WorldWideScience

Sample records for juvenile death penalty

  1. Less Guilty by Reason of Adolescence: Developmental Immaturity, Diminished Responsibility, and the Juvenile Death Penalty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Laurence; Scott, Elizabeth S.

    2003-01-01

    The authors use a developmental perspective to examine questions about the criminal culpability of juveniles and the juvenile death penalty. Under principles of criminal law, culpability is mitigated when the actor's decision-making capacity is diminished, when the criminal act was coerced, or when the act was out of character. The authors argue…

  2. Eighth Amendment & Death Penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortall, Joseph M.; Merrill, Denise W.

    1987-01-01

    Presents a lesson on capital punishment for juveniles based on three hypothetical cases. The goal of the lesson is to have students understand the complexities of decisions regarding the death penalty for juveniles. (JDH)

  3. Death penalty support for special offender populations of legally convicted murderers: juveniles, the mentally retarded, and the mentally incompetent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boots, Denise Paquette; Heide, Kathleen M; Cochran, John K

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Supreme Court recently re-examined the constitutionality of the death penalty in the context of two of three special offender populations of murderers (juveniles, mentally retarded, and mentally incompetent). The Court reaffirmed the imposition of the death penalty for juveniles 16 and 17, while reversing itself on the mentally retarded. In reaching its decision, the Court relied on society's "evolving standards of decency." Using Likert-type items, this study is the first to have prospective jurors assess support for the death penalty for these specific offender groups. The public's support for the execution of each of the groups is then compared with existing case law. Descriptive statistics and regression analyses indicate that, as expected, the levels of support for the applicability of capital punishment to the various special offender populations are much lower than that for the general adult offender. Moreover, these findings are congruent with the holdings of the Court with one notable exception: a slight majority of respondents supported executing the mentally incompetent. Reasons for the public's apparent departure from the Supreme Court holding prohibiting the execution of mentally incompetent convicted murderers are discussed. The Court's continued role in protecting marginalized populations from "cruel and unusual punishment" is explored in the context of strong public sentiment demanding justice and finality despite changes in offenders' mental capacity.

  4. Are Adolescents Less Mature than Adults?: Minors' Access to Abortion, the Juvenile Death Penalty, and the Alleged APA "Flip-Flop"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Laurence; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Woolard, Jennifer; Graham, Sandra; Banich, Marie

    2009-01-01

    The American Psychological Association's (APA's) stance on the psychological maturity of adolescents has been criticized as inconsistent. In its Supreme Court amicus brief in "Roper v. Simmons" (2005), which abolished the juvenile death penalty, APA described adolescents as developmentally immature. In its amicus brief in "Hodgson v. Minnesota"…

  5. Are Adolescents Less Mature than Adults?: Minors' Access to Abortion, the Juvenile Death Penalty, and the Alleged APA "Flip-Flop"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Laurence; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Woolard, Jennifer; Graham, Sandra; Banich, Marie

    2009-01-01

    The American Psychological Association's (APA's) stance on the psychological maturity of adolescents has been criticized as inconsistent. In its Supreme Court amicus brief in "Roper v. Simmons" (2005), which abolished the juvenile death penalty, APA described adolescents as developmentally immature. In its amicus brief in "Hodgson v. Minnesota"…

  6. Teaching about the Death Penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, John Paul; Eden, John Michael

    1998-01-01

    Examines the reasons for the death penalty, the reasons why the death penalty attracts so much attention, whether the death penalty is applied consistently, and the evidence that the application of the death penalty may be racially biased. Provides an accompanying article on "Teaching Ideas" by Ronald A. Banaszak. (CMK)

  7. The Death Penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Mark

    1990-01-01

    Provides a lesson plan on the Eighth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution and the imposition of the death penalty. Focuses on the controversy concerning capital punishment and stimulates critical thinking in an analysis and discussion of eight hypothetical situations. Includes suggestions for readings, videotapes, and writing assignments. (NL)

  8. Death Penalty in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Amie L.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the legal and moral issues, controversies, and unique trial procedures involved with the death penalty. Discusses the 1972 landmark Supreme Court decision that resulted in many states abolishing this punishment, only to reintroduce it later with different provisions. Reviews the controversial case of Sam Sheppard. (MJP)

  9. METHAPHYSICS OF DEATH PENALTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Gromov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The paper studies the problem of death penalty justifiableness in terms of democratic society from the metaphysical viewpoint. Philosophical argumentation to justify death penalty is proposed as opposed to the common idea of inhuman and uncivilized nature of court practice of sentencing to death. The essence of the study is not to rehabilitate law-based murder but to explain dialectic relation of the degrees of moral responsibility of criminals and society nourishing evildoers. The author believes that refusal from death penalty under the pretence of rule of humanism is just a liberal façade, plausible excuse for defective moral state of the society which, rejecting its own guiltiness share as for current disregards of the law, does not grow but downgrades proper human dignity. Methodology. The author applies an approach of dialectic reflection being guided by the perception of unity, relativeness and complementarity of evil and good striving to determine efficient way of resolving their contradictions in the context of moral progress of the society. Originality. Proposing philosophic approach to a death penalty problem instead of legal one, the author is not going to discuss the role of horrification, control or cruelty of the measure of restraint; moreover, he does not consider the issue of its efficiency or inefficiency. The author also does not concern vexation of mind of a criminal sentenced to life imprisonment for “humanitarian” reasons. The purpose of the author is to demonstrate that aim of the punishment is to achieve justice which becomes spiritual challenge and moral recompense not only for the criminal but for the whole society. Conclusions. Crime is first of all a problem of a society; thus, criminal behaviour of certain individuals should only be considered through a prism of moral state of the whole community. Attitude to a death penalty is the problem of spirituality and its dramatic sophistication. The author

  10. Adolescents' Attitudes toward the Death Penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David; Maggioncalda-Aretz, Maria; Stark, Scott Hunter

    1997-01-01

    Examines whether high school (n=142) and college students (n=112) favored the death penalty for certain criminal acts. Findings indicate that high school students rated more criminal acts as meriting the death penalty. Gender and personality were not found to be associated with attitudes toward the death penalty. (RJM)

  11. Religious characteristics and the death penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Monica K; Hayward, R David

    2008-04-01

    Using one mock trial scenario, this study investigated whether religious and demographic factors were related to death penalty attitudes and sentencing verdicts. Those who favored the death penalty differed from those who had doubts about the penalty in gender, affiliation, fundamentalism, evangelism, literal Biblical interpretism, beliefs about God's attitudes toward murders, and perceptions of how their religious groups felt about the death penalty. These relationships generally held after mock jurors were death qualified. Gender, fundamentalism, literal interpretism, beliefs about God's death penalty position, and perceptions of how one's religious group felt about the death penalty predicted death penalty sentencing verdicts. Future research could determine whether using peremptory challenges to exclude potential jurors based on religion can help lawyers choose a more favorable jury.

  12. Psychiatry and the death penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Charles L

    2006-09-01

    Psychiatrists conducting forensic evaluations of defendants facing a potential death penalty must understand the legal and ethical parameters governing these assessments in addition to the important clinical issues. Important areas to review with each defendant include the role of the evaluator, the party requesting the evaluation, circumstances in which the evaluation is not confidential, the nature, scope, and purpose of the evaluation, and the parties to whom the results of the evaluation are to be forwarded. In those circumstances in which the defense attorney has not retained the psychiatrist, the defendant's attorney must be aware that an evaluation has been ordered by the court or requested by the prosecution. The psychiatrist also must be prepared for passionate challenges to their findings from the defense or prosecution and in some instances for vigorous attacks on their own personal ethics. To weather such storms, the mental health evaluator must base their opinion on objective evidence rather than letting any personal bias guide their assessment.

  13. Psychiatry and the death penalty.

    OpenAIRE

    Kastrup, M.

    1988-01-01

    Mentally ill people are not to be judged by the same rules as the mentally fit. Prisoners evaluated medically unfit for execution must undergo psychiatric treatment until their mental health is restored. Psychiatrists are placed in an ethical dilemma when asked to judge the mental health of prisoners on death row. A high prevalence of psychiatric and neurological disorders are reported on death row. Health professionals have an important role in implementing codes of ethics prohibiting any in...

  14. Death Penalty Issues Following Atkins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, James R.; Keyes, Denis W.

    2006-01-01

    In light of the U.S. Supreme Court's 2002 landmark decision in "Atkins v. Virginia," a diagnosis of mild mental retardation has taken on a life and death significance for people who are the most deeply involved in criminal justice. As such, each aspect of the mental retardation definition (American Association on Mental Retardation, 2002) is a…

  15. Death Penalty Issues Following Atkins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, James R.; Keyes, Denis W.

    2006-01-01

    In light of the U.S. Supreme Court's 2002 landmark decision in "Atkins v. Virginia," a diagnosis of mild mental retardation has taken on a life and death significance for people who are the most deeply involved in criminal justice. As such, each aspect of the mental retardation definition (American Association on Mental Retardation, 2002) is a…

  16. Utilizing therapists to obtain death penalty verdicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstock, R

    1994-01-01

    As a result of recent decisions by the United States and California Supreme Courts, therapists now have been placed in a position in which they can be forced to testify in death penalty cases for the only purposes of achieving a conviction and a death penalty verdict. Zeal for the death penalty seems to have overcome any concern for the ethics of psychiatrists or even for the welfare of society. In California, therapists can now be forced to testify against their own patients in capital cases even if the patient does not tender his mental state as an issue, despite the presence of a psychotherapist-patient privilege in the state for criminal matters. In California, the only option for therapists who wish to treat potentially dangerous patients may be to conduct the therapy under the umbrella of attorney-client privilege. Otherwise they may not be able to avoid serious ethical problems and personal danger if the patient actually does kill someone during or after therapy. They may be unable honestly and ethically to treat such patients without obtaining truly informed consent to therapy under these potentially "undercover policeman" circumstances. Hopefully, professional organizations will take a more activist position, and courts will appreciate the folly of these decisions and reverse them. Otherwise, they may spread to other states, for which California frequently sets precedents.

  17. Death Penalty Disposition in China: What Matters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yudu; Longmire, Dennis; Lu, Hong

    2016-04-07

    In theory, sentencing decisions should be driven by legal factors, not extra-legal factors. However, some empirical research on the death penalty in the United States shows significant relationships between offender and victim characteristics and death sentence decisions. Despite the fact that China frequently imposes death sentences, few studies have examined these sanctions to see if similar correlations occur in China's capital cases. Using data from published court cases in China involving three violent crimes-homicide, robbery, and intentional assault-this study examines the net impact of offender's gender, race, and victim-offender relationship on death sentence decisions in China. Our overall multiple regression results indicate that, after controlling for other legal and extra-legal variables, an offender's gender, race, and victim-offender relationship did not produce similar results in China when compared with those in the United States. In contrast, it is the legal factors that played the most significant role in influencing the death penalty decisions. The article concludes with explanations and speculations on the unique social, cultural, and legal conditions in China that may have contributed to these correlations.

  18. The Impact of Information on Death Penalty Support, Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Eric G.; Camp, Scott D.; Clarke, Alan; Jiang, Shanhe

    2011-01-01

    In 1972, former Supreme Court Justice Marshall postulated that the public was uninformed about the death penalty and information would change their support for it. There is some indication that information about the death penalty may change people's level of support. This study re-examines data used by Lambert and Clarke (2001). Using multivariate…

  19. Public Opinion and the Death Penalty: A Qualitative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falco, Diana L.; Freiburger, Tina L.

    2011-01-01

    Strong public support for capital punishment is arguably the number one reason why the death penalty continues to be used as a form of correctional policy in the U.S. criminal justice system. Therefore, it is fundamental that the measure of death penalty opinion be heavily scrutinized. Utilizing a methodological approach not typically employed in…

  20. Forensic DNA evidence and the death penalty in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ungria, M C A; Sagum, M S; Calacal, G C; Delfin, F C; Tabbada, K A; Dalet, M R M; Te, T O; Diokno, J I; Diokno, M S I; Asplen, C A

    2008-09-01

    The death penalty remains a contentious issue even though it has been abolished in countries such as Australia, New Zealand, Canada, European Union member nations and some Asian countries such as Cambodia, East Timor and Nepal. Many argue that the irrevocability of the death penalty, in the face of potential erroneous convictions, can never justify its imposition. The Philippines, the first Asian country that abolished the death penalty in 1987, held the record for the most number of mandatory death offenses (30 offenses) and death eligible offenses (22 offenses) after it was re-imposed in 1994. Majority of death penalty convictions were decided based on testimonial evidence. While such cases undergo automatic review by the Supreme Court, the appellate process in the Philippines is not structured to accept post-conviction evidence, including DNA evidence. Because of the compelling nature of post-conviction DNA evidence in overturning death penalty convictions in the United States, different groups advocated its use in the Philippines. In one such case, People v Reynaldo de Villa, the defendant was charged with raping his 13-year-old niece that supposedly led to birth of a female child, a situation commonly known as 'criminal paternity'. This paper reports the results of the first post-conviction DNA test using 16 Short Tandem Repeat (STR) DNA markers in a criminal paternity case (People v Reynaldo de Villa) and discusses the implications of these results in the Philippine criminal justice system.

  1. Destiny of the Death Penalty in China in the Contemporary Era

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xingliang

    2006-01-01

    This paper is a study on the abolishment of death penalty in China.The author first reviewed the ancient death penalty in China,looked at the history of death penalty from its evolution and reform,then examined the status quo of China's death penalty,and brought forward a practical question of what course should the flourishing death penalty in China follow in the international trend of abolishing and restricting death penalty.In this regard,the author analyzed the conditions for abolishing death penalty from the perspectives of public opinion's influence,choice of politicians,control of crimes and structure of criminal penalty.He also designed a course for China to restrict and abolish death penalty from the legislation setting and judicial restriction,expecting to find a practical way to abolish death penalty.

  2. The Death Penalty in the United States. Public Talk Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquerella, Lynn

    This program guide provides the information a study circle will need to discuss the death penalty. It offers a balanced, nonpartisan presentation of a spectrum of views. The four positions and the supporting material are designed for use in a single-session program of approximately 2 hours. The four positions are as follows: (1) the death penalty…

  3. Racial Characteristics and the Imposition of the Death Penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radelet, Michael L.

    1981-01-01

    Data from Florida from 1976-77 show that those accused of murdering Whites are more likely to be sentenced to death than those accused of murdering Blacks. If victim's race is controlled, however, data do not clearly support the hypothesis that defendant's race is strongly associated with imposition of the death penalty. (Author/GC)

  4. Death Penalty and Happiness in States. Was Jeremy Bentham right?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Berg

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Jeremy Bentham is best known as the founding father of utilitarianism, a moral philosophy that values ‘happiness’ more than all other goals in life. According to this creed, policies should be directed at ‘the greatest happiness for the greatest number’. Besides formulating this general principle, Bentham wrote about several specific topics including the death penalty, which he passionately opposed. He did so, however, without applying his own utilitarian method. In this article the relationship between death penalty and happiness is studied empirically. Average happiness of citizens is compared in states with and without death penalty. Comparisons are made across 127 nation states in the early 2000s and among 47 federal states within the US over the years 1970-2000. The results show that Bentham, from the perspective of his own ethical philosophy, was too negative about the death penalty. It hardly undermines the happiness of nation states and it does not undermine the happiness of American states at all. If one opposes the death penalty, it should be done for non-utilititarian reasons.

  5. Is the death of the death penalty near? The impact of Atkins and Roper on the future of capital punishment for mentally ill defendants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Helen

    2007-10-01

    In recent years, the U.S. Supreme Court has created two categorical exemptions to the death penalty. In Atkins v. Virginia, the Court exempted mentally retarded offenders. Three years later, in Roper v. Simmons, the Court extended the protection to juveniles. Based on these cases, the practices of foreign countries, and the opinions of professional organizations with relevant expertise, legal scholars speculate that the Court may, in the future, categorically exclude severely mentally ill offenders from the death penalty. This Note examines the feasibility of such an exemption for the mentally ill and considers its possible repercussions.

  6. La pena de muerte/The death penalty

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eduardo López Bentacourt (México)

    2009-01-01

    ... policíacos hayan desaparecido. La pena de muerte representa el más elemental derecho de legítima defensa social. The death penalty should be applied due to many advantages, arguments that abolitionists have tried to ignore...

  7. Death penalty for keratinocytes: apoptosis versus cornification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippens, S; Denecker, G; Ovaere, P; Vandenabeele, P; Declercq, W

    2005-11-01

    Homeostasis implies a balance between cell growth and cell death. This balance is essential for the development and maintenance of multicellular organisms. Homeostasis is controlled by several mechanisms including apoptosis, a process by which cells condemned to death are completely eliminated. However, in some cases, total destruction and removal of dead cells is not desirable, as when they fulfil a specific function such as formation of the skin barrier provided by corneocytes, also known as terminally differentiated keratinocytes. In this case, programmed cell death results in accumulation of functional cell corpses. Previously, this process has been associated with apoptotic cell death. In this overview, we discuss differences and similarities in the molecular regulation of epidermal programmed cell death and apoptosis. We conclude that despite earlier confusion, apoptosis and cornification occur through distinct molecular pathways, and that possibly antiapoptotic mechanisms are implicated in the terminal differentiation of keratinocytes.

  8. Juvenile Penalties for "Lawyering Up": The Role of Counsel and Extralegal Case Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Gaylene S.; Kim, Bitna

    2011-01-01

    The presence of counsel for juveniles in the courtroom seems advantageous from a due process perspective, yet some studies suggest that juveniles receive harsher dispositions when represented by an attorney. This study tested whether a "counsel penalty" existed regardless of attorney type and, guided by prior sentencing literature, used a more…

  9. Young, Black, and Sentenced To Die: Black Males and the Death Penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Janice

    1996-01-01

    Explores the death penalty as imposed on young black males in the United States and examines the disparity in death penalty rates for homicides with black offenders and white victims. States continue to impose the death penalty rather than viewing youth violence as a failure of the social system. (SLD)

  10. The President’s Authority to Promulgate Death Penalty Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-01

    legislative delegation, it is important to recognize that Congress, in enacting the UCMJ, was not writing on a tabula rasa . Historically, * 18 much latitude...historical role the President has always played in this area. "Standards prescribed by Congress are to be read in the light of the conditions to which...limited role of the courts in reviewing a statu- tory death penalty scheme. It is worth quoting at length to catch the full flavor of the Court’s

  11. Commentary: Pursuing justice in death penalty trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Clarence; Eth, Spencer; Leong, Gregory B

    2012-01-01

    The capital trial, by its nature, is fraught with emotionally disturbing elements that jurors must face when deciding the ultimate fate of a guilty defendant. A confluence of mitigating and aggravating factors influences a capital jury's decision to impose a sentence of death. The presence or absence of defendant remorse in these cases may make all the difference in whether a capital defendant's life is spared. This commentary examines the onerous emotional toll encountered by capital jurors in light of the findings of Corwin and colleagues regarding defendant remorse and juror's need for affect. The commentary also presents practical and ethics-related considerations that should be kept in mind when reflecting on their study.

  12. La pena de muerte/The death penalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo López Bentacourt (México

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La pena de muerte debe aplicarse debido a múltiples ventajas, argumentos que los abolicionistas se han esmerado en pasar por alto. Es urgente llevar a cabo esta sanción ya que los entes cancerígenos de la sociedad deben ser erradicados para que los problemas sociales no se sigan expandiendo. Sin embargo esta pena debe aplicarse bajo ciertos criterios, es decir en casos extremos y siempre y cuando las autoridades y órganos policíacos hayan desaparecido. La pena de muerte representa el más elemental derecho de legítima defensa social. The death penalty should be applied due to many advantages, arguments that abolitionists have tried to ignore. It is urgent to carry out this punishment since carcinogenic entities of the society must be eradicated, so that social problems have not continue expanding. However this penalty should apply under certain criteria, i.e. in extreme cases and provided the authorities and police bodies have disappeared. The death penalty represents the most basic right of legitimate social defence.

  13. Penalty responsibility of juveniles in the Republic of Srpska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grbić-Pavlović Nikolina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The youngest members of organized society, more intensive than ever enter the circle of those whose behavior is deviant. Juvenile delinquency is a social problem, which recently experienced an expansion in all modern countries, including Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Republic of Srpska. Considering the fact that juvenile delinquency includes lighter criminal conducts, such as, for example misdemeanors, in this paper a position of juveniles when they are a perpetrators of misdemeanors will be analyzed. Also, the paper will statistically show the number of misdemeanors in the field of public peace and order that juveniles conducted in the Republic of Srpska in the period 2004-2009.

  14. The Death Penalty in the United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Miron Popa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The death penalty dramatically signifies that society does not excuse or condone the taking of innocent lives. It symbolizes the value of the innocent victim. Incapacity can be imposed by long terms ofimprisonment, particularly for habitual offenders; the policy of "keeping criminals off the streets" does indeed protect the public for a period of time, although it is done at a considerable cost. The object of deterrence is to make the certainty and severity of punishment so great as to inhibit potential criminals from committingcrimes. The best available estimates of the certainty of punishment for serious crime suggest that very few crimes actually result in jail sentences for the perpetrators.

  15. Death Penalty Decisions: Instruction Comprehension, Attitudes, and Decision Mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patry, Marc W; Penrod, Steven D

    2013-01-01

    A primary goal of this research was to empirically evaluate a set of assumptions, advanced in the Supreme Court's ruling in Buchanan v. Angelone (1998), about jury comprehension of death penalty instructions. Further, this research examined the use of evidence in capital punishment decision making by exploring underlying mediating factors upon which death penalty decisions may be based. Manipulated variables included the type of instructions and several variations of evidence. Study 1 was a paper and pencil study of 245 undergraduate mock jurors. The experimental design was an incomplete 4×2×2×2×2 factorial model resulting in 56 possible conditions. Manipulations included four different types of instructions, presence of a list of case-specific mitigators to accompany the instructions, and three variations in the case facts: age of the defendant, bad prior record, and defendant history of emotional abuse. Study 2 was a fully-crossed 2×2×2×2×2 experiment with four deliberating mock juries per cell. Manipulations included jury instructions (original or revised), presence of a list of case-specific mitigators, defendant history of emotional abuse, bad prior record, and heinousness of the crime. The sample of 735 jury-eligible participants included 130 individuals who identified themselves as students. Participants watched one of 32 stimulus videotapes based on a replication of a capital sentencing hearing. The present findings support previous research showing low comprehension of capital penalty instructions. Further, we found that higher instruction comprehension was associated with higher likelihood of issuing life sentence decisions. The importance of instruction comprehension is emphasized in a social cognitive model of jury decision making at the sentencing phase of capital cases.

  16. Abolition or mitigation of the death penalty - A perspective on the laws of Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. N. Lion-Cachet

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available The issue concerning the topic of the death penalty for capital offences is still widely discussed. Those supporting the retention of the death penalty mostly quote the Old Testament as their source of authority. The question, however, is whether confirmation has not been found too easily in the Old Testament, without fully taking into account the conditions of the period. Or should the death penalty not be applied for transgressions other than manslaughter as well? In this paper special attention will he given to the demand for the death penalty for manslaughter and other crimes. The question whether the implementation of the death penalty in the history of old Israel implies the retention or mitigation thereof, will also have to be answered.

  17. The ethical "elephant" in the death penalty "room".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Michael

    2008-10-01

    The United States Supreme Court recently ruled that execution by a commonly used protocol of drug administration does not represent cruel or unusual punishment. Various medical journals have editorialized on this drug protocol, the death penalty in general and the role that physicians play. Many physicians, and societies of physicians, express the opinion that it is unethical for doctors to participate in executions. This Target Article explores the harm that occurs to murder victims' relatives when an execution is delayed or indefinitely postponed. By using established principles in psychiatry and the science of the brain, it is shown that victims' relatives can suffer brain damage when justice is not done. Conversely, adequate justice can reverse some of those changes in the brain. Thus, physician opposition to capital punishment may be contributing to significant harm. In this context, the ethics of physician involvement in lethal injection is complex.

  18. The Death Penalty and Human Dignity: An Existential Fallacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Nagelsen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Proponents of capital punishment in the United States frequently cite the evolution from electrocution and hanging to lethal injection as an indication that the evolving standards of decency exhibited by such a transition demonstrate a respect for human dignity. This essay examines that claim by evaluating two standards for assessing whether an act comports with accepted definitions of human dignity: a personal-achievement model, based on work by economist Amartya Sen of Harvard University, and a universal and intrinsic approach to human dignity articulated by criminologist Robert Johnson of the American University. We evaluate Sen’s capabilities model through the lens of a condemned prisoner’s ability to achieve self-defined goals. We then assess Johnson’s claim that preserving human dignity requires an elimination of the death penalty, irrespective of any prisoner’s ability to lead a restricted, albeit goal-directed, existence.

  19. The Imposition of the Death Penalty on Mexican Nationals in the United States and the Cultural, Legal and Political Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Michael Olivero

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews death penalty perspectives from the United States, Mexico and international law. The United States practices the death penalty on not only its citizens, but those of other nations who commit capital crimes. Mexico is a death penalty abolitionist state that takes significant issue with the United States over executing Mexican nationals. The paper analyzes the cultural, legal and political conflict between the two countries surrounding the application of the death penalty on Mexican nationals.

  20. HUMAN TRAFFICKING DRUG TRAFFICKING, AND THE DEATH PENALTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicity Gerry

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Both Australia and Indonesia have made commitments to combatting human trafficking.  Through the experience of Mary Jane Veloso it can be seen that it is most often the vulnerable ‘mule’ that is apprehended by law enforcement and not the powerful leaders of crime syndicates. It is unacceptable that those vulnerable individuals may face execution for acts committed under threat of force, coercion, fraud, deception or abuse of power. For this reason it is vital that a system of victim identification is developed, including better training for law enforcement, legal representatives and members of the judiciary. This paper builds on submissions by authors for Australian Parliamentary Inquiry into Human Trafficking, and focusses on issues arising in the complex cross section of human trafficking, drug trafficking, and the death penalty with particular attention on identifying victims and effective reporting mechanisms in both Australia and Indonesia. It concludes that, in the context of human trafficking both countries could make three main improvements to law and policy, among others, 1 enactment of laws that create clear mandatory protection for human trafficking victims; 2 enactment of criminal laws that provides complete defence for victim of human trafficking; 3 enactment of corporate reporting mechanisms. Systemic protection and support is not sufficiently available without clear legislative protection as this paper suggests together with standardised referral mechanisms and effective financial reporting mechanisms. The implementation can be achieved through collaborative responses and inter-agency coordination with data collection and properly trained specialists.

  1. Implementation of the Death Penalty in the Perspective of Human Rights in Indonesia

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    La Sina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The 1945 Constitution of Indonesia provides for rights to life and to remain free from torture that are fundamental human rights that shall not be curtailed under any circumstance. Since 1945, Indonesia does not regulate the protection of the right of life to the citizens. Until 1946, enacted Law No. 1 of 1946 concerning the Indonesian Criminal Code which in several provisions concerning the death penalty. Death sentences and executions in Indonesia is always debatable. However, it is still implemented and can not be avoided, unless the change of its legal provisions. This study was a normative research or doctrinal research. The results of the study shows that the provisions of death penalty in Indonesia is still enforced because have been regulated in the Criminal Code and several organic laws such as the law of terrorism, narcotics, corruption, and human rights justice. The death penalty is contrary to Article 28I of the 1945 Constitution. It has set the rights to life, so that no one may violate human rights, including the government and the country is not granted the right to revoke rights for every citizen. The Indonesian government should not impose the death penalty contained in the draft new Code, and abolish the death penalty in its organic law that had been imposed on the offenders. Preferably, the death penalty may be replaced by alternative punishment with life imprisonment, a prison within a specified time or according to the judge’s decision.

  2. Jurors' locus of control and defendants' attractiveness in death penalty sentencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckham, Crystal M; Spray, Beverly J; Pietz, Christina A

    2007-06-01

    The authors examined the relationship between jurors' locus of control and defendants' attractiveness in death penalty sentencing. Ninety-eight participants voluntarily served as mock jurors. The authors administered J. B. Rotter's (1966) Internal-External Locus of Control Scale to participants and then randomly assigned them to a group with either an attractive or an unattractive defendant (represented by photographs). Participants read a murder vignette and selected a punishment--either a lifetime jail sentence or the death penalty-for the defendant. Results indicated that neither jurors' locus of control nor defendants' attractiveness influenced sentencing. However, jurors' age and gender significantly influenced sentencing. Men, with the exception of the youngest men, were more likely than women to choose the death penalty. Additionally, young women were more likely than older women to select the death penalty. The authors discuss the implications of these results for the study of jury behavior and bias.

  3. Juvenile penalty or leniency: Sentencing of juveniles in the criminal justice system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Kareem L; McNeal, Brittani A

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of being juvenile on sentencing in the criminal justice system. More specifically, youth transferred to criminal court are compared to adults in terms of likelihood of incarceration, jail length, and prison length. In this study, 2 national data sets are merged. The juvenile sample includes 3,381 convicted offenders, and the adult sample is comprised of 6,529 convicted offenders. The final sample is 9,910 offenders across 36 U.S. counties. The key independent variable is juvenile status, and the dependent variables are incarceration, jail length, and prison length. Because of the multilevel nature of the data, hierarchical linear modeling is used across all models. Juveniles are punished less severely in the jail incarceration decision. However, when youth are actually sentenced to incarceration (either jail or prison), they are given longer confinement time than adults. (PsycINFO Database Record

  4. Discrimination and instructional comprehension: guided discretion, racial bias, and the death penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, M; Haney, C

    2000-06-01

    This study links two previously unrelated lines of research: the lack of comprehension of capital penalty-phase jury instructions and discriminatory death sentencing. Jury-eligible subjects were randomly assigned to view one of four versions of a simulated capital penalty trial in which the race of defendant (Black or White) and the race of victim (Black or White) were varied orthogonally. Dependent measures included a sentencing verdict (life without the possibility of parole or the death penalty), ratings of penalty phase evidence, and a test of instructional comprehension. Results indicated that instructional comprehension was poor overall and that, although Black defendants were treated only slightly more punitively than White defendants in general, discriminatory effects were concentrated among participants whose comprehension was poorest. In addition, the use of penalty phase evidence differed as a function of race of defendant and whether the participant sentenced the defendant to life or death. The study suggest that racially biased and capricious death sentencing may be in part caused or exacerbated by the inability to comprehend penalty phase instructions.

  5. 死刑威慑力的犯罪学分析%Criminological analysis on deterrent power of death penalty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张远煌

    2009-01-01

    Death penalty is the most effective deterrence to grave crimes, which has been the key basis for the State to retain death penalty. In fact, either in legislation or in execution, death penalty can not produce the special deterrent effect as expected. With respect to this issue, people tend to conduct normative exploration from the perspective of ordinary legal principles or the principle of human rights, which is more speculative than convincing. Correct interpretation based on the existing positive analysis and differentiation based on human nature which sifts the true from the false will not only help end the simple, repetitive and meaningless arguments regarding the basis for the existence of death penalty, but also help understand the rational nature of both the elimination and the preservation of death penalty, so as to define the basic direction towards which the State should make efforts in controlling death penalty in the context of promoting social civilization.

  6. Structured Discretion, Racial Bias, and the Death Penalty: The First Decade after "Furman" in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekland-Olson, Sheldon

    1988-01-01

    Analyzes data collected in Texas from the first decade of cases sentenced to death after the Furman v. Georgia decision in order to determine any tendency toward being race-linked or victim-based. Found that cases involving White victims more often precipitate the death penalty than those involving Black or Hispanic victims. (KO)

  7. 43 CFR 30.148 - Will interest or penalties charged after the date of death be paid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... date of death be paid? Interest or penalties charged against claims after the date of death will not be... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Will interest or penalties charged after the date of death be paid? 30.148 Section 30.148 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of...

  8. Capital Sentencing: The Effect of Adding Aggravators to Death Penalty Statutes in Pennsylvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Schultz Newman

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The birthplace of the American republic—the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania—has historically been at the forefront of the capital punishment legislation in the United States. It was the first colony in the Union to abolish the death penalty for all crimes with the exception of murder. It was the first to set forth a statutory distinction between different degrees of criminal homicide, confining imposition of capital punishment to the most chilling form of this crime—“willful, deliberate, and premeditated killing.” With this storied history in mind, we have undertaken the task of examining the current state of the death penalty in the Commonwealth. Hence, in Part II of this Article, we set forth a detailed history of the capital sentencing scheme in Pennsylvania. Part III undertakes a statistical study of the imposition of the death penalty in the Commonwealth from 1978 until 1997. In Part IV, we conclude by summing up our general observations.

  9. In the public interest: intellectual disability, the Supreme Court, and the death penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeles, Norman

    2010-11-01

    This article deals with a case that recently came before the U.S. Supreme Court. The issues involved whether attorneys provided effective assistance to a person convicted of murder when no mitigating evidence was presented (either strategically or by neglect) to the jury concerning the intellectual disabilities of their client during the death penalty phase of the trial. The Supreme Court had previously ruled that the death penalty for intellectually disabled individuals (mentally retarded) constituted cruel and unusual punishment. In this case the attorneys made a strategic decision not to present possibly mitigating evidence for the death penalty phase. The Supreme Court considered whether the appeals court abdicated its judicial review responsibilities. The results of psychological evaluations are presented, and the decisions of the Supreme Court are discussed.

  10. The death penalty in Catholic teaching and medicine: intersections and places for dialogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norko, Michael A

    2008-01-01

    Current debate on the death penalty in public and professional spheres is seen as divisive in nature, disallowing the possibility of common agreement. The history of views of the death penalty within the Catholic Church illustrates centuries of tensions and ambiguities as well as a current posture that manages to hold these tensions while advocating a strong position. That history of church views itself contains allusions to and intersections with medicine. There is something tangible to be gained in understanding religious views on the death penalty, in the debates both within medicine and in the public sphere. An argument is made for sufficient overlap of contemporary purpose between the goals of church and medicine to warrant further dialogue in enhanced and deliberative democratic processes.

  11. On Necessity of Abolishing Death Penalty%浅析死刑废除之必要

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周燕; 陆岳松

    2015-01-01

    现今社会谈到死刑废除大多被嗤之以鼻,历史的进程也未因死刑制度的存在而停顿或者倒退,但是,经济的发展,科技的进步,社会层次的提升,对死刑的态度也在悄然发生着变化。替代机制的出现,追求人权的诉求,更是让死刑制度举步维艰。死刑制度随着社会的发展被推到风头浪尖,而废除死刑的呼声也随着法治社会的提出而逐渐被越来越多的人听见。%Nowadays, when it comes to abolish death penalty, the society tends to be scoffed at it, and the course of history is not halt or reverse because of the existence of the death penalty. However, the development of economy, the progress of science and technology, social level of ascension, attitude towards the death penalty is also quietly changing.The emergence of alternative mechanisms and the pursuit of human rights is to let the death penalty difficulty to use.The death penalty, with the development of the society is pushed to the forefront, and calls to abolish the death penalty with the rule of law society have gradually absorbed more and more people’s attention.

  12. Deterrence and the Celerity of the Death Penalty: A Neglected Question in Deterrence Research. Discussion Paper No. 532-78.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, William C.

    This paper focuses on the deterrent effect of the celerity of the death penalty on homicide rates. The deterrent effect of both the certainty and the celerity of the death penalty on homicide rates is examined cross-sectionally for States. Multiple measures of execution and homicide are considered, along with various sociodemographic variables, in…

  13. The Racial Divide in Support for the Death Penalty: Does White Racism Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unnever, James D.; Cullen, Francis T.

    2007-01-01

    Using data from the 2000 National Election Study, this research investigates the sources of the racial divide in support for capital punishment with a specific focus on white racism. After delineating a measure of white racism, we explore whether it can account for why a majority of African Americans oppose the death penalty while most whites…

  14. Expert Testimony, "Regular People," and Public Values: Arguing Common Sense at a Death Penalty Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Virginia A.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a case study of a particular courtroom case dealing with the death penalty. Analyzes the processes and communications of the trial jury. Discusses the interplay of common-sense and expert claims at three crucial stages of the trial. (HB)

  15. The ethics of the Texas death penalty and its impact on a prolonged appeals process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlman, T

    1998-01-01

    Society remains sharply divided as to the deterrent value of capital punishment. Following the reintroduction of the death penalty in the United States, Texas law mandates the affirmative predictability of future dangerousness beyond a reasonable doubt before a jury can impose the ultimate penalty for capital murder. The validity of prediction of dangerousness has been challenged in three Texas landmark cases before the U.S. Supreme Court. The case of Karla Faye Tucker highlights the moral controversy that occurs when execution follows an appeals process stretching over more than a decade, during which time personality growth and the effects of prison rehabilitation may have eliminated or curbed criminal tendencies.

  16. 死刑不能废%The Death Penalty Can Not Be Abandoned

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石艳芳

    2012-01-01

    死刑制度有着悠久的历史,从古到今,都被统治阶级所利用,并发挥着无与伦比的作用。废除死刑违背了刑法罪责刑相适应的原则,无法达到刑法的目的,无法安抚受害人的家属,不利于社会的稳定,不利于法制宣传教育,总之,死刑的保留利大于弊。%Death penalty system has a long history,which plays an incomparable role and is usually used by the ruling class from past to now.The abolition of death penalty violates the principle of criminal law that one’s crime,responsibility and penalty should fit for each other,can not achieve the purpose of criminal law,not to appease the families of the victims,is not conductive to social stability and legal education,in short,the maintenance of death penalty is better than harm.

  17. The absence of cruelty is not the presence of humanness: physicians and the death penalty in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivot, Joel B

    2012-12-03

    The death penalty by lethal injection is a legal punishment in the United States. Sodium Thiopental, once used in the death penalty cocktail, is no longer available for use in the United States as a consequence of this association. Anesthesiologists possess knowledge of Sodium Thiopental and possible chemical alternatives. Further, lethal injection has the look and feel of a medical act thereby encouraging physician participation and comment. Concern has been raised that the death penalty by lethal injection, is cruel. Physicians are ethically directed to prevent cruelty within the doctor-patient relationship and ethically prohibited from participation in any component of the death penalty. The US Supreme Court ruled that the death penalty is not cruel per se and is not in conflict with the 8th amendment of the US constitution. If the death penalty is not cruel, it requires no further refinement. If, on the other hand, the death penalty is in fact cruel, physicians have no mandate outside of the doctor patient relationship to reduce cruelty. Any intervention in the name of cruelty reduction, in the setting of lethal injection, does not lead to a more humane form of punishment. If physicians contend that the death penalty can be botched, they wrongly direct that it can be improved. The death penalty cocktail, as a method to reduce suffering during execution, is an unverifiable claim. At best, anesthetics produce an outward appearance of calmness only and do not address suffering as a consequence of the anticipation of death on the part of the condemned.

  18. The absence of cruelty is not the presence of humanness: physicians and the death penalty in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zivot Joel B

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The death penalty by lethal injection is a legal punishment in the United States. Sodium Thiopental, once used in the death penalty cocktail, is no longer available for use in the United States as a consequence of this association. Anesthesiologists possess knowledge of Sodium Thiopental and possible chemical alternatives. Further, lethal injection has the look and feel of a medical act thereby encouraging physician participation and comment. Concern has been raised that the death penalty by lethal injection, is cruel. Physicians are ethically directed to prevent cruelty within the doctor-patient relationship and ethically prohibited from participation in any component of the death penalty. The US Supreme Court ruled that the death penalty is not cruel per se and is not in conflict with the 8th amendment of the US constitution. If the death penalty is not cruel, it requires no further refinement. If, on the other hand, the death penalty is in fact cruel, physicians have no mandate outside of the doctor patient relationship to reduce cruelty. Any intervention in the name of cruelty reduction, in the setting of lethal injection, does not lead to a more humane form of punishment. If physicians contend that the death penalty can be botched, they wrongly direct that it can be improved. The death penalty cocktail, as a method to reduce suffering during execution, is an unverifiable claim. At best, anesthetics produce an outward appearance of calmness only and do not address suffering as a consequence of the anticipation of death on the part of the condemned.

  19. Law & psychiatry: mental retardation and the death penalty: after Atkins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, Paul S

    2009-10-01

    In Atkins v. Virginia the U.S. Supreme Court declared execution of persons with mental retardation to constitute cruel and unusual punishment, and thus to be unconstitutional under the Eighth Amendment. However, the Court left all considerations regarding how to implement the decision explicitly to the states. Since Atkins was decided in 2002, legislatures, courts, and mental health experts have struggled with its implementation, highlighting the complexities that can arise when the courts base legal rules on clinical findings. This column reviews the Atkins case and considers the challenges associated with a clinical determination that can have life-or-death consequences for capital defendants.

  20. Should the Death Penalty Be Abolished? Arguments for and against the Centuries-Old Punishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Nicoleta Gavrilă

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite the international trend towards the abolition of capital punishment, 23 countries still carried out executions in 2010. In many cases the death penalty is imposed after unfair trials and for non-lethal crimes, such as: drug-related offences, economic crimes, sexual relations between consenting adults and blasphemy. Nevertheless, non-abolitionist countries claim that their use of the punishment is consistent with international human rights law. Sophistry knows no limits when it comes to defending the death penalty: legal, economic, even religious and moral arguments have been used to defend what in reality is an atrocious crime. We shall take a look at the various arguments in support of the capital punishment and see if they can stand their ground upon a more thorough analysis.

  1. 我国死刑配置的刑罚价值分析%Analyzing China' s death penalty with Penalty value

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹晓闻

    2011-01-01

    长期以来。我国刑法对犯罪的打击力度一直过于强硬,在我国现行刑法当中,某些犯罪仍然被视为最为严重的犯罪,配刑制度坚持了“重刑重罚”的原则,最高刑配置死刑。它有偏颇了刑罚正义价值,有悖于刑罚的分配原则,减损了刑罚功能,模糊了刑罚目的,不符合刑罚人道主义发展的刑事政策。%For a long time, China' s efforts to crack down on crime criminal law has been too tough. Under current criminal law, some crimes are still considered the most serious crimes. Setting penalty system has followed the principle of heavy penalties. Maximum penalty is death penalty in our criminal law. It has deviated from the just value of the penalty, reduce the penalty functions and vagued the penalty purpose. It does not meet the development requirements of Humanitarian in the criminal system.

  2. Combat veterans and the death penalty: a forensic neuropsychiatric perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortzel, Hal S; Arciniegas, David B

    2010-01-01

    With our nation's present conflicts, a new generation of veterans are returning home, many of whom have substantial psychopathology and are encountering significant barriers in accessing care. Headlines from around the nation reflect that some of these wounded warriors go on to commit offenses that are potentially punishable by death. Existing circumstances speak to the urgency with which the subject of combat veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), traumatic brain injury (TBI), or both facing capital crimes ought to be addressed. This publicity has led to a recent call for a legislatively or judicially enacted, narrow, categorical exclusion for combat veterans who were affected by either PTSD or TBI at the time of their capital offenses. In the present article, we illustrate the reality that combat veterans who commit capital offenses may face execution, summarize legal arguments offered in favor of a categorical exclusion, and provide a neuropsychiatric perspective on PTSD, TBI, and aggression, to help inform further dialogue on this weighty subject.

  3. 我国死刑配置的刑罚价值分析%Analysis of China's Death Penalty with Penalty Value

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹晓闻

    2012-01-01

    For a long time,the effect of criminal law in China on crime has been too tough.Under current criminal law,some crimes are still considered the most serious crimes.Setting penalty system has followed the principle of heavy penalties.Maximum penalty is death penalty in our criminal law.But from the perspective of the value of the penal code,we hope that the criminal law can protect the value of life,not limit the right life.Therefore,the process of globalization in the legal system,in line with our expansion of the right to limit the death penalty criminal policy,configuration is necessary for analyzing death penalty value.%长期以来,我国刑法对犯罪的打击力度一直过于强硬,在我国现行刑法当中,某些犯罪仍然被视为最为严重的犯罪,配刑制度坚持了"重刑重罚"的原则,最高刑配置死刑。但从刑法法益角度来看,更希求刑法对生命价值的保护,而不是对生命权的限制。因此,在法制全球化的过程中,为应合我国限制对死刑权的扩展刑事政策,有必要对死刑配置进行刑罚价值的分析。

  4. VERDICT OFF (DEATH PENALTY FOR THE DRUG OFFENDER CRIME IN PERSPECTIVE OF ISLAMIC EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Tisna Nugraha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper raises the issue of the death penalty for drug-crime actors in Islamic education perspective, especially when the President Joko Widodo refused to pardon the actors at the beginning of his reign. Although the execution was likely contrary to the wishes of human right instigators, but on the other hand, such punishment is one vehicle in providing education to the citizens as well as the efforts to actualize the law enforcement in Indonesia. The implementation of the death sentence does not touch directly the scope of formal education in Indonesia. However, this is where the emerging hope and the search for enlightenment of such punishment is seen from the eyes of Islamic education which has applied the concept of reward and punishment in its system. Thus, through this paper, it is expected that educators can assist in bridging the imposition of a death sentence as an attempt to form good citizens.

  5. Societal threat, authoritarianism, conservatism, and U.S. state death penalty sentencing (1977-2004).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Stewart J H

    2008-05-01

    On the basis of K. Stenner's (2005) authoritarian dynamic theory, it was hypothesized that the number of death sentences and executions would be higher in more threatened conservative states than in less threatened conservative states, and would be lower in more threatened liberal states than in less threatened liberal states. Threat was based on state homicide rate, violent crime rate, and non-White percentage of population. Conservatism was based on state voter ideological identification, Democratic and Republican Party elite liberalism-conservatism, policy liberalism-conservatism, religious fundamentalism, degree of economic freedom, and 2004 presidential election results. For 1977-2004, with controls for state population and years with a death penalty provision, the interactive hypothesis received consistent support using the state conservatism composite and voter ideological identification alone. As well, state conservatism was related to death penalties and executions, but state threat was not. The temporal stability of the findings was demonstrated with a split-half internal replication using the periods 1977-1990 and 1991-2004. The interactive hypothesis and the results also are discussed in the context of other threat-authoritarianism theories and terror management theory.

  6. Commentary: further points for dialogue on the death penalty, the church, and our profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, John L

    2008-01-01

    The invitation to dialogue on the subject of the death penalty is both important for our time and challenging in what it calls forth from us. It forces us to recognize both the fundamental privacy of individual intention and the potential breadth of its reach. It can deepen our sense of responsibility for what happens to others on our account, even in the apparent absence of intention. The astonishing power of the spoken word should be harnessed by cooperative dialogue to focus its consequences more sharply on the demands of justice. We need dialogue to attend faithfully to our deepest obligations and longings.

  7. Juror Decision-making in Death Penalty Sentencing when Presented with Defendant's History of Child Abuse or Neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell Holleran, Lisa L; Vaughan, Tyler J; Vandiver, Donna M

    2016-11-01

    Previous studies have found aggravating, mitigating, and null effects of defendant histories of abuse and neglect on punishment preferences in capital sentencing. Perceiving these defendants as more dangerous, jurors may be more likely to favor the death penalty when such evidence is presented. This is counter to the intuition that abuse or neglect reduces culpability, and therefore mitigates the severity of punishment. We investigated the effect of defendant childhood physical abuse, sexual abuse, or neglect on the probability of a prospective juror preferring the death penalty in an between-subject experimental design. Using vignettes and two large samples (students and jurors), defendant histories were found to mitigate the probability that the hypothetical defendant received the death penalty, with sexual abuse having the most salient effect. Further, the effects were conditioned by preference for the death penalty - larger mitigating effects were observed among individuals who favor the death penalty. These findings suggest that initial judgments of abuse and neglect are related to juror leniency, and further research on the interaction of jury instructions and defendant histories is needed. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. SUDDEN UNEXPLAINED JUVENILE DEATH AND THE ROLE OF MEDICOLEGAL INVESTIGATION: UPDATE ON MOLECULAR AUTOPSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonina Argo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years, contributions of molecular biology assays to the investigation of sudden juvenile death have permitted to clarify some of the pathogenetic aspects of sudden arrhythmic death, opening the way to preventive action on victims’ relatives. We reviewed literature on the genetics of sudden juvenile death, and on molecular biology assays performed on autoptic samples. Biological investigation permits the detection of genetic mutations underlying the susceptibility to sudden cardiac death of individuals with rare inherited forms of arrhythmia (Long QT Syndrome, Brugada Syndrome, Lev’s disease etc. through the analysis of critical sequences codifying for ion channel subunits (HERG, KvLQT1, MinK, Mirp1, SCN5A, KCNQ1, KCNH2, KCNE1, KCNE2. The main objective of post-mortem investigation in sudden juvenile death is the detection of treatable monogenic inherited disorders, in order to prevent further deaths among the relatives of the deceased patient.

  9. To Reinstate or to Not Reinstate? An Exploratory Study of Student Perspectives on the Death Penalty in Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adinkrah, Mensah; Clemens, William M

    2016-04-15

    The U.S. state of Michigan abolished the death penalty in 1846. Since then, several abortive efforts have been made by state legislators to re-establish the death sentence to deal with convicted murderers. Concurrently, some support exists among Michigan residents for the restoration of capital punishment in the state. This article presents the results of the analysis of an attitudinal survey of 116 college students enrolled in three criminal justice courses in a Michigan public university concerning the reinstatement of the death sentence in the state. The data from this exploratory study show that a slight majority (52.6%) of respondents favored reinstatement whereas 45.7% opposed restoration. Advocates and opponents of re-establishment of the death penalty in Michigan provided similar religious, moral and economic arguments proffered by others in previous surveys on capital punishment available in the death penalty literature. The current study makes a contribution to the scant extant literature on attitudes toward the death penalty in abolitionist jurisdictions. As this body of literature grows, it can provide baseline data or information with which to compare attitudes in retentionist states.

  10. The supreme court and the sentencing of juveniles in the United States: reaffirming the distinctiveness of youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, David M

    2011-07-01

    The US Supreme Court has set 2 key constitutionally based limits to punishment of juveniles; a bar on the imposition of the death penalty for crimes committed by juveniles and of life imprisonment without possibility of parole for juveniles who commit nonhomicide offenses. Both decisions held that these penalties were disproportionate given juveniles' distinctive characteristics. The Court's adoption of a developmental model of culpability may produce future challenges to lengthy juvenile sentences, broad provisions allowing transfer of juveniles for trial as adults, and even possibly to younger juveniles'competence to stand trial.

  11. The effects of rational and experiential information processing of expert testimony in death penalty cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Daniel A; Lieberman, Joel D; Olson, Jodi

    2004-01-01

    Past research examining the effects of actuarial and clinical expert testimony on defendants' dangerousness in Texas death penalty sentencing has found that jurors are more influenced by less scientific pure clinical expert testimony and less influenced by more scientific actuarial expert testimony (Krauss & Lee, 2003; Krauss & Sales, 2001). By applying cognitive-experiential self-theory (CEST) to juror decision-making, the present study was undertaken in an attempt to offer a theoretical rationale for these findings. Based on past CEST research, 163 mock jurors were either directed into a rational mode or experiential mode of processing. Consistent with CEST and inconsistent with previous research using the same stimulus materials, results demonstrate that jurors in a rational mode of processing more heavily weighted actuarial expert testimony in their dangerousness assessments, while those jurors in the experiential condition were more influenced by clinical expert testimony. The policy implications of these findings are discussed.

  12. Understanding Death Penalty Support and Opposition Among Criminal Justice and Law Enforcement Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Sethuraju

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although a sizable number of studies have gathered information from college students regarding their varying degrees of support for capital punishment, few have explored the underlying rationales behind these students’ death penalty support or opposition. In addition, although criminal justice majors have frequently been used as study participants, little research has sought to explore if law enforcement majors are different in manners for supporting or opposing capital punishment than other criminal justice majors. In the current study, a survey designed to measure reasons for support or opposition to capital punishment was administered to a convenience sample of 135 criminal justice and law enforcement majors at a mid-size Midwestern university. The results indicated that law enforcement majors were not significantly different from criminal justice majors on measures of support or opposition to capital punishment. There were, however, some notable differences found related to the academic standing of the students.

  13. Assessing Adaptive Functioning in Death Penalty Cases after Hall and DSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, Leigh D; Drogin, Eric Y; Guilmette, Thomas J

    2016-03-01

    DSM-5 and Hall v. Florida (2014) have dramatically refocused attention on the assessment of adaptive functioning in death penalty cases. In this article, we address strategies for assessing the adaptive functioning of defendants who seek exemption from capital punishment pursuant to Atkins v. Virginia (2002). In particular, we assert that evaluations of adaptive functioning should address assets as well as deficits; seek to identify credible and reliable evidence concerning the developmental period and across the lifespan; distinguish incapacity from the mere absence of adaptive behavior; adhere faithfully to test manual instructions for using standardized measures of adaptive functioning; and account for potential bias on the part of informants. We conclude with brief caveats regarding the standard error of measurement (SEM) in light of Hall, with reference to examples of ordinary life activities that directly illuminate adaptive functioning relevant to capital cases.

  14. American Bar Association Supplementary Guidelines for the Mitigation Function of Defense Teams in Death Penalty Cases: Implications for Social Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Arlene Bowers

    2012-01-01

    When a client faces a penalty of death, defense attorneys may call on social workers in many capacities: mitigation specialist, expert witness, consulting specialist, direct witness, or defense-initiated victim outreach worker. The American Bar Association set forth standards for capital defense attorneys, which led an interdisciplinary team to…

  15. The influence of mitigation evidence, ethnicity, and SES on death penalty decisions by European American and Latino venire persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Russ K E; Willis-Esqueda, Cynthia

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the research was to determine whether European American and Latino mock jurors would demonstrate bias in death penalty decision making when mitigation evidence and defendant ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES) were varied. A total of 561 actual venire persons acted as mock jurors and read a trial transcript that varied a defendant's case information (mitigating circumstances: strong/weak, defendant ethnicity: European American/Latino, and defendant SES: low/high). European American jurors recommended the death penalty significantly more often for the low SES Latino defendant when strength of mitigation evidence was weak. In addition, they also assigned this defendant higher culpability ratings and lower ratings on positive personality trait measures compared with all other conditions. Strong mitigation evidence contributed to lower guilt ratings by European American jurors for the high SES European American defendant. Latino jurors did not differ in their death penalty sentencing across defendant mitigation, ethnicity, or SES conditions. Discussion of in-group favoritism and out-group derogation, as well as suggestions for procedures to diminish juror bias in death penalty cases, is provided.

  16. 死刑罪名削减的路线图%Roadmap of Reducing Death Penalty Charges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾肖斐

    2016-01-01

    As the Criminal Law Amendment (8)and the Criminal Law Amendment (9)had reduced economical and property type death penalty charges,there are existing 46 death penalty charges in China’s criminal law currently.They can be divided into two categories:one of them are the death penalty charges which violate important social relations such as human rights,national security, national defense interest and order of battle.The other kind of death penalty charges doesn’t have the national conditions and the will of the people conditions.At present,the strategies for death penalty repeal legislation should be transformed from abolishing the charges into regular death penalty crime constitution,and then apply the transformation theory to make the same harmful consequences apply unified charges.On this basis,we can reduce the death penalty in five periods,considering the national conditions and the will of the people conditions.%经过《刑法修正案(八)》《刑法修正案(九)》大量削减经济类、财产类死刑罪名,我国刑法目前存有46个死刑罪名。其中可分为两类:一类为侵犯重要的人身权利、国家安全、国防和军职类等侵害重要社会关系的死刑罪名;一类为不具备国情民意条件的死刑罪名。当前,我国死刑废止立法策略应当从死刑罪名性废止转向通过严格规定具体死刑适用条件对死刑适用犯罪构成进行规范和限制,结合转化犯的理论对造成同样危害后果的死刑适用条件进行转化。在此基础上,根据死刑罪名表征社会危害性的程度及国情民意的情况,分5个阶段逐步废止死刑。

  17. 人权入宪与死刑限制%Human Rights in Constitution and Limitation to Death Penalty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周道鸾

    2012-01-01

    "国家尊重和保障人权"是我国《宪法》规定的重要原则。生命权是公民的基本人权。《刑法修正案(八)》首次取消13个非暴力性经济犯罪的死刑,彰显了生命至上的价值,充分体现了严格控制和慎用死刑的刑事政策和《宪法》规定的人权保障原则,标志着《刑法》修正向取消死刑罪名的方向发展。应当在刑事法治领域继续大力贯彻人权保障原则,从立法上进一步减少死刑的适用,从司法上严格控制死刑的适用。%It is an important principle of the constitution that the state respects and safeguards human rights. Life is the citizen's basic human right. Thirteen types of non - violent economic crimes' death penalty have been cancelled in Amendment VIII to China's Criminal Law. It reveals the supreme worth of life, fully embodies the criminal policy of strict control to the death penalty & constitutional principles of human rights protection and marks the direction of criminal law modification to gradually abolish the death penalty. Criminal Law should go on to im- plement the principle of human rights protection, further reduce the death penalty in legislation and strictly control application of death penalty.

  18. American Bar Association Supplementary Guidelines for the Mitigation Function of Defense Teams in Death Penalty Cases: implications for social work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Arlene Bowers

    2012-04-01

    When a client faces a penalty of death, defense attorneys may call on social workers in many capacities: mitigation specialist, expert witness, consulting specialist, direct witness, or defense-initiated victim outreach worker. The American Bar Association set forth standards for capital defense attorneys, which led an interdisciplinary team to produce the "Supplementary Guidelines for the Mitigation Function of Defense Teams in Death Penalty Cases" to promote the exceptional competence and diligence required when the consequence is life or death. This article summarizes the "Supplementary Guidelines," with implications for social work practice--that is, professional responsibility, competence, interviewing skill, knowledge of behavioral and mental impairment, records review, life history compilation, data interpretation, witness support, law-related knowledge, and testimony. The social work, which is scrutinized in a court of law, requires cultural competence, diverse oral and written communication skills, diligence, and the highest ethical standards.

  19. Rational Guiding of Public Opinion of the Death Penalty in Contemporary China%当代中国死刑民意的理性引导

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾赛刚

    2015-01-01

    Public opinion of the death penalty can be guided.Guiding public opinion is to eliminate the wrong ingredients in it,that is to guide public opinion of the death penalty to get rid of emotional reaction to the rational direction of change.Rational guiding of public opinion of the death penalty in contemporary China is divided into three areas:the guiding of public opinion of the death penalty in aspects of criminal legislation,the guiding of public opinion of the death penalty in aspects of criminal j ustice,and the guiding of public opinion of the death penalty in other aspects.The first is the guiding of the criminal legislation of death penalty.Its main measures include the construction of the alterna-tive measures to death penalty and the construction of relief system for criminal victim.The second is the guiding of the criminal j ustice of the death penalty.Its main measures include constructing public participation mechanism of the death penalty case trial,constructing death penalty cases information disclosure mechanism,constructing the feedback mechanism of the death penalty cases,the appropri-ate time to suspend the execution of death penalty.The third is the guiding of the addition of criminal legislation and criminal j ustice of death penalty.Its main measures include building a good social envi-ronment,enlightenment and providing of knowledge of death penalty,death penalty cases and mis-j udged case as the breakthrough point,constructing civil death penalty reform pushing mechanism.%死刑民意是可以引导的。引导死刑民意就是要剔除死刑民意中的非正确成分,就是要引导死刑民意摆脱情绪化的反应向理性化的方向转变。当代中国死刑民意的理性引导分为三大方面。一是刑事立法方面的死刑民意引导,主要措施有构建死刑替代措施和构建刑事被害人救助制度。二是刑事司法方面的死刑民意引导,主要措施有构建民意参与死刑案件审判的

  20. Legal Amendment of Absolute Death Penalty%绝对死刑立法修改问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张拓

    2016-01-01

    在《刑法修正案(九)》废除绑架罪、贪污罪与受贿罪的绝对死刑之后,我国刑法典中仅劫持航空器罪、拐卖妇女儿童罪、暴动越狱罪、聚众持械劫狱罪等4种罪名规定有绝对死刑。绝对死刑的废止有利于协调罪刑关系、贯彻宽严相济的刑事政策以及推进死刑制度的改革。但是,修改后的法定刑依然具有绝对性且罪刑关系依然存在瑕疵,而以“可以判处死刑”的方式作为绝对死刑废止后的法定刑配置模式最具合理性。%As the Amendment Ⅸ to Criminal Law abolished the absolute death penalty of kidnapping crime,corruption and bribery,there are only four kinds of crimes,namely crime of skyj acking,crime of abducting and trafficking in women and children,crime of breaking j ail by violence and crime of armed rescuing the sin,which stipulate absolute death penalty.The aboli-tion of absolute death penalty is helpful to coordinate the relationship between crimes and penal-ties,carry out the lenient and sever criminal policy and promote the reform of the death penalty. However,the revised legal sentence is still absolute and the relationship between crimes and pen-alties still has defects.The form of “can be sentenced to death”as revised statutory punishment after the abolition of death penalty is the most reasonable configuration mode.

  1. On the Rank of the Death Penalty Decision Standard in the Violent Crime Penalty%论暴力犯罪死刑裁量规范的等级化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永兴

    2011-01-01

    Through standard analysis of the 27 violent crime death penalty charge in China Criminal law,the death penalty decision standard of crimes are different from the penalty type stipulation.The crime type divides into the basic violates,the felon addation violates and the special felon addation violates,the penalty type divides into the punishment disposition and the punishment way.So the penalty standard rank of the death penalty decision standard in violent crimes includs the crime nature constitution and the penalty disposition.Each kind of crime nature constitution and the penalty disposition has been limited in the discretion of punishment standard rank in legislation stipulation,which have the concrete standard significance in limiting the death penalty suit.%通过对我国《刑法》分则中的27个暴力犯罪死刑罪名的规范分析,个罪的死刑裁量规范的犯罪类型与刑罚类型的规定存在差异。犯罪类型分为基本犯、加重犯和特别加重犯,刑罚类型分为刑种配置和处罚方式。由此构成暴力犯罪死刑裁量的量刑规范等级,包括罪质构成与刑罚配置两个方面。各种不同的罪质构成与刑罚配置的量刑规范等级都在立法规定上限制了暴力犯罪死刑的适用,对限制死刑的适用具有具体的规范意义。

  2. China Death Penalty of Future Development Direction%中国死刑的未来发展方向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安迪; 袁野

    2013-01-01

    today social increasingly valued humanitarian on reality life of effect, international took office so has many national on my of death penalty system holds questioned and bias, therefore we must from social development status in the understanding death penalty of development, inferred out China death penalty of future development direction, to for should international opinion pressure do Active prepared.%  当今社会越来越看重人道主义对现实生活的影响,国际上仍然有很多国家对我国的死刑制度持有质疑与偏见,因此我们必须从社会发展现状中了解死刑的发展,推断出中国死刑的未来发展方向,从而为应对国际舆论压力做好积极准备。

  3. On the Legislative Restrictions of Death Penalty in China%试论死刑适用的立法限制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余田; 张洪成; 吴强

    2013-01-01

    死刑存废问题的争论由来已久,我国在多年以前即展开了对该问题的研讨。但是从我国的死刑立法现状看,仍然存在立法用语不规范、限制死刑适用的对象范围过小、非暴力犯罪涉及死刑的罪名过多、刑罚结构不完善、赦免制度缺失、死缓适用不合理等问题。明确死刑适用的相关条件、对非暴力犯罪废除死刑,对有期徒刑、无期徒刑等刑种进行结构性调整等,可以在一定程度上拓宽死刑限制适用的空间。%The debate of death penalty abolition has been going on for a long time. Many years ago, a discussion on this issue was started in our country. However, from the current situation of our country's death penalty legislation, there still exists many problems, such as the legislative language being not standardized, the applying scope of the death penalty being restricted not enough and the death penalty charges of non-violent crimes being too many, the penalty structure being not perfect, the pardon system being missing, and the death sentence with reprieve being unreasonable. Deifning the applicable conditions speciifcally related to the death penalty, abolishing the death penalty for non-violent crimes and adjusting the structure of imprisonment, life imprisonment and other types of criminal punishments can broaden the space of the restrictions on death penalty.

  4. Study on Limitation of Death Penalty to Crime of Intentional Homicide from the Perspective of Penalty Value Theory%故意杀人罪的死刑限制--以刑罚价值论为视角的考察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王磊

    2014-01-01

    Limitation of death penalty to intentional homicide is the most difficult issue in the problems of death penalty.Cur-rent theories related in China just put forward some specific proposals to the surface issues of death penalty limitation,lacking deep theoretical foundation.This paper attempts to clarify the value orientation of death penalty of intentional homicide crime from the perspective of penalty value theory.It is firmly believed that the deep theoretical basis and rationality premise of death penalty limitation is to ensure that the application of death penalty go in accordance with its existence value.%故意杀人罪的死刑限制是死刑问题最艰巨的环节,解决了故意杀人罪的死刑限制问题,也就解决了死刑限制的大部分问题。我国各种死刑限制学说只是针对死刑限制的表层问题提出具体建议,没有就如何限制具体犯罪的死刑问题挖掘深层次的理论根据。以刑罚的价值论为视角,厘清故意杀人罪死刑适用的价值取向,确保死刑的适用符合死刑存在的价值才是死刑限制的深层理论根据和统一理性前提。

  5. Gluttony Causes Death in Juvenile Puff Adder Bitis arietans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V. Haagner

    1988-10-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the predator/prey relationship in reptiles. The puff adder Bitis arietans is known to feed on a variety of food items, their diet consisting mainly of rodents, while birds, lizards and toads may be included (Broadley 1983, FitzSimons' Snakes of Southern Africa, Johannesburg: Delta Books. Pitman (1974, The Snakes of Uganda, Glasgow: Wheldon and Wesley recorded larger prey for puff adders in East Africa, while Robertson, Chapman & Chapman (1965, Puku 3: 149-170 reported on the diet of puff adders in Tanzania and Zambia, respectively. A gravid puff adder was collected in the Manyeleti Game Reserve in the Mhala district (24@38'S, 31@28'E of Gazankulu. On 12 February 1986 she gave birth to 28 young. The average length of the fry was 219,12 mm (S.D. 9,72 mm and their average mass 15, 72 g (S.D. 0,67 g. The young were separated from the mother and placed in another cage. The first ecdysis was com- pleted within 24 hours. After 10 days some newly weaned mice were placed in the cage. On subsequent inspection, it was found that a young snake gorged itself to death. The young puff adder contained three young mice with a total mass of 13,8 g, while the post-mortem mass of the snake was 14,2 g. Having swallowed 97,2 of its own body weight, the snake evidently died of suffocation. The specimen was preserved and is now part of the Transvaal Museum collection in Pretoria (TM 64088.

  6. Psychiatry and the death penalty: the landmark Supreme Court cases and their ethical implications for the profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermani, E J; Kantor, J E

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Supreme Court has made a number of recent rulings in regard to the death penalty that will likely have the effect of increasing the use of psychiatry during the trial and sentencing process in capital cases. Any such changes are bound to increase the number of ethical dilemmas faced by psychiatrists involved in such work. The rulings affecting psychiatry include: (1) The Eighth Amendment forbids the execution of persons who are mentally incompetent in regard to their ability to appreciate the reasons for punishment. (2) A mentally-ill prisoner may be forcibly given neuroleptics if he presents a danger to himself or others. (3) Forced medication may not be used during the trial and sentencing phase if it has the potential to change the defendant's demeanor significantly enough to affect his defense. (4) Aggravating psychological factors affecting a convictee may be balanced against mitigating factors in considering whether death sentence should be imposed. (5) The psychosocial impact of the crime upon the victim's family may be presented during the sentencing phase as factors relevant to sentencing. (6) Adolescents and retarded individuals are not immune from the death penalty simply by virtue of their age or level of intelligence.

  7. On Non-custodial Penalty of Juvenile Delinquent Applicable in China%我国未成年犯罪人非监禁刑适用探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向准

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile crime phenomenon has aroused attention since emenging. In our country, how to control and prevent juvenile crime has always been the goal of criminal theory and the task of practice. To juvenile crimes, China has consistently adhered to educa-tion, supplemented by punishment of criminal policy, and pays high attention to correction and help. At present, the juvenile criminal non-custodial penalty has been widely used in the world. It also exists in our country, but there are still problems such as single spe-cies, specific operation inconvenience, lagging supervision and the lack of special non-custodial penalty system, etc. Therefore, before the specific application of non-custodial sentence improvement should be made to further solve the existing problems. At the same time, to moderately expand the use of juvenile offenders non-custodial penalty also has a certain value.%未成年犯罪现象自产生起就引起了各国的关注。在我国,如何控制与预防未成年人犯罪一直是刑事理论与实践的目标与任务。我国对未成年人犯罪一贯坚持教育为主、惩罚为辅的刑事政策,重视对未成年犯罪人的矫治与帮教。当下,对未成年犯罪人采用非监禁刑已广泛应用于各国。我国也存在着适用于未成年犯罪人的非监禁刑,但仍然存在诸如非监禁刑种类单一、具体操作不便、监督滞后以及缺乏专门的非监禁刑制度体系等问题。因此,在具体适用未成年犯罪人非监禁刑之前应针对现有问题作出进一步的完善。同时,适度的扩大未成年犯罪人非监禁刑的适用也有着特定的价值。

  8. Public Opinion regarding Juvenile Life without Parole in Consecutive Statewide Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiak, Sheryl Pimlott; Allen, Terrence

    2011-01-01

    Abolition of the death penalty results in life without parole (LWOP) as the most severe sanction for convicted juveniles. Although internationally the use of LWOP for juveniles is rare, 2,225 youth have been sentenced to LWOP within the United States. To address the dearth of public opinion on the issue, the authors proposed questions to the…

  9. A Story Telling of Tragedy: Mental Illness, Molestation, Suicide, and the Penalty of Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Craig J.; Forsyth, Ouida F.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the experience of mitigation experts in first degree murder cases in the penalty phase of the trial. The first author, who is a sociologist, has worked in capital murder cases since 1988, as a mitigation expert in over 200 such cases. The second author assists in the mitigation process by analyzing mental health and…

  10. LANGUAGE APPRAISAL ON ATTITUDINAL SYSTEMS FOR EXPLORING IDEOLOGY IN DEATH PENALTY IN SYDNEY MORNING HERALD AND HERALD SUN EDITORIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosyida Ekawati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the ideology represented by newspaper editorials. It is from the idea that every language use is never neutral and not ideology-free. Language is used to convey meanings in a broad sense. There are meanings related to the opinions through the language as resources of evaluation. Editorial is one practice of language use full of opinions towards a certain issue on people or things. Sydney Morning Herald and Herald Sun are used as both Australian newspaper posit themselves as the high-rank newspaper in terms of circulation and online accessed. This article tries to uncover the ideologies represented by both newspaper editorials concerning death penalty of Bali Nine executed in Indonesia. Attitudinal perspective proposed by Martin and White (2005 in term of affect, judgement, and appreciation of language appraisal is used to explore ideology in the newspaper. From appraisal analysis, it is found that Indonesia dominantly appraised in negative There is no positive appreciation for Indonesia in both newspaper editorials. judgement while Australia is portrayed in positive view for the issue of death penalty in Indonesia.

  11. 集资诈骗罪死刑废止问题的探讨%Researches on Abolishment of the Death Penalty of Fraudulent Fund-raising

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张贺凯

    2012-01-01

    In China, the using of death penalty in fund-raising fraud does not achieve its intended effect of crime prevention, and its reasonableness has also been doubted. Through analyzing the viewpoint of keep or abolish death penalty in fund-raising fraud crimes. We should reduce it step by step. And abolish all death penalty at last.%集资诈骗罪适用死刑并没有达到其预期的预防犯罪的效果,其合理性也受到了质疑。文章在对现阶段我国集资诈骗罪死刑存废观点进行分析后,得出应逐渐减少控制这一罪名死刑的适用,并最终废止。

  12. Research on Necessity and Feasibility of Abolishing the Death Penalty%死刑废除的必要性和可行性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩惠祥

    2012-01-01

    从国际司法的普遍情况来看,废除死刑是一个必然的趋势。近年来,我国在废除死刑的进程中做出了很多努力和积极的尝试,死刑的废除具有必要性和可行性。%Viewed from the general situation of international justice,to abolish the death penalty is an inevitable trend.In recent years,our country has made plenty of efforts and active attempts during abolishing the death penalty.To abolish the death penalty is necessary and feasible.

  13. The Abolition of Death Penalty about Corruption and Bribery Crimes%论贪污贿赂犯罪死刑的废除

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘梦雅

    2012-01-01

    当前贪污贿赂犯罪中死刑的设置是我国死刑废除运动的阻力之一。随着不断攀升的贪污贿赂犯罪的犯罪率,死刑对于贪污贿赂犯罪的实际预防效果不佳,其基本没有有用性。并且,当前贪污贿赂犯罪中死刑适用所存在的种种问题导致了死刑适用标准的严重异化。从原因方面分析,贪污贿赂犯罪有更多来自制度及社会层面的原因。在此前提下应该提倡,保障正当的舆论监督并正确地引导民意,废除贪污贿赂犯罪中的死刑。%Nowadays,in our campaign to abolish the death penalty in China,death penalty of corruption and bribery crimes is a major obstacle.The rising rate of corruption and bribery crimes indicates that the effective prevention of death penalty is not remedial.And the problems that come from the application of death penalty in corruption and bribery crimes make the standard of death penalty dissimilated.When we analyze the reason of corruption and bribery crimes,we can clearly find that there are many reasons come from the system and society.We also should solve these problems.Based on such a case,what we should do is abolish the death penalty about corruption and bribery crimes.While in this process,ensure the proper supervision from public opinion and lead it correctly are very important.

  14. Discuss on the Legal Perfection of Death Penalty Enforcement Procedure%论我国死刑执行程序的法律完善

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝双梅

    2012-01-01

    The enforcement of death penalty is the last step of death penalty procedure which must be under strict supervision. Only establish strict rules, highly efficient procedure and stand by the last point of criminal judicial behavior we can ensure the utmost protection of legal rights for the capital prisoner and make the death penalty procedure more normalized and be of humanity so as to embody fairness and just. Based on the above, this paper ,from the current situation of death penalty procedure, analyze the existing problems in death penalty procedure and provide advices and countermeasures towards our country's death penalty enforcing procedure.%死刑执行程序作为死刑程序的最后一个环节,必须对其进行严格规范。设置立法严谨、运行高效的执行程序,严守刑事司法活动的最后一道关口,确保死刑罪犯的合法权益得到最大限度地维护,使死刑的执行更加规范化和人道化,以实现程序公平、正义。基于此,文章从我国死刑执行程序的现状入手,分析了死刑执行程序中存在的主要问题,对我国死刑执行程序的法律完善给出了自己的建议和对策。

  15. 死刑案件新闻报道的刑事法律解读——兼论死刑案件新闻报道的价值取向%Understanding on the Coverage of Death Penalty Cases by Criminal Law --on Value Orientation of the Coverage of Death Penalty Case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚东

    2011-01-01

    目前我国保留死刑制度,死刑作为最严厉的刑罚,广大民众关注死刑的适用,媒体热衷于死刑案件的新闻报道。从刑事法律的角度解读死刑案件的新闻报道,从真实死刑案件的新闻报道着手,分析新闻报道的现状,分析死刑制度沿革,寻找他们之间存在的共同价值取向——人权保障。%The death penalty is the most severe punishment in present China and the majority of the people pay close attention to the application of the death penalty, so the media is fond of the coverage of death penalty cases. This paper analyzes the situation of the coverage and the history of the death penalty system, explores the common value orientation among them-human rights protection, based on the understanding the coverage of death penahy cases with a view from criminal law, from the coverage of the real death penalty case.

  16. Is the Modern American Death Penalty a Fatal Lottery? Texas as a Conservative Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Phillips

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In Furman v. Georgia (1972, the Supreme Court was presented with data indicating that 15% to 20% of death-eligible defendants were actually sentenced to death. Based on such a negligible death sentence rate, some Justices concluded that the imposition of death was random and capricious—a fatal lottery. Later, the Court assumed in Gregg v. Georgia (1976 that guided discretion statutes would eliminate the constitutional infirmities identified in Furman: If state legislatures narrowed the pool of death-eligible defendants to the “worst of the worst” then most would be sentenced to death, eliminating numerical arbitrariness. However, recent research suggests that numerical arbitrariness remains, as the death sentence rate falls below the Furman threshold in California (11%, Connecticut (4%, and Colorado (less than 1%. The current research estimates the death sentence rate in Texas. Interestingly, Texas provides a conservative test. In contrast to most states, the Texas statute does not include broad aggravators that substantially enlarge the pool of death-eligible defendants and therefore depress the death sentence rate. Nonetheless, the death sentence rate in Texas during the period from 2006 to 2010 ranges from 3% to 6% (depending on assumptions made about the data. The same pattern holds true in the key counties that send the largest number of defendants to death row: Harris (Houston, Dallas (Dallas, Tarrant (Fort Worth and Arlington, and Bexar (San Antonio. Thus, the data suggest that Texas can be added to the list of states in which capital punishment is unconstitutional as administered. If the death sentence rate in Texas runs afoul of the Furman principle then the prognosis for other states is not encouraging.

  17. A Uruguayan anti-abolitionist formula on death penalty in the interim republican pre-coded period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis María Delio Machado

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper intends to present the results of a research concerning the analysis of unpublished nineteenth century sources on Uruguayan legal history and education, which reveal the continuity between the Spanish-colonial and the republican pre coded legislations. The sources examined in the current paper include manuscripts that correspond to specific areas: the legal practice and the Uruguayan University of the Republic. Firstly, there’s a description of the fields in which the revealed sources are inscribed; and particularly the study of a documentary piece, which is fundamental because of two reasons. It’s the only found source that defends death penalty, while being the first thesis presented at the Major University of the Republic

  18. From sex strangler to model citizen: Mexico's most famous murderer and the defeat of the death penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Everard

    2010-01-01

    Gregorio Cárdenas Hernández was Mexico's most infamous serial killer. After he confessed to killing four young women and burying them behind his home, he became the darling of the crime pages and criminological experts alike, and his case provoked a lively debate over the reinstatement of the death penalty in congress. The following essay uses his story, the policy debates it provoked, and his broader institutional odyssey in La Castañeda mental asylum (1943–1947) and Lecumberri prison (1948–1976) to explore how issues that affected Mexicans across the social spectrum were discussed and settled in a political system that was neither a dictatorship nor a democracy.

  19. 论死刑复核程序的完善路径%On Improvement of Judicial Review Process in Death Penalty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈香酥

    2011-01-01

    死刑复核程序是我国刑事诉讼中的一道特有程序。自死刑核准权统一收归最高人民法院之后,死刑复核程序的应有功能仍未完全发挥。近期发生的一系列死刑案件更使得死刑复核程序的完善再次成为人们极为关注的话题,死刑复核程序的修改也必将成为刑事诉讼法修改的规划内容之一。%The examination and approval procedure of death penalty is a unique and special procedure in our criminal procedure.Although the Supreme People's Court has taken back the examination and approval power of death penalty since 2007,the function of the examination and approval procedure of death penalty still could not work efficiently.A series of recent cases make the examination and approval procedure of death penalty attract increasing concern in China,and the perfection of this procedure will duely become one of the contents of the amendment of the Criminal Procedural Law.

  20. 死刑改革视野下民意价值探究%The Value of Public Opinion in the Context of Death Penalty Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟珂

    2015-01-01

    Belonging to the category of social ideology, the public opinion on death penalty as a reflection of social psychology has objective inlfuence on the death penalty reform. It not only concerns the process and profundity of death penalty reform, but also determines the reasonableness and authority of this reform. Instead of neglecting and repulsing public opinion, we should face the value of such opinion, and pay attention to its inlfuence on the ways, orientation and strategies of death penalty reform.%作为社会意识的范畴,反映社会心理的死刑民意对于死刑改革的影响是客观的.民意是否支持死刑改革,不但关涉死刑改革的进度和深度,还决定着死刑改革的合理性和权威性;死刑改革决不能无视民意、排斥民意,应当正视死刑民意的价值,不能忽略死刑民意对于死刑改革的路径选择、内容取向以及改革策略的影响.

  1. Exploration on the Death Penalty of Crime of Manufacturing and Selling Shoddy Commodities%制售伪劣商品犯罪之死刑究问

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阴建峰; 付丽凌; 姜勇

    2012-01-01

    The crime of manufacturing and selling shoddy commodities is, after all, a non - violent crime. The function and role of the death penalty shall not be unduly prominent for preventing such crimes. The two kinds of death penalty of manufacturing and selling shoddy commodities can be detached through judicial or legislative initiatives, which will make the circumstances that apply the death penalty be punished in accordance with the crime of endangering public safety, thus detaching and even abolishing the death penalty under the premise of avoiding social turmoil.%制售伪劣商品犯罪毕竞属于非暴力犯罪,不应过分凸显死刑在防治这类犯罪过程中的功能与作用。可以通过司法或立法举措剥离两种制售伪劣商品犯罪的死刑,使原本符合其死刑适用条件之情形转以相关危害公共安全犯罪来论处,从而在避免造成社会震荡之前提下,架空甚至即行废止其死刑。

  2. On the Trend and Choice of Reservation or Abolishment of Death Penalty%论死刑存废的应然趋势与实然选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞祥

    2012-01-01

    From the development of death penalty system, abolishing the death penalty is the inevitable outcome of the humanist thought, is the progress ofjustice, and is the only way for the development of society. From the matter of fact, the process of abolishing the death penalty is long and tortuous and can't be accomplished in an action. Ac- cording to the reality of the situation and public acceptance, the process should be gradual. The death penalty in our country should be abolished, which can adopt the measures of legislation and justice from limiting the quantity of death penalty to abolishing it eventually.%从死刑制度发展的应然趋势角度来看,废除死刑是刑罚人道主义思想的必然产物,是司法进步,社会发展的必由之路。从实然性角度来看,废除死刑的过程是漫长而曲折的,不能一蹴而就,这一过程应是循序渐进的,应充分考虑现实的国情与民众接受程度。关于我国现行死刑制度的存废,应持否定的态度,走限制——减少——废除死刑之路,目前,应从立法、司法两方面对死刑进行限制适用。

  3. 死刑变革中的生命尊严考量%Reflections on Life Dignity in the Process of Death Penalty Reformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩跃红; 杨勇

    2015-01-01

    基于生命尊严所蕴含的绝对性和神圣不可侵犯性,死刑废除论的思想得以兴起和发展。世界上死刑趋于减少和执行方式趋于人道,折射出生命价值地位的上升和生命尊严观念与现代文明之间的契合。本世纪初兴起于中国大地的死刑存废之争是一次现代化的思想洗礼,尽管争论的结果是我国尚不具备废除死刑的条件,但争论本身以及此后采取的限制死刑、改革死刑执行方式的做法,使我国民众受到一次生命尊严理念的深刻教育。%Based on the absoluteness and sanctity of life dignity,the dispute over the existence and abolish-ment of death penalty has sprung up.The death penalty around the world tends to decrease and its executive way turned humane,reflecting the nobler position of life value and the integration of human dignity and modern civilization.The dispute over the existence and the abolishment of death penalty in China was a thought baptism in the 21st century.Though it is unlikely to abolish death penalty completely in China at the present time,this dispute will finally become a useful education experience about life dignity for the people in the restriction and reformation of death penalty.

  4. An Exploration on Limited Commutation System of Death Penalty with Reprieve%死缓限制减刑制度相关问题探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍腾飞

    2014-01-01

    Limited commutation system of death penalty with reprieve is an innovation created in China’s penalty system under the double pressure of both the international and domestic background. This system derives from the original death penalty reprieve system and provides a new reflection for the application of death penalty in China under the new situation. From a macro perspective, the dual properties of the system and the logical choice of sentencing thinking approach seek advantage in the theoretical debate of the theory and lay the macro framework for the detailed interpretation of system in the microscopic perspective.%死缓限制减刑制度,是我国刑罚制度在国际国内双重压力之下的创新之举。该制度脱胎于原有的死缓制度,同时为解决新形势下中国死刑适用的问题提供了新思路。从宏观视角看,该制度的双重属性和符合逻辑的量刑思维进路之选择,于争论之理论中寻求优势理论,可为在微观视角下对该制度精细化解读奠定宏观理论框架。

  5. Analysis on the Restrictions and Development of Death Penalty%浅谈我国死刑制度的限制适用及其发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊嘉逸

    2012-01-01

    In 2011,there has been a great discussion about the death penalty of the YAO Jiaxin Case and LI Changkui Case.Death penalty is the harshest penalty in China,which should be adopted in a very caution manner.In reality,the justice views of the common people and scholars often separate and go different ways.The author conducts a study of the restrictions and development of death penalty in China,with the purpose to find a way to settle disputes.%2011年判决的陕西"药家鑫案件"和云南"李昌奎案件"引发了民众对我国死刑制度适用的质疑和讨论。我国的刑法属于重刑法典。"保留死刑,严格控制死刑"是我国死刑的基本政策。我国法律在制定的过程中体现了尊重生命、慎用死刑的态度。

  6. Infection-Related Death among Persons with Refractory Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Jonathan P.; Wood, Mark; Friswell, Mark; Flood, Terence J.; Foster, Helen E.

    2016-01-01

    Severe infections are emerging as major risk factors for death among children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). In particular, children with refractory JIA treated with long-term, multiple, and often combined immunosuppressive and antiinflammatory agents, including the new biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), are at increased risk for severe infections and death. We investigated 4 persons with JIA who died during 1994–2013, three of overwhelming central venous catheter–related bacterial sepsis caused by coagulase-negative Staphylococus or α-hemolytic Streptococcus infection and 1 of disseminated adenovirus and Epstein-Barr virus infection). All 4 had active JIA refractory to long-term therapy with multiple and combined conventional and biological DMARDs. Two died while receiving high-dose systemic corticosteroids, methotrexate, and after recent exposure to anti–tumor necrosis factor-α biological DMARDs, and 2 during hematopoietic stem cell transplantation procedure. Reporting all cases of severe infections and especially deaths in these children is of paramount importance for accurate surveillance. PMID:27648582

  7. An Analysis of Applicable Conditions of Death Penalty with Reprieve%死缓适用条件的梳理与评析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仝其宪; 孙娜

    2014-01-01

    In the academic circle,viewpoints differ widely about the applicable conditions of suspension of execution and immediate execution of death penalty,and many fail to achieve perfection. The path of seeking applicable conditions of death penalty with reprieve in the framework of current criminal law should adhere to different orders:extremely serious crimes are the general condition of death penalty application and the degrees of dangerousness of offenders are the boundary to distinguish immediate execution and suspension execution of death penalty. When dealing with extremely serious crimes the principle of behavior criminal law should be followed and the general conditions of death penalty should be defined on the basis of objective harm. The degrees of personal dangerousness should be considered on the basis of subjective circumstances and follow the principle of behavior person criminal law. The substantive standards of death penalty with reprieve should be implemented by the assessment of degrees of dangerousness of offenders and in accordance to judicial interpretation or guiding cases promulgated by the Supreme Court.%死刑缓期执行与死刑立即执行是死刑执行的两种方式,两者的适用条件至今学界观点异彩纷呈,但学界的诸多观点均不能达致完满。在现行的刑法框架内寻求死缓适用条件的路径应坚持先后不同的位阶顺序:“罪行极其严重”是死刑适用的一般条件;而犯罪人的人身危险性程度是区隔死刑立即执行与死刑缓期执行的分界线。“罪行极其严重”应从客观危害上框定死刑适用的一般条件,遵循行为刑法原理;而犯罪人的人身危险性程度应从主观情节上予以考量,遵循行为人刑法原理。通过对犯罪人的人身危险性程度的评估,并通过最高人民法院的司法解释或颁布指导性案例等予以把控死缓适用的实质标准。

  8. The Reform of Contemporary China's Death Penalty Conception:Strategies and Routes%当代中国死刑观念变革的策略与进路

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王光石; 曾赛刚

    2014-01-01

    There are three alternative strategies for the reform of contemporary China's death penalty con-ception,i.e.the priority strategy of death penalty system reform,the priority strategy of death penalty concep-tion reform,and the mutually-enhanced strategy between death penalty system reform and death penalty con-ception reform.Through weighing and comparing,this paper suggests that the reform of contemporary China's death penalty conception shall adopt the mutually-enhanced strategy between death penalty system reform and death penalty conception reform.Through investigation and analysis of China's retributionism's death penalty outlook,the utilitarianism's death penalty outlook,and the humanitarianism's death penalty outlook,the re-form of contemporary China's death penalty conception shall follow the routes to restrain utilitarianism with ret-ributionism,and then transcend the retributionism and the utilitarianism with the humanitarianism.%死刑制度变革优先策略、死刑观念变革优先策略和死刑制度变革与死刑观念变革相互促进策略是当代中国死刑观念变革可选择的3种策略。通过权衡比较,当代中国死刑观念的变革应该采取死刑制度变革与死刑观念变革相互促进策略。通过对我国报应主义死刑观、功利主义死刑观和人道主义死刑观考察分析,当代中国死刑观念变革的进路应该是:第一步,先用报应主义限制功利主义;第二步,再用人道主义超越报应主义与功利主义。

  9. On Restriction of Death Penalty Application Discretionary Circumstance of Sentencing%论危害结果与死刑的限制适用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭新林; 周强华

    2012-01-01

    Hazard results directly reflect social harm of the behavior, which reflects the severity of offense from objective aspects, and has an important influence on the discretionary of death penalty. To promote hazard results' influence on restricting death penalty application, we should emphasize the following aspects: Firstly, guard against the tendency of "only the consequences theory" to the application of death penalty. Secondly, the material damage results are not particularly serious and it may not be sentenced to the immediate implementation of the death penal- ty. Thirdly, when the hazard results occur as the result of involved factors, it should be cautious to the immediate implementation of the death penalty.%危害结果在很大程度上反映出行为社会危害性的大小,在我国死刑裁量中发挥了重要作用。危害结果在很多情况下是作为酌定量刑情节的形态存在的,其对于死刑的限制适用具有重要意义。充分发挥危害结果情节在限制死刑适用中的作用,应当力戒死刑适用“唯后果论”的倾向;物质性的危害结果不是特别严重的,可以不判处死刑立即执行;危害结果的发生系存在介入因素的场合,应当慎用死刑立即执行。

  10. Hall v. Florida: defining intellectual disability in the shadow of the death penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, Paul S

    2014-10-01

    When the U.S. Supreme Court held that persons with mental retardation (now called intellectual disability) could not be sentenced to death, it left the question of how to define the condition to the states. That issue was raised in Hall v. Florida, which challenged one state's "bright-line rule" barring consideration of defendants with IQs over 70. In an endorsement of the professional consensus, the justices ruled that a more flexible approach that takes into account both intellectual and adaptive functioning is required. The Court's posture may bode well for its acceptance of mental health expertise in future cases.

  11. 论死刑案件指定辩护的有效性%The Effectiveness of Appointed Defense in Death Penalty Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春洪; 付凌云

    2014-01-01

    死刑刑罚具有不可逆转性,死刑案件指定辩护的有效性是法治从形式正义走向实质正义的必然,是刑事国际司法准则、平等原则和人权保障理念的基本要求。然而我国指定辩护中有效辩护保障机制的阙如及无效辩护的现实之巨大反差,使得完善我国死刑案件指定辩护制度成为亟待解决的问题。实现死刑案件指定辩护的有效性,需从实行死刑案件指定辩护律师资格认定制、设置辩护质量的底线标准、确立程序救济渠道等方面加以着手。%Death penalty is irreversible,the effectiveness of the death penalty appointed defense is not only the inevitable requirement which makes the rule of law go from form justice to essence justice but also the basic requirement of International criminal judicial criteria、the principle of equality and human rights protection concept .Yet the reality of the huge contrast between the security mechanism of effective defense in appointed cases and the ineffective defense causes perfecting the appointed defense mechanism of the death penalty become a problem to be solved.The implementation of the effectiveness of the death penalty appointed defense needs to set up a qualification system of appointed defense lawyer,a bottom line of the defense quality and the consequences of procedure.

  12. 中国古代死刑制度的本体论解析%Chinese Ontological Analysis of Ancient Death Penalty System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高吉见

    2014-01-01

    死刑在本体论上的含义是掌握公权力的主体以公共利益或他人的利益受到损害为名义,而利用其掌握的公权力实施的、对造成公权力主体自认为除行为人本人以外的其他客体具有严重威胁和破坏的人剥夺其生命的一种极端的手段。中国死刑制度在静态、动态上各具特色。中国古代死刑制度“经久不衰”的原因是生产力发展水平低下,阶级斗争的残酷性,中国古代对“人性”认识的局限性,自原始社会末期至今的血族复仇思想的影响。%Meaning of the death penalty in the ontology is to master the subject of public authority or in the name of public interest damage, and also make use of the implementation of public power. Meanwhile, the death penalty is an extreme means of depriving and destroying humans’ lives, including public authority except the perpetrator himself objects. There are several characteristic feature for ancient death penalty system of both in static and dynamic. The cause of “Enduring”on the death penalty system in ancient China is the low level of development of productivity,class struggle cruelty, limitations of ancient China,“human”understanding, since the end of primitive society kinship Revenge ideas have lasted till now.

  13. Present Situation and Policy Suggestion of Death Penalty System in Taiwan%台湾死刑制度现况与政策建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽卿

    2015-01-01

    The store and abolition of death penalty should meet the people's feelings as well as protection of human rights and human sympathy .As for Taiwan ,the death penalty is restricted to major violation of life and national social security in legislation .In the meanw hile ,the reprieve death penalty in the mainland can be consulted and observation opportunity should be give to the convicts sentenced to death .If they regret sincerely ,they can be sentenced to life imprisonment or long‐term imprisonment after precise and fair proce‐dure confirmation .T he court should seriously observe rules in criminal law ,such as presumption of inno‐cence .The court has no right to sentence death penalty unless the prosecutor demands that and the crime is too serious ,brutal and unforgivable .Besides ,other supporting measures can not be neglected ,such as im‐provement of correction ,coercive defense system ,etc so that the reform of death penalty will succeed .%死刑制度的存废,必须呼应人民法感情,必且兼顾人权保障与人道关怀。就台湾而言,在立法上,限于重大侵害生命或国家社会安全法益的犯罪,才可保留死刑;同时也可参酌大陆的死缓制度,给死囚最后的观察机会,若其真诚悔改,经严谨公正的程序确认,可以改判无期徒刑或长期自由刑。法院必须坚守刑事诉讼法的无罪推定等相关原则,只有检察官求处死刑的案件,法院除非对于犯罪情节最重大之罪,手段凶残,显然无从教化矫正,否则不得科处死刑,且应修法要求法官评议一致,方可为死刑判决;此外,其他相关的配套,如矫正措施的改良、强化强制辩护制度等,亦不可忽略,以期死刑制度的改革能够真正成功。

  14. Arbitrariness and the death penalty: how the defendant's appearance during trial influences capital jurors' punishment decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio, Michael E

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of the defendant's appearance during the trial on capital jurors' punishment decision. The data used in this analysis were gathered by the Capital Jury Project (CJP), a national program of research on the decision-making of capital jurors. A series of multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted using four aggravating circumstances related to the killing and eight defendant appearance variables as predictors of jurors' punishment decision at three points during the capital trial: (1) after the punishment phase ended, but before formal deliberation began; (2) when the first vote was taken on punishment at jury deliberations; and (3) at the final vote on punishment. Results indicated that when the defendant appeared emotionally involved during the trial (i.e. sorry and sincere) jurors either favored a life sentence or were undecided about punishment; however, when the defendant appeared emotionally uninvolved during the trial (i.e. bored) jurors either sought a death sentence or remained undecided. Policy implications will be discussed.

  15. Of Atkins and men: deviations from clinical definitions of mental retardation in death penalty cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume, John H; Johnson, Sheri Lynn; Seeds, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Under Atkins v. Virginia, the Eighth Amendment exempts from execution individuals who meet the clinical definitions of mental retardation set forth by the American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and the American Psychiatric Association. Both define mental retardation as significantly subaverage intellectual functioning accompanied by significant limitations in adaptive functioning, originating before the age of 18. Since Atkins, most jurisdictions have adopted definitions of mental retardation that conform to those definitions. But some states, looking often to stereotypes of persons with mental retardation, apply exclusion criteria that deviate from and are more restrictive than the accepted scientific and clinical definitions. These state deviations have the effect of excluding from Atkins's reach some individuals who plainly fall within the class it protects. This article focuses on the cases of Roger Cherry, Jeffrey Williams, Michael Stallings, and others, who represent an ever-growing number of individuals inappropriately excluded from Atkins. Left unaddressed, the state deviations discussed herein permit what Atkins does not: the death-sentencing and execution of some capital defendants who have mental retardation.

  16. Discusses on Saves or Waste of Death Penalty and the Selection of Chinese Criminal Law%死刑的存废问题与我国刑法的选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢艳君

    2014-01-01

    自古以来,死刑制度在刑罚体系中一直扮演着重要角色,甚至有人认为没有死刑的刑法根本就不是刑法。随着社会的发展,废除死刑的呼声越来越高,许多国家已经废除了死刑,有些国家虽有死刑的罪名,但也只是个摆设。不管各国的决定如何,死刑存废问题虽已争执了200年,但仍是一个未解之谜,我国同样陷入这一敏感话题中。%From ancient times to the present day ,the death penalty has been plays an important role in the penal system ,even some people think that criminal law without the death penalty is not itself .But with the development of the society and the cries for abolition of the death penalty ,many countries have abolished the death penalty .Although some countries have the death penalty ,it is just a decoration .Whatever the decision ,the death penalty of save-or-waste problem has been disputed for hundreds of years ,but it is still a mystery ,and China also falls into this sensitive topic .

  17. Concepções de adolescentes de dois contextos sociais sobre a pena de morte Adolescents' conceptions on death penalty from two social contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriane da Silva Santos Barboza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo conhecer as concepções sobre a pena de morte de adolescentes de dois contextos sociais diferentes. Participaram da pesquisa 220 adolescentes do sexo masculino, sendo 100 estudantes e 120 adolescentes em situação de exclusão social. Foi aplicado um instrumento que continha, dentre outras, a seguinte questão "O que você acha da pena de morte? Por quê?". De um modo geral, os resultados revelaram o predomínio de respostas desfavoráveis à aplicação da pena de morte. Quando comparados os dois grupos de adolescentes, constatou-se que os estudantes se dividiram entre favoráveis e desfavoráveis à aplicação da pena de morte e os adolescentes em situação de exclusão mostraram-se predominantemente desfavoráveis. No que tange aos argumentos utilizados pelos participantes do presente estudo, a favor ou contra a pena de morte, nota-se que são concepções semelhantes aos que vêm sendo utilizadas no meio científico e filosófico e nos estudos empíricos.This study aimed to discover adolescents' conceptions on the death penalty from two different social contexts. About 220 male adolescents participated of this research, 100 students and 120 adolescents in social exclusion situation. An instrument was used which contained, among others, the following question: "What do you think about the death penalty? Why?" In general, results revealed the predominance of responses against the application of death penalty. When the two adolescent groups were compared, it was discovered that the students were divided in proponents and opponents to the application of death penalty, and the adolescents in exclusion situation demonstrated opposition to this issue. Concerning the arguments in favor or against the death penalty, those used by the participants of this study, it was highlighted that they were similar to scientific and philosophic conceptions and to empirical studies.

  18. 我国死刑辩护的有效性分析%An Analysis of the Effectiveness of Death Penalty Defense Cases in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    步洋洋

    2016-01-01

    死刑刑罚的不可逆转性,使得确保死刑的正确适用成为保留死刑国家的首要目标,而有效辩护制度不仅是实现这一目标的重要保障机制,更是刑事司法由形式正义走向实质正义的必然要求。刑事领域死刑案件辩护有效性的理念及其保障机制的阙如使得我国死刑辩护质量不高的司法现实凸显,这不仅不利于保障被追诉人的人权,更与域外法治国家和地区以及联合国刑事司法准则的相关要求不尽一致。为此,文章对我国死刑辩护的有效性进行分析,以利于构建符合我国司法实践、具有本土化特征的死刑案件有效辩护的保障机制。%The irreversibility of death penalty makes the correct application of death penalty the primary task in countries which has a death penalty system.Thus,effective defense is not only a safeguard of the implementation of this system,but also an absolute requirement of realization of the transformation from formal justice to substantial justice.In China,because of the out-dated i-deas concerning the effectiveness of death case defense in criminal procedure and the lack of a cor-responding safeguard mechanism,the problem of low quality defense is highlighted,which runs contrary to the protection of human rights of the accused and the requirements and the practices of criminal justice criteria of the United Nations.Therefore,it is necessary to analyze the current situation of death case defense in order to establish an effective safeguard mechanism of death penalty case defense which conforms to the present judicial situation and the national characteris-tics of China.

  19. Value Option and Realization of Penalties Applicable to Juvenile Delinquency%未成年人犯罪刑罚适用之价值选择及其实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨天阳

    2012-01-01

    在少年司法中应当综合考虑公正与功利的价值目标,实现未成年人犯罪刑罚适用公正与功利二者最大程度的相统一。当两个法律价值相冲突时,在少年司法领域功利价值优先于公正价值是合理的选择。不同的刑罚价值观之下,刑罚适用的宽严也不相同,为防止法官自由裁量的任意性,需要以能动司法来平衡公正与功利的理念,区别对待强化量刑程序的方法来实现对少年的特殊保护,从形式正义走向实质正义。%In juvenile justice,we should considerate the value targets of justice and utility comprehensively,and realize the greatest degree of unity between justice and utility of penalties applicable to juvenile delinquency.When there is conflict between the two legal values,it is a reasonable choice that utilitarian value takes precedence over fair value in juvenile justice.In different penalty values,the degree of penalty application is also different.In order to prevent the judges' arbitrary discretion,we should balance the justice and utilitarian concept with active justice,and realize special protection for juveniles by treating differently the strengthening of sentencing procedures from form justice to essence justice.

  20. Programmed cell death of larval tissues induced by juvenile hormone in the bamboo borer, Omphisa fuscidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaboon, Manaporn; Yasanga, Tippawan; Sakurai, Sho; Singtripop, Tippawan

    2012-09-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) plays a critical role during animal development through the destruction of unneeded cells and tissues. In some insects, the prothoracic glands (PGs) and anterior silk glands (ASGs) are larval-specific tissues that are normally eliminated by PCD after pupation. Previous studies report that juvenile hormone analog (JHA) terminates the larval diapause of Omphisa fuscidentalis by increasing the hemolymph ecdysteroids that trigger PCD. Because JHA may indirectly induce the PCD of the PGs and ASGs of Omphisa diapausing larvae, the effects of JHA on the induction of PCD were determined. The application of 1μg JHA induced PCD in the PGs and ASGs of larvae identified as stage G0 (prior to pupation). The injection of 1μg 20E triggered the PCD of the ASGs when the larvae expressed a G0-G1 morphology, whereas PCD occurred in the PGs on day 1 post-injection. Histological studies revealed similar patterns of morphological changes during the PG and ASG PCD in the JHA- and 20E-treated larvae. Furthermore, to confirm that PCD was induced by a high ecdysteroid level that increases after JHA application, the expression profiles of EcR-A and EcR-B1 in the PGs and ASGs from the JHA-treated larvae were examined, and the results showed that the expression levels of EcR-A and EcR-B1 mRNA increased during the G0 stage. These results suggest that JHA may be involved in PCD by increasing the ecdysteroid titer, leading to termination of the larval diapause period in Omphisa fuscidentalis.

  1. The Historical Evolution and Future Approaches of the Death Penalty Debate%一死刑存废之争的历史演变与未来进路

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈凌剑

    2016-01-01

    It is undoubted that the death penalty reform has become the focus of the current judicial reform. In China, the dispute about the existence and abolition of the death penalty has experienced the controversy on the level of philosophy, law philosophy and so-ciology, and finally returned to the perspective of the criminal law itself. Now, both sides reach a consensus in the scope of limited death penalty. Scholars holding to limiting the death penalty hope to minimize the scope of application of the death penalty by using the criminal policy of "less kill" and "cautious kill", and to abolish death penalty gradually. In the future, death penalty in serious corruption, serious violence crime and public opinion, will cause sustained and inevitable controversy between the two sides.%死刑改革无疑是目前司法改革的重点。中国关于死刑的存废之争经历了哲学层面、法哲学和法社会学层面的争论后,最终回归刑法学本身,目前在“限制”死刑的范围内达成共识。限制死刑论希冀通过借助“少杀”“慎杀”的刑事政策最大限度缩小死刑的适用范围,同时逐步实现废除死刑。而未来存废双方在涉及严重腐败犯罪、严重暴力犯罪以及民意等方面将继续存在不可避免的争论。

  2. 续存、限制、渐废:再论中国刑罚之死刑命运%Reservation, Restriction, Gradual Abolishment: On the Death Penalty in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘叶

    2012-01-01

    Death penalty doesn't coordinate with social development and human civilization course. The 8th Amendment to the Criminal Law abolished 13 death penalties for economic non - violent crimes with the tide of international criminal policy of abolishing death penalty, which is a great progress in Chinese criminal legislation. However, our country doesn' t still have mature conditions to a- bolish all of death penalty. We should still reserve death penalty as the premise, create conditions for limiting and abolishing death pen- alty in legislation ,justice ,policy and public's thinking.%死刑终归与社会的发展和人类文明进程不协调,本次《刑法修正案(八)》顺应废止死刑的国际刑事政策潮流,取消了13个经济性非暴力犯罪的死刑,无疑是我国刑事立法的一大进步。但是我国现阶段仍不具备立废全部死刑的成熟条件,尚须在保留死刑的前提下,从立法、司法、政策及民众思想上创造限制死刑到全面废止死刑的条件。

  3. 死缓变更死刑相关立法问题研究%Research on Legislative Issues of Death Sentence with a Two- Year Reprieve to Death Penalty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郁勇; 曹玉江

    2012-01-01

    目前理论及实务界对死缓制度的关注始终集中在死缓裁量的法律适用,对死缓执行变更关注较少,《刑法修正案(八)》对《刑法》第50条作出了必要的修改,但是并未改变死缓变更死刑立即执行条件过苛的现状,围绕死缓执行变更法律适用的司法困惑依旧存在。改变“故意犯罪”作为死缓变更死刑立即执行的条件,完善相关问题立法成为趋势使然。%Now, we pay little attention on the variation of death sentence with a two - year reprieve. Though the Amendment 8th of Criminal Law has made some necessary modifications, there are still too many restrictions for death sentence with a two - year reprieve to death penalty. So, we need to revise the law, and change the main fac- tor of intentional crime for variation of the death sentence with a two - year reprieve to death penalty.

  4. Combat veterans, mental health issues, and the death penalty: addressing the impact of post-traumatic stress disorder and traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardino, Anthony E

    2009-05-01

    More than 1.5 million Americans have participated in combat operations in Iraq and Afghanistan over the past seven years. Some of these veterans have subsequently committed capital crimes and found themselves in our nation's criminal justice system. This Essay argues that combat veterans suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder or traumatic brain injury at the time of their offenses should not be subject to the death penalty.Offering mitigating evidence regarding military training, post-traumatic stress disorder, and traumatic brain injury presents one means that combat veterans may use to argue for their lives during the sentencing phase of their trials. Alternatively, Atkins v. Virginia and Roper v. Simmons offer a framework for establishing a legislatively or judicially created categorical exclusion for these offenders, exempting them from the death penalty as a matter of law. By understanding how combat service and service-related injuries affect the personal culpability of these offenders, the legal system can avoid the consequences of sentencing to death America's mentally wounded warriors, ensuring that only the worst offenders are subject to the ultimate punishment.

  5. Applying Roper v. Simmons in juvenile transfer and waiver proceedings: a legal and neuroscientific inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, John Matthew

    2011-08-01

    In 2005, the U.S. Supreme Court held the death penalty unconstitutional as applied to juveniles in Roper v. Simmons. The Court reasoned that juveniles were less criminally culpable than adults because they lack maturity, they are more vulnerable to peer influence, and their character is not as well formed as that of adults. Although Roper addressed the imposition of the ultimate punishment of death within the context of a juvenile's moral blameworthiness for a crime of murder, this article considers the application of the Court's reasoning in Roper to the issue of juvenile waiver. Specifically, the author asks the question whether Roper's ultimate language distinguishing juveniles from adults in capital cases should apply to the conventional practice of their trial and sentencing as adults. Despite the fact that juvenile transfer is a less serious sanction than the death penalty, this inquiry confronts the traditional objective of the juvenile court system, a system of punishment that was founded on rehabilitation rather than retribution. The author questions whether the punitive objectives of deterrence and retribution are satisfied by juvenile waiver and whether the mitigating effect of adolescence negates the trial of youth as adults.

  6. Julgamento moral sobre pena de morte e redução da maioridade penal Moral judgments on death penalty and reduction of criminal majority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Kelly de Sousa Galvão

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo principal deste trabalho foi investigar o julgamento moral de estudantes do ensino médio e de licenciaturas sobre pena de morte e redução da maioridade penal. Para tanto, utilizou-se como suporte teórico e empírico a tipologia do desenvolvimento moral de Lawrence Kohlberg. Participaram deste estudo 200 estudantes que responderam, além de uma lista que solicitava informações de alguns dos seus dados biodemográficos, a questões relacionadas à pena de morte e à redução da maioridade penal. De um modo geral, os participantes opinaram favoravelmente pela pena de morte e pela redução da maioridade penal, e, em defesa de suas opiniões, utilizaram, sobretudo, argumentos típicos dos estágios hierarquicamente inferiores da tipologia kohlberguiana, havendo, contudo, algumas diferenças entre as respostas em função do grau de escolaridade. Esses resultados foram discutidos com base na teoria kohlberguiana e em estudos empíricos que tratam dos temas pena de morte e redução da maioridade penal.The aim of this study was to investigate the moral judgments of students of high school and degrees on the death penalty and the reduction of criminal majority. Thus, it was used to support the theoretical and empirical typology of moral development of Lawrence Kohlberg. The study included 200 students who responded, beyond a list that requested information from some of their bio-demographic data, questions related to death penalty and reduction of criminal majority. In general, participants opined in favor of the death penalty and the reduction of criminal majority, and in defense of their views, used mainly typical arguments hierarchically lower stages of the Kohlberg's typology there, however, some differences between the responses according to level of schooling. These results were discussed taking into consideration the Kohlberg's theory and empirical studies dealing with the issues of death penalty and reduction of criminal

  7. Analysis on the Unjustification of Victim-offender Reconciliation of Death Penalty in China%我国死刑案件被和解的非正当性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜莉

    2011-01-01

    轻微刑事案件可以适用刑事和解我国理论界和司法界就此基本达成共识,重罪案件和死刑案件可否适用刑事和解理论界争议颇为激烈。文章主张死刑案件不能和解,死刑被和解将违背我国死刑适用的宗旨,破坏死刑适用的标准;死刑案件和解严重背离了罪行法定原则和刑法面前人人平等原则、罪责刑相适应原则;也不符合刑事和解的应有价值;容易滋生新的司法腐败;其本质是国家推卸本应承担的对被害人的救助责任;死刑案件刑事和解也并非控制死刑适用的良策。%Theoretical field and judicial circles in our country have reach agreement on victim-offender reconciliation of minor criminal cases, theoretical field in our country debate intensely on whether capital felonies and death penalty cases can be reconciled. In my article I advocate victim offender reconciliation can not be reached on death penalty cases, because if death penalty is reconciled aim of death penalty will be vio- lated , standard of death penalty appliance will be damaged, if death penalty is reconciled the principle of crime under definition and the princi- ple that everyone should be equal before the criminal law legislature equality and the principle of suiting punishment to crime will be deviated ;The reconciliation on the death penalty does not meet the value of victim-offender reconciliation and produces new corruption~ its essence is the state shirking its commitment to the victims which is the responsibility of the state ; victim-of(ender reconciliation of death penalty in our country is not the good way to control death penalty.

  8. Focus on Reality in of Partly China and Discussion Reserving the Death on the Necessity Penalty%聚焦现实再谈中国有限保留死刑的必要性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘钊

    2012-01-01

    After two and a half centuries' argument, the restriction and abolition of death penalty has been more and more accepted by international legal documents and the calls for the abolition of the death penalty are growing. China, as one of the nations in the world to reserve and actually apply the death penalty system has been repeatedly questioned. With thousands of years history, how will be the destiny of the death penalty in China? Personally I think partly reserving the death penalty is very necessary.%历经长达两个半世纪的争论,死刑的限制与废除已被越来越多的国际法律文件所认可,废除死刑的呼声日益高涨。中国作为当今世界上保留并实际适用死刑制度的国家之一,其死刑政策屡屡遭到质疑。延续几千年的死刑制度,在当代中国的命运究竟当如何?中国的死刑政策究竟何去何从?本人认为,中国有限保留死刑十分必要。

  9. On the Ancient Death Penalty Review System%从历史发展看中国古代死刑复核法律制度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何平

    2013-01-01

    我国古代死刑复核制度的历史发展,历经萌芽、确立、成熟、完善四个阶段,贯穿整个中国社会发展,对当代死刑复核制度的确立产生了较大的影响。特别是在建立死刑复核责任追究制度、书面审和开庭审理相结合等方面,古代死刑复核制度对现代的借鉴意义重大。%The paper elaborates the development of ancient death penalty review system from emergence,estab-lishment and maturity to perfection,which runs through the whole period and has a great impact on the establish-ment of the modern death penalty review system.Particularly,the ancient review accountability system and the combination of written trail and open trial provide great reference for the modern system.

  10. The Substantive Reform of Death Penalty in Our Country:According to the Reduction Accusations for Death Penalty in Criminal Law Amendment Ⅷ as Visual Angle%论我国死刑制度的实质性改革——以《刑法修正案(八)》削减死刑罪名为视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨俊

    2012-01-01

    《刑法修正案(八)》的出台引起社会高度关注,因为与以往历次《刑法》修正案相比,本次《刑法》修改可以说是幅度和力度最大的一次。《刑法修正案(八)》的亮点之一就是削减了死刑罪名,由于死刑是剥夺犯罪人生命的刑罚,因其严厉性、残酷性、非人道性和不可纠正性而长期为人所诟病,死刑之存废也是学界一直关注和争论的焦点问题,然而,就我国现阶段而言,对死刑依然保持现状或轻言完全废除都不可取,更重要的应当是在刑事立法和司法适用上对死刑进行有步骤地、渐进式地改革。从此意义上说,《刑法修正案(八)》充分表明我国已进入对死刑的实质性改革阶段。%The promulgation of Criminal Law Amendment Ⅷ have been paid more and more attention by the whole society, because compared with other past criminal law amendment, this amendment of criminal law is maxi mal in scope and potency dimension. One of the highlights of Criminal Law Amendment Ⅷ is reducing accusations for death penalty. Death penalty is a kind of punishment on depriving the offender's life, which become an object of public denunciation owing to its severe, cruel, inhuman and irreversible, so there are many arguments about its existing or abolishing for death penalty. However, it's desirable to both keep status quo and abolish absolutely, it' s prior to reform death penalty in criminal legislation and juridical application. In this sense, Criminal Law Amendment Ⅷ has made it known that our country is entering the stage of substantive reform of death penalty.

  11. Reduced occurrence of programmed cell death and gliosis in the retinas of juvenile rabbits after shortterm treatment with intravitreous bevacizumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alice Fusco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Bevacizumab has been widely used as a vascular endothelial growth factor antagonist in the treatment of retinal vasoproliferative disorders in adults and, more recently, in infants with retinopathy of prematurity. Recently, it has been proposed that vascular endothelial growth factor acts as a protective factor for neurons and glial cells, particularly in developing nervous tissue. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of bevacizumab on the developing retinas of juvenile rabbits. METHODS: Juvenile rabbits received bevacizumab intravitreously in one eye; the other eye acted as an untreated control. Slit-lamp and fundoscopic examinations were performed both prior to and seven days after treatment. At the same time, retina samples were analyzed using immunohistochemistry to detect autophagy and apoptosis as well as proliferation and glial reactivity. Morphometric analyses were performed, and the data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test. RESULTS: No clinical abnormalities were observed in either treated or untreated eyes. However, immunohistochemical analyses revealed a reduction in the occurrence of programmed cell death and increases in both proliferation and reactivity in the bevacizumab-treated group compared with the untreated group. CONCLUSIONS: Bevacizumab appears to alter programmed cell death patterns and promote gliosis in the developing retinas of rabbits; therefore, it should be used with caution in developing eyes

  12. Constitutional Reflection on the Abolishment of the Death Penalty in Fund-raising Fraud%集资诈骗罪死刑废止的宪法学反思

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯韩美皓

    2016-01-01

    目前宪法学界对死刑存废的讨论,多从“死刑是否违反生命权或平等权保障”角度入手,鲜少将死刑制度或具体死刑罪名存废的合理性,置于宪法层面,进行整体考察。以《刑法修正案(九)》取消的集资诈骗罪死刑作为分析对象,从宪法精神、宪法原则及宪法规范三个层面对该罪死刑废止的合理性进行分析,进而归纳出判断死刑存废合理性的三个判断要素,即是否具有民意基础、是否侵犯生命权和是否违反平等保护原则。在此标准的考量下,我国应当选择“保留死刑、减少死刑罪名、限制死刑执行”的路径,加快对非暴力犯罪死刑的废止进程,同时限制死刑的实际执行数量,推动死刑改革的进程。%Nowadays, when considering the death penalty, most scholars discuss it under the aspect of"whether the death penalty will violate the right of life or the right of equality", while few scholars analyze the rationality of the death penalty system or the specific death penalty crime under the constitutional aspect. The author takes the crime of fund-raising fraud, which had been abolished by The Amendment (IX) to the Crimi-nal Law, as an example, and analyzes it from three aspects, including the constitutional spirit, the constitution-al principle and the constitutional norm. Based on these, the author summarizes three constitutional factors of judging the rationality of abolishing the death penalty. The factors are whether it has the public opinion basis, whether it violates the right of life and whether it violates the right of equality. Under these judgment factors, China should choose the approach of reserving the death penalty, decreasing the crimes of death penalty and restricting the implement of death penalty. It means China should speed up the process of abolishing death penalty for non-violent crimes, limit the actual execution of the death penalty, and promote the

  13. 死刑替代措施的设计方案研究%Research on the Design of Alternative Measures to the Death Penalty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卓一丹; 邵超

    2015-01-01

    At present, while the scholars have not yet reached a consensus on the definition of the concept of alternative measures to the death penalty,they do unanimously agree on its purpose, the requirements and the de-sign plan.In fact, scholars have proposed a series of design schemes for the alternative measures to death penalty, which not only reflect their further understanding about the measures, but also cause some of their problems ex-posed.Therefore, under the current penal system,the punishment execution system should be gradually improved and strictly implemented.Besides, we should turn the life imprisonment in China into the most severe punishment after the abolition of the death penalty so that it could be able to meet the requirements of the design schemes with-out seeking a new kind of punishment deliberately or transforming life imprisonment excessively.%学者们对死刑替代措施概念的界定尚未达成共识,但对其设立目的、设立要求以及方案设计思路等方面已基本达成一致,死刑替代措施的设计方案反映出学者们对死刑替代措施的认识进一步深化的同时,也暴露出一系列问题。在现有刑罚体系下,应逐步完善并严格贯彻我国的刑罚执行制度,使无期徒刑担当起死刑废止后最严厉的刑罚,实现死刑替代措施的设计方案所追求的效果,无须刻意去寻求一种新的刑罚方法或对无期徒刑进行“过度”改造。

  14. 论被判死刑人员结婚和生育的权利%Marital and Procreative Rights for Criminals Sentenced to Death Penalty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余枫霜

    2013-01-01

    无论是从应然权利还是从法定权利的角度看,被判死刑人员都应当享有结婚和生育的权利。无论是自由的丧失、还是生命即将被剥夺,都不意味着权利享有的正当性和权利行使的可能性随之丧失。相反,人权意识的觉醒、对犯罪本质认识的深化、传统文化的支撑、政府责任的重塑、人道主义的张扬,都为被判死刑人员主张和实现结婚和生育的权利,奠定了现实基础。因此,有限度地认可被判死刑人员在婚姻生育方面的权利并保障其合理行使,具有重要的意义。%From the perspective of natural and legal rights,criminals sentenced to death penalty still enjoy procreative rights and rights to get married. Their loss of freedom or life in future does not neces-sarily mean that they will lose legitimacy to enjoy and the possibility to exercise their rights. On the contrary,the awakened consciousness of human rights,the deepened understanding of crime,the sup-port of traditional culture,the remodeling of government responsibility and the highlighting of humani-tarianism all make it possible to realize such rights. Therefore,we should recognize that criminals giv-en death penalty can enjoy procreative rights and rights to get married,and enable them to exercise their rights within reasonable limits.

  15. 包容性发展视阈下中国限制死刑之观照%On Restriction to the Death Penalty from the Inclusive Development Perspective in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永

    2011-01-01

    It has become a whole tide to limit and abolish the death penalty,and the policy is accepted by the most countries in the world. Inclusive development stressed the social equity which is based on the fairness and justice for harmonious development society.China must also has own position and choices at this question. Amendment Ⅷ to the Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China has reformed about death penalty with probation, creating an opportunity to limit the death penalty. The changes about death penalty receive scientific idea when facing important policies without debate.%死刑的限制和废除己经成为刑法改革的大势所趋,并成为当代许多国家秉承的刑事政策。包容性发展强调强调社会公平,实现个人和社会在公平、正义基础上的和谐发展。中国在死刑问题上也要有自己的立场和抉择。刑法修正案(八)通过对死刑缓期执行的改造,为限制死刑创造了契机。此项刑事政策的转变,秉承了重大政策不争论的科学理念。

  16. On the Retrial of the "Return" cases of the Death Penalty Review%略论死刑复核中“发回”案件的重新审判

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郇习顶; 徐英

    2012-01-01

    In the judicial practice of the retrial of the "Return"cases of the death penalty review,there appears the tendency of the defendant to the presumption,the tendency of the corroborative evidence to apply the death penalty and the tendency of the ignoring the investigation and control of legality.As a result,the retrial court should put an end to the evidence offered by the investigation organs which is bad for the defendant,and apply the death penalty of the defendant;as the "facts are not clear,evidence are not enough" death penalty case,there should not be applied by the death penalty if the truth is not changed much.%在重新审判"发回"死刑案件的司法实践中,对被告人容易存在有罪推定的倾向、依据补强证据再次适用死刑的倾向和漠视侦控行为合法性的倾向。为此重审法院应杜绝片面依据侦控机关提供的不利于被告人的存疑补强证据,对被告人再次适用死刑;对"事实不清、证据不足"发回的死刑案件,如果经过重审认定的案件事实没有发生重大变化,一般也不宜对被告人再次适用死刑。

  17. 包容性发展视角下的死刑三维审视%A Three-dimensional Look at Death Penalty from the Perspective of Inclusive Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永

    2011-01-01

    The abolition of death penalty is a general trend, as it meets the requirements of inclusive development in terms of e- conomy and law. Although there are rational factors for the existence of death penalty in Chin, it death penalty will eventually be abolished with growing external pressure and the more popularized human rights idea that living happily is a golden rule. In the sense of ethics, biology and economics, death penalty comes into question. Lawfully speaking, the theoretical basis of the aboli- tion of death penalty exists, which is of major significance in building an inclusive and harmonious society.%死刑废除已是大势所趋,这既是经济包容性增长也是法律包容性发展的要求。尽管我国死刑的存在有其合理因素,但是面对的外部压力较大,随着人权观念深入人心,至乐活身是不二法则,死刑也终将渐行渐远。在伦理学、生物学、经济学意义上来看,死刑都会受到质疑。从法律层面废除死刑制度,其理论基础是存在的,对于包容性的和谐社会创建意义重大。

  18. 49 CFR 220.7 - Penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., or has caused death or injury, a penalty not to exceed $100,000 per violation may be assessed; and... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Penalty. 220.7 Section 220.7 Transportation Other... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS General § 220.7 Penalty. Any person (including but not limited to...

  19. 49 CFR 228.21 - Civil penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... persons, or has caused death or injury, a penalty not to exceed $100,000 per violation may be assessed... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil penalty. 228.21 Section 228.21... penalty. Any person (an entity of any type covered under 1 U.S.C. 1, including but not limited to...

  20. 49 CFR 221.7 - Civil penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... persons, or has caused death or injury, a penalty not to exceed $100,000 per violation may be assessed... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil penalty. 221.7 Section 221.7 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION REAR END MARKING DEVICE-PASSENGER, COMMUTER AND FREIGHT TRAINS General § 221.7 Civil penalty....

  1. [Juvenile scleroderma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mâcedo, Patrícia Andrade; Shinjo, Samuel Katsuyuki; Goldenstein-Schainberg, Cláudia

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile scleroderma is a rare childhood condition characterized by fibrosis of the skin and internal organs. Clinical manifestations of childhood scleroderma are different from adult disease and early recognition, correct classification and treatment can improve long-term outcome. This review explores the most recent actualizations on clinical manifestations, classification criteria, treatment options and prognosis of juvenile scleroderma. There are two main forms of the disease: localized scleroderma and systemic sclerosis. Localized scleroderma is the most common form in children and mostly restricted to the skin. Juvenile diffuse systemic sclerosis is related to visceral involvement and cardiac disease which is the main cause of death in these patients. The outcome of juvenile systemic sclerosis is better compared with the adult form. Treatment remains a medical challenge and the EULAR task force proposed an approach to juvenile scleroderma treatment based on expert's opinion and guidelines used for the treatment of adults. Larger studies on childhood scleroderma are warranted.

  2. A missed penalty kick triggered coronary death in the husband and broken heart syndrome in the wife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y-Hassan, Shams; Feldt, Kari; Stålberg, Marcus

    2015-11-15

    Events that induce emotional stress and frustration in a large number of subjects under specific circumstances, such as earthquakes, war conditions, and sporting occasions, may increase the incidence of cardiovascular events, such as acute myocardial infarction, arrhythmias, and sudden cardiac death. This report describes a married couple who expressed an apparently passionate interest in football with hazardous consequences after a tense football match during the FIFA 2014 World Championships. A series of emotional stressors initiated by defeat in this football game lead to cardiac arrest in a 58-year-old man caused by a thrombotic occlusion of the left anterior descending artery and ending in the death of the patient. An hour and 15 minutes after the onset of cardiac arrest of the patient, his 64-year-old wife also had chest pain caused by an acute midventricular takotsubo syndrome. She survived the acute stage of the disease, and there was complete resolution of the left ventricular dysfunction.

  3. Radiation induces progenitor cell death, microglia activation, and blood-brain barrier damage in the juvenile rat cerebellum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kai; Boström, Martina; Ek, C. Joakim; Li, Tao; Xie, Cuicui; Xu, Yiran; Sun, Yanyan; Blomgren, Klas; Zhu, Changlian

    2017-01-01

    Posterior fossa tumors are the most common childhood intracranial tumors, and radiotherapy is one of the most effective treatments. However, irradiation induces long-term adverse effects that can have significant negative impacts on the patient’s quality of life. The purpose of this study was to characterize irradiation-induced cellular and molecular changes in the cerebellum. We found that irradiation-induced cell death occurred mainly in the external germinal layer (EGL) of the juvenile rat cerebellum. The number of proliferating cells in the EGL decreased, and 82.9% of them died within 24 h after irradiation. Furthermore, irradiation induced oxidative stress, microglia accumulation, and inflammation in the cerebellum. Interestingly, blood-brain barrier damage and blood flow reduction was considerably more pronounced in the cerebellum compared to other brain regions. The cerebellar volume decreased by 39% and the migration of proliferating cells to the internal granule layer decreased by 87.5% at 16 weeks after irradiation. In the light of recent studies demonstrating that the cerebellum is important not only for motor functions, but also for cognition, and since treatment of posterior fossa tumors in children typically results in debilitating cognitive deficits, this differential susceptibility of the cerebellum to irradiation should be taken into consideration for future protective strategies. PMID:28382975

  4. 关于贪污贿赂犯罪配以死刑的立法思考%Legislative Reflections on the Death Penalty Coupled with Corruption and Bribery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹晓闻

    2011-01-01

    For long time, measures of cracking down the corruption and bribery crime are much severe in China. The existing criminal law regards the corruption and bribery as one of the most serious crimes. The penal system adheres to principle of heavy penalty and heavy punishment with the maximum penalty of death. But legal interest of criminal law is required to protect the value of life rather than limit the right to life. Therefore, the paper reconsiders the death penalty systems existing in China's criminal law to limit expansion of the death penalty in the process of globalization of the legal system.%长期以来,我国对贪污贿赂犯罪的打击力度一直过于强硬,现行刑法将贪污贿赂犯罪视为最为严重的犯罪之一,配刑制度坚持了“重刑重罚”的原则,最高刑配置死刑。但从刑法法益角度来看,更希求于刑法对生命价值的保护,而不是对生命权的限制。因此,在法制全球化的过程中,为应合我国限制对死刑权的扩展,就应该反思目前刑法对贪污贿赂犯罪配置死刑的制度。

  5. 死刑案件被害人权利保护问题%On Problems of the Victims' Rights Protection in Death Penalty Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王贞会

    2012-01-01

    In the field of criminal justice, human rights protection is an institutional system of rich connotation and continuing development. It is necessary to protect the legitimate rights of the criminal suspect and defendant, but also to protect the legitimate rights of the victims, and to balance on the two respects. China Criminal Procedure Law of 1996 confirmed the subject position of the victims, but due to lack of support mechanisms, it also caused many problems in practice. Then, the newly -revised Criminal Procedure Law in 2012 greatly improves the litigation rights of the criminal suspect and defendant and their protection, but less involves in the rights protection of the victims. Compared with the ordinary criminal cases, death penalty cases made particularly serious injury to the vic- tims, who should be given special protection.%在刑事司法领域,人权保障是一个内涵丰富且不断发展的制度体系。既要保障犯罪嫌疑人、被告人的合法权利,也要保障被害人的合法权利,同时注意二者平衡。1996年《刑事诉讼法》确认了被害人的诉讼主体地位,但由于缺少配套机制,导致实践中出现诸多问题。新《刑事诉讼法》在很大程度上完善了犯罪嫌疑人、被告人的诉讼权利及其保护,但较少涉及被害人的权利保护问题。与普通刑事案件相比,死刑案件给被害人造成的伤害尤为严重,应当给予特别保护。

  6. Penalties for official and military crimes in Roman criminal law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uliya Pershina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The author considers the system of penalties for official and military crimes in the Roman criminal law. Most of the official crimes against public order in Ancient Rome was punished by exile outside the Roman state and penalties. Military discipline in the Roman army was supported by severe sanctions. They ranged from the death penalty to the imposition of special duties.

  7. The open of Japanese execution of death penalty--and the limitation of the information disclosure%日本的死刑执行公开制度--兼论死刑执行信息公开的限度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高一飞; 张金霞

    2013-01-01

      日本古代死刑执行经历了由公开到限制公开的过程,二战之后,日本政府对于死刑案件采取了更为保密的措施,当时日本的死刑制度处于机密状态。2010年8月28日,日本法务省首次向新闻媒体公开死刑执行的刑场,这一做法并没有公开死刑执行的过程,是死刑执行信息适度公开的一大创举。%In Japan, the ancient execution of death penalty experienced from open to limited open. After World War II, the Japanese government took more confidential measures to death penalty cases while the death penalty system was in a confidential status. On August 28, 2010, the Japanese Ministry of Justice made the execution ground known to public in the media for the first time, which is a pioneering work in the moderate disclosure of the information concerning the execution of death penalty, though it didn’t disclose the process of execution of death penalty.

  8. 刑罚的功能与青少年犯罪的死刑控制——兼谈死刑在青少年犯罪问题上的适用%Function of Penalty and Control of Death Penalty in Juvenile Delinquency-On Application of Death Penalty in Juvenile Delinquency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘长秋

    2008-01-01

    刑法通过刑罚手段介入对青少年犯罪规制的根本目的,在于预防青少年犯罪而不是要惩罚犯罪的青少年.这一主要目的必然决定了刑罚对青少年犯罪所具有的威慑和教育功能将占主要地位.死刑在预防青少年犯罪方面具有一定的积极意义.刑法不应当完全废止死刑对青少年犯罪的适用.

  9. Reconstruction of methods of execution of the death penalty by shooting in the years 1949-1954 based on exhumation research of "prison fields" in Osobowicki Cemetery in Wroclaw. Part I--Historical outline and results of research conducted prior to exhumations performed in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szleszkowski, Łukasz

    2012-01-01

    In the period between October and December 2011, a series of exhumation research of the so-called prison quarters dating back to 1949-1954 was conducted in Osobowicki Cemetery in Wrocław. Among the buried there were political prisoners executed by shooting--genuine or alleged members of post-war independence organizations. It was a unique opportunity to determine the method of execution of the death penalty in that period because, according to historical data and the results of two test exhumations, this method considerably differed from instructions on the use of a firing squad during execution of the death penalty.

  10. 浅析我国死刑量刑体系中经济赔偿的合理性与局限性%Analysis about the Rationality and Limitation of Compensation in China Death Penalty Sentencing System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯春萍

    2012-01-01

    按照我国《刑法》的规定,刑罚的本质是基于刑事责任对被告人予以惩罚报应,同时,刑罚的目的在于通过减少被告人的再犯可能性实现预防犯罪。同样,作为实现刑罚过程的量刑也应在这种“本质”和“目的”的体系中进行。人民法院在对死刑案件进行量刑时决定是否将加害方及其家属等积极进行经济赔偿的行为作为酌定情节予以考虑时,也应该首先从量刑的这种“本质”和“目的”的体系出发来判断。具体地讲,经济赔偿只有与案件的“犯罪事实”有着内在关联性,本来属于案件“定罪量刑”的要素时,并且,只有将其置于整个量刑体系下,在与其他众多的量刑要素的相互关系中被认定确实具有直接影响被告人的过去罪责(刑事责任)及其将来预防(再犯可能性)的意义时,才可以作为死刑量刑的酌定情节予以考虑,才可以成为慎用死刑立即执行而选择死刑缓期两年执行的理由。%According to China's criminal law, the essence of criminal penalty is to do retribution to the criminal, and its goal is to prevent the criminal from conducting crime again. So, sentencing, as the concrete process to make criminal penalty realized, should also be made in the formation of "retributive essence" and "preventive goal. " In a death case, the court should act in the same way when it tries to consider compensation as a factor to determine whether a death penalty should be issued. Compensation can be considered as a reason to choose a sentencing of death penalty with a two years suspended execution rather than death penalty with an immediate execution, only in the case that the compensation reflects the reduction of criminal responsibility and the increase of criminals' regret.

  11. Replacing penalties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Stepashin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 343.24The subject. The article deals with the problem of the use of "substitute" penalties.The purpose of the article is to identify criminal and legal criteria for: selecting the replacement punishment; proportionality replacement leave punishment to others (the formalization of replacement; actually increasing the punishment (worsening of legal situation of the convicted.Methodology.The author uses the method of analysis and synthesis, formal legal method.Results. Replacing the punishment more severe as a result of malicious evasion from serving accused designated penalty requires the optimization of the following areas: 1 the selection of a substitute punishment; 2 replacement of proportionality is serving a sentence other (formalization of replacement; 3 ensuring the actual toughening penalties (deterioration of the legal status of the convict. It is important that the first two requirements pro-vide savings of repression in the implementation of the replacement of one form of punishment to others.Replacement of punishment on their own do not have any specifics. However, it is necessary to compare them with the contents of the punishment, which the convict from serving maliciously evaded. First, substitute the punishment should assume a more significant range of restrictions and deprivation of certain rights of the convict. Second, the perfor-mance characteristics of order substitute the punishment should assume guarantee imple-mentation of the new measures.With regard to replacing all forms of punishment are set significant limitations in the application that, in some cases, eliminates the possibility of replacement of the sentence, from serving where there has been willful evasion, a stricter measure of state coercion. It is important in the context of the topic and the possibility of a sentence of imprisonment as a substitute punishment in cases where the original purpose of the strict measures excluded. It is noteworthy that the

  12. Juvenile angiofibroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasal tumor; Angiofibroma - juvenile; Benign nasal tumor; Juvenile nasal angiofibroma; JNA ... Juvenile angiofibroma is not very common. It is most often found in adolescent boys. The tumor contains ...

  13. Underlying causes of the emerging nonmetropolitan mortality penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossman, Jeralynn S; James, Wesley L; Cosby, Arthur G; Cossman, Ronald E

    2010-08-01

    The nonmetropolitan mortality penalty results in an estimated 40 201 excessive US deaths per year, deaths that would not occur if nonmetropolitan and metropolitan residents died at the same rate. We explored the underlying causes of the nonmetropolitan mortality penalty by examining variation in cause of death. Declines in heart disease and cancer death rates in metropolitan areas drive the nonmetropolitan mortality penalty. Future work should explore why the top causes of death are higher in nonmetropolitan areas than they are in metropolitan areas.

  14. On the edge of death: Rates of decline and lower thresholds of biochemical condition in food-deprived fish larvae and juveniles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, S.; Caldarone, E. M.; Chícharo, M. A.; Clemmesen, C.; Faria, A. M.; Faulk, C.; Folkvord, A.; Holt, G. J.; Høie, H.; Kanstinger, P.; Malzahn, A.; Moran, D.; Petereit, C.; Støttrup, J. G.; Peck, M. A.

    2012-05-01

    Gaining reliable estimates of how long fish early life stages can survive without feeding and how starvation rate and time until death are influenced by body size, temperature and species is critical to understanding processes controlling mortality in the sea. The present study is an across-species analysis of starvation-induced changes in biochemical condition in early life stages of nine marine and freshwater fishes. Data were compiled on changes in body size (dry weight, DW) and biochemical condition (standardized RNA-DNA ratio, sRD) throughout the course of starvation of yolk-sac and feeding larvae and juveniles in the laboratory. In all cases, the mean biochemical condition of groups decreased exponentially with starvation time, regardless of initial condition and endogenous yolk reserves. A starvation rate for individuals was estimated from discrete 75th percentiles of sampled populations versus time (degree-days, Dd). The 10th percentile of sRD successfully approximated the lowest, life-stage-specific biochemical condition (the edge of death). Temperature could explain 59% of the variability in time to death whereas DW had no effect. Species and life-stage-specific differences in starvation parameters suggest selective adaptation to food deprivation. Previously published, interspecific functions predicting the relationship between growth rate and sRD in feeding fish larvae do not apply to individuals experiencing prolonged food deprivation. Starvation rate, edge of death, and time to death are viable proxies for the physiological processes under food deprivation of individual fish pre-recruits in the laboratory and provide useful metrics for research on the role of starvation in the sea.

  15. 论刑事和解在死刑案件中的限制适用∗%On the Restricted Application of Criminal Reconciliation in Death Penalty Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马松建

    2016-01-01

    刑事和解在死刑案件中的限制适用对于落实宽严相济的刑事政策,实现国家权力与公民个人权利的动态平衡,促进刑罚的社会效果与法律效果相统一,最大限度地避免刑事和解产生消极影响等,都具有重大意义。刑事和解在死刑案件中的限制适用应遵守一定的原则,具体包括被动介入原则、价值平衡原则、综合评价原则。司法实践中,应以犯罪侵犯的法益或者犯罪客体为标准来把握死刑案件适用刑事和解的具体范围,只有单纯侵害个人法益或者所侵害的法益均属于个人法益的死刑案件,原则上才可以适用刑事和解。%The restricted application of Criminal Reconciliation is of great significance for the implementation of criminal policy combining punishment with leniency and the dynamic balance between state power and individual rights of citizens, promotion the inte⁃gration of social effects and the effect of legal, and avoidance of the negative impact caused by criminal reconciliation at the greatest ex⁃tent. The restricted application of Criminal Reconciliation should comply with certain principles in death penalty cases, including the principle of passive intervention, the principle of balanced value, and the principle of comprehensive evaluation. Legal interests or criminal object infringed by crime is the standard to grasp the specific scope of applicable criminal reconciliation to the death penalty case in judicial practice. Criminal reconciliation in principle only applies to specific death penalty case, which is the restricted situation of pure violations to personal legal interests or violating law right belonging to personal legal interests.

  16. 77 FR 24415 - Inflation Adjustment of the Aggravated Maximum Civil Monetary Penalty for a Violation of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... death or injury to persons, or has caused death or injury,'' the penalty was raised to a maximum of $20... death or injury. This authority to assess a penalty for a single violation above $25,000 and up to $105... 2130-AB94 Inflation Adjustment of the Aggravated Maximum Civil Monetary Penalty for a Violation of...

  17. «…For our happy childhood»: juvenile criminal liability in soviet legislation of 1920–1940

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Еvgeny F. Krinko

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is concerned with the dynamics of juvenile criminal liability in Soviet legislation of 1920–1940 and states tightening penalties for young and juvenile offenders under rise in child crime.

  18. Dermatomyositis (Juvenile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Am A Patient / Caregiver Diseases & Conditions Dermatomyositis (Juvenile) Dermatomyositis (Juvenile) Fast Facts Patients with JDM have varying ... What are common signs and symptoms of juvenile dermatomyositis? The most common signs and symptoms of JDM ...

  19. Retinoschisis (Juvenile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... here Home › Eye Conditions Listen Retinoschisis What is Juvenile Retinoschisis? Juvenile retinoschisis is an inherited disease diagnosed in childhood ... degeneration of the retina. What are the symptoms? Juvenile retinoschisis, also known as X-linked retinoschisis, occurs ...

  20. Penalty parameter of the penalty function method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Si, Cheng Yong; Lan, Tian; Hu, Junjie;

    2014-01-01

    The penalty parameter of penalty function method is systematically analyzed and discussed. For the problem that Deb's feasibility-based rule doesnot give the detailed instruction as how to rank two solutions when they have the same constraint violation, an improved Deb's feasibility-based rule...

  1. 20 CFR 702.217 - Penalty for false statement, misrepresentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penalty for false statement... PROCEDURE Claims Procedures Notice § 702.217 Penalty for false statement, misrepresentation. (a) Any..., or his dependents pursuant to section 9, 33 U.S.C. 909, if the injury results in death, shall...

  2. Reflections on Penalty Commitment System from the Perspective of Anti-corruption International Cooperation-From the Perspective of Judicial Response to the Principle of Non-extradition for Death Penalty%反腐国际合作维度下量刑承诺制度的反思与完善--以死刑不引渡原则的司法应对为视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐文进; 姚竞燕

    2016-01-01

    At present non-extradition for death penalty is one of the biggest procedural barriers confronting anti-corruption international cooperation in the process of extraditing or repatriating corrupt personnel fleeing to other countries. Since the application of death penalty to corrupt criminals in China will still exist for a long time, the commitment of no death penalty will become a major way to resolve this barrier. The status quo of anti-cor-ruption justice and extradition in China determines that we should pay attention to the objectiveness of applying death penalty. Although there are many disputes or defects in the application of penalty commitment system, it is still necessary and reasonable to apply this system. By referring to the relevant systems in American, UK and Ja-pan, we shall improve this system from the aspects of transfer procedure, agreement procedure and commitment content and enhance the effectiveness and authority of penalty commitment.%目前在我国引渡或遣返外逃贪腐人员的过程中,死刑不引渡一直是困扰反腐国际合作的最大程序障碍之一。由于我国贪污受贿犯罪中的死刑适用在相当长时间内继续存在,充分有效不判处死刑的量刑承诺就成为化解该障碍的主要途径。我国的反腐司法格局、引渡现状决定了我们要正视死刑适用的客观性。无论是人权与主权的博弈、制度是否违宪方面,还是适用法律是否平等方面,量刑承诺制度均存在诸多争议和不完善之处,但并不足以否定量刑承诺制度的合理性和必要性。通过借鉴美国、英国和日本等国量刑承诺制度的现状,在我国量刑承诺制度有效存续的前提下,我们应从透明化、制度化等方面对量刑承诺的流转程序、作出程序、承诺内容等方面加以完善,增强量刑承诺的有效性和权威性。

  3. 探析死刑复核案件交由最高人民法院巡回法庭行使%On Exercising the Right of Reviewing the Death Penalty Cases by the Circuit Court of the Supreme People ’s Court

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宣孟洁

    2015-01-01

    “A human life is of greater value than everything” shows the cautious attitude to death penalty in ancient China’s legal culture. Although it’s been 8 years since the death penalty review rights reverted to the Supreme People's Court, while how to improve the death penalty review system remains controversial among scholars. Some scholars criticized the current review of death sentences which is carried out in secret, conducted through documentary trial and being administrative. With the establishment of Supreme Court Circuit Court system after the 18th session of the central committee of the communist party of China, the fourth plenary session, this paper analyzed the shortcomings of the direct exercising right of reviewing the death penalty by the Supreme Court and studied the feasibility to exercise the reviewing right by the Circuit Court of the Supreme Court. Therefore , it aimed to provide some specific ideas of exercising the reviewing right by the Circuit Court. Finally , this paper gave some suggestions to improve the Circuit Court to exercise oversight mechanisms supporting the death penalty review cases.%“人命关天”诠释了我国古代法律文化中对死刑谨慎的态度。尽管死刑复核权收归最高人民法院已经有八年载,但对如何完善死刑复核制度,学界一直争议不断。学者一致对目前死刑复核秘密进行、书面审、行政化等弊端提出了批评。结合十八届四中全会后设立的最高人民法院巡回法庭制度,分析最高人民法院直接行使死刑复核权的弊端,探析死刑复核案件交由最高人民法院巡回法庭行使的可行性。从而为建立巡回法庭行使死刑复核案件提出具体构想。最后提出完善巡回法庭行使死刑复核案件配套监督机制。

  4. The Use of the Death Penalty for Drug Trafficking in the United States, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia and Thailand: A Comparative Legal Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingyos Leechaianan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article assesses the use of capital punishment for drug trafficking and related crimes from a comparative perspective. Domestic narcotics legislation, as well as important drug trafficking cases in four Southeast Asian nations (Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, and Thailand are examined in-depth and compared to the United States, which plays an important role in eradicating global drug-related problems. This article contends that the use of capital punishment is disproportionate to the gravity of drug-related offenses and that international drug control and enforcement treaties never suggested using such sanctions to deter crime. Fortunately, four Southeast Asian countries in this study, including Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia and Thailand, currently realize this disproportionality and have become reluctant to carry out executions for drug trafficking; even though they continue to sentence a large number of drug-related offenders to death annually, they do not actually carry out these executions. Future research related to this topic is also recommended in this article.

  5. Rediscussion on the Applicable Standards of Immediate Execution of Death Penalty --Taking the Case of YAO Jia-xin and L1 Chang-kui as an Example%再论死刑立即执行的适用标准——以药家鑫案与李昌奎案为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何显兵; 陈玥

    2012-01-01

    死刑是对人彻底的伦理否定,因而其适用标准应当受到正义与人道价值的约束。按照等量正义观,死刑立即执行只能适用于有预谋地杀害无过错的被害人的故意杀人案件;按照人道价值观,死刑立即执行只能适用于彻底表现为伦理恶的被告人。自首表明被告人有悔罪表现或者至少其停止继续实施犯罪,因而对自首的被告人适用死刑立即执行一般不能得到人道价值的支持。舆论常常将被告人扭曲为“公众妖魔”进而强化道德恐慌,容易沦为乌合之众的民粹主义。明确死刑立即执行的适用标准,可以建立司法与民粹主义有效的隔离墙与防御机制。%The death penalty is thorougly ethical negation to human, so its applicable standards should be constrainted by justice and humanity value. According to the equal justice view, immediate execution of death penalty can only be applied to the intentional homicide crime of premeditated killing innocent vic- tims; according to the humane value view, immediate execution of death penalty can only be applied to complete performance of moral evil defendant. Voluntarily surrender oneself at least indicates defendant Show repentance or its stopping crime, so applying immediate execution of death penalty to it generally can not receive the support of humanitarian value. Public opinion often twist the defendant as "public de- mon" and strengthen the moral panic, it is easy to become populism of motley crew. Clearing the applica- ble standards of immediate execution of death penalty can establish effective isolation wall_ between judicial and populism.

  6. Juvenile Scleroderma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile Scleroderma INTRODUCTION Every parent will experience a moment of panic when told their child has scleroderma. ... in all their family members as well. CONCLUSION Juvenile scleroderma can be unsettling for the child and ...

  7. Penalty Inflation Adjustments for Civil Money Penalties. Interim Final Rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-27

    In accordance with the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990, as amended by the Debt Collection Improvement Act of 1996, and further amended by the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015, section 701: Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act Improvements Act of 2015, this interim final rule incorporates the penalty inflation adjustments for the civil money penalties contained in the Social Security Act

  8. 刑事和解能否承受死刑司法控制之重?——基于案件社会学的分析%Does the Criminal Reconciliation can Withstand the Weight of the Judicial Control of the Death Penalty.'? Based on the Case of Sociological Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅传强; 周建达

    2012-01-01

    作为近年来兴起的一种本土性的司法实践,死刑案件的刑事和解是由部分学者的理论倡导、最高人民法院的司法指引与一些地方法院的积极实践三方共谋的结果。由于理路与论据上的一体两面性,价值层面的相关争论难分伯仲,故有必要引入案件社会学的研究方法。经验地看,死刑案件的刑事和解是一个极为复杂的纠纷化解过程,围绕着三方主体的和解活动所产生的8个变量均在实质地影响着和解的进程及最终的命运。这些变量的能量释放及相互作用过程构成了死刑案件刑事和解实践运作的基本规律。通过对这种过程性的分析或规律性的把握,最终可以看到,死刑案件刑事和解的前景并不乐观。%:As a native judicial practice in recent years, the criminal reconciliation of death penalty casesis the collusion resulted from the three joined forces which include the theories advocated by some scholars, the supreme court of justice guidelines and some of the practices of the district courts. As one coin has twosides, the debates in value level match equally. It is necessary to introduce the case of sociological research methods. From the point of the experience, the criminal reconciliation of death penalty cases is an extremely complex process to resolve disputes. Around three main activities of the criminal reconciliation of death penaltycases, there are eight variables substantial impacting on both the process of reconciliation and ultimate fate. These variables and the interaction energy release constitute the basic rules of the operation in the criminal re-conciliation of death penalty cases. Through analyzing the process or grasping the regularity, we can see the prospects for the criminal reconciliation of death penalty cases is not optimistic.

  9. Riita Oittinen, Blanca-Ana Roig Rechou (coords.) (2016): A Grey Background in Children‘s literature: Death, Shipwreck, War, and Disasters - Literatura infantil y juvenil con fondo gris: muerte, naufragios, guerras y desastres. München: Iudicium Verlag; 327 pp.

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara Pregelj

    2016-01-01

    Los temas considerados tabú o difíciles llevan ganando terreno en la literatura infantil y juvenil desde los años noventa. También la crítica literaria, sobre todo los investigadores y los estudiosos de la literatura infantil y juvenil, ha percibido el fenómeno que se viene desarrollando sistemáticamente desde el inicio del siglo XXI. El monográfico A Grey Background in Children‘s literature: Death, Shipwreck, War, and Disasters - Literatura infantil y juvenil con fondo gris: muerte, naufragi...

  10. Plagiarisms, Authorships, and the Academic Death Penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Rebecca Moore

    1995-01-01

    Suggests a plagiarism policy that would respect present concerns and discipline but would allow for an enlarged range of definitions of and motivations for plagiarism. Brings to bear contemporary theoretical approaches that take issue with authoring as an autonomous, individual, original act. (TB)

  11. Plagiarisms, Authorships, and the Academic Death Penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Rebecca Moore

    1995-01-01

    Suggests a plagiarism policy that would respect present concerns and discipline but would allow for an enlarged range of definitions of and motivations for plagiarism. Brings to bear contemporary theoretical approaches that take issue with authoring as an autonomous, individual, original act. (TB)

  12. Reconstruction of methods of execution of the death penalty by shooting in the years 1949-1954 based on exhumation research of "prison fields" in Osobowicki Cemetery in Wroclaw. Part II--analysis of gunshot injuries and an attempt at reconstructing the course of execution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szleszkowski, Łukasz; Thannhäuser, Agata; Kawecki, Jerzy; Szwagrzyk, Krzysztof; Swiatek, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of gunshot injuries in prisoners who were executed in Wroclaw penitentiary in the years 1949-1954 shows divergences from legal regulations describing the method of execution. This observation leads to the conclusion that the predominant method of execution of the death penalty was a gunshot or gunshots to the back of the head, which is analogous to the results of exhumation works on collective graves of war prisoners executed during World War II in the territory of the former Soviet Union.

  13. Juvenile Judge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    SHANG Xiuyun was among the first sitting judges when the juvenile court was set up in Beijing 10 years ago. With enriched experience she has altered the way judges ask questions in court. She began the practice of inviting juvenile offenders, their parents, relatives, friends and teachers to the juvenile court to work hand in hand in dealing with cases: Facing their relatives and friends and hearing their heartfelt words, juvenile offenders would often be touched, thus bringing forth a positive attitude toward life.

  14. On the edge of death: Rates of decline and lower thresholds of biochemical condition in food-deprived fish larvae and juveniles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Stefan; Caldarone, E.M.; Chicharo, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    (degree-days, Dd). The 10th percentile of sRD successfully approximated the lowest, life-stage-specific biochemical condition (the edge of death). Temperature could explain 59% of the variability in time to death whereas DW had no effect. Species and life-stage-specific differences in starvation...... parameters suggest selective adaptation to food deprivation. Previously published, interspecific functions predicting the relationship between growth rate and sRD in feeding fish larvae do not apply to individuals experiencing prolonged food deprivation. Starvation rate, edge of death, and time to death...

  15. Juvenile Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile arthritis (JA) is arthritis that happens in children. It causes joint swelling, pain, stiffness, and loss of motion. It can affect any joint, but ... of JA that children get is juvenile idiopathic arthritis. There are several other forms of arthritis affecting ...

  16. Juvenile Prostitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csapo, Marg

    1986-01-01

    Recent research and Canadian government committee reports concerning juvenile prostitution are reviewed. Proposals are made in the realms of law and social policy; and existing programs are described. (DB)

  17. Juvenile Prostitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csapo, Marg

    1986-01-01

    Recent research and Canadian government committee reports concerning juvenile prostitution are reviewed. Proposals are made in the realms of law and social policy; and existing programs are described. (DB)

  18. Juvenile myasthenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević-Pogančev Marija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Juvenile myasthenia is a chronic autoimmune neuromuscular disease characterized by varying degrees of fluctuating, painless muscle weakness and rapid fatigue of any muscles under voluntary control. Juvenile myasthenia is a form of myasthenia appearing in adolescent age, representing 10% to 15% of all cases of myasthenia gravis. Juvenile myasthenia is presented by a defect in the transmission of nerve impulses to muscles, resulting from a breakdown in the normal communication between nerves and muscles. In myasthenia, antibodies produced by the body’s own immune system block, alter, or destroy the receptors for acetylcholine. Juvenile myasthenia is neither directly inherited nor is it contagious. Signs and Symptoms. The first noticeable symptoms may be eye muscle weakness, difficulty in swallowing, or slurred speech. Juvenile myasthenia usually affects muscles innervated by the cranial nerves (face, lips, tongue, neck and throat, but it can affect any muscle group. Symptoms vary in type and severity with typical periods of exacerbation interspersed with periods of remission. When the muscles necessary for breathing are affected, a patient is said to be in a myasthenic crisis, which is a life-threatening situation. Disease Outcome and Treatment. Juvenile myasthenia produces sporadic but progressive weakness and abnormal fatigability of striated (skeletal muscles, exacerbated by exercise and repeated movement, but improved by rest and anticholinesterase drugs. Juvenile myasthenia follows an unpredictable course of recurring exacerbations and periodic remissions. With current therapies, however, most cases of juvenile myasthenia are not as serious as the name implies. Although there is no known cure, drug treatment has improved prognosis and allows patients to lead relatively normal lives, except during exacerbations.

  19. Forensic aspects of juvenile violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, L H

    2000-10-01

    The juvenile justice system was created because it was recognized that youthful offenders needed to be managed differently from adults. They were to receive habilitation services instead of punishment. It is now more than a century since the creation of the first juvenile court. After 67 years, the US Supreme Court, in Kent v United States stated that the model was not working because juveniles in the criminal justice system received no treatment and they had no rights. Because the issue that had been appealed was the lack of rights (not lack of treatment), the Court mandated that juveniles, like adults, be given certain rights. The following year, in In re Gault, the Court expanded these rights. Subsequent Supreme Court cases have dealt with these kinds of issues--that is, whether juvenile offenders are entitled to the same rights as adults and subject to the same penalties. The Supreme Court has never heard a "right to treatment" case, which is the other part of the juvenile court system. Cases have been brought in lower courts (e.g., Nelson v. Heyne, 1972) alleging inadequate treatment services, but no national impact has resulted. Thus, in general, children in the juvenile court system do not have an enforceable right to treatment and can obtain only what services are available in their jurisdictions. The services often are woefully inadequate. Sentencing a youth to probation, with the requirement that he or she participate in counseling or mental health treatment, is meaningless if services are not available. Community-based, model programs that provide effective treatment do exist. They are, as yet, the rare exception rather than the norm and, therefore, are not available to most youthful offenders. Incarcerated juveniles, obviously, cannot avail themselves of community programs. Litigation to give these youth the same rights as adults in penal institutions is not the answer because incarcerated adults don't have a right to treatment, only a right to be free

  20. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA); Juvenile chronic polyarthritis; Still disease; Juvenile spondyloarthritis ... The cause of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is not known. It ... illness . This means the body attacks and destroys healthy body ...

  1. Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types of Cancer > Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome Request Permissions Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 12/2015 What is juvenile polyposis syndrome? Juvenile polyposis syndrome (JPS) is a ...

  2. SPECIAL ISSUE: EXAMINING THE DEATH PENALTY IN CHINA The death penalty and human rights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    人权是每一个人都应实际享有的权利,是一个具体内容具有时间上的演进性和空间上多元性的概念;死刑的消亡是历史的必然,但在我国,死刑目前仍然是保护普通公民基本人权必不可少的措施;通过正确地理解现行刑法的规定,完全可能在5-10年内将死刑的实际适用减少90%;随着社会矛盾的缓解,我国也能在可预见的将来实际停止死刑的适用,促使死刑的消亡。

  3. Juvenile Spondyloarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmuca, Sabrina; Weiss, Pamela F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review To provide a comprehensive update of the pathogenesis, diagnostic imaging, treatments, and disease activity measurements of juvenile spondyloarthritis (JSpA). Recent findings Genetic and microbiome studies have provided new information regarding possible pathogenesis of JSpA. Recent work suggests that children with JSpA have decreased thresholds for pain in comparison to healthy children. Additionally, pain on physical examination and abnormalities on ultrasound of the entheses are not well correlated. Treatment guidelines for juvenile arthritis, including JSpA, were published by the American College of Rheumatology and are based on active joint count and presence of sacroiliitis. Recent studies have established the efficacy of tumor necrosis factor inhibitors in the symptomatic treatment of axial disease, though their efficacy for halting progression of structural damage is less clear. Newly developed disease activity measures for JSpA include the Juvenile Arthritis Disease Activity Score and the JSpA Disease Activity index. In comparison to other categories of juvenile arthritis, children with JSpA are less likely to attain and sustain inactive disease. Summary Further microbiome and genetic research may help elucidate JSpA pathogenesis. More randomized therapeutic trials are needed and the advent of new composite disease activity measurement tools will hopefully allow for the design of these greatly needed trials. PMID:26002028

  4. Abolishment of Juvenile Death Penalty and Trend of Youth Justice in U.S%未成年犯死刑的废除与美国少年司法的走势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚建龙

    2007-01-01

    2005年3月1日,美国联邦最高法院裁定禁止对未成年人适用死刑不仅仅"开启了废止死刑之门",也是美国少年司法发展史上具有里程碑意义的事件.最高法院的裁决是多种因素促成的结果,它预示着美国少年司法的发展将会进入反思的再反思阶段,预示着传统福利型少年司法可能会进一步得到复苏.

  5. 76 FR 71431 - Civil Penalty Calculation Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Civil Penalty Calculation Methodology AGENCY: Federal... its civil penalty methodology. Part of this evaluation includes a forthcoming explanation of the... methodology for calculation of certain civil penalties. To induce compliance with federal regulations,...

  6. Juvenile Justice in Milwaukee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gary L.; Greer, Lanetta

    2010-01-01

    Historically, there have been several attempts made to address issues surrounding juvenile delinquency. The Wisconsin Legislature outlines the objectives of the juvenile justice system in the Juvenile Justice Code in s. 939.01, ?to promote a juvenile justice system capable of dealing with the problem of juvenile delinquency, a system which will…

  7. Juvenile xanthogranuloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R; Ghazali, W

    1992-05-01

    Juvenile xanthogranuloma is a benign cutaneous growth presenting as papules or nodules. It is characterized by an intradermal collection of lipid-laden macrophages and varying degrees of fibroblastic proliferation. We have recently observed two patients with xanthogranulomas: one was found to have a papular type and the second patient had multiple nodular growths. We present these cases, which should be considered in the differential diagnosis of skin nodules.

  8. 对死刑适用对象和限制减刑适用对象问题的思考——以《刑法修正案八》的规定为考察对象%Consideration on Issues of Objects for Application of Death Penalty and Commutation Limit——Taking Rules in "Eighth Amendment of Criminal Law" as Research Subject

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗恒

    2011-01-01

    《中华人民共和国刑法修正案八》对于死刑的适用作出了一些新的规定,并首次规定对部分判处死刑缓期执行罪犯的限制减刑制度。对于这些新规定的理解与具体适用,司法实务界以及理论界目前存在着一些分歧,包括对于不适用死刑的条件、限制减刑制度的具体使用等。对于这些规定理解使用上的分歧,要从现行有效的法律、法规、解释出发,结合相关的刑法基本理论,坚持刑法的基本原则,才能得出正确的结论。%The "Eighth Amendment of Criminal Law of The People's Republic of China" has made several new rules on the application of death penalty,and has for the first time established the system of commutation limit on criminals sentenced to suspension of execution of death penalty.The judicial practice circle and theorists hold different opinions on the understanding of these new rules and their application,including conditions and actual application not applicable of death penalty and of commutation limit system.Only by combining the basis of currently effective laws,rules and explanations with the basic principles of criminal law,can a correct solution be reached for the differences.

  9. 31 CFR 547.703 - Penalty imposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Penalty imposition. 547.703 Section 547.703 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Penalties § 547.703 Penalty imposition. If, after considering any written response to the Pre-Penalty Notice...

  10. Dermatomiositis juvenil

    OpenAIRE

    Goldaracena, Pablo; Pérez, Federico

    2008-01-01

    La dermatomiositis juvenil (DMJ) es una enfermedad multi sistémica de etiología desconocida, caracterizada por una vasculitis que ocasiona una inflamación no supurativa del músculo estriado y lesiones cutáneas distintivas. La cobertura de los criterios de Bohan y Peter establece el diagnóstico: exantema patognomónico junto a debilidad muscular proximal simétrica, elevación sérica de enzimas musculares, s...

  11. Dynamic optimization with asymetrical penalties

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we discuss about dynamic programming models with a quadratic objetive function. An extension is suggested to relax the hypothesis of symmetric penalties. The extended model allows for a more accurate modelling of preferences.

  12. THE PREGNANCY PENALTY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Punishing pregnant women increasingly serves as a litmus test in political discourse, inviting more than a metaphor about state sanctioned violence targeted at women. In 2016, candidates for the United States presidency threatened to defund Planned Parenthood if elected and a leading candidate promised he would "punish" pregnant women who seek abortions. Other presidential candidates urged that even victims of rape and incest should be forced to carry their pregnancies to term, imposing yet another penalty or strike against sexually violated women and girls. Local legislatures and governors show equal contempt for and desire to penalize women in their states. In Utah, Gov. Gary Herbert took up the call to use a "very strong stick" in policing reproduction by signing into law the Criminal Homicide and Abortion Revisions Act, which applies only to pregnant women. The law seeks to punish pregnant women who "knowingly" commit acts that might result in miscarriages. In 2011, Texas Rep. Doug Miller authored and introduced a bill in his state legislature that would make it a felony to ingest any controlled substance during pregnancy. Wisconsin's legislature passed a law that forces pregnant women to receive vaginal probes as a pre-condition to receiving an abortion. To obtain an abortion without undergoing the vaginal probe is a punishable violation of law. Some women's groups compare vaginal ultrasound laws such as that in Wisconsin to state sanctioned rape with a rod. Other legislative efforts include establishing personhood in embryos and fetuses. Many of the laws seeking to punish pregnant women and regulate their pregnancies introduce criminal sanctions into gestational conduct, broadly criminalizing any behavior that could harm fetal health. All of these laws selectively target pregnant women.

  13. Corporal and capital punishment of juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, H C

    1990-01-01

    There is a previously unobserved connection between corporal punishment of public school children and capital punishment of juveniles. Both are barometers of acceptable levels of violent punishment and their elimination is a hallmark of a maturing and decent society. Within a majority of the eighteen states where school authorities most frequently strike children are housed 25 of the nation's 28 juvenile death row inmates. On average, the homicide rates of these jurisdictions are two and a half times greater than those that have abolished both state-sanctioned corporal and capital punishment or limit death sentences to those age eighteen and older at the time of their crime(s). Most of the eighteen state abolitions of corporal punishment occurred in the 1980's. The US Supreme Court has ruled both corporal and capital punishment of juveniles constitutional. Additional state legislative abolition of both is anticipated in the 1990s.

  14. Why Death Matters: Understanding Gameworld Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisbeth Klastrup

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a study of the staging and implementation of death and the death penalty in a number of popular MMOGs and relates it to players general experience of gameworlds. Game mechanics, writings and stories by designers and players, and the results of an online survey are analysed and discussed. The study shows that the death penalty is implemented much in the same way across worlds; that death can be both trivial and non-trivial, part of the grind of everyday life, or essential in the creation of heroes, depending on context. In whatever function death may serves, it is argued that death plays an important part in the shaping and emergence of the social culture of a world, and in the individual players experience of life within it.

  15. 31 CFR 100.13 - Criminal penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criminal penalties. 100.13 Section 100.13 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance EXCHANGE OF PAPER CURRENCY AND COIN Exchange of Coin § 100.13 Criminal penalties. Criminal penalties connected with...

  16. What Is Juvenile Arthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Analgesics for Osteoarthritis (Report from AHRQ) Joint Replacement Surgery: Health Information Basics for You and Your Family NIH Pediatric Rheumatology Clinic Health Information Juvenile Arthritis Find a Clinical Trial Journal Articles Juvenile Arthritis PDF Version Size: 123 KB ...

  17. Juvenile Delinquency: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Carolyn A.

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile Delinquency is a term which is often inaccurately used. This article clarifies definitions, looks at prevalence, and explores the relationship between juvenile delinquency and mental health. Throughout, differences between males and females are explored. (Contains 1 table.)

  18. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, Machteld

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted.

  19. Juvenile Arrests, 2007. Juvenile Justice Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puzzanchera, Charles

    2009-01-01

    This Bulletin summarizes 2007 juvenile crime and arrest data reported by local law enforcement agencies across the country and cited in the FBI report, "Crime in the United States 2007." The Bulletin describes the extent and nature of juvenile crime that comes to the attention of the justice system. It serves as a baseline for comparison for…

  20. Penalty Algorithms in Hilbert Spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jean Pierre DUSSAULT; Hai SHEN; André BANDRAUK

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the classical penalty algorithm for nonlinear programming in HUbert spaces and obtain global convergence results, as well as asymptotic superlinear convergence order. These convergence results generalize similar results obtained for finite-dimensional problems. Moreover, the nature of the algorithms allows us to solve the unconstrained subproblems in finite-dimensional spaces.

  1. Juvenile polyposis syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.A.A. Brosens; D. Langeveld; W.A. van Hattem; F.M. Giardiello; G.J.A. Offerhaus

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile polyposis syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by multiple distinct juvenile polyps in the gastrointestinal tract and an increased risk of colorectal cancer. The cumulative life-time risk of colorectal cancer is 39% and the relative risk is 34. Juvenile polyps have a

  2. L’analyse argumentative en diachronie : le pathos dans les débats parlementaires sur l’abolition de la peine de mort Argumentative Analysis in Diachrony: uses of Pathos in the French Parliamentary Debates on the Abolition of the Death Penalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaël Micheli

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Cet article porte sur la construction discursive des émotions dans un corpus de débats parlementaires français relatifs à l’abolition de la peine de mort (1791-1981. Le premier volet de l’article est consacré à la formulation des principes méthodologiques qui guident cette recherche. Nous commençons par présenter le corpus sur lequel elle porte : il s’agit d’en expliquer le choix, la délimitation et la cohérence. Nous nous tournons ensuite vers les sciences du langage contemporaines et examinons les ressources descriptives que celles-ci offrent à qui entend décrire avec le plus de rigueur possible la construction d’une émotion dans et par le discours. C’est donc, méthodologiquement parlant, la question des « observables » qui nous retient. Le second volet de l’article voit l’illustration de la démarche par une étude de cas. On s’intéresse au premier débat parlementaire sur l’abolition que compte l’histoire de la France et qui a lieu en 1791 à l’Assemblée Constituante. L’enjeu consiste à dégager les traits distinctifs du pathos que les orateurs abolitionnistes mobilisent lors de ce débat. Nous tâchons, en conclusion, d’adopter une perspective diachronique et de comparer cet usage particulier du pathos avec d’autres constructions discursives de l’émotion que l’on rencontre dans les débats ultérieurs (1848 et 1908. Une telle mise en perspective permet de mesurer le caractère historiquement variable du pathos abolitionniste.The aim of this paper is to examine the discursive construction of emotions in a series of French parliamentary debates concerning the abolition of death penalty (1791-1981. In the first part, I set out the methodological tenets of this research. I begin by discussing the choice of the corpus. The challenge is to set a corpus which despite being chronologically scattered, is strongly coherent, in terms of theme and genre. This kind of coherence is essential, I

  3. Is the ozone climate penalty robust in Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colette, Augustin; Andersson, Camilla; Baklanov, Alexander; Bessagnet, Bertrand; Brandt, Jørgen; Christensen, Jesper H.; Doherty, Ruth; Engardt, Magnuz; Geels, Camilla; Giannakopoulos, Christos; Hedegaard, Gitte B.; Katragkou, Eleni; Langner, Joakim; Lei, Hang; Manders, Astrid; Melas, Dimitris; Meleux, Frédérik; Rouïl, Laurence; Sofiev, Mikhail; Soares, Joana; Stevenson, David S.; Tombrou-Tzella, Maria; Varotsos, Konstantinos V.; Young, Paul

    2015-08-01

    Ozone air pollution is identified as one of the main threats bearing upon human health and ecosystems, with 25 000 deaths in 2005 attributed to surface ozone in Europe (IIASA 2013 TSAP Report #10). In addition, there is a concern that climate change could negate ozone pollution mitigation strategies, making them insufficient over the long run and jeopardising chances to meet the long term objective set by the European Union Directive of 2008 (Directive 2008/50/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 May 2008) (60 ppbv, daily maximum). This effect has been termed the ozone climate penalty. One way of assessing this climate penalty is by driving chemistry-transport models with future climate projections while holding the ozone precursor emissions constant (although the climate penalty may also be influenced by changes in emission of precursors). Here we present an analysis of the robustness of the climate penalty in Europe across time periods and scenarios by analysing the databases underlying 11 articles published on the topic since 2007, i.e. a total of 25 model projections. This substantial body of literature has never been explored to assess the uncertainty and robustness of the climate ozone penalty because of the use of different scenarios, time periods and ozone metrics. Despite the variability of model design and setup in this database of 25 model projection, the present meta-analysis demonstrates the significance and robustness of the impact of climate change on European surface ozone with a latitudinal gradient from a penalty bearing upon large parts of continental Europe and a benefit over the North Atlantic region of the domain. Future climate scenarios present a penalty for summertime (JJA) surface ozone by the end of the century (2071-2100) of at most 5 ppbv. Over European land surfaces, the 95% confidence interval of JJA ozone change is [0.44; 0.64] and [0.99; 1.50] ppbv for the 2041-2070 and 2071-2100 time windows, respectively.

  4. Juveniles on trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Kathleen M

    2002-10-01

    This article describes common forensic evaluations requested of juvenile court mental health evaluators. There has been a legal shift toward criminalization of juvenile court, with a greater emphasis on rights, abandonment of the rehabilitative model, and greater movement of adolescents into the adult criminal court. A resulting shift has been the redefinition of juvenile court forensic evaluations toward the specificity of adult forensic work. The challenge for evaluators is to refine their knowledge of the forensic standards and bring knowledge of development, assessment, and diagnosis in juveniles and interview techniques appropriate to juveniles to improve the evaluation and forensic reports.

  5. Historical and Cultural Analysis of "Emperor Wen's of Han Dynasty Abolished Corporal Punishment"——Also on the Enlightenment of the Abolition of the Death Penalty in Contemporary China%对“汉文帝废除肉刑”的历史文化分析——兼论其之于中国当代废除死刑的启示意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛立刚

    2011-01-01

    肉刑是中国古代早期一种残酷的刑罚,延续千年,而在汉文帝时得以废除,有其历史必然性。汉文帝废除肉刑这一事件本身也反映出汉初特有的思想文化、政治文化和经济文化,汉初统治者的慎刑思想、"无为而治"的治世理念以及封建社会经济发展的要求都是废除肉刑改革的催生剂和内动力。同时,汉文帝废除肉刑的成功历史经验也给当代中国废除死刑的实践提供了有益的启示,尤其对于死刑改革中政治决策者作用的定位及刑罚改革的立法技术问题,具有借鉴意义。%Corporal punishment is a cruel punishment in early ancient China,lasting for thousand years and abolished in the times of Emperor Wen of Han dynasty.There is a historical inevitability for the abolition of the corporal punishment.The event that Emperor Wen of Han dynasty abolished corporal punishment reflects the ideological,political and economic culture as well as the thoughts of cautious punishment and inaction rulers in the early Han dynasty.The requirements of the feudal social and economic development are all driving forces promoting the abolition of the corporal punishment.Meanwhile,the historical experience of Emperor Wen's abolition of the corporal punishment also gives useful enlightenment for the abolition of death penalty in contemporary China,especially for the positioning of the role of political decision-makers and the legislative technique of penalty reform in the death penalty reform.

  6. Juvenile polyposis syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lodewijk AA Brosens; Danielle Langeveld; W Arnout van Hattem; Francis M Giardiello; G Johan A Offerhaus

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile polyposis syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by multiple distinct juvenile polyps in the gastrointestinal tract and an increased risk of colorectal cancer.The cumulative life-time risk of colorectal cancer is 39% and the relative risk is 34.Juvenile polyps have a distinctive histology characterized by an abundance of edematous lamina propria with inflammatory cells and cystically dilated glands lined by cuboidal to columnar epithelium with reactive changes.Clinically, juvenile polyposis syndrome is defined by the presence of 5 or more juvenile polyps in the colorectum,juvenile polyps throughout the gastrointestinal tract or any number of juvenile polyps and a positive family history of juvenile polyposis.In about 50%-60% of patients diagnosed with juvenile polyposis syndrome a germline mutation in the SMAD4 or BMPR1A gene is found.Both genes play a role in the BMP/TGF-beta signalling pathway.It has been suggested that cancer in juvenile polyposis may develop through the so-alled "landscaper mechanism" where an abnormal stromal environment leads to neoplastic transformation of the adjacent epithelium and in the end invasive carcinoma.Recognition of this rare disorder is important for patients and their families with regard to treatment,follow-up and screening of at risk individuals.Each clinician confronted with the diagnosis of a juvenile polyp should therefore consider the possibility of juvenile polyposis syndrome.In addition, juvenile polyposis syndrome provides a unique model to study colorectal cancer pathogenesis in general and gives insight in the molecular genetic basis of cancer. This review discusses clinical manifestations, genetics, pathogenesis and management of juvenile polyposis syndrome.

  7. Path Following in the Exact Penalty Method of Convex Programming

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Hua

    2012-01-01

    Classical penalty methods solve a sequence of unconstrained problems that put greater and greater stress on meeting the constraints. In the limit as the penalty constant tends to $\\infty$, one recovers the constrained solution. In the exact penalty method, squared penalties are replaced by absolute value penalties, and the solution is recovered for a finite value of the penalty constant. In practice, the kinks in the penalty and the unknown magnitude of the penalty constant prevent wide application of the exact penalty method in nonlinear programming. In this article, we examine a strategy of path following consistent with the exact penalty method. Instead of performing optimization at a single penalty constant, we trace the solution as a continuous function of the penalty constant. Thus, path following starts at the unconstrained solution and follows the solution path as the penalty constant increases. In the process, the solution path hits, slides along, and exits from the various constraints. For quadratic...

  8. Deploring the Criminal Penalty Construction Reform Combined with the Criminal Law Amendment Ⅷ——From the point of slight and smooth criminal penalty%结合刑法修正案(八)探析我国刑罚结构改革——以刑罚轻缓化为视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨逊

    2012-01-01

    我国刑罚结构是以死刑、自由刑为中心,属于重刑结构。刑法修正案(八)彻底贯彻了宽严相济刑事政策,重在完善刑事处罚体系,对刑罚进一步轻缓化具有极其重要的现实意义。但是,此次修法也给我国刑罚体系结构带来一些新问题,因此,还应在刑法修正案(八)的基础上,再进一步地削减死刑罪名,调整死刑与无期徒刑、有期徒刑之间的结构关系,提高罚金刑的地位和增设轻刑刑种等,对刑罚的设置进行结构性的改革。%The criminal penalty construction of country center in the death penalty and the freedom penalty,which belong to the heavy penalty system.The Criminal Law Amendment Ⅷ follows the criminal policy that the leniency should alternate with severity,focous on the improvement of the criminal penalty system,which has greatly important meaning in the leniency of the criminal penalty.However,this amendment has brought some new problems to our criminal penalty system,it should dismiss the death penalty and adjust the relationship between death penalty,life imprisonment and fixed-term imprisonment.To highten the position of the penalty forfeit and add smooth penalty,we can reform the settlement of the criminal penalty.

  9. Infection of SARS-CoV on juvenile and adult Brandt's vole Microtus brandtii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Hong; PENG Jingpian; DENG Wei; SHI Dazhao; BAO Linlin; WANG Dehua; ZHANG Binglin; QIN Chuan; ZHANG Zhibin

    2005-01-01

    We studied the infectious effect of SARS-CoV virus on juvenile and adult Brandt's Vole (Microtus brandtii) by nasal cavity spraying method (CCID50 is 105.7). SARS virus caused serious deaths in adults. The death adults demonstrated hemorrhage from mouth, nasal cavity and intestine, hemorrhageious interstitial pneumonia and gore in liver, spleen and kidney. The survival adults demonstrated local hemorrhagic spot in lung and emphysema, but the other organs showed no pathological abnormality. SARS virus caused no deaths in juveniles, but locomotion of infected juveniles became slower. In the early stage, there was local pneumonia in lung and SARS viruses were isolated from the pathological tissue. Only one control juvenile lived and the infected juvenile showed local pneumonia in lung. The results demonstrated that SARS-CoV infected Brandt's vole seriously and adults were more susceptive to SARS-CoV than juveniles. The Brandt's vole may be a potential animal model for SARS research.

  10. 我国刑罚体系的反思与重构%Reflection on Penalty System of China and Its Reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹富乐

    2015-01-01

    在刑罚轻缓化的浪潮中,对我国刑罚体系的反思是刑罚改革的必然要求。刑罚体系的反思,必须正确认识刑罚的本质,树立正确的刑罚理念。目前,我国刑罚体系存在着死刑过重、生刑过轻、非监禁刑适用较少、刑罚结构不合理、各刑种衔接不完善等诸多问题。因此,对现行刑罚体系的重构应当从限制死刑、提高生刑、扩大罚金刑的适用和完善资格刑等方面入手。理念的更新和制度的完善,将促进我国刑罚轻缓化进程,进而推动我国法治的进步。%In the wave of penalty reprieve, reflection on the penalty system is the inevitable requirement of the penalty reform of China, which needs a correct comprehension of the essence and the correct concept of penalty. At present, there exist some issues on the penalty system,such as death penalty too heavy, imprisonment punishment too light, less non-confinement penalty, unreasonable and imperfect penalty structure, and many other problems.Therefore, in order to reconstruct the current penalty system, we should limit the death penalty, enhance the punishment, expand the use of fine punishment, and perfect the qualification of the penalty. Only update concept and perfect system can promote the process of penalty reprieve in our country, thus promote the progress of the rule of law in our country.

  11. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 386 - Penalty Schedule; Violations and Maximum Civil Penalties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... HAZARDOUS MATERIALS PROCEEDINGS Pt. 386, App. B Appendix B to Part 386—Penalty Schedule; Violations and... United States-Mexico border is liable for a maximum penalty of $11,000 for an intentional violation and a...

  12. critical analysis of abolition of death penalty in international law

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mofasony

    international human rights standards and trends towards its abolition. Further, the .... system as a matter of national sovereignty reflecting their cultural and religious .... even earlier for the state of Michigan (1846), most of the movement towards .... Many European countries, along with Canada, Mexico, and South Africa, have.

  13. IQ and the Death Penalty: Verifying Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Denis William

    Whether or not subjects can simulate mental retardation, a consideration that has implications in criminal cases, was studied using 21 adult Caucasian males between 20 and 30 years of age, largely comprised of students and staff employees of the University of New Mexico. Subjects were asked to give genuine and simulated responses to two major test…

  14. Will the Death Penalty Stop Food Safety Crime?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    IN recent years, food safety has become an issue of huge concern. Scandals involving product contamination or the illegal use of banned additives have been repeatedly exposed to the public, like melamine in infant milk powder and the recentc lenbuterol in pig’s feed. In the milk

  15. The Royal College of Psychiatrists and the death penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, John

    2004-01-01

    The Royal College of Psychiatrists recently issued a revised statement on its position concerning capital punishment. The College proposes to support psychiatrists who refuse to be involved in the capital process, but accepts that some may take up limited involvement in the manner set out in the document. The Royal College is the professional body for psychiatric practitioners in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Almost no public statements are issued from the College without first being deliberated on within at least two of its three major committees. The new document on capital punishment remains in the spirit of the previous ones. The topic of capital punishment is noncontroversial within the British medical profession. In all European countries, capital punishment is against the law, because there is an overarching directive from the Council of Europe (a wide group of nations, wider than the European Union) insisting that it be abolished.

  16. A High School Statistics Class Investigates the Death Penalty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brelias, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    Recommendations for reforming high school mathematics curricula emphasize the importance of engaging students in mathematical investigations of societal issues (CCSSI [Common Core State Standards Initiative] 2010; NCTM [National Council of Teachers of Mathematics] 2000). Proponents argue that these investigations can positively influence students'…

  17. The use of religion in death penalty sentencing trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Monica K; Bornstein, Brian H

    2006-12-01

    Both prosecutors and defense attorneys have presented religious appeals and testimony about a defendant's religious activities in order to influence capital jurors' sentencing. Courts that have objected to this use of religion fear that religion will improperly influence jurors' decisions and interfere with their ability to weigh aggravators and mitigators. This study investigated the effects of both prosecution and defense appeals. Prosecution appeals did not affect verdict decisions; however, use of religion by the defense affected both verdicts and the weighing of aggravators and mitigators. These results could be due to differences in perceived sincerity and remorse that are conveyed in the various appeals.

  18. Should the Death Penalty Be Abolished For Corruption?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Chinese officials who had committed economic crimes began to flee overseas between the late 1980s and early 1990s. Although China has signed extradition treaties with 25 countries, including Thailand, Belarus, Russia and South Korea since 1993, it has not final-

  19. Riita Oittinen, Blanca-Ana Roig Rechou (coords. (2016: A Grey Background in Children‘s literature: Death, Shipwreck, War, and Disasters - Literatura infantil y juvenil con fondo gris: muerte, naufragios, guerras y desastres. München: Iudicium Verlag; 327 pp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Pregelj

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Los temas considerados tabú o difíciles llevan ganando terreno en la literatura infantil y juvenil desde los años noventa. También la crítica literaria, sobre todo los investigadores y los estudiosos de la literatura infantil y juvenil, ha percibido el fenómeno que se viene desarrollando sistemáticamente desde el inicio del siglo XXI. El monográfico A Grey Background in Children‘s literature: Death, Shipwreck, War, and Disasters - Literatura infantil y juvenil con fondo gris: muerte, naufragios, guerras y desastres es un buen ejemplo del intento de abarcar lo inabarcable, pues presta atención investigadora a un fenómeno simultáneo a sí mismo, lo que dificulta su trabajo. En primer lugar, porque a falta de distancia temporal, el corpus de los textos es incontrolable. Otra de las dificultades del trabajo con ‚la materia viva‘ es una posible falta de distanciamiento y dejarse influir por los autores, las editoriales, el mercado, etc. Todo esto hace que la reflexión crítica sea todavía más ardua, no obstante, también más necesaria, ya que requiere más valentía, conceptos críticos todavía más claros y una visión panorámica sobre un terreno difícilmente abarcable.

  20. SPECIAL ISSUE: EXAMINING THE DEATH PENALTY IN CHINA Abolition or retention: rethinking the death penalty in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    死刑废止论正在成为一种为刑法学界所广泛接受的理念,废止死刑目前也被当作是一项目标而不再根据现实国情和罪情去思考。促进此种理论共识形成的诸多因素之中,极为重要的原因之一,是废止死刑国家的数量统计,以及建立在这一数量统计基础上的“废除死刑是一种世界性潮流和趋势”臆想性认识。客观地看待废止死刑国家的真实数量,反思已经被法学界全面认可的统计数字的非科学性,并深入思索死刑存废的国际现状,对于立足中国国情去理性地思考死刑的存与废,并警惕学术研究中的数字陷阱和数字诱导,意义重大。从中国的历史阶段和整体情况来看,死刑在中国不宜立即废除。

  1. SPECIAL ISSUE: EXAMINING THE DEATH PENALTY IN CHINA An empirical study of the application of death penalty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    本文以最高法院示范性案例中的全部“死罪”案例为样本进行法律解释学的实证研究,发现了犯罪中是否构成死罪、死罪中是否适用死刑、死刑中是否立即执行的一些重要不同,并根据这些发现认为,法律解释既是规范判断又是自主判断,应尽可能提高法律本身的明确性以呼唤死刑适用更大程度上向规范层面的回归。

  2. Securities regulation and implicit penalties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Donghua; Chen; Yuyan; Guan; Gang; Zhao; Feifei; Wu

    2011-01-01

    The extant literature offers extensive support for the significant role played by institutions in financial markets,but implicit regulation and monitoring have yet to be examined.This study fills this void in the literature by employing unique Chinese datasets to explore the implicit regulation and penalties imposed by the Chinese government in regulating the initial public offering(IPO) market.Of particular interest are the economic consequences of underwriting IPO deals for client firms that violate regulatory rules in China’s capital market.We provide evidence to show that the associated underwriters’ reputations are impaired and their market share declines.We further explore whether such negative consequences result from a market disciplinary mechanism or a penalty imposed by the government.To analyze the possibility of a market disciplinary mechanism at work,we investigate(1) the market reaction to other client firms whose IPO deals were underwritten by underwriters associated with a violation at the time the violation was publicly disclosed and(2) the under-pricing of IPO deals undertaken by these underwriters after such disclosure.To analyze whether the government imposes an implicit penalty,we examine the application processing time for future IPO deals underwritten by the associated underwriters and find it to be significantly longer than for IPO deals underwritten by other underwriters.Overall,there is little evidence to suggest that the market penalizes underwriters for the rule-violating behavior of their client firms in China.Instead,the Chinese government implicitly penalizes them by imposing more stringent criteria on and lengthening the processing time of the IPO deals they subsequently underwrite.

  3. Securities regulation and implicit penalties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghua Chen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The extant literature offers extensive support for the significant role played by institutions in financial markets, but implicit regulation and monitoring have yet to be examined. This study fills this void in the literature by employing unique Chinese datasets to explore the implicit regulation and penalties imposed by the Chinese government in regulating the initial public offering (IPO market. Of particular interest are the economic consequences of underwriting IPO deals for client firms that violate regulatory rules in China’s capital market. We provide evidence to show that the associated underwriters’ reputations are impaired and their market share declines. We further explore whether such negative consequences result from a market disciplinary mechanism or a penalty imposed by the government. To analyze the possibility of a market disciplinary mechanism at work, we investigate (1 the market reaction to other client firms whose IPO deals were underwritten by underwriters associated with a violation at the time the violation was publicly disclosed and (2 the under-pricing of IPO deals undertaken by these underwriters after such disclosure. To analyze whether the government imposes an implicit penalty, we examine the application processing time for future IPO deals underwritten by the associated underwriters and find it to be significantly longer than for IPO deals underwritten by other underwriters. Overall, there is little evidence to suggest that the market penalizes underwriters for the rule-violating behavior of their client firms in China. Instead, the Chinese government implicitly penalizes them by imposing more stringent criteria on and lengthening the processing time of the IPO deals they subsequently underwrite.

  4. Juvenile giant fibroadenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipul Yagnik

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Fibroadenomas are benign solid tumor associated with aberration of normal lobular development. Juvenile giant fibroadenoma is usually single and >5 cm in size /or >500 gms in weight. Important differential diagnoses are: phyllodes tumor and juvenile gigantomastia. Simple excision is the treatment of choice.

  5. Renewing Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macallair, Daniel; Males, Mike; Enty, Dinky Manek; Vinakor, Natasha

    2011-01-01

    The Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice (CJCJ) was commissioned by Sierra Health Foundation to critically examine California's juvenile justice system and consider the potential role of foundations in promoting systemic reform. The information gathered by CJCJ researchers for this report suggests that foundations can perform a key leadership…

  6. Philanthropist in Juvenile Reformatory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN NIU

    2007-01-01

    @@ On the afternoon of February 1, 2007, Chen Guangbiao, a noted philanthropist, found himself in the Jiangsu Provincial Juvenile Reformatory in Jurong City for a ceremony to donate two buses, 100 computers, and 100 desks and 100 chairs for the juvenile offenders to use in their study.

  7. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, Machteld

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted. Th

  8. Juvenile Confinement in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendel, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    For more than a century, the predominant strategy for the treatment and punishment of serious and sometimes not-so-serious juvenile offenders in the United States has been placement into large juvenile corrections institutions, alternatively known as training schools, reformatories, or youth corrections centers. America's heavy reliance on…

  9. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, Machteld

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted. Th

  10. 40 CFR 302.7 - Penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS DESIGNATION, REPORTABLE QUANTITIES, AND NOTIFICATION § 302.7 Penalties. (a..., including criminal penalties, set forth in section 103(b) of the Act. (b) Notification received pursuant to... any such person in any criminal case, except a prosecution for perjury or for giving a false...

  11. 19 CFR 143.39 - Penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penalties. 143.39 Section 143.39 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) SPECIAL ENTRY PROCEDURES Electronic Entry Filing § 143.39 Penalties. (a) Brokers. Brokers...

  12. 13 CFR 146.400 - Penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Penalties and... for each such failure. (c) A filing or amended filing on or after the date on which an administrative... penalty for a failure occurring before that date. An administrative action is commenced with respect to...

  13. 46 CFR 80.40 - Civil penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil penalty. 80.40 Section 80.40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS DISCLOSURE OF SAFETY STANDARDS AND COUNTRY OF REGISTRY § 80.40 Civil penalty. For each violation of the regulations in this part, the owner,...

  14. 25 CFR 135.5 - Penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penalty. 135.5 Section 135.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES CONSTRUCTION ASSESSMENTS, CROW INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT Charges Assessed Against Irrigation District Lands § 135.5 Penalty. To all assessments not paid on...

  15. 25 CFR 135.22 - Penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penalty. 135.22 Section 135.22 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES CONSTRUCTION ASSESSMENTS, CROW INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT Charges Assessed Against Non-Indian Lands Not Included in an Irrigation District § 135.22 Penalty...

  16. 15 CFR 806.6 - Penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Penalties. 806.6 Section 806.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE DIRECT INVESTMENT SURVEYS § 806.6 Penalties. (a) Whoever fails...

  17. 75 FR 73955 - Penalty Settlement Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ..., in all penalty proceedings, except for discrimination proceedings arising under section 105(c) of the... CLR to represent the Secretary in accordance with the notice of either limited or unlimited appearance... in all penalty proceedings, except discrimination and section 110(c) proceedings, parties must...

  18. The Use of Penalty Functions in Logistics

    OpenAIRE

    Gajdoš, Jozef; Socha, Luboš; Mihalčová, Bohuslava

    2014-01-01

    This article is aimed at the management of interrelated subsystems, through the penalty functions in logistics systems. We compared the results obtained using simulation models on the examples three types of models (production model, supply model and model sales) with use penalty function for their connection with results achieved when optimizing the system as a whole.

  19. 31 CFR 103.59 - Criminal penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criminal penalty. 103.59 Section 103.59 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance FINANCIAL RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING OF CURRENCY AND FOREIGN TRANSACTIONS General Provisions § 103.59 Criminal penalty. (a) Any...

  20. 31 CFR 103.57 - Civil penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalty. 103.57 Section 103.57 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance FINANCIAL RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING OF CURRENCY AND FOREIGN TRANSACTIONS General Provisions § 103.57 Civil penalty. (a) For...

  1. 31 CFR 128.4 - Penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Penalties. 128.4 Section 128.4 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance REPORTING OF INTERNATIONAL CAPITAL AND FOREIGN-CURRENCY TRANSACTIONS AND POSITIONS General Information § 128.4 Penalties. (a) Whoever fails...

  2. 45 CFR 1705.11 - Penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Penalties. 1705.11 Section 1705.11 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE PRIVACY REGULATIONS § 1705.11 Penalties. Title 18 U.S.C. 1001, Crimes and Criminal Procedures, makes it...

  3. Juvenile mammary papillomatosis; Papilomatosis juvenil mamaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, M.; Jimenez, A. V. [Hospital Reina Sofia. Cordoba (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    Juvenile mammary papillomatosis is a benign proliferative disease of young patients, generally under 30 years of age. The most frequent clinical presentation is the existence of an elastic and mobile lymph node of the breast. Anatomopathologically, it is characterized because it presents ductal epithelial hyperplasia, sometimes with marked atypia, and there are numerous cysts having different sizes among the findings. It has been associated with an increase in the incidence of breast cancer, both in the patient herself as well as her family. We review the literature on the subject and present the mammographic and ultrasonographic findings of a 22 year old woman diagnosed of juvenile mammary papillomatosis. (Author) 12 refs.

  4. 24 CFR 81.83 - Civil money penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Civil money penalties. 81.83... § 81.83 Civil money penalties. (a) Imposition. The Secretary may impose a civil money penalty on a GSE... writing of the Secretary's determination to impose a civil money penalty by issuing a Notice of Intent to...

  5. 29 CFR 530.302 - Amounts of civil money penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amounts of civil money penalties. 530.302 Section 530.302... EMPLOYMENT OF HOMEWORKERS IN CERTAIN INDUSTRIES Civil Money Penalties § 530.302 Amounts of civil money penalties. (a) A civil money penalty, not to exceed $500 per affected homeworker for any one violation, may...

  6. Death Cafe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Lizzy; Corr, Charles A

    2017-06-01

    This article explains the meaning of the phrase Death Cafe and describes what typically occurs at a Death Cafe gathering. The article traces the history of the Death Cafe movement, explores some reasons why people take part in a Death Cafe gathering, and gives examples of what individuals think they might derive from their participation. In addition, this article notes similarities between the Death Cafe movement and three other developments in the field of death, dying, and bereavement. Finally, this article identifies two provisional lessons that can be drawn from Death Cafe gatherings and the Death Cafe movement itself.

  7. Cryopyrin-Associated Autoinflammatory Syndromes (CAPS) - Juvenile

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cryopyrin-Associated Autoinflammatory Syndrome (CAPS) (Juvenile) Dermatomyositis (Juvenile) Familial Mediterranean Fever (Juvenile) Fibromyalgia Giant Cell Arteritis Glucocorticoid-induced Osteoperosis ...

  8. Juvenil idiopatisk arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlin, Troels

    2002-01-01

    The new classification of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is described in this review. Clinical characteristics divide JIA in to subtypes: systemic, oligoarticular (persistent and extended type), RF-positive and--negative polyarticular, enthesitis-related arthritis and psoriatic arthritis...

  9. Juvenile Rockfish Recruitment Cruise

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 1983, the groundfish analysis project began a series of yearly cruises designed to assess the annual abundance of juvenile rockfish along the central California...

  10. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physical Therapy Regular Exercise en español Artritis idiopática juvenil It may begin with a swollen knuckle, a ... may suddenly appear and disappear, developing in one area and then another. High fevers that tend to ...

  11. Juvenile Sex Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Eileen P; Otonichar, Joseph M

    2016-07-01

    Sexual offending by juveniles accounts for a sizable percentage of sexual offenses, especially against young children. In this article, recent research on female juvenile sex offenders (JSOs), risk factors for offending in juveniles, treatment, and the ways in which these youth may differ from general delinquents will be reviewed. Most JSOs do not go on to develop paraphilic disorders or to commit sex offenses during adulthood, and as a group, they are more similar to nonsexual offending juvenile delinquents than to adult sex offenders. Recent research has elucidated some differences between youth who commit sex offenses and general delinquents in the areas of atypical sexual interests, the use of pornography, and early sexual victimization during childhood.

  12. Juvenile Spondyloarthritis Treatment Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Tse, Shirley; Burgos-Vargas, Ruben; Colbert, Robert A

    2012-01-01

    No specific recommendations for the treatment of juvenile spondyloarthritis have been established. Important differences exist in how spondyloarthritis begins and progresses in children and adults, supporting the need for pediatric-specific recommendations. Recently published recommendations for the treatment of juvenile arthritis consider children with sacroiliitis in a separate group, and allow for more accelerated institution of a TNF inhibitor depending on disease activity and prognostic ...

  13. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    OpenAIRE

    Hoeve, Machteld

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted. The first study addressed a meta-analysis on parenting characteristics and styles in relation to delinquency. In this meta-analysis, previous manuscripts were systematically analyzed, computing mean ...

  14. Federal Penalty for Swampscott Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Town of Swampscott entered into a Consent Decree today agreeing to pay a $65,000 civil penalty and to take critical remedial measures to address pollution the Town discharged into the ocean near local beaches.

  15. PENALTY CLAUSES WITHIN DIFFERENT LEGAL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simas Vitkus

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article the regulation in regard of penalty clauses within two different legal traditions, i.e. common law tradition and continental law tradition, is analyzed. In general a penalty clause implies a fixed sum, which has to be paid by a party for the failure to perform its contractual duties timely and duly. In common law world penalty clauses are rendered unenforceable, whereas civil law countries, including the Republic of Lithuania, consider such clauses enforceable to the extent that the stipulated amount is not excessive. Moreover, in the article attempts to reach a uniform regulation throughout various legal instruments are revealed. Purpose: to analyze the regulation of penalty clauses within different legal systems. Methodology: a systematic method was used in order to ascertain the content and true meaning of the legislation concerning penalty clauses, whereas comparative method allowed comparing such legislation among different jurisdictions. On the basis of analytical method conclusions were withdrawn. Findings: common law courts on the basis of just compensation principle may declare a clause, which stands for a penalty, unenforceable, whereas civil law courts may only reduce grossly excessive amount. However, under major soft law instruments, such as the UNIDROIT Principles , PECL and DCRF , the divergence from common law rules of non-enforcement of penalty clauses is evident. Although there is a lack of binding transnational rules that control the enforceability of penalty clauses across the countries, it seems that today the most feasible solution consists of the approval of national rules, which would shield the enforcement of penalties in international commercial contracts in common law jurisdictions. Research limitations: in the light of the civil law system terms of liquidated damages and penalty clause are used interchangeably, since both are enforceable. However, a distinction between the two can be made on the basis

  16. 10 CFR 1017.29 - Civil penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... paragraph (m)(4) of this section, the Hearing Officer may receive any oral or documentary evidence, but... the civil penalty on the person's ability to do business; (iv) Any history of prior violations;...

  17. 16 CFR 1.98 - Adjustment of civil monetary penalty amounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... monetary penalty amounts. This section makes inflation adjustments in the dollar amounts of civil monetary... OF PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Civil Penalty Adjustments Under the Federal Civil Penalties...

  18. On Death

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhangyan

    2016-01-01

    Death is not a terrible word, but a provoking one. Different people have different opinions, but no one can convince others of what death really means. This article made a tentative and superficial analysis on death according to the true feeing and experiences of the author. In her opinion, we needn’t consider more about death; the important for the death is how to live meaningfully.

  19. Vocational Teachers' Role in Serving Juvenile Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meers, Gary D.

    1983-01-01

    Educators need to understand the juvenile justice system to understand what juvenile offenders go through while completing their sentences. This article reviews cases and juvenile charge classifications, and presents a model for alternative sentencing options for juveniles. (JOW)

  20. Trunk asymmetry in juveniles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triantafyllopoulos Georgios

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trunk asymmetry (TA is a common phenomenon in children, but its incidence in juveniles is not known. The present cross sectional study reports TA in normal juveniles and provides data which describe the evolution of TA from early childhood to adolescence. Materials and methods The scoliometer readings in both standing and sitting forward bending position (FBP of 3301 children, (1645 boys, and 1656 girls aged from 3 to 9 years old were studied. TA was quantified by measuring angle of trunk rotation (ATR and children were categorized as symmetric (ATR = 0°, mild asymmetric (ATR 1° – 6° and severely asymmetric (ATR ≥ 7°. The difference of TA between standing and sitting FBP as well as differences between boys and girls in frequency of TA were also calculated. The scoliometer readings were analyzed by age to reveal at which age the juvenile pattern of TA changes into the adolescent one. Results 74.2% of boys and 77% of girls were symmetric (ATR = 0° in the thoracic region in standing FBP, while 82.7% of boys and 84.1% of girls were symmetric in the thoracic region in sitting FBP. Juvenile girls are more symmetric than boys but severe TA was found almost the same between the two genders. A significant reduction in the frequency of mild TA from standing into sitting FBP, in all the examined regions in both boys and girls was found, but in severe TA this reduction is very small. Analysing scoliometer readings by age it appears that significant TA changes take place between 8–9 years of age for boys and between 6–7 and 8–9 years for girls. TA in boys is changing into the adolescent pattern at a later age than in girls. Conclusion Juveniles were found more symmetric than adolescents, who were studied previously in a different study. Furthermore, juvenile girls were found more symmetric than boys. Juvenile TA pattern seems to be in accordance with the higher incidence of juvenile idiopathic scoliosis in boys. Furthermore

  1. 42 CFR 488.444 - Civil money penalties: Settlement of penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil money penalties: Settlement of penalties. 488.444 Section 488.444 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Enforcement of Compliance for Long-Term Care Facilities with Deficiencies § 488.444 Civil money...

  2. Juvenile Incarceration and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnert, Elizabeth S; Perry, Raymond; Morris, Robert E

    2016-03-01

    Addressing the health status and needs of incarcerated youth represents an issue at the nexus of juvenile justice reform and health care reform. Incarcerated youth face disproportionately higher morbidity and higher mortality compared to the general adolescent population. Dental health, reproductive health, and mental health needs are particularly high, likely as a result of lower access to care, engagement in high-risk behaviors, and underlying health disparities. Violence exposure and injury also contribute to the health disparities seen in this population. Further, juvenile incarceration itself is an important determinant of health. Juvenile incarceration likely correlates with worse health and social functioning across the life course. Correctional health care facilities allow time for providers to address the unmet physical and mental health needs seen in this population. Yet substantial challenges to care delivery in detention facilities exist and quality of care in detention facilities varies widely. Community-based pediatricians can serve a vital role in ensuring continuity of care in the postdetention period and linking youth to services that can potentially prevent juvenile offending. Pediatricians who succeed in understanding and addressing the underlying social contexts of their patients' lives can have tremendous impact in improving the life trajectories of these vulnerable youth. Opportunities exist in clinical care, research, medical education, policy, and advocacy for pediatricians to lead change and improve the health status of youth involved in the juvenile justice system.

  3. Deliberating death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landes, Scott D

    2010-01-01

    Utilizing a particular case study of a woman attempting to come to terms with her death, this article explores the difficult metaphors of death present within the Christian tradition. Tracing a Christian understanding of death back to the work of Augustine, the case study is utilized to highlight the difficulties presented by past and present theology embracing ideas of punishment within death. Following the trajectory of the case study, alternative understandings of death present in recent Christian theology and within Native American spirituality are presented in an attempt to find room for a fuller meaning of death post-reconciliation, but premortem.

  4. Extending juvenility in grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaeppler, Shawn; de Leon Gatti, Natalia; Foerster, Jillian

    2017-04-11

    The present invention relates to compositions and methods for modulating the juvenile to adult developmental growth transition in plants, such as grasses (e.g. maize). In particular, the invention provides methods for enhancing agronomic properties in plants by modulating expression of GRMZM2G362718, GRMZM2G096016, or homologs thereof. Modulation of expression of one or more additional genes which affect juvenile to adult developmental growth transition such as Glossy15 or Cg1, in conjunction with such modulation of expression is also contemplated. Nucleic acid constructs for down-regulation of GRMZM2G362718 and/or GRMZM2G096016 are also contemplated, as are transgenic plants and products produced there from, that demonstrate altered, such as extended juvenile growth, and display associated phenotypes such as enhanced yield, improved digestibility, and increased disease resistance. Plants described herein may be used, for example, as improved forage or feed crops or in biofuel production.

  5. Cot Deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrrell, Shelagh

    1985-01-01

    Addresses the tragedy of crib deaths, giving particular attention to causes, prevention, and medical research on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). Gives anecdotal accounts of coping strategies used by parents and families of SIDS infants. (DT)

  6. Sentencing Juveniles to Life in Prison: The Reproduction of Juvenile Justice for Young Adolescents Charged with Murder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Simon I.

    2011-01-01

    In "Roper v. Simmons," the U.S. Supreme Court determined that the sentencing of juveniles to death violated the constitutional amendment against cruel and unusual punishment. Similarly, the Court most recently decided that life without parole for non-homicide offenses is also unconstitutional ("Graham v. Florida," 2010). Part of the reason for the…

  7. INITIATED PENALTIES FOR CORRUPT BEHAVIOR IN A SOCIOLOGICAL PERSFEKTIF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamsul Haling

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sociological persfektif in many social sanctions bid can be applied in corruptbehavior pananggulangan. The idea of social sanctions were proposed as a reactionagainst the growing number of corrupt behavior difficult resolved only throughnational and international legal instruments. It is time the exact type of sanctions werefound to tackle corrupt behaviour that are already classified as extraordinary crimes.Some ideas proposed as social sanctions to eradicate corrupt behavior i.e. criminalsanctions established on the basis of social stratification, pencemohan self and familycorruptor, no corpse mensholatkan corruptor before is no guarantee of the financialreturns of the State by the family of the perpetrator, serving in the corruptor's facetelivisi and penalties for disseminating the corruptor after death and as sanctionsultimium remidium every corruptor will be charged all his deeds before God afterdeath.

  8. DERMATOMIOSITIS JUVENIL Y EMBARAZO

    OpenAIRE

    Evans M,Gregorio; Poulsen R,Ronald; Blanco R,Romiely; Luna V,Viviana

    2002-01-01

    La dermatomiositis juvenil es un desorden inflamatorio crónico multisistémico del tejido conectivo. Tiene una incidencia de 2-3/100.000/año. Con la disminución en la mortalidad experimentada en los últimos decenios, la atención está cifrada en la morbilidad a largo plazo y en las alteraciones funcionales. Con un tratamiento agresivo los niños con dermatomiositis juvenil generalmente tienen un futuro promisorio, sin incapacidad o con incapacidad mínima. La mortalidad actualmente se estima cerc...

  9. Juvenile idiopatiske inflammatoriske myopatier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helga Sanner

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (JIIM is a group of rare autoimmune systemic diseases in children and adolescents, characterized by chronic skeletal muscle inflammation. Unlike in adults, dermatomyositis (JDM is by far the most common of the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies in children and adolescents. The hallmark of JDM is calcinosis, lipodystrophy and vasculitis, findings that differs the juvenile form of dermatomyosits from the adult form. JDM is still diagnosed and classified by Bohan and Peter’s criteria from 1975. There are limited data on long time outcome of this disease

  10. Redefining Death

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The results of 20 years of research on brain death will be released to the public, the Chinese Ministry of Health reported in early April. A special ministry team has drafted the criteria for brain death in Criteria for the Diagnosis of Brain Death in Adults (Revised Edition) and Technical Specifications for the Diagnosis

  11. Optimal Penalties on Deviations from Budgetary Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séverine Menguy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Beyond traditional arguments justifying the introduction of fiscal rules, this paper analyses their potential contribution to an indirect budgetary coordination between the member countries of a monetary union. Indeed, thanks to appropriate fiscal penalties, the noncooperative and decentralized equilibrium could get closer to the optimal equilibrium where the budgetary authorities cooperate. Our macroeconomic model shows that whatever penalty on the structural budgetary deficit would be optimal in case of asymmetric shocks. A moderate penalty on the excessive indebtedness level would be optimal in “normal times,” or in case of asymmetric shocks if openness to trade and price flexibility are sufficiently high, whereas the share of public consumption in GDP, taxations rates, and indebtedness levels is sufficiently weak in the monetary union. Besides, in case of symmetric shocks, a fiscal penalty would be useful to decrease the excessive budgetary activism, even if it doesn’t allow reaching the optimal and first-best equilibrium. Furthermore, the fiscal penalty should always be an increasing function of the share of public consumption in GDP and of taxation rates but a decreasing function of the strength of automatic stabilizers, of openness to trade, and of price flexibility in the member countries of the monetary union.

  12. SPECIAL ISSUE: EXAMINING THE DEATH PENALTY IN CHINA Abolishing the death penalty:the logical necessity of the irrationality of the death penalty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    死刑渐废论者的逻辑是:死刑不合理、不人道,但是在当前中国,由于国情、文明程度的特定性,又具有合理性,这是一个矛盾的结论。不合理的就应该摒弃。将传统文化、文明现状以及民众的态度与死刑的废止结合起来是知识者的精神自虐。正如死刑存在的原因从来不是民意一样,死刑废止的阻力也从来不是来自于民意。哲学家并不掌握死刑存废的政治权力,正如死刑的存在最有利于政治权力的贯彻一样,终结的动力来源于国家政治权力,来源于国家政治权力的代表者——政治家。

  13. From punishment to education--juvenile delinquency in Romanian criminal law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioan, Beatrice; Damian, Simona; Scripcaru, C; Neagu, M; Chirilă, B

    2015-01-01

    For centuries children were considered "mini-adults". Together with expressing the need to educate children and putting a stop to their integration in the work field from the earliest years the 19th century also displayed a new image of the child, which clearly separates him from the adults. In this paper the authors analyze the Romanian legislation addressing juvenile delinquency in criminal temporal evolution. On the one hand the minority age limits are sought and modulation of legislative provisions according to these, and on the other hand, types of penalties for minors are discussed. The authors conclude that the approach to juvenile delinquency in the current Romanian Criminal Code is the result of a long process of reflection of the legislators on adopting a different system of sanctions for juvenile offenders and on creating special regulations concerning the prosecution, trial and enforcement of the decisions regarding them.

  14. 30 CFR 846.18 - Payment of penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... proposed penalty. (c) Abatement agreement. Where the Office and the corporate permittee or individual have... first was due until the date of payment. Failure to pay overdue penalties may result in one or more of...

  15. Juvenile Battens Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayton, Romayne

    1987-01-01

    Ten children diagnosed with juvenile Battens disease were tested over a three-year period in general intelligence, memory, listening and speech, motor skills, and general learning. Results showed that the patients followed a predetermined pattern but that the time span for development of memory, communication, and behavior problems varied greatly.…

  16. Juvenile Victimization and Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbensen, Finn-Aage; Huizinga, David

    1991-01-01

    Demographic characteristics of juvenile victims of crime and a potential relationship between victimization and self-reported delinquency are examined for 877 adolescents from a large midwestern city. Lifetime victimization rates (LVRs) are higher for those involved in delinquency, and LVRs rise with age and higher levels of delinquent behavior.…

  17. Juvenile Battens Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayton, Romayne

    1987-01-01

    Ten children diagnosed with juvenile Battens disease were tested over a three-year period in general intelligence, memory, listening and speech, motor skills, and general learning. Results showed that the patients followed a predetermined pattern but that the time span for development of memory, communication, and behavior problems varied greatly.…

  18. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prakken, Berent; Albani, Salvatore; Martini, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is a heterogeneous group of diseases characterised by arthritis of unknown origin with onset before age of 16 years. Pivotal studies in the past 5 years have led to substantial progress in various areas, ranging from disease classification to new treatments. Gene expres

  19. Possible Penalties Alternative to Imprisonment Applicable to Drug Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Nicolae

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Alternative criminal penalties to imprisonment represent a remedy for eliminating the negative consequences of detention and a consequence of the evolution and humanization of penalties. The economic and social advantages of the alternative criminal penalties explain to a great extent the necessity of their application, together with the diversification of these penalties in order to respond more effectively to individualization according to the offender as well as to the necessity to protect the society.

  20. 15 CFR 6.4 - Adjustments to penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENTS § 6.4 Adjustments to penalties. The civil monetary penalties provided by law within the... Sensing Policy Act of 1992, from $11,000 to $11,000. (2) 15 U.S.C. 5658(c), Land Remote Sensing Policy Act...

  1. 19 CFR 111.92 - Notice of monetary penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice of monetary penalty. 111.92 Section 111.92 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS BROKERS Monetary Penalty and Payment of Fees § 111.92 Notice of monetary penalty. (a)...

  2. 20 CFR 410.699a - Penalties for fraud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penalties for fraud. 410.699a Section 410.699a Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969... Review, Finality of Decisions, and Representation of Parties § 410.699a Penalties for fraud. The penalty...

  3. 77 FR 65100 - Adjustment of Civil Monetary Penalties for Inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-25

    ... inflation. This rule sets forth the maximum, inflation-adjusted dollar amount for civil monetary penalties... COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 143 RIN 3038-AD76 Adjustment of Civil Monetary Penalties for Inflation AGENCY... and orders thereunder. The rule, as amended, implements the Federal Civil Penalties...

  4. 42 CFR 460.46 - Civil money penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil money penalties. 460.46 Section 460.46 Public...) Sanctions, Enforcement Actions, and Termination § 460.46 Civil money penalties. (a) CMS may impose civil money penalties up to the following maximum amounts: (1) For each violation regarding enrollment or...

  5. 12 CFR 509.103 - Civil money penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil money penalties. 509.103 Section 509.103... PROCEDURE IN ADJUDICATORY PROCEEDINGS Local Rules § 509.103 Civil money penalties. (a) Assessment. In the... may serve an order of assessment of civil money penalty upon the party concerned. The assessment order...

  6. 12 CFR 908.6 - Civil money penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil money penalties. 908.6 Section 908.6... Proceedings § 908.6 Civil money penalties. (a) Notice of assessment—(1) Grounds. The Finance Board may issue and serve a notice of assessment of a civil money penalty on any Bank or any executive officer or...

  7. 31 CFR 547.702 - Pre-Penalty Notice; settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pre-Penalty Notice; settlement. 547.702 Section 547.702 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued... REGULATIONS Penalties § 547.702 Pre-Penalty Notice; settlement. (a) When required. If the Office of Foreign...

  8. 12 CFR 622.60 - Payment of civil money penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment of civil money penalty. 622.60 Section... Rules and Procedures for Assessment and Collection of Civil Money Penalties § 622.60 Payment of civil money penalty. (a) Payment date. Generally, the date designated in the notice of assessment for...

  9. Survival and causes of mortality in juvenile Puerto Rican parrots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, G.D.; Arendt, W.J.; Kalina, J.

    1994-01-01

    Fifteen juvenile Puerto Rican Parrots (Amazona vittata) from wild nests in 1985, 1986 and 1987 were radio monitored an average of 110 +- 15.9 (SE) d (range 4-209 d) post-fledgling. Minimum survival was 67% (n = 3) in 1985, 100% (n = 4) in 1986 and 43% (n = 7) in 1987. Most mortality (three of five deaths) occurred during the first 35 d following fledgling. A major cause of mortality was predation by raptors. This research shows that additional studies are needed to define mortality causes to juvenile and adult free-flying Puerto Rican Parrots and to develop management guidelines to increase survival.

  10. Death House Desiderata: A Hunger for Justice, Unsated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Johnson

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The death penalty lives on in America, with some 1350 prisoners put to death since 1976, when the modern American death penalty was reborn. Most prisoners get a last meal of their choice, though that choice is constrained by cost and, often, the stock in the prison kitchen. Last meals can be thought of as brief moments of autonomy in a relentlessly dehumanizing execution process. They also entail a distinctive cruelty. At their lowest point, prisoners seek comfort food but are never comforted. This meal is no entre to a relationship, but instead a recipe for abandonment. Dignity is nowhere to be found on the death house menu. Yet hope lingers, even here; human beings, it seems, cannot live or die without hope. Justice, the most profound human hunger, goes unsated by design.

  11. 40 CFR 89.1006 - Penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... limits for later years may be adjusted based on the Consumer Price Index. The specific regulatory provisions for changing the maximum penalties, published in 40 CFR part 19, reference the applicable U.S... EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES General Enforcement Provisions...

  12. 25 CFR 310.1 - Penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ALASKAN ESKIMO HAND-MADE PRODUCTS § 310.1 Penalties. The use of Government trade-marks in an unauthorized... 5 of the said act (49 Stat. 892; 25 U.S.C., 305d), which provides: Any person who shall counterfeit..., or shall knowingly, willfully, and corruptly affix any reproduction, counterfeit, copy, or colorable...

  13. Tax penalties in SME tax compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Swistak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Small business tax compliance requires special attention. On the one hand small businesses are often incapable of rigorously fulfilling their tax obligations, more vulnerable to external risks and tempted to exploit opportunities to be non-compliant. On the other hand, unlike larger businesses, they are usually sole proprietors or owner-operated businesses, hence highly responsive to personal, social, cognitive and emotional factors. These attributes pave the way to a better use of measures designed to influence their behavior and choices. This paper discusses the role and effectiveness of tax penalties in enhancing tax compliance in small businesses. It argues that tax penalties, although indispensable for tax enforcement, may not be a first-choice tool in ensuring tax compliance. Too punitive a tax regime is an important barrier to business formalization and increasing severity of tax penalties does not produce the intended results. To be effective, tax penalties should deter and motivate taxpayers rather than exert repressive measures against them.

  14. Reputational penalties to firms in antitrust investigations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, van den S.; Kemp, R.G.M.; Verschoor, W.F.C.; Vries, de A.

    2012-01-01

    We estimate the impact of legal penalties imposed on Dutch listed firms targeted by competition authorities from 1998 to 2008 on a firm's stock market value. On average, firms lose 2.3 percent of their market values when an antitrust investigation is uncovered. This corresponds to a total value loss

  15. 78 FR 672 - Civil Monetary Penalties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... offense; (ii) Any history of prior offenses by the Respondent (including offenses occurring prior to the... proposed civil money penalty, including documentary evidence to support any of Respondent's arguments or... argument in mitigation, the Respondent shall provide documentary evidence as part of its response....

  16. 31 CFR 596.701 - Penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Penalties. 596.701 Section 596.701 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN.... App. 2405, as a country supporting international terrorism, engages in a financial transaction...

  17. 31 CFR 539.701 - Penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Penalties. 539.701 Section 539.701 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION TRADE CONTROL...

  18. 7 CFR 900.211 - Penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Penalties. 900.211 Section 900.211 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... custody of such official pursuant to the provisions of a marketing agreement or marketing order shall...

  19. Reputational penalties to firms in antitrust investigations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, van den S.; Kemp, R.G.M.; Verschoor, W.F.C.; Vries, de A.

    2012-01-01

    We estimate the impact of legal penalties imposed on Dutch listed firms targeted by competition authorities from 1998 to 2008 on a firm's stock market value. On average, firms lose 2.3 percent of their market values when an antitrust investigation is uncovered. This corresponds to a total value loss

  20. 29 CFR 4010.14 - Penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION CERTAIN REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE REQUIREMENTS ANNUAL FINANCIAL AND ACTUARIAL INFORMATION REPORTING § 4010.14 Penalties. If all of the... (other than an exempt entity) of up to $1,100 a day for each day that the failure continues. PBGC...

  1. 13 CFR 146.405 - Penalty procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Penalty procedures. 146.405 Section 146.405 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING... pursuant to the provisions of the Program Fraud and Civil Remedies Act, 31 U.S.C. sections 3803...

  2. Natural death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehmichen, M; Meissner, C

    2000-01-01

    The increasing age of every human being is the beginning of the end of life, an obviously natural process, but any attempt to define the term 'natural death' soon encounters difficulties in defining what is meant by 'natural'. In the industrialized countries of the West, for example 'natural death' is thought of as the opposite of non-natural types of death such as accidental death, suicide, and homicide. The aim of our present survey is to discuss the meaning of the term 'natural death' under a clinical, a forensic and a scientific point of view with regard to recent developments especially in molecular biology. If there are 'external' physical influences, a medical-technical manipulation, a therapeutic or molecular biological intervention cannot be definitely ruled out as the cause of death, then use of the term 'natural death' in general is open to question. It will only remain meaningful if it can be applied with a specific meaning in definite practical situations. Current research and medical technology, however, do not allow use of the term 'natural death' in its conventional sense: it can thus be stricken from the medical vocabulary. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

  3. Late Onset Juvenile Xanthogranuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punithwavathy K

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A 19 year old female was seen with multiple skin coloured and hyperpigmented macules, discrete as well as grouped papules and nodules of varying sizes distributed over the face, neck, extensor and flexor aspects of both upper and lower extremities including joints. The trunk was spared. Some of the lesions showed features of spontaneous regression. Investigations confirmed the diagnosis of juvenile xanthogranuloma. Lesions regressed satisfactorily with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy.

  4. Juvenile Incarceration and Health

    OpenAIRE

    Barnert, ES; R Perry; Morris, RE

    2015-01-01

    © 2015. Addressing the health status and needs of incarcerated youth represents an issue at the nexus of juvenile justice reform and health care reform. Incarcerated youth face disproportionately higher morbidity and higher mortality compared to the general adolescent population. Dental health, reproductive health, and mental health needs are particularly high, likely as a result of lower access to care, engagement in high-risk behaviors, and underlying health disparities. Violence exposure a...

  5. An econometric analysis of the effects of the penalty points system driver's license in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Manzano, José I; Castro-Nuño, Mercedes; Pedregal, Diego J

    2010-07-01

    This article seeks to quantify the effects of the penalty points system driver's license during the 18-month period following its coming into force. This is achieved by means of univariate and multivariate unobserved component models set up in a state space framework estimated using maximum likelihood. A detailed intervention analysis is carried out in order to test for the effects and their duration of the introduction of the penalty points system driver's license in Spain. Other variables, mainly indicators of the level of economic activity in Spain, are also considered. Among the main effects, we can mention an average reduction of almost 12.6% in the number of deaths in highway accidents. It would take at least 2 years for that effect to disappear. For the rest of the safety indicator variables (vehicle occupants injured in highway accidents and vehicle occupants injured in accidents built-up areas) the effects disappeared 1 year after the law coming into force.

  6. Juvenile Ultracool Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Rice, Emily L; Cruz, Kelle; Barman, Travis; Looper, Dagny; Malo, Lison; Mamajek, Eric E; Metchev, Stanimir; Shkolnik, Evgenya L

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile ultracool dwarfs are late spectral type objects (later than ~M6) with ages between 10 Myr and several 100 Myr. Their age-related properties lie intermediate between very low mass objects in nearby star-forming regions (ages 1-5 Myr) and field stars and brown dwarfs that are members of the disk population (ages 1-5 Gyr). Kinematic associations of nearby young stars with ages from ~10-100 Myr provide sources for juvenile ultracool dwarfs. The lowest mass confirmed members of these groups are late-M dwarfs. Several apparently young L dwarfs and a few T dwarfs are known, but they have not been kinematically associated with any groups. Normalizing the field IMF to the high mass population of these groups suggests that more low mass (mainly late-M and possibly L dwarf) members have yet to be found. The lowest mass members of these groups, along with low mass companions to known young stars, provide benchmark objects with which spectroscopic age indicators for juvenile ultracool dwarfs can be calibrated and...

  7. Nigerian juvenile offenders: a case-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunlesi, A O

    1991-01-01

    A case-controlled study was carried out on all the 51 juvenile delinquents found in a point prevalence survey of a Nigerian Borstal Remand Centre. Mean age of the delinquents was 17-27 years. They were mostly from the low social class (70.6%) and the commonest reason for admission was for being beyond parental control (68.6%). Identified risk factors found for juvenile delinquency were death of biological mother, parental marital failure, growing up with relatives rather than parents, drug abuse and ordinal position in the family. Possible cultural explanations for some of these observations were proffered. The need to improve on the living conditions of these juveniles and their assessment procedure were highlighted. Finally, it is imperative that the obsolete Nigerian Children and Young Person's Law be updated.

  8. Path Following in the Exact Penalty Method of Convex Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hua; Lange, Kenneth

    2015-07-01

    Classical penalty methods solve a sequence of unconstrained problems that put greater and greater stress on meeting the constraints. In the limit as the penalty constant tends to ∞, one recovers the constrained solution. In the exact penalty method, squared penalties are replaced by absolute value penalties, and the solution is recovered for a finite value of the penalty constant. In practice, the kinks in the penalty and the unknown magnitude of the penalty constant prevent wide application of the exact penalty method in nonlinear programming. In this article, we examine a strategy of path following consistent with the exact penalty method. Instead of performing optimization at a single penalty constant, we trace the solution as a continuous function of the penalty constant. Thus, path following starts at the unconstrained solution and follows the solution path as the penalty constant increases. In the process, the solution path hits, slides along, and exits from the various constraints. For quadratic programming, the solution path is piecewise linear and takes large jumps from constraint to constraint. For a general convex program, the solution path is piecewise smooth, and path following operates by numerically solving an ordinary differential equation segment by segment. Our diverse applications to a) projection onto a convex set, b) nonnegative least squares, c) quadratically constrained quadratic programming, d) geometric programming, and e) semidefinite programming illustrate the mechanics and potential of path following. The final detour to image denoising demonstrates the relevance of path following to regularized estimation in inverse problems. In regularized estimation, one follows the solution path as the penalty constant decreases from a large value.

  9. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions juvenile idiopathic arthritis juvenile idiopathic arthritis Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Juvenile idiopathic arthritis refers to a group of conditions involving joint ...

  10. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile primary osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions juvenile primary osteoporosis juvenile primary osteoporosis Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... PDF Open All Close All Description Juvenile primary osteoporosis is a skeletal disorder characterized by thinning of ...

  11. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile myoclonic epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions juvenile myoclonic epilepsy juvenile myoclonic epilepsy Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... PDF Open All Close All Description Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy is a condition characterized by recurrent seizures (epilepsy). ...

  12. Debris ingestion by juvenile marine turtles: an underestimated problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Robson Guimarães; Andrades, Ryan; Boldrini, Marcillo Altoé; Martins, Agnaldo Silva

    2015-04-15

    Marine turtles are an iconic group of endangered animals threatened by debris ingestion. However, key aspects related to debris ingestion are still poorly known, including its effects on mortality and the original use of the ingested debris. Therefore, we analysed the impact of debris ingestion in 265 green turtles (Chelonia mydas) over a large geographical area and different habitats along the Brazilian coast. We determined the death rate due to debris ingestion and quantified the amount of debris that is sufficient to cause the death of juvenile green turtles. Additionally, we investigated the original use of the ingested debris. We found that a surprisingly small amount of debris was sufficient to block the digestive tract and cause death. We suggested that debris ingestion has a high death potential that may be masked by other causes of death. An expressive part of the ingested debris come from disposable and short-lived products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Juvenile Justice Bulletin: Aftercare Services. Juvenile Justice Practices Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gies, Steve V.

    This bulletin examines aftercare services that provide youth with comprehensive health, education, family, and vocational services upon their release from the juvenile justice system. Aftercare can be defined as reintegrative services that prepare out-of-home placed juveniles for reentry into the community by reestablishing the necessary…

  14. Neonatal Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a premature baby include pneumonia (a lung infection), sepsis (a blood infection) and meningitis (an infection in the fluid around the brain and spinal cord). What birth defects most often cause neonatal death? The most common birth defects that cause ...

  15. Miastenia gravis juvenil Juvenile myasthenia gravis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Papazian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La miastenia gravis juvenil (MGJ es un trastorno crónico auto inmune en el cual existen anticuerpos séricos que al unirse a los receptores de acetilcolin nicotínicos de la membrana muscular de la placa motora alteran la transmisión neuromuscular. El resultado es fatiga muscular precoz con progresión a la parálisis durante estados de contracción muscular iterativos (movimientos o sostenidos (posturas y más raramente parálisis permanente durante el reposo. Los músculos inervados por los nervios craneales, especialmente los extraoculares y elevadores de los párpados, tienen más tendencia a la debilidad muscular persistente que los inervados por otros pares craneales y las extremidades. Las formas clínicas de presentación son generalizadas, oculares y respiratorias. El diagnóstico se sospecha mediante la anamnesia, la fatiga anormal se comprueba mediante el examen físico y la estimulación eléctrica iterativa del nervio que inerva al músculo afectado pero no paralizado. Se corrobora mediante la administración de inhibidores de la acetilcolin esterasa (IACE que al aumentar la cantidad de acetilcolin en la hendidura sináptica, corrigen la fatiga o la debilidad muscular transitoriamente. Se hace el diagnóstico de certeza mediante la demostración sérica de anticuerpos contra los receptores de acetilcolin (ACRA. El tratamiento es a largo plazo sintomático con IACE y etiopatogénico con inmunosupresores, plasmaféresis, gamma globulina endovenosa y timectomía. El curso es crónico. La remisión espontánea o después de tratamiento sintomático o etiopatogénico ocurre entre 1-10 años respectivamente. La mortalidad es prácticamente nula aun durantes las crisis miastenias gracias a la educación de padres, pacientes y público en general sobre el tema, al desarrollo del sistema de respuesta rápida de auxilio domiciliario y las unidades de cuidados intensivos y el empleo de la ventilación asistida profiláctica, plasmaféresis y

  16. Revisiting the Decision of Death in Hurst v. Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Brian K; Ginory, Almari; Zedalis, Jennifer

    2016-12-01

    The United States Supreme Court has considered the question of whether a judge or a jury must make the findings necessary to support imposition of the death penalty in several notable cases, including Spaziano v. Florida (1984), Hildwin v. Florida (1989), and Ring v. Arizona (2002). In 2016, the U.S. Supreme Court revisited the subject in Hurst v. Florida Florida Statute § 921.141 allows the judge, after weighing aggravating and mitigating circumstances, to enter a sentence of life imprisonment or death. Before Hurst, Florida's bifurcated sentencing proceedings included an advisory sentence from jurors and a separate judicial hearing without juror involvement. In Hurst, the Court revisited the question of whether Florida's capital sentencing scheme violates the Sixth Amendment, which requires a jury, not a judge, to find each fact necessary to impose a sentence of death in light of Ring In an eight-to-one decision, the Court reversed the judgment of the Florida Supreme Court, holding that the Sixth Amendment requires a jury to find the aggravating factors necessary for imposing the death penalty. The role of Florida juries in capital sentencing proceedings was thereby elevated from advisory to determinative. We examine the Court's decision and offer commentary regarding this shift from judge to jury in the final imposition of the death penalty and the overall effect of this landmark case.

  17. Compressed sensing recovery via nonconvex shrinkage penalties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth, Joseph; Chartrand, Rick

    2016-07-01

    The {{\\ell }}0 minimization of compressed sensing is often relaxed to {{\\ell }}1, which yields easy computation using the shrinkage mapping known as soft thresholding, and can be shown to recover the original solution under certain hypotheses. Recent work has derived a general class of shrinkages and associated nonconvex penalties that better approximate the original {{\\ell }}0 penalty and empirically can recover the original solution from fewer measurements. We specifically examine p-shrinkage and firm thresholding. In this work, we prove that given data and a measurement matrix from a broad class of matrices, one can choose parameters for these classes of shrinkages to guarantee exact recovery of the sparsest solution. We further prove convergence of the algorithm iterative p-shrinkage (IPS) for solving one such relaxed problem.

  18. Juvenile Dermatomyositis in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Emeka Madu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile dermatomyositis has variable clinical presentations both in and outside of pregnancy. A literature review indicated that optimal maternal and fetal outcomes can be anticipated when the pregnancy is undertaken while the disease is in remission. Poorer outcomes are associated with flare-up of the disease in early pregnancy compared with exacerbation in the second or third trimester, when fetal prognosis is usually good. We present a case of JDM in pregnancy with disease exacerbation late in pregnancy and review of the relevant literature.

  19. Juvenile dermatomyositis in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madu, Anthony Emeka; Omih, Edwin; Baguley, Elaine; Lindow, Stephen W

    2013-01-01

    Juvenile dermatomyositis has variable clinical presentations both in and outside of pregnancy. A literature review indicated that optimal maternal and fetal outcomes can be anticipated when the pregnancy is undertaken while the disease is in remission. Poorer outcomes are associated with flare-up of the disease in early pregnancy compared with exacerbation in the second or third trimester, when fetal prognosis is usually good. We present a case of JDM in pregnancy with disease exacerbation late in pregnancy and review of the relevant literature.

  20. Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larralde, M; Santos-Muñoz, A; Calb, I; Magariños, C

    2001-01-01

    Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis (JHF) is a rare autosomal recessive disease with onset in infancy or early childhood. It is characterized by papulonodular skin lesions, soft tissue masses, gingival hypertrophy, and flexion contractures of the large joints. The light and electron microscopic features are very distinctive. Here we report an 8-month-old boy with characteristic stiffness of the knees and elbows and pink confluent papules on the paranasal folds, and periauricular and perianal regions. He also had hard nodules all over the scalp and around the mouth, and severe gingival hypertrophy. Histologic and ultrastructural features were typical of JHF. Clinical features, pathology, and physiology are discussed.

  1. Juvenile Justice in Rural America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankovic, Joanne, Ed.; And Others

    Producing a much-needed organized body of literature about rural juvenile justice, 14 papers (largely from the 1979 National Symposium on Rural Justice) are organized to identify current issues, identify forces causing changes in current systems, review programs responding to rural juvenile justice problems, and provide planning models to aid…

  2. Automatic penalty continuation in structural topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rojas Labanda, Susana; Stolpe, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    this issue is addressed. We propose an automatic continuation method, where the material penalization parameter is included as a new variable in the problem and a constraint guarantees that the requested penalty is eventually reached. The numerical results suggest that this approach is an appealing...... alternative to continuation methods. Automatic continuation also generally obtains better designs than the classical formulation using a reduced number of iterations....

  3. Las medidas de seguridad en materia penal juvenil Security measures in juvenile criminal law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Campos Zuñiga

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad existe una ardua discusión sobre las sanciones dentro del derecho penal juvenil, tema que cobra especial relevancia cuando nos enfrentamos a conductas delictivas cometidas por personas menores de edad en las cuales se ha determinado su condición de inimputables o toxicómanos a partir de las conclusiones de las pericias respectivas. El cuestionamiento nos lleva a dos posibles soluciones: una darle un abordaje como un problema de salud y excluirlo del derecho penal y otra, mantener la línea tradicional, en la cual se faculta al derecho penal sancionar la conducta delictiva, imponiendo una medida de seguridad. Si se admite la primera posición, la normativa aplicable lo constituye el Código de la Niñez y la Adolescencia, el cual contempla la posibilidad de imponer medidas de protección para quienes están en una situación de vulnerabilidad, dentro de las que se ubican los casos de inimputables y toxicómanos, esto implica admitir medidas de "seguridad o protección" con una naturaleza jurídica de carácter administrativo. Posición que implicaría no sólo una vulneración de derechos sino que contraviene lo señalado por Sala Constitucional, la cual al desarrollar el alcance del artículo 39 de la Constitución Política, ha señalado que la imposición de las sanciones y por ende de las medidas de seguridad gozan de la garantía de la reserva de ley, destacando su naturaleza jurisdiccional y exclusivamente ante la comisión de delitos. La única solución posible en aras del respeto de esta reserva legal, es aplicar, conforme al artículo 9 de la Ley de Justicia Penal Juvenil la legislación penal de adultos y admitir la imposición de medidas de seguridad en la justicia penal juvenil.Currently, there has been an arduous discussion about penalties in juvenile criminal law, topic which becomes especially relevant when we are faced to criminal conducts from people who are underage, in which their condition of not guilty or

  4. Efficient Avoidance of the Penalty Zone in Human Eye Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theeuwes, Jan

    2016-01-01

    People use eye movements extremely effectively to find objects of interest in a cluttered visual scene. Distracting, task-irrelevant attention capturing regions in the visual field should be avoided as they jeopardize the efficiency of search. In the current study, we used eye tracking to determine whether people are able to avoid making saccades to a predetermined visual area associated with a financial penalty, while making fast and accurate saccades towards stimuli placed near the penalty area. We found that in comparison to the same task without a penalty area, the introduction of a penalty area immediately affected eye movement behaviour: the proportion of saccades to the penalty area was immediately reduced. Also, saccadic latencies increased, but quite modestly, and mainly for saccades towards stimuli near the penalty area. We conclude that eye movement behaviour is under efficient cognitive control and thus quite flexible: it can immediately be adapted to changing environmental conditions to improve reward outcome. PMID:27930724

  5. Juvenile arthritis and uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanski, J J

    1990-01-01

    The association between juvenile arthritis and uveitis is reviewed. Some children with the HLA-B27 related spondyloarthropathies develop anterior uveitis. About 20% of patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) who are negative for IgM rheumatoid factor develop a frequently bilateral, nongranulomatous chronic anterior uveitis. Risk factors for uveitis in JRA patients are: female gender, pauciarticular onset of arthritis, presence of circulating antinuclear antibodies, and the antigens HLA-DW5 and HLA-DPw2. Uveitis is rare after seven years or more have elapsed from the onset of arthritis. The visual prognosis in patients with uveitis is good in 25% and fair in 50%. The remaining 25% develop visual impairment from complicated cataract and/or secondary inflammatory glaucoma. The potential benefit of cytotoxic agents in the treatment of intractable uveitis is outweighed by the risk of serious side effects. The management of secondary inflammatory glaucoma is unsatisfactory, but the results of treatment of complicated cataracts by lensectomy-vitrectomy are good.

  6. Aggressive juvenile mandibular fibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Georgi P; Atanasov, Dimitar T; Anavi, Beniamin L

    2013-01-01

    Aggressive juvenile fibromatosis of the jawbones is a rare tumor presenting as infiltrative mass with unpredictable evolution. We report herein a 17-year-old student with a 6-month history of radiologically proven resorption of a part of the mandible, lingual displacement of tooth 34 and malocclusion. Alveolar ridge resorption and three dark-brown foci in the bone were seen after the tooth was extracted. Histological study showed the tumor tissue to have a bundle-like structure; immunohistochemically it was positive for vimentin, smooth muscle actin, beta-catenin, Ki-67 (5%), and negative for desmin and cytokeratin 34bE12. The golden standard in the diagnostics of desmoid fibromatoses is the nuclear or membrane expression of beta-catenin, which is found in 90% of the cases. Differential diagnosis include mandibular fibroma, well-differentiated fibrosarcoma, fibrosing histiocytoma, and infiltration from adjacent soft-tissue tumor. Aggressive juvenile fibromatosis should be managed by radical excision. Local recurrences are not rare, but metastases do not develop. In rare cases this type of fibromatosis has been known to regress spontaneously. Aggressive fibromatosis is a diagnostic challenge, since it remains in the grey zone between benign and malignant lesions of the oral cavity.

  7. Commercial Mortgage Prepayments Under Heterogeneous Prepayment Penalty Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Qiang Fu; Michael LaCour-Little; Kerry D. Vandell

    2003-01-01

    Much of the literature on pricing commercial mortgages and commercial mortgage-backed securities has assumed homogeneity in prepayment penalty structure. In this paper, we provide evidence that such an assumption is inappropriate and examine the effect of penalty structures observed in actual contracts. After conducting preliminary simulations, we present hazard models estimated from data on 1,165 multifamily mortgage loans to show how empirical prepayment rates vary with alternative penalty ...

  8. Surviving death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerstroem, Anna

    2013-01-01

    such phases. The aim of this paper is to explore how an organization’s identity is re-constructed after organizational death. Based on interviews with members of a bankrupted bank who narrate their bankruptcy experiences, the paper explores how legacy organizational identity is constructed after...... organizational death. The paper shows how members draw on their legacy organizational identity to justify their past interpretations and responses to the intensifying bankruptcy threats. Members refer to their firm belief in the bank’s solid and robust identity claim when they explain how they disregarded...

  9. Juvenile justice mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Christopher R; Penn, Joseph V

    2002-10-01

    As the second century of partnership begins, child psychiatry and juvenile justice face continuing challenges in meeting the mental health needs of delinquents. The modern juvenile justice system is marked by a significantly higher volume of cases, with increasingly complicated multiproblem youths and families with comorbid medical, psychiatric, substance abuse disorders, multiple family and psychosocial adversities, and shrinking community resources and alternatives to confinement. The family court is faced with shrinking financial resources to support court-ordered placement and treatment programs in efforts to treat and rehabilitate youths. The recognition of high rates of mental disorders for incarcerated youth has prompted several recommendations for improvement and calls for reform [56,57]. In their 2000 annual report, the Coalition for Juvenile Justice advocated increased access to mental health services that provide a continuum of care tailored to the specific problems of incarcerated youth [58]. The specific recommendations of the report for mental health providers include the need for wraparound services, improved planning and coordination between agencies, and further research. The Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention has set three priorities in dealing with the mental health needs of delinquents: further research on the prevalence of mental illness among juvenile offenders, development of mental health screening assessment protocols, and improved mental health services [59]. Other programs have called for earlier detection and diversion of troubled youth from juvenile justice to mental health systems [31,56]. Most recently, many juvenile and family courts have developed innovative programs to address specific problems such as truancy or substance use and diversionary or alternative sentencing programs to deal with first-time or nonviolent delinquents. All youths who come in contact with the juvenile justice system

  10. Miranda Rights: Implications for Juveniles with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsiyannis, Antonis; Barrett, David E.; Losinski, Mickey L.

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency in the United States has been a persistent concern for decades. Consequently, because more juveniles have been referred to juvenile court and the arrest rate of preteen offenders has increased to almost three times that of older youth, the persistent and often controversial issue of the capacity of juvenile offenders to waive…

  11. Juvenile prison in parallel legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutovac Mitar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for punishment of juveniles occurred from the time when there was no clear line separating them from the adult criminal population. At the same time, the evolution of the juvenile punishment is not in itself involve substantial changes to their criminal status. On the contrary, the status of minors in society did not show serious differences regarding the status of young adults, as well as the adult elderly. On the other hand, on the ground of their punishment is recorded deviations that go in the direction of application of mild corporal punishment. Closing the minor was performed in a physically separate parts of the general penal institutions with the use of a lower degree of restrictions while serving juvenile prison. Due to the different treatment of minors during the evolution of their criminal status leads to their different treatment in comparative law. That is why we are witnessing the existence of numerous differences in the juvenile punishment in some countries in the world. On the European continent there is a wide range of different legal solutions when it comes to punishing juveniles. There are considerable differences in the procedure pronouncing juvenile prison and in particular penal treatment of juveniles in penitentiary institutions. For these reasons, the author has decided to show the basic statutory provisions in the part that relates to the issue of punishment of minors in the legislation of individual countries.

  12. Update on juvenile myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Wendy K M; Kang, Peter B

    2013-12-01

    Juvenile myasthenia gravis is a relatively rare autoimmune neuromuscular disorder. The pathophysiology of juvenile myasthenia gravis is similar to that of adult myasthenia gravis, though there remain important differences regarding presentation and therapeutic options. We review the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and treatment options for juvenile myasthenia gravis. Randomized clinical studies of myasthenia gravis have been carried out primarily in adult populations. As juvenile myasthenia gravis is rare, it has been difficult to collect prospective randomized controlled data to evaluate treatment outcomes and efficacy. A recent retrospective series suggests that, as in adult myasthenia gravis, thymectomy is a viable therapeutic option for selected cases of generalized juvenile myasthenia gravis. This is corroborated by the clinical experience of the authors in a referral center with a cohort of patients affected by juvenile myasthenia gravis over a number of years. Recent studies illustrate that some, but not all, adult research on myasthenia gravis is applicable to children and adolescents with juvenile myasthenia gravis. Adult research can inform pediatric studies, but should not be regarded as a substitute for dedicated research in those populations.

  13. Death cap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudbæk, Torsten R; Kofoed, Pernille Bouteloup; Bove, Jeppe

    2014-01-01

    Death cap (Amanita phalloides) is commonly found and is one of the five most toxic fungi in Denmark. Toxicity is due to amatoxin, and poisoning is a serious medical condition, causing organ failure with potential fatal outcome. Acknowledgement and clarification of exposure, symptomatic and focused...

  14. Death Drive

    OpenAIRE

    Stühler, Rebekka Hellstrøm

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this project is to investigate why the Freudian term Death Drive is not acknowledged in modern psychological therapy. On basis of psychoanalytical theory and through a literary analysis, the project will present a discussion of the significance and presence of the term within these practises.

  15. "Spectacular Death"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Michael Hviid

    2016-01-01

    be labelled ‘spectacular death’ in which death, dying and mourning have increasingly become spectacles. Moreover, the author proposes that what is currently happening in contemporary Western society can be interpreted as an expression of a ‘partial re-reversal’ of ‘forbidden death’ to some...

  16. On Problems of Penalty Structure%刑罚体系问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李震; 张刚

    2011-01-01

    刑罚的轻缓化是当今世界刑罚的整体发展趋势,但我国现行刑罚制度的重刑化倾向严重。重刑易破坏公众的公平正义观念;重刑会导致刑罚功能的贬值;重刑易导致刑罚外的其他预防犯罪的措施难以落实。因此,有必要改革我国现行刑罚体系:消减死刑;完善自由刑;扩大财产刑和资格刑等非监禁刑的适用范围;增设社区服务刑等,使其与刑罚轻缓化的世界发展趋势相一致。%The developing trend of punishment is the mitigation of punishment on the world. But China's current penalty system has trend of misdemeanor. Misdemeanor easily undermines the concept of public justice; misdemeanor would lead to the devaluation of the penalty function; and misdemeanor easily leads to other crime prevention measures can hardly be implemented. It is therefore necessary to reform the structure of our existing penalties, to reduce the death penalty; to improve freedom of punishment; to expand property eligible for criminal punishment and non--custodial sentences such as the scope of application; to set up punishment such as community service, so as to acclimate the developing trend in the world.

  17. Juvenile chronic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwood, T R; Woo, P

    1995-05-01

    The nomenclature and classification criteria for arthritis in children should be dealt with initially as separate issues, although they are undoubtedly intertwined. The classification criteria should aim to delineate homogeneous patient populations, yet should be flexible enough to incorporate advances in disease knowledge. It should be recognized that arriving at an international consensus for classification criteria will merely provide a set of operational definitions to facilitate research, and not a set of diagnostic criteria. Indeed the only point to obtaining consensus is to begin a process of systematic ongoing review of the criteria. The labels attached to any of these diseases should facilitate accurate communication. In view of the heterogeneous nature of childhood arthritis, consideration should be given to using a broad umbrella term such as juvenile or childhood arthritis only for communicating with the lay public. Medical nomenclature should be formulated to reflect accurately homogeneous subgroups of arthritis, and should not artificially proscribe a relationship between paediatric and adult disease.

  18. [Juvenile idiopathic arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlin, Troels

    2002-08-19

    The new classification of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is described in this review. Clinical characteristics divide JIA in to subtypes: systemic, oligoarticular (persistent and extended type), RF-positive and--negative polyarticular, enthesitis-related arthritis and psoriatic arthritis. In addition to the clinical characteristics, genetic and biochemical differences suggest that JIA could be regarded as a general term covering various diseases. Complications described are uveitis, temporomandibular joint affection and growth disturbances. The therapeutic strategy should be planned individually according to age, subtype and disease activity and carried out as teamwork with several specialties. Drugs showing significant effectiveness in controlled studies are primarily methotrexate and sulphasalazine. An immunomodulating agent, etanercept, a soluble TNF alpha-receptor fusion protein, has shown a promising effect in severe polyarticular JIA refractory to methotrexate treatment.

  19. Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayashree Krishnamurthy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis is a rare, autosomal-recessive disease characterized by papular and nodular skin lesions, gingival hyperplasia, joint contractures and bone involvement in variable degrees. It is a connective tissue disorder with aberrant synthesis of glycosaminoglycans by fibroblasts. We report a 5-year-old female born of first-degree consanguineous marriage who presented with multiple, recurrent, painless, variable-sized nodules. Fine needle aspiration cytology smears and the subsequent histopathological examination from the nodules showed benign spindle cells in a Periodic acid Schiff-positive myxoid background. The disease has a relentlessly progressive course, with most patients surviving only up to the 4 th decade. As of now, there is no specific treatment for this disorder. Genetic counseling is essential to explain to parents about a 25% chance of having a diseased baby in any pregnancy. With the gene being mapped recently, techniques for antenatal diagnosis are likely to be established.

  20. [JUVENILE DERMATOMYOSITIS AND CALCINOSIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhvania, M

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile Dermatomiositis (JD) is autoimmune disease that progresses with time; JD's main differentiated syndromes are rash on the skin, poor function of muscles, and often developing invalidism. If the health practitioners manage to diagnose the JD on an early stage and prescribe the adequate treatment the disease will not progress aggressively. This approach is tangible for practical rheumatology and pediatric. The article aims to present the reasons of the development of the JD and calcinosis. The study based on the description of the patients with JD. There are distinguished the main symptoms of the disease in children: frequent and acute developments of muscles calcinosis, occasionally with diffuse character followed with hypotrophy of the muscles, contractures and invalidism. One of the patient cases that describe the article is the thirteen-year boy with JD indicating repeated sequence of the disease, with diffusive calcinosis, cellulitis followed with secondary infection and impaired vision.

  1. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krupa H Bhatt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA is the most chronic musculoskeletal disease of pediatric population. The chronic course of disease has a great impact on oral health. Temporomandibular joint is involved in JIA causing limited mouth opening with progressive open bite, retrognathia, microgenia and bird like appearance. Joints of upper and lower extremities are also involved. Effect on upper limb function leads to difficulty with fine motor movements required for brushing and flossing. This increases incidence of caries and periodontal disease in children. The cause of JIA is still poorly understood and none of the available drugs for JIA can cure the disease. However, prognosis has improved as a result of progress in disease classification and management. The dental practitioner should be familiar with the symptoms and oral manifestations of JIA to help manage as multidisciplinary management is essential.

  2. Juvenile homosexual homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Wade C; Chan, Heng Choon Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Limited information exists on juvenile homosexual homicide (JHH), that is, youths who perpetrate sexual homicides against same-sex victims. Only a handful of cases from the United States and internationally have been described in the literature. This study, the first of its kind, examines the epidemiology, victimology, victim-offender relationship, and weapon-use patterns in JHH offenders using a large U.S. database on homicide spanning three decades. The data for this study were derived from the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Supplementary Homicide Reports (SHRs) for the years 1976 through 2005. A total of 93 cases of JHH were identified. On average, three of these crimes occurred annually in the U.S., and there was a marked decline in its incidence over the study period. Ninety-five percent were male offender-male victim cases and 5% were female offender-female victim cases. JHH offenders were over-represented amongst all juvenile sexual murderers, similar to their adult counterparts. The majority of these boys were aged 16 or 17 and killed adult victims. They were significantly more likely to kill adult victims than other age groups, to be friends or acquaintances of the victims, and to use contact/edged weapons or firearms. Most offenders killed same-race victims, although Black offenders were significantly more likely than White offenders to kill interracially. A case report is provided to illustrate JHH. Further research is needed to promote our understanding of the pathogenesis, etiology, and associated risk factors for this aberrant form of murder by children.

  3. 29 CFR 579.5 - Determining the amount of the penalty and assessing the penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR VIOLATIONS-CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES § 579.5 Determining the amount... to child labor or of any regulation issued under that section, will be based on the available... (2) Whether the evidence shows that the person so charged had no previous history of child labor...

  4. 76 FR 67725 - Technical Conference on Penalty Guidelines; Second Notice of Technical Conference on Penalty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... (Commission) issued a Notice of Technical Conference on Penalty Guidelines to be held on November 17, 2011. The conference will be held from 1 p.m. to 4:30 p.m. Eastern Standard Time in the Commission Meeting... at (202) 502-6768, or to David Applebaum by email at David.Applebaum@ferc.gov or by telephone at...

  5. Ozone Climate Penalty and Mortality in a Changing World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakami, A.; Zhao, S.; Pappin, A.; Mesbah, M.

    2013-12-01

    The expected increase in ozone concentrations with temperature is referred to as the climate penalty factor (CPF). Observed ozone trends have resulted in estimations of regional CPFs in the range of 1-3 ppb/K in the Eastern US, and larger values around the globe. We use the adjoint of a regional model (CMAQ) for attributing changes in ozone mortality and attainment metrics to increased temperature levels at each location in North America during the summer of 2007. Unlike previous forward sensitivity analysis studies, we estimate how changes in temperatures at various locations influence such policy-relevant metrics. Our analysis accounts for separate temperature impact pathways through gas-phase chemistry, moisture abundance, and biogenic emissions. We find that water vapor impact, while mostly negative, is positive and large for temperature changes in urban areas. We also find that increased biogenic emissions plays an important role in the overall temperature influence. Our simulations show a wide range of spatial variability in CPFs between -0.4 and 6.2 ppb/K with largest values in urban areas. We also estimate mortality-based CPFs of up to 4 deaths/K for each grid cell, again with large localization in urban areas. This amounts to an estimated 370 deaths/K for the 3-month period of the simulation. We find that this number is almost equivalent to 5% reduction in anthropogenic NOx emissions for each degree increase in temperature. We show how the CPF will change as the result progressive NOx emission controls from various anthropogenic sectors and sources at different locations. Our findings suggest that urban NOx control can be regarded as an adaptation strategy with regards to ozone air quality. Also, the strong temperature dependence in urban environments suggests that the health and attainment burden of urban heat island may be more substantial than previously thought. Spatial distribution of average adjoint-based CPFs Adjoint-based CPF and Mortality CPF

  6. Groundwater subsidies and penalties to corn yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipper, S. C.; Booth, E.; Loheide, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    Proper water management is critical to closing yield gaps (observed yield below potential yield) as global populations continue to expand. However, the impacts of shallow groundwater on crop production and surface processes are poorly understood. The presence of groundwater within or just below the root zone has the potential to cause (via oxygen stress in poorly drained soils) or eliminate (via water supply in dry regions) yield gaps. The additional water use by a plant in the presence of shallow groundwater, compared to free drainage conditions, is called the groundwater subsidy; the depth at which the groundwater subsidy is greatest is the optimal depth to groundwater (DTGW). In wet years or under very shallow water table conditions, the groundwater subsidy is likely to be negative due to increased oxygen stress, and can be thought of as a groundwater penalty. Understanding the spatial dynamics of groundwater subsidies/penalties and how they interact with weather is critical to making sustainable agricultural and land-use decisions under a range of potential climates. Here, we examine patterns of groundwater subsidies and penalties in two commercial cornfields in the Yahara River Watershed, an urbanizing agricultural watershed in south-central Wisconsin. Water table levels are generally rising in the region due to a long-term trend of increasing precipitation over the last several decades. Biophysical indicators tracked throughout both the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons show a strong response to variable groundwater levels on a field scale. Sections of the field with optimal DTGW exhibit consistently higher stomatal conductance rates, taller canopies and higher leaf area index, higher ET rates, and higher pollination success rates. Patterns in these biophysical lines of evidence allow us to pinpoint specific periods within the growing season that plants were experiencing either oxygen or water stress. Most importantly, groundwater subsidies and penalties are

  7. Phase diagrams modified by interfacial penalties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atanacković T.M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The conventional forms of phase diagrams are constructed without consideration of interfacial energies and they represent an impor­tant tool for chemical engineers and metallurgists. If interfacial energies are taken into consideration, it is intuitively obvious that the regions of phase equilibria must become smaller, because there is a penalty on the formation of interfaces. We investigate this phe­nomenon qualitatively for a one-dimensional model, in which the phases occur as layers rather than droplets or bubbles. The modified phase diagrams are shown in Chapters 3 and 4.

  8. Surviving death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerstroem, Anna

    2013-01-01

    such phases. The aim of this paper is to explore how an organization’s identity is re-constructed after organizational death. Based on interviews with members of a bankrupted bank who narrate their bankruptcy experiences, the paper explores how legacy organizational identity is constructed after...... organizational death. The paper shows how members draw on their legacy organizational identity to justify their past interpretations and responses to the intensifying bankruptcy threats. Members refer to their firm belief in the bank’s solid and robust identity claim when they explain how they disregarded...... increasing threats and fought to defend and preserve the organization. When the bank was declared bankrupt and the solid and robust identity claim was disconfirmed, members found comfort and guidance in an identity claim of local care and support. After the bankruptcy, part of the bank was acquired...

  9. Do juvenile Amphiprion ocellaris (Pisces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brolund, Thea Marie; Nielsen, Lis Engdahl; Arvedlund, Michael

    2003-01-01

    . This is contrary to the settling mechanisms of the damselfish D. aruanus and D. reticulatus, and of the temperate herring Clupea harengus. Hence the results emphasize the variation of sensory abilities and behaviours in fish larvae and juveniles. It is not an area prone for generalizations.......Juvenile anemonefish Amphiprion ocellaris were tested in two behavioural laboratory set-ups for their ability to visually or chemically recognize conspecifics. Individuals of two other species of anemonefish, A. clarkii and Dascyllus aruanus, were also used as test specimens for recognition....... The results indicate that juvenile A. ocellaris recognize conspecifics visually rather than by olfaction. This is contrary to their finding mechanism of their host anemone. However, the results also indicate that the juvenile A ocellaris are neither attracted nor deterred by the presence of conspecifics...

  10. Bilateral, independent juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkenborg, Marie-Louise; Frendø, M; Stavngaard, T;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a benign, vascular tumour that primarily occurs in adolescent males. Despite its benign nature, aggressive growth patterns can cause potential life-threatening complications. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is normally unilateral, originating...... from the sphenopalatine artery, but bilateral symptoms can occur if a large tumour extends to the contralateral side of the nasopharynx. This paper presents the first reported case of true bilateral extensive juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma involving clinically challenging pre-surgical planning...... embolisation. Radical removal performed as one-step, computer-assisted functional endoscopic sinus surgery was performed. The follow-up period was uncomplicated. CONCLUSION: This case illustrates the importance of suspecting bilateral juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma in patients presenting with bilateral...

  11. Editor's Shelf: International Juvenile Titles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell-Powell, Brenda

    1994-01-01

    Provides an annotated list of international juvenile picture books and notes those that emphasize text over pictures. The 49 titles present international perspectives for educators, librarians, and parents seeking materials with alternative cultural content. The majority are folk tales. (SLD)

  12. Brain death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijdicks, Eelco F M

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis of brain death should be based on a simple premise. If every possible confounder has been excluded and all possible treatments have been tried or considered, irreversible loss of brain function is clinically recognized as the absence of brainstem reflexes, verified apnea, loss of vascular tone, invariant heart rate, and, eventually, cardiac standstill. This condition cannot be reversed - not even partly - by medical or surgical intervention, and thus is final. Many countries in the world have introduced laws that acknowledge that a patient can be declared brain-dead by neurologic standards. The U.S. law differs substantially from all other brain death legislation in the world because the U.S. law does not spell out details of the neurologic examination. Evidence-based practice guidelines serve as a standard. In this chapter, I discuss the history of development of the criteria, the current clinical examination, and some of the ethical and legal issues that have emerged. Generally, the concept of brain death has been accepted by all major religions. But patients' families may have different ideas and are mostly influenced by cultural attitudes, traditional customs, and personal beliefs. Suggestions are offered to support these families.

  13. Avoidance motivation and choking under pressure in soccer penalty shootouts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jordet, Geir; Hartman, Esther

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between shot valence, avoidance behavior, and performance in soccer penalty shootouts. Video analyses were conducted with all penalty shootouts ever held ill the World Cup, the European Championships. and the UEFA Champions League (n = 36

  14. 19 CFR 111.94 - Decision on monetary penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Decision on monetary penalty. 111.94 Section 111.94 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS BROKERS Monetary Penalty and Payment of Fees § 111.94 Decision on...

  15. 20 CFR 609.11 - Overpayments; penalties for fraud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Overpayments; penalties for fraud. 609.11...; penalties for fraud. (a) False statements and representations. Section 8507(a) of the Act provides that if a... appropriate under § 609.7. (b) Prosecution for fraud. Section 1919 of title 18, United States Code, provides...

  16. Penalties for academic dishonesty in a Greek dental school environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koletsi-Kounari, Haroula; Polychronopoulou, Argy; Reppa, Christina; Teplitsky, Paul E

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the opinions of the faculty and students of the University of Athens Dental School in Greece regarding the appropriate penalty for specific academic offenses. In addition, faculty and student opinions were compared. A questionnaire was distributed to officially registered seniors and full-time faculty members, and 177 individuals responded anonymously and voluntarily. The respondents were asked to select one from a set of nine penalties for each of fifteen hypothetical academic offenses and three cases with extenuating circumstances. Non-parametric Mann-Whitney U tests and a Wilcoxon signed-rank test, depending on the nature of variables, were used to detect significant differences in penalty scores between faculty and students. A p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. The penalty scores for the fifteen offenses ranged from a mean of 2.23±1.55 to 7.25±2.64. Faculty respondents gave more severe penalties than students did for all offenses, and the finding was statistically significant (p<0.05) for eleven of the fifteen offenses. Where extenuating circumstances were added, the penalty selection altered in two of the three cases. A significantly more lenient penalty was selected by both faculty and students in these two cases. The results of this study suggest that faculty members are harsher than students for the same offenses and that extenuating circumstances can sometimes significantly change recommended penalties.

  17. 12 CFR 1250.3 - Civil money penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil money penalties. 1250.3 Section 1250.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ENTERPRISES FLOOD INSURANCE § 1250.3 Civil money... to § 1250.2, the Director of FHFA, or his or her designee, may assess civil money penalties against...

  18. Neural Network Pruning Algorithm with Penalty OBS Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Jiang; WANG Yao-cai; LIU Tao

    2005-01-01

    Aimed at the great computing complexity of optimal brain surgeon (OBS) process, a pruning algorithm with penalty OBS process is presented. Compared with sensitive and regularized methods, the penalty OBS algorithm not only avoids time-consuming defect and low pruning efficiency in OBS process, but also keeps higher generalization and pruning accuracy than Levenberg-Marquardt method.

  19. 77 FR 64431 - Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustment Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... final rule, without opportunity for public notice and comment. The Administrative Procedure Act (APA), 5... entities. Because the Board has determined that notice and comment are not required under the APA for this...: Adjusted Maximum maximum U.S. Code citation Civil monetary penalty description penalty amount...

  20. 7 CFR 781.4 - Assessment of penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assessment of penalties. 781.4 Section 781.4... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS DISCLOSURE OF FOREIGN INVESTMENT IN AGRICULTURAL LAND § 781.4 Assessment of... following penalties: (1) Late-filed reports: One-tenth of one percent of the fair market value,...

  1. 76 FR 62689 - Tax Return Preparer Penalties Under Section 6695

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BK16 Tax Return Preparer Penalties Under Section 6695... regulations related to the tax return preparer penalties under section 6695 of the Internal Revenue Code (Code). These proposed regulations are necessary to monitor and to improve compliance with the tax...

  2. 76 FR 78816 - Tax Return Preparer Penalties Under Section 6695

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BK16 Tax Return Preparer Penalties Under Section 6695... contains final regulations that modify existing regulations related to the tax return preparer penalties... and to improve compliance with the tax return preparer due diligence requirements of section...

  3. Avoidance motivation and choking under pressure in soccer penalty shootouts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jordet, Geir; Hartman, Esther

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between shot valence, avoidance behavior, and performance in soccer penalty shootouts. Video analyses were conducted with all penalty shootouts ever held ill the World Cup, the European Championships. and the UEFA Champions League (n = 36 sh

  4. 42 CFR 493.1834 - Civil money penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil money penalty. 493.1834 Section 493.1834... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Enforcement Procedures § 493.1834 Civil money... Secretary to impose civil money penalties on laboratories. Section 1846(b)(3) of the Act...

  5. 78 FR 60726 - Hazardous Materials Regulations: Penalty Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... and the types of information or documentation that respondents in enforcement cases can provide to... based on civil penalties that have been applied in past enforcement cases and by analogy to baselines... setting a civil penalty in a case. We are including this and similar factors to help demonstrate the types...

  6. 50 CFR 600.1017 - Prohibitions and penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... subpart; (14) Make false statements to NMFS, any of the NMFS' employees, or any of NMFS' agents about any... subject to the full range of penalties the Magnuson-Stevens Act and 15 CFR part 904 provide—including, but not limited to: civil penalties, sanctions, forfeitures, and punishment for criminal offenses—and...

  7. 31 CFR 129.6 - Penalties specified by law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Penalties specified by law. 129.6 Section 129.6 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance PORTFOLIO INVESTMENT SURVEY REPORTING § 129.6 Penalties specified by law. Reporters are advised that the Act provides...

  8. 31 CFR 91.14 - Penalties and other law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Penalties and other law. 91.14... CONDUCT IN OR ON THE BUREAU OF THE MINT BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 91.14 Penalties and other law. Whoever...). Nothing contained in the regulations in this part shall be construed to abrogate any other Federal laws...

  9. 5 CFR 179.214 - Interest, penalties and administrative costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest, penalties and administrative costs. 179.214 Section 179.214 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS CLAIMS COLLECTION STANDARDS Salary Offset § 179.214 Interest, penalties and administrative...

  10. Ephemeral penalty functions for contact-impact dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Fuente, Horacio M.; Felippa, Carlos A.

    1991-01-01

    The use of penalty functions to treat a class of structural contact-impact problems is investigated, with emphasis on ones in which the impact phenomena are primarily nondestructive in nature and in which only the gross characterization of the response is required. The dynamic equations of motion are integrated by the difference method. The penalty is represented as an ephemeral fictitious nonlinear spring that is inserted on anticipation of contact. The magnitude and variation of the penalty force is determined through energy balancing considerations. The 'bell shape' of the penalty force function for positive gap was found to be satisfactory, as it depends on only two parameters that can be directly assigned the physical meaning of force and distance. The determination of force law parameters by energy balance worked well. The incorporation of restitution coefficients by the area balancing method yielded excellent results, and no substantial modifications are anticipated. Extensional penalty springs are obviously sufficient for the simple examples treated.

  11. Does Specialization Explain Marriage Penalties and Premiums?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killewald, Alexandra; Gough, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Married men’s wage premium is often attributed to within-household specialization: men can devote more effort to wage-earning when their wives assume responsibility for household labor. We provide a comprehensive evaluation of the specialization hypothesis, arguing that, if specialization causes the male marriage premium, married women should experience wage losses. Furthermore, specialization by married parents should augment the motherhood penalty and the fatherhood premium for married as compared to unmarried parents. Using fixed-effects models and data from the NLSY79, we estimate within-gender differences in wages according to marital status and between-gender differences in the associations between marital status and wages. We then test whether specialization on time use, job traits, and tenure accounts for the observed associations. Results for women do not support the specialization hypothesis. Childless men and women both receive a marriage premium. Marriage augments the fatherhood premium but not the motherhood penalty. Changes in own and spousal employment hours, job traits, and tenure appear to benefit both married men and women, although men benefit more. Marriage changes men’s labor market behavior in ways that augment wages, but these changes do not appear to occur at the expense of women’s wages. PMID:24039271

  12. JUVENILE RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I N Sartika

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA is the most common rheumatic condition in children. JRA is defined as persistent arthritis in 1 or more joints for at least 6 weeks, with the onset before age 16 years. The etiology of JRA is unknown. Antigen activated CD4+ T cell stimulate monocytes, macrophages, and synovial fibroblasts to produce the cytokines Interleukin-1 (IL-1, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-? and to secrete matrix metalloproteinases, which lead to chronic inflammation due to infiltration of inflammatory cell, angiogenesis, destruction of cartilage and bone with pannus formation. The 3 major subtypes of JRA are based on the symptoms at disease onset and are designated systemic onset, pauciarticular onset, and polyarticular onset. For all patients, the goals of therapy are to decrease chronic joint pain and suppress the inflammatory process. Poor prognostic have been observed in patients with polyarticular onset, rheumatoid factor, persistent morning stiffness, tenosynovitis, involvement of the small joints, rapid appearance of erosions, active late onset childhood, subcutaneous nodules, or antinuclear antibody.

  13. Births and deaths including fetal deaths

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Access to a variety of United States birth and death files including fetal deaths: Birth Files, 1968-2009; 1995-2005; Fetal death file, 1982-2005; Mortality files,...

  14. Juveniles tried as adults: the age of the juvenile matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Jaclyn K; Woody, William Douglas

    2011-08-01

    Serious juvenile crimes require evaluation of a child as a criminal defendant in adult court. In such cases, it is crucial to understand jurors' attitudes, biases, and ability to follow legal instructions and maintain fairness. 308 undergraduate psychology students served as mock jurors, were randomly separated into four groups, and each group read the same realistic summary of a trial with the defendant's age presented as 13, 15, 17, or 21 years. Participants were asked to render guilty or not guilty verdicts and, if guilty, to suggest sentences. Chi-squared analysis indicated 13- and 15-year-old defendants were convicted less often than 17- and 21-year-old defendants, showing that jurors distinguished between juvenile defendants of different ages, but not minors and adults as defined by law. Additional analysis showed that age did not affect sentencing recommendations. Decision processes jurors use for juveniles tried as adults are discussed.

  15. 45 CFR 160.404 - Amount of a civil money penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amount of a civil money penalty. 160.404 Section... RELATED REQUIREMENTS GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Imposition of Civil Money Penalties § 160.404 Amount of a civil money penalty. (a) The amount of a civil money penalty will be determined in...

  16. The Heterogeneity of Juvenile Myositis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rider, Lisa G.

    2007-01-01

    Juvenile myositis is a heterogeneous group of systemic autoimmune diseases, in which clinical and serologic subgroups result in subsets of patients with distinct clinical manifestations, disease courses, immunogenetic associations, responses to therapy, and prognoses. A newly identified autoantibody of unknown specificity, anti-p155, is myositis-associated and seen in up to 20 – 30% of juvenile and adult DM patients. HLA DRB1*0301 and its linked allele DQA1*0501 have been identified as the major immunogenetic risk factor for juvenile and adult DM in both European- and African- American patients, and DQA1*0301 is an additional risk factor in European American patients. Several DQA1 alleles also are protective for juvenile DM. Environmental risk factors are poorly understood, but growing evidence suggests a role for infectious agents and ultraviolet radiation. The current therapy of juvenile DM consists of corticosteroids and other immunosuppressive agents, with the adjunctive treatment of cutaneous manifestations and rehabilitation. Therapeutic trials of biologic agents, including anti-TNFα and anti-CD20, may aid in developing promising new therapies for these disorders. PMID:17317616

  17. Gastrointestinal Polyposis Syndromes : Clinical and molecular aspects of Familial Adenomatous Polyposis and Juvenile Polyposis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brosens, L.A.A.

    2008-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is an important cause death. In the Netherlands, approximately 10.000 patients are diagnosed with CRC each year. Rare hereditary gastrointestinal polyposis syndromes predisposing to CRC, including familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), juvenile polyposis (JPS) and Peutz-Jegher

  18. Invariant death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    In nematodes, environmental or physiological perturbations alter death’s scaling of time. In human cancer, genetic perturbations alter death’s curvature of time. Those changes in scale and curvature follow the constraining contours of death’s invariant geometry. I show that the constraints arise from a fundamental extension to the theories of randomness, invariance and scale. A generalized Gompertz law follows. The constraints imposed by the invariant Gompertz geometry explain the tendency of perturbations to stretch or bend death’s scaling of time. Variability in death rate arises from a combination of constraining universal laws and particular biological processes.

  19. Learning Undirected Graphical Models with Structure Penalty

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, Shilin

    2011-01-01

    In undirected graphical models, learning the graph structure and learning the functions that relate the predictive variables (features) to the responses given the structure are two topics that have been widely investigated in machine learning and statistics. Learning graphical models in two stages will have problems because graph structure may change after considering the features. The main contribution of this paper is the proposed method that learns the graph structure and functions on the graph at the same time. General graphical models with binary outcomes conditioned on predictive variables are proved to be equivalent to multivariate Bernoulli model. The reparameterization of the potential functions in graphical model by conditional log odds ratios in multivariate Bernoulli model offers advantage in the representation of the conditional independence structure in the model. Additionally, we impose a structure penalty on groups of conditional log odds ratios to learn the graph structure. These groups of fu...

  20. Robust penalty method for structural synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamat, M. P.

    1983-01-01

    The Sequential Unconstrained Minimization Technique (SUMT) offers an easy way of solving nonlinearly constrained problems. However, this algorithm frequently suffers from the need to minimize an ill-conditioned penalty function. An ill-conditioned minimization problem can be solved very effectively by posing the problem as one of integrating a system of stiff differential equations utilizing concepts from singular perturbation theory. This paper evaluates the robustness and the reliability of such a singular perturbation based SUMT algorithm on two different problems of structural optimization of widely separated scales. The report concludes that whereas conventional SUMT can be bogged down by frequent ill-conditioning, especially in large scale problems, the singular perturbation SUMT has no such difficulty in converging to very accurate solutions.

  1. Juvenile Correctional Institutions Library Services: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlister, Annette M.

    This bibliography lists citations for 14 articles, books, and reports concerned with library services in juvenile correctional institutions. A second section lists 21 additional materials on adult correctional libraries which also contain information relevant to the juvenile library. (KP)

  2. Fatal elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus-1 and -4 co-infection in a juvenile Asian elephant in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seilern-Moy, Katharina; Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Leifsson, Páll S.;

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus-1 (EEHV-1) is one of the major causes of fatality in juvenile Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). On occasions, other EEHV genotypes, i.e. EEHV-3, -4 and -5, have also been reported as the cause of Asian elephant deaths. In this case report we...... describe the investigation into a juvenile Asian elephant fatality in a European zoo. Case Presentation: A fatal case of haemorrhagic disease in a juvenile Asian elephant from a European zoo was diagnosed with co-infection of EEHV-1 and -4. EEHV-4 had a wider organ distribution and a higher viral load...

  3. Ideology, Social Threat, and the Death Sentence: Capital Sentences across Time and Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, David; Carmichael, Jason T.

    2004-01-01

    Capital punishment is the most severe criminal penalty, yet we know little about the factors that produce jurisdictional differences in the use of the death sentence. Political explanations emphasize conservative values and the strength of more conservative political parties. Threat accounts suggest that this sentence will be more likely in…

  4. Juvenile technologies in foreign publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shpagina E.M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article provides the review of foreign publications, concerning the juvenile technologies used in France, Canada, Germany and Switzerland. The paper presents legal, social and psychotherapeutic aspects of juvenile judiciary in foreign countries. The authors paid special attention to the complexity of approaches to young children and teenagers who found themselves in complicated life circumstances or got into trouble with the law. The article gives examples of using the following techniques: cognitive-behavioral intervention, mediation, family therapy (including family background and family history, relations theory, narrative practices, utilization of «emotional intelligence» resources.

  5. Evolution of Juvenile Ankylosing Spondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye.V. Prohorov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Evolution of juvenile ankylosing spondylitis tend to follow a more frequent involvement in the pathological process of elbow and ankle joints, development of enthesiopathies, changes of intraarticular meniscal horns, forming of Baker’s cysts, cartilage flaps and systemic osteoporosis, and total value of all these signs 13 times exceeds thereof in patients with with the debut of disease in adulthood, but for juvenile ankylosing spondylitis vertebral lesion is less common. Age dimorphism of the use of certain groups of drugs and physiotherapy facilities is observed.

  6. On the Prevention of Juvenile Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelekov, V. A.; Kosheleva, E. V.

    2008-01-01

    Crimes committed by juveniles are among the most urgent social problems. Juvenile crime is as prevalent as crime itself is, and it has not been solved completely in any society and cannot be solved through law enforcement measures alone. In this article, the authors discuss the dynamics and structure of juvenile crime in Russia and present data…

  7. School-Related Characteristics of Male Juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapp, Gary L.; Abbott, Gypsy A.

    School-related characteristics of 256 male juveniles under the jurisdiction of a Family Court system were examined by perusing court records and conducting individual interviews with the juveniles. Results indicated that most juveniles last attended eighth grade, more than 81% had failed at least once, and more than half had fought frequently at…

  8. Intensive Reading Instruction in Juvenile Correctional Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jacob L.; Wexler, Jade; Roberts, Greg; Carpenter, Clint

    2011-01-01

    Despite 60 years of evidence linking juvenile illiteracy and delinquency, practitioners and policymakers have been painfully slow in the implementation of evidence-based reading interventions for incarcerated juveniles. We will present the Texas Juvenile Justice Tiered Instructional Model, an evidence-based reading program model created…

  9. Sex Differences in Attributions of Juvenile Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagatun, Inger J.

    This paper is an application of attribution theory to the processing of juvenile delinquents in an attempt to understand the differential treatment of female and male offenders within the juvenile justice system. The paper explores the attributions of juvenile delinquency both by male and female minors, by male and female parents, and by male and…

  10. Do Juveniles Bully More than Young Offenders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Jane L.

    2002-01-01

    Study compares bullying behavior among juvenile and young offenders. Ninety-five male juvenile and 196 male young offenders completed two questionnaires, measuring bullying directly and behaviors indicative of "being bullied" or of "bullying others". Juveniles perceived a higher extent of bullying and reported significantly…

  11. The Juvenile Court: Changes and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feld, Barry C.

    2000-01-01

    Explores the changes in the juvenile court system, in particular, the juvenile waiver and sentencing laws, as it transformed from a social welfare agency into a type of criminal court system for young offenders. Addresses whether states should create an integrated juvenile and criminal justice system. (CMK)

  12. Reforming Our Expectations about Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Pamela F.; Baille, Daphne M.

    2010-01-01

    Typing the term "juvenile justice reform" into a Google[TM] search will result in 60 pages of entries. But what is meant by juvenile justice reform? What does it look like? How will one know when it is achieved? This article defines juvenile justice reform, discusses the principles of effective reform, and describes the practice of juvenile…

  13. Mobilizing Communities To Prevent Juvenile Crime. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bownes, Donna; Ingersoll, Sarah

    Through Title V Incentive Grants for Local Delinquency Prevention Programs (Community Prevention Grants), the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) allocated $20 million in fiscal year 1997 to states to complement law enforcement and justice system efforts by helping local communities foster strong families and nurture…

  14. OFFENCES AND PENALTIES IN THE INTERNAL AUDIT ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Iuliana DUMITRU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to present the offences and penalties that can be instituted as a result of actions performed by the internal audit. On the other hand, we sought to highlight the mechanisms used for the ascertainment of offences and the establishment of the corresponding penalties. For this purpose, we started from the basic concepts related to the offence and penalty problems in the internal audit missions and we continued with their application at practical level in the accomplishment of an actual audit mission. We also tried to highlight the role and place of the offence and of the penalty respectively in the process of exercising the internal audit activity, and also the finality at the level of entities and persons responsible for the improper exercise of the designated actions.

  15. 30 CFR 724.18 - Payment of penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... agreement. Where the Office and the corporate permittee or individual have agreed in writing on a plan for... of payment. Failure to pay overdue penalties may result in one or more of the actions specified in...

  16. Use of reward-penalty structures in human experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, A. C.; Allen, R. W.; Schwartz, S. H.

    1978-01-01

    The use of motivational techniques in human performance research is reviewed and an example study employing a reward-penalty structure to simulate the motivations inherent in a real-world situation is presented. Driver behavior in a decision-making driving scenario was studied. The task involved control of an instrumented car on a cooperative test course. Subjects were penalized monetarily for tickets and accidents and rewarded for saving driving time. Two groups were assigned different ticket penalties. The group with the highest penalties tended to drive more conservatively. However, the average total payoff to each group was the same, as the conservative drivers traded off slower driving times with lower ticket penalties.

  17. Non-clairvoyant weighted flow time scheduling with rejection penalty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Ho-Leung; Chan, Sze-Hang; Lam, Tak-Wah

    2012-01-01

    is defined as the weighted flow time of the job plus the penalty if it is rejected before completion. Previous work on minimizing the total user cost focused on the clairvoyant single-processor setting [BBC+03,CLL11] and has produced O(1)-competitive online algorithm for jobs with arbitrary weights...... algorithm has to decide job rejection and determine the order and speed of job execution. It is interesting to study the tradeoff between the above-mentioned user cost and energy. This paper gives two O(1)-competitive non-clairvoyant algorithms for minimizing the user cost plus energy on a single processor......This paper initiates the study of online scheduling with rejection penalty in the non-clairvoyant setting, i.e., the size (processing time) of a job is not assumed to be known at its release time. In the rejection penalty model, jobs can be rejected with a penalty, and the user cost of a job...

  18. 33 CFR 151.04 - Penalties for violation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... BALLAST WATER Implementation of MARPOL 73/78 and the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty as it Pertains to Pollution from Ships General § 151.04 Penalties for violation. (a) A person...

  19. Dispersion penalty analysis for VSR-1 optical links

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Jiu-chun; CHEN Hong-da; CHEN Xiong-bin; ZHOU Yi

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to calculate dispersion penalty for VSR-1 optical links.Based on parameters of a specific VSR-1 link,dispersion penalties are computed for various modal dispersion bandwidths respectively.The worst-case eye closure is expressed numerically by using the signal waveform at time 0,and the signal waveform is obtained in frequency domain through FFT algorithm.By this approach,the dispersion penalty is determined by the shape of transfer functions of the various components in the links.To simplify the derivation of multimode fiber link transfer function,a Gaussian form of normalized impulse response is used.This calculation approach can be used to estimate the worst-case dispersion penalty of VSR-1 links in the link budget analysis.

  20. 78 FR 49370 - Inflation Adjustment of Maximum Forfeiture Penalties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    ... Job Creation Act of 2012, 72 FR 71131, 71134 (November 29, 2012). Accordingly, the only penalties... Records & 9,600/day. Accounts. Sec. 223(b) Dial-a-Porn 80,000/day. ] Sec. 227(e) 10,000/violation....

  1. Nearly unbiased variable selection under minimax concave penalty

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Cun-Hui

    2010-01-01

    We propose MC+, a fast, continuous, nearly unbiased and accurate method of penalized variable selection in high-dimensional linear regression. The LASSO is fast and continuous, but biased. The bias of the LASSO may prevent consistent variable selection. Subset selection is unbiased but computationally costly. The MC+ has two elements: a minimax concave penalty (MCP) and a penalized linear unbiased selection (PLUS) algorithm. The MCP provides the convexity of the penalized loss in sparse regions to the greatest extent given certain thresholds for variable selection and unbiasedness. The PLUS computes multiple exact local minimizers of a possibly nonconvex penalized loss function in a certain main branch of the graph of critical points of the penalized loss. Its output is a continuous piecewise linear path encompassing from the origin for infinite penalty to a least squares solution for zero penalty. We prove that at a universal penalty level, the MC+ has high probability of matching the signs of the unknowns, ...

  2. Minimizing Lifetime Poverty with a Penalty for Bankruptcy

    OpenAIRE

    Asaf Cohen; Young, Virginia R.

    2015-01-01

    We provide investment advice for an individual who wishes to minimize her lifetime poverty, with a penalty for bankruptcy or ruin. We measure poverty via a non-negative, non-increasing function of (running) wealth. Thus, the lower wealth falls and the longer wealth stays low, the greater the penalty. This paper generalizes the problems of minimizing the probability of lifetime ruin and minimizing expected lifetime occupation, with the poverty function serving as a bridge between the two. To i...

  3. Ethics committee laws, penalty comparison across globe: a mandatory thought before accreditation process in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuti Raibagkar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To have a better quality of life and to fight with the diseases evolved the concept of clinical trials. A test of any new or existing drug on human being through different phases to check the efficacy and safety of the molecule is clinical trial. To cope up with the defects in drug system, India introduced Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940 and Drugs and Cosmetics Rules in 1945. Objective: To compare and contrast the different GCP guidelines and law suits, penalties, worldwide. We reviewed different internet databases and resources to find out the various penalties. The death occurring during clinical trials shook the pillars of credibility of clinical trials and led the government to make some regulatory provisions. The outcome is that now the ethics committee has to be accredited by a competent authority. This step led many problems for upcoming as well as the existing ethics committee and trial sites. The objective of the review article is to know the roles and responsibilities of different players of clinical trials i.e. the investigator, the sponsor and the ethics committee and to know the laws governing their responsibilities and the penalties affiliated to it. Since now the clinical trials in India are becoming more and more stricter there is a dire need to make aware the ethics committee members, sponsor and the investigator of their rights and duties towards one another and towards the patient/subject, so the tragedies in the clinical trials can be minimized. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(9.000: 2527-2537

  4. Juvenile Justice and Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassin, Laurie

    2008-01-01

    Laurie Chassin focuses on the elevated prevalence of substance use disorders among young offenders in the juvenile justice system and on efforts by the justice system to provide treatment for these disorders. She emphasizes the importance of diagnosing and treating these disorders, which are linked both with continued offending and with a broad…

  5. Genetics in juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, Heleen Marion

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a non-common disease in children that can persist into adulthood. JIA is considered to be an auto-immune disease. Genetic factors play a role in the pathogenesis. In a new cohort of JIA patients from North-West European descent genetic candidate gene associatio

  6. Juvenile Courts. Creation and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat GONZÁLEZ FERNÁNDEZ

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the creation of Juvenile or Children's Courts in Spain, analysing their reasons and aims, as well as the ethical and political connotations present on their way of acting. Their history and the one of the institutions that complement them is built from the legislation, writings and ideas of their promoters.

  7. Juvenile Diabetes and Rehabilitation Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, J. Blair; Gregg, Charles H.

    1981-01-01

    Severe complications of diabetes are more likely to occur with the juvenile diabetic and problems of psychosocial adjustment are recurring and difficult. Implications for the rehabilitation counselor are discussed in terms of employment considerations, the effects of complications, genetic counseling, and cooperation with other professionals.…

  8. Case Report: Juvenile Tophaceous Gout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyma Gunes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gout is a metabolic disease that manifests as recurrent arthritis. Its incidance increases with age. Clinical findings include recurrent acute arthritis, tophus at joints and tissues, uricacid stones and gouty nephropathy. Tophi is a late period complication of arthritis. In this casereport we presented  a patient with early-onset juvenile tophaceous gout.

  9. Do juvenile Amphiprion ocellaris (Pisces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brolund, Thea Marie; Nielsen, Lis Engdahl; Arvedlund, Michael

    2003-01-01

    . This is contrary to the settling mechanisms of the damselfish D. aruanus and D. reticulatus, and of the temperate herring Clupea harengus. Hence the results emphasize the variation of sensory abilities and behaviours in fish larvae and juveniles. It is not an area prone for generalizations....

  10. [Sex-linked juvenile retinoschisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, P; Turut, P; Soltysik, C; Hache, J C

    1976-02-01

    About 13 observations of sexe linked juvenile retinoschisis, the authors describe the ophthalmoscopic, fluorographic and functional aspects of the disease whose caracteristics are:--its sexe linked recessive heredity; --its clinical characterestics associating: a microcystic macular degeneration, peripheral retinal lesions, vitreous body alterations, --an electroretinogram of the negative type.

  11. Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice. Panel on Juvenile Crime: Prevention, Treatment, and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCord, Joan, Ed.; Widom, Cathy Spatz, Ed.; Crowell, Nancy A., Ed.

    This book discusses patterns and trends in crimes committed by children and adolescents, analyzing youth crime as a subset of general crime and studying the impact of race and gender. It evaluates different approaches to forecasting future crime rates. Data come from a national panel that examined what is known about juvenile crime and its…

  12. Results of surgical treatment for juvenile myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Roque, F J; Hernández-Oliver, M O; Medrano Plana, Y; Castillo Vitlloch, A; Fuentes Herrera, L; Rivero-Valerón, D

    2017-04-01

    Radical or extended thymectomy is an effective treatment for myasthenia gravis in the adult population. There are few reports to demonstrate the effectiveness of this treatment in patients with juvenile myasthenia gravis. The main objective of this study was to show that extended transsternal thymectomy is a valid option for treating this disease in paediatric patients. Twenty-three patients with juvenile myasthenia gravis underwent this surgical treatment in the period between April 2003 and April 2014; mean age was 12.13 years and the sample was predominantly female. The main indication for surgery, in 22 patients, was the generalised form of the disease (Osserman stage II) together with no response to 6 months of medical treatment. The histological diagnosis was thymic hyperplasia in 22 patients and thymoma in one patient. There were no deaths and no major complications in the postoperative period. After a mean follow-up period of 58.87 months, 22 patients are taking no medication or need less medication to manage myasthenic symptoms. Extended (radical) transsternal thymectomy is a safe and effective surgical treatment for juvenile myasthenia gravis. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. A Practical Approach to Juvenile Dermatomyositis and Juvenile Scleroderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Liza J; Pain, Clare E

    2016-02-01

    Juvenile dermatomyositis and juvenile scleroderma are rare multisystem autoimmune disorders. Although they share some pathognomonic hallmarks with adult onset myositis or scleroderma, there are significant differences in presentation, characteristics and associated features when the diseases present in childhood. In view of this, and the rarity of the conditions, it is important for care to be led by teams with expertise in pediatric rheumatology conditions. Prognosis has improved significantly in the West; likely due to early diagnosis and aggressive treatment with immunosuppressive medications. However, this trend is not replicated in the developing world. Early recognition of these diseases is crucial to achieve rapid and sustained remission and prevent disease or medication associated complications. This article aims to provide a practical overview for recognition, diagnosis and treatment of these conditions.

  14. Analysis of the Redemption Penalty System in Central Plains and Minority Regions of Ancient%古代中原地区与少数民族地区的赎刑制度探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘蕊

    2016-01-01

    赎刑是中国古代独特的法律制度,中原地区的赎刑制度在秦及汉初具有替代刑和独立刑种的双重属性,唐代以后赎刑发展成为刑罚适用的一般原则。罚金刑在中国古代法律中多处于与赎刑合而为一的并存状态。以藏区“赔命价”制度为代表的少数民族地区的赎刑制度,在古代以成文法的形式出现,在现代则表现出明显的和解性质。赎刑制度中的价值理念和合理规则,对于我国刑罚替代措施和死刑的司法控制等方面仍有借鉴意义。%The redemption penalty is a unique legal system in ancient China. The redemption system in central plains has dual attributes of either an alternative penalty or an independent penalty during the Qin and the early Han Dynasty,which has developed into a general application rule of penalty since the Tang Dynasty. According to laws in ancient China,the fines penalty is usually combined to be applied with the redemption penalty. The redemption penalty in minority regions can be well represented by the fines penalty of“compensation for life”applied in the Tibetan area,which was regulated as statutes in ancient times but indicates obvious nature of victim-offender reconciliation in modern times. The value and reasonable rules in the redemption system should be well learned and understood so as to improve the alternative penalty measures and the ludicial control of death penalty in the present penalty system.

  15. 8 CFR 236.3 - Detention and release of juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Detention and release of juveniles. 236.3... Aliens Prior to Order of Removal § 236.3 Detention and release of juveniles. (a) Juveniles. A juvenile is defined as an alien under the age of 18 years. (b) Release. Juveniles for whom bond has been posted,...

  16. Death: 'nothing' gives insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettema, Eric J

    2013-08-01

    According to a widely accepted belief, we cannot know our own death--death means 'nothing' to us. At first sight, the meaning of 'nothing' just implies the negation or absence of 'something'. Death then simply refers to the negation or absence of life. As a consequence, however, death has no meaning of itself. This leads to an ontological paradox in which death is both acknowledged and denied: death is … nothing. In this article, I investigate whether insight into the ontological paradox of the nothingness of death can contribute to a good end-of-life. By analysing Aquinas', Heidegger's and Derrida's understanding of death as nothingness, I explore how giving meaning to death on different ontological levels connects to, and at the same time provides resistance against, the harsh reality of death. By doing so, I intend to demonstrate that insight into the nothingness of death can count as a framework for a meaningful dealing with death.

  17. Uveitis in juvenile chronic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanski, J J

    1990-01-01

    About 20% of patients with juvenile chronic arthritis develop uveitis which is frequently bilateral. Risk factors for uveitis are: female gender, pauciarticular onset of arthritis, presence of circulating antinuclear antibodies, and the antigens HLA-DW5 and HLA-DPw2. The visual prognosis in patients with uveitis is good in 25% and fair in 50%. The remaining 25% develop cataract and/or glaucoma. The management of glaucoma is unsatisfactory, but the results of cataract surgery by lensectomy are good.

  18. Juvenile morphology in baleen whale phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Hsiu; Fordyce, R Ewan

    2014-09-01

    Phylogenetic reconstructions are sensitive to the influence of ontogeny on morphology. Here, we use foetal/neonatal specimens of known species of living baleen whales (Cetacea: Mysticeti) to show how juvenile morphology of extant species affects phylogenetic placement of the species. In one clade (sei whale, Balaenopteridae), the juvenile is distant from the usual phylogenetic position of adults, but in the other clade (pygmy right whale, Cetotheriidae), the juvenile is close to the adult. Different heterochronic processes at work in the studied species have different influences on juvenile morphology and on phylogenetic placement. This study helps to understand the relationship between evolutionary processes and phylogenetic patterns in baleen whale evolution and, more in general, between phylogeny and ontogeny; likewise, this study provides a proxy how to interpret the phylogeny when fossils that are immature individuals are included. Juvenile individuals in the peramorphic acceleration clades would produce misleading phylogenies, whereas juvenile individuals in the paedomorphic neoteny clades should still provide reliable phylogenetic signals.

  19. Juvenile morphology in baleen whale phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Hsiu; Fordyce, R. Ewan

    2014-09-01

    Phylogenetic reconstructions are sensitive to the influence of ontogeny on morphology. Here, we use foetal/neonatal specimens of known species of living baleen whales (Cetacea: Mysticeti) to show how juvenile morphology of extant species affects phylogenetic placement of the species. In one clade (sei whale, Balaenopteridae), the juvenile is distant from the usual phylogenetic position of adults, but in the other clade (pygmy right whale, Cetotheriidae), the juvenile is close to the adult. Different heterochronic processes at work in the studied species have different influences on juvenile morphology and on phylogenetic placement. This study helps to understand the relationship between evolutionary processes and phylogenetic patterns in baleen whale evolution and, more in general, between phylogeny and ontogeny; likewise, this study provides a proxy how to interpret the phylogeny when fossils that are immature individuals are included. Juvenile individuals in the peramorphic acceleration clades would produce misleading phylogenies, whereas juvenile individuals in the paedomorphic neoteny clades should still provide reliable phylogenetic signals.

  20. Studies on rickettsia-like organism(RLO)disease of tropical marine pearl oyster--Epidemiologicai investigation of RLO disease in juvenile populations of maricultured Pinctada maxima

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinzhong Wu; Dengfeng Li; Jinpei Pan; Jingbo Jiang

    2003-01-01

    The death which occurred in juvenile population was a severe problem in the course ofPinctada maxima artificial culture. With the methods of field investigation, histological study andstatistic analyses, the epidemiological study was carried out on the disease and death in juvenile popula-tions of Pinctada maxima in the Xinying Pearl Oyster Mariculture Farm of Lingao County (for the A,B and C batches of cultured juveniles hanged in the sea) and the Xincun Pearl Oyster Mariculture Farmof Lingshui County (for the D batch of cultured juvenile hanged in the pond), Hainan Province fromNovember 1993 to April 1995. The results show that the deaths which occurred in juvenile populations of Pinctada maxima pre-sented an outbreak pattern. The peak of mortality rates, in general, occurred in 4-to 6-month old pearloyster juveniles, and the mortality rates gradully declined with the extention of pearl oyster age after cul-turing 8 months. The correlation between the mortality rates of juvenile populations and mean bodylengths of juvenile populations show that the mortality rate become higher under 4 cm of mean bodylengths of juvenile population and become obvious declined over 5 cm of mean body lengths. The peak ofmortality rate occurred in 1 ~3 cm of mean body lengths. The results of histological observation showedthat rickettsia-like organism inclusions were common, histological widespread infective agent among ev-ery batches (A, B, C and D) of cultured juvenile populations. The mean severity indices (SI) of rick-ettsia-like organism (RLO) infection were positively correlated with mortality rates of juvenile popula-tions. After or within every peaks of RLO infection were all accompanied with the peaks of mortalityrates of host populations and the mortality rates declined with decreased RLO infection. So the evidencesof histological observation and epidemiology in this study indicated that rickettsia-like organism (RLO)may be as an important pathogenic organism of disease

  1. Juvenile psammomatoid ossifying fibroma. Case report

    OpenAIRE

    Vahtsevanos, Konstantinos; Persephone XIROU; Giorgos BALLIS; Tsekos, Antonis; Ntomouchtsis, Aris; Alexandros VALASIDIS; Doxa MAGGOUDI

    2012-01-01

    Ossifying fibroma (OS) represents a slow growing, benign neoplasm that belongs to the greater group of fibro-osseous lesions. Based on its histological features, ossifying fibroma is divided into: a) juvenile trabecular OS and b) juvenile psammomatoid OS which affects mainly the paranasal sinuses of children and teenagers aging from 5 to 15 years.A rare case of juvenile psammomatoid ossifying fibroma in a 30 year old male patient located in the left mandibular ramus is presented. Treatment pl...

  2. 26 CFR 55.6694-2 - Penalties for understatement due to an unreasonable position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... REGULATED INVESTMENT COMPANIES Procedure and Administration § 55.6694-2 Penalties for understatement due to... be subject to penalties under section 6694(a) of the Code in the manner stated in § 1.6694-2 of...

  3. 26 CFR 55.6694-3 - Penalty for understatement due to willful, reckless, or intentional conduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... INVESTMENT TRUSTS AND REGULATED INVESTMENT COMPANIES Procedure and Administration § 55.6694-3 Penalty for... Code (Code) shall be subject to penalties under section 6694(b) of the Code in the manner stated in §...

  4. Rehabilitation or the death penalty: autoimmune B cells in the dock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahal, Lekh N; Cragg, Mark S

    2015-03-01

    CD20-based monoclonal antibodies have become established as treatments for lymphoma, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, vasculitis and dermatomyositis, with the principle therapeutic mechanism relating to B-cell depletion through effector cell engagement. An article by Brühl et al. in this issue of the European Journal of Immunology [Eur. J. Immunol. 2015. 45: 705-715] reveals a fundamentally distinct mechanism of silencing autoimmune B-cell responses. Rather than B-cell depletion, the authors use anti-CD79b antibodies to induce B-cell tolerance and suppress humoral immune responses against collagen to prevent the development of arthritis in mice. Here we highlight the differences in the mechanisms used by anti-CD20 and anti-CD79b Ab therapy and discuss why depletion of B cells may not be required to treat autoimmune arthritis and other B-cell-associated pathologies.

  5. Between the death penalty and decriminalization : new directions for drug control in the Commonwealth Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Klein

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Traces the changes in public attitudes toward and political stances on drug control in the British Caribbean between 1980 and 2000. Author first discusses the origins of drug control, the role of US pressure, and the vulnerability of the Caribbean. He then looks at European involvement and the different plans and policies to control drugs in the region. Finally, he describes the consequences of these policy approaches on the justice system and legal reform, drug demand, and social structures in the region.

  6. Standard of Practice and Flynn Effect Testimony in Death Penalty Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresham, Frank M.; Reschly, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    The Flynn Effect is a well-established psychometric fact documenting substantial increases in measured intelligence test performance over time. Flynn's (1984) review of the literature established that Americans gain approximately 0.3 points per year or 3 points per decade in measured intelligence. The accurate assessment and interpretation of…

  7. The lethal injection quandary: how medicine has dismantled the death penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denno, Deborah W

    2007-10-01

    On February 20, 2006, Michael Morales was hours away from execution in California when two anesthesiologists declined to participate in his lethal injection procedure, thereby halting all state executions. The events brought to the surface the long-running schism between law and medicine, raising the question of whether any beneficial connection between the professions ever existed in the execution context. History shows it seldom did. Decades of botched executions prove it. This Article examines how states ended up with such constitutionally vulnerable lethal injection procedures, suggesting that physician participation in executions, though looked upon with disdain, is more prevalent--and perhaps more necessary--than many would like to believe. The Article also reports the results of this author's unique nationwide study of lethal injection protocols and medical participation. The study demonstrates that states have continued to produce grossly inadequate protocols that severely restrict sufficient understanding of how executions are performed and heighten the likelihood of unconstitutionality. The analysis emphasizes in particular the utter lack of medical or scientific testing of lethal injection despite the early and continuous involvement of doctors but ongoing detachment of medical societies. Lastly, the Article discusses the legal developments that led up to the current rush of lethal injection lawsuits as well as the strong and rapid reverberations that followed, particularly with respect to medical involvement. This Article concludes with two recommendations. First, much like what occurred in this country when the first state switched to electrocution, there should be a nationwide study of proper lethal injection protocols. An independent commission consisting of a diverse group of qualified individuals, including medical personnel, should conduct a thorough assessment of lethal injection, especially the extent of physician participation. Second, this Article recommends that states take their execution procedures out of hiding. Such visibility would increase public scrutiny, thereby enhancing the likelihood of constitutional executions. By clarifying the standards used for determining what is constitutional in Baze v. Rees, the U.S. Supreme Court can then provide the kind of Eighth Amendment guidance states need to conduct humane lethal injections.

  8. Shifting Diagnostic Systems for Defining Intellectual Disability in Death Penalty Cases: Hall vs. Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Mina; Westphal, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The case of Hall vs. Florida tested Florida's so called "bright line rule" in determining intellectual disability in capital cases. The Supreme Court Decision reflects a more general trend from categorical to dimensional approaches in psychiatric diagnostic systems.

  9. Deflecting the Political in the Visual Images of Execution and the Death Penalty Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Diana; Shoos, Diane

    2005-01-01

    Examining a range of visual images of executions, both legal (the executions of convicted murderers) and extralegal (the lynchings of innocent African Americans), in still photographs and in Hollywood films, the authors suggest that while such images may flatten and neutralize the popular debates and politics surrounding the issues, this is not…

  10. Only Some Are Dead Men Walking: Teaching about Race Discrimination and the Death Penalty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordt, Rebecca L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an experiential learning exercise I have used to teach race discrimination in my introductory and criminology courses. The exercise is designed to introduce students to the concept of non-conscious forms of racial bias, a form of race discrimination often difficult for students to grasp. Using a hypothetical criminal case,…

  11. EOQ Model for Time-Deteriorating Items Using Penalty cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Srivastava

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In inventory, the utility of the deteriorating items decreases with time. The degree ofdeterioration of product utility can be treated as penalty cost in the inventory replenishmentsystem. In this paper, we present EOQ model for those perishable products, which do notdeteriorate for some period of time and after that time they continuously deteriorate with time andloose their importance. This loss can be incurred as penalty cost to the wholesaler / retailer. Theprime focus of our paper is to develop the EOQ model for time-deteriorating items using penaltycost with finite and infinite production rate. For simplicity, linear and exponential penalty costfunctions have been considered as a measurement of the utility of the product. The theoreticalexpressions are obtained for optimum inventory level and cycle time. All the theoreticaldevelopments are numerically justified.

  12. Distinct synovial immunopathologic characteristics of juvenile-onset spondylarthritis and other forms of juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Kruithof; V. van den Bossche; L. de Rycke; B. Vandooren; R. Joos; J.D. Canete; P.P. Tak; A.M.H. Boots; E.M. Veys; D. Baeten

    2006-01-01

    Objective. To characterize the synovial immunopathologic features of juvenile-onset spondylarthritis (SpA) in relation to adult SpA and other forms of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Methods. Synovial biopsy samples were obtained from 10 patients with juvenile-onset SpA, 23 with adult SpA, 19 w

  13. Justicia juvenil restaurativa como respuesta alternativa

    OpenAIRE

    Mariño Rojas, Cielo

    2016-01-01

    El artículo explora las posibilidades de la justicia juvenil restaurativa como respuesta alternativa en los sistemas de justicia juvenil en la región. Si bien la justicia restaurativa no aparece explícitamente en los instrumentos internacionales sobre justicia penal juvenil, estos dan la oportunidad para que aquella se desarrolle dentro de los sistemas de justicia juvenil. Inicialmente se aborda su evolución histórica para establecer el origen de sus principales características. A continuació...

  14. Semi-Global Matching with Self-Adjusting Penalties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkalou, E.; Stentoumis, C.; Karras, G.

    2017-02-01

    The demand for 3D models of various scales and precisions is strong for a wide range of applications, among which cultural heritage recording is particularly important and challenging. In this context, dense image matching is a fundamental task for processes which involve image-based reconstruction of 3D models. Despite the existence of commercial software, the need for complete and accurate results under different conditions, as well as for computational efficiency under a variety of hardware, has kept image-matching algorithms as one of the most active research topics. Semi-global matching (SGM) is among the most popular optimization algorithms due to its accuracy, computational efficiency, and simplicity. A challenging aspect in SGM implementation is the determination of smoothness constraints, i.e. penalties P1, P2 for disparity changes and discontinuities. In fact, penalty adjustment is needed for every particular stereo-pair and cost computation. In this work, a novel formulation of self-adjusting penalties is proposed: SGM penalties can be estimated solely from the statistical properties of the initial disparity space image. The proposed method of self-adjusting penalties (SGM-SAP) is evaluated using typical cost functions on stereo-pairs from the recent Middlebury dataset of interior scenes, as well as from the EPFL Herz-Jesu architectural scenes. Results are competitive against the original SGM estimates. The significant aspects of self-adjusting penalties are: (i) the time-consuming tuning process is avoided; (ii) SGM can be used in image collections with limited number of stereo-pairs; and (iii) no heuristic user intervention is needed.

  15. Physicians must honor refusal of treatment to restore competency by non-dangerous inmates on death row.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonana, Howard

    2010-01-01

    The role of physicians in death penalty cases has provoked discussion in both the legal system as well as in professional organizations. Professional groups have responded by developing ethical guidelines advising physicians as to current ethical standards. Psychiatric dilemmas as a subspecialty with unique roles have required more specific guidelines. A clinical vignette provides a focus to explicate the conflicts.

  16. On total variation flows with H-1 penalty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunderli, Thomas

    2012-09-01

    We analyze the time flow of a version of the Rudin-Osher-Fatemi [5] model for image restoration using the bounded variation semi-norm with H-1 penalty. We will define an appropriate weak solution of the time flow and prove existence and uniqueness of the solution using the method of semigroups, as used by Andreu, Ballester, Caselles, Mazön [1] for their analysis of total variation flow without penalty. We also note two interesting properties for the time solutions.

  17. Explaining the motherhood wage penalty during the early occupational career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staff, Jeremy; Mortimer, Jeylan T

    2012-02-01

    Prior research shows that mothers earn lower hourly wages than women without children, and that this maternal wage penalty cannot be fully explained by differences between mothers and other women in work experience and job characteristics. This research examines whether the residual motherhood wage penalty results from differences between mothers and other women in the accumulation of work interruptions and breaks in schooling. Using longitudinal data for 486 women followed from ages 19 to 31 in the Minnesota Youth Development Study, we find that accumulated months not in the labor force and not enrolled in school explain the residual pay gap between mothers and other women.

  18. Triangular preconditioners for saddle point problems with a penalty term

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klawonn, A. [Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet, Muenster (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Triangular preconditioners for a class of saddle point problems with a penalty term are considered. An important example is the mixed formulation of the pure displacement problem in linear elasticity. It is shown that the spectrum of the preconditioned system is contained in a real, positive interval, and that the interval bounds can be made independent of the discretization and penalty parameters. This fact is used to construct bounds of the convergence rate of the GMRES method used with an energy norm. Numerical results are given for GMRES and BI-CGSTAB.

  19. Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis. Radiological diagnosis. Fibromatosis hialina juvenil. Diagnostico radiologico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentes, R.; Sar, V.; Cabrera, J.J.; Diaz, L.; Hernandez, B.; Valeron, P.; Baez, O.; Rodriguez, M.

    1993-10-01

    Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis (JHF) is a rare disorder of unknown etiology, very few cases of which have been reported in the literature. It presents similarities to other fibromatosys, but has its particular radiological features which differentiate it from them. The clinical findings consist of several, slow growing, subcutaneous nodules, flexion contractures of the joints which can lead to disability, gingival hypertrophy and muscular atrophy. The suspected radiological diagnosis is confirmed by electron microscopy study of the nodules, although light microscopy can also reveal suggestive images. Author (9 refs.)

  20. 13 CFR 127.700 - What penalties may be imposed under this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... under this part? 127.700 Section 127.700 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION WOMEN-OWNED SMALL BUSINESS FEDERAL CONTRACT ASSISTANCE PROCEDURES Penalties § 127.700 What penalties may...) and (d) of the Small Business Act, 15 U.S.C. 645(a) and (d), as amended; (d) Criminal penalties...

  1. 29 CFR 579.3 - Violations for which child labor civil money penalties may be assessed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Violations for which child labor civil money penalties may... DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR VIOLATIONS-CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES § 579.3 Violations for which child labor civil money penalties may be assessed. (a) What constitutes the violation. Each...

  2. 19 CFR 162.66 - Penalties for unlading narcotic drugs or marihuana without a permit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penalties for unlading narcotic drugs or marihuana... Substances, Narcotics, and Marihuana § 162.66 Penalties for unlading narcotic drugs or marihuana without a permit. In every case where a narcotic drug or marihuana is unladen without a permit, the penalties...

  3. 46 CFR 506.4 - Cost of living adjustments of civil monetary penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... percentage (if any) for each civil monetary penalty by which the Consumer Price Index for the month of June of the calendar year preceding the adjustment, exceeds the Consumer Price Index for the month of June... MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 506.4 Cost of living adjustments of civil monetary penalties. (a...

  4. Exact Penalty Function and Asymptotic Strong Nonlinear Duality in Integer Programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu-sheng Bai; Z.Y.Wu; L.S. Zhang

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a logarithmic-exponential penalty function with two parameters for integer programmingis discussed. We obtain the exact penalty properties and then establish the asymptotic strong nonlinear duality in the corresponding logarithmic-exponential dual formulation by using the obtained exact penalty properties.The discussion is based on the logarithmic-exponential nonlinear dual formulation proposed in [6].

  5. A New Kind of Simple Smooth Exact Penalty Function of Constrained Nonlinear Programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The penalty function method is one basic method for solving constrained nonlinear programming, in which simple smooth exact penalty functions draw much attention for their simpleness and smoothness. This article offers a new kind of simple smooth approximative exact penalty function of general constrained nonlinear programmings and analyzes its properties.

  6. 45 CFR 150.301 - General rule regarding the imposition of civil money penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... money penalties. 150.301 Section 150.301 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Enforcement With Respect to Issuers and Non-Federal Governmental Plans-Civil Money Penalties § 150.301 General rule regarding the imposition of civil money penalties. If any health insurance issuer that is subject...

  7. Emotional contagion in soccer penalty shootouts : Celebration of individual success is associated with ultimate team success

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moll, Tjerk; Jordet, Geir; Pepping, Gert-Jan

    2010-01-01

    We examined the association between celebratory responses after successful soccer penalty kicks and the outcome of a penalty shootout. Individually displayed post-shot behaviours in penalty shootouts held in World Cups and European Championships (N=151) were rated on the presence of universally

  8. 45 CFR 160.402 - Basis for a civil money penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basis for a civil money penalty. 160.402 Section... RELATED REQUIREMENTS GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Imposition of Civil Money Penalties § 160.402 Basis for a civil money penalty. (a) General rule. Subject to § 160.410, the Secretary will impose...

  9. 24 CFR 30.80 - Factors in determining amount of civil money penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... civil money penalty. 30.80 Section 30.80 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES: CERTAIN PROHIBITED CONDUCT Procedures § 30.80 Factors in determining amount of civil money penalty. After determining that a respondent...

  10. 42 CFR 3.404 - Amount of a civil money penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amount of a civil money penalty. 3.404 Section 3... money penalty. (a) The amount of a civil money penalty will be determined in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section and § 3.408 of this subpart. (b) The Secretary may impose a civil money...

  11. 12 CFR 622.55 - Notice of assessment of civil money penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice of assessment of civil money penalty... PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Rules and Procedures for Assessment and Collection of Civil Money Penalties § 622.55 Notice of assessment of civil money penalty. (a) Notice of assessment. The notice of assessment for...

  12. 24 CFR 1007.70 - Disqualification of lenders and civil money penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... civil money penalties. 1007.70 Section 1007.70 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to....70 Disqualification of lenders and civil money penalties. (a) In general—(1) Grounds for action. HUD... or holder that are guaranteed under this part. (b) Civil money penalties for intentional...

  13. 42 CFR 423.758 - Collection of civil money penalties imposed by CMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Collection of civil money penalties imposed by CMS... Intermediate Sanctions § 423.758 Collection of civil money penalties imposed by CMS. (a) When a Part D plan sponsor does not request a hearing CMS initiates collection of the civil money penalty following...

  14. 42 CFR 422.758 - Collection of civil money penalties imposed by CMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Collection of civil money penalties imposed by CMS... § 422.758 Collection of civil money penalties imposed by CMS. (a) When an MA organization does not request a hearing, CMS initiates collection of the civil money penalty following the expiration of...

  15. Brain Death Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinello, Irene M

    2015-09-01

    In the United States, each year 1% to 2% of deaths are brain deaths. Considerable variation in the practice of determining brain death still remains, despite the publication of practice parameters in 1995 and an evidence-based guideline update in 2010. This review is intended to give bedside clinicians an overview of definition, the causes and pitfalls of misdiagnosing brain death, and a focus on the specifics of the brain death determination process.

  16. Juvenile ossifying fibroma: Psammamatoid variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivani Aggarwal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile ossifying fibroma is a rare fibro-osseous lesion containing variable amount of calcified masses, which resembles bone or cementum within a fibrocellular connective tissue stroma. It has variable clinical behavior, highly aggressive in nature including invasion and destruction of adjacent anatomic structures with a strong tendency to recur. We reported a 28-year-old female patient with a growth in the upper left vestibule region extending from canine to molar region with clinical, histopathological, and radiological features are presented. Surgical management was done, and regular follow-up was advised.

  17. [Juvenile monomelic amyotrophy: Hirayama disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdowski, W; Baniukiewicz, E; Lewonowska, M

    1998-01-01

    We present three patients with unilateral upper limb weakness (with muscular atrophy)-two of them with distal and one with proximal localization. The disease onset was between 18th end 35-th year of life; the disease course was biphasic (i.e. progressive within first 1 to 3 years, and stabilized during following 4-24 years). The laboratory investigations permitted to diagnose juvenile monomelic amyotrophy, an entity that is very rare outside Japan. Electromyography revealed neurogenic involvement with spinal features also in clinically unaffected muscles. We suggest that these results may support the hypothesis of this disease being a benign variant of spinal muscular atrophy.

  18. Juvenile Competency to Stand Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanyan, Sofia T; Sidhu, Shawn S; Bath, Eraka

    2016-01-01

    Competency to stand trial is interpreted as a protected due process right for all defendants and is defined as a defendant's fundamental knowledge and understanding of the criminal charges being filed, roles and procedures within the courtroom, and a general ability to work with the defense counsel. Questions of competency are most often raised by the judge, defense, or the prosecution, and competency evaluations are most often completed by psychiatrists or psychologists with forensic training or work experience. Mental illness, intellectual disability, developmental disorders, and developmental immaturity are the 4 main factors considered in most juvenile competency evaluations.

  19. Glucocorticoids in juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malattia, Clara; Martini, Alberto

    2014-05-01

    Although the use of corticosteroids in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is now much more limited owing to the availability of methotrexate and biological agents, there are clinical scenarios where it is still indicated. For example, corticosteroids may be indicated for intraarticular injections to prevent joint deformities, as a "bridge" drug to relieve symptoms in polyarticular disease while waiting for methotrexate and biologics to exert their full therapeutic effects, and in the treatment of chronic iridocyclitis, macrophage activation syndrome, and systemic JIA, although the advent of interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-6 blockers has greatly reduced the latter indication.

  20. Imaging of juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Karl [Birmingham Children' s Hospital, Radiology Department, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2006-08-15

    Over the past decade there have been considerable changes in the classification and imaging of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Radiology now has a considerable role in the management of JIA, the differential diagnosis, monitoring disease progression and detecting complications. The different imaging modalities available, their role and limitations are discussed in this article and the various disease features that the radiologist should be aware of are described. An approach to the imaging of the child with joint disease and in the monitoring of disease complications are also discussed. (orig.)

  1. THE STUDY OF FEATURES OF GUILT OF JUVENILE OFFENDERS IN THE CONTEXT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalija Vladimirovna Galkina

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the results of empirical studies of the experiences of guilt of juvenile offenders in the context of juvenile justice where a minor appears as the subject of legal relations. Restorative approach of juvenile justice is based on an admission of guilt to the victim. In connection with it, the research of features of the guilt of minors who have committed an offence and the conditions for the development of the subjectivity will enhance understanding of the possibilities of restorative juvenile justice system in the prevention of juvenile delinquency.Thus, the results of empirical research presented in the article are important for determining of the psychological bases of realization of rehabilitation programs in the context of juvenile justice. In particular, the results are important for the organization and conduct of psychological work to overcome the psychological barriers in the behavior of juveniles having inherently maladaptive guilt and destructive psychological defense mechanisms.

  2. Changes in Juvenile Justice in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Dennis S. W.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses rising juvenile and youth crime in China, highlighting the essence of Chinese Marxist criminological thought and changing conceptions of delinquency from the postrevolutionary period to the present; examining official responses to delinquency and the recent development of juvenile justice; and suggesting that current delinquency control…

  3. Juvenile Anorexia Nervosa: Family Therapy's Natural Niche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, H. Charles

    2006-01-01

    Juvenile Anorexia Nervosa (AN) is a severe problem both in terms of presenting symptomatology and its tendency toward chronicity. Researchers have consistently shown that family-based approaches are superior to individual approaches for the treatment of juvenile AN. This article addresses the capacity deficit of trained family therapists to treat…

  4. Sexually dimorphic body plumage in juvenile crossbills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelaar, P; Phillips, RE; Knops, P

    2005-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism in color and pattern of contour feathers is rare in juvenile songbirds. We describe how captive-bred juvenile males of Scottish Crossbill (Loxia scotica) and nominate Red Crossbill (L. curvirostra curvirostra) can be differentiated from females prior to prebasic molt by an unstreak

  5. Juveniles' Motivations for Remaining in Prostitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Shu-Ling; Bedford, Olwen

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were collected in 1990-1991, 1992, and 2000 with 49 prostituted juveniles remanded to two rehabilitation centers in Taiwan. These data are analyzed to explore Taiwanese prostituted juveniles' feelings about themselves and their work, their motivations for remaining in prostitution, and their difficulties…

  6. Alternative sanctions for juveniles in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, P.H. van der

    1993-01-01

    In the Netherlands alternative sanctions for juveniles have become very popular. In less than ten years, the alternative sanction has surpassed the fine as the most frequently imposed penal sanction for juveniles. As a result of this popularity, some net widening has occured. In general, alternativl

  7. Psychiatric Disorder in a Juvenile Assessment Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    McReynolds, Larkin S.; Wasserman, Gail A.; DeComo, Robert E.; John, Reni; Keating, Joseph M.; Nolen, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile assessment centers (JACs) were developed to address service fragmentation and promote the sharing of information among agencies providing services to youth involved with the juvenile justice system. To date, there are no reports that describe the diagnostic profiles of the youth served by such centers. The authors hypothesize that the…

  8. Moral Development of Solo Juvenile Sex Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Vugt, Eveline; Stams, Geert Jan; Dekovic, Maja; Brugman, Daan; Rutten, Esther; Hendriks, Jan

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the moral development of solo juvenile male sex offenders (n = 20) and juvenile male non-offenders (n = 76), aged 13-19 years, from lower socioeconomic and educational backgrounds. The Moral Orientation Measure (MOM) was used to assess punishment- and victim-based moral orientation in sexual and non-sexual situations. Moral…

  9. Juveniles' Motivations for Remaining in Prostitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Shu-Ling; Bedford, Olwen

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were collected in 1990-1991, 1992, and 2000 with 49 prostituted juveniles remanded to two rehabilitation centers in Taiwan. These data are analyzed to explore Taiwanese prostituted juveniles' feelings about themselves and their work, their motivations for remaining in prostitution, and their difficulties…

  10. Ethnic disparities in Dutch juvenile justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komen, M.; van Schooten, E.

    2009-01-01

    In the Netherlands, ethnic minority boys are heavily overrepresented in prisons and secure judicial institutions for juveniles. In a sample of 324 juveniles of both native Dutch and ethnic minority origin who have come into contact with the Dutch criminal justice authorities, we compared the number

  11. Group sexual offending by juvenile females

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijkman, M.; Weerman, F.; Bijleveld, C.; Hendriks, J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined all group sexual offending cases in the Netherlands between 1995 and 2009 (n = 26) in which at least one juvenile female offender (n = 35) had been adjudicated. Information from court files showed that the majority of juvenile female group sexual offenders have (inter)personal pr

  12. 40 CFR 8.11 - Prohibited acts, enforcement and penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibited acts, enforcement and penalties. 8.11 Section 8.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF NONGOVERNMENTAL ACTIVITIES IN ANTARCTICA § 8.11 Prohibited acts, enforcement and...

  13. 40 CFR 89.612 - Prohibited acts; penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... years may be adjusted based on the Consumer Price Index. The specific regulatory provisions for changing the maximum penalties, published in 40 CFR part 19, reference the applicable U.S. Code citation on... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Importation...

  14. 7 CFR 1160.214 - Charges and penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order National Fluid Milk Processor Promotion Board § 1160.214 Charges and penalties. (a)...

  15. 28 CFR 0.171 - Judgments, fines, penalties, and forfeitures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OF JUSTICE Authority To Compromise and Close Civil Claims and Responsibility for Judgments, Fines... that the division will assume such enforcement responsibilities. (b) Each U.S. Attorney shall designate... section that such division will assume responsibility for enforcement of a criminal monetary penalty,...

  16. 12 CFR 350.10 - Prohibited conduct and penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 350.10 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY DISCLOSURE OF FINANCIAL AND OTHER INFORMATION BY FDIC-INSURED STATE NONMEMBER BANKS § 350.10 Prohibited conduct and penalties. (a) Misrepresentations. No officer, director, employee,...

  17. 5 CFR 2634.909 - Procedures, penalties, and ethics agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... EXECUTIVE BRANCH FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE, QUALIFIED TRUSTS, AND CERTIFICATES OF DIVESTITURE Confidential Financial Disclosure Reports § 2634.909 Procedures, penalties, and ethics agreements. (a) The provisions of... respect to confidential financial disclosure reports, see subpart G of this part. (c) Subpart H of...

  18. 20 CFR 614.11 - Overpayments; penalties for fraud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Overpayments; penalties for fraud. 614.11... for fraud. (a) False statements and representations. Section 8507(a) of the Act provides that if a... under § 614.7. (b) Prosecution for fraud. Section 1919 of title 18, United States Code, provides that...

  19. Fuel penalty comparison for (Electrically) heated catalyst technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Foster, D.L.; Bleuanus, W.A.J.

    2010-01-01

    The conversion efficiency of three way catalytic converters is mainly defined by the temperature range wherein they are operating. Traditionally, ignition retard has been used to reduce the light-off time of the catalyst. This is however associated with a fuel penalty. With increasing vehicle

  20. Sports Penalties: An Alternative Means of Measuring Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Gordon W.; Russell, Audrey M.

    1984-01-01

    Used the official records of all games played in the Western Hockey League (N=432) during a season for a Principal Components analysis of 19 aggressive penalties. Results suggested that inter-personal aggression in the sport is multiply determined and can arise for eight different sets of conditions or antecedents. (Author/LLL)

  1. 49 CFR 236.0 - Applicability, minimum requirements, and penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES... work train, may be authorized to follow a freight train, including a work train, into a block and then... requirement is subject to a civil penalty of at least $650 and not more than $25,000 per violation, except...

  2. 49 CFR 231.0 - Applicability and penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.0 Applicability and penalties. (a... of the coupling is not more than 25 inches. (5) A locomotive used in hauling a train referred to in paragraph (b)(4) of this section when the locomotive and cars of the train are used only to transport...

  3. 46 CFR 42.07-50 - Penalties for violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... penalties as set forth in law, and the vessel shall also be liable therefor. Depending upon the gravity of... these laws. (b) The master and/or owner of a vessel that is operated, navigated, or used in violation of... violation of either load line law or the applicable regulations in this subchapter, as well as the appeal...

  4. [Governance of drug advertising control: assessment of misleading advertising penalties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakroun, R

    2013-04-01

    Loyal promotion of the pharmaceutical industry has been challenged by stakeholders. Drug advertising is the easiest point to assess. Based on the agency theory, our objective was to describe the governance of advertising control when it was misleading and the terms of penalties within the framework of the contradictory process between the industry and the regulatory authorities. We conducted a thorough analysis of the contents of the minutes of the Board of Control of advertising from April 2007 to May 2010. The amounts of penalties were analyzed according to three criteria: the timing of the examination procedure (first session versus second session), the nature of the penalty (ban versus notice of change) and the company's defense strategy (written response versus presence of company representatives). Thirty-nine reports involving 62 projects to ban advertisements were analyzed. The first two causes of penalties were off label promotion and non-objective use of study results to support claims. The Committee issued 47 advertising bans (76%) and 15 formal notices of change (24%). When the defense strategy of the company involved the presence of representatives, there was a significant reduction of votes in favor of a ban (68% versus 81%, Padvertising control does not address the issue of the loyalty of the sales forces. Finally, our results open perspectives for research and managerial applications for the governance of advertising controls. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  5. 7 CFR 249.20 - Claims and penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Claims and penalties. 249.20 Section 249.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SENIOR FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (SFMNP) Miscellaneous...

  6. 77 FR 6675 - Premium Penalty Relief for Certain Delinquent Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... CORPORATION 29 CFR Part 4007 Premium Penalty Relief for Certain Delinquent Plans AGENCY: Pension Benefit... regulatory review, among other initiatives, PBGC is announcing a limited window for covered plans that have... and 4007 of ERISA, plans covered by title IV must pay premiums to PBGC. The vast majority of plans...

  7. 78 FR 26489 - Consumer Financial Civil Penalty Fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION 12 CFR Part 1075 RIN 3170-AA38 Consumer Financial Civil Penalty Fund AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer...

  8. 78 FR 26545 - Consumer Financial Civil Penalty Fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION 12 CFR Part 1075 RIN 3170-AA38 Consumer Financial Civil Penalty Fund AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer... Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (Dodd-Frank Act or Act) establishes a ``Consumer...

  9. 31 CFR 539.704 - Penalty imposition or withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Penalty imposition or withdrawal. 539.704 Section 539.704 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION TRADE...

  10. 33 CFR 27.3 - Penalty Adjustment Table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Inspection; Nautical School Vessel 8,000 46 U.S.C. 3318(h) Vessel Inspection; Failure to Give Notice IAW 3304...) Failure to Stop Vessel When Directed; Master, Owner, Operator or Person in Charge 1 5,000 19 U.S.C. 1581(d) Failure to Stop Vessel When Directed; Master, Owner, Operator or Person in Charge-Minimum Penalty 1...

  11. 42 CFR 38.8 - Criminal and civil penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Criminal and civil penalties. 38.8 Section 38.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS DISASTER ASSISTANCE FOR CRISIS COUNSELING AND TRAINING § 38.8 Criminal and civil...

  12. Fuel penalty comparison for (Electrically) heated catalyst technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Foster, D.L.; Bleuanus, W.A.J.

    2010-01-01

    The conversion efficiency of three way catalytic converters is mainly defined by the temperature range wherein they are operating. Traditionally, ignition retard has been used to reduce the light-off time of the catalyst. This is however associated with a fuel penalty. With increasing vehicle electr

  13. 12 CFR 18.10 - Prohibited conduct and penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... statement. (b) For purposes of this part, institution-affiliated party means: (1) Any director, officer... FINANCIAL AND OTHER INFORMATION BY NATIONAL BANKS § 18.10 Prohibited conduct and penalties. (a) No national... disclosed false or misleading information in the annual disclosure statement, or omit or cause the...

  14. 7 CFR 3.91 - Adjusted civil monetary penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Civil penalty for a violation of an order under the Dairy Promotion Program, codified at 7 U.S.C. 4510(b..., or, if in the business as an importer or exporter, violating, with respect to terrestrial plants, any... the business as an importer or exporter, violating, with respect to terrestrial plants, any...

  15. 22 CFR 40.66 - Subject of civil penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Subject of civil penalty. 40.66 Section 40.66 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH NONIMMIGRANTS AND IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Illegal Entrants and Immigration Violators §...

  16. 75 FR 1076 - Outer Continental Shelf Civil Penalties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ...: 2010-119] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Minerals Management Service Outer Continental Shelf Civil... maximum daily civil penalty assessment. SUMMARY: The Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act requires the MMS to... operations in the Outer Continental Shelf at least once every 3 years. This review ensures that the...

  17. 27 CFR 18.18 - Execution under penalties of perjury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of perjury. 18.18 Section 18.18 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Document Requirements § 18.18 Execution under penalties of perjury... perjury, it will be so executed, as defined in § 18.11, and signed by an authorized person. (Act of...

  18. APPLICATION OF PENALTY FUNCTION METHOD IN ISOPARAMETRIC HYBRID FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Dao-zheng; JIAO Zhao-ping

    2005-01-01

    By the aid of the penalty function method, the equilibrium restriction conditions were introduced to the isoparametric hybrid finite element analysis, and the concrete application course of the penalty function method in three-dimensional isoparametric hybrid finite element was discussed. The separated penalty parameters method and the optimal hybrid element model with penalty balance were also presented.The penalty balance method can effectively refrain the parasitical stress on the premise of no additional degrees of freedom. The numeric experiment shows that the presented element not only is effective in improving greatly the numeric calculation precision of distorted grids but also has the universality.

  19. A social work study on juvenile delinquency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We present an empirical study to study the effects of different factors on juvenile delinquency. The investigation distributes 100 questionnaires among people who are involved with crime and analyzes their feedbacks. There are five hypotheses in our survey and we look to see whether family conditions, religion, economical conditions, media and physical and psychological characteristics play important role on juvenile delinquency in Iranian society. The results shows that while family conditions, physical and psychological characteristics play important role on juvenile delinquency, other factors do not statistically have any impact on juvenile delinquency. The study suggests that a better family condition could help reduce juvenile delinquency and people could guide their children through better consultations.

  20. Death Education and Death-Related Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelter, Jon W.; Epley, Rita J.

    1979-01-01

    Assessed the impact of a death and dying course. Results showed no significant pre-test/post-test differences for the experimental or the control group, but indicated initial differences between the two groups, suggesting that students enrolling in a death and dying course have more favorable attitudes toward both suicide and abortion. (Author)