, Roman; Af Klinteberg, Britt

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were 1) to validate the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD) in a sample of Russian juvenile delinquents; 2) to examine subgroups of delinquents with higher versus lower levels of childhood problem behaviors with respect to the APSD subscales, personality traits, and parental rearing; and 3) to attempt to replicate the previous finding that the APSD subscale measuring callous/unemotional traits can differentiate subgroups of delinquents with different precursors for problem behaviors (predominantly biological versus predominantly social). A group of 250 Russian juvenile inmates (mean age=16.4) was examined by means of the APSD completed by the staff at the correctional institution. The inmates completed several self-reports assessing their current and childhood behavior problems, personality traits and experienced parental rearing practices. A factor structure of the APSD was obtained that is similar, albeit not identical, to that from the original studies by Frick and colleagues [Frick, P.J., O'Brien, B.S., Wootton, J.M., McBurnett, K., (1994). Psychopathy and conduct problems in children. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103, 700-707]; [Frick, P.J., Barry, C.T., Bodin, S.D., (1999). Applying the concept of psychopathy to children: Implications for the Assessment of antisocial youth. In Gacono, C.B. (Ed), The clinical and forensic assessment of psychopathy: A practitioners guide. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum]; [Frick, P.J., Lilienfeld, S.O., Ellis, M., Loney, B., Silverthorn, P., (1999). The association between anxiety and psychopathy dimensions in children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 27, 383-392]; callous unemotional traits in the present sample were expressed in manipulative behavior. Results further disclosed higher levels of antisocial and aggressive activities, higher levels of personality attributes such as narcissism and novelty seeking, as well as lower cooperativeness, and negatively perceived parental rearing

  17. State and Trait Emotions in Delinquent Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattner, Belinda; Karnik, Niranjan; Jo, Booil; Hall, Rebecca E.; Schallauer, Astrid; Carrion, Victor; Feucht, Martha; Steiner, Hans

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine the structure of emotions and affective dysregulation in juvenile delinquents. Method: Fifty-six juvenile delinquents from a local juvenile hall and 169 subjects from a local high school were recruited for this study. All participants completed psychometric testing for trait emotions followed by measurements of state emotions…

  18. Psychoeducation in an Outpatient Setting--Designing a Heterogeneous Format for a Heterogeneous Population of Juvenile Delinquents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Patricia; Sugrue, Dennis P.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the G.I.T. (Getting It Together) program, a heterogeneous delinquent treatment program combining affective education and social skills training. Delinquents with immature personalities or neurotic features appeared to benefit more from the program than those with characterological disorders. (JAC)

  19. 对预防少数民族地区农村青少年犯罪现象的思考∗%Reflections on Prevention of Juvenile Delinquency in the Rural Areas of Minority Ethnic Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗维有; 徐光辉

    2014-01-01

    预防少数民族地区农村青少年犯罪是政府、社会、学校、家庭的共同责任。由于特殊的经济社会发展环境,少数民族地区农村青少年犯罪具有自身的特点和成因,应该结合当前少数民族地区农村青少年犯罪的特点和成因,做好家庭教育,发挥学校教育主渠道作用,优化社会环境,共同提高预防少数民族地区农村青少年犯罪的成效。%The government, the society, schools and families should jointly assume the responsibility to prevent juvenile delinquency in the rural areas inhabited mainly by the minority ethnic groups, as juven-ile delinquency in the such areas has its own characteristics due to special economic and social environ-ment . Characteristics and the underlying reasons of juvenile delinquency in such areas should be taken into consideration . Emphasis should be attached to family education, schools which provide the main channel of education and the social environment to improve effectiveness of juvenile delinquency prevention in the ru-ral areas inhabited by ethnic minorities.

  20. Social-psychological factors contributing to male juvenile delinquency%男性青少年犯罪的社会心理因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏宏萍; 杨放如

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the major social-psychological factors contributing to male juvenile delinquency. Methods One hundred and thirty-seven cases of male juvenile delinquents ( delinquent group) and 145 aged-matched male students (control group) were enrolled in this case-control study. A questionnaire survey was conducted using the Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Check List, the Coping Style Questionnaire, the Family Environment Scale-Chinese version, and the Social Support Rating Scale. Results The monovariate analysis showed that the total score and the scores of some factors of negative life events, the scores of immature coping styles and family conflicts, and the proportion of broken families in the delinquent group were significantly higher than those in the control group. In contrast, the scores of educational levels, study stress factor in the negative life events, mature coping styles, family environments and social supports were significantly lower in the delinquent group than those in the control group. The multivariate factors analysis showed that 7 variables were enrolled into the discriminatory equations, including negative life events ( interpersonal relationship and healthy adaptation), self-condemn styles, family conflicts, subjective supports, objective supports, and utilization of social supports. The total accuracy of this equation was 92. 2%. Conclusions Negative life events in the interpersonal relationship and healthy adaptation, self-condemn styles, family conflicts, and weak social support system may be major social-psychological factors contributing to male juvenile delinquency.%目的 探讨影响男性青少年犯罪的社会心理因素.方法 采用青少年生活事件量表、应付方式量表、家庭环境量表、社会支持量表对137例男性少年犯及145例正常对照进行问卷调查.结果 单因素分析显示犯罪青少年负性生活事件总分及部分因子得分、不成熟的应付方式、家庭的矛盾

  1. Moving in and out of Poverty: The Within-Individual Association between Socioeconomic Status and Juvenile Delinquency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderik Rekker

    Full Text Available A family's SES can be changeable over time. This study was the first to investigate if such within-individual changes in family SES are associated with parallel fluctuations in boys' delinquent behavior from childhood to adolescence. Participants were a community sample of boys and their caregivers (N = 503 who were assessed annually for ten consecutive years spanning ages 7-18. Fixed effects models revealed that changes in familial SES were related to changes in delinquency: Youths were more likely to offend during years in which their parents' SES was lower than during years in which their parents' SES was higher. Contrary to expectations, we found no evidence that this association was accounted for by families moving to different neighborhoods or by changes in parenting. Since within-individual models provide a stricter test of causality than between-individual models, these findings support claims that impacting familial SES may have a direct effect on youths' delinquency.

  2. Study of the Stroop test in male juvenile delinquents%男性犯罪青少年Stroop特点研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢海岩; 母代斌

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨男性犯罪青少年一般情况及犯罪冲动组与非冲动组Stroop特点及差异性.方法 对乌鲁木齐市少年管教所123例及乌鲁木齐市普通中学128例男性青少年进行一般情况问卷、攻击行为评估(BIS-11)、Stroop测试及面谈,再对数据进行统计分析.结果 正常组与犯罪青少年组比较受教育年限有统计学意义;两组均在各卡改正数方面有统计学意义,卡2、卡5两组在正确数上有统计学意义,其余各项在两组间均不具有统计学差异;犯罪青少年中冲动组与非冲动组在卡2、卡5的改正数方面具有统计学差异.结论 犯罪男性青少年存在认知尤其在执行功能方面的缺陷,而又以冲动组明显.%Objective To explore the characteristics of the Stroop test in male juvenile delinquents divided into ihe impulse group and the nan—impulse group. Methods 123 male juvenile delinquents ancl 128 male adolescents of Urumuqi city middle schools were assessed with general behavior assessment questionnaire.attack (BIS — 11), Stroop test and interview, and the data were statistically analyzed. Results The years of education and numbers of adaptation in normal group and criminal youth group were statistically different. The numbers of righr of Card 2 and Card 5 were significant different between the two groups, there was a significant difference in numbers of adaptation between the impulse group and the non—impulse group. Conclusions The male juvenile delinquents have defects of cognitive, especially in executive function,and it is more severe in the impulse group.

  3. The Gendered Monitoring of Juvenile Delinquents: A Test of Power-Control Theory Using a Retrospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Corina; Bryan, Valerie

    2017-01-01

    Through the framework of power-control theory (PCT), we provide a model of juvenile offending that places the gendered-raced treatment of juveniles central to the analysis. We test the theory using a unique sample that is predominately African American, poor, and composed entirely of juvenile offenders. Multivariate models compare the predictive…

  4. Risk and Protective Factors of Child Delinquency. OJJDP Child Delinquency Bulletin Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Gail A.; Keenan, Kate; Tremblay, Richard E.; Coie, John D.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Loeber, Rolf; Petechuck, David

    Sparked by high-profile cases involving children who commit violent crimes, public concerns regarding child delinquents have escalated. Compared with juveniles who first become involved in delinquency in their teens, child delinquents (offenders younger than age 13) face a much greater risk of becoming serious, violent, and chronic juvenile…

  5. 新疆青少年犯罪的特点与对策%The Characteristics and Countermeasures of Juvenile Delinquency in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭虹

    2014-01-01

    The crime of drug and endangering state security, religious extreme crimes, female crime and crime of street children stand out .Therefore, we should consolidate the economic foundation , improve family education and purify social bad culture by the guidance of comprehensive administration principle , in order to prevent and control the juvenile delinquency in Xinjiang area.%毒品犯罪、危害国家安全罪凸显,宗教极端犯罪案件增加,女性犯罪、流浪儿童犯罪突出。因此,应在综合治理方针指导下,采取夯实经济基础、重视学校预防教育、强化家庭教育及净化社会不良文化等措施,预防和控制新疆青少年犯罪。

  6. Juvenile Justice, Runaway Youth, and Missing Children's Act Amendments of 1984. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Human Resources of the Committee on Education and Labor. House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session on H.R. 4971 to Amend the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974 to Authorize Appropriations for Fiscal Years 1985 through 1989, and for Other Purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    Provided in this document are the text of H.R. 4971, a record of testimony offered in a congressional hearing, and a wide variety of supplemental materials. H.R. 4971 is a bill to amend the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (JJDP) Act of 1974 to authorize appropriations for fiscal years 1985 through 1989 and for other purposes. Numerous…

  7. 青少年犯罪预警管理的机制与策略研究%Research on the Mechanism and Strategies of Early Warning Management of Juvenile Delinquency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟芳兵

    2015-01-01

    Close attention and right attitude to juvenile delinquency together with the methods and ways to conduct early warning and to reduce juvenile delinquency have been playing significant roles in the stability and long peace of our country.Based on our research,the early warning management of juven-ile delinquency can be achieved through four modules,respectively,legal publicity education,growth environment purification,care assistance as well as management and punishment,which ultimately form a three-dimensional early warning system.This paper aims to develop a long-term mechanism and explore effective methods for the early warning of juvenile delinquency,which consists of six different styles,namely,the grid style,integration style,family style,immune style,customization style and ac-countability style.%高度重视和正确认识青少年犯罪问题,研究预防和减少青少年犯罪的方法和途径,关系到国家的稳定和社会的长治久安。将青少年犯罪预警工作分解到法律宣传教育、净化成长环境、关爱帮扶救助和管理帮教惩治四大模块,形成信息通达的立体式预警体系,通过构建青少年犯罪的网格式、整合式、亲情式、免疫式、定制式、问责式的青少年犯罪预警管理的长效机制,以期探索出预防青少年犯罪的有效方法和手段。

  8. Empathic capacity of delinquent convicted minors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milojević Sonja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The psychological approach to juvenile delinquency introduced in recent years postulates “empathy impairment” as one of the origins of youth criminal behaviour. This means that in order to be cruel, people need to be unable to imagine the pain their victims experience. To test that hypothesis, we compare a group of convicted juvenile offenders (N=43 with a control group of adolescents (N=47 on self-report and ability measures of cognitive empathy (Interpersonal Reactivity Index and Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test, respectively. Discriminant Analysis reveals a significant difference between the two groups, most notably in the dimensions of personal distress, RMET score, and perspective taking. However, after the control for age and education, only the differences in measures of cognitive empathy remain. Although delinquents perceive themselves as less capable of taking the vantage point of another person and, when tested, prove themselves to be inferior in perceiving emotions and facial expressions, there are no differences in self-report scores of the affective component of empathy. On the basis of these findings, we draw several practical implications concerning everyday work with delinquents. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179018 i br. 47011

  9. 78 FR 40189 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Juvenile...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Juvenile Residential Facility Census (Extension, Without Change, of a... Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, will be submitting the...

  10. 78 FR 66383 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Juvenile...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ... of Justice Programs Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Juvenile Justice Reform and Reinvestment... (DOJ), Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, will...

  11. Changes in Juvenile Justice in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Dennis S. W.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses rising juvenile and youth crime in China, highlighting the essence of Chinese Marxist criminological thought and changing conceptions of delinquency from the postrevolutionary period to the present; examining official responses to delinquency and the recent development of juvenile justice; and suggesting that current delinquency control…

  12. 'One can always say no.' enriching the bioethical debate on antisocial behaviour, neurobiology and prevention: views of juvenile delinquents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstkötter, Dorothee; Berghmans, Ron; Feron, Frans; De Wert, Guido

    2014-06-01

    Genomic and neuro-scientific research into the causes and course of antisocial behaviour triggers bioethical debate. Often, these new developments are met with reservation, and possible drawbacks and negative side-effects are pointed out. This article reflects on these scientific developments and the bioethical debate by means of an exploration of the perspectives of one important stakeholder group: juveniles convicted of a serious crime who stay in a juvenile justice institution. The views of juveniles are particularly interesting, as possible applications of current and future scientific findings are considered to be most effective if applied early in life. Based on their statements we come to the following provisional conclusions. Concerns about labelling and stigmatization are recognized and widely shared. Possible effects on one's identity are acknowledged too. Yet, a possible biological underpinning of one's antisocial behaviour is not considered to result in the development of a criminal identity. Nonetheless, psychopharmacological interventions are experienced as endangering one's current self. Concerns regarding the refusal of responsibility and the blaming of one's genes or brain can be put into perspective. Instead, participants emphasize the motive of own choice as underlying their criminal behaviour. Moreover, bioethical debate should pay attention to the role of parents of children at risk and the parent-child relationship in families at-risk. We argue that the short-term and long-term interests of children at risk, as well as their interests and those of society at large, may conflict. In order to deal appropriately with newly arising dilemmas, a normative framework needs to be developed.

  13. Ordered delinquency: the "effects" of birth order on delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cundiff, Patrick R

    2013-08-01

    Juvenile delinquency has long been associated with birth order in popular culture. While images of the middle child acting out for attention or the rebellious youngest child readily spring to mind, little research has attempted to explain why. Drawing from Adlerian birth order theory and Sulloway's born-to-rebel hypothesis, I examine the relationship between birth order and a variety of delinquent outcomes during adolescence. Following some recent research on birth order and intelligence, I use new methods that allow for the examination of between-individual and within-family differences to better address the potential spurious relationship. My findings suggest that contrary to popular belief, the relationship between birth order and delinquency is spurious. Specifically, I find that birth order effects on delinquency are spurious and largely products of the analytic methods used in previous tests of the relationship. The implications of this finding are discussed.

  14. Ecdysteroids, juvenile hormone and insect neuropeptides: Recent successes and remaining major challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Loof, Arnold

    2008-01-01

    In the recent decade, tremendous progress has been realized in insect endocrinology as the result of the application of a variety of advanced methods in neuropeptidome- and receptor research. Hormones of which the existence had been shown by bioassays four decades ago, e.g. bursicon (a member of the glycoprotein hormone family) and pupariation factor (Neb-pyrokinin 2, a myotropin), could be identified, along with their respective receptors. In control of diurnal rhythms, clock genes got company from the neuropeptide Pigment Dispersing Factor (PDF), of which the receptor could also be identified. The discovery of Inka cells and their function in metamorphosis was a true hallmark. Analysis of the genomes of Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster and Apis mellifera yielded about 75, 100 and 200 genes coding for putative signaling peptides, respectively, corresponding to approximately 57, 100 and 100 peptides of which the expression could already be proven by means of mass spectrometry. The comparative approach invertebrates-vertebrates recently yielded indications for the existence of counterparts in insects for prolactin, atrial natriuretic hormone and Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone (GRH). Substantial progress has been realized in identifying the Halloween genes, a membrane receptor(s) for ecdysteroids, a nuclear receptor for methylfarnesoate, and dozens of GPCRs for insect neuropeptides. The major remaining challenges concern the making match numerous orphan GPCRs with orphan peptidic ligands, and elucidating their functions. Furthermore, the endocrine control of growth, feeding-digestion, and of sexual differentiation, in particular of males, is still poorly understood. The finding that the prothoracic glands produce an autocrine factor with growth factor-like properties and secrete proteins necessitates a reevaluation of their role in development.

  15. 关于完善我国未成年人犯罪社会矫正问题的建议%On improving China's social correct juvenile delinquency problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秋月

    2009-01-01

    未成年人犯罪作为全球性问题一直广受关注,虽然在实践中贯彻以"教育为主、惩罚为辅"的原则,在我国已经取得了较好的社会效果,但从建立和谐社会的视角来看,还是远远不够的.因此,本文结合国内外未成年人犯罪防治及矫正的具体做法,就如何建立未成年人犯罪社会矫正制度提出一些粗浅的建议,以期对我国正在开展的防治未成年人重新犯罪社会矫正试点工作有所帮助.%Juvenile Delinquency as a global issue has been well received by the concern, although in practice the "education, sup-plemented by punishment" principle, China has achieved good social effects, but the establishment of a harmonious society per-spective, is far from sufficient. Therefore, this combination of domestic and juvenile delinquency prevention and correction of spe-cific practices, on how to create a community of Juvenile Correction's proposal to make some shallow, with a view of our ongoing crime prevention and control of minors to the pilot to correct the work of community.

  16. Institutional Misconduct, Delinquent Background, and Rearrest Frequency among Serious and Violent Delinquent Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trulson, Chad R.; DeLisi, Matt; Marquart, James W.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the relationship of institutional misconduct to postrelease rearrest, controlling for a battery of preincarceration variables typically found to influence recidivism among institutionalized delinquent offenders. Based on data from 1,804 serious and violent male delinquents released from a large southern juvenile correctional…

  17. A Study of the Personality Traits of Five-factor Model of Male Juvenile Delinquents%男性青少年犯大五人格特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈利君; 孟红

    2012-01-01

    To explore the personality traits of five-factor model of male juvenile delinquents and its related factors, so as to provide reference" for anficrime in juvenile. 217 male juvenile Delinquents and 263 middle school students were investigated with Big Five Inventory and general state questionnaire. The findings revealed that male juvenile delinquents have significant differences from the school students in five-factor model of personality like agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism and openness; Agreeableness and openness can effectively distinguish male juvenile criminals from the school students; All the factors of family atmosphere, parents' marital status, residential quarter, whether there is the love experience, the frequency of using the web, whether the parents are at home in his childhood and the life status before imprison had some influence on agreeableness; the factors of family atmosphere and the frequency of using the web had some influence on openness. In a certain extent, agreeableness and openness can predict juvenile crime. Many family factors may have an impact on juvenile delinquents' personality.%采用大五人格问卷(BFI)和自编调查问卷对217名狱中男性青少年犯和263名在校中学生进行问卷调查。研究男性青少年犯大五人格特征及其影响因素,为有效预防青少年犯罪提供理论依据。调查发现青少年犯与正常同龄男生在宜人性、责任心、神经质和开放性等四个维度上有显著差异;宜人性与开放性在区分青少年犯与正常同龄男生有一定的鉴别力:家庭关系、父母是否离异、农村或城市户口、有无恋爱经历、上网频率、小时候父母是否在家、入监前生活状态等因素影响青少年宜人性人格因子的形成;家庭关系、上网频率等因素影响青少年开放性人格因子形成。本研究表明宜人性与开放性对青少年犯罪有一定预测力;家庭诸多因素对青少年犯罪人格特征有影响作用。

  18. Research on the Relationship between Personality and Parental Rearing Pattern in Juvenile Delinquents%犯罪青少年人格特征与父母教养方式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晶莹; 焦锋

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解犯罪青少年的人格特征,探索犯罪青少年人格与父母教养方式之间的关系.方法 采用艾森克人格问卷(EPQ)和父母教养方式量表(EMBU),调查275名犯罪青少年人格特征及父母教养方式,将犯罪青少年人格特征与全国常模进行比较分析,对犯罪青少年人格特征与父母教养方式进行相关分析.结果 犯罪青少年在4个维度上的测验结果与全国常模都存在显著差异,其中外倾性、神经质和精神质维度的得分显著高于常模,而掩饰性的得分显著低于常模.神经质与父母惩罚严厉、过干涉过保护、拒绝否认呈正相关;掩饰性与父母惩罚严厉和母亲拒绝否认呈负相关.结论 父母教养方式对犯罪青少年的人格特征有重要的影响,预防青少年的人格问题需要父母采取良好的教养方式.%Objectives To investigate the personality characteristics of juvenile delinquents and to analyze the rela tionship between personality and parental rearing pattern. Methods 275 juvenile delinquents were tested by EPQ and EMBU. The scores of EPQ were compared with standard mold, correlation analysis were performed to explain the relationship between personality and parental rearing pattern. Results Compared with the standard mold, there were significant score differences in four scales of EPQ. The juvenile delinquents got higher scores in personality E. N.P, and lower scores in personality L than the standard mold. There were positive correlations between the scores in personality N scales and the factors of parental strict - punishment as well as the over protection or over interfer ence and rejection with EMBU. Negative correlations between the scores in personality L scales and the factors of parental strict- punishment as well as mother's rejection with EMBU. Conclusions Parental rearing pattern has important influence on juvenile delinquents' personality characteristics, the prevention of juvenile

  19. A Juvenile Drug Court Model in Southern Arizona: Substance Abuse, Delinquency, and Sexual Risk Outcomes by Gender and Race/Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Bridget S.; Stevens, Sally J.; Fuhriman, Janet; Bogart, John G.; Korchmaros, Josephine D.

    2009-01-01

    Alcohol and drug use related crimes continue to be processed in juvenile courts at high rates. One approach for addressing substance related issues has been the implementation of juvenile drug courts. Juvenile drug courts were established given the wide-spread success of adult drug courts. However, juvenile drug courts require different components…

  20. Control study of Stroop test of male juvenile delinquents with aggressive behaviors%男性犯罪青少年攻击行为Stroop测试对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢海岩; 母代斌; 伊其忠

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the characteristic and difference of the executive function of the premeditated group and attack group of male juvenile delinquents by the Stroop test.Methods 123 male juvenile delinquents and 128 normal controls were examined by a general information questionnaire,the Stroop test of the Chinese version and impulsive premeditated aggression scale (IPAS).SPSS17.0 statistical software used to analysis the survey results.Results ( 1 ) By Stroop test the premeditated group and impulsive group of juvenile delinquents was found that correct number of test 3( 109.97 ± 1.87),errors number of test 4(4.45 ±4.84),amend number of test 1 and test 4 ( 1.18 ± 1.50 ; 1.50 ± 1.59 ),and completion time of test 4 ( 143.74 ± 28.36) had statistically significant (P < 0.05 ),the others had no significant difference between the two groups.(2) The premeditated group of juvenile delinquents and normal adolescents in Stroop test comparison was statistically significant in completion time of test 1,test 2 (56.49 ± 14.90 ;88.31 ± 20.02)(P < 0.05 ).The impulse group of the juvenile delinquents and normal adolescents was statistically significant in the correct number of test 2 to test 4( 107.20 ± 3.39 ; 109.97± 1.87 ; 102.47 ± 5.62 ),errors number of test 2 ( 1.86 ± 2.27 ),amends number of test 3 ( 1.50 ± 1.59 ),and completion time of test 1 to test 4 (59.96 ± 11.08 ;92.03 ± 20.87 ;62.77 ± 12.31 ; 143.74 ± 28.36) (P < 0.05 ).The others of two groups were no significant difference.Conclusion It is found that juvenile delinquents exist defects of executive function,and perform functional defects in the attack group of juvenile delinquents is more obviously.%目的 采用Stroop测试探讨有预谋性攻击或冲动性攻击男性犯罪青少年执行功能特点及差异性.方法 研究对未成年犯管教所内的123名男性犯罪青少年和2所普通中学及1所中等职业学校的128名男生进行一般资料问卷、中文版Stroop测试和

  1. 对未成年人犯罪引入“社会服务令”制度的思考%The Thinking on the System of "Community Service Order "to Juvenile Delinquents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈馨

    2012-01-01

    Juvenile delinquents are an increasingly serious social problem.On the problem of the punishment of juvenile delinquents,judicial authority only take consideration of the force of protection according to the youth's own characters both on mind and body without the consideration of the education,and overuse the suspended sentence or penalty on the punishment of juvenile deliquents,which lead to the dis-correspondence of the crime and the punishment in some cases;therefore,the light punishment do not achieve the function to the juvenile delinquents,which lead to the crime again.Hence,applying the system of "community service order",basing on the nation's condition and building up the system of own "community service order" with china characters can achieve the balance on the punishment and protection,which can help the growing-up to the juvenile and protect the rights of the juvenile and finally lead to the win-win situation of social interests and the right of juvenile.%未成年人犯罪已经成为日益突出的社会问题,在对待未成年人犯罪刑罚的问题上,司法机关考虑未成年人在心理和生理上的自身特点,片面追求保护的力度,轻视刑法的惩罚教育作用,在未成年人犯罪的定罪量刑上过多使用缓刑或单独处以罚金等刑罚,导致部分案件罪责刑不相适应,量刑畸轻,对未成年人达不到应有的威慑和惩罚作用,致使教育感化未成年人的目的达不到,反而纵容未成年人再次犯罪。因此,我国应引入英国等国家的"社会服务令"刑罚制度,以我国的国情为基础,建立具有我国特色的"社会服务令"制度,以便在惩罚和保护未成年罪犯两方面达到一个平衡,既矫正和帮助未成年人成长,又在最大程度上保护未成年罪犯的权益,并最终实现社会利益与未成年罪犯个人利益双赢。

  2. The song remains the same: Juvenile Richardson's ground squirrels do not respond differentially to mother's or colony member's alarm calls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James F.HARE; Kurtis J.WARKENTIN

    2012-01-01

    Alarm calls are emitted by Richardson's ground squirrels Urocitellus richardsonii in response to avian and terrestrial predators.Conspecifics detecting these calls respond with increased vigilance,promoting predator detection and evasion,but in doing so,lose time from foraging.That loss can be minimized if alarm call recipients discriminate among signalers,and weight their response accordingly.For juvenile ground squirrels,we predicted that the trade-off between foraging and vigilance could be optimized via selective response to alarm calls emitted by their own dam,and/or neighboring colony members over calls broadcast by less familiar conspecifics.Alarm calls of adult female Richardson's ground squirrels were elicited in the field using a predator model and recorded on digital audio tape.Free-living focal juveniles were subjected to playbacks of a call of their mother,and on a separate occasion a call from either another adult female from their own colony,or an adult female from another colony.Neither immediate postural responses and escape behavior,nor the duration of vigilance manifested by juveniles differed with exposure to alarm calls of the three adult female signaler types.Thus,juveniles did not respond preferentially to alarm calls emitted by their mothers or colony members,likely reflecting the high cost of ignoring alarm signals where receivers have had limited opportunity to establish past signaler reliability.

  3. Juvenile Delinquency and Family Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Alberto Ramírez Villaseñor

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study is an analysis of twelve family structure variables in a sample of 250 under-age offenders' families. All families had been remitted to the Parents Group at the Behavioral Control Clinic between February and September, 1988, charged with theft and/or drug abuse. There are certain factors in those families ( such as immigration, the attributed value of the identified patient, his adolescent stage, the presence of extensive family members and a dead brother that seem to decide the symptomatology even more than other frequently mentioned variables (i.e., parents civil status, separations, divorces, new marriages, mother's occupation. The detected family structure seems to show a very close link between mother and identified patient that displaces the father to the system's periphery. We consider that this form of family structure leads to situations such as single mothers or promiscuous daughters who show similar symptoms to those shown in the identified patient.

  4. 基于学校心理学视角的青少年犯罪行为研究%Juvenile Delinquency Based on the Perspective of School Psychology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解革辉

    2014-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a common phenomenon in all countries which is caused by their characteristics of age and mental development. How to play the role of the school, reduce youth crime rate, and guide the healthy development of young people is an important topic of school psychology.%青少年犯罪行为为各国的普遍现象,是由于其年龄阶段和心理发展特点引起的。如何发挥学校的作用,降低青少年犯罪率,引导青少年健康发展为学校心理学研究的重要课题。

  5. 长沙、成都男性犯罪青少年精神障碍患病率调查%Prevalence of Mental Disorders in the Male Juvenile Delinquents, Changsha and Chengdu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周建松; 陈琛; 王红; 张四美; 罗宇鹏; 邱昌建; 蔡伟雄; 王小平

    2012-01-01

    目的:比较长沙、成都两地男性青少年犯罪者及不同犯罪类型间精神障碍患病率差异.方法:抽取长沙某未成年管教所100例暴力犯罪青少年、65例非暴力犯罪青少年,成都某未成年管教所90例暴力犯罪青少年,抽取长沙某中学40名、成都某中学50名高中学生为对照.以儿童少年精神障碍调查表及半定式诊断检查表,调查精神障碍的患病状况.结果:长沙暴力犯罪组品行障碍(CD)(86.6%)、物质滥用(17.6%)和物质依赖(9.9%)的患病率,长沙非暴力犯罪组CD (75.0%)和物质滥用(11.7%)的患病率均显著高于长沙对照组;成都暴力犯罪组注意缺陷障碍(17.3%)、对抗性障碍(18.5%)、CD(69.1%)和物质滥用(22.2%)的患病率均显著高于成都对照组.长沙暴力组与成都暴力组的注意缺陷患病率(5.0%vs.20.8%)与CD患病率(90.0% vs 73.6%)差异显著.结论:青少年犯罪者精神健康问题严重,迫切需要制定和实施针对青少年犯罪精神状况有效的评估和治疗方法.%Objective: To investigate and compare the mental health of the juvenile delinquents, in Changsha and Chengdu. Methods: 100 male violent juvenile offenders and 65 male non-violent juvenile offenders in a Juvenile Correctional Facility of Changsha, and 90 male violence juvenile offenders in a Juvenile Correctional Facility of Chengdu, 40 high school students from a middle school of Changsha and 50 high school students from a middle school of Chengdu were investigated with the Investigation Screening Inventory for Child Mental Disorder (self-made) and the Kiddy Schedule for Affective Diseases and Schizophrenia (K-SADS-PL). Results: In the Changsha violent group, 86.6% of the juvenile offenders met the criteria for Conduct Disorder (CD), 17.6% met the criteria for the Substance Abuse, 9.9% met the criteria for the Substance Dependence, these were all significantly higher than those of the Changsha control group. In the

  6. Value Option and Realization of Penalties Applicable to Juvenile Delinquency%未成年人犯罪刑罚适用之价值选择及其实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨天阳

    2012-01-01

    在少年司法中应当综合考虑公正与功利的价值目标,实现未成年人犯罪刑罚适用公正与功利二者最大程度的相统一。当两个法律价值相冲突时,在少年司法领域功利价值优先于公正价值是合理的选择。不同的刑罚价值观之下,刑罚适用的宽严也不相同,为防止法官自由裁量的任意性,需要以能动司法来平衡公正与功利的理念,区别对待强化量刑程序的方法来实现对少年的特殊保护,从形式正义走向实质正义。%In juvenile justice,we should considerate the value targets of justice and utility comprehensively,and realize the greatest degree of unity between justice and utility of penalties applicable to juvenile delinquency.When there is conflict between the two legal values,it is a reasonable choice that utilitarian value takes precedence over fair value in juvenile justice.In different penalty values,the degree of penalty application is also different.In order to prevent the judges' arbitrary discretion,we should balance the justice and utilitarian concept with active justice,and realize special protection for juveniles by treating differently the strengthening of sentencing procedures from form justice to essence justice.

  7. 体育预防青少年犯罪的正功能论析--以美国“午夜篮球”计划为例%Analysis of Sports’ Positive Features on Prevention of Juvenile Delinquency---Taking “Midnight Basketball” Program of America as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    漆亮; 周泽鸿

    2015-01-01

    利用文献资料法和逻辑分析法对美国“午夜篮球”计划在预防青少年犯罪方面的功能进行分析。结论:美国“午夜篮球”计划的实证经验表明,在青少年犯罪的预防和控制中,以体育作为干预手段能够有效地降低青少年犯罪率,这对我国如何利用体育工作开展青少年犯罪干预具有重要的启示意义。%The function of “Midnight Basketball” program in the prevention of juvenile delinquency is on the base of literature and logical analysis. Conclusion:the positive experience of American“Midnight Basketball” program shows that sport as a tool of ju-venile delinquency prevention can be effective in reducing juvenile crime rates, which has the important enlightenment significance to the prevention work of Chinese juvenile delinquency.

  8. Misrecognition of facial expressions in delinquents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsuura Naomi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous reports have suggested impairment in facial expression recognition in delinquents, but controversy remains with respect to how such recognition is impaired. To address this issue, we investigated facial expression recognition in delinquents in detail. Methods We tested 24 male adolescent/young adult delinquents incarcerated in correctional facilities. We compared their performances with those of 24 age- and gender-matched control participants. Using standard photographs of facial expressions illustrating six basic emotions, participants matched each emotional facial expression with an appropriate verbal label. Results Delinquents were less accurate in the recognition of facial expressions that conveyed disgust than were control participants. The delinquents misrecognized the facial expressions of disgust as anger more frequently than did controls. Conclusion These results suggest that one of the underpinnings of delinquency might be impaired recognition of emotional facial expressions, with a specific bias toward interpreting disgusted expressions as hostile angry expressions.

  9. The neophyte female delinquent: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, G; Jurgens, J; Chen, F

    1993-01-01

    During the 1950s, most of the attention on juvenile delinquency concentrated on males. Recently, however, the incidence of female delinquency has escalated. Female delinquency that did exist a generation ago centered primarily on sexual misconduct; today, much greater numbers of females are involved in armed robbery, gang activity, drug trafficking, burglary, weapons possession, aggravated assault, and prostitution. Research on the etiology of this behavior is inconclusive, with some of the theories centering around dysfunctional families, victimization, aggression, neglect, rejection, physical and sexual abuse, self-perception, gender role, and intellectual ability. This paper attempts to ascertain the status of female delinquency, with special focus on definition, etiology, and treatment.

  10. 加强学生法制教育预防学生违法犯罪%On the Prevention of Juvenile Delinquency through Strengthening Students' Legal Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何小红

    2013-01-01

    With social progress and economic development, the material conditions for the growth of teenagers are getting better and better, but some of them lack intimacy interaction between family members, which affects the formation of their outlook on life and world. In recent years, the high rate of juvenile delin-quency is worrying. How to strengthen the legal education of teenagers and reduce and prevent juvenile crime is an important topic for the guidance of secondary vocational students' healthy growth.%  随着社会进步和经济发展,青少年成长的物质条件越来越好,但由于各种社会原因,一些家庭成员之间缺乏亲密关系互动,孩子的内心需要被忽视,缺少心灵的浇灌。这些因素影响着青少年人生观、世界观的正确形成。近年来,青少年犯罪率居高不下,令人担忧。如何加强对青少年的法制教育,减少和预防青少年犯罪,是中职学校引导学生健康成长的一个重要课题。

  11. Juvenile Sex Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Eileen P; Otonichar, Joseph M

    2016-07-01

    Sexual offending by juveniles accounts for a sizable percentage of sexual offenses, especially against young children. In this article, recent research on female juvenile sex offenders (JSOs), risk factors for offending in juveniles, treatment, and the ways in which these youth may differ from general delinquents will be reviewed. Most JSOs do not go on to develop paraphilic disorders or to commit sex offenses during adulthood, and as a group, they are more similar to nonsexual offending juvenile delinquents than to adult sex offenders. Recent research has elucidated some differences between youth who commit sex offenses and general delinquents in the areas of atypical sexual interests, the use of pornography, and early sexual victimization during childhood.

  12. Mobilizing Communities To Prevent Juvenile Crime. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bownes, Donna; Ingersoll, Sarah

    Through Title V Incentive Grants for Local Delinquency Prevention Programs (Community Prevention Grants), the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) allocated $20 million in fiscal year 1997 to states to complement law enforcement and justice system efforts by helping local communities foster strong families and nurture…

  13. Miranda Rights: Implications for Juveniles with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsiyannis, Antonis; Barrett, David E.; Losinski, Mickey L.

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency in the United States has been a persistent concern for decades. Consequently, because more juveniles have been referred to juvenile court and the arrest rate of preteen offenders has increased to almost three times that of older youth, the persistent and often controversial issue of the capacity of juvenile offenders to waive…

  14. Violent Crime, Sociopathy and Love Deprivation among Adolescent Delinquents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Anthony; Beyer, J. Arthur

    1987-01-01

    Examined relationships between performance-verbal (P-V) discrepancy scores on Wechsler Intelligence Quotient Scales, love deprivation, and juvenile delinquency among 131 male juvenile probationers. P-V discrepancy scores were significantly related to love deprivation and violent crimes, supporting assertion that early emotional stresses affect…

  15. Is Child Maltreatment a Leading Cause of Delinquency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Ira M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Explores the now popular assumption that delinquency is primarily caused by child abuse and neglect. Notes that existing studies are inconclusive or provide weak connections at best. In light of public concern over juvenile crime, calls for more funding to explore strategies to prevent and control serious juvenile crimes, especially violence. (TJQ)

  16. Are Violent Delinquents Worth Treating? A Cost-Benefit Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Michael F.; Vitacco, Michael; Van Rybroek, Gregory J.

    2006-01-01

    This study reports on the cost benefits of an intensive treatment program for unmanageable juvenile delinquent boys, compared to the usual treatment in a secured juvenile corrections facility. A total of 101 boys who received the majority of their treatment services in a specialized program providing intensive mental health treatment were matched…

  17. 78 FR 42109 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Juvenile...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    ...: Juvenile Justice Reform and Reinvestment Initiative Stakeholder Survey Under OMB's Partnership Fund ACTION: 60 Day Notice. The Department of Justice (DOJ), Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile...-3649, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs,...

  18. Delinquent behavior, poor relationship quality with parents, and involvement with deviant peers in delinquent and nondelinquent adolescents: different processes, informant bias, or both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asscher, Jessica J; Wissink, Inge B; Deković, Maja; Prinzie, Peter; Stams, Geert Jan J M

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether two risk factors that are frequently selected as targets for prevention and intervention purposes-involvement with deviant peers and parent-adolescent relationship quality-are associated with delinquent behavior in the same way in a juvenile general population sample (n = 88) as in a juvenile offender sample (n = 85). Information on delinquency and the quality of parent-adolescent relationship was obtained from adolescents and parents. The results of path analyses showed that relations between poor parent-adolescent relationship quality, involvement with deviant peers, and delinquency depended on whose point of view is used (adolescent or parent) and which sample is used (general population or delinquent sample). These findings indicate that caution is warranted when theories based on research with community samples are used for development of intervention programs for juvenile delinquents. © The Author(s) 2013.

  19. On Non-custodial Penalty of Juvenile Delinquent Applicable in China%我国未成年犯罪人非监禁刑适用探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向准

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile crime phenomenon has aroused attention since emenging. In our country, how to control and prevent juvenile crime has always been the goal of criminal theory and the task of practice. To juvenile crimes, China has consistently adhered to educa-tion, supplemented by punishment of criminal policy, and pays high attention to correction and help. At present, the juvenile criminal non-custodial penalty has been widely used in the world. It also exists in our country, but there are still problems such as single spe-cies, specific operation inconvenience, lagging supervision and the lack of special non-custodial penalty system, etc. Therefore, before the specific application of non-custodial sentence improvement should be made to further solve the existing problems. At the same time, to moderately expand the use of juvenile offenders non-custodial penalty also has a certain value.%未成年犯罪现象自产生起就引起了各国的关注。在我国,如何控制与预防未成年人犯罪一直是刑事理论与实践的目标与任务。我国对未成年人犯罪一贯坚持教育为主、惩罚为辅的刑事政策,重视对未成年犯罪人的矫治与帮教。当下,对未成年犯罪人采用非监禁刑已广泛应用于各国。我国也存在着适用于未成年犯罪人的非监禁刑,但仍然存在诸如非监禁刑种类单一、具体操作不便、监督滞后以及缺乏专门的非监禁刑制度体系等问题。因此,在具体适用未成年犯罪人非监禁刑之前应针对现有问题作出进一步的完善。同时,适度的扩大未成年犯罪人非监禁刑的适用也有着特定的价值。

  20. 未成年人犯罪对青少年价值观的诘问%On the Valuse of Juvenile Delinquency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关颖

    2012-01-01

    The result is from comparing the values between juvenile offenders and middle school students based on the national survey data on juvenile offenders. It finds that juvenile offenders are significantly higher than middle school students in adverse media preferences, idol worship, free will, incorrect success orientation and friend tendencies etc. The conclusions are that society should actively respond to bad information's deep penetration on adolescent from mass media, and emphasize the affection of peer education in the shape of youth values and the role of moral practice.%分析认识青少年人生观、价值观扭曲的现实,是做好青少年思想道德教育工作的必要前提。运用了全国未成年犯调查资料,对未成年犯和中学生的价值观进行了比较。结果显示:不良的媒介偏好、偶像崇拜、闲暇意愿以及不正确的成功取向、交友倾向等方面的比例均是未成年犯明显高于中学生。研究认为应积极应对大众传媒不良信息对青少年的深层渗透,重视同伴教育在青少年价值观形成中的作用和道德实践。

  1. 75 FR 70293 - Meeting of the Federal Advisory Committee on Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... of Justice Programs Meeting of the Federal Advisory Committee on Juvenile Justice AGENCY: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, Justice. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY: The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) announces the Fall meeting...

  2. 76 FR 53965 - Meeting of the Federal Advisory Committee on Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... of Justice Programs Meeting of the Federal Advisory Committee on Juvenile Justice AGENCY: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, U. S. Department of Justice. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention...

  3. 78 FR 69876 - Meeting of the Federal Advisory Committee on Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-21

    ... of Justice Programs Meeting of the Federal Advisory Committee on Juvenile Justice AGENCY: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) announces...

  4. 77 FR 61641 - Meeting of the Federal Advisory Committee on Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    ... of Justice Programs Meeting of the Federal Advisory Committee on Juvenile Justice AGENCY: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) announces...

  5. 75 FR 22163 - Meeting of the Federal Advisory Committee on Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... of Justice Programs Meeting of the Federal Advisory Committee on Juvenile Justice AGENCY: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, Justice ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) announces the Spring meeting...

  6. 77 FR 20649 - Meeting (Webinar) of the Federal Advisory Committee on Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... of Justice Programs Meeting (Webinar) of the Federal Advisory Committee on Juvenile Justice AGENCY: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency...

  7. Intensive Reading Instruction in Juvenile Correctional Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jacob L.; Wexler, Jade; Roberts, Greg; Carpenter, Clint

    2011-01-01

    Despite 60 years of evidence linking juvenile illiteracy and delinquency, practitioners and policymakers have been painfully slow in the implementation of evidence-based reading interventions for incarcerated juveniles. We will present the Texas Juvenile Justice Tiered Instructional Model, an evidence-based reading program model created…

  8. Family power structure and identity styles in delinquent and nondelinquent Adolescents: A Comparative study in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Khodabakhshi Koolaee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA Background: The present study was conducted to investigate the Family Power Structure (FPS and identity style in delinquent and non-delinquent juveniles in Tehran.Methods: To accomplish the goal of the study, 80 adolescent delinquents of the Correction and Rehabilitation Centers, aged between 15 and 18, were selected following cluster sampling procedure as well as 80 students of secondary school, aged between 15 and 18, in Tehran in 2014. To obtain data, FPS (Saidian, 2004 and Identity Style Inventory (ISI-6G: White et al, 1998 instruments were used. Data was analyzed between these two groups using independent t test, and Chi square test.Results: The findings indicated that there is a significant difference between delinquent and non-delinquent juveniles in FPS and its subscales (P<0.001 and identity style (P<0.001. Moreover, the informational identity style was related to lower levels of delinquency. In addition, a diffuse-evident identity style was found to be related to the delinquency.Conclusion: These findings emphasize that an inappropriate decision-making process pattern in a family has a significant effect on deviant behavior and identity style in adolescents. So, family counselors must pay attention to FPS in the therapeutic interventions (prevention and treatment for adolescent delinquency.Keywords: Parenting; Family; Juvenile Delinquency; Adolescent

  9. Title V Incentive Grants for Local Delinquency Prevention Programs. 2008 Report to Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The "2008 Title V Report to Congress" marks a departure from the past. Before 2008, the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) reported solely on the Community Prevention Grants program in its "Title V Report to Congress." This year, OJJDP is reporting on the four delinquency prevention programs that were…

  10. On the causes of juvenile delinquency and governance strategy%浅谈农村青少年犯罪成因及治理策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李峰

    2013-01-01

    The reform and opening up, with the rural economic policies, the introduction of new, rural productivity has been greatly liberated, resulting in a large number of surplus labor, they poured into the city and region, seek the new way of life, because the comparison of difference of the rich and the poor living conditions, low, stimulate some adolescents in rural areas have a strong material desire, but because the legitimate means, the desire of the ability, lack of conditions, resulting in a part of people rush into danger, cause of crime, juvenile crime in rural areas in recent years, the upward trend, therefore causes of rural juvenile crime and the control strategy has the important practical significance.%  改革开放后,随着新的农村经济政策的出台,农村的生产力得到了极大的解放,造成大量的剩余劳动力,他们涌入城市和发达地区,寻求新的生活方式,由于贫富差别的对比,生活条件的低下,刺激了一些农村青少年产生了强烈的物质欲望,但是由于欲望的正当手段、能力、条件的欠缺,致使一部份人铤而走险,导致犯罪,近些年来农村青少年犯罪呈上升的趋势,为此探讨农村青少年犯罪成因及治理策略具有重要的现实意义。

  11. The Abduction, Manipulation of Xinjiang Juvenile Delinquency Problem Research%拐骗、操纵新疆籍未成年人违法犯罪问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左晶

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, Xinjiang region a few criminals of abduction,organization,stress Xinjiang juvenile in the mainland in the theft, robbery, drug trafficking and other crimes have become increasingly prominent.In the light of my area the abduction, manipulation of the minor illegal crime characteristic,we should perfect legislation as soon as possible, increase the blow strength of illegal crime organization, improve rescued minor assistance system to protect the legitimate rights and interests of minors in Xinjiang Province, to promote national unity, to safeguard of Xinjiang and the national social security and stability.%近年来,新疆地区少数违法犯罪分子拐骗、组织、胁迫新疆籍未成年人在内地从事扒窃、抢夺、贩毒等违法犯罪情况日益突出,针对我区拐骗、操纵未成年人违法犯罪的特点,应当尽快完善立法,加大对违法犯罪组织的打击力度,完善被解救未成年人的救助体系,切实保护新疆籍未成年人合法权益,增进民族团结,维护新疆和全国社会治安与稳定。

  12. D-amphetamine and delinquency: hyperkinesis persisting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maletzky, B M

    1974-12-01

    The clinical efficacy of d-amphetamine for delinquent behavior in adolescents and the relationships between such delinquency and hyperactivity of childhood were explored employing the methods of sequential analysis. Fourteen subject pairs of delinquent teenagers were examined, and a significant positive effect documented for d-amphetamine as compared to placebo when both were added to an ongoing psychotherapeutic regimen. Tolerance, withdrawal, and euphoria were not associated with d-amphetamine's use in the experimental subjects. Parallels were drawn between d-amphetamine' s effects in delinquent adolescents and hyperactive children; a re-analysis of the data demonstrated surprisingly close links between a history or presence of hyperactive traits and a clinical response to d-amphetamine. Difficulties in employing d-amphetamine in this age group are acknowledged and suggestions for further research offered. The notion that children "outgrow" hyperactivity may be simplistic: hyperactive children as teenagers may not be overly active; however, they continue to manifest behavioral difficulties, primarily of an antisocial nature. While this may be partially explained on the basis of negative aspects in their upbringing, there is some evidence of hereditary and neurologic mechanisms at fault. One method of documenting continuing neurologic dysfunction in the hyperactive child turned teenager is by direct examination. A number of investigators have demonstrated electroencephalographic abnormalities in juvenile delinquents, many of whom had histories of hyperactivity as children. More recently, this kind of individual has been shown to suffer some frontal lobe dysfunction and to manifest subtle, but definite, abnormalities on intensive neurological examination. Continuing central nervous system dysfunction in delinquency might also be demonstrated by pharmacologic means: should delinquent adolescents respond to drugs that help the hyperactive child, similar mechanisms

  13. 未成年罪犯共患注意缺陷多动障碍的父母教养方式调查%Relationship Between Juvenile Crime and Delinquency With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Parental Rearing Patterns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋苏华; 邹小兵; 谭伟棠; 麦智广; 张虹桥; 黄柳开

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore differences of parental rearing patterns between juvenile crime and delinquency with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and common ADHD adolescents.Methods A total of 41 cases of juvenile crime and delinquency with ADHD,male,Han nationality,were selected randomly from the detention center of Foshan during July 1,2006 to July 1,2007,and they were included into research group.In the same period,a total of 38 adolescents,male and Han nationality,which were diagnosed as ADHD for the first time by neural psychiatrist at Foshan First People' s Hospital were administered as control group.There had no significant differences on ages and other diseases between two groups (P>0.05).The study protocol was approved by the Ethical Review Board of Investigation in Human Being of Foshan First People's Hospital.Informed consent was obtained from each participate.ADHD were diagnosed by Vanderbilt ADHD parent Rating Scale (VADPRS).Parental rearing patterns between two groups were investigated by parental rearing patterns scale (EMBU).Results There had significant differences between two groups' father and mother,including warmth of feeling & understanding,punishment,refusal and repudiation,fulsome interference,fulsome protection,partiality (P<0.05).Compared with the rearing style of father and mother of research group,they had statistical differences (P<0.001) on warmth of feeling & understanding,punishment,refusal and repudiation,fulsome interference,fulsome protection,but parents in control group only had the significant differences on punishment and fulsome interference (P<0.001).But there has no significant difference (P> 0.05) on partiality between two groups.It showed that there was more serious divergence about the consistency of parental rearing style in research group.Compared education level of patients between two groups,there were statistics difference (P<0.05) between higher education level and lower education level

  14. Trauma Exposure and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Delinquent Female Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariga, Michio; Uehara, Toru; Takeuchi, Kazuo; Ishige, Yoko; Nakano, Reiko; Mikuni, Masahiko

    2008-01-01

    Background: Although juveniles within the justice system have high psychiatric morbidity, few comprehensive investigations have shown posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in female delinquents. Here, we aim to describe the nature and extent of PTSD and trauma exposure and to clarify the relationships among comorbidity and psychosocial factors in…

  15. Different Slopes for Different Folks: Genetic Influences on Growth in Delinquent Peer Association and Delinquency During Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Eric J; Schwartz, Joseph A; Nedelec, Joseph L; Beaver, Kevin M; Barnes, J C

    2015-07-01

    An extensive line of research has identified delinquent peer association as a salient environmental risk factor for delinquency, especially during adolescence. While previous research has found moderate-to-strong associations between exposure to delinquent peers and a variety of delinquent behaviors, comparatively less scholarship has focused on the genetic architecture of this association over the course of adolescence. Using a subsample of kinship pairs (N = 2379; 52% female) from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Child and Young Adult Supplement (CNLSY), the present study examined the extent to which correlated individual differences in starting levels and developmental growth in delinquent peer pressure and self-reported delinquency were explained by additive genetic and environmental influences. Results from a series of biometric growth models revealed that 37% of the variance in correlated growth between delinquent peer pressure and self-reported delinquency was explained by additive genetic effects, while nonshared environmental effects accounted for the remaining 63% of the variance. Implications of these findings for interpreting the nexus between peer effects and adolescent delinquency are discussed.

  16. Innovación psicosocial: aplicación de un plan de prevención de la delincuencia juvenil / The Psychosocial Innovation: Planification of Implementation and Dissemination to Prevent Juvenile Delinquency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Line LeBlanc

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La innovación en la prevención de la delincuencia juvenil orienta sus acciones hacia el mejoramiento de la calidad de los ambientes sociales. Eso significa que las personas que interactúan en la vida cotidiana con los niños y adolescentes en dificultad en sus medios naturales (familia, escuela, barriose transforman en los grupos objetivo para participar en programas preventivos. Este enfoque recibe un sólido fundamento científico, pero su aplicación concreta está a menudo limitada debido a problemas en la difusión de la innovación psicosocial. Podemos fácilmente imaginar los obstáculos que puede haber para establecer un sistema eficaz de comunicación entre los diferentes grupos involucrados (investigadores, tomadores de decisión, agentes de intervención y miembros de la comunidad. Es importante reflexionar sobre este problema ya que la dificultad de difundir las nuevas prácticas en terreno puede poner en riesgo los efectos benéficos esperados. El presente texto tiene por objetivo el proponer un marco integrador orientado a optimizarel paso entre los universos científico, político y práctico apoyándose en la teoría de la difusión de la innovación.

  17. The relationship of punishment- and victim-based moral orientation to prosocial, externalizing, and norm trespassing behaviour in delinquent and non-delinquent adolescents : a validation study of the Moral Orientation Measure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stams, G.J.J.M.; Deković, M.; Brugman, D.; Rutten, E.A.; van den Wittenboer, G.L.H.; Tavecchio, L.W.C.; Hendriks, J.; van Schijndel, M.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the reliability and validity of the Moral Orientation Measure (MOM), which was administered to 75 juvenile delinquents and 579 non-delinquent adolescents from lower socio-economic and educational backgrounds. Confirmatory factor analysis of a two-factor model, with punishment- an

  18. The relationship of punishment- and victim-based moral orientation to prosocial, externalizing, and norm trespassing behaviour in delinquent and non-delinquent adolescents: A validation study of the Moral Orientation Measure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stams, G.J.J.M.; Deković, M.; Brugman, D.; Rutten, E.; van den Wittenboer, G.L.H.; Tavecchio, L.W.C.; Hendriks, J.; van Schijndel, M.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the reliability and validity of the Moral Orientation Measure (MOM), which was administered to 75 juvenile delinquents and 579 non-delinquent adolescents from lower socio-economic and educational backgrounds. Confirmatory factor analysis of a two-factor model, with punishment- an

  19. Brief Report: An Examination of the Relationships between Parental Monitoring, Self-Esteem and Delinquency among Mexican American Male Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Roslyn M.; Beutler, Larry E.; Ross, Sylvia An; Silver, N. Clayton

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined relationships between parental monitoring (mother and father), self-esteem, and delinquency among 95 adjudicated Mexican American male adolescents who were on probationary status with the juvenile justice system. Consistent with previous literature pertaining to familial processes and delinquency among the general…

  20. Juvenile justice mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Christopher R; Penn, Joseph V

    2002-10-01

    As the second century of partnership begins, child psychiatry and juvenile justice face continuing challenges in meeting the mental health needs of delinquents. The modern juvenile justice system is marked by a significantly higher volume of cases, with increasingly complicated multiproblem youths and families with comorbid medical, psychiatric, substance abuse disorders, multiple family and psychosocial adversities, and shrinking community resources and alternatives to confinement. The family court is faced with shrinking financial resources to support court-ordered placement and treatment programs in efforts to treat and rehabilitate youths. The recognition of high rates of mental disorders for incarcerated youth has prompted several recommendations for improvement and calls for reform [56,57]. In their 2000 annual report, the Coalition for Juvenile Justice advocated increased access to mental health services that provide a continuum of care tailored to the specific problems of incarcerated youth [58]. The specific recommendations of the report for mental health providers include the need for wraparound services, improved planning and coordination between agencies, and further research. The Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention has set three priorities in dealing with the mental health needs of delinquents: further research on the prevalence of mental illness among juvenile offenders, development of mental health screening assessment protocols, and improved mental health services [59]. Other programs have called for earlier detection and diversion of troubled youth from juvenile justice to mental health systems [31,56]. Most recently, many juvenile and family courts have developed innovative programs to address specific problems such as truancy or substance use and diversionary or alternative sentencing programs to deal with first-time or nonviolent delinquents. All youths who come in contact with the juvenile justice system

  1. Disciplining Youth, Disciplining Women: Motherhood, Delinquency, and Race in Postwar American Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafka, Judith

    2008-01-01

    This article brings together, and builds upon, previous scholarship on juvenile delinquency, motherhood, and education in 1950s America, and explores how the widespread contention that inadequate mothering was responsible for a rise in juvenile crime and social deviance helped shape the organization of schooling in the postwar era. In the first…

  2. Legal Dispositions and Confinement Policies for Delinquent Youth. State Legislative Report, Vol 13, No. 23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Conference of State Legislatures, Denver, CO.

    This report explores current state laws regarding dispositional options for adjudicated delinquents; examines decision-making responsibility for placement, sentence length and discharge within state juvenile justice systems; and highlights some of the more innovative state approaches in juvenile justice dispositions and sentencing practices. Data…

  3. The Influence of Culture-Specific Personality Traits on the Development of Delinquency in At-Risk Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Tat Seng; Ku, Lisbeth; Zaroff, Charles Mark

    2016-04-01

    The association between culture-specific personality variables and family factors, and juvenile delinquency, was assessed in a sample of 402 adolescents of Chinese ethnicity between 12 and 17 years of age (Mage = 15.13, SD = 1.41; 135 girls), a subgroup of whom were considered at risk for juvenile delinquency owing to addictive behavior tendencies. Culture-specific personality variables were assessed using the Chinese Personality Assessment Inventory-Adolescent version Interpersonal Relatedness factor. The General Function subscale of the Chinese version of the Family Assessment Device was utilized to assess the influence of perceived levels of family functioning. Both culture-specific personality variables and non-culture-specific familial factors were significantly and negatively associated with self-reported juvenile delinquency (p culture-specific variable measuring orientation toward the family was able to predict self-reported juvenile delinquency (p < .001). Implications of the current results are discussed.

  4. Juvenile prison: Remarks on the specific characteristics of regular sentencing

    OpenAIRE

    Miladinović-Stefanović, Dušica

    2015-01-01

    The system of the juvenile criminal law in the Republic of Serbia includes different mechanisms of social response to juvenile delinquency, including corrective orders, corrective measures and juvenile prison. This paper deals with the issue of determining a relevant sentence for juvenile offenders in trial proceedings. The legislator has provided a number of guidelines for these proceedings: the specific range of the juvenile prison sentence, the purpose of punishment, the degree of maturity...

  5. Programa Shortstop: A Culturally Focused Juvenile Intervention for Hispanic Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, Richard C.; Ruan, Karen; Duenas, Norma

    2004-01-01

    Culturally sensitive juvenile delinquency and substance abuse interventions are relatively limited and unavailable to many first-time Hispanic juvenile offenders. The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of a culturally focused juvenile and substance abuse intervention program for first time Hispanic youth offenders. The intent of…

  6. 金坛市未成年犯人格特征与犯罪个性心理的相关性%Relationship between juvenile delinquents personality characteristics and criminal personality in Jintan City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈淑玲; 庄永忠; 祁冻一; 庄克平; 闵金荣; 韩云; 倪明慧; 袁文燕

    2015-01-01

    prediction on extrover‐sion and subordinate factor (P< 0 .01) .Conclusions Juvenile delinquents has certain personality devia‐tion ,and may be related with the form of some criminal personality psychology .%目的:研究未成年犯人格特征与犯罪个性心理间的关系。方法60名金坛市未成年犯测试明尼苏达多相人格调查问卷(MMPI)、中国罪犯心理评估个性分测验(COPA -PI),分别对其人格特征、犯罪个性心理进行评定。结果结果:(1)与全国常模相比,金坛市未成年犯MMPI的疑病、抑郁、癔症、病态人格、偏执、精神衰弱、精神分裂、轻躁狂因子分均显著增高(P <0.01);COPA -PI各因子分与全国未成年犯常模比较,仅戒备因子较低(P<0.05)。(2)MMPI的抑郁因子与COPA -PI的从属、冲动、暴力倾向、变态心理、犯罪思维因子呈负相关(P <0.05);癔症因子与从属、冲动、变态心理、犯罪思维呈负相关(P<0.05);病态人格因子与同情因子呈负相关(P<0.05);精神分裂因子与暴力倾向因子呈正相关(P<0.05);轻躁狂因子与冲动、戒备、暴力倾向、变态心理、犯罪思维因子呈正相关(P <0.05),与自卑因子呈负相关(P <0.05);社会内向因子与外倾因子呈负相关(P <0.01)。(3)MMPI的轻躁狂因子对COPA -PI的戒备、变态心理因子有正向预测作用( P <0.05)、对自卑因子有负向预测作用(P <0.05);病态人格因子对冲动、暴力因子有正向预测作用(P <0.05),对同情因子有反向预测作用(P <0.05);精神衰弱、疑病因子分别对暴力、从属因子有正向预测作用( P <0.05),社会内向、癔症因子分别对外倾、从属因子有反向预测作用( P <0.01)。结论未成年犯存在一定的人格偏移,并与多种犯罪个性心理的形成可能有关。

  7. [Diagnosis and early treatment of juvenile delinquency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbagallo, A; Bellia, A; Benvenuto, G; Cosentino, F; Riggio, T M

    1975-09-12

    Longitudinal research has shown that social failure to adjust can be prevented by early removal of ambiental factors encouraging pathological development of the Ego, and the detection and treatment of psychological tendencies towards the acquisition of deviant stimuli.

  8. Self-report study of impulsive and delinquent behavior in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferbaum, B; Wood, P B

    1994-06-01

    This self-report study of college students sought to examine the relationship between risk-taking and delinquent behavior, to develop reliable measures of impulsiveness and attraction to thrill-seeking and risk-taking, and to measure the relationships among conventional correlates of delinquent behavior, personality factors, and delinquent behavior itself. A sample of 296 undergraduate college students completed questionnaires pertaining to delinquent behavior and other activities, identification with educational goals and behavior, and attraction to thrill-seeking and risk-taking behavior, as well as items from the Self-Control and Socialization scales of the California Personality Inventory. Males who measured high in thrill-seeking behavior and low in self-control reported significantly more property delinquency. Interpersonal delinquency was most influenced by a lack of self-control. There was a negative correlation between substance abuse and socialization. The reasons most often given for property and substance delinquency were "fun/thrills" while those most often given for interpersonal delinquency involved "anger/revenge." Variables representing conventional sociological theories have often been treated as the immediate causal factors in juvenile delinquency, but their impact may be mediated through factors such as impulsiveness and an attraction to thrill-seeking and risk-taking.

  9. Brief report: An examination of the relationships between parental monitoring, self-esteem and delinquency among Mexican American male adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Roslyn M; Beutler, Larry E; An Ross, Sylvia; Clayton Silver, N

    2006-06-01

    The present study examined relationships between parental monitoring (mother and father), self-esteem, and delinquency among 95 adjudicated Mexican American male adolescents who were on probationary status with the juvenile justice system. Consistent with previous literature pertaining to familial processes and delinquency among the general adolescent population, findings from the current study revealed that parental monitoring was negatively associated with delinquency. In addition, self-esteem was shown to be positively correlated with delinquency. These results highlight the generalizability of previous research related to familial, emotional, and behavioral processes among Mexican American male adolescents.

  10. Ethnic Differences in the Effect of Parenting on Gang Involvement and Gang Delinquency: A Longitudinal, Hierarchical Linear Modeling Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker-Barnes, Chanequa J.; Mason, Craig A.

    2001-01-01

    Examined relative influence of peer and parenting behavior on changes in adolescent gang involvement and gang-related delinquency among ninth-graders. Found that gang involvement decreased over the school year, with average levels of gang delinquency remaining constant. Gang involvement and gang-related delinquency were most strongly predicted by…

  11. [Juvenile scleroderma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mâcedo, Patrícia Andrade; Shinjo, Samuel Katsuyuki; Goldenstein-Schainberg, Cláudia

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile scleroderma is a rare childhood condition characterized by fibrosis of the skin and internal organs. Clinical manifestations of childhood scleroderma are different from adult disease and early recognition, correct classification and treatment can improve long-term outcome. This review explores the most recent actualizations on clinical manifestations, classification criteria, treatment options and prognosis of juvenile scleroderma. There are two main forms of the disease: localized scleroderma and systemic sclerosis. Localized scleroderma is the most common form in children and mostly restricted to the skin. Juvenile diffuse systemic sclerosis is related to visceral involvement and cardiac disease which is the main cause of death in these patients. The outcome of juvenile systemic sclerosis is better compared with the adult form. Treatment remains a medical challenge and the EULAR task force proposed an approach to juvenile scleroderma treatment based on expert's opinion and guidelines used for the treatment of adults. Larger studies on childhood scleroderma are warranted.

  12. The relation research on resilience, personality and family environment of male juvenile delinquents with high traumatic experiences%高创伤经历的男性犯罪青少年心理韧性与人格、家庭环境的相关研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海芳; 张秀娟

    2014-01-01

    目的 探究高创伤经历的男性犯罪青少年心理韧性的特点以及与人格、家庭环境的关系.方法 采用自编创伤经历调查表筛选出高创伤经历的男性犯罪青少年147人,用心理韧性量表、艾森克人格问卷、家庭环境量表进行问卷调查,采用Pearson相关分析、逐步回归分析对数据进行统计分析.结果 高创伤经历的男性犯罪青少年心理韧性总分为(75.98± 14.03)分,除了目标专注[(3.47±4.23)分]以外,情绪控制[(1.94±2.85)分]、积极认知[(2.31±3.47)分]、家庭支持[(1.89±3.84)分]、人际协助[(2.92±3.38)分]得分均在3分以下,其目标专注、积极认知和家庭支持维度在文化程度、家庭住地、是否独生子女、是否单亲家庭方面差异有统计学意义.高创伤经历的男性犯罪青少年心理韧性各维度与人格(r=-0.357 ~0.175)、家庭环境(-0.185~ 0.272)各维度存在相关关系(P<0.05),神经质、家庭矛盾性、精神质对心理韧性有负向预测作用(β=-2.354,-0.135,-0.194,P<0.05),家庭亲密度对心理韧性有正向预测作用(β=1.389,P<0.001).结论 高创伤经历的男性犯罪青少年心理韧性较差,人格、家庭环境对其心理韧性有显著影响.%Objective To explore the resilience traits of male juvenile delinquents with high traumatic experiences and the relationship on resilience and personality,family environment.Methods 147 male juvenile delinquents selected by self-made traumatic experience questionnaire were surveyed with the Resilience Scale for Chinese Adolescent,Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and Family Environment Scale.The data were statistically analyzed by Pearson correlation analysis and stepwise Regression Analysis.Results The total scores of resilience in male juvenile delinquents with high trauma experiences were (75.98 ± 14.03).Besides the scores of goal planning (3.47±4.23),the scores of affect control(1.94±2.85),positive thinking(2.31±3

  13. Penalty responsibility of juveniles in the Republic of Srpska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grbić-Pavlović Nikolina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The youngest members of organized society, more intensive than ever enter the circle of those whose behavior is deviant. Juvenile delinquency is a social problem, which recently experienced an expansion in all modern countries, including Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Republic of Srpska. Considering the fact that juvenile delinquency includes lighter criminal conducts, such as, for example misdemeanors, in this paper a position of juveniles when they are a perpetrators of misdemeanors will be analyzed. Also, the paper will statistically show the number of misdemeanors in the field of public peace and order that juveniles conducted in the Republic of Srpska in the period 2004-2009.

  14. Delinquent behaviors among students exposed to family violence in Quebec schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cénat, Jude Mary; Hébert, Martine; Blais, Martin; Lavoie, Francine; Guerrier, Mireille

    2016-01-01

    Objective Juvenile delinquency is one of the major public concerns in many countries. This study aims to document the association between exposure to interparental violence and delinquent behaviors among high school students in Quebec (Canada). Methods A representative sample of 8194 students aged 14–20 years was recruited in Quebec (Canada) high schools. Participants completed a questionnaire describing delinquent behaviors as well as exposure to interparental psychological and physical violence. Findings Overall, one out of two participants has experienced delinquent behaviors and 61.8% of them have reported having been exposed to at least one of the two forms of family violence. Overall, youth exposed to interparental violence are more likely to experience delinquent behaviors. Both psychological and physical interparental violence were significantly and independently associated with delinquent behaviors. Conclusion The findings of this study point out the vulnerability of youth exposed to interparental violence. They also highlight the need in the prevention of juvenile delinquency to focus not only on youth but also on both parents that may have been involved in family violence. PMID:28111591

  15. An exploration of psychopathy in self-report measures among juvenile sex offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Laura M; Burton, David L

    2014-05-01

    Researchers have indicated that adult psychopathy often originates in childhood or adolescence. It has also been established that psychopathic traits are linked to disruptive behavior, criminality, and violence. As knowledge about psychopathy and its manifestations in juvenile sex offender populations remains limited, several instruments have been developed in an effort to measure the construct. In this study, we assessed how the relationship of diverse scales of psychopathy related to characteristics of sexual aggression, and determined which scales were most correlated to sexual and nonsexual delinquency. We utilized four measures of juvenile psychopathy: the Modified Childhood Psychopathy Scale (mCPS; Lynam, 1997), the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD; Frick & Hare, 2001; Frick, O'Brien, Wootton, & McBurnett, 1994), the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI; Millon & Davis, 1993; using two derived psychopathy scales), and the Inventory of Callous and Unemotional (ICU) Traits (Frick, 2003), in a sample of 191 incarcerated adolescent sex offenders located in juvenile detention facilities across a Midwestern state. We found that of the four instruments and seven subscales, only the APSD Narcissism and Impulsivity Scale was significantly correlated to a characteristic of sexual crime (i.e., number of victims, level of crime severity). No subscales were found to predict sexual crime at a significant level. However, several scales were correlated to the total delinquency score as measured by the Self-Reported Delinquency Measure. In a series of multiple regressions, the MACI Factor 2 and ICU total score were determined as the best fit to total nonsexual delinquency. Implications are offered.

  16. Contrasting deficits on executive functions in Chinese delinquent adolescents with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder symptoms and/or reading disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Kean; Ho, Connie S-H

    2014-11-01

    Many studies reported high prevalence of reading disability (RD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among delinquent adolescents. Very few have examined their cognitive profile. The present study compared the executive functions (EFs) and severity of delinquency in delinquent adolescents with RD and/or ADHD symptoms (AS). Delinquents with AS (n=29), RD (n=24), comorbidity AS+RD (n=35) were recruited from juvenile institutions along with typically developing controls (n=29) from local schools; all completed EF assessments and self-report questionnaires on delinquency. Results showed that pure AS group exhibited impaired inhibition while the pure RD group was weak in processing speed and visual memory. The comorbidity group showed unique impairments in interference control and significantly higher delinquency severity. The present findings suggest that comorbidity AS+RD may influence delinquency severity. It also provides a more comprehensive picture of the unique EF deficits associated with different groups, allowing for better matching for future identification and intervention programme.

  17. School, Alienation, and Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liazos, Alexander

    One of 52 theoretical papers on school crime and its relation to poverty, this chapter states that social scientists and others have argued that schools contribute to delinquency by their failure to prepare students properly for later life. It follows that the solution is better schools and better education. The author argues that schools make…

  18. Psychotherapy for Delinquents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Ian; Sullivan, Ann

    1996-01-01

    Presents the results of a psychotherapy consultation service for delinquents (n=47). Based on data obtained from this program and a review of relevant literature, a working model of individual psychotherapy related to attachment theory as it applies to this population is presented. Discusses difficulties that warrant resolution. (JPS)

  19. Conceptualizing juvenile prostitution as child maltreatment: findings from the National Juvenile Prostitution Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kimberly J; Finkelhor, David; Wolak, Janis

    2010-02-01

    Two studies were conducted to identify the incidence (Study 1) and characteristics (Study 2) of juvenile prostitution cases known to law enforcement agencies in the United States. Study 1 revealed a national estimate of 1,450 arrests or detentions (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1,287-1,614) in cases involving juvenile prostitution during a 1-year period. In Study 2, exploratory data were collected from a subsample of 138 cases from police records in 2005. The cases are broadly categorized into three main types: (a) third-party exploiters, (b) solo prostitution, and (c) conventional child sexual abuse (CSA) with payment. Cases were classified into three initial categories based on police orientation toward the juvenile: (a) juveniles as victims (53%), (b) juveniles as delinquents (31%), and (c) juvenile as both victims and delinquents (16%). When examining the status of the juveniles by case type, the authors found that all the juveniles in CSA with payment cases were treated as victims, 66% in third-party exploiters cases, and 11% in solo cases. Findings indicate law enforcement responses to juvenile prostitution are influential in determining whether such youth are viewed as victims of commercial sexual exploitation or as delinquents.

  20. Child Maltreatment and Delinquency Onset Among African American Adolescent Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, James Herbert; Van Dorn, Richard A; Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Nebbitt, Von E

    2010-05-01

    Child welfare and criminology research have increasingly sought to better understand factors that increase the likelihood that abused and neglected children will become involved in the juvenile justice system. However, few studies have addressed this relationship among African American male adolescents. The current study examines the relationship between child maltreatment (i.e., neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and other/mixed abuse) and the likelihood of a delinquency petition using a sample of African American males (N = 2,335) born before 1990. Multivariable logistic regression models compared those with a delinquency-based juvenile justice petition to those without. Results indicate that African American males with a history of neglect, physical abuse, or other/mixed abuse were more likely to be involved in the juvenile justice system than those without any child maltreatment. Additionally, multiple maltreatment reports, a prior history of mental health treatment, victimization, and having a parent who did not complete high school also increased the likelihood of a delinquency petition. Implications for intervention and prevention are discussed.

  1. Second Chances: Giving Kids a Chance To Make a Better Choice. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

    In commemoration of the juvenile court's centennial, the Justice Policy Institute of the Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice and the Children and Family Justice Center of Northwestern University School of Law profiled 25 individuals who were petitioned into juvenile court as serious delinquents when they were young and then turned their lives…

  2. 77 FR 39511 - Meeting (Webinar) of the Federal Advisory Committee on Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... Office of Justice Programs Meeting (Webinar) of the Federal Advisory Committee on Juvenile Justice AGENCY: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice. ACTION: Notice of Webinar Meeting. SUMMARY: The Office of Juvenile Justice and...

  3. 78 FR 43920 - Meeting (Webinar) of the Federal Advisory Committee on Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ... of Justice Programs Meeting (Webinar) of the Federal Advisory Committee on Juvenile Justice AGENCY: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice. ACTION: Notice of Webinar Meeting. SUMMARY: The Office of Juvenile Justice and...

  4. 78 FR 56940 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Juvenile...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ...: Juvenile Residential Facility Census (Extension, without change, of a currently approved collection) ACTION: 30 Day Notice. The Department of Justice (DOJ), Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile..., Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department...

  5. 78 FR 9070 - Meeting (Webinar) of the Federal Advisory Committee on Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... of Justice Programs Meeting (Webinar) of the Federal Advisory Committee on Juvenile Justice AGENCY: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice. ACTION: Notice of Webinar meeting. SUMMARY: The Office of Juvenile Justice and...

  6. Wild life recreation: Utilizing wilderness adventure therapy to prevent delinquency in minors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Tekin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study the functionality of wilderness adventure therapy on eliminating and preventing delinquency in minors was investigated based on available literature. The first issue handled in the paper is defining wilderness adventure therapy. Second is the mechanism between juvenile delinquency and wilderness adventure therapy. As the results of this study, the people who participate in wilderness adventure therapy commit lower offence when compared with non-participants. The positive effect of recreation on decreasing and preventing delinquency is still not certain and clear considering the earlier researches. Although it is possible to reach many studies which result in positive outcomes there is a need for further researches to understand whether wild life recreation can be used as a therapy to decrease or prevent delinquency in a therapeutic way.

  7. Wild life recreation: Utilizing wilderness adventure therapy to prevent delinquency in minors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Tekin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study the functionality of wilderness adventure therapy on eliminating and preventing delinquency in minors was investigated based on available literature. The first issue handled in the paper is defining wilderness adventure therapy. Second is the mechanism between juvenile delinquency and wilderness adventure therapy. As the results of this study, the people who participate in wilderness adventure therapy commit lower offence when compared with non-participants. The positive effect of recreation on decreasing and preventing delinquency is still not certain and clear considering the earlier researches. Although it is possible to reach many studies which result in positive outcomes there is a need for further researches to understand whether wild life recreation can be used as a therapy to decrease or prevent delinquency in a therapeutic way. 

  8. Personality, Delinquency, and Criminal Recidivism

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dam, Coleta; De Bruyn, Eric E. J.; Janssens, Jan M. A. M.

    2007-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between PEN profiles, delinquency, and recidivism in young offenders. According to Eysenck, personality is based on three basic Dimensions: Psychoticism, Extraversion, and Neuroticism (PEN-model). Eysenck states that delinquents score high on all three dimensions. A group of young male offenders in a juvenile…

  9. 心理咨询技术在社区矫正中的应用——以罪错青少年的矫正为例%Application of Psychological Consultation Skills to Community Correction——Taking Delinquent Juvenile as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳颂华; 经纬; 屈春芳

    2009-01-01

    作为社会的一个特殊群体,罪错青少年接受来自司法部门、社区服务站等方面的矫正与帮助,也承受着来自社会的压力.有效的社区矫正首先在于与矫正对象建立良好的信任关系,真诚地尊重和接纳矫正对象.而良好关系的建立及矫正的成效有赖于一系列具体技术的应用,主要包括倾听与询问技术、无条件积极关注技术及合理共情等.%Delinquent juvenile, a special social group, is corrected and helped by judicial departments and community service stations, and is subject to societal pressures. The view that successful community correction consists in a trustworthy relationship between consultants and subjects is put forward in this paper. In addition, subjects should be respected and sincerely accepted on the part of consultants. The realization of a satisfactory relationship and effective correction depends on a series of concrete skills, including attentive listening, inquiring, unconditional positive regard and reasonable mutual emotion.

  10. Delinquency, Social Skills and the Structure of Peer Relations: Assessing Criminological Theories by Social Network Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smangs, Mattias

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the plausibility of the conflicting theoretical assumptions underlying the main criminological perspectives on juvenile delinquents, their peer relations and social skills: the social ability model, represented by Sutherland's theory of differential associations, and the social disability model, represented by Hirschi's…

  11. A PROPOSAL FOR THE PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF DELINQUENCY BY EXPANDING OPPORTUNITIES, BUDGET SUPPLEMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobilization for Youth, Inc., New York, NY.

    A BUDGET IS PRESENTED AS A SUPPLEMENT TO THE PROPOSAL SUBMITTED BY MOBILIZATION FOR YOUTH FOR A DEMONSTRATION PROJECT FOR THE PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF JUVENILE DELINQUENCY. BUDGETARY ESTIMATES FOR STAFF AND OTHER EXPENSES ARE SHOWN FOR EACH PROGRAM FOR THE FIRST 2 YEARS OF THE DEMONSTRATION. ESTIMATES FOR THE 1ST YEAR REFLECT AS A DEDUCTION THE…

  12. The Delinquency Outcomes of Boys with ADHD with and without Comorbidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibley, Margaret H.; Pelham, William E.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Biswas, Aparajita; MacLean, Michael G.; Babinski, Dara E.; Karch, Kathryn M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the association between childhood ADHD and juvenile delinquency by examining data from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS), a follow-up study of individuals diagnosed with ADHD in childhood (ages 5-12) and recontacted in adolescence and young adulthood for yearly follow-up (age at first follow-up interview M=17.26,…

  13. Societal Bonding and Delinquency: An Empirical Test of Hirschi's Theory of Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Karen Witchcoff; Tripodi, Tony

    1996-01-01

    Applies Travis Hirschi's bonding theory to a severely delinquent population of 168 youth detained at a juvenile detention center. Findings indicate that bonding with peers correlates with attachment to family. As youths commit more crimes, attachment to parents increases. Results suggest that youth appeared to identify with a delinquent…

  14. Path analysis on parental rearing style、defense mechanism and coping style of juvenile delinquents and adolescents with emotional disorders%教养方式、防御机制与应付方式影响男性青少年犯罪与情绪障碍的路径分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晓琴; 李泽爱; 李晓驷; 穆菁菁; 刘寰忠; 蔡春岚; 王龙; 朱丽; 刘丽军

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship among parental rearing style,defense mechanism and coping style of juvenile delinquents and adolescents with emotional disorders.Methods 177 juvenile delinquents,80 adolescents with emotion disorders and 163 controls were assessed with parental rearing pattern questionnaire (EMBU),defensive style questionnaire (DSQ) and coping style scale (CSS).Results ① Withdrawal (B=3.608,P=0.000),immature defense mechanisms(B=0.613,P=0.000),father's preference(B=0.312,P=0.000) and overprotection(B=0.244,P=0.000) were risk factors for juvenile delinquents.Self-blame(B=-1.566,P=0.019),intermediate defense(B=-0.687,P=0.000),mature defense(B=-0.633,P=0.000),mother's interference(B=-0.116,P=0.000),father's warmness(B=-0.085,P=0.000) and punishment(B=-0.062,P=0.004) were protective factors.②Rationalization(B=2.197,P=0.003),immature defense mechanisms(B=0.888,P=0.000) and father's preference(B=0.213,P=0.005) were risk factors in adolescents with emotional disorders,moreover solving problem (B=-1.840,P=0.004),seeking to help(B=-1.401,P=0.014),intermediate defenses (B=-0.523,P=0.006),mother's interference (B=-0.105,P=0.000),father's warmth (B=-0.062,P=0.002) and punishment(B=-0.052,P=0.014) were protective factors.③)In juvenile delinquent groups,immature defense mechanisms had positive correlation with withdrawal,self-blame and father's punishment (0.229 ≤ r ≤0.309,P<0.01) ; withdrawal and self-blame had positive correlation with father's punishment and mother's interference (0.211 ≤ r ≤ 0.273,P<0.01).④In adolescents with emotional disorders,immature and intermediate defense mechanisms were positively correlated with rationalization,mother's interference and father's punishment (0.205 ≤ r ≤0.421,P<0.01) ;rationalization was positively correlated with father's punishment(r=0.156,P<0.05).⑤Path analysis showed that in juvenile delinquent groups rearing style(father's warmness and punishment) and immature defense mechanisms

  15. Juvenile angiofibroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasal tumor; Angiofibroma - juvenile; Benign nasal tumor; Juvenile nasal angiofibroma; JNA ... Juvenile angiofibroma is not very common. It is most often found in adolescent boys. The tumor contains ...

  16. THE STUDY OF FEATURES OF GUILT OF JUVENILE OFFENDERS IN THE CONTEXT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalija Vladimirovna Galkina

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the results of empirical studies of the experiences of guilt of juvenile offenders in the context of juvenile justice where a minor appears as the subject of legal relations. Restorative approach of juvenile justice is based on an admission of guilt to the victim. In connection with it, the research of features of the guilt of minors who have committed an offence and the conditions for the development of the subjectivity will enhance understanding of the possibilities of restorative juvenile justice system in the prevention of juvenile delinquency.Thus, the results of empirical research presented in the article are important for determining of the psychological bases of realization of rehabilitation programs in the context of juvenile justice. In particular, the results are important for the organization and conduct of psychological work to overcome the psychological barriers in the behavior of juveniles having inherently maladaptive guilt and destructive psychological defense mechanisms.

  17. Socioeconomic Status, IQ, and Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, Terrie E.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Results from two Danish prospective longitudinal studies are presented to support the view that IQ bears a causal relationship to delinquency that is independent of the effects of socioeconomic status (SES). (CL)

  18. Nigerian juvenile offenders: a case-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunlesi, A O

    1991-01-01

    A case-controlled study was carried out on all the 51 juvenile delinquents found in a point prevalence survey of a Nigerian Borstal Remand Centre. Mean age of the delinquents was 17-27 years. They were mostly from the low social class (70.6%) and the commonest reason for admission was for being beyond parental control (68.6%). Identified risk factors found for juvenile delinquency were death of biological mother, parental marital failure, growing up with relatives rather than parents, drug abuse and ordinal position in the family. Possible cultural explanations for some of these observations were proffered. The need to improve on the living conditions of these juveniles and their assessment procedure were highlighted. Finally, it is imperative that the obsolete Nigerian Children and Young Person's Law be updated.

  19. Addressing gaps in the maturity of judgment literature: age differences and delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modecki, Kathryn Lynn

    2008-02-01

    Over the past decade, a majority of states have legislated to expand their capacity to try adolescents as adults [Griffin (2003). Trying and sentencing juveniles as adults: An analysis of state transfer and blended sentencing laws. Pittsburgh, PA: National Center for Juvenile Justice]. In response, researchers have investigated factors that may affect adolescent culpability [Steinberg and Scott (Am Psychol 58(12):1009-1018, 2003)]. Research on immature judgment posits that psychosocial influences on adolescent decision processes results in reduced criminal responsibility [Cauffman and Steinberg (Behav Sci Law 18(6):741-760, 2000); Scott, Reppucci, and Woolard (Law Hum Behav 19(3):221-244, 1995); Steinberg and Cauffman (Law Hum Behav 20(3):249-272, 1996)]. The current study utilizes hypothetical vignettes and standardized measures of maturity of judgment (responsibility, temperance, and perspective) to examine gaps in previous maturity of judgment findings (Cauffman and Steinberg 2000). This work suggests that adolescents (ages 14-17) display less responsibility and perspective relative to college students (ages 18-21), young-adults (ages 22-27), and adults (ages 28-40). Further, this research finds no maturity of judgment differences between delinquent and non-delinquent youth, but does find significant maturity of judgment differences between high and low delinquency male youth. Finally, results show that maturity of judgment predicts self-reported delinquency beyond the contributions of age, gender, race, education level, SES, and antisocial decision making. Implications for the juvenile justice system are discussed.

  20. Problems and Solution for Criminal and Attached Civil Procedure on Juvenile Delinquency Cases According to%未成年人犯罪案件刑事附带民事诉讼若干问题探析——以我国新《刑事诉讼法》的相关规定为中心

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈历幸

    2012-01-01

    Chinese Criminal Procedure Law 2012 will cause some problems in criminal and attached civilprocedure of juvenile delinquency cases, such as "appropriate adults" could not act as a civil lawsuit legal agent and maintain the people's private rights and interests, applying "procedure on the criminal settlement of a case of public prosecution" will make the defendant's compensation as a given circumstances on determination of the punishment of defendant, while applying "simplified procedures" the judge may put pressure on the defendant to force him accept mediation and judicial personnel can hardly have the professional quality on trial of both criminal cases and civil cases. Judicial interpretation shall define that criminal and attached civil procedure should not be applied on juvenile delinquency cases in the following situation: the litigation amount is large, the defendant may be sentenced to heavy punishment, there is conflict on judicial grade of trial between civil part and criminal part and the case is a long case.%2012年修改的我国《刑事诉讼法》实施后,未成年人犯罪案件刑事附带民事诉讼中可能存在“合适成年人”无法作为民事诉讼法定代理人以维护有关未成年人民事权益、适用“当事人和解的公诉案件诉讼程序”时将被告人赔偿与否作为量刑情节而造成对被告人不公、适用“简易程序”时法官施压调解而干预阻碍被告人行使民事诉讼权利、审判人员能否兼备审理刑事案件与民事案件的专业素养等问题。为了在发挥刑事附带民事诉讼制度优点的同时一定程度上控制其缺陷所造成的不利影响,司法解释应规定在未成年人犯罪案件中,刑事附带民事诉讼制度不适用于刑事附带民事诉讼的民事部分标的金额较大的情形、被告人可能被判处较重刑罚的情形、刑事附带民事诉讼的刑事部分与民事部分审级不一致的情形、案

  1. Ratings of parent behaviours for delinquents from two-parent and single-parent homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilgosh, L; Paitich, D

    1982-01-01

    Mother and son ratings of parent behaviours on the dimensions of loving, demanding and punishing, using the Bronfenbrenner Parent Behaviour Questionnaire, were compared for juvenile delinquents from two-parent and single-parent homes respectively. Mean rating for all variables were in the average range, and little difference in ratings of mothers' behaviours was found, for either boys or mothers, between the single-parent and two-parent groups. These findings are in contrast to the frequently suggested link between delinquency and disturbed family interactions.

  2. Trajectories of delinquency and parenting styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, M.; Blokland, A.; Dubas, J.S.; Loeber, R.; Gerris, J.R.M.; Laan, P.H. van der

    2008-01-01

    We investigated trajectories of adolescent delinquent development using data from the Pittsburgh Youth Study and examined the extent to which these different trajectories are differentially predicted by childhood parenting styles. Based on self-reported and official delinquency seriousness, covering

  3. Trajectories of Delinquency and Parenting Styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, M.; Blokland, A.; Dubas, J.S.; Loeber, R.; Gerris, J.R.M.; Laan, P.H. van der

    2008-01-01

    We investigated trajectories of adolescent delinquent development using data from the Pittsburgh Youth Study and examined the extent to which these different trajectories are differentially predicted by childhood parenting styles. Based on self-reported and official delinquency seriousness, covering

  4. The Moral Maturity of Repeater Delinquents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petronio, Richard J.

    1980-01-01

    Differences in moral development (as conceived by Kohlberg) were examined in a sample of delinquent teenagers. The repeater group was not found, as had been hypothesized, to be lower on moral maturity than those who engaged in less delinquency. (GC)

  5. Trajectories of Delinquency and Parenting Styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, M.; Blokland, A.; Dubas, J.S.; Loeber, R.; Gerris, J.R.M.; Laan, P.H. van der

    2008-01-01

    We investigated trajectories of adolescent delinquent development using data from the Pittsburgh Youth Study and examined the extent to which these different trajectories are differentially predicted by childhood parenting styles. Based on self-reported and official delinquency seriousness, covering

  6. Trajectories of delinquency and parenting styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Hoeve; A. van Blokland; J.S. Dubas; R Loeber; J.R.M. Gerris; P.H. van der Laan

    2008-01-01

    We investigated trajectories of adolescent delinquent development using data from the Pittsburgh Youth Study and examined the extent to which these different trajectories are differentially predicted by childhood parenting styles. Based on self-reported and official delinquency seriousness, covering

  7. Attention Deficit Disorder (ADDH) and Delinquency Subgroups

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1988-01-01

    Two subgroups of hyperactive children (25 non-delinquent and 9 delinquent) and 1 group of 34 non-delinquent normal children were evaluated from childhood to adolescence at the National Center for Hyperactive Children, Encino, CA, using auditory evoked response potential (AERP) measures and EEG recordings.

  8. Attachment, parenting, and separation--individuation in adolescence: a comparison of hospitalized adolescents, institutionalized delinquents, and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delhaye, Marie; Kempenaers, Chantal; Burton, Julie; Linkowski, Paul; Stroobants, Rob; Goossens, Luc

    2012-01-01

    The authors compared parent-related perceptions by hospitalized adolescents (i.e., who were admitted to a specialized psychiatric unit; n = 50) and delinquent adolescents (i.e., who were placed at a juvenile treatment institution; n = 51) with adolescents from the general population (n = 51). All adolescents completed a broad set of measures of attachment, perceived parenting, and separation-individuation. Contrary to initial expectations, hospitalized adolescents scored higher than controls on indices of excessive autonomy. Ambivalence regarding issues of interpersonal closeness and distance was found among delinquent adolescents. In addition, hospitalized and delinquent adolescents were found to be struggling, each in their specific way, with attachment-related experiences of trauma. Finally, delinquent adolescents also showed a stage-appropriate form of potentially adaptive narcissism. These findings add to the growing consensus in the literature that associations between adolescent psychopathology and parent-related perceptions are typically complex and somewhat counterintuitive.

  9. Dermatomyositis (Juvenile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Am A Patient / Caregiver Diseases & Conditions Dermatomyositis (Juvenile) Dermatomyositis (Juvenile) Fast Facts Patients with JDM have varying ... What are common signs and symptoms of juvenile dermatomyositis? The most common signs and symptoms of JDM ...

  10. Retinoschisis (Juvenile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... here Home › Eye Conditions Listen Retinoschisis What is Juvenile Retinoschisis? Juvenile retinoschisis is an inherited disease diagnosed in childhood ... degeneration of the retina. What are the symptoms? Juvenile retinoschisis, also known as X-linked retinoschisis, occurs ...

  11. Travel beyond the home neighborhood for delinquent behaviors: moderation of home neighborhood influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompsett, Carolyn J; Amrhein, Kelly E; Hassan, Sarah

    2014-06-01

    Neighborhood research indicates that adolescents are at higher risk for delinquency when they reside in neighborhoods low in collective efficacy, low in perceived prosocial norms and values, and high in availability of substances and firearms. However, as adolescents develop, they are more likely to independently travel during their day-to-day activities, and the effects of their home neighborhood may be weakened as they spend time in other communities. The current study surveyed 179 adolescents involved in the juvenile justice system in a small Midwestern city on their perceptions of their home neighborhood and self-reported delinquency. While perceptions of several home neighborhood characteristics significantly predicted severity of delinquency for all respondents, neighborhood effects were significantly weaker for those adolescents who tended to engage in illegal behaviors outside their home neighborhood. These findings suggest that future research and prevention efforts should include more attention to how adolescents may be influenced by multiple neighborhoods.

  12. School context, gender, and delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiqueira-McDonough, J

    1986-02-01

    This study compares two high schools serving the same community and compares student bodies with similar background characteristics. The purpose is to examine how control/strain variables predict delinquency in two distinct school contexts. It was found that minor delinquency occurred more often in the environment dominated by competitive academic achievement, routine handling of discipline, and unpredictable supervision. Examination of the model paths suggest that this environment is also conservative and unlikely to offer legitimate opportunities to girls with gender-egalitarian orientation. The school context characterized by a broader definition of success, more specialized discipline, and predictable supervision promotes stronger bonds with its students and lower levels of delinquency for both genders.

  13. Attachment, Parenting, and Separation-Individuation in Adolescence: A Comparison of Hospitalized Adolescents, Institutionalized Delinquents, and Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delhaye, Marie; Kempenaers, Chantal; Burton, Julie; Linkowski, Paul; Stroobants, Rob; Goossens, Luc

    2012-01-01

    The authors compared parent-related perceptions by hospitalized adolescents (i.e., who were admitted to a specialized psychiatric unit; n = 50) and delinquent adolescents (i.e., who were placed at a juvenile treatment institution; n = 51) with adolescents from the general population (n = 51). All adolescents completed a broad set of measures of…

  14. Attachment, Parenting, and Separation-Individuation in Adolescence: A Comparison of Hospitalized Adolescents, Institutionalized Delinquents, and Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delhaye, Marie; Kempenaers, Chantal; Burton, Julie; Linkowski, Paul; Stroobants, Rob; Goossens, Luc

    2012-01-01

    The authors compared parent-related perceptions by hospitalized adolescents (i.e., who were admitted to a specialized psychiatric unit; n = 50) and delinquent adolescents (i.e., who were placed at a juvenile treatment institution; n = 51) with adolescents from the general population (n = 51). All adolescents completed a broad set of measures of…

  15. Comprehensive Strategy for Serious, Violent, and Chronic Juvenile Offenders: Program Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquent Prevention (Dept. of Justice), Washington, DC.

    This document presents a comprehensive strategy for dealing with serious, violent, and chronic juvenile offenders developed by the United States Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. It notes that the program described can be implemented at the state, county, or local level. The introduction presents statistics on violent…

  16. Influences of Neighborhood Context, Individual History and Parenting Behavior on Recidivism among Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunwald, Heidi E.; Lockwood, Brian; Harris, Philip W.; Mennis, Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of neighborhood context on juvenile recidivism to determine if neighborhoods influence the likelihood of reoffending. Although a large body of literature exists regarding the impact of environmental factors on delinquency, very little is known about the effects of these factors on juvenile recidivism. The sample…

  17. Needs and Achievements of the Juvenile Justice System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basto-Pereira, Miguel; Ribeiro, Sofia; Maia, Ângela

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decade, studies have evaluated the effectiveness of interventions for juvenile offenders; nonetheless, those studies were more focused on recidivism than on the mechanisms associated with criminal perpetration. The current study explores the role of juvenile justice involvement and detention measures in a set of psychological, social, and criminal behavior characteristics in early adulthood. Seventy-five young adults with official records of juvenile delinquency in 2010-2011 and 240 young adults from the community filled out our protocol in 2014-2015. Young adults with juvenile justice involvement showed worse psychological, social, and criminal outcomes than those from community. Detention appears to be related to the number of deviant friends, delinquency, and school achievement in early adulthood. Our findings are in line with the labeling and deviant peer contagion theories and establish the main areas of interventions that affect the identified needs. A set of policy implications is provided.

  18. Parenting, criminogenic settings and delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Heleen J.

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this dissertation was to examine the relative contribution of mediators derived from different theoretical perspectives (i.e. self-control theory, differential association theory, and routine activity theory) to explaining the relationship between parenting and delinquency. It is exa

  19. Parenting, criminogenic settings and delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Heleen J.

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this dissertation was to examine the relative contribution of mediators derived from different theoretical perspectives (i.e. self-control theory, differential association theory, and routine activity theory) to explaining the relationship between parenting and delinquency. It is exa

  20. Factors Affecting Teenager Cyber Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Young Ju; Lim, Kyu Yon; Cho, Sun Yoo; Jung, Bo Kyung; Choi, Se Bin

    2013-01-01

    The study aims to investigate structural relationships among teenagers' peer attachment, self-control, academic stress, internet usage time, and cyber delinquency. The data source was the Korea Youth Panel Survey, and the responses from 920 teenagers in the 12th grade provided the study data. Structural equation modeling was used for the analysis.…

  1. Chronic neglect and aggression/delinquency: A longitudinal examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan-Greene, Patricia; Semanchin Jones, Annette

    2015-07-01

    Neglect is the most common form of maltreatment in the United States, yet its impact on development remains understudied, especially for chronic neglect. Chronic neglect is also one of the most costly burdens on child welfare systems. This study examines the effects of chronic neglect, including two subtypes (Failure to Provide and Lack of Supervision) on adolescent aggression and delinquency using a diverse longitudinal sample of youth. Chronic neglect and chronic failure to provide (ages 0-12) predicted aggression/delinquency (age 14) even after controlling for the effects of other maltreatment (ages 0-12). Chronic lack of supervision, however, did not. Gender significantly moderated these effects, suggesting that males are more likely to respond to neglect by becoming aggressive/delinquent. Finally, social problems (age 12) partially mediated for boys, and fully mediated for girls, the connections between chronic neglect and aggression/delinquency, bolstering theorizing that neglect impairs social functioning broadly. Implications include the need for further research on chronic neglect, especially in providing guidance for child welfare systems. Interventions for chronically neglected youth should include social skill development.

  2. [Current Problems Encountered by American Youth: Delinquency, Crime, School Violence, School Discipline, and Related Matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnery, Alfred S.

    This paper presents a broad overview of information about delinquency, crime, and school discipline and violence in relation to U.S. youths. Part 1 compares U.S. and West Germany's crime rates for 1980-1985, while part 2 focuses on U.S. juvenile crime facts and on the contribution of the increasing number of U.S. family breakdowns to juvenile…

  3. Posttraumatic stress among youths in juvenile detention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Derek; Thompson, Sanna J; Sanford, Julia

    2014-01-01

    An estimated 1.8 million juveniles were arrested in the United States for delinquency in 2009. Previous studies indicate high rates of exposure to traumatic events and posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms for these youths. This study examined PTS in a sample of 170 youths in juvenile detention. The results of this study reveal higher rates of PTS symptoms (21%) compared to national rates (6%). The data also suggest youths suffering from more PTS symptoms also report higher depression, anxiety, anger, family relationship worries, thought problems, and attention problems. These factors provide a direction for continued practice targeting these youths.

  4. Early adolescent music preferences and minor delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Bogt, Tom F M; Keijsers, Loes; Meeus, Wim H J

    2013-02-01

    To test Music Marker Theory (MMT) positing that early adolescents' preferences for nonmainstream types of popular music indicate concurrent and later minor delinquency. MMT was tested in a 4-year longitudinal study (n = 309). The results showed that early fans of different types of rock (eg, rock, heavy metal, gothic, punk), African American music (rhythm and blues, hip-hop), and electronic dance music (trance, techno/hardhouse) showed elevated minor delinquency concurrently and longitudinally. Preferring conventional pop (chart pop) or highbrow music (classic music, jazz), in contrast, was not related to or was negatively related to minor delinquency. Early music preferences emerged as more powerful indicators of later delinquency rather than early delinquency, indicating that music choice is a strong marker of later problem behavior. The mechanisms through which music preferences are linked to minor delinquency are discussed within the framework of MMT.

  5. Peers and delinquency among girls and boys: are sex differences in delinquency explained by peer factors?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerman, F.M.; Hoeve, M.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we investigate sex differences in the relationship between peers and delinquency. We analyse to what extent peers have different effects on delinquency among girls and boys, and to what extent sex differences in the level of delinquency can be explained by differential exposure or v

  6. Attributions of Delinquency by Delinquent Minors, Their Families, and Probation Officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagatun, Inger J.

    1991-01-01

    Surveyed 68 delinquent minors, 57 parents, and 101 probation officers to compare attributions of responsibility for delinquency. All three groups saw the minor, the family, and friends as three factors most responsible for delinquency, but in varying degrees and combinations. Findings demonstrate importance of studying perceptions of different…

  7. Peers and delinquency among girls and boys: are sex differences in delinquency explained by peer factors?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerman, F.M.; Hoeve, M.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we investigate sex differences in the relationship between peers and delinquency. We analyse to what extent peers have different effects on delinquency among girls and boys, and to what extent sex differences in the level of delinquency can be explained by differential exposure or

  8. Peers and delinquency among girls and boys: are sex differences in delinquency explained by peer factors?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerman, F.M.; Hoeve, M.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we investigate sex differences in the relationship between peers and delinquency. We analyse to what extent peers have different effects on delinquency among girls and boys, and to what extent sex differences in the level of delinquency can be explained by differential exposure or v

  9. 27 CFR 479.50 - Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Special (Occupational) Taxes Penalties and Interest § 479.50 Delinquency. Any...

  10. Firearm homicide and other causes of death in delinquents: a 16-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teplin, Linda A; Jakubowski, Jessica A; Abram, Karen M; Olson, Nichole D; Stokes, Marquita L; Welty, Leah J

    2014-07-01

    Delinquent youth are at risk for early violent death after release from detention. However, few studies have examined risk factors for mortality. Previous investigations studied only serious offenders (a fraction of the juvenile justice population) and provided little data on females. The Northwestern Juvenile Project is a prospective longitudinal study of health needs and outcomes of a stratified random sample of 1829 youth (657 females, 1172 males; 524 Hispanic, 1005 African American, 296 non-Hispanic white, 4 other race/ethnicity) detained between 1995 and 1998. Data on risk factors were drawn from interviews; death records were obtained up to 16 years after detention. We compared all-cause mortality rates and causes of death with those of the general population. Survival analyses were used to examine risk factors for mortality after youth leave detention. Delinquent youth have higher mortality rates than the general population to age 29 years (P < .05), irrespective of gender or race/ethnicity. Females died at nearly 5 times the general population rate (P < .05); Hispanic males and females died at 5 and 9 times the general population rates, respectively (P < .05). Compared with the general population, significantly more delinquent youth died of homicide and its subcategory, homicide by firearm (P < .05). Among delinquent youth, racial/ethnic minorities were at increased risk of homicide compared with non-Hispanic whites (P < .05). Significant risk factors for external-cause mortality and homicide included drug dealing (up to 9 years later), alcohol use disorder, and gang membership (up to a decade later). Delinquent youth are an identifiable target population to reduce disparities in early violent death. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  11. Firearm Homicide and Other Causes of Death in Delinquents: A 16-Year Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowski, Jessica A.; Abram, Karen M.; Olson, Nichole D.; Stokes, Marquita L.; Welty, Leah J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Delinquent youth are at risk for early violent death after release from detention. However, few studies have examined risk factors for mortality. Previous investigations studied only serious offenders (a fraction of the juvenile justice population) and provided little data on females. METHODS: The Northwestern Juvenile Project is a prospective longitudinal study of health needs and outcomes of a stratified random sample of 1829 youth (657 females, 1172 males; 524 Hispanic, 1005 African American, 296 non-Hispanic white, 4 other race/ethnicity) detained between 1995 and 1998. Data on risk factors were drawn from interviews; death records were obtained up to 16 years after detention. We compared all-cause mortality rates and causes of death with those of the general population. Survival analyses were used to examine risk factors for mortality after youth leave detention. RESULTS: Delinquent youth have higher mortality rates than the general population to age 29 years (P < .05), irrespective of gender or race/ethnicity. Females died at nearly 5 times the general population rate (P < .05); Hispanic males and females died at 5 and 9 times the general population rates, respectively (P < .05). Compared with the general population, significantly more delinquent youth died of homicide and its subcategory, homicide by firearm (P < .05). Among delinquent youth, racial/ethnic minorities were at increased risk of homicide compared with non-Hispanic whites (P < .05). Significant risk factors for external-cause mortality and homicide included drug dealing (up to 9 years later), alcohol use disorder, and gang membership (up to a decade later). CONCLUSIONS: Delinquent youth are an identifiable target population to reduce disparities in early violent death. PMID:24936005

  12. Juvenile Scleroderma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile Scleroderma INTRODUCTION Every parent will experience a moment of panic when told their child has scleroderma. ... in all their family members as well. CONCLUSION Juvenile scleroderma can be unsettling for the child and ...

  13. Differences between Juvenile Offenders with and without Intellectual Disabilities in the Importance of Static and Dynamic Risk Factors for Recidivism

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Put, C. E.; Asscher, J. J.; Stams, G. J. J. M.; Moonen, X. M. H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Juvenile offenders with intellectual disability (ID) have been largely ignored in the literature of risk assessment, while they are overrepresented in the criminal justice system, and ID is a risk factor for juvenile delinquency and recidivism. The aim of this study was to examine whether there are differences between juvenile…

  14. Personality and Delinquency: A Multi-Variate Examination of Eysenck's Theory with Scottish Delinquent and Non-Delinquent Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Russell; Eysenck, H. J.

    1977-01-01

    The Eysenck Junior P.I. questionnaire was administered to groups of institutionalized and non-institutionalized delinquents and to non-delinquents. Items were analyzed to determine their effectiveness in predicting group membership. Comments by H.J. Eysenck are also presented. (Author/BP)

  15. Personality and Delinquency: A Multi-Variate Examination of Eysenck's Theory with Scottish Delinquent and Non-Delinquent Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Russell; Eysenck, H. J.

    1977-01-01

    The Eysenck Junior P.I. questionnaire was administered to groups of institutionalized and non-institutionalized delinquents and to non-delinquents. Items were analyzed to determine their effectiveness in predicting group membership. Comments by H.J. Eysenck are also presented. (Author/BP)

  16. Delinquency and social changes in United Arab Emirates: a comparison study between delinquent males and females on the family functioning questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnajjar, A; Al-Hilawani, Y

    1999-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to specify descriptive elements of juvenile delinquents in United Arab Emirates (UAE); a comparison between male and female young offenders was also conducted using the Family Functioning Questionnaire (FFQ). The results revealed that some of the characteristics of young offenders were: school dropouts, had parents with no or some elementary education, lived in the city, and came from low income families. The statistical analysis revealed that there were significant differences between males and females on the FFQ subscales. That is, there was a differential treatment of male and female delinquents in the UAE society. Suggestions, implications and limitations for the potential use of the results reported in this study are also discussed.

  17. The case of juvenile polygraphy as a clinical ethics dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffin, Mark

    2011-09-01

    Polygraph interrogations are used by half of all surveyed juvenile sex offender (JSO) treatment programs in the United States. This is a distinctive and controversial practice that is rarely if ever used with other juvenile delinquent populations, and that is rarely used or is banned from JSO treatment programs in other countries. Clinical polygraphy is an ethically sensitive issue because it involves mental health therapists in involuntary coercive interrogations of minors. This article reviews core mental health professional ethics principles for juveniles. JSO polygraphy is used as an illustrative issue for applying human rights principles to a practice in light of its benefits, risks, and available alternatives.

  18. Trajectories of Delinquency and Parenting Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeve, Machteld; Blokland, Arjan; Dubas, Judith Semon; Loeber, Rolf; Gerris, Jan R. M.; van der Laan, Peter H.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated trajectories of adolescent delinquent development using data from the Pittsburgh Youth Study and examined the extent to which these different trajectories are differentially predicted by childhood parenting styles. Based on self-reported and official delinquency seriousness, covering ages 10-19, we identified five distinct…

  19. [Lunar phases as triggers for delinquent behavior?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knecht, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    For many centuries, mankind has been concerned about the potential impact that the moon may have on human behavior, especially delinquency. The author presents a case report, in which the delinquency of the offender seems to show a certain synchronisation with the lunar phases. Finally, the issue is discussed on the basis of today's scientific literature on this topic.

  20. Impact of a Comprehensive Whole Child Intervention and Prevention Program among Youths at Risk of Gang Involvement and Other Forms of Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffman, Stephen; Ray, Alice; Berg, Sarah; Covington, Larry; Albarran, Nadine M.; Vasquez, Max

    2009-01-01

    Youths in gang-ridden neighborhoods are at risk for trauma-related mental health disorders, which are early indicators of likely school failure and delinquency. Such youths rarely seek out services for these problems. The Juvenile Intervention and Prevention Program (JIPP), a school-based gang intervention and prevention program in Los Angeles,…

  1. Rule-violating behavior of delinquent and non-delinquent youth in games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serok, S; Blum, A

    1982-01-01

    Viewing delinquency as rule-violating behavior resulting from a failure in the socialization process, it was assumed that delinquents and non-delinquents would demonstrate differences in the frequency of rule-violating behavior, and in reactions to rule-violating behavior in games. Fifty delinquent and fifty non-delinquent members of ten, ongoing neighborhood peer groups were rated by group workers in relation to their rule-violating behavior in group activities and games as it occurred in the natural group setting. It was found that there were no differences between the two groups on the boys' willingness to participate in games, their conformity to peer expectations, and their choice of competitive games. Delinquents were found to violate rules more often, to react more aggressively to rule violations of others, and to deny more often, their responsibility for rule violations. Implications as to the importance of games in socialization and their potential use in treatment are discussed.

  2. Juvenile Judge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    SHANG Xiuyun was among the first sitting judges when the juvenile court was set up in Beijing 10 years ago. With enriched experience she has altered the way judges ask questions in court. She began the practice of inviting juvenile offenders, their parents, relatives, friends and teachers to the juvenile court to work hand in hand in dealing with cases: Facing their relatives and friends and hearing their heartfelt words, juvenile offenders would often be touched, thus bringing forth a positive attitude toward life.

  3. Forensic aspects of juvenile violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, L H

    2000-10-01

    from "deliberate indifference" to their medical needs. It is hoped that a way will be found to provide effective services for the juvenile delinquent population. Federal laws have been enacted to mandate special services for educationally handicapped children. Those statutes, and litigation based on them, have led to some improvements for that group of children. Perhaps the same can be accomplished for the youthful offender population. Mandatory early intervention will serve them far better than mandatory waiver to adult court or incarceration in adult prison.

  4. Juvenile Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile arthritis (JA) is arthritis that happens in children. It causes joint swelling, pain, stiffness, and loss of motion. It can affect any joint, but ... of JA that children get is juvenile idiopathic arthritis. There are several other forms of arthritis affecting ...

  5. Explaining the relation between IQ and delinquency: class, race, test motivation, school failure, or self-control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynam, D; Moffitt, T; Stouthamer-Loeber, M

    1993-05-01

    An inverse relation between IQ and delinquency has been well established, but the direction of effect remains to be specified. Differing explanatory accounts of the relation were empirically examined in the present study using data on 13-year-old boys involved in a high-risk longitudinal study. Accounts that interpreted the relation as spurious or that posited that delinquency-related factors lead to low IQ scores received no support; findings were most consistent with the hypothesis that the direction of effect runs from low IQ to delinquency. The IQ-delinquency relation was robust after race, class, and observed test motivation were controlled statistically. Additionally, the effect of IQ was mediated by school performance for Black youth but not for White youth.

  6. Trajectories of Delinquency from Age 14 to 23 in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Debra A; Brecht, Mary-Lynn; Huang, David; Herbeck, Diane M

    2012-03-01

    This study utilized data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to investigate risk trajectories for delinquency and factors associated with different trajectories, particularly substance use. The sample (N = 8,984) was 49% female. A group-based trajectory model was applied, which identified four distinct trajectories for both males and females: (1) a High group with delinquency rates consistently higher than other groups, with some decrease across the age range; (2) a Decreased group, beginning at high levels with substantial decrease to near zero; (3) a Moderate group experiencing some decline but remaining at moderate rates of delinquency through most of the age range; and (4) a consistently Low group, having low rates of delinquency declining to near zero by mid- to late-teens. The Low group was distinguished by several protective factors, including higher rates of maternal authoritative parenting style, possible lower acculturation (higher rates of non-English spoken at home), higher rates of religious activity, later substance use initiation, lower rates of early delinquent activity, less early experience with neighborhood or personal violence, and higher rates of perceiving penalty for wrongdoing. Conversely, the High group was characterized by several vulnerability factors-essentially the converse of the protective factors above.

  7. Jurors' perceptions of juvenile defendants: the influence of intellectual disability, abuse history, and confession evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najdowski, Cynthia J; Bottoms, Bette L; Vargas, Maria C

    2009-01-01

    Understanding jurors' perceptions of juvenile defendants has become increasingly important as more and more juvenile cases are being tried in adult criminal court rather than family or juvenile court. Intellectual disability and child maltreatment are overrepresented among juvenile delinquents, and juveniles (particularly disabled juveniles) are at heightened risk for falsely confessing to crimes. In two mock trial experiments, we examined the effects of disability, abuse history, and confession evidence on jurors' perceptions of a juvenile defendant across several different crime scenarios. Abused juveniles were treated more leniently than nonabused juveniles only when the juvenile's crime was motivated by self-defense against the abuser. Jurors used disability as a mitigating factor, making more lenient judgments for a disabled than a nondisabled juvenile. Jurors also completely discounted a coerced confession for a disabled juvenile, but not for a nondisabled juvenile. In fact, compared with when it was portrayed as voluntary, jurors generally discounted a juvenile's coerced confession. Implications for public policy and directions for future research are discussed.

  8. General Strain Theory and Delinquency: Focusing on the Influences of Key Strain Characteristics on Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Byongook; Blurton, David; McCluskey, John D.

    2008-01-01

    The study examines the effects of recent, older, and chronic strains and of perceived injustice of strain on delinquency, sampling 777 Korean youth. Seven key strains most likely leading to delinquency, some of which were often overlooked in previous research, were included, and these are family conflict, parental punishment, teachers' punishment,…

  9. Criminal profiles of violent juvenile sex and violent juvenile non sex offenders: an explorative longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Anton Ph; Mali, Bas R F; Bullens, Ruud A R; Vermeiren, Robert R

    2007-10-01

    Few studies have longitudinally investigated the criminal profiles of violent juvenile sex and violent juvenile non-sex offenders. To make up for this lack, this study used police records of juveniles to determine the nature of the criminal profiles of violent sex offenders (n = 226) and violent non-sex offenders (n = 4,130). All offenders committed their first offense in 1996 and were followed for 7 years. Results showed that violent sex offenders and violent non-sex offenders cannot be considered a homogeneous group because of different background characteristics and criminal profiles. Sex and violent offenses often constitute a small part of a broader criminal pattern. Further research is necessary to reveal in more detail the developmental and criminological patterns of violent and sexual delinquency. Treatment and intervention programs may benefit from this.

  10. A National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment for Juvenile Offenders

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Douglas W.; Dembo, Richard; Henderson, Craig E.

    2007-01-01

    Despite consensus about the value of substance abuse treatment for delinquent youth, information about its prevalence and availability is inadequate and inconsistent. This paper presents findings about treatment and other correctional service provision from a national survey of directors of 141 juvenile institutional and community corrections facilities. Educational/GED programming and drug and alcohol education were the most prevalent types of correctional and substance abuse services. Other...

  11. Perceptions of Successful Graduates of Juvenile Residential Programs: Reflections and Suggestions for Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mincey, Barrett; Maldonado, Nancy; Lacey, Candace H.; Thompson, Steve D.

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative study conducted in urban Miami, Florida, explored the essence of juvenile delinquency and recidivism: its causes, its relations to communities, the roles of families, and the myriad roles of residential treatment programs at rehabilitating young offenders. Data were collected from nine young adult participants who had satisfied…

  12. The Role of Family Affect in Juvenile Drug Court Offenders' Substance Use and HIV Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolou-Shams, Marina; Hadley, Wendy; Conrad, Selby M.; Brown, Larry K.

    2012-01-01

    Family-based interventions targeting parenting factors, such as parental monitoring and parent-child communication, have been successful in reducing adolescent offenders' substance use and delinquency. This pilot, exploratory study focuses on family and parenting factors that may be relevant in reducing juvenile offenders' substance use and sexual…

  13. The Law and Juvenile Justice for People of Color in Elementary and Secondary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Frank; Russo, Charles J.; Hunter, Richard C.

    2002-01-01

    Recent crime control laws have negatively impacted children of color, imposing a form of social control. Increased laws and punishments have not deterred juvenile delinquents but rather increased the number of criminals. Recommends teaching children about the justice system through education on the Constitution, thus encouraging them to obey the…

  14. Delincuencia y responsabilidad penal juvenil en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Montalvo Velásquez

    2011-01-01

    England in 1815, “Juvenile delinquency is defined as the set of crimes, misdemeanors or socially reprehensible conduct, committed by young people considered by the law”. Each state is subject to its own legal system, for some it is the adolescent juvenile who commits sanctioned by the law regardless of their severity, other states only consider the youth as a juvenile offender who commits a serious criminal act.The phenomenon of juvenile delinquency is something that fits in the space of a society in which its material structure, and its consequent social formation, is in deep crisis. That younger as organized criminal gangs are telling us that result in the same general crime that has gripped society in perspective to survive materially. Capitalism is not only accumulation of wealth, but concentration of the very few hands, and all the legal and institutional system tends to favor this phenomenon because it is the structure above the capitalist mode of production. Just as adults are organized to commit crimes, do children and young people from an age in which they can see that society is not healthy and have no human future on it. Abandoned and subject to the violence that begets the system, they simply respond in a demonstration of conditioned reflexes that sustain survival in an instinctive way, “children do not know about laws but about ways to survive such a situation, the survival instinct does not ages or the regulations is liable to affect the.Key WordsJuvenile Delinquency, Youth Crime, Family Factors, criminal act, criminal liability.

  15. Self-concept and Academic Achievement of Delinquent and Non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    secondary schools and 60 delinquent inmate from Boys Approved. Remand home for ... self concept of their students for better academic achievement. Introduction ... schools where not only teaching and learning take place but the delinquents ...

  16. Juvenile Prostitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csapo, Marg

    1986-01-01

    Recent research and Canadian government committee reports concerning juvenile prostitution are reviewed. Proposals are made in the realms of law and social policy; and existing programs are described. (DB)

  17. Juvenile Prostitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csapo, Marg

    1986-01-01

    Recent research and Canadian government committee reports concerning juvenile prostitution are reviewed. Proposals are made in the realms of law and social policy; and existing programs are described. (DB)

  18. Juvenile myasthenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević-Pogančev Marija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Juvenile myasthenia is a chronic autoimmune neuromuscular disease characterized by varying degrees of fluctuating, painless muscle weakness and rapid fatigue of any muscles under voluntary control. Juvenile myasthenia is a form of myasthenia appearing in adolescent age, representing 10% to 15% of all cases of myasthenia gravis. Juvenile myasthenia is presented by a defect in the transmission of nerve impulses to muscles, resulting from a breakdown in the normal communication between nerves and muscles. In myasthenia, antibodies produced by the body’s own immune system block, alter, or destroy the receptors for acetylcholine. Juvenile myasthenia is neither directly inherited nor is it contagious. Signs and Symptoms. The first noticeable symptoms may be eye muscle weakness, difficulty in swallowing, or slurred speech. Juvenile myasthenia usually affects muscles innervated by the cranial nerves (face, lips, tongue, neck and throat, but it can affect any muscle group. Symptoms vary in type and severity with typical periods of exacerbation interspersed with periods of remission. When the muscles necessary for breathing are affected, a patient is said to be in a myasthenic crisis, which is a life-threatening situation. Disease Outcome and Treatment. Juvenile myasthenia produces sporadic but progressive weakness and abnormal fatigability of striated (skeletal muscles, exacerbated by exercise and repeated movement, but improved by rest and anticholinesterase drugs. Juvenile myasthenia follows an unpredictable course of recurring exacerbations and periodic remissions. With current therapies, however, most cases of juvenile myasthenia are not as serious as the name implies. Although there is no known cure, drug treatment has improved prognosis and allows patients to lead relatively normal lives, except during exacerbations.

  19. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA); Juvenile chronic polyarthritis; Still disease; Juvenile spondyloarthritis ... The cause of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is not known. It ... illness . This means the body attacks and destroys healthy body ...

  20. Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types of Cancer > Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome Request Permissions Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 12/2015 What is juvenile polyposis syndrome? Juvenile polyposis syndrome (JPS) is a ...

  1. Sex and Racial/Ethnic Differences in Positive Outcomes in Delinquent Youth After Detention: A 12-Year Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abram, Karen M; Azores-Gococo, Nicole M; Emanuel, Kristin M; Aaby, David A; Welty, Leah J; Hershfield, Jennifer A; Rosenbaum, Melinda S; Teplin, Linda A

    2017-02-01

    Longitudinal studies of delinquent youth have focused on criminal recidivism, not on psychosocial outcomes in adulthood. This omission is critical because after detention most youth return to the community, where they become the responsibility of pediatric health care professionals. To investigate 8 positive outcomes among delinquent youth 5 and 12 years after detention, focusing on sex and racial/ethnic differences. In the Northwestern Juvenile Project, a longitudinal US study of long-term outcomes of delinquent youth after detention, participants were interviewed in detention between November 20, 1995, and June 14, 1998, and reinterviewed up to 9 times during the 12-year study period, through May 12, 2011. Data analysis was conducted between November 18, 2013, and July 25, 2016. Juvenile detention. Achievement of positive outcomes in 8 domains: educational attainment, residential independence, gainful activity, desistance from criminal activity, mental health, abstaining from substance abuse, interpersonal functioning, and parenting responsibility. Outcomes were assessed with widely used measures supplemented by correctional records. The study included 1829 youth at baseline (1172 males and 657 females; mean [SD] age, 14.9 [1.4] years). At the end of the study, 1520 (83.1%) of the original sample remained (944 males and 576 females; mean [SD] age, 27.6 [1.4] years). Twelve years after detention, females were more likely than males to have positive outcomes for gainful activity (odds ratio [OR], 2.53; 95% CI, 1.86-3.44), desistance from criminal activity (OR, 5.89; 95% CI, 4.38-7.92), residential independence (OR, 3.41; 95% CI, 2.57-4.52), parenting responsibility (OR, 18.65; 95% CI, 12.29-28.30), and mental health (OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.13-1.92). Twelve years after detention, only 21.9% of males and 54.7% of females had achieved more than half of the outcomes. As youth aged, the number of positive outcomes increased only modestly (mean increase for males, 0.37; 95

  2. Personality, Social Skills, Anomie and Delinquency: A Self-Report Study of a Group of Normal Non-Delinquent Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian

    1984-01-01

    Over 200 'normal' adolescents were administered self-report measures of personality (extraversion, neuroticism, and psychoticism), social skills, anomie, and delinquency in order to establish which of three theories best predicted delinquency. Eysenck's personality factors, particularly psychoticism, correlated most highly with delinquency. (RH)

  3. Personality, Social Skills, Anomie and Delinquency: A Self-Report Study of a Group of Normal Non-Delinquent Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian

    1984-01-01

    Over 200 'normal' adolescents were administered self-report measures of personality (extraversion, neuroticism, and psychoticism), social skills, anomie, and delinquency in order to establish which of three theories best predicted delinquency. Eysenck's personality factors, particularly psychoticism, correlated most highly with delinquency. (RH)

  4. DELINQUENT BEHAVIOUR OF CHILDREN FROM DYSFUNCTIONAL FAMILIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Bateva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The subject of my research in the paper are the children from dysfunctional families, primarily their delinquent behavior, education and moral, actually, who takes care of them and who undertakes the family roles and whether this care is sufficient for building these personalities.This research approaches towards the study of the delinquent behavior of children from dysfunctional families. It examines to what extent the educational level of parents, the material condition, the health condition, the leisure time, the average monthly income of the family, the available permanent goods, the educational resources, the social communications within the very family, all affect the delinquent behavior of children from dysfunctional families. 

  5. Vividness of the future self predicts delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gelder, Jean-Louis; Hershfield, Hal E; Nordgren, Loran F

    2013-06-01

    The tendency to live in the here and now, and the failure to think through the delayed consequences of behavior, is one of the strongest individual-level correlates of delinquency. We tested the hypothesis that this correlation results from a limited ability to imagine one's self in the future, which leads to opting for immediate gratification. Strengthening the vividness of the future self should therefore reduce involvement in delinquency. We tested and found support for this hypothesis in two studies. In Study 1, compared with participants in a control condition, those who wrote a letter to their future self were less inclined to make delinquent choices. In Study 2, participants who interacted with a realistic digital version of their future, age-progressed self in a virtual environment were less likely than control participants to cheat on a subsequent task.

  6. Delincuencia juvenil y pandillerismo: Hombre y sociedad/Juvenile delinquency and gang: Man and society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Barraza Pérez (México

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available La creciente descomposición social y la perdida de valores, han atrapado a un buen número de nuestros jóvenes en conductas delictivas altamente peligrosas, según detecté en las investigaciones de campo, la iniciación en grandes ciudades se puede dar desde los 8 años en adelante, porque en el primer plano el niño aprende de la conducta de sus padres, si desde esa instancia tenemos un ambiente de incertidumbre, donde están de por medio los gritos, los golpes físicos y morales, nuestros niños o jóvenes pierden el sentido del honor, el amor al trabajo la confianza, la seguridad en sí mismos, perdiendo la afectividad por los demás, siendo preocupante y necesaria la intervención del gobierno, pero mas aún los limites de conducta deben de imponerse en la familia. The growing of social decomposition and the loss of values, have caught a good number of our young people in highly dangerous criminal behavior, as I detected in field investigations, initiation in large cities can be from 8 years onwards, because in the foreground the child learns from the behavior of their parents, from that instance we have an atmosphere of uncertainty, where they are of through screams, mental and physical shock , our children or young people lose the sense of honor, love to work the confidence and security in themselves, losing the affection for others, still worrying and required the intervention of the Government, but more still limits of conduct should prevail in the family

  7. Factores Psicosociales Asociados a la Delincuencia Juvenil Psychosocial Factors Associated to the Juvenile Delinquency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Andrei Valdenegro

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio analizó la relación entre participación social, anomia subjetiva, apoyo social percibido, locus de control y percepción de ser objeto de prejuicio, en relación con la variable infracción de ley. Se encontraron diferencias significativas entre los grupos en participación social (p This study analyzed the relation between social participation, subjective anomia, perceived social support, locus of control and perception of being object of prejudice, in relation to the variable infraction of law. Significant differences were found between groups in social participation (p < 0.05, perceived social support (p < 0.001 and perception of being object of prejudice (p < 0.05. There were no significant differences between groups in subjective anomia and locus of control. A linear relation was found between social participation, perceived social support, perception of being object of prejudice and infraction of law, with a 19.5% of explained variance. The results demonstrate the relevance of these variables in the analyzed dynamic and the complexity of the phenomenon, requiring new investigations that deepen these findings.

  8. Delincuencia juvenil y pandillerismo: Hombre y sociedad/Juvenile delinquency and gang: Man and society

    OpenAIRE

    Rolando Barraza Pérez (México)

    2009-01-01

    La creciente descomposición social y la perdida de valores, han atrapado a un buen número de nuestros jóvenes en conductas delictivas altamente peligrosas, según detecté en las investigaciones de campo, la iniciación en grandes ciudades se puede dar desde los 8 años en adelante, porque en el primer plano el niño aprende de la conducta de sus padres, si desde esa instancia tenemos un ambiente de incertidumbre, donde están de por medio los gritos, los golpes físicos y morales, nuestros niños o ...

  9. Juvenile homicide : a criminological study on the possible causes of juvenile homicidal delinquency in Jamaica

    OpenAIRE

    Rae, Sarah-Joy

    2009-01-01

    Jamaica, the so-called land of wood and water, normally is the embodiment of a dream holiday destination with white sandy beaches, tropical palm trees, dazzling sunshine and the typical Caribbean flair. Generally, murder and manslaughter are not associated with Jamaica. However, international comparisons of crime rates reveal that Jamaica has persistently had one of the highest homicide rates in the world. Jamaica has been described as the murder capital of the world in 2006 by the BBC news a...

  10. Individualism, collectivism, and delinquency in Asian American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thao N; Stockdale, Gary D

    2005-12-01

    Although the study of delinquency has previously focused on identifying individual, family, peer, and social risk and protective factors, little empirical research has studied cultural factors and their relations to delinquency. In a large community sample of 329 Chinese, Cambodian, Laotian/Mien, and Vietnamese youths, individualism was positively related to, and collectivism negatively related to, self-reported delinquency, with partial mediation through peer delinquency (PD). Although the percentage of variance in delinquency attributable to individualism-collectivism was small compared to PD, it cannot be discounted as trivial. The results also supported the measurement and structural invariance of these associations across the 4 ethnic groups.

  11. Moral disengagement: relation to delinquency and independence from indices of social dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiriakidis, Stavros P

    2008-10-01

    This article explores the relations of moral disengagement with several legal, institutional, and demographic characteristics of young offenders held in custody. The sample consisted of 152 randomly selected male young offenders from the largest young offenders' institution in Scotland. The age of the sample ranged from 16 to 21 (M = 18.9, SD =1.3). The respondents took part in a structured interview asking about several sociodemographic characteristics, and they completed the Moral Disengagement Scale. The sample in the study scored significantly higher on moral disengagement in comparison to a community sample. Higher moral disengagement was related to the offenders' families receiving help from a social worker; the expectation of an unstable living situation after custody; drug use before custody; and intention of drug use after custody. However, the lack of relation of moral disengagement to most of the social, family, school, employment, legal, and lifestyle characteristics of the sample suggests that moral disengagement is an independent variable exerting an influence on juvenile delinquent behavior over and above the social characteristics of juvenile delinquents.

  12. A Comparison of Delinquent Prostitutes and Delinquent Non-Prostitutes on Self-Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bour, Daria S.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Compared social and demographic statistics and self-concept in 50 delinquent females (25 prostitutes and 25 nonprostitutes). Results indicated early sexual intercourse and a positive physical self-image were related to prostitution. (JAC)

  13. Sensory integrative processing in delinquent-prone and non-delinquent-prone adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanchiang, S P; Snyder, C; Zobel-Lachiusa, J; Loeffler, C B; Thompson, M E

    1990-07-01

    The purposes of this study were to obtain a preliminary description of the sensory integrative and practic abilities of 114 non-delinquent-prone adolescents aged 12 through 18 years and to compare their performances with those of 12 delinquent-prone adolescents with learning problems. Ten of the 17 subtests of the Sensory Integration and Praxis Tests (SIPT) (Ayres, 1989) as well as the Finger Posture Imitation Test (Druker, 1980) and the MacQuarrie Test for Mechanical Ability (MacQuarrie, 1925/1953) were administered to both groups. It was hypothesized that performance on some tests would correlate with age in the non-delinquent-prone adolescents. It was also hypothesized that some delinquent-prone adolescents with learning problems would perform significantly worse on the tests of sensory integrative and practic abilities than would the non-delinquent-prone adolescents. A data analysis indicated that performance on the praxis tests, Manual Form Perception, Graphesthesia, and Bilateral Motor Coordination showed a significant age correlation. The results of this study indicated a difference between the two groups, and it was concluded that the delinquent-prone group performed more poorly on all of the praxis-related tests and on the absolute values of the tests of Postrotary Nystagmus, Standing and Walking Balance, and Bilateral Motor Coordination. Some of the vestibular- and praxis-related tests, therefore, may still provide useful information on children older than 8 years of age.

  14. Juvenile Spondyloarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmuca, Sabrina; Weiss, Pamela F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review To provide a comprehensive update of the pathogenesis, diagnostic imaging, treatments, and disease activity measurements of juvenile spondyloarthritis (JSpA). Recent findings Genetic and microbiome studies have provided new information regarding possible pathogenesis of JSpA. Recent work suggests that children with JSpA have decreased thresholds for pain in comparison to healthy children. Additionally, pain on physical examination and abnormalities on ultrasound of the entheses are not well correlated. Treatment guidelines for juvenile arthritis, including JSpA, were published by the American College of Rheumatology and are based on active joint count and presence of sacroiliitis. Recent studies have established the efficacy of tumor necrosis factor inhibitors in the symptomatic treatment of axial disease, though their efficacy for halting progression of structural damage is less clear. Newly developed disease activity measures for JSpA include the Juvenile Arthritis Disease Activity Score and the JSpA Disease Activity index. In comparison to other categories of juvenile arthritis, children with JSpA are less likely to attain and sustain inactive disease. Summary Further microbiome and genetic research may help elucidate JSpA pathogenesis. More randomized therapeutic trials are needed and the advent of new composite disease activity measurement tools will hopefully allow for the design of these greatly needed trials. PMID:26002028

  15. 19 CFR 113.38 - Delinquent sureties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... individual or corporate surety when the surety, without just cause, is significantly delinquent either in the... not accept a bond secured by an individual or corporate surety when that surety, without just cause... for the failure to pay, or demonstrate the existence of a significant legal issue justifying further...

  16. Addressing Trauma and Psychosocial Development in Juvenile Justice-Involved Youth: A Synthesis of the Developmental Neuroscience, Juvenile Justice and Trauma Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Evans-Chase

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Youth incarcerated in the juvenile justice system are disproportionately exposed to traumas both in and outside of custody that are associated with poor social, behavioral, and developmental outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to describe one pathway through which trauma can impact a myriad of outcomes, including delinquency, violence, substance use, and other behaviors that are self-regulatory in nature. Relevant research from the developmental neuroscience, juvenile justice, and trauma literatures are drawn upon and synthesized to describe this pathway. Using a multi-disciplinary approach to understanding the role that brain development and neural activity play in the relationship between trauma and associated behavioral outcomes could serve to inform juvenile justice policy decisions and intervention practice. Such application could increase the effectiveness with which juvenile justice systems work with one of the most vulnerable and traumatized populations of youth in today’s society: those incarcerated in our juvenile justice system.

  17. Update on juvenile myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Wendy K M; Kang, Peter B

    2013-12-01

    Juvenile myasthenia gravis is a relatively rare autoimmune neuromuscular disorder. The pathophysiology of juvenile myasthenia gravis is similar to that of adult myasthenia gravis, though there remain important differences regarding presentation and therapeutic options. We review the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and treatment options for juvenile myasthenia gravis. Randomized clinical studies of myasthenia gravis have been carried out primarily in adult populations. As juvenile myasthenia gravis is rare, it has been difficult to collect prospective randomized controlled data to evaluate treatment outcomes and efficacy. A recent retrospective series suggests that, as in adult myasthenia gravis, thymectomy is a viable therapeutic option for selected cases of generalized juvenile myasthenia gravis. This is corroborated by the clinical experience of the authors in a referral center with a cohort of patients affected by juvenile myasthenia gravis over a number of years. Recent studies illustrate that some, but not all, adult research on myasthenia gravis is applicable to children and adolescents with juvenile myasthenia gravis. Adult research can inform pediatric studies, but should not be regarded as a substitute for dedicated research in those populations.

  18. NDTAC Practice Guide: Quality Education Services Are Critical for Youth Involved with the Juvenile Justice and Child Welfare Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsoulin, Simon; Clark, Heather Griller; Rankin, Victoria E.

    2015-01-01

    This National Evaluation and Technical Assistance Center for the Education of Children and Youth Who are Neglected, Delinquent, or At-Risk (NDTAC) practice guide examines the principle that quality education services are critical for youth involved with the juvenile justice and child welfare systems. This principle asserts that, to address the…

  19. Addressing the Needs of Youth with Disabilities in the Juvenile Justice System: The Current Status of Evidence-Based Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mears, Daniel P.; Aron, Laudan; Bernstein, Jenny

    This report summarizes the state of knowledge about children and youth with disabilities at risk of delinquency or already involved with the juvenile justice system. It reviews the existing research as well as perspectives of service providers, administrators, policy makers, and advocates. Following an executive summary and introductory chapter,…

  20. Setting a minimum age for juvenile justice jurisdiction in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S Barnert, Elizabeth; S Abrams, Laura; Maxson, Cheryl; Gase, Lauren; Soung, Patricia; Carroll, Paul; Bath, Eraka

    2017-03-13

    Purpose Despite the existence of minimum age laws for juvenile justice jurisdiction in 18 US states, California has no explicit law that protects children (i.e. youth less than 12 years old) from being processed in the juvenile justice system. In the absence of a minimum age law, California lags behind other states and international practice and standards. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach In this policy brief, academics across the University of California campuses examine current evidence, theory, and policy related to the minimum age of juvenile justice jurisdiction. Findings Existing evidence suggests that children lack the cognitive maturity to comprehend or benefit from formal juvenile justice processing, and diverting children from the system altogether is likely to be more beneficial for the child and for public safety. Research limitations/implications Based on current evidence and theory, the authors argue that minimum age legislation that protects children from contact with the juvenile justice system and treats them as children in need of services and support, rather than as delinquents or criminals, is an important policy goal for California and for other national and international jurisdictions lacking a minimum age law. Originality/value California has no law specifying a minimum age for juvenile justice jurisdiction, meaning that young children of any age can be processed in the juvenile justice system. This policy brief provides a rationale for a minimum age law in California and other states and jurisdictions without one.

  1. Juvenile xanthogranuloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R; Ghazali, W

    1992-05-01

    Juvenile xanthogranuloma is a benign cutaneous growth presenting as papules or nodules. It is characterized by an intradermal collection of lipid-laden macrophages and varying degrees of fibroblastic proliferation. We have recently observed two patients with xanthogranulomas: one was found to have a papular type and the second patient had multiple nodular growths. We present these cases, which should be considered in the differential diagnosis of skin nodules.

  2. Ethnic differences in the effect of parenting on gang involvement and gang delinquency: a longitudinal, hierarchical linear modeling perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker-Barnes, C J; Mason, C A

    2001-01-01

    This study examined the relative influence of peer and parenting behavior on changes in adolescent gang involvement and gang-related delinquency. An ethnically diverse sample of 300 ninth-grade students was recruited and assessed on eight occasions during the school year. Analyses were conducted using hierarchical linear modeling. Results indicated that, in general, adolescents decreased their level of gang involvement over the course of the school year, whereas the average level of gang delinquency remained constant over time. As predicted, adolescent gang involvement and gang-related delinquency were most strongly predicted by peer gang involvement and peer gang delinquency, respectively. Nevertheless, parenting behavior continued to significantly predict change in both gang involvement and gang delinquency, even after controlling for peer behavior. A significant interaction between parenting and ethnic and cultural heritage found the effect of parenting to be particularly salient for Black students, for whom higher levels of behavioral control and lower levels of lax parental control were related to better behavioral outcomes over time, whereas higher levels of psychological control predicted worse behavioral outcomes.

  3. Dermatomiositis juvenil

    OpenAIRE

    Goldaracena, Pablo; Pérez, Federico

    2008-01-01

    La dermatomiositis juvenil (DMJ) es una enfermedad multi sistémica de etiología desconocida, caracterizada por una vasculitis que ocasiona una inflamación no supurativa del músculo estriado y lesiones cutáneas distintivas. La cobertura de los criterios de Bohan y Peter establece el diagnóstico: exantema patognomónico junto a debilidad muscular proximal simétrica, elevación sérica de enzimas musculares, s...

  4. A Randomized Evaluation of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care: Effects on School Attendance and Homework Completion in Juvenile Justice Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leve, Leslie D; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2007-11-01

    Despite growing evidence that child welfare youth are at increased risk for juvenile delinquency, little is known about gender-specific processes and effective treatment programs for girls. Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC), an empirically validated intervention for child welfare and juvenile justice populations, has demonstrated efficacy in reducing arrest rates in delinquent boys and girls. In this study, the efficacy of MTFC on school attendance and homework completion was examined in juvenile justice girls who were referred to out-of-home care (N = 81). Results from this randomized intervention trial suggest that MTFC was more effective than group care in increasing girls' school attendance and homework completion while in treatment and at 12 months postbaseline. In addition, the previously reported effect of MTFC on reducing girls' days in locked settings was mediated by homework completion while girls were enrolled in the intervention setting. Implications for policy and practice are described.

  5. Offense related characteristics and psychosexual development of juvenile sex offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Wijk Anton PH

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: This article reports on offense related characteristics and the psychosexual development in subgroups of juvenile sex offenders as measured by the Global Assessment Instrument for Juvenile Sex Offenders (GAIJSO. The predictive validity of these characteristics for persistent (sexual offensive behavior in subgroups of juvenile sex offenders was investigated. Methods: One hundred seventy four sex offenders (mean age 14.9 SD 1.4 referred by the police to the Dutch Child Protection Board were examined. Offense related characteristics were assessed by means of the GAIJSO and the BARO (a global assessment tool for juvenile delinquents, and criminal careers of the subjects were ascertained from official judicial records. Results: Serious need for comprehensive diagnostics were found on the domains sexual offense and psychosexual development in juvenile sex offenders, especially in the group of child molesters. These youngsters displayed more internalizing and (psychosexual developmental problems and their sexual offense was more alarming as compared to the other juvenile sex offender subgroups. Although one third of the juveniles had already committed one or more sex offenses prior to the index offense, at follow up (mean follow up period: 36 months SD 18 months almost no sexual recidivism was found (0.6% of the entire sample. However, a substantial proportion of the entire sample of juvenile sex offenders showed non-sexual (55.6% and violent recidivism (32.1%. Several predictors for a history of multiple sex offending and non-sexual recidivism were identified. Conclusion: This study revealed numerous problems in juvenile sex offenders. Assessment using the GAIJSO is helpful in order to identify indicators for extensive diagnostic assessment. In order to investigate the predictive validity for sexual reoffending a longer follow up period is necessary.

  6. Offense related characteristics and psychosexual development of juvenile sex offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart-Kerkhoffs, Lisette 't A; Doreleijers, Theo AH; Jansen, Lucres MC; van Wijk, Anton PH; Bullens, Ruud AR

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This article reports on offense related characteristics and the psychosexual development in subgroups of juvenile sex offenders as measured by the Global Assessment Instrument for Juvenile Sex Offenders (GAIJSO). The predictive validity of these characteristics for persistent (sexual) offensive behavior in subgroups of juvenile sex offenders was investigated. Methods: One hundred seventy four sex offenders (mean age 14.9 SD 1.4) referred by the police to the Dutch Child Protection Board were examined. Offense related characteristics were assessed by means of the GAIJSO and the BARO (a global assessment tool for juvenile delinquents), and criminal careers of the subjects were ascertained from official judicial records. Results: Serious need for comprehensive diagnostics were found on the domains sexual offense and psychosexual development in juvenile sex offenders, especially in the group of child molesters. These youngsters displayed more internalizing and (psychosexual) developmental problems and their sexual offense was more alarming as compared to the other juvenile sex offender subgroups. Although one third of the juveniles had already committed one or more sex offenses prior to the index offense, at follow up (mean follow up period: 36 months SD 18 months) almost no sexual recidivism was found (0.6% of the entire sample). However, a substantial proportion of the entire sample of juvenile sex offenders showed non-sexual (55.6%) and violent recidivism (32.1%). Several predictors for a history of multiple sex offending and non-sexual recidivism were identified. Conclusion: This study revealed numerous problems in juvenile sex offenders. Assessment using the GAIJSO is helpful in order to identify indicators for extensive diagnostic assessment. In order to investigate the predictive validity for sexual reoffending a longer follow up period is necessary. PMID:19594889

  7. The Spread of Substance Use and Delinquency between Adolescent Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Brett; Hartl, Amy C.; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Dionne, Ginette; Boivin, Michel

    2017-01-01

    This investigation examines the spread of problem behaviors (substance use and delinquency) between twin siblings. A sample of 628 twins (151 male twin pairs and 163 female twin pairs) drawn from the Quebec Newborn Twin Study completed inventories describing delinquency and substance use at ages 13, 14, and 15. A 3-wave longitudinal actor-partner…

  8. 19 CFR 142.26 - Delinquent payment of Customs bills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Delinquent payment of Customs bills. 142.26 Section 142.26 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Delinquent payment of Customs bills. The following procedures shall be followed if an importer...

  9. Resilience, Desistance and Delinquent Career of Adolescent Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Born, M.; Chevalier, V.; Humblet, I.

    1997-01-01

    Attempts to identify factors that predict persistent, decreased, or increased delinquency between early childhood and adolescence. Delinquent trajectories, resilience, the nature of the population, family background, and individual characteristics are discussed. Findings are organized by a model distinguishing between resilience and desistance.…

  10. DELINQUENCY AND THE STRUCTURE OF ADOLESCENT PEER GROUPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreager, Derek A; Rulison, Kelly; Moody, James

    2011-02-01

    Gangs and group-level processes were once central phenomena for criminological theory and research. By the mid-1970's, however, gang research was primarily displaced by studies of individual behavior using randomized self-report surveys, a shift that also removed groups from the theoretical foreground. In this project, we return to the group level to test competing theoretical claims about delinquent group structure. We use network-based clustering methods to identify 897 friendship groups in two ninth grade cohorts of 27 Pennsylvania and Iowa schools. We then relate group-level measures of delinquency and drinking to network measures of group size, friendship reciprocity, transitivity, structural cohesion, stability, average popularity, and network centrality. We find significant negative correlations between group delinquency and all of our network measures, suggesting that delinquent groups are less solidary and less central to school networks than non-delinquent groups. Further analyses, however, reveal that these correlations are primarily explained by other group characteristics, such as gender composition and socioeconomic status. Drinking behaviors, on the other hand, show net positive associations with most of the network measures, suggesting that drinking groups have higher status and are more internally cohesive than non-drinking groups. Our findings shed light on a longstanding criminological debate by suggesting that any structural differences between delinquent and non-delinquent groups may be attributable to other attributes coincidental with delinquency. In contrast, drinking groups appear to provide peer contexts of greater social capital and cohesion.

  11. Minor Delinquency and Immigration: A Longitudinal Study among Male Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titzmann, Peter F.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Mesch, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of general theories of delinquency and the specific situation of immigrants, this longitudinal study investigated predictors of initial levels and rates of change in delinquency among 188 male ethnic German Diaspora immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in Germany, 237 male native German adolescents, and 182 male Jewish…

  12. DELINQUENCY AND THE STRUCTURE OF ADOLESCENT PEER GROUPS*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreager, Derek A.; Rulison, Kelly; Moody, James

    2010-01-01

    Gangs and group-level processes were once central phenomena for criminological theory and research. By the mid-1970's, however, gang research was primarily displaced by studies of individual behavior using randomized self-report surveys, a shift that also removed groups from the theoretical foreground. In this project, we return to the group level to test competing theoretical claims about delinquent group structure. We use network-based clustering methods to identify 897 friendship groups in two ninth grade cohorts of 27 Pennsylvania and Iowa schools. We then relate group-level measures of delinquency and drinking to network measures of group size, friendship reciprocity, transitivity, structural cohesion, stability, average popularity, and network centrality. We find significant negative correlations between group delinquency and all of our network measures, suggesting that delinquent groups are less solidary and less central to school networks than non-delinquent groups. Further analyses, however, reveal that these correlations are primarily explained by other group characteristics, such as gender composition and socioeconomic status. Drinking behaviors, on the other hand, show net positive associations with most of the network measures, suggesting that drinking groups have higher status and are more internally cohesive than non-drinking groups. Our findings shed light on a longstanding criminological debate by suggesting that any structural differences between delinquent and non-delinquent groups may be attributable to other attributes coincidental with delinquency. In contrast, drinking groups appear to provide peer contexts of greater social capital and cohesion. PMID:21572969

  13. Understanding the school outcomes of juvenile offenders: an exploration of neighborhood influences and motivational resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, He Len; Mulvey, Edward P; Steinberg, Laurence

    2011-08-01

    As a group, delinquent youth complete less education and show poor academic outcomes compared to their non-delinquent peers. To better understand pathways to school success, this study integrated individual- and neighborhood-level data to examine academic functioning among 833 White, Black, and Hispanic male juvenile offenders (age 14-17) living in two urban communities. A multilevel path analysis confirmed that youth in relatively more affluent communities report greater access to opportunities in the areas of education and employment, and that these opportunities are associated with higher expectations to succeed and better grades. Findings highlight the importance of taking an ecological approach for understanding processes that shape school effort and achievement. Implications are discussed in the context of promoting academic success among juvenile offenders, specifically, and for understanding pathways to healthy adjustment, more generally.

  14. Understanding Adolescent Delinquency: The Role of Older Siblings' Delinquency and Popularity with Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craine, Jessica L.; Tanaka,Teri A.; Nishina, Adrienne; Conger, Katherine J.

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined delinquency concordance and the moderating effects of younger sibling perceptions of older sibling popularity in a sample of 587 adolescent sibling pairs. Using a social learning framework and taking dyad composition into account, perceptions of popularity were hypothesized to strengthen siblings' concordance for…

  15. Romantic Relationships and Delinquent Behaviour in Adolescence: The Moderating Role of Delinquency Propensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Jenny M.; Kerr, Margaret; Stattin, Hakan

    2010-01-01

    There is some evidence that adolescent romantic involvement is associated with delinquent behaviour. One aim of this longitudinal study was to determine whether this holds for romantic relationships deemed important by the participants. A second aim was to test whether this association was stronger for adolescents with pre-existing delinquent…

  16. Romantic Relationships and Delinquent Behaviour in Adolescence: The Moderating Role of Delinquency Propensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Jenny M.; Kerr, Margaret; Stattin, Hakan

    2010-01-01

    There is some evidence that adolescent romantic involvement is associated with delinquent behaviour. One aim of this longitudinal study was to determine whether this holds for romantic relationships deemed important by the participants. A second aim was to test whether this association was stronger for adolescents with pre-existing delinquent…

  17. POVERTY TRAPS, ECONOMIC INEQUALITY AN INCENTIVES FOR DELINQUENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Villa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores theoretical linkages between poverty traps, economic inequality and delinquency in a perfect competition overlapping generations model characterized by dual legal production sectors and one illegal sector. The model posits an absence of credit for human capital accumulation, which generates barriers to skilled educational attainment. We find that the existence of a poverty trap under conditions of sufficient initial economic inequality and costly indivisible human capital investment generates persistent delinquency in the long run. We examine steady state changes caused by shocks that increase skilled wages or reduce land assets available to the unskilled, finding that these shocks produce outbursts of delinquency that die out later if the shocks are temporary but increases permanently otherwise. We also find that an increase on relative poverty has an ambiguous effect on long run delinquency rates while an increased focus on law enforcement policies, intended to increase deterrence and incapacitation, reduces delinquency in the long run and increases wealth inequality.

  18. African American teens and the neo-juvenile justice system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozie-Battle, Judith L

    2002-01-01

    African American youth continue to be overrepresented in the juvenile justice system. As a result of the current political environment and the perceived increase in crime among young people, the nation has moved away from rehabilitation and toward harsher treatment of delinquents. The African American community must encourage policy makers and community leaders to continue to address the disproportionate representation of African American youth in the system. Current policing and prosecutorial policies must also be examined and challenged to end the perception of an unjust system.

  19. Adolescent Violence, Social Control, and the Subculture of Delinquency: Factors Related to Violent Behavior and Nonviolent Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernburg, Jon Gunnar; Thorlindsson, Thorolfur

    1999-01-01

    Examines whether violence, rather than being an isolated subculture in itself, is part of a general subculture of delinquency. Data from 3,819 Icelandic high school students support the notion that violence is part of a general subculture of delinquency. (SLD)

  20. Growing up with adversity: From juvenile justice involvement to criminal persistence and psychosocial problems in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basto-Pereira, Miguel; Miranda, Ana; Ribeiro, Sofia; Maia, Ângela

    2016-12-01

    Several studies have been carried out to investigate the effect of child maltreatment on juvenile justice involvement and future criminal life. However, little is known about the impact of other forms of adversity, beyond abuse and neglect, on juvenile delinquency and criminal persistence. The effect of early adversity on psychosocial problems is underexplored, particularly in juvenile delinquents. This study, using the Childhood Adverse Experiences (ACE) questionnaire, a tool accessing the exposure to different types of abuse, neglect and serious household dysfunction, explored the role of each adverse experience on juvenile justice involvement, persistence in crime and psychosocial problems during young adulthood. A Portuguese sample of 75 young adults with official records of juvenile delinquency in 2010/2011, and 240 young adults from a community sample completed ACE questionnaire and measures of psychosocial adjustment. Seven out of ten adverse experiences were significantly more prevalent in young adults with juvenile justice involvement than in the community sample, after matching the main demographic variables. The strongest predictor of juvenile justice involvement and criminal persistence during early adulthood was sexual abuse. Dimensions of child/adolescent emotional maltreatment and a mental illness in the household predicted a set of psychosocial problems in young adulthood. This study indicates that early adversity is significantly related to juvenile justice involvement, criminal persistence and psychosocial problems. This study also suggests that each experience has a different role in this process. There is an urgent need to screen, prevent and stop serious adversity. Future scientific directions and recommendations for policies are provided. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Fish remains and humankind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K G Jones

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available The four papers in this issue represent a trawl of the reports presented to the Fourth meeting of the International Council for Archaeozoology (ICAZ Fish Remains Working Group, which met at the University of York in 1987. The conference discussed material from many parts of the world - from Australasia to the north-west coast of America - and many eras, ranging in date from the early Pleistocene to the 1980s. It demonstrated both the variety of work being carried out and the growing interest in ancient fish remains. Internet Archaeology plans to publish other batches of papers from this conference. These reports will demonstrate the effort being made to distinguish between assemblages of fish remains which have been deposited by people and those which occur in ancient deposits as a result of the action of other agents. To investigate this area, experiments with modern material and observations of naturally occurring fish bone assemblages are supplemented with detailed analysis of ancient and modern fish remains. The papers published here illustrate the breadth of research into osteology, biogeography, documentary research, and the practicalities of recovering fish remains. Read, digest and enjoy them! Using the Internet for publishing research papers is not only ecologically sound (saving paper, etc. it disseminates scholarship to anyone anywhere on the planet with access to what is gradually becoming necessary technology in the late 20th century. Hopefully, future groups of papers will include video and audio material recorded at the conference, and so enable those who could not attend to gain further insights into the meeting and the scholarship underpinning this area of research.

  2. On China's Protection of Delinquent Minors' Rights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN JIA; LIU TONGQIANG

    2012-01-01

    At the end of June 2011,China had 29 reformatories for delinquent minors,where 17,149 convicts aged 18 or younger were serving their terms.These facilities have persistently followed the policy of "combining punishment with redemption,with redemption taken as the main objective" as well as a policy that calls for the integration of "education,persuasion and redemption." Good results have been achieved thanks to implementation of these policies,especially since the People's Republic of China Law on the Protection of Minors was promulgated in September 1991.

  3. [PALEOPATHOLOGY OF HUMAN REMAINS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minozzi, Simona; Fornaciari, Gino

    2015-01-01

    Many diseases induce alterations in the human skeleton, leaving traces of their presence in ancient remains. Paleopathological examination of human remains not only allows the study of the history and evolution of the disease, but also the reconstruction of health conditions in the past populations. This paper describes the most interesting diseases observed in skeletal samples from the Roman Imperial Age necropoles found in urban and suburban areas of Rome during archaeological excavations in the last decades. The diseases observed were grouped into the following categories: articular diseases, traumas, infections, metabolic or nutritional diseases, congenital diseases and tumours, and some examples are reported for each group. Although extensive epidemiological investigation in ancient skeletal records is impossible, the palaeopathological study allowed to highlight the spread of numerous illnesses, many of which can be related to the life and health conditions of the Roman population.

  4. The educational aspects of photographic workshop in opinion of juvenile participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Kupiec

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article concerns meaning of efficiency of methods in resocialization. The application new methods and theoretical conception in practices is important issue for developing both theory and practices. The article shows goals, organizational foundation, course and conditions of realization photographical workshop with participation of students and delinquency youth from Juvenile Detention Center. In the second part of article there are results of evaluation research which shows that in juvenile opinion this kind of creative resocialization method, despite declare by them difficulties, is very attractive and stimulate their development. Described method is also effective and expected way of developing professional qualifications for students of resocialization pedagogics.

  5. Análisis socio-jurídico del sistema de responsabilidad penal juvenil

    OpenAIRE

    Botero Bernal, Andrés; Muñoz Gaviria, Diego Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    This article will analize the socio-juridical bases and consequences to the systems of juvenile penal responsibility which turns greatly important in Colombia, for the urgency to modify such a system has been in discussion since a while back. The lack to specialized literature has brought forth all types of judgments into various directions which has left nothing good as far as juvenile responsibility is concerned, in a country where the situation of delinquency amongst minors is becoming a m...

  6. Examining the Influence of Ethnic/Racial Socialization on Aggressive Behaviors Among Juvenile Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapolski, Tamika C B; Garcia, Crystal A; Jarjoura, G Roger; Lau, Katherine S L; Aalsma, Matthew C

    2016-01-01

    Risk assessment instruments are commonly used within the juvenile justice system to estimate a juvenile's likelihood of reoffending or engaging in aggressive or violent behavior. Although such instruments assess a broad range of factors, the influence of culture is often excluded. The current study examines the unique effect of ethnic/racial socialization on recent aggressive behaviors above and beyond three well-established risk and protective factors: delinquency history, moral disengagement, and social support. Participants were 95 juveniles who were either on probation or in detention centers in three Midwestern counties and who completed structured surveys related to personal experiences within and outside of the juvenile justice system. The findings provided partial support for our hypotheses: Consistent with previous findings, delinquency history and moral disengagement were significant predictors of recent aggressive behavior. Furthermore, when ethnic/racial socialization was added to the model, promotion of mistrust provided additional predictive validity for aggressive behavior above and beyond the other factors assessed. Based on these findings, the inclusion of education on culture may prove to be an important supplement to established intervention tools for juvenile offenders.

  7. Psychological characteristics of juvenile offenders with constant integration problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Démuthová Slávka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify the typical psychological, demographic, socio-economical, educational, health, and criminological characteristics of juvenile delinquents who tend to continue in their criminal career to adulthood and therefore obstruct the possibility of successful, non-offending integration to society. Subjects of research were young male prisoners jailed in the Juvenile imprisonment house that completed the test battery. By ex-post analysis after a period of five years, the differences between offenders and non-offenders were identified. Results show significant differences in the age of prisoners, length of imprisonment, presence of violent offence (esp. robbery in the criminal history, number of previous offences recorded, differences in factors i, h, and q1 from the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire, responses within the Hand test characteristic (affection, dependence, and communication, and in several signs of the drawings in a Draw-A-Person test. The importance and influence of listed factors is discussed.

  8. Pregnancy Rates Among Juvenile Justice Girls in Two RCTs of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, David C. R.; Leve, Leslie D.; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Preventing adolescent pregnancy is a national research priority that has had limited success. The present study examined whether Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC) relative to intervention services as usual (group care [GC]) decreased pregnancy rates among juvenile justice girls mandated to out-of-home care. Girls (ages 13–17) with histories of criminal referrals (Mdn = 10) were randomly assigned to MTFC (n = 81) or GC (n = 85) as part of two randomized controlled trials. Pregnancy histories were assessed from baseline through 24 months. Fewer postbaseline pregnancies were reported for MTFC girls (26.9%) than for GC girls (46.9%), an effect that remained significant after controlling for baseline criminal referrals, pregnancy history, and sexual activity. MTFC has previously been shown to decrease arrest and lock-up rates. The present findings support the long-term preventive effects of MTFC on adolescent girls’ pregnancy rates. Findings are consistent with the notion that programs that target delinquency by impacting general risk behavior pathways and contexts may more successfully prevent teen pregnancy than those that directly target sexual behaviors. PMID:19485598

  9. Problem Gambling Among Ontario Students: Associations with Substance Abuse, Mental Health Problems, Suicide Attempts, and Delinquent Behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Steven; Turner, Nigel E; Ballon, Bruce; Paglia-Boak, Angela; Murray, Robert; Adlaf, Edward M; Ilie, Gabriela; den Dunnen, Wendy; Mann, Robert E

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes gambling problems among Ontario students in 2009 and examines the relationship between gambling problems and substance use problems, mental health problem indicators, and delinquent behaviors. Data were derived from the Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey of Ontario students in grades 7-12. Gambling problems were measured as 2 or more of 6 indicators of problem gambling. In total 2.8% of the students surveyed endorsed two or more of the problem gambling items. The odds of problem gamblers reporting mental distress was 4.2 times higher than the rest of the sample and the odds of problem gamblers reporting a suicide attempt were 17.8 times greater than the rest of the sample. In addition compared to the rest of the students, delinquent behaviors were also more common among problem gamblers, including theft (OR = 14.5), selling marijuana (OR = 19.6), gang fights (OR = 11.3) and carrying a handgun (OR = 11.2). In a multivariate analysis, substance-use problems, mental health problems, and the participation in a variety of delinquent behaviors remained significantly associated with youth problem gambling behavior. Students who report problem gambling behaviors show increased substance abuse, mental health, and delinquency/criminal problems that are similar to those seen among adult problem gamblers. The association between these problems suggests that these problems could be addressed in a unified manner.

  10. Are girls really becoming more delinquent? Testing the gender convergence hypothesis by race and ethnicity, 1976-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodkind, Sara; Wallace, John M; Shook, Jeffrey J; Bachman, Jerald; O'Malley, Patrick

    2009-08-01

    Historically, girls have been less delinquent than boys. However, increased justice system involvement among girls and current portrayals of girls in the popular media and press suggest that girls' delinquency, particularly their violence and drug use, is becoming more similar to that of boys. Are girls really becoming more delinquent? To date, this question remains unresolved. Girls' increased system involvement might reflect actual changes in their behavior or changes in justice system policies and practices. Given that girls of color are overrepresented in the justice system, efforts to rigorously examine the gender convergence hypothesis must consider the role of race/ethnicity in girls' delinquency. This study uses self-report data from a large, nationally representative sample of youth to investigate the extent to which the magnitude of gender differences in violence and substance use varies across racial/ethnic groups and explore whether these differences have decreased over time. We find little support for the gender convergence hypothesis, because, with a few exceptions, the data do not show increases in girls' violence or drug use. Furthermore, even when girls' violent behavior or drug use has increased, the magnitude of the increase is not substantial enough to account for the dramatic increases in girls' arrests for violence and drug abuse violations.

  11. What Is Juvenile Arthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Analgesics for Osteoarthritis (Report from AHRQ) Joint Replacement Surgery: Health Information Basics for You and Your Family NIH Pediatric Rheumatology Clinic Health Information Juvenile Arthritis Find a Clinical Trial Journal Articles Juvenile Arthritis PDF Version Size: 123 KB ...

  12. Juvenile arthritis and uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanski, J J

    1990-01-01

    The association between juvenile arthritis and uveitis is reviewed. Some children with the HLA-B27 related spondyloarthropathies develop anterior uveitis. About 20% of patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) who are negative for IgM rheumatoid factor develop a frequently bilateral, nongranulomatous chronic anterior uveitis. Risk factors for uveitis in JRA patients are: female gender, pauciarticular onset of arthritis, presence of circulating antinuclear antibodies, and the antigens HLA-DW5 and HLA-DPw2. Uveitis is rare after seven years or more have elapsed from the onset of arthritis. The visual prognosis in patients with uveitis is good in 25% and fair in 50%. The remaining 25% develop visual impairment from complicated cataract and/or secondary inflammatory glaucoma. The potential benefit of cytotoxic agents in the treatment of intractable uveitis is outweighed by the risk of serious side effects. The management of secondary inflammatory glaucoma is unsatisfactory, but the results of treatment of complicated cataracts by lensectomy-vitrectomy are good.

  13. Aggressive juvenile mandibular fibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Georgi P; Atanasov, Dimitar T; Anavi, Beniamin L

    2013-01-01

    Aggressive juvenile fibromatosis of the jawbones is a rare tumor presenting as infiltrative mass with unpredictable evolution. We report herein a 17-year-old student with a 6-month history of radiologically proven resorption of a part of the mandible, lingual displacement of tooth 34 and malocclusion. Alveolar ridge resorption and three dark-brown foci in the bone were seen after the tooth was extracted. Histological study showed the tumor tissue to have a bundle-like structure; immunohistochemically it was positive for vimentin, smooth muscle actin, beta-catenin, Ki-67 (5%), and negative for desmin and cytokeratin 34bE12. The golden standard in the diagnostics of desmoid fibromatoses is the nuclear or membrane expression of beta-catenin, which is found in 90% of the cases. Differential diagnosis include mandibular fibroma, well-differentiated fibrosarcoma, fibrosing histiocytoma, and infiltration from adjacent soft-tissue tumor. Aggressive juvenile fibromatosis should be managed by radical excision. Local recurrences are not rare, but metastases do not develop. In rare cases this type of fibromatosis has been known to regress spontaneously. Aggressive fibromatosis is a diagnostic challenge, since it remains in the grey zone between benign and malignant lesions of the oral cavity.

  14. Juvenile Arrests, 2007. Juvenile Justice Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puzzanchera, Charles

    2009-01-01

    This Bulletin summarizes 2007 juvenile crime and arrest data reported by local law enforcement agencies across the country and cited in the FBI report, "Crime in the United States 2007." The Bulletin describes the extent and nature of juvenile crime that comes to the attention of the justice system. It serves as a baseline for comparison for…

  15. Delinquency: the learning disabled students reaction to academic school failure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, C G

    1988-01-01

    Support for the relationship between academic performance and delinquency is offered. Additionally a review is provided describing the learning disabled male adolescent as the target population for experimental research.

  16. Juvenile polyposis syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.A.A. Brosens; D. Langeveld; W.A. van Hattem; F.M. Giardiello; G.J.A. Offerhaus

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile polyposis syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by multiple distinct juvenile polyps in the gastrointestinal tract and an increased risk of colorectal cancer. The cumulative life-time risk of colorectal cancer is 39% and the relative risk is 34. Juvenile polyps have a

  17. The relationship between parenting and delinquency: A meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hoeve, M.; Dubas, J.S.; Eichelsheim, V.I.; Laan, van der, Paul Maarten; Smeenk, W.; Gerris, J.R.M.

    2009-01-01

    This meta-analysis of 161 published and unpublished manuscripts was conducted to determine whether the association between parenting and delinquency exists and what the magnitude of this linkage is. The strongest links were found for parental monitoring, psychological control, and negative aspects of support such as rejection and hostility, accounting for up to 11% of the variance in delinquency. Several effect sizes were moderated by parent and child gender, child age, informant on parenting...

  18. EARLY LIFE RISKS, ANTISOCIAL TENDENCIES, AND PRETEEN DELINQUENCY*

    OpenAIRE

    Staff, Jeremy; Whichard, Corey; Siennick, Sonja; Maggs, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Early age-of-onset delinquency and substance use confer a major risk for continued criminality, alcohol and drug abuse, and other serious difficulties throughout the life course. Our objective is to examine the developmental roots of preteen delinquency and substance use. Using nationally representative longitudinal data from the UK Millennium Cohort Study (n = 13,221), we examine the influence of early childhood developmental and family risks on latent pathways of antisocial tendencies from ...

  19. Social Class, Family Formation, and Delinquency in Early Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhl, Danielle C.; Chavez, Jorge M.; Swisher, Raymond R.; Wilczak, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Recent research suggests increasing heterogeneity in the transition from adolescence to early adulthood. This study considers how this heterogeneity may influence delinquency between these two developmental periods. We focus on the role of family transitions, educational attainment, and employment in predicting risk of nonviolent delinquency and substance use, as well as disparities in transitions across socioeconomic status subgroups. Data are from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolesce...

  20. Criteria for evaluating response and outcome in clinical trials for children with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. Niemeyer (Charlotte); M.L. Loh (Mignon); A. Cseh (Annamaria); T. Cooper (Todd); J. Dvorak (Jennie); R. Chan (Rebecca); B. Xicoy (Blanca); U. Germing (Ulrich); S. Kojima (Seiji); A. Manabe (Atsushi); M.N. Dworzak (Michael); B. de Moerloose (Barbara); J. Starý (Jan); O.P. Smith (Owen Patrick); R. Masetti (Riccardo); F. Catala; E. Bergstraesser (Eva); M. Ussowicz (Marek); O. Fabri (Oskana); A. Baruchel (André); H. Cavé (Helene); C.M. Zwaan (Christian Michel); F. Locatelli (Franco); H. Hasle (Henrik); M.M. van den Heuvel-Eibrink (Marry); C. Flotho (Christian); A. Yoshimi (Ayami)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractJuvenile myelomonocytic leukemia is a rare myeloproliferative disease in young children. While hematopoietic stem cell transplantation remains the only curative therapeutic option for most patients, children with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia increasingly receive novel agents in phase

  1. Uveitis in juvenile chronic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanski, J J

    1990-01-01

    About 20% of patients with juvenile chronic arthritis develop uveitis which is frequently bilateral. Risk factors for uveitis are: female gender, pauciarticular onset of arthritis, presence of circulating antinuclear antibodies, and the antigens HLA-DW5 and HLA-DPw2. The visual prognosis in patients with uveitis is good in 25% and fair in 50%. The remaining 25% develop cataract and/or glaucoma. The management of glaucoma is unsatisfactory, but the results of cataract surgery by lensectomy are good.

  2. Juveniles on trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Kathleen M

    2002-10-01

    This article describes common forensic evaluations requested of juvenile court mental health evaluators. There has been a legal shift toward criminalization of juvenile court, with a greater emphasis on rights, abandonment of the rehabilitative model, and greater movement of adolescents into the adult criminal court. A resulting shift has been the redefinition of juvenile court forensic evaluations toward the specificity of adult forensic work. The challenge for evaluators is to refine their knowledge of the forensic standards and bring knowledge of development, assessment, and diagnosis in juveniles and interview techniques appropriate to juveniles to improve the evaluation and forensic reports.

  3. OS CAMINHOS DE ALICE DO OUTRO LADO DO ESPELHO: DISCURSOS E PERCURSOS NA DELINQUÊNCIA JUVENIL FEMININA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Monica Duarte

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Em resposta ao predomínio masculino nos estudos sobre delinquência juvenil, esta comunicação pretende explorar uma das suas faces invisíveis, aquela que é praticada por raparigas. Discutindo e criticando a construção de uma “história única” sobre a delinquência juvenil feminina, apresentam-se resultados de uma pesquisa qualitativa, realizada no âmbito do meu doutoramento, sobre experiências e significados da transgressão nos percursos de vida de raparigas em cumprimento de medidas tutelares educativas. A elaboração de retratos sociológicos, a partir da análise dos processos individuais e das entrevistas realizadas, permitiu explorar os discursos dominantes em relação à transgressão e traçar perfis de percursos transgressivos, que (recolocam as jovens como sujeitos sociais.

  4. Do Adolescents Engage in Delinquency to Attract the Social Attention of Peers? An Extension and Longitudinal Test of the Social Reinforcement Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebellon, Cesar J.

    2006-01-01

    Although social-learning theory remains among the dominant perspectives in micro-level research concerning the causes of delinquency, research has yet to provide an adequate test of its social-reinforcement component using the methods required by the logic of operant psychology. The present article discusses the limits of existing attempts to test…

  5. The Juvenile Rehabilitation Reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Peter W., Ed.; And Others

    This document contains several essays on topics of interest to researchers of rehabilitative efforts. The subjects covered include an historical look at chronic delinquents and their treatment programs; a review of West European programs; legal constraints on intervention; a review of evidence concerning biological contributions to criminality and…

  6. Juvenile polyposis syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lodewijk AA Brosens; Danielle Langeveld; W Arnout van Hattem; Francis M Giardiello; G Johan A Offerhaus

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile polyposis syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by multiple distinct juvenile polyps in the gastrointestinal tract and an increased risk of colorectal cancer.The cumulative life-time risk of colorectal cancer is 39% and the relative risk is 34.Juvenile polyps have a distinctive histology characterized by an abundance of edematous lamina propria with inflammatory cells and cystically dilated glands lined by cuboidal to columnar epithelium with reactive changes.Clinically, juvenile polyposis syndrome is defined by the presence of 5 or more juvenile polyps in the colorectum,juvenile polyps throughout the gastrointestinal tract or any number of juvenile polyps and a positive family history of juvenile polyposis.In about 50%-60% of patients diagnosed with juvenile polyposis syndrome a germline mutation in the SMAD4 or BMPR1A gene is found.Both genes play a role in the BMP/TGF-beta signalling pathway.It has been suggested that cancer in juvenile polyposis may develop through the so-alled "landscaper mechanism" where an abnormal stromal environment leads to neoplastic transformation of the adjacent epithelium and in the end invasive carcinoma.Recognition of this rare disorder is important for patients and their families with regard to treatment,follow-up and screening of at risk individuals.Each clinician confronted with the diagnosis of a juvenile polyp should therefore consider the possibility of juvenile polyposis syndrome.In addition, juvenile polyposis syndrome provides a unique model to study colorectal cancer pathogenesis in general and gives insight in the molecular genetic basis of cancer. This review discusses clinical manifestations, genetics, pathogenesis and management of juvenile polyposis syndrome.

  7. [Legal probation of juvenile offenders after release from penal reformative training].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbaniok, Frank; Rossegger, Astrid; Fegert, Jörg; Rubertus, Michael; Endrass, Jérôme

    2007-01-01

    Over recent years, there has been an increase in adolescent delinquency in Germany and Switzerland. In this context, the episodic character of the majority of adolescent delinquency is usually pointed out; however, numerous studies show high re-offending rates for released adolescents. The goal of this study is to examine the legal probation of juvenile delinquents after release from penal reformative training. In this study, the legal probation of adolescents committed to the AEA Uitikon, in the Canton of Zurich, between 1974 and 1986 was scrutinized by examining extracts from their criminal record as of 2003. The period of catamnesis was thus between 17 and 29 years. Overall, 71% of offenders reoffended, 29% with a violent or sexual offence. Bivariate logistic regression showed that the kind of offence committed had no influence on the probability of recidivism. If commitment to the AEA was due to a single offence (as opposed to serial offences), the risk of recidivism was reduced by 71% (OR=0.29). The results of the study show that young delinquents sentenced and committed to penal reformative training have a high recidivism risk. Furthermore, the results point out the importance of the evaluation of the offense-preventive efficacy of penal measures.

  8. Delinquency in Adolescent Girls: Using a Confluence Approach to Understand the Influences of Parents and Peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneberger, Angela K; Tolan, Patrick H; Hipwell, Alison E; Keenan, Kate

    2014-11-01

    Determining the interdependence of family and peer influences on the development of delinquency is critical to defining and implementing effective interventions. This study explored the longitudinal relationship among harsh punishment, positive parenting, peer delinquency, and adolescent delinquency using data from a sub-sample of the Pittsburgh Girls Study. Participants were 622 adolescent girls (42% European American, 53% African American); families living in low-income neighborhoods were oversampled. After controlling for the effects of race, living in a single parent household, and receipt of public assistance, harsh punishment and peer delinquency in early adolescence were positively related to delinquency in mid-adolescence. No significant main effects of positive parenting or interaction effects between parenting and peer delinquency were observed. Thus, the effects of harsh parenting and peer delinquency are independent and perhaps additive, rather than interdependent. Results indicate the continued importance of targeting both parenting and peer relationships to prevent delinquency in adolescent girls.

  9. Suicidal Ideation and Behavior in Youth in the Juvenile Justice System: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Marquita L; McCoy, Kathleen P; Abram, Karen M; Byck, Gayle R; Teplin, Linda A

    2015-07-01

    Suicide is prevalent among youth, especially those involved in the juvenile justice system. Although many studies have examined suicidal ideation and behavior in delinquent youth, prevalence rates vary widely. This article reviews studies of suicidal ideation and behavior in youth in the juvenile justice system, focusing on the point of contact: incarceration status and stage of judicial processing. Suicidal ideation and behavior are prevalent and increase with greater involvement in the juvenile justice system. Depression, sexual abuse, and trauma were the most commonly identified predictors of suicidal ideation and behavior. Prevalence rates of suicidal ideation and behavior vary by gender and race/ethnicity, indicating the need for gender-specific and culturally relevant interventions.

  10. Cognitive and academic functioning of juvenile detainees: Implications for correctional populations and public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansing, Amy E.; Washburn, Jason J.; Abram, Karen M.; Thomas, Ursula C.; Welty, Leah J.; Teplin, Linda A.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive functioning affects health. This study assessed cognitive functioning among participants in the Northwestern Juvenile Project, a stratified random sample of 1,829 newly detained juveniles (10-18 years old) from Cook County, Illinois. We examined receptive vocabulary, oral reading, arithmetic computation skills, and general intellectual abilities. Our sample exhibited impaired overall intellectual functioning and deficits in all areas. Males performed more poorly than females overall. More than three-quarters of males showed below average overall intellectual functioning, and nine in ten males had below average receptive vocabulary skills. Hispanic and African American males performed more poorly than non-Hispanic white males; The multiple systems that serve delinquent youth—correctional, health, legal, and rehabilitative—must collaborate to tailor needed services to the cognitive level of youth in the juvenile justice system. PMID:24352405

  11. Cognitive and academic functioning of juvenile detainees: implications for correctional populations and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansing, Amy E; Washburn, Jason J; Abram, Karen M; Thomas, Ursula C; Welty, Leah J; Teplin, Linda A

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive functioning affects health. This study assessed cognitive functioning among participants in the Northwestern Juvenile Project, a stratified random sample of 1,829 newly detained juveniles (10 to 18 years old) from Cook County, Illinois. The study examined receptive vocabulary, oral reading, arithmetic computation skills, and general intellectual abilities. The sample exhibited impaired overall intellectual functioning and deficits in all areas. Males performed more poorly than females. More than three quarters of males showed below average overall intellectual functioning, and 9 in 10 had below average receptive vocabulary skills. Hispanic and African American males performed more poorly than non-Hispanic White males. The multiple systems that serve delinquent youth--correctional, health, legal, and rehabilitative--must collaborate to tailor needed services to the cognitive level of youth in the juvenile justice system.

  12. Are Teen Delinquency Abstainers Social Introverts?: A Test of Moffitt's Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaojin; Adams, Michele

    2010-01-01

    Prior research has identified a small group of adolescents who completely refrain from delinquent behavior. Researchers have hypothesized that these adolescents may be excluded from normative peer activities and are thus insulated from delinquent peer role models. A central argument in Moffitt's account of delinquency abstention, for example, is…

  13. Are Teen Delinquency Abstainers Social Introverts?: A Test of Moffitt's Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaojin; Adams, Michele

    2010-01-01

    Prior research has identified a small group of adolescents who completely refrain from delinquent behavior. Researchers have hypothesized that these adolescents may be excluded from normative peer activities and are thus insulated from delinquent peer role models. A central argument in Moffitt's account of delinquency abstention, for example, is…

  14. Male and Female Delinquency Trajectories from Pre through Middle Adolescence and Their Continuation in Late Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsheer, Johannes A.; van Dijkum, C.

    2005-01-01

    This study of male and female adolescent delinquency trajectories focuses on the prediction of late adolescence delinquency, based on earlier delinquency and social support. In this 3-wave longitudinal survey, 270 Dutch adolescents (113 males and 157 females) ages 12 to 14, were followed for a period of 6 years. For males, the level of delinquent…

  15. 49 CFR 22.15 - Delinquency on Federal, State, or Municipality Debt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Delinquency on Federal, State, or Municipality... PROGRAM (STLP) Policies Applying to STLP Loans § 22.15 Delinquency on Federal, State, or Municipality Debt. (a) The borrower must not be delinquent on any Federal, State, or municipality debt, including...

  16. The family of a delinquent child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kvetenska D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The issues of violence and aggression are discussed very often in contemporary society. According to some surmises, the amount of violence in our society increases, threatening mainly the children, who become either victims or offenders. Therefore, possible influence on aggression and violence among children is also a focus of discussions. One of the influences is the education in families. The fundamental question is – what is family's influence on the aggressive or violent behaviour of children? This article concentrates on violent criminal activity of children in the Czech Republic. It defines the basic terms related to violent criminal activity and it presents the analysis of statistical data concerning criminal activity of children guilty of an act of violence. It is concerned with the search for common features of families of children who have committed a serious violent crime. It defines the criteria for comparing the families, education and personal characteristics of the delinquent children. Furthermore, there is an analysis of selected case studies from the last five years. The article focuses on the possibilities of work with the families involved.

  17. Family and Community Perceptions of Quality in Juvenile Justice Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selber, Katherine; Streeter, Calvin

    2004-01-01

    The conceptualization and empirical assessment of service quality in juvenile justice remains limited. There are few reports on programmatic attempts to assess satisfaction in juvenile justice programs or attempts to include what constitutes quality of service from multiple customer perspectives. This article describes a potential model, the Gap…

  18. Practitioner Views of Priorities, Policies, and Practices in Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mears, Daniel P.; Shollenberger, Tracey L.; Willison, Janeen B.; Owens, Colleen E.; Butts, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    Dramatic changes in juvenile justice have occurred in recent decades. One result has been the emergence of new policies and practices, many of which remain largely unexamined. One avenue for gaining insight into whether such policies and practices are needed or effective, as well as into how the juvenile justice system might be improved, is to tap…

  19. Martial arts participation and externalizing behavior in juveniles : A meta-analytic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubbels, J.; van der Stouwe, T.; Spruit, A.; Stams, G.J.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Martial arts are very popular among juveniles all over the world, but the relation between martial arts and externalizing behavior in juveniles remains unclear. The current multilevel meta-analysis of 12 studies, including 94 effect sizes and N = 5949 juveniles, was conducted to examine the relation

  20. Martial arts participation and externalizing behavior in juveniles : A meta-analytic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubbels, J.; van der Stouwe, T.; Spruit, A.; Stams, G.J.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Martial arts are very popular among juveniles all over the world, but the relation between martial arts and externalizing behavior in juveniles remains unclear. The current multilevel meta-analysis of 12 studies, including 94 effect sizes and N = 5949 juveniles, was conducted to examine the relation

  1. Spatial Analysis of Urban Delinquency in 22 Regions of Tehran Megapolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shamai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionSpatial analysis of urban delinquency at the level of regions and providing security is one of the basic factors in optimum urban management. Spatial analysis of urban delinquency and interpretation of its distribution in different locations make it possible to organize and manage spaces. Tehran megalopolis, with 22 municipality regions had the highest rate urban delinquency in Iran in recent years. Preliminary study of documents at the department of social issues, located at police organization show that data related to urban delinquency are collected for each year. Data reflects this fact that one of the most important social and security problems in Tehran are the high number of delinquency and crime. On the basis of daily police report, about 15 to 20 house thefts occur in Tehran. This problem leads to devoting considerable amounts of budget and human resources to control and to provide security. Also, the problem of crime, individual and group fights, theft, stealing from pockets, car and motor cycle theft, social corruption specially, rape, drug and alcoholic beverages sales are the most important among urban delinquencies. Some of these problems are very important for police force, considering the political- security, social and cultural dimensions. Therefore, it is necessary to study and analyze the distribution of delinquency and its types in different regions of Tehran city. It can be considered as the first step to prevent and control urban delinquency. Therefore, these questions were answered in this research:1-How is the distribution of delinquencies in 22 municipality regions of Tehran city?2-How are the reciprocal relationships of the urban delinquencies in these 22 regions?3-What are the relations between distributions of urban delinquencies with population density in these 22 regions?To confront the problem, considering the literature review, urban delinquencies were analyzed at two spatial levels: 1- Micro

  2. Anger and self-reported delinquency in university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire A. J. Bloxsom

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The association between anger and criminal, particularly violent, behaviour is firmly established in the literature. However, most of the extant research has been conducted with clinical and legally sanctioned forensic populations. The present study sought to examine anger in a non forensic population using a self-report measure of delinquency. The Novaco Anger Scale and Provocation Inventory (NAS-PI; Novaco, 2003 and the Self-Report Delinquency Questionnaire (Elliot & Ageton, 1980 were completed by male and female university students. The total anger score was associated with overall delinquency and specifically with crimes against the person and against property. Males reported higher levels of anger and a greater involvement in criminal acts. The practical implications of the findings within a legal context are discussed.

  3. Pals, problems, and personality: the moderating role of personality in the longitudinal association between adolescents' and best friends' delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rongqin; Branje, Susan; Keijsers, Loes; Koot, Hans M; Meeus, Wim

    2013-10-01

    We examined the potential moderating role of Block's personality types (i.e., overcontrollers, undercontrollers, and resilients) on the longitudinal associations between adolescents' and their best friends' delinquency. Across three annual waves, 497 Dutch adolescents (283 boys, M(Age) = 13 years at Wave 1) and their best friends reported on their delinquent behaviors. Adolescents' three personality types were obtained by latent class growth analysis on their annual reports on Big Five personality. A three-group cross-lagged panel analysis was performed on three waves of data. Delinquency of overcontrollers was predicted by their best friends' delinquency, whereas delinquency of undercontrollers and resilients was not. Delinquency of undercontrollers and resilients predicted their best friends' delinquency, but overcontrollers' delinquency did not. These findings suggest that personality may play an important role in adolescents' susceptibility to the influence of friends' delinquency, as well as in youths' ability to influence friends through their own delinquency.

  4. Juvenile giant fibroadenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipul Yagnik

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Fibroadenomas are benign solid tumor associated with aberration of normal lobular development. Juvenile giant fibroadenoma is usually single and >5 cm in size /or >500 gms in weight. Important differential diagnoses are: phyllodes tumor and juvenile gigantomastia. Simple excision is the treatment of choice.

  5. Renewing Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macallair, Daniel; Males, Mike; Enty, Dinky Manek; Vinakor, Natasha

    2011-01-01

    The Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice (CJCJ) was commissioned by Sierra Health Foundation to critically examine California's juvenile justice system and consider the potential role of foundations in promoting systemic reform. The information gathered by CJCJ researchers for this report suggests that foundations can perform a key leadership…

  6. Philanthropist in Juvenile Reformatory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN NIU

    2007-01-01

    @@ On the afternoon of February 1, 2007, Chen Guangbiao, a noted philanthropist, found himself in the Jiangsu Provincial Juvenile Reformatory in Jurong City for a ceremony to donate two buses, 100 computers, and 100 desks and 100 chairs for the juvenile offenders to use in their study.

  7. Juvenile Confinement in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendel, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    For more than a century, the predominant strategy for the treatment and punishment of serious and sometimes not-so-serious juvenile offenders in the United States has been placement into large juvenile corrections institutions, alternatively known as training schools, reformatories, or youth corrections centers. America's heavy reliance on…

  8. Juvenile mammary papillomatosis; Papilomatosis juvenil mamaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, M.; Jimenez, A. V. [Hospital Reina Sofia. Cordoba (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    Juvenile mammary papillomatosis is a benign proliferative disease of young patients, generally under 30 years of age. The most frequent clinical presentation is the existence of an elastic and mobile lymph node of the breast. Anatomopathologically, it is characterized because it presents ductal epithelial hyperplasia, sometimes with marked atypia, and there are numerous cysts having different sizes among the findings. It has been associated with an increase in the incidence of breast cancer, both in the patient herself as well as her family. We review the literature on the subject and present the mammographic and ultrasonographic findings of a 22 year old woman diagnosed of juvenile mammary papillomatosis. (Author) 12 refs.

  9. The human microbiome and juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwoerd, Anouk; ter Haar, Nienke M.; de Roock, Sytze; Vastert, Sebastiaan J.; Bogaert, Debby

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common rheumatic disease in childhood. The pathogenesis of JIA is thought to be the result of a combination of host genetic and environmental triggers. However, the precise factors that determine one's susceptibility to JIA remain to be unravelled. The

  10. The human microbiome and juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwoerd, Anouk; ter Haar, Nienke M.; de Roock, Sytze; Vastert, Sebastiaan J.; Bogaert, Debby

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common rheumatic disease in childhood. The pathogenesis of JIA is thought to be the result of a combination of host genetic and environmental triggers. However, the precise factors that determine one's susceptibility to JIA remain to be unravelled. The

  11. 77 FR 50486 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... Chair), the Secretary of Health and Human Services (HHS), the Secretary of Labor, the Secretary of... Departments of Agriculture, Defense, the Interior, and the Substance and Mental Health Services Administration...) discussions of potential areas where agency coordination might improve delivery of services and outcomes for...

  12. 77 FR 70994 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ... Assistant Secretary of Homeland Security for U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement. The nine additional... Childhood Experiences Study by Dr. Vincent Felitti; (b) recommendations from the Attorney General's...

  13. Bulletin 3: Explanations for Offending : Study Group on the Transitions between Juvenile Delinquency and Adult Crime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thornberry, Terence; Giordano, Peggy; Uggen, Christopher; Donker, Andrea; Matsuda, Mauri; Masten, Ann; Bulten, Erik; Petechuk, David

    2013-01-01

    The transition from adolescence to adulthood also has been described as a window of opportunity or vulnerability when developmental and contextual changes converge to support positive turnarounds and redirections (Masten, Long, Kuo, McCormick, & Desjardins, 2009; Masten, Obradović, & Burt, 2006). Th

  14. 78 FR 38014 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... establishment of the American Indian and Alaska Native Task Force on Children Exposed to Violence. Registration... Substance and Mental Health Services Administration of HHS. Meeting Agenda The preliminary agenda for this...

  15. Psychiatric Disorders and Violence: A Longitudinal Study of Delinquent Females and Males After Detention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkington, Katherine S.; Teplin, Linda A.; Abram, Karen M.; Jakubowski, Jessica A.; Dulcan, Mina K.; Welty, Leah J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between psychiatric disorders and violence in delinquent youth after detention. Method The Northwestern Juvenile Project is a longitudinal study of youth from the Cook County Juvenile Temporary Detention Center (Chicago, Illinois). Violence and psychiatric disorders were assessed via self-report in 1,659 youth (56% African American, 28% Hispanic, 36% female, ages 13–25) interviewed up to 4 times between three and five years after detention. Using generalized estimating equations and logistic regression, we examined (1) the prevalence of violence three and five years after detention; (2) the contemporaneous relationships between psychiatric disorders and violence as youth age; and (3) if the presence of a psychiatric disorder predicts subsequent violence. Results Rates of any violence decreased between 3 and 5 years after detention, from 35% to 21% (males), and from 20% to 17% (females). Contemporaneous relationship between disorder and violence: Compared to the group with no disorder, males and females with any disorder had greater odds of any violence (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 3.0 [95%CI, 1.9–4.7] and AOR, 4.4 [95%CI, 3.0–6.3], respectively). All specific disorders were associated contemporaneously with violence, except for major depressive disorder/dysthymia among males. Disorder and subsequent violence: Males with other drug use disorder and females with marijuana use disorder 3 years after detention had greater odds of any violence 2 years later (AOR, 3.4 [95%CI, 1.4–8.2] and AOR, 2.0 [95%CI, 1.1–3.8], respectively). Conclusion Aside from substance use disorders, the psychiatric disorders studied may not be useful markers of subsequent violence. Violence assessment and reduction must be key components of ongoing psychiatric services for high-risk youth. PMID:25791147

  16. Psychiatric disorders and violence: a study of delinquent youth after detention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkington, Katherine S; Teplin, Linda A; Abram, Karen M; Jakubowski, Jessica A; Dulcan, Mina K; Welty, Leah J

    2015-04-01

    To examine the relationship between psychiatric disorders and violence in delinquent youth after detention. The Northwestern Juvenile Project is a longitudinal study of youth from the Cook County Juvenile Temporary Detention Center (Chicago, Illinois). Violence and psychiatric disorders were assessed via self-report in 1,659 youth (56% African American, 28% Hispanic, 36% female, aged 13-25 years) interviewed up to 4 times between 3 and 5 years after detention. Using generalized estimating equations and logistic regression, we examined the following: the prevalence of violence 3 and 5 years after detention; the contemporaneous relationships between psychiatric disorders and violence as youth age; and whether the presence of a psychiatric disorder predicts subsequent violence. Rates of any violence decreased between 3 and 5 years after detention, from 35% to 21% (males), and from 20% to 17% (females). There was a contemporaneous relationship between disorder and violence. Compared to the group with no disorder, males and females with any disorder had greater odds of any violence (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.0, 95% CI = 1.9-4.7, and AOR = 4.4, 95% CI = 3.0-6.3, respectively). All specific disorders were associated contemporaneously with violence, except for major depressive disorder/dysthymia among males. Substance use disorders predicted subsequent violence. Males with other drug use disorder and females with marijuana use disorder 3 years after detention had greater odds of any violence 2 years later (AOR = 3.4, 95% CI = 1.4-8.2, and AOR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.1-3.8, respectively). Aside from substance use disorders, the psychiatric disorders studied may not be useful markers of subsequent violence. Violence assessment and reduction must be key components of ongoing psychiatric services for high-risk youth. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Maltreated Female Delinquents Speak about Their Communication Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanger, Dixie; Scheffler, Marilyn; Drake, Brian; Hilgert, Koree; Creswell, John W.; Hansen, David J.

    2000-01-01

    Qualitative methodology was used to explore how incarcerated adolescent female delinquents (N=20) described their communication behaviors in multiple contexts. Four themes emerged: (1) participant communication, (2) feelings and emotions, (3) trust, and (4) maltreatment. Implications suggest that speech-language pathologists and educators need to…

  18. Changes in Conventional Attitudes and Delinquent Behavior in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Scott; Huizinga, David

    1994-01-01

    Data from the National Youth Study of 1976 are analyzed to explore the relations between conventional beliefs and attitudes and delinquent behavior. Using a stage-state analysis in addition to structural-equation models reveals aspects of the relation that are not apparent from structural equations alone. (SLD)

  19. Urban Delinquency and Substance Abuse. Initial Findings. Research Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, David; Loeber, Rolf; Thornberry, Terence P.

    In collaborative efforts three research teams have investigated the problems of urban delinquency and substance abuse in longitudinal studies that have gone on since 1986. The Denver Youth Study is a longitudinal survey that involves annual interviews with probability samples of five different birth cohorts and their parents from areas of Denver…

  20. Autistic symptoms in childhood arrestees : longitudinal association with delinquent behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geluk, Charlotte A. M. L.; Jansen, Lucres M. C.; Vermeiren, Robert; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.; van Domburgh, Lieke; de Bildt, Annelies; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Hartman, Catharina A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: To compare childhood arrestees with matched comparison groups on levels of autistic symptoms and to assess the unique predictive value of autistic symptoms for future delinquent behavior in childhood arrestees. Methods: Childhood first-time arrestees (n = 308, baseline age 10.7 +/- 1.5 y

  1. A Meta-analysis of Attachment to Parents and Delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, M.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Put, C.E. van der; Dubas, J.S.; Laan, P.H. van der; Gerris, J.R.M.

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the link between attachment to parents and delinquency, and the potential moderating effects of age and sex, 74 published and unpublished manuscripts (N = 55,537 participants) were subjected to a multilevel meta-analysis. A mean small to moderate effect size was found (r = 0.18). Poor

  2. A meta-analysis of attachment to parents and delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, M.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; van der Put, C.E.; Dubas, J.S.; van der Laan, P.H.; Gerris, J.R.M.

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the link between attachment to parents and delinquency, and the potential moderating effects of age and sex, 74 published and unpublished manuscripts (N = 55,537 participants) were subjected to a multilevel meta-analysis. A mean small to moderate effect size was found (r = 0.18). Poor

  3. 19 CFR 142.14 - Delinquent payment of Customs bills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Delinquent payment of Customs bills. 142.14 Section 142.14 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... of Customs bills. The following procedure shall be followed if an importer is substantially...

  4. Using Multisensory Phonics to Foster Reading Skills of Adolescent Delinquents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnick, Kristan; Caldarella, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a multisensory phonics-based reading remediation program for adolescent delinquents classified as poor readers living at a residential treatment center. We used a pretest--posttest control group design with random assignment. The treatment group participated in a 30-hr multisensory phonics reading…

  5. Autistic Symptoms in Childhood Arrestees: Longitudinal Association with Delinquent Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geluk, Charlotte A. M. L.; Jansen, Lucres M. C.; Vermeiren, Robert; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.; van Domburgh, Lieke; de Bildt, Annelies; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Hartman, Catharina A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: To compare childhood arrestees with matched comparison groups on levels of autistic symptoms and to assess the unique predictive value of autistic symptoms for future delinquent behavior in childhood arrestees. Methods: Childhood first-time arrestees (n = 308, baseline age 10.7 plus or minus 1.5 years) were followed up for 2 years.…

  6. 77 FR 6675 - Premium Penalty Relief for Certain Delinquent Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... CORPORATION 29 CFR Part 4007 Premium Penalty Relief for Certain Delinquent Plans AGENCY: Pension Benefit... regulatory review, among other initiatives, PBGC is announcing a limited window for covered plans that have... and 4007 of ERISA, plans covered by title IV must pay premiums to PBGC. The vast majority of plans...

  7. The Relationship Between Parenting and Delinquency: A Meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, M.; Dubas, J.S.; Eichelsheim, V.I.; Laan, P.H. van der; Smeenk, W.H.; Gerris, J.R.M.

    2009-01-01

    This meta-analysis of 161 published and unpublished manuscripts was conducted to determine whether the association between parenting and delinquency exists and what the magnitude of this linkage is. The strongest links were found for parental monitoring, psychological control, and negative aspects

  8. The relationship between parenting and delinquency: A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, M.; Dubas, J.S.; Eichelsheim, V.I.; van der Laan, P.H.; Smeenk, W.; Gerris, J.R.M.

    2009-01-01

    This meta-analysis of 161 published and unpublished manuscripts was conducted to determine whether the association between parenting and delinquency exists and what the magnitude of this linkage is. The strongest links were found for parental monitoring, psychological control, and negative aspects

  9. EARLY LIFE RISKS, ANTISOCIAL TENDENCIES, AND PRETEEN DELINQUENCY*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staff, Jeremy; Whichard, Corey; Siennick, Sonja; Maggs, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Early age-of-onset delinquency and substance use confer a major risk for continued criminality, alcohol and drug abuse, and other serious difficulties throughout the life course. Our objective is to examine the developmental roots of preteen delinquency and substance use. Using nationally representative longitudinal data from the UK Millennium Cohort Study (n = 13,221), we examine the influence of early childhood developmental and family risks on latent pathways of antisocial tendencies from ages 3 to 7, and the influence of those pathways on property crime and substance use by age 11. We identified a normative, non-antisocial pathway; a pathway marked by oppositional behavior and fighting; a pathway marked by impulsivity and inattention; and a rare pathway characterized by a wide range of antisocial tendencies. Children with developmental and family risks that emerged by age 3—specifically difficult infant temperament, low cognitive ability, weak parental closeness, and disadvantaged family background—face increased odds of antisocial tendencies. There is minimal overlap between the risk factors for early antisocial tendencies and those for preteen delinquency. Children on an antisocial pathway are more likely to engage in preteen delinquency and substance use by age 11, even after accounting for early life risk factors. PMID:26900167

  10. Continuities in Delinquency and Riot Patterns in Black Residential Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapsis, Robert E.

    1976-01-01

    Presents evidence that patterns of neighborhood involvement during a 1968 racial disturbance resembled prior neighborhood delinquency patterns, and suggests that riots represent a direct continuity rather than a sharp discontinuity with pre-existing social conditions. The adequacy of a social control model to explain similarities between…

  11. Dissolving Borders: Reframing Risk, Delinquent Peers, and Youth Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustig, Deborah Freedman; Sung, Kenzo K

    2013-08-01

    Although "association with delinquent peers" is commonly identified as "a risk factor for youth violence," this framework leads us to blame individuals and ignore the complex lives of youth who face state, symbolic, and interpersonal violence. This study is based on interviews with young adults about their adolescence in a low-income immigrant gateway neighborhood of Oakland, California. Most of the interviewees have peer networks that are racially/ethnically diverse and also include both delinquent and conforming peers. We show that having these "doubly diverse" friendship networks helps youth move through their neighborhood safely and feel anchored to their community even when they leave to attend college. Even successful youth in our study do not erect borders between themselves and "delinquent peers." It is easy to assign blame to youth for their friendships, their violent behavior, their lack of education, their unstable and low-paying jobs, but this calculus ignores both the structural factors that constrain youth choices and the benefits that seem to be linked to diverse friendships, even with delinquent peers. Growing up in a site of global capital accumulation and disinvestment in the era of neoliberalism, our interviewees challenge us to reframe risk.

  12. School and Family Origins of Delinquency: Comparisons by Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensminger, Margaret E.; And Others

    This paper concerns early social adaptational and family antecedents of teenage delinquent behavior in a population of black first graders who were reassessed 10 years after the initial study. Subjects were 705 teenagers who had participated in the 1966-67 Woodlawn study and whose mothers had given permission for reassessment. At the time of the…

  13. Defining Deviance: Sex, Science, and Delinquent Girls, 1890-1960

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a review on "Defining deviance: sex, science, and delinquent girls, 1890-1960," by Michael A. Rembis. This is the first book by Michael A. Rembis, an Associate Professor and Director of the Center for Disability Studies at the University of Buffalo. Drawing on thousands of case files from the Illinois State Training School in…

  14. Early Language Impairment and Young Adult Delinquent and Aggressive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownlie, E.B.; Beitchman, Joseph H.; Escobar, Michael; Young, Arlene; Atkinson, Leslie; Johnson, Carla; Wilson, Beth; Douglas, Lori

    2004-01-01

    Clinic and forensic studies have reported high rates of language impairments in conduct- disordered and incarcerated youth. In community samples followed to early adolescence, speech and language impairments have been linked to attention deficits and internalizing problems, rather than conduct problems, delinquency, or aggression. This study…

  15. Spatial dynamics of juvenile anchovy in the Bay of Biscay

    KAUST Repository

    Boyra, Guillermo

    2016-07-08

    In autumn 2009, the implementation of two successive acoustic surveys targeting juvenile anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) in the Bay of Biscay allowed us to monitor the changes in the spatial distribution and aggregation patterns of juveniles of this species during 45 days under fairly stable meteorological conditions. Juvenile anchovy changed its biological condition and behavior in a different manner in two distinct areas. In the Spanish sector, the juveniles migrated 20 nautical miles (n.mi.) towards the coast, but they remained on the shelf and near the surface during the whole surveyed period. As the advance towards the shelf break progressed, their area of distribution decreased, their density increased and the juveniles spread in fewer but heavier shoals. In the French sector, the juveniles also migrated from slope waters towards the coast at a similar velocity, but they crossed the shelf break into the continental shelf, where they increased their mean depth significantly until gradually adopting the typical nyctemeral migrations of adult anchovy. The mean length of the juveniles that adopted the nyctemeral migrations was significantly higher than that of the juveniles remaining at the surface, suggesting that body size is relevant to accomplish this change. Besides, the stronger temperature gradients between the shelf and oceanic waters in the Spanish sector, favored by a narrow shelf, may have acted as a barrier influencing the distinct observed spatial patterns in the two areas. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd

  16. A national survey of substance abuse treatment for juvenile offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Douglas W; Dembo, Richard; Henderson, Craig E

    2007-04-01

    Despite consensus about the value of substance abuse treatment for delinquent youth, information about its prevalence and availability is inadequate and inconsistent. This article presents findings about treatment and other correctional service provision from a national survey of directors of 141 juvenile institutional and community corrections (CC) facilities. Educational/General Educational Development programming and drug and alcohol education were the most prevalent types of correctional and substance abuse services. Other common services included physical health services and mental health assessment, provided to about 60% of youth across facilities, and mental health counseling, life and communication skills, and anger management, provided to about half of the youth. Substance abuse treatment, as with most other services, were more prevalent in large, state-funded residential facilities (where 66% provided treatment) than in local detention centers (20%) and CC facilities (56%). More detailed data showed that the number of youth attending treatment in all types of facilities on any given day was very low.

  17. Cultural analysis of communication behaviors among juveniles in a correctional facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanger, D D; Creswell, J W; Dworak, J; Schultz, L

    2000-01-01

    This study addressed communication behaviors of female juvenile delinquents in a correctional facility. Qualitative methodology was used to study 78 participants ranging in age from 13.1 to 18.9 (years; months), over a five-month period. Data collection consisted of observations, participant observation, interviews, and a review of documents. Additionally, participants were tested on the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-3. Listening and following rules, utterance types, topics of conversion, politeness, and conversational management emerged as themes. Findings indicated that as many as 22% of participants were potential candidates for language services. Implications for speech-language pathologists (SLPs) providing communication services will be provided.

  18. Longitudinal associations between delinquent behavior of friends and delinquent behavior of adolescents: Moderation by adolescent personality traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slagt, Meike; Dubas, Judith; Dekovic, Maja; Haselager, G.J.T.; van Aken, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, we examined whether personality tra its (parent-rated Big Five personality traits) re nder some adolescents more su sceptib le than others to delin quent behaviour of friends, predicting rank-orde r changes in adolescents’ self-reported delinquent behaviour. We examine su

  19. Cryopyrin-Associated Autoinflammatory Syndromes (CAPS) - Juvenile

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cryopyrin-Associated Autoinflammatory Syndrome (CAPS) (Juvenile) Dermatomyositis (Juvenile) Familial Mediterranean Fever (Juvenile) Fibromyalgia Giant Cell Arteritis Glucocorticoid-induced Osteoperosis ...

  20. Juvenil idiopatisk arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlin, Troels

    2002-01-01

    The new classification of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is described in this review. Clinical characteristics divide JIA in to subtypes: systemic, oligoarticular (persistent and extended type), RF-positive and--negative polyarticular, enthesitis-related arthritis and psoriatic arthritis...

  1. Juvenile Rockfish Recruitment Cruise

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 1983, the groundfish analysis project began a series of yearly cruises designed to assess the annual abundance of juvenile rockfish along the central California...

  2. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physical Therapy Regular Exercise en español Artritis idiopática juvenil It may begin with a swollen knuckle, a ... may suddenly appear and disappear, developing in one area and then another. High fevers that tend to ...

  3. Juvenile Spondyloarthritis Treatment Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Tse, Shirley; Burgos-Vargas, Ruben; Colbert, Robert A

    2012-01-01

    No specific recommendations for the treatment of juvenile spondyloarthritis have been established. Important differences exist in how spondyloarthritis begins and progresses in children and adults, supporting the need for pediatric-specific recommendations. Recently published recommendations for the treatment of juvenile arthritis consider children with sacroiliitis in a separate group, and allow for more accelerated institution of a TNF inhibitor depending on disease activity and prognostic ...

  4. Parental attachment and Chinese adolescents' delinquency: The mediating role of moral disengagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Zhenzhou; Zhang, Wei; Lai, Xuefen; Sun, Wenqiang; Wang, Yanhui

    2015-10-01

    There is substantial literature documenting the negative association between secure parental attachment and lower adolescent delinquency, but little is known about the mediating mechanisms (i.e., how does parental attachment relate to delinquency?) underlying this relation. The present study examined whether secure parental attachment would be indirectly related to lower adolescent delinquency through lower adolescent moral disengagement. A total of 1766 adolescents (44% male; mean age = 14.25 years, SD = 1.54) living in an urban area of southern China completed anonymous questionnaires regarding parental attachment, moral disengagement and delinquency. After controlling for gender, age, socioeconomic status, and school variable, it was found that secure parental attachment was negatively associated with adolescent delinquency and this negative association was fully mediated by the extent of adolescent moral disengagement. These findings contribute to an understanding of the mechanisms underlying the development of adolescent delinquency and have important implications for intervention.

  5. The delinquency-drug relationship: the influence of social reputation and moral disengagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passini, Stefano

    2012-04-01

    A large number of studies have focused on the relationship between drug use and violent delinquency in adolescence. Most of these studies underline that even if substance use and delinquency often co-occur, they may result from common causes that increase the risk for both outcomes. In particular, the delinquency-drug relationship may be mediated both by the type of drug and the incidence of other variables. In this article, social reputation and moral disengagement are studied as predictors of both drug use and violent delinquency in a 336 adolescent participants. Results confirm the hypotheses that social reputation and moral disengagement predict drug use and delinquency and that heavy drug use predicts delinquency.

  6. ADOLESCENT ROMANCE AND DELINQUENCY: A FURTHER EXPLORATION OF HIRSCHI'S "COLD AND BRITTLE" RELATIONSHIPS HYPOTHESIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Peggy C; Lonardo, Robert A; Manning, Wendy D; Longmore, Monica A

    2010-11-28

    Hirschi argued that delinquent youth tend to form relatively "cold and brittle" relationships with peers, depicting these youths as deficient in their attachments to others. The current analysis explores connections between delinquency and the character of adolescent romantic ties, drawing primarily on the first wave of the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study, and focusing on 957 teens with dating experience. We examine multiple relationship qualities/dynamics in order to explore both the "cold" and "brittle" dimensions of Hirschi's hypothesis. Regarding the "cold" assumption, results suggest that delinquency is not related to perceived importance of the romantic relationship, level of intimate self-disclosure or feelings of romantic love, and more delinquent youth actually report more frequent contact with their romantic partners. Analyses focused on two dimensions tapping the "brittle" description indicate that while durations of a focal relationship do not differ according to level of respondent delinquency, more delinquent youths report higher levels of verbal conflict.

  7. Parasite remains in archaeological sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchet, Françoise; Guidon, Niéde; Dittmar, Katharina; Harter, Stephanie; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando; Chaves, Sergio Miranda; Reinhard, Karl; Araújo, Adauto

    2003-01-01

    Organic remains can be found in many different environments. They are the most significant source for paleoparasitological studies as well as for other paleoecological reconstruction. Preserved paleoparasitological remains are found from the driest to the moistest conditions. They help us to understand past and present diseases and therefore contribute to understanding the evolution of present human sociality, biology, and behavior. In this paper, the scope of the surviving evidence will be briefy surveyed, and the great variety of ways it has been preserved in different environments will be discussed. This is done to develop to the most appropriated techniques to recover remaining parasites. Different techniques applied to the study of paleoparasitological remains, preserved in different environments, are presented. The most common materials used to analyze prehistoric human groups are reviewed, and their potential for reconstructing ancient environment and disease are emphasized. This paper also urges increased cooperation among archaeologists, paleontologists, and paleoparasitologists.

  8. Parasite remains in archaeological sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Bouchet

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic remains can be found in many different environments. They are the most significant source for paleoparasitological studies as well as for other paleoecological reconstruction. Preserved paleoparasitological remains are found from the driest to the moistest conditions. They help us to understand past and present diseases and therefore contribute to understanding the evolution of present human sociality, biology, and behavior. In this paper, the scope of the surviving evidence will be briefly surveyed, and the great variety of ways it has been preserved in different environments will be discussed. This is done to develop to the most appropriated techniques to recover remaining parasites. Different techniques applied to the study of paleoparasitological remains, preserved in different environments, are presented. The most common materials used to analyze prehistoric human groups are reviewed, and their potential for reconstructing ancient environment and disease are emphasized. This paper also urges increased cooperation among archaeologists, paleontologists, and paleoparasitologists.

  9. Delinquency in Adolescent Girls: Using a Confluence Approach to Understand the Influences of Parents and Peers

    OpenAIRE

    Henneberger, Angela K.; Tolan, Patrick H.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Keenan, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Determining the interdependence of family and peer influences on the development of delinquency is critical to defining and implementing effective interventions. This study explored the longitudinal relationship among harsh punishment, positive parenting, peer delinquency, and adolescent delinquency using data from a sub-sample of the Pittsburgh Girls Study. Participants were 622 adolescent girls (42% European American, 53% African American); families living in low-income neighborhoods were o...

  10. The relationship between adolescent attitudes towards authority, self-concept, and delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, K S

    2001-01-01

    Attitudes towards authority of youth and adults have been investigated in recent years in a number of Western countries. The present research focused on attitudes towards institutional authority among three groups of adolescents: nondelinquents, noninstitutionalized delinquents, and institutionalized delinquents. Relationships with self-concept were also investigated. It was found that attitudes towards parents, teachers, police, and the law were, in general, positive. Nondelinquents' attitudes were more positive than those of delinquents.

  11. Traumatic Stress Among Seriously Delinquent Youth: Considering the Consequences of Neighborhood Circumstance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaggers, Jeremiah W; Prattini, Robert J; Church, Wesley T

    2016-09-01

    Myriad factors have been found to have an impact on delinquent behavior and traumatic stress. This study proposes a model that tests the relationship between common predictors of delinquency (neighborhood condition, antisocial peer socialization, and exposure to violence) with traumatic stress. Serial mediation was used to test the relationships between these predictors and traumatic stress. Results indicate the mediation effect between neighborhood conditions and traumatic stress significantly reduces the total effect. Implications for traumatic stress in the context of delinquent behavior are discussed.

  12. Vocational Teachers' Role in Serving Juvenile Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meers, Gary D.

    1983-01-01

    Educators need to understand the juvenile justice system to understand what juvenile offenders go through while completing their sentences. This article reviews cases and juvenile charge classifications, and presents a model for alternative sentencing options for juveniles. (JOW)

  13. Juvenile sex-only and sex-plus offenders: an exploratory study on criminal profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, A Ph; Mali, S R F; Bullens, R A R

    2007-08-01

    In this study, research was done on the criminal profiles of a large group of juvenile sex-only and sex-plus (sex and other offenses) delinquents (N = 4,430) in the Netherlands. Use was made of information from police records. Results show that sex-plus offenders start their careers earlier, that more of these offenders are of non-Dutch origin, that they commit more crimes, and will partly continue their criminal career after their adolescence. Juvenile sex-only offenders rarely go on committing crimes. In sex-plus offenders, sexual crimes play only a minor role in their total crime repertory. As time goes by, their criminal career will develop into the direction of property crimes. Finally, the implications and limitations of this study will be discussed.

  14. Staff Perspectives on Juvenile Drug Court Operations: A Multi-Site Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mericle, Amy A; Belenko, Steven; Festinger, David; Fairfax-Columbo, Jaymes; McCart, Michael R

    2014-09-01

    Substance use is pervasive among youth, particularly among those involved in the juvenile justice system. Juvenile drug courts (JDCs) are a promising approach for delinquent youth with substance abuse issues. However, research regarding JDCs has shown inconsistent effects, and little is known about the specific components associated with positive outcomes. The current study examines data from interviews of JDC judges and team member focus groups in six JDCs from two contiguous southeastern states to identify stakeholders' perceptions about what places youth at risk for involvement in JDC and the factors that may contribute to successful outcomes. In addition, we examine these stakeholders' perceptions of the strengths and challenges facing their JDCs. Our findings highlight the importance of parents and specific strategies implemented by JDCs in influencing the outcomes of youth in JDCs and the importance of interagency collaboration and access to treatment and community resources for the overall success of JDCs.

  15. Improving Rehabilitative Efforts for Juvenile Offenders Through the Use of Telemental Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batastini, Ashley B

    2016-04-01

    The use of videoconferencing technology in the provision of mental health services is expected to increase rapidly over the next several years. Given the high rates of juvenile offenders in need of such services and the new norms of communication among young people in general, technology-based service modalities are a promising approach for increasing the availability and intensity of services, as well as engagement and compliance with treatment recommendations. This article will discuss the current state of the juvenile justice system, the literature on the use of telemental healthcare (TMH) with delinquent youth, how TMH fits within the generally accepted model of correctional rehabilitation, and special considerations for applying TMH to this population and setting. Although there is no evidence to suggest negative outcomes associated with TMH, future research is greatly needed to justify its use.

  16. American Academy of Pediatrics: Health care for children and adolescents in the juvenile correctional care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-04-01

    Over the past decade, there has been a dramatic increase in the population of juvenile offenders in the United States. Juveniles detained or confined in correctional care facilities have been shown to have numerous health problems. Such conditions may have existed before incarceration; may be closely associated with legal problems; may have resulted from parental neglect, mental health disorders, or physical, drug, or sexual abuse; or may develop within the institutional environment. Delinquent youths are often disenfranchised from traditional health care services in the community. For these adolescents, health care provided through correctional services may be their major source of health services. Pediatricians and correctional health care systems have an opportunity and responsibility to help improve the health of this underserved and vulnerable group of adolescents.

  17. Trunk asymmetry in juveniles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triantafyllopoulos Georgios

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trunk asymmetry (TA is a common phenomenon in children, but its incidence in juveniles is not known. The present cross sectional study reports TA in normal juveniles and provides data which describe the evolution of TA from early childhood to adolescence. Materials and methods The scoliometer readings in both standing and sitting forward bending position (FBP of 3301 children, (1645 boys, and 1656 girls aged from 3 to 9 years old were studied. TA was quantified by measuring angle of trunk rotation (ATR and children were categorized as symmetric (ATR = 0°, mild asymmetric (ATR 1° – 6° and severely asymmetric (ATR ≥ 7°. The difference of TA between standing and sitting FBP as well as differences between boys and girls in frequency of TA were also calculated. The scoliometer readings were analyzed by age to reveal at which age the juvenile pattern of TA changes into the adolescent one. Results 74.2% of boys and 77% of girls were symmetric (ATR = 0° in the thoracic region in standing FBP, while 82.7% of boys and 84.1% of girls were symmetric in the thoracic region in sitting FBP. Juvenile girls are more symmetric than boys but severe TA was found almost the same between the two genders. A significant reduction in the frequency of mild TA from standing into sitting FBP, in all the examined regions in both boys and girls was found, but in severe TA this reduction is very small. Analysing scoliometer readings by age it appears that significant TA changes take place between 8–9 years of age for boys and between 6–7 and 8–9 years for girls. TA in boys is changing into the adolescent pattern at a later age than in girls. Conclusion Juveniles were found more symmetric than adolescents, who were studied previously in a different study. Furthermore, juvenile girls were found more symmetric than boys. Juvenile TA pattern seems to be in accordance with the higher incidence of juvenile idiopathic scoliosis in boys. Furthermore

  18. DELINQUENCY AND THE STRUCTURE OF ADOLESCENT PEER GROUPS*

    OpenAIRE

    Kreager, Derek A.; Rulison, Kelly; Moody, James

    2011-01-01

    Gangs and group-level processes were once central phenomena for criminological theory and research. By the mid-1970's, however, gang research was primarily displaced by studies of individual behavior using randomized self-report surveys, a shift that also removed groups from the theoretical foreground. In this project, we return to the group level to test competing theoretical claims about delinquent group structure. We use network-based clustering methods to identify 897 friendship groups in...

  19. Juvenile Incarceration and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnert, Elizabeth S; Perry, Raymond; Morris, Robert E

    2016-03-01

    Addressing the health status and needs of incarcerated youth represents an issue at the nexus of juvenile justice reform and health care reform. Incarcerated youth face disproportionately higher morbidity and higher mortality compared to the general adolescent population. Dental health, reproductive health, and mental health needs are particularly high, likely as a result of lower access to care, engagement in high-risk behaviors, and underlying health disparities. Violence exposure and injury also contribute to the health disparities seen in this population. Further, juvenile incarceration itself is an important determinant of health. Juvenile incarceration likely correlates with worse health and social functioning across the life course. Correctional health care facilities allow time for providers to address the unmet physical and mental health needs seen in this population. Yet substantial challenges to care delivery in detention facilities exist and quality of care in detention facilities varies widely. Community-based pediatricians can serve a vital role in ensuring continuity of care in the postdetention period and linking youth to services that can potentially prevent juvenile offending. Pediatricians who succeed in understanding and addressing the underlying social contexts of their patients' lives can have tremendous impact in improving the life trajectories of these vulnerable youth. Opportunities exist in clinical care, research, medical education, policy, and advocacy for pediatricians to lead change and improve the health status of youth involved in the juvenile justice system.

  20. Organic Chemicals Remain High Prices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Phenol In early April 2007, China's phenol price remained bullish, and with the restart of phenol/acetone units in Sinopec Beijing Yanhua Petrochemical being ahead of schedule, there were few trading actions in the market, and the price of phenol dropped considerably afterwards.

  1. Extending juvenility in grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaeppler, Shawn; de Leon Gatti, Natalia; Foerster, Jillian

    2017-04-11

    The present invention relates to compositions and methods for modulating the juvenile to adult developmental growth transition in plants, such as grasses (e.g. maize). In particular, the invention provides methods for enhancing agronomic properties in plants by modulating expression of GRMZM2G362718, GRMZM2G096016, or homologs thereof. Modulation of expression of one or more additional genes which affect juvenile to adult developmental growth transition such as Glossy15 or Cg1, in conjunction with such modulation of expression is also contemplated. Nucleic acid constructs for down-regulation of GRMZM2G362718 and/or GRMZM2G096016 are also contemplated, as are transgenic plants and products produced there from, that demonstrate altered, such as extended juvenile growth, and display associated phenotypes such as enhanced yield, improved digestibility, and increased disease resistance. Plants described herein may be used, for example, as improved forage or feed crops or in biofuel production.

  2. DERMATOMIOSITIS JUVENIL Y EMBARAZO

    OpenAIRE

    Evans M,Gregorio; Poulsen R,Ronald; Blanco R,Romiely; Luna V,Viviana

    2002-01-01

    La dermatomiositis juvenil es un desorden inflamatorio crónico multisistémico del tejido conectivo. Tiene una incidencia de 2-3/100.000/año. Con la disminución en la mortalidad experimentada en los últimos decenios, la atención está cifrada en la morbilidad a largo plazo y en las alteraciones funcionales. Con un tratamiento agresivo los niños con dermatomiositis juvenil generalmente tienen un futuro promisorio, sin incapacidad o con incapacidad mínima. La mortalidad actualmente se estima cerc...

  3. Juvenile idiopatiske inflammatoriske myopatier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helga Sanner

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (JIIM is a group of rare autoimmune systemic diseases in children and adolescents, characterized by chronic skeletal muscle inflammation. Unlike in adults, dermatomyositis (JDM is by far the most common of the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies in children and adolescents. The hallmark of JDM is calcinosis, lipodystrophy and vasculitis, findings that differs the juvenile form of dermatomyosits from the adult form. JDM is still diagnosed and classified by Bohan and Peter’s criteria from 1975. There are limited data on long time outcome of this disease

  4. The Effects of School Bonds, Discipline Techniques in School and Victimization on Delinquency of High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Halime; Cukur, Cem Safak

    2011-01-01

    Delinquency has become an import social problem in Turkey, especially in schools. Along with this trend, empirical studies have started to pay attention to delinquent acts in schools. However, most of these studies have mainly focused on the nature and prevalence of the delinquent behaviors. There are limited numbers of studies that explore…

  5. Family Influences on Self-Reported Delinquency among High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiser, Nadine C.; Heaven, Patrick C. L.

    1996-01-01

    Analyzes the effect of certain family processes on adolescents' self-reported delinquency and investigates whether self-esteem and locus of control mediate these effects. Results indicate that parental discipline style predicts self-reported delinquency. Also, a link between positive family relations and high self-esteem among males emerged. (RJM)

  6. 76 FR 11402 - Recovery of Delinquent Debts-Treasury Offset Program Enhancements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... ADMINISTRATION 20 CFR Parts 404, 408, 416, and 422 RIN 0960-AH19 Recovery of Delinquent Debts--Treasury Offset... conforming our regulations to those of the Department of the Treasury (Treasury) for the following reasons: (1) Treasury removed the 10-year limitation to collect delinquent debts owed the United States...

  7. Delinquency and Peer Acceptance in Adolescence: A Within-Person Test of Moffitt's Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulison, Kelly L.; Kreager, Derek A.; Osgood, D. Wayne

    2014-01-01

    We tested 2 hypotheses derived from Moffitt's (1993) taxonomic theory of antisocial behavior, both of which are central to her explanation for the rise in delinquency during adolescence. We tested whether persistently delinquent individuals become more accepted by their peers during adolescence and whether individuals who abstain from delinquent…

  8. Delinquency and Peer Acceptance in Adolescence: A Within-Person Test of Moffitt's Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulison, Kelly L.; Kreager, Derek A.; Osgood, D. Wayne

    2014-01-01

    We tested 2 hypotheses derived from Moffitt's (1993) taxonomic theory of antisocial behavior, both of which are central to her explanation for the rise in delinquency during adolescence. We tested whether persistently delinquent individuals become more accepted by their peers during adolescence and whether individuals who abstain from delinquent…

  9. Reclaiming Deviance as a Unique Course from Criminology Re-Revisited: Entering Delinquency into the Equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, Nathan W.

    2003-01-01

    Offers ideas for developing distinct deviance, delinquency, and criminology curricula. Discusses how to reduce theoretical and content overlap, paper assignments, course readings, and departmental issues. Finds overlap and review of basic theories were helpful to students. Recommends deviance, criminology, and delinquency courses be theoretically…

  10. Race, Gender, Single-Mother Households, and Delinquency: A Further Test of Power-Control Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Kristin Y.; Leiber, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    Using power-control theory as the theoretical framework, the present study examines the gender gap in delinquency for White and African American youth from single-mother households. The research is driven by the need to focus more attention on understanding how delinquency theories apply across different racial groups. Results from both bivariate…

  11. Inconsistent Self-Report of Delinquency by Adolescents and Young Adults with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibley, Margaret H.; Pelham, William E.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Babinski, Dara E.; Biswas, Aparajita

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to test the ability of adolescents and young adults with childhood ADHD to reliably self-report delinquency history. Data were examined from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS), a follow-up study of children diagnosed with ADHD between 1987 and 1996. Self-report of lifetime delinquency history was…

  12. Reclaiming Deviance as a Unique Course from Criminology Re-Revisited: Entering Delinquency into the Equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, Nathan W.

    2003-01-01

    Offers ideas for developing distinct deviance, delinquency, and criminology curricula. Discusses how to reduce theoretical and content overlap, paper assignments, course readings, and departmental issues. Finds overlap and review of basic theories were helpful to students. Recommends deviance, criminology, and delinquency courses be theoretically…

  13. Reconsidering the Effect of Self-Control and Delinquent Peers: Implications of Measurement for Theoretical Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldrum, Ryan C.; Young, Jacob T. N.; Weerman, Frank M.

    2009-01-01

    Prior research examining the effect of self-control and delinquent peers on crime suggests that both variables are strong correlates and that controlling for one fails to eliminate the effects of the other. Yet prior research was based on indirect and possibly biased indicators of peer delinquency. Recent research using direct measures of…

  14. Brief Report: Do Delinquency and Community Violence Exposure Explain Internalizing Problems in Early Adolescent Gang Members?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Anjana; Mrug, Sylvie; Windle, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent gang members are at higher risk for internalizing problems as well as exposure to community violence and delinquency. This study examined whether gang membership in early adolescence is associated with internalizing problems (depression, anxiety, and suicidal behavior) and whether these associations are mediated by delinquency and…

  15. Sex Differences in Overt Aggression and Delinquency among Urban Minority Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Tracy R.; Graber, Julia A.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Botvin, Gilbert J.

    2006-01-01

    Given the recent debate over whether differential pathways to overt aggression and delinquency exist between boys and girls, this study examined sex differences in overt aggressive and delinquent acts along with potential differences in precursors (anger, self-control, family disruption) to antisocial behaviors among a sample of urban minority…

  16. Family Influences on Self-Reported Delinquency among High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiser, Nadine C.; Heaven, Patrick C. L.

    1996-01-01

    Analyzes the effect of certain family processes on adolescents' self-reported delinquency and investigates whether self-esteem and locus of control mediate these effects. Results indicate that parental discipline style predicts self-reported delinquency. Also, a link between positive family relations and high self-esteem among males emerged. (RJM)

  17. Explaining Adolescents' Delinquency and Substance Use : A Test of the Maturity Gap: The SNARE study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Kretschmer, Tina; Pattiselanno, Kim; Franken, Aart; Harakeh, Zeena; Vollebergh, Wilma; Veenstra, Rene

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: One explanation for the increase in delinquency in adolescence is that young people are trapped in the so-called maturity gap: the discrepancy between biological and social maturation, which motivates them to engage in delinquency as a temporary means to bridge this gap by emphasizing th

  18. Explaining Adolescents’ Delinquency and Substance Use : A Test of the Maturity Gap: The SNARE study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Kretschmer, Tina; Pattiselanno, Kim; Franken, Aart; Harakeh, Zeena; Vollebergh, Wilma; Veenstra, René

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: One explanation for the increase in delinquency in adolescence is that young people are trapped in the so-called maturity gap: the discrepancy between biological and social maturation, which motivates them to engage in delinquency as a temporary means to bridge this gap by emphasizing th

  19. The Development of Delinquency and Perceived Friendship Quality in Adolescent Best Friendship Dyads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selfhout, Maarten H. W.; Branje, Susan J. T.; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examines both the unique and the combined role of best friends' delinquency and perceived friendship quality in the development of adolescent delinquency. Questionnaire data were gathered from 435 Dutch adolescent best friends (mean age at first wave = 12.97) over a period of 5 years with annual assessments. Results showed that…

  20. Hopelessness, Loneliness, Self-Esteem, and Personality in Russian Male Delinquent Adolescents versus Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchkin, Vladislav V.; Eisemann, Martin; Hagglof, Bruno

    1999-01-01

    Examined interrelations between hopelessness, loneliness, self-esteem, and personality in delinquent and nondelinquent adolescents in Russia. Found that delinquents differed from controls on most variables. Loneliness and hopelessness were highly interrelated and correlated with harm avoidance, and inversely correlated with self- directedness.…

  1. 40 CFR 13.19 - Analysis of costs; automation; prevention of overpayments, delinquencies or defaults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Analysis of costs; automation; prevention of overpayments, delinquencies or defaults. 13.19 Section 13.19 Protection of Environment...; automation; prevention of overpayments, delinquencies or defaults. (a) The Administrator may...

  2. 14 CFR 1261.413 - Analysis of costs; automation; prevention of overpayments, delinquencies, or defaults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Analysis of costs; automation; prevention of overpayments, delinquencies, or defaults. 1261.413 Section 1261.413 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL...) § 1261.413 Analysis of costs; automation; prevention of overpayments, delinquencies, or defaults....

  3. The Relationship between Adolescent Alcohol Use and Delinquent and Violent Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komro, Kelli A.; Williams, Carolyn L.; Forster, Jean L.; Perry, Cheryl L.; Farbakhsh, Kian; Stigler, Melissa H.

    1999-01-01

    Study analyzed the relationship between alcohol use, psychological risk, and delinquent and violent behaviors using self-reported data from eighth and ninth grade students from a small, rural town population. Results suggest that alcohol use is an independent risk factor for delinquent and violent behaviors among young people (Author/JDM)

  4. Predicting adult violent delinquency: Gender differences regarding the role of childhood behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reef, Joni; Donker, Andrea; Meurs, Inge van; Verhulst, Frank; Ende, Jan van der

    2011-01-01

    Full text op te vragen bij auteurs via link. Adult violent delinquency harms individuals, their families and society at large. Knowledge about childhood predictors of adult delinquency could be helpful in defining at-risk children who will develop into violent adults. This topic is rarely investigat

  5. Explaining Adolescents' Delinquency and Substance Use : A Test of the Maturity Gap: The SNARE study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Kretschmer, Tina; Pattiselanno, Kim; Franken, Aart; Harakeh, Zeena; Vollebergh, Wilma; Veenstra, Rene

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: One explanation for the increase in delinquency in adolescence is that young people are trapped in the so-called maturity gap: the discrepancy between biological and social maturation, which motivates them to engage in delinquency as a temporary means to bridge this gap by emphasizing th

  6. Explaining Adolescents’ Delinquency and Substance Use : A Test of the Maturity Gap: The SNARE study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Kretschmer, Tina; Pattiselanno, Kim; Franken, Aart|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/330827219; Harakeh, Zeena|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/297964283; Vollebergh, Wilma|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/090632893; Veenstra, René

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: One explanation for the increase in delinquency in adolescence is that young people are trapped in the so-called maturity gap: the discrepancy between biological and social maturation, which motivates them to engage in delinquency as a temporary means to bridge this gap by emphasizing th

  7. Distinguishing the City, Neighbourhood and Individual Level in the Explanation of Youth Delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijters, Gijs; Scheepers, Peer; Gerris, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Previous research on intercity differences in crime rates neglects individual determinants of youth delinquency, whereas studies focusing on neighbourhoodand individual-level explanations of youth delinquency neglect higher-level, city characteristics. This raises the question of the extent to which

  8. Is Neighborhood Context Differently Related to Externalizing Problems and Delinquency for Girls Compared with Boys?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroneman, Leoniek; Loeber, Rolf; Hipwell, Alison E.

    2004-01-01

    Although a number of reviews of gender differences in conduct problems and delinquency exist, this paper fills a gap in reviewing neighborhood influences on gender differences in conduct problems and delinquency. These influences are known to be important for boys in childhood and adolescence, but cannot be assumed to be influential in the same…

  9. Parent and Peer Pathways to Adolescent Delinquency: Variations by Ethnicity and Neighborhood Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Arielle R.; Crockett, Lisa J.; Wolff, Jennifer M.; Russell, Stephen T.

    2012-01-01

    Effects of ethnicity and neighborhood quality often are confounded in research on adolescent delinquent behavior. This study examined the pathways to delinquency among 2,277 African American and 5,973 European American youth residing in high-risk and low-risk neighborhoods. Using data from a national study of youth, a meditational model was tested…

  10. Race, Gender, Single-Mother Households, and Delinquency: A Further Test of Power-Control Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Kristin Y.; Leiber, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    Using power-control theory as the theoretical framework, the present study examines the gender gap in delinquency for White and African American youth from single-mother households. The research is driven by the need to focus more attention on understanding how delinquency theories apply across different racial groups. Results from both bivariate…

  11. Juvenile Battens Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayton, Romayne

    1987-01-01

    Ten children diagnosed with juvenile Battens disease were tested over a three-year period in general intelligence, memory, listening and speech, motor skills, and general learning. Results showed that the patients followed a predetermined pattern but that the time span for development of memory, communication, and behavior problems varied greatly.…

  12. Juvenile Battens Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayton, Romayne

    1987-01-01

    Ten children diagnosed with juvenile Battens disease were tested over a three-year period in general intelligence, memory, listening and speech, motor skills, and general learning. Results showed that the patients followed a predetermined pattern but that the time span for development of memory, communication, and behavior problems varied greatly.…

  13. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prakken, Berent; Albani, Salvatore; Martini, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is a heterogeneous group of diseases characterised by arthritis of unknown origin with onset before age of 16 years. Pivotal studies in the past 5 years have led to substantial progress in various areas, ranging from disease classification to new treatments. Gene expres

  14. Alarms Remain,Efforts Continue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alice

    2007-01-01

    @@ China must come to terms with the fact that it has quality problems in at least 1% of its products.Though there is no country in the world that can completely avoid problems,given the responsible role China plays on the intemational stage,China should stop to take a look at itself and find ways to improve.China must examine herself carefully,when looking at the production chain;we have to keep aware that some alarms still remain.

  15. The association of psychopathic traits with aggression and delinquency in non-referred boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsee, Monica A; Silverthorn, Persephanie; Frick, Paul J

    2005-01-01

    The current study investigated the association of psychopathic traits with aggression and delinquency in a non-referred sample of boys (n=86) and girls (n=114) in the fifth through ninth grades at two public schools in a large urban area. Psychopathic traits were measured by both teacher- and self-report ratings, whereas aggression and delinquency were assessed through self-report ratings. Self-reported psychopathic traits were associated with both aggression and delinquency and teacher-reported psychopathic traits were associated with higher levels of aggression. There were no clear differences for the callous-unemotional, narcissism, or impulsivity dimensions in their associations with aggression and delinquency. Also, psychopathic traits predicted aggression and delinquency for both boys and girls. The one clear gender difference was in the stronger associations between psychopathic traits and relational aggression for girls.

  16. Person × Environment Interactions on Adolescent Delinquency: Sensation Seeking, Peer Deviance and Parental Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Frank D; Kretsch, Natalie; Tackett, Jennifer L; Harden, K Paige; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M

    2015-04-01

    Sensation seeking is a personality trait that is robustly correlated with delinquent behavior in adolescence. The current study tested specific contextual factors hypothesized to facilitate, exacerbate or attenuate this risk factor for adolescent delinquency. Individual differences in sensation seeking, peer deviance, parental monitoring and self-reported delinquent behavior were assessed in a sample of 470 adolescents. Peer deviance partially mediated the effects of sensation seeking and parental monitoring on adolescent delinquency. We also found evidence for a three-way interaction between sensation seeking, peer deviance and parental monitoring, such that the highest rates of delinquency occurred from the concurrence of high sensation seeking, high peer deviance, and low levels of parental monitoring. Results highlight the importance of considering peer- and family-level processes when evaluating personality risk and problematic adolescent behavior.

  17. Neighborhood disorder, individual protective factors, and the risk of adolescent delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Wilma J

    2002-01-01

    Traditionally, violent and delinquent behaviors have been addressed by the criminal justice system, with the focus being secondary and tertiary interventions. During the last decade, the focus on violence as a public health issue has increased. The purpose of this research was to examine how individual protective factors for adolescent delinquency varied according to neighborhood quality. The researcher conducted a secondary data analysis, using data from the National Youth Survey A total of 1,621 adolescents comprised the sample. The majority of the respondents participated in some type of delinquent behavior, with more Blacks reporting participation in violent behaviors. There was a positive relationship between academic history and no participation in delinquent behavior. The regression model for violent delinquency accounted for 10% of the variance in the disordered neighborhoods. Primary prevention efforts, commonly used by public health nurses, should be aimed at eliminating risk factors such as those found in disordered neighborhoods.

  18. And the Dead Remain Behind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Read

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In most cultures the dead and their living relatives are held in a dialogic relationship. The dead have made it clear, while living, what they expect from their descendants. The living, for their part, wish to honour the tombs of their ancestors; at the least, to keep the graves of the recent dead from disrepair. Despite the strictures, the living can fail their responsibilities, for example, by migration to foreign countries. The peripatetic Chinese are one of the few cultures able to overcome the dilemma of the wanderer or the exile. With the help of a priest, an Australian Chinese migrant may summon the soul of an ancestor from an Asian grave to a Melbourne temple, where the spirit, though removed from its earthly vessel, will rest and remain at peace. Amongst cultures in which such practices are not culturally appropriate, to fail to honour the family dead can be exquisitely painful. Violence is the cause of most failure.

  19. Silicon photonics: some remaining challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, G. T.; Topley, R.; Khokhar, A. Z.; Thompson, D. J.; Stanković, S.; Reynolds, S.; Chen, X.; Soper, N.; Mitchell, C. J.; Hu, Y.; Shen, L.; Martinez-Jimenez, G.; Healy, N.; Mailis, S.; Peacock, A. C.; Nedeljkovic, M.; Gardes, F. Y.; Soler Penades, J.; Alonso-Ramos, C.; Ortega-Monux, A.; Wanguemert-Perez, G.; Molina-Fernandez, I.; Cheben, P.; Mashanovich, G. Z.

    2016-03-01

    This paper discusses some of the remaining challenges for silicon photonics, and how we at Southampton University have approached some of them. Despite phenomenal advances in the field of Silicon Photonics, there are a number of areas that still require development. For short to medium reach applications, there is a need to improve the power consumption of photonic circuits such that inter-chip, and perhaps intra-chip applications are viable. This means that yet smaller devices are required as well as thermally stable devices, and multiple wavelength channels. In turn this demands smaller, more efficient modulators, athermal circuits, and improved wavelength division multiplexers. The debate continues as to whether on-chip lasers are necessary for all applications, but an efficient low cost laser would benefit many applications. Multi-layer photonics offers the possibility of increasing the complexity and effectiveness of a given area of chip real estate, but it is a demanding challenge. Low cost packaging (in particular, passive alignment of fibre to waveguide), and effective wafer scale testing strategies, are also essential for mass market applications. Whilst solutions to these challenges would enhance most applications, a derivative technology is emerging, that of Mid Infra-Red (MIR) silicon photonics. This field will build on existing developments, but will require key enhancements to facilitate functionality at longer wavelengths. In common with mainstream silicon photonics, significant developments have been made, but there is still much left to do. Here we summarise some of our recent work towards wafer scale testing, passive alignment, multiplexing, and MIR silicon photonics technology.

  20. Late Onset Juvenile Xanthogranuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punithwavathy K

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A 19 year old female was seen with multiple skin coloured and hyperpigmented macules, discrete as well as grouped papules and nodules of varying sizes distributed over the face, neck, extensor and flexor aspects of both upper and lower extremities including joints. The trunk was spared. Some of the lesions showed features of spontaneous regression. Investigations confirmed the diagnosis of juvenile xanthogranuloma. Lesions regressed satisfactorily with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy.

  1. Juvenile Incarceration and Health

    OpenAIRE

    Barnert, ES; R Perry; Morris, RE

    2015-01-01

    © 2015. Addressing the health status and needs of incarcerated youth represents an issue at the nexus of juvenile justice reform and health care reform. Incarcerated youth face disproportionately higher morbidity and higher mortality compared to the general adolescent population. Dental health, reproductive health, and mental health needs are particularly high, likely as a result of lower access to care, engagement in high-risk behaviors, and underlying health disparities. Violence exposure a...

  2. Juvenile Ultracool Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Rice, Emily L; Cruz, Kelle; Barman, Travis; Looper, Dagny; Malo, Lison; Mamajek, Eric E; Metchev, Stanimir; Shkolnik, Evgenya L

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile ultracool dwarfs are late spectral type objects (later than ~M6) with ages between 10 Myr and several 100 Myr. Their age-related properties lie intermediate between very low mass objects in nearby star-forming regions (ages 1-5 Myr) and field stars and brown dwarfs that are members of the disk population (ages 1-5 Gyr). Kinematic associations of nearby young stars with ages from ~10-100 Myr provide sources for juvenile ultracool dwarfs. The lowest mass confirmed members of these groups are late-M dwarfs. Several apparently young L dwarfs and a few T dwarfs are known, but they have not been kinematically associated with any groups. Normalizing the field IMF to the high mass population of these groups suggests that more low mass (mainly late-M and possibly L dwarf) members have yet to be found. The lowest mass members of these groups, along with low mass companions to known young stars, provide benchmark objects with which spectroscopic age indicators for juvenile ultracool dwarfs can be calibrated and...

  3. Maternal and paternal parenting styles: unique and combined links to adolescent and early adult delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeve, Machteld; Dubas, Judith Semon; Gerris, Jan R M; van der Laan, Peter H; Smeenk, Wilma

    2011-10-01

    The present study examines the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between fathers' and mothers' parenting styles and male and female delinquency using a sample of 330 Dutch families with a mid or late adolescent son or daughter (ages 14-22), followed across two measurement waves with a 5-year interval. Parenting styles of fathers and mothers were linked to delinquency. A significant parenting style by sex interaction was found: neglectful parenting was related to higher levels of delinquency in males and permissive parenting was linked to delinquency in females. A long term relationship was found between fathers' neglectful parenting style and delinquency in males. Furthermore, results revealed that levels of delinquency were the lowest in families with at least one authoritative parent and highest in families with two neglectful parents, indicating that the level of delinquency was dependent on the combination of mother's and father's parenting styles. Copyright © 2011 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Impulsivity moderates promotive environmental influences on adolescent delinquency: a comparison across family, school, and neighborhood contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pan; Jacobson, Kristen C

    2013-10-01

    The present study examined moderating effects of impulsivity on the relationships between promotive factors from family (family warmth, parental knowledge), school (school connectedness), and neighborhood (neighborhood cohesion) contexts with delinquency using data collected from N = 2,978 sixth to eighth graders from 16 schools surrounding a major city in the Midwestern United States. More than half of the respondents were non-Caucasian (M age  = 12.48; 41.0 % male). Multilevel modeling analyses were conducted to take into account the clustering of the participants within schools. Impulsivity was positively associated with adolescent delinquency. Additionally, family warmth, parental knowledge, and school connectedness, but not neighborhood cohesion, were independently and inversely related to adolescent delinquency. Finally, impulsivity moderated relationships between family warmth and parental knowledge with delinquency but not relationships between school attachment and neighborhood cohesion with delinquency. Specifically, the negative relationship between family warmth and delinquency was significant for adolescents with high levels of, but not for those with below-average levels of, impulsivity. In addition, parental knowledge had a stronger association with decreased levels of delinquency for adolescents reporting higher levels of impulsivity. The moderating effects of impulsivity did not differ for males and females or for minority and non-minority participants. Findings indicate that impulsivity may have greater impact on adolescents' susceptibility to positive family influences than on their susceptibility to promotive factors from school or neighborhood contexts. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.

  5. Effects of self-concept and perceived disapproval of delinquent behavior in school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, K; Lau, S

    1988-08-01

    It is argued that a multidimensional approach to self-concept may reveal intricate relations between self-concept and delinquent behavior, and that perceived approval of delinquent behaviors from referent groups may be related to the frequency of their occurrence. To evaluate these hypotheses, 1668 students from Grade 7 to Grade 9 responded to a questionnaire that measured their general self-esteem; their self-concept with regard to physical ability, social ability, physical appearance, and academic ability; the frequency they committed 15 delinquent acts; and the perceived approval of committing these acts from their parents, teachers, and friends. Regression analyses indicated that poor academic self-concept and poor relationship with school and parents were related to a higher frequency of delinquent behavior. However, a higher frequency of delinquent behavior was related to a more positive selfconcept with regard to social ability and physical ability. Finally, higher perceived approval from parents and peers was related to more delinquent behavior. Implications of these findings for identifying the antecedents and consequences of delinquent behavior were discussed.

  6. Possible causes for growth variability and summer growth reduction in juvenile plaice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veer, H.W.; Jung, A.S.; Freitas, V.; Philippart, C.J.; Witte, J.IJ.

    2016-01-01

    Growth variability within individuals and among groups and locations and the phenomenon of summer growth reduction has been described for juvenile flatfish in a variety of European coastal areas whereby the underlying causes still remain elusive. Potential mechanisms were tested for juvenile plaice

  7. PARENTAL ACCEPTANCE / REJECTION AND EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AMONG ADOLESCENTS WITH AND WITHOUT DELINQUENT BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orhideja ŠURBANOVSKA

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This paper analyzes the parental acceptance or rejection and the emotional intelligence among adolescents with and without delinquent behavior. Objectives: The primary objective of this study is to explore the differences between parents’ acceptance/rejection (by mother and father, respectively and the emotional intelligence among adolescentswith and without delinquent behavior, as well as the correlation between parents’ acceptance/rejection (by mother and father, respectively and the emotional intelligence among minors with delinquent behavior. Methods: The survey was conducted on two groups of adolescents, that is, 30 respondents serving a prison sentence for minors and/or have been imposed an educational measure of referral to an Educational and Correctional Facility aged 14 to 18, and 40 respondents that are secondary school students at the same age. In this research, the terms minors and adolescents both refer to persons aged 14-18 years. All respondents were males. The following measuring instruments were used: Parental Acceptance/Rejection Questionnaire and a Questionnaire for Measuring Emotional Intelligence – 45. Results: Minors with and without delinquent behavior differ considerably in terms of perceiving parental acceptance (by the mother and by the father, aggressiveness, neglect and undifferentiated rejection. The feeling of being rejected by the parents is more common among minors with delinquent behavior than in those without such behavior. Furthermore, minors with delinquent behavior have lower emotional intelligence compared with their peers without delinquent behavior. Positive associations were found between parental acceptance and emotional intelligence. Conclusion: Minors with delinquent behavior have experienced lower acceptance and higher rejection from the parents and have lower emotional intelligence than their peers without delinquent behavior. In general, parental acceptance is associated with

  8. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions juvenile idiopathic arthritis juvenile idiopathic arthritis Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Juvenile idiopathic arthritis refers to a group of conditions involving joint ...

  9. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile primary osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions juvenile primary osteoporosis juvenile primary osteoporosis Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... PDF Open All Close All Description Juvenile primary osteoporosis is a skeletal disorder characterized by thinning of ...

  10. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile myoclonic epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions juvenile myoclonic epilepsy juvenile myoclonic epilepsy Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... PDF Open All Close All Description Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy is a condition characterized by recurrent seizures (epilepsy). ...

  11. A Comparison of Female Delinquents: The Impact of Child Maltreatment Histories on Risk and Need Characteristics among a Missouri Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Dannerbeck-Janku

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available While boys who offend have been a dominant majority and primary concern of the juvenile court since its earliest days, the population of delinquent girls has increased in recent years at a far higher rate in the U.S. The special challenges presented by females, however, continue to be generally overlooked by the justice system. Moreover, while a few specialized programs now serve these girls, the field tends to view young female offenders as a homogeneous group; what distinguishes particular female subpopulations and the characteristics associated with different criminal trajectories have gone largely unexplored. Employing data from the state of Missouri, this study examines girls who offend, identifying models that predict subsequent violent behavior that include indicators such as parental substance abuse and incarceration, and offender substance abuse, mental health, and school behavior. Special attention is given to the effects of child maltreatment, which we find significantly, but weakly correlated with violent behavior. The authors conclude by considering the possibility that maltreatment may be correlated with other criminogenic factors, and by discussing the implications of findings for future research and practice, especially services that take into account the trauma experienced by young women who come to the attention of state authorities.

  12. Cutmarked human remains bearing Neandertal features and modern human remains associated with the Aurignacian at Les Rois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez Rozzi, Fernando V; d'Errico, Francesco; Vanhaeren, Marian; Grootes, Pieter M; Kerautret, Bertrand; Dujardin, Véronique

    2009-01-01

    The view that Aurignacian technologies and their associated symbolic manifestations represent the archaeologicalproxy for the spread of Anatomically Modern Humans into Europe, is supported by few diagnostic human remains, including those from the Aurignacian site of Les Rois in south-western France. Here we reassess the taxonomic attribution of the human remains, their cultural affiliation, and provide five new radiocarbon dates for the site. Patterns of tooth growth along with the morphological and morphometric analysis of the human remains indicate that a juvenile mandible showing cutmarks presents some Neandertal features, whereas another mandible is attributed to Anatomically Modern Humans. Reappraisal of the archaeological sequence demonstrates that human remains derive from two layers dated to 28-30 kyr BP attributed to the Aurignacian, the only cultural tradition detected at the site. Three possible explanations may account for this unexpected evidence. The first one is that the Aurignacian was exclusively produced by AMH and that the child mandible from unit A2 represents evidence for consumption or, more likely, symbolic use of a Neandertal child by Aurignacian AMH The second possible explanation is that Aurignacian technologies were produced at Les Rois by human groups bearing both AMH and Neandertal features. Human remains from Les Rois would be in this case the first evidence of a biological contact between the two human groups. The third possibility is that all human remains from Les Rois represent an AMH population with conserved plesiomorphic characters suggesting a larger variation in modern humans from the Upper Palaeolithic.

  13. Juvenile Justice Bulletin: Aftercare Services. Juvenile Justice Practices Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gies, Steve V.

    This bulletin examines aftercare services that provide youth with comprehensive health, education, family, and vocational services upon their release from the juvenile justice system. Aftercare can be defined as reintegrative services that prepare out-of-home placed juveniles for reentry into the community by reestablishing the necessary…

  14. The role of neuroinflammation in juvenile bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Serra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A pathophysiological relationship has been reported between inflammatory processes, decreased levels of neurotrophins, increased oxidative stress and psychiatric disorders in both juvenile and adult ages. Moreover, this relationship remains unclear in juvenile bipolar disorder (BD. We performed a systematic literature review of studies reporting measurements of inflammatory markers, oxidative stress markers or neurotrophins in juvenile and young adult subjects with BD. Concordant findings showed that inflammatory markers are increased since the earlier stages of BD. A positive correlation between decreased levels of a peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor and juvenile BD is controversial suggesting that those changes might occur only during the late stage of BD. No changes in central glutathione levels were reported in young adult age BD indicating that oxidative stress may be an outcome of long illness duration and repeated affective episodes. In conclusion, preliminary findings indicate that a certain relationship exists between inflammatory process and juvenile BD but evidence are insufficient to support a causal relationship. Adequately powered and prospective studies are warranted to clarify the role of inflammation, neurotrophins and oxidative stress in juvenile BD.

  15. Miastenia gravis juvenil Juvenile myasthenia gravis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Papazian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La miastenia gravis juvenil (MGJ es un trastorno crónico auto inmune en el cual existen anticuerpos séricos que al unirse a los receptores de acetilcolin nicotínicos de la membrana muscular de la placa motora alteran la transmisión neuromuscular. El resultado es fatiga muscular precoz con progresión a la parálisis durante estados de contracción muscular iterativos (movimientos o sostenidos (posturas y más raramente parálisis permanente durante el reposo. Los músculos inervados por los nervios craneales, especialmente los extraoculares y elevadores de los párpados, tienen más tendencia a la debilidad muscular persistente que los inervados por otros pares craneales y las extremidades. Las formas clínicas de presentación son generalizadas, oculares y respiratorias. El diagnóstico se sospecha mediante la anamnesia, la fatiga anormal se comprueba mediante el examen físico y la estimulación eléctrica iterativa del nervio que inerva al músculo afectado pero no paralizado. Se corrobora mediante la administración de inhibidores de la acetilcolin esterasa (IACE que al aumentar la cantidad de acetilcolin en la hendidura sináptica, corrigen la fatiga o la debilidad muscular transitoriamente. Se hace el diagnóstico de certeza mediante la demostración sérica de anticuerpos contra los receptores de acetilcolin (ACRA. El tratamiento es a largo plazo sintomático con IACE y etiopatogénico con inmunosupresores, plasmaféresis, gamma globulina endovenosa y timectomía. El curso es crónico. La remisión espontánea o después de tratamiento sintomático o etiopatogénico ocurre entre 1-10 años respectivamente. La mortalidad es prácticamente nula aun durantes las crisis miastenias gracias a la educación de padres, pacientes y público en general sobre el tema, al desarrollo del sistema de respuesta rápida de auxilio domiciliario y las unidades de cuidados intensivos y el empleo de la ventilación asistida profiláctica, plasmaféresis y

  16. The Effect of Emotional Intelligence and Parental Social Support on Social Adjustment of Juvenile Delinquents:The Direct Effect or the Stress-buffer Effect?%情绪智力和父母社会支持对犯罪青少年社会适应的影响:直接效应还是缓冲效应?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金灿灿; 邹泓; 侯珂

    2011-01-01

    Previous research suggested that social adjustment had a close relationship with emotional intelligence and parental social support of adolescents;however,the situation of social adjustment,emotional intelligence and parental social support of delinquent juveniles and their relationships weren't clear.At the same time,previous research suggested there were the "direct effect" and the "stress-buffer" hypotheses of parental social support on social adjustment;nevertheless,the effect of social support on social adjustment of delinquent juveniles hasn't been well-confirmed.According to the above two points,we hypothesized that there were obvious differences of emotional intelligence,parental social support and social adjustment between juvenile delinquents and ordinary juveniles;we also hypothesized that there were both the direct effect and the stress-buffer effect of parental social support on social adjustment for delinquent juveniles. To test these hypotheses,questionnaires about the situation of social adjustment,emotional intelligence and parental social support were administered to 499 juvenile delinquents and 504 ordinary juveniles from Shanghai and Kunming.Firstly,we used analysis of variance to examine the differences of social adjustment,emotional intelligence and parental social support between juvenile delinquents and ordinary adolescents;Secondly,we used SEM to examine the effect of the prediction of emotional intelligence on social adjustment of juvenile delinquents to test the direct effect partially;Finally,SEM were used to examine the moderation of parental social support on the prediction of emotional intelligence on social adjustment of delinquent juveniles to test the stress-buffer effect and to test the direct effect partially. The findings suggested that(1) the scores of emotional intelligence,parental social support and social adjustment of ordinary adolescents were higher than those of juvenile delinquents;(2) In the

  17. Juvenile Dermatomyositis in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Emeka Madu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile dermatomyositis has variable clinical presentations both in and outside of pregnancy. A literature review indicated that optimal maternal and fetal outcomes can be anticipated when the pregnancy is undertaken while the disease is in remission. Poorer outcomes are associated with flare-up of the disease in early pregnancy compared with exacerbation in the second or third trimester, when fetal prognosis is usually good. We present a case of JDM in pregnancy with disease exacerbation late in pregnancy and review of the relevant literature.

  18. Juvenile dermatomyositis in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madu, Anthony Emeka; Omih, Edwin; Baguley, Elaine; Lindow, Stephen W

    2013-01-01

    Juvenile dermatomyositis has variable clinical presentations both in and outside of pregnancy. A literature review indicated that optimal maternal and fetal outcomes can be anticipated when the pregnancy is undertaken while the disease is in remission. Poorer outcomes are associated with flare-up of the disease in early pregnancy compared with exacerbation in the second or third trimester, when fetal prognosis is usually good. We present a case of JDM in pregnancy with disease exacerbation late in pregnancy and review of the relevant literature.

  19. Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larralde, M; Santos-Muñoz, A; Calb, I; Magariños, C

    2001-01-01

    Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis (JHF) is a rare autosomal recessive disease with onset in infancy or early childhood. It is characterized by papulonodular skin lesions, soft tissue masses, gingival hypertrophy, and flexion contractures of the large joints. The light and electron microscopic features are very distinctive. Here we report an 8-month-old boy with characteristic stiffness of the knees and elbows and pink confluent papules on the paranasal folds, and periauricular and perianal regions. He also had hard nodules all over the scalp and around the mouth, and severe gingival hypertrophy. Histologic and ultrastructural features were typical of JHF. Clinical features, pathology, and physiology are discussed.

  20. Differences in the prevalence and impact of risk factors for general recidivism between different types of juveniles who have committed sexual offenses (JSOs) and juveniles who have committed nonsexual offenses (NSOs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Put, Claudia E; van Vugt, Eveline S; Stams, Geert Jan J M; Deković, Maja; van der Laan, Peter H

    2013-02-01

    To date, there is surprisingly little research on differences in the prevalence and impact of risk factors for general recidivism between juveniles who have committed sexual offenses (JSO) and juveniles who have committed nonsexual offenses (NSO). Therefore, we examined differences in the prevalence and impact of dynamic risk factors for general delinquency between youth with nonsexual offenses (NSO, n = 504), youth with misdemeanor sexual offenders (MSO, n = 136), youth with felony sexual offenders (FSO, n = 116) and youth with offenses against much younger children (CSO, n = 373). The sample consisted of boys with a mean age of 15.3 years (SD = 1.5). The prevalence of dynamic risk factors for general delinquency was significantly lower in JSOs than in NSOs. More serious sexual offenses were associated with a lower prevalence of dynamic risk factors. In contrast, the impact of most dynamic risk factors on general recidivism proved to be significantly larger among JSOs compared to NSOs. The relative importance of the dynamic risk factors varied for each type of JSO, resulting in differences in the dynamic risk profiles of the various types of JSOs.

  1. Juvenile Justice in Rural America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankovic, Joanne, Ed.; And Others

    Producing a much-needed organized body of literature about rural juvenile justice, 14 papers (largely from the 1979 National Symposium on Rural Justice) are organized to identify current issues, identify forces causing changes in current systems, review programs responding to rural juvenile justice problems, and provide planning models to aid…

  2. The moderating effects of religiosity on the relationship between stressful life events and delinquent behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew C; Morris, Robert G

    2008-01-01

    Previous research has shown that many forms of strain are positively related to delinquency. Evidence also suggests that religiosity buffers the effects of strain on offending, but this issue requires further research. Using data from a national sample of adolescents, this study examined whether or not religiosity conditioned the relationship between strain and delinquency. This study also looked at the ability of social support, self-esteem, and depression to moderate the influence of strain on delinquent behavior. The findings here lend support to general strain theory in that strain had a direct positive effect on delinquency, yet there was little evidence that the relationship was moderated by religiosity or other conditioning variables. The roles of moderating variables on strain across genders were also considered.

  3. Boekbespreking van C. Nas, ‘EQUIPping’ delinquent male adolescents to think pro-socially

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, René

    2006-01-01

    Bespreking (review) van: Coralijn Nas, ‘EQUIPping’ delinquent male adolescents to think pro-socially (diss. Utrecht), Faculteit Sociale Wetenschappen, Universiteit Utrecht, 2005, 107 blz., ISBN 90-8559-054-x.

  4. Offender risk assessment in delinquent minors and probation service in the USA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chirkina R.V; Degtyaryov A.V; Galushkin A.A

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the review of American researchers concerning the application of the method of offender risk assessment in delinquent minors and techniques, which can be qualified as Structured Decision Making – SDM...

  5. The Association between Romantic Relationships and Delinquency in Adolescence and Young Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ming; Ueno, Koji; Fincham, Frank D; Donnellan, M Brent; Wickrama, K A S

    2012-06-01

    This study examined the association between romantic relationships and delinquency in adolescence and young adulthood. Using a large, longitudinal, and nationally representative sample, results from negative binomial regressions showed a positive association between romantic involvement and delinquency in adolescence. Further, the cumulative number of romantic relationships from adolescence to young adulthood was positively related to delinquency in young adulthood even controlling for earlier delinquency in adolescence. These analyses also controlled for the effects of participant gender, age at initial assessment, puberty, race/ethnicity, and other demographic characteristics (e.g., family structure and parents' education). Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for understanding the role of romantic relationships in the development of young people and for stimulating future research questions.

  6. Explaining workplace delinquency: The role of Honesty–Humility, ethical culture, and employee surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Reinout Everhard; van Gelder, Jean-Louis

    2015-01-01

    In this research the effects of personality and organizational characteristics on workplace delinquency were investigated. In a sample of 455 respondents from a wide variety of organizations, two personality traits, HEXACO Honesty–Humility and Conscientiousness, and two organizational

  7. Examining the Relation Between Adolescent Social Anxiety, Adolescent Delinquency (Abstention), and Emerging Adulthood Relationship Quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mercer, Natalie; Crocetti, Elisabetta|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/371750946; Meeus, Wim|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070442215; Branje, Susan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/192657860

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Social anxiety symptoms and delinquency are two prevalent manifestations of problem behavior during adolescence and both are related to negative interpersonal relationships in adolescence and emerging adulthood. This study examined the relation between social anxiety and d

  8. Explaining workplace delinquency: The role of Honesty–Humility, ethical culture, and employee surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Reinout Everhard; van Gelder, Jean-Louis

    2015-01-01

    In this research the effects of personality and organizational characteristics on workplace delinquency were investigated. In a sample of 455 respondents from a wide variety of organizations, two personality traits, HEXACO Honesty–Humility and Conscientiousness, and two organizational characteristic

  9. Serious Delinquency and Gang Participation: Combining and Specializing in Drug Selling, Theft and Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Rachel A; Rowe, Hillary L; Pardini, Dustin; Loeber, Rolf; White, Helene Raskin; Farrington, David P

    2014-06-01

    Using Pittsburgh Youth Study data, we examined the extent to which over 600 gang members and non-gang involved young men specialized in drug selling, serious theft, or serious violence or engaged simultaneously in these serious delinquent behaviors, throughout the 1990s. We found that the increase in delinquency associated with gang membership was concentrated in two combinations: serious violence and drug selling; serious violence, drug selling, and serious theft. Several covariates were similarly associated with multi-type serious delinquency and gang membership (age, historical time, Black race, and residential mobility), suggesting that these behaviors may share common developmental, familial, and contextual risks. We encourage future research to further examine the association of gang membership with engagement in particular configurations of serious delinquency.

  10. Delinquency, parental involvement, early adult criminality, and sex: Evidence of moderated mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Glenn D

    2013-08-01

    One purpose of this study was to determine whether parental involvement, measured in late adolescence, mediates the relationship between delinquency in mid-adolescence and crime in early adulthood. This study's second purpose was to ascertain whether this relationship is moderated by sex, such that late adolescent parental involvement mediates the delinquency-crime relationship in females but not in males. A secondary analysis of data provided by 579 (272 males, 307 females) members of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Child (NLSYC) was conducted in an effort to evaluate the possibility of moderated mediation in the relationship between delinquency at age 16, parental involvement at age 18, and criminality at age 24. Moderated mediation analysis, path analysis, and causal mediation analysis revealed the presence of a conditional indirect relationship between delinquency, parental involvement, and adult crime moderated by sex. These results are consistent with views on cumulative disadvantage and gendered pathways to crime.

  11. The Association between Romantic Relationships and Delinquency in Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ming; Ueno, Koji; Fincham, Frank D.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Wickrama, K. A. S.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the association between romantic relationships and delinquency in adolescence and young adulthood. Using a large, longitudinal, and nationally representative sample, results from negative binomial regressions showed a positive association between romantic involvement and delinquency in adolescence. Further, the cumulative number of romantic relationships from adolescence to young adulthood was positively related to delinquency in young adulthood even controlling for earlier delinquency in adolescence. These analyses also controlled for the effects of participant gender, age at initial assessment, puberty, race/ethnicity, and other demographic characteristics (e.g., family structure and parents’ education). Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for understanding the role of romantic relationships in the development of young people and for stimulating future research questions. PMID:22984343

  12. Online games and juvenile crime%网络游戏与青少年犯罪

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申志国

    2012-01-01

    Online gaming is the rise in recent years, a new entertainment and emerg ng industries, the phenomenon of Online Game Addiction and more serious, induced by the .online game juvenile delinquency occur frequently. Departure from the characteristics of the network characteristics of the game itself and adolescents, in.depth analysis of online games on juvenile delinquency. Finally, the corresponding measures%网络游戏是近年来兴起的一个新的娱乐方式和新兴产业,青少年网络游戏成瘾的现象越来越严重,而由网络游戏诱发的青少年犯罪也频频发生。本文从网络游戏本身的特点和青少年自身特点出发,深入分析网络游戏对青少年犯罪的影响。最后提出相应的应对措施。

  13. Delinquent Medical Service Accounts at Naval Medical Center Portsmouth Need Additional Management Oversight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-04

    H 4 , 2 0 1 5 Delinquent Medical Service Accounts at Naval Medical Center Portsmouth Need Additional Management Oversight Report No. DODIG-2015...04 MAR 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Delinquent Medical Service Accounts at Naval...of Defense that supports the warfighter; promotes accountability , integrity, and efficiency; advises the Secretary of Defense and Congress; and

  14. Delinquent Medical Service Accounts at Landstuhl Regional Medical Center Need Additional Management Oversight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-28

    HEALTH AFFAIRS) AUDITOR GENERAL , DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUBJECT: Delinquent Medical Service Accounts at Landstuhl Regional Medical Center Need...accordance with generally accepted government auditing standards. We considered management comments on a draft of this report when preparing the final...Inspector General . RHCE UBO will adhere to ABACUS grouping code reports and the message logs under the legacy process to ensure tracking of delinquent

  15. Obstetrical complications and violent delinquency: testing two developmental pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arseneault, Louise; Tremblay, Richard E; Boulerice, Bernard; Saucier, Jean-François

    2002-01-01

    This study focused on the interaction between specific obstetrical complications and early family adversity in predicting violent behavior during childhood and adolescence, in a sample of 849 boys from low socioeconomic areas of Montreal, Canada. Obstetrical complication data from medical records were used to create three scales using a nonlinear principal component analysis followed by rotation. Family adversity and teacher-rated physical aggression were assessed when the boys were in kindergarten and self-reports of delinquency were collected when they were 17. Elevated scores on the Deadly Risk Situation scale of obstetrical complications (preeclampsia, umbilical cord prolapse, and induced labor) increased the risk of being violent at both 6 and 17 years of age, only among boys who grew up in high adverse familial environments. Moreover, this interaction partly accounted for the continuity between violence in childhood and adolescence. Interventions for young pregnant women from deprived environments and their babies are discussed in light of these results.

  16. A Longitudinal Study of the Prevalence, Development, and Persistence of HIV/STI Risk Behaviors in Delinquent Youth: Implications for Health Care in the Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Erin Gregory; Teplin, Linda A.; McClelland, Gary M.; Abram, Karen M.; Welty, Leah J.; Washburn, Jason J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective . To examine the prevalence, development, and persistence of sex and drug behaviors that place delinquent youth at risk for human immunodeficiency virus and other sexually transmitted infections (HIV/STI). Methods At the baseline interview, HIV/STI drug and sex risk behaviors were assessed in a stratified random sample of 800 juvenile detainees, aged 10 to 18 years. Participants were re-interviewed approximately 3 years later (mean [SD] follow-up, 3.2 [0.3] years; median follow-up, 3.1 years). The final sample in these analyses (n = 724) includes 316 females and 408 males, 393 African Americans, 198 Hispanics, 131 non-Hispanic whites, and 2 participants who self-identified as “other.” Results Nearly three quarters of youth engaged in one or more unprotected sexual risk behaviors at follow-up. Over 60% had engaged in 10 or more risk behaviors at their baseline interview, and nearly two thirds of them persisted in 10 or more risk behaviors at follow-up. Among youth living in the community, many behaviors were more prevalent at follow-up than at baseline. Among incarcerated youth, the opposite pattern prevailed. Development and persistence of HIV/STI risk behaviors differed by gender, race/ethnicity, and age, even after adjusting for incarceration status. Compared with females, males had higher prevalence rates of many HIV/STI risk behaviors and were more likely to persist in some behaviors and develop new ones. Yet, injection risk behaviors were more prevalent among females than males and were also more likely to develop and persist. Compared with persons younger than 18, persons 18 and older had higher prevalence rates of many HIV/STI risk behaviors at follow-up. Overall, there were few racial and ethnic differences in patterns of HIV/STI risk behaviors; most involved the initiation and persistence of substance use among non-Hispanic whites and Hispanics. Conclusions Because detained youth have a median stay of only 2 weeks, HIV/STI risk behaviors in

  17. Development pathways from abusive parenting to delinquency: the mediating role of depression and aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Sukkyung; Lim, Sun Ah

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the long-term relationship between abusive parenting and adolescent mental health, and the path to delinquent behavior. Longitudinal data from 5th through 7th graders from the Korean Children and Youth Panel Survey (KCYPS) were analyzed to examine if abusive parenting was a predictor of early adolescent delinquency behavior, via aggression and depression as mediating factors. The results were as follows. First, parental abuse (both emotional and physical) was found to have significant effects on children's psychosocial factors (aggression and depression), while parental neglect (both emotional and physical) had significant effects on depression alone and not on aggression. Second, aggression exerted significant effects on both violent and non-violent delinquent behaviors, while depression had a significant effect on only non-violent delinquent behaviors. Third, children's psychosocial factors (aggression and depression) played significant mediating roles between earlier abusive parenting and delinquent behaviors. Fourth, for children living in a family with their grandparents, paths from abusive parenting, psychosocial adaptation, and later delinquent behaviors were not significant, implying that living with grandparents played a protective factor in these relationships.

  18. Violent video games and delinquent behavior in adolescents: A risk factor perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exelmans, Liese; Custers, Kathleen; Van den Bulck, Jan

    2015-05-01

    Over the years, criminological research has identified a number of risk factors that contribute to the development of aggressive and delinquent behavior. Although studies have identified media violence in general and violent video gaming in particular as significant predictors of aggressive behavior, exposure to violent video games has been largely omitted from the risk factor literature on delinquent behavior. This cross-sectional study therefore investigates the relationship between violent video game play and adolescents' delinquent behavior using a risk factor approach. An online survey was completed by 3,372 Flemish adolescents, aged 12-18 years old. Data were analyzed by means of negative binomial regression modelling. Results indicated a significant contribution of violent video games in delinquent behavior over and beyond multiple known risk variables (peer delinquency, sensation seeking, prior victimization, and alienation). Moreover, the final model that incorporated the gaming genres proved to be significantly better than the model without the gaming genres. Results provided support for a cumulative and multiplicative risk model for delinquent behavior. Aggr. Behav. 41:267-279, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Developing ocean ecosystem indicators for sea turtle bycatch and juvenile recruitment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The long-term variability of sea turtle populations remains poorly understood, limiting science and management. Although juveniles are the most numerous population...

  20. Managing juvenile Huntington’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Quarrell, Oliver W. J.; Nance, Martha A.; Nopoulos, Peggy; Paulsen, Jane S.; Smith, Jonathan A.; Squitieri, Ferdinando

    2013-01-01

    Huntington’s disease (HD) is a well-recognized progressive neurodegenerative disorder that follows an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. Onset is insidious and can occur at almost any age, but most commonly the diagnosis is made between the ages of 35 and 55 years. Onset ≤20 years of age is classified as juvenile HD (JHD). This age-based definition is arbitrary but remains convenient. There is overlap between the clinical pathological and genetic features seen in JHD and more traditio...