WorldWideScience

Sample records for juvenile chinese mitten

  1. Transcriptome profiling of the eyestalk of precocious juvenile Chinese mitten crab reveals putative neuropeptides and differentially expressed genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Muzi; Li, Xuguang; Lu, Quanping; Li, Yuehua; Ge, Jiachun; Pan, Jianlin

    2015-09-15

    Chinese mitten crabs that reach maturity 1 year earlier than normal crabs are known as precocious juvenile crabs. The molecular mechanisms underlying the precocity of the Chinese mitten crab are poorly understood. To identify the genes that may be involved in the control of precocity in Chinese mitten crab, we measured the expression profile of eyestalk genes in precocious and normally developed juvenile crabs using high-throughput sequencing on an Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform. We obtained 56,446,284 raw reads from the precocious crabs and 58,029,476 raw reads from the normally developed juvenile crabs. Reads from the two libraries were combined into a single data set. De novo assembly of the combined read set yielded 78,777 unigenes with an average length of 1563 bp. A total of 41,405 unigenes with predicted ORFs were selected for functional annotation. Among these genes, we identified three neuropeptide genes belonging to the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone family and two neuropeptide genes encoding the chromatophorotropic hormones. Transcriptome comparison between the two libraries revealed 42 genes that exhibited significant differential expression, of which 29 genes were up-regulated and 13 genes were down-regulated in the precocious crabs. To confirm the sequencing data, six differentially expressed genes with functional annotations were selected and validated by qRT-PCR. In conclusion, we obtained the comprehensive transcriptome of the eyestalk tissues of precocious juvenile crabs. The sequencing results may provide new insights into the biomolecular basis of precocity in the Chinese mitten crab.

  2. Mercury (Hg2+) effect on enzyme activities and hepatopancreas histostructures of juvenile Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanmin; Wang, Xinhua; Qin, Yanwen; Zheng, Binghui

    2010-05-01

    We studied the effects of mercury (Hg2+) on antioxidant and digestive enzyme activities in terms of LC50 value and on hepatopancreas histostructures of juvenile Chinese mitten crabs Eriocheir sinensis in 40-day exposure to various concentrations of Hg2+ (0, 0.01, 0.05, 0.10, 0.20, and 0.30 mg/L). The results show that the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase (CAT) significantly increased in the concentrations of 0.01 and 0.05 mg/L, while that of enzyme decreased in 0.10, 0.20 and 0.30 mg/L treatments. Meanwhile, Hg2+ disrupted the histostructures of the hepatopancreas, causing decreases in activities of pepsin, tryptase, amylase, and cellulose, which are synthesized in the hepatopancreas. Moreover, as the Hg2+ concentration increased, the survival rate of the crabs decreased, worst at 56.57% in 0.30 mg/L. Therefore, although crabs are able to tolerate low levels of mercury pollution, high levels lead to cellular injury and tissue damage in hepatopancreas, which then loses some of its vital physiological functions such as absorption, storage, and secretion.

  3. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of two juvenile hormone esterase-like carboxylesterase cDNAs in Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yu; Zhao, Muzi; Deng, Yanfei; Yang, Yuanjie; Li, Xuguang; Lu, Quanping; Ge, Jiachun; Pan, Jianlin; Xu, Zhiqiang

    2017-03-01

    Precise regulation of methyl farnesoate (MF) titer is of prime importance throughout the crustacean life-cycle. Although the synthetic pathway of MF is well-documented, little is known about its degradation and recycling in crustaceans. Juvenile hormone esterase-like (JHE-like) carboxylesterase (CXE) is a key enzyme in MF degradation, thus playing a significant role in regulating the MF titer. We identified and characterized two cDNAs, Es-CXE1 and Es-CXE2, encoding JHE-like CXEs in Chinese mitten crab. Full-length cDNAs of Es-CXE1 and Es-CXE2 encode proteins composed of 584 and 597 amino acids, respectively, both of which contain a typical carboxylesterase domain. Alignment and phylogenetic analyses revealed that the Es-CXEs are highly similar to those of other crustaceans. To further validate their functions, we evaluated the mRNA expression patterns of the Es-CXEs in various tissues and in different physiological conditions. Tissue-specific expression analysis showed that the two Es-CXEs were predominantly expressed in the hepatopancreas and ovaries, which are the major tissues for MF metabolism. Es-CXE2 expression levels in the hepatopancreas and ovaries were about 100 and 25-fold higher, than the respective Es-CXE1 expressions. During ovarian rapid development stage, the global expressions of Es-CXEs were up-regulated in the hepatopancreas and down-regulated in the ovaries. After eyestalk ablation (ESA), the mRNA expressions of the two Es-CXEs were up-regulated in the hepatopancreas, further indicating their potential in degrading MF. Taken together, our results suggest that Es-CXEs, the key component of the juvenile hormone degradation pathway, may play vital roles in the development and reproduction of the Chinese mitten crab.

  4. A Comparative Study of Genetic Variation betwccn Chinese Mitten Crab Eriocheir Sinensis and Hepu Mitten Crab E. Hepuensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Guangdong; ZHANG Xiumei; GAO Tianxiang; LOU Dong

    2002-01-01

    Horizontal starch gel electrophoresis was used to investigate the biochemical genetic structure of Chinese mittencrab Eriocheir sinensis and Hepu mitten crab E. hepuensis. Sixteen putative enzyme-coding loci were examined for forty-nineChinese mitten crabs and thirty-eight Hepu mitten crabs. Nine loci, AAT-1 *, AAT-2 *, G3PDH*, GPI*, IDHP-1 *, IDHP-2 *,MDH-1 *, MDH-2 * and PGM * , are polymorphic in Chinese mitten crab, and seven, AAT-1 *, AAT-2 *, GPI *, IDHP-1 *,MDH-1 *, MDH-2 * and PGM * , are polymorphic in Hepu mitten crab. The proportion of polymorphic loci and the expectedheterozygosity are 0.562 5 and 0.080 3 for Chinese mitten crab, and 0.437 5 and 0.075 4 for Hepu mitten crab. The Nei' s ge-netic distance between two species is 0.002 4.

  5. Chinese mitten crab surveys of San Joaquin River basin and Suisun Marsh, California, 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Jason T.; Brown, Larry R.

    2001-01-01

    Juvenile Chinese mitten crabs (Eriocheir sinensis) are known to use both brackish and freshwater habitats as rearing areas. The objectives of this study were to examine the habitat use and potential effects of mitten crabs in the freshwater habitats of the San Joaquin River drainage up-stream of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. After several unsuccessful attempts to catch or observe mitten crabs by trapping, electrofishing, and visual observations, the study was redirected to determine the presence of crabs in the San Joaquin River (in the vicinity of Mossdale) and Suisun Marsh. Monthly surveys using baited traps in the San Joaquin River were done from June through November 2000 and in the Suisun Marsh from August through October 2000. No mitten crabs were caught in the San Joaquin River Basin and only one mitten crab was caught in Suisun Marsh. Surveys were conducted at 92 locations in the San Joaquin River Basin by deploying 352 traps for 10,752 hours of trapping effort; in Suisun Marsh, 34 locations were investigated by deploying 150 traps for 3,600 hours of trapping effort. The baited traps captured a variety of organisms, including catfishes (Ictularidae), yellowfin gobies (Acantho-gobius flavimanus), and crayfish (Decapoda). It is unclear whether the failure to capture mitten crabs in the San Joaquin River Basin and Suisun Marsh was due to ineffective trapping methods, or repre-sents a general downward trend in populations of juvenile mitten crabs in these potential rearing areas or a temporary decline related to year-class strength. Available data (since 1998) on the number of mitten crabs entrained at federal and state fish salvage facilities indicate a downward trend in the number of crabs, which may indicate a declining trend in use of the San Joaquin River Basin by juvenile mitten crabs. Continued monitoring for juvenile Chinese mitten crabs in brackish and freshwater portions of the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Basins is needed to better assess the

  6. Dietary choline requirements of juvenile Chinese mitten crab, Eri-ocheir sinensis at two dietary phospholipid levels%不同磷脂水平下中华绒螯蟹幼蟹的胆碱需要量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐霁; 陈立侨; 孙盛明; 姜海波; 李二超; 禹娜

    2013-01-01

    A 42-day feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary phospholipids on the choline requirement of the juvenile Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis. Twelve purified diets were formulated con-taining two phospholipid levels (1% and 2%) and six choline chloride levels (0, 250, 500, 1 000, 2 000 and 4 000 mg/kg diet), and were fed to E. sinensis juveniles (0.22g±0.01g) with four replicates in each treatment. The results showed that dietary choline and phospholipids had a significant interaction on survival, weight gain, specific growth rate and feed conversion ratio (P0.05);各试验组的全蟹粗脂肪含量、肝胰腺的甘油三酯含量、总胆固醇含量、谷草转氨酶和谷丙转氨酶活性,均随着饲料中胆碱量的增加而显著下降(P<0.05).综上所述,中华绒螯蟹幼蟹饲料中磷脂和胆碱存在显著的交互作用,饲料中适量添加胆碱和磷脂,可以显著提高幼蟹的增重率和特定生长率,降低饲料系数以及蟹体脂肪含量.以增重率为判据,采用折线回归法进行分析,得出饲料中不同磷脂水平下幼蟹的胆碱适宜需要量分别为1429.65 mg/kg 饲料(磷脂水平1%时)和529.65 mg/kg 饲料(磷脂水平2%).

  7. EFFECTS OF FISHES ON THE GROWTH AND SURVIVAL OF CHINESE MITTEN CRAB, ERIOCHEIR SINENSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This experiment on the effects of fishes (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco, Channa argus, Cyprinus carpio) on growth and survival of juvenile Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis was conducted in cages placed in Bao'an Lake. T-tests showed that effects of fishes on the carapace width growth were not significant as compared with the control (no fish). But the effects of these fishes on crab survival were negative. The causes of negative effects of fishes on crab survival were simply discussed on the basis of food habits.

  8. 七种捕食性鱼类对中华绒螯蟹幼蟹捕食风险的评估%ASSESSMENT OF PREDATION RISKS OF SEVEN PREDACIOUS FISH ON JUVENILE CHINESE MITTEN CRAB (ERIOCHEIR SINENSIS)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗鸣钟; 张堂林; 张超文; 李钟杰; 刘家寿; 吴小平

    2012-01-01

    分别以鲤、鳜、斑点叉尾鲴、黄颡鱼、瓦氏黄颡鱼、大口鲇和乌鳢作为捕食者,以中华绒螯蟹幼蟹作为猎物,在室内水泥池(2.4 m3)进行捕食试验.以日捕获率和日摄食率为指标,评估这些鱼类对幼蟹的捕食作用和危害程度,为提高湖泊幼蟹放流效果、建立蟹—鱼复合的优质高效养殖模式提供科学依据.在幼蟹完全暴露的条件下,经过多次(至少9次)重复的试验(短期1d和长期7d),鳜对不同大小的硬壳和软壳(刚蜕壳的)幼蟹没有任何捕食作用;黄颡鱼对硬壳和软壳幼蟹也没有捕食作用,但还需做进一步观察;虽然鲤、瓦氏黄颡鱼对硬壳蟹的捕获率低,但对软壳的幼蟹有较大的危害性,对幼蟹的日摄食率分别为0.070%、0.012%;大口鲇、斑点叉尾鲴、乌鳢对幼蟹具有较强的捕食能力,对幼蟹的日摄食率分别为0.122%、0.188%和0.284%.根据这些研究结果,可以建议:(1)在池塘和湖泊河蟹养殖中,完全可以将鳜作为套养或混养对象,以期提高养殖效益;(2)在河蟹放养的湖泊,需要抑制乌鳢和大口鲇种群,适当减少鲤和瓦氏黄颡鱼丰度,以期减少这些鱼类的捕食作用,提高幼蟹存活率;(3)在河蟹养殖池塘,不能放养乌鳢、大口鲇、斑点叉尾鲴、瓦氏黄颡鱼和鲤.%The lake and pond cultures of Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) are two main farming modes with high commercial benefits in the Changjiang River basin. Unfortunately, recapture rates of the released crabs are often considerably lower mainly due to the predation of predacious fish. In order to provide scientific bases for improving the survival of the crab stocked in lakes and establishing a crab-fish polyculture mode with high returns on investment, a series of predation experiments of indoor cement pools were conducted to assess predation risks on juvenile E. sinensis by Cyprinus carpio, Siniperca chuatsi, Ictalurus punctatu

  9. An Experimental Study on the Gait Patterns and Kinematics of Chinese Mitten Crabs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianqiao Li; Xiaodong Zhang; Meng Zou; Rui Zhang; Benard Chirende; Ruiyang Shi; Cangang Wei

    2013-01-01

    Despite the many studies on eight-legged animals and the importance of their mechanics of terrestrial locomotion,the mechanical energy of crabs in voluntary locomotion on uneven,unpredictable terrain surfaces has received little attention thus far.In this paper,motion video images of Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis Milne-Edwards) locomotion on five types of terrains were recorded using a high-speed three-dimensional (3D) recording video system.The typical variables of locomotion such as gait patterns,duty factor,mechanical energy of the mass center,mass-specific rate of the total mechanical power of the mass center,and percentage recovery,were analyzed.Results show that the Chinese mitten crab uses random gaits instead of the alternating tetrapod gait with the increasing terrain roughness.The duty factors of the rows of the leading legs are greater for all terrains than those of the rows of the trailing legs.On smooth terrain,the duty factors of the rows of the trailing legs are greater than that on rough terrains.Kinematic measurements and calculations reveal that similar to mammals,birds,and arthropods,the Chinese mitten crab uses two fundamental gaits to save mechanical energy:the inverted pendulum gait and the bouncing gait.The bouncing gait is the main pattern of mechanical energy conservation.The low probability of injury and energy expenditure due to adaptations to various terrains induce the Chinese mitten crab to modify the mass-specific rate of the total mechanical power of the mass center.The statistical results of percentage recovery also reveal that the Chinese mitten crab has lower energy recovery efficiency over rough terrains compared with smooth terrains.

  10. GENETIC ANALYSIS OF THE CHINESE MITTEN CRAB (ERIOCHEIR SINENSIS) INTRODUCED TO THE NORTH AMERICAN GREAT LAKES AND ST. LAWRENCE SEAWAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) is a globally invasive organism, with established non-native populations in Europe and California, USA. Since 1965, there have been sixteen confirmed catches of E. sinensis in the North American Great Lakes and their associated waterw...

  11. Molecular cloning and gene expression analysis of the leptin receptor in the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Jiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone with multiple functions that regulates energy homeostasis and reproductive functions. Increased knowledge of leptin receptor function will enhance our understanding of the physiological roles of leptin in animals. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, a full-length leptin receptor (lepr cDNA, consisting of 1,353 nucleotides, was cloned from Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE following the identification of a single expressed sequence tag (EST clone in a cDNA library. The lepr cDNA consisted of a 22-nucleotide 5'-untranslated region (5' UTR, a 402-nucleotide open reading frame (ORF and a 929-nucleotide 3' UTR. Multiple sequence alignments revealed that Chinese mitten crab lepr shared a conserved vacuolar protein sorting 55 (Vps55 domain with other species. Chinese mitten crab lepr expression was determined in various tissues and at three different reproductive stages using quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Lepr expression was highest in the intestine, thoracic ganglia, gonad, and accessory gonad, moderate in hepatopancreas and cranial ganglia, and low in muscle, gill, heart, haemocytes, and stomach. Furthermore, lepr expression was significantly higher in the intestine, gonad and thoracic ganglia in immature crabs relative to precocious and mature crabs. In contrast, lepr expression was significantly lower in the hepatopancreas of immature crabs relative to mature crabs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We are the first to identify the lepr gene and to determine its gene expression patterns in various tissues and at three different reproductive stages in Chinese mitten crab. Taken together, our results suggest that lepr may be involved in the nutritional regulation of metabolism and reproduction in Chinese mitten crabs.

  12. Microsatellite analysis of genetic diversity and population structure of Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yumei Chang; Liqun Liang; Haitao Ma; Jianguo He; Xiaowen Sun

    2008-01-01

    Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) has higher commercial value as food source than any other species of Eriocheir in China.To evaluate the germplasm resources and characterize the genetic diversity and population structure of the crabs in different water systems,two stocks and two farming populations were assessed with 25 polymorphic microsallite loci available in public GenBank.Basic statistics showed that the average observed heterozygosity (Ho) amongst populations ranged from 0.5789 to 0.6824.However,a remarkable presence of inbreeding and heterozygote deficiencies were observed.To analyze population structure,pairwise FST coefficients explained only ~10.3% variability from the subdivision of mitten crab populations,the remaining variability stems from the subdivision within subpopulations.Although the four populations had slight differentiation,different allelic frequencies resulted in distinct population structures.Two stocks and one farming population were clustered together to the phylogenetic branch of Yangtze crab,with an approximate membership of 95%.Whereas,another fanning population was clustered singly to the phylogenetic branch of the Liaohe crab,with a membership of 97.1%.The tests for individual admixture showed that Yangtze crab had probably been contaminated with individuals from other water systems.Genetic relationships between populations also supported the conclusion that Yangtze crab and Liaohe crab had different gene pools in spite of the origins of the same species.

  13. 饲料中镁添加量对中华绒螯蟹幼蟹生长、体成分及抗氧化能力的影响%Effects of Magnesium Supplementation on Growth, Body Composition and Antioxidant Ability of Juvenile Chinese Mitten Crab (Eriocheir sinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田文静; 魏建军; 李二超; 禹娜; 吴强强; 陈立侨

    2015-01-01

    with the Mg supplementation of 7.5 g/kg and the group without Mg supplementation, re-spectively (P<0.05). The content of malonaldehyde (MDA) in hepatopancreas and serum was firstly de-creased and then increased with the increase of dietary Mg supplementation, and the lowest values were found in the group with the Mg supplementation of 3. 0 g/kg, which was significantly lower than that in the other groups ( P<0.05) . In conclusion, the L-aspartic acid magnesium as Mg source, the juvenile Chinese mitten crab have the better growth effect when Mg supplementation is 3.0 g/kg;the GSH content in hepatopancreas as criterion, base on the quadratic regression model fitting, the juvenile Chinese mitten crab have the best antioxi-dant ability when Mg supplementation is 3.76 g/kg ( dietary Mg content is 4.39 g/kg) .

  14. Gliocyte and synapse analyses in cerebral ganglia of the Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis: ultrastructural study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis is an economically important aquatic species in China. Many studies on gene structure, breeding, and diseases of the crab have been reported. However, knowledge about the organization of the nerve system of the crab remains largely unknown. To study the ultrastructure of the cerebral ganglia of E. sinensis and to compare the histological findings regarding the nerve systems of crustaceans, the cerebral ganglia were observed by transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that four types of gliocytes, including type I, II, III, and IV gliocytes were located in the cerebral ganglia. In addition, three types of synapses were present in the cerebral ganglia, including unidirectional synapses, bidirectional synapses, and combined type synapses. 

  15. THE EFFECTS OF DIETARY FOLIC ACID AND VITAMIN B12 ON THE GROWTH PERFORMANCE, NON-SPECIFIC IMMUNITY AND THE DISEASE RESISTANCE OF JUVENILE CHINESE MITTEN CRABERIOCHEIR SINENSIS%饲料中添加叶酸和VB12对中华绒螯蟹幼蟹生长、非特异性免疫和抗病力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏建军; 张帆; 田文静; 李二超; 吴强强; 陈立侨

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to determine the combined effects of dietary folic acid and vitamin B12 on the growth, non-specific immunity, and the disease resistance of juvenile Chinese mitten crabEricheir sinensis. The crabs [initial weight, (2.57 ± 0.02) g] were fed with 4 experimental diets containing 2 concentrations of folic acid (0 and 2.3 mg folic acid/kg diet) and vitamin B12 (0 and 0.2 mg vitamin B12/kg diet). Each diet group had 5 replicates and was fed for 8 weeks. This was followed by anAeromonas hydrophila challenge for 2 weeks.E. sinensis fed with 2.3 mg folic acid/kg and 0.2 mg vitamin B12/kg showed significantly higher weight gain, specific growth rate, feed efficiency and survival rate than those fed without folic acid and vitamin B12 supplementation. The activity of phenoloxidase was the maximum in juveniles fed with 2.3 mg folic acid/kg and 0.2 mg vitamin B12/kg. Juveniles fed with both folic acid and vitamin B12 supplementation had the highest levels of total haemocyte count, lysozyme, and activities of acid phosphatase and alka-line phosphatase, followed by crabs fed with either folic acid or vitamin B12 only, and the group without folic acid or vitamin B12 supplementation was the lowest. Crabs fed with 2.3 mg folic acid/kg and 0.2 mg vitamin B12/kg exhibited the highest activity of superoxide dismutase but the lowest level of malondialdehyde and the cumulative mortality. These results indicated that folic acid and vitamin B12 had an interactive effect on the growth, non-specific immunity and the disease resistance of juvenileE. sinensis. The optimal concentrations of dietary folic acid and vitamin B12 should be 2.3 mg/kg diet and 0.2 mg/kg diet respectively.%为研究叶酸和VB12协同作用对中华绒螯蟹(Eriocheir sinensis)幼蟹生长、非特异性免疫和抗病力的影响,选取初始体重为(2.57±0.03) g的幼蟹600只,随机分成4组,每组5个重复,每个重复30只幼蟹,分别投喂对照组(不添加叶酸和VB12)

  16. Sustainable fisheries in shallow lakes: an independent empirical test of the Chinese mitten crab yield model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haijun; Liang, Xiaomin; Wang, Hongzhu

    2017-07-01

    Next to excessive nutrient loading, intensive aquaculture is one of the major anthropogenic impacts threatening lake ecosystems. In China, particularly in the shallow lakes of mid-lower Changjiang (Yangtze) River, continuous overstocking of the Chinese mitten crab ( Eriocheir sinensis) could deteriorate water quality and exhaust natural resources. A series of crab yield models and a general optimum-stocking rate model have been established, which seek to benefit both crab culture and the environment. In this research, independent investigations were carried out to evaluate the crab yield models and modify the optimum-stocking model. Low percentage errors (average 47%, median 36%) between observed and calculated crab yields were obtained. Specific values were defined for adult crab body mass (135 g/ind.) and recapture rate (18% and 30% in lakes with submerged macrophyte biomass above and below 1 000 g/m2) to modify the optimum-stocking model. Analysis based on the modified optimum-stocking model indicated that the actual stocking rates in most lakes were much higher than the calculated optimum-stocking rates. This implies that, for most lakes, the current stocking rates should be greatly reduced to maintain healthy lake ecosystems.

  17. Dioxins, PCBs and heavy metals in Chinese mitten crabs from Dutch rivers and lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; Kotterman, Michiel J J; Hoek-van Nieuwenhuizen, Marion; van der Lee, Martijn K; Mennes, Wim C; Jeurissen, Suzanne M F; van Leeuwen, Stefan P J

    2015-03-01

    Chinese mitten crab is an invasive species in many European rivers and lakes. Data from the UK indicated high levels of dioxins and PCBs, in particular in the brown meat in the body. This was confirmed by studies in the Netherlands, showing average levels of dioxins and PCBs in the meat in the body of 43 pg TEQ g(-1) ww in crabs caught in the large rivers. Levels in crab of lakes in the Northern part of the Netherlands were on average 3.7-fold lower. Consumption of crabs from polluted areas results in a relatively high dose of dioxins and dl-PCBs and could significantly increase the intake above the TWI. However, in general consumption of these crabs is low, even in the Asian sub-population in the Netherlands. Cadmium and lead levels were higher in crabs from contaminated areas, but for mercury and arsenic there was no clear difference. Consumption of crabs would not result in significant risks for cadmium and mercury. For lead the daily intake could be raised above the BMDL01 for neurodevelopmental toxicity, but this would only occur on a limited number of days. For arsenic the exposure would exceed the lower end of the BMDL01 values for certain cancers, but again, the infrequent consumption by most consumers reduces this risk. Furthermore, speciation showed that most arsenic in crabs was probably not a toxic inorganic form, but likely to be in an organic form.

  18. Sustainable fisheries in shallow lakes: an independent empirical test of the Chinese mitten crab yield model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haijun; Liang, Xiaomin; Wang, Hongzhu

    2016-08-01

    Next to excessive nutrient loading, intensive aquaculture is one of the major anthropogenic impacts threatening lake ecosystems. In China, particularly in the shallow lakes of mid-lower Changjiang (Yangtze) River, continuous overstocking of the Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) could deteriorate water quality and exhaust natural resources. A series of crab yield models and a general optimum-stocking rate model have been established, which seek to benefit both crab culture and the environment. In this research, independent investigations were carried out to evaluate the crab yield models and modify the optimum-stocking model. Low percentage errors (average 47%, median 36%) between observed and calculated crab yields were obtained. Specific values were defined for adult crab body mass (135 g/ind.) and recapture rate (18% and 30% in lakes with submerged macrophyte biomass above and below 1 000 g/m2) to modify the optimum-stocking model. Analysis based on the modified optimum-stocking model indicated that the actual stocking rates in most lakes were much higher than the calculated optimum-stocking rates. This implies that, for most lakes, the current stocking rates should be greatly reduced to maintain healthy lake ecosystems.

  19. Identification and characterization of a Cystatin gene from Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengmei; Gai, Xuemei; Wang, Lingling; Song, Linsheng; Zhang, Huan; Qiu, Limei; Wang, Mengqiang; Siva, Vinu S

    2010-09-01

    Cystatins are a superfamily of proteins as reversible inhibitor of cysteine proteinases which play essential roles in a spectrum of physiological and immunological processes. In this study, a novel member of Cystatin superfamily was identified from Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis (designated EsCystatin) by expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) approaches. The full-length cDNA of EsCystatin was of 1486 bp, consisting of a 5'-terminal untranslated region (UTR) of 92 bp, a 3' UTR of 1034 bp with a polyadenylation signal sequence AATAAA and a polyA tail, and an open reading frame (ORF) of 360 bp encoded a polypeptide of 120 amino acids with the theoretical isoelectric point of 5.48 and the predicted molecular weight of 13.39 kDa. A signal Cystatin-like domain (Gly(25) to Lys(112)) was found in the putative amino acid sequences of EsCystatin. Similar to other Cystatins, the conserved central Q(70)VVSG(74) motif was located in the Cystatin-like domain of EsCystatin. But EsCystatin lacked of signal peptide and disulphide bond. The EsCystatin exhibited homology with the other known Cystatins from invertebrates and higher vertebrates, and it was clustered into Cystatin family 1 in the phylogenetic tree. The mRNA transcripts of EsCystatin were mainly expressed in hemolymph, gill, hepatopancreas, gonad and muscle, and also marginally detectable in heart. After Listonella anguillarum challenge, the relative expression level of EsCystatin in hemolymph was down-regulated to 0.6-fold (P Cystatin family, was a potent inhibitor of papain and involved in immune response versus invading microorganisms.

  20. Molecular characterization and expression profiles of four transformer-2 isoforms in the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Danli; Liu, Yuan; Hui, Min; Song, Chengwen; Liu, Hourong; Cui, Zhaoxia

    2017-07-01

    The transformer-2 ( tra-2) gene plays a key role in the regulatory hierarchy of sexual differentiation in somatic tissues and in the germline of Drosophila melanogaster. In this study, sequences and expression profiles of tra-2 in the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis were characterized. Four tra-2 isoforms, designated as Estra-2a, Estra-2b, Estra-2c, and Estra-2d, were isolated. They all contained an RNA-recognition motif (RRM) and a linker region, which shared high similarity with other reported tra-2s. Sequence analysis revealed that Estra-2a, Estra-2b and Estra-2c are encoded by the same genomic locus and are generated by alternative splicing of the pre-mRNA. Compared with the other three isoforms, Estra-2d lacks the RS2 domain. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that all four isoforms were highly expressed in the fertilized egg, and in the 2-4 cell and blastula stages compared with larval stages ( P≤0.01), suggesting their maternal origin in early embryonic developmental stages. Notably, Estra-2a was highly expressed in male somatic tissues, while Estra-2c was significantly highly expressed in the ovary. These results suggest that Estra-2c is involved in sexual differentiation of the Chinese mitten crab. Our findings provide basic information for further functional studies of the tra-2 gene/protein in this species.

  1. Molecular characterization and expression profiles of four transformer-2 isoforms in the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Danli; Liu, Yuan; Hui, Min; Song, Chengwen; Liu, Hourong; Cui, Zhaoxia

    2016-09-01

    The transformer-2 (tra-2) gene plays a key role in the regulatory hierarchy of sexual differentiation in somatic tissues and in the germline of Drosophila melanogaster. In this study, sequences and expression profiles of tra-2 in the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis were characterized. Four tra-2 isoforms, designated as Estra-2a, Estra-2b, Estra-2c and Estra-2d, were isolated. They all contained an RNA-recognition motif (RRM) and a linker region, which shared high similarity with other reported tra-2s. Sequence analysis revealed that Estra-2a, Estra-2b and Estra-2c are encoded by the same genomic locus and are generated by alternative splicing of the pre-mRNA. Compared with the other three isoforms, Estra-2d lacks the RS2 domain. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that all four isoforms were highly expressed in the fertilized egg, and in the 2-4 cell and blastula stages compared with larval stages (P≤ 0.01), suggesting their maternal origin in early embryonic developmental stages. Notably, Estra-2a was highly expressed in male somatic tissues, while Estra-2c was significantly highly expressed in the ovary. These results suggest that Estra-2c is involved in sexual differentiation of the Chinese mitten crab. Our findings provide basic information for further functional studies of the tra-2 gene/protein in this species.

  2. The first detection of white spot syndrome virus in naturally infected cultured Chinese mitten crabs, Eriocheir sinensis in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhengfeng; Yao, Yufeng; Zhang, Fengxiang; Wan, Jinjuan; Sun, Mengling; Liu, Hongyan; Zhou, Gang; Tang, Jianqing; Pan, Jianlin; Xue, Hui; Zhao, Ziming

    2015-08-01

    An epidemic with a high mortality rate (80-100%) recently occurred in the cultured Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis, which is a very important economic crustacean species in China. Using negative stain, histopathology and nested PCR supplemented by sequencing we identified white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in these crabs. Challenge experiments revealed that the disease was caused by WSSV and confirmed the crab's susceptibility to this virus, which was consistent with previous laboratory-based studies. A cumulative mortality of 100% was observed within 10 days post WSSV injection. This is the first report of WSSV-associated disease outbreaks in the Chinese mitten crab, which is normally reported as an important penaeid-shrimp viral pathogen. Furthermore, this is only the second report to describe a significant pathogen in pond-cultured E. sinensis. These results will enhance the early diagnosis of WSSV in the crab farms and help in monitoring efforts directed at determining the prevalence of the virus in E. sinensis.

  3. Myosin Va participates in acrosomal formation and nuclear morphogenesis during spermatogenesis of Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis belongs to the Class Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura. The spermatozoon of this species is of aflagellated type, it has a spherical acrosome surrounded by the cup-shaped nucleus, which are unique to brachyurans. For the past several decades, studies on the spermatogenesis of the mitten crab mainly focus on the morphology. Compared with the extensive study of molecular mechanism of spermatogenesis in mammals, relatively less information is available in crustacean species. Myosin Va, a member of Class V myosin, has been implicated in acrosome biogenesis and vesicle transport during spermatogenesis in mammals. In the present study we demonstrate the expression and cellular localization of myosin Va during spermatogenesis in E. sinensis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Western blot demonstrated that myosin Va is expressed during spermatogenesis. Immunocytochemical and ultrastructural analyses showed that myosin Va mainly localizes in the cytoplasm in spermatocytes. At the early stage of spermiogenesis, myosin Va binds to the endoplasmic reticulum vesicle (EV and proacrosomal granule (PG. Subsequently, myosin Va localizes within the proacrosomal vesicle (PV formed by PG and EV fusion and locates in the membrane complex (MC at the mid spermatid stage. At the late spermatid stage, myosin Va is associated with the shaping nucleus and mitochondria. In mature spermatozoon, myosin Va predominates in acrosomal tubule (AT and nucleus. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study demonstrates that myosin Va may be involved in acrosome biogenesis and nuclear morphogenesis during spermatogenesis in E. sinensis. Considering the distribution and molecular characteristics of myosin Va, we also propose a hypothesis of AT formation in this species. It is the first time to uncover the role of myosin Va in crustacean spermatogenesis.

  4. Large-Scale Isolation of Microsatellites from Chinese Mitten Crab Eriocheir sinensis via a Solexa Genomic Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun Wang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Microsatellites are simple sequence repeats with a high degree of polymorphism in the genome; they are used as DNA markers in many molecular genetic studies. Using traditional methods such as the magnetic beads enrichment method, only a few microsatellite markers have been isolated from the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis, as the crab genome sequence information is unavailable. Here, we have identified a large number of microsatellites from the Chinese mitten crab by taking advantage of Solexa genomic surveying. A total of 141,737 SSR (simple sequence repeats motifs were identified via analysis of 883 Mb of the crab genomic DNA information, including mono-, di-, tri-, tetra-, penta- and hexa-nucleotide repeat motifs. The number of di-nucleotide repeat motifs was 82,979, making this the most abundant type of repeat motif (58.54%; the second most abundant were the tri-nucleotide repeats (42,657, 30.11%. Among di-nucleotide repeats, the most frequent repeats were AC motifs, accounting for 67.55% of the total number. AGG motifs were the most frequent (59.32% of the tri-nucleotide motifs. A total of 15,125 microsatellite loci had a flanking sequence suitable for setting the primer of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR. To verify the identified SSRs, a subset of 100 primer pairs was randomly selected for PCR. Eighty two primer sets (82% produced strong PCR products matching expected sizes, and 78% were polymorphic. In an analysis of 30 wild individuals from the Yangtze River with 20 primer sets, the number of alleles per locus ranged from 2–14 and the mean allelic richness was 7.4. No linkage disequilibrium was found between any pair of loci, indicating that the markers were independent. The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium test showed significant deviation in four of the 20 microsatellite loci after sequential Bonferroni corrections. This method is cost- and time-effective in comparison to traditional approaches for the isolation of microsatellites.

  5. P38 participates in spermatogenesis and acrosome reaction prior to fertilization in Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ming; Sun, Wen-Juan; Wang, Yuan-Li; Li, Qing; Yang, Hong-Dan; Duan, Ze-Lin; He, Lin; Wang, Qun

    2015-04-01

    P38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) comprise a family of serine/threonine protein kinases that play important roles in cellular responses to inflammatory cytokines and environmental stresses. These kinases are involved in controlling cell division, differentiation and death in mammalian testes and therefore are critical to spermatogenesis. To explore their functions in male reproduction of Chinese mitten crabs, Eriocheir sinensis p38 (Es-p38) protein expression was determined in different tissues including testes at different developmental stages by Western blot. Es-p38 was expressed in various tissues, with higher levels in the heart, stomach, gills and testes. Total Es-p38 protein levels increased gradually during spermatogenesis, but phosphorylated Es-p38 was much higher in the spermatid (August-October) than the spermatocyte (July-August) and sperm (October-January) stages. Trypan blue staining and hematoxylin/eosin staining were both used to detect sperm motility and changes in sperm morphology during the acrosome reaction (AR) induced by pre-incubation with A23187 in vitro, activated Es-p38 proteins detected by fluorescent microscopy were translocated gradually to nuclear and apical cap regions, accumulating at the anterior of the acrosomal tubule. The results suggest the involvement of p38 MAPK in spermatogenesis and the AR in E. sinensis.

  6. Water quality, nutrient budget, and pollutant loads in Chinese mitten crab ( Eriocheir sinensis) farms around East Taihu Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chunfang; Gu, Xiaohong; Huang, Hezhong; Dai, Xiuying; Ye, Yuantu; Shi, Chenjiang

    2012-01-01

    To understand the factors causing frequent outbreaks of harmful algae blooms in the Taihu Lake, China, we studied water quality and nutrient budget in Chinese mitten crab ( Eriocheir sinensis) farm ponds in the eastern part of the lake from November 2007 to December 2009. We estimated the nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and chemical oxygen demand (COD) loads. Materials input and output ponds, water exchange, and applied management practices of 838.5-hm2 crab ponds were surveyed using questionnaires. Water quality of 12 ponds, which were located no more than 2 km from East Taihu Lake, were monitored. The results show that water quality in the crab ponds was better than reference data. Feeds, including corn seed, commercial feed, trash fish, and gastropod, were the major sources of N and P input in the crab ponds, contributing 88.7% and 94.9%, respectively. In total, 60.5% of N and 37.3% of P were sequestered by macrophytes, and only 15.7% and 8.5% of them were discharged as effluent. The net loads of N and P in effluent were 16.43 kg/hm2/cycle and 2.16 kg/hm2/cycle, respectively, while the COD load was -17.88 kg/hm2/cycle. This indicated that crab farming caused minor negative impact on the trophic status of the lake area, which was attenuated by macrophytes. However, wastewater purification is still necessary in crab faming.

  7. The evaluation of the three edible tissues of dead adult Chinese mitten crabs (Eriocheir sinensis) freshness in harvest season, based on the analysis of TVBN and biogenic amine

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xiaozhen; Zhang, Jinbiao; Cheng, Yongxu

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the quality of the three edible tissues (muscles, hepatopancreas and gonads) of the male and female Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) in natural harvest season, based on total volatile base nitrogen test (TVBN) and biogenic amines analysis at intervals time of 3 h extended for 24 h during 30 °C storage (a mean ambient temperature in harvest season). In addition, the relationship between the value of TVBN and storage time or main biogenic amine was...

  8. Water quality, nutrient budget, and pollutant loads in Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) farms around East Taihu Lake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Chunfang; GU Xiaohong; HUANG Hezhong; DAI Xiuying; YE Yuantu; SHI Chenjiang

    2012-01-01

    To understand the factors causing frequent outbreaks of harmful algae blooms in the Taihu Lake,China,we studied water quality and nutrient budget in Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) farm ponds in the eastern part of the lake from November 2007 to December 2009.We estimated the nitrogen (N),phosphorus (P),and chemical oxygen demand (COD) loads.Materials input and output ponds,water exchange,and applied management practices of 838.5-hm2 crab ponds were surveyed using questionnaires.Water quality of 12 ponds,which were located no more than 2 km from East Taihu Lake,were monitored.The results show that water quality in the crab ponds was better than reference data.Feeds,including corn seed,commercial feed,trash fish,and gastropod,were the major sources of N and P input in the crab ponds,contributing 88.7% and 94.9%,respectively.In total,60.5% of N and 37.3% of P were sequestered by macrophytes,and only 15.7% and 8.5% of them were discharged as effluent.The net loads of N and P in effluent were 16.43 kg/hm2/cycle and 2.16 kg/hm2/cycle,respectively,while the COD load was -17.88 kg/hm2/cycle.This indicated that crab farming caused minor negative impact on the trophic status of the lake area,which was attenuated by macrophytes.However,wastewater purification is still necessary in crab faming.

  9. Comparison of Gender Differences in Nutritional Value and Key Odor Profile of Hepatopancreas of Chinese Mitten Crab (Eriocheir Sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Na; Wang, Xi-Chang

    2017-02-01

    The nutritional value and key odor profile of hepatopancreas of Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) was evaluated, and gender differences in terms of edible yield, proximate composition, different lipid fractions, fatty acid composition, and key odor compounds were compared. Total lipids were separated into different lipid fractions using silicic acid columns. And odorants were detected by monolithic material sorptive extraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry (GC-MS-O). Furthermore, detected frequency and odor intensity method of GC-O were applied to select key odor compounds in steamed E. sinensis. The results showed male crabs (34.06%) had a higher edible yield than female crabs (32.42%). Hepatopancreas was the most abundant portion in both genders, which contained high lipid content. Higher contents of triacylglycerols, sterols, free fatty acids, and phosphatidylethanolamine in female crabs resulted in a significant higher total lipid content in females (40.05%) than in males (37.94%). Meanwhile, total monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids of female crabs had significant higher content than male crabs, and the ratio of docosahexaenoic acid to eicosapentaenoic acid of female crabs (1.26) showed higher value than male crabs (1.18), which indicated that female crabs had higher nutritional value than male crabs. For further analyses, unique odor compounds detected in female crabs showed a plant/vegetable-like odor, while sweety, corn-like odor in male crabs. These suggested that hepatopancreases of female crabs are healthier than male crabs for human consumption, however, they may be favored by different consumers individually due to their unique aroma profiles.

  10. Identification of ADAM10 and ADAM17 with potential roles in the spermatogenesis of the Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Xie, Jing; He, Lin; Wang, Yuanli; Duan, Zelin; Yang, Hongdan; Wang, Qun

    2015-05-10

    The ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease) family plays an important role in sperm and egg fusion, development, inflammation, adhesion and migration. ADAM10 and ADAM17 are involved in the spermatogenesis. To better understand the role of ADAM10 and ADAM17 in the Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis, the full-length cDNAs of ADAM10 and ADAM17 were cloned, and named Es-ADAM10 and Es-ADAM17, respectively. Sequence and structural analysis showed that Es-ADAM10 and Es-ADAM17 have the typical structure of the ADAM family. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that Es-ADAM10 and Es-ADAM17 mRNAs were distributed in the heart, hepatopancreas, intestines, brain, muscle, thoracic ganglia, hemolymph, stomach, testis, ovary, gill and accessory gland. Both mRNAs were highly expressed in the muscles, and relatively high in the testis, ovary and accessory gland. In addition, the Es-ADAM17 mRNA level was detected in every stage of testis development, being relatively high from July to September, the lowest during October and November, increasing from December to January, and reached a peak in January. By contrast, the expression of Es-ADAM10 mRNA was constant during testis development. Immunofluorescence further showed that Es-ADAM10 and Es-ADAM17 proteins were present in the cytoplasm and cytomembrane of spermatocytes, and both detected in the sperm. Furthermore, etoposide induced upregulation of Es-ADAM17 and Es-ADAM10 at both the mRNA and protein levels. This study first showed that Es-ADAM10 and Es-ADAM17 were also involved in the spermatogenesis and mainly participated in the later germ cell apoptosis in E. sinensis.

  11. Comparison of Three Aquaculture Models of Chinese Mitten Rrab in Tuo Lake%沱湖河蟹养殖模式比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍方印; 肖明松; 周斌; 訾士波; 崔峰; 王松

    2014-01-01

    Three aquaculture models such as traditional diet model ,snails and plants feeding model ,Chinese mitten crab and bighead carp polyculture model were employed to compare the economic benefit.The physical and chemical indicators of water under the three models were compared.The results showed the economic benefits of Chinese mitten crab and bighead carp polyculture model was higher.The fresh water snail and plants polyculture model could maintain water ecological balance and improve water quality.%采用传统饲料喂养、螺类水草喂养和蟹鳙混合放养3种模式,比较其经济效益,观测水体理化指标,结果表明,蟹鳙混养经济效益较高,采用投喂螺类和水草能调节水体生态环境,改善水质。

  12. 河蟹的生态养殖现状及发展对策%Status Quo and Developmental Strategies of Ecosystem Approach to Aquaculture of Chinese Mitten Crab in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管卫兵; 蔡天成; 杨牧川; 王成辉

    2012-01-01

    The aquaculture of Chinese mitten crab have become one of the key elements in China fishery industry. According to the three basic principles for ecosystem approach to aquaculture (EAA) made by FAO experts, many aquaculture method for Chinese mitten crab, such as culture of submergible plant, breeding the snail, low density and rotational culture, are not in accord with the standards of EAA. The reasons are as follows: firstly, there are various negative impacts on functions and services of ecosystem by crab aquaculture. The crab aquaculture will damage the habitats in each water area, will discharge lots of nutrients, and will use many chemical drugs, which are not benefit to protecting water resources; mass aquaculture of Chinese mitten crab will lead decrease of wild resources and germplasm and will excessively dependent on the fishery resources in lake and ocean, which are not benefit to the sustainable development of correlative resources. Secondly, the fanners who are aquaculture of Chinese mitten crab can not gain enough benefits. As a capital intensive industry, aquaculture of Chinese mitten crab dose not achieves the purposes of poverty alleviation and benefiting more farmers. Thirdly, aquaculture of Chinese mitten crab dose not comprehensively considers the benefits of other departments. Aquaculture of Chinese mitten crab influences fishery resources in lake and ocean and ecology around streams, lakes and coastal zones. Therefore, ecosystem approach to aquaculture is the only way for aquaculture of Chinese mitten crab in China. It should standardize the aquaculture of Chinese mitten crab from germ plasm, feeds and equipment to reduce the impacts on ecosystem; develop insurance support to ensure the benefits of farmers; strengthen cooperation among different departments to develop crab aquaculture industry properly.%河蟹养殖已成我国水产业中一项支柱性产业.根据FAO专家制订的生态养殖三个基本原则分析,“种草、殖螺、

  13. Symbiotic Bacteria in Gills and Guts of Chinese Mitten Crab (Eriocheir sinensis) Differ from the Free-Living Bacteria in Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meiling; Sun, Yuhong; Chen, Liqiao; Cai, Chunfang; Qiao, Fang; Du, Zhenyu; Li, Erchao

    2016-01-01

    Aquatic animals have a close relationship with water, but differences in their symbiotic bacteria and the bacterial composition in water remains unclear. Wild or domestic Chinese mitten crabs (Eriocheir sinensis) and the water in which they live were collected from four sampling sites in Jiangsu and Shanghai, China. Bacterial composition in water, gills or guts of E. sinensis, were compared by high-throughput sequencing using 16S rRNA genes. Analysis of >660,000 sequences indicated that bacterial diversity was higher in water than in gills or guts. Tenericutes and Proteobacteria were dominant phyla in guts, while Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were dominant in gills and water. Non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis indicated that microbiota from gills, guts or water clearly separated into three groups, suggesting that crabs harbor a more specific microbial community than the water in which they live. The dominant OTUs in crab gut were related to Mycoplasmataceae, which were low in abundance in gills, showing that, like mammals, crabs have body-site specific microbiota. OTUs related to Ilumatobacter and Albimonas, which are commonly present in sediment and seawater, were dominant in gills but almost absent from the sampled water. Considering E. sinensis are bottom-dwelling crustacean and they mate in saline water or seawater, behavior and life cycle of crabs may play an important role in shaping the symbiotic bacterial pattern. This study revealed the relationship between the symbiotic bacteria of Chinese mitten crab and their habitat, affording information on the assembly factors of commensal bacteria in aquatic animals.

  14. 3-D Surveying and Gaits Analysis of Chinese Mitten Crab in Smooth Road%中华绒螯蟹平面运动三维观测和步态分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建桥; 张晓冬; 邹猛; 李豪; 王洋; 石睿杨

    2012-01-01

    为了研究中华绒螯蟹在平面行走的步态,使用高速摄像机和三维运动分析软件建立了运动图像采集和分析系统.结果表明:中华绒螯蟹在行走时采用交替四角步态;相邻的两腿之间异步,相隔和对角线两条腿之间同步;各腿的负荷因数为(55.60±7.53)%,说明中华绒螯蟹通过增加支撑相使其身体在行走时更加稳定.%In order to investigate the gait of Chinese mitten crab, a motion images recorded and analyzed systems was established with high speed camera and 3-D motion analysis software. The results showed that Chinese mitten crab performed alternating tetrapod gait when walking on smooth road. Adjacent ipsilateral and segmental pairs of legs alternated with each other; Subadjacent ipsilateral legs and diagonal pairs of legs moved together. Duty factor of each leg was ( 55. 60 ± 7. 53 ) % , which indicated that Chinese mitten crab made its body more stable during walking through increasing support phase.

  15. A Catalog of Proteins Expressed in the AG Secreted Fluid during the Mature Phase of the Chinese Mitten Crabs (Eriocheir sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lin; Li, Qing; Liu, Lihua; Wang, Yuanli; Xie, Jing; Yang, Hongdan; Wang, Qun

    2015-01-01

    The accessory gland (AG) is an important component of the male reproductive system of arthropods, its secretions enhance fertility, some AG proteins bind to the spermatozoa and affect its function and properties. Here we report the first comprehensive catalog of the AG secreted fluid during the mature phase of the Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis). AG proteins were separated by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis and analyzed by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Altogether, the mass spectra of 1173 peptides were detected (1067 without decoy and contaminants) which allowed for the identification of 486 different proteins annotated upon the NCBI database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/) and our transcritptome dataset. The mass spectrometry proteomics data have been deposited at the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000700. An extensive description of the AG proteome will help provide the basis for a better understanding of a number of reproductive mechanisms, including potentially spermatophore breakdown, dynamic functional and morphological changes in sperm cells and sperm acrosin enzyme vitality. Thus, the comprehensive catalog of proteins presented here can serve as a valuable reference for future studies of sperm maturation and regulatory mechanisms involved in crustacean reproduction.

  16. Three-dimensional observation and dynamics analysis of Chinese mitten crab’s locomotion on smooth terrain%中华绒螯蟹平面运动三维观测和动力学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓冬; 李建桥; 邹猛; 张锐; 李因武

    2013-01-01

      为给适应复杂路面的多足仿生机器人或步行移动平台的研究提供理论依据,该文以中华绒螯蟹为研究对象,使用三维运动图像采集系统采集其运动图像,并使用三维运动图像分析系统得到中华绒螯蟹质心的运动学参数,分析结果表明:中华绒螯蟹在平面运动时主要使用跳跃步态;质心动能、重力势能以及总机械能呈正弦波动,动能与重力势能同相;使用恢复系数表示动能和重力势能相互转换的效率,其平均值为31.73%±17.29%,恢复系数和平均速率没有相关关系;质心机械能比质量功率随平均速率的增长呈线性增加;质心水平动能比质量功率和重力势能比质量功率对中华绒螯蟹身体的加速和抬升起主要作用。该研究可为研究适应复杂路面的仿生机器人或移动平台提供理论依据。%Some types of arthropods can go through rugged terrains high-efficiently and stably, which gives us innovative ideas and adequate theories for designing bionic legged-robots or mobile platforms. Therefore, the biomechanics analysis of legged-animals during their locomotion on a terrain is highly significant in many biological or biorobotics disciplines. The locomotion mechanism of the Chinese mitten crab, which originated from the Far East and predominantly lived along rocky shores or in freshwater, as a typical arthropod, was studied using the experimental methods of biomechanics. In the present study, 30 tested Chinese mitten crabs (Eriocheir sinensis Milne-Edwards) were collected from Yangcheng Lake in China. The body mass of the crabs was measured with an electronic balance (accuracy=0.001 g) and the location of the center of mass on the dorsal carapace for each crab was determined with a suspended test. In order to capture the video images of the movements of Chinese mitten crabs’ locomotion on a smooth terrain, we designed a high speed 3-D (three-dimension) including

  17. PRELIMINARY STUDY ON SPERM AS VECTOR FOR INTRODUCING FOREIGN DNA INTO CHINESE MITTEN CRAB (ERIOCHEIR SINENSIS)%以精子为载体把外源DNA导入中华绒螯蟹的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘向宇; 王铁辉; 张菁; 邱涛; 陆仁后

    2002-01-01

    @@ The study of crustacean genetics and breeding has been received more and more attention due to the rapid development of the shrimp and crab aquaculture. Chromosome set manipulation on shrimp and crab[1][2],and the work on transgenic shrimp[3][4]have got some progress. However, there is no transgenic research reported on crab to our knowledge. The purpose of this paper is to study the feasibility of using sperm as vector to introduce foreign DNA into Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis H.milne-Edwards), an economically important crab in China.

  18. Expression patterns of two heat-shock cognate 70 genes during immune responses and larval development of the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P; Jiang, X F; Guo, W B; Yan, J; Zhou, K Y

    2016-09-16

    Two heat-shock protein (HSP) 70 family transcripts, heat-shock protein 70 cognate 5 and heat-shock protein 70 cognate 3 (designated as EsHSC70-5 and EsHSC70-3, respectively), were isolated from the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis and their expression profiles were evaluated for their responsiveness to larval development and immune challenge in adult crabs. The HSPs exhibited 45-89% identity with other heat-shock proteins, and they shared similar structural features. EsHSC70 mRNA expression was detected not only during infection but also during the developmental larval stages. The EsHSC70s were enriched, and their expression fluctuated during early development. EsHSC70 mRNA expression was significantly induced by Vibrio parahaemolyticus challenge in all of the tissues studied (P < 0.05). Expression of EsHSC70 mRNA in the hepatopancreas and at the early zoeal stages was particularly pronounced, and the two EsHSC70s exhibited differential expression patterns both chronologically and spatially. The EsHSC70-5 mRNA level was significantly downregulated in the intestine and gills compared to that in controls at nearly all time points, and was expressed at a lower level after the bacterial challenge, indicating that EsHSC70-5 and EsHSC70-3 respond to immune challenges. The stage-specific enrichment of EsHSC70 transcripts in crabs suggests that these stress proteins play an essential role during brachyurization events.

  19. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) regulates TNF production and haemocyte phagocytosis in the immune response of Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaowei; Jia, Zhihao; Wang, Weilin; Wang, Lingling; Liu, Zhaoqun; Yang, Bin; Jia, Yunke; Song, Xiaorui; Yi, Qilin; Qiu, Limei; Song, Linsheng

    2017-03-29

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) is a serine/threonine protein kinase firstly identified as a regulator of glycogen synthesis. Recently, it has been proved to be a key regulator of the immune reaction. In the present study, a GSK3 homolog gene (designated as EsGSK3) was cloned from Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis. The open reading frame (ORF) was 1824 bp, which encoded a predicted polypeptide of 607 amino acids. There was a conserved Serine/Threonine Kinase domain and a DNA binding domain found in EsGSK3. Phylogenetic analysis showed that EsGSK3 was firstly clustered with GSK3-β from oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense in the invertebrate branch, while GSK3s from vertebrates formed the other distinct branch. EsGSK3 mRNA transcripts could be detected in all tested tissues of the crab including haepatopancreas, eyestalk, muscle, gonad, haemocytes and haematopoietic tissue with the highest expression level in haepatopancreas. And EsGSK3 protein was mostly detected in the cytoplasm of haemocyte by immunofluorescence analysis. The expression levels of EsGSK3 mRNA increased significantly at 6 h after Aeromonas hydrophila challenge (p  0.05). The mRNA expression of lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α factor (EsLITAF) was also induced by A. hydrophila challenge. However, the mRNA expression of EsLITAF and TNF-α production was significantly suppressed after EsGSK3 was blocked in vivo with specific inhibitor lithium, while the phagocytosis of crab haemocytes was significantly promoted. These results collectively demonstrated that EsGSK3 could regulate the innate immune responses of E. sinensis by promoting TNF-α production and inhibiting haemocyte phagocytosis.

  20. Cloning and Functional Analysis of Histones H3 and H4 in Nuclear Shaping during Spermatogenesis of the Chinese Mitten Crab, Eriocheir sinensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang-Li Wu

    Full Text Available During spermatogenesis in most animals, the basic proteins associated with DNA are continuously changing and somatic-typed histones are partly replaced by sperm-specific histones, which are then successively replaced by transition proteins and protamines. With the replacement of sperm nuclear basic proteins, nuclei progressively undergo chromatin condensation. The Chinese Mitten Crab (Eriocheir sinensis is also known as the hairy crab or river crab (phylum Arthropoda, subphylum Crustacea, order Decapoda, and family Grapsidae. The spermatozoa of this species are aflagellate, and each has a spherical acrosome surrounded by a cup-shaped nucleus, peculiar to brachyurans. An interesting characteristic of the E. sinensis sperm nucleus is its lack of electron-dense chromatin. However, its formation is not clear. In this study, sequences encoding histones H3 and H4 were cloned by polymerase chain reaction amplification. Western blotting indicated that H3 and H4 existed in the sperm nuclei. Immunofluorescence and ultrastructural immunocytochemistry demonstrated that histones H3 and H4 were both present in the nuclei of spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids and mature spermatozoa. The nuclear labeling density of histone H4 decreased in sperm nuclei, while histone H3 labeling was not changed significantly. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that the mRNA expression levels of histones H3 and H4 were higher at mitotic and meiotic stages than in later spermiogenesis. Our study demonstrates that the mature sperm nuclei of E. sinensis contain histones H3 and H4. This is the first report that the mature sperm nucleus of E. sinensis contains histones H3 and H4. This finding extends the study of sperm histones of E. sinensis and provides some basic data for exploring how decapod crustaceans form uncondensed sperm chromatin.

  1. A novel SoxB2 gene is required for maturation of sperm nucleus during spermiogenesis in the Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Jiang, Xue-Hui; Qi, Hai-Yan; Xiong, Liang-Wei; Qiu, Gao-Feng

    2016-01-01

    SRY-related HMG box (Sox) genes are characterized by the presence of a DNA-binding HMG domain and involved in a diverse range of developmental processes. In this study, we identified a novel Sox gene, designated as EsSoxB2-1, from the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis. The EsSoxB2-1 encodes a protein of 259 amino acids, sharing the highest identity with the beetle Tribolium castaneum SOX21b. Unlike insect Sox21b, however, EsSoxB2-1 is intronless and exhibits a gonad-specific expression pattern at both mRNA and protein level. Two core promoters in 5′ flanking region were demonstrated to be essential for inducing transcriptional regulatory activity. The transcription of EsSoxB2-1 mRNA begins in spermatogonia stage, while the translation of EsSOXB2-1 protein initiates at spermiogenesis stage. Interestingly, EsSOXB2-1 protein was exclusively localized in the nucleus of spermatid and spermatozoa even at the end of acrosome reaction, and was bound to the uncondensed chromatin in nucleoplasm of mature spermatozoa. Knockdown of EsSoxB2-1 by RNAi leads to abnormal transformation of the nucleus during spermiogenesis. Together, these findings demonstrated the requirement of EsSoxB2-1 for the spermatozoa nucleus maturation and also suggested that EsSoxB2-1 would be delivered into fertilized eggs along with chromatins as a paternal transcription factor for regulating early embryonic development. PMID:27561408

  2. Molecular cloning and characterization of a cytoplasmic manganese superoxide dismutase and a mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase from Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mengqiang; Wang, Lingling; Yi, Qilin; Gai, Yunchao; Song, Linsheng

    2015-11-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) functions as the first and essential enzyme in the antioxidant system and is ubiquitously existed in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In the present study, both cytoplasmic and mitochondrial manganese SOD were identified from Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis (designed as EscytMnSOD and EsmtMnSOD). The complete nucleotide sequence of EscytMnSOD comprised 1349 bp and consisted of a 5' untranslated regions (UTR) of 43 bp, a 3' UTR of 445 bp and an open reading frame (ORF) of 861 bp encoding a polypeptide of 286 amino acid residues. The full-length cDNA sequence of EsmtMnSOD comprised 990 bp, containing a 5' UTR of 55 bp, a 3' UTR of 278 bp and an ORF of 657 bp encoding a polypeptide of 218 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequences of EscytMnSOD and EsmtMnSOD contained highly conserved MnSOD signature and typical functional domain, and exhibited high similarity with their reported homologues. In the phylogenetic tree, EscytMnSOD and EsmtMnSOD were clustered with their homologues from the land crab Cardisoma armatum. The EscytMnSOD and EsmtMnSOD transcripts were constitutively expressed in haemocytes, muscle, heart, gill, haepatopancreas and gonad, with the highest expression level in gills and haepatopancreas, respectively. The mRNA expression levels of them were all up-regulated in haemocytes with similar profiles after the stimulation of Vibrio anguillarum, Micrococcus luteus and Pichia pastoris. The EsmtMnSOD with low basal expression level responded to invading microbes intensely, while the EscytMnSOD with high basal expression level exhibited mild responses against stimulating microbes. The purified rEscytMnSOD and rEsmtMnSOD proteins exhibited specific Mn(2+)-dependent enzymatic activities, while rEscytMnSOD with lower basic activity displayed higher stability than rEsmtMnSOD. All these results indicated that EscytMnSOD and EsmtMnSOD were efficiently antioxidant enzymes and potentially involved in the innate immune

  3. 断肢再生对中华绒螯蟹蜕壳、生长及相关基因表达的影响%Effects of limb regeneration on molt,growth and related gene expression in Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳武成; 陈娇; 慈元吉; 黄姝; 王军; 王成辉

    2016-01-01

    Summary Limb regeneration is a regrowth phenomenon when limbs of animals are truncated by external forces or self-cut in response to predation,which is a self-protection mechanism formed during the long-term evolution process.Currently,amphibians with tails,and crustaceans belonging to arthropods were intensively studied.The results indicated that the feeding ability,growth and development were greatly affected by regeneration.Molting could be accelerated and the ovary development could be promoted by limb regeneration,inducing expression of the related genes.Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) has the ability of limb regeneration like other crustaceans in its life cycle.However,the molecular mechanism of regeneration for E.sinensis was still unclear.Therefore, study on limb regeneration of E.sinensis can supplement basic biological knowledge for Chinese mitten crab,and provide practical guidance for development of aquaculture industries. A total of 80 juvenile Chinese mitten crabs (40 males and 40 females) were randomly sampled to autotomy treatments with four walking legs (the first and third legs on the left,the second and fourth legs on the right), and the same number of male and female individuals were employed as the control group without any treatment (intact crab).They were separately reared in forty tanks with each of 60 L for two molt cycle,and two crabs with cut limbs(one male,one female)and two intact crabs(one male,one female)were kept in each tank.Body mass, carapace length and carapace width were measured and recorded at the initial stocking stage,and 48 h after the first and second molting,respectively.Meanwhile,the eyes and muscle tissues (regeneration limbs and intact limbs) were collected quickly after the second molt and were stored at -80 ℃ for quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction(qRT-PCR)analysis of myostatin gene MSTN ,insulin-like growth factor-2 gene IGF2 , molting hormone receptor gene EcR,retinoid X receptor gene RXR

  4. Study on genetic variation and adaptive evolution from the native and colonized populations of Chinese mitten crab%中华绒螯蟹国内外群体遗传变异与适应性进化分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成起萱; 周陆; 王成辉

    2013-01-01

    中华绒螯蟹(Eriocheir sinensis)是我国极为重要的土著种类,现已移居到欧洲和北美等地.利用20对微卫星标记对中华绒螯蟹国内土著群体(长江和黄河)和国外移居群体(德国易北河、荷兰莱茵河、英国泰晤士河和美国旧金山湾)的遗传变异和多样性进行了分析.结果显示,中华绒螯蟹国内群体的遗传多样性(等位基因丰富度、多态信息含量和杂合度等)略高于国外移居群体;国内外群体间,以及国外不同群体间存在显著的遗传分化;贝叶斯遗传聚类分析显示国内土著群体、欧洲移居群体和美国移居群体分成明显的3个遗传聚类;主成分分析表明国外移居群体已产生了明显的遗传歧化;荷兰莱茵河群体检测到显著的遗传瓶颈效应.表明中华绒螯蟹在海外的入侵过程中已发生了较为明显的适应性进化.%Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) is a very importantly native species in China. However, this species had been introduced to Europe and North America and had posed great influences on invaded ecosystems because of their rapid expansion. In this study, genetic variation and diversity of the Chinese mitten crab from its native ranges ( Yangtze and Yellow Rivers in China) and colonized regions (Elbe River in Germany, Rhine River in Netherlands, Thames River in UK and San Francisco Bay in USA) were investigated using twenty microsatellites loci. The results found that the native populations possess higher genetic diversity than the colonized populations, and significant genetic differentiation between the native and colonized populations, and among the colonized populations. Bayesian clustering analysis showed significant genetic cluster of the colonized population from the native populations, and also significant genetic variation between the North American and European populations. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated the high level of genetic differentiation

  5. Effects of submerged plants on growth performance and non-specific immunity of Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis)%沉水植物对中华绒螯蟹生长和非特异性免疫力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙丽萍; 宋学宏; 朱金荣; 孟祥雨; 张磊磊

    2012-01-01

    从东太湖采集伊乐藻(Elodea canadensis)、金鱼藻(Ceratophyllum demersum)、轮叶黑藻(Hydrilla verticillata)、苦草(Vallisneria natans)、马来眼子菜(Potamogeton malaianus)5种沉水植物分别制成干粉.在基础饲料中添加15%的干粉形成5种不同的配合饲料,分别饲喂体重为(9.37±0.15)g的中华绒螯蟹(Eriocheir sinensis)60 d,分析沉水植物对中华绒螯蟹生长和非特异性免疫力的影响.结果显示:马来眼子菜组的中华绒螯蟹平均增重率显著低于对照组(P<0.05),饲料系数显著高于对照组(P<0.05),其余4种沉水植物组的平均增重率和饲料系数与对照组无显著差异(P>0.05);各组成活率、肥满度及肝体比差异不显著(P>0.05).沉水植物各组的蟹血清超氧化物歧化酶活力显著高于对照组(P<0.05);与对照组相比,轮叶黑藻组、伊乐藻组和苦草组的中华绒螯蟹血清溶菌酶活性显著升高(P<0.05),金鱼藻组和马来眼子菜组则差异不显著(P>0.05);除马来眼子菜组降低外,其余4种沉水植物组中华绒螯蟹对嗜水气单胞菌的抵抗力强于对照组.因此,除马来眼子菜以外的4种沉水植物对中华绒螯蟹的生长性能无明显的促进作用,但可在一定程度上提高其非特异性免疫力.%The five submerged plants, Elodea canadensis, Ceratophyllum demersum, Hydrilla verticillata, Vallisneria na-tans and Potamogeton malaianus, were collected in East Lake Taihu, and made into dry powders. The dry powders were then incorporated into a basal diet by 15% , respectively, to obtain 5 different mixed diets, and were used to feed Chinese mitten crab ( Eriocheir sinensis ) weighing ( 9. 37 ± 0. 15 ) g for 60 days. The effects of these submerged plants on growth performance and non-specific immunity of Chinese mitten crab were examined. The results showed that the average weight gain rate ( WGR) of Chinese mitten crab in P. Malaianus fed group was significantly lower than

  6. Selectivity of Chinese mitten -handed crab for major weeds in the northern paddy fields%河蟹对北方稻田主要杂草选择性的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕东锋; 王武; 马旭洲; 陈再忠; 白国福; 陈卫新; 于永清

    2011-01-01

    The selection and feeding of weeds and rice were studied in Chinese mitten -handed crab (Eriocheir sinensis) with different body weights of 1 -10, 11 -20, 21 -30 and ≥30 g cultured in net cages disposed in a paddy field. It was found that the crab showed significantly feeding selection of the weeds, the maximal food consumption for wild arrowhead, followed by for Potamogeton and Monochoria grass and the minimal for barnyard grass and rice. The crabs with different sizes were found to have different consumption of the weeds. The crab weighing 20 -30 g had the maximal food consumption of the wild arrowhead, significantly different from the others (P < 0.01 ). The crab over 30 g showed the minimal food consumption of Monochoria vaginalis ,and Echinochloa crusgalli ( P < 0.05 ). The crab weighing 1 - 10 g had the maximal food consumption of the barnyard grass and rice, significantly different from the others( P < 0.01 ).%研究了在稻田中用网箱养殖的不同规格的中华绒螯蟹Eriocheir sinensis对稻田中4种杂草和水稻的选择性及摄食情况.结果表明:中华绒螫蟹对稻田杂草的摄食存在明显的选择性,对野慈姑Sagittaria trifolia var.sinensis的摄食量最大,对鸭舌草Monochoria vaginalis和眼子菜Potamogeton franchetii的摄食量相对较少,对稗草Echinochloa crusgalli和水稻的摄食量最差.不同规格的中华绒螯蟹对杂草的摄食率有所不同,20~30 g的中华绒螯蟹对野慈姑的摄食率最高,与其它3种规格的中华绒螯蟹间存在极显著差异(P<0.01);30g以上的中华绒螯蟹对鸭舌草和眼子菜的摄食率均最低,与其它规格的中华绒螯蟹间存在显著差异(P<0.05);1~10 g的中华绒螯蟹对稗草和水稻的摄食率最高,与其它规格的中华绒螯蟹间存在极显著差异(P<0.01).

  7. Effect of replacing dietary fish oil with soybean oil on growth, non-specific immune response, and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila challenge in Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis%豆油替代鱼油对中华绒螯蟹幼蟹生长、非特异性免疫和抗病力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈彦良; 李二超; 禹娜; 田文静; 江星; 孙立梅; 齐霁; 陈立侨

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, fish oil is the main lipid source in the feed for most species in aquaculture owing to its effective supply of energy and high content of essential fatty acid. The fatty acid especially n-3 HUFA from the fish oil had also been proved to have positive effect on maintaining the immune system. However, the decline of fish oil production from wild fisheries has resulted in a supply shortage and price escalation of fish oil. Therefore, it has been a major challenge to find viable sources of oil to substitute fish oil. Among available vegetable oils, soybean oil has been widely chosen due to its availability, price and abundant content of fatty acid. In this study, we evaluated the effects of diets with different fish oil and soybean oil ratios on grouth, non-specific immune response and disease resistance in Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis). Five isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were for-mulated in which 0%(control:F1), 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100%(F2-F5) of the fish oil was replaced with soybean oil. Juvenile crabs (mean weight 0.27±0.03 g) were assigned to one of five treatment groups (four replicates per group) and fed one of the diets for 42 d. There was no significant difference in the survival rate among the treatments (P>0.05). The weight gain was significantly higher in the F4 group than in the F1 group (P0.05). Serum PO (phenoloxidase) activity was higher in F4 and lower in F5 than the other groups (P0.05). After the feeding experiment, the crabs were infected with Aeromonas hydrophila for 10 d. The first death was recorded in F5, and the crabs in F5 had significantly higher cumulative mortality than those in F1 and F4 (P0.05). In conclusion, complete substitu-tion of fish oil with soybean oil did not affect growth performance, but did reduce the ability to resist disease. Our re-sults suggest that replacement of 75%fish oil with soybean oil in the diet of Chinese mitten crab can improve growth with little effect on disease resistance.%

  8. 果胶和木聚糖对中华绒螯蟹生长性能和消化生理的影响%Effects of Pectin and Xylan on Growth Performance and Digestive Physiology of Chinese Mitten Crab ( Eriocheir sinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴韬; 张振龙; 蔡春芳; 叶元土; 李婷; 朱健明

    2015-01-01

    To reveal the potential anti-nutritional effects of non-starch polysaccharides ( NSPs) in plant feed in-gredients, the effects of pectin and xylan on growth performance and digestive physiology of Chinese mitten crab ( Eriocheir sinensis) were studied. The pectin, enzymatic hydrolysis pectin, wheat bran ( xylan source) and enzymatic hydrolysis wheat bran were supplied into the experimental diets at 8%, 8%, 30% and 30%, re-spectively. Chinese mitten crab with an initial body weight of (5.9±0.4) g were over-fed experimental diets for eight weeks. Each experimental diet had 3 replicates with 50 crabs. Chinese mitten crab with an initial body weight of (42.0±2.1) g were used to digestion rate experiments. Each experimental diet had 3 replicates with 15 crabs. The results showed that no significant difference in growth performance of Chinese mitten crab was detected among groups ( P>0. 05 ) . The contents of serum cholesterol ( CHO ) , high density lipoprotein ( HDL) and low density lipoprotein ( LDL) of crabs fed the diet containing pectin were significantly lower than that of crabs fed the diets containing enzymatic hydrolysis pectin, xylan and enzymatic hydrolysis xylan ( P0.05) . Hepatopancreas trypsin activity of crabs fed the diet containing pectin was significantly lower than that of crabs fed the diet con-taining enzymatic hydrolysis pectin ( P0.05) , but both of them were significantly higher than of crabs fed the diet containing enzymatic hydrolysis pectin ( P0.05). 果胶组血清胆固醇( CHO)、高密度脂蛋白( HDL)和低密度脂蛋白( LDL)含量显著低于酶解果胶组、木聚糖组和酶解木聚糖组(P0.05). 果胶组肝胰腺胰蛋白酶活性显著低于酶解果胶组( P0.05) ,但均显著高于酶解果胶组(P<0.05). 木聚糖组肝胰腺淀粉酶活性显著低于酶解木聚糖组(P<0.05). 中华绒螯蟹对饲料中干物质、蛋白质和脂肪的表观消化率均呈现果胶组<酶解果胶组<木聚糖组<酶解木聚糖组的

  9. PRELIMINARY STUDIES ON THE CORRELATION BETWEEN MICROSATELLITE MARKERS AND GROWTH TRAITS IN CHINESE MITTEN CRAB (ERIOCHEIR SINENSIS)%中华绒螯蟹微卫星标记与生长性状相关性的初步分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴滟; 付春鹏; 蒋速飞; 傅洪拓; 乔慧; 龚永生; 熊贻伟

    2011-01-01

    Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis), belong to order Brachyura, family Grapsiodea, is one of the most important species for aquaculture in China with an annual cultured production of about 518357 tons, especially in the Yangtze River valley. Chinese mitten crab has three main strains in China, including Yangtze River strain, Liaohe River strain and Oujiang River strain. The strain of Yangtze River exhibited excellent economical characters and is the best strain for aquaculture. However, genetic degeneration, such as low growth rate, small body size, weak disease-resistance,etc., emerged in Chinese mitten crab with the rapid development of its farming scale. Microsatellite marker is a very useful and powerful molecular marker due to its highly polymorphism, stable and co-dominance and it was widely applicated in researches of genetic diversity, kin discrimination, strain identification, genetic linkage map construction,trait-related marker screening, genetic evaluation, molecular taxonomy and so on. In this paper, Chinese mitten crabs of the Yangtze River strain were cultured in a 0.5 ha pond and 100 individuals were sampled at the same time in November.The growth traits of all individuals, including body weight, body width and body height, were measured separately. The results indicated that the growth traits were quantitative traits with the characteristic of continuous variation and complied with normal distribution according to the Kolmogorov-Smiromov normality test. Two extreme groups were chosen according to their body weight and used for primary screening of trait-related loci. The 15 individuals weighing more than 155g were selected as "maximal group" and another 15 individuals weighing less than 69 g were selected as "minimal group". Thirty microsatellite loci were used to analyse the differences between maximal and minimal groups.The results of Chi-Square test showed that 4 out of 30 loci showed significant variances of genotypes between groups

  10. Isolation of the sex-associated fragments in the Chinese mitten crab(Eriocheir sinensis) using AFLP technique%利用AFLP方法筛选中华绒螯蟹性别相关标记

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕慧锋; 江学慧; 邱高峰

    2012-01-01

    利用AFLP(amplified fragment length polymorphism)技术筛选中华绒螯蟹性别相关标记,共使用192对引物组合检测中华绒螯蟹雌、雄和雌雄混合3个基因组池的多态性,共扩增出5 376条多态性条带,平均每对引物组合扩增出28条多态性条带,获得88条雌雄差异条带。利用雌雄各10个个体再次进行AFLP验证,共62条差异条带具有性别差异,包括两种情况:(1)有49条条带在雌性的4~6个个体中存在,在雄性全部个体中缺失;(2)有13条条带在雄性4~6个个体中存在,在所有的雌性个体中缺失;其余的26条没有性别差异性。差异条带经回收、克隆、测序,结果发现有些条带包含多个序列,共得到77条DNA序列,其中31条序列与鸟类、两栖类和哺乳类等脊椎动物性染色体DNA部分片段具有同源性,相似区间在22~212 bp不等,其中6条DNA序列与命中序列之间具有生物学相关性。设计特异性的引物在基因组中检测,没有获得性别特异SCAR标记。%In the present study,amplified fragment length polymorphism(AFLP) was used for the isolation of sex-associated markers in the genome of Chinese mitten crab,Eriocheir sinensis.By screening the male,female and male/female mix bulks with 192 selective AFLP primer combinations,we obtained 5 376 polymorphic fragments in total,each combination generated 28 fragments on average.A total of 88 sex difference AFLP candidates were retrieved.Subsequently,the candidates were further verified in 10 female and 10 male individuals by AFLP again.Sixty-two sex difference fragments were obtained finally,and they could be classified into two groups:(1) Thirteen bands were present in four to six male crabs and absent in all female crabs;(2) Forty-nine bands were present in four to six female crabs,but absent in all male crabs.No sex difference was found in the other 26 bands.The sex difference fragments were recovered,cloned and sequenced.The results showed

  11. Review on the osmoregulation and adaptation to salinity changes of Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis%中华绒螯蟹对盐度变化的适应及其渗透压调节的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王悦如; 李二超; 龙丽娜; 禹娜; 张凤英; 陈立侨

    2011-01-01

    Most Decapods species of the crustacean have comprehensive capacity of osmoregulation, and can adapt to a wide range of ambient salinties. It is significant to further understand the underlying mechanisms of their comprehensive ability of ambient salinities and helpful for the inland culture of some marine species by studying the osmoregulation and adaptive capacity of these species to ambient salinity changes. Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis, has been well studied in many aspects related to the physiological responses to ambient salinity changes, and many useful literatures and findings have been accumulated. Therefore, E. Sinensis could be regarded as an animal model for researching on osmoregulation mechanism of Decapods species.The current research on osmoregulation of E. Sinensis is reviewed in the following aspects: 1) Effects of salinity on development, growth and energy metabolism of E. Sinensis. At present, effects of salinity on larval development, growth and survival rates of different periods of larva and juvenile E. Sinensis have been studied. Larval development of E. Sinensis needs saline water, and therefore it can tolerate certain levels of ambient salinity. From zoea to megalopa, the salinity tolerance gradually increases. And at the juvenile period, they are able to adapt to freshwater environment. All these results can provide reference for juvenile crab cultivation. Respiration and excretion are basic physiological activities of energy metabolism in animals, and can reflect the physiological status of animals. Changes of environmental conditions( such as salinity) can lead to changes of energy metabolism, which is reflected by changes of oxygen consumption rate, C02 production rate, ammonia-N excretion rate, 0/N ratio, respiratory quotient and C/N ratio etc; 2) Osmoregulation organs; gills are very important organs and play a prominent role in osmoregulation and ion transport. Antennal gland also can regulate the osmotic pressure, and

  12. 水体 pH 对中华绒螯蟹幼蟹蜕壳生长及其相关基因表达的影响%The effect of pH on the molting, growth and related gene expression in juvenile mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金生; 王军; 岳武成; 陈娇; 黄姝; 慈元吉; 王成辉

    2016-01-01

    为了解养殖水体 pH 值对中华绒螯蟹(Eriocheir sinensis)蜕壳生长及其相关基因表达的影响,在试验室水槽条件下,设定 pH =7、8、9、10(均无水草)为实验组,以种植适量水草(pH 值为8.2~9.1)为对照组,研究中华绒螯蟹幼蟹(均重0.43 g ±0.09 g)在不同 pH 值水体中饲养一个蜕壳周期(37 d)的蜕壳生长及其相关基因(蜕皮抑制激素 MIH,蜕皮激素受体 EcR,维甲类 X 受体 RXR,胰岛素样生长因子 IGF2)表达情况。结果显示,对照组河蟹的成活率和增重率均显著高于实验组,其中, pH10的河蟹成活率和增重率最低。荧光定量 PCR 检测显示, MIH、 EcR 和 RXR 基因在不同 pH 水体的表达存在显著差异, IGF2基因在不同 pH 水体中的表达无显著差异;不同 pH 水体幼蟹的增重率与成活率之间存在显著正相关, EcR、 RXR 与 IGF2基因相互间的表达量存在显著正相关,表明这三个基因的表达具有协同作用。通过对成活率、增重率和基因表达的综合分析认为幼蟹生长的最适pH 为8~9。%In order to investigate the effect of pH on the molting , growth and expression of related genes (MIH, EcR, RXR, IGF2) in juvenile mitten crabs, Eriocheir sinensis, with the average weight of (0.43 ±0.09)g cultured in the in-door experiment closets, tests were conducted with four experimental group of pH =7, 8, 9 and 10 (no water grass) and one control group (water grass) for one inter-molting period (37 days).The results indicated that the survival rate and weight gain in the control group were significantly higher than those in the experimental groups , while the lowest survival rate and weight gain existed in the pH 10 group.The quantitative real-time PCR showed there were significant expression difference in MIH, EcR and RXR genes.Among the different water pH groups , however, there was no significant expres-sion difference in IGF2

  13. Geology and Origin of Europa's Mitten Feature (Murias Chaos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueredo, P. H.; Chuang, F. C.; Rathbun, J.; Kirk, R. L.; Greeley, R.

    2002-01-01

    The "Mitten" (provisionally named Murias Chaos by the International Astronomical Union) is a region of elevated chaos-like terrain in the leading hemisphere of Europa. Its origin had been explained under the currently debated theories of melting through a thin lithosphere or convection within a thick one. Galileo observations reveal several characteristics that suggest that the Mitten is distinct from typical chaos terrain and point to a different formational process. Photoclinometric elevation estimates suggest that the Mitten is slightly elevated with respect to the surrounding terrain; geologic relations indicate that it must have raised significantly from the plains in its past, resembling disrupted domes on Europa's trailing hemisphere. Moreover, the Mitten material appears to have extruded onto the plains and flowed for tens of kilometers. The area subsequently subsided as a result of isostatic adjustment, viscous relaxation, and/or plains loading. Using plate flexure models, we estimated the elastic lithosphere in the area to be several kilometers thick. We propose that the Mitten originated by the ascent and extrusion of a large thermal diapir. Thermal-mechanical modeling shows that a Mitten-sized plume would remain sufficiently warm and buoyant to pierce through the crust and flow unconfined on the surface. Such a diapir probably had an initial radius between 5 and 8 km and an initial depth of 20-40 km, consistent with a thick-lithosphere model. In this scenario the Mitten appears to represent the surface expression of the rare ascent of a large diapir, in contrast to lenticulae and chaos terrain, which may form by isolated and clustered small diapirs, respectively.

  14. Geology and origin of Europa's "Mitten" feature (Murias Chaos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueredo, P.H.; Chuang, F.C.; Rathbun, J.; Kirk, R.L.; Greeley, R.

    2002-01-01

    The "Mitten" (provisionally named Murias Chaos by the International Astronomical Union) is a region of elevated chaos-like terrain in the leading hemisphere of Europa. Its origin had been explained under the currently debated theories of melting through a thin lithosphere or convection within a thick one. Galileo observations reveal several characteristics that suggest that the Mitten is distinct from typical chaos terrain and point to a different formational process. Photoclinometric elevation estimates suggest that the Mitten is slightly elevated with respect to the surrounding terrain; geologic relations indicate that it must have raised significantly from the plains in its past, resembling disrupted domes on Europa's trailing hemisphere. Moreover, the Mitten material appears to have extruded onto the plains and flowed for tens of kilometers. The area subsequently subsided as a result of isostatic adjustment, viscous relaxation, and/or plains loading. Using plate flexure models, we estimated the elastic lithosphere in the area to be several kilometers thick. We propose that the Mitten originated by the ascent and extrusion of a large thermal diapir. Thermal-mechanical modeling shows that a Mitten-sized plume would remain sufficiently warm and buoyant to pierce through the crust and flow unconfined on the surface. Such a diapir probably had an initial radius between 5 and 8 km and an initial depth of 20-40 km, consistent with a thick-lithosphere model. In this scenario the Mitten appears to represent the surface expression of the rare ascent of a large diapir, in contrast to lenticulae and chaos terrain, which may form by isolated and clustered small diapirs, respectively.

  15. Moral Disengagement as Mediator and Moderator of the Relation Between Empathy and Aggression Among Chinese Male Juvenile Delinquents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingchao; Lei, Li; Yang, Jiping; Gao, Ling; Zhao, Fengqing

    2017-04-01

    The link between empathy and aggression is well documented; yet, studies examining potential mechanisms that explain this association are limited. In the present study, we tested the relation between empathy and aggression and examined both the mediating and moderating effects of moral disengagement on this relation among Chinese male juvenile delinquents. Three hundred and fifty-seven male juvenile delinquents from one Chinese juvenile correctional facility completed the interpersonal reactivity index, the moral disengagement scale and the aggression questionnaire. The results indicated that moral disengagement partially mediated the influence of empathy on aggression. Moreover, moral disengagement moderated the relation between empathy and aggression. Specifically, there was a significant negative relation between empathy and aggression at low levels of moral disengagement. However, at high levels of moral disengagement, the relation between empathy and aggression was non-significant. The significance and limitations of the results are discussed.

  16. COMPARISON OF APMP PULP CHARACTERISTICS OF JUVENILE TRIPLOID CHINESE WHITE POPLAR IN SALINE SOIL WITH THAT OF NORMAL 5-YEAR POPLAR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongchun Zou; Guomin Tan; Qun Li; Zimin Zhang

    2004-01-01

    In the paper, differences between the juvenile Triploid Chinese White Poplar TCWP in saline soil and 5-year TCWP in normal soil are compared in terms of their APMP-pulping properties. The results show that the saline planting environment does not show obvious effects on pulping properties of juvenile TCWP.

  17. Complete mitochondrial genomes of three mitten crabs, Eriocheir sinensis, E. hepuensis, and E. japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Huang, Lei; Cheng, Qixuan; Lu, Guoqing; Wang, Chenghui

    2016-01-01

    Taxonomic classification of three mitten crabs (Eriocheir sinensis, E. hepuensis, and E. japonica) has long been controversial. In this study, the complete mitogenomes of the three crabs were reported. The three mitogenomes were conserved in the organization of genes with 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and 1 control region. Nucleotide variations among the crabs were identified in both coding and non-coding regions. In addition, variable numbers of tandem repeats in control region were identified in the mitten crabs. The mitogenome sequences provide a valuable resource to elucidate taxonomic relationship and evolutionary history of the three mitten crabs.

  18. Waterborne exposure to microcystin-LR causes thyroid hormone metabolism disturbances in juvenile Chinese rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zidong; Li, Dapeng; Wang, Ying; Guo, Wei; Gao, Yu; Tang, Rong

    2015-09-01

    Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) has the potential to disturb thyroid hormone homeostasis, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms of MC-LR in fish. In the present study, juvenile Chinese rare minnows (Gobiocypris rarus) were exposed to various concentrations of MC-LR (0 µg/L, 50 µg/L, 100 µg/L, and 500 µg/L) for 7 d. The whole-body thyroid hormone content, the histology of thyroid follicle epithelial cells, the activities of hepatic iodothyronine deiodinases, and the transcription of selected genes associated with thyroid hormone synthesis, transport, and metabolism were analyzed. Following exposure to MC-LR, whole-body concentrations of both thyroxine (T4 ) and triiodothyronine (T3 ) were significantly decreased. The levels of messenger RNA for sodium/iodide symporter, transthyretin, thyroid hormone receptor-α, iodothyronine deiodinase2, and iodothyronine deiodinase3 were significantly down-regulated after exposure to 500 µg/L MC-LR. A significant decrease in ID2 activity was also observed in the 500-µg/L MC-LR exposure group. Moreover, hypertrophy of thyroid follicle epithelial cells was observed after exposure to MC-LR. The results indicate that acute MC-LR exposure has the potential to disturb the homeostasis of thyroid hormone metabolism, leading to a hypothyroidism state in the juvenile Chinese rare minnow.

  19. The Influence of Java Moss on the Growth of Early Juvenile Crab of Chinese Mitten Crab, Eriocheir sinensis%爪哇苔藓在河蟹早期仔蟹发育中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴仲庆

    2000-01-01

    研究了爪哇苔藓(Jubulajavenica)对河蟹(Eriocheirsinensis)早期仔蟹存活率和生长速度的影响.实验结果表明,投放爪哇苷藓的实验组存活率比无水草组高32.44%,平均体重增长快1.679倍.

  20. Effects of pH stress on five non-specific immune parameters of Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis)%pH胁迫对中华绒螯蟹5种非特异性免疫指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙汉; 李义; 王玥; 郭明凯; 俞泉宇

    2011-01-01

    测定了不同pH(4.5,6.0,7.5,9.0,10.5)胁迫1、4、7、10d后中华绒螯蟹(Eriocheir sinensis)血细胞呼吸爆发(RP)、血细胞破碎物上清液(HLS)酚氧化酶(PO)、血清溶菌酶(LSZ)、酸性磷酸酶(ACP)及碱性磷酸酶(ALP)活性的变化.结果表明:在pH胁迫后第1天,pH4.5组的RP活性显著高于对照组(pH 7.8)和碱性胁迫的3个组,pH 6.0组的PO活性显著高于对照组、pH7.5组和pH 9.0组,pH 10.5组的ACP活性显著高于对照组,pH 6.0组的ALP活性显著高于对照组和碱性胁迫的3个组(P<0.05);在pH胁迫后第7天,pH 6.0组的RP活性显著高于pH 10.5组,pH4.5组的PO活性显著低于对照组和pH 10.5组(P<0.05);血清LSZ对pH胁迫较为敏感,在胁迫后第1天,pH 9.0组显著低于对照组,在胁迫后第4、7、10天,pH4.5、6.0、9.0、10.5组均显著低于对照组(P<0.05).由此可见,RP、PO、LSZ、ACP和ALP可作为pH胁迫对中华绒螯蟹免疫力影响的重要指标.%The changes of immune factors were examined including the activities of respiratory burst ( RP) of haemocyte, phenoloxidase (PO) in haemocyte lysate supernatant (HLS) , lysozyme (LSZ) , acidic phosphatase (ACP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in serum of Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) at 1, 4, 7 and 10 days after different pH (4. 5, 6. 0, 7. 5, 9. 0, 10. 5) stress. The results indicated under 1 day pH stress that the activities of RP in the group of pH 4. 5 were significantly higher than that in control group (pH 7.8) and three alkaline pH stress groups, the activities of PO in the group of pH 6. 0 were significantly higher than that in control group and in the groups of pH 7. 5 and pH 9. 0, the activities of ACP in the group of pH 10.5 were significantly higher than that in control group, the activities of ALP in the group of pH 6. 0 were significantly higher than that in the control group ( pH 8. 0) and in three alkaline pH stress groups (P < 0. 05). Under 7 days pH stress the activities of RP in the

  1. Social Strain, Self-Control, and Juvenile Gambling Pathology: Evidence From Chinese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Nicole W. T.

    2016-01-01

    Despite recent concerns over youthful problem gambling, few gambling studies have looked into Asian adolescent populations. This study of a stratified, random sample of high school students in Hong Kong is designed to estimate the prevalence of gambling pathology among Chinese adolescents and to examine the relationships between social strain,…

  2. Social Strain, Self-Control, and Juvenile Gambling Pathology: Evidence From Chinese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Nicole W. T.

    2016-01-01

    Despite recent concerns over youthful problem gambling, few gambling studies have looked into Asian adolescent populations. This study of a stratified, random sample of high school students in Hong Kong is designed to estimate the prevalence of gambling pathology among Chinese adolescents and to examine the relationships between social strain,…

  3. Changes during late-stage embryonic development from egg-juvenile to free-living hatchling in Chinese freshwater crab Sinopotamon yangtsekiense (Decapoda, Brachyura, Potamidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Junzeng; Liu, Yan; Cumberlidge, Neil; Wu, Huixian

    2013-05-01

    This study expands on recent reports that direct development in the Chinese potamid freshwater crab Sinopotamon yangtsekiense involves the completion of all brachyuran larval stages (nauplius, zoea, and megalopa) inside the egg case during embryonic development. Detailed studies of embryonic development in this species revealed the presence of an additional larval stage (the egg-juvenile) between the megalopa and the free-living hatchling crab. We described and compared the appendages of the head, thorax, and abdomen of the egg-juvenile with those of the hatchling crab in S. yangtsekiense. Significant differences were found between most of the appendages of these two stages with a soft exoskeleton in the egg-juvenile, no joint articulation, a slimmer appearance, and a lack of setae when compared with the newly emerged free-living hatchling crab. These modifications of the appendages are related to the confinement within the egg case of the egg-megalopa and egg-juvenile during direct development, and the need for the free-living hatchling freshwater crab to move, feed, and respire. In marine crabs, the megalopa gives rise to the first crab stage whereas in freshwater crabs the egg-juvenile follows the megalopa and immediately precedes the free-living first crab stage.

  4. Changes during late-stage embryonic development from egg-juvenile to free-living hatchling in Chinese freshwater crab Sinopotamon yangtsekiense (Decapoda, Brachyura,Potamidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Junzeng; LIU Yan; Neil CUMBERLIDGE; WU Huixian

    2013-01-01

    This study expands on recent reports that direct development in the Chinese potamid freshwater crab Sinopotamon yangtsekiense involves the completion of all brachyuran larval stages (nauplius,zoea,and megalopa) inside the egg case during embryonic development.Detailed studies of embryonic development in this species revealed the presence of an additional larval stage (the egg-juvenile) between the megalopa and the free-living hatchling crab.We described and compared the appendages of the head,thorax,and abdomen of the egg-juvenile with those of the hatchling crab in S.yangtsekiense.Significant differences were found between most of the appendages of these two stages with a soft exoskeleton in the egg-juvenile,no joint articulation,a slimmer appearance,and a lack of setae when compared with the newly emerged free-living hatchling crab.These modifications of the appendages are related to the confinement within the egg case of the egg-megalopa and egg-juvenile during direct development,and the need for the free-living hatchling freshwater crab to move,feed,and respire.In marine crabs,the megalopa gives rise to the first crab stage whereas in freshwater crabs the egg-juvenile follows the megalopa and immediately precedes the free-living first crab stage.

  5. Effects of Calcium and Magnesium Ions on Acute Copper Toxicity to Glochidia and Early Juveniles of the Chinese Pond Mussel Anodonta woodiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongbo; Chen, Xiubao; Su, Yanping; Kang, Ik Joon; Qiu, Xuchun; Shimasaki, Yohei; Oshima, Yuji; Yang, Jian

    2016-10-01

    We evaluated the effects of calcium (Ca(2+)) and magnesium (Mg(2+)) ions on copper (Cu) toxicity to glochidia and newly-transformed juvenile mussels (age 1-2 days) of the Chinese pond mussel (Anodonta woodiana). Acute Cu toxicity tests were performed with glochidia for 24 h and juveniles for 96 h with measured Ca(2+) concentrations of 1.1, 14, 26, 51, and 99 mg L(-1), or measured Mg(2+) concentrations of 2.6, 11, 21, and 39 mg L(-1). The Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) cations provided no statistically significant protection against Cu toxicity to glochidia or juveniles. The 24-h EC50 value for glochidia was 82 μg L(-1) Cu, and contrastly, 96-h EC50 value for newly-transformed juvenile mussels was as low as 12 μg L(-1) Cu, implying that the juveniles of A. woodiana are more vulnerable to Cu contamination at concentrations close to currently-accepted levels.

  6. A transcriptome analysis of mitten crab testes (Eriocheir sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification of expressed genes involved in sexual precocity of the mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis is critical for a better understanding of its reproductive development. To this end, we constructed a cDNA library from the rapid developmental stage of testis of E. sinensis and sequenced 3,388 randomly picked clones. After processing, 2,990 high-quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs were clustered into 2,415 unigenes including 307 contigs and 2,108 singlets, which were then compared to the NCBI non-redundant (nr protein and nucleotide (nt database for annotation with Blastx and Blastn, respectively. After further analysis, 922 unigenes were obtained with concrete annotations and 30 unigenes were found to have functions possibly related to the process of reproduction in male crabs - six transcripts relevant to spermatogenesis (especially Cyclin K and RecA homolog DMC1, two transcripts involved in nuclear protein transformation, two heat-shock protein genes, eleven transcription factor genes (a series of zinc-finger proteins, and nine cytoskeleton protein-related genes. Our results, besides providing valuable information related to crustacean reproduction, can also serve as a base for future studies of reproductive and developmental biology.

  7. Juvenile angiofibroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasal tumor; Angiofibroma - juvenile; Benign nasal tumor; Juvenile nasal angiofibroma; JNA ... Juvenile angiofibroma is not very common. It is most often found in adolescent boys. The tumor contains ...

  8. 我国古代未成年人犯罪刑事立法的启示%On Revelation of Criminal Legislation for Juveniles in Ancient Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘慰

    2013-01-01

    中国古代法律制度深受儒家仁义道德主义思想的影响,对未成年人犯罪的处理就是其中之一,古称“恤幼”。“恤幼”思想认为统治者和社会对未成年人的健康成长负有不可推卸的责任,主张对未成年人犯罪实行不同于成年人的特别宽容制度,在刑事实体法和程序法上都主张对未成年人给予更多的关爱,并将其体现在刑事立法和司法实践中。这些刑事政策和法律规定不仅为当时的未成年人犯罪惩罚、预防工作指引了正确方向,为维护未成年人的特殊利益起到了积极作用,也为当代科学完善未成年人犯罪刑事政策的形成和发展提供了宝贵的资源。%the ancient Chinese legal system was influen ced by the thoughts of the Confucian morality and ideology, the juvenile crime is one of them, which is called "Sympathized-youth”. The thought of "Sym-pathized-youth” tended to the un-removable responsibility of the rulers and the society for the growth of ju-venile, advocating that the juvenile crime was different from special tolerance system for adult, and the more cares and mercy to the juvenile in the substantive law and procedural law and embodied it in criminal legis-lation and judicial practice . These criminal policies and the laws not only guided the right direction for the ancient juvenile punishment and prevention, playing a positive role for the juvenile special interests, but also provided a valuable resource for the scientifically improvement of the criminal policies and development for juvenile crime.

  9. Transcriptome analysis and discovery of genes involved in immune pathways from hepatopancreas of microbial challenged mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xihong Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis is an important economic crustacean and has been seriously attacked by various diseases, which requires more and more information for immune relevant genes on genome background. Recently, high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq technology provides a powerful and efficient method for transcript analysis and immune gene discovery. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cDNA library from hepatopancreas of E. sinensis challenged by a mixture of three pathogen strains (Gram-positive bacteria Micrococcus luteus, Gram-negative bacteria Vibrio alginolyticus and fungi Pichia pastoris; 10(8 cfu·mL(-1 was constructed and randomly sequenced using Illumina technique. Totally 39.76 million clean reads were assembled to 70,300 unigenes. After ruling out short-length and low-quality sequences, 52,074 non-redundant unigenes were compared to public databases for homology searching and 17,617 of them showed high similarity to sequences in NCBI non-redundant protein (Nr database. For function classification and pathway assignment, 18,734 (36.00% unigenes were categorized to three Gene Ontology (GO categories, 12,243 (23.51% were classified to 25 Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG, and 8,983 (17.25% were assigned to six Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathways. Potentially, 24, 14, 47 and 132 unigenes were characterized to be involved in Toll, IMD, JAK-STAT and MAPK pathways, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first systematical transcriptome analysis of components relating to innate immune pathways in E. sinensis. Functional genes and putative pathways identified here will contribute to better understand immune system and prevent various diseases in crab.

  10. Dermatomyositis (Juvenile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Am A Patient / Caregiver Diseases & Conditions Dermatomyositis (Juvenile) Dermatomyositis (Juvenile) Fast Facts Patients with JDM have varying ... What are common signs and symptoms of juvenile dermatomyositis? The most common signs and symptoms of JDM ...

  11. Retinoschisis (Juvenile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... here Home › Eye Conditions Listen Retinoschisis What is Juvenile Retinoschisis? Juvenile retinoschisis is an inherited disease diagnosed in childhood ... degeneration of the retina. What are the symptoms? Juvenile retinoschisis, also known as X-linked retinoschisis, occurs ...

  12. [The different experession of human papilloma viral types 6 and 11 in Uyghur and Chinese juvenile recurrent respiratory papillomatosis in a large pediatric population in Xinjiang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainura, Amrulla; Yalkun, Yasin; Wu, Mei

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the Human papilloma viral types 6 and 11 in a large pediatric population in XinJiang and the different expression in chinese and uyghur pediatric population. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), we analyzed paraffin embedded tissue in 42 cases of juvenile Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis (JRRP)and determined the HPV types 6 and 11, and to correlate these results with retrospectively analysis about those cases who were consecutively treated in our ENT department, meanwhile we carry out a critical review of the literature of JRRP. A total HPV infection positive rate was 97.61% (41/42), and HPV11 positive rate was 63.41% (41/26), HPV6 positive rate was 36.58% (41/15). In uyghur patient HPV11 positive rate was 65.38% (17/26), HPV6 positive rate was53. 33% (8/15). in Chince patient HPV11 positive rate was 34.61% (9/26), HPV6 positive rate was 46.67% (7/15). Juvenile laryngeal papilloma is associated with HPV11, HPV6 infection and we considered that HPV11 infection may be the important guideline of the evaluation of disease prognosis. but no statistical signtificance was determined in the patients of various ethnic groups in Xin jiang (P > 0.05).

  13. Growth performance and gonadal development of pond-reared Chi-nese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) fed formulated diets during the whole culture process%全程投喂配合饲料条件下池养中华绒螯蟹的生长性能及其性腺发育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何杰; 吴旭干; 赵恒亮; 姜晓东; 葛永春; 王幼鹏; 成永旭

    2016-01-01

    Formulated diets are an important factor in the sustainable development ofEriocheir sinensisaquacul-ture. However, no information is available on the growth performance or gonadal development ofE. sinensis based on the formulated diets they are fed in pond culture. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the growth perform-ance, survival, precocity rate of first-year crabs, gonadal development of second-year crabs, crab yield, size dis-tribution, and feed conversion rate (FCR) ofE. sinensis during the first and second years of pond culture when fed formulated diets. (1) During the whole juvenile crab culture stage (first year), no significant difference was de-tected in the growth performance of males and females, the average specific growth rate (SGR) was about 1.9%/d, and growth was rapid from June to September; the mean survival and precocity rates were around 10.0% and 4.9%, respectively, and females had significantly higher precocity rates than males; at the end of the first year of culture, the bodyweights of the precocious crabs and normal juveniles were around 19.8 g and 7.5 g, respectively, whereas the average yields of precocious crabs and normal juveniles were 229 kg/hm2 and 2433 kg/hm2, respectively; die-tary consumption mainly occurred between July and October, which accounted for more than 80% of the total feed consumption, and the feed consumption was related to the crab biomass and water temperature; FCR was around 2.15 for the whole juvenile culture period. (2) During the whole adult crab culture stage (second year), the average SGRs of the female and male crabs were about 1.6%/d and 1.4%/d, respectively, and the males grew faster than the females after June; the final mean body weights of the adult males and females were around 126 g and 181 g, re-spectively; the survival rates of the females and males were 61.30% and 53.47%, respectively, and the overall sur-vival was 58.4%, whereas the yields were around 412.20 kg/hm2 (females), 536.10 kg/hm2

  14. On the History of Critics on Chinese Juvenile Literature Theory%试论《中国儿童文学理论批评史》的学术价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金禾

    2001-01-01

    The History of Critics on Chinese Juvenile Literature Theory, Written by Professor Fang Wei-ping, is the first systematical work on the history of critics on Chinese juvenile literature theory in the world, This paper makes an jective and precise comment on its theoritical contributions, academic characteristics and historical data value.%方卫平教授《中国儿童文学理论批评史》是富有开创性的国内第一部系统论述中国儿童文学理论批评发展史的学术著作。本文对该书的理论贡献、学术特征,以及史料价值作了较为客观、确切的评论。

  15. Effects of acute cold exposure on oxidative balance and total antioxidant capacity in juvenile Chinese soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenyi; Niu, Cuijuan; Jia, Hui; Chen, Xutong

    2017-09-01

    Acute cold exposure may disturb the physiological homeostasis of the body in ectotherms. To date, there has been no information on the effects of cold exposure on homeostasis of reactive oxygen species (ROS) or antioxidant defense response in the Chinese soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis. In this study, P. sinensis juveniles were acclimated at 28 °C, transferred to 8 °C as cold exposure for 12 h, then moved back to 28 °C rewarming for 24 h. We measured the ROS level and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in the brain, liver, kidney and spleen at 2 and 12 h cold exposure, and at the end of the rewarming period. Malonaldehyde (MDA) and carbonyl protein were used as markers of oxidative damage. Turtles being maintained simultaneously at 28 °C were used as the control group. Cold exposure did not disturb the ROS balance in all 4 tissues, while rewarming raised the ROS level in the brain and kidney of P. sinensis. Cold exposure and rewarming decreased the TAC in the brain, liver and spleen but did not change the TAC in the kidney. MDA and carbonyl protein levels did not increase during the treatment, indicating no oxidative damage in all 4 tissues of P. sinensis. Our results indicated that extreme cold exposure did not impact the inner oxidative balance of P. sinensis, but more ROS was produced during rewarming. P. sinensis showed good tolerance to the harsh temperature change through effective protection of its antioxidant defense system to oxidative damage. This study provides basic data on the stress biology of P. sinensis. © 2016 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  16. Juvenile Scleroderma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile Scleroderma INTRODUCTION Every parent will experience a moment of panic when told their child has scleroderma. ... in all their family members as well. CONCLUSION Juvenile scleroderma can be unsettling for the child and ...

  17. [Role of magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of juvenile dermato-myositis and polymyositis in Chinese children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, J M; Wu, F Q; Zhou, Z X; Yuan, X Y; Su, G X; Li, S N; Yan, Y C; Zhu, J; Kang, M

    2016-10-02

    Objective: To evaluate the utility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in diagnosis of juvenile dermatomyositis and polymyositis (JDM-PM) in children. Method: Fifty-four patients with JDM-PM in the active stage were enrolled in the study group. Twelve patients with benign acute childhood myositis and forty patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) complicated with myositis were enrolled as controls. MRI imaging of thighs was performed in all patients, fast spin echo T1WI, T2WI, and STIR were obtained in all patients.Muscle biopsy was performed in 41/54 patients with JDM-PM. We compared the value of MRI in diagnosis of JDM-PM with muscle biopsy, electromyography and serum aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), creatine kinase (CK), isoenzyme of creatine kinase (CKMB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (HBDH) levels. Continuous normally distributed variables were reported as means and continuous non-normally distributed variables as median. Chi-square test and Fisher exact test were used to test differences between MRI and other categorical variables. Result: A total of 54 patients were included. Twenty-seven patients were male and the others were female. Average age of the patients was (7.1±3.5) years (2-13 years); 45(83%) paitests were JDM cases and 9(17%) patients had JPM. All patients had MRI examination. Of the 54 patients, 53 had multiple myositis; 10 out of 50 (19%) patients received second MRI after treatment, 6 out of 10 patients had normal findings, 4 patients showed obviously improved images; 41 out of 54 patients underwent muscle biopsy; 22 out of 41 patients had inflammatory cells infiltration and muscle fiber degeneration. The results of the muscle enzyme tests are as follows: 27 (50%) patients had elevated AST, 24 (44%) patients had elevated ALT, 22 (41%) patients had elevated CK, 18(33%) patients had elevated CKMB, and LDH rose in 30 (56%) patients, HBDH rose in 28(52%) patients. These results

  18. Changes in Juvenile Justice in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Dennis S. W.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses rising juvenile and youth crime in China, highlighting the essence of Chinese Marxist criminological thought and changing conceptions of delinquency from the postrevolutionary period to the present; examining official responses to delinquency and the recent development of juvenile justice; and suggesting that current delinquency control…

  19. Juvenile Judge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    SHANG Xiuyun was among the first sitting judges when the juvenile court was set up in Beijing 10 years ago. With enriched experience she has altered the way judges ask questions in court. She began the practice of inviting juvenile offenders, their parents, relatives, friends and teachers to the juvenile court to work hand in hand in dealing with cases: Facing their relatives and friends and hearing their heartfelt words, juvenile offenders would often be touched, thus bringing forth a positive attitude toward life.

  20. Juvenile Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile arthritis (JA) is arthritis that happens in children. It causes joint swelling, pain, stiffness, and loss of motion. It can affect any joint, but ... of JA that children get is juvenile idiopathic arthritis. There are several other forms of arthritis affecting ...

  1. [Juvenile scleroderma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mâcedo, Patrícia Andrade; Shinjo, Samuel Katsuyuki; Goldenstein-Schainberg, Cláudia

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile scleroderma is a rare childhood condition characterized by fibrosis of the skin and internal organs. Clinical manifestations of childhood scleroderma are different from adult disease and early recognition, correct classification and treatment can improve long-term outcome. This review explores the most recent actualizations on clinical manifestations, classification criteria, treatment options and prognosis of juvenile scleroderma. There are two main forms of the disease: localized scleroderma and systemic sclerosis. Localized scleroderma is the most common form in children and mostly restricted to the skin. Juvenile diffuse systemic sclerosis is related to visceral involvement and cardiac disease which is the main cause of death in these patients. The outcome of juvenile systemic sclerosis is better compared with the adult form. Treatment remains a medical challenge and the EULAR task force proposed an approach to juvenile scleroderma treatment based on expert's opinion and guidelines used for the treatment of adults. Larger studies on childhood scleroderma are warranted.

  2. Juvenile Prostitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csapo, Marg

    1986-01-01

    Recent research and Canadian government committee reports concerning juvenile prostitution are reviewed. Proposals are made in the realms of law and social policy; and existing programs are described. (DB)

  3. Juvenile Prostitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csapo, Marg

    1986-01-01

    Recent research and Canadian government committee reports concerning juvenile prostitution are reviewed. Proposals are made in the realms of law and social policy; and existing programs are described. (DB)

  4. Juvenile myasthenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević-Pogančev Marija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Juvenile myasthenia is a chronic autoimmune neuromuscular disease characterized by varying degrees of fluctuating, painless muscle weakness and rapid fatigue of any muscles under voluntary control. Juvenile myasthenia is a form of myasthenia appearing in adolescent age, representing 10% to 15% of all cases of myasthenia gravis. Juvenile myasthenia is presented by a defect in the transmission of nerve impulses to muscles, resulting from a breakdown in the normal communication between nerves and muscles. In myasthenia, antibodies produced by the body’s own immune system block, alter, or destroy the receptors for acetylcholine. Juvenile myasthenia is neither directly inherited nor is it contagious. Signs and Symptoms. The first noticeable symptoms may be eye muscle weakness, difficulty in swallowing, or slurred speech. Juvenile myasthenia usually affects muscles innervated by the cranial nerves (face, lips, tongue, neck and throat, but it can affect any muscle group. Symptoms vary in type and severity with typical periods of exacerbation interspersed with periods of remission. When the muscles necessary for breathing are affected, a patient is said to be in a myasthenic crisis, which is a life-threatening situation. Disease Outcome and Treatment. Juvenile myasthenia produces sporadic but progressive weakness and abnormal fatigability of striated (skeletal muscles, exacerbated by exercise and repeated movement, but improved by rest and anticholinesterase drugs. Juvenile myasthenia follows an unpredictable course of recurring exacerbations and periodic remissions. With current therapies, however, most cases of juvenile myasthenia are not as serious as the name implies. Although there is no known cure, drug treatment has improved prognosis and allows patients to lead relatively normal lives, except during exacerbations.

  5. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA); Juvenile chronic polyarthritis; Still disease; Juvenile spondyloarthritis ... The cause of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is not known. It ... illness . This means the body attacks and destroys healthy body ...

  6. Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types of Cancer > Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome Request Permissions Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 12/2015 What is juvenile polyposis syndrome? Juvenile polyposis syndrome (JPS) is a ...

  7. 大鲵幼鲵适宜投喂频率的研究%Suitable Feeding Frequency of Juvenile Chinese Giant Salamander

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨振江; 肖汉兵; 田海峰; 孟彦; 胡乔木; 王芳

    2015-01-01

    Chinese giant salamander (Andrias davidianus) juveniles (18 months old) were reared in 193 cm × 167 cm cement tanks at a rate of 80 individuals per tank and fed in various feeding regimes at water tem‐perature of 19 ± 1 ℃ to evaluate the suitable feeding frequency via grow th performance ,body composition and digestive enzyme activity in an intensive aquaculture .The results showed that there were elevated food intake and digestive enzyme activity in the fasted salamander .The maximal weight gain rate (WGR) and specific growth rate (SGR) and minimal food conversion ratio (FCR) were observed in the salamander fed and fasted alternatively in a 6 day interval ,significantly higher or lower than those in the other groups(P<0.05) .The salamander fed and fasted alternatively in a 2 day interval(S2F2) had high protein content and low fat content ,and there was lower survival rate in the salamander fed and fasted alternatively in a 6 or 8 day interval (S6F6 and S8F8) than that in other groups .When very high survival rate and body nutri‐ents were hoped ,the suitable feeding frequency was of feeding and fasting alternatively in a 2 day interval . If not ,suitable feeding frequency was of feeding and fasting alternatively in a 6 day interval ,which the ju‐venile salamander had relatively high survival rate ,grow th performance and body nutrients .%在温度可人为控制在(19±1)℃的室内,于内壁光滑的面积为193 cm ×167 cm的水泥池中,按照每个池内80尾的密度人工饲养幼体大鲵。测量大鲵试验始末体长体质量,通过生长指标,组织营养成分及消化酶活性对比分析,探究大鲵幼体的适宜投喂频率。结果表明:饥饿处理使大鲵摄食率增加,消化酶活性增强。投喂频率为饥饿6d再连续投喂6d,特定生长率和质量增加率出现最大值,显著高于其他组(P<0.05),且饵料系数最低。投喂频率为饥饿2d再连续投喂2d,蛋白含量高且脂

  8. 浅析我国青少年犯罪的成因及对策%On Causes and Countermeasures to Chinese Juvenile Delinquency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭英勇; 刘麦霞; 尹全娇

    2012-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is considered to be the third big social problems following the drug, environmental pollution and it is featured increasingly with younger age, gangs, violence and others. At present, the problem of juvenile delinquency is the big concern in China, and the numbers, forms and means are embodied with the features to be younger, more violent, more gang crimes, crime motive being more sudden and other new features. After study, we leads to the conclusion that the main reason why the juveniles commit crimes, and puts forward the concrete measures of prevention of juvenile delinquency.%青少年犯罪被认为是继毒品、环境污染之后的第三大社会问题,且日益呈现出低龄化、团伙化、暴力化等特征。目前,我国青少年犯罪问题令人担忧,在犯罪数量、犯罪形式、犯罪手段等方面表现出低龄化、暴力性增强、团伙犯罪增加、犯罪动机突发性强等新的特征。经过研究,我们得出了导致青少年犯罪的主要原因,并提出预防青少年犯罪的具体措施。

  9. Juvenile Spondyloarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmuca, Sabrina; Weiss, Pamela F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review To provide a comprehensive update of the pathogenesis, diagnostic imaging, treatments, and disease activity measurements of juvenile spondyloarthritis (JSpA). Recent findings Genetic and microbiome studies have provided new information regarding possible pathogenesis of JSpA. Recent work suggests that children with JSpA have decreased thresholds for pain in comparison to healthy children. Additionally, pain on physical examination and abnormalities on ultrasound of the entheses are not well correlated. Treatment guidelines for juvenile arthritis, including JSpA, were published by the American College of Rheumatology and are based on active joint count and presence of sacroiliitis. Recent studies have established the efficacy of tumor necrosis factor inhibitors in the symptomatic treatment of axial disease, though their efficacy for halting progression of structural damage is less clear. Newly developed disease activity measures for JSpA include the Juvenile Arthritis Disease Activity Score and the JSpA Disease Activity index. In comparison to other categories of juvenile arthritis, children with JSpA are less likely to attain and sustain inactive disease. Summary Further microbiome and genetic research may help elucidate JSpA pathogenesis. More randomized therapeutic trials are needed and the advent of new composite disease activity measurement tools will hopefully allow for the design of these greatly needed trials. PMID:26002028

  10. Juvenile Justice in Milwaukee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gary L.; Greer, Lanetta

    2010-01-01

    Historically, there have been several attempts made to address issues surrounding juvenile delinquency. The Wisconsin Legislature outlines the objectives of the juvenile justice system in the Juvenile Justice Code in s. 939.01, ?to promote a juvenile justice system capable of dealing with the problem of juvenile delinquency, a system which will…

  11. Juvenile xanthogranuloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R; Ghazali, W

    1992-05-01

    Juvenile xanthogranuloma is a benign cutaneous growth presenting as papules or nodules. It is characterized by an intradermal collection of lipid-laden macrophages and varying degrees of fibroblastic proliferation. We have recently observed two patients with xanthogranulomas: one was found to have a papular type and the second patient had multiple nodular growths. We present these cases, which should be considered in the differential diagnosis of skin nodules.

  12. Genetic Differences of Mitten Crabs Based on RFLP Analysis on Mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase Subunit I (COI) Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Pengfei; WANG Qian; DAI Wei; WANG Xiaomei

    2008-01-01

    The genetic differences of 15 mitten crab populations from 6 river systems in mainland China and 1 population from Russia were studied based on RFLP analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI).The results showed that Tas I-RFLP pattern could be used as a genetic marker to distinguish Eriocheir hepuensis from Eriocheir sinensis, Eriocheirjaponica and Eriocheir leptognathus;genetic distances among 13 populations ofEriocheir sinensis range from 0 to 0.015, indicating that they were different geographic strains;the subspecies status ofEriocheir sinensis and Eriocheir hepuensis (population from Nanliujiang) were considered owning to their genetic distances of 0.02-0.044,indicating that genetic divergence between them was low; Eriocheir leptognathus (population from Nanpaihe, Tianjin) was the most distant taxon with genetic distances value of 0.147-0.195,which could be defined as genetic distances between species in genus Eriocheir.

  13. Dermatomiositis juvenil

    OpenAIRE

    Goldaracena, Pablo; Pérez, Federico

    2008-01-01

    La dermatomiositis juvenil (DMJ) es una enfermedad multi sistémica de etiología desconocida, caracterizada por una vasculitis que ocasiona una inflamación no supurativa del músculo estriado y lesiones cutáneas distintivas. La cobertura de los criterios de Bohan y Peter establece el diagnóstico: exantema patognomónico junto a debilidad muscular proximal simétrica, elevación sérica de enzimas musculares, s...

  14. The Value of Chinese Five Mimic-animal Exercises in Juvenile Motor Quotient Cultivation%中华五禽操培养儿童青少年动商的价值探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张怡; 王厚雷

    2016-01-01

    中华五禽操是江苏师范大学受国家教育部体卫司委托,基于华佗五禽戏养生理念创编的新型广播操健身形式,是对传统校园广播体操的有益补充和创新。笔者依据其创编理念和动作特征认为,全套操在传播传统文化、增强体质健康、提升个人修养、促进认知发展、增强美学教育等方面都将发挥有益的作用,进而使不同生长发育阶段儿童青少年的动商在练习中得到培养和提高。同时对中华五禽操未来的研究方向进行展望。%Entrusted by Sports and Health Division of the Ministry of Education , Chinese five mimic-animal exercises , a new broadcast gymnastics , were choreographed by Jiangsu Normal University on the basis of HUA Tuo ’ s health cultivation principle through five mimic-animal exercises .It was a helpful supplement and innovation to traditional campus broadcasting gymnastics . Its choreograph principle and maneuver characteristics indicate that the whole exercise set will greatly serve to extend traditional culture , strengthen physical health , improve personal accomplishment , promote cognitive development , and enhance aesthetic ed-ucation.Its practice will help cultivate and promote juvenile motor quotient at different growth stages .This paper also prospects the future research orientation of Chinese five mimic -animal exercises .

  15. Microfabricated interdigitated Au electrode for voltammetric determination of lead and cadmium in Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yiwei; Zhang, Wen; Shi, Jiyong; Zou, Xiaobo; Li, Zhihua; Zhu, Yaodi

    2016-06-15

    An in-situ plating bismuth modified interdigitated Au electrode (IAE) was developed for determination of Pb(2+) and Cd(2+) in crab. The IAE was fabricated and used as counter electrode and working electrode. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) was performed with the IAE for studying electrochemical performance, showing clear redox peaks. The key operational parameters were optimized, which were 600 μg L(-1) of Bi(3+) concentration, 0.1 mol L(-1) of acetate buffer (pH 4.5), -1.2V of deposition potential and 180 s of deposition time. Under optimized condition, the linear range of IAE was from 5 to 50 μg L(-1) for both metal ions, with detection limit (threefold signal-to-noise) of 0.74 μg L(-1) for Pb(2+) and 0.86 μg L(-1) for Cd(2+). Finally, the developed sensor was applied to detect Pb(2+) and Cd(2+) in crab extract solutions by standard addition method. The results were in good agreement with outcomes obtained by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

  16. What Is Juvenile Arthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Analgesics for Osteoarthritis (Report from AHRQ) Joint Replacement Surgery: Health Information Basics for You and Your Family NIH Pediatric Rheumatology Clinic Health Information Juvenile Arthritis Find a Clinical Trial Journal Articles Juvenile Arthritis PDF Version Size: 123 KB ...

  17. Juvenile Delinquency: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Carolyn A.

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile Delinquency is a term which is often inaccurately used. This article clarifies definitions, looks at prevalence, and explores the relationship between juvenile delinquency and mental health. Throughout, differences between males and females are explored. (Contains 1 table.)

  18. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, Machteld

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted.

  19. Juvenile Arrests, 2007. Juvenile Justice Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puzzanchera, Charles

    2009-01-01

    This Bulletin summarizes 2007 juvenile crime and arrest data reported by local law enforcement agencies across the country and cited in the FBI report, "Crime in the United States 2007." The Bulletin describes the extent and nature of juvenile crime that comes to the attention of the justice system. It serves as a baseline for comparison for…

  20. Juvenile polyposis syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.A.A. Brosens; D. Langeveld; W.A. van Hattem; F.M. Giardiello; G.J.A. Offerhaus

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile polyposis syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by multiple distinct juvenile polyps in the gastrointestinal tract and an increased risk of colorectal cancer. The cumulative life-time risk of colorectal cancer is 39% and the relative risk is 34. Juvenile polyps have a

  1. Juveniles on trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Kathleen M

    2002-10-01

    This article describes common forensic evaluations requested of juvenile court mental health evaluators. There has been a legal shift toward criminalization of juvenile court, with a greater emphasis on rights, abandonment of the rehabilitative model, and greater movement of adolescents into the adult criminal court. A resulting shift has been the redefinition of juvenile court forensic evaluations toward the specificity of adult forensic work. The challenge for evaluators is to refine their knowledge of the forensic standards and bring knowledge of development, assessment, and diagnosis in juveniles and interview techniques appropriate to juveniles to improve the evaluation and forensic reports.

  2. Juvenile polyposis syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lodewijk AA Brosens; Danielle Langeveld; W Arnout van Hattem; Francis M Giardiello; G Johan A Offerhaus

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile polyposis syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by multiple distinct juvenile polyps in the gastrointestinal tract and an increased risk of colorectal cancer.The cumulative life-time risk of colorectal cancer is 39% and the relative risk is 34.Juvenile polyps have a distinctive histology characterized by an abundance of edematous lamina propria with inflammatory cells and cystically dilated glands lined by cuboidal to columnar epithelium with reactive changes.Clinically, juvenile polyposis syndrome is defined by the presence of 5 or more juvenile polyps in the colorectum,juvenile polyps throughout the gastrointestinal tract or any number of juvenile polyps and a positive family history of juvenile polyposis.In about 50%-60% of patients diagnosed with juvenile polyposis syndrome a germline mutation in the SMAD4 or BMPR1A gene is found.Both genes play a role in the BMP/TGF-beta signalling pathway.It has been suggested that cancer in juvenile polyposis may develop through the so-alled "landscaper mechanism" where an abnormal stromal environment leads to neoplastic transformation of the adjacent epithelium and in the end invasive carcinoma.Recognition of this rare disorder is important for patients and their families with regard to treatment,follow-up and screening of at risk individuals.Each clinician confronted with the diagnosis of a juvenile polyp should therefore consider the possibility of juvenile polyposis syndrome.In addition, juvenile polyposis syndrome provides a unique model to study colorectal cancer pathogenesis in general and gives insight in the molecular genetic basis of cancer. This review discusses clinical manifestations, genetics, pathogenesis and management of juvenile polyposis syndrome.

  3. Changes of enzyme activity in blood and liver of juvenile Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) during starvation%饥饿期间中华鲟幼鱼血液与肝脏酶活力的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯广朋; 庄平; 章龙珍; 黄晓荣; 刘鉴毅; 段明; 侯俊利

    2011-01-01

    将中华鲟幼鱼持续饥饿43 d,每隔6 d采样1次,研究饥饿期间中华鲟幼鱼血液与肝脏7项酶活力指标的变化.结果表明,饥饿期间中华鲟幼鱼血液丙氨酸转氨酶活力波动范围为42.1~134.6 U/L,在第13天与第37天均出现显著下降;天冬氨酸转氨酶活力在饥饿19 d后出现下降,最低值与最高值分别为310.1±52.4 U/L与420.8±83.4 U/L;溶菌酶活力呈现上升趋势,饥饿43 d组与饥饿前期的4个组之间具有显著差异;总抗氧化能力在饥饿19 d后下降至较低水平,饥饿13 d组显著高于饥饿37 d组;肝脏Na-K-ATP酶活力在饥饿前期下降,在饥饿37 d后显著升高,与饥饿前期的4个组之间具有显著差异;乳酸脱氢酶活力在饥饿13 d后显著下降,波动范围为5.101~3.154 U/g;碱性磷酸酶活力呈现上升趋势,饥饿19~43 d的5个组显著高于饥饿1 d组.从总体上看,中华鲟幼鱼生理指标在饥饿19~25 d后产生较大变化,这可能与其新陈代谢与能量供应水平下降有关,在人工养殖与救护工作中应防止中华鲟幼鱼受到长期的饥饿胁迫.%The effects of starvation on the enzyme activity in blood and liver of juvenile Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) were studied. Blood and liver were sampled every six days during 43 days of starvation.The activity of alanine aminotransferase decreased significantly after 13 and 37 days of starvation. The levels ranged from 42. 1 to 134. 6 U/L. The activity of aspartate aminotransferase decreased after 19 days of starvation. The levels ranged from 310. 1 ± 52.4 to 420.8 ± 83.4 U/L. The activity of lysozyme increased generally and there were significant differences between 43-day starvation group and 4 starvation groups of 1 -19 days. Total antioxidative capacity remained low level after 19-day starvation and the level in 13-day starvation group was significantly higher than that of 37-day starvation group. The activity of Na + -K + -ATPase decreased first and then

  4. 摄食对鲇鱼幼鱼力竭性运动后过量耗氧的影响%EFFECT OF FEEDING ON EXCESS POST-EXERCISE OXYGEN CONSUMPTION IN JUVENILE CHINESE CATFISH (SILURUS ASOTUS LINNAEUS)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李可贵; 曹振东; 付世建

    2012-01-01

    为了检验鲇鱼(Silurus asotus Linnaeus)幼鱼力竭性运动(Exhaustive exercise)后过量耗氧(EPOC)是否受到摄食的影响,以阐明其在两种功能状态下的功率配置模式,在(25.0±1.0)℃条件下,分别测定了对照组(摄食前)、摄食组[摄食12 h,摄食水平为(8.74±0.40)%]、摄食代谢恢复组[摄食60 h,摄食水平为(8.84±0.25)%]鲇幼鱼力竭性运动后EPOC及力竭性运动后恢复过程中呼吸频率(Vf)的变化.研究结果显示:对照组、摄食组、摄食代谢恢复组力竭性运动前耗氧率(MO2)显著差异(P<0.05),而Vf差异不显著; 力竭性运动后MO2和Vf均立即达到峰值,随后逐渐恢复到稳定状态; 摄食组的耗氧率峰值(MO2peak)[(222.47±10.14) mgO2/(kg·h)]显著大于对照组[(180.53±6.79) mgO2/(kg·h)]和摄食代谢恢复组[(181.65±10.94) mgO2/(kg·h)](P<0.05),但三个组之间Vf无显著变化; 摄食组的EPOC总量[(42.49±10.13) mgO2]显著小于对照组[(66.58±6.40) mgO2]和摄食代谢恢复组[(53.46±5.80) mgO2](P<0.05).以上结果表明:(1)无论是摄食还是运动任一生理功能均不能诱导出鲇鱼幼鱼的最大的MO2; (2)当摄食和运动两种生理功能同时存在时,鲇鱼无氧运动能力减弱,同时力竭性运动后的恢复过程加快,可能与消化导致的内环境碱化减缓了运动后的内环境酸化有关.%Feeding and exercise are normal, essential components of everyday lives of fish. Under natural conditions, animals often need to undertake these two activities simultaneously and it is important to study the interactions between these activities. Thus, to investigate the impact of feeding and subsequent nutrient digestion and absorption on the metabolic and respiratory recovery processes after exhaustive exercise (chasing) in juvenile Chinese catfish (Silurus asotus Linnaeus) (N=30, body mass: 54.51—86.89 g, body length: 19.51—24.59 cm), the "excess post-exercise oxygen consumption" (EPOC) of the experimental fish

  5. Juvenile giant fibroadenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipul Yagnik

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Fibroadenomas are benign solid tumor associated with aberration of normal lobular development. Juvenile giant fibroadenoma is usually single and >5 cm in size /or >500 gms in weight. Important differential diagnoses are: phyllodes tumor and juvenile gigantomastia. Simple excision is the treatment of choice.

  6. Renewing Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macallair, Daniel; Males, Mike; Enty, Dinky Manek; Vinakor, Natasha

    2011-01-01

    The Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice (CJCJ) was commissioned by Sierra Health Foundation to critically examine California's juvenile justice system and consider the potential role of foundations in promoting systemic reform. The information gathered by CJCJ researchers for this report suggests that foundations can perform a key leadership…

  7. Philanthropist in Juvenile Reformatory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN NIU

    2007-01-01

    @@ On the afternoon of February 1, 2007, Chen Guangbiao, a noted philanthropist, found himself in the Jiangsu Provincial Juvenile Reformatory in Jurong City for a ceremony to donate two buses, 100 computers, and 100 desks and 100 chairs for the juvenile offenders to use in their study.

  8. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, Machteld

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted. Th

  9. Juvenile Confinement in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendel, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    For more than a century, the predominant strategy for the treatment and punishment of serious and sometimes not-so-serious juvenile offenders in the United States has been placement into large juvenile corrections institutions, alternatively known as training schools, reformatories, or youth corrections centers. America's heavy reliance on…

  10. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, Machteld

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted. Th

  11. Juvenile mammary papillomatosis; Papilomatosis juvenil mamaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, M.; Jimenez, A. V. [Hospital Reina Sofia. Cordoba (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    Juvenile mammary papillomatosis is a benign proliferative disease of young patients, generally under 30 years of age. The most frequent clinical presentation is the existence of an elastic and mobile lymph node of the breast. Anatomopathologically, it is characterized because it presents ductal epithelial hyperplasia, sometimes with marked atypia, and there are numerous cysts having different sizes among the findings. It has been associated with an increase in the incidence of breast cancer, both in the patient herself as well as her family. We review the literature on the subject and present the mammographic and ultrasonographic findings of a 22 year old woman diagnosed of juvenile mammary papillomatosis. (Author) 12 refs.

  12. Cryopyrin-Associated Autoinflammatory Syndromes (CAPS) - Juvenile

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cryopyrin-Associated Autoinflammatory Syndrome (CAPS) (Juvenile) Dermatomyositis (Juvenile) Familial Mediterranean Fever (Juvenile) Fibromyalgia Giant Cell Arteritis Glucocorticoid-induced Osteoperosis ...

  13. Juvenil idiopatisk arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlin, Troels

    2002-01-01

    The new classification of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is described in this review. Clinical characteristics divide JIA in to subtypes: systemic, oligoarticular (persistent and extended type), RF-positive and--negative polyarticular, enthesitis-related arthritis and psoriatic arthritis...

  14. Juvenile Rockfish Recruitment Cruise

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 1983, the groundfish analysis project began a series of yearly cruises designed to assess the annual abundance of juvenile rockfish along the central California...

  15. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physical Therapy Regular Exercise en español Artritis idiopática juvenil It may begin with a swollen knuckle, a ... may suddenly appear and disappear, developing in one area and then another. High fevers that tend to ...

  16. Juvenile Sex Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Eileen P; Otonichar, Joseph M

    2016-07-01

    Sexual offending by juveniles accounts for a sizable percentage of sexual offenses, especially against young children. In this article, recent research on female juvenile sex offenders (JSOs), risk factors for offending in juveniles, treatment, and the ways in which these youth may differ from general delinquents will be reviewed. Most JSOs do not go on to develop paraphilic disorders or to commit sex offenses during adulthood, and as a group, they are more similar to nonsexual offending juvenile delinquents than to adult sex offenders. Recent research has elucidated some differences between youth who commit sex offenses and general delinquents in the areas of atypical sexual interests, the use of pornography, and early sexual victimization during childhood.

  17. Juvenile Spondyloarthritis Treatment Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Tse, Shirley; Burgos-Vargas, Ruben; Colbert, Robert A

    2012-01-01

    No specific recommendations for the treatment of juvenile spondyloarthritis have been established. Important differences exist in how spondyloarthritis begins and progresses in children and adults, supporting the need for pediatric-specific recommendations. Recently published recommendations for the treatment of juvenile arthritis consider children with sacroiliitis in a separate group, and allow for more accelerated institution of a TNF inhibitor depending on disease activity and prognostic ...

  18. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    OpenAIRE

    Hoeve, Machteld

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted. The first study addressed a meta-analysis on parenting characteristics and styles in relation to delinquency. In this meta-analysis, previous manuscripts were systematically analyzed, computing mean ...

  19. Vocational Teachers' Role in Serving Juvenile Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meers, Gary D.

    1983-01-01

    Educators need to understand the juvenile justice system to understand what juvenile offenders go through while completing their sentences. This article reviews cases and juvenile charge classifications, and presents a model for alternative sentencing options for juveniles. (JOW)

  20. Trunk asymmetry in juveniles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triantafyllopoulos Georgios

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trunk asymmetry (TA is a common phenomenon in children, but its incidence in juveniles is not known. The present cross sectional study reports TA in normal juveniles and provides data which describe the evolution of TA from early childhood to adolescence. Materials and methods The scoliometer readings in both standing and sitting forward bending position (FBP of 3301 children, (1645 boys, and 1656 girls aged from 3 to 9 years old were studied. TA was quantified by measuring angle of trunk rotation (ATR and children were categorized as symmetric (ATR = 0°, mild asymmetric (ATR 1° – 6° and severely asymmetric (ATR ≥ 7°. The difference of TA between standing and sitting FBP as well as differences between boys and girls in frequency of TA were also calculated. The scoliometer readings were analyzed by age to reveal at which age the juvenile pattern of TA changes into the adolescent one. Results 74.2% of boys and 77% of girls were symmetric (ATR = 0° in the thoracic region in standing FBP, while 82.7% of boys and 84.1% of girls were symmetric in the thoracic region in sitting FBP. Juvenile girls are more symmetric than boys but severe TA was found almost the same between the two genders. A significant reduction in the frequency of mild TA from standing into sitting FBP, in all the examined regions in both boys and girls was found, but in severe TA this reduction is very small. Analysing scoliometer readings by age it appears that significant TA changes take place between 8–9 years of age for boys and between 6–7 and 8–9 years for girls. TA in boys is changing into the adolescent pattern at a later age than in girls. Conclusion Juveniles were found more symmetric than adolescents, who were studied previously in a different study. Furthermore, juvenile girls were found more symmetric than boys. Juvenile TA pattern seems to be in accordance with the higher incidence of juvenile idiopathic scoliosis in boys. Furthermore

  1. Juvenile Incarceration and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnert, Elizabeth S; Perry, Raymond; Morris, Robert E

    2016-03-01

    Addressing the health status and needs of incarcerated youth represents an issue at the nexus of juvenile justice reform and health care reform. Incarcerated youth face disproportionately higher morbidity and higher mortality compared to the general adolescent population. Dental health, reproductive health, and mental health needs are particularly high, likely as a result of lower access to care, engagement in high-risk behaviors, and underlying health disparities. Violence exposure and injury also contribute to the health disparities seen in this population. Further, juvenile incarceration itself is an important determinant of health. Juvenile incarceration likely correlates with worse health and social functioning across the life course. Correctional health care facilities allow time for providers to address the unmet physical and mental health needs seen in this population. Yet substantial challenges to care delivery in detention facilities exist and quality of care in detention facilities varies widely. Community-based pediatricians can serve a vital role in ensuring continuity of care in the postdetention period and linking youth to services that can potentially prevent juvenile offending. Pediatricians who succeed in understanding and addressing the underlying social contexts of their patients' lives can have tremendous impact in improving the life trajectories of these vulnerable youth. Opportunities exist in clinical care, research, medical education, policy, and advocacy for pediatricians to lead change and improve the health status of youth involved in the juvenile justice system.

  2. Extending juvenility in grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaeppler, Shawn; de Leon Gatti, Natalia; Foerster, Jillian

    2017-04-11

    The present invention relates to compositions and methods for modulating the juvenile to adult developmental growth transition in plants, such as grasses (e.g. maize). In particular, the invention provides methods for enhancing agronomic properties in plants by modulating expression of GRMZM2G362718, GRMZM2G096016, or homologs thereof. Modulation of expression of one or more additional genes which affect juvenile to adult developmental growth transition such as Glossy15 or Cg1, in conjunction with such modulation of expression is also contemplated. Nucleic acid constructs for down-regulation of GRMZM2G362718 and/or GRMZM2G096016 are also contemplated, as are transgenic plants and products produced there from, that demonstrate altered, such as extended juvenile growth, and display associated phenotypes such as enhanced yield, improved digestibility, and increased disease resistance. Plants described herein may be used, for example, as improved forage or feed crops or in biofuel production.

  3. DERMATOMIOSITIS JUVENIL Y EMBARAZO

    OpenAIRE

    Evans M,Gregorio; Poulsen R,Ronald; Blanco R,Romiely; Luna V,Viviana

    2002-01-01

    La dermatomiositis juvenil es un desorden inflamatorio crónico multisistémico del tejido conectivo. Tiene una incidencia de 2-3/100.000/año. Con la disminución en la mortalidad experimentada en los últimos decenios, la atención está cifrada en la morbilidad a largo plazo y en las alteraciones funcionales. Con un tratamiento agresivo los niños con dermatomiositis juvenil generalmente tienen un futuro promisorio, sin incapacidad o con incapacidad mínima. La mortalidad actualmente se estima cerc...

  4. Juvenile idiopatiske inflammatoriske myopatier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helga Sanner

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (JIIM is a group of rare autoimmune systemic diseases in children and adolescents, characterized by chronic skeletal muscle inflammation. Unlike in adults, dermatomyositis (JDM is by far the most common of the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies in children and adolescents. The hallmark of JDM is calcinosis, lipodystrophy and vasculitis, findings that differs the juvenile form of dermatomyosits from the adult form. JDM is still diagnosed and classified by Bohan and Peter’s criteria from 1975. There are limited data on long time outcome of this disease

  5. Juvenile Battens Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayton, Romayne

    1987-01-01

    Ten children diagnosed with juvenile Battens disease were tested over a three-year period in general intelligence, memory, listening and speech, motor skills, and general learning. Results showed that the patients followed a predetermined pattern but that the time span for development of memory, communication, and behavior problems varied greatly.…

  6. Juvenile Victimization and Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbensen, Finn-Aage; Huizinga, David

    1991-01-01

    Demographic characteristics of juvenile victims of crime and a potential relationship between victimization and self-reported delinquency are examined for 877 adolescents from a large midwestern city. Lifetime victimization rates (LVRs) are higher for those involved in delinquency, and LVRs rise with age and higher levels of delinquent behavior.…

  7. Juvenile Battens Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayton, Romayne

    1987-01-01

    Ten children diagnosed with juvenile Battens disease were tested over a three-year period in general intelligence, memory, listening and speech, motor skills, and general learning. Results showed that the patients followed a predetermined pattern but that the time span for development of memory, communication, and behavior problems varied greatly.…

  8. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prakken, Berent; Albani, Salvatore; Martini, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is a heterogeneous group of diseases characterised by arthritis of unknown origin with onset before age of 16 years. Pivotal studies in the past 5 years have led to substantial progress in various areas, ranging from disease classification to new treatments. Gene expres

  9. Accumulation and evaluation of heavy metals Cu, Cd and Hg in prey species of juvenile Chinese sturgeons (Acipenser Sinensis) in the Yangtze River estuary, China%长江口中华鲟幼鱼主要饵料生物体内重金属Cu、Cd和Hg的积累与评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧婷; 庄平; 章龙珍; 侯俊利; 张涛; 闫文罡; 冯广朋

    2011-01-01

    In order to discuss the different biological absorption of Gu, Cd and Hg, and evaluate them in food organisms for juvenile Acipenser Sinensis in Yangtze estuary, Macrobraohium nipponense, Acetes chinensis,Taenioides rubicundus, Chaeturichthys stigrnatias and Cynoglossus gracilis were collected and analyzed.Results showed that, individual pollution index (Pi) of Gu in shrimps was less than 0.5, Pi of Cu in fish was more than 0.5, and Pi of Cd and Hg in all selected prey species were more than 1. This indicated that the 5 selected prey species for juvenile Acipenser Sinensis were all contaminated by heavy metals to different extent.The shrimps were contaminated more seriouslly than fish. Compared with the historical data, the heavy metal pollution of fish in Yangtze estuary showed aggravating trend. Heavy metal pollution has been threatening juvenile Chinese sturgeon which migrate to sea via Yangtze estuary.%为评价重金属污染对长江口中华鲟幼鱼生长的影响,在长江口水域采集了日本沼虾(Macrobraohium nipponense)、中国毛虾(Acetes chinensis)、狼牙鳗虾虎鱼(Taenioides rubicundus)、矛尾虾虎鱼(Chaeturichthys stigmatias)、窄体舌鳎(Cynoglossus gracilis)等5种中华鲟幼鱼重要饵料生物,研究了Cu、Cd、Hg3种重金属元素在这些饵料生物体内的积累特征,评价了饵料生物受重金属污染的程度.结果显示,虾类Cu的单项污染指数(P)均大于0.5,鱼类Cu的P均小于0.5;5种饵料生物Cd和Hg的P均大于1.表明它们均不同程度受到重金属污染,虾类的重金属污染程度比鱼类严重.与历史资料比较发现,长江口鱼虾的重金属污染存在加重趋势,重金属污染已对洄游人海的中华鲟幼鱼构成威胁.

  10. 饲料碳、脂比例对胭脂鱼幼鱼生长及糖代谢的影响%Effects of dietary carbohydrate to lipid levels on growth performance and carbohydrate metabolism of juvenile Chinese sucker, Myxocyprinus asiaticus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张颂; 蒋明; 文华; 黄凤; 吴凡; 田娟; 刘伟

    2014-01-01

    [Objective]This study investigated the influences of dietary carbohydrate-to-lipid m( CHO)∶m ( L) on growth performance , feed utilization and carbohydrate metabolism enzymes activities of juvenile Chinese sucker , Myxocyprinus asiaticus to detect the suitable addition proportion of m( CHO)∶m( L) to the diet of juvenile Chinese sucker .[Method]Six isonitrogenous ( crude protein 41%) and isoenergetic (16 kJ/g) diets were formulated to contain with graded levels of m( CHO)∶m( L) (0.29,0.81,1.58, 2.88 ,5.46 and 13.22 ) .Each diet was randomly fed to one treatment of Chinese sucker with an average initial body mass of (4.01 ±0.02) g for 8 weeks.Mass gain rate(MGR), specific growth rate (SGR), body composition and carbohydrate metabolism enzymes activities of juvenile Chinese sucker were detec -ted and analyzed .[Result and conclusion]The mass gain rate and specific growth rate increased initially but then decreased with the increasing dietary m( CHO)∶m( L) , thus reaching the highest in fish fed di-ets with m(CHO)∶m(L) of 5.46, which was significantly higher than those of fish fed other diets (P0.05 ) .Based on broken-line regression analysis of SGR against di-etary m( CHO)∶m( L) , a m( CHO)∶m( L) of 4.65 was proved to be optimal for the growth of juvenile Chinese sucker .%【目的】研究饲料中碳水化合物(CHO)与脂肪(L)比例[m(CHO)∶m(L)]对胭脂鱼Myxocyprinus asiaticus幼鱼生长、饲料利用及糖代谢酶活力的影响,确定其适宜添加比例.【方法】以m( CHO)∶m( L)为0.29、0.81、1.58、2.88、5.46和13.22的6种等氮(粗蛋白质量分数41%)等能(16 kJ/g)饲料,投喂初始体质量为(4.01±0.02) g的胭脂鱼幼鱼8周,测定并分析其对胭脂鱼幼鱼增质量率、特定生长率、鱼体营养成分和糖代谢酶活力等指标的影响.【结果和结论】随着饲料m(CHO)∶m(L)增加,胭脂鱼幼鱼的增质量率和特定生长率先上升

  11. Late Onset Juvenile Xanthogranuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punithwavathy K

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A 19 year old female was seen with multiple skin coloured and hyperpigmented macules, discrete as well as grouped papules and nodules of varying sizes distributed over the face, neck, extensor and flexor aspects of both upper and lower extremities including joints. The trunk was spared. Some of the lesions showed features of spontaneous regression. Investigations confirmed the diagnosis of juvenile xanthogranuloma. Lesions regressed satisfactorily with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy.

  12. Juvenile Incarceration and Health

    OpenAIRE

    Barnert, ES; R Perry; Morris, RE

    2015-01-01

    © 2015. Addressing the health status and needs of incarcerated youth represents an issue at the nexus of juvenile justice reform and health care reform. Incarcerated youth face disproportionately higher morbidity and higher mortality compared to the general adolescent population. Dental health, reproductive health, and mental health needs are particularly high, likely as a result of lower access to care, engagement in high-risk behaviors, and underlying health disparities. Violence exposure a...

  13. Juvenile Ultracool Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Rice, Emily L; Cruz, Kelle; Barman, Travis; Looper, Dagny; Malo, Lison; Mamajek, Eric E; Metchev, Stanimir; Shkolnik, Evgenya L

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile ultracool dwarfs are late spectral type objects (later than ~M6) with ages between 10 Myr and several 100 Myr. Their age-related properties lie intermediate between very low mass objects in nearby star-forming regions (ages 1-5 Myr) and field stars and brown dwarfs that are members of the disk population (ages 1-5 Gyr). Kinematic associations of nearby young stars with ages from ~10-100 Myr provide sources for juvenile ultracool dwarfs. The lowest mass confirmed members of these groups are late-M dwarfs. Several apparently young L dwarfs and a few T dwarfs are known, but they have not been kinematically associated with any groups. Normalizing the field IMF to the high mass population of these groups suggests that more low mass (mainly late-M and possibly L dwarf) members have yet to be found. The lowest mass members of these groups, along with low mass companions to known young stars, provide benchmark objects with which spectroscopic age indicators for juvenile ultracool dwarfs can be calibrated and...

  14. Molecular cloning and tissue expression of the fatty acid-binding protein (Es-FABP gene in female Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Lin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs, small cytosolic proteins that function in the uptake and utilization of fatty acids, have been extensively studied in higher vertebrates while invertebrates have received little attention despite similar nutritional requirements during periods of reproductive activity. Results Therefore, a cDNA encoding Eriocheir sinensis FABP (Es-FABP was cloned based upon EST analysis of a hepatopancreas cDNA library. The full length cDNA was 750 bp and encoded a 131 aa polypeptide that was highly homologous to related genes reported in shrimp. The 9108 bp Es-FABP gene contained four exons that were interrupted by three introns, a genomic organization common among FABP multigene family members in vertebrates. Gene expression analysis, as determined by RT-PCR, revealed the presence of Es-FABP transcripts in hepatopancreas, hemocytes, ovary, gills, muscle, thoracic ganglia, heart, and intestine, but not stomach or eyestalk. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that Es-FABP expression in ovary, hemocytes, and hepatopancreas was dependent on the status of ovarian development, with peak expression observed in January. Conclusions Evidence provided in the present report supports a role of Es-FABP in lipid transport during the period of rapid ovarian growth in E. sinensis, and indirectly confirms the participation of the hepatopancreas, ovary, and hemocytes in lipid nutrient absorption and utilization processes.

  15. A core component of the CUL4 ubiquitin ligase complexes, DDB1, regulates spermatogenesis in the Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, AnYu; Li, XueJie; Wang, YuanLi; Pan, DiYue; Wang, Qun

    2017-02-15

    Studies in mammals have shown that damaged DNA-binding protein 1 (DDB1) is a multifunctional protein that recognizes UV-induced DNA lesions and activates nucleotide excision repair process, and could also be a linker protein for Cullin4 in ubiquitination to regulate cell cycle progression. However, there are few studies of DBB1 in crustaceans. In this study, a cDNA representing the DDB1 gene from Eriocheir sinensis (Es-DDB1) was cloned successfully. The full length Es-DDB1 cDNA comprises 4871 nucleotides, and encodes an open-reading frame (ORF) of 1137 amino acid residues. Bioinformatics' analysis showed that the domains and structure of Es-DDB1 have been highly conserved during evolution. Antibodies against Es-DDB1 and Es-Cul4 were raised using a prokaryotic expression system. Moreover, a co-immunoprecipitation assay showed that Es-DDB1 could bind Es-Cul4 in the testis of Eriocheir sinensis. Furthermore, quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting showed high expression in the testis, particularly during the spermatocyte stage. Immunofluorescence assays showed that Es-DDB1 was mainly distributed in the cytoplasm in the early and middle developmental stages. These results indicated that Es-DDB1 might play a key role in spermatogenesis of E. sinensis.

  16. Identification, characterization and expression analysis of ERK2 in Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis after challenge with LPS and Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haisheng; Lyu, Sunjian; Li, Yiqun; Xu, Jiehao; Lu, Binjie; Zhao, Jing

    2016-05-01

    Farming of Eriocheir sinensis was seriously threaten by the infection of opportunistic pathogens, especially the gram-negative bacterium. In this paper, we analyzed the sequence of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 2 (ERK2) of E. sinensis (EsERK2) and its expression levels after challenge with LPS and Aeromonas hydrophila in both in vivo and in vitro examination. The full-length cDNA sequence of EsERK2 was 2455 bp in size with an open reading frame (ORF) of 1095 bp, encoding the protein of 365 amino acids. It owned a predicted molecular mass of 42.4 kDa and a theoretical isoelectric point (pI) of 5.93. EsERK2 was distributed in all examined tissues including haemocyte, gonad, hepatopancreas, gill, muscle heart, stomach and intestine, but its expression level was significantly higher in hepatopancreas than it in other examined tissues. The expression level of EsERK2 increased significantly after LPS challenge at 2 h (P challenge at 4 h, and then gradually decreased till 24 h (P value at 36 h. According to the immunofluorescence assay and western blotting assay, EsERK2 was found to be distributed mainly in cytoplasm of haemocyte, and its expression level showed a prominent boost in primary cultured haemocytes after challenge with LPS and A. hydrophila in vitro. These results indicated that the expression of EsERK2 was sensitive to the exterior stimulants and its encoding protein might be associated with the signaling transduction in response to exterior pathogens in E. sinensis.

  17. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions juvenile idiopathic arthritis juvenile idiopathic arthritis Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Juvenile idiopathic arthritis refers to a group of conditions involving joint ...

  18. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile primary osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions juvenile primary osteoporosis juvenile primary osteoporosis Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... PDF Open All Close All Description Juvenile primary osteoporosis is a skeletal disorder characterized by thinning of ...

  19. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile myoclonic epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions juvenile myoclonic epilepsy juvenile myoclonic epilepsy Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... PDF Open All Close All Description Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy is a condition characterized by recurrent seizures (epilepsy). ...

  20. Juvenile Justice Bulletin: Aftercare Services. Juvenile Justice Practices Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gies, Steve V.

    This bulletin examines aftercare services that provide youth with comprehensive health, education, family, and vocational services upon their release from the juvenile justice system. Aftercare can be defined as reintegrative services that prepare out-of-home placed juveniles for reentry into the community by reestablishing the necessary…

  1. Clinical and genetic study of juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis in six Chinese patients%青少年型神经元蜡样质脂褐素沉积病6例的临床特点和基因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕鸿雁; 栾兴华; 姚生; 陈彬; 张巍; 许春伶; 袁云

    2011-01-01

    目的 报告6例经病理诊断为青少年型神经元蜡样质脂褐素沉积病(juvenlie neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis,JNCL)患者的临床特点以及部分患者的基因研究结果.方法 总结分析6例JNCL患者的临床特点,并对其中3例患者进行CLN 3基因检查.结果 6例患者,发病年龄为2~7岁,首发症状4例主要为癫痫,2例为视力下降.主要临床表现包括癫痫、视力下降、智能减退.基因检查3例患者均没有发现国外常见的CLN 3基因的大片断缺失,在1例患者发现位于第一外显子的c3G→T杂合突变.结论 国人JNCL具有自己的特点,在CLN 3基因的突变类型方面和其他地区的病例可能不完全相同,也可能存在新的基因.%Objective To study the clinical and genetic characteristics of juvenlie neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis in six Chinese patients. Methods Clinical characteristics of six Chinese patients with juvenlie neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis including age of onset, premonitory symptoms and other symptoms, were analyzed retrospectively. CLN 3 gene analysis was conducted in 3 patients using PCR. Results The age of onset of was 2 ~ 7 years old in the six patients. The initial symptoms included seizure in four cases and impared vision in the rest two cases. The patients mainly presented with seizure, impaired vision and mental retardation. A heterozygous mutation of c3G→T was detected in one of three tested cases whereas CLN 3 gene deletion, a common mutation in the Western country, was not founded in those 3 cases. Conclusions Our data suggest that Chinese patients with juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis may present seizure as the initial symptom and may result from different CLN 3 mutations from those seen in the Western country.

  2. Acupuntura em adolescentes com fibromialgia juvenil Acupuntura en adolescentes con fibromialgia juvenil Acupuncture in adolescents with juvenile fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marialda Höfling P. Dias

    2012-01-01

    be treated with analgesics, amitriptyline and aerobic physical activity. The results before and after acupuncture were compared by non-parametric Wilcoxon test. RESULTS: 38 patients had juvenile fibromyalgia in eight consecutive years, 13 had all information in their medical and acupuncture records. Seven of the 13 patients improved in three parameters (number of tender points, pain VAS and MI. The median number of tender points and VAS was significantly higher before than after treatment with acupuncture sections [14 (11-18 vs. 10 (0-15, p=0.005; 6 (2-10 vs. 3 (0-10, p=0.045; respectively]. In contrast, the median MI was significantly lower before treatment [3.4 (2.49-4.39 vs. 4.2 (2.71-5.99, p=0.02]. None of the patients with juvenile fibromyalgia had adverse events associated with acupuncture. CONCLUSIONS: Acupuncture is a traditional chinese medicine modality that can be used in pediatric patients with fibromyalgia. Future controlled studies are necessary.

  3. Miastenia gravis juvenil Juvenile myasthenia gravis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Papazian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La miastenia gravis juvenil (MGJ es un trastorno crónico auto inmune en el cual existen anticuerpos séricos que al unirse a los receptores de acetilcolin nicotínicos de la membrana muscular de la placa motora alteran la transmisión neuromuscular. El resultado es fatiga muscular precoz con progresión a la parálisis durante estados de contracción muscular iterativos (movimientos o sostenidos (posturas y más raramente parálisis permanente durante el reposo. Los músculos inervados por los nervios craneales, especialmente los extraoculares y elevadores de los párpados, tienen más tendencia a la debilidad muscular persistente que los inervados por otros pares craneales y las extremidades. Las formas clínicas de presentación son generalizadas, oculares y respiratorias. El diagnóstico se sospecha mediante la anamnesia, la fatiga anormal se comprueba mediante el examen físico y la estimulación eléctrica iterativa del nervio que inerva al músculo afectado pero no paralizado. Se corrobora mediante la administración de inhibidores de la acetilcolin esterasa (IACE que al aumentar la cantidad de acetilcolin en la hendidura sináptica, corrigen la fatiga o la debilidad muscular transitoriamente. Se hace el diagnóstico de certeza mediante la demostración sérica de anticuerpos contra los receptores de acetilcolin (ACRA. El tratamiento es a largo plazo sintomático con IACE y etiopatogénico con inmunosupresores, plasmaféresis, gamma globulina endovenosa y timectomía. El curso es crónico. La remisión espontánea o después de tratamiento sintomático o etiopatogénico ocurre entre 1-10 años respectivamente. La mortalidad es prácticamente nula aun durantes las crisis miastenias gracias a la educación de padres, pacientes y público en general sobre el tema, al desarrollo del sistema de respuesta rápida de auxilio domiciliario y las unidades de cuidados intensivos y el empleo de la ventilación asistida profiláctica, plasmaféresis y

  4. 中国传统伦理道德与当代青少年的人格塑造%Chinese Traditional Ethic and the Establishing of the Characters of Modern Juveniles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永智

    2001-01-01

    To train a well-cultivated generation of juveniles, we can learn from the essence of the country′s traditional ethic. For this purpose, we should adhere to four principles of integration:the training of individual character and social responsibility, the developing of a sense of dignity and a quality of truth-seeking and national integrity, the fostering of a vigorously enterprising spirit and a value of producing achievement in society; pursuing moral perfection and all-round personal development.%如何培育当代青少年的人格,中国传统伦理道德中有关人格培育的精华可资借鉴。在人格培育中,应该坚持个性人格的培育同社会责任感的培育相统一;坚持做人尊严感的培育与追求真理、做有民族气节之人的培育相统一;坚持刚健有为的进取精神的培育与在社会群体中建功立业,实现人生价值的培育相统一;坚持追求道德完善与人的全面发展的培育相统一。

  5. Juvenile Dermatomyositis in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Emeka Madu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile dermatomyositis has variable clinical presentations both in and outside of pregnancy. A literature review indicated that optimal maternal and fetal outcomes can be anticipated when the pregnancy is undertaken while the disease is in remission. Poorer outcomes are associated with flare-up of the disease in early pregnancy compared with exacerbation in the second or third trimester, when fetal prognosis is usually good. We present a case of JDM in pregnancy with disease exacerbation late in pregnancy and review of the relevant literature.

  6. Juvenile dermatomyositis in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madu, Anthony Emeka; Omih, Edwin; Baguley, Elaine; Lindow, Stephen W

    2013-01-01

    Juvenile dermatomyositis has variable clinical presentations both in and outside of pregnancy. A literature review indicated that optimal maternal and fetal outcomes can be anticipated when the pregnancy is undertaken while the disease is in remission. Poorer outcomes are associated with flare-up of the disease in early pregnancy compared with exacerbation in the second or third trimester, when fetal prognosis is usually good. We present a case of JDM in pregnancy with disease exacerbation late in pregnancy and review of the relevant literature.

  7. Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larralde, M; Santos-Muñoz, A; Calb, I; Magariños, C

    2001-01-01

    Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis (JHF) is a rare autosomal recessive disease with onset in infancy or early childhood. It is characterized by papulonodular skin lesions, soft tissue masses, gingival hypertrophy, and flexion contractures of the large joints. The light and electron microscopic features are very distinctive. Here we report an 8-month-old boy with characteristic stiffness of the knees and elbows and pink confluent papules on the paranasal folds, and periauricular and perianal regions. He also had hard nodules all over the scalp and around the mouth, and severe gingival hypertrophy. Histologic and ultrastructural features were typical of JHF. Clinical features, pathology, and physiology are discussed.

  8. Juvenile Justice in Rural America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankovic, Joanne, Ed.; And Others

    Producing a much-needed organized body of literature about rural juvenile justice, 14 papers (largely from the 1979 National Symposium on Rural Justice) are organized to identify current issues, identify forces causing changes in current systems, review programs responding to rural juvenile justice problems, and provide planning models to aid…

  9. Juvenile arthritis and uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanski, J J

    1990-01-01

    The association between juvenile arthritis and uveitis is reviewed. Some children with the HLA-B27 related spondyloarthropathies develop anterior uveitis. About 20% of patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) who are negative for IgM rheumatoid factor develop a frequently bilateral, nongranulomatous chronic anterior uveitis. Risk factors for uveitis in JRA patients are: female gender, pauciarticular onset of arthritis, presence of circulating antinuclear antibodies, and the antigens HLA-DW5 and HLA-DPw2. Uveitis is rare after seven years or more have elapsed from the onset of arthritis. The visual prognosis in patients with uveitis is good in 25% and fair in 50%. The remaining 25% develop visual impairment from complicated cataract and/or secondary inflammatory glaucoma. The potential benefit of cytotoxic agents in the treatment of intractable uveitis is outweighed by the risk of serious side effects. The management of secondary inflammatory glaucoma is unsatisfactory, but the results of treatment of complicated cataracts by lensectomy-vitrectomy are good.

  10. Aggressive juvenile mandibular fibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Georgi P; Atanasov, Dimitar T; Anavi, Beniamin L

    2013-01-01

    Aggressive juvenile fibromatosis of the jawbones is a rare tumor presenting as infiltrative mass with unpredictable evolution. We report herein a 17-year-old student with a 6-month history of radiologically proven resorption of a part of the mandible, lingual displacement of tooth 34 and malocclusion. Alveolar ridge resorption and three dark-brown foci in the bone were seen after the tooth was extracted. Histological study showed the tumor tissue to have a bundle-like structure; immunohistochemically it was positive for vimentin, smooth muscle actin, beta-catenin, Ki-67 (5%), and negative for desmin and cytokeratin 34bE12. The golden standard in the diagnostics of desmoid fibromatoses is the nuclear or membrane expression of beta-catenin, which is found in 90% of the cases. Differential diagnosis include mandibular fibroma, well-differentiated fibrosarcoma, fibrosing histiocytoma, and infiltration from adjacent soft-tissue tumor. Aggressive juvenile fibromatosis should be managed by radical excision. Local recurrences are not rare, but metastases do not develop. In rare cases this type of fibromatosis has been known to regress spontaneously. Aggressive fibromatosis is a diagnostic challenge, since it remains in the grey zone between benign and malignant lesions of the oral cavity.

  11. Juvenile justice mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Christopher R; Penn, Joseph V

    2002-10-01

    As the second century of partnership begins, child psychiatry and juvenile justice face continuing challenges in meeting the mental health needs of delinquents. The modern juvenile justice system is marked by a significantly higher volume of cases, with increasingly complicated multiproblem youths and families with comorbid medical, psychiatric, substance abuse disorders, multiple family and psychosocial adversities, and shrinking community resources and alternatives to confinement. The family court is faced with shrinking financial resources to support court-ordered placement and treatment programs in efforts to treat and rehabilitate youths. The recognition of high rates of mental disorders for incarcerated youth has prompted several recommendations for improvement and calls for reform [56,57]. In their 2000 annual report, the Coalition for Juvenile Justice advocated increased access to mental health services that provide a continuum of care tailored to the specific problems of incarcerated youth [58]. The specific recommendations of the report for mental health providers include the need for wraparound services, improved planning and coordination between agencies, and further research. The Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention has set three priorities in dealing with the mental health needs of delinquents: further research on the prevalence of mental illness among juvenile offenders, development of mental health screening assessment protocols, and improved mental health services [59]. Other programs have called for earlier detection and diversion of troubled youth from juvenile justice to mental health systems [31,56]. Most recently, many juvenile and family courts have developed innovative programs to address specific problems such as truancy or substance use and diversionary or alternative sentencing programs to deal with first-time or nonviolent delinquents. All youths who come in contact with the juvenile justice system

  12. Miranda Rights: Implications for Juveniles with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsiyannis, Antonis; Barrett, David E.; Losinski, Mickey L.

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency in the United States has been a persistent concern for decades. Consequently, because more juveniles have been referred to juvenile court and the arrest rate of preteen offenders has increased to almost three times that of older youth, the persistent and often controversial issue of the capacity of juvenile offenders to waive…

  13. Juvenile prison in parallel legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutovac Mitar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for punishment of juveniles occurred from the time when there was no clear line separating them from the adult criminal population. At the same time, the evolution of the juvenile punishment is not in itself involve substantial changes to their criminal status. On the contrary, the status of minors in society did not show serious differences regarding the status of young adults, as well as the adult elderly. On the other hand, on the ground of their punishment is recorded deviations that go in the direction of application of mild corporal punishment. Closing the minor was performed in a physically separate parts of the general penal institutions with the use of a lower degree of restrictions while serving juvenile prison. Due to the different treatment of minors during the evolution of their criminal status leads to their different treatment in comparative law. That is why we are witnessing the existence of numerous differences in the juvenile punishment in some countries in the world. On the European continent there is a wide range of different legal solutions when it comes to punishing juveniles. There are considerable differences in the procedure pronouncing juvenile prison and in particular penal treatment of juveniles in penitentiary institutions. For these reasons, the author has decided to show the basic statutory provisions in the part that relates to the issue of punishment of minors in the legislation of individual countries.

  14. Update on juvenile myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Wendy K M; Kang, Peter B

    2013-12-01

    Juvenile myasthenia gravis is a relatively rare autoimmune neuromuscular disorder. The pathophysiology of juvenile myasthenia gravis is similar to that of adult myasthenia gravis, though there remain important differences regarding presentation and therapeutic options. We review the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and treatment options for juvenile myasthenia gravis. Randomized clinical studies of myasthenia gravis have been carried out primarily in adult populations. As juvenile myasthenia gravis is rare, it has been difficult to collect prospective randomized controlled data to evaluate treatment outcomes and efficacy. A recent retrospective series suggests that, as in adult myasthenia gravis, thymectomy is a viable therapeutic option for selected cases of generalized juvenile myasthenia gravis. This is corroborated by the clinical experience of the authors in a referral center with a cohort of patients affected by juvenile myasthenia gravis over a number of years. Recent studies illustrate that some, but not all, adult research on myasthenia gravis is applicable to children and adolescents with juvenile myasthenia gravis. Adult research can inform pediatric studies, but should not be regarded as a substitute for dedicated research in those populations.

  15. Juvenile chronic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwood, T R; Woo, P

    1995-05-01

    The nomenclature and classification criteria for arthritis in children should be dealt with initially as separate issues, although they are undoubtedly intertwined. The classification criteria should aim to delineate homogeneous patient populations, yet should be flexible enough to incorporate advances in disease knowledge. It should be recognized that arriving at an international consensus for classification criteria will merely provide a set of operational definitions to facilitate research, and not a set of diagnostic criteria. Indeed the only point to obtaining consensus is to begin a process of systematic ongoing review of the criteria. The labels attached to any of these diseases should facilitate accurate communication. In view of the heterogeneous nature of childhood arthritis, consideration should be given to using a broad umbrella term such as juvenile or childhood arthritis only for communicating with the lay public. Medical nomenclature should be formulated to reflect accurately homogeneous subgroups of arthritis, and should not artificially proscribe a relationship between paediatric and adult disease.

  16. [Juvenile idiopathic arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlin, Troels

    2002-08-19

    The new classification of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is described in this review. Clinical characteristics divide JIA in to subtypes: systemic, oligoarticular (persistent and extended type), RF-positive and--negative polyarticular, enthesitis-related arthritis and psoriatic arthritis. In addition to the clinical characteristics, genetic and biochemical differences suggest that JIA could be regarded as a general term covering various diseases. Complications described are uveitis, temporomandibular joint affection and growth disturbances. The therapeutic strategy should be planned individually according to age, subtype and disease activity and carried out as teamwork with several specialties. Drugs showing significant effectiveness in controlled studies are primarily methotrexate and sulphasalazine. An immunomodulating agent, etanercept, a soluble TNF alpha-receptor fusion protein, has shown a promising effect in severe polyarticular JIA refractory to methotrexate treatment.

  17. Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayashree Krishnamurthy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis is a rare, autosomal-recessive disease characterized by papular and nodular skin lesions, gingival hyperplasia, joint contractures and bone involvement in variable degrees. It is a connective tissue disorder with aberrant synthesis of glycosaminoglycans by fibroblasts. We report a 5-year-old female born of first-degree consanguineous marriage who presented with multiple, recurrent, painless, variable-sized nodules. Fine needle aspiration cytology smears and the subsequent histopathological examination from the nodules showed benign spindle cells in a Periodic acid Schiff-positive myxoid background. The disease has a relentlessly progressive course, with most patients surviving only up to the 4 th decade. As of now, there is no specific treatment for this disorder. Genetic counseling is essential to explain to parents about a 25% chance of having a diseased baby in any pregnancy. With the gene being mapped recently, techniques for antenatal diagnosis are likely to be established.

  18. [JUVENILE DERMATOMYOSITIS AND CALCINOSIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhvania, M

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile Dermatomiositis (JD) is autoimmune disease that progresses with time; JD's main differentiated syndromes are rash on the skin, poor function of muscles, and often developing invalidism. If the health practitioners manage to diagnose the JD on an early stage and prescribe the adequate treatment the disease will not progress aggressively. This approach is tangible for practical rheumatology and pediatric. The article aims to present the reasons of the development of the JD and calcinosis. The study based on the description of the patients with JD. There are distinguished the main symptoms of the disease in children: frequent and acute developments of muscles calcinosis, occasionally with diffuse character followed with hypotrophy of the muscles, contractures and invalidism. One of the patient cases that describe the article is the thirteen-year boy with JD indicating repeated sequence of the disease, with diffusive calcinosis, cellulitis followed with secondary infection and impaired vision.

  19. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krupa H Bhatt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA is the most chronic musculoskeletal disease of pediatric population. The chronic course of disease has a great impact on oral health. Temporomandibular joint is involved in JIA causing limited mouth opening with progressive open bite, retrognathia, microgenia and bird like appearance. Joints of upper and lower extremities are also involved. Effect on upper limb function leads to difficulty with fine motor movements required for brushing and flossing. This increases incidence of caries and periodontal disease in children. The cause of JIA is still poorly understood and none of the available drugs for JIA can cure the disease. However, prognosis has improved as a result of progress in disease classification and management. The dental practitioner should be familiar with the symptoms and oral manifestations of JIA to help manage as multidisciplinary management is essential.

  20. Juvenile homosexual homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Wade C; Chan, Heng Choon Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Limited information exists on juvenile homosexual homicide (JHH), that is, youths who perpetrate sexual homicides against same-sex victims. Only a handful of cases from the United States and internationally have been described in the literature. This study, the first of its kind, examines the epidemiology, victimology, victim-offender relationship, and weapon-use patterns in JHH offenders using a large U.S. database on homicide spanning three decades. The data for this study were derived from the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Supplementary Homicide Reports (SHRs) for the years 1976 through 2005. A total of 93 cases of JHH were identified. On average, three of these crimes occurred annually in the U.S., and there was a marked decline in its incidence over the study period. Ninety-five percent were male offender-male victim cases and 5% were female offender-female victim cases. JHH offenders were over-represented amongst all juvenile sexual murderers, similar to their adult counterparts. The majority of these boys were aged 16 or 17 and killed adult victims. They were significantly more likely to kill adult victims than other age groups, to be friends or acquaintances of the victims, and to use contact/edged weapons or firearms. Most offenders killed same-race victims, although Black offenders were significantly more likely than White offenders to kill interracially. A case report is provided to illustrate JHH. Further research is needed to promote our understanding of the pathogenesis, etiology, and associated risk factors for this aberrant form of murder by children.

  1. Do juvenile Amphiprion ocellaris (Pisces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brolund, Thea Marie; Nielsen, Lis Engdahl; Arvedlund, Michael

    2003-01-01

    . This is contrary to the settling mechanisms of the damselfish D. aruanus and D. reticulatus, and of the temperate herring Clupea harengus. Hence the results emphasize the variation of sensory abilities and behaviours in fish larvae and juveniles. It is not an area prone for generalizations.......Juvenile anemonefish Amphiprion ocellaris were tested in two behavioural laboratory set-ups for their ability to visually or chemically recognize conspecifics. Individuals of two other species of anemonefish, A. clarkii and Dascyllus aruanus, were also used as test specimens for recognition....... The results indicate that juvenile A. ocellaris recognize conspecifics visually rather than by olfaction. This is contrary to their finding mechanism of their host anemone. However, the results also indicate that the juvenile A ocellaris are neither attracted nor deterred by the presence of conspecifics...

  2. Bilateral, independent juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkenborg, Marie-Louise; Frendø, M; Stavngaard, T;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a benign, vascular tumour that primarily occurs in adolescent males. Despite its benign nature, aggressive growth patterns can cause potential life-threatening complications. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is normally unilateral, originating...... from the sphenopalatine artery, but bilateral symptoms can occur if a large tumour extends to the contralateral side of the nasopharynx. This paper presents the first reported case of true bilateral extensive juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma involving clinically challenging pre-surgical planning...... embolisation. Radical removal performed as one-step, computer-assisted functional endoscopic sinus surgery was performed. The follow-up period was uncomplicated. CONCLUSION: This case illustrates the importance of suspecting bilateral juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma in patients presenting with bilateral...

  3. Editor's Shelf: International Juvenile Titles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell-Powell, Brenda

    1994-01-01

    Provides an annotated list of international juvenile picture books and notes those that emphasize text over pictures. The 49 titles present international perspectives for educators, librarians, and parents seeking materials with alternative cultural content. The majority are folk tales. (SLD)

  4. JUVENILE RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I N Sartika

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA is the most common rheumatic condition in children. JRA is defined as persistent arthritis in 1 or more joints for at least 6 weeks, with the onset before age 16 years. The etiology of JRA is unknown. Antigen activated CD4+ T cell stimulate monocytes, macrophages, and synovial fibroblasts to produce the cytokines Interleukin-1 (IL-1, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-? and to secrete matrix metalloproteinases, which lead to chronic inflammation due to infiltration of inflammatory cell, angiogenesis, destruction of cartilage and bone with pannus formation. The 3 major subtypes of JRA are based on the symptoms at disease onset and are designated systemic onset, pauciarticular onset, and polyarticular onset. For all patients, the goals of therapy are to decrease chronic joint pain and suppress the inflammatory process. Poor prognostic have been observed in patients with polyarticular onset, rheumatoid factor, persistent morning stiffness, tenosynovitis, involvement of the small joints, rapid appearance of erosions, active late onset childhood, subcutaneous nodules, or antinuclear antibody.

  5. 先天性视网膜劈裂症基因突变型与临床表现型的关系%Association of clinical features of X linked juvenile retinoschisis with new mutations in XLRS1 gene in Chinese families

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马翔; 黎晓新; 赵贵阳

    2011-01-01

    背景研究表明,导致先天性视网膜劈裂症(XLRS)的原因是RSI基因突变,XLRS的不同临床表现型与不同的基因突变类型有关,但基因型与表现型的关系仍不十分清楚.目的研究12个中国人XLRS家系及检测到的11种XLRS1基因突变与临床表现型的关系.方法对12个XLRS家系的28例男性患者(其余3例已死亡)及女性携带者和正常对照者分别进行详细的眼科检查,包括视力、屈光度、裂隙灯及眼底检查,部分患者行全视野视网膜电图(ERG)、眼底血管造影、光学相干断层扫描(OCT)及A/B型超声检查.采用聚合酶链反应(PCR)和单链构象多态性(SSCP)分析,对XLRS1基因突变进行筛查,并对发现异常泳带的PCR产物进行DNA测序,以明确突变位点及突变类型.结果 12个家系的28例男性患者中27例有典型的黄斑及视网膜劈裂表现,ERG检查可见b波振幅下降,b/a波比值倒置.12个家系中检出11种不同的XLRS1致病基因突变,其中有4种新发现的基因突变,即:位于外显子1的移码突变(L9CfsX20);位于外显子5的Asp145His,Arg156Gly和Trp163X突变,并新发现1种非疾病相关多态性(NSP),即位于外显子6的576C→T(Pro192Pro)改变.同时发现位于外显子1的移码突变(22 del T),外显子1与内含子1剪接位点突变(IVSI+2T to C)和Arg102Gln,Arg209His,Arg213Gln突变家系的患者,临床表现为严重型XLRS.结论XLRS1基因突变是导致中国人先天性视网膜劈裂的原因,XLRS的严重临床表现与基因突变的类型及突变位点具有一定的相关性.%Background The main cause of X linked juvenile retinoschisis is mutation of RS1 gene.The phenotype of X linked juvenile retinoschisis is associated with the mutation types of RS1 gene.However,the relationship of genotype and phenotype of X linked juvenile retinoschisis is unclear.Objective The present study was to survey the clinical phenotype of X-linked juvenile retinoschisis in twelve Chinese families with

  6. Juveniles tried as adults: the age of the juvenile matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Jaclyn K; Woody, William Douglas

    2011-08-01

    Serious juvenile crimes require evaluation of a child as a criminal defendant in adult court. In such cases, it is crucial to understand jurors' attitudes, biases, and ability to follow legal instructions and maintain fairness. 308 undergraduate psychology students served as mock jurors, were randomly separated into four groups, and each group read the same realistic summary of a trial with the defendant's age presented as 13, 15, 17, or 21 years. Participants were asked to render guilty or not guilty verdicts and, if guilty, to suggest sentences. Chi-squared analysis indicated 13- and 15-year-old defendants were convicted less often than 17- and 21-year-old defendants, showing that jurors distinguished between juvenile defendants of different ages, but not minors and adults as defined by law. Additional analysis showed that age did not affect sentencing recommendations. Decision processes jurors use for juveniles tried as adults are discussed.

  7. Forensic aspects of juvenile violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, L H

    2000-10-01

    The juvenile justice system was created because it was recognized that youthful offenders needed to be managed differently from adults. They were to receive habilitation services instead of punishment. It is now more than a century since the creation of the first juvenile court. After 67 years, the US Supreme Court, in Kent v United States stated that the model was not working because juveniles in the criminal justice system received no treatment and they had no rights. Because the issue that had been appealed was the lack of rights (not lack of treatment), the Court mandated that juveniles, like adults, be given certain rights. The following year, in In re Gault, the Court expanded these rights. Subsequent Supreme Court cases have dealt with these kinds of issues--that is, whether juvenile offenders are entitled to the same rights as adults and subject to the same penalties. The Supreme Court has never heard a "right to treatment" case, which is the other part of the juvenile court system. Cases have been brought in lower courts (e.g., Nelson v. Heyne, 1972) alleging inadequate treatment services, but no national impact has resulted. Thus, in general, children in the juvenile court system do not have an enforceable right to treatment and can obtain only what services are available in their jurisdictions. The services often are woefully inadequate. Sentencing a youth to probation, with the requirement that he or she participate in counseling or mental health treatment, is meaningless if services are not available. Community-based, model programs that provide effective treatment do exist. They are, as yet, the rare exception rather than the norm and, therefore, are not available to most youthful offenders. Incarcerated juveniles, obviously, cannot avail themselves of community programs. Litigation to give these youth the same rights as adults in penal institutions is not the answer because incarcerated adults don't have a right to treatment, only a right to be free

  8. The Heterogeneity of Juvenile Myositis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rider, Lisa G.

    2007-01-01

    Juvenile myositis is a heterogeneous group of systemic autoimmune diseases, in which clinical and serologic subgroups result in subsets of patients with distinct clinical manifestations, disease courses, immunogenetic associations, responses to therapy, and prognoses. A newly identified autoantibody of unknown specificity, anti-p155, is myositis-associated and seen in up to 20 – 30% of juvenile and adult DM patients. HLA DRB1*0301 and its linked allele DQA1*0501 have been identified as the major immunogenetic risk factor for juvenile and adult DM in both European- and African- American patients, and DQA1*0301 is an additional risk factor in European American patients. Several DQA1 alleles also are protective for juvenile DM. Environmental risk factors are poorly understood, but growing evidence suggests a role for infectious agents and ultraviolet radiation. The current therapy of juvenile DM consists of corticosteroids and other immunosuppressive agents, with the adjunctive treatment of cutaneous manifestations and rehabilitation. Therapeutic trials of biologic agents, including anti-TNFα and anti-CD20, may aid in developing promising new therapies for these disorders. PMID:17317616

  9. Juvenile Correctional Institutions Library Services: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlister, Annette M.

    This bibliography lists citations for 14 articles, books, and reports concerned with library services in juvenile correctional institutions. A second section lists 21 additional materials on adult correctional libraries which also contain information relevant to the juvenile library. (KP)

  10. Juvenile technologies in foreign publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shpagina E.M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article provides the review of foreign publications, concerning the juvenile technologies used in France, Canada, Germany and Switzerland. The paper presents legal, social and psychotherapeutic aspects of juvenile judiciary in foreign countries. The authors paid special attention to the complexity of approaches to young children and teenagers who found themselves in complicated life circumstances or got into trouble with the law. The article gives examples of using the following techniques: cognitive-behavioral intervention, mediation, family therapy (including family background and family history, relations theory, narrative practices, utilization of «emotional intelligence» resources.

  11. Evolution of Juvenile Ankylosing Spondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye.V. Prohorov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Evolution of juvenile ankylosing spondylitis tend to follow a more frequent involvement in the pathological process of elbow and ankle joints, development of enthesiopathies, changes of intraarticular meniscal horns, forming of Baker’s cysts, cartilage flaps and systemic osteoporosis, and total value of all these signs 13 times exceeds thereof in patients with with the debut of disease in adulthood, but for juvenile ankylosing spondylitis vertebral lesion is less common. Age dimorphism of the use of certain groups of drugs and physiotherapy facilities is observed.

  12. On the Prevention of Juvenile Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelekov, V. A.; Kosheleva, E. V.

    2008-01-01

    Crimes committed by juveniles are among the most urgent social problems. Juvenile crime is as prevalent as crime itself is, and it has not been solved completely in any society and cannot be solved through law enforcement measures alone. In this article, the authors discuss the dynamics and structure of juvenile crime in Russia and present data…

  13. School-Related Characteristics of Male Juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapp, Gary L.; Abbott, Gypsy A.

    School-related characteristics of 256 male juveniles under the jurisdiction of a Family Court system were examined by perusing court records and conducting individual interviews with the juveniles. Results indicated that most juveniles last attended eighth grade, more than 81% had failed at least once, and more than half had fought frequently at…

  14. Intensive Reading Instruction in Juvenile Correctional Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jacob L.; Wexler, Jade; Roberts, Greg; Carpenter, Clint

    2011-01-01

    Despite 60 years of evidence linking juvenile illiteracy and delinquency, practitioners and policymakers have been painfully slow in the implementation of evidence-based reading interventions for incarcerated juveniles. We will present the Texas Juvenile Justice Tiered Instructional Model, an evidence-based reading program model created…

  15. Sex Differences in Attributions of Juvenile Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagatun, Inger J.

    This paper is an application of attribution theory to the processing of juvenile delinquents in an attempt to understand the differential treatment of female and male offenders within the juvenile justice system. The paper explores the attributions of juvenile delinquency both by male and female minors, by male and female parents, and by male and…

  16. Do Juveniles Bully More than Young Offenders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Jane L.

    2002-01-01

    Study compares bullying behavior among juvenile and young offenders. Ninety-five male juvenile and 196 male young offenders completed two questionnaires, measuring bullying directly and behaviors indicative of "being bullied" or of "bullying others". Juveniles perceived a higher extent of bullying and reported significantly…

  17. The Juvenile Court: Changes and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feld, Barry C.

    2000-01-01

    Explores the changes in the juvenile court system, in particular, the juvenile waiver and sentencing laws, as it transformed from a social welfare agency into a type of criminal court system for young offenders. Addresses whether states should create an integrated juvenile and criminal justice system. (CMK)

  18. Reforming Our Expectations about Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Pamela F.; Baille, Daphne M.

    2010-01-01

    Typing the term "juvenile justice reform" into a Google[TM] search will result in 60 pages of entries. But what is meant by juvenile justice reform? What does it look like? How will one know when it is achieved? This article defines juvenile justice reform, discusses the principles of effective reform, and describes the practice of juvenile…

  19. Things Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Yip Wang

    Presented in this booklet are brief descriptions of items and activities that are symbolic of Chinese culture. Some of the items and activities described include a traditional Chinese child's outfit, dolls, sandalwood fans, writing and printing materials and techniques, toys and crafts, a Chinese abacus, and eating utensils. Several recipes for…

  20. Mobilizing Communities To Prevent Juvenile Crime. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bownes, Donna; Ingersoll, Sarah

    Through Title V Incentive Grants for Local Delinquency Prevention Programs (Community Prevention Grants), the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) allocated $20 million in fiscal year 1997 to states to complement law enforcement and justice system efforts by helping local communities foster strong families and nurture…

  1. Heavy metals in sea cucumber juveniles from coastal areas of Bohai and Yellow seas, north China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Haifeng; Tang, Shizhan; Qin, Dongli; Chen, Zhongxiang; Wang, Jinlong; Bai, Shuyan; Mou, Zhenbo

    2015-05-01

    The study was undertaken to assess the contents of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Cd, As and Hg) in sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) juveniles from coastal areas of Bohai and Yellow seas in northern China. Sea cucumber juveniles were collected from twenty commercial hatcheries distributed in five coastal cities. The mean concentrations obtained for heavy metals in mg/kg were as follows: Cu (0.179), Zn (2.634), Cr (0.108), Pb (0.065), Cd (0.161), As (0.372), Hg (0.034). All the mean concentrations were below the maximum residual limits set by Chinese legislation, but As in 10 % samples exceeded the safety threshold. Significant differences in contents of Cr, Pb and Hg were found among the five investigated areas. Overall, the heavy metal levels in sea cucumber juveniles were relatively low and more attention should be paid to toxic metals Pb, Cd, As and Hg in future routine monitoring program.

  2. Juvenile Justice and Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassin, Laurie

    2008-01-01

    Laurie Chassin focuses on the elevated prevalence of substance use disorders among young offenders in the juvenile justice system and on efforts by the justice system to provide treatment for these disorders. She emphasizes the importance of diagnosing and treating these disorders, which are linked both with continued offending and with a broad…

  3. Genetics in juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, Heleen Marion

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a non-common disease in children that can persist into adulthood. JIA is considered to be an auto-immune disease. Genetic factors play a role in the pathogenesis. In a new cohort of JIA patients from North-West European descent genetic candidate gene associatio

  4. Juvenile Courts. Creation and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat GONZÁLEZ FERNÁNDEZ

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the creation of Juvenile or Children's Courts in Spain, analysing their reasons and aims, as well as the ethical and political connotations present on their way of acting. Their history and the one of the institutions that complement them is built from the legislation, writings and ideas of their promoters.

  5. Juvenile Diabetes and Rehabilitation Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, J. Blair; Gregg, Charles H.

    1981-01-01

    Severe complications of diabetes are more likely to occur with the juvenile diabetic and problems of psychosocial adjustment are recurring and difficult. Implications for the rehabilitation counselor are discussed in terms of employment considerations, the effects of complications, genetic counseling, and cooperation with other professionals.…

  6. Case Report: Juvenile Tophaceous Gout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyma Gunes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gout is a metabolic disease that manifests as recurrent arthritis. Its incidance increases with age. Clinical findings include recurrent acute arthritis, tophus at joints and tissues, uricacid stones and gouty nephropathy. Tophi is a late period complication of arthritis. In this casereport we presented  a patient with early-onset juvenile tophaceous gout.

  7. Do juvenile Amphiprion ocellaris (Pisces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brolund, Thea Marie; Nielsen, Lis Engdahl; Arvedlund, Michael

    2003-01-01

    . This is contrary to the settling mechanisms of the damselfish D. aruanus and D. reticulatus, and of the temperate herring Clupea harengus. Hence the results emphasize the variation of sensory abilities and behaviours in fish larvae and juveniles. It is not an area prone for generalizations....

  8. [Sex-linked juvenile retinoschisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, P; Turut, P; Soltysik, C; Hache, J C

    1976-02-01

    About 13 observations of sexe linked juvenile retinoschisis, the authors describe the ophthalmoscopic, fluorographic and functional aspects of the disease whose caracteristics are:--its sexe linked recessive heredity; --its clinical characterestics associating: a microcystic macular degeneration, peripheral retinal lesions, vitreous body alterations, --an electroretinogram of the negative type.

  9. Asian Languages Library Materials: Chinese, Pilipino, Vietnamese Bibliographies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Vivian; Yeh, Irene

    The core collections listed in these annotated bibliographies are designed for use by medium-sized public libraries in either creating or expanding Chinese, Vietnamese, or Philippine language collections. The majority of titles for adult and juvenile fiction and non-fiction are given without transliteration. Prices given in the annotations reflect…

  10. Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice. Panel on Juvenile Crime: Prevention, Treatment, and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCord, Joan, Ed.; Widom, Cathy Spatz, Ed.; Crowell, Nancy A., Ed.

    This book discusses patterns and trends in crimes committed by children and adolescents, analyzing youth crime as a subset of general crime and studying the impact of race and gender. It evaluates different approaches to forecasting future crime rates. Data come from a national panel that examined what is known about juvenile crime and its…

  11. A Practical Approach to Juvenile Dermatomyositis and Juvenile Scleroderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Liza J; Pain, Clare E

    2016-02-01

    Juvenile dermatomyositis and juvenile scleroderma are rare multisystem autoimmune disorders. Although they share some pathognomonic hallmarks with adult onset myositis or scleroderma, there are significant differences in presentation, characteristics and associated features when the diseases present in childhood. In view of this, and the rarity of the conditions, it is important for care to be led by teams with expertise in pediatric rheumatology conditions. Prognosis has improved significantly in the West; likely due to early diagnosis and aggressive treatment with immunosuppressive medications. However, this trend is not replicated in the developing world. Early recognition of these diseases is crucial to achieve rapid and sustained remission and prevent disease or medication associated complications. This article aims to provide a practical overview for recognition, diagnosis and treatment of these conditions.

  12. Swimming performance and thermal resistance of juvenile and adult newts acclimated to different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Liang Lu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermal acclimatory adjustments of locomotor performance and thermal tolerance occur commonly in ectothermic animals. However, few studies have investigated ontogenetic differences in these acclimatory responses, and thus, their causes remain unclear. In this study, juvenile and adult Chinese fire-bellied newts (Cynops orientalis were acclimated to one of two temperatures (16 or 24 °C for 4 weeks to examine ontogenetic differences in acclimation effect on burst swimming speed, and critical thermal minimum (CTMin and maximum (CTMax. Swimming performance was thermally acclimated in both juvenile and adult C. orientalis. Adult newts had greater absolute swimming speeds than juveniles, which may simply result from their larger sizes. Cold acclimation enhanced low-temperature resistance, and warm acclimation enhanced high-temperature resistance in both juveniles and adults. Despite no ontogenetic difference in CTMin, adult newts had greater CTMax and acclimation response ratio than juveniles, indicating their greater abilities to withstand extreme high temperatures and manage rapid temperature shifts. Ontogenetic change in the thermal acclimatory responses of newts may be related to changes in the thermal environment they experience.

  13. Effect of Chinese herbal compounds on nonspecific immunity of Cyprinus carpio var. specularis Juvenile fish%复方中草药对镜鲤(Cyprinus carpio var.specularis)幼鱼非特异性免疫功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟兆娜; 陈玉春; 刘敏

    2011-01-01

    在基础日粮(对照组)中分别添加2%由不同比例的刺五加(Acanthopanax senticosus Harms)、枸杞子(L.Chinense Mill.)、金银花(Lonicera japonica Thunb)和黄芪(Astragalus membranaceus)配伍的复方中草药,记为复方Ⅰ、复方Ⅱ、复方Ⅲ、复方Ⅳ,共四个处理组,饲喂镜鲤幼鱼(Cyprinus carpio var.specularis),并分别于第14、28及42天检测其血清中补体C3的含量、血清及免疫器官溶菌酶、NBT阳性细胞及巨噬细胞吞噬能力的活性,以研究本复方中草药对其非特异性免疫功能的影响.结果表明,14 d时,复方Ⅰ组血清溶菌酶活性极显著高于对照组(P<0.01);28 d时,复方Ⅰ、Ⅲ组显著高于对照组(P<0.05).14 d时,复方Ⅰ-Ⅲ组脾脏溶菌酶活性极显著高于对照组(P<0.01);28 d时,复方Ⅱ组显著高于对照组(P<0.05).28、42 d时,各复方组NBT阳性细胞数显著高于对照组(P<0.05).14和28 d时,复方Ⅰ组补体C3含量极显著高于对照组(P<0.01);42 d时,各复方组极显著高于对照组(P<0.01).14 d时,复方Ⅰ、Ⅳ组的巨噬细胞吞噬活性极显著高于对照组(P<0.01);28 d时,各复方组显著高于对照组(P<0.05);42 d时,复方Ⅰ组极显著高于对照组(P<0.01).试验结果显示本试验中的四组复方中草药分别按质量分数为2%的量加到镜鲤幼鱼饲料中,可不同程度提高镜鲤幼鱼的非特异性免疫能力,其中复方Ⅰ组效果最佳.%2% Chinese herbals compounds of different proportion (Acanthopanax senticosus Harms, L. chinense Mill, Lonicera japonica Thunb and Astragalus membranaceus) were supplemented to the basical formulated diet (control group). Four treatment groups were set up to feed Cyprinus carpio var. specularis Juvenile fish. The content of C3 in serum and the activities of NBT positive cells and phagocytosis of phagocyte and lysozyme in serum and immun organs were measured respectively on the 14th, 28th and 42nd day, with the view of studying on the

  14. 8 CFR 236.3 - Detention and release of juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Detention and release of juveniles. 236.3... Aliens Prior to Order of Removal § 236.3 Detention and release of juveniles. (a) Juveniles. A juvenile is defined as an alien under the age of 18 years. (b) Release. Juveniles for whom bond has been posted,...

  15. Uveitis in juvenile chronic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanski, J J

    1990-01-01

    About 20% of patients with juvenile chronic arthritis develop uveitis which is frequently bilateral. Risk factors for uveitis are: female gender, pauciarticular onset of arthritis, presence of circulating antinuclear antibodies, and the antigens HLA-DW5 and HLA-DPw2. The visual prognosis in patients with uveitis is good in 25% and fair in 50%. The remaining 25% develop cataract and/or glaucoma. The management of glaucoma is unsatisfactory, but the results of cataract surgery by lensectomy are good.

  16. Juvenile morphology in baleen whale phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Hsiu; Fordyce, R Ewan

    2014-09-01

    Phylogenetic reconstructions are sensitive to the influence of ontogeny on morphology. Here, we use foetal/neonatal specimens of known species of living baleen whales (Cetacea: Mysticeti) to show how juvenile morphology of extant species affects phylogenetic placement of the species. In one clade (sei whale, Balaenopteridae), the juvenile is distant from the usual phylogenetic position of adults, but in the other clade (pygmy right whale, Cetotheriidae), the juvenile is close to the adult. Different heterochronic processes at work in the studied species have different influences on juvenile morphology and on phylogenetic placement. This study helps to understand the relationship between evolutionary processes and phylogenetic patterns in baleen whale evolution and, more in general, between phylogeny and ontogeny; likewise, this study provides a proxy how to interpret the phylogeny when fossils that are immature individuals are included. Juvenile individuals in the peramorphic acceleration clades would produce misleading phylogenies, whereas juvenile individuals in the paedomorphic neoteny clades should still provide reliable phylogenetic signals.

  17. Juvenile morphology in baleen whale phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Hsiu; Fordyce, R. Ewan

    2014-09-01

    Phylogenetic reconstructions are sensitive to the influence of ontogeny on morphology. Here, we use foetal/neonatal specimens of known species of living baleen whales (Cetacea: Mysticeti) to show how juvenile morphology of extant species affects phylogenetic placement of the species. In one clade (sei whale, Balaenopteridae), the juvenile is distant from the usual phylogenetic position of adults, but in the other clade (pygmy right whale, Cetotheriidae), the juvenile is close to the adult. Different heterochronic processes at work in the studied species have different influences on juvenile morphology and on phylogenetic placement. This study helps to understand the relationship between evolutionary processes and phylogenetic patterns in baleen whale evolution and, more in general, between phylogeny and ontogeny; likewise, this study provides a proxy how to interpret the phylogeny when fossils that are immature individuals are included. Juvenile individuals in the peramorphic acceleration clades would produce misleading phylogenies, whereas juvenile individuals in the paedomorphic neoteny clades should still provide reliable phylogenetic signals.

  18. Juvenile psammomatoid ossifying fibroma. Case report

    OpenAIRE

    Vahtsevanos, Konstantinos; Persephone XIROU; Giorgos BALLIS; Tsekos, Antonis; Ntomouchtsis, Aris; Alexandros VALASIDIS; Doxa MAGGOUDI

    2012-01-01

    Ossifying fibroma (OS) represents a slow growing, benign neoplasm that belongs to the greater group of fibro-osseous lesions. Based on its histological features, ossifying fibroma is divided into: a) juvenile trabecular OS and b) juvenile psammomatoid OS which affects mainly the paranasal sinuses of children and teenagers aging from 5 to 15 years.A rare case of juvenile psammomatoid ossifying fibroma in a 30 year old male patient located in the left mandibular ramus is presented. Treatment pl...

  19. Chinese Calligraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This unit is designed to introduce secondary or post-secondary students to the ancient art of Chinese calligraphy through step-by-step instructions on writing Chinese characters. Because each character is made up of a series of single brush strokes, it is believed that if students learn to recognize these as components of completed characters, the…

  20. Distinct synovial immunopathologic characteristics of juvenile-onset spondylarthritis and other forms of juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Kruithof; V. van den Bossche; L. de Rycke; B. Vandooren; R. Joos; J.D. Canete; P.P. Tak; A.M.H. Boots; E.M. Veys; D. Baeten

    2006-01-01

    Objective. To characterize the synovial immunopathologic features of juvenile-onset spondylarthritis (SpA) in relation to adult SpA and other forms of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Methods. Synovial biopsy samples were obtained from 10 patients with juvenile-onset SpA, 23 with adult SpA, 19 w

  1. Justicia juvenil restaurativa como respuesta alternativa

    OpenAIRE

    Mariño Rojas, Cielo

    2016-01-01

    El artículo explora las posibilidades de la justicia juvenil restaurativa como respuesta alternativa en los sistemas de justicia juvenil en la región. Si bien la justicia restaurativa no aparece explícitamente en los instrumentos internacionales sobre justicia penal juvenil, estos dan la oportunidad para que aquella se desarrolle dentro de los sistemas de justicia juvenil. Inicialmente se aborda su evolución histórica para establecer el origen de sus principales características. A continuació...

  2. Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis. Radiological diagnosis. Fibromatosis hialina juvenil. Diagnostico radiologico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentes, R.; Sar, V.; Cabrera, J.J.; Diaz, L.; Hernandez, B.; Valeron, P.; Baez, O.; Rodriguez, M.

    1993-10-01

    Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis (JHF) is a rare disorder of unknown etiology, very few cases of which have been reported in the literature. It presents similarities to other fibromatosys, but has its particular radiological features which differentiate it from them. The clinical findings consist of several, slow growing, subcutaneous nodules, flexion contractures of the joints which can lead to disability, gingival hypertrophy and muscular atrophy. The suspected radiological diagnosis is confirmed by electron microscopy study of the nodules, although light microscopy can also reveal suggestive images. Author (9 refs.)

  3. Juvenile ossifying fibroma: Psammamatoid variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivani Aggarwal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile ossifying fibroma is a rare fibro-osseous lesion containing variable amount of calcified masses, which resembles bone or cementum within a fibrocellular connective tissue stroma. It has variable clinical behavior, highly aggressive in nature including invasion and destruction of adjacent anatomic structures with a strong tendency to recur. We reported a 28-year-old female patient with a growth in the upper left vestibule region extending from canine to molar region with clinical, histopathological, and radiological features are presented. Surgical management was done, and regular follow-up was advised.

  4. [Juvenile monomelic amyotrophy: Hirayama disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdowski, W; Baniukiewicz, E; Lewonowska, M

    1998-01-01

    We present three patients with unilateral upper limb weakness (with muscular atrophy)-two of them with distal and one with proximal localization. The disease onset was between 18th end 35-th year of life; the disease course was biphasic (i.e. progressive within first 1 to 3 years, and stabilized during following 4-24 years). The laboratory investigations permitted to diagnose juvenile monomelic amyotrophy, an entity that is very rare outside Japan. Electromyography revealed neurogenic involvement with spinal features also in clinically unaffected muscles. We suggest that these results may support the hypothesis of this disease being a benign variant of spinal muscular atrophy.

  5. Juvenile Competency to Stand Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanyan, Sofia T; Sidhu, Shawn S; Bath, Eraka

    2016-01-01

    Competency to stand trial is interpreted as a protected due process right for all defendants and is defined as a defendant's fundamental knowledge and understanding of the criminal charges being filed, roles and procedures within the courtroom, and a general ability to work with the defense counsel. Questions of competency are most often raised by the judge, defense, or the prosecution, and competency evaluations are most often completed by psychiatrists or psychologists with forensic training or work experience. Mental illness, intellectual disability, developmental disorders, and developmental immaturity are the 4 main factors considered in most juvenile competency evaluations.

  6. Glucocorticoids in juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malattia, Clara; Martini, Alberto

    2014-05-01

    Although the use of corticosteroids in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is now much more limited owing to the availability of methotrexate and biological agents, there are clinical scenarios where it is still indicated. For example, corticosteroids may be indicated for intraarticular injections to prevent joint deformities, as a "bridge" drug to relieve symptoms in polyarticular disease while waiting for methotrexate and biologics to exert their full therapeutic effects, and in the treatment of chronic iridocyclitis, macrophage activation syndrome, and systemic JIA, although the advent of interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-6 blockers has greatly reduced the latter indication.

  7. Imaging of juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Karl [Birmingham Children' s Hospital, Radiology Department, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2006-08-15

    Over the past decade there have been considerable changes in the classification and imaging of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Radiology now has a considerable role in the management of JIA, the differential diagnosis, monitoring disease progression and detecting complications. The different imaging modalities available, their role and limitations are discussed in this article and the various disease features that the radiologist should be aware of are described. An approach to the imaging of the child with joint disease and in the monitoring of disease complications are also discussed. (orig.)

  8. THE STUDY OF FEATURES OF GUILT OF JUVENILE OFFENDERS IN THE CONTEXT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalija Vladimirovna Galkina

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the results of empirical studies of the experiences of guilt of juvenile offenders in the context of juvenile justice where a minor appears as the subject of legal relations. Restorative approach of juvenile justice is based on an admission of guilt to the victim. In connection with it, the research of features of the guilt of minors who have committed an offence and the conditions for the development of the subjectivity will enhance understanding of the possibilities of restorative juvenile justice system in the prevention of juvenile delinquency.Thus, the results of empirical research presented in the article are important for determining of the psychological bases of realization of rehabilitation programs in the context of juvenile justice. In particular, the results are important for the organization and conduct of psychological work to overcome the psychological barriers in the behavior of juveniles having inherently maladaptive guilt and destructive psychological defense mechanisms.

  9. Juvenile Anorexia Nervosa: Family Therapy's Natural Niche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, H. Charles

    2006-01-01

    Juvenile Anorexia Nervosa (AN) is a severe problem both in terms of presenting symptomatology and its tendency toward chronicity. Researchers have consistently shown that family-based approaches are superior to individual approaches for the treatment of juvenile AN. This article addresses the capacity deficit of trained family therapists to treat…

  10. Sexually dimorphic body plumage in juvenile crossbills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelaar, P; Phillips, RE; Knops, P

    2005-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism in color and pattern of contour feathers is rare in juvenile songbirds. We describe how captive-bred juvenile males of Scottish Crossbill (Loxia scotica) and nominate Red Crossbill (L. curvirostra curvirostra) can be differentiated from females prior to prebasic molt by an unstreak

  11. Juveniles' Motivations for Remaining in Prostitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Shu-Ling; Bedford, Olwen

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were collected in 1990-1991, 1992, and 2000 with 49 prostituted juveniles remanded to two rehabilitation centers in Taiwan. These data are analyzed to explore Taiwanese prostituted juveniles' feelings about themselves and their work, their motivations for remaining in prostitution, and their difficulties…

  12. Alternative sanctions for juveniles in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, P.H. van der

    1993-01-01

    In the Netherlands alternative sanctions for juveniles have become very popular. In less than ten years, the alternative sanction has surpassed the fine as the most frequently imposed penal sanction for juveniles. As a result of this popularity, some net widening has occured. In general, alternativl

  13. Psychiatric Disorder in a Juvenile Assessment Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    McReynolds, Larkin S.; Wasserman, Gail A.; DeComo, Robert E.; John, Reni; Keating, Joseph M.; Nolen, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile assessment centers (JACs) were developed to address service fragmentation and promote the sharing of information among agencies providing services to youth involved with the juvenile justice system. To date, there are no reports that describe the diagnostic profiles of the youth served by such centers. The authors hypothesize that the…

  14. Moral Development of Solo Juvenile Sex Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Vugt, Eveline; Stams, Geert Jan; Dekovic, Maja; Brugman, Daan; Rutten, Esther; Hendriks, Jan

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the moral development of solo juvenile male sex offenders (n = 20) and juvenile male non-offenders (n = 76), aged 13-19 years, from lower socioeconomic and educational backgrounds. The Moral Orientation Measure (MOM) was used to assess punishment- and victim-based moral orientation in sexual and non-sexual situations. Moral…

  15. Juveniles' Motivations for Remaining in Prostitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Shu-Ling; Bedford, Olwen

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were collected in 1990-1991, 1992, and 2000 with 49 prostituted juveniles remanded to two rehabilitation centers in Taiwan. These data are analyzed to explore Taiwanese prostituted juveniles' feelings about themselves and their work, their motivations for remaining in prostitution, and their difficulties…

  16. Ethnic disparities in Dutch juvenile justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komen, M.; van Schooten, E.

    2009-01-01

    In the Netherlands, ethnic minority boys are heavily overrepresented in prisons and secure judicial institutions for juveniles. In a sample of 324 juveniles of both native Dutch and ethnic minority origin who have come into contact with the Dutch criminal justice authorities, we compared the number

  17. Group sexual offending by juvenile females

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijkman, M.; Weerman, F.; Bijleveld, C.; Hendriks, J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined all group sexual offending cases in the Netherlands between 1995 and 2009 (n = 26) in which at least one juvenile female offender (n = 35) had been adjudicated. Information from court files showed that the majority of juvenile female group sexual offenders have (inter)personal pr

  18. A social work study on juvenile delinquency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We present an empirical study to study the effects of different factors on juvenile delinquency. The investigation distributes 100 questionnaires among people who are involved with crime and analyzes their feedbacks. There are five hypotheses in our survey and we look to see whether family conditions, religion, economical conditions, media and physical and psychological characteristics play important role on juvenile delinquency in Iranian society. The results shows that while family conditions, physical and psychological characteristics play important role on juvenile delinquency, other factors do not statistically have any impact on juvenile delinquency. The study suggests that a better family condition could help reduce juvenile delinquency and people could guide their children through better consultations.

  19. Family transitions and juvenile delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Ryan D; Osgood, Aurea K; Oghia, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    There is a large body of research that shows children from non-intact homes show higher rates of juvenile delinquency than children from intact homes, partially due to weaker parental control and supervision in non-intact homes. What has not been adequately addressed in the research is the influence of changes in family structure among individual adolescents over time on delinquent offending. Using the first and third waves of the National Youth Study, we assess the effect of family structure changes on changes in delinquent offending between waves through the intermediate process of changes in family time and parental attachment. Although prior research has documented adolescents in broken homes are more delinquent than youth in intact homes, the process of family dissolution is not associated with concurrent increases in offending. In contrast, family formation through marriage or cohabitation is associated with simultaneous increases in offending. Changes in family time and parental attachment account for a portion of the family formation effect on delinquency, and prior parental attachment and juvenile offending significantly condition the effect of family formation on offending.

  20. Atherosclerosis in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Jednacz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the arteries. Clinical consequences of the atherosclerotic process occur in the adult population, however atherosclerotic process begins in childhood. The classic risk factors for atherosclerosis include obesity, dyslipidaemia, age, gender or family history. In recent years, attention has been drawn to the similarity between atherosclerotic inflammatory processes and inflammatory changes in the course of systemic connective tissue disease, in particular systemic lupus etythematosus (SLE or rheumatoid arthritis (RA. There is also observed the similarity of the pathogenetic background of development of atherosclerosis and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA. Elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines are observed in the course of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Also homocysteine concentrations, which may play a significant role in the development of atherosclerotic lesions, are observed higher in patients with JIA. Some studies revealed higher carotid intima-media thickness (IMT index values in children with JIA. In view of the fact that atherosclerotic process begins as early as in childhood, the introduction of appropriate preventive measures in children is a matter of utmost importance.

  1. Profile of Incarcerated Juveniles: Comparison of Male and Female Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Don; Martin, Magy; Dell, Rex; Davis, Candice; Guerrieri, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Effective methods of identifying potential juvenile offenders are critical when developing prevention programs within both state and national juvenile justice systems. The characteristics of juvenile offenders in a large juvenile justice system are examined in this study. Participants live in a Midwestern city with a high rate of crime as…

  2. 8 CFR 1236.3 - Detention and release of juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Detention and release of juveniles. 1236.3... ORDERED REMOVED Detention of Aliens Prior to Order of Removal § 1236.3 Detention and release of juveniles. (a) Juveniles. A juvenile is defined as an alien under the age of 18 years. (b) Release....

  3. Habitat associations of juvenile versus adult butterflyfishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratchett, M. S.; Berumen, M. L.; Marnane, M. J.; Eagle, J. V.; Pratchett, D. J.

    2008-09-01

    Many coral reef fishes exhibit distinct ontogenetic shifts in habitat use while some species settle directly in adult habitats, but there is not any general explanation to account for these differences in settlement strategies among coral reef fishes. This study compared distribution patterns and habitat associations of juvenile (young of the year) butterflyfishes to those of adult conspecifics. Three species, Chaetodon auriga, Chaetodon melannotus, and Chaetodon vagabundus, all of which have limited reliance on coral for food, exhibited marked differences in habitat association of juvenile versus adult individuals. Juveniles of these species were consistently found in shallow-water habitats, whereas adult conspecifics were widely distributed throughout a range of habitats. Juveniles of seven other species ( Chaetodon aureofasciatus, Chaetodon baronessa, Chaetodon citrinellus, Chaetodon lunulatus, Chaetodon plebeius, Chaetodon rainfordi, and Chaetodon trifascialis), all of which feed predominantly on live corals, settled directly into habitat occupied by adult conspecifics. Butterflyfishes with strong reliance on corals appear to be constrained to settle in habitats that provide access to essential prey resources, precluding their use of distinct juvenile habitats. More generalist butterflyfishes, however, appear to utilize distinct juvenile habitats and exhibit marked differences in the distribution of juveniles versus adults.

  4. Juvenile psammomatoid ossifying fibroma. Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos VAHTSEVANOS

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Ossifying fibroma (OS represents a slow growing, benign neoplasm that belongs to the greater group of fibro-osseous lesions. Based on its histological features, ossifying fibroma is divided into: a juvenile trabecular OS and b juvenile psammomatoid OS which affects mainly the paranasal sinuses of children and teenagers aging from 5 to 15 years.A rare case of juvenile psammomatoid ossifying fibroma in a 30 year old male patient located in the left mandibular ramus is presented. Treatment plan included radical surgical excision of the lesion and restoration with autologous osteochondral graft from the 6th rib of the ipsilateral side.

  5. Juvenile eye growth, when completed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fledelius, Hans C; Christensen, Anders S; Fledelius, Christian

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To test Sorsby's classical statement of axial eye growth as completed at the age of 13 years, with a view also to differentiating between basic eye growth and juvenile elongation associated with eventual refractive change towards myopia. METHODS: (i) A total of 160 healthy eyes close...... was preferred for conventional ultrasound oculometry due to its extreme repeatability of measuring values, thus making it well fitted for evaluating very small differences. In particular, this had bearing for the decelerating end phase of growth in the longitudinal investigation. RESULTS: Sorby's statement...... about age 13 as general limit found support from the cross-sectional data, which suggested stable emmetropic eye size from about 11-12 years, with an average apparently outgrown male emmetropic value of 23.5 mm versus females' 22.9 mm. The longitudinal data, however, showed emmetropic growth also beyond...

  6. SUBTYPES OF JUVENILE SYSTEMIC SCLERODERMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M N Slarovoitova

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to allot clinical forms of juvenile systemic scleroderma (JSSD. Material and methods: investigation and dynamic observation of 60 patients aged 14-54 (mean age 25.1 ±7.2 with onset of disease in child's and adolescent’s ages from 1 to 16 years old ( in average 11. 4±3.8 year old and disease duration from 1 to 39 years (in average 13.1 ±7.9. Results: 55% of patients demonstrated JSSD subtype with focal cutaneous lesion of different localization. The possibility of overlap-syndrome development in JSSD patients with onset in adolescent age typical for SSD-rheumatoid arthritis, SSD-polymvositis should be underlined. Conclusion: knowledge of different clinical forms and courses of the disease, modern diagnostics and early beginning of differential JSSD treatment will enable us to improve the prognosis and disease outcome.

  7. Juvenile Huntington disease in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, Emilia Mabel; Parisi, Virginia; Etcheverry, José Luis; Sanguinetti, Ana; Cordi, Lorena; Binelli, Adrian; Persi, Gabriel; Squitieri, Ferdinando

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed demographic, clinical and genetic characteristics of juvenile Huntington disease (JHD) and it frequency in an Argentinean cohort. Age at onset was defined as the age at which behavioral, cognitive, psychiatric or motor abnormalities suggestive of JHD were first reported. Clinical and genetic data were similar to other international series, however, in this context we identified the highest JHD frequency reported so far (19.72%; 14/71). Age at onset of JHD is challenging and still under discussion. Our findings reinforce the hypothesis that clinical manifestations, other than the typical movement disorder, may anticipate age at onset of even many years. Analyses of JHD cohorts are required to explore it frequency in populations with different backgrounds to avoid an underestimation of this rare phenotype. Moreover, data from selected populations may open new pathways in therapeutic approaches and may explain new potential correlations between HD presentations and environmental or biological factors.

  8. [Physiotherapy for juvenile idiopathic arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spamer, M; Georgi, M; Häfner, R; Händel, H; König, M; Haas, J-P

    2012-07-01

    Control of disease activity and recovery of function are major issues in the treatment of children and adolescents suffering from juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Functional therapies including physiotherapy are important components in the multidisciplinary teamwork and each phase of the disease requires different strategies. While in the active phase of the disease pain alleviation is the main focus, the inactive phase requires strategies for improving motility and function. During remission the aim is to regain general fitness by sports activities. These phase adapted strategies must be individually designed and usually require a combination of different measures including physiotherapy, occupational therapy, massage as well as other physical procedures and sport therapy. There are only few controlled studies investigating the effectiveness of physical therapies in JIA and many strategies are derived from long-standing experience. New results from physiology and sport sciences have contributed to the development in recent years. This report summarizes the basics and main strategies of physical therapy in JIA.

  9. Juvenile prison: Remarks on the specific characteristics of regular sentencing

    OpenAIRE

    Miladinović-Stefanović, Dušica

    2015-01-01

    The system of the juvenile criminal law in the Republic of Serbia includes different mechanisms of social response to juvenile delinquency, including corrective orders, corrective measures and juvenile prison. This paper deals with the issue of determining a relevant sentence for juvenile offenders in trial proceedings. The legislator has provided a number of guidelines for these proceedings: the specific range of the juvenile prison sentence, the purpose of punishment, the degree of maturity...

  10. Parenting Styles and Family Communication as Correlates of Juvenile Delinquency

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine parenting styles and family communication as correlates of juvenile delinquency. A review of the literature was completed in the areas of parenting styles, family communication, and juvenile delinquency. The literature that was reviewed for this study was examined mainly from juvenile perceptions. This study was approached from a general systems theory perspective. A sample of juveniles (N = 78) from Weber County, Utah, involved in the juvenile justice...

  11. Are antipredator behaviours of hatchery Salmo salar juveniles similar to wild juveniles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvanes, A G V

    2017-01-27

    This study explores how antipredator behaviour of juvenile Atlantic salmon Salmo salar developed during conventional hatchery rearing of eggs from wild brood stock, compared with the behaviour of wild-caught juveniles from the same population. Juveniles aged 1+ years were tested in two unfamiliar environments; in one S. salar were presented with simulated predator attacks and in the other they were given the opportunity to explore an open-field arena. No difference was found in their spontaneous escape responses or ventilation rate (reflex responses) after simulated predator attacks. Hatchery-reared juveniles were more risk-prone in their behaviours than wild-caught individuals. Hatchery juveniles stayed less time in association with shelter. In the open-field arena, hatchery juveniles were more active than wild juveniles. Hatchery juveniles were also immobile for less time and spent a shorter amount of time than wild juveniles in the fringe of the open-field arena. Salmo salar size had no effect on the observed behaviour. Overall, this study provides empirical evidence that one generation of hatchery rearing does not change reflex responses associated with threats, whereas antipredator behaviour, typically associated with prior experience, was less developed in hatchery-reared than in wild individuals.

  12. Conceptualizing juvenile prostitution as child maltreatment: findings from the National Juvenile Prostitution Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kimberly J; Finkelhor, David; Wolak, Janis

    2010-02-01

    Two studies were conducted to identify the incidence (Study 1) and characteristics (Study 2) of juvenile prostitution cases known to law enforcement agencies in the United States. Study 1 revealed a national estimate of 1,450 arrests or detentions (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1,287-1,614) in cases involving juvenile prostitution during a 1-year period. In Study 2, exploratory data were collected from a subsample of 138 cases from police records in 2005. The cases are broadly categorized into three main types: (a) third-party exploiters, (b) solo prostitution, and (c) conventional child sexual abuse (CSA) with payment. Cases were classified into three initial categories based on police orientation toward the juvenile: (a) juveniles as victims (53%), (b) juveniles as delinquents (31%), and (c) juvenile as both victims and delinquents (16%). When examining the status of the juveniles by case type, the authors found that all the juveniles in CSA with payment cases were treated as victims, 66% in third-party exploiters cases, and 11% in solo cases. Findings indicate law enforcement responses to juvenile prostitution are influential in determining whether such youth are viewed as victims of commercial sexual exploitation or as delinquents.

  13. Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy Epilepsia mioclônica juvenil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Alfradique

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile myoclonus epilepsy (JME is a common epileptic syndrome, the etiology of which is genetically determined. Its onset occurs from 6 through 22 years of age, and affected patients present with myoclonic jerks, often associated with generalized tonic-clonic seizures - the most common association - and absence seizures. JME is non-progressive, and there are no abnormalities on clinical examination or intellectual deficits. Psychiatric disorders may coexist. Generalized polyspike-and-waves are the most characteristic electroencephalographic pattern. Usual neuroimaging studies show no abnormalities. Atypical presentations should be entertained, as they are likely to induce misdiagnosis. Prevention of precipitating factors and therapy with valproic acid (VPA are able to control seizures in the great majority of patients. Whenever VPA is judged to be inappropriate, other antiepileptic drugs such as lamotrigine may be considered. Treatment should not be withdrawn, otherwise recurrences are frequent.A epilepsia mioclônica juvenil é uma síndrome epiléptica comum, cuja etiologia é fundamentada na genética. Inicia-se entre 6 e 22 anos e os indivíduos apresentam mioclonias, que podem ser acompanhadas por crises tônico-clônicas generalizadas - associação mais comum - e crises de ausência. A doença não é progressiva, e não há alterações detectáveis no exame físico ou déficits intelectuais. Distúrbios psiquiátricos podem coexistir. Polipontas-ondas lentas generalizadas constituem o padrão eletrencefalográfico ictal típico. Não há anormalidades em exames de imagem convencionais. Apresentações atípicas devem ser consideradas, pois predispõem a erros de diagnóstico. A prevenção de fatores desencadeantes e o uso de ácido valpróico (VPA controlam as crises epilépticas na grande maioria dos casos. Quando o VPA é inapropriado, outras drogas como a lamotrigina podem ser utilizadas. O tratamento não deve ser interrompido

  14. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis and the temporomandibular joint ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... resonance imaging findings of temporomandibular joint inflammation among juvenile ... The mean total MRI score was significantly higher in patients with active ... Clinical signs of TMJ arthritis can be used as filter for MRI examination TMJ is ...

  15. Bilateral giant juvenile fibroadenoma of breasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhopadhyay Madhumita

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An 11-year-old girl with rapidly enlarging bilateral breast lumps is reported. It was diagnosed as a case of juvenile fibroadenoma following fine needle aspiration cytology and confirmed on histopathological examination of the excised specimens.

  16. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile Paget disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information & Resources MedlinePlus (1 link) Health Topic: Bone Diseases Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (1 link) Juvenile ... on PubMed Daroszewska A, Ralston SH. Mechanisms of disease: genetics of Paget's disease of bone and related disorders. ...

  17. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile hyaline fibromatosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Antaya RJ, Cajaiba MM, Madri J, Lopez MA, Ramirez MC, Martignetti JA, Reyes-Múgica M. Juvenile hyaline ... 103. Citation on PubMed Dowling O, Difeo A, Ramirez MC, Tukel T, Narla G, Bonafe L, Kayserili ...

  18. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia presenting as Juvenile Idiopathic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia presenting as Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis in a Nigerian boy. ... lead to delay in commencing appropriate treatment. ... of two months duration, had an elevated Rheumatoid factor and X-ray findings suggestive of ...

  19. Screening Incarcerated Juveniles Using the MAYSI-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Amy L; Grande, Todd L; Hallman, Janelle; Underwood, Lee A

    2015-01-01

    The high prevalence of mental health disorders among incarcerated juveniles is a matter of national and global concern. Juvenile justice personnel need accurate screening measures that identify youth requiring immediate mental health services. The purpose of this study was threefold: (a) to examine the utility of the Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument, Version 2 (MAYSI-2) in identifying juveniles with mental health concerns in a large sample of juveniles (N = 4,009), (b) to provide data regarding rates of identified mental health needs in incarcerated youth, and (c) to provide descriptive comparisons to other studies using the MAYSI-2. Mean scores of subscales were compared with the MAYSI-2 normative samples and other recent studies. Results indicated that this population has a high occurrence of mental health symptoms and there is high variability in the severity of the symptoms. In addition, a multivariate analysis of variance test found significant differences in mental health problems across ethnic groups.

  20. SAB Juvenile Reef Fish (2002-2015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Trawls were made during the summer months in shallow seagrass beds to monitor the number and species of juvenile snapper using the grass as a nursery.

  1. AFSC/ABL: Juvenile rockfish habitat utilization

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Juvenile rockfish were observed amongst coral, sponge, cobble, and gravel habitats. Rockfish utilized coral habitats more than any other, while gravel was the least...

  2. Chinese Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The general managers of South Korean auto giants Hyundai and Kia have high hopes for the growing Chinese auto market. Both companies went through a painstaking period as the financial crisis first roared across the globe. Jin Shan-fa, General Manager of Hyundai Motor Group

  3. An Empirical Evaluation of Juvenile Awareness Programs in the United States: Can Juveniles Be "Scared Straight"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenowski, Paul M.; Bell, Keith J.; Dodson, Kimberly D.

    2010-01-01

    Juvenile awareness programs like Scared Straight became popular crime prevention strategies during the 1970s. Juvenile offenders and at-risk youth who participate in these programs are taken to prisons where inmates use confrontational methods to recount stories about violence, sex, and abuse perpetrated by fellow inmates while living a life…

  4. Juvenile fibromyalgia: Guidance for management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Shumpei; Kikuchi, Masako; Miyamae, Takako

    2013-08-01

    Juvenile fibromyalgia (JFM) is a disease in which patients complain of acute and chronic severe pain, an overt primary cause for which cannot be found or surmised. Although patients with JFM mainly complain of systemic pain or allodynia in the medical interview and physical examination, the concept of the disease is the total sum of painful illness, chronic fatigue, hypothermia and many other autonomic symptoms and signs. Many issues are interacting including individual traits (personality, temperament, sensitivity, memory of pain; age: early adolescence), individual states (self-esteem, anxiety, developmental level), and external stressors (parent especially mother, school environment). JFM is diagnosed on the combination of disease history, physical examination to determine the 18 tender points and allodynia, pain from gently touching their hair, and negative results of blood tests (inflammatory markers, thyroid function, myogenic enzymes). The goals of treatment are the following: restoration of function and relief of pain. Psychological support is advocated. Although the exact number of patients with JFM is still to be elucidated, it seems to be growing because pediatric rheumatologists in Japan encounter children with a wide variety of musculoskeletal pains. This guideline describes how to diagnose JFM in children and how to treat them appropriately.

  5. Academic Achievement Among Juvenile Detainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorenko, Elena L; Macomber, Donna; Hart, Lesley; Naples, Adam; Chapman, John; Geib, Catherine F; Chart, Hilary; Tan, Mei; Wolhendler, Baruch; Wagner, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The literature has long pointed to heightened frequencies of learning disabilities (LD) within the population of law offenders; however, a systematic appraisal of these observations, careful estimation of these frequencies, and investigation of their correlates and causes have been lacking. Here we present data collected from all youth (1,337 unique admissions, mean age 14.81, 20.3% females) placed in detention in Connecticut (January 1, 2010-July 1, 2011). All youth completed a computerized educational screener designed to test a range of performance in reading (word and text levels) and mathematics. A subsample (n = 410) received the Wide Range Achievement Test, in addition to the educational screener. Quantitative (scale-based) and qualitative (grade-equivalence-based) indicators were then analyzed for both assessments. Results established the range of LD in this sample from 13% to 40%, averaging 24.9%. This work provides a systematic exploration of the type and severity of word and text reading and mathematics skill deficiencies among juvenile detainees and builds the foundation for subsequent efforts that may link these deficiencies to both more formal, structured, and variable definitions and classifications of LD, and to other types of disabilities (e.g., intellectual disability) and developmental disorders (e.g., ADHD) that need to be conducted in future research.

  6. Chinese Geography through Chinese Cuisine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    China has the world's largest population, now over 1.3 billion, but its land area (much of it high mountains or desert) is about the same as that of the United States, which has less than one-fourth as many people. So Chinese farmers have learned to use every inch of their fertile land intensively. Pressure on the land has required extremely…

  7. 中华绒螯蟹血清凝集素的分离纯化与性质研究%Purification and Characteristics of Agglutinin in Serum of Chinese Mitten Crab Eriocheir sinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐海圣; 徐步进

    2008-01-01

    运用硫酸铵盐析和GlcNAc-Sepharose 6B亲合层析等方法从中华绒螯蟹的血清中分离出一种天然的凝集素,经SDS-PAGE测得其分子量约为82 kD,由单一亚基组成,由等电聚焦凝胶电泳测得其等电点(pI)为5.4.糖凝集抑制试验中检测到葡萄糖、半乳糖、甘露糖、乳糖、果糖和蔗糖对中华绒螯蟹血清凝集素均没有抑制作用,但N-乙酰氨基糖GIcNAc、GalNAc和ManNAc等能抑制其凝集活性.热变性试验结果表明,温度为10~50℃,凝集素仍保持强的凝集活性,但温度升至60℃后,凝集活性迅速下降,至80℃失去凝集活性,在pH 4.0~8.0的各缓冲液中保持较强的凝集活性,而在此pH范围外,凝集活性均有不同程度的下降.中华绒螯蟹血清凝集素可使外源红血细胞发生凝集,还具有凝集细菌或抗菌作用.

  8. 中华绒螯蟹幼蟹对饲料中维生素B_6的适宜需求量%Dietary vitamin B_6 requirement of junvenile Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玥; 孙新瑾; 陈立侨; 李二超; 叶金云

    2009-01-01

    The basal diet was formulated using vitamin B_6-free casein as the protein source.Eight graded levels (0, 10, 30, 60,100,150,200 and 400 mg vitamin B_6 per kg diet) of vitamin B_6 were added to the basal diet. Each diet was fed to three replicate groups of E. sinensis (2. 12 ±0.56) g for 10 weeks. Results showed that there were no significant differences in survival,weight gain, and the content of water and ash among crabs fed different diets. But protein utilization ratio (PUR) increased significantly with the increase of dietary vitamin B_6. The highest PUR was found in crabs fed diet with 100 mg vitamin Be per kg diet. Patterns of the content of crude protein and crude fat were similar to that of PUR. Crabs fed 100 mg vitamin B_6/kg diet had a significantly higher protein and fat content than that fed 0 and 400 mg vitamin B_6 per kg diet. Besides, different dietary vitamin B_6, content also had significant effect on the activities of hepatopancreas glutamate pyruvate transaminase (ALT) ,while no significant difference was observed in glutamate aspartate transaminase (AST). But they both increased with the increase of dietary vitamin Be. The maximum hepatopancreas ALT activitiy was observed in crab fed the 100 mg vitamin Be per kg diet, and was significantly higher than all the other, except 30 mg vitamin B_6 per kg diet groups. Combined, results in this study indicated that through stimulating the activity of transaminase, vitamin B_6 could assist the anabolism of protein, and then improved the accumulation of body protein and fat in crabs. Broken-line regression analysis showed that the optimum dietary pyridoxine requirement for maximum PUR and hepatopancreas ALT activity of E. sinensis under these experimental conditions was 81. 675 - 85.74 mg pyridoxine per kg diet.%试验以酪蛋白为蛋白源,配制了维生素B_6含量分别为0,10,30,60,100,150,200和400 mg/kg的8种等氮等能的半精制饲料,在静水系统中投喂体重为(2.12±0.56)g的幼蟹10周.结果表明,饲料中不同含量的维生素B_6对中华绒螯蟹的存活率、增重率、体水分和灰分含量等均没有显著影响,但饲料中添加维生素136能够显著提高幼蟹蛋白利用率、体粗蛋白含量和粗脂肪含量.饲料中维生素B_6含量由0~100 mg/kg升高时,蛋白利用率随之显著提高.体粗蛋白和粗脂肪含量的变化趋势与蛋白质利用率相似,其中维生素B_6添加量为100 mg/kg的处理组,幼蟹的粗蛋白和粗脂肪含量显著高于对照组和400 mg/kg维生素B_6添加组.幼蟹肝胰腺中谷草转氨酶和谷丙转氨酶的活力先随着维生素B_6添加量升高而增强,添加100 mg/kg维生素B_6的试验组,幼蟹的谷丙转氨酶活力显著高于其它各试验组.根据各处理组中华绒螯蟹对饲料蛋白的利用率和肝胰腺谷丙转氨酶活力与饲料中维生素B_6的关系,采用折线回归法计算得出中华绒螯蟹幼蟹对饲料中维生素B_6的最适需求量为81.675~85.740 mg/kg饲料.

  9. STRUCTURAL AND CONSTITUENT CHANGES IN INTEGUMENT DURING THE MOLT CYCLE OF CHINESE MITTEN CRAB ERIOCHEIR SINENSIS%中华绒螯蟹蜕皮过程中体壁结构和主要成分的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田志环; 康现江; 焦传珍

    2013-01-01

    The construction and main constituent of the integument of Eriocheir sinensis were studied by the methods of histochemistry and atomic absorption methods. The results showed that the integument of E. sinensis was composed of four sub-layers from the exterior to the interior:an epicuticle, an exocuticle, an endocuticle, and a membranous layer. The carbohydrates were deposited in all sub-layers and the collagen fibers were deposited in all sub-layers except the epicu-ticle. Both carbohydrates and collagen fibers were reabsorbed in premolt stages. The epicuticle and exocuticle were synthesized before molt and the endocuticle and membranous layer were synthesized after molt. The contents of in-tegumental crude protein decreased before molt (D1-D3-4) (P0.05) except a little increase before molt. The contents of Ca2+and Mg2+in premolt D1 stage were significantly lower compared with the in-termolt stage and other stages in premolt (P0.05),只是在蜕皮前稍有上升。Ca2+和 Mg2+含量在蜕皮前D1期显著低于蜕皮间期和蜕皮前其他时期(P0.05)。这些研究结果表明,中华绒螯蟹体壁结构和成分变化与蜕皮周期密切相关。

  10. Ultrastructural observation on virus infection in the gill epithelium of Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis%中华绒螯蟹腮上皮细胞病毒侵染的超微结构观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文; 陈建秀; 杜开和

    2004-01-01

    我们在研究中华绒螯蟹颤抖病的过程中发现了三种病原微生物,类立克次氏体(rickettsia-like organism RLO)、微孢子虫(nlicrosporidian—like protozoan MLP)和类病毒颗粒(virus-like panicles VLP),并通过病理学、流行病学及人工回感等实验证实RLO为第一致病微生物,MLP和VLP均为二次侵染微生

  11. LEARNING CHINESE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    Vocabulary: 银行 yin hang bank 邮局 you jǔ (you as in "slow") post office 电报 dian bao telegram 邮票 you piao (you as in "know") stamp 信 xin letter 信封 xin feng envelope 航空 hang kong airmail 包裹 bao guo parcel 元 yuan a unit of currency in China 人民币 ren min bi RMB (the name of Chinese currency)

  12. Chinese Weddings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    ACCORDING to the Marriage Law of the People’s Republic of China, marital kinship is established and protected by law when a couple registers at tile local marriage registration office. The newly-weds usually hold a wedding feast in celebration at home or in a restaurant. The big red Chinese character, "Double Happiness," would be pasted on walls at the ceremonial hall to

  13. Pendidikan Agama Islam Sebagai Pencegah Juvenile Delinquency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Choirul Umah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The challenges of Islamic education in the era of globalization are getting stronger now. It’s visible clearly changes happening so fast. The rapid of globalization is not only affect for adults, but also children, adolescents. A problem that often arises in the community revolves around the problems of Juvenile (teenagers, education and social community. Because adolescence is known as self-identity searching, so teens that can fulfill their role will have a positive impact, such as children understand their responsibilities better, and if they cannot, then there will emerge the exact opposite behavior that occurs an aberration or delinquency (juvenile delinquency. The existence of juvenile delinquency at this time also affect increasing in crime or criminal behavior in community. Juvenile delinquency can destroy moral values, the noble values ​​of religion, and the various aspects of the subject matter contained therein. Understanding, deepening, and adherence to the teachings of religion, especially Islamic education is required by the juvenile. Because Islamic education is a systematic effort by educators and adults to students both physical and spiritual by Islamic law to led the formation of personality according to the standard of Islam. Because in fact the children or adolescents who commit delinquency or crime mostly less understand the norms of Islam, perhaps they are negligent in fulfill the commandments of religion.

  14. PENDIDIKAN AGAMA ISLAM SEBAGAI PENCEGAH JUVENILE DELINQUENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Choirul Umah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The challenges of Islamic education in the era of globalization are getting stronger now. It’s visible clearly changes happening so fast. The rapid of globalization is not only affect for adults, but also children, adolescents. A problem that often arises in the community revolves around the problems of Juvenile (teenagers, education and social community. Because adolescence is known as self-identity searching, so teens that can fulfill their role will have a positive impact, such as children understand their responsibilities better, and if they cannot, then there will emerge the exact opposite behavior that occurs an aberration or delinquency (juvenile delinquency. The existence of juvenile delinquency at this time also affect increasing in crime or criminal behavior in community. Juvenile delinquency can destroy moral values, the noble values of religion, and the various aspects of the subject matter contained therein. Understanding, deepening, and adherence to the teachings of religion, especially Islamic education is required by the juvenile. Because Islamic education is a systematic effort by educators and adults to students both physical and spiritual by Islamic law to led the formation of personality according to the standard of Islam. Because in fact the children or adolescents who commit delinquency or crime mostly less understand the norms of Islam, perhaps they are negligent in fulfill the commandments of religion.

  15. CHINESE JOURNAL OF CHEMISTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Chinese Journal of Chemistry is an international journal published in English by the Chinese Chemical Society with its editorial office hosted by Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  16. Chinese Culture and Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kam-Cheung

    2001-01-01

    Describes essential characteristics of Chinese philosophical tradition; Discusses Western perspectives on value leadership in education, particularly moral leadership. Discuses moral leadership from a Chinese philosophical perspective, especially Confucianism. Draws implications for using Chinese cultural and philosophical traditions to develop…

  17. The Chinese Banking System

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The Chinese banking system is critical to the functioning of the Chinese economy, being the main conduit through which savings are allocated to investment opportunities. Banking activity in China has grown rapidly over the past decade in association with the expansion of the Chinese economy, and the Chinese banking system now includes some of the world’s largest banks. Chinese banks have become more commercially orientated over this period, although the Chinese Government retains considerable...

  18. Psychiatric and Medical Health Care Policies in Juvenile Detention Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajer, Kathleen A.; Kelleher, Kelly; Gupta, Ravindra A.; Rolls, Jennifer; Gardner, William

    2007-01-01

    A study aims to examine the existing health care policies in U.S. juvenile detention centres. The results conclude that juvenile detention facilities have many shortfalls in providing care for adolescents, particularly mental health care.

  19. AFSC/ABL: Juvenile rockfish DNA species identification

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Many pelagic juvenile rockfish (Sebastes) were collected in juvenile salmonid surveys in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA) from 1998 to 2002. Often species identification of...

  20. A case report of juvenile Huntington disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Choudhary

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Huntington disease (HD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by autosomal dominant inheritance, movement disorder, dementia, and behavioural disturbances. It is caused by a mutation in IT15 gene on chromosome 4p16.3, which leads to unstable CAG trinucleotide repeat expansion. The onset of juvenile HD occurs before the 2nd decade of life and comprises approximately 10% of total HD patients. Juvenile HD differs in symptomatology and is usually transmitted from paternal side with genetic anticipation phenomenon. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the brain shows specific changes of early affection of caudate nucleus and putamen. Multidisciplinary approach with symptomatic treatment of specific symptoms is the current available management. Gene editing and gene silencing treatment are under trial. Hereby, we introduce a case of an 8-year-old boy, who presented with typical symptoms of juvenile HD, positive family history with genetic anticipation phenomenon and characteristic MRI findings.

  1. Corporal and capital punishment of juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, H C

    1990-01-01

    There is a previously unobserved connection between corporal punishment of public school children and capital punishment of juveniles. Both are barometers of acceptable levels of violent punishment and their elimination is a hallmark of a maturing and decent society. Within a majority of the eighteen states where school authorities most frequently strike children are housed 25 of the nation's 28 juvenile death row inmates. On average, the homicide rates of these jurisdictions are two and a half times greater than those that have abolished both state-sanctioned corporal and capital punishment or limit death sentences to those age eighteen and older at the time of their crime(s). Most of the eighteen state abolitions of corporal punishment occurred in the 1980's. The US Supreme Court has ruled both corporal and capital punishment of juveniles constitutional. Additional state legislative abolition of both is anticipated in the 1990s.

  2. Delincuencia y responsabilidad penal juvenil en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Montalvo Velásquez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl término «delincuencia juvenil» fue acuñado en Inglaterra en el año 1815, “Se entiende por delincuencia juvenil el conjunto de delitos, contravenciones o comportamientos socialmente reprochables, que cometen las personas consideradas como jóvenes por la ley”1 . Cada Estado está sujeto a su propio sistema jurídico, para algunos es delincuente juvenil el adolescente que comete acciones sancionadas por la ley sin importar su gravedad, otros Estados sólo consideran como delincuente juvenil al joven que comete un acto delictivo grave.El fenómeno de la delincuencia juvenil es algo que se inscribe en los espacios de una sociedad en la cual su estructura material, y su formación social consecuente, se halla en una profunda crisis. Que jóvenes conformen bandas de delincuencia organizada nos está indicando que son el resultado de la misma criminalidad general que se ha apoderado de la sociedad en la perspectiva de lograr sobrevivir materialmente. El capitalismo no es sólo acumulación de riqueza sino concentración de la misma en muy pocas manos; y todo el sistema institucional y legal tiende a favorecer ese fenómeno porque éste constituye la supra estructura del modo de producción capitalista. Así como los adultos se organizan para delinquir, lo hacen los niños y los jóvenes a partir de una edad en la cual pueden percibir que la sociedad no es sana y no tienen porvenir humano en ella. Abandonados y sujetos a la violencia que engendra el sistema, ellos simplemente responden en una manifestación de reflejos condicionados que sostienen la sobrevivencia en forma instintiva; “los niños no saben de normas legales sino de formas de sobrevivir a semejante situación; el instinto de sobrevivencia no tiene edades ni la normatividad puede incidir en él”.Palabras ClavesDelincuencia juvenil, Jóvenes, Criminalidad, Familia, Factores, Acto delictivo, Responsabilidad Penal.AbstractThe term “juvenile delinquency” was coined in

  3. Immunization Coverage Among Juvenile Justice Detainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin, Gregory L; Glanz, Jason M; Binswanger, Ingrid A; Anoshiravani, Arash

    2015-07-01

    This study sought to (1) quantify the baseline immunization coverage of adolescents entering the juvenile justice system and (2) assess the effect of detention-based care on immunization coverage in youth. A cross-sectional retrospective chart review was performed of 279 adolescents detained at a large juvenile detention facility. Only 3% of adolescents had received all study immunizations prior to detention. Before detention, immunization coverage was significantly lower than that for the general adolescent population for all vaccines except the first doses of hepatitis A and varicella-zoster virus vaccines. Subsequent to detention, most individual immunization coverage levels increased and were significantly higher than in the general adolescent population. The routine administration of immunizations in the juvenile justice setting can help detained youth achieve levels of immunization coverage similar to their nondetained peers.

  4. Effect of TBT on Ruditapes decussatus juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, M R; Langston, W J; Bebianno, M J

    2006-06-01

    The effects of sublethal concentrations of tributyltin (TBT) on growth of juvenile clams Ruditapes decussatus were determined during exposure to TBT concentrations of 50, 100 and 250 ng l(-1) (as Sn) for a period up to two years. Length and weight of clams increased continuously in all treatments throughout the experimental period, and, overall, rates were not significantly influenced by TBT exposure, although final length and weight were inversely related to increasing TBT concentration. Juvenile R. decussatus therefore appear to be less sensitive to TBT than larval stages. Some juveniles exposed to TBT developed abnormal shell growth, laterally, changing the typical flattened shape of clams into a more "rounded" form. This characteristic was more visible in the anterior margins of valves than posteriorly, and mainly observed in clams exposed to TBT at 50 ng l(-1) (as Sn).

  5. Juvenile Fibromyalgia: A Multidisciplinary Approach to Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesher, Melissa S

    2015-06-01

    A 14-year-old boy presented with months of severe widespread musculoskeletal pain. He was profoundly fatigued and unable to attend school. Laboratory evaluation, including complete blood count, comprehensive metabolic panel, inflammatory markers, and thyroid function, was unrevealing. Physical examination was also normal except for multiple tender points. The patient was diagnosed with juvenile primary fibromyalgia syndrome and referred for multidisciplinary treatment including physical therapy, exercise, and counseling, and his daily functioning gradually improves. Juvenile fibromyalgia is a complex syndrome that often severely limits patients' activities and can impede normal adolescent development. Effective treatment requires an understanding of the biologic, psychologic, and social factors contributing to the perpetuation of chronic pain. The author reviews the diagnostic criteria, pathophysiology, and treatment of juvenile fibromyalgia. Medications, particularly antidepressants and anticonvulsants, can be useful adjuncts to therapy. However, multimodal pain management including intensive physical therapy, exercise, counseling, and sleep hygiene is most effective in treating fibromyalgia.

  6. Juvenile age estimation from facial images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Eilidh; Wilkinson, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    Age determination from images can be of vital importance, particularly in cases involving suspected child sexual abuse (CSA). It is imperative to determine if an individual depicted in such an image is indeed a child, with a more concise age often sought, as this may affect the severity of offender sentencing. The aims of this study were to establish the accuracy of visual age estimation of the juvenile face in children aged between 0 and 16years and to determine if varying levels of exposure to children affected an individual's ability to assess age from the face. An online questionnaire consisting of 30 juvenile face images was created using SurveyMonkey®. The overall results suggested poor accuracy for visual age estimation of juvenile faces. The age, sex, occupation and number of children of the participants did not affect the ability to estimate age from facial images. Similarly, the sex and age of the juvenile faces did not appear to affect the accuracy of age estimation. When specific age groups are considered, sex may have an influence on age estimation, with female faces being aged more accurately in the younger age groups and male faces more accurate after the age of 11years, however this is based on a small sample. This study suggests that the accuracy of juvenile age estimation from the face alone is poor using simple visual assessment of images. Further research is required to determine exactly how age is assessed from a facial image, if there are indicators, or features in particular that lead to over- or under-estimation of juvenile age.

  7. Juvenile dermatomyositis in a Nigerian girl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelowo, Olufemi; Nwankwo, Madu; Olaosebikan, Hakeem

    2014-01-01

    Juvenile dermatomyositis is an autoimmune connective tissue disease occurring in children less than 16 years old. It is part of a heterogeneous group of muscle diseases called idiopathic Iiflammatory myopathies. It had previously been reported in black Africans resident in UK. However, there is no documented case reported from Africa. The index sign of heliotrope rashes is often difficult to visualise in the black skin. An 11-year-old Nigerian girl presenting with clinical, laboratory and histopathological features of juvenile dermatomyositis is presented here. It is hoped that this case will heighten the index of suspicion of this condition among medical practitioners in Africa. PMID:24706700

  8. Posttraumatic stress among youths in juvenile detention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Derek; Thompson, Sanna J; Sanford, Julia

    2014-01-01

    An estimated 1.8 million juveniles were arrested in the United States for delinquency in 2009. Previous studies indicate high rates of exposure to traumatic events and posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms for these youths. This study examined PTS in a sample of 170 youths in juvenile detention. The results of this study reveal higher rates of PTS symptoms (21%) compared to national rates (6%). The data also suggest youths suffering from more PTS symptoms also report higher depression, anxiety, anger, family relationship worries, thought problems, and attention problems. These factors provide a direction for continued practice targeting these youths.

  9. [HLA antigens in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumba, I V; Sochnev, A M; Kukaĭne, E M; Burshteĭn, A M; Benevolenskaia, L I

    1990-01-01

    Antigens of I class HLA system (locus A and B) were investigated in 67 patients of Latvian nationality suffering from juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA). Associations of HLA antigens with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis partially coincided with the ones revealed earlier. Typing established an increased incidence of antigen B27 (p less than 0.01) and gaplotype A2, B40 (p less than 0.01). Antigen B15 possessed a protective action with respect to JRA. Interlocus combinations demonstrated a closer association with the disease than a single antigen. The authors also revealed markers of various clinico-anatomical variants of JRA.

  10. Metabolic responses to hypoglycemia in juvenile diabetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Madsbad, S; Krarup, T;

    1980-01-01

    Glucagon and metabolic responses to insulin-induced hypoglycemia were studied in seven juvenile diabetics, age 31 +/- 2 years (mean and S.E.M.), duration of diabetes 17 +/- 3 years, with diabetic autonomic neuropathy (decreased beat-to-beat variation in heart rate during hyperventilation and...... in both patient groups. Metabolic responses to hypoglycemia were also similar in the two patient groups. In conclusion, diabetic autonomic neuropathy has no effect on glucagon and metabolic responses to hypoglycemia in juvenile, insulin-treated diabetics....

  11. Juvenil Pityriasis Rubra Pilaris: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Emin YANIK et al.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP is an uncommon skin disease characterized by follicularkeratotic papules, erythemato-squamous plaques and palmoplantar keratoderma. Etyology isunknown. A 8 years-old boy presented with a 15 days history of scaly patches and plaques withfollicular papules involving his scalp and face. However he had palmoplantar keratoderma onhis hands and feet. Based upon clinical and histopatological findings, he was diagnosed asJuvenile PRP. Acitretin was initiated for therapy. We presented our case because of its rarity.

  12. Acupuntura em adolescentes com fibromialgia juvenil

    OpenAIRE

    Dias,Marialda Höfling P.; Amaral,Elisabete; PAI, Hong Jin; Daniela Terumi Y. Tsai; LOTITO, Ana Paola N; Leone,Claudio; Silva, Clovis Artur

    2012-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Descrever a utilização da acupuntura em adolescentes com fibromialgia juvenil. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo realizado em pacientes com fibromialgia juvenil (critérios do Colégio Americano de Reumatologia) submetidos a, pelo menos, 11 sessões semanais de acupuntura. As avaliações antes e após acupuntura incluíram dados demográficos, características da dor musculoesquelética, número de pontos dolorosos (NPD), escala visual analógica (EVA) de dor, algiometria e índice miálgico (IM). D...

  13. Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents: Profiles of Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowder, Melissa H.; Cummings, Jack A.; McKinney, Robert

    2010-01-01

    An exploratory study of resiliency profiles of male and female juvenile offenders committed to a juvenile correctional facility was conducted. The goal of the present study was to examine juvenile offenders' positive characteristics (e.g., adaptability, optimism, self-efficacy, tolerance of differences). To assess positive characteristics and…

  14. Programa Shortstop: A Culturally Focused Juvenile Intervention for Hispanic Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, Richard C.; Ruan, Karen; Duenas, Norma

    2004-01-01

    Culturally sensitive juvenile delinquency and substance abuse interventions are relatively limited and unavailable to many first-time Hispanic juvenile offenders. The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of a culturally focused juvenile and substance abuse intervention program for first time Hispanic youth offenders. The intent of…

  15. Increased Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression in Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.A. van Hattem; L.A.A. Brosens; S.Y. Marks; A.N.A. Milne; S. van Eeden; C.A. Iacobuzio-Donahue; A. Ristimäki; F.M. Giardiello; G.J.A. Offerhaus

    2009-01-01

    Background & Aims: Gastrointestinal juvenile polyps may occur in juvenile polyposis syndrome (JPS) or sporadically. JPS is an autosomal-dominant condition caused by a germline defect in SMAD4 or BMPR1A in 50% to 60% of cases, and is characterized by multiple juvenile polyps, predominantly in the col

  16. Chronic Juvenile Delinquency and the "Suppression Effect": An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Mark; Norman, Michael

    1988-01-01

    Notes that fear of apprehension and punishment have been reported to suppress juvenile crime. Discusses suppression effect in regard to the correlates of chronic juvenile delinquency and exploratory evidence that youth who commit large volume of crime do not fear sanctions imposed by juvenile court any more than youth who commit only one offense…

  17. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis: therapeutic perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikanza, Ian C

    2002-01-01

    Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) is the most common childhood chronic systemic autoimmune inflammatory disease. The therapeutic approach to JRA has, to date, been casual and based on extensions of clinical experiences gained in the management of adult rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The physiology of inflammation has been systemically studied and this has led to the identification of specific therapeutic targets and the development of novel approaches to the management of JRA. The classical treatments of the disease such as methotrexate, sodium aurothiomalate and sulfasalazine, are not always effective in controlling RA and JRA. This has necessitated the development of novel agents for treating RA, most of which are biological in nature and are targeted at specific sites of the inflammatory cascades. These biological therapeutic strategies in RA have proved successful and are being applied in the management of JRA. These developments have been facilitated by the advances in molecular biology which have heralded the advent of biodrugs (recombinant proteins) and gene therapy, in which specific genes can be introduced locally to enhance in vivo gene expression or suppress gene(s) of interest with a view to down-regulating inflammation. Some of these biodrugs, such as anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNFalpha), monoclonal antibodies (infliximab, adalimumab), TNF soluble receptor constructs (etanercept) and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) have been tested and shown to be effective in RA. Etanercept has now been licensed for JRA. Clinical trials of infliximab in JRA are planned. Studies show that the clinical effects are transient, necessitating repeated treatments and the risk of vaccination effects. Anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-4, IL-10, transforming growth factor-beta and interferon-beta (IFN-beta) are undergoing clinical trials. Many of these agents have to be administered parenterally and production costs are very high; thus, there is a need

  18. The challenges of the first migration: movement and behaviour of juvenile vs. adult white storks with insights regarding juvenile mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotics, Shay; Kaatz, Michael; Resheff, Yehezkel S; Turjeman, Sondra Feldman; Zurell, Damaris; Sapir, Nir; Eggers, Ute; Flack, Andrea; Fiedler, Wolfgang; Jeltsch, Florian; Wikelski, Martin; Nathan, Ran

    2016-07-01

    Migration conveys an immense challenge, especially for juvenile birds coping with enduring and risky journeys shortly after fledging. Accordingly, juveniles exhibit considerably lower survival rates compared to adults, particularly during migration. Juvenile white storks (Ciconia ciconia), which are known to rely on adults during their first fall migration presumably for navigational purposes, also display much lower annual survival than adults. Using detailed GPS and body acceleration data, we examined the patterns and potential causes of age-related differences in fall migration properties of white storks by comparing first-year juveniles and adults. We compared juvenile and adult parameters of movement, behaviour and energy expenditure (estimated from overall dynamic body acceleration) and placed this in the context of the juveniles' lower survival rate. Juveniles used flapping flight vs. soaring flight 23% more than adults and were estimated to expend 14% more energy during flight. Juveniles did not compensate for their higher flight costs by increased refuelling or resting during migration. When juveniles and adults migrated together in the same flock, the juvenile flew mostly behind the adult and was left behind when they separated. Juveniles showed greater improvement in flight efficiency throughout migration compared to adults which appears crucial because juveniles exhibiting higher flight costs suffered increased mortality. Our findings demonstrate the conflict between the juveniles' inferior flight skills and their urge to keep up with mixed adult-juvenile flocks. We suggest that increased flight costs are an important proximate cause of juvenile mortality in white storks and likely in other soaring migrants and that natural selection is operating on juvenile variation in flight efficiency.

  19. Absolutely Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>Ink painting animation - an exquisite art form that ends up in a museum Little Tadpole Looking for Mummy Little Tadpole Looking for Mummy, China’s first ink painting animation, was produced in 1961. With innovation in painting, photography and production technology, it was the first effort at ’animating’ ink paintings. Fishes, shrimps, frogs and crabs in the film resemble those in Qi Baishi’s works. By any shot, it’s an animated painting of fishes and insects, one that is suffused with a taste of Chinese ink-and-wash painting.

  20. Criminal Profiles of Violent Juvenile Sex and Violent Juvenile Non-Sex Offenders: An Explorative Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Anton Ph.; Mali, Bas R. F.; Bullens, Ruud A. R.; Vermeiren, Robert R.

    2007-01-01

    Few studies have longitudinally investigated the criminal profiles of violent juvenile sex and violent juvenile non-sex offenders. To make up for this lack, this study used police records of juveniles to determine the nature of the criminal profiles of violent sex offenders (n = 226) and violent non-sex offenders (n = 4,130). All offenders…

  1. Juvenile Residential Facility Census, 2010: Selected Findings. Juvenile Offenders and Victims: National Report Series. Bulletin NCJ 241134

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockenberry, Sarah; Sickmund, Melissa; Sladky, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    This bulletin is part of the "Juvenile Offenders and Victims National Report Series." The "National Report" offers a comprehensive statistical overview of the problems of juvenile crime, violence, and victimization and the response of the juvenile justice system. During each interim year, the bulletins in the "National…

  2. Juvenile penalty or leniency: Sentencing of juveniles in the criminal justice system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Kareem L; McNeal, Brittani A

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of being juvenile on sentencing in the criminal justice system. More specifically, youth transferred to criminal court are compared to adults in terms of likelihood of incarceration, jail length, and prison length. In this study, 2 national data sets are merged. The juvenile sample includes 3,381 convicted offenders, and the adult sample is comprised of 6,529 convicted offenders. The final sample is 9,910 offenders across 36 U.S. counties. The key independent variable is juvenile status, and the dependent variables are incarceration, jail length, and prison length. Because of the multilevel nature of the data, hierarchical linear modeling is used across all models. Juveniles are punished less severely in the jail incarceration decision. However, when youth are actually sentenced to incarceration (either jail or prison), they are given longer confinement time than adults. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. Ethnic monitoring and social control: Descriptions from juveniles in juvenile care institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Basic, Goran

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has emphasized the institutional racism in total institutions. Researchers have highlighted the importance of narratives but have not focused on narratives about ethnic monitoring and social control. This article tries to fill this gap by analysing stories related to descriptions of ethnic monitoring and social control as told by juveniles of non-Swedish ethnicity in Swedish juvenile care institutions. A juvenile’s ethnicity was highlighted by drawing attention to the staff’...

  4. Chinese letterkunde. Een inleiding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Idema, Wilt; Haft, Lloyd

    2005-01-01

    De Chinese cultuur mag zich verheugen in een groeiende belangstelling. Chinese films bereiken in Nederland een steeds omvangrijker publiek en ook de moderne Chinese literatuur, die sinds de jaren tachtig een grote bloei doormaakt, wordt door veel liefhebbers op de voet gevolgd. Chinese Letterkunde b

  5. Biological agents in polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amarilyo, Gil; Tarp, Simon; Foeldvari, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Although various biological agents are in use for polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (pJIA), head-to-head trials comparing the efficacy and safety among them are lacking. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of biological agents in pJIA using all currently...

  6. Mineral Oil Aspiration Related Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Andrew D.; Fischer, Philip R.; Reed, Ann M.; Wylam, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    We describe the development of rheumatoid factor-positive migratory polyarthritis in a 5-year-old male who had been administered bidaily oral mineral oil as a laxative since birth. Minor respiratory symptoms, radiographic and bronchoscopic findings were consistent with chronic lipoid pneumonia. We speculate that immune sensitization to mineral oil promoted the clinical syndrome of juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

  7. Retrocalcaneal bursitis in juvenile chronic arthritis.

    OpenAIRE

    Goldenstein-Schainberg, C; Homsi, C; Rodrigues Pereira, R M; W. Cossermelli

    1992-01-01

    Retrocalcaneal bursitis has been described in various adult rheumatic diseases and septic bursitis unrelated to previous bursal disease has been reported in children. The case is reported here of a girl with juvenile chronic arthritis who developed non-septic retrocalcaneal bursitis; the diagnosis was suggested by a combination of clinical and radiographic studies and was confirmed by ultrasonography.

  8. Family Disruption and Delinquency. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornberry, Terence P.; Smith, Carolyn A.; Rivera, Craig; Huizinga, David; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda

    At study sites in Rochester (New York), Denver (Colorado) and Pittsburgh (Pennsylvania), three research teams studying the impact of family disruption on juvenile delinquency have interviewed approximately 4,000 participants at regular intervals for a decade, recording their lives in detail. Findings to date indicate that preventing delinquency…

  9. Childhood ovarian juvenile granulosa cell tumour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof Ezechukwu

    2012-05-12

    May 12, 2012 ... years old of age. We describe a case ... Juvenile granulosa cell tumour a subtype of ovarian stro- mal cell ... A more serious estrogen effects can occur in various end ... usually behave in a benign manner despite having histo-.

  10. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies in juvenile chronic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, L; Horst, G; Limburg, P; deGraeffMeeder, ER; Kuis, W; Kallenberg, C

    1997-01-01

    Objective, To evaluate the diagnostic significance of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) by assessing the prevalence of ANCA in juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA) (n = 93) of either oligoarticular, polyarticular, or systemic onset. To investigate the prevalence of ANCA in other diseases of c

  11. Biologisk terapi ved juvenil idiopatisk artritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlin, Troels

    2008-01-01

    In recent years the treatment of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) has undergone marked changes. There is substantial evidence that inhibitors of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) like etanercept, infliximab and adalimumab show significant efficacy when standard therapy fails, and long-ter...

  12. Smerte og smertemestring ved juvenil idiopatisk artritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlin, Troels; Thastum, Mikael

    2008-01-01

    Pain is one of the primary symptoms of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). JIA patients have reduced pain tolerance and pain threshold compared to healthy controls. In children with JIA the greater use of coping strategies such as problem-solving, positive self-statements and distraction consist...

  13. Increasing Incidence of Juvenile Thyrotoxicosis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, R. H.; Andersen, M. S.; Hansen, D.

    2015-01-01

    . Additional data were collected on children diagnosed with GD in 2008-2012. Results: In total, 237 patients with juvenile thyrotoxicosis (JT) were identified. The overall IR in 1998-2012 was 1.58/100,000 person-years and has increased significantly from 0.79/100,000 person-years in 1982-1988 (p

  14. Predictors of juveniles' noncompliance with probation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NeMoyer, Amanda; Goldstein, Naomi E S; McKitten, Rhonda L; Prelic, Ana; Ebbecke, Jenna; Foster, Erika; Burkard, Casey

    2014-12-01

    Probation is the most common disposition for adjudicated youth, but little is known about which specific requirements are commonly imposed on juveniles, the requirements with which juveniles most often fail to comply, and how certain youth characteristics and/or imposed requirements might relate to probation noncompliance. An investigation of 120 archived files of youth represented by an urban public defender's office identified 29 probation requirements imposed on youth and 18 requirements with which youth commonly failed to comply. Results revealed that 52% of youth failed to comply with at least one probation requirement; prior probation noncompliance and race were both significantly associated with noncompliance in the examined probation disposition. In addition, the probability of probation noncompliance was significantly higher when youth received either of two substance-related probation requirements: drug tests or drug and alcohol counseling. Such results may prompt further investigation of juvenile probation-related predictors, identify areas of need for clinical service provision to foster successful completion of probation requirements, and help identify areas of potential biases among juvenile court personnel.

  15. Retrocalcaneal bursitis in juvenile chronic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenstein-Schainberg, C; Homsi, C; Rodrigues Pereira, R M; Cossermelli, W

    1992-01-01

    Retrocalcaneal bursitis has been described in various adult rheumatic diseases and septic bursitis unrelated to previous bursal disease has been reported in children. The case is reported here of a girl with juvenile chronic arthritis who developed non-septic retrocalcaneal bursitis; the diagnosis was suggested by a combination of clinical and radiographic studies and was confirmed by ultrasonography. Images PMID:1444631

  16. The human microbiome and juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwoerd, Anouk; ter Haar, Nienke M.; de Roock, Sytze; Vastert, Sebastiaan J.; Bogaert, Debby

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common rheumatic disease in childhood. The pathogenesis of JIA is thought to be the result of a combination of host genetic and environmental triggers. However, the precise factors that determine one's susceptibility to JIA remain to be unravelled. The

  17. Alteracioness cognitivas en familias con Parkinson juvenil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Lopera Restrepo

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available El Grupo de Neurociencias de la Universidad de Antioquia reportó por primera vez en Colombia cuatro familias afecatas por la Enfermedad de Parkinson Familiar Juvenil portadoras de la mutación G736A en el gen Parkin.

  18. Metamorphosis: How Missouri Rehabilitates Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubin, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Juveniles convicted of serious offenses usually end up in large correctional facilities that focus on punishment--not rehabilitation. The state of Missouri, however, has found a better way to help end the cycle of crime: by creating a network of small facilities that provide therapy and educational opportunities, it has dramatically reduced…

  19. The human microbiome and juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwoerd, Anouk; ter Haar, Nienke M.; de Roock, Sytze; Vastert, Sebastiaan J.; Bogaert, Debby

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common rheumatic disease in childhood. The pathogenesis of JIA is thought to be the result of a combination of host genetic and environmental triggers. However, the precise factors that determine one's susceptibility to JIA remain to be unravelled. The

  20. Autoimmune hepatitis and juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deen, M. E. J.; Porta, G.; Fiorot, F. J.; Campos, L. M. A.; Sallum, A. M. E.; Silva, C. A. A.

    2009-01-01

    Juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE) and autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) are both autoimmune disorders that are rare in children and have a widespread clinical manifestation. A few case reports have shown a JSLE-AIH associated disorder. To our knowledge, this is the first study that simultaneousl

  1. JUVENILE RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS (TERMINOLOGICALAND CLASSIFICATION ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N N Kuzmina

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Basing on the data of home and foreign literature and on the long-term experience of pediatric rheumatologists, terminologic and classification aspects of Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA are presented. Approaches to developing of diagnostic and classification of JRA criteria in future are described.

  2. Evaluating juvenile detainees' Miranda misconceptions: The discriminant validity of the Juvenile Miranda Quiz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharf, Allyson J; Rogers, Richard; Williams, Margot M; Drogin, Eric Y

    2017-05-01

    Most juvenile arrestees in custodial settings waive their Miranda rights almost immediately, and many then provide incriminating statements, if not outright confessions. Forensic practitioners are then asked to provide retrospective determinations regarding whether these waivers were effectuated knowingly, voluntarily, and intelligently. At present, the forensic assessment instrument for juvenile Miranda issues consists of the Miranda Rights Comprehension Instruments (MRCI)-which as its name implies-focuses mostly on Miranda comprehension with a de-emphasis of Miranda reasoning. In partially addressing this gap, the current study investigated the clinical utility of the Juvenile Miranda Quiz (JMQ) for evaluating key Miranda misconceptions, a critically important component of Miranda reasoning. Using data from 201 juvenile detainees, we evaluated the JMQ's discriminability with regards to cognitive variables and MRCI scales. Many moderate effect sizes in the predicted direction were found for the JMQ Primary Total and Juvenile Total scores. Finally, these detainees were tested using a mock crime scenario with a representative Miranda warning plus a brief interrogation to evaluate whether they would waive their rights, and if so, whether they would confess. Using Miranda measures to predict problematic outcomes (i.e., impaired waivers followed by confessions), the JMQ Juvenile Total proved the most successful. These findings are discussed within the context of the "intelligent" prong of Miranda waivers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Musculoskeletal MRI findings of juvenile localized scleroderma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eutsler, Eric P. [Nemours Children' s Health System/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Wilmington, DE (United States); Washington University School of Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis, MO (United States); Horton, Daniel B. [Nemours Children' s Health System/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Division of Rheumatology, Department of Pediatrics, Wilmington, DE (United States); Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Department of Pediatrics, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Epelman, Monica [Nemours Children' s Health System/Nemours Children' s Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Orlando, FL (United States); Finkel, Terri [Nemours Children' s Health System/Nemours Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Orlando, FL (United States); Averill, Lauren W. [Nemours Children' s Health System/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Wilmington, DE (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Juvenile localized scleroderma comprises a group of autoimmune conditions often characterized clinically by an area of skin hardening. In addition to superficial changes in the skin and subcutaneous tissues, juvenile localized scleroderma may involve the deep soft tissues, bones and joints, possibly resulting in functional impairment and pain in addition to cosmetic changes. There is literature documenting the spectrum of findings for deep involvement of localized scleroderma (fascia, muscles, tendons, bones and joints) in adults, but there is limited literature for the condition in children. We aimed to document the spectrum of musculoskeletal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of both superficial and deep juvenile localized scleroderma involvement in children and to evaluate the utility of various MRI sequences for detecting those findings. Two radiologists retrospectively evaluated 20 MRI studies of the extremities in 14 children with juvenile localized scleroderma. Each imaging sequence was also given a subjective score of 0 (not useful), 1 (somewhat useful) or 2 (most useful for detecting the findings). Deep tissue involvement was detected in 65% of the imaged extremities. Fascial thickening and enhancement were seen in 50% of imaged extremities. Axial T1, axial T1 fat-suppressed (FS) contrast-enhanced and axial fluid-sensitive sequences were rated most useful. Fascial thickening and enhancement were the most commonly encountered deep tissue findings in extremity MRIs of children with juvenile localized scleroderma. Because abnormalities of the skin, subcutaneous tissues and fascia tend to run longitudinally in an affected limb, axial T1, axial fluid-sensitive and axial T1-FS contrast-enhanced sequences should be included in the imaging protocol. (orig.)

  4. Management of Chinese restaurant

    OpenAIRE

    Cui , Longbo

    2009-01-01

    With Chinese economy developing rapidly, the Chinese restaurant is under the spotlight, but the management of Chinese restaurant is weak at the moment, especially on the service management, which is an important part of service management in the Chinese restaurant. On the other hand, the managers of Chinese restaurant should pay more attention on the service management for instance brand, service innovation. Service management is core and essential concept for every service company recently, ...

  5. Orofacial pain, jaw function, and temporomandibular disorders in adult women with a history of juvenile chronic arthritis or persistent juvenile chronic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakke, M.; Zak, M.; Jensen, B.L.;

    2001-01-01

    Orofacial pain, jaw function, temporomandibular disorders, adult women persistent juvenil chronic arthritis......Orofacial pain, jaw function, temporomandibular disorders, adult women persistent juvenil chronic arthritis...

  6. The impact of schools on juvenile substance initiation and use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina; Mach, Traci; Clapp, John D

    2004-06-01

    We use data from the two rounds of the NLSY97 and the corresponding QED data to examine the effectiveness of school endowments and curricula in targeting juvenile use of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana. Our results support the notion that schools matter in reducing juvenile involvement in substance use. Higher discretionary dollars per pupil are linked to reduced rates of juvenile initiation and repetitive use rates of cigarettes and marijuana. Additionally, school curricula, as indicated by the implementation of year round classes and some innovative and after-school programs--such as gifted and talented, attendance monitoring, homework hotline, international baccalaureate, extended-day, and mentoring, programs, affect both juvenile initiation to tobacco and alcohol use and juvenile repetitive use of tobacco and alcohol. In particular, we find that juvenile initiation to cigarette use is approximately between 2 percentage points and 3 percentage points lower among youths attending schools with gifted and talented and international baccalaureate programs. In addition, juvenile repetitive cigarette use is approximately 54%, 52%, and 48% lower among youths attending schools offering year round classes, international baccalaureate, and twenty-first century programs, respectively. Finally, juvenile initiation to alcohol use and juvenile repetitive use of alcohol are approximately 3% and 20% lower, respectively, among youths in schools offering gifted and talented programs. In sum, while these programs are not implemented to address substance use problems among the student body, we find that the implementation of these programs is often accompanied by a reduction in juvenile initiation and repetitive substance use.

  7. Dental age estimation from the developmental stage of the third molars in western Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guo; Ren, Jiayin; Zhao, Shuping; Liu, Yuanyuan; Li, Na; Wu, Wanhong; Yuan, Shanshan; Wang, Hu

    2012-06-10

    The purpose of this study is to provide reference data about estimating dental age from third molars of the western Chinese population for comparing with other populations and being applied to the age estimation of western Chinese juveniles and adolescents. A total of 2078 digital panoramic radiographs of 989 male and 1089 female Chinese subjects aged between 5 and 23 years were examined. The mineralization status of the third molars was assessed using the formation stages described by Demirjian et al. with two modifications. The results showed that the development of third molars in the western Chinese population was likely to begin at age 5 in both males and females. The third molars 28 and 48 showed significantly higher frequency in females than in males. The third molars 18 in the stage 1, 38 in the stages 1, A and G, and 48 in the stage H showed significantly older average age in females than in males. The Demirjian's stages C and D could be used as a reference stage to determine dichotomously whether a western Chinese is more likely to be under or above age 14 or 16, respectively. This study provided reference data for the age estimation of western Chinese juveniles and adolescents by the mineralization stages of the third molar. Apart from forensic age determination in living subjects, the presented reference data can also be used for age estimations of unidentified corpses and skeletons.

  8. THE JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEM IN SPAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JosA Luis de la Cuesta

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available 1. Relevant legal framework regulating criminal proceedings against juvenile offenders. 2. Age thresholds of criminal responsibility and liability to prosecution. 3. Specialized agencies. 3.1. Judges specialization. 3.2. Prosecutor\\'s specialization. 3.3. Specialization required for any, other figure acting in the proceedings. 3.4. Social services (or similar agencies involved in the proceedings. 4. Early definition of the proceedings. 5. Personality assessment procedures. 6. Mediation. 7. Personal liberty. 8. Safeguards for the protection of minors. 8.1. Affective and/or psychological assistance. 8.2. Preventing the disclosure of the juvenile offender\\'s identity. 8.3. Other measures. 9. Final remarks.

  9. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis and lymphoedema: lymphangiographic aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmit, P.; Brunelle, F. [Service de Radiopediatrie, Groupe Hospitalier Necker-Enfants-Malades, Paris (France); Prieur, A.M. [Unite Fonctionnelle de Rhumatologie Infantile, Groupe Hospitalier Necker-Enfants-Malades, Paris (France)

    1999-05-01

    We report a 5{sup 1}/{sub 2}-year-old boy with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) and lower-limb lymphoedema. US, MRI and lymphangiography were performed. Based on the lymphangiographic study, we propose a pathogenesis based on obstruction of normal superficial lymphatic vessels in the affected limb. This is discussed with other pathogenetic factors proposed in the 16 previously reported cases of lymphoedema complicating JRA. (orig.) With 3 figs., 5 refs.

  10. El rock como conformador de identidades juveniles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián de Garay

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available El autor analiza la relación entre el rock y las identidades juveniles, a partir del abordaje de cinco “estilos” que se pueden identificar como constitutivos de éstas identidades. Ellos son: la jerga, la estética, las producciones culturales, los no-lugares y el territorio. Finaliza el artículo señalando algunos hitos importantes de la culturarockera en la ciudad de México.

  11. Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy: clinical and EEG features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S B; Petersen, K A

    1998-01-01

    We aimed to characterize the clinical profile and EEG features of 43 patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. In a retrospective design we studied the records of, and re-interviewed, 43 patients diagnosed with JME from the epilepsy clinic data base. Furthermore, available EEGs were re-evaluated...... were sleep deprivation (84%), stress (70%), and alcohol consumption (51%). EEG findings included rapid spike-wave and polyspike-wave....

  12. De las bandas a las culturas juveniles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Feixa

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is an exposition about the processes of elaboration oftheoretical concepts and methodological schemes of five ofthe princi-pal theoretical methodological paradigms thatstudygangsand juveni-le cultures in western contemporary societies. These processes oftheoretical methodological elaboration are derived from the resul-ting empirical data based on participatory observation, analysis andrellection about the conducts displayedby theadolescents as membersof a larger society.

  13. Juvenile ossifying fibroma: CT and MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoury, Nabil J.; Naffaa, Lena N.; Haddad, Maurice C. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, P.O. Box 113-6044, Beirut (Lebanon); Shabb, Nina S. [Department of Pathology, American University of Beirut - Medical Center, P.O. Box 113-6044, Beirut (Lebanon)

    2002-07-01

    We describe the CT findings in four patients and the MR imaging in one patient with juvenile ossifying fibroma. Three lesions involved the maxillary sinus and extended to the surrounding structures; one lesion was confined to the maxillary bone. CT scan revealed well-defined, expansile lesions with variable amount of calcifications. On MRI one lesion had intermediate signal intensity with significant contrast enhancement. (orig.)

  14. Solitary ulcerated congenital giant juvenile xanthogranuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Yuen Ng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 3-month-old female patient with a giant ulcerated nodule over the back since birth was diagnosed as congenital giant juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG based on clinical and histopathological examination. Congenital giant JXG with ulceration at birth is a rare presentation of JXG and commonly misdiagnosed. This case emphasizes the importance of being aware of the myriad presentations of JXG in order to make a correct diagnosis and avoid unnecessary investigations or treatment.

  15. Do Juvenile Curfew Laws Reduce Underage Drinking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Elyse R.; Jernigan, David H.; Miller, Nancy A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Although not originally enacted to deter the problem of underage drinking in the United States, one set of laws that may influence this behavior is juvenile curfew laws. This research asked the following: (a) What is the effect of enacting a juvenile curfew law on youth drinking, and (b) do demographic variables moderate the relation between juvenile curfew law enactment and drinking? This study examined the effect of juvenile curfew laws on underage drinking, using data from 46 U.S. cities from 1991 to 2005. Method: In 2014, we compiled a data set containing alcohol and curfew law data by zip code. It included 63,081 minors (ages 12–17 years) from 1,081 zip codes. We used difference-in-difference regressions to analyze the data. Results: The effect of the enactment of a curfew law on the likelihood of consuming alcohol in the past year or past 30 days or of heavy episodic drinking in the past 2 weeks was not significant when compared with cities without curfew laws during the same periods. Although the likelihood of consuming alcohol over the past year differed depending on an individual’s characteristics (e.g., race/ethnicity, age, and gender), none of the interaction terms between these characteristics and curfew laws were significant. Conclusions: Curfew laws appear to have a non-significant effect on youth drinking, but these results are unclear without more knowledge as to where and when youth are drinking both before and after the enactment of curfew laws and how these laws are being enforced. PMID:27340963

  16. Clinical presentation of juvenile Huntington disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruocco Heloísa H.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical presentation a group of patients with juvenile onset of Huntington disease. METHOD: All patients were interviewed following a structured clinical questioner. Patients were genotyped for the trinucleotide cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG repeat in the Huntington Disease gene. High resolution brain MRI was performed in all patients. RESULTS: We identified 4 patients with juvenile onset of disease among 50 patients with Huntington disease followed prospectively in our Neurogenetics clinic. Age at onset varied from 3 to 13 years, there were 2 boys, and 3 patients had a paternal inheritance of the disease. Expanded Huntington disease allele sizes varied from 41 to 69 trinucleotide repeats. The early onset patients presented with rigidity, bradykinesia, dystonia, dysarthria, seizures and ataxia. MRI showed severe volume loss of caudate and putamen nuclei (p=0.001 and reduced cerebral and cerebellum volumes (p=0.01. CONCLUSION: 8% of Huntington disease patients seen in our clinic had juvenile onset of the disease. They did not present with typical chorea as seen in adult onset Huntington disease. There was a predominance of rigidity and bradykinesia. Two other important clinical features were seizures and ataxia, which related with the imaging findings of early cortical atrophy and cerebellum volume loss.

  17. JUVENILE IDIOPATHIC ARTHRITIS – A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paresh H

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The prevalence of Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA is 0.86 per 1000 children. Subcutaneous nodules have been reported in 5% to 10% of children with JIA. Approximately 90% of patients with RA and subc utaneous nodules test positive for rheumatoid factor (RF, and approximately 40% o f all RF-seropositive patients with RA have subcutaneous nodules, whereas only 6% in volvement is seen in seronegative cases. We hereby report a case of atypical Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA in a 6 year old, female child with joint pain & myalgia along with subcutaneous nodules over the dorsum of feet, hands and elbows. Joint pain initial ly involving the left ankle, slowly progressed to involve the knee, shoulder, wrist, metacar pophalangeal and interphalangeal joints over a period of one year. Joint involvement was not symmetric. RF was Negative. Fundoscopy examination was normal. Histopathological examinat ion revealed a central zone of Fibrinoid necrosis surrounded by epithelioid h istiocytes and occasional lymphocytes. Differential diagnosis of Rheumatoid Nodule (R N or Subcutaneous Granuloma Annulare (SGA or Necrobiosis Lipoidica Diabeticorum was made. In light of clinicopathological findings, both SGA and NLD were ruled out a nd the diagnosis of Juvenile idiopathic arthritis presenting as RF-negative polyarthritis was made.

  18. Habitat selection by juvenile Mojave Desert tortoises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Brian D; Halstead, Brian J.; Chiquoine, Lindsay P.; Peaden, J. Mark; Buhlmann, Kurt A.; Tuberville, Tracey D.; Nafus, Melia G.

    2016-01-01

    Growing pressure to develop public lands for renewable energy production places several protected species at increased risk of habitat loss. One example is the Mojave desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii), a species often at the center of conflicts over public land development. For this species and others on public lands, a better understanding of their habitat needs can help minimize negative impacts and facilitate protection or restoration of habitat. We used radio-telemetry to track 46 neonate and juvenile tortoises in the Eastern Mojave Desert, California, USA, to quantify habitat at tortoise locations and paired random points to assess habitat selection. Tortoise locations near burrows were more likely to be under canopy cover and had greater coverage of perennial plants (especially creosote [Larrea tridentata]), more coverage by washes, a greater number of small-mammal burrows, and fewer white bursage (Ambrosia dumosa) than random points. Active tortoise locations away from burrows were closer to washes and perennial plants than were random points. Our results can help planners locate juvenile tortoises and avoid impacts to habitat critical for this life stage. Additionally, our results provide targets for habitat protection and restoration and suggest that diverse and abundant small-mammal populations and the availability of creosote bush are vital for juvenile desert tortoises in the Eastern Mojave Desert.

  19. Effect of laser pretreatment on germination and membrane lipid peroxidation of Chinese pine seeds under drought stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Junlin; GAO Xuehong; ZHANG Sheqi

    2007-01-01

    The germination of laser-irradiated Chinese pine seeds was carried out under drought stress.The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD),and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined.Results showed notably increased germination percentage,root length,vitality index and fresh weight.The SOD and POD protective enzyme system activity of the Chinese pine seedlings obviously rose.It can be concluded that the germination and juvenile resistance of Chinese pine seeds under drought stress are enhanced after laser processing.

  20. Criminal profiles of violent juvenile sex and violent juvenile non sex offenders: an explorative longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Anton Ph; Mali, Bas R F; Bullens, Ruud A R; Vermeiren, Robert R

    2007-10-01

    Few studies have longitudinally investigated the criminal profiles of violent juvenile sex and violent juvenile non-sex offenders. To make up for this lack, this study used police records of juveniles to determine the nature of the criminal profiles of violent sex offenders (n = 226) and violent non-sex offenders (n = 4,130). All offenders committed their first offense in 1996 and were followed for 7 years. Results showed that violent sex offenders and violent non-sex offenders cannot be considered a homogeneous group because of different background characteristics and criminal profiles. Sex and violent offenses often constitute a small part of a broader criminal pattern. Further research is necessary to reveal in more detail the developmental and criminological patterns of violent and sexual delinquency. Treatment and intervention programs may benefit from this.

  1. 两个X连锁视网膜劈裂症家系的基因突变检测与产前诊断%Detection and prenatal diagnosis for RS1 gene mutations in two Chinese families with X-linked juvenile retinoschisis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楚艳; 方东; 侯巧芳; 王丽娅; 郭希让; 王应太; 廖世秀

    2013-01-01

    Objective To identify potential mutations of retinoschisis 1 (RS1)gene responsible for Xlinked retinoschisis (XLRS) in two Chinese families.Methods The 6 exons and flanking intronic regions were analyzed with PCR and direct sequencing.Results Two RS1 mutations were identified in the two families,which included 1 frameshift mutation (c.573delG,p.Pro192fs) and 1 missense mutation (c.626G >A,p.Arg209His).Conclusion Two RS1 mutations have been identified,among which Pro192fs mutation is discovered for the first time in Chinese population.Above results have enriched our understanding of the clinical manifestations of XLRS and facilitated early diagnosis and genetic counseling for the disease.%目的 对两个视网膜劈裂症家系进行RS1基因突变的检测,分析基因突变的类型,为研究其发病机制和探索有效的治疗手段提供依据.方法 采用聚合酶链反应和直接测序方法对两个家系的RS1基因进行突变筛查,确定突变的类型.结果 两个家系中共发现两种不同的突变类型.家系1中的突变为c.573delG(p.Pro192fs);家系2中的突变为c.626G>A(p.Arg209His).在71名家系成员中总共检测出16例携带者.家系2中1例女性携带者胎儿产前诊断结果为阴性.结论 两个家系的视网膜劈裂症均由RS1基因突变所致,其中p.Pro192fs是在中国人中发现的新突变.上述发现可直接用于对家系成员的遗传咨询和产前诊断.

  2. Protection of juveniles: Victims of abuse and neglect in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Ivana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is dedicated to analyses of the protection of juveniles - victims of abuse and neglect in criminal legal system of the Republic of Serbia. Particular attention is paid to of criminal acts against sexual integrity and family life of juveniles. The position of juveniles as witnesses in the criminal procedure has been viewed from the aspect of specify and vulnerability of the child, as well as through terms of secondary and tertiary victimization of minor as a victim.

  3. Giant Bilateral Juvenile Fibroadenoma of the Breast in Prepubescent Girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Salma; Khan, Momna; Rafique, Sadia

    2015-10-01

    Juvenile fibroadenoma accounts for 4% of the total fibroadenomas. Giant juvenile fibroadenoma is found in only 0.5% of all fibroadenomas. The authors report a 10-year girl presenting with progressive enlargement of both breasts for one year. Based on clinical findings and Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC), a diagnosis of bilateral giant juvenile fibroadenomas of breast was made. She underwent bilateral lumpectomy with breast conservation and made uneventful postoperative recovery.

  4. New Ultrasound Biomicroscopy Iris Findings in Juvenile Xanthogranuloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Zeba A; Chen, Teresa C

    2016-08-01

    We report a case of juvenile xanthogranuloma in a 12-month-old girl presenting with heterochromia, hyphema, and elevated intraocular pressure. This case demonstrates new ultrasound biomicroscopy iris findings of a generalized bumpy iris contour, suggesting diffuse heterogeneous involvement. This imaging finding has not been previously described. Untreated, iris juvenile xanthogranuloma may lead to corneal blood staining, glaucoma, and amblyopia. An understanding of the full range of ultrasound features of juvenile xanthogranuloma expands our appreciation for the clinical findings in this condition.

  5. Happy (Chinese) New Year!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Georgia G.

    1979-01-01

    Suggestions are made for a classroom celebration of Chinese New Year, including discussion of the Chinese calendar and customs, a short list of appropriate children's stories, and food ideas, including a recipe for fortune cookies. (SJL)

  6. On Chinese Character

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文娟

    2016-01-01

    Just as the long history of our country, Chinese characters also have their long histories through thousands of years. There have been many great scientific works or documents studying on the origin of Chinese characters. From them, it can easily be found that each Chinese character has its own history. If we study on the history of a specific Chinese character, its motivation will be found.

  7. Scanorama in Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Scanorama, the SAS on-board magazine,is now also available in Chinese. Table-tennis star,J-O Waldner, Scandinavian design and delicious Norwegian seafood are what SAS Chinese customers can read about while sitting on board SAS flights on the Copenhagen - Beijing and Copenhagen-Shanghai routes. The magazine uses the written Chinese language that is read by nearly one billion mainland Chinese.

  8. Penalty responsibility of juveniles in the Republic of Srpska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grbić-Pavlović Nikolina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The youngest members of organized society, more intensive than ever enter the circle of those whose behavior is deviant. Juvenile delinquency is a social problem, which recently experienced an expansion in all modern countries, including Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Republic of Srpska. Considering the fact that juvenile delinquency includes lighter criminal conducts, such as, for example misdemeanors, in this paper a position of juveniles when they are a perpetrators of misdemeanors will be analyzed. Also, the paper will statistically show the number of misdemeanors in the field of public peace and order that juveniles conducted in the Republic of Srpska in the period 2004-2009.

  9. Eliminating the Competency Presumption in Juvenile Delinquency Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katner, David R

    2015-01-01

    The legal presumption used in virtually all juvenile delinquency cases in the U.S. is that all juveniles are competent to stand trial. This Article calls for the elimination of that legal presumption, which is historically based on the Dusky v. United States decision and in the adult criminal justice system. The recent decisions of the U.S. Supreme Court recognize the developmental and organic brain differences between adults and juveniles. Current research demonstrates a higher frequency rate of incompetence based on intellectual deficiencies among children when compared with adults found to be not legally competent to stand trial. By eliminating the competency presumption for juveniles in both delinquency and adult criminal proceedings, the party seeking an adjudication would be responsible for establishing that the accused juvenile is in fact, competent to stand trial. Foreign jurisdictions in Europe, Asia, Africa, and South America have long required higher thresholds--at least fourteen years of age--for holding juveniles accountable for criminal misconduct, none of them presuming that juveniles are competent to go to trial. In the alternative, by expanding the factors currently in use for determination of juvenile competency by adding developmental immaturity and mental illness, juvenile justice systems could identify the reduction of recidivist offending as the primary systemic objective.

  10. Food resource utilization by juvenile Baltic cod Gadus morhua : a mechanism potentially influencing recruitment success at the demersal juvenile stage?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin; St. John, Michael; Böttcher, U.

    1997-01-01

    those reported to be consumed by juveniles in other areas. The apparent overlap in food resource utilization among the different size groups of demersal juveniles observed in this study suggests that in years with low prey abundance, or high abundance of pelagic juveniles, strong intra......Pelagic and demersal juvenile Baltic cod Gadus morhua L. were collected during surveys in the Bornholm Basin (Baltic Sea) in autumn 1994. Stomach contents were examined for prey composition in order to evaluate the potential importance of the pelagic and demersal habitats for recruitment success....... Juvenile cod less than 40 mm fed exclusively on pelagic prey such as copepods and cladocerans. Between 40 and 50 mm the juveniles began to consume benthic prey such as mysids and amphipods; however, copepods were still the dominant food organisms. Between 50 and 70 mm the dominant prey items consumed were...

  11. Growth of juvenile shrimp Metapenaeus monoceros fed with squid and mussel

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Achuthankutty, C.T.; Nair, S.R.S.; Krishnakumari, L.

    Small juveniles of both sexes and females of large juveniles of Metapenaeus monoceros attained faster growth with squid diet. Males of large juveniles registered better growth with mussel diet. No significant difference was observed in moult weights...

  12. 78 FR 42109 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Juvenile...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    ...: Juvenile Justice Reform and Reinvestment Initiative Stakeholder Survey Under OMB's Partnership Fund ACTION: 60 Day Notice. The Department of Justice (DOJ), Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile...-3649, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs,...

  13. 77 FR 70473 - Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention; Agency Information Collection Activities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention; Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested; Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement (Revision of a Currently..., Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, will be submitting the following...

  14. 78 FR 40189 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Juvenile...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Juvenile Residential Facility Census (Extension, Without Change, of a... Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, will be submitting the...

  15. 78 FR 66383 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Juvenile...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ... of Justice Programs Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Juvenile Justice Reform and Reinvestment... (DOJ), Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, will...

  16. Chinese restaurant syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balachandran C

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available A 24-year-old Chinese student with history of recurrent attacks of flushing with burning and dryness of face of 4 years duration showed exacerbation of the symptoms after oral provocation with 1 mg of Chinese salt. Patient was treated with 50 mg pyridoxine daily and restriction of the Chinese salt in diet with moderate improvement.

  17. TRADITIONAL CHINESE HERBAL MEDICINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZHU, YP; WOERDENBAG, HJ

    1995-01-01

    Herbal medicine, acupuncture and moxibustion, and massage and the three major constituent parts of traditional Chinese medicine. Although acupuncture is well known in many Western countries, Chinese herbal medicine, the mos important part of traditional Chinese medicine, is less well known in the We

  18. TRADITIONAL CHINESE HERBAL MEDICINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZHU, YP; WOERDENBAG, HJ

    1995-01-01

    Herbal medicine, acupuncture and moxibustion, and massage and the three major constituent parts of traditional Chinese medicine. Although acupuncture is well known in many Western countries, Chinese herbal medicine, the mos important part of traditional Chinese medicine, is less well known in the

  19. TRADITIONAL CHINESE HERBAL MEDICINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZHU, YP; WOERDENBAG, HJ

    1995-01-01

    Herbal medicine, acupuncture and moxibustion, and massage and the three major constituent parts of traditional Chinese medicine. Although acupuncture is well known in many Western countries, Chinese herbal medicine, the mos important part of traditional Chinese medicine, is less well known in the We

  20. The challenges of the first migration : movement and behaviour of juvenile vs. adult white storks with insights regarding juvenile mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Rotics, Shay; Kaatz, Michael; Resheff, Yehezkel S.; Turjeman, Sondra Feldman; Zurell, Damaris; Sapir, Nir; Fiedler, Wolfgang; Jeltsch, Florian; Wikelski, Martin; Nathan, Ran

    2016-01-01

    Migration conveys an immense challenge, especially for juvenile birds coping with enduring and risky journeys shortly after fledging. Accordingly, juveniles exhibit considerably lower survival rates compared to adults, particularly during migration. Juvenile white storks (Ciconia ciconia), which are known to rely on adults during their first fall migration presumably for navigational purposes, also display much lower annual survival than adults. Using detailed GPS and body acceleration data, ...

  1. Anticipation, anti-glaucoma drug treatment response and phenotype of a Chinese family with glaucoma caused by the Pro370Leu myocilin mutation

    OpenAIRE

    Chun-Mei Li; Yue-Hong Zhang; Rong-Hua Ye; Chang-Xian Yi; Yi-Min Zhong; Dan Cao; Xing Liu

    2014-01-01

    AIM:To describe the anticipation and anti-glaucoma drugs response of a Chinese family with juvenile-onset open angle glaucoma (JOAG) caused by the Pro370Leu myocilin (MYOC) mutation.METHODS: Fifteen members of a three-generation Chinese family with JOAG were recruited to this study. They all underwent ophthalmic common examinations. Patients suspected to have JOAG got an assessment of visual field and optical coherence tomography. Intraocular pressures (IOPs) of four patients were measured at...

  2. Comparison of the localization of tetrodotoxin between wild pufferfish Takifugu rubripes juveniles and hatchery-reared juveniles with tetrodotoxin administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okita, Kogen; Takatani, Tomohiro; Nakayasu, Junichi; Yamazaki, Hideki; Sakiyama, Kazutaka; Ikeda, Koichi; Arakawa, Osamu; Sakakura, Yoshitaka

    2013-09-01

    To reveal the accumulation profile of tetrodotoxin (TTX) in pufferfish Takifugu rubripes juveniles, we compared the localization of TTX in various tissues among wild juveniles and hatchery-reared juveniles with or without TTX administration using immunohistochemical technique with anti-TTX monoclonal antibody. Immuno-positive reaction was observed in hepatic tissue, basal cell of skin and olfactory, olfactory epithelium, optic nerve and brain (optic tectum, cerebellum, medulla oblongata) of wild juveniles (body length: BL, 4.7-9.4 cm). TTX was detected in the same tissues as wild juveniles and epithelial cell layer of intestine of hatchery-reared juveniles (BL, 5.0-5.3 cm) to which TTX was orally administrated. No positive reaction was observed from the tissues of hatchery-reared juveniles without TTX administration. These results suggest that orally administrated TTX to the non-toxic cultured juveniles is accumulated in the same manner of wild juveniles. In addition, our study revealed that pufferfish accumulates TTX in the central nervous system.

  3. Tropical tree rings reveal preferential survival of fast-growing juveniles and increased juvenile growth rates over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozendaal, Danaë M A; Brienen, Roel J W; Soliz-Gamboa, Claudia C; Zuidema, Pieter A

    2010-02-01

    Long-term juvenile growth patterns of tropical trees were studied to test two hypotheses: fast-growing juvenile trees have a higher chance of reaching the canopy ('juvenile selection effect'); and tree growth has increased over time ('historical growth increase'). Tree-ring analysis was applied to test these hypotheses for five tree species from three moist forest sites in Bolivia, using samples from 459 individuals. Basal area increment was calculated from ring widths, for trees rings formed by small juveniles. Thus, extant adult trees in these species have had higher juvenile growth rates than extant juvenile trees. By contrast, rings formed by somewhat larger juveniles in four species showed the opposite pattern: a historical growth increase. For most size classes of > 10 cm diameter none of the patterns was found. Fast juvenile growth may be essential to enable tropical trees to reach the forest canopy, especially for small juvenile trees in the dark forest understorey. The historical growth increase requires cautious interpretation, but may be partially attributable to CO(2) fertilization.

  4. Effects of chronic crowding stress on growth, feeding, and behavior in Chinese sturgeon Acipenser sinensis F2 juveniles%中华鲟幼鱼对慢性拥挤胁迫的生长、摄食及行为反应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建明; 郭柏福; 高勇

    2013-01-01

      设置低、中、高3个初始养殖密度(1 g/L、4 g/L、8 g/L),进行40 d的养殖实验,研究慢性拥挤胁迫对子二代中华鲟(Acipenser sinensis Gray)幼鱼生长、摄食及行为的影响。研究表明,慢性拥挤胁迫对子二代中华鲟的生长和摄食有显著影响,体质量、体质量特定生长率、体长特定生长率、日增重随着养殖密度的升高显著降低(P<0.05),实验结束时,高密度组肥满度显著低于中、低密度组(P<0.05);各实验组的摄食率随着养殖密度的升高而降低,饵料系数随着养殖密度的升高而升高(P<0.05)。慢性拥挤胁迫对子二代中华鲟的行为也有显著的影响,随着养殖密度的增大,表现为呼吸频率、摆尾频率和游动速度显著加快等应急行为。研究结果表明高养殖密度对中华鲟的生长、摄食和行为存在显著的负面作用,不利于中华鲟幼鱼生长发育。%Chinese sturgeon(Acipenser sinensis) are an endangered anadromous species listed on the IUCN Red List. The species was characterized as a national level key protected animal of China in 1988 and fell under the protection of CITES Appendix II in 1998. Because of their perilous status, there is considerable interest in artifi-cial breeding and species conservation. To aid development of conservation breeding programs, we evaluated the effects of chronic crowding stress on growth, feeding, and behavior in F2 Chinese sturgeon. The fish were cultured at three stocking densities (low:1 g/L, medium:4 g/L, high:8 g/L) for 40 d to evaluate the influence of stocking density on growth, feeding and behavior. Density had a significant effect on growth and feeding. The body weight, growth efficiency, specific growth rate, and daily weight gain decreased significantly as stocking density increased. The feeding rate for the experimental groups also decreased as the stocking density increased and the feed conver-sion ratio increased as the

  5. Juvenile Justice in Australia 2009-10. Juvenile Justice Series. Number 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalders, Rachel; Morgan, Kirsten

    2011-01-01

    In Australia, the state and territory governments are responsible for dealing with young people who are involved in crime. One major aspect of the juvenile justice system is the supervision of children and young people who have committed or are alleged to have committed an offence. This report presents information on the young people under…

  6. Predictors of Support for Juvenile Sex Offender Registration: Educated Individuals Recognize the Flaws of Juvenile Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Margaret C.; Smith, Amy C.; Sekely, Ady; Farnum, Katlyn S.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated demographic predictors of support for juvenile sex offender registration policies, including education level, gender, political orientation, and age. Participants were 168 individuals recruited from public places in a Midwest community (45% women; M age = 42). In line with hypotheses, as education level increased, support for…

  7. Chinese Lunar Calendar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方陵生

    2005-01-01

    @@ Background and Concept The Chinese animal signs2 are a 12-year cycle used for dating the years. They represent a cyclical concept of time, rather than the Western linear concept of time. The Chinese Lunar Calendar is based on the cycles of the moon, and is constructed in a different fashion than the Western solar calendar3. In the Chinese calendar, the beginning of the year falls somewhere between late January and early February. The Chinese have adopted the Western calendar since 1911,but the lunar calendar is still used for festive occasions such as the Chinese New Year. Many Chinese calendars will print both the solar dates and the Chinese lunar dates.

  8. Gold nephropathy in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husserl, F E; Shuler, S E

    1979-01-01

    A 2-year-old girl was treated with gold salts for juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Treatment had to be discontinued when persistent proteinuria was detected. As this case report indicates, close monitoring of the urine is mandatory during treatment with gold salts to detect early signs of toxicity: hematuria followed by casts and then proteinuria as therapy is continued. Histologic examination with electron microscopy will help to differentiate the different forms of gold toxicity. When the findings are consistent with gold-induced renal involvement, therapy should be discontinued. The gold nephropathy usually resolves in time, with no permanent renal damage.

  9. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis: the paediatric perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Alison [Birmingham Children' s Hospital, Department of Adolescent Rheumatology, Birmingham (United Kingdom); McDonagh, Janet E. [Birmingham Children' s Hospital, Institute of Child Health, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2006-08-15

    Paediatric rheumatology is a relatively new specialty that has developed rapidly over the last 30 years. There have been major advances, which have included improvements in the classification and management of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). The former has led to enhanced international collaboration with disease registries, multicentre research and the development of new therapeutic agents. This has resulted in improved disease control and remission induction in many. There is, however, still significant morbidity associated with JIA during childhood, adolescence and adulthood, and challenges for the future include early identification of those with a poorer prognosis, appropriate administration of safe therapies and optimizing outcomes as young people move through adolescence into adulthood. (orig.)

  10. Massive juvenile angiomatosis of maxilla and mandible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Singh Chauhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiomatosis is a complex vascular malformation of infancy and childhood consisting of proliferating blood vessels with accompanying mature fat, fibrous tissue, lymphatic′s and nerves, which may involve skin, subcutaneous tissue, skeletal muscle and occasionally bone. It is extremely rare and benign, but a clinically extensive vascular lesion of soft-tissue, which usually becomes symptomatic during childhood or adolescence. We report a rare case of massive juvenile angiomatosis of maxilla and mandible in a 15-year-old male patient.

  11. Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaçal, Naci; Gülçelik, Nevzat; Yildiz, Kadriye; Mungan, Sevdegül; Kutlu, Necmettin

    2005-07-01

    Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis ( JHF ) is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by papulonodular skin lesions, gingival hyperplasia, joint contractures, and bone lesions. The skin lesions may consist of multiple large tumors, commonly on the scalp and around the neck, and small pearly, pink papules and plaques on the trunk, chin, ears, and around the nostrils. Here, we report a 2-year-old boy with characteristic stiffness of the knees and elbows and pink confluent papules on the paranasal folds, and periauricular and perianal regions. He also had hard nodules all over the scalp and around the mouth, and severe gingival hyperplasia. The lesions were totally excised and clinicopathological diagnosis was JHF.

  12. Managing juvenile Huntington’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Quarrell, Oliver W. J.; Nance, Martha A.; Nopoulos, Peggy; Paulsen, Jane S.; Smith, Jonathan A.; Squitieri, Ferdinando

    2013-01-01

    Huntington’s disease (HD) is a well-recognized progressive neurodegenerative disorder that follows an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. Onset is insidious and can occur at almost any age, but most commonly the diagnosis is made between the ages of 35 and 55 years. Onset ≤20 years of age is classified as juvenile HD (JHD). This age-based definition is arbitrary but remains convenient. There is overlap between the clinical pathological and genetic features seen in JHD and more traditio...

  13. Cranial juvenile psammomatoid ossifying fibroma: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrena López, Cristina; Bollar Zabala, Alicia; Úrculo Bareño, Enrique

    2016-03-01

    Juvenile psammomatoid ossifying fibroma (JPOF) is a fibroosseous tumor that arises in the craniofacial bones in young people. This lesion usually originates in the jaw, orbit, and ethmoid complex but can also be associated with the skull base and calvaria. Diagnosis must be made based on observing typical radiological and histopathological features. Although JPOF is a rare pathological entity, neurosurgeons must consider this odontogenic lesion in the differential diagnosis of skull masses given the lesion's aggressive behavior and locally invasive growth. Treatment must be gross-total resection. In the following article, the authors present a case of cranial JPOF and discuss various aspects of this entity.

  14. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a clinical overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, J

    2000-02-01

    The chronic arthritides in childhood remain a poorly understood group of conditions. Their classification has been a source of much confusion over the years with differences in terminology between Europe and North America. A significant step forward in paediatric rheumatology has been the recent development of an internationally agreed classification system which uses the overall term juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). The various subtypes of JIA and their clinical features are described, together with an overview of their differential diagnosis, complications and outcomes. An outline of current management strategies is given and potential future developments highlighted.

  15. CYCLOSPORIN A IN THERAPY FOR JUVENILE ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E S Fedorov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes approaches to using cyclosporin A (CsA in juvenile arthritis (JA. It shows the benefits of combination basic therapy with CsA and methotrexate included into a treatment regimen mainly for systemic JA and JA involving the eye (uveitis versus monotherapy with the above drugs. Attention is drawn to that the oral dose of glucocorticoids may be decreased when CsA is incorporated into the treatment regimen. CsA is shown to be of value as the drug of choice for the therapy of such a menacing complication of systemic JA as the macrophage activation syndrome

  16. Polipose juvenil: relato de 2 casos Juvenile polyposis: case two report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juvenal da Rocha Torres Neto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A Polipose Juvenil é uma afecção rara e faz parte do grupo das poliposes hamartomatosas familiares (PHF. É uma síndrome autossômica dominante que pode ser desencadeada por mutações no gene SMAD4/DPC4 (que codifica um sinalizador intermediário de TGF-b. Caracteriza-se pelo aparecimento de 10 ou mais pólipos hamartomatosos (juvenis no trato gastrintestinal, predominando no cólon. Costuma manifestar-se entre 4 e 14 anos de idade. Alguns pólipos adquirem focos adenomatosos apesar da natureza hamartomatosa das lesões e há chance de malignização. Relato de 2 casos de pacientes portadores de Polipose Juvenil colônica associada a focos de adenoma com displasia e revisão da literatura.Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome is a rare disease and is included in the Hamartomatous Familial Polyposis's (HFP group. It's an autosomal dominant syndrome which can be determinated by SMAD4/DPC4 germline mutations (which codifies an intermediary mediator of TGF-b. It's characterized by 10 or more hamartomatous polyps (juveniles throughout the gastrointestinal tract, especially in the colon. The symptoms usually appears between the ages of 4 and 14 years old. Some polyps can acquire adenomatous changes despite the lesion's hamartomatous nature and there's chance of colorectum malignization. Case report of two patients with Juvenile Polyposis coli associated to adenomatous changes with dysplasia and literature review.

  17. Chinese Wrestling,Chinese Traditional Spirit to Be Succeeded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yongjian; Guo Yan

    2006-01-01

    @@ Chinese Wrestling which has been exercised for thousands of years, has a history of as long as the Chinese People China's Foreign Trade exclusively interviewed 72-year old Mr. Li Baoru, Head of the Chinese Wrestling Team. He stressed: "Chinese Wrestling will not become extinct, because it is the symbol of the Chinese Spirit."

  18. Dating Violence and Girls in the Juvenile Justice System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Patricia J.; Cheng, An-Lin; Peralez-Dieckmann, Esther; Martinez, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the prevalence and associated behaviors of dating violence among a population of girls in the juvenile justice system. A sample of 590 girls from an urban juvenile justice system completed a questionnaire assessing attitudes and self-efficacy about and occurrence of dating violence. The analysis developed a…

  19. The Challenges in Providing Needed Transition Programming to Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, John S.; Bohac, Paul D.; Wade, Wanda

    2015-01-01

    The transition to and from juvenile justice settings is a complex and challenging process. Effectively preparing juvenile justice personnel to address the transition needs of incarcerated students is an essential aspect of reducing the negative effects of the school-to-prison pipeline. This article examines program and professional development…

  20. Psychiatric Disorders of Youth in Detention. Juvenile Justice Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teplin, Linda A.; Abram, Karen M.; McClelland, Gary M.; Mericle, Amy A.; Dulcan, Mina K.; Washburn, Jason J.

    2006-01-01

    This bulletin examines the prevalence of alcohol, drug, and mental disorders among youth at the Cook County (Illinois) Juvenile Temporary Detention Center, by gender, race/ethnicity, and age. Drawing on research conducted by the Northwestern Juvenile Project, this bulletin finds that nearly two-thirds of males and three-quarters of females studied…

  1. Treatment for Juveniles Who Sexually Offend in a Southwestern State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikomi, Philip A.; Harris-Wyatt, Georgetta; Doucet, Geraldine; Rodney, H. Elaine

    2009-01-01

    A 25-item questionnaire was mailed to sex offender treatment providers from counties with 60 or more reported juvenile sex offenders in a Southwestern state to determine the most effective treatment for juvenile sex offenders. Results indicated that cognitive behavioral therapy was the most successful reported approach to treatment with an average…

  2. Juvenile female sex offenders: Offender and offence characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijkman, M.; Bijleveld, C.; Hendriks, J.

    2014-01-01

    Almost all research on juvenile sex offending pertains to adolescent males. This study comprises all female juveniles convicted for sexual offences in the Netherlands between 1993 and 2008 (N = 66). From analysis of their court files and their criminal records, these female offenders are described i

  3. 28 CFR 0.57 - Criminal prosecutions against juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criminal prosecutions against juveniles. 0.57 Section 0.57 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Criminal Division § 0.57 Criminal prosecutions against juveniles. The Assistant Attorney...

  4. Family and Community Perceptions of Quality in Juvenile Justice Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selber, Katherine; Streeter, Calvin

    2004-01-01

    The conceptualization and empirical assessment of service quality in juvenile justice remains limited. There are few reports on programmatic attempts to assess satisfaction in juvenile justice programs or attempts to include what constitutes quality of service from multiple customer perspectives. This article describes a potential model, the Gap…

  5. The Effects of Computerized Information Systems on Juvenile Courts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Gary L.

    1976-01-01

    Organizational theorists alternatively hypothesized that computerized information systems (CIS) will produce no necessary changes, centralization, or decentralization in juvenile courts. This hypothesis is supported by the results of a four year study on the phenomenon. Suggestions are offered for improving the juvenile judicial system through…

  6. A Structural Equation Modeling Analysis of Influences on Juvenile Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, David E.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Zhang, Dalun; Zhang, Dake

    2014-01-01

    This study examined influences on delinquency and recidivism using structural equation modeling. The sample comprised 199,204 individuals: 99,602 youth whose cases had been processed by the South Carolina Department of Juvenile Justice and a matched control group of 99,602 youth without juvenile records. Structural equation modeling for the…

  7. Social Skills Training for Juvenile Delinquents: Post-Treatment Changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Stouwe, Trudy; Asscher, J.J.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Hoeve, M.; van der Laan, Peter H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the post-treatment effectiveness of an outpatient, individual social skills training for juvenile delinquents in the Netherlands and to conduct moderator tests for age, gender, ethnicity, and risk of reoffending. Methods: The sample consisted of juveniles who received Tools4U,

  8. Social skills training for juvenile delinquents : Post-treatment changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Stouwe, T.; Asscher, J.J.; Hoeve, M.; van der Laan, P.H.; Stams, G.J.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the post-treatment effectiveness of an outpatient, individual social skills training for juvenile delinquents in the Netherlands and to conduct moderator tests for age, gender, ethnicity, and risk of reoffending. Methods The sample consisted of juveniles who received Tools4U, a

  9. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 1991 Annual Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digital Systems Research Inc., Arlington, VA.

    This report fulfills the annual reporting requirements of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (JJDP) Act of 1974 as amended, and describes the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention's (OJJDP) efforts to carry out the broad mandates of the JJDP Act during fiscal year 1991. The report begins with an explanation of the…

  10. Practitioner Views of Priorities, Policies, and Practices in Juvenile Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mears, Daniel P.; Shollenberger, Tracey L.; Willison, Janeen B.; Owens, Colleen E.; Butts, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    Dramatic changes in juvenile justice have occurred in recent decades. One result has been the emergence of new policies and practices, many of which remain largely unexamined. One avenue for gaining insight into whether such policies and practices are needed or effective, as well as into how the juvenile justice system might be improved, is to tap…

  11. Spatial dynamics of juvenile anchovy in the Bay of Biscay

    KAUST Repository

    Boyra, Guillermo

    2016-07-08

    In autumn 2009, the implementation of two successive acoustic surveys targeting juvenile anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) in the Bay of Biscay allowed us to monitor the changes in the spatial distribution and aggregation patterns of juveniles of this species during 45 days under fairly stable meteorological conditions. Juvenile anchovy changed its biological condition and behavior in a different manner in two distinct areas. In the Spanish sector, the juveniles migrated 20 nautical miles (n.mi.) towards the coast, but they remained on the shelf and near the surface during the whole surveyed period. As the advance towards the shelf break progressed, their area of distribution decreased, their density increased and the juveniles spread in fewer but heavier shoals. In the French sector, the juveniles also migrated from slope waters towards the coast at a similar velocity, but they crossed the shelf break into the continental shelf, where they increased their mean depth significantly until gradually adopting the typical nyctemeral migrations of adult anchovy. The mean length of the juveniles that adopted the nyctemeral migrations was significantly higher than that of the juveniles remaining at the surface, suggesting that body size is relevant to accomplish this change. Besides, the stronger temperature gradients between the shelf and oceanic waters in the Spanish sector, favored by a narrow shelf, may have acted as a barrier influencing the distinct observed spatial patterns in the two areas. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd

  12. Juvenile Crime and Criminal Justice: Resolving Border Disputes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Rising juvenile crime rates during the 1970s and 1980s spurred state legislatures across the country to exclude or transfer a significant share of offenders under the age of eighteen to the jurisdiction of the criminal court, essentially redrawing the boundary between the juvenile and adult justice systems. Jeffrey Fagan examines the legal…

  13. Extinguishing All Hope: Life-without-Parole for Juveniles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Sentencing juveniles to life-without-parole (JLWOP) is a practice fraught with ethical dilemmas. Through in-depth interviews with 11 men living sentences of JLWOP, their narratives of their backgrounds and experiences as juveniles were studied. Common themes were identified, and 3 general categories of cases emerged from the narratives. Ethical…

  14. IDEA-Related Professional Development in Juvenile Corrections Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Joseph Calvin; Steinberg, Mary Anne; Crockett, Jean; Murphy, Kristin M.; Gaddis, Justin

    2013-01-01

    Incarcerated youth are among the least academically and behaviorally competent students in the United States. In spite of juvenile justice reform efforts, including state and federal guarantees of appropriate education, educational services in juvenile corrections (JC) schools, especially for youth with disabilities, are lacking (Houchins,…

  15. The Content Validity of Juvenile Psychopathy: An Empirical Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynam, Donald R.; Derefinko, Karen J.; Caspi, Avshalom; Loeber, Rolf; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the content validity of a juvenile psychopathy measure, the Childhood Psychopathy Scale (CPS; D. R. Lynam, 1997), based on a downward translation of an adult instrument, the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; R. D. Hare, 1991). The CPS was compared with two other indices of juvenile psychopathy: (a) an index derived…

  16. Dating Violence and Girls in the Juvenile Justice System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Patricia J.; Cheng, An-Lin; Peralez-Dieckmann, Esther; Martinez, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the prevalence and associated behaviors of dating violence among a population of girls in the juvenile justice system. A sample of 590 girls from an urban juvenile justice system completed a questionnaire assessing attitudes and self-efficacy about and occurrence of dating violence. The analysis developed a…

  17. The Juvenile Addiction Risk Rating: Development and Initial Psychometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Michael; Newgent, Rebecca A.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the development and psychometrics of the Juvenile Addiction Risk Rating. The Juvenile Addiction Risk Rating is a brief screening of addiction potential based on 10 risk factors predictive of youth alcohol and drug-related problems that assists examiners in more accurate treatment planning when self-report information is…

  18. Serum neopterin is not increased in obese juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangge, Harald; Freytag, Florian; Almer, Gunter; Weghuber, Daniel; Bauer-Denk, Carmen; Fuchs, Dietmar

    2011-01-01

    Objective. Cardiovascular disease is associated with inflammation and immune activation, concentrations of immune activation markers like neopterin predict outcome in adults. Methods. Serum neopterin concentrations and early metabolic and pre-atherosclerotic symptoms were analyzed in 295 obese juveniles and 101 normal weight controls of similar age. Additionally, the influence of a 12 months weight reduction program on neopterin levels was investigated in 31 obese juveniles. Results. Intima-media thickness of common carotid arteries (IMT) and the concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP) were increased in the obese juveniles (P juveniles (P juvenile obesity behaved considerably different from what was demonstrated in adults, levels did not correlate with metabolic and pre-atherosclerotic symptoms found in early phases although early vascular burden and chronic low grade inflammation was indicated by increased IMT and CRP. Neopterin concentrations increased after a 12 months intervention program.

  19. Factors influencing predation on juvenile ungulates and natural selection implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Barber-Meyer

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile ungulates are generally more vulnerable to predation than are adult ungulates other than senescent individuals, not only because of their relative youth, fragility, and inexperience, but also because of congenital factors. Linnell et al.’s (Wildl. Biol. 1: 209-223 extensive review of predation on juvenile ungulates concluded that research was needed to determine the predisposition of these juveniles to predation. Since then, various characteristics that potentially predispose juvenile ungulates have emerged including blood characteristics, morphometric and other condition factors, and other factors such as birth period, the mother’s experience, and spatial and habitat aspects. To the extent that any of the physical or behavioral traits possessed by juvenile ungulates have a genetic or heritable and partly independent epigenetic component that predisposes them to predation, predators may play an important role in their natural selection. We review the possible influence of these characteristics on predisposing juvenile ungulates to predation and discuss natural selection implications and potential selection mechanisms. Although juvenile ungulates as a class are likely more vulnerable to predation than all but senescent adults, our review presents studies indicating that juveniles with certain tendencies or traits are killed more often than others. This finding suggests that successful predation on juveniles is more selective than is often assumed. Because we are unable to control for (or in some cases even measure the myriad of other possible vulnerabilities such as differences in sensory abilities, intelligence, hiding abilities, tendency to travel, etc., finding selective predation based on the relatively few differences we can measure is noteworthy and points to the significant role that predation on juveniles has in the natural selection of ungulates. Future research should compare characteristics, especially those known to

  20. [Lung is also involved in juvenile dermatomyositis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouessel, G; Thumerelle, C; Nève, V; Santangelo, T; Flammarion, S; Pruvot, I; Tillie-Leblond, I; Deschildre, A

    2014-07-01

    Juvenile dermatomyositis is the leading cause of chronic idiopathic inflammatory myopathy of auto-immune origin in children. Lung involvement in inflammatory myopathies is well described in adults, involving mostly interstitial lung disease, aspiration pneumonia and alveolar hypoventilation. We propose to describe its specificities in children. Pulmonary involvement may be asymptomatic and therefore must be systematically screened for. In case of clinical or functional respiratory abnormality, a chest computed tomographic (CT) scan is necessary. In children, a decrease of respiratory muscle strength seems common and should be systematically and specifically searched for by non-invasive and reproducible tests (sniff test). Interstitial lung disease usually associates restrictive functional defect, impairment of carbon monoxide diffusion and interstitial lung disease on CT scan. As in adults, the first-line treatment of juvenile dermatomyositis is based on corticosteroids. Corticosteroid resistant forms require corticosteroid bolus or adjuvant immunosuppressive drugs (methotrexate or cyclosporine). There is no consensus in pediatrics for the treatment of diffuse interstitial lung disease. Complications of treatment, including prolonged steroid therapy, are frequent and therefore a careful assessment of the treatments risk-benefit ratio is necessary, especially in growing children.

  1. El desempleo juvenil: problema de efectos perpetuos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio José De La Hoz

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo evidencia avances teóricos y empíricos respecto al análisis deldesempleo juvenil, subrayando en materia teórica argumentos relacionados con las causas de estefenómeno, tales como la dinámica poblacional juvenil, el desempleo estructural y las condicionessocioeconómicas de los países; las consecuencias, como los bajos ingresos, la exclusión social yel desarrollo de actividades delictivas, efectos que pueden prolongarse por más de diez años. Y enmateria metodológica, diferencias conceptuales para definir a un individuo “joven”, que varían depaís a país, y dependen de instituciones nacionales encargadas de la información estadística, y enalgunos casos, de las mismas condiciones económicas de los países.

  2. Frontal Sinus Development and Juvenile Age Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kaitlin; Ross, Ann

    2017-09-01

    Assessment of development is an important component of age estimation in juveniles. One area that has not been fully investigated as a possible aging method is the development of the frontal sinus. The frontal sinuses form when the ectocranial table of the frontal bone separates from the endocranial table forming an air pocket in the bone. The endocranial table ceases growth with the brain, while the ectocranial table is displaced anteriorly as the facial bones continue growth. In order to examine growth and the utility of the frontal sinuses for age estimation, 392 radiographs were examined (♀=159 and ♂=233) from the Juvenile Radiograph Database at North Carolina State University and the Patricia Database from Mercyhurst University. The sample included individuals who ranged in age from 0 to 18 years. Anterior view (or AP) radiographs were examined and were grouped based upon the presence or absence of the frontal sinus. Individuals were grouped into four age categories. A one-way ANOVA was performed to test whether developmental phase was related to age. Results from the ANOVA show that developmental phase is significantly related to age (P Anat Rec, 300:1609-1617, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Heterogeneidad de trayectorias laborales y temporalidades juveniles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Longo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Las trayectorias laborales de los jóvenes se diversifican en función de las duraciones, las etapas y las edades en las que ocurren los acontecimientos y se alcanzan ciertos roles. Sin embargo, factores clásicos asociados al origen social o al mundo del trabajo no alcanzan para comprender la diferenciación en los modos de inserción. Este artículo propone la inclusión de las temporalidades juveniles como factor clave para la comprensión de trayectorias laborales de jóvenes. Las temporalidades juveniles sirven para observar conjuntamente los marcos temporales dominantes de la inserción y la manera en la que los mismos son vividos por los sujetos. Las mismas discuten las tesis que señalan que en Argentina los jóvenes son prisioneros de un presentismo sin proyecto o que se someten inevitablemente a un contexto laboral incierto. Cuatro tipo des temporalidades han emergido en el análisis cualitativo y longitudinal de las trayectorias : los "planificadores", los "ejecutantes", los "latentes" y los "oportunistas"

  4. Systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimaz, Rolando

    2016-09-01

    Systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis (SoJIA) is a systemic inflammatory disease which has up to now been classified as a category of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. However, in this context, systemic inflammation has been associated with dysregulation of the innate immune system, suggesting that it may rather be part of the spectrum of autoinflammatory disorders. The disease is in fact unique with regard to the other JIA categories, in terms of clinical manifestations, prognosis, and response to conventional immunosuppressant therapies. It is characterized clinically by fever, lymphadenopathy, arthritis, rash, and serositis. IL-1 and IL-6 play a major role in the pathogenesis of SoJIA, and treatment with IL-1 and IL-6 inhibitors has shown to be highly effective. However, complications of SoJIA, including macrophage activation syndrome, limitations in functional outcome by arthritis and long-term damage from chronic inflammation continue to be a major issue in patients' care. Recent advances on the pathogenesis and treatment have revolutionized the care and prognosis of this potentially life-threatening pediatric condition.

  5. Clinical outcome measures in juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consolaro, Alessandro; Giancane, Gabriella; Schiappapietra, Benedetta; Davì, Sergio; Calandra, Serena; Lanni, Stefano; Ravelli, Angelo

    2016-04-18

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), as a chronic condition, is associated with significant disease- and treatment-related morbidity, thus impacting children's quality of life. In order to optimize JIA management, the paediatric rheumatologist has begun to regularly use measurements of disease activity developed, validated and endorsed by international paediatric rheumatology professional societies in an effort to monitor the disease course over time and assess the efficacy of therapeutic interventions in JIA patients.A literature review was performed to describe the main outcome measures currently used in JIA patients to determine disease activity status.The Juvenile Disease Activity Score (JADAS), in its different versions (classic JADAS, JADAS-CRP and cJADAS) and the validated definitions of disease activity and response to treatment represent an important tool for the assessment of clinically relevant changes in disease activity, leading more and more to a treat-to-target strategy, based on a tight and thorough control of the patient condition. Moreover, in recent years, increasing attention on the incorporation of patient-reported or parent-reported outcomes (PRCOs), when measuring the health state of patients with paediatric rheumatic diseases has emerged.We think that the care of JIA patients cannot be possible without taking into account clinical outcome measures and, in this regard, further work is required.

  6. Managing juvenile idiopathic arthritis-associated uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Madeleine J; Dick, Andrew D; Lee, Richard J W; Ramanan, Athimalaipet V; Carreño, Ester; Guly, Catherine M; Ross, Adam H

    2016-01-01

    Bilateral chronic anterior uveitis is an extra-articular feature of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Although figures vary, uveitis occurs in approximately 11%-13% of patients with this disease and is most commonly associated with the female gender, oligoarthritis, and presence of antinuclear antibodies. The disease has an insidious onset and is often asymptomatic. Managing patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis-associated uveitis remains challenging as the disease may prove to be refractory to traditional treatment regimens. Stepwise immunomodulatory therapy is indicated, with new biologic drugs being used last in cases of refractory uveitis. Small scale studies and practice have provided the evidence to undertake randomized control trials to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of anti-tumor necrosis factor-α therapies, such as infliximab and adalimumab. These have demonstrated promising results, with further data awaited from ongoing trials for adalimumab (as SYCAMORE and ADJUVITE trials). Lower grade evidence is supporting the use of newer biologics such as rituximab, daclizumab, tocilizumab, and abatacept in those cases refractory to anti-tumor necrosis factor-α therapy.

  7. Juvenile Delinquency and Teenage Pregnancy: A Comparison of Ecological Risk Profiles among Midwestern White and Black Female Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Atika; Cooksey, Elizabeth C.; Gavazzi, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined ecological risk factors associated with teen pregnancy with a sample of 1,190 court-involved female juvenile offenders between 11 and 18 years of age. Data were obtained from five Midwestern juvenile county courts using a recently developed youth risk assessment instrument called the global risk assessment device (GRAD). In…

  8. Juvenile Delinquency and Teenage Pregnancy: A Comparison of Ecological Risk Profiles among Midwestern White and Black Female Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Atika; Cooksey, Elizabeth C.; Gavazzi, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined ecological risk factors associated with teen pregnancy with a sample of 1,190 court-involved female juvenile offenders between 11 and 18 years of age. Data were obtained from five Midwestern juvenile county courts using a recently developed youth risk assessment instrument called the global risk assessment device (GRAD). In…

  9. Juvenile cellulitis in a puppy – case reportsCelulite juvenil canina – relato de casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Fonseca-Alves

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile cellulitis or juvenile sterile granulomatous lymphadenitis is a rare disorder that affects puppies between three weeks to six months years old. Clinical signs include alopecia, edema, papules, pustules and crusts especially on eyelids. Definitive diagnosis requires cytological and histological evaluation and early and aggressive therapy is recommended, once scars after recovery can be severe .The choice treatment is the high dose of corticosteroids use such as prednisone. Three animals of canine species were attended at the Veterinary Hospital Clinical Small Animal Service presenting different clinical signs. Hemogram, skin lesions and submandibular lymph nodes cytological examination was collected and analyzed. The treatment was instituted, using cephalexin (22mg/kg, twice daily up to control of secondary bacterial infection, and prednisone (2mg/kg, once a day until clinical resolution. Complete cure was obtained at the end of treatment. The aim of this work is to report three clinical cases of juvenile cellulitis in dogs. A celulite juvenil ou linfadenite granulomatosa estéril juvenil, é um distúrbio raro que acomete filhotes com idade entre três semanas a seis meses. Os sinais clínicos incluem alopecia, edema, pápulas, pústulas e crostas especialmente em pálpebras. O diagnóstico definitivo requer exames citológico e histopatológico e a terapia precoce e agressiva é preconizada, pois as cicatrizes após recuperação podem ser graves. O tratamento de escolha consiste no uso de altas doses dos glicocorticoides, como prednisona. Foram atendidos no Hospital Veterinário, três animais da espécie canina, apresentando sinais clínicos variados. Foram realizados hemograma, exame citológico das lesões de pele e dos linfonodos submandibulares. O tratamento foi instituído, utilizando-se cefalexina na dose de 22 mg/kg, duas vezes ao dia, até controle de infecção bacteriana secundária e prednisona na dose de 2mg/kg, uma vez

  10. Influences of different odors on the motion sickness of juvenile mice%不同气味因素对幼年小鼠晕动病的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余巧玲; 陈丽; 宋珂珂; 王宇; 曹世光; 刘超; 宋辉; 韦巍; 南李刚; 王勇

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To observe the influences of different odors on the motion sickness of juvenile mice. [Methods] The motion sickness symptomatic score,the open field test and the autonomous movement test were performed to examine the effects of the pre-administration of Ginger juice spray, orange juice spray,Chinese essential balm spray and smoke of cigarettes,respectively,on the symptoms of juvenile mice model of motion sickness. [Results] Pre-administration of Ginger juice spray,Chinese essential balm spray or smoke of cigarettes did not influence the motion sickness symptomatic score of juvenile mice model of motion sickness. Pre-administration of orange juice spray increased the motion sickness symptomatic score of juvenile mice model of motion sickness. Pre-administration of smoke of cigarettes increased the anxious related symptoms of juvenile mice model of motion sickness in the open field test. Pre-administration of Ginger juice spray .orange juice spray,Chinese essential balm spray and smoke of cigarettes did not affect the autonomous movement of juvenile mice model of motion sickness. [Conclusion] Pre-administration of Ginger juice spray,orange juice spray,Chinese essential balm spray and smoke of cigarettes do not impact the symptoms of juvenile mice model of motion sickness.%[目的]观察不同气味因素对幼年小鼠晕动病的影响. [方法]分别预先给予小鼠姜汁、橙汁、风油精和香烟气味刺激后制备晕动病模型,通过晕动病症状评分、旷场实验和小鼠自主活动实验,观察上述4类气味对晕动病幼年小鼠模型的影响. [结果]姜味、风油精味和烟味未影响幼年小鼠的晕动病症状评分,橙味会增加幼年小鼠的晕动病症状评分;烟味增加幼年晕动病小鼠的焦虑样症状;4类气味未明显改变幼年晕动病小鼠的自主活动. [结论]姜味、橙味、风油精味和炯昧等4类气味刺激并未表现出明显的对幼年动物晕动病的预防作用.

  11. CHINESE OF HUMANITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A discussion of chinese curriculum of primary school under the background of new curriculum reform Mao xinjuan Feng haiying [Abstract] in recent years, Chinese learning received more and more attention by people article mainly from the national studies this course concepts, the curriculum reform of elementary school curriculum requirements and how to effective implementation of primary national studies course several aspects under the background of curriculum reform of Chinese primary curriculum the new school

  12. From the Bench -- Juvenile Courts: How and Why They Have Changed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nuys, Heather; Blitzman, Jay; Hibbler, William; Wakefield, Dana

    2000-01-01

    Offers four judges' perspectives on the various changes in the juvenile court system focusing on the increased violence among juveniles as having the greatest effect on the courts; includes issues such as juveniles being tried in adult courts, the need to improve juvenile courts, and the role of public interest. (CMK)

  13. Critical Factors in Mental Health Programming for Juveniles in Corrections Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Lee A.; Phillips, Annie; von Dresner, Kara; Knight, Pamela D.

    2006-01-01

    Juveniles with mental health and other specialized needs are overrepresented in the juvenile justice system, and while juvenile corrections have not historically provided standardized and evidence-based mental health services for its incarcerated youth, the demand is evident. The reality is that juveniles with serious mental illness are committed…

  14. Setting a minimum age for juvenile justice jurisdiction in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S Barnert, Elizabeth; S Abrams, Laura; Maxson, Cheryl; Gase, Lauren; Soung, Patricia; Carroll, Paul; Bath, Eraka

    2017-03-13

    Purpose Despite the existence of minimum age laws for juvenile justice jurisdiction in 18 US states, California has no explicit law that protects children (i.e. youth less than 12 years old) from being processed in the juvenile justice system. In the absence of a minimum age law, California lags behind other states and international practice and standards. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach In this policy brief, academics across the University of California campuses examine current evidence, theory, and policy related to the minimum age of juvenile justice jurisdiction. Findings Existing evidence suggests that children lack the cognitive maturity to comprehend or benefit from formal juvenile justice processing, and diverting children from the system altogether is likely to be more beneficial for the child and for public safety. Research limitations/implications Based on current evidence and theory, the authors argue that minimum age legislation that protects children from contact with the juvenile justice system and treats them as children in need of services and support, rather than as delinquents or criminals, is an important policy goal for California and for other national and international jurisdictions lacking a minimum age law. Originality/value California has no law specifying a minimum age for juvenile justice jurisdiction, meaning that young children of any age can be processed in the juvenile justice system. This policy brief provides a rationale for a minimum age law in California and other states and jurisdictions without one.

  15. Maternal touch moderates sex differences in juvenile social play behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle N Edelmann

    Full Text Available Additional somatosensory contact of preterm human infants improves a variety of developmental assessment scores, but less is known about its lasting consequences. In rodents, maternal contact may influence the programming of juvenile social play behavior. Therefore, we used a paradigm where we can control the levels of somatosensory contact associated with maternal care. We find that additional somatosensory contact of offspring can have lasting consequences on juvenile social play behavior in a sex-dependent manner. Specifically, additional somatosensory stimuli reduced male social play behavior, but did not change female play behavior. We then examined if this additional infant contact altered some neurobiological substrates associated with play within the juvenile amygdala. Control males had lower levels of 5HT2a receptor mRNA levels contrasted to females; however, similar to its sex-dependent effect on juvenile social play, males that received additional somatosensory contact had higher serotonin 5HT2a receptor mRNA levels than control males. No difference was found in females. As serotonin signaling typically opposes juvenile play behavior, these data suggest that maternal touch can program lasting differences in juvenile social play and 5HT2a receptors mRNA levels within the juvenile amygdala.

  16. Maternal touch moderates sex differences in juvenile social play behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelmann, Michelle N; Demers, Catherine H; Auger, Anthony P

    2013-01-01

    Additional somatosensory contact of preterm human infants improves a variety of developmental assessment scores, but less is known about its lasting consequences. In rodents, maternal contact may influence the programming of juvenile social play behavior. Therefore, we used a paradigm where we can control the levels of somatosensory contact associated with maternal care. We find that additional somatosensory contact of offspring can have lasting consequences on juvenile social play behavior in a sex-dependent manner. Specifically, additional somatosensory stimuli reduced male social play behavior, but did not change female play behavior. We then examined if this additional infant contact altered some neurobiological substrates associated with play within the juvenile amygdala. Control males had lower levels of 5HT2a receptor mRNA levels contrasted to females; however, similar to its sex-dependent effect on juvenile social play, males that received additional somatosensory contact had higher serotonin 5HT2a receptor mRNA levels than control males. No difference was found in females. As serotonin signaling typically opposes juvenile play behavior, these data suggest that maternal touch can program lasting differences in juvenile social play and 5HT2a receptors mRNA levels within the juvenile amygdala.

  17. Few juvenile auditory perceptual skills correlate with adult performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarro, Emma C; Sanes, Dan H

    2014-02-01

    Measures of human mental development suggest that behavioral skills displayed during early life can predict an individual's subsequent cognitive performance. Support for this draws from longitudinal studies that reveal compelling within-subject correlations during childhood. If this idea applies across the life span, then correlations in performance should persist into adulthood. Here, we address this prediction in juvenile and adult gerbils by evaluating within-subject measures of auditory learning and perception. Animals were trained and tested as juveniles on either an amplitude modulation (AM) or a frequency modulation (FM) detection task. Measures of learning and perception obtained from juveniles were then compared to similar measures obtained when each subject was tested in adulthood on either the same task or the untrained task. For animals trained and tested on the AM detection task as juveniles and adults, there was no correlation between juvenile and adult learning metrics, or perceptual sensitivity. For animals trained and tested on FM detection as juveniles, we observed a significant relationship to their adult performance. Juveniles that performed the best on FM detection were the poorest at AM detection, and the best at FM detection, when tested as adults. Thus, across-age correlations for sensory and cognitive measures, obtained during development and in adulthood, depend heavily on the specific type of developmental experience and the outcome measure.

  18. Offense related characteristics and psychosexual development of juvenile sex offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Wijk Anton PH

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: This article reports on offense related characteristics and the psychosexual development in subgroups of juvenile sex offenders as measured by the Global Assessment Instrument for Juvenile Sex Offenders (GAIJSO. The predictive validity of these characteristics for persistent (sexual offensive behavior in subgroups of juvenile sex offenders was investigated. Methods: One hundred seventy four sex offenders (mean age 14.9 SD 1.4 referred by the police to the Dutch Child Protection Board were examined. Offense related characteristics were assessed by means of the GAIJSO and the BARO (a global assessment tool for juvenile delinquents, and criminal careers of the subjects were ascertained from official judicial records. Results: Serious need for comprehensive diagnostics were found on the domains sexual offense and psychosexual development in juvenile sex offenders, especially in the group of child molesters. These youngsters displayed more internalizing and (psychosexual developmental problems and their sexual offense was more alarming as compared to the other juvenile sex offender subgroups. Although one third of the juveniles had already committed one or more sex offenses prior to the index offense, at follow up (mean follow up period: 36 months SD 18 months almost no sexual recidivism was found (0.6% of the entire sample. However, a substantial proportion of the entire sample of juvenile sex offenders showed non-sexual (55.6% and violent recidivism (32.1%. Several predictors for a history of multiple sex offending and non-sexual recidivism were identified. Conclusion: This study revealed numerous problems in juvenile sex offenders. Assessment using the GAIJSO is helpful in order to identify indicators for extensive diagnostic assessment. In order to investigate the predictive validity for sexual reoffending a longer follow up period is necessary.

  19. Offense related characteristics and psychosexual development of juvenile sex offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart-Kerkhoffs, Lisette 't A; Doreleijers, Theo AH; Jansen, Lucres MC; van Wijk, Anton PH; Bullens, Ruud AR

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This article reports on offense related characteristics and the psychosexual development in subgroups of juvenile sex offenders as measured by the Global Assessment Instrument for Juvenile Sex Offenders (GAIJSO). The predictive validity of these characteristics for persistent (sexual) offensive behavior in subgroups of juvenile sex offenders was investigated. Methods: One hundred seventy four sex offenders (mean age 14.9 SD 1.4) referred by the police to the Dutch Child Protection Board were examined. Offense related characteristics were assessed by means of the GAIJSO and the BARO (a global assessment tool for juvenile delinquents), and criminal careers of the subjects were ascertained from official judicial records. Results: Serious need for comprehensive diagnostics were found on the domains sexual offense and psychosexual development in juvenile sex offenders, especially in the group of child molesters. These youngsters displayed more internalizing and (psychosexual) developmental problems and their sexual offense was more alarming as compared to the other juvenile sex offender subgroups. Although one third of the juveniles had already committed one or more sex offenses prior to the index offense, at follow up (mean follow up period: 36 months SD 18 months) almost no sexual recidivism was found (0.6% of the entire sample). However, a substantial proportion of the entire sample of juvenile sex offenders showed non-sexual (55.6%) and violent recidivism (32.1%). Several predictors for a history of multiple sex offending and non-sexual recidivism were identified. Conclusion: This study revealed numerous problems in juvenile sex offenders. Assessment using the GAIJSO is helpful in order to identify indicators for extensive diagnostic assessment. In order to investigate the predictive validity for sexual reoffending a longer follow up period is necessary. PMID:19594889

  20. Prospective Prediction of Juvenile Homicide/Attempted Homicide among Early-Onset Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglivio, Michael T.; Wolff, Kevin T.

    2017-01-01

    While homicide perpetrated by juveniles is a relatively rare occurrence, between 2010 and 2014, approximately 7%–8% of all murders involved a juvenile offender. Unfortunately, few studies have prospectively examined the predictors of homicide offending, with none examining first-time murder among a sample of adjudicated male and female youth. The current study employed data on 5908 juvenile offenders (70% male, 45% Black) first arrested at the age of 12 or younger to prospectively examine predictors of an arrest for homicide/attempted homicide by the age of 18. Among these early-onset offenders, males, Black youth, those living in households with family members with a history of mental illness, those engaging in self-mutilation, and those with elevated levels of anger/aggression (all measured by age 13) were more likely to be arrested for homicide/attempted homicide by age 18. These findings add to the scant scientific literature on the predictors of homicide, and illustrate potential avenues for intervention. PMID:28212340

  1. Prospective Prediction of Juvenile Homicide/Attempted Homicide among Early-Onset Juvenile Offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T. Baglivio

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available While homicide perpetrated by juveniles is a relatively rare occurrence, between 2010 and 2014, approximately 7%–8% of all murders involved a juvenile offender. Unfortunately, few studies have prospectively examined the predictors of homicide offending, with none examining first-time murder among a sample of adjudicated male and female youth. The current study employed data on 5908 juvenile offenders (70% male, 45% Black first arrested at the age of 12 or younger to prospectively examine predictors of an arrest for homicide/attempted homicide by the age of 18. Among these early-onset offenders, males, Black youth, those living in households with family members with a history of mental illness, those engaging in self-mutilation, and those with elevated levels of anger/aggression (all measured by age 13 were more likely to be arrested for homicide/attempted homicide by age 18. These findings add to the scant scientific literature on the predictors of homicide, and illustrate potential avenues for intervention.

  2. Examining Antisocial Behavioral Antecedents of Juvenile Sexual Offenders and Juvenile Non-Sexual Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCuish, Evan C; Lussier, Patrick; Corrado, Raymond R

    2015-08-01

    In prospective longitudinal studies of juvenile offenders, the presence of multiple developmental pathways of antisocial behaviors has consistently been identified. An "antisocial" type of juvenile sex offender (JSO) has also been identified; however, whether antisocial JSOs follow different antisocial pathways has not been examined. In the current study, differences in antisocial pathways within JSOs and between JSOs and juvenile non-sex offenders (JNSOs) were examined. Data on Canadian male incarcerated adolescent offenders were used to identify whether behavioral antecedents differed within JSOs and between JSOs (n = 51) and JNSOs (n = 94). Using latent class analysis (LCA), three behavioral groups were identified. For both JSOs and JNSOs, there was a Low Antisocial, Overt, and Covert group. Overall, there were important within-group differences in the behavioral patterns of JSOs, but these differences resembled differences in the behavioral patterns of their JNSO counterpart. Risk factors including offense history, abuse history, and family history were more strongly associated with the Overt and Covert groups compared with the Low Antisocial group. Implications for JSO assessment practices were discussed.

  3. History of Chinese medicinal wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xun-Li

    2013-07-01

    Chinese medicinal wine is one type of a favorable food-drug product invented by Chinese ancestors for treating and preventing diseases, promoting people's health and corporeity, and enriching people's restorative culture. In the course of development of the millenary-old Chinese civilization, Chinese medicinal wine has made incessant progress and evolution. In different historical periods, Chinese medicinal wine presented different characteristics in basic wine medical applications, prescriptions, etc. There are many medical and Materia Medica monographs which have systemically and specifically reported on Chinese medicinal wine in past Chinese dynasties. By studying leading medical documents, this article made an outline review on the invention, development, and characteristics of Chinese medicinal wine.

  4. FINES Y DETERMINACIÓN DE LAS SANCIONES PENALES JUVENILES

    OpenAIRE

    Tiffer Sotomayor, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    El artículo refiere los contenidos sobre los fines y la determinación de las sanciones penales juveniles. Se inicia con el elemento caracterizador del modelo de justicia responsabilizador penal juvenil. Presenta el dilema entre la prevención general y la prevención especial y el rol que desempeña el principio educativo, como finalidad primordial. Se presentan los principales criterios que debe considerar un juez al momento de determinar una sanción penal juvenil.

  5. Entre champetuos, pupys y harcoretos: Identidades juveniles en santa marta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Giraldo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo describe las principales articulaciones de las identidades juveniles en la ciudad de Santa Marta, en el Caribe colombiano. Para ello, contrasta las más relevantes figuras en el espectro de las experiencias y subjetividades juveniles en sus estrechas relaciones con diferentes géneros musicales. Se evidencia, entonces, que en las identidades juveniles se pueden diferenciar unas figuras hegemónicas (champetuo, pupy, yuquero de unas alternativas (harcoreto,electrónico.

  6. The case of juvenile polygraphy as a clinical ethics dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffin, Mark

    2011-09-01

    Polygraph interrogations are used by half of all surveyed juvenile sex offender (JSO) treatment programs in the United States. This is a distinctive and controversial practice that is rarely if ever used with other juvenile delinquent populations, and that is rarely used or is banned from JSO treatment programs in other countries. Clinical polygraphy is an ethically sensitive issue because it involves mental health therapists in involuntary coercive interrogations of minors. This article reviews core mental health professional ethics principles for juveniles. JSO polygraphy is used as an illustrative issue for applying human rights principles to a practice in light of its benefits, risks, and available alternatives.

  7. Hypoglycemia and hemostatic parameters in juvenile-onset diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Madsbad, S; Nielsen, J D;

    1980-01-01

    Hypoglycemia was induced by intravenous infusion of insulin in six juvenile-onset diabetic subjects. Hemostatic parameters were assessed before insulin infusion and 0, 1, and 2 h after discontinuation of insulin infusion. The onset of hypoglycemia coincided with an enhancement of ADP-induced plat......Hypoglycemia was induced by intravenous infusion of insulin in six juvenile-onset diabetic subjects. Hemostatic parameters were assessed before insulin infusion and 0, 1, and 2 h after discontinuation of insulin infusion. The onset of hypoglycemia coincided with an enhancement of ADP...... potentially lead to intravascular coagulation in juvenile-onset diabetic patients....

  8. Features of trust in other people in juvenile offenders

    OpenAIRE

    Astanina N.B.

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes the results of a comparative study of trust in other people in juvenile offender and law-abiding teens. The study involved 113 young offenders (from detention center for juvenile offenders, special closed schools, juvenile correctional facilities of Voronezh and Lipetsk regions) and 106 law-abiding teens, 13 to 18 years old. We identified the types of trust in other people in the two groups of adolescents. We analyzed the specifics of trust in other people in the group of ...

  9. Alteraciones de la afectividad en delincuentes juveniles privados de libertad

    OpenAIRE

    Herrero Remuzgo, Salvador

    2002-01-01

    La delincuencia juvenil ha interesado al saber científico desde siempre, y son muchos los autores y escuelas de todos los ámbitos del conocimiento que han intentado dar explicaciones sobre el origen de dicho comportamiento desadaptado, sin embargo, parece claro que esta tareas no parece fácil pues en la delincuencia juvenil están implicados una multitud de factores que ... hacen muy compleja su explicación. Esta complejidad se agrava cuando intentamos estudiar al delincuente juvenil sometido ...

  10. Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia presenting as bilateral breast masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edison, Michele N.; Letter, Haley P. [Florida Hospital, Department of Radiology, Orlando, FL (United States); University of Central Florida, College of Medicine, Orlando, FL (United States); O' Dell, M.C. [University of Central Florida, College of Medicine, Orlando, FL (United States); Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Pediatric Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Scherer, Kurt; Williams, Jennifer L. [Florida Hospital, Department of Radiology, Orlando, FL (United States); University of Central Florida, College of Medicine, Orlando, FL (United States); Florida State University, College of Medicine, Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2017-01-15

    An 8-year-old girl presented with bilateral breast masses and was subsequently diagnosed with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia. Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia is a rare myelodysplastic syndrome that typically presents in boys younger than 3 years of age with splenomegaly, lymphadenopathy and skin findings. Bilateral breast masses in a child are rare and, as such, present a diagnostic dilemma due to the relative paucity of cases in the literature. We present a case of granulocytic sarcoma of the breasts in a patient with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia. The authors hope that increased reporting and research regarding pediatric breast masses will help create awareness for such cases. (orig.)

  11. Caring for juveniles with mental disorders in adult corrections facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Cheryl D

    2017-02-01

    Although juveniles have developmental, educational, healthcare, and rehabilitation needs that differ from adults, thousands of them have been confined in adult corrections facilities in the past 30 years. This manuscript will review how and why juveniles end up in adult corrections facilities, who they are, their rehabilitative needs, and how they differ from adults in corrections facilities and youths in the juvenile justice system. The importance of providing developmentally-informed mental health services to youths in adult corrections facilities is examined, along with barriers to traditional adolescent psychiatric practice. Recommendations for future directions in adolescent psychiatric care are presented.

  12. Mediation involving a juvenile perpetrators of criminal acts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Cwalina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes issues concerning mediatory proceedings regarding juvenile court cases in Poland. It was based on original master’s dissertation entitled “Mediation as a form of protection of the juvenile against stigma”. Mediation is most often defined as a voluntary attempt to resolve the conflict and to reach an agreement as it regards the compensation, in presence of impartial and neutral mediator. By contrast with court cases, mediation’s aim is not to point out who is right, but to find a solution of conflict, satisfactory to all parties. Fundamental aim of mediation within juvenile cases is educational and reformatory influence.

  13. Landmark learning by juvenile salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuring, Whitney L; Mathis, Alicia

    2014-10-01

    Learning to use a landmark as a beacon to locate resources is one of the simplest forms of spatial learning. We tested whether landmark learning occurs in a semifossorial salamander that migrates annually to breeding ponds as adults. Juvenile spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum) were tested in square containers with a plastic feeding dish in each corner, and a piece of earthworm was placed in one randomly-chosen dish. For landmark-trained salamanders, a rock was placed beside the dish containing the prey. For control salamanders, the rock was placed beside a randomly selected feeding dish. Each salamander was trained once every 2 days for 30 days. Significantly more landmark-trained salamanders than control salamanders entered the landmark area first, and landmark-trained individuals had faster latencies to enter the landmark area and longer stay-times. These results suggest that spotted salamanders are able to locate resources by associating their positions with landmarks.

  14. IMPACTUL PRESEI ASUPRA DELICVENŢEI JUVENILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe CIOBANU

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Lucrarea în cauză e un rezultat al unui studiu asupra schimbărilor comportamentale ale adolescenţilor, influenţate de unele materiale publicistice. Departe de intenţia de a reveni la cenzura de altădată, autorul pledează pentru o auto-cenzură, pentru o autoexigenţă în procesul de creaţie, pentru o responsabilitate sporită pentru cuvântul scris sau rostit.THE IMPACT OF MEDIA ON THE JUVENILE DELINQUENCYThis writing is a result of a study of teenager’s behavior changes influenced by journalistic work. The author is not militating for the past censorship, but he pleads for an autocensorship, for an auto exigency during the creation process, for a high responsibility for written word or for the spoken one.

  15. Marcadores de inmunorrespuesta en la periodontitis juvenil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amparo Pérez Borrego,

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available La periodontitis juvenil es una enfermedad del periodonto propia de adolescentes y adultos jóvenes, afecta principalmente los primeros molares y los incisivos y se caracteriza por la pérdida severa del hueso alveolar alrededor de dientes permanentes sin correspondencia entre la rapidez y severidad de la destrucción con los factores locales. En la causa de la enfermedad se citan factores genéticos, infecciosos e inmunológicos. Estudiamos algunos marcadores de inmunorrespuesta en 6 adolescentes que acudieron a nuestro servicio con el diagnóstico de periodontitis juvenil, además de su valoración clínica y radiológica. Ambos sexos se afectaron por igual, la movilidad dentaria y el sangramiento al sondeo fueron los hallazgos clínicos más relevantes y el índice de higiene bucal fue adecuado en todos los casos. No encontramos homogeneidad en las alteraciones inmunológicas, pero todos los pacientes estuvieron afectados en más de un marcador. Predominaron las alteraciones funcionales de linfocitos T en los estudios celulares. La hipogammaglobulinemia y la IgM elevada fueron las alteraciones más frecuentes en la inmunidad de anticuerpos. Se señala la dificultad que aún existe para explicar la patogenia de la enfermedad basándose solamente en un único factor de riesgo, así como la importancia de la valoración individual de cada enfermo.Juvenile periodontitis is a disease of the periodontium inherent to adolescents and young adults, affecting mainly the first molars and incisives and characterized by the severe loss of the alveolar bone sorrounding the permanent teeth with no correspondance between the celerity and severity of the destruction and the local factors. Genetic, infectious and immunological factors are considereed as the causes of the disease. Some immunoresponse markers were studied in 6 adolescents that were seen at our service with the diagnosis of juvenile periodontitis in addition to their clinical and radiological

  16. Representaciones sociales juveniles sobre la democracia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Díaz Gómez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo da cuenta de una parte de los resultados obtenidos en la investigación “representaciones sociales juveniles sobre la democracia y la multiculturalidad”. Se desarrolló desde la perspectiva metodológica de la Investigación Acción Participante, proceso dentro del cual, se aplicó un cuestionario conformado por nueve preguntas, divididas en tres bloques temáticos que permitieron conocer las representaciones sociales de un grupo de veinticinco jóvenes, sobre la democracia –aspecto que se reporta en este texto– la ciudadanía y la multiculturalidad a partir de tres dimensiones: significado, vivencias y condiciones de la democracia.

  17. Anterior uveitis in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanski, J J

    1977-10-01

    The ocular and systemic characteristics of 160 patients with anterior uveitis and seronegative juvenile rheumatoid arthritis are reviewed. Chronic uveitis occurred in 131 patients, 76% of whom were girls. Both eyes were involved in 70% of the cases. Band keratopathy occurred in 41% of the eyes, cataract in 42%, and secondary glaucoma in 19%. Only 11 patients had uveitis before the onset of arthritis. Notable correlations included a pauciarticular onset of arthritis in 95% of the patients, and positive tests for antinuclear antibody in 82%. Of 29 patients with acute anterior uveitis, 27 were boys. The inflammation responded well to therapy, and serious complications did not occur. At follow-up 21 patients had typical ankylosing spondylitis, and five had sacroiliitis. The incidence of positive results of tests for HLA-B27 antigen was 94%.

  18. Screening for uveitis in juvenile chronic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanski, J J

    1989-03-01

    Three hundred and fifteen patients with anterior uveitis associated with juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA) were studied in order to identify the various risk factors for uveitis. Girls were more susceptible to uveitis than boys by a ratio of 3:1. In 94% of cases the uveitis was diagnosed after the development of arthritis. The risk of uveitis was small after seven or more years had elapsed from the onset of arthritis. Patients with pauciarticular onset JCA had the highest risk of uveitis and systemic onset patients the least risk. The presence of circulating antinuclear antibody was also an important marker for an increased risk of uveitis. A regimen for routine screening of patients is suggested.

  19. The Genomic Landscape of Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tiffany Y.; Gelston, Laura C.; Wang, Yong-Dong; Mazor, Tali; Esquivel, Emilio; Yu, Ariel; Seepo, Sara; Olsen, Scott; Rosenberg, Mara; Archambeault, Sophie L.; Abusin, Ghada; Beckman, Kyle; Brown, Patrick A.; Briones, Michael; Carcamo, Benjamin; Cooper, Todd; Dahl, Gary V.; Emanuel, Peter D.; Fluchel, Mark N.; Goyal, Rakesh K.; Hayashi, Robert J.; Hitzler, Johann; Hugge, Christopher; Liu, Y. Lucy; Messinger, Yoav H.; Mahoney, Donald H.; Monteleone, Philip; Nemecek, Eneida R.; Roehrs, Philip A.; Schore, Reuven J.; Stine, Kimo C.; Takemoto, Clifford M.; Toretsky, Jeffrey A.; Costello, Joseph F.; Olshen, Adam B.; Stewart, Chip; Li, Yongjin; Ma, Jing; Gerbing, Robert B.; Alonzo, Todd A.; Getz, Gad; Gruber, Tanja; Golub, Todd; Stegmaier, Kimberly; Loh, Mignon L.

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) is a myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) of childhood with a poor prognosis. Mutations in NF1, NRAS, KRAS, PTPN11 and CBL occur in 85% of patients, yet there are currently no risk stratification algorithms capable of predicting which patients will be refractory to conventional treatment and therefore be candidates for experimental therapies. In addition, there have been few other molecular pathways identified aside from the Ras/MAPK pathway to serve as the basis for such novel therapeutic strategies. We therefore sought to genomically characterize serial samples from patients at diagnosis through relapse and transformation to acute myeloid leukemia in order to expand our knowledge of the mutational spectrum in JMML. We identified recurrent mutations in genes involved in signal transduction, gene splicing, the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) and transcription. Importantly, the number of somatic alterations present at diagnosis appears to be the major determinant of outcome. PMID:26457647

  20. Clinical Orofacial Examination in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Peter; Twilt, Marinka; Spiegel, Lynn

    2017-01-01

    review. The level of evidence for the 5 recommendations was derived primarily from descriptive studies, such as cross-sectional and case-control studies. CONCLUSION: Five recommendations are proposed for the orofacial examination of patients with JIA to improve the clinical practice and aid standardized......OBJECTIVE: To develop international consensus-based recommendations for the orofacial examination of patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), for use in clinical practice and research. METHODS: Using a sequential phased approach, a multidisciplinary task force developed and evaluated...... a set of recommendations for the orofacial examination of patients with JIA. Phase 1: A Delphi survey was conducted among 40 expert physicians and dentists with the aim of identifying and ranking the importance of items for inclusion. Phase 2: The task force developed consensus about the domains...

  1. A case of juvenile hyaline fibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yayli, Savaş; Uncu, Sibel; Alpay, Köksal; Yildiz, Kadriye; Cimşit, Gülseren; Bahadir, Sevgi

    2006-04-01

    Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis (JHF) is a rare, autosomally-recessive disease characterized by papulonodular skin lesions, soft tissue masses, joint contractures, gingival hypertrophy and osteolytic bone lesions. Its onset is in infancy or early childhood. The most commonly affected sites are the nose, chin, ears, scalp, back and knees. The accumulation of an amorphous, hyaline material is typical in the skin and the other organs. Herein, we report a 14-month-old boy who presented with confluent pink papules on the paranasal folds and the chin, and nodular lesions on the periauricular and perianal regions. He had gingival hypertrophy and contractures of the shoulders, knees and elbows. He also had third-degree consanguineous parents. Histopathological studies confirmed the diagnosis of JHF with the presence of increased numbers of fibroblasts embedded in a hyalinized connective tissue stroma.

  2. Juvenile xanthogranuloma of the proximal nail fold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piraccini, Bianca Maria; Fanti, Pier Alessandro; Iorizzo, Matilde; Tosti, Antonella

    2003-01-01

    An 18-month-old Caucasian boy presented with a firm 0.5 mm nodule, pink-red in color, with a yellow hue and some telangiectases on the surface, localized on the right thumbnail. The nodule involved all of the proximal nail fold and covered the proximal third of the nail. Pathology showed a dense dermal infiltrate of histiocytes, some of which had foamy nuclei, and multinucleated Touton giant cells. The lesion progressively decreased in size and had completely disappeared after 3 years. Periodic follow-up was important not only to monitor evolution of the juvenile xanthogranuloma, but also to avoid excessive growth of the lesion with possible definitive nail matrix damage.

  3. Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy: epidemiology, pathophysiology, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, Timothy E

    2006-01-01

    Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is a common epilepsy syndrome that begins most frequently in the early teenage years. It is officially classified as a type of idiopathic generalized epilepsy and is often under-recognized or misdiagnosed. This syndrome has a strong genetic component with multiple gene mutations being associated with the clinical presentation. Based upon genetic associations, there may be multiple pathophysiologic mechanisms for the disorder; the pathophysiology has not been clearly defined. A diagnosis of JME is made using the clinical history and EEG findings. Valproic acid is the primary antiepileptic drug (AED) used for JME, but some newer AEDs may be effective alternatives. Selection of an appropriate AED is essential to the proper management of JME, because of the possibility of exacerbation of seizures by some AEDs and the adverse effect profiles of effective drugs. It is important for clinicians to understand JME to correctly diagnose and manage patients with this syndrome.

  4. Chemical Evolution of the Juvenile Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Wasserburg, G J

    2009-01-01

    Only massive stars contribute to the chemical evolution of the juvenile universe corresponding to [Fe/H]-0.32. Recent observations show that there are stars with [Sr/Fe]<-2 and [Fe/H]<-3. This proves that the two-component model is not correct and that a third component is necessary to explain the observations. This leads to a simple three-component model including low-mass and normal SNe II and hypernovae (HNe), which gives a good description of essentially all the data for stars with [Fe/H]<-1.5. We conclude that HNe are more important than normal SNe II in the chemical evolution of the low-A elements, in sharp distinction to earlier models. (Abridged)

  5. Models of bovine babesiosis including juvenile cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad-Roy, C M; Shuai, Zhisheng; van den Driessche, P

    2015-03-01

    Bovine Babesiosis in cattle is caused by the transmission of protozoa of Babesia spp. by ticks as vectors. Juvenile cattle (Babesiosis, rarely show symptoms, and acquire immunity upon recovery. Susceptibility to the disease varies between breeds of cattle. Models of the dynamics of Bovine Babesiosis transmitted by the cattle tick that include these factors are formulated as systems of ordinary differential equations. Basic reproduction numbers are calculated, and it is proved that if these numbers are below the threshold value of one, then Bovine Babesiosis dies out. However, above the threshold number of one, the disease may approach an endemic state. In this case, control measures are suggested by determining target reproduction numbers. The percentage of a particular population (for example, the adult bovine population) needed to be controlled to eradicate the disease is evaluated numerically using Columbia data from the literature.

  6. [Solitary and congenital juvenile xanthogranuloma: case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarte, Leticia; Stefano, Paola C; Bocian, Marcela; Solernou, Verónica; Pierini, Adrián Martín; Cervini, Andrea Bettina

    2017-02-01

    Juvenile xanthogranuloma is a bening pathology and it represents the most common form of non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis. It is characterized by the presence of papules or firm nodules of a pinkish or yellow-brownish nature, which mainly compromise the skin and, exceptionally, other organs. It is a self-limited entity having a spontaneous regression during the first five years of life. We report the case of a one-month-old patient who presented a congenital tumor in the abdomen, whose histopathology showed the presence of multinucleated giant Touton cells, which are typical of this pathology. We emphasize the rare occurrence of this type of lesion and the importance of the multiple differential diagnosis to be taken into account due to the age of the patient and the characteristics of the lesion.

  7. Cytokines in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangge, H; Schauenstein, K

    1998-06-01

    Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA), unlike rheumatoid arthritis of adulthood (RA), is a heterogenous disease comprising at least five subtypes that differ in clinical course and prognosis, and require different therapeutical approaches. As compared to RA, the production of local and systemic cytokines in JRA have not yet been as extensively investigated. In this article we review the available literature on cytokine expression in serum and synovial fluid in all five different subtypes of JRA. Even though the data are still fragmentary, the evidence so far suggests that the determination of serum cytokines yields relevant information as to clinical subtype and inflammatory activity of the disease. Furthermore, the cytokine data suggest that the pathogenesis of JRA may even by more heterogenous than defined by the clinical subtypes. Finally, future directions of research in this area are proposed, and-based on the latest results-arguments for (anti)cytokine therapies in JRA are critically discussed.

  8. GANGGUAN PERTUMBUHAN MANDIBULA PADA JUVENILE RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ria Puspitawati

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (JRA is a systemic disease on childhood, which has chronic arthritis as its most prominent manifestation. One very common complication of JRA is growth disturbance. JRA involving temporomandibular joint usually result in mandibular growth retardation which eventually can lead to micrognathia, retrognathia, malocclusion and other mandibulofacial developmental aberrations. Factors considered to be the cause of these growth and developmental disturbances are: congenital, the disease's direct effect on the condyle, functional deficiency of the temporomandibular joint, duration, age of disease onset and type of the JRA and corticosteroid therapy. However, the mechanism for the mandibulofacial growth and developmental aberrations due to JRA are not fully understood. This literature review will discuss the hypotheses concerning mechanisms of those growth and developmental disturbances, especially based on clinical and radiographic studies on JRA cases.

  9. Criminal history and future offending of juveniles convicted of the possession of child pornography

    OpenAIRE

    Aebi, Marcel; Plattner, Belinda; Ernest, Melanie; Kaszynski, Katie; Bessler, Cornelia

    2014-01-01

    Most child pornography is distributed online. It is estimated that 3% to 15% of child pornography consumers are juveniles. The present study analyzed a consecutive sample of 54 male juveniles convicted of the possession of child pornography. Demographic characteristics, criminal history, and subsequent offending were assessed from criminal files and official reports. Juvenile possessors of child pornography were compared to three different groups of juveniles: Juvenile possessors of other ill...

  10. Detecting age-structured effects in growth performance of coral reef fish juveniles

    OpenAIRE

    Mellin, Camille; Galzin, R.; Ponton, Dominique; Vigliola, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    The growth performance of coral reef fish juveniles collected in different habitats is often used as a proxy for habitat quality for juveniles. However, back-calculated growth trajectories of juveniles may be age-structured, for instance, because of potential differences in initial offspring size and/or quality or size-selective mortality. A novel approach is proposed to isolate growth performance of coral reef fish juveniles from potential age-based factors. Juveniles of Chromis viridis (Pom...

  11. Doorway to Chinese Civilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Xi’an,the ancient Chinese capital and modern day metropolis,offers an exciting array of historic attractions and tourist charms The long and extensive history of Xi’an,an ancient Chinese capital,has endowed it with an abundant variety of cultural sites and artifacts,including the

  12. Chinese Conversation Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yan

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the features of Chinese conversation structure. Specifically speaking, the structure will be analyzed from the following four aspects:openings and pre-sequence, adjacency pairs, pre-closing and closing. Generally speak-ing, Chinese conversation structure is similar to English conversation structure. But still a lot of differences are found due to cul-tural factors.

  13. Courting Chinese Investors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Inviting Chinese business delegations. Participating in trade fairs in China.Building an industrial park for Chinese investors. Poland is doing all theseand more to attract investment from China, according to Krzysztof Szumski,Poland ’s Ambassador to Chi

  14. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Equality and harmony are mainstream in Chinese marriage. The conclusion was made by a systematic investigation in 1996 on love and marriage relations between couples in Shanghai, Harbin, Guangdong, Gansu and other regions. Six thousand couples were surveyed in a multi-period, separated level probability sampling; the research was conducted by the study group, "Marriage quality during the period of Chinese social

  15. AfricaonChineseDream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    At the opening of the 2013 Understanding and Cooperation Dialogue held by the Chinese Association for International Understanding (CAFIU) on July 23 in Beijing, former President of the Federal Repub-lic of Nigeria Olusegun Obasanjo expounded on his understanding of the Chinese dream and its implications for Africa. The ful text of his thoughts follow.

  16. Why I Learn Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keltoum; Otamani

    2013-01-01

    <正>I am eighteen years old. I have learned Chinese at the FFCA NordPas-de Calais for three years. I will continue to study Chinese during my five-year university life and try to get a job dealing with China in the future. I became interested in China at the age of 13, and my interest grew year by year.

  17. Predicate Movements in Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shou-hsin, Teng

    1975-01-01

    The movements of such higher predicates as time, locative, and complementation verbs are studied, and Tai's Predicate Placement Constraint is rejected as an incorrect account of predicate movements in Chinese. It is proposed, on the other hand, that there is only leftward movement involving predicates in Chinese. (Author)

  18. Not Your Father's Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The government's first annual report on the evolution of the Chinese language contains some surprisesThe Chinese people are proud of their language, which they consider the most essential part of their civilization of 5,000 years. The charm of the language includes its ideographic writing system, in which the structure of the characters is directly related

  19. About Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The Chinese pictographs for 土 tǔ (earth) are "(?)", "(?)" and "(?)", reflecting the Chinese people of remote antiquity’s understanding of earth. They divided it into two layers, upper and subterranean, and used the "二" in "土" to represent both layers, the central "(?)" representing the plants that

  20. Chinese Children's Songs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Irene, Comp.

    Singing can be an enjoyable and effective way to motivate children to learn a second language. This booklet consists of contemporary and folk songs that are related to Chinese festivals, transportation, the family, seasons, Christmas and other topics. Each page gives the music to a song with the words in Chinese and in English. The songs are…

  1. Modern Chinese History Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Famous Foreign Scholars' Lecture Tours in China Around the May Fourth Movement and Changes in Chinese Intellectual Circles From 1919 to 1924, John Dewey and four other famous foreign scholars came to China on lecture tours. These tours were great cultural undertakings to spread Western learning to the East after the First World War. The lectures these schol- ars gave helped to deepen the thoughts of Chinese people, and at the same time encouraged the diversification and evolution of Chinese intellectual circles. Firstly, the lectures hastened the birth of a contemporary Chinese wave of reflection on mo- dernity, and provided a basis for the theoretical views and cultural appeals of Liang Qichao and other members of the socalled "Orient Culture Faction," thereby increasing the tension intrinsic to the development of the New Culture Movement and to the expansion of intellectual horizons in Chinese intellectual circles.

  2. Acute respiratory failure in 3 children with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Britt; Hellebostad, Marit; Ifversen, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia is a rare hematopoietic stem cell disease in children with features of both myelodysplasia and myeloproliferation. Extramedullary involvement has been reported and pulmonary involvement secondary to leukemic infiltration is an initial manifestation, which may resu...

  3. Juvenile Salmonid Pathogen Data - Ocean Survival of Salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  4. Cardiac involvement in adult and juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartz, TThomas W; Diederichsen, L. P.; Lundberg, Ingrid E.

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) include the main subgroups polymyositis (PM), dermatomyositis (DM), inclusion body myositis (IBM) and juvenile DM ( JDM). The mentioned subgroups are characterised by inflammation of skeletal muscles leading to muscle weakness and other organs can also...

  5. SWFSC FED Mid Water Trawl Juvenile Rockfish Survey, Surface Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — SWFSC FED Mid Water Trawl Juvenile Rockfish Survey: Station Information and Surface Data. Surveys have been conducted along the central California coast in May/June...

  6. Effects of water velocity on activity of juvenile striped bass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowles, R.R.; Griffith, J.S.; Coutant, C.C.

    1976-07-01

    The swimming activity of juvenile striped bass (Morone saxatilis Walbaum) 8 to 80 mm long was investigated in a test chamber simulating, on a small scale, a fixed-screen cooling water intake structure. As water velocity increased from 0 to 30 cm/sec area and distance traveled by juvenile bass 10 to 80 mm long decreased. However, as water velocity increased from 0 to 3 cm/sec the area and distance covered by larval bass increased. The presence of food increased the activity of larval bass, but decreased the activity of juveniles. Area ranged by striped bass at test velocities ranging from 0 to 30 cm/sec increased in proportion to body length. Juvenile striped bass tested at acclimation temperatures between 20 and 5/sup 0/C experienced a 30% reduction of activity. Activity was also reduced as temperature increased from 20 to 30/sup 0/C.

  7. SWFSC FED Mid Water Trawl Juvenile Rockfish Survey, CTD Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — SWFSC FED Mid Water Trawl Juvenile Rockfish Survey: CTD Data. Surveys have been conducted along the central California coast in May/June every year since 1983. In...

  8. Juvenile Salmon Scale Data - Ocean Survival of Salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  9. Juvenile Salmonid IGF-I Data - Ocean Survival of Salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  10. Juvenile Salmonid Genetic Stock Identification Data - Ocean Survival of Salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  11. Juvenile Salmonid Trophic Data - Ocean Survival of Salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  12. Juvenile Salmonid Parasite Data - Ocean Survival of Salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  13. Juvenile Salmonid Otolith Data - Ocean Survival of Salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  14. Delusional and psychotic disorders in juvenile myotonic dystrophy type-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Delphine; Willekens, Diane; de Die-Smulders, Christine; Frijns, Jean-Pierre; Steyaert, Jean

    2017-06-01

    We investigated the clinically derived hypothesis of a relatively high incidence of delusional and psychotic disorders in adolescents with juvenile Myotonic Dystrophy type-1 (DM1). Twenty-seven subjects of age 16-25 with juvenile DM1 and their parents were invited to have a clinical psychiatric interview, and to complete an ASEBA behavior checklist (YSR, ASR, CBCL, and ABCL). We diagnosed a Delusional Disorder in 19% of our patients and a Psychotic Disorder not otherwise specified in another 19%. These two groups of patients had a significantly worse level of clinically defined general functioning. It is clinically relevant to investigate in patients with juvenile DM the symptom of delusions and the presence of a delusional and psychotic disorder, and to consider the presence of juvenile DM in youngsters presenting with such a thought disorder. These disorders compromise the general functioning of the subjects and are often to some extent treatable. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Psychological characteristics of juvenile offenders with personal immaturity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    E.G. Dozortseva; A.A. Fedonkina

    2013-01-01

    .... We describe the prevalence of personal immaturity among juvenile offenders. We analyze individual psychological characteristics specific to the minors with personal immaturity and characterize the phenomenon of personal immaturity itself...

  16. Juvenile Swordfish (Xiphias gladius) Specimens Collected from 1991-2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Juvenile swordfish caught throughout the Pacific Ocean collected by Hawaii longline observers, aboard the Thomas Cromwell research vessel, and donated by various...

  17. Acute Respiratory Failure in 3 Children With Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Britt; Hellebostad, Marit; Ifversen, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia is a rare hematopoietic stem cell disease in children with features of both myelodysplasia and myeloproliferation. Extramedullary involvement has been reported and pulmonary involvement secondary to leukemic infiltration is an initial manifestation, which may result...

  18. Juvenile Polyps in Denmark From 1995 to 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsig, Anne Marie; Ousager, Lilian Bomme; Brusgaard, Klaus;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Juvenile polyps in the large bowel are rare but the most common type of polyp in children. The prevalence and incidence are unknown, and few studies exist on the occurrence in adults. They are considered not to harbor any malignant potential unless they are part of the hereditary...... juvenile polyposis syndrome. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to study the demographics of juvenile polyps in Denmark in a 20-year period from 1995 to 2015 in both adults and children. This is the first report on the occurrence, anatomic localization, and reoccurrence of these polyps in a whole population. DESIGN: Data...... from all of the patients who had been diagnosed with 1 or more juvenile polyp from January 1, 1995, until December 31, 2014, were obtained. SETTINGS: The study was conducted based on patients registered in the nationwide pathological register in Denmark, the Danish Pathology Data Bank. PATIENTS: We...

  19. Juvenile delinquency in Russia: Ccriminal justice, trends, key issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Milica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the literature, as well as in international statistical surveys, we can rarely find more detailed information on juvenile delinquency in the Russian Federation, as well as on the criminal reaction towards juvenile offenders. Due to the turbulent conditions and great social turmoil which took place in the last few decades in this country, there should be a greater interest in the problem of juvenile delinquency. For Serbia, the experience of the Russian Federation could be especially important if one bears in mind that our country is still going through a transition, population stratification and through economic crisis, and also that Serbia and the Russian Federation share some cultural and religious similarities. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to present, in the summary way, the basic features of juvenile delinquency and the criminal justice system, and thereby build a basis for future research and comparison.

  20. Juvenile Delinquency and Justice in Lagos State, Nigeria: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Juvenile Delinquency and Justice in Lagos State, Nigeria: A Sociological Appraisal. ... This paper discussed the emergence of the Child's Right act in Nigeria in ... of children and young persons who found themselves on the justice corridor.

  1. The Relationship between Family Functions and Juvenile Delinquency

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Vol 3, No 5 (2009) > ... Most of the studies done on Juvenile delinquency have paid little or no attention to ... This study was carried out in Nakuru town Municipality on former street children on rehabilitation in three homes.

  2. Bite force and temporomandibular disorder in juvenile chronic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenneberg, B; Kjellberg, H; Kiliaridis, S

    1995-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the functional condition of the stomatognathic system in children suffering from juvenile chronic arthritis, with respect to bite force and temporomandibular disorder in relation to radiographic abnormalities of the mandibular condyle, occlusal factors and systemic disease parameters. Thirty-five children with juvenile chronic arthritis were compared to 89 healthy children with an Angle Class I occlusion and 62 children with an Angle Class II malocclusion. Subjective symptoms and clinical signs of temporomandibular disorder and radiographic mandibular condylar changes were more common in children with juvenile chronic arthritis than in the two comparison groups. Maximal molar and incisal bite forces and maximal molar bite force endurance times were also significantly reduced in children with juvenile chronic arthritis. It is concluded that the differences between the groups are caused mainly by the systemic inflammatory disease itself, but a functional influence of weakened masticatory muscles cannot be excluded.

  3. Needs and Achievements of the Juvenile Justice System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basto-Pereira, Miguel; Ribeiro, Sofia; Maia, Ângela

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decade, studies have evaluated the effectiveness of interventions for juvenile offenders; nonetheless, those studies were more focused on recidivism than on the mechanisms associated with criminal perpetration. The current study explores the role of juvenile justice involvement and detention measures in a set of psychological, social, and criminal behavior characteristics in early adulthood. Seventy-five young adults with official records of juvenile delinquency in 2010-2011 and 240 young adults from the community filled out our protocol in 2014-2015. Young adults with juvenile justice involvement showed worse psychological, social, and criminal outcomes than those from community. Detention appears to be related to the number of deviant friends, delinquency, and school achievement in early adulthood. Our findings are in line with the labeling and deviant peer contagion theories and establish the main areas of interventions that affect the identified needs. A set of policy implications is provided.

  4. Culturas juveniles en tono de mujer. Hip hop en Medellin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garces Montoya, Angela

    2011-01-01

    El articulo hace parte de la investigacion "Mediaciones musicales juveniles", donde se indaga por la apropiacion de medios de comunicacion alternativos que les permite a los y las jovenes configurar...

  5. American juvenile justice system: history in the making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Aaron; Segal, Roland; Boden, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The original theory behind separating juvenile offenders from adult offenders was to provide care and direction for youngsters instead of isolation and punishment. This idea took hold in the 19th century and became mainstream by the early 20th century. In the 1950s and 1960s, public concern grew because of a perceived lack of effectiveness and lack of rights. The Supreme Court made a series of rulings solidifying juvenile rights including the right to receive notice of charges, the right to have an attorney and the right to have charges proven beyond a reasonable doubt. In the 1980s, the public view was that the juvenile court system was too lenient and that juvenile crimes were on the rise. In the 1990s, many states passed punitive laws, including mandatory sentencing and blanket transfers to adult courts for certain crimes. As a result, the pendulum is now swinging back toward the middle from rehabilitation toward punishment.

  6. Measurements and Counts for Larval and Juvenile Pseudopentaceros Specimens

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Armorhead (Pseudopentaceros wheeleri) larvae and juveniles were collected in the vicinity of the Northwest and Southeast Hancock Seamounts During 1984 and 1985....

  7. Study on Translating Chinese into Chinese Sign Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐琳; 高文

    2000-01-01

    Sign language is a visual-gestural language mainly used by hearing impaired people to communicate with each other. Gesture and facial expression are important grammar parts of sign language. In this paper, a text-based transfor mation method of Chinese-Chinese sign language machine translation is proposed.Gesture and facial expression models are created. And a practical system is im plemented. The input of the system is Chinese text. The output of the system is "graphics person" who can gesticulate Chinese sign language accompanied by facial expression that corresponds to the Chinese text entered so as to realize automatic translation from Chinese text to Chinese sign language.

  8. HIV-Risk Reduction with Juvenile Offenders on Probation

    OpenAIRE

    Donenberg, Geri R.; Emerson, Erin; Mackesy-Amiti, Mary Ellen; Udell, Wadiya

    2014-01-01

    Youth involved in the juvenile justice system are at elevated risk for HIV as a result of high rates of sexual risk taking, substance use, mental health problems and sexually transmitted infections. Yet few HIV prevention programs exist for young offenders. This pilot study examined change in juvenile offenders’ sexual activity, drug/alcohol use, HIV testing and counseling, and theoretical mediators of risk taking following participation in PHAT Life, an HIV-prevention progr...

  9. [Unusual presentation of juvenile idiopathic arthritis and autoimmune hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Prieto, M; Carbonero Celis, M J; Cuadrado Caballero, M C

    2015-01-01

    The coexistence of autoimmune hepatitis and juvenile idiopathic arthritis is very rare. This is the case of an 18 month old female patient whose first sign of disease was torticollis due to an underlying atlanto-axial subluxation. Three months later, bilateral knee arthritis developed and she was diagnosed with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis. Throughout the disease a persistent elevation of liver enzymes was noted, combined with positive antinuclear antibodies and hypergammaglobulinemia, reaching the diagnosis of concomitant autoimmune hepatitis.

  10. Paracoccidioidomycosis: acute-subacute clinical form, juvenile type*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Silvio Alencar; Lastória, Joel Carlos; de Camargo, Rosangela Maria Pires; Marques, Mariangela Esther Alencar

    2016-01-01

    The authors report aspects of paracoccidioidomycosis, acute-subacute clinical form, juvenile type, in a 19-year-old female patient. Paracoccidioidomycosis, juvenile type, classically occurs in young patients, both sexes, with lymphoma-like aspects as initial presentation. However, following the natural history of the disease the lymph nodes assume patterns of infectious disease, as an abscess and fistulae. Systemic dissemination of the disease can occur and lethality and morbidity are significant in this clinical presentation. PMID:27438214

  11. Role-Playing (Psychodrama in the Social Rehabilitation of Juveniles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Grzyb

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the term of psychodrama in the aspect of the social rehabilitation process of juveniles. An important area of considerations is noting the most effective form of work in the modification of socially desirable behavior. Moreover, the identification and wider discussion of the aspect of psychodrama interaction indicates the emotional, therapeutic, and above all correctional dimension, so desired in the social rehabilitation of juveniles.

  12. Uveíte na artrite idiopática juvenil Uveitis in juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana M. Roberto

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: avaliar a freqüência de uveíte anterior crônica em pacientes com artrite idiopática juvenil (AIJ e sua associação com a presença do fator antinúcleo (FAN. Casuística e métodos: foram avaliadas, retrospectivamente, 72 crianças com diagnóstico confirmado de AIJ, que tiveram avaliação oftalmológica através da biomicroscopia para exame da câmara anterior da úvea, determinação do FAN (imunofluorescência indireta e fator reumatóide (FR (prova do látex no período inicial da doença. Para os pacientes com FAN positivo, esta avaliação foi realizada a cada três meses, e, caso contrário, a cada seis meses.Resultados: dos 72 pacientes com AIJ, 40 (55,5% crianças eram do sexo masculino e 36 (50% caucasóides. A idade média de início da AIJ foi 6,4 anos (1 a 14 anos, e a idade média na época do estudo foi de 10,4 anos (1 a 19 anos. De acordo com o tipo de início da AIJ, em 32 (44,4% crianças era pauciarticular (17 meninos e 15 meninas, em 30 (41,6% era poliarticular (17 meninos e 13 meninas, e em 10 (14% era sistêmico (6 meninos e 4 meninas. A presença de uveíte anterior crônica foi detectada em cinco (6,5% crianças com idade média de 11,4 anos. Destas, quatro (80% eram do tipo de início pauciarticular (três meninas do tipo I, com FAN positivo, e um menino do tipo I, FAN negativo, e uma menina com doença poliarticular (FAN e FR negativos. Neste grupo, a idade de início da AIJ foi em média 5,1 anos (3 a 12 anos, e a idade de início da uveíte foi em média de 9 anos (4 a 16 anos. O FAN foi positivo em 3/5 pacientes (60% com uveíte. Dentre os pacientes com AIJ e sem uveíte (67 crianças, oito (12% apresentaram FAN positivo. Quanto à evolução dos pacientes com comprometimento ocular, três crianças tiveram apenas um episódio de uveíte, e duas crianças apresentaram quatro recorrências da uveíte com catarata sem atividade articular associada. A presença do FAN foi estatisticamente mais freq

  13. The role of neuroinflammation in juvenile bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Serra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A pathophysiological relationship has been reported between inflammatory processes, decreased levels of neurotrophins, increased oxidative stress and psychiatric disorders in both juvenile and adult ages. Moreover, this relationship remains unclear in juvenile bipolar disorder (BD. We performed a systematic literature review of studies reporting measurements of inflammatory markers, oxidative stress markers or neurotrophins in juvenile and young adult subjects with BD. Concordant findings showed that inflammatory markers are increased since the earlier stages of BD. A positive correlation between decreased levels of a peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor and juvenile BD is controversial suggesting that those changes might occur only during the late stage of BD. No changes in central glutathione levels were reported in young adult age BD indicating that oxidative stress may be an outcome of long illness duration and repeated affective episodes. In conclusion, preliminary findings indicate that a certain relationship exists between inflammatory process and juvenile BD but evidence are insufficient to support a causal relationship. Adequately powered and prospective studies are warranted to clarify the role of inflammation, neurotrophins and oxidative stress in juvenile BD.

  14. Psychopathology and offense types in detained male juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattner, Belinda; Giger, Joël; Bachmann, Friedel; Brühwiler, Karl; Steiner, Hans; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Bessler, Cornelia; Aebi, Marcel

    2012-07-30

    A substantial proportion of violent crime is committed by juveniles. In detained juveniles, high rates of psychopathology have been found. The objective of this study was to determine psychopathology associated with offense characteristics in detained male adolescents. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview was used to assess juvenile detainees. The final sample included 275 males (mean age=16.45, S.D.=1.27 years). Multivariate logistic regressions yielded significant associations between psychopathology and specific offense types: The presence of substance use disorders (without alcohol) (SUD) was found to predict drug-related crimes, and the presence of alcohol use disorders (AUD) without further SUD were a predictor of violent crime, especially in older juveniles. The absence of anxiety disorder, especially in younger juveniles, was found to be relevant for the prediction of robbery. The results of the study suggest that the use and abuse of legal and illegal substances might be a trigger for serious violent and drug-related crimes in juveniles. In particular, the presence of AUD is presumed to have a pivotal role in the development of impulsive aggression. These findings are important when considering the serious social impact of violent behaviors in adolescents.

  15. Laser capture microdissection of gonads from juvenile zebrafish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne; Nielsen, John; Morthorst, Jane Ebsen;

    2009-01-01

    Background: Investigating gonadal gene expression is important in attempting to elucidate the molecular mechanism of sex determination and differentiation in the model species zebrafish. However, the small size of juvenile zebrafish and correspondingly their gonads complicates this type of invest......Background: Investigating gonadal gene expression is important in attempting to elucidate the molecular mechanism of sex determination and differentiation in the model species zebrafish. However, the small size of juvenile zebrafish and correspondingly their gonads complicates this type...... of investigation. Furthermore, the lack of a genetic sex marker in juvenile zebrafish prevents pooling gonads from several individuals. The aim of this study was to establish a method to isolate the gonads from individual juvenile zebrafish allowing future investigations of gonadal gene expression during sex...... was adjusted and optimised to isolate juvenile zebrafish gonads. Results: The juvenile zebrafish gonad is not morphologically distinguishable when using dehydrated cryosections on membrane slides and a specific staining method is necessary to identify the gonads. The protocol setup in this study allows...

  16. Adult male coatis play with a band of juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, C J; Longino, J T

    2013-05-01

    This study examined the play behaviour in one group of coatis (Nasua narica) at La Selva Biological Station in Costa Rica. We incidentally found adult males playing with juvenile coatis, and conducted post-hoc analyses to investigate this interaction. Coati groups consist of adult females and juveniles of both sexes until male juveniles reach two years of age and leave the band to become solitary. Adult males only tolerate juveniles for a brief period during breeding season when the males court females to mate. Outside of the breeding season, adult males are known to prey on juveniles. In this study, when adult males were present with the band, play occurred more than was expected by chance, and adult males engaged in many of these play bouts. Because the mechanisms driving infanticidal behaviour are not well understood, and adult male coatis show a range of behaviours from infanticide to highly affiliative interactions with juveniles, using coatis as a model system may elucidate mechanisms underlying infanticide.

  17. Accurate aging of juvenile salmonids using fork lengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Suresh; Gerken, Jonathon; Ashline, Joshua

    2017-01-01

    Juvenile salmon life history strategies, survival, and habitat interactions may vary by age cohort. However, aging individual juvenile fish using scale reading is time consuming and can be error prone. Fork length data are routinely measured while sampling juvenile salmonids. We explore the performance of aging juvenile fish based solely on fork length data, using finite Gaussian mixture models to describe multimodal size distributions and estimate optimal age-discriminating length thresholds. Fork length-based ages are compared against a validation set of juvenile coho salmon, Oncorynchus kisutch, aged by scales. Results for juvenile coho salmon indicate greater than 95% accuracy can be achieved by aging fish using length thresholds estimated from mixture models. Highest accuracy is achieved when aged fish are compared to length thresholds generated from samples from the same drainage, time of year, and habitat type (lentic versus lotic), although relatively high aging accuracy can still be achieved when thresholds are extrapolated to fish from populations in different years or drainages. Fork length-based aging thresholds are applicable for taxa for which multiple age cohorts coexist sympatrically. Where applicable, the method of aging individual fish is relatively quick to implement and can avoid ager interpretation bias common in scale-based aging.

  18. [Molecular Identification and Toxicity of Pufferfish Juveniles Contaminating Whitebait Products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiriake, Aya; Ohta, Akira; Okayama, Sakurako; Matsuura, Keiichi; Ishizaki, Shoichiro; Nagashima, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    Catches of whitebait, sardine fry, sometimes contains other marine animals, including fishes, mollusks, and crustaceans, and therefore boiled and dried whitebait products may contain these marine animals if sorting is incomplete. In September 2014, contamination of boiled and dried whitebait products with pufferfish juveniles became a serious food safety concern, as tiger pufferfish Takifugu rubripes juveniles are toxic and contain tetrodotoxin (TTX). The toxicity of the juveniles of other pufferfish species, however, is unclear. To evaluate the food safety of whitebait products contaminated with pufferfish juveniles, we identified the species and toxicity of pufferfish juveniles contaminating whitebait products processed between July and September, 2014. Nucleotide sequence analysis of 16S rRNA or cytochrome b gene fragments of the mitochondrial DNA indicated that partial sequences of the polymerase chain reaction products of 15 specimens were identical with those of Lagocephalus spadiceus, and partial sequence from 2 specimens were identical with those of Takifugu vermicularis. We analyzed TTX by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. TTX was not detected in the L. spadiceus specimens and was below the quantification limits (30 ng/g) in a T. vermicularis specimen. Based on whitebait product manufacturer's research, 795 individuals and 27.2 g of pufferfish juveniles were detected in 8,245 kg whitebait product. Thus, the ratio of pufferfish to whitebait product was estimated to be 0.096 individual/kg whitebait product and 0.0033 g/kg whitebait product, respectively.

  19. Aedes aegypti juvenile hormone acid methyl transferase, the ultimate enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of juvenile hormone III, exhibits substrate control

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report on the cloning, sequencing, characterization, 3D modeling and docking of Aedes aegypti juvenile hormone acid methyl transferase (AeaJHAMT), the enzyme that converts juvenile hormone acid (JHA) into juvenile hormone (JH). Purified recombinant AeaJHAMT was extensively characterized for enzym...

  20. Predicting Reoffending Using the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY): A 5-Year Follow-Up Study of Male Juvenile Offenders in Hunan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiansong; Witt, Katrina; Cao, Xia; Chen, Chen; Wang, Xiaoping

    2017-01-01

    Background Juvenile violent offending is a serious worldwide public health issue. Objective The study examined whether the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY) can be used to predict violent reoffending in Chinese male juvenile offenders, and to determine which risk/protective domains (items) are associated with violent recidivism. Methods A total of 246 male juvenile offenders were recruited. SAVRY domains were scored by trained raters based on file review and interviews with participants and their legal guardians. Information on further arrests, charges, or convictions for violent offences were collected from police records over a five year follow-up. Results Over the course of the five year follow-up periods, 63 (25.6%) juvenile offenders were re-arrested for a further violent reoffence. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analyses showed Areas Under the Curve (AUCs) ranging from 0.60 to 0.68 for the SAVRY total, risk and protective score domains. Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that 7 of the 30 SAVRY items were significantly associated with reoffending; explaining 36.2% of the variance. Backward stepwise multiple logistic regression analysis showed the independently predictive items were items 2 (‘history of non-violent offending’), 17 (‘negative attitudes’), 18 (‘risk-taking/impulsivity’), and 20 (‘anger management problems’). Together these four items explained 25.0% of the variance in reoffending. Conclusions The results suggested that the SAVRY can be meaningfully used to inform the development and evaluation of effective violence risk assessment and management approaches for male juvenile offenders detained in a Youth Detention Center in Hunan province, China. PMID:28076443

  1. Research in Ancient Chinese Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    JIANG Ji-cheng, A Brief Study of Arabian-Chinese Diaphone in Huihui Prescription Abstract: Based on meterials of Arabian- Chinese diaphone in Huihui Prescription, this paper studies all Chinese phonetic initials and finals in Yuan dynasty, including 21 initials and 34 finals. Key Words: Huihui Prescription, Arabian- Chinese diaphone, transferred sound, International Phonetic Alphabet

  2. The Danger of Chinese Exceptionalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin

    2016-01-01

    In the movement of Chinese indigenous management research, a sort of ‘Chinese exceptionalism’ (as critiqued by Peng, 2005: 133) seems to have been emerging, namely, some Chinese scholars see Chinese culture, philosophy, and way of thinking are unique and cannot be accounted for by some...

  3. Examination of the influence of juvenile Atlantic salmon on the feeding mode of juvenile steelhead in Lake Ontario tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James H.; Waldt, Emily M.

    2014-01-01

    We examined diets of 1204 allopatric and sympatric juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in three tributaries of Lake Ontario. The diet composition of both species consisted primarily of ephemeropterans, trichopterans, and chironomids, although juvenile steelhead consumed more terrestrial invertebrates, especially at the sympatric sites. Subyearlings of both species consumed small prey (i.e. chironomids) whereas large prey (i.e. perlids) made up a higher percentage of the diet of yearlings. The diet of juvenile steelhead at the allopatric sites was more closely associated with the composition of the benthos than with the drift, but was about equally associated with the benthos and drift at the sympatric sites. The diet of both subyearling and yearling Atlantic salmon was more closely associated with the benthos than the drift at the sympatric sites. The evidence suggests that juvenile steelhead may subtly alter their feeding behavior in sympatry with Atlantic salmon. This behavioral adaptation may reduce competitive interactions between these species.

  4. Las medidas de seguridad en materia penal juvenil Security measures in juvenile criminal law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Campos Zuñiga

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad existe una ardua discusión sobre las sanciones dentro del derecho penal juvenil, tema que cobra especial relevancia cuando nos enfrentamos a conductas delictivas cometidas por personas menores de edad en las cuales se ha determinado su condición de inimputables o toxicómanos a partir de las conclusiones de las pericias respectivas. El cuestionamiento nos lleva a dos posibles soluciones: una darle un abordaje como un problema de salud y excluirlo del derecho penal y otra, mantener la línea tradicional, en la cual se faculta al derecho penal sancionar la conducta delictiva, imponiendo una medida de seguridad. Si se admite la primera posición, la normativa aplicable lo constituye el Código de la Niñez y la Adolescencia, el cual contempla la posibilidad de imponer medidas de protección para quienes están en una situación de vulnerabilidad, dentro de las que se ubican los casos de inimputables y toxicómanos, esto implica admitir medidas de "seguridad o protección" con una naturaleza jurídica de carácter administrativo. Posición que implicaría no sólo una vulneración de derechos sino que contraviene lo señalado por Sala Constitucional, la cual al desarrollar el alcance del artículo 39 de la Constitución Política, ha señalado que la imposición de las sanciones y por ende de las medidas de seguridad gozan de la garantía de la reserva de ley, destacando su naturaleza jurisdiccional y exclusivamente ante la comisión de delitos. La única solución posible en aras del respeto de esta reserva legal, es aplicar, conforme al artículo 9 de la Ley de Justicia Penal Juvenil la legislación penal de adultos y admitir la imposición de medidas de seguridad en la justicia penal juvenil.Currently, there has been an arduous discussion about penalties in juvenile criminal law, topic which becomes especially relevant when we are faced to criminal conducts from people who are underage, in which their condition of not guilty or

  5. Cibercriminalidad social juvenil: la cifra negra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Montiel Juan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available El ciberespacio constituye un contexto básico de socialización para los nativos digitales, al tiempo que se configura como un espacio de oportunidad criminal en el que niños, niñas y jóvenes continúan siendo víctimas y agresores. Fenómenos como el cyberbullying, el ciberacoso sexual, el online grooming o el sexting constituyen formas de cibercriminalidad social que, según numerosos estudios sobre cibervictimización y ciberdelincuencia auto-revelada, implican a un importante número de menores en España cada año, especialmente en el caso del ciberbullying y el ciberacoso. Sin embargo, no reflejan lo mismo las estadísticas oficiales. A pesar de apuntar una tendencia creciente de la cibercriminalidad en los últimos años, representa menos de un 2% de todos los delitos conocidos y sólo se dispone de algunos datos fragmentarios sobre la implicación de menores en estos casos. Los datos muestran que este grupo de edad es el más afectado, con mucha diferencia, por los ciberdelitos sexuales, pero también son estos los ciberdelitos que más cometen.

    Por otra parte, las elevadas prevalencias reveladas por los estudios de cibervictimización y ciberdelincuencia auto-revelada no concuerdan con el escaso impacto del ciberdelito juvenil en las estadísticas oficiales y en los tribunales de justicia. Entre las posibles explicaciones destacan la transversalidad de estas formas de delincuencia, que pueden manifestarse en comportamientos ilícitos de muy diversa naturaleza, la ausencia de pruebas para su imputación y esclarecimiento, las dificultades técnicas para dejar constancia del componente cibernético al registrar el ilícito, así como la ausencia de denuncias por parte de las cibervíctimas.

    Las tasas de denuncia del online grooming y el cyberbullying son, en general, más bajas que sus equivalentes tradicionales (abuso sexual infantil y bullying. La elevada cifra negra de la cibercriminalidad social juvenil

  6. "Immune Complexes in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Lynn Moore

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract for invited review in Molecular Mechanisms of Immune Complex Pathophysiology thematic issue to be published in Frontiers in Immunology. Immune Complexes(ICin Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA Terry L. Moore, MD, FAAP, FACR, MACR Professor of Internal Medicine,Pediatrics, and Molecular Biology and Immunology Director of Adult and Pediatric Rheumatology Saint Louis University School of Medicine Saint Louis, Missouri 631`04,USA Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA reflects a group of clinically heterogeneous, autoimmune disorders in children characterized by chronic arthritis and hallmarked by elevated levels of circulating immune complexes (CICs and associated complement activation by-products in their sera. ICs have been detected in patients’ sera with JIA utilizing a variety of methods, including the anti-human IgM affinity column,C1q solid phase assay, polyethylene glycol precipitation, Staphylococcal Protein A separation method, anti-C1q/C3 affinity columns, and FcγRIII affinity method. As many as 75% of JIA patients have had IC detected in their sera. The CIC proteome in JIA patients has been examined to elucidate disease-associated proteins that are expressed in active disease. Evaluation of these IC s have shown the presence of multiple peptide fragments by SDS-PAGE and 2-DE. Subsequently, all isotypes of rheumatoid factor (RF, isotypes of anti-cyclic citrullinated (CCP peptide antibodies, IgG, C1q, C4, C3, and the membrane attack complex (MAC were detected in these IC. Complement activation and levels of IC correlate with disease activity in JIA, indicating their role in the pathophysiology of the disease. This review will summarize the existing literature and discuss the role of possible protein modification that participates in the generation of immune response. We will address the possible role of these events in the development of ectopic germinal centers that become the secondary site of plasma cell development in JIA. We

  7. Caracterización del glaucoma juvenil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Roche Caso

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. El glaucoma no es frecuente en los niños, pero cuando ocurre sus síntomas son poco perceptibles y produce graves consecuencias para la salud visual. El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar, desde las aristas clínica y epidemiológica, a los pacientes con glaucoma juvenil atendidos en los servicios de oftalmología de los Hospitales Pediátricos del Cerro y «Pedro Borrás», en Ciudad de La Habana, en el período comprendido entre enero de 2008 y diciembre de 2009. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio epidemiológico longitudinal y prospectivo, cuyo universo estuvo constituido por 176 pacientes entre 5 y 18 años de edad, con presunto glaucoma. La muestra, después de aplicados los criterios de inclusión y exclusión, quedó conformada por 38 casos. Se analizaron las variables: edad al momento del diagnóstico, sexo, color de la piel, antecedentes familiares según grado de parentesco, agudeza visual máxima corregida, tipo de defecto refractivo, características del ángulo camerular, espesor corneal central, valor de la presión intraocular, alteraciones fundoscópicas y campimétricas. RESULTADOS. En la mayoría de los pacientes el diagnóstico de glaucoma juvenil constituyó un hallazgo. La mediana de edad al momento del diagnóstico fue de 12,5 años, con ligero predominio de varones y de la piel no blanca. Fue más frecuente el antecedente de glaucoma en familiares de segundo grado de consanguinidad. La mayoría de los casos tenía visión óptima, algún grado de miopía y ángulo abierto sin alteraciones evidentes del ángulo camerular, entre las cuales la más frecuente fue la presencia de procesos iridianos prominentes. CONCLUSIONES. Predominaron la disminución moderada del espesor corneal y valores medios de presión intraocular de 26,91 mm Hg. La alteración fundoscópica encontrada con mayor frecuencia fue la excavación papilar moderada (entre 0,4 y 0,5 y como lesión campimétrica, el aumento de la mancha

  8. The justice system for the juveniles Juveniles adjudicated for the criminal act of “theft” in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Etilda Gjonaj Saliu

    2016-01-01

    The juvenile justice system in Albania has improved from year to year but slow movements are done in improving the whole system for the implementation of the guarantees prescribed in international acts and Albanian legislation. This article, is aiming to offer some opinions related to the justice system for the juveniles based on the statistical and qualitative data regarding the criminal policy that is used and the precautionary measures given through court decisions. This article, aims in i...

  9. Performing "Chinese-ness" in Singkawang

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ong, C.E.; Ormond, M.E.; Sulianti, Dian

    2017-01-01

    Through an examination of two festivals – Qing Ming and Cap Go Meh – in the town of Singkawang in Indonesian Borneo (Kalimantan), we show how Singkawang-bound Chinese Indonesian tourists and their Singkawang-based relatives produce a diasporic heritage network through ‘moorings’ generated by both tr

  10. Jurors' perceptions of juvenile defendants: the influence of intellectual disability, abuse history, and confession evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najdowski, Cynthia J; Bottoms, Bette L; Vargas, Maria C

    2009-01-01

    Understanding jurors' perceptions of juvenile defendants has become increasingly important as more and more juvenile cases are being tried in adult criminal court rather than family or juvenile court. Intellectual disability and child maltreatment are overrepresented among juvenile delinquents, and juveniles (particularly disabled juveniles) are at heightened risk for falsely confessing to crimes. In two mock trial experiments, we examined the effects of disability, abuse history, and confession evidence on jurors' perceptions of a juvenile defendant across several different crime scenarios. Abused juveniles were treated more leniently than nonabused juveniles only when the juvenile's crime was motivated by self-defense against the abuser. Jurors used disability as a mitigating factor, making more lenient judgments for a disabled than a nondisabled juvenile. Jurors also completely discounted a coerced confession for a disabled juvenile, but not for a nondisabled juvenile. In fact, compared with when it was portrayed as voluntary, jurors generally discounted a juvenile's coerced confession. Implications for public policy and directions for future research are discussed.

  11. Social and psychological aspects of criminal juvenile justice in the world practice (Anglo-Saxon model of juvenile justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.S. Oshevsky

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is the final part of the review of existing foreign models of juvenile criminal justice system. We analyze the principles of juvenile justice in the criminal trial: protective orientation, personalization and social richness of the trial, the emphasis on educational influences. We present the foreign experience of incorporating social, psychological and clinical special knowledge into specialized justice concerning juvenile offenders. We analyze modern trends in the development of juvenile justice in the United States and Canada. We present material related to methods of risk assessment of re-offending among adolescents. We highlight approaches to complex long-term follow-up of juvenile offenders in Anglo-Saxon juvenile justice. We describe some aspects of the probation service using the method of case management. In the context of the accepted “National Strategy for Action for the Benefit of Children for 2012-2017”, the prospects for the development of specialized criminal justice for young offenders in the Russian Federation are discussed

  12. Equilibria of Chinese Auctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Forero, Clara; Larson, Kate

    are symmetric when both valuations and budgets are symmetric. We also study Chinese auctions with discrete budgets, for which we give both existence results and counterexamples. While the literature on rent-seeking contests traditionally focuses on continuous costly tickets, the discrete variant is very natural......Chinese auctions are a combination between a raffle and an auction and are held in practice at charity events or festivals. In a Chinese auction, multiple players compete for several items by buying tickets, which can be used to win the items. In front of each item there is a basket...

  13. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma: A single institution study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mistry Rajesh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA is a rare tumor of adolescent males and there is a paucity of Indian studies on this subject. AIMS : To present the experience of management of JNA at a single institution. SETTING AND DESIGN : This is a retrospective observational study of patients with JNA who presented at the Tata Memorial Hospital between May 1988 and August 2001. MATERIALS AND METHODS : Thirty-two patients with JNA were treated in the study period. Since the time period was prolonged and diagnostic and therapeutic protocols had undergone many changes, the patients were divided into two groups, namely 1988-1996 and 1997-2001. The age distribution, disease patterns, management approaches and treatment outcomes of patients in the two groups were recorded. Statistical analyses were done using students ′t′ test and test for proportion. RESULTS : The mean age at presentation was 16 years and more than 90% of the patients had Stage III or IV disease. Preoperative embolization was carried out in 19 patients. The surgical approaches used were median maxillectomy, infratemporal fossa, transpalatal, maxillary swing and craniofacial approach. The recurrence rate, complete resection rate and cure rates were 12.5%, 41% and 63% respectively. CONCLUSION : Surgery is the mainstay of treatment of JNA. Preoperative embolization and newer surgical approaches result in less blood loss and complete resection. Aggressive re-resection should be done for resectable recurrences reserving radiotherapy for unresectable, recurrent/ residual disease.

  14. Friendship Group Composition and Juvenile Institutional Misconduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Shannon E

    2017-02-01

    The present study examines both the patterns of friendship networks and how these network characteristics relate to the risk factors of institutional misconduct for incarcerated youth. Using friendship networks collected from males incarcerated with California's Division of Juvenile Justice (DJJ), latent profile analysis was utilized to create homogeneous groups of friendship patterns based on alter attributes and network structure. The incarcerated youth provided 144 egocentric networks reporting 558 social network relationships. Latent profile analysis identified three network profiles: expected group (67%), new breed group (20%), and model citizen group (13%). The three network profiles were integrated into a multiple group analysis framework to examine the relative influence of individual-level risk factors on their rate of institutional misconduct. The analysis finds variation in predictors of institutional misconduct across profile types. These findings suggest that the close friendships of incarcerated youth are patterned across the individual characteristics of the youth's friends and that the friendship network can act as a moderator for individual risk factors for institutional misconduct.

  15. The conundrum of juvenile psoriatic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravelli, Angelo; Consolaro, Alessandro; Schiappapietra, Benedetta; Martini, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile psoriatic arthritis (JPsA) has provided paediatric rheumatologists with a controversial topic for many years. The principal area of contention centres on the discordance between its treatment as a single diagnostic category in current classification schemes and the demonstration of its heterogeneous nature. A further point of debate is the distinctiveness of JPsA as an entity. Owing to these uncertainties, the concept of JPsA has evolved over the years and there have been several changes in its definition and diagnostic criteria. Recently, strong evidence has been provided that the spectrum of JPsA include at least two distinct subgroups, one that has the same characteristics as early-onset ANA-positive JIA, and another that is part of the spectrum of spondyloarthropathies and resembles the forms of psoriatic arthritis in adults that belong to the same disease family. These findings call for a revision of the classification of childhood arthritis, that refutes the assumptions that children with JPsA constitute a single homogeneous population and that JPsA should be considered an individual disease entity.

  16. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis and oral health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kobus

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA is the most common autoimmune inflammatory disease of connective tissue in children. It is characterized by progressive joint destruction which causes preserved changes in the musculoskeletal system. The literature describes fully clinical symptoms and radiological images in different subtypes of JIA. However, there is still a limited number of studies reporting on the medical condition of the oral cavity of ill children. JIA can affect hard and soft tissues of the oral cavity by: the general condition of the child’s health, arthritis of the upper limbs, as the result of the pharmacotherapy, changes in secretion and composition of saliva, inflammation of the temporomandibular joint and facial deformity.The study summarizes the available literature on the condition of the teeth and periodontal and oral hygiene in the course of JIA. The presence of diverse factors that modify the oral cavity, such as facial growth, functioning of salivary glands, or the supervision and care provided by adults, prevents clear identification if JIA leads to severe dental caries and periodontal disease. Despite conflicting results in studies concerning the clinical oral status, individuals with JIA require special attention regarding disease prevention and maintenance of oral health.

  17. Coblation assisted endoscopic juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Jose W; Saint-Victor, Sandra; Tessema, Belachew; Eloy, Jean Anderson; Anstead, Amy

    2012-03-01

    To provide additional support for the use of coblation in the surgical treatment of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) tumors. Coblation radiofrequency has been recently described in endoscopic sinus surgery for polyp and tumor resection from the sinuses to the skull base. This is a case series from our institution in which we safely and successfully treated three adolescent boys with JNA using the coblation assisted technique. The first case was the smallest of the cases (Radkowski stage IB) and was embolized pre-operatively. The second and third cases, both larger in size (Radkowski stage IIC and IIB) did not undergo pre-operative embolization. The total surgical times were 105, 160, and 150 min and the estimated blood losses were 150, 400, and 130 mL, respectively. This yielded a blood loss per minute rate of only 1.4, 2.5, and 0.9 mL/min for the respective cases. None of the three patients required post-operative blood transfusion, nasal packing, or hospitalization of greater than one day. Follow-up showed no complications and no recurrence in these patients. Coblation assisted transnasal endoscopic resection of JNA is a feasible technique that can dissect through and debulk JNA tumor, despite its extreme vascularity. The surgery can be performed with minimal morbidity and low intraoperative blood loss, even with non-embolized tumors up to Radkowski IIC. These finding further support complete resection of JNA tumors using minimally invasive coblation assisted techniques.

  18. Macrophages - silent enemies in juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świdrowska-Jaros, Joanna; Orczyk, Krzysztof; Smolewska, Elżbieta

    2016-07-06

    The inflammatory response by secretion of cytokines and other mediators is postulated as one of the most significant factors in the pathophysiology of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). The effect of macrophage action depends on the type of their activation. Classically activated macrophages (M1) are responsible for release of molecules crucial for joint inflammation. Alternatively activated macrophages (M2) may recognize self antigens by scavenger receptors and induce the immunological reaction leading to autoimmune diseases such as JIA. Molecules essential for JIA pathophysiology include: TNF-α, the production of which precedes synovial inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis; IL-1 as a key mediator of synovial damage; chemotactic factors for macrophages IL-8 and MCP-1; IL6, the level of which correlates with the radiological joint damage; MIF, promoting the secretion of TNF-α and IL-6; CCL20 and HIF, significant for the hypoxic synovial environment in JIA; GM-CSF, stimulating the production of macrophages; and IL-18, crucial for NK cell functions. Recognition of the role of macrophages creates the potential for a new therapeutic approach.

  19. [Optic neuritis in juvenile idiopathic arthritis patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Daniela M R; Buscatti, Izabel M; Lourenço, Benito; Monti, Fernanda C; Paz, José Albino; Silva, Clovis A

    2014-01-01

    Optic neuritis (ON) was rarely reported in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients, particularly in those under anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha blockage. However, to our knowledge, the prevalence of ON in JIA population has not been studied. Therefore, 5,793 patients were followed up at our University Hospital and 630 (11%) had JIA. One patient (0.15%) had ON and was reported herein. A 6-year-old male was diagnosed with extended oligoarticular JIA, and received naproxen and methotrexate subsequently replaced by leflunomide. At 11 years old, he was diagnosed with aseptic meningitis, followed by a partial motor seizure with secondary generalization. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and electroencephalogram showed diffuse disorganization of the brain electric activity and leflunomide was suspended. Seven days later, the patient presented acute ocular pain, loss of acuity for color, blurred vision, photophobia, redness and short progressive visual loss in the right eye. A fundoscopic exam detected unilateral papilledema without retinal exudates. Orbital MRI suggested right ON. The anti-aquaporin 4 (anti-AQP4) antibody was negative. Pulse therapy with methylprednisolone was administered for five days, and subsequently with prednisone, he had clinical and laboratory improvement. In conclusion, a low prevalence of ON was observed in our JIA population. The absence of anti-AQP4 antibody and the normal brain MRI do not exclude the possibility of demyelinating disease associated with chronic arthritis. Therefore, rigorous follow up is required.

  20. Self-healing juvenile cutaneous mucinosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołodziejczyk, Beata; Gazda, Agnieszka; Hernik, Elżbieta; Szczygielska, Izabela; Rutkowska-Sak, Lidia; Koprowska, Marta Legatowicz

    2017-01-01

    Girl, aged 4 years old, began the disease with pain of the lower extremities, fever up to 38°C and signs of upper airway infection. Then the patient developed oedema and redness of the whole face, thickened skin, subcutaneous nodular foldings of the frontal, occipital, cervical and axillary regions, extensor areas of the joints; fine, hard whitish nodules in the frontal region and over interphalangeal joints of the hands, pruritus; oedemas of the ankles, knees and joints of the hands, cervical lymphadenopathy and hepatomegaly. Blood tests at the moment of the diagnosis revealed elevation of markers of inflammation as ESR and CRP, leukocytosis, thrombocytosis, hypoalbuminemia, and hyper-alfa-2-globulinemia. Histopathological examination of the skin biopsy specimen and subcutaneous tissue revealed myxoid subcutaneous tissue located under the dermis and a section consisting of myxoid mesenchymal tissue with inflammatory infiltration by histiocytic cells. The presence of acid mucopolysaccharides in fields of the myxoid tissue was also observed. The self-healing juvenile cutaneous mucinosis (SJCM) was diagnosed.